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Title: Five Years' Explorations at Thebes - A Record of Work Done 1907-1911 by The Earl of Carnarvon - and Howard Carter
Author: Möller, George, Legrain, George, Carnarvon, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux, Griffith, F.Ll., Carter, Howard
Language: English
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                              FIVE YEARS’

                        EXPLORATIONS AT THEBES



                                OXFORD
                        PLATES AND LETTERPRESS
                    PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS
                            BY HORACE HART

             [Illustration: ELECTRUM STATUETTE OF A YOUTH

              XVIII^{TH} DYNASTY: PERIOD OF AMENHETEP I.]



                              FIVE YEARS’
                        EXPLORATIONS AT THEBES

                    A RECORD OF WORK DONE 1907-1911

                                  BY
                         THE EARL OF CARNARVON
                                  AND
                             HOWARD CARTER

                           WITH CHAPTERS BY
            F. LL. GRIFFITH, GEORGE LEGRAIN, GEORGE MÖLLER
               PERCY E. NEWBERRY AND WILHELM SPIEGELBERG

               WITH SEVENTY-NINE PLATES AND FRONTISPIECE

                             HENRY FROWDE
                        OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
                LONDON, NEW YORK, TORONTO AND MELBOURNE
                                 1912



PREFACE


The following volume contains a record of work done in the Theban
Necropolis during the years 1907-11. In the editing of this report I
have availed myself of the generous help of several scholars, whose
names appear at the heads of the chapters they have contributed. To
these gentlemen I wish to tender my sincere thanks for their
co-operation.

Mr. Howard Carter has been in charge of all operations; and whatever
successes have resulted from our labours are due to his unremitting
watchfulness and care in systematically recording, drawing, and
photographing everything as it came to light.

To Professor Sir Gaston Maspero, the Director-General of the Service des
Antiquités, I wish to proffer my thanks for his most kind and valuable
support; as also to Mr. Weigall, who, in the course of his official
work, has given me his most willing assistance. To Dr. Budge I should
also like to express my indebtedness for several valuable suggestions.

CARNARVON.

HIGHCLERE,
_August 1911_.



CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE

PREFACE. BY THE EARL OF CARNARVON                                      v

INTRODUCTION. BY THE EARL OF CARNARVON                                 1

CHAPTER

I THE MORTUARY CHAPEL AND SEPULCHRE OF TETA-KY. BY
HOWARD CARTER                                                         12

II THE PAINTINGS AND INSCRIPTIONS OF THE VAULTED CHAMBER
OF TETA-KY. BY GEORGE LEGRAIN                                         14

III THE FUNERARY STATUETTES FROM TOMB OF TETA-KY. BY
PERCY E. NEWBERRY                                                     19

IV EXCAVATIONS IN THE VALLEY OF DÊR EL BAHARI. BY
HOWARD CARTER                                                         22

V WORK DONE IN THE BIRÂBI. THE SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY
TOMB NO. 9. BY HOWARD CARTER                                          34

VI THE CARNARVON TABLETS I AND II. BY F. LL. GRIFFITH                 36

VII THE ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE OF QUEEN HATSHEPSÛT. BY HOWARD
CARTER                                                                38

VIII PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES. BY HOWARD CARTER                       42

IX DEMOTIC PAPYRI AND OSTRACA. BY WILHELM SPIEGELBERG                 46

X COLONNADE AND FOUNDATION DEPOSIT OF RAMESES IV. BY
HOWARD CARTER                                                         48

XI OTHER ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED. BY HOWARD CARTER                     49

XII THE LATE MIDDLE KINGDOM AND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD
NECROPOLIS. BY HOWARD CARTER                                          51

XIII HIERATIC TEXTS FROM TOMB NO. 37. BY GEORGE MÖLLER                89

XIV THE VEGETABLE REMAINS. BY PERCY E. NEWBERRY                       94

INDEX                                                                 95

ILLUSTRATIONS: PLATES I-LXXIX                                    _At end_



ILLUSTRATIONS


FRONTISPIECE

ELECTRUM STATUETTE OF A YOUTH: XVIIITH DYNASTY

PERIOD OF AMENHETEP I


FIGURES IN TEXT

FIG.                                                                PAGE

1. Excavations in the Birâbi                                           2

2. First Appearance of the ‘Valley’-Temple Wall                        3

3. The ‘Valley’-Temple Wall                                            5

4. Tomb No. 25                                                         6

5. Tomb No. 37                                                         7

6. Uninscribed Cones of the Eleventh Dynasty                           8

7. Votive Cake-offering--Tomb of Kha-em-hat                            9

8. Chert Chisels and Hammers                                          10

9. Scarab from Tomb No. 5                                             27

10. Hieratic Inscriptions from ‘Valley’-Temple                        39

11. Graffiti on Stones from ‘Valley’-Temple                           40

12. Gilt Copper Vessel from Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves                  43

13. Ptolemaic Coins from Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves                     44

14. Key to Gaming-board                                               57



ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST OF PLATES AT END


PLATES I-XII: TOMB OF TETA-KY:

I (1) Open Court-yard; (2) Vaulted Chambers.

II Plan of Tomb.

III (1) Right Wall of Painted Niche; (2) Left Wall of Painted Niche.

IV (1) Ceiling Decoration; (2) Ceiling Decoration and Frieze.

V Scenes on North Wall.

VI Scenes on Eastern and Western Walls.

VII-IX Scenes on Southern Wall.

X (1) Shawabti Figure in Model Coffin; (2) Shawabti Figure of
Sen-senb.

XI Model Coffins.

XII (1) Table for Offerings; (2) Funerary Statuettes.


PLATES XIII-XXIV: DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY:

XIII Panoramic View showing the Sites excavated.

XIV Tomb No. 5 before and after opening.

XV Plan of Tomb No. 5.

XVI Series of Coffins from Tomb No. 5.

XVII Tomb No. 5, Antiquities from.

XVIII Tomb No. 4, Limestone Statuette; and Pottery from Tombs Nos. 1-16.

XIX (1) Foundations of Wall of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari;
(2) Offerings to a Tree.

XX (1) Serpentine Wall; (2) Bathing Slab.

XXI (1) Offerings from Dromos Deposit; (2) Brick-lined Hole for Dromos
Deposit.

XXII Dromos Deposit. (1) Pottery and (2) Implements.

XXIII (1) Child’s Toy; (2) Pottery from Excavations; (3) Stamped Bricks
of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari.

XXIV Panoramic View showing Site of ‘Valley’-Temple and of Dromos
Deposits.


PLATES XXV-XXIX: TOMB No. 9:

    XXV (1) Three sides of a Canopic Box; (2) Three Canopic Jars in
            Pottery.

   XXVI Types of Pottery.

  XXVII Carnarvon Tablet I, _obverse_.

 XXVIII Carnarvon Tablet I, _reverse_.

  XXIX Carnarvon Tablet II, _obverse_ and _reverse_.


PLATES XXX-XXXII: HATSHEPSÛT’S ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE:

    XXX Plan of Hatshepsût’s ‘Valley’-Temple and Neighbouring Tombs.

   XXXI Northern Boundary Wall of ‘Valley’-Temple.

  XXXII (1) Tally-stone of Hatshepsût; (2) Stamped Brick of Hatshepsût;
            (3) Wooden Hoe; (4) Stamped Bricks of Hatshepsût and
            Thothmes I.


PLATES XXXIII-XXXIX: PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES:

 XXXIII View of Ptolemaic Vaulted Graves over Site No. 14.

  XXXIV (1) Amphorae beneath Floor of Vaulted Grave; (2) Façade of
            Vaulted Grave.

   XXXV} Carnarvon Papyrus I.
  XXXVI}

 XXXVII Demotic Dockets and Inscribed Potsherd.

XXXVIII} Carnarvon Papyrus II.
  XXXIX}


PLATE XL: SITE No. 40:

     XL Foundation Deposit of Rameses IV.


PLATES XLI-XLIII: SITE No. 14:

    XLI A XXIInd Dynasty Stela.

   XLII (1) Osiride figure; (2) Mud Feretory or Shrine; (3) Reed Burial of
             a Man; (4) Inscriptions on Underside of Lid of a Box.

  XLIII Funerary Statuettes and Model Coffins.


PLATES XLIV-XLVII: TOMB No. 24:

   XLIV (1) Statuette of Ankhu; (2) Mummy Decoration; (3) Wooden
            Doll; (4 and 5) Faience Bowl.

    XLV (1) Jewel-box; (2) Contents of Jewel-box; (3) Scribe’s Palette.

   XLVI (1) Jewel-box; (2) Contents of Jewel-box.

  XLVII Pottery Vessels and Pans.


PLATES XLVIII-LII: TOMB No. 25:

XLVIII (1) Ivory and Ebony Toilet-box; (2) the same with Drawer and
             Lid open.

  XLIX (1) Scene Engraved on Front of Toilet-box; (2) Inscriptions on Lid
             of Toilet-box.

     L (1 and 2) Gaming-board and Playing Pieces in Ivory.

    LI (1) Blue Faience Hippopotamus; (2) Necklace, Mirror, and Brooch.

   LII (1) Alabaster Toilet Vases; (2) Pottery.


PLATE LIII: TOMBS Nos. 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34:

  LIII (1, 2, 5) Types of Pottery; (3) _Rîshi_ Coffin
        (Tomb No. 32); (4) Dug-out Coffins (Tomb No. 29).


PLATE LIV: TOMBS Nos. 27 and 31:

   LIV Stela of the Keeper of the Bow, Auy-res.


PLATES LV-LXXVIII: TOMB No. 37:

    LV Plan of Tomb.

   LVI Central Passage showing Closed Doorway of Hall C.

  LVII North Wing of Corridor showing Closed Doorway of Chamber A.

 LVIII (1) Seal Impression on Doorway of Chamber A; (2) Interior of
           Chamber A.

   LIX (1) Chamber B before Opening; (2) Chamber B after Opening.

    LX (1) Decorated Rectangular Coffins; (2) Plain Rectangular Coffins.

   LXI (1) Children’s Coffins and Viscerae Boxes; (2) Plain Anthropoid,
           ‘Dug-out’, and Semi-decorated Anthropoid Coffins.

  LXII (1) _Rîshi_ Coffins; (2) Decorated Anthropoid Coffins of New Empire.

 LXIII Decorated Anthropoid Coffin of the New Empire.

  LXIV (1) Rush-work Baskets; (2) Mechanical Toy Bird and Bird Trap.

   LXV (1) Toilet Set; (2) Fan-holder, Kohl-pot, &c.

  LXVI Scribe’s Outfit.

 LXVII (1) Electrum Statuette; (2) Statuettes lying in Coffin No. 24;
           (3) Wooden Statuette.

LXVIII (1) Objects from Decorated Rectangular Coffins; (2) Objects from
           Plain Rectangular Coffins.

  LXIX (1) Objects from a Rectangular Gable-Topped Coffin; (2) Objects
           from a Plain Rectangular Coffin.

   LXX Objects from _Rîshi_ Coffins.

  LXXI (1) Chair and Stool; (2) Musical Instruments.

 LXXII Scarabs, Cowroids, and Rings.

 LXXIII Bead Necklaces, Bangles, and Bracelet.

  LXXIV Pottery Vessels.

   LXXV Panel Stelae.

  LXXVI (1 and 2) Writing Tablet No. 28, _reverse_ and
        _obverse_; (3) Panel Stela.

 LXXVII Writing Tablet No. 26, _obverse_.

LXXVIII Writing Tablet No. 26, _reverse_.


PLATE LXXIX: BOTANICAL SPECIMENS AND FIG BASKETS.



INTRODUCTION

BY THE EARL OF CARNARVON


The necropolis of Thebes--the great city which for so many centuries had
been the capital of Egypt--lies on the western side of the Nile valley,
on the margin of the desert opposite the modern village of Luxor. No
ancient site has yielded a greater harvest of antiquities than this
famous stretch of rocky land. From time immemorial it has been the
profitable hunting-ground of the tomb robber; for more than a century a
flourishing trade in its antiquities has been carried on by the natives
of the district, and for nearly a hundred years archaeologists have been
busy here with spade and pencil. The information that has been gleaned
from its temple walls and tombs has enabled scholars to trace, point by
point, the history of the city from at least 2500 B.C. to Ptolemaic
times. The necropolis itself extends for some five miles along the
desert edge, and evidences of the explorer and robber present themselves
at every turn. Open or half-filled mummy pits, heaps of rubbish, great
mounds of rock débris, with, here and there, fragments of coffins and
shreds of linen mummy-wrappings protruding from the sand, show how
active have been the tomb despoilers. Notwithstanding all the work that
has been done here, very little can, in any sense, pretend to have been
carried out in a systematic manner; and as few records of the various
excavations have been kept, the work of the present-day explorer must
necessarily be a heavy one. Often he will get no further in his
excavations than the well-sorted-over dust of former explorers; and if
he is fortunate enough to make a ‘find’, it is often only after clearing
away a vast amount of rock débris and rubbish to the bed-rock below.

With a view to making systematic excavations in this famous necropolis,
I began tentative digging among the Kurneh hills and desert margin in
the spring of 1907. My workmen were all from the neighbouring villages
and their number has varied from seventy-five to two hundred and
seventy-five men and boys. I had three head reises--Mansûr Mohammed el
Hashâsh, Mohammed Abd el Ghaffer, and Ali Hussên--who all worked well
and satisfactorily. The labourers themselves were a willing and
hard-working lot: but though they were no more dishonest than other
Egyptian fellahin, inducements for them to steal were many, and we found
it essential to proceed in our work with great care. I made it a rule
that when a tomb was found, as few workmen as possible should be
employed; and, in order that the opportunity for stealing should be
reduced to a minimum, no clearing of a chamber or pit was carried on
unless Mr. Carter or I was present. That nothing should escape us, we
also, in certain cases, had to sift over the rubbish from the tombs
three times.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. EXCAVATIONS IN THE BIRÂBI.]

My preliminary excavations eventually resulted in my confining attention
to three sites in that part of the necropolis which lies between the
dromos leading to Dêr el Bahari and the great gorge giving entrance to
the valley of the Tombs of the Kings. These three sites were: (1) a spot
a few metres to the north of the village mosque, where, according to the
natives, lay a hidden tomb; (2) the Birâbi,[1] which is near the desert
edge, between the hills of Drah abu ‘l Nagga and the cultivated land,
and adjoins the entrance to the dromos of Hatshepsût’s famous terrace
temple; and (3) that part of the XIth Dynasty cemetery which lies along
the hill slope, on the northern side of the Dêr el Bahari valley.

Excavation on the first site was begun in 1908, and, after a fortnight’s
arduous work among the native houses and rubbish heaps of the village,
an important inscribed tomb of the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty was
opened. This tomb proved to be of a ‘King’s Son’ named Teta-Ky, and
contained, among many painted scenes, a figure of Aahmes-nefert-ari, the
queen of Aahmes I and mother of Amenhetep I. This is the earliest known
portrait of the celebrated queen, who

[Illustration: FIG. 2. FIRST APPEARANCE OF THE ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE WALL.]

afterwards became the patron goddess of the necropolis: she is figured
as of fair complexion and not black, as is usually the case in her
portraits of a later date. The scene shows her adoring the goddess
Hathor, as a cow issuing from a cliff; and behind her is a lady,
presumably the queen’s mother,[2] named Teta-hemt, who is otherwise
unknown. In the course of clearing this tomb many wooden Funerary
Figures, in model coffins, were brought to light. These figures were of
two types: (1) rudely carved mummiform figures with model coffins of
wood, clay, or pottery, some of which were inscribed with hieratic or
linear hieroglyphic texts; and (2) well-carved figures in wood, painted
and with gilt faces, and inscribed with an early form of Chapter VI of
the Book of the Dead. The figures of the first type were all found in
the four niches in the courtyard wall (Pls. I and II). Those of the
second type were buried in pairs in shallow holes round the four sides
of the top of the main pit shaft in the centre of the courtyard floor
(Pl. II). The placing of shawabti figures in this position--as it were
for them to guard the mouth of the pit of the sarcophagus chamber--is
only known in this instance.

The clearance of Teta-Ky’s tomb having been completed, we turned our
attention to the Birâbi site. Three days’ digging in the loose débris
unmasked a hidden burial-place. Masses of pottery and denuded mummies
were brought to light, and at the very threshold of the tomb (afterwards
numbered 9) were discovered two wooden tablets (one in fragments)
covered with stucco and inscribed with hieratic texts. One of these
tablets has written (1) on its obverse, an important historical text
relating to the expulsion of the Hyksos kings by the King Kamosi; and
(2) on its reverse, a copy of part of the well-known Proverbs of
Ptah-hetep.

In the early spring of 1909 work was continued on the Birâbi site. The
tomb (No. 9), discovered the previous season, was finally cleared, but
nothing further was found in it. Jutting out of one side of the hole
caused by the excavation of the tomb, however, appeared the beginning of
a well-built stone wall. About forty metres’ length of this wall was
cleared, and though unfinished, the masonry in general was good. A
doorway, giving ingress from the north (see Plan, Pl. XXX), eighteen
metres along its length, showed that its northern side formed its
exterior face. The facing of the stone blocks, not agreeing in direction
of their chiselling, showed that they had been re-used from some older
building, and as the size of the blocks and their chiselling were
similar to the masonry of the Mentu-hotep temple at Dêr el Bahari, it
was conjectured that the wall must be of a date posterior to the XIth
Dynasty. Regarding the purpose of the wall, we obtained no clue in 1909,
nor could we then date it with any precision. In 1910, however, we found
several blocks lying near the wall which bore hieratic inscriptions
giving the name of Hatshepsût’s master-builder, Pu-am-ra. Afterwards,
similar inscriptions were found on the blocks built in the masonry.
These, together with a single block bearing the name of the great
queen’s famous architect, Senmut, clearly proved that the wall which we
had found must have belonged to some building of Hatshepsût’s reign.
Further clearance revealed that the building was of the nature of a
terrace temple like that at Dêr el Bahari. So far as we can at present
see, the axis of the building corresponds to the axis of the dromos
leading to Hatshepsût’s temple. This point, together with the fact that
a foundation deposit with objects bearing the prenomen of the queen and
the name of her temple (_Zeser-zeseru_) was brought to light, apparently
in the centre of our monument, shows that we are dealing with a building
in some way connected with the temple at Dêr el Bahari. The probable
interpretation is that this newly-discovered ‘Terrace Temple’ is in
reality a ‘Valley’-Temple or ‘Portal’ to Hatshepsût’s noble monument at
Dêr el Bahari. It would, therefore, correspond to the so-called
‘Valley’-Temples of Gizeh and Abusîr. Another interesting fact relating
to Hatshepsût’s Dêr el Bahari temple was the discovery of a foundation
deposit at the north-west corner of the dromos (Pl. XXIV, _b_), where
it joins the temple. This is the largest deposit that has hitherto been
discovered, and exhibits two new features in connexion with the custom
of placing of such deposits, namely, the consecration of the building by
unction and flesh and blood offerings. These offerings were kept
separate from the usual model tools and implements which were found near
by, and the vessels containing the unguents and wines were smashed, and
their contents, as well as grains of corn, were poured over the clean
sand that filled the cache. In 1911 search was made for the companion
deposit in the south-west corner (Pl. XXIV, _c_); this was soon found,
and it differed only in the fact that the secondary group--i. e. the
tools and implements--was missing.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. THE ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE WALL.]

Beneath the foundations of the ‘Valley’-Temple we cut through a layer of
rock débris averaging two metres in thickness, and discovered a series
of pit and corridor tombs hewn in the rock-bed below. These had all been
plundered, some indeed twice, and most of their contents had been
scattered and some burnt. Several bore evidence of having been pilfered,
in the first instance, shortly after the close of the Middle Kingdom,
and then again during Hatshepsût’s reign, probably by the workmen
employed in building the ‘Valley’-Temple. As evidence of the earlier
plundering we may mention the fact that fragments of one stela were
found in two separate tombs (Nos. 27 and 31), on opposite sides of the
great wall. After this first plundering, the rock débris must have
collected to a considerable depth above the tombs before the second
spoliation took place, for rough retaining walls, built of stones and
bricks found in the mounds, were made to support the sides of the shafts
pierced through the earth by the later robbers.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. TOMB NO. 25.]

The tombs, as we have already noted, are of two types: (1) pit tombs,
comprising a vertical shaft with one or more chambers at the bottom, and
(2) corridor tombs, with open court in front, vestibule and passage
leading to chambers with vertical shafts, and sarcophagus chamber below.
In all cases the original contents had been plundered and some of the
tombs had been re-used towards the end of the Intermediate period. One
of the pit tombs, however, contained an unopened coffin and objects
scattered about the chambers, which all clearly belonged to the original
burial. Fortunately one of the objects--the fine casket figured in Pl.
XLVIII--was inscribed with the cartouche of Amenemhat IV, and

[Illustration: FIG. 5. TOMB NO. 37.]

this enabled us to date with precision tomb No. 25. This casket is of
ivory, ebony, and cedar wood, and was found broken into about two
hundred pieces, which have been admirably fitted together, and the whole
box restored to its original form by Mr. Carter. Beside the names of
Amenemhat IV this casket bore the name of the ‘Keeper of the department
of Food’, Kemen. It is interesting to note that in the prayer inscribed
upon the top of the lid, the god invoked is Sebek, Lord of
[Illustration: hieroglyph] _[H.]ent_, a locality in the Fayûm where the
later XIIth Dynasty kings appear to have been very active. Among the
objects found in this tomb and belonging to the same early date, were
the board for a game, which Mr. Carter has succeeded in elucidating (p.
56), a coffin bearing the name of Ren-senb, and containing, besides the
mummified body, a fine bronze mirror with ebony handle mounted in gold,
and a beautiful necklace of gold-capped obsidian beads. In tomb No. 24
were necklaces of beads and amulets characteristic of the same period,
and a mounted XIIth Dynasty scarab-seal. The stela, fragments of which
were found in tombs Nos. 27 and 31, is of the XIIIth Dynasty, and to the
same period may be ascribed several other objects found in these tombs.
All these antiquities certainly belong to the original interments; and
this enables us to date the whole group of tombs to the period covered
by the end of the XIIth and perhaps the whole of the XIIIth Dynasty.[3]
These Middle Kingdom tombs, we have already noted, had in some cases
been re-used: this fact was brought to light in 1910, when we discovered
fragments of several _Rîshi_ coffins in both the pit and corridor tombs.
Coffins of this type are peculiar to the XVIIth and early XVIIIth
Dynasties; so in them we had evidence of the tombs having been re-used
at this period. In 1911 further light on this point was obtained by the
discovery of tomb No. 37, which we found to contain some sixty-four
coffins, and a large number of miscellaneous objects which may all be
referred to the same period. Of the bricked-up chambers here, one bore
seal impressions of Thothmes I, and among objects scattered over the
floors of other chambers were scarabs of Amenhetep I, Thothmes I,
Thothmes II, Hatshepsût, Neferu-ra, and Thothmes III, as well as several
scarabs contemporary with the XIIIth Dynasty and the Hyksos period: the
contents of this tomb thus cover the whole of the Intermediate period to
the beginning of the reign of Thothmes III.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. UNINSCRIBED CONES OF THE XITH DYNASTY.]

Altogether about 11,000 square metres of débris were cleared from the
Birâbi site and, of course, many miscellaneous antiquities were brought
to light in the course of the excavation. On the débris and rubbish that
had collected above the ruins of the ‘Valley’-Temple were many vaulted
graves, built of mud bricks; these, however, proved to have been
plundered without exception. Under their floors were generally placed
one or more amphorae which had been used for storing grain, water, and
cakes, no doubt for the welfare of the deceased. One vase was sealed
with clay and contained two well-preserved Demotic papyri, comprising
deeds of sale, executed under Ptolemy Epiphanes; these documents, and a
hoard of copper coins of Ptolemies III and IV, also found here, enable
us to date the vaulted tombs to the Ptolemaic period.

Below these graves on the north-west corner of the site, and on the same
level as the upper court of the ‘Valley’-Temple, we unearthed paving
slabs bearing marks of columns, with, beneath the corner of these
substructures, a foundation deposit of Rameses IV. This, fortunately,
enabled us to differentiate the building from the earlier temple; but we
have as yet no further clue as to its nature, except that it was of
stone quarried from the Dêr el Bahari temple of the Queen.[4]

The third site which we worked was along the northern slope between the
north-eastern foot hills of the Dêr el Bahari valley and the Queen’s
temple.

[Illustration: FIG. 7. VOTIVE CAKE-OFFERING.]

Along the face of the cliff here are the rock-cut tombs of the great
nobles of the Early Middle Kingdom, and lower down are some graves of
their retainers. These tombs had been re-used at the time of the Priest
Kings, and were afterwards again violated. Then at a later period they
were used for interments of Saite date, and, lastly, they served as
dwelling-places for the Copts.

Out of the fifteen locations investigated by us only one (No. 5) gave
any reward, and here we found undisturbed burials of a poorish class of
people belonging to late Saite times.

[Illustration: FIG. 8. CHERT CHISELS AND HAMMERS.]

In nearly all the early tombs pottery cones were found, sometimes in
great numbers, but not in a single case did we obtain one that was
inscribed. They were always found in the front courts and were certainly
contemporary with the tombs of the Early Middle Kingdom. In all other
parts of the Theban necropolis these cones date from the beginning of
the New Empire[5] downwards, and, with rare exceptions, they have the
names and titles of the deceased persons for whom they were made. Their
real meaning has always been an open question. Maspero has suggested
that they are model cakes or loaves of bread, made in burnt clay for the
sake of permanency. Rhind found them built into a wall in a tomb court;
and he and others have asserted that they were intended for ornament in
the construction of the tombs. The same argument that they were meant
for decoration might be used in the case of the pots that the modern
natives frequently use when building light walls at the present day in
the same tombs. The bas-relief in the tomb of Kha-em-hat, shown in Fig.
7, together with the fact that the cones are found nearly always on the
floors of the open courtyard of tombs, tends to corroborate the theory
of Maspero.

Distributed over the surface of the hillside were numbers of chert
hammers and chisels, and also heaps of flakes, showing that they had
been made on the spot. These are exactly similar to others that have
been found at Beni Hasan and other rock-cut tomb sites of Egypt. They
were probably used for the rougher work when hewing out the rock.

Our trenches near to the Dêr el Bahari temple exposed the workmen’s
dwellings and part of a large wall bearing the names, stamped upon its
bricks, of Aahmes-nefert-ari and Amenhetep I. Here also were found
votive offerings, as well as leaf offerings[6] in small pottery vessels,
and oblations to trees.

These offerings to trees had already been noticed during the excavation
of Hatshepsût’s temple by the Egypt Exploration Fund,[7] when trees were
discovered in the Lower Terrace with similar votive objects buried in
the earth around them. In the tombs of the XVIIIth Dynasty and later
periods representations of people offering to trees are often found;
while even at the present day a general feature of the Mohammedan
cemetery is its tree (generally a _gemmêz_, ‘sycomore-fig’[8]), under
which water and other offerings are often placed by mourners, while rags
are attached to its branches or twigs. In the tomb of Thothmes III the
deceased king himself is depicted[9] as receiving nourishment from the
tree through a breast that protrudes from one of its boughs. It is
interesting to note in regard to the votive offerings that within 600
yards of the scene of our excavations the tomb of Sheikh Abd El Kurneh,
the local Mohammedan saint, is surrounded by heaps of mud model houses,
small vessels of henna, and even the latest European wax candles, to
invoke his assistance for the public weal.



CHAPTER I

THE MORTUARY CHAPEL AND SEPULCHRE OF TETA-KY

BY HOWARD CARTER


Though partly excavated in the rock at the side of a foot-hill the
Mortuary Chapel of Teta-ky and his family is mainly a crude mud-brick
construction, with its actual sepulchres subterranean: these latter are
approached from a vertical shaft in the centre of the fore-court (Pl. I.
1 and 2).

The peculiar irregularity of the courtyard and buildings, which will be
seen from the plan (Pl. II), seems due, in the first place, to the shape
of the site, and, secondly, to the fact that this particular part of the
necropolis must have been much overcrowded. Though it is built of
mud-brick, the structure itself suffered comparatively little damage
until recent years. The low walls of its fore-court, entered from the
east, the small painted shrine in the south wall, the vaulted chambers
on either side of the alley that leads to the principal and decorated
chapel under the rock at the north end, are all more or less intact. In
fact, the greater part of its destruction can be put down to the Arabs
of modern times. Hence, except from slight mutilations, the structure is
still practically intact.

Architecturally the plan and construction is of a well-known type. Its
chapels are early examples of the brick-vaulted chambers often found in
and so typical of the Dêr el Medînet Necropolis of Thebes. Only two of
its chambers are painted: the small shrine or niche built in the wall of
the fore-court; and the main chapel under the rock called upon the plan
‘painted vaulted chamber’. The latter alone has inscriptions.

The painted niche has depicted on its right wall seated figures
(unnamed) receiving offerings (Pl. III. 1); and on the left wall a
conventionally drawn vineyard, in which there is shown a figure
gathering grapes (Pl. III. 2). Its barrel-vaulted ceiling, now
destroyed, was decorated with multicoloured bands which are so
frequently seen on the roofs of Theban rock-cut tombs. But of this
ceiling hardly enough remains to allow a true and accurate description.

The main chapel, or painted vaulted chamber, has upon its walls the
usual funereal, husbandry, and offering scenes, and among the people
portrayed are relatives of Teta-ky (see further description by Legrain,
p. 14). Its segmental barrel-vaulted ceiling is painted, like the Beni
Hasan tombs, with a wooden key-beam running longitudinally down the
centre, painted yellow with darker and almost red graining (Pl. IV. 1);
and on either side of the beam, above a _Kheker_ frieze, the space is
divided by black lines into red, yellow, and white squares (Pl. IV. 1
and 2). The red and white squares contain quatrefoils. In fact, to quote
Professor Newberry’s description[10] of the ceiling decoration of the
tomb of Amenemhat would be to describe the roof ornamentation here, it
differing only by the absence of imitation mat-work in the centre. Below
the _Kheker_ frieze is a band of hieroglyphic inscription giving the
names of the deceased, and of his mother.

An interesting and new feature is the series of four small niches along
the west wall of the open courtyard (Pl. I. 1 and Pl. II). In these
niches were found numerous shawabti figures in model coffins of mud and
wood (see further description by Newberry, p. 20). This I believe to be
the only instance where such figures have actually been found _in situ_,
a fact of some importance, for so little is known about the provenance
of these early figures.

Another important discovery was eight similar, but more fully developed
figures in wooden sarcophagi (see further description by Newberry, p.
19) placed in pairs on each of the four sides of the mouth of the shaft
leading to the subterranean sepulchral chambers (Pl. II). These were
buried about a foot below the surface, and were dedicated to persons
buried in the vaults below. The reason for their being so placed is
unknown; they were possibly guardian figures, like the magical ones
placed in the walls of later tombs at the four cardinal points.[11]

From the north and east walls of the main painted chamber are two
passages which could not be excavated further than the plan shows, owing
to their being under modern native houses. But judging from the kind of
rubbish that choked them they appear to have been opened and ransacked.
This was probably done by tunnelling from the interior of the native
houses above.



CHAPTER II

THE PAINTINGS AND INSCRIPTIONS OF THE PAINTED VAULTED CHAMBER OF TETA-KY

BY GEORGE LEGRAIN.


The following description of the paintings of the tomb of Teta-ky is
taken from notes I made in 1909 when I visited Lord Carnarvon’s
excavations. The notes I made at that time were not then intended for
publication. This fact will explain their briefness. The tomb of Teta-ky
having unfortunately been mostly destroyed by natives since that date,
the copy of the texts and pictures that I took on the occasion of my
visit in 1909, together with Mr. Howard Carter’s photographs, are the
only remaining records of this tomb.

The funerary chamber is rectangular. The shorter walls lie east and
west, whilst the longer sides face north and south. The roof is vaulted,
barrel in form, and fairly regular. The ceiling is painted with a
many-coloured chequer pattern; this decoration can be well seen in Plate
IV. 1 and 2.

The decorations of the north and south walls consist of a long row of
_Kheker_-ornaments. Beneath this row there is a line of detailed
hieroglyphs, and beneath these again are scenes which run from left to
right. These pictures were painted on stucco mixed without straw. This
stucco has fallen away in several places, which has naturally caused the
disappearance of many portions of the scenes represented in the tomb.
Added to these accidents the tomb was re-used in ancient times, and part
of the scenes were covered with an opaque lime-wash. Besides all these
mutilations, breaches, and holes have very much spoilt this curious
monument.

The general scheme of decoration can be described as follows:--

  _Northern Wall._ Scenes of the private life of Teta-ky.
  _Eastern Wall._ Queen Nefert-ari presenting offerings to the funerary
     Hathor Cow, ‘Lady of Dendera’.
  _Southern Wall._ Funerary procession. Funeral and arrival of Teta-ky in
      the Kingdom of Osiris.
  _Western Wall._ Teta-ky in adoration before Osiris Khent-amenti. Beneath,
      funerary banquet and stela of Teta-ky.

This order is adopted in the following description.

_North Wall._ The following text is above the scenes: [Illustration:
hieroglyph]

_Scene A_ (Pl. V). The dead man [Illustration: hieroglyph], ‘The Royal
Son Teta-ky’, is seated beneath a kiosk, of which three columns are
visible. The polychrome capitals of these columns are in the shape of
lotus buds. Around his neck Teta-ky wears a large necklace, and he has
armlets on his arms and bracelets on his wrists. His wife [Illustration:
hieroglyph], ‘The Lady Senba’, is seated at his side with left arm
around him. Teta-ky is receiving grapes from a girl standing before him.

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

Behind the girl is a woman standing near the right-hand column.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] (_sic_)

_Scene B_ (Pl. V). Two women stand before three seated men. By the side
of the smaller woman there is a harp. The text relating to this woman
reads:--[Illustration: hieroglyph]. The taller woman places her hands
towards the face of the first seated man. He holds her by the left
wrist. Above this woman is the name [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Above the first man is [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Above the second man is [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Above the third man is [Illustration: hieroglyph]

_Scene C._ A woman opening a small box shows its contents to two
squatting men.

Above the woman [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Above the first man [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Above the second man [Illustration: hieroglyph]

Nine women follow. Their names read:--

[Illustration: (1) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (2) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (3) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (4) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (5) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (6) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (7) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (8) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (9) hieroglyph]

_Scene D._ Much of this scene is covered with whitewash. A woman brings
a cup in one hand, whilst in the other she holds a red clay vase. A
squatting woman beneath a tree is in front of her. To the right a man
paddles.

Harnessed and loaded donkeys are seen here (Pl. V). To the right men
unload the donkeys. Further on a man squats before a heap of grain
[Illustration: hieroglyph]. Originally there existed three horizontal
lines of hieroglyphs, of which only the following signs remain:--

[Illustration: (1) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (2) hieroglyph]

[Illustration: (3) hieroglyph]

_East Wall._ The decorations of this wall are arranged in the following
manner:--

The Solar Disk spreads its wings above the two scenes, A and B.

_Scene A_ (Pl. VI). To the left is depicted the Cow Hathor, white with
brown markings, the Solar Disk between her horns. She is [Illustration:
hieroglyph]. Before the Cow Goddess, Queen Nefert-ari [Illustration:
hieroglyph] holds a flaming censer. Nefert-ari is followed by
[Illustration: hieroglyph].

In the left lower corner of this scene, below the Hathor Cow, two men
and a woman are carrying offerings.

_Scene B._ This scene on the right side is practically destroyed, only
the picture of the Hathor Cow is remaining.

_South Wall._ Scenes, sections A and B divided by the entrance door, are
headed by the following inscription:--[Illustration: hieroglyph].

_Scene A_ (Pl. VII). The mummy is seen under a canopied sledge. Two men
opposite each other embrace the mummy. A woman fondles the feet, another
the head. On the side of the canopy a long coiled snake forms the
frieze. A man with arms hanging by his sides follows behind the sledge.
He wears a wig, necklace, and a long tunic, and is following the funeral
procession. The sledge itself is pulled by three men and two beasts.
Between these men and animals and the sledge a man is shown pouring
water upon the ground to facilitate the traction of the sledge. Above
this man we read [Illustration: hieroglyph], and above each of the
men:--[Illustration: hieroglyph], followed by a name obliterated.

The driver places his left hand on the hind-quarters of the cattle and
with his right hand lifts a stick as if to strike.

Three men, wearing curious high and open-work head-dresses, come forward
to meet the funeral procession and dance before it (Pl. VIII). Above
these dancers the following hieroglyphs can be read:--[Illustration:
hieroglyph].

_Scene B_ (Pl. VIII). Beneath the funerary canopy the mummy is placed
upright. The priest throws a few grains of incense into a censer which
he presents to the mummy. The mummy is perhaps of the _Rîshi_ or feather
type; that is to say, of the kind of decoration used for the mummy cases
of the Antefs, and of the people of Thebes who died before the beginning
of the XVIIIth Dynasty. A number of coffins of the same and more
elaborate type have since been found by Lord Carnarvon in the necropolis
of the XIIth to XVIIIth Dynasties in the immediate neighbourhood of
Teta-ky’s tomb.

_Scene C_ (Pl. IX). To the right of this scene, in a Naos, stands the
Osiris Khent-amenti clad in white, wearing the Upper Egyptian crown, and
holding the crook and flail. In front of him, from left to right, are,
firstly, the plan of an habitation in which two of the _MW_-dancers are
walking. Secondly, two obelisks in red granite. Thirdly, two trees
covered with fruit. Fourthly, two rows of four shrines containing gods,
goddesses, and funerary genii.

_Scene D_ (Pl. IX). This scene, almost entirely destroyed, depicted the
transport of the _Tekenu_ to the necropolis. This person is wrapt in red
cloth and is squatting on a sledge. At this spot much of the wall is
broken away. We read the following legend in front of the
_Tekenu_:--[Illustration: hieroglyph], while above him is [Illustration:
hieroglyph].

The ceremonial continues to the right. Above the break in the wall is
the sign [Illustration: hieroglyph], then [Illustration: hieroglyph],
and right at the end is figured a coffer or box ornamented with a lion’s
head, which is carried on the shoulders of the officiating priests.
Before these personages is an inscription which reads:--[Illustration:
hieroglyph].

_West Wall_ (Pl. VI). The decorations on this wall are arranged in the
following manner:--

_A. in centre._ Vertical line of text [Illustration: hieroglyph].

_B. right side._ The [Illustration: hieroglyph] presents numerous
offerings piled upon an altar to Osiris Khent-amenti, who is seated upon
a high pedestal and is clad in white and wears the Upper Egyptian crown.
Behind Teta-ky the [Illustration: hieroglyph] cuts off the fore-leg of a
white bull.

_C. left side._ The [Illustration: hieroglyph] stands before another
similar Osiris Khent-amenti. He burns incense, pours water from a vase,
and makes other oblations. Behind him a servant cuts off the fore-leg of
a dark-coloured bull.


_Lower portion._

_D. Central false door._ Almost entirely destroyed. Decorated with
multicoloured palm-leaf frieze; this was the funerary stela of Teta-ky.

_E. Left side._ On the left a man is seated. The text in this instance
is so mutilated that his name [Illustration: hieroglyph] can alone be
read. Behind him the lady [Illustration: hieroglyph] places her arms
around his neck. In front of these two people, to the right, a man makes
offerings and libations.

Text: [Illustration: hieroglyph].

_F. right side._ A similar group to _E_, with the following texts above
the two seated persons:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

The inscription above the man making offerings has been covered by
whitewash, and it is only possible to read the following signs:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph] [Illustration: hieroglyph]



CHAPTER III

THE FUNERARY STATUETTES FROM TOMB OF TETA-KY

BY PERCY E. NEWBERRY


The discovery of Model Sarcophagi containing Funerary Statuettes in
small holes on the four sides of the entrance to the mummy shaft (see
Pl. II and p. 13) of Teta-ky’s tomb is of considerable interest; it is,
I believe, the first recorded instance of shawabti figures having been
found in such positions. They were placed in the four holes in pairs;
each model coffin and figure bears a different name, but curiously
enough, that of Teta-ky, whose body was buried in the sarcophagus
chamber at the bottom of the shaft, does not occur. Each model coffin
consists of a rectangular box and lid of wood; the lid, having uprights
at each end, is curved in section [Illustration: graphic]: outside, the
lid and box is painted white, with three blue vertical bands on box, and
the lids are inscribed in black ink with the name of the person for whom
the shawabti figure in the sarcophagus was made (Pl. X. 1). Each
shawabti figure is of wood carved to represent a human mummy with arms
crossed over chest, face and hands gilt, head-dress blue, and body white
(Pl. X. 2). Each figure is also inscribed with the usual shawabti text
in horizontal lines across the front and sides of the body. The people
for whom these figures were carved are: (1) the [Illustration:
hieroglyph] ‘Overseer of the Garden of Amen, Ra-hotep’; (2)
[Illustration: hieroglyph] (vars.[Illustration: hieroglyph] and
[Illustration: hieroglyph]) ‘Sen-senb’; (3) [Illustration: hieroglyph]
‘Teta-nefer’; (4)[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Teta-an’; (5)
[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Teta-em-ra’; (6) [Illustration: hieroglyph]
‘Ŷma’; (7) [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Res’; and (8) [Illustration:
hieroglyph] ‘Senbu’. The first two names, it should be observed, are
those of Teta-ky’s father and mother; probably the remaining six are
also of other members of his family. We may, therefore, hazard the
conjecture that these eight shawabti figures were placed at the opening
of the shaft in the belief that they would protect, or ‘answer for’,
their relation Teta-ky, whose body was interred below.

Besides the Funerary Statuettes described above, a large number of
figures in Model Sarcophagi[12] were discovered in the four niches in
the wall on the west side of the main court (Pls. I, II, p. 13). These
Model Sarcophagi are of painted pottery, mud, or wood, the boxes are
rectangular or oval in shape, with lids having uprights at each end;
some of them bear inscriptions (Pl. XI). The figures are all of wood
roughly carved to represent human mummies, and some of them are
inscribed (Pl. XII. 2). The inscriptions, written in linear hieroglyphs
or in hieratic, are of five types:--

(1) Giving only the name of the person for whom they were made.

(2) The simple _de hetep seten_ formula to Osiris: e.g. [Illustration:
hieroglyph]

(3) The _de hetep seten_ formula to Osiris, Lord of Busiris and Abydos.

(4) The _de hetep seten_ formula to Osiris with name of dedicator added;
e.g. [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘(dedicated) by his son who makes to
live his name Teta-an.’

(5) The shawabti text in its early form: [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Oh!
this shawabti, if Teta-ky in the underworld is summoned to do work for a
man according to his duties, to cultivate the fields, to flood the banks
(for irrigation purposes), or to carry sand from west to east. Behold I
am there to do it.’

The personal names occurring on these shawabti figures are typical of
the period immediately preceding the XVIIIth Dynasty. I arrange them in
alphabetical order.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Aahmes.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Aahmes-sa-pa-ar.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Aah-hetep.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Antef.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Atef.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Ŷma.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Pa-khnems.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Nekhtu.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Ra-hotep.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Res.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Sena.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Sen-senb.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Senbu.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Tahuti.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Tahutŷ-aah.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Tahutimes.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-an.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-ankh.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-em-ra.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-mesu.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-nefer.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-hemt.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-sa.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-senb.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Teta-ky.

Table for offerings (Pl. XII. 1) with rectangular depressions pierced
with holes for draining to spout, and inscribed with the _de hetep
seten_ formula to Osiris Khent-amenti, and to Osiris, Lord of Busiris
and of Abydos, that he may give offerings for the _Ka_ of the Royal Son,
Teta-ky. The horizontal line across the lower part of the table for
offerings gives:--

(1) The name and titles of Teta-ky’s father [Illustration: hieroglyph]
and (2) of his mother, the [Illustration: hieroglyph].

A fragment of a statue of Teta-ky bears the following legend:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Mayor in the Southern City (i.e. Thebes)
Teta-ky, justified’. This is the earliest known reference to the office
of a Mayor of Thebes.



CHAPTER IV

EXCAVATIONS IN THE VALLEY OF DÊR EL BAHARI

BY HOWARD CARTER


The panoramic view given in Pl. XIII clearly shows the nineteen
different sites that were excavated and examined in this particular part
of the necropolis during 1909 and 1910. Many were experimental
excavations made on the chance of there being hidden tombs, but as
several sites gave no results it is unnecessary to describe them.

_Site 3._ A tier of tombs, plundered, and most of them used in later
times, probably by Copts, as dwellings.

In the corner of the court of the principal tomb of this series, under a
fallen stone divisional wall (original), was a number of long and
well-made pottery cones, uninscribed; the position and state in which
they were found, the wall having fallen and covered them at an early
period, gives us reason to suppose that they belong to the tomb and are
of the XIth Dynasty (see Fig. 6, p. 8). Besides these cones, a very
rough sandstone table of offerings without inscription, two Coptic pots,
one with a wooden lid, some fragments of leather sandals, and a granite
colour-grinder, were found dispersed in the drifted sand.

_Site 4._ A large tomb, facing west, high up on the mountain slope, with
a causeway some twenty-five metres broad, walled on either side with
rough stones, and leading down the face of the hill.

Like the tomb itself the façade is hewn in the rock; its right and left
wings and overhead retaining wall, now mostly destroyed, were built of
mud-brick.

The passage and chambers being open for many centuries the task here was
to clear the façade court, into which its walls had fallen and been
covered with rubbish drifted in from the desert above. It was discovered
that the floor of the court, owing to the sloping rock bed, had been
levelled and made good with stone rubble faced with lime mortar. The
enormous fissures in the rock which ran through from side to side along
its transverse axis had been treated in the same way. In the centre of
the court, before the tomb entrance, was a large square shaft, sunk into
the rock and formed mostly out of the natural fissures, previously
mentioned, which had been utilized by the ancients in its construction.
At the bottom of this shaft was the sarcophagus chamber, with its
doorway blocked by a sandstone portcullis of one piece, measuring two
metres high and one and a half metres broad. The sarcophagus chamber
was rectangular in shape, low, and just large enough to receive the
burial, i.e. the sarcophagus with the funereal equipment. At the
south-east side of the court, buried beneath the fallen bricks of that
side wing, is a small unfinished chamber.

The total area of the court had some two metres of earth covering it,
and in the upper surface there were many cylindrical beads, a blue paste
scarab (uninscribed), and two rough limestone heart-scarabs covered with
blue paint. On the floor-level were fragments of funeral boat figures in
wood, and a torso in limestone of one of the original occupants of the
tomb (Pl. XVIII. 1 and 2). Covered by comparatively recent workings were
two iron spear-heads.

In the shaft, which was filled with earth, were more cylindrical beads,
some gilt, a black amber head, an obsidian eye-pupil from a coffin, a
fragment of a crystal bead, the head and fractured pedestal of the
limestone torso found in the court (Pl. XVIII. 1 and 2); also many burnt
pieces of wood from coffins and figures including a rough table of
offerings in limestone. The fractured pedestal had upon it the following
partially erased inscription:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

The sarcophagus chamber was plundered and three parts full of rubbish.
Access to it was obtained in ancient times by means of an opening forced
between the top of the portcullis and lintel of the doorway. Its
contents were smashed and burnt. Beads and small fragments of the
objects of the burial were all that remained.

The side chamber of the court, mentioned above, was completely choked
with drifted sand and had no antiquities in it at all.

Though among the objects found there were many of the XXIInd Dynasty, or
even of a later period, the larger portion were certainly of the
original XIth Dynasty burial; which, judging from the scanty remains,
must have been very fine in quality, and of some high state official,
but there was no inscription to tell us who he was.

_Site 5._ A depression in the surface of the hill slope, which proved to
be a rock-cut court with sepulchral chambers on both sides and at its
northern end (Pl. XV).

Almost at the commencement of its excavation the men came across the
small chamber on the east side, containing the coffin of an adult burial
untouched since the time it was deposited there. The entrance to this
chamber was walled in with stones mixed with bricks and pieces of
pottery, and it was found intact with the exception of a small opening
at the top accidentally made by the workmen before discovering its real
nature.

Later on, at the opposite side of the court, another small chamber was
disclosed, but it proved to be unfinished.

Lastly, at the end of the court, a large chamber containing burials of
seven adults and one child was found to be untouched. The sealing of the
entrance was in perfect condition and was constructed like the other
with similar stones and bricks (Pl. XIV. 1 and 2). The chamber was about
two-thirds full of rubble, upon which the coffins were deposited, the
first two having a slight excavation made for them. The first two
coffins were placed side by side with their heads towards the east: they
were covered by a pink shawl and chain garlands of leaves; with, beside
the first one, a bouquet of cornflowers. This was evidently the last
tribute paid to the dead placed in this sepulchre (see Pl. XVII. 3). The
rest of the coffins, seven in all, belonging to a previous interment,
and of a different type, were lying north and south with their heads to
south. They were crowded together as if to make room for the latter
burials. Some of these latter coffins had pieces of mummy-cloth upon
them; the last of all some fragments of a decayed garland.

The east side-chamber was quite clean, and the coffin in it was placed
exactly east and west with its head to the west.

After the removal of the coffins the large chamber was carefully
explored. At the far end the commencement of an uncompleted pit was
found, and at the entrance the remains of the early brick wall that
originally closed the doorway were uncovered.

From the style of this tomb, the brickwork that closed the doorway,
together with the pottery and some cones found in the rubbish, it
clearly belongs to the earlier epoch of this district, the roughness of
form being mostly owing to the inferior rock in which it is hewn (a
conglomerate of lime and flints striated with _Tafle_). The beginning of
a chamber on the west side of the court had been abandoned on account of
some large flint-boulders embedded in the conglomerate which had
prevented further progress, and the chamber on the east side was made in
its stead. Neither of these cuttings seem to belong to the original
design; they were most probably made by the usurpers found within the
tomb: the fact that the floor-level of the completed side-chamber was
the same as that of the rubbish drifted into the courtyard and tomb
before its usurpation, I think, corroborates the above conjecture.

The burials in detail are as follows:--

1. _A_. (Pl. XVI. 3). A coffin containing inner case and mummy of a man
named [Illustration: hieroglyph] Pa-de-Amen, [Illustration: hieroglyph]
son of Pa-de-khonsu by the lady [Illustration: hieroglyph] Maartu.

_Outer Case._ Of wood, top of lid flat, with the face, head-dress,
ornamental collar, and vertical line of hieroglyphs down the centre,
painted.

_Inner Case._ Of thin wood, very roughly made, and painted white, with
the four ‘Amenti’ figures painted in colour upon the chest. The vertical
inscription on the front gives the _de hetep seten_ formula to Osiris,
and the name [Illustration: hieroglyph] Reth-ar-es, which seems to have
no connexion with the other names mentioned on the outer case.

The mummy was swathed in (1) the outer covering, consisting of a pink
shawl bound by three longitudinal and seven transverse yellow bandages,
(2) the inner covering of numerous narrow swathing bands bound round the
body as well as crossways, with folded pieces of linen napkins and
pieces of shawls stuffed in the hollow parts. Among these numerous
wrappings were pieces embroidered with small blue patches woven into the
fabric, some had their edges fringed, and many were much worn and
darned.

The body was of a male adult, middle aged, with the hands placed at the
sides.

1. _B_. A coffin containing a mummy of a lady named [Illustration:
hieroglyph], Maartu (Pl. XVI, Fig. 1).

The coffin is far more elaborate than the former one, and generally
finer both in workmanship and painting. The scenes painted upon it are
of the deceased witnessing the weighing of her heart against the feather
of truth in the presence of two apes representing _Thoth_, the devouring
monster _Lord of Duat_, the goddess of truth _Maat_, _Horus_, _Osiris_,
_Nephthys_, and two children of _Horus_. Below, the spirits of _Ash-Mut_
and winged figures of _Ra_ on either side.

Round the case, on the two outer sides and end, is a band of coloured
hieroglyphs; and in the interior on the bottom, a painted figure of the
goddess _Mut_ surmounted by the winged _Horus_.

All the inscriptions give the _de hetep seten_ formula invoking the gods
in favour of the deceased, they also give her name and parentage
[Illustration: hieroglyphs], Maartu justified before Osiris.
[Illustration: hieroglyph], Daughter of Amenhetep-en-auf. [Illustration:
hieroglyph], Her Mother, the Lady of the House Nanu-nes-her.

The mummy was enveloped in a well-preserved dark terra-cotta coloured
linen shroud, tied underneath and held in position by several narrow
bands of brown and yellow linen, making a rich piece of colour and
delicious harmony in contrast to the clean white and decorated interior
of the coffin. Lying at the head was a fillet of leaves, like a diadem,
sewn together and adorned with tiny petals of flowers (Pl. XVII. 2). The
swathings under the shroud were similar to the first mummy (1. _A_),
with the exception that the linen was coarser and the bandages broader
(185 mms.). Among the folds were four _Amenti_ figures and one _Bennu_
bird in wax (Pl. XVII. 2); these were placed on the right vertical
nipple line and on a level with the base of the Xephisternum.

The body was of a female adult of approximately thirty-five years of
age. The hands were placed between the thighs.

2. _B_. Coffin containing a mummy of a man named [Illustration:
hieroglyph] Pa-de-Khonsu.

The decoration of the coffin and the manner of mummification of the body
were both similar to 1. _A_. Some of the linen bandages had markings in
light and dark blue, and red striated with dark blue running the whole
length, woven into the stuff; and, like the others, many of the bandages
were mended.[13]

The genealogy of these three persons was as follows:--

  Amenhetep-en-auf = Nanu-nes-her (of coffin 2. _B_)
  Pa-de-Khonsu = Maartu (of coffin 1. _B_)
  Pa-de-Amen (of coffin 1. _A_).

The meaning of the bandages being in so many cases carefully darned and
mended might be explained by the inscriptions found on the walls of the
tombs of the New Kingdom--a part of the ritual and last words of the
relatives before the mummy when depositing it for ever in the tomb.
‘Woe, woe.... Alas this loss! the good shepherd has gone to the land of
Eternity; he who willingly opened his feet to going is now enclosed,
bound, and confined. He who had so much fine linen, and so gladly put it
on, _sleeps now in the cast-off garments of yesterday_.’[14] The mummy
bandages are strips torn nearly in every case from larger pieces like
shawls and garments.

The second group of coffins, 3. _B_ to 7. _B_ (see Pl. XV), are of
slightly smaller dimensions, painted black, and of a much rougher type.
Only one of them had traces of design upon it, and that was in yellow
upon the black background. The mummies they contained, though in good
preservation and simulating the others in fashion, did not in general
display the same care as in the former series. The linen in which they
were wrapped had similar markings and mends, but they were of a coarser
nature, and in some cases the materials were quite worn and old rags.

Coffin 3. _B_ bore the _de hetep seten_ formula, but the name of the
deceased was omitted.

The mummy in coffin 7. _B_, of a man not more than thirty years of age,
had on the left arm, tied at the elbow, a very fine blue glazed steatite
scarab (Pl. XVII. 1, also Fig. 9, p. 27).

The small child’s coffin, 8. _B_, was of plain wood exceedingly roughly
made, and it contained the remains of a young boy prepared in the same
manner as the others.

This last group may possibly have relationship in common with the
others, even though their class does not appear to be of so high a
standing; but unfortunately we have no inscription or real indication to
tell us; the existing evidences show two distinct families but tend
towards their being within a short period of one another--perhaps not
more than a century.

_Site 6_ had openings to tombs, but proved unproductive.

_Site 7_, in the open courtyard of a large tomb of the XIth Dynasty;
many decayed funeral boats and granary figures, as well as pottery cones
and potsherds, cast out in past times, were the only reward for its
excavation.

_Site 8._ Here were tombs with mud-brick buildings in front of them,
like dwellings of embalmers. Beads and amulets, and a broken _Tazza_[15]
(table) in pottery, all of different periods, were here unearthed.

[Illustration: FIG. 9. SCARAB FROM TOMB NO. 5.]

_Site 10._ A tomb with large open courtyard facing south. This was
completely excavated. On the east side of the main door was a low single
brick wall; between it and the east corner a shallow round hole in the
floor, like that for a foundation deposit (see tomb No. 16). In the east
wall of the court was a small chamber, its entrance passage was three
parts full of sand, while the chamber itself was comparatively clean. It
must have been open anciently for many years as the ceiling, walls, and
even the pots in it, were covered with mason-bees’ nests. Mingled with
the rubbish were pots of peg-top shape (Pl. XVIII. 10), broken pieces of
coffins, funereal cones (see Fig. 6), and human bones, all of different
dates and occurring here accidentally. The pieces of coffin were eaten
by white ants, a pest certainly foreign to this part of the Theban
necropolis, and for that reason I believe these wooden fragments came
from some other portion of the Theban necropolis. There is reason to
suppose that the courtyard was never finished; there were many huge
stones protruding out of the rock and jutting into the yard. In this
yard more pottery was found, with among them two small pieces of linen
tied up and containing pellets, like masticated corn mixed with grains
of wheat.

_Sites 11 and 12_ produced nothing of further interest than a palm-tree
in front of one of the tombs (12) which had been planted there in Nile
mud brought up from the cultivation.

_Site 13_, a large rubbish heap formed of the débris thrown out by the
ancient workmen when making the neighbouring tombs.

Here our hopes were to find a grave covered and protected by stuff
thrown over it. Such indeed was the case, for within a few days the
greater part of the mound was cleared away and the mouth of a cutting
exposed. Naturally this raised great expectations, as the chances were
that it would be undisturbed. But, as nearly always happens to the
excavator in such cases, it is the unsuspected that occurs; the tomb had
never been completed!

_Sites 15 and 16_ were on the open desert close to one another. 15
proved to be unfruitful. 16, though it at first appeared to be more
promising by there being plenty of artificial chippings, had but little
interest outside the fact that it led to a cutting of an already
pilfered tomb. At the entrance of this cutting, in a small hollow in the
_Tafle_ rock, on the west side, was a ‘pocket’ of barley, which was at
first a puzzle, as it did not seem accidental. Afterwards, on thinking
that it might be of the nature of a foundation deposit to the tomb, the
opposite side was carefully searched, and a corresponding ‘pocket’ with
barley was eventually found; thus proving the conjecture to be correct,
and showing that the tombs here, like the royal ones in the Valley of
the Kings,[16] had foundation deposits as was customary also in the
temples.

At the doorway of this tomb a pottery pan offering like a ‘Soul House’
was found (Pl. XVIII. 16).

_Site 17._ Here a pair of rush sandals and a pottery female figure were
the prizes of the last day’s work of the season of 1909 among the
sepulchres of this region.

In Pl. XVIII. 3 are shown examples of each type and shape of the XIth
Dynasty pottery found in the above excavations. There were only two
other examples of a later date (Coptic), and they were of the most
common form; the numbers on the illustration refer to the sites they
came from.

Continuing the work in the year 1910, the large mounds immediately east
of the footpath leading to the Biban el Mulûk were thoroughly
investigated. These extend north and south on the hill slope below the
great rock-cut tombs which are situated under the cliff at the top. This
work was divided into two sites, Nos. 18 and 19 (Pl. XIII) and placed
under two reises. It produced practically nothing, being only an immense
covering of stone chippings upon the _gebel_ thrown out from the tombs
above. Among this accumulation, which varied in depth from one to five
metres, many horns of animals suggesting sacrifices, leather thongs from
implements, broken timber, and _balanites_ kernels (Pl. LXXIX) were
found; in fact the refuse from the workmen who had been employed upon
the sepulchral caverns above. Thus, in the two seasons, this half of the
north side of the valley between the eastern foot hills at its mouth and
the mountain path may be said to have been thoroughly explored, leaving
but small chances of undiscovered tombs.

The men were then removed further westward, close to Hatshepsût’s
Temple, where parallel trenches, twenty-five to forty metres broad, were
dug. They began at the base of the slope and were carried up, in some
cases, nearly to the foot of the vertical cliff; the excavations were
continued until the rock surface had all been exposed.

_Trench 20_, begun from the temple temenos, yielded the following
results:--

1. On the flat of the valley bed, between the temenos and the rising
ground, was disclosed the mutilated foundation of a large wall (Pl. XIX.
1), extending east and west, two metres wide, and built of crude bricks
stamped with the cartouches of Amenhetep I and Aahmes-nefert-ari (Pl.
XXIII. 20).

2. Over and along the side of the wall were many irregularly built mud
dwellings for workmen, made of stray bricks of the XIth and early
XVIIIth Dynasties; they no doubt were the rest-houses of the builders of
the Queen Hatshepsût’s temple.

3. Among the huts, in a depression roughly enclosed by limestone blocks,
were the roots and stem of a date palm, set in black soil. Below the
roots of the tree were several pots and a broken limestone statuette,
placed as offerings for the welfare of the palm (Pl. XIX. 2). The pots
contained a mud sediment. The statuette, which seems to have been used
also as an offering, has the following inscriptions upon it:--

  Down front of dress [Illustration: hieroglyph]

  On front end of throne [Illustration: hieroglyph]

  On right side of throne (1) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (2) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (3) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (4) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (5) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

  On left side of throne  (1) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (2) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (3) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (4) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

                          (5) [Illustration: hieroglyph]

  On back of throne [Illustration: hieroglyph]

They mention the ‘True Royal Scribe, Scribe of the Altar of the Lord of
the Two Lands’, Amenemhat, called _Keriba_ (the Son of) ‘Scribe of the
Altar’ Amenhetep. It was dedicated by Amenemhat’s brother, ‘Who made to
live his name,’ ‘The Royal Scribe,’ Userhat.

4. A few metres above, in the first part of the hill slope, hewn in the
_Tafle_, was a chamber (No. 21). The interior had been plastered and it
appears to have been a kind of office for the clerk of the works for the
Queen’s temple. It contained a broken rush and wicker-work stool,
fragments of a mat, a basket, torn fragments of papyrus, clay pellets
for seal impressions, and a donkey halter. Leading up to the entrance
was a small causeway. The fragments of papyrus, forty-three in number,
when fitted together, proved to be part of Chapter XLI of the ‘Book of
the Dead’, a list of different names of Osiris.

5. Higher up, on the top of the low foot-hill, was a series of cells
built against the second incline. In one of these was a washing slab
made of sandstone, with a hole in the corner of its sunken bed to allow
the water to drain into a cesspool below; this was perhaps the
bathing-place for the workmen (Pl. XX. 2).

6. On the second incline, eight metres above the bath, was part of a
‘serpentine’ wall (Pl. XX. 1), a peculiar structure not uncommon in
building operations. Such a wall was found near the unfinished part of
the north colonnade of the Queen’s temple. Another example was found
this season in Site 14. Its specific purpose is not thoroughly
understood, perhaps it was an economical method of making enclosures for
the working staff. In this particular case the bricks used for it belong
to different periods--the XIth Dynasty brick (black mud without straw)
and stamped bricks of Amenhetep I, Aahmes-nefert-ari, and Hatshepsût;
the latter shows that it cannot have been earlier than the date of the
Thothmes family.

7. A natural fissure in the hill near by had been, in late times,
converted into a group of small tomb-chambers (No. 22). They had in them
the plundered remains of burials like those of site No. 5, found in the
season’s work of 1909 (p. 23).

_Trench 23_, the next trench (parallel and east of 20), produced little
or nothing. More stamped bricks of Aahmes-nefert-ari and Amenhetep I
were found, and the beginning of an unfinished tomb-shaft in which was a
boulder bearing the name, written in black ink, [Illustration:
hieroglyph], Mentu-hetep.

Full attention being required by the Birâbi excavations, the third
parallel trench was not begun until after an interval of ten days, when
the good services of Mr. Cyril Jones were obtained for this express
purpose. Mr. Jones, with thirty men and sixty boys, steadily continued
the work as before, the base of his trench (No. 26) reaching as far as
the north-east corner of the temple inclosure wall. The part ascending
the valley side was barren and only exposed a plundered XIth Dynasty
tomb (No. 30), re-used as an habitation, and afterwards as the place of
a later burial consisting of a wooden _dug-out_ coffin. But, on turning
round the corner of the temple enclosure, he discovered a most
interesting historical cache, a foundation deposit of the Dêr el Bahari
dromos (for the exact position of this deposit see Pl. XXIV). For this
deposit a circular hole, three metres deep and 140 cms. in diameter, had
been made, and lined with a mud-brick wall with rounded and plastered
coping (Pl. XXI. 2). The interior was filled with greyish (local) sand
sprinkled with grains of corn. But for some reason the whole of the
deposit was not placed in it. The tools and implements were found in a
smaller hole, simply dug in the ground a few feet away, and like the
former pit it was filled with sand and grain.

In the main pit the objects, placed in groups under alternate layers of
sand, were discovered in the following order:--A few inches below the
surface, the skull of an ox (Pl. XXI. 1), and underneath it a group of
pottery, whole and broken, one pot containing grain, another containing
fruit of the _Nebbek_ tree. Then came the jaw-bone and fore-leg of an ox
(Pl. XXI. 1), a piece of bread, a square sample of wood, an ebony
symbolical knot (Pl. XXII. 2. E), and an alabaster pebble (Pl. XXII. 2.
N) elaborately inscribed. In the third batch another symbolical knot, of
cedar wood, two samples of fine linen, broken pottery that had contained
oil, wines and foodstuffs, and two samples of coarse linen. Lastly, a
rush mat, a pitcher-carrier, a second rush mat, and under it a second
pitcher-carrier, masses of broken pottery, including a vessel containing
a sample of mortar. Below these was plain sand reaching to the bottom of
the pit.

Those of the second hole, mostly implements, were placed apparently not
in any particular order, and are given in the following list, and
illustrated in Plate XXII. 2:--A bronze axe (A), graver (B), and chisel
(C); an adze with a bronze blade bound by leather thongs to its wooden
handle (F); a wooden mallet (D), hoe (G), brick mould (H), and peg (J);
two sieves, one of palm-leaf with coarse mesh (K), the other of
_halfa_-grass, with fine mesh, and made of horse or donkey hair (L); a
rushwork jar rest (?) (M); a smelting crucible made of sun-dried mud
(I), and lastly a pottery dish and jar. Many of these models were quite
large, about three-quarter actual size, and all in a most perfect state
of preservation. The two knots (Pl. XXII. 2. E) have engraved upon them
[Illustration: hieroglyph], the ‘Nebti’ name and prenomen of Hatshepsût.

The alabaster pebble (Pl. XXII. 2. N) has also the following
legend:--[Illustration: hieroglyph]. It mentions that Queen Maat-ka-ra
(Hatshepsût) made this monument for her father Amen-Ra, when she
measured out for Amen the Dêr el Bahari temple. Among the broken débris
of pottery found in the main cache were two fragments bearing the words
[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘wine’, and [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘roast
meat’.

Types of the pottery are given in Plate XXII. 1. These vessels of red
pottery have nearly all been dipped into colour of a terra-cotta hue.
The lip, rim, and neck of the jars (D, F, H), the upper half of the
bowls (E, G, I), the interior and rims of dishes (A, B, C), are all
coloured in that manner.

There is no doubt that the pots were intentionally smashed when
deposited, and that the probable reason for this breaking was to
disperse their contents during the ceremony over the sand. From this
cause most of the pots and potsherds were found adhering to one another,
due to the spilt unguents as well as to the blood from the
flesh-offering having dried and caked them together. This may be a
reason for the more perishable objects being placed in a separate cache.
The bones, shown in Plate XXI. 1, are those of a young beast, the
ossification being that of an immature animal. They measure:--

_Skull._ Length from top of occipital tuberosity to end of the
pre-maxilla, 457 mms. (approximate); width of frontal bone between
orbits, 150 mms.; length of jaw, from the mandibula condyle to end of
the sub-maxillary bone, 380 mms.

_Fore-leg._ Length of scapula, along scapula axis, 317 mms.; length of
humerus, from the head to the tip of outer condyle, 283 mms.; length of
radius, from head to the lower end, 287 mms.; maximum length of the
great metacarpal, 215 mms.

Other details of interest brought to light by these excavations in these
trenches are recorded below:--

1. A potsherd with charcoal sketch of a Sinaitic ibex upon it.

2. A fine ostracon, bearing, in hieratic, a receipt dated in ‘The 11th
year (? Thothmes III), third month of Summer, 24th day’, for various
articles given by the ‘Mayor’ Aahmes.

3. Fragments of a shawabti figure, of white and violet glaze, bearing
the name and title ‘Royal Scribe of the Altar’, [Illustration:
hieroglyph], Ky-nefer. Date XIXth Dynasty.

4. A group of broken shawabti figures, blue faience, of [Illustration:
hieroglyph], Zed-Khensu-auf-ankh. Date XXIInd Dynasty.

5. Three jar seals--(i) bearing on top two cartouches, with only the two
signs [Illustration: hieroglyph] visible; (ii) has the cartouche
[Illustration: hieroglyph]; (iii) on the top surface is a
cartouche-formed impression but illegible, and painted on the side is
the commencement of the cartouche [Illustration: hieroglyph] in yellow
on a blue ground.

6. A child’s toy--an interesting little pack-horse with removable
packages, made of clay and housed in a pot. The packs are supported by
four vine-leaf stalks which are stuck into the animal’s sides (Pl.
XXIII. 1).

7. From the rubbish of the court in front of Tomb 30 a small bundle of
linen containing a steatite scarab, a strip of plaited rushwork, and
some diamond-shaped pieces of leather with minute multicoloured
bead-work sewn upon them.

8. In two places the trenches cut through temple refuse heaps, one high
upon the north side of the monument, the other at the north-east corner
of the temenos. These heaps are certainly of great interest, and should
one day be carefully worked through, for in them there are numbers of
broken votive offerings, brought by the populace to invoke the aid and
assistance of the local divinity. They consist of bronze, earthenware,
blue glaze, Hathor heads, cows, _menats_, model bunches of grapes,
rings, balls, sistrums, sphinxes, scarabs, scarab-shaped and cowroid
beads (one bearing the name of Aahmes I), amulets, such as ears, eyes,
and _Ankhs_, dishes, bowls and vases, some of which are of very large
dimensions.

A full series of pottery is given in Pl. XXIII. 2.

  _Types._ B, C, D, E, G, K, L, M are of rough red pottery.
            A, F, lightly burnt mud and lenticular in shape.
            I, red pottery, coloured white, and ornamented with black and red.
            J, red pottery, whitened.
            N, red pottery with black and red rings (fragment).

Plate LXXIX. 1 gives two examples of fig-basket found in the refuse
heaps mentioned above.

Towards the end of the exploration of 1911 an attempt was made to
discover the corresponding dromos deposit to that revealed by the work
of Mr. Cyril Jones in 1910. The exact measurements of the position of
the former one were taken, and laid down on the opposite side of the
dromos; the spot thus indicated was dug, and within a few hours the
second cache was exposed. It resembled the former one in every way, the
only variant being that the inscription upon the alabaster pebble in
this case was slightly different. It reads:--[Illustration: hieroglyph],
‘The Good Goddess Maat-ka-ra, living, beloved of Amen Ra, Lord of the
thrones [of the two lands].’[17]

This completes our three consecutive seasons’ researches on the north
side of the Dêr el Bahari Valley, which is mainly occupied by the early
tombs of the XIth Dynasty.



WORK DONE IN THE BIRABI



CHAPTER V

THE SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY TOMB No. 9

BY HOWARD CARTER


The site between the native house ‘Beit el Meleitên’ and the village
mosque, about one hundred and fifty metres north-east of the mouth of
the Dêr el Bahari valley, was examined in 1908, and as it resulted in
the discovery of a XVIIth Dynasty tomb (No. 9), it was continued in the
following year 1909. We began by exhaustively clearing tomb No. 9 that
for the sake of protection during the interim had been re-covered with
earth. In 1908 the front court, pit, and pit-chamber had been
investigated: in 1909 our attention was thus confined to the inner
chamber only, but everything of interest was discovered during the
earlier work.

During the work of 1908 the courtyard was found to contain great masses
of pottery and mutilated mummies, and it was among these, on a rock
ledge, that the important historical tablet referring to the expulsion
of the Hyksos by the General Kamosi (see further description by
Griffith, p. 36), and the second broken tablet were recovered. In the
first chamber were found parts of a wooden painted Canopic box, with
three of its jars in pottery painted to imitate alabaster (Pl. XXV. 1
and 2), among other destroyed remains of a plundered burial. But in
1909, owing to the depth and sliding nature of the rubbish, a more
extensive excavation had to be made to open the main chambers. Little
more was found here than further examples of pots, a child’s coffin too
decayed for preservation, and a reed burial of a poorer and much later
man (for example see Pl. XLII. 3). The tomb consisted of a court formed
by low stone and mortar walls, with a cutting in the centre leading to
the entrance: this entrance or doorway gave access to a passage, cut in
the rock, some six metres in length, which led to a rectangular chamber
that apparently formed one of the sepulchral repositories. Cut in the
floor of this chamber, on the west side, was a shaft nearly three metres
deep, giving ingress to two other chambers, one above the other.

It hardly seems credible that such a mass of pottery as was found in the
rubbish outside could have all come from so small a tomb, and one is
inclined to think that the greater part must have come from some
neighbouring and perhaps larger tomb.

Plate XXVI gives the different types of the pottery vessels found here.
The earthenware is fine in quality, deep red, with smooth surface, and
of a soft nature. Some are of a yellowish-grey material, and examples of
these are given in Plate XXVI. 2 (the five pieces on the right hand of
the lower row). In the top illustration are shown three very fine
specimens of complete jars with lids in red pottery with black lines
round the circumference of their bellies.

The name on the Canopic box is Kati-nekht, [Illustration: hieroglyph]
(var. [Illustration: hieroglyph]).



CHAPTER VI

CARNARVON TABLETS I AND II

BY F. LL. GRIFFITH


The writing tablet (Carnarvon Tablet I) is a document of the highest
historical importance, preserving as it does a contemporary record of
the conflict of the Theban Dynasty with the Hyksos. On the face of the
tablet eight lines of hieratic contain the introduction to the famous
Proverbs of Ptah-hetep, setting forth how the Wazir Ptah-hetep, son of a
king, spoke to his King Assa of the advance of old age upon him and the
diminution of all his powers, and requested that he might delegate his
duties to his son, whom he would instruct in the words and ways of the
Ancients. The King accorded his request and bade him proceed, and thus
originated the rules of good conduct which go by the name of the old
Wazir. The text[18] of the tablet shows some considerable differences of
reading from the only other copy known--that in the Prisse Papyrus.

Below this fragment of philosophy are marked the lines of a
draught-board, in squares 10 × 3. Four of the compartments contain
hieratic signs indicating their place in the game.

The historical text on the other side consisted of no less than
seventeen long lines. Unhappily the flaking of the stucco[19] about the
fracture has robbed us of one line and of the greater part of two more.
The text is singularly difficult, and this great gap, added to some
minor imperfections, further obscures the meaning. In the following
brief analysis I have had the help of a number of excellent readings
suggested by Mr. A. H. Gardiner.

The text is dated in the seventh year of King Kamosi, who is described
as beloved of Amen-Ra, the god of Karnak. His Majesty was speaking in
his palace unto the court and nobles who attended him, ‘Consider for
what is my might! One prince is in Avaris, another in Ethiopia!’ He
continues to discourse of the division of the land and mentions Memphis
and Cusae in an obscure context. ‘And the nobles of his court said,
“Behold, the Asiatics have approached (?) unto Cusae, they have drawn
(?) their tongues in one manner, [saying?] We are happy with our Black
Land as far as Cusae, ... our barley is in the papyrus-marshes ... our
barley is not taken.”’ The meaning of this is very uncertain. Then after
a gap, ‘they are painful to His Majesty,’ perhaps referring to the
replies of the countries.

After a long gap, ‘[The king, mighty in] Thebes, Kamosi, protector of
Egypt [said?], “I have gone north victorious to drive back the Asiatics
by the command of Ammon: the plans of my army have succeeded: every
mighty man was before me like a flame of fire, the mercenaries of the
Mezaiu (Nubians) were like the threshing instrument (?) to seek out the
Satin and to destroy their places: the East and the West were successful
(?), the army rejoicing at each thing in its order. I led the victorious
mercenaries of the Mezaiu ... Teta the son of Pepa in Nefrus, I allowed
him not to escape (?). I stopped the Asiatics, I freed (?) Egypt ... I
was in my ship, my heart rejoicing! When day dawned, I was on him like a
hawk: at a moment of ... I drove him out, I hacked down his wall, I slew
his people, I caused my soldiers to embark like wolves with their prey,
with slaves, cattle ... honey, dividing their property; their hearts
...”’ Another very obscure line follows. As Ahmosi, the successor of
Kamosi, completed the overthrow of the Hyksos by the capture of Avaris
early in his reign, one may conjecture that this text gives us the stage
in the expulsion of the Hyksos when they were driven from Middle Egypt
and confined to Lower Egypt by the Theban power. The latter had also to
contend with a rival in Nubia, who was likewise crushed by Ahmosi.

It is remarkable that the titles of Kamosi as given here do not agree
with those upon the Treasure of Ahhotp; the handwriting proves that Lord
Carnarvon’s tablet (Carnarvon Tablet I) had been written within a few
years of the events recorded in it. The publication of the facsimile is
certain to rouse the interest of every student of one of the most
fascinating problems in oriental history.

The fragments of the second tablet (Carnarvon Tablet II), facsimiled in
Plate XXIX, have not yet been translated.



CHAPTER VII

THE ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE OF QUEEN HATSHEPSÛT

BY HOWARD CARTER


Adjoining the site of Tomb 9 is the ‘Valley’-Temple to the Dromos of
Hatshepsût’s Mortuary Chapel at Dêr el Bahari (Site 14, Pl. XXX).

It was first discovered by the excavation of the tomb No. 9, which
exposed some of its stone-work, and it was a surprise to find here, in
such a well-known place, a finely built limestone construction of
considerable proportions quite near to the surface.

At the beginning this building was a puzzle to us, the part revealed in
season 1909 being only a long piece of the outside wall which gave but
few data, and thus became a source of much speculation as to its
meaning. This wall ran east and west, having a base measurement of 2·60
metres broad with its outer faces sloping--their ‘batter’ being 4 cms.
in every rise of 25 cms. Its construction consists of two outer skins of
small well-made limestone blocks built upon sandstone foundation slabs,
with, in the middle, a core of stone and mortar rubble mixed with sand.
In it was a doorway, about half-way along the length cleared, which
opened out to the north--its door-jambs being on that side. The eastern
extremity of the excavation then made, showed that in that direction it
descended. Under the doorway a search was made for a deposit but with no
result, though at the west end, the part of the wall first discovered,
there was a pocket of sand which seemed to have belonged to something of
that nature.

The extensive exploration of this site in 1910 clearly determined that
it was an unfinished portion of a building of Terrace-Temple form; and
that the wall, which had given rise to many theories, was only its
northern boundary wall (Pl. XXXI. 1 and 2).

The intended scheme of this unfinished building seems to have been an
Upper and a Lower Court, divided by a single Colonnaded Terrace (see
plan and section, Pl. XXX), similar somewhat to Hatshepsût’s Mortuary
Chapel at Dêr el Bahari. It is, however, all in the very early stages of
construction, the wall itself being the only part that shows any signs
of completion. Very possibly, in earlier times, a great deal more of the
structure existed, for it had been used as a quarry for limestone at
some late period.

In detail, the ‘battered’ boundary wall, averaging nearly 6 metres in
height, was capped by a coping-stone curved on the top. The base of its
outer face declines from the level of the Upper Court down to the level
of the Lower Court, a matter of nearly 4·50 metres difference in level;
while, on the inner side, the base is horizontal and takes the levels of
the two courts. When looking at the plan (Pl. XXX) it will be noticed
that the wall gradually swells on the outer face between the two
sections, viz. the Upper and Lower Courts, and suddenly returns to its
normal thickness. This can be explained by the fact that a ‘battered’
surface must necessarily spread as it descends to a lower level. It was
at this point (the level of the Lower Court) blended back to the normal
base measurement of the wall by a small angle of masonry (see Pl. XXXI.
1).

[Illustration: FIG. 10. HIERATIC INSCRIPTIONS FROM ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE.]

The Lower Court, as far as the excavation shows us, seems to be a plain
open quadrangle, abutting a raised terrace colonnade, of which one base
alone of the square columns of the Terrace still exists. Above this
Terrace, the back of which served as a retaining wall, is what we can
only suppose to be the Upper Court, and like the lower one is a square
open enclosure. On the north side of this Upper Court is a doorway
(mentioned above) in the boundary wall. Behind the masonry of the
Terrace are the remains of the original mud-brick scaffold for
supporting the earth of the Upper Court while building the back stone
wall of the Terrace itself. The masonry in some cases is good, while in
others it is of the roughest kind, and in many parts the surfaces have
been left undressed.

Hieratic inscriptions, written in ink upon the under surfaces of the
stone blocks from the walls (see Fig. 10), name the architect ‘the
Second Priest of Amen, Pu-am-ra’, whose tomb (dated Thothmes III) is in
the Assassif.

This fixed the date of the monument to the reign of Queen Hatshepsût or
Thothmes III, but to which of these two reigns, and for what use the
edifice was intended, still remained unanswered for want of further
data.

Later, in the year 1911, we at last discovered a foundation deposit of
the building (see Pl. XXX, marked Hatshepsût’s Deposit A and B), and
here a small brick pillar and model tools gave the owner’s name,
‘Maat-ka-ra’ (the prenomen of Queen Hatshepsût), and on the tools
themselves was the name of the building ‘_Zeser-zeseru_’. The occurrence
of these names shows at once that the building formed part and parcel of
the Dêr el Bahari edifice, and from its position it is clear that the
building was the termination of the dromos of the famous temple--in fact
its Portal or ‘Valley’-Temple--assimilating in idea the older plan of
the pyramid chapels and ‘valley’-temples connected by great causeways of
the pyramids at Gizeh, the tomb which takes the place of the pyramid
being in this case on the opposite side of the cliff in the valley of
the Tombs of the Kings.

The foundation deposit, like that of the other end of the dromos found
in 1910 (p. 31), was composed of two separate groups, (1) a pillar of
ten mud-bricks, each stamped with the Queen’s prenomen [Illustration:
hieroglyph] (see Plan, Pl. XXX, marked A); and (2) a few metres from it
(see Plan, Pl. XXX, marked B) were found two model adzes in wood
inscribed with the following hieroglyphic inscription:--[Illustration:
hieroglyph]. These were fully four metres below the pavement level of
the Upper Court of the ‘Valley’-Temple.

[Illustration: Fig. 11. GRAFFITI ON STONES FROM ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE.]

Objects found during the excavation of, and belonging to this monument,
were:--

1. Lying loosely in the rubbish, a very fine specimen of a workman’s hoe
(Pl. XXXII. 3).

2. In the masonry of the corner of the terrace colonnade, a mason’s
mallet, exactly similar to those found in the Queen’s Temple of Dêr el
Bahari by the Egypt Exploration Fund in 1893-1896.

3. Generally distributed about the site were stamped bricks of the Queen
(Pl. XXXII. 2), and also two larger bricks stamped with the cartouches
of Thothmes I and Maat-ka-ra in conjunction, with the epithets
[Illustration: hieroglyph] and [Illustration: hieroglyph] under their
names (Pl. XXXII. 4).

4. A red crystalline sandstone tally-stone bearing the prenomen of
Hatshepsût (Pl. XXXII. 1).

5. Low down, about the foundation level and half-way along the lower
section of the north boundary wall, was a mass of stones with dressed
faces for building. These stones, numbering seventy-six in all, were
stacked with their faces downwards. Out of these stones thirty-five had
painted in black upon their faces the signs [Illustration: hieroglyph],
‘the Good Festival’, with one of the batch having the supplementary word
[Illustration: hieroglyph], ‘Brick’. Another had an illegible
inscription beginning with the sign [Illustration: hieroglyph] and the
word ‘Amen’. Six had peculiar signs or quarry marks scrawled in charcoal
(see Fig. 11). That on the fifth stone can be read as [Illustration:
hieroglyph], the name of the Queen’s architect Sen-mut. The sign
[Illustration: hieroglyph], _Sent_, that occurs on four of the other
stones might be interpreted as ‘a ground plan’.



CHAPTER VIII

PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES

BY HOWARD CARTER


Covering the upper stratum of the sites explored in the Birâbi were
numerous brick-vaulted graves, mostly found not more than a metre or so
beneath the surface rubbish (Pl. XXXIII).

Probably when these vault-graves were first made they actually stood
above the surface, their superstructures being in all probability
intended to be exposed, as would be gathered from the fact of their
external walls showing, in some cases, painted decoration upon the
plaster still adhering to them (Pl. XXXIV. 2). In every case they were
found to be plundered, and in the course of examining some forty
examples that we came across, we rarely found but the very slightest
traces of the burials they once contained. And all that we were able to
gather from these vestiges of the actual interments was that they were
of the Ptolemaic period, but almost pure Egyptian in type. This fact
thoroughly corroborates Mr. Edgar’s statement that ‘during the Ptolemaic
period many of the Greek inhabitants began to adopt the practice of
mummification. At first naturally their custom went to the native
undertakers, and their mummies were decorated just like those of the
Egyptians. Here and there as time goes on, signs of Greek influence
begin to appear. But it is not till the Roman period that the style
becomes what could be properly called Greek.’[20]

In these graves the coffins were of rectangular and anthropoid form, and
the mummies were enclosed in canvas cartonnages covered with stucco
elaborately decorated with pictures of the numerous Egyptian deities and
ritual inscriptions of the usual formulae. Their funerary objects were
glazed faience bowls of several colours, such as many different blues,
violets, &c.; small roughly glazed shawabti figures; porcelain deities
and amulets; painted carved wood _Ba_-birds; erotic figures in faience;
and beads, &c. There were also vases and bowls in pottery; and in two
instances we found a bowl of copper gilt (Fig. 12) and vases in lead,
left or forgotten by the plunderers.

Luckily the substructure of these graves was nearly always found intact,
and likewise in many cases their superstructure. And by this we were
able to gather that it was a common custom for them to have small brick
vestibules or shrines before their entrances; and that under the floors
of either the out-buildings or the vaulted chambers themselves, one or
more amphorae were buried for water or food for the dead (Pl. XXXIV,
Fig. 1); the mouths of these jars were covered by inverted bowls and
sealed with mud.

[Illustration: FIG. 12. GILT COPPER VESSEL FROM PTOLEMAIC VAULTED
GRAVES.]

In one of these sealed vessels, found under the floors, two demotic
papyri were discovered (see description by Spiegelberg, p. 46); in
others were date cakes, grain, and seeds of different kinds; and in the
corner of one of the small outer chambers a batch of forty-seven
Ptolemaic coins (p. 44). The fortunate discovery of the papyri and
coins, treated hereafter, give data for fixing the period of these
vaults to the earlier Ptolemaic times.

With regard to construction, these vault-graves built of mud-brick are
of a rectangular longitudinal shape. The side walls, one and a half
bricks thick, are from six to ten bricks high, while the end walls are
carried up to the height of the crown of the vault. On the inner face of
the side walls a ledge is left, half-way up, for a support to carry the
vaulted roof (the outer faces are run up as high again to receive the
thrust of the vault). The vaulted roof, one brick in thickness, has its
rings leaning against the end wall, starting at the foot with first one
brick on either side, then two, three, and so on, until the feet of
these incomplete rings are far enough out to allow a complete leaning
ring to be formed with its crown actually touching the end wall at the
top. To this complete ring the bricks of the subsequent rings of the
vault are stuck, thus avoiding the force of gravity and enabling the
vaulting to be built without the aid of timber centring. This is a
method by which a barrel-vault can be made, technically known as a
_flown-vault_, and which is known and used by natives in Egypt at the
present day.

For strength and to reduce the thrust, the vault is of parabolic section
and not truly semicircular.

[Illustration: FIG. 13. PTOLEMAIC COINS FROM VAULTED GRAVES.]

Access to these vaulted chambers was sometimes by means of an arched
opening in the end wall covered by the vestibule (Pl. XXXIV. 2), or,
when the latter structure was wanting, by a chimney-like hole at the top
of one end of the barrel-vault.

The flat vault bricks (34×16×6 cms.) have grooves on one side to allow
the mortar to have a better and firmer grip--a very necessary point for
this style of vaulting.

The group of forty-seven Ptolemaic copper coins (Fig. 13), the
preservation of which is unusually good for coins found in Upper Egypt,
new coinage rarely getting so far south, belong apparently to the
dominations of Ptolemies III and IV. They are of four sizes and in
detail are as follows:--

                                                      Av. weight    Av. diam.
                                                      _grammes._     _mms._
  10. _Obv._ Head of Zeus Amon to right.
      _Rev._ Eagle on thunderbolt to left; cornucopia
             in field in front of eagle.

                  Mints: [Illustration: hieroglyph]     73·0          42·0

   6. _Obv._ Head of Zeus Amon to right.
      _Rev._ Eagle on thunderbolt to left; cornucopia
             in field in front of eagle.
                  Mints: [Illustration: hieroglyph]     67·0          40·5

  17. _Obv._ Head of Zeus Amon to right.
      _Rev._ Eagle on thunderbolt to left, head
             turned to right; cornucopia in field
             over back of eagle.
                  Mints: [Illustration: hieroglyph]     48·0          39·0

  14. _Obv._ Head of Zeus Amon to right.
      _Rev._ Eagle on thunderbolt to left; cornucopia
             in field in front of eagle.
                  Mints: [Illustration: hieroglyph]     35·5          34·0



CHAPTER IX

DEMOTIC PAPYRI AND OSTRACA

BY WILHELM SPIEGELBERG


The two papyri which I propose to call in future Papyrus Carnarvon I and
II are of great importance on account of their date.[21] They both bear
the protocol of a local king who reigned in Upper Egypt under Ptolemaios
Epiphanes (205-181 B.C.). The king is named Harmachis, and so far there
are known to exist only three other contracts of his time, two in the
Berlin Museum (Demotic Pap. Berlin, Nos. 3142-4, 3145), dated in his
third and sixth years, and another mentioned in the _Revue
Égyptologique_, I, p. 121 (the collection in which it is preserved not
being mentioned), is dated in his fifth year.

The two Carnarvon papyri are dated in the fourth year, and their
protocol reads: ‘Year 4 in the month of Athyr of King Harmachis, living
eternally, beloved of Isis, beloved of Amonrasonter, the great god.’

In the first papyrus (Pap. Carnarvon I, Pls. XXXV, XXXVI) a woman
Senobastis sells 1½ cubits of waste land (about 40 square metres),
situated in the endowed land of the god Amon near a place
P-ohi-n-p-mehen, to a herdsman (?) and slave of the god Amon, Psenesis.

The second papyrus (Pap. Carnarvon II, Pls. XXXVIII, XXXIX) concerns a
sale of arable land in the same region between the herdsman (?) and
slave of the god Amon, Pachnumis and Paos bearing the same titles.

Paos and Psenesis were brothers, a fact which makes the two papyri part
of the acts of the same family. They are signed by the same public
notary, ‘Petamenophis, the son of Petemestus, ... who writes in the name
of the priests of the god Amonrasonter,’ and among the sixteen witnesses
on the verso of the papyri eleven are identical in both texts (Pl.
XXXVII. 1 and 2).

These two documents concern two different sales of temple land in the
same Theban region between different contractors, of whom two are
members of the same family. As we know that in Ptolemaic and Roman times
every sale was concluded by two documents, the agreement for sale
(συγγραφἠ πρἁσεως) and the contract of cession (συγγραφἠ ἁποστασἱου), it
is evident that we have only half of the complete acts of the two
sales, viz. the sale agreements. Now in Pap. Carnarvon I on the right
margin opposite line 4 there is a part of a sign (not given in the
plate) which may be the end of a line of another text. This may belong
to the lost contract of cession written upon the same roll as the
existing written agreement. At any rate the two documents are not
complete, they are only the sale agreements, and their juridical
complements, i.e. the Cession Acts, may still turn up some day.


OSTRACA.

Among the thirty-three demotic ostraca, i.e. demotic inscriptions upon
potsherds and limestone flakes, found among the Ptolemaic remains in the
upper stratum of Site 14, and all of the Ptolemaic period, only one has
a definite date.

It is of ‘the year 21 of the kings Ptolemaios son of Ptolemaios and of
Ptolemaios, his son,’ i. e. of Ptolemaios II, Philadelphos, and his son
Euergetes I (about 265-264 B.C.). The texts contain tax receipts,
contracts, accounts, and lists of workmen.

One ostracon is of a quite unusual type (Pl. XXXVII. 3). Perhaps it is
the receipt for the fee of a contract concerning a sale of land; the
text is signed by Thothmosis, and has the date of ‘the year 4 the 30th
(?) Choiak’.



CHAPTER X

COLONNADE AND FOUNDATION DEPOSIT OF RAMESES IV

BY HOWARD CARTER


In 1911 many large paving slabs of limestone with positions of columns
marked by circles chiselled upon them were uncovered (see plan, Pl. XXX.
40). These were immediately below a number of Ptolemaic vault-graves,
and practically on the same level as the pavement of the Upper Court and
some twenty-eight metres south of the boundary wall of the
‘Valley’-Temple.

As far as the work of this season allowed, eleven of these substructures
were revealed, giving enough proof that a late building of some kind, in
part or complete, had existed there. The fact that lime-mortar still
exists within the circles that marked the bases of the columns, proves
that at least the lower part of the column drums once stood there. The
builder of this double colonnade, running east and west, was proved to
be Rameses IV by our finding under the north-east corner a deposit
bearing his names. This deposit, placed in the sand and enclosed by a
few bricks and not a metre and a half below the masonry, consisted of
143 electrum and faience objects excluding the barley grains, samples of
red jasper, and matrices of emerald that were mixed with them.

Pl. XL illustrates a complete series of the different articles that
formed the deposit:

  Group 1. Plaques, made of electrum.
    “   2. Cartouches, of blue and violet glass.
    “   3. Plaques, of blue glazed faience.
    “   4. Cartouches, of blue glazed faience.
    “   5. Various objects, also of blue glazed faience.
    “   6. Samples of blue and violet glass rods,
           red jasper, and matrices of emerald.

The variants of the names of Rameses IV that occur among these objects
are:

[Illustration: hieroglyphs]



CHAPTER XI

OTHER ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED

BY HOWARD CARTER


In the removal of the lower strata of Site 14 the mass of sand,
amounting to many thousands of cubic metres, contained but few things to
which any great importance could be attached. In fact, days were passed
while extricating the masonry of the ‘Valley’-Temple without hardly a
single object coming to light. Among the few things discovered the most
important were:--

1. A genealogical stela in limestone, measuring 44 x 29 cms., coloured,
and of the ‘Household of the mother of the _Mer Shen_ of Amen,
Zed-Amen-auf-ankh’ (Pl. XLI). It mentions the following personages:--

  The Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru.
  The Priest of Amen in Karnak, Hor.
  His mother, the Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru.
  The Priest of Amen-Ra, Hor, son of the Priest Pedemut.
  Her mother Ta-bak-en-ta-Ashat-qa.
  The Governor of Thebes Hor-se-Ast, son of Zed-Aah.
  The Chief Royal Scribe Bak-en-Khonsu, son of the Mayor of Thebes Auf-aa-hor.
  His mother, the Lady Mes-per, daughter of the Priest of Amen-Ra Hor, son
      of Zed-Amen-uah-es.
  The Chief Royal Scribe Hor, son of Zed-Amen-uah-es.
  The mother of the Lady Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru, Nes-Khonsu-pa-khred.
  The Priest of Amen-Ra Nekht-ef-mut.
  Her mother, the Lady Ta-aa, daughter of the Priest of Amen Hor-kheb, son
      of Ahat.[22]

2. Along the sloping base of the boundary of the ‘Valley’-Temple, on the
north side, were three small mud-brick feretories or shrines. They were
‘lancet-arch’ in form, measuring 50 cms. high, 40 cms. broad, and rather
more in length, with, in front, a small arched opening (Pl. XLII. 2).
One was built against the wall, a little above the pavement level, and
facing north; the others were some distance from the wall and facing
east. In one were a few dried dates and leaves (Pl. LXXIX), and near by
at a lower level were the bones of a gazelle. These feretories may have
been shrines erected to pet animals buried there, and possibly are of
quite late date.

3. A stamped brick of Amenhetep II.

4. A stamped brick of Thothmes III.

5. Part of the back and leg of a bifold wooden chair, inlaid with ivory
and ebony, and of an earlier date than the XVIIIth Dynasty (? XIIth
Dynasty).

6. A wooden box, painted white, measuring 50 x 30 x 30 cms., which has
on the under side of the lid four entries in hieratic (Pl. XLII. 4).
They mention a date ‘third month of winter season, day 10’; a ‘Scribe of
the Necropolis’; an ‘Overseer of workmen’, called Amen-renpet; an
account of three vases of liquids; names of officials, and an account of
grain, together with the name of a wood.[23]

7. Two burials of poor people. One was enveloped in rushes bound
together with rope, the other with reeds (Pl. XLII. 3). The bodies in
both cases had a single winding sheet, but show no signs of
mummification. They appear to belong to a late epoch.

8. A wooden Osiride figure (Pl. XLII. 1) covered with bitumen and
wrapped in linen. The arms, crossed over the breast, have in the right
hand the _Flail_, and in the left hand the _Crook_, which are made of
copper. Period XVIII (?) Dynasty. (It is similar to the bitumened
figures found in the tombs in the Valley of the Kings.)

9. Shawabti figures of the Intermediate period in model coffins (Pl.
XLIII). The most important specimens were:--

_A._ A wooden sarcophagus with figure wrapped in linen. The inscription
in linear hieroglyphs gives the _de hetep seten_ formula to Osiris, for
offerings for [Illustration: hieroglyph] _Nefer-ur_. The figure is
dedicated by his ‘sister’ [Illustration: hieroglyph] _Sedemt_.

_B._ A clay coffin with wooden shawabti, the lid crudely anthropoid in
shape, and roughly decorated with green and yellow in the design of the
_Rîshi_ coffin type (see Pl. XLIII); the rough figure inside has green
stripes painted upon it.



CHAPTER XII

THE LATE MIDDLE KINGDOM AND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD NECROPOLIS

BY HOWARD CARTER


Deep below the foundations of the ‘Valley’-Temple of Queen Hatshepsût in
the Birâbi are rock-hewn tombs, or pit and corridor types, dating from
the XIIth Dynasty on to the Intermediate Period.

This fact was first ascertained in 1910, and in that year twelve tombs
of this necropolis were opened. Their exploration was continued in 1911,
when four more were revealed, and three out of the four were thoroughly
investigated.

All the graves examined during the two seasons had had their original
burials previously pillaged: firstly, at a period not long after their
origin, and certainly before the New Empire; and in certain instances a
second time in the XVIIth or XVIIIth Dynasties, when some were re-used
for odd burials.

These successive plunderings gave access to the white ants, the worst of
all the enemies the explorer has to contend with. Often when a chamber
is first entered its contents seem in comparatively good preservation,
but on the slightest touch or movement they fall into a thousand
fragments, their substance being riddled by these tiny insects.

The positions and plans of these tombs are shown in the Plan and Survey,
Pl. XXX.


_Corridor Tomb 24._

This was the first and most spacious among those opened in 1910. It had
no less than eight chambers, a long passage, an open court, and a pit.
It was only from the remains of funereal débris, discovered in the
rubbish of an open depression in the rock (i. e. the court), that it was
recognized that an early and violated tomb was in the course of being
revealed. These fragments were:--

1. The cross-bars of an _Angarib_ (bedstead made of plaited rope on a
wooden frame supported by four legs).

2. The greater part of a wooden model boat of uncommon design.

3. A small piece of wood with beautiful cornelian inlay upon it from a
coffin (?).

4. Broken pieces of cartonnage painted and gilded.

5. A part of the end of a square coffin, inscribed and giving the name
[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Ankhu’.

6. Another coffin board, inscribed with coloured hieroglyphs,
reading--[Illustration: hieroglyph] giving the name ‘Khety’.

7. A broken arrow-head of flint with serrated edges.

8. Pieces of leather sandals, pottery, and a portion of the neck of a
jar with [Illustration: hieroglyph] Men-hetep written upon it.

9. A scribe’s palette with two reed brushes (Pl. XLV. 3).

10. The hind half of an exquisitely made frog in glazed steatite, and
the fore part of a lion in faience.[24]

When cleared enough to be entered the interior of the tomb presented a
scene of utter despoliation. Its chambers were strewn with rubble
mingled with bones, skulls, and tomb furniture, shattered and burnt,
which only too well corroborated those traces of the ravages which had
been found outside. In the central chamber was a burial--a wood dug-out
coffin, anthropoid in form, the lid bound at head and shins with rope.
Several days were spent in carefully searching the remains in this tomb,
and by sifting the sand many times favourable results were obtained.
These results are recorded below--

_Near the Entrance._ A small wooden statuette and pedestal; upon the
latter are three barely visible lines of hieroglyphs, in which the name
[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Ankhu’ may possibly be traced, and if so it
probably identifies the figure with the person mentioned on the coffin
fragment found outside (Pl. XLIV. 1).

_Doorway._ A nude female figure in cedar wood, very much worn and
originally coloured. She wears a heavy head-dress tied by a fillet on
either side. Such figures were entered among the funerary complement for
the personal use of the deceased (Pl. XLIV. 3).

_First part of Passage._ Two broken blue faience bowls. One shaped like
a water-lily leaf and decorated with lotus floral designs (Pl. XLIV. 5),
the other of biangular form, with its vertical sides encircled by a band
of very indistinct hieroglyphs, which read [Illustration: hieroglyph]
thus naming the ‘Lady of the house Ab-aau’ (Pl. XLIV. 4). Near these
were three pieces of alabaster making up a complete bowl, a pendant of
deep blue glazed faience, some blue glaze inlay, the fore-part of a
hippopotamus, a bone and shell necklace, and lastly a leather ball.

_In South Chamber above the Pit._ Parts of a bifold wood jewel box (Pl.
XLV, the lid was found in the passage), and the following beads and
amulets that possibly came out of it:--

  A. Blue glaze faience beads imitating shells.
  B. Haematite beads and scarab.
  C. Cornelian beads.
  D. Two amethyst scarabs.
  E. A hippopotamus head and crouching monkey in cornelian.
  F. Matrix of emerald _Ba_-bird.
  G. Necklace of amulets in matrix of emerald, amethyst, cornelian,
      blue paste, and glazed steatite and faience.

_North Chamber above the Pit._ A small jewel-box, turned upside down and
containing the following ornaments (Pl. XLV. 1 and 2):--

  A. Steatite scarab mounted on silver wire.
  B. Necklace of small round garnet beads.
  C. Garnet and cornelian bracelet.
  D. Greenstone cylinder mounted in gold.
  E. Broken agate cylinder mounted in gold.
  F. Two fragments of nuts of the _Balanites aegyptiaca_.
  G. Amulets--cornelian eye, emerald hippopotamus head, silver plaque, and
  gold bead.
  H. A tiny string of gold, silver, cornelian, and turquoise beads of the most
  minute and exquisite workmanship.

Nearly every basket of earth from the floor of this tomb contained
numbers of deep violet lozenge-shaped ornaments made of glazed pottery.
They are peculiar to the XIIth Dynasty, and seemingly were used for
decorating the wrappings of the mummy, as is well illustrated by a mask
cartonnage found in tomb No. 25, where they are depicted in rows and
forming part of an ornamentation (Pl. XLIV. 2). In some cases actual
mummy-cloth was found adhering to them, and all had some adhesive
substance on their backs.

A complete series of pottery belonging to this tomb is given in Pl.
XLVII, Figs. 1 and 2.

  Fig. 1. A. Rough red pottery, coloured red, with white band.
          B.   “          “     with white spots.
          C.   “          “     coloured red with white stripes.
          D.   “          “     rim and neck coloured red.
          E. Fine red pottery, plain.
          F. Grey pottery, with [Illustration: hieroglyph] written in
              red upon it.
          G. Pink pottery, plain.
          H. Grey pottery, ornamented with black, red, and yellow
              drop pattern.
          I. Very fine terra-cotta pottery, plain.
          J. Fine red pottery, coloured red or terra-cotta.
          K. Soft red pottery, plain.
          L and N. Fine red pottery, with rims coloured red.
          M. Fine red pottery, with white surface.

  Fig. 2 illustrates two trays divided into compartments and two small vases,
            made of a very coarse red pottery.

Botanical specimens found in this tomb are figured in Pl. LXXIX. 2 under
the letters A and H. The latter, a stone fruit, was found in great
quantities, as well as frequently in the other tombs that were opened.


_Pit Tomb No. 25._

A pit tomb partially concealed by the paving-blocks of the terrace
colonnade and foundations of the north boundary wall of the temple.

In the upper rubbish filling the pit were bricks from the doorway and
broken pottery, giving evidence of former riflers; and, after a descent
of some three metres or more, the openings of the sepulchral vaults at
either side were exposed. These chambers, half-filled with earth that
had poured in from the shaft, had in them remains of coffins, oblong in
form, broken, and ant-eaten. They were of plain, thick wood, without
decorations, and only the inner shell had, in some cases, bands of
inscription. In the shaft itself, at the bottom, was a single coffin,
dragged out from one of the chambers at the time of the early violation.

At first this grave seemed to be a great disappointment. But when, in
Lord Carnarvon’s presence, the men found in the lower filling of the
shaft an ivory pin and a piece of a box with silver binding[25], our
hopes were raised. Lord Carnarvon at once stopped the workmen until a
time when full surveillance of the clearing could be made. It was a
difficult job, most careful work had to be done with trowel, bellows,
and sometimes a spoon, extricating fragile objects while stones and sand
poured down from the overhanging masonry above in a menacing manner at
every gust of wind.

On the following day operations were begun by clearing the bottom steps
of the shaft and searching the coffin. Under the latter, nine more ivory
pins, fragments of alabaster, cosmetic vases, the broken parts of an
ebony and cedar-wood toilet-box inlaid with ivory, and fragments of an
ornamented ivory gaming-board were discovered, twisted and shattered
into a hundred pieces. The coffin, too far gone for us to hope to
preserve it (ants having eaten the whole of the wood, leaving only the
bitumen coating perforated and like an eggshell), had had bands of
yellow hieroglyphs along its sides and ends; but only here and there
could a few signs be discerned. Still, enough could be made out to trace
the title [Illustration: hieroglyph] and name [Illustration: hieroglyph]
‘Great one of the southern tens, Rensenb’ (which was afterwards
corroborated by the inscription on the mirror handle found on the
mummy), and certain of the hieroglyphs were of the ‘mutilated’ type
(i.e. [Illustration: hieroglyph] for [Illustration: hieroglyph], and
[Illustration: hieroglyph] for [Illustration: hieroglyph]) often found
in texts of the late XIIth Dynasty and Intermediate Period.[26]

The mummy, lying on its side, was reduced to a black powder through
spontaneous combustion, caused by the damp that had filtered through
from above. It had a cartonnage mask covering the head and shoulders,
with gilt face, the head-dress painted yellow and striated with
grey-green bands which had oval spots in black (illustrating the use of
the violet ornaments found in tomb No. 24). Embedded in the wrappings,
at the small of the back, was a blue faience hippopotamus (Pl. LI. 1).
Round the neck a gold and obsidian necklace and a ‘_Shen_’ brooch of
gold and cornelian (Pl. LI. 2). On the breast, concealed in the linen
wrappings, was a bronze mirror with ebony handle mounted and inlaid with
gold. The inscription upon it reads [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Great
one of the southern tens, Rensenb, repeating life’ (Pl. LI. 2). How it
came about that these chambers should be ravaged, this burial dragged
into the daylight of the open shaft, and yet unrifled, is a mystery yet
to be solved.

_In the Southern Chamber._ At the entrance were the front part and
pieces of the drawer of the toilet-box (Pl. XLVIII. 1), three alabaster
vase lids, an alabaster vase, and a gold bead. Besides these articles
this chamber had planks from wooden canopies and coffins, and the
remains of three mummies (one a child) charred to soot. In the
depression in the floor and lower chamber were found two broken ivory
crocodiles, two splinters of a mystic wand, and the body of a stripped
mummy; under the latter, in the dust, were beads of a necklace.

_In the North Chamber._ Among the many parts of coffins was one bearing
inscriptions giving the usual prayers, &c., for a certain lady named
[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘_Henut_’, born of [Illustration: hieroglyph]
‘_Sent_’. Here were also despoiled mummies, one of them having a wig of
plaited hair (decayed), clasped by a gold fillet, and a necklace. Some
stray beads and a mud sealing bearing a coil pattern were found when
sifting the lower layer of dust covering the floor.

The following paragraphs give details of the objects found in this tomb
that are not fully described above, including the pottery found
scattered in its different chambers.

_Toilet-box_ (Pls. XLVIII-XLIX). An oblong box, made of cedar wood,
veneered with ebony and ivory, and measuring 28·5 x 18 x 20 cms.

The front, two sides, end, and lid have in their centres large slabs of
ivory, bordered by two narrow strips of ebony and ivory, with broad
margins of ebony, the whole giving a unique appearance. The front is
made to pull forward, and has attached to it a drawer half the depth and
the whole length of the box (see Fig. 1, Pl. XLVIII). This drawer has
its edges, top and bottom, veneered with thin strips of ivory, glued to
its solid ebony sides and end, and in it a shelf, made of two pieces of
wood, pierced with eight holes to receive vases for cosmetics and other
toilet requisites.[27] The drawer slides in beneath a tray attached to
the inner walls of the box. Access to the tray can only be obtained by
raising the lid of the box; and it has, besides two small partitions in
the corner, a hollow scooped out of the bottom to receive a mirror (see
Fig. 2, Pl. XLVIII).[28]

The lid and front have silver knobs let into bindings of the same metal.

Engraved upon the front ivory slab is a delightful little scene (Pl.
XLIX. 1) of the owner, [Illustration: hieroglyphs] ‘Kemen’,
[Illustration: hieroglyphs] ‘true Royal friend’, [Illustration:
hieroglyphs] ‘whom he (the king) loves’, [Illustration: hieroglyphs]
‘Chief over the secrets of the Royal mouth’, [Illustration: hieroglyphs]
‘the keeper of the department of the kitchen’, offering to his lord, the
King Amenemhat IV. Around the margin of the top of the lid, gravered and
inlaid with ivory powder is an inscription (Pl. XLIX. 2) bearing the
prenomen and nomen of Amenemhat IV, with a religious formula to ‘Sebek’
[Illustration: hieroglyphs] Lord of Illahun (in the Fayûm) that he may
give a good burial and long service to the ka of Kemen. The legend here
gives also the name of Kemen’s mother [Illustration: hieroglyphs] ‘Ana’.
The method adopted in the construction of the box is so peculiar that it
is worth particular notice. Each front, side, end, and lid is made of
six pieces of cedar wood, viz. a centre panel to receive the large slab
of ivory, on either side two thin slips to receive the narrow strips of
ebony and ivory, and lastly a top and bottom rail for the broad ebony
margins. In fact, the cedar-wood body is made of as many pieces as there
are horizontal overlaying leaves of the superior materials, all of
which, with the exception of the front, where dowels are introduced,
were merely stuck together by glue. The corners of the box are mitred,
and the ends of the drawer dovetailed to the body of the front part of
the box.

The four alabaster vases (Pl. LII. 1) belong to the drawer; there were
three fragments of others.

_Ivory Gaming-board_[29] (Pl. L). Shaped like an axe blade and resting
on four bull’s legs carved in solid ivory. The dimensions are 15 x 10
cms. (maximum measurement), total height 7 cms.

It contains a small drawer of ivory and ebony, which has a bolt of ivory
shot in copper staples for fixing it when closed. Belonging to the game
are ten carved ivory pins or playing pieces--five have dogs’ heads, and
five jackals’ heads; these, no doubt, were kept in the drawer.

Its construction is a flat top made of two ivory slabs, backed by two
wooden panels which are joined together by three transverse wood pegs
passed through the thickness of each panel. The bottom was made of one
piece of wood with cross-bars at either end. The curved ivory sides and
end are backed with blocks of wood that take the same shape as the
board, and leave in the interior an oblong space to allow entry of the
drawer. The ivory bull’s legs are tongued into the wooden side-blocks,
and are held there by means of three ebony rivets. Round the four edges,
top and bottom, as well as the four corners, was an ebony veneer, most
of which was destroyed. Glue was the means of adhesion. The wood used
was sycomore. The upper surface (Pl. L. 1) has engraved upon it a
palm-tree surmounted by the sign ‘Shen’ (see Fig. 14), the latter being
pierced through the ivory and wooden body beneath. On each side of the
palm-stem is a parallel line of ten holes, along the edges of the two
sides a row of fifteen holes, and at the top edge on either side of the
‘Shen’ a row of four holes (and if including the corner hole, five).
Each hole is encircled by a small ring, engraved, and is pierced through
the ivory and wood below, and these holes were intended to receive the
playing pieces. For some reason or other, a large hole was made in the
centre of the palm-tree, but it was afterwards filled in. In the front
edge of the board is a small semicircular notch, made to permit the
thumb to grip the drawer when opening it.

[Illustration: FIG. 14. KEY TO GAMING-BOARD.]

Now a word as to the game itself; how was it played, and how were the
moves denoted? Presuming the ‘Shen’ sign, which forms a large centre
hole at the top, to be the goal, we find on either side twenty-nine
holes, or including the goal, thirty aside. Among these holes, on either
side, two are marked [Illustration: hieroglyphs] _nefer_, ‘good’; and
four others are linked together by curved lines (see Fig. 14). Assuming
that the holes marked ‘good’ incur a gain, it would appear that the
others, connected by lines, incur a loss. Taking this for granted, and
that the play terminates at the goal ‘Shen’, the game seems then to
commence at the heart of the palm--the only place where five playing
pieces aside could be placed without clashing with the obstacles (i. e.
holes incurring gain or loss). Thus, starting from the first hole under
the palm, and calling it No. 1, the tenth hole, by the indicating lines,
shows a forfeit of two points, and the twentieth hole a forfeit of
fourteen points. The good holes Nos. 15 and 25 have nothing to indicate
what gain was attached to them. If it should be a profit of a certain
number of holes, one would expect to find them marked like the forfeits,
but possibly it was that they entitled (?) the player to the right of a
second move, which could not be marked in such a manner. Now the moves
themselves could easily have been denoted by the chance cast of
knuckle-bones or dice,[30] both being known to the ancient Egyptians at
an early period; and if so we have before us a simple, but exciting,
game of chance, ‘Hounds contra Jackals’, and played somewhat as
follows:--The opponents, taking each a side, place their five men in
holes Nos. 1 to 5,[31] under the palm. The hounds having obtained the
right of first throw, by a toss or some equivalent, start:--

                 HOUNDS.

 _1st H._ Cast 3            = hole  8
           “   1            =  “    9
           “   5            =  “   14
           “   3            =  “   17

           “   6            =  “   23

           “   4            =  “   27

           “   3 = the goal =  “   30

 _1 point to Hds._ (winning piece remains in goal).

               JACKALS.

_1st J._ Cast 6                = hole 11
          “   5                =  “   16
          “   3                =  “   19
          “   6 = 25, wins 2nd
                  throw = 4    =  “   29
          “   6 Returns to 25, wins
                  2nd throw 4  =      29
          “   6 Returns to 25, wins
                  2nd throw 1  =  “   26
          “   3                =  “   29

    Jks. lose their piece.

       *       *       *       *       *

                 HOUNDS.

 _2nd H._ Cast 4                  = hole  8
           “   6                  =   “  14
           “   5                  =   “  19
           “   1 = 20, forfeit 14 =   “   6
           “   4 = 10, forfeit 2  =   “   8
           “   5                  =   “  13
           “   6                  =   “  19
           “   3                  =   “  22
              Hds. lose their piece.

                 JACKALS.
 _2nd J._ Cast 3            = hole  7
           “   4            =   “  11
           “   5            =   “  16
           “   5            =   “  21
           “   6            =   “  27
           “   4 Returns to =   “  29
           “   4 Returns to =   “  27
           “   3 = the goal =   “  30
 _1 point to Jks._ (winning piece remains in goal).


       *       *       *       *       *


                 HOUNDS.

 _3rd H._ Cast 6                       = hole  9
           “   6 = 15, win 2nd throw 6 =   “  21
           “   6                       =   “  27
           “   5 Returns to            =   “  28
           “   4 Returns to            =   “  28
              Hds. lose their piece.



 _3rd J._ Cast 5            = hole  8
           “   4            =   “  12
           “   6            =   “  18
           “   6            =   “  24
           “   6 = the goal =   “  30
 _2 points to Jks._ (winning piece remains in goal).

       *       *       *       *       *

                 HOUNDS.

 _4th H._ Cast  3                   = hole  5
           “    4                   =   “   9
           “    4                   =   “  13
           “    7 = 20, forfeits 14 =   “   6
           “    3                   =   “   9
           “    5                   =   “  14
           “    2                   =   “  16
           “    4 = 20, forfeits 14 =   “   6
           “    6                   =   “  12
           “    2                   =   “  14
           “    5                   =   “  19
               Hds. lose their piece.

                 JACKALS.

 _4th J._ Cast 2                  = hole  4
           “   3                  =   “   7
           “   3 = 10, forfeits 2 =   “   8
           “   4                  =   “  12
           “   6                  =   “  18
           “   3                  =   “  21
           “   2                  =   “  23
           “   5                  =   “  28
           “   1                  =   “  29
           “   5 Returns to       =   “  26
           “   4 = the goal       =   “  30
 _3 points to Jks._ (winning piece remains in goal).

       *       *       *       *       *

                 HOUNDS.

 _5th H._ Cast  2                   = hole  3
           “    4                   =   “   7
           “    5                   =   “  12
           “    2                   =   “  14
           “    6 = 20, forfeits 14 =   “   6
           “    4 = 10, forfeits 2  =   “   8
           “    6                   =   “  14
           “    1 = 15, wins 2nd
                  throw = 6         =   “  21
           “    4 = 25, wins 2nd throw
                  = 5 = the goal  =     “  30
                  _2 points to Hds._

                 JACKALS.

 _5th J._ Cast 5                        = hole  6
           “   5                        =   “  11
           “   4 = 15, wins 2nd throw 1 =   “  16
           “   6                        =   “  22
           “   1                        =   “  23
           “   4                        =   “  27
           “   6 Returns to             =   “  27
           “   2                        =   “  29
           “   4  Returns to            =   “  27
 Jks. lose their man, but have 3 men in the goal,
              and thus win by 1 point.

_Necklace._ Of long drop-shaped beads made of gold and three kinds of
coloured stones--cornelian, lapis lazuli, and matrix of emerald. They
were strung in the ancient colour order, viz. red, blue, yellow, and
green--cornelian for the red, lapis lazuli for the blue, gold for the
yellow, and matrix of emerald for the green. Some of the beads had tiny
floral tops, which, when combined, formed a lotus column, or perhaps a
flower; but by no means did all of them have this additional piece, as
was proved by some of the beads still attached by their original
threads. Unfortunately this necklace, of exquisite quality, cannot be
restrung, as all the wax cores of the gold beads (the gold being only a
thin outer covering) has amalgamated, and the holes are completely
choked. At present, in their tender state of preservation, to re-bore
them would endanger their being split, as some already are.

_Amuletic necklace._ This second necklace is of quite a different type,
very small, and of all kinds of beads and amulets. The order[32] seems
to have been alternate groups of barrel garnet beads, divided by minute
gold beads, and between them amulets in gold, cornelian, glazed
steatite, and faience. There are also tiny cornelian and glaze beads
among them. The amulets that occur are the eye, hand, rope-knot,
crouching lions, crocodiles, flies, and other strange forms difficult to
recognize. The position of these amulets, strung on the necklace, can
only be a matter of conjecture.[33]

_Shell necklace._ Of this only a few pieces were found. They are small
shells and ornamental vase-shaped beads, of lapis lazuli, matrix of
emerald, and turquoise. Between each was a short cylindrical gold
bead.[34]

_The obsidian and gold necklace._ (Pl. LI. 2) hardly requires
description, the illustration showing all details. The beads are strung
in the exact order in which they were found. The ‘Shen’ brooch (Pl. LI.
2) was not attached to it.

_Pottery._ The various types are all shown in Pl. LII. 2.

  A. Soft red pottery.
  B. Fine red pottery.
  C. Rough red pottery.
  D. Rough red pottery with rim coloured red.
  E. Fine red pottery with rim coloured red.
  F. Red pottery.
  G. Red pottery, coloured red.
  H. Rough red pottery, spotted white.
  I. Red pottery, coloured red.


_Pit Tomb No. 27._

The contents of this tomb (Pl. XXX) were pillaged and almost entirely
destroyed, the ants leaving not a fragment of the wood untouched. Among
the débris of the original burials was an intrusive one of a child.[35]
All that was of importance to record was: (1) A portion of an anthropoid
coffin with _Rîshi_ decoration, like the case found in Tomb 32 (Pl.
LIII. 3), but of much larger dimensions and with the face gilt; down
the front of this coffin was a vertical inscription, of which the
following was visible: [Illustration: hieroglyph] naming the ‘Scribe of
the Army’, ‘Superintendent of the temple’, Nenen ...(?); (2) an ear from
a silvered mask; (3) three pieces of the upper portion of a stela (the
rest of this stela was found in Tomb No. 31, Pl. LIV); (4) a pot (the
only one found in the tomb) like Fig. J in Tomb No. 24.


_Pit Tomb No. 28._

This grave (Pl. XXX) had even less in it than No. 27; in the shaft was
an intrusive burial of a poorish type. The chambers, which were choked
with rubbish, contained only a pair of copper forceps, a brown stone
bead, and one hydroceramic vase (Pl. LIII. 1).


_Pit Tomb No. 29._

This tomb (Pl. XXX) gave access to two other similar graves on either
side of it, Nos. 29 A and B. The three were plundered, and their
chambers filled with sand almost to the ceiling. In the shaft of No. 29
was a burial with ‘dug-out coffin’ yielding a scarab, and in its chamber
were two other burials, illustrated in Pl. LIII. 4. These were typical
examples of the ‘dug-out coffin’. They contained ‘dried’ bodies wrapped
in a simple winding-sheet (Intermediate Period?).

_No. 29 A._ This could not be thoroughly excavated, as the mouth of its
shaft was under the southern part of the excavations which has not been
cleared, and the sand poured down from above it as fast as it was
removed from below, making it too dangerous to clear.

_No. 29 B._ was only accessible through a small hole in the south-west
corner of pit No. 29; it gave equal trouble, and could only be excavated
under considerable risk, its pit being partially under the foundations
of the temple wall. It was full of plundered mummies huddled together
under a great weight of sand and stones thrown in by the temple workmen
when building the wall. With them was a wooden head-rest, a canopic jar
lid, and a scribe’s palette, some roughly made chair legs, pieces of
cartonnage (of linen covered with plaster, gilt), and a long flexible
wooden implement, two metres in length, perhaps a weaver’s batten. The
types of pottery found in these chambers are shown in Pl. LIII. 5:--

  A. Rough red pottery, decorated with white paint, with holes in the neck
     for fastening the cover.
  B. Fine red pottery, coloured red.
  C. Red pottery, rim coloured red.
  D. Soft red pottery.
  E. Red pottery, has small spout, and upper part coloured red.
  F. Pink pottery.
  G. Red pottery, rim coloured red.


_Pit Tombs Nos. 31-34._

This group of tombs (Pl. XXX) is under the Lower Court of the
‘Valley’-Temple. The chambers are cut into one another, and thus form a
homogeneous series. They were choked up with sand, with but little of
their plundered contents left. It was hopeless to try to tell to which
of the tombs the few remains belonged, and hence in enumerating them the
chamber in which they were found can alone be given.

_Pit Tomb No. 31._ A ‘dug-out’ painted coffin burial with roughly
painted shawabti box, and the lower portion of the stela found in Tomb
No. 27 (Pl. LIV). In its chamber were found a few examples of pottery.

_Pit Tomb No. 32._ First chamber--an interesting type of a female figure
made of painted wood with pottery head.[36] Second chamber--a _Rîshi_
coffin (Pl. LIII. 3) belonging(?) to the original burial. It was found
lying on its right side in a space on the floor especially cleared for
it, and was bound at head and foot with palm fibre cords, which makes it
appear to have been re-used. Notwithstanding its appearance of perfect
preservation when first discovered, the coffin and even the body inside
were so completely rotten that they fell to pieces at the least touch;
it was in such a condition that it was impossible to preserve it. It
being the most complete mummy case hitherto found in these tombs, a
lengthy description is necessary. The case, anthropoid in shape, was
decorated as if enveloped by the wings of a bird. This _Rîshi_[37]
decoration is on a light yellow ground, the feathers themselves being of
deep bluish green, picked out here and there with red and white, and
detailed in black. The face was flesh colour, with eyebrows and
side-beard straps green, the eye sockets of copper with aragonite
eyeballs and obsidian pupils. Down the centre of the front of the coffin
was a vertical line of hieroglyphs reading: [Illustration: hieroglyph]
[_blank space_]. Below the feet are the two kneeling figures of ‘Isis’
and ‘Nephthys’ facing one another, and between them a vertical legend
reading: [Illustration: hieroglyph].

_Pit Tomb No. 33._ This had nothing in it, and being under the temple
construction it was too dangerous to attempt a total clearance of its
chamber or chambers.

_Pit Tomb No. 34._ This had only three intrusive interments, which were
in an almost unrecognizable condition. Examples of the pottery vessels
scattered about in the chambers of this group are given in Pl. LIII. 2.
Their material does not differ from the other examples already described
as coming from this necropolis.

The stela of Auy-res (Pl. LIV) found in Tombs No. 27 and 31 is of
limestone, measuring 59 x 31 cms.; the inscriptions are incised upon the
stone face and coloured dark blue; the figures are in the usual
colouring and have blue collarettes. The horizontal legend begins
with:--

‘(1) May the king give an offering to Osiris Khent-amenti, the Great
God, Lord of Abydos, that he may give (2) oblations of water, incense,
wax, all good and pure things (3) upon which the god lives ... for the
ka of the Keeper of the Bow, Auy-res, justified.’

His family are recorded in the following order:--

  Row 1. ‘His wife, Atef-s-senb.
          His son, the Great One of the Southern Tens, Y-meru.
          His son, the Great One of the Southern Tens, Erde-en-ptah.
  Row 2.  His daughter, the servant of the Ruler, Auŷ-senb.
          His son the _Am-khet_,[1] Dedut-res.
          His sister, Auŷ-senb.
          His son, the _Am-khet_,[38] Y-meru.
  Row 3.  The Keeper of the Bow, Sa-Hathor.
          The Lady, Sent-nw-pw.
          The _Uab_-priest of Amen, Sebek-hetep.
          The Lady, Sep-en-urdet.’

There was no evidence to show to which of these two tombs this stela
belonged.

In the rubbish, and partially under the foundations of the wall of the
Lower Court of the ‘Valley’-Temple, was a coffin[39] that had been
thrown out from one of the XIIth Dynasty tombs. This coffin was of wood,
rectangular and oblong in form, with no inscriptions or decoration; it
contained a body of a female child. Round her neck was a cornelian
necklace still attached by its strings, and on her breast was a bronze
mirror reflector; from the manner this reflector was wrapped in linen it
must have been buried with the deceased without a handle. The girl’s
hair was plaited.


_Circular Pit No. 35._

This pit (Pl. XXX) was the last and most puzzling of all opened this
season. It is a rock-hewn shaft, some three metres in diameter at the
mouth and only 63 cms. at the bottom, and thus, like an inverted cone,
descends 22·50 metres[40] into the _Tafle_ stratum. The filling was
absolutely untouched, and from top to bottom consisted of pure black
soil from the arable plain; the upper surface had been hardened by
water. The bottom of the shaft, apparently unfinished, was on one side
slightly deeper than the other. A hollow copper bead-like object of
cylindrical-drop shape found on the top surface, was the only object
discovered here. At four metres below the surface the shaft had been cut
through one of the pit tombs[41] of the cemetery, and the hole in the
side thus caused had been mended with mud bricks. Its whole meaning is
at present inexplicable.[42]


_No. 36, Pl. XXX._

A large mud-brick structure of which only part of one side has been
exposed by our excavations. This part lies within the area of the
‘Valley’-Temple (No. 14), and is in line with the Colonnaded Terrace.
The one end (north-east corner) and the stretch of some thirty-five
metres of wall that has been uncovered does not give us enough data to
tell its exact meaning or date. It is built upon the bed-rock, and it
averages four metres in height. The brickwork seems to be earlier than
that of the New Kingdom. The probabilities are that it belongs to the
Intermediate Period or even perhaps the Middle Kingdom. Towards the
southern end of the part cleared by us the foundation of the wall has
been built over the courtyard of Tomb No. 41.


_Tomb No. 37._

This tomb, shaped like an inverted T, is the largest one yet opened in
this group; in fact it could be ranked among the larger mausolea of the
Theban Necropolis, and evidently belonged to one of the higher Egyptian
dignitaries (Pls. XXX, LV).

It consists of (1) a long corridor having an eastern frontage with some
eighteen openings, which give access to a rock-cutting of the nature of
an open court. (2) Cut in the back wall of this corridor, and at right
angles to it, are a long central subterranean passage leading to a hall
(_C_), and two sepulchral chambers. Access to one of these sepulchral
chambers (_J_) is by means of a staircase, while the other (_E_) is
approached by a vertical pit (_D_) of four metres in depth; both are cut
in the floor of the hall (_C_). The northern end of the corridor was
divided off by a stone and mortar partition, with a small chamber (_B_)
at the back, which was presumably a portion divided off for a member of
the owner’s family. The blind end of the corridor on the south had
originally been closed by a mud-brick wall, and no doubt thus formed
another private compartment like the third chamber (_A_), which is
parallel to the central passage.

It appears, therefore, that there were five distinct burial chambers
(and if counting the hall (_C_) a sixth) which were closed, leaving the
greater part of the corridor and central passage open for any ceremonial
rites that might be made by the living relations in favour of the
deceased.

This great tomb, dating from the Late Middle Kingdom, was found to have
been utilized for the storing of numerous stray burials of epochs
ranging through the Intermediate Period down to the early part of the
XVIIIth Dynasty. Our reasons for assigning this date to the tomb were
the antiquities (Nos. 85, 86, 87) found in the layer of rubbish and
burnt ashes that covered its floors; these were quite distinct from the
coffins and other antiquities forming the cache which rested upon the
rubbish.

It is difficult to imagine how such a large mausoleum, cut in the
shallow and crumbling limestone stratum, with so many openings, could
for long have been protected from plunderers. The smoke-blackened walls
show how its contents were destroyed, and the martins’ nests, together
with the innumerable mason-bee cells that adhered to the walls and
ceiling, show that the tomb had been left open after having been
plundered for a lengthy period, before it was re-used as a storehouse.

When revealed, the main entrance was not closed by bricks or by stones,
as was often the custom, but the sand was merely poured over when the
Ancients last covered it up. The remaining openings had certainly in
some instances been closed by planks from old coffins, but the greater
number were carelessly filled like the entrance. Three of the inner
chambers were carefully closed; in two cases with bricks, and in one
with stones. These closed chambers were as follows:--

_Hall (C)_ had its doorway bricked two-thirds up with crude mud-bricks
and _Tafle_ mortar, and the remaining third of its opening with similar
bricks but with a mud mortar (Pl. LVI), showing that it had been opened
and re-closed a second time. The mortar-bed of mud for this last closing
was found in the central passage (Pls. LV, LVI. 14) just as it was left
by the ancient mason.

_Chamber (A)_ had its doorway completely closed with flat mud-bricks,
and the outer surface smeared over with _Tafle_ stucco (Pl. LVII, above
the coffin to the left), which was stamped in numerous places with a
seal giving the _Nebti_ name [Illustration: hieroglyph] of Thothmes I
(see Pl. LVIII. 1).

_Chamber (B)_ had its entrance blocked by a heap of stones piled before
it and a coffin placed in front (Pl. LIX. 1).

Behind these bricked-up doorways was the greater mass of the burials
that were stored in the tomb.

From whence all these burials came we have no evidence to show us at
present, nor can we tell for certain the reason for their being
concealed in this particular tomb. It is possible that, while clearing
the ground for the great dromos of Dêr el Bahari, and during the
preparation of its ‘Valley’-Temple, stray interments were disturbed, and
that this tomb being so situated that it must necessarily be covered by
the ‘Valley’-Temple, it was used by the pious officials of the Theban
Necropolis as a place of concealment (see position of tomb in relation
to the temple, Pl. XXX).

The seal impressions stamped upon the wall that closed chamber (_A_), we
have just seen, give the _Nebti_ name of Thothmes I, and thus we have a
date for the time when some of the coffins were re-interred, and
probably the date when the above monument must have been begun.

The scattered manner in which the coffins were placed in the different
chambers and passages of the tomb, and the fact that one of the chambers
(_C_) had been re-opened and re-closed, tends to show that they were not
placed in the tomb at one time, which is in favour of the theory that
they really were disturbed interments stored there from time to time
during the course of some work.

The latest date found among the objects of the whole cache was Thothmes
III, and that name occurred only on one object--a small scarab (Pl.
LXXII. 53 from burial No. 53, p. 80).

The two chambers in the corridor (_A_, _B_) contained eight and four
separate coffins respectively; the hall (_C_) at the end of the passage
had fourteen; in the pit (_D_), piled from bottom to top, were eighteen
cases; and in the bottom crypt (_E_) was another batch of eight
sarcophagi. Thus, counting also those lying about the open corridor and
passage which numbered twelve, we obtain a total of sixty-four coffins.
Besides these there were also twenty-eight other objects pertaining to
funeral equipments.

Among these sixty-four miscellaneous wooden sarcophagi, some containing
as many as four mummies in each, there were seven distinct types, and
with them a great number of children’s coffins.

The types of the coffins of adults were: (1) Decorated rectangular, (2)
plain rectangular, (3) ‘dug-out’, (4) _Rîshi_, (5) plain anthropoid, (6)
semi-decorated anthropoid, and (7) decorated anthropoid of the New
Kingdom. Each of these groups I have treated below, followed by a
separate detailed description of each burial and object found in the
tomb (see p. 70).

_Decorated rectangular coffins_, Nos. 7, 35, 59, 63 (for examples see
Pl. LX. 1). The coffins of this class are most probably contemporaneous
with the Hyksos period. They are similar to the coffin in the Cairo
Museum belonging to a certain Abdu, a contemporary of the last of the
Hyksos kings.[43] Coffin No. 59 (p. 81) contained four mummies, two of
which, and a basket containing a scarab, gave conflicting evidence to
the above dating. The scarabs found on these two mummies bear the names
of Thothmes I and II (Pl. LXXII. 59 A, D), and the one in the basket
(Pl. LXXII. 59) according to Newberry is of a similar date. But the
remaining antiquities, i.e. head-rest, biangular bowl, and black vase of
foreign character (Pl. LXVIII. 59) may be of an earlier period, and
perhaps belonged to one of the other two mummies found in this coffin,
and to the original interment. Coffin No. 63 (p. 82), which contained
two mummies, had somewhat similar objects (Pl. LXVIII. 63) to No. 59,
but on one of the mummies, a woman, there were two cowroids (Pl. LXXII.
63 A) which could be referred to the Early XVIIIth Dynasty. No. 7 (p.
70) yielded nothing beyond the actual body, and gives no further help
for or against dating this group to these Dynasties.

_Plain rectangular coffins._ Of these coffins there are three kinds,
those with gable tops, those with flat tops, and those with open-grid
bottoms (for examples see Pl. LX. 2). The gable-topped coffins, Nos. 53,
62, 64, 65, 69, 71, 77, 83, with lids sometimes nearly semicircular in
section, have always on the lid a longitudinal beam in the centre. These
are probably of the same epoch as the other two kinds, but I am treating
them here separately; they are very similar to some described by M.
Lacau as _Sarcophages antérieurs au Nouvel Empire_ in his catalogue of
that section of the Cairo Museum, more especially to No. 28030, which
has exactly the same central beam and construction of lid. One is thus
led to believe them to be of this period. Groups of objects found in
some of them (for examples see Pl. LXIX. 64, 71, and 83) could be
anterior to the New Kingdom. On the other hand, Nos. 53 and 62 (Pls.
LXIX. 53 and LXXII. 62 A, B) contained antiquities of the Early XVIIIth
Dynasty to as late as the time of Princess Neferu-ra (Hatshepsût’s
daughter) and Thothmes III (see Pl. LXXII. 53). This last evidence is
not absolutely contradictory, for we have examples of rectangular wooden
coffins belonging to the New Kingdom. I am inclined, however, to assume
that they have been re-used in these particular instances. No. 83 of the
batch (p. 86) was covered intentionally with stone chippings and placed
in a niche (Pl. LV. G) especially made for it. This gave us every reason
to suppose it to be a burial made in the tomb when left open after
destruction, and before it was used as a storehouse. The three pots (Pl.
LXXIV. G) belonging to this coffin, and carefully placed behind it, give
us a clue to the date of the stray pottery found mingled with the other
coffins and lying on the floors of the passage and chambers of this
great tomb, namely, the Intermediate Period.

_The flat-topped coffins_, Nos. 8, 15, 21, 22, 34, 36, 46, 48, 49, 55,
57, 75, 76, 78, 79, and 81 were often found to be made of scrap timber
from other sarcophagi, and on the whole they perhaps incline to be later
than the gable-topped coffins. The latest fixed date found on the
objects in them was that of the Divine Wife, Hatshepsût, which occurred
in that of No. 21, on a silver-mounted scarab ring (Pl. LXXII. 21). A
head-rest found with it is certainly different in character to others
found here, and it has engraved upon its stem the deities Bes and Taurt
(Pl. LXVIII. 21). The head-rest found in coffin No. 57 (Pl. LXVIII. 57)
has a short base, and it strikes one as being of a character between the
earlier long-based types like No. 15 (Pl. LXVIII. 15) and that of No.
21. Burial No. 78 was furnished with the most complete group of objects
(Pl. LXVIII. 78), and might be referred to the Early XVIIIth Dynasty.
The last section of this group, the open-grid bottomed coffins, Nos. 50
and 52, are of smaller size (see Pl. LX. 52). They recall some of the
older coffins of the Early Middle Kingdom found at Aswân that have false
bottoms of lattice work.[44] But these coffins constructed out of wood
from older sarcophagi are seemingly later than the rest, for in one of
them, No. 50, a necklace of beads and amulets (Pl. LXXIII. 50) is
certainly of the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty.

_‘Dug-out’ coffins._ Nos. 37 and 58 (see Pl. LXI. 58) are exceedingly
rough, and cut out of tree trunks. One of them had its lid bound to its
shell with rope. From a scarab (Pl. LXXII. 37) found in coffin 37 these
‘Dug-outs’ seem to belong to the beginning of the Second Theban Empire,
though similar specimens found in some of the tombs recorded above were
of a slightly earlier date.

_Rîshi coffins._ Nos. 2, 10, 11, 12, 60, 66, and 70 are a type peculiar
to the Theban Necropolis, and only a limited number of these coffins
have been discovered. They are named _Rîshi_[45] from the design painted
upon them being composed of two large wings of many-coloured feathers
that envelop the mummy form; for examples of those found here, see Pl.
LXII. 1.[46] They belong to the Intermediate Period. With the seven
specimens discovered in this cache there were only a few beads, a
cowroid seal (Pl. LXXII. 11), a bronze mirror, and a wooden head-rest
(Pl. LXX. 70); and, with the exception of the cowroid seal which might
be as late as the Early XVIIIth Dynasty, these objects do not seem later
than the end of the Intermediate Period.

The richest interment of this type, in personal objects, was the one
found by Prof. Petrie,[47] and the antiquities here were all
characteristic of the time between the Middle Kingdom and the New
Empire.

If one compares the facial type of these coffins, more especially the
profiles, of all the examples known, it will be noticed (as Erskine
Nicol pointed out to me) that they have a distinct and uniform
character. And it is not without interest to note that the expression
and peculiarity of face strongly resembles the so-called Hyksos heads
discovered by Prof. Naville at Bubastis.[48]

_Plain anthropoid coffins_, Nos. 5, 29, 38, and 47 (Pl. LXI. 29). Only
one coffin of this series contained any material that was of use for
dating. This coffin, No. 47 (p. 79), with the mummy of a woman, had a
scarab of the Hyksos Period, a cowroid in glass, and a glazed scaraboid
bead of the Second Theban Empire (see Pl. LXXII. 47). The two latter
objects plainly show that the burial cannot be anterior to the Early
XVIIIth Dynasty.

_Semi-decorated anthropoid coffins_, Nos. 6 and 68 (Pl. LXI. 6). These
two specimens form a small group of their own. They are of very coarse
workmanship, in design resembling those of the New Kingdom, but in the
face they have a likeness to the _Rîshi_ type. They bear no names or
inscriptions, and the only objects beside the mummies found in them were
a few bead-bangles (Pl. LXXIII. 6), which give but little help towards
their date. One is inclined to believe that they are coffins of the
poorer people of the Early New Empire.

_Decorated anthropoid coffins of the New Kingdom_, Nos. 23, 24, 73, and
74 (Pls. LXII. 73, LXIII. 74). These coffins are painted white and
embellished with a light and simple decoration. The finest specimen of
the series was No. 23 (p. 74), but unfortunately it was found in very
bad preservation, the rock ceiling of the tomb having fallen upon it.
Coffin No. 24 (p. 74) contained, besides other antiquities, two scarabs
of a much earlier period than the date of the coffin; one was of the
XIIIth Dynasty and bears the name of a ‘Herald’ Ren-senb, the other is
of the Intermediate Period and bears an enigmatical inscription (Pl.
LXXII. 24). In coffin No. 73 (p. 84) was a small pot containing a kind
of pomatum, which shows the use of such small pottery vessels so
frequently found with burials of this cache. Coffin No. 74 (p. 85, Pl.
LXIII) was of particular interest, it having depicted upon its sides, in
place of the usual representations of the gods, scenes of burial
ceremonies; and among the formulae written upon it occurs a variant form
of the sign for Horus.[49]

A fifth coffin, No. 18 (Pl. LXII. 18), of simple blue decoration upon a
white ground, might be placed in the same category, though perhaps it is
of a slightly earlier date than the above four.

Two viscera boxes, Nos. 19 and 20, found at the feet of coffins 23 and
24, probably belong to them. One of the boxes, No. 20 (p. 73, Pl. LXI.
20), bore the name Ta-nezem, which occurred on coffin No. 24. At the
feet of coffins 73 and 74 was another viscera box, No. 72.

_Children’s coffins._ These numerous small coffins were of exceedingly
rough workmanship, without any decoration, and were of the following
types: (1) Rectangular (Pl. LXI. 61, 80), (2) ‘dug-out’ rectangular (Pl.
LXI. 41), (3) ‘dug-out’ anthropoid (No. 40), and (4) a type peculiar to
itself (Pl. LXI. 42). No doubt their parents were among the many adult
burials found in this cache, but we have nothing to tell us to which
they belong. One of these small coffins, No. 84, had a small necklace
(Pl. LXXIII. 84) like that found in 1910 in the Middle Empire tomb No.
24 (p. 53, Pl. XLV. H). Another, No. 31, contained (resting upon the
shins of a mummy of a small child) a basket with the different kinds of
necklaces represented in Pl. LXXIII under No. 31.[50] On one of these
necklaces a bead, cowroid in shape, bore the prenomen of Thothmes I.
These necklaces did not appear to belong to the child, as a number of
stone chippings were found mingled with them, which would suggest their
having been gathered up from the ground and thrown into the coffin.

The method used in wrapping the mummies was found in general to be
similar in all cases. They had always one shroud of linen laid over
them, and sometimes one underneath, with an occasional one between the
actual bindings of the body. The limbs were separately bound. In some
instances the mummy was tied up with long twisted linen ropes bound
round, spirally, from head to foot, and these, I believe, had been
re-wrapped. Some of the mummies were bitumenized.

In the _Rîshi_ burials the fashion adopted closely resembled the _Rîshi_
interment discovered by Professor Petrie (Petrie, _Qurneh_, pp. 7-9).

The scarabs found on the mummies, when worn as a ring, were always
placed on the third finger of the left hand. A few beads sprinkled among
the wrappings of the body was also found to be a not uncommon custom.

Among other objects pertaining to the funeral equipments found in this
cache there were: No. 16, a rush-work basket containing articles of
toilet use, and a scarab of Amenhetep I (Pls. LXIV, LXV. 16); No. 25,
another similar basket containing what appears to be part of a scribe’s
outfit (Pl. LXVI). Here a reed-case and palette illustrates the
hieroglyph [Illustration: hieroglyph], but unfortunately the small
bladder for colour, shown in the centre of the sign, is missing in this
case. Nos. 28, 63 A, and 92, musical instruments (Pl. LXXI); No. 28, a
bird trap (Pl. LXIV); Nos. 26, 28, two writing tablets; and Nos. 88, 89,
and 90, three panel stelae (Pls. LXXV to LXXVIII).


_Catalogue of the Antiquities found in Tomb No. 37._[51]

_Entrance._

     1. A bunch of vine leaves and twigs lying upon the débris of the
     tomb.


     _North Wing._

     2. _Rîshi coffin._ Shell, cut out of a stem of a tree, and left
     quite plain and rough. Lid, painted detail and feathering like No.
     66, but in this case painted upon a yellow ground only. It bears no
     inscriptions, and the face is coloured yellow (Pls. LVII, LXII. 2).

     Contents:--A well-preserved mummy of a tall man.

     3. A very decayed mummy of a man, wrapped in a mat and bound with
     cord.

     4. A group of broken pots and some vine leaves.

     5. _Plain anthropoid coffin._ Like No. 29, but has its face painted
     yellow.

     Contents:--A mummy of an old woman very loosely wrapped.

     6. _Semi-decorated anthropoid coffin._ Lid and shell painted white
     with longitudinal and transverse bands in yellow. Face yellow.
     Head-dress yellow with blue lines. It bears no inscriptions (Pls.
     LIX, LXI. 6).

     Contents:--Three mummies covered with a shroud. Two were lying side
     by side, the third was reversed with its head towards the feet of
     the others. (_a_) The reversed burial, mummy of a woman re-wrapped;
     (_b_) mummy of a woman; (_c_) mummy of a man with bead-bangles on
     left wrist, the beads were of dark violet glaze (Pl. LXXIII. 6).

     7. _Decorated rectangular coffin._ The general ground colour is
     yellow, and the design painted upon it is in red, green, dark blue,
     and white. On the ends, the figures of _Isis_ and _Nephthys_
     kneeling upon _neb_ signs are depicted upon a white ground. The
     lid was tied on with ropes of Dôm palm-fibre (Pl. LX. 7).

     Contents:--Mummy of an old man, reduced to a mere skeleton. Among
     the débris from the abdomen of the mummy was a bladder-stone.

     8. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man covered with a sheet. Resting against the
     coffin was an earthenware pot (Pl. LXXIV. 8).


     _Central passage._

     9. The base of a wooden head-rest (this was similar to those found
     in the coffins of this cache).

     10. _Rîshi coffin._ Broken and in bad condition. It was made and
     decorated like No. 2.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man very roughly wrapped.

     11. _Rîshi coffin._ Shell, plain wood. Lid, the ground colour white
     and yellow, and the detail like No. 66. The longitudinal band for
     text down the front had no inscription (Pls. LVI, LXII. 11).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman lying flat on its back with the head
     turned towards the left. A small child’s mummy was resting on her
     feet. Among the débris at the bottom of the coffin were: (1) a few
     small beads of greenish blue faience; (2) a cowroid seal of green
     glazed steatite (Pl. LXXII. 11); in the hole pierced through the
     cowroid seal were remains of thread.

     12. _Rîshi coffin._ Like No. 66 (Pl. LVI. 12).

     Contents:--A scantily wrapped mummy of a man.

     13. _The frame of a wooden stool._ This was leaning against the
     wall, and it rested upon the mutilated remains of a mummy (Pl. LVI.
     13). With the débris of the mummy was (1) the greater portion of a
     large necklace of blue faience beads: the remainder of this
     necklace was found scattered upon the floor as far as the entrance
     of the hall at the end of the central passage (Pl. LXXIII. 13); (2)
     the mouth and nose of a mummy mask.

     14. _A mortar-bed._ The mud mortar here (Pl. LVI. 14) appears to
     have been mixed for the second closing of the doorway of the hall
     (_C_); the first closing of this doorway was with a _Tafle_ mortar.

     15. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Like No. 75, the coffin
     shows signs of rough handling, and had been broken to pieces.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman. By the left shoulder was a wooden
     head-rest broken into two pieces and the central portion of its
     stem missing (Pl. LXVIII. 15); on the third finger of the left hand
     was a blue glazed steatite scarab tied with string (Pl. LXXII. 15);
     and sprinkled in the linen wrappings were a few small beads of blue
     faience.


     _Hall (C)._

     16. _An oval-shaped rush basket._ This basket is finely woven and
     measures 50 cms. across its long axis. It shows traces of coloured
     strands interwoven into the mesh at intervals to form triangular
     markings, but the colour of these markings has deteriorated. The
     lid has a flange round its lower edge to fit into a corresponding
     rim or flange on the inner side of the mouth of the basket itself
     (Pl. LXIV. 16).

     Contents:--A pair of bronze forceps for extracting hair (Pl. LXV);
     note the curved ends made expressly for that purpose.

     A razor very finely wrought of copper, with two separate cutting
     edges. One edge or blade is slightly concave for shaving the convex
     surfaces of the head, face, and body; the other blade is of convex
     shape for shaving the concave parts, such as the arm-pits (Pl.
     LXV). The preservation is so good that the knife edges are still
     keen, and the prints of the ancient finger-marks are still visible
     upon its polished surfaces. It measures 18·5 cms. in length.

     A hone of granular white stone for sharpening the razor (Pl. LXV).

     A kohl-box made of cedar-wood (?). It is octagonal in shape, and
     has an ivory lid and base. The lid turns on a stud-headed wooden
     peg, and when closed it was held in place by an ivory bolt shot
     into copper staples. On the side of the box, slung in two copper
     staples, is the ebony kohl-stick. The total length is 7·9 cms. (Pl.
     LXV).

     The handle and clasp of a fan made of wood (Pl. LXV).

     A pottery bowl (Pl. LXV).

     An ebony kohl-stick.

     A pair of leather sandals (these were adhering to the bottom of the
     basket, and could not be removed).

     A large round basket (Pl. LXIV, right-hand side of illustration).

     A small round basket (Pl. LXIV, left-hand side of illustration).

     The large round basket contained:

     A kohl-pot of hard grey stone like aragonite, and a kohl-stick of
     ebony (Pl. LXV).

     A bronze mirror made of copper, measuring in its maximum length 17
     cms. (Pl. LXV): the handle had been coated with a white metal
     (silver?) to prevent corrosion.

     A scarab made of green jasper and bearing the prenomen and nomen of
     Amenhetep I (Pls. LXV, LXXII. 16). It is round-backed and a fine
     specimen.

     Some decayed locks of hair.

     The smaller round basket contained:

     A blue glazed steatite scarab of the Hyksos Period (Pls. LXV,
     LXXII. 16).

     17. _A chair and a stool._ These were broken and tucked between the
     foot of coffin No. 18 and the wall (Pl. LXXI). The chair made of
     wood has a low square seat of rush-work mesh plaited upon a frame
     and supported by four square legs; the legs are strengthened by
     cross-bars. The slanting, curved, compound back is dowelled into
     the frame of the seat, and it is stayed by uprights which are
     continuous from the back legs; it also had (now missing) a central
     strut at the back. These uprights and the central strut were fixed
     to the back of the chair by means of ivory pegs. The principal
     constructive joints of the main body of the chair are strengthened
     by angle-pieces of carved bent wood, and these angle-pieces when
     exposed to view are ornamented by being composed of several kinds
     of wood. The top rail of the back (missing) appears from some of
     the remaining ivory pegs to have been made of ivory. It measures 41
     × 52 cms. square, the seat 28 cms. high, and the top rail of the
     back must have been something like 75 cms. when perfect. The stool
     had a similar seat to the chair, and it also has similar
     strengthening bars between the legs. It stands 16 cms. in height,
     and measures 38 × 35 cms. square.

     18. _Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Kingdom._ Ground colour
     white; head-dress and bands for hieroglyphs blue. The inscriptions,
     written in black, with linear hieroglyphs of the Intermediate
     Period style, do not give any name (Pl. LXII. 18).

     Contents:--Mummy roughly wrapped. The sex was difficult to
     ascertain.

     19. _Viscera box._ Small square box painted white and of inferior
     quality. The interior, divided into two compartments by a central
     partition, contained matter wrapped in linen like the viscera of a
     mummy.

     20. _Viscera box._ Painted white, with the _de hetep seten_ formula
     upon the lid giving the name [Illustration: hieroglyph] Ta-nezem.
     Depicted upon the four sides of the box are human-headed canopic
     jars, with, written on either side, the usual formulae in vertical
     bands (Pl. LXI. 20). The interior, divided into four compartments,
     contained similar matter to No. 19 (see coffin No. 24).

     21. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Like No. 75 (broken).

     Contents:--Mummy of a man covered with a sheet. At the side of the
     left shoulder a wooden head-rest (Pl. LXVIII. 21), with, engraved
     upon its stem, the deities _Bes_ and _Taurt_. On the third finger
     of the left hand a scarab mounted on a silver ring (Pl. LXXII. 21).
     The scarab is round-backed, of green glazed steatite, and has
     inscribed upon its base the ‘Divine Wife, Hatshepsût’.

     22. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Like No. 75 (broken).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman, decayed and fallen to pieces. In the
     débris traces of plaited hair and two red jasper scarabs (Pl.
     LXXII. 22).

     23. _Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire._ Ground colour
     white. Head-dress, blue striated with yellow lines. Face, yellow,
     with the eye-sockets of bronze, eyeballs of aragonite, and pupils
     of obsidian. Decoration, round the neck a collarette painted to
     represent rows of coloured beads, fringed with drop pendants, and
     with hawk-headed clasps. Below, over the breast, the vulture
     _Nekhebyt_ and goddess _Nut_. On either side, at the ankles, the
     jackal _Anubis_ is represented resting on his pylon. At the feet
     _Isis_ and at the head _Nephthys_. There are three transverse bands
     round the body and one longitudinal band down the front, all of
     which contain the usual religious formulae with the owner’s name
     [Illustration: hieroglyph] Tahuti. On the sides of the shell, in
     the panels formed by the bands of hieroglyphs, are representations
     of the different gods facing legends dedicated to them. The lid was
     fixed to its shell by stud-headed wooden pegs.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man with his hands crossed over the thighs.
     On the third finger of the left hand, attached by string, was a
     round-backed green glazed steatite scarab (Pl. LXXII. 23).

     Beneath the coffin, and lying on the floor of the chamber, was a
     walking staff 142 cms. in length. The bark upon the stick was
     intact and it resembles that of cherry wood. The end was worn, and
     at the handle a natural projecting branch was trimmed so as to form
     a crutch.

     24. _Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire._ This coffin
     was similar to No. 23, but not so fine. The eyes were only painted,
     and the decoration varied by having the goddess _Nut_ alone below
     the collar, the absence of the two jackals on the sides of the
     ankles, and _Nephthys_ on the head. The legends, between the bands
     of formulae, referring to the gods had been added in black ink
     after the completion of the coffin. It bore the name [Illustration:
     hieroglyph] Aah-hetep, who was called [Illustration: hieroglyph]
     Ta-nezem (see viscera box No. 20).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman carefully wrapped, with the right arm
     across the breast, and the left arm resting at the side. She was
     covered with a sheet which when removed exposed two statuettes
     lying on either side of the knees of the mummy (Pl. LXVII. 2), and
     upon the shins a round shallow basket (Pl. LXIV. 24) containing a
     heart scarab made of unburnt steatite bearing an enigmatical
     inscription (Pl. LXXII. 24). On the left hand, tied with string to
     the third finger, were two scarabs: one, high-backed and of blue
     glazed steatite, bore the name of the ‘Herald Ren-senb’; the other,
     high-backed and of blue paste, had a winged _kheper_ surmounted by
     _Ra_ engraved upon its base (Pl. LXXII. 24). Underneath the mummy
     was a very small basket containing three copper forceps and a
     kohl-stick.

     The statuette found on the right side may be described as follows:
     Small portrait figure of a boy named [Illustration: hieroglyph]
     Amenemheb, nude, and of electrum; dedicated by his father
     Tahuti[52] ‘who makes to live his name’. It measures 13 cms. high,
     and stands upon a wooden pedestal which is inscribed. The work is
     that of a very good artist, showing great instinctive feeling and
     subtle modelling as well as delicacy. Though the actual finish of
     the detail is not carried to a very high pitch, this fact does not
     lessen its beauty, and a glance at the photographs (Pl. LXVII. 1
     and frontispiece) will at once show its charm and high art sense.
     In the left hand is a lotus-bud with long and flowing stalk. The
     metal was cast and the figure worked upon after it was chilled. The
     statuette at first may seem attenuated, but any one who knows the
     youth of modern Egypt will at once recognize its truth.

     The statuette found on the left side was in wood, of a boy named
     [Illustration: hieroglyph] Hu-uben-ef, and it was dedicated by his
     father Tahuti ‘who makes to live his name’. This figure stands 31
     cms. in height, and is very cleanly cut, the work good, but of a
     different and perhaps not so high a standard as the metal figure of
     his brother. Nevertheless it is exquisitely rendered and shows a
     strong likeness to the other, particularly in the shape of the
     head. The pedestal is inscribed with the dedication, and mentions
     also a prayer for _per-kheru_ offerings for the _ka_. Traces of
     colour, red, are visible on the nude parts; the hair is coloured
     black, the eye-balls are painted white, the pupils, eye-lashes, and
     brows black (Pl. LXVII. 2).

     25. _An oval-shaped basket._ This basket is similar in make to No.
     16 and measures 40 cms. across its long axis. It is of coarser
     weaving and shows no signs of decorations (Pl. LXIV. 25). Some
     bituminous material had been spilt into it, and many of the objects
     it contained adhered to its inner side and were stuck together from
     that cause.

     Contents (Pl. LXVI):--It seemed to have contained a scribe’s
     outfit, which was once probably complete, but many of the objects
     found in it were broken and parts of them were missing. These were:
     (1) a large reed case made of a section cut from the stalk of a
     thick rush. At the top this has a floral ornament made of four
     pieces of carved wood which are let into spaces cut in the sides at
     the end and bound in position by a strip of linen. The node or
     natural joint of the rush has been utilized for the bottom end, and
     the top end was stopped by a rag plug. In it were found twenty-six
     thin reeds and a few seeds of a plant.[1] (2) A small reed case
     made like the former one described above, but without top ornament.
     It enclosed fifteen thin reeds and similar seeds of a plant.[53]
     (3) A wooden palette varying only from the common and well-known
     types by having three small oblong-shaped holes pierced diagonally
     through the side corners for strips of leather (?) for suspension.
     (4) A peculiar wooden instrument, mallet-like in shape: its use is
     unknown to me. There are on the small end indentations like marks
     that could be caused by tightly-bound string. (5) A rectangular
     oblong piece of hard wood. Its use is unknown to me; but it appears
     to be part of some instrument, as there are two holes in one side
     and another at the end. In all three holes there are ends of broken
     pegs. (6) A stick some 30 cms. in length. It seems to be the
     cross-bar of a pair of scales (note the hole and peg in the centre
     and peculiar notched ends). (7) A bag made of woven fibrous string.
     (8) A small linen bag; the mouth was drawn together by string in
     the same manner as purses of the present day. (9) A roll of
     leather, bound with strips of the same material. (10) A roll of
     linen (not shown in the Plate). (11) Very small fragments of
     papyrus which seem to have been torn from a small roll of papyrus
     (not shown in the Plate). (12) A clay figure of a cynocephalous ape
     (Thoth). This little creature was wrapped in linen. (13)
     Human-headed sphinx, cut out of a sheet of copper. (14) A large
     round piece of wax. (15) A tortoise-shell. (16) A miniature clay
     cup. A strip of linen was bound round the stem. (17) Model
     knuckle-bone in clay. (18) Some pieces of resinous material. (19) A
     small wooden peg. (20) A small amuletic figure in green glaze
     faience. (21) One large clay disk, four wax disks, and twelve disks
     of different sizes made of some black material. They appear to be
     weights:

   1. Clay          12·0 grains.
   2. Wax            4·0     “
   3.  “             4·0     “
   4.  “             -- }weight obscured from bitumen
   5.  “             -- }  adhering to them.
   6. Black material 3·5 grains.
   7.   “      “     3·5   “
   8.   “      “     3·5   “
   9.   “      “     3·0   “
  10.   “      “     --  broken.
  11.   “      “     3·0 grains.
  12. Black material 2·5 grains.
  13.   “      “     2·5   “
  14.   “      “     2·5   “
  15.   “      “     2·5   “
  16.   “      “     2·5   “
  17.   “      “     2·0   “

     26. _A writing tablet._ This tablet, made of wood and covered with
     stucco, with surface polished for writing, bore inscriptions on
     both sides. It was broken in two halves, measures 48 × 26·5 cms.,
     and was found among the stones covering the floor of the chamber
     (see Chapter XIII by Dr. Möller).

     27. _Parts of a model five-stringed musical instrument._ Similar to
     Nos. 28, 63 A, and 92 (see Pl. LXXI, and for description No. 63 A).

     28. _A pottery pan containing various objects._ (1) A model
     four-stringed musical instrument (Pl. LXXI. 28) made of sycomore
     wood, ebony, and ivory. (For further description see No. 63 A.) (2)
     A bird-trap (Pl. LXIV. 28) made of wood and of the following
     construction and mechanism:--Two flat boards cut semicircular and
     joined in the middle by a central broad bar of wood which is
     slightly longer than the diameter of the circle formed by the two
     semicircular boards; these three pieces of wood formed the floor of
     the trap. Upon the central bar, it will be noticed that there are
     two pairs of pillars, grooved on top, and a hole in the bar on the
     right and left side of each pair of pillars (see Pl. LXIV). Strung
     over each pair of pillars were (now missing) several strands of
     catgut (?), with their ends passed through the holes on either
     side, and held at the back by short pieces of stick. By revolving
     these pieces of stick at the back the strands of catgut were
     twisted and brought to any degree of tension required, and thus by
     this method formed two spring-hinges. Fixed in these spring-hinges
     was a flexible piece of stick bent to form an arched bow (not shown
     in Pl. LXIV), either end of the bow being passed through the
     strands of twisted gut at such an angle as to cause the bow to be
     pressed on to one half of the circular bottom of the trap (the
     position when closed). Attached to the bow and on the opposite half
     of the bottom of the trap was a net (see holes for this purpose and
     remains of net, Pl. LXIV. 28), sufficiently large to allow the
     capture of a bird. To open the trap, the bow would be pulled over
     to the side that the net is attached to. On this side, at the edge,
     there is a notch (see Pl. LXIV. 28) for a pillar-catch which held
     the bow open. This catch was worked by a string through a hole
     beside it (see Pl. LXIV. 28), which was passed underneath and
     brought up through a hole in the centre of the bottom of the trap
     (see Pl. LXIV. 28), where the string was attached to a sensitive
     adjustment so placed that the movements of a bird touching it would
     detach it and cause the trap to close (i. e. the bow to spring into
     its original position on the opposite side). The wooden bow
     belonging to the trap was found sometime afterwards among a lot of
     stray wood that came from the tomb, and it was exactly as described
     above. (3) A mechanical toy bird made of wood (Pl. LXIV, right and
     left of trap). (4) Pottery bowl of red pottery full of a brown
     powdery substance. (5) A painted clay head of a bull. (6) A small
     round basket containing a blue faience kohl-pot. (7) A writing
     tablet like No. 26 (see Chapter XIII by Dr. Möller).

     29. _Plain anthropoid coffin._ The outer surface of this coffin is
     painted white, with the features of the face roughly delineated in
     black (Pl. LXI. 29).

     Contents:--Mummy of a girl.

     30. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80.

     Contents:--Skeleton of a baby.

     31. _Dug-out rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 41.

     Contents:--Mummy of a child. In the wrappings covering the hair
     were some bone and cornelian beads like those found in coffin No.
     78 given in Pl. LXXII. 78. Resting on the feet of the mummy was a
     basket turned over and its contents spilt. The contents were
     several necklaces of many kinds of blue faience beads, of which
     examples are given in Pl. LXXIII. 31. With them was a small blue
     faience kohl-pot of usual type. One of the cowroid beads bore the
     prenomen of Thothmes I, while others had hieroglyphic signs on
     them, including one which had [Illustration: hieroglyph] upon its
     base.

     32. _A bunch of papyrus reeds._

     33. _A small obsidian unguent vase._ This was found resting upon
     the chest of coffin No. 23.

     34. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75
     (broken).

     Contents:--Mummy broken to fragments.

     35. _Decorated rectangular coffin._ Smashed to pieces by the
     falling of the rock ceiling of the chamber. There were no traces of
     objects.

     36. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Among the decayed remains of a mummy was a round-backed
     green glazed steatite scarab, bearing a very fine example of spiral
     pattern engraved upon its bezel (Pl. LXXII. 36).

     37. _Rectangular dug-out coffin._ Similar to No. 58 (lid missing).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman. In the débris of the mummy, on the
     bottom of the coffin, was a round-backed green glazed steatite
     scarab (Pl. LXXII. 37).

     38. _Plain anthropoid coffin._ Similar to No. 29.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man. Lying on the bottom of the coffin was a
     blue faience scaraboid bead (Pl. LXXII. 38).

     39. _Parts of a frame of a wooden stool._ Similar to No. 13.

     40. _Anthropoid dug-out child’s coffin._ Painted white and very
     roughly made.

     Contents:--Child’s skeleton.


     _Pit (D)._

     41. _Rectangular dug-out child’s coffin._ The shell was cut out of
     one block of wood, and for the lid a flat board was used. Wooden
     pegs at either end of the lid show that it once had head and foot
     pieces (P. LXI. 41).

     Contents:--Mummy of a child.

     42. _Rectangular dug-out child’s coffin._ This was of peculiar
     type. The block of wood from which it was made was cut in half
     diagonally, so that the lid and shell were of equal proportions.
     Some auxiliary pieces of wood had been let into the lid to
     strengthen it (Pl. LXI. 42).

     Contents:--Skeleton of a baby.

     43. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80.

     Contents:--Skeleton of a very young child. In the shell of the
     coffin there were a few miniature blue faience beads.

     44. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80. The lid was
     tied on with rope.

     Contents:--Skeleton of a child.

     45. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80.

     Contents:--Mummy of a child.

     46. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man.

     47. _Plain anthropoid coffin._ Similar to No. 29. The lid was tied
     on with rope.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman, in bad condition and much decayed. In
     the débris there were some bone bead-bangles (for example see Pl.
     LXXIII. 53); a blue glazed steatite scarab of the Hyksos period; a
     turquoise blue glass cowroid bead; and a blue faience scaraboid
     bead (Pl. LXXII. 47).

     48. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man.

     49. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Two mummies; one of a man, the other of a woman, lying
     head to feet. Among these remains were some bone and cornelian
     bead-bangles (for example see Pl. LXXIII. 78).

     50. _Rectangular open-grid bottomed coffin._ Similar to No. 52.

     Contents:--Mummy of a half-grown child. The mummy was enveloped in
     reeds. Upon it were bone and cornelian bead-bangles (see Pl.
     LXXIII. 78); a group of tubular barrel-shaped beads, coated with
     chips of glass and disk-shaped faience beads; also an amuletic
     necklace (Pl. LXXIII. 50). The beads of this amuletic necklace were
     made of cornelian, faience, and blue opaque glass; the amulets were
     flies, hawks, and symbolical knots, made of glazed and unglazed
     steatite, jasper, and faience, and the central pendant of gold. The
     original position of these objects upon the mummy it was impossible
     to ascertain.

     51. _Rectangular dug-out child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 41.

     Contents:--Mummy of a child. In the coffin, underneath the mummy,
     was a wooden throw-stick and a gold earring; the second gold
     earring was afterwards found at the bottom of the pit. The
     throw-stick, 42 cms. in length, is finely carved out of very hard
     wood, and it has a propeller-like twist.

     52. _Rectangular open-grid bottomed coffin._ A plain wood
     rectangular coffin, with wooden bars at intervals in place of the
     boarded bottom (Pl. LX. 52).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman, bent, as it was too large for the
     coffin. On the third finger of the left hand, attached by string,
     were two jasper scarabs (Pl. LXXII. 52). One of the scarabs had a
     fish and lotus-flower engraved upon its bezel.

     53. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62, but
     has no traces of paint.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man. Beside the head, and resting on the
     bottom of the coffin, were:--(1) a small wood and ivory jewel-box
     (fallen to pieces); (2) an alabaster bowl in the shape of a
     cartouche; (3) a blue faience bowl; and (4) a pottery vase (Pl.
     LXIX. 53). The mummy had rotted away, and among the débris
     were:--(1) round-backed blue glazed steatite scarab, mounted in a
     gold funda, bearing on its base the name of the royal daughter,
     Neferu-ra (daughter of Queen Hatshepsût); (2) round-backed blue
     glazed scarab bearing the prenomen of Thothmes III; (3)
     round-backed green glazed scarab, mounted in gold funda, bearing a
     decorative pattern; (4) cowroid seal of glazed steatite (worn to
     brown) bearing a decorative pattern, and mounted in a gold funda;
     (5) high-backed scarab of dark green paste bearing a floral
     pattern, and mounted upon a copper-wire ring--the wire is threaded
     through the scarab and is passed through a small hole on the other
     end of the wire, flattened and pierced for the purpose, and it is
     held thus by being twisted round the wire a few times (Pl. LXXII.
     53). Fallen out of the small jewel-box (mentioned above) there were
     three necklaces. One of them was a long string of violet faience
     beads (similar to No. 6, Pl. LXXIII); another was made up of plain
     bone beads (Pl. LXXIII. 53); and the third consisted of cornelian,
     violet faience, and gold beads, with amulets at intervals made of
     gold, silver, cornelian, and blue glass (Pl. LXXIII. 53).

     54. _A grey pottery vase_ (Pl. LXXIV. D), bearing a hieratic
     inscription (see Chapter XIII, by Dr. Möller).

     55. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Two adult and one child’s mummy. Like the coffin they
     were very much broken. Among the remains were bone and cornelian
     beads, and an ivory bracelet (Pl. LXXIII. 55, on the plate
     incorrectly 85).

     56. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80.

     Contents:--Mummy of an infant.

     57. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Three adult mummies, which, like the coffin, were
     broken. With them was a wooden head-rest (Pl. LXVIII. 57); a
     round-backed green glazed steatite scarab (Pl. LXXII. 57); and a
     few stray beads of cornelian, faience, and bone.

     58. _Rectangular dug-out coffin._ The lid was tied on with rope
     (Pl. LXI. 58).

     Contents:--Mummy of a man.

     59. _Decorated rectangular coffin._ The colouring is similar to
     that of No. 7, except that instead of the two goddesses at either
     end there are geometrical drawings (Pl. LX. 59).

     Contents:--Four mummies covered with a large shroud. At the head
     end of the coffin, and resting on the mummies, there were: (1) a
     black pottery vase; (2) a red pottery biangular bowl; (3) a wooden
     head-rest; (4) a basket containing four dôm nuts, and a vase which
     had in it a piece of crystal, and a round-backed green glazed
     steatite scarab (Pl. LXVIII. 59 and Pl. LXXII. 59).

     The four mummies, packed head to feet, were as follows:--

     (_a_) Mummy of a woman with a scarab necklace (Pl. LXXII. 59 A); a
     bead necklace (Pl. LXXIII. 59); and some bead-bangles of bone and
     cornelian (for examples see No. 78, Pl. LXXIII). One of the scarabs
     upon the necklace bears the nomen of Thothmes I.

     (_b_) Mummy of a child.

     (_c_) Mummy of a man wrapped in very coarse linen.

     (_d_) Mummy of an adult (sex difficult to ascertain).

     With the mummy there was a walking-staff; in the abdomen were some
     dôm nuts, and a group of scarabs (Pl. LXXII. 59 D), which appear,
     from the string that some were still threaded upon, to have once
     formed a necklace. In the wrappings near the neck of the mummy were
     some faience and bone beads. One of the scarabs bore upon its bezel
     [Illustration: hieroglyph] Neb-ded-Ra, encircled by a coil pattern
     (cp. Scarab, B.M., No. 37730); another had the prenomen of Thothmes
     II, above a crouching jackal; and a third one has the _Hor-nub_
     name of Thothmes I.


     _Chamber (E)._

     60. _Rîshi coffin._ Similar to No. 11, but of very rough
     workmanship.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman scantily wrapped in coarse linen.

     61. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ Similar to No. 80.

     Contents:--Mummy of an infant.

     62. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ The outer surface of
     this coffin is covered with a thin paint of pinky hue. The lid is
     slanting on either side, has a longitudinal beam in the centre, and
     an upright head and foot piece on its ends (Pl. LX. 62).

     Contents:--Three mummies: two were of adults lying side by side,
     the third of a child placed at their feet. The child’s mummy had
     upon its neck an amuletic necklace composed of round and barrel
     faience beads of red and green colour with pendant amulets of the
     same material, and in the centre a brown stone turtle; on the arms
     were bead-bangles composed of bone and faience beads; and lying
     near the hands, tied upon a piece of string, were two scarabs and a
     cowroid seal (Pl. LXXII. 62 A). One of the adult mummies had round
     its neck a cornelian bead necklace (Pl. LXXIII. 62); and upon the
     third finger of the left hand a green glazed steatite scarab (Pl.
     LXXII. 62 B).

     63. _Decorated rectangular coffin._ The coloration of the detail,
     painted upon a strawberry-coloured ground, is similar to No. 7. On
     the end panels, the goddesses _Isis_ and _Nephthys_ are standing
     with the arms upheld (Pl. LX. 63).

     Contents:--Two mummies of a man and a woman, lying side by side,
     and covered with a shroud. Beside the head of the woman were two
     grey pottery vases, and a larger one in black pottery; a dark blue
     faience bowl, and a wooden kohl-pot (Pl. LXVIII. 63). The woman had
     within the wrappings of the head a broken ivory comb (Pl. LXVIII.
     63); and near the hands, lying loosely, were two cowroid seals (Pl.
     LXXII. 63 A). The man had no ornament upon him.

     63 A. _A four-stringed musical instrument_ (Pl. LXXI. 63 A). The
     _neck_, _back_, and _belly_ are made of one piece of sycomore wood.
     The _belly_ is hollowed out like a trough, and has its two sides
     curved slightly inwards at the middle, thus forming a kind of waist
     (this was probably due to the tension of the strained skin that
     covered it). Across the _belly_, longitudinally, is the combined
     _tail-piece_ and _bridge_ to which the lower fixed ends of the
     strings are attached: the tapering end of this combined
     _tail-piece_ and _bridge_ was inserted into a socket at the
     juncture where the _belly_ and _neck_ join, and its lower and
     broader end was bound to a protuberance, made for the purpose, at
     the extreme end of the _belly_. Near the top end of the _neck_, and
     into the back of it, the four _key-pegs_ for receiving the strings
     are inserted. The strings themselves (their lower ends being fixed
     to the combined _tail-piece_ and _bridge_), which were passed
     along the side of the _neck_ and twisted round the _key-pegs_, had
     their upper ends brought over the _neck_ and slipped under the
     tightened portion of the strings which pressed against the side of
     the _neck_ (see Fig. 92, Pl. LXXI). For a _sounding-board_, skin
     was stretched over the whole of the _belly_, with an aperture left
     at the juncture of the _belly_ and _neck_ to allow the combined
     _tail-piece_ and _bridge_ to be inserted into its socket. The total
     length of the instrument is 1·37 metres. This particular specimen I
     believe to have been an actual instrument, while the others, Nos.
     27, 28, and 92, were merely small models. With these models there
     are slight variations in the construction, but as the main idea is
     the same it is unnecessary to describe them.

     64. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62, but
     has no traces of colour upon it.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man sewn up in a shroud. Near the head a
     wooden head-rest; by the side a walking-staff; and under the head,
     wrapped in a piece of linen, were (1) a wooden kohl-pot of trefoil
     section, (2) a bronze razor and granular stone hone,[54] (3) a cord
     belt and loin cloth (Pl. LXIX. 64). On the third finger of the left
     hand was a blue glazed steatite scarab, mounted on gold funda: this
     was tied with string (Pl. LXXII. 64).

     65. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62, but
     with no traces of colour.

     Contents:--Two mummies of a man and woman, lying head to feet, and
     covered by a shroud. The mummy of the woman had a broken alabaster
     bowl (Pl. LXIX. 65) lying at the feet. The mummy of the man
     appeared to be re-wrapped, and had nothing on it.

     66. _Rîshi coffin._ Shell--cut out of a tree trunk, and painted
     with black, red, and white bands. Lid--the detailed
     feather-decoration is painted in red, green, and dark blue on a
     white and yellow ground. The face is yellow. The longitudinal band
     down the centre has no inscription (Pl. LXII. 66).

     Contents:--Mummy of a man.

     67. _Rectangular child’s coffin._ This coffin had been enlarged,
     and the lid, which was made of old boards, was tied to pegs at
     either end of the shell.

     Contents:--Mummy of a child, with knees bent.


     _Chamber (A)._

     68. _Semi-decorated anthropoid coffin._ Similar to No. 6 (Pl.
     LVIII. 68).

     Contents:--A skeleton of a young man with hardly any traces of
     mummification visible.

     69. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62 (Pl.
     LVIII. 69).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman much decayed.

     70. _Rîshi coffin._ Similar to No. 66. The longitudinal band down
     the front has the _de hetep seten_ formula, but bears no name:
     space for the name has been left blank (Pl. LVIII. 70).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman lying flat on her back, with head
     turned towards the left. In front of the face, a wooden head-rest;
     under the cheek, a large bronze mirror. On the head was a wig of
     plaited hair (Pl. LXX. 70).

     71. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62. The
     bottom of the coffin was not in place, and was lying on the floor,
     only partly under it.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman covered with a mat with long pile. On
     her right side, a wooden cylinder covered with leather and
     containing six musical reeds. These reeds were (1) 36·5 cms. long,
     with four notes; (2) 36·5 cms. long, with three notes; (3) 30·5
     cms. long, with two notes; (4) 28 cms. long, with four notes on one
     side (three were intentionally blocked up with resinous material),
     and on the other side there was a hole or note; (5) 25 cms. long,
     with five notes (a crack mended with resinous material); (6) 23·5
     cms. long, with five notes. The reeds average 12 mms. in thickness.
     Under the woman’s legs was a basket containing two flints, two
     lumps of clay, a reed kohl-pot and two wooden kohl-sticks, a piece
     of a wooden comb,[55] a splinter of wood, some bone and faience
     bead-bangles, and a small plaited lock of hair. In the womb were
     traces of an embryonic skeleton (Pl. LXIX. 71).

     72. _Viscera box._ Similar to No. 20, with rounded lid (Pl. LXI.
     72). No inscriptions.

     Contents like Nos. 19 and 20.

     73. _Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire._ Similar in
     fashion to No. 23, but rougher in detail and finish (Pls. LVIII.
     and LXII. 73). The lid was fixed in place by wooden pegs, and it
     bore the name [Illustration: hieroglyph] Aahmes.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman covered with a shroud. On the right
     side of the head was a broken kohl-pot; and at the top of the head,
     rolled in linen, a chignon, a pottery vase containing a kind of
     pomade which bore prints of the ancient fingers, and an ebony comb
     and bone hair-pin (Pl. LXX. 73). The mummy was sewn up in a sheet,
     which, when removed, exposed transverse bindings which continued
     down to the bitumenized body. The arms were crossed over the
     abdomen. On the head, over the natural hair, a plaited wig much
     decayed.

     74. _Decorated anthropoid coffin of the New Empire._ This coffin
     (Pl. LVIII. 74) is fully illustrated by Plate LXIII, Figs. 1, 2. It
     bears the name of [Illustration: hieroglyph] Mentu-hetep, and,
     among the religious formulae written upon it, gives the variant
     [Illustration: hieroglyph] for _Horus_.

     Contents:--Mummy of a man covered with a shroud. Under the shroud,
     and resting upon the mummy, was a long (164 cms.) bronze snake
     sceptre; and on the third finger of the left hand a round-backed
     green glazed steatite scarab (Pl. LXXII. 74) tied with string.

     75. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Lid and shell made of
     planks of wood, with upright head and foot pieces upon the ends of
     lid (Pls. LVIII., LX. 75).

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman with plaited hair. Round the waist was
     a girdle composed of two twisted strings of bone beads.

     76. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 75.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman. Hair plaited; on wrists, bangles of
     double strings of bone and cornelian beads; on third finger of left
     hand a scarab (Pl. LXXII. 76), and few beads strung on thread; and
     tied round the fourth finger of the same hand was a small cornelian
     pendant drop.


     _Chamber (B)._

     77. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin_ (Pl. LIX. 77). Similar
     to No. 62.

     Contents:--Three mummies covered with a shroud: one was of a man,
     and the other two of children. The children’s mummies were
     bitumenized and bound in knotted and twisted linen. The mummy of
     the man (bearded) had on the third finger of the left hand a scarab
     mounted upon a silver ring (Pl. LXXII. 77 C). The scarab, made of
     steatite (brown), bore an ornamental Hathor design.

     78. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin_ (Pl. LIX. 78). Similar
     to No. 75.

     Contents:--Mummy of a woman covered with a shroud. Under the head a
     basket containing a dark brown stone kohl-pot, an alabaster vase,
     and a cedar-wood comb. Near the basket were two black pottery
     long-necked vases (Pl. LXVIII. 78). Lying on the breast, and under
     the wrappings, was a small basket (Pl. LXVIII. 78) containing bone
     and cornelian bead-bangles (Pl. LXXIII. 78), and three scarabs and
     two cowroids. On the neck an amuletic necklace; and on the third
     finger of the left hand two gold-mounted cowroids. The scarabs were
     two of glazed steatite mounted in gold fundi, and one of cornelian;
     the cowroids were three of glass mounted in gold, and one of
     steatite mounted in gold (Pl. LXXII. 78). The amuletic necklace was
     composed of lapis-lazuli, gold, cornelian, and garnet beads, strung
     more or less haphazard between gold amulets (Pl. LXXIII. 78).

     79. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin_ (Pl. LIX. 79). Similar
     to No. 75 (head and foot pieces missing and lid partly open).

     Contents:--Mummy of a young woman, which appeared to have been
     re-wrapped. On the neck a necklace (Pl. LXXIII. 79) composed of
     gold, lapis-lazuli, and cornelian beads.

     80. _Rectangular child’s coffin_. Square box, oblong in form, made
     of wooden planks. The lid had upright head and foot pieces (Pls.
     LIX. and LXI. 80).

     Contents:--Mummy of an infant.


     _South Wing._

     81. _Plain rectangular flat-topped coffin_. Similar to No. 75. This
     coffin was open, its lid lying by its side, and was empty.


     _North Wing._

     82. _Two ivory castanets._ The ends shaped like human hands, and
     curved. They were lying in the débris of the corridor of the tomb.


     _Niche (G)._

     83. _Plain rectangular gable-topped coffin._ Similar to No. 62, but
     of small size and thinly coated with white paint. Upon the top of
     the coffin was a decayed mummy of a person of immature age, and
     with it were three gold earrings (Pl. LXIX. 83). The contents of
     the coffin were two children’s mummies lying one upon the other,
     and resting upon the top one was a small round basket (Pl. LXIX.
     83) containing: (1) a wristlet of bone and cornelian beads (Pl.
     LXXIII. 83); (2) a necklace of bone beads (for example see 53, Pl.
     LXXIII.); and (3) a necklace of violet faience beads. Upon the
     lower mummy were two small bundles of linen containing fruit of the
     _nebek_-tree, which were bound together with a string of blue
     faience beads. This mummy had upon its left wrist(?) a bangle of
     bone and faience beads (Pl. LXXIII. 83).

     Behind the coffin were three pots (Pl. LXXIV. G) leaning against
     the back wall of the niche. The niche (_G_) seems to have been
     specially made for these burials, which were covered up by the
     stone chippings made in its excavation. These burials appear to
     have been made in the tomb when left open after its destruction,
     but before it was used as a storehouse.


     _Passage (L)._

     84. _Dug-out anthropoid child’s coffin_. The shell, cut out of a
     tree stem, was very roughly made. The lid was missing.

     Contents:--Mummy of an infant decayed, and among the débris were
     minute blue faience and gold beads (Pl. LXXIII. 84).


     _Central Passage._

     85. _An ivory castanet._ Burnt, and with end shaped like a human
     hand; it differed from No. 82 by being straight. This was found in
     the layer of rubbish that covered the floor of the passage. It
     appears to belong to the original interment of the tomb.


     _Hall (C)._

     86. _A wooden statuette and fragment of a wooden coffin of the
     Middle Kingdom._ The statuette, broken, is covered with stucco and
     painted, and is of exceedingly coarse workmanship. It represents a
     woman carrying upon her head a linen basket. The fragment of coffin
     bore an inscription reading [Illustration: hieroglyph]
     _perkheru_-offerings for the devoted one _Henŷt_. These antiquities
     were found in the layer of rubbish that covered the floor, and
     probably belong to the original interment of the tomb (some parts
     of the statuette came from the small chamber _F_).

     87. _A wooden jewel-box._ This is similar to the box found in tomb
     No. 24 (Pl. XLVI).

     Contents:--A _ka-hetep_ amulet and necklace of blue faience (Pl.
     LXXIII. 87); a necklace of white and violet cylindrical faience
     beads (Pl. LXXIII. 87); a blue glazed steatite scarab (Pl. LXXII.
     87); a blue glazed steatite kohl-pot, made to imitate matrix of
     turquoise; a reel of white faience; and a copper fillet for the
     hair (see tomb No. 25, p. 55). These objects are all of the Middle
     Kingdom period, and were discovered in the layer of rubbish
     covering the floor of the chamber. They probably belonged to the
     original interment.


     _Pit (D)._

     88. _Panel stela._ Covered with white stucco and painted. It
     measures 45 × 27 cms. (see Chapter XIII, by Dr. Möller).

     89. _Panel stela._ Similar to No. 88, and measures 57 × 22 cms.
     (see Chapter XIII, by Dr. Möller).

     90. _Panel stela._ Similar to Nos. 88 and 89, but of much thicker
     wood, and badly broken (see Chapter XIII, by Dr. Möller).


     _Chamber (F)._

     91. _Broken shafts of arrows, parts of bows, a wooden mallet, and a
     wooden hoe._ These antiquities came from the rubbish in chamber
     _F_, at the bottom of pit _D_.

     92. _Parts of a four-stringed musical instrument._ See No. 63 A,
     also Pl. LXXI. 92.

     _Pottery._ Examples of the different kinds of pottery vessels found
     in this tomb are figured in Pl. LXXIV.

The letters and figures refer to the lettering on the Plan (Pl. LV). The
four specimens marked GEN. came from the corridor and passage.

In the right corner of the plate are examples of mud-sealings found in
the rubbish that covered the floor.


_Pit Tombs Nos. 38 and 39._

Both these are of common pit-tomb type, and were possibly made for the
retainers of the owner of tomb No. 37. They were carefully examined but
found to be plundered. Only a few fragments of pottery vessels similar
to those from tombs No. 24 and 25 were found in the sand filling them
(Pl. XXX).


_Tomb No. 41._

A large tomb south of No. 37. This has not yet been excavated or
examined, for it was only discovered a few days before ending the work
of season 1911 (Pl. XXX).



CHAPTER XIII

THE HIERATIC TEXTS OF TOMB NO. 37

BY GEORGE MÖLLER


89. _Wooden stela of Ihŷ_ (Pl. LXXV). This tablet is composed of two
boards held together by pegs or dowels, and covered with a fine coat of
stucco, the surface of which has been polished to receive the writing.
Upon it are the following representations:--Above, to the right, is
drawn the sacred Barque of Sokaris; below, to the left, is figured the
deceased with staff and sceptre, and before him, a boy offering a goose,
a table with offerings, a lotus-flower, loaves of bread, joints of meat,
&c. The legend is in the hieratic writing typical of the Hyksos period,
and reads:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

‘Ihŷ comes in the boat of Sokaris; to him has been granted
justification.[56] He is favoured of the Lord of the Shrine.[57] A
_perkheru_-offering in bread and wild fowl to the veteran in the
presence of Ptah, Ihŷ, justified.’

Below the figure of deceased is:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Homage before the Barque of Sokaris,
viewing the beauties of the Holy Ship, adoring at his coming forth,
joyous among the glorified Spirits, the veteran Ihŷ, Lord (of
Worthiness).’

Below the figure is [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘The Veteran Ihŷ,
justified.’

90. Wooden stela of an unknown lady (Pl. LXXVI. 3). The stucco has
mostly peeled off, and only the representation of the offerings (on
right side) are well preserved. The figure of the deceased is almost
entirely destroyed, and only the beginning of the inscription is
preserved: [Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘M...... comes......’

88. Wooden stela of the [Illustration: hieroglyph] (Pl. LXXV), ‘One held
worthy by Ptah-Sokar, the Lord of the Shrine,[58] the Steward ......y,
justified.’ In the legend the name of the deceased is destroyed, and the
title ‘steward’ is partly broken. The figure shows the deceased standing
with a staff in his left hand.

54. Pot of burnt clay (Pl. LXXIV. D) with two lines of hieratic text
giving the beginning of a rough draft for a letter:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

‘Harmose to Ahhotep, Life, Wealth, Health, and the Favour of Amon-Re!
Behold, I have not found ... I have permitted that something be brought
to me.’

The break in the middle of the second line makes the meaning of the text
impossible to interpret.

Regarding the date, it is to be noted that the script is typical of the
late Hyksos period, or of the beginning of the XVIIIth Dynasty, and may
be compared with that of the Papyrus Ebers.

26. Writing tablet of wood covered with stucco (Pls. LXXVII., LXXVIII.).
The text on the obverse contains a letter, perhaps not an original
document, but an exercise. This supposition is borne out by the fact
that the text on the reverse of the tablet is written in a clumsy
handwriting.

The beginning of the text can be restored by the help of an ostracon in
the Berlin Museum (P. 12366); the lacunae at the beginning of lines 8-10
are, however, wanting. The text is, moreover, very faulty, so that the
following translation, in which I was fortunate enough to have Prof.
Erman’s help, is only given with reservations:--

[Illustration: hieroglyph]

‘(1) The servant speaks to his lord, [from whom he desires to receive
life, prosperity, and health] throughout the length (2) of eternity, for
ever, just as [this] servant[59] desires. Mayest thou be justified
before (3) the Spirits[60] of Heliopolis and before the gods. [_May they
grant thee_] all good [_things_] every day, (4) as I desire it, so that
[_all_] thy affairs [_under the protection_] of Month, (5) the Lord of
Thebes, may be as I desire; may Ptah, Lord of Memphis, rejoice his heart
(that of the person addressed) with a very good life, (6) as well as a
good old age, and that he may attain to a state of worthiness, so that
his worthiness may come before Month, (7) Lord of Thebes, as I desire
it, in peace, and great comfort. But this letter [(8) _which thou hast
written me, as far as that is concerned, give thyself_] with regard to
it, [_no anxiety_]. I shall be of thy mind. Mayest thou be gracious
towards (?) NBT ... (9)......... this......, causing to send out ...
(10)...... with myrrh of Punt and pleasing odours of God’s Land,[61]
(11) clothed in the _d’jw_-garment, which (?) I make. The poor man, he
sees (12)............ thou seest thy wife there ill[62] as she weeps
(13) over thee. She weeps over thee. Thy fish of the night, thy bird of
the (14) day.’

This unintelligible passage contains a play on words between _rmj_,
‘weeping’ (Coptic [Illustration: Coptic script]), and _rm_, ‘fish’
(Coptic, Boh. [Illustration: Coptic script]): the last words have indeed
passed into a proverb.

The reverse of the tablet was much written over, and in places it is
obvious that there have been erasures. In two places were portions of
repetitions of the text on the obverse (lines 11, 12), also a list of
names in the same handwriting, showing that it was all the work of the
same person, like the text on the reverse of 21.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] ‘Three people were concerned--

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amenemheb,

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amen-em-ene,

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amon-neb,

[Illustration: hieroglyph][63]........ (a woman),

[Illustration: hieroglyph]....... (a woman),

[Illustration: hieroglyph] [Amen]-nekht (a man),

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Beki (a man).’

21. Small writing tablet of wood covered with stucco (Pl. LXXVI. 1 and
2). At the left side of the obverse is a hole for a string. The reverse
is mended with a piece of bark.

Obverse:--[Illustration: hieroglyph][64]

The text is badly damaged, the most intelligible is the second line: ‘If
the boy comes to the barrack if he be weeping....’ Evidently, from first
to last, this text concerns a nurse. The reverse contains a list of four
names which, as we have already mentioned, occur also in the text of No.
26, and in the same handwriting.

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amenemheb,

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amen-nekht,

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amen-em-ene,

[Illustration: hieroglyph] Amen-neb.



CHAPTER XIV

VEGETABLE REMAINS FOUND IN THE EXCAVATIONS

(PL. LXXIX)

BY PERCY E. NEWBERRY


Fig. 1. Fig baskets composed of leaves of the Date Palm (_Phoenix
dactylifera_, L.).

  Fig. 2. A. Some species of Compositae not identified.
          B. Leaves of the Persea tree (_Mimusops Schimperi_, Hochst.).
          C. Leaves of the Grape Vine (_Vitis vinifera_, L.).
          D. Stones of the _Balanites aegyptiaca_, Del.
          E. Fruit of the Persea tree (_Mimusops Schimperi_, Hochst.).
          F. Fruit of the Sycomore Fig (_Ficus Sycomorus_, L.).
          G. Young fruit of the Date Palm (_Phoenix dactylifera_, L.).
          H. Mature fruits of _Balanites aegyptiaca_, Del.

With the exception of the fragments of flower-stalks (Fig. 2 A) of some
species of Compositae, the specimens figured here are all of well-known
ancient Egyptian plants. Two of them, the _Mimusops Schimperi_ and the
_Balanites aegyptiaca_, are not now known in Egypt proper.



INDEX


A

Aah-hetep, funerary statuette of, 20.
  called Ta-nezem, 74.

Aahmes, funerary statuette of, 20.
  coffin bearing name of, 84.
  Mayor, 32.

Aahmes-nefert-ari, mother of, 3.
  earliest portrait of, 2.
  wall of, 11, 28.
  bricks of, 11, 30.

Aahmes-sa-pa-ar, funerary statuette of, 20.

Abdu, contemporary of Hyksos kings, referred to, 66.

Adze, model of, 31, 40.

Ahat, 49.

Ah-hotep, letter to, 90.
  treasure of Queen, referred to, 37.

Ahmosi, 37.

Amen-em-ene, 92.

Amenemhat IV, name on casket, 6, 56.

Amenemhat, 29.

Amenemheb, statuette of, 75, 92.

Amenhetep I, wall of, 11, 28.
  bricks of, 11, 30.
  scarab of, 8, 72.

Amenhetep II, brick of, 50.

Amenhetep, scribe of the altar, 29.

Amenhetep-en-auf, 25.

Amen-nekht, 92.

Amen-renpet, overseer of workmen, 50.

Amenti-figures, in wax, 25.

Amphorae, buried under graves, 8, 43.

Amulet, _ka-hetep_, 87.

Amulets, Middle Kingdom, 53.

Amuletic necklaces, 60, 80, 82, 85.

Ana, mother of Kemen, 56.

Ankhu, coffin fragment bearing name of, 52.

Antef, funerary statuette of, 20.

Arrows, fragments of, 87.

Asiatics, mentioned, 36.

Assa, King, mentioned, 36.

Atef, funerary statuette of, 20.

Atef-s-senb, 63.

Auf-aa-hor, Mayor of Thebes, 49.

Auy-res, stela of, 62.

Auy-senb, 63.

Avaris, mentioned, 36.

Axe, model of, 31.


B

Bag, small linen, 76.

Bak-en-Khonsu, royal scribe, 49.

_Balanites aegyptiaca_, 28, 94.

Bangles, bead, 70, 78, 82, 84, 85, 86.

Baskets, rush-work, 72, 74, 75, 78, 84.

Batten, weaver’s, 61.

Beads, Middle Kingdom, 53, 59, 60, 71, 87.
  sprinkled in mummy wrappings, 70.

Bead-work upon leather, 32.

Bedstead (angarib), 51.

Beki, 92.

Birâbi, 4.

Bird-trap, 77.

Black soil, pit filled with, 63.

Bladder-stone found in mummy, 71.

Boat, model of, 51.

Bowl, alabaster, 80, 83.
  faience, 52, 80.

Bracelet, ivory, 81.

Brick, name of, on stone, 41.

Brick-mould, model of, 31.

Brooch, _shen_, 55.

Burials, undisturbed, 10, 23, 24, 86.
  concealed by officials, 65.
  stored in tomb, 64.
  in decorated rectangular coffins, 70, 78, 81, 82.
  in plain rectangular gable-topped coffins, 71, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86.
  in plain rectangular flat-topped coffins, 73, 78, 79, 81, 82, 85, 86.
  in plain rectangular grid-bottomed coffins, 79, 80.
  in dug-out coffins, 61, 78.
  in _Rîshi_ coffins, 70, 71, 82, 83, 84.
  in plain anthropoid coffins, 70, 78, 79.
  in semi-decorated anthropoid coffins, 70, 83.
  in decorated anthropoid coffins, 73, 74, 84, 85.
  children’s, 26, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 86.
  reed, 50.
  rush, 34, 50.


C

Campbell, Rev. Dr. Collin, 26.

Canopic box, 35;
  jar lid, 61.

Carnarvon Papyri, I and II, 43, 46.
  Tablets, I, II, III, IV, 4, 34, 36, 70, 77, 78, 90, 92.

Casket, ivory, ebony, and cedar-wood, 6, 7, 54, 55.

Castanets, ivory, 86, 87.

Chairs, 50, 72.

Chignon, 84.

Chisel, of chert, 10.
  model of, 31.

Circular pit, 63.

Coffins of Heq-Tau, referred to, 67.
  decorated rectangular, 66.
  rectangular with gable top, 66.
    with flat top, 67.
    with grid bottoms, 67.
  ‘dug-out’, 30, 61, 68.
  _Rîshi_, 60, 62, 68.
  anthropoid, plain, 68.
  decorated anthropoid, 25, 68.
  children’s, 26, 69.

Coinage, preservation of, in Upper Egypt, 44.

Coins, Ptolemaic, 8, 43, 44.

Combs, 82, 84, 85.

Cones, pottery, 10, 22, 24.

Copts, dwelling in tombs, 9, 22.

Cowroid seals, 32, 71, 78, 80, 82, 85.

Crucible, for smelting metal, model of, 36.

Cynocephalous ape, clay figure of, 76.


D

Dancers, _MW_-, 17.

Date-cakes, in amphora, 43.

Dedut-res, 63.

Demotic ostraca, 47.
  papyri, 8, 43, 46.

Dice, 58.

Dog, playing piece of a game, 56.

Dôm-palm nuts, 81.

Doorways closed and sealed, 23, 24, 65.

Draught-board, 36.

Dwellings for workmen, 11, 29.
  for embalmers, 27.


E

Earrings, gold, 80, 86.

Edgar, Mr., referred to, 42.

Epiphanes, Ptolemaios, 8, 46.

Erde-en-ptah, 63.

Erman, Prof., referred to, 26, 90.

Ethiopia, mentioned, 36.

Euergetes I, 47.

Excavations, at Birâbi, 4, 34.
  at Dêr el Bahari, 9, 22.
  near village mosque, 2.


F

Fan, handle and clasp of, 72.

Feretories for animals, 49.

Fig-baskets, 33.

Fillet of copper, 87.
  gold, 55.
  leaves, 25.

Forceps, 61, 72, 74.

Foundation deposits: Dêr el Bahari dromos, 4, 30, 33.
  implements placed separate, 31.
  of Rameses IV, 9, 48.
  of tomb, 28.
  of ‘valley’-temple, 4, 39.

Frog, steatite, glazed, 52.

Funerary statuettes, discovered in position, 3, 13, 19.
  as guardians to tomb, 13, 19.
  found in tomb of Teta-ky, 19.


G

Gaming-board, 7, 56.

Gardiner, Mr. A. H., referred to, 36.

_Gemmez_ (sycomore-fig), 11.

Girdle, bead, 85.

Glue, 56, 57.

‘Good’ festival mentioned on stone blocks, 41.

Grain in foundation deposit, 30, 38, 48.

Graver, model of, 31.


H

Hair, locks of, 72, 84.
  plaited, 55, 84, 85.

Hair-pin of ivory, 84.

Hammers of chert, 10.

Harmachis, King, 46.

Harmose, letter of, 90.

Hathor cow, 3, 16.

Hatshepsût, Queen, bricks stamped with her name, 40.
  ‘valley’-temple of, 4.
  tally-stone of, 40.
  scarab of, 8, 73.
  _Nebti_-name of, on deposit, 31.
  measured temple for Amon, 31.
  foundation deposits, 30, 33, 40.

Head-rests, 61, 67, 71, 81, 84.

Hent, 7.

Henut, the Lady, 55.

_Henŷt_, coffin fragment of, 87.

Hieroglyphs, mutilated, 55, 61.

Hoe, 40;
  model of, 31.

Hone for sharpening, 72, 83.

Hor, Priest of Amen, 49.

Hor-kheb, priest, 49.

Hor-se-Ast, Governor of Thebes, 49.

Horus, variant sign for, 85.

Hounds _contra_ jackals, the game of, 58.

Hu-uben-ef, statuette of, 75.

Hyksos scarabs, 8, 72, 79.
  tablet relating to expulsion of, from Egypt, 4, 37.


I

Ihŷ, stela of, 89.

Implements, models of, in deposit, 5, 30, 31, 40.

Inscriptions on stone blocks, 39, 40.
  on vase, 90.

Instrument of wood, 76.

Ivory, bracelet of, 81.
  on toilet-box, 55.
  gaming-board, 56.
  castanets, 86, 87.


J

Jackals, playing pieces, 56.

Jar-rest, model of, 31.

Jar-seals, 32.

Jewel-boxes, 53, 80, 87.

Jones, Mr. Cyril, 30.


K

_Ka-hetep_ amulet, 87.

Kamosi, King, 4, 36.

Kati-nekht, canopic box of, 35.

Kemen, ‘keeper of the food department,’ 56.

Keriba, statuette of, 29.

Kha-em-hat, bas-relief from tomb of, 10.

Khety, coffin of, 52.

Knuckle-bones, 58, 76.

Kohl-box, 72.

Kohl-pot, 72, 83, 84, 85, 87.

Kohl-stick, 72, 74, 84.

Ky-nefer, shawabti figure of, 32.


L

Leaf offerings, 11.

Linen, mended mummy-wrappings, 26.

Linen purse, 76.

Lion, fragment of, in faience, 52.

Lock of hair in basket, 84.


M

Maartu, coffin and mummy of, 24, 25.

Mallet, mason’s, 40.
  model of, 31.

Maspero, Sir Gaston, referred to, 10.

Mechanical toy, 78.

Memphis, 36.

Men-hetep, name on pot, 52.

Mentu-hetep, 30.
  stones from temple of King, 4.
  coffin bearing name of, 85.

Mes-per, the Lady, 49.

Mezaiu (Nubians), mentioned, 37.

Mirrors, 7, 55, 72, 84.

Mortar-bed in tomb, 71.

Mummy-wrappings, 25, 69, 70.
  embroidered, 25.
  worn and mended, 25, 26.

Musical instruments, 70.
  stringed, 77, 82, 87.
  reed-pipes, 84.

_MW_-dancers, depicted in tomb-painting, 17.


N

Nanu-nes-her, the Lady, 25.

Naville, Prof., referred to, 68.

_Nebbek_-tree, fruits of, 31, 86.

Neb-ded-ra, scarab of, 81.

Necklaces, 7, 55, 59, 60, 71, 78, 80, 81, 86.

Necropolis, Middle Kingdom and Intermediate Period, 5, 51.

Nefer-ur, shawabti figure of, 50.

Neferu-ra, scarab of Princess, 8, 80.

Nekht-ef-mut, priest, 49.

Nekhtu, funerary statuette of, 20.

Nenen, scribe of the army, 61.

Nes-Khonsu-pa-khred, 49.

Nes-ta-nebt-Asheru, the Lady, 49.

Nicol, Mr. Erskine E., 68.


O

Obsidian, 7, 55, 60, 78.

Offerings to trees, 11, 29.
  dates, 49.
  flesh and blood, 5, 30, 31.
  flower, 24.
  leaf, 11, 49.
  votive, 11.

Office of clerk of the works of Dêr el Bahari Temple, 29.

Ornaments for mummy-wrappings, 53.

Osiride figure, 50.

Ox, bones of, 31.


P

Pachnumis, 46.

Pa-de-Amen, coffin of, 24.
  genealogy of, 26.

Pa-de-khonsu, 24.
  coffin of, 25.

Pa-khnems, funerary statuette of, 20.

Palette, scribe’s, 52, 61, 76.

Palm-tree, in front of tomb, 27.
  design on gaming-board, 57.

Pan-pottery, 77.

Panel stelae, 70, 87, 89.

Paos, 46.

Papyrus, demotic, 43, 46.
  hieratic, 30.
  reeds, 78.

Pedemut, priest, 49.

Peg, model of, 31.

Pepa, 37.

Petamenophis, public notary, 46.

Petemestus, 46.

Petrie, Prof. Flinders, referred to, 68.

Philadelphos, 47.

P-ohi-n-p-mehen, 46.

Pomade (pomatum), 69, 84.

Portcullis to sarcophagus chamber, 22.

Pottery, XIth Dyn., 28.
  Middle Kingdom, 53, 60.
  Intermediate Period, 87.
  XVIIth Dyn., 35.
  XVIIIth Dyn., 31, 32.

Proverbs of Ptah-hetep, 4, 36.

Psenesis, herdsman, 46.

Ptolemaic coins, 44.

Pu-am-ra, hieratic inscriptions of, 4, 39.


Q

Quibell, Mr. J. E., referred to, 58.


R

Ra-hotep, funerary statuette of, 19, 20.

Rameses IV, colonnade, 8, 9, 48.
  foundation deposit, 9, 48.
  variants of cartouches of, 48.

Razor, copper, 78, 83.

Reed-burial, 50.

Reed-pen case, 75.

Relatives of Teta-ky, 19.

Ren-senb, coffin of, 7, 54.
  mirror of, 55.
  scarab of the herald, 69, 74.

Res, funerary statuette of, 19, 20.

Reth-ar-es, 25.

Rhind, Mr., referred to, 10.

_Rîshi_ coffins, 7, 17, 32, 60, 62, 68.
  model coffin like, 50.

Roast meat, the word for, in hieratic, 31.

Rope of Dôm-palm fibre, 71.

Rush-burial, 50.


S

Sacrifice, animal, 28.

Sa-Hathor, 63.

Saite burials, undisturbed, 10, 23.

Sale agreements, 46, 47.

Sandals, 28, 72.

Satin, 37.

Scarab-seals, tied on arm, 26.
  position when worn as ring, 70.
  of Middle Kingdom, 7, 53.
  XIIIth Dyn., 8.
  Amenhetep I, 72.
  Thothmes I, 81.
  Thothmes II, 81.
  Thothmes III, 80.
  Neferu-ra, 8, 80.
  Neb-ded-ra, 81.
  Ren-senb, 74.
  of red jasper, 73, 80.
  of green jasper, 72.
  of blue paste, 74.
  of green paste, 80.
  of steatite, glazed, 26, 53, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87.
  of steatite, unburnt, 74.
  of amethyst, 53.

Sceptre, bronze snake, 85.

Scribe’s outfit, 70, 75.

Sealed doorway in tomb, 65.

Sebek, Lord of Illahun, 7, 56.

Sebek-hetep, _Uab_-priest, 63.

Sedemt, 50.

Sena, funerary statuette of, 20.

Senba, the Lady, 15.

Senbu, funerary statuette of, 19, 20.

Senmut, name of, on stone block, 4, 41.

Sen-senb, funerary statuette of, 19, 20.

Sep-en-urdet, the Lady, 63.

Sent, the Lady, 55.

_Sent_-sign on stone blocks, 41.

Sent-nw-pw, the Lady, 63.

Serpentine wall, 30.

Sheikh Abd El Kurneh, tomb of, 11.

Shrines for animals, 49.

Sieves, models of, 31.

Sinaitic ibex, sketch of, 32.

Sites excavated, 2.

Slab for washing, 30.

Sledge, mummy depicted upon a, 17.

Smelting crucibles for metals, 31.

Snake sceptre, 85.

Sphinx, bronze, 76.

Staff, walking, 74, 81, 83.

Statuettes, 21, 23, 29, 52, 75, 87.

Stones from Dêr el Bahari temple, 9.
  Mentu-hetep’s temple, 4.

Stool, wicker-work, 29.
  wooden, 71, 72, 79.

Structure of mud brick unknown, 64.


T

Ta-aa, the Lady, 49.

Ta-bak-en-ta-Ashat-qa, 49.

Table of offerings, 21.

Tahuti, funerary statuette of, 20.
  coffin bearing name of, 74.

Tahutimes, funerary statuette of, 21.

Tahutŷ-aah, funerary statuette of, 21.

Ta-nezem (see Aah-hetep).

Tekenu, transport of, depicted, 17.

Teta, son of Pepa, 37.

Teta, funerary statuette of, 21.

Teta-an, funerary statuette of, 19, 21.

Teta-ankh, funerary statuette of, 21.

Teta-em-ra, funerary statuette of, 19, 21.

Teta-hemt, funerary statuette of, 21.
  mother of Aahmes-nefert-ari, 3, 16.

Teta-ky, tomb of, 2, 12, 14.
  Mayor of Thebes, 21.
  funerary statuettes of, 21.
  table of offerings of, 21.

Teta-mesu, funerary statuette of, 21.

Teta-nefer, funerary statuette of, 19, 21.

Teta-sa, funerary statuette of, 21.

Teta-senb, funerary statuette of, 21.

Thothmes I, brick of, 40.
  scarabs of, 8, 81.
  seals of, on doorway, 8, 65.

Thothmes II, scarabs, 8, 81.

Thothmes III, brick of, 50.
  receiving nourishment from tree, 11.
  scarabs of, 8, 80.

Throw-stick, 80.

Toilet-box, 55.

Tombs re-used in Intermediate Period, 6.

Torso, in limestone, 33.

Tortoise-shell, 76.

Toy, child’s, 32.
  mechanical, 78.

Turtle, amulet, 82.


U

Unguent vase, 48.

Unguents in foundation deposit, 5, 30.

Userhat, royal scribe, 29.


V

‘Valley’-temple, 4, 38.

Vases, alabaster, 56, 85.

Vases, black pottery, 81, 82, 85.
  inscribed, 81, 90.

Vaulted graves, Ptolemaic, 8, 42.

Vegetable remains, 94.

Vine leaves, 70.

Viscera boxes, 69, 73, 84.

Votive offerings, 11.


W

Walking staff, 74, 81, 83.

Weaver’s batten, 61.

Weights, 76.

Wheat, 27.

Wigs, 55, 70, 84.

Wine, 31.

Workmen’s washing slab, 30.

Wrappings, mummy, 25, 69, 70.

Wristlet, bead, 86.

Writing tablets, 70, 77, 78, 90, 92.


Y

Ŷma, funerary statuette of, 19, 20.

Ŷ-meru, 63.


Z

Zed-Aah, 49.

Zed-Amen-auf-ankh, stela of, 49.

Zed-Amen-uah-es, 49.

Zed-Khensu-auf-ankh, shawabti figure of, 32.

_Zeser-zeseru_, 4, 31, 40.

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. OPEN COURT-YARD]

[Illustration: 2. VAULTED CHAMBERS]

[Illustration: _PLAN OF THE TOMB OF TETAKY_]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. RIGHT WALL OF PAINTED NICHE]

[Illustration: 2. LEFT WALL OF PAINTED NICHE]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. CEILING DECORATION]

[Illustration: 2. CEILING DECORATION AND FRIEZE]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. _North Wall. Scenes =A= and =B=_]

[Illustration: 2. _North Wall. Scene =D=_]

[Illustration: 1. EASTERN WALL]

[Illustration: 2. WESTERN WALL]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. Southern Wall. Scene =A=]

[Illustration: 2. Southern Wall. Scene =A= (_continued_)]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. Southern Wall. Scene =A= (_continued_)]

[Illustration: 2. Southern Wall. Scene =B=]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. Southern Wall. Scene =C=]

[Illustration: 2. Southern Wall. Scenes =C= and =D=]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: 1. SHAWABTI FIGURE IN MODEL COFFIN]

[Illustration: 2. SHAWABTI FIGURE OF SEN-SENB]

TOMB OF TETA-KY

[Illustration: PLAIN WOOD MODEL COFFINS]

[Illustration: PLAIN MUD MODEL COFFINS]

[Illustration: DECORATED MUD MODEL COFFINS]

[Illustration: INSCRIBED MUD MODEL COFFINS]

[Illustration: 1. TABLE FOR OFFERINGS]

[Illustration: 2. FUNERARY STATUETTES]

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW SHOWING THE SITES EXCAVATED IN THE DÊR EL
BAHARI VALLEY]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: TOMB NO. 5 BEFORE OPENING]

[Illustration: TOMB NO. 5 AFTER OPENING]

[Illustration: DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

_PLAN OF
TOMB 5 SCALE 1/75_
]

[Illustration:

FIG 2. COFFINS NOS. 3 B AND 4 B
FIG. 3. COFFIN NO. 1 A      FIG. 1. COFFIN NO. 1 B

SERIES OF COFFINS FROM TOMB NO. 5]

[Illustration: 1. SCARAB ON MUMMY ARM. (TOMB NO. 5)]

[Illustration: 2. WREATH AND WAX AMULETS. (TOMB NO. 5)]

[Illustration: 3 COFFIN _in situ_ (TOMB No. 5)]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: 1 & 2. LIMESTONE STATUETTE. (TOMB NO. 4)]

[Illustration: 3. POTTERY FROM TOMBS NOS. 1-16]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: 1. FOUNDATIONS OF WALL OF AMENHETEP I AND
AAHMES-NEFERT-ARI, AND WORKMEN’S DWELLINGS]

[Illustration: 2. OFFERINGS TO A TREE]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: 1. ‘SERPENTINE’ WALL]

[Illustration: 2. BATHING SLAB]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: 1. OFFERINGS FROM THE DROMOS DEPOSIT]

[Illustration: 2. BRICK-LINED HOLE MADE FOR THE DROMOS DEPOSIT]

DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

[Illustration: 1. POTTERY FROM THE DROMOS DEPOSIT]

[Illustration: 2. IMPLEMENTS FROM THE DROMOS DEPOSIT]

[Illustration: 1. CHILD’S TOY]

[Illustration: 2. POTTERY FROM EXCAVATIONS]

[Illustration: 3. STAMPED BRICKS OF AMENHETEP I AND AAHMES-NEFERT-ARI]

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW OF DÊR EL BAHARI VALLEY

=A.= SITE OF ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE. =B= & =C.= DROMOS DEPOSITS]

TOMB NO. 9

[Illustration: 1. THREE SIDES OF A CANOPIC BOX]

[Illustration: 2. THREE CANOPIC JARS IN POTTERY]

TOMB NO. 9

[Illustration: 9.

1907-8

1]

[Illustration: 2.

POTTERY FROM TOMB NO. 9]

TOMB NO. 9

[Illustration: CARNARVON TABLET I. OBV.]

TOMB NO. 9

[Illustration: CARNARVON TABLET I. REV.]

TOMB NO. 9

[Illustration: 1. CARNARVON TABLET II. OBV.]

[Illustration: 2. CARNARVON TABLET II. REV.]

[Illustration: PLATE XXX

PLAN OF HATSHEPSÛT’S ‘VALLEY-TEMPLE AND NEIGHBOURING TOMBS]

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2

1 & 2. NORTHERN BOUNDARY WALL OF ‘VALLEY’-TEMPLE]

[Illustration: 1. TALLY-STONE OF HATSHEPSÛT]

[Illustration: 2. STAMPED BRICK OF QUEEN HATSHEPSÛT]

[Illustration: 3. WOODEN HOE]

[Illustration: 4. STAMPED BRICKS OF HATSHEPSÛT AND THOTHMES I]

PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES

[Illustration: VIEW OF PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES OVER SITE NO. 14]

[Illustration: 1. AMPHORAE BENEATH FLOOR OF VAULTED GRAVE]

[Illustration: 2. FAÇADE OF VAULTED GRAVE]

PTOLEMAIC VAULTED GRAVES

[Illustration: PAPYRUS CARNARVON I]

[Illustration: PAPYRUS CARNARVON I (_continued from_ PLATE XXXV)]

[Illustration: 1. DOCKET OF PAPYRUS]

[Illustration: 3. INSCRIBED POTSHERD]

[Illustration: 2. DOCKET OF PAPYRUS]

[Illustration: PAPYRUS CARNARVON II]

[Illustration: PAPYRUS CARNARVON II (_continued from_ PLATE XXXVIII)]

SITE NO. 40

[Illustration: FOUNDATION DEPOSIT OF RAMESES IV]

SITE NO. 14

[Illustration: XXIIND DYNASTY STELA]

[Illustration: 1. OSIRIDE FIGURE]

[Illustration: 2. MUD FERETORY OR SHRINE]

[Illustration: 3. REED BURIAL OF A MAN]

[Illustration: 4. THE UNDER-SIDE OF LID OF A WOODEN BOX WITH
INSCRIPTIONS]

[Illustration: 1, 2, & 3. FUNERARY STATUETTES AND MODEL COFFINS]

TOMB 24

[Illustration: 2. MUMMY DECORATION]

[Illustration: 1. STATUETTE OF ANKHU]

[Illustration: 4. FAIENCE BOWL]

[Illustration: 5. FAIENCE BOWL]

[Illustration: 3. WOODEN DOLL]

TOMB 24

[Illustration: 1. JEWEL-BOX]

[Illustration: 2. CONTENTS OF JEWEL-BOX]

[Illustration: 3. SCRIBE’S PALETTE]

[Illustration: 1. JEWEL-BOX]

[Illustration: 2. CONTENTS OF JEWEL-BOX]

TOMB 24

[Illustration: 1 & 2. POTTERY VESSELS AND PANS]

TOMB 25

[Illustration: 1. IVORY AND EBONY TOILET-BOX]

[Illustration: 2. THE SAME WITH DRAWER AND LID OPEN]

TOMB 25

[Illustration: 1. SCENE ENGRAVED ON THE FRONT OF THE TOILET-BOX]

[Illustration: 2. INSCRIPTIONS ON LID OF TOILET-BOX]

[Illustration: 1 & 2. GAMING-BOARD AND PLAYING PIECES IN IVORY]

[Illustration: 1. BLUE FAIENCE HIPPOPOTAMUS]

[Illustration: 2. OBSIDIAN AND GOLD NECKLACE; BRONZE, EBONY AND GOLD
MIRROR AND ‘SHEN’ BROOCH OF CORNELIAN AND GOLD]

TOMB 25

[Illustration: 1. ALABASTER VASES BELONGING TO THE TOILET-BOX]

[Illustration: 2. POTTERY FROM TOMB NO. 25]

[Illustration: 1. POT. (TOMB NO. 28)]

[Illustration: 2. POTTERY FROM TOMBS NOS. 31 TO 34]

[Illustration: 3. RÎSHI COFFIN. (TOMB NO. 32)]

[Illustration: 4. DUG-OUT COFFINS. (TOMB NO. 29)]

[Illustration: 5. POTTERY FROM TOMBS NOS. 29, 29A, AND 29B]

TOMBS 27 & 31

[Illustration: STELA OF THE ‘KEEPER OF THE BOW’ AUY-RES]

TOMBS 27 & 31

[Illustration: STELA OF THE ‘KEEPER OF THE BOW’ AUY-RES]

[Illustration: TOMB Nº 37.

SCALE 1/167]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: CENTRAL PASSAGE SHOWING CLOSED DOORWAY OF HALL C]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: NORTH WING OF CORRIDOR SHOWING CLOSED DOORWAY OF CHAMBER A]

[Illustration: 1. SEAL IMPRESSIONS ON DOORWAY OF CHAMBER A]

[Illustration: 2. INTERIOR OF CHAMBER A]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. CHAMBER B BEFORE OPENING]

[Illustration: 2. CHAMBER B AFTER OPENING]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. DECORATED RECTANGULAR COFFINS]

[Illustration: 2. PLAIN RECTANGULAR COFFINS]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. CHILDREN’S COFFINS AND VISCERAE BOXES]

[Illustration: 2. PLAIN ANTHROPOID, ‘DUG-OUT’ AND SEMI-DECORATED
ANTHROPOID COFFINS]

[Illustration: 1. RÎSHI COFFINS]

[Illustration: 2. DECORATED ANTHROPOID COFFINS OF THE NEW EMPIRE]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: DECORATED ANTHROPOID COFFIN OF THE NEW EMPIRE]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. RUSH-WORK BASKETS]

[Illustration: 2. MECHANICAL TOY BIRD AND BIRD TRAP]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. TOILET SET]

[Illustration: 2. FAN-HOLDER, KOHL-POT, &C.]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: SCRIBE’S OUTFIT]

[Illustration: 1. ELECTRUM STATUETTE]

[Illustration: 2. STATUETTES LYING IN COFFIN NO. 24]

[Illustration: 3. WOODEN STATUETTE]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. OBJECTS FROM DECORATED RECTANGULAR COFFINS]

[Illustration: 2. OBJECTS FROM PLAIN RECTANGULAR COFFINS]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. OBJECTS FROM A RECTANGULAR GABLE-TOPPED COFFIN]

[Illustration: 2. OBJECTS FROM PLAIN RECTANGULAR COFFIN]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. OBJECTS FROM RÎSHI COFFINS]

[Illustration: 2. OBJECTS FROM RÎSHI COFFINS]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 1. CHAIR AND STOOL]

[Illustration: 2. _Musical Instruments_]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: SCARABS, COWROIDS, AND RINGS]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: BEAD NECKLACES, BANGLES, AND BRACELET]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: POTTERY VESSELS]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: PANEL STELAE]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: 3. PANEL STELA]

[Illustration: 1. WRITING TABLET. NO. 28, REV.]

[Illustration: 2. WRITING TABLET. NO. 28, OBV.]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: WRITING TABLET. NO. 26, OBV.]

TOMB 37

[Illustration: WRITING TABLET. NO. 26, REV.]

[Illustration: 1. FIG BASKETS]

[Illustration: 2. BOTANICAL SPECIMENS]


FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Birâbi_ is the plural of _birba_, an ‘ancient temple’, but here the
name is locally used more for a ‘vaulted tomb’, of which many occur in
the district.

[2] Unfortunately the inscription above the lady is mutilated, but the
personal name, Teta-hemt, is preceded by a [Illustration: hieroglyph]
_t_ and an [Illustration: hieroglyph] _s_. The _s_, as Professor
Newberry has pointed out to me, must be the 3rd pers. sing. suffix _s_
‘her’, and he would suggest the restoration [Illustration: hieroglyph]
_mt-s_, ‘her mother’. An alternative reading would be [Illustration:
hieroglyph] _snt-s_, ‘her sister’, but the usual writing of this group
is with [Illustration: hieroglyph] _n_: thus [Illustration: hieroglyph].
[Illustration: hieroglyph] _sat-s_, ‘her daughter’, is very improbable.

[3] Among this group are several tombs which may perhaps be referred to
a slightly later date.

[4] This was demonstrated by the presence of stone chippings bearing
fragments of the temple paintings that had been chipped off in refacing.

[5] The earliest inscribed specimens known bear the cartouches of Aahmes
I.

[6] In Spiegelberg and Newberry’s _Theban Necropolis_ (p. 8) there is
upon a stela a prayer which reads: ‘May every one love him if he is
spreading water upon the leaves before my stela.’

[7] Naville, _Archaeological Report_, 1894-5, p. 37.

[8] In India the Sacred Fig (_Ficus religiosa_) is venerated by the
natives, who will not allow the tree to suffer mutilation or
destruction.

[9] Loret, _Le tombeau de Thoutmes III_, Pl. 6.

[10] Newberry, _Beni Hasan_, I, pp. 20, 29, 37.

[11] Carter and Newberry, _Tomb of Thoutmosis IV_, pp. 9, 10.

[12] On the early history of these Model Sarcophagi and Statuettes see
Spiegelberg and Newberry’s _Theban Necropolis_, pp. 26-9.

[13] The Rev. Dr. Collin Campbell, who was with me at the time we
discovered these coffins, kindly translated the formulae upon them.

[14] Erman, _A Handbook of Egyptian Religion_, p. 137.

[15] Cf. similar tazza Pl. XVIII. 12.

[16] Carter, _Tomb of Hâtshopsítû_, Chap. VI, and Carter and Newberry,
_Tomb of Thoutmosis_, pp. 1-5, Nos. 46001-46035.

[17] The deposit of implements was missing in this case.

[18] Jequier, _Le Papyrus Prisse et ses variantes_ (Pap. Brit. Mus.
10371 and 10435, Tablette Carnarvon au Caire), Paris, 1910; Maspero,
_Recueil_, Vol. XXXI, p. 146.

[19] The tablet is made of wood covered with stucco of fine plaster for
a writing surface.

[20] Edgar, _Cat. Gen. C. M. Graeco-Egyptian Coffins_, pp. ii, iii.

[21] I hope to publish a full translation of both texts with commentary
shortly.

[22] For this translation thanks are due to Professor Newberry.

[23] The translation is due to Professor Newberry.

[24] Found in second sifting.

[25] This was part of the toilet-box, Pls. XLVIII-IX.

[26] See Coffin-tomb No. 27.

[27] In the Cairo Museum eight similar vases belonging to a toilet-box
bear the names of sacred oils, Nos. 18652-8.

[28] In the Cairo Museum is a wooden tray for mirror with two hollows or
receptacles for materials for polishing (?) mirror face, No. 44012.

[29] Petrie, _Kahun, Gurob and Hawara_, Pl. XVI, p. 30, a similar
gaming-board in pottery.

[30] For knuckle-bones see group No. 25, tomb No. 37. Cp. Quibell,
_Excavations Saqqara_, p. 114, Pl. LXIII. Dice: I have found three
specimens among objects from the rubbish heaps of the temple of Dêr el
Bahari, and as there were no antiquities here that could be later than
the XVIIIth Dynasty, one is led to suppose that the dice are of the same
date. Two of the dice were of clay and one was made of limestone.

[31] For the numerical order of the holes see Fig. 14. Only one piece
aside can be played at a time, as if more they might win the same hole
and hence clash; and only one die used.

[32] This is known by some adhering to one another when found.

[33] See Tomb 24, Pl. XLVI, Fig. 2 G, and amulet necklace of Vth
Dynasty, Petrie, _Deshasheh_, Pl. XLVI. This type of necklace seems
almost a necessary adjunct to the dead in the earlier periods.

[34] See Tomb 24, Pl. XLVI. A.

[35] See example Pl. LIII. 4.

[36] See figure found in Tomb No. 54.

[37] Feathered.

[38] Poulterer (?).

[39] Opposite Tomb No. 27.

[40] 22·50 metres = 74 ft. approximate.

[41] Not numbered or excavated yet.

[42] It has been suggested that it was made for a tree, but no vegetable
remains were found here, and it seems too deep for such a purpose.

[43] Maspero, _Guide C. M._, 1911, pp. 386, 510, and Lacau, _Cat. Gen.
C. M._, No. 28108.

[44] _Annales_, 1903, Tome IV, p. 70. A coffin of a certain Heq-Tau.
‘The bottom of the coffin is divided into small compartments by a kind
of wooden frame or trellis, each division being filled with earth,
probably representing cultivated land.’

[45] An Arabic expression introduced by Vassalli.

[46] See specimen, Mariette’s _Monuments divers_, Pl. LI, coffin of
Aqhor. Another specimen was found in Tomb 27 in 1910 (Pl. LIII. 3).

[47] Petrie, _Qurneh_, 1909, pp. 6-9, Pls. XXII-XXIX.

[48] Naville, _Bubastis_, 1887-9, and Petrie, _History of Egypt_, I,
Figs. 142-3.

[49] My attention was drawn to this fact by Professor Spiegelberg.

[50] The three examples given in this illustration are the types found
among the many necklaces belonging to the basket that was found lying in
the coffin.

[51] For the actual positions of the objects refer to plan of tomb, Pl.
LV.

[52] See coffin No. 23.

[53] These seeds, too far gone to be recognized, are shown in Pl. LXVI,
above the figure of the ape.

[54] See No. 16.

[55] See 73.

[56] The justified dead.

[57] i.e. the god Sokaris.

[58] The god of the dead of Memphis (Saqqarah).

[59] [Illustration: hieroglyph] The familiar alternative for ‘I’. In the
following it can therefore be translated by ‘I’.

[60] That is to say, ‘gods.’

[61] Probably southern Arabia.

[62] Read [Illustration: hieroglyph].

[63] The names following remain visible from the previous inscription.

[64] Possibly [Illustration: hieroglyph].





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