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Title: An Account of the Insects Noxious to Agriculture and Plants in New Zealand - The Scale Insects (Coccididae)
Author: Maskell, W. M.
Language: English
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Transcriber Notes

Emphasized text displayed as: _Italic_ and =Bold=



  AN ACCOUNT

  OF THE

  INSECTS NOXIOUS TO AGRICULTURE AND PLANTS

  IN

  NEW ZEALAND.


  THE SCALE-INSECTS

  (COCCIDIDÆ).


  By W. M. MASKELL, F.R.M.S.,

  REGISTRAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW ZEALAND.

  WELLINGTON:
  BY AUTHORITY: GEO. DIDSBURY, GOVERNMENT PRINTER.
  1887.


Mr. Maskell's Account of the Scale-Insects occurring in New Zealand is
published by the State Forests and Agricultural Department, under the
instructions of the Hon. John Ballance, Commissioner of State Forests.

  Wellington, 31st March, 1887.



CONTENTS.


  Chapter.                                                        Page

       Glossary of Terms and Phrases                                 1

    I. Introductory                                                  5

   II. Characters, Life-history, and Metamorphoses of Coccididæ      8

  III. Products of the Coccididæ (Honeydew; Black Fungus)           14

   IV. Checks to Increase of Coccididæ, Parasites, etc.             18

    V. Remedies against Coccididæ                                   24

   VI. Catalogue of Insects and Diagnosis of Species                37

              Groups--
                  Diaspidinæ                                        39
                  Lecanidinæ                                        62
                  Hemicoccidinæ                                     87
                  Coccidinæ                                         88

  Index of Plants and the Coccididæ attacking each                 111

  Index of Genera and Species                                      115



PREFACE.


The number and variety of the insect pests which live on the plants of
New Zealand, whether native or introduced, and the damage which they
frequently do, form the excuse for the appearance of this work. The
descriptions of these insects in the Transactions of the New Zealand
Institute, or in works published in Europe and America, are not easily
accessible to the general reader, and are also much scattered and
fragmentary. It was thought therefore that the time had arrived when
the information which might be useful to gardeners and tree-growers,
as well as to students, might be summarized and brought together in a
compendious form, and the present volume is an attempt towards this.

In order to render this work complete a second volume is necessary,
which should include the large number of other destructive insects
preying upon various plants. For example, the "pine-blight"
(_Kermaphis_), the "American blight" (_Eriosoma_), the "black leech"
(_Tenthredo_), the cabbage caterpillar, the turnip "fly," the various
aphides on roses, geraniums, &c., the grass-grub (_Odontria_), the
codlin-moth, the borers, weevils, wireworms, and a number of others are
in different places damaging trees and plants, and it would be useful
to collect in one volume information regarding them. The author has had
in contemplation the preparation of such a volume, and it is hoped that
it may be at some future time published.

Meanwhile the present is offered as, at least as far as it goes, a full
description of one of the most general as well as the most noxious
families of plant-parasites. The plates have been especially prepared
with a double object: first, that gardeners and tree-growers might be
able easily to recognize the kind of insect which might happen to
be damaging their plants; and, secondly, that the student who should
desire to know more of this curious family might have enough details
indicated to guide him in his investigation. For the first purpose
the figures have been coloured as near to nature as possible; for the
second a few anatomical details have been introduced. The printing
of these plates has been executed by Mr. Potts, lithographer to Mr.
A. Willis, of Wanganui, and it is hoped that the reader may be well
satisfied with the care and trouble which have been bestowed upon them.

The author is sensible that this volume may contain numerous
imperfections; but these will not, he trusts, be attributed to culpable
ignorance or carelessness.



EXPLANATION OF TERMS USED IN THE FOLLOWING PAGES.


  _Abdomen._ The posterior half of the body of male or female, whether
       joined to the anterior half or slightly separated, segmented or
       not.

  _Abdominal cleft._ A narrow slit in the extremity of the abdomen of
       Lecanidinæ and the full-grown _Hemicoccidinæ_ only. (Plate ix.,
       Fig. 1, _b_, _c_.) On the upper side of the body are seen the

  _Abdominal lobes_, two minute, divergent, triangular or conical,
       excrescences, one on each side of the cleft, in _Lecanidinæ_,
       usually bearing one or more hairs. (Plate xi., Fig. 3, _b_, _c_.)

  _Abdominal spike._ A more or less long, tubular or semi-tubular,
       pointed process terminating the abdomen of the male in all
       species, and serving as a sheath for the penis, which is a long,
       white, soft tube with recurved hairs. (Plate ii., Fig. 3; Plate
       xxi., Fig. 1, _k_.)

  _Anal ring, anogenital ring._ An orifice situated near the abdominal
       extremity of the female, either simple or compound, hairless or
       bearing several hairs. (Plate ii., Fig. 1.)

  _Anal tubercles._ Exhibited only by the _Coccidinæ_ and by the larvæ
       of _Hemicoccidinæ_: two more or less conspicuous projecting
       processes at the abdominal extremity of the female, without any
       cleft, and in most instances projecting beyond the edge; usually
       bearing setæ. (Plate ii., Fig. 2, _c_, _d_.)

  _Antennæ._ Two jointed organs ("feelers") projecting from the
       anterior portion of the body, of variable length. (Plate i.,
       Figs. 9, 10, 11, types.)

  _Apodous._ Without feet.

  _Apterous._ Without wings.

  _Bucca_, _buccal_. The mouth; belonging to the mouth.

  _Carina_, _carinated_. A keel or raised-ridge; keeled.

  _Cephalic region._ That part of the insect, male or female, which
       bears the eyes, antennæ, and mouth, but not including the first
       pair of feet.

  _Clavate._ Club-shaped; somewhat knobbed.

  _Claw._ The hooked terminating joint of the foot. (Plate i., Fig. 6,
       _cl._, type.)

  _Coxa._ The first joint of the foot, springing directly from the
       under-side of the thoracic region. (Plate i., Figs. 6 _c_, 7
       _c_.)

  _Digitules._ Appendages observed on the feet, and often useful for
       distinguishing species. Usually there are two pairs. The "upper
       pair" spring from the upper side of the extremity of the tarsus,
       and are generally long, fine hairs, terminating in a knob. The
       "lower pair" spring from the base of the claw, and are usually
       broader and more trumpet-shaped than the upper ones. (Plate i.,
       Fig. 8, type.) Sometimes either pair, or both, may be absent.
       In _Cœlostoma wairoense_ there are no "upper" digitules, and 24
       "lower" ones on the foot of the male. (Plate xxi.)

  _Dimerous._ Two-jointed.

  _Dorsum._ The upper side of the body when the insect is in its
       natural position.

  _Dorsal._ On the upper side or dorsum.

  _Eyes._ Two coloured, granular or simple, round organs on the
       cephalic region of the female, near the base of the antennæ
       (Plate xiv., Fig. 2, _k_.; Plate xx., _b_); two, or four,
       coloured, granular, simple or facetted, on the head of the male
       (Plate i., Figs. 14, 15; Plate xxi., Fig. 2, _b_).

  _Femur._ The second joint of the feet, next the coxa, joined to it by
       the false joint "trochanter." (Plate i., Figs. 6 _f_, 7 _f_.)

  _Fringe._ A portion of the excreted substance, cotton or wax,
       produced by the spinnerets on the edge of the body in certain
       _Lecanidinæ_ and _Hemicoccidinæ_. It may be in the form of long
       glassy threads (_Planchonia_) or of more or less broad flat
       plates (_Ctenochiton_). (Plate vii., Figs. 2 _d_, 3 _a_; Plate
       xii., Fig. 2, _a_, _b_, _c_.)

  _Haltere._ A minute organ, situated just behind the wings of the
       males, and of which the use, either in this family or in the
       Diptera, has not been satisfactorily ascertained. It is often
       termed the "balancer." In the house-fly it has been thought
       to represent an organ of hearing. In Coccids it is furnished
       with one or more hooked bristles, and Mr. Comstock affirms that
       these are, probably for some purposes of flight, hooked into the
       posterior edges of the wings.[A] (Plate i., Fig. 17; Plate xxi.,
       Fig. 1, _m_.)

       [A] Report of the Entomologist, U.S. Dep. of Agric. 1880, p.
       277, note.

  _Honeydew._ A substance of a glutinous character produced by many
       species, and falling in spray from them on the leaves. (See
       Chap. III.)

  _Larva._ The first stage in the insect's life after emerging from the
       egg.

  _Lobes_, in the _Diaspidinæ_, are minute, flat, more or less rounded
       projections, two or more, seen on the edge of the abdominal
       extremity, usually interspersed with spines and hairs (Plate
       iii., Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5, _l_); in the _Lecanidinæ_, are two
       triangular or conical projections, usually bearing hairs, on the
       dorsal side of the body, one on each side of the abdominal cleft
       (Plate xi., Fig. 3, _b_, _c_).

  _Mentum._ A kind of secondary rostrum, or "under-lip," not altogether
       tubular, but rather a deepish trough, through which the rostral
       setæ pass after leaving the rostrum. It may have one, two, or
       three joints. It is not noticeable in the Diaspidinæ. (Plate i.,
       Fig. 5, _b_.)

  _Metamorphosis._ A change of form. For the number and characters of
       these see Chap. II.

  _Moniliform._ Like a string of beads.

  _Monomerous._ With a single joint.

  _Multilocular._ With several divisions: a term applied to the
       spinneret orifices of some insects, distinguishing them from
       "simple" orifices, which show only a single tube. Multilocular
       orifices exhibit a bundle of tubes enclosed together. (Plate i.,
       Fig. 4, _c_, _d_, _p_; Plate xviii., Fig. 2, _e_.)

  _Nervure._ A strong vein which, starting from the attachment of the
       wing of the male, runs along the anterior edge of the wing,
       a little within it: at about half its length a branch runs
       obliquely towards the posterior edge. (Plate i., 16; Plate xix.,
       _f_; Plate xxi.)

  _Normal._ According to rule--not exceptional.

  _Ocelli._ Two, four, or six minute circular simple organs, on
       the head of the male: probably organs of vision. In the
       _Monophlebidæ_ they would seem to be replaced by a smooth
       rounded protuberance behind the eye. (Plate i., Fig. 14, _oc._;
       Plate viii., Fig. 2, _k_, _m_; Plate xxi., Fig. 2, _b_.)

  _Ovisac._ The cottony bag or nest formed by certain species of
       _Lecanidinæ_ and _Coccidinæ_ for the reception of their eggs.
       (Plate xii., Fig. 1, _a_, _b_, _c_; Plate xix., _a_, _b_, _c_.)

  _Peduncle_, _pedunculated_. A stalk; stalked.

  _Pellicle._ The skin of an earlier stage, cast off at each
       metamorphosis; used by the _Diaspidinæ_ and by one genus of
       _Lecanidinæ_ in the formation of the puparium or test. (Plate
       i., Fig. 3, _a_, _b_; Plate vii., Fig. 2, _b_.)

  _Polymerous._ Many-jointed.

  _Pupa._ The last stage of the male insect before emerging winged.

  _Puparium._ The shield, covering, or "scale" of the _Diaspidinæ_.
       (Plate i., Fig. 3, e; Plates iv., v., vi.)

  _Rostral setæ._ Three or, in a few cases, four long, fine, curling,
       tubular bristles springing from the rostrum, and often passing
       through a mentum; used for insertion into the tissues of a plant
       and sucking their contents. (Plate i., Fig. 5; Plate vi., only
       one being here shown, from the smallness of the drawings.)

  _Rostrum._ A more or less conical, tubular, projecting organ, or
       beak, protruding from the under-side of the cephalic region, or
       between the first pair of feet. It is absent in the adult female
       _Cœlostoma_. It is the "mouth" of the insect. (Plate i., Fig. 5;
       Plate iv., Fig. 5.)

  _Sac._ The cottony, bag-like covering or nest produced by the
       spinnerets and concealing the insect in many of the _Coccidinæ_
       and some _Lecanidinæ_. (Plate xv., Fig. 1, _c_; Fig. 2, _b_.)

  _Scale._ The shield or puparium of the _Diaspidinæ_. The word is
       commonly used to designate the outward appearance of insects
       of the whole family, which are indiscriminately called
       "scale-insects," although many of them form no shield whatever.

  _Secretion_ may be of various kinds. It is matter produced by
       internal organs, and expelled through the "spinnerets." In the
       _Diaspidinæ_ the secreted portion of the puparium (that is, all
       except the pellicles) is made up of fine, closely-woven fibres,
       forming the "scale." In the _Lecanidinæ_ it probably exudes
       originally as fine fibres, but these become agglomerated in
       some cases in a waxy or horny mass, or in others are loosely
       collected as cotton. In the _Coccidinæ_ the secretion is
       usually cottony, or powdery like meal. _Cœlostoma_ secretes all
       three--wax, cotton, and meal. In some instances, as in _Carteria
       lacca_, of Africa, the wax, called "shellac," is abundant enough
       to be commercially valuable; or, as in the Chinese _Ericerus
       Pe-la_ it can be used for making candles.

  _Seta._ A bristle--a long stiff hair.

  _Setose._ Bearing a few bristles.

  _Spinnerets._ Organs observed in various parts of the body,
       producing the waxy, cottony, or mealy matter. They consist
       of cylindrical internal tubes, sometimes ending on the skin,
       sometimes protruding outside it in the form of tubes, spines,
       or conical hairs. In the former case the orifices show them to
       be in some instances simple, and in others compound tubes.[B]
       In the _Diaspidinæ_, besides being scattered over the body,
       the spinnerets are arranged in groups on the last abdominal
       segment, and these groups afford excellent characters for
       specific distinctions. (Plate i., Fig. 4, for types of various
       spinnerets; Plate iii., groups of spinnerets of _Diaspidinæ_.)

       [B] Minute anatomical details are unsuitable for this work.
       The student may consult Targioni-Tozzetti, "Studie sulle
       Cocciniglie," cap. ii., p. 26.

  _Spiracles._ "Breathing organs:" the orifices in the body of the
       tracheæ or tubes conveying air to the blood. In the _Lecanidinæ_
       they are usually four; simple circles, near the edge of the
       body, and with a few strong spiny hairs near them. In the
       _Coccidinæ_ they are often numerous. (Plate ii., Fig. 4; Plate
       xx., _n_.)

  _Spiracular spines._ Spiny hairs, usually three in number, of which
       one is rather long, close to the spiracles, in the _Lecanidinæ_.

  _Stigma_, _stigmatic spines_. Terms sometimes employed for spiracles,
       &c.

  _Tarsus._ The fourth joint of the feet, between the tibia and the
       claw. Its consisting of one joint (monomerous) is a distinctive
       character of the whole family. (Plate i., Fig. 6, _ta_.; Fig. 7,
       _ta_.)

  _Test._ The waxy, glassy, or horny covering produced through the
       spinnerets and concealing the insect in many _Lecanidinæ_ and
       some _Coccidinæ_. In this work it is not applied to the "scale"
       of _Diaspidinæ_ or to cottony secretions.

  _Thoracic band._ An appearance seen on the thoracic region in the
       male, looking like a broad transverse ribbon.

  _Thoracic region_, _thorax_. That part of the female or the male
       which bears the three pairs of feet, when the feet are present;
       or, if the feet are absent, the middle portion of the body,
       segmented or not.

  _Tibia._ The third joint of the feet, next the femur. (Plate i., Fig.
       6, _ti_.; Fig. 7, _ti_.)

  _Tracheæ._ Tubes ramifying throughout the body, conveying air to the
       blood. Their orifices are the spiracles. The tracheæ, as in
       other insects, appear as if constructed of a network of fine
       spiral wires. (Plate ii., Fig. 4 _d_; Plate xx., _n_.)

  _Trochanter._ A small articulation, not a distinct joint (something
       like a knee-cap) of the feet, between the coxa and the femur.
       (Plate i., Fig. 6, _tr_.; Fig. 7, _tr_.)

  _Trimerous._ Three-jointed.

  _Ventral._ On the under-side, the insect being in its proper
       position.



NEW ZEALAND SCALE-INSECTS

(COCCIDIDÆ).



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.


Insects are divided by naturalists into several principal orders, the
distinguishing marks of which are generally very well defined--for
example, the butterflies and moths belong to the order _Lepidoptera_,
the dragon-flies to the _Neuroptera_, the common house-flies to the
_Diptera_, and so on. These orders are founded upon the characters
and arrangement of the wings. They are subdivided into families, and
these again into genera and species. One of the orders is that of the
Hemiptera, which is composed of the two following sections:--

 Hemiptera-Heteroptera, including the bugs, water-beetles, &c.

 Hemiptera-Homoptera, including the crickets, cuckoo-spits,
 plant-lice (Aphides), leaf-hoppers (Psyllids), scale-insects
 (Coccids), &c.

The insects treated of in this volume are therefore placed as follows:--

  Class--Insecta.
  Order--Hemiptera.
  Section--Homoptera.
  Family--Coccididæ.

The genera and species will be found in their places.

The common English name for this family--"scale-insects"--is not
very appropriate. Some few of them have the appearance of small thin
scales on leaves or twigs, but many have not. Nor are the German
appellations--"gall-insekten" or "schild-lause"--more appropriate.
Gardeners have given to some of them the name of "mealy-bug," which,
although decidedly neither elegant nor euphonious, very fairly
represents the character of that particular portion of the family.

The origin of the name "Coccididæ," or, as abbreviated often in this
volume, "Coccids," is found in the old Greek word "[Greek: kokkos],"
denoting a rich red dye, which was much admired by the Greeks and
Romans, and which was procured from the insect now known as _Kermes
vermilio_ (the _Coccus ilicis_ of Linnæus). When the cochineal insect
was discovered in Mexico it soon overpowered all the others, producing
commercial dyes, and from it has come the title "Coccid," now applied
to the whole family. Cochineal itself has of late years been pushed
aside to a great extent by the aniline (coal-tar) dyes; yet it is still
used for many purposes. This insect lives on the leaves of cactus.
Amongst the New Zealand species described in this work will be found
one, _Dactylopius alpinus_, which produces a red dye similar to, though
probably not equal to, cochineal. Before the discovery of aniline dyes
it might possibly have been worth while to cultivate this insect for
its dye; but this would scarcely answer now.

The Coccididæ are, in some parts of the world, very injurious to
vegetation. They seem to affect principally the warmer temperate
regions. California, Florida, the Cape of Good Hope, the southern parts
of Australia, Southern France and Northern Italy, and New Zealand
are countries in which they are found out-of-doors in the greatest
numbers. In England they are less troublesome in the open air, though
in greenhouses and hothouses they abound; but, in places under glass,
every gardener ought to be able to get rid of them without difficulty.
For its extent New Zealand seems to furnish a larger number than any
other country. The humidity of its climate and the absence of anything
like severe winters in most parts of it are quite congenial to Coccids;
and there is scarcely a tree in its forests or in its gardens, whether
native or introduced, which is not subject to their attacks.

It has not been thought necessary to include in this work a list of
the books and essays written on this family of insects. The list would
be a very long one; but, besides that many of the books would not be
obtainable here, it would be found that very many authors have done
nothing more than copy--often quite blindly and unintelligently--what
others had said before them; moreover, most of them are out of date.
The student or the horticulturist desiring to know more about Coccids
not found in New Zealand may find full details in the reports of the
Agricultural Department of the United States Government, in Dr. V.
Signoret's "Essai sur les Cochenilles" (Paris), in papers by Miss Emily
Smith (American naturalist, 1878-80), &c. The American Departmental
Reports of Professors Riley and Comstock, Mr. Hubbard, and Mr. L.
Howard contain most valuable information. English works on the subject
are mostly fragmentary or inaccurate; but Mr. Douglas, of Lewisham, has
lately begun to discuss the Coccids in England in a systematic manner,
and probably before long others will follow suit. In India, Mr. T. W.
Atkinson, of Calcutta, is studying the family.

Natural science in these days tends ever more and more towards
specialization, and the boundaries of scientific classes, orders,
families, &c., are becoming always more and more narrowed. The student
can find his time quite sufficiently occupied nowadays in the thorough
investigation of so (comparatively) small a portion of the animal
kingdom as is presented by the Coccids of even only one country; and
the present work may not be without value to future workers in this
direction. To the farmer, the gardener, the fruit-grower, and the owner
of pleasure-grounds it is believed that the following chapters will
also supply information at the same time correct, intelligible, and
useful.



CHAPTER II.

CHARACTERS, LIFE-HISTORY, AND METAMORPHOSES OF THE COCCIDIDÆ.


The first principal character separating the Coccididæ from the rest of
the Homoptera, and distinguishable without microscopic examination, is
the absence of wings in the females at all stages of their existence.

The second principal character is the absence of any apparatus for
feeding and digesting in the males.

From these two characters it follows that the females can only extend
their operations by, at the best, crawling from plant to plant, or
by being carried about by birds or other agency; also that the males
cannot enjoy more than a very short existence, their work being
entirely confined to impregnating the females. Hence, in any endeavours
to destroy these insects, the males may be disregarded, and the females
only attended to.

Other distinguishing characters, chiefly microscopic, are--

1. The presence of only one joint in the tarsus or fourth joint of the
leg, in both males and females (Plate i., Figs. 6 and 7, _ta_);

2. The presence of only a single claw terminating the leg in both males
and females (Plate i., Figs. 6 and 7);

3. The presence of only two wings, with two halteres, in the full-grown
males (Plate xxi.);

4. The presence of two or more eyes or ocular tubercles, in addition to
the ordinary pair of eyes, in the full-grown males (Plate i., Fig. 14;
Plate viii., Fig. 1, _k_, _m_).


I. The Female Insect.

In general outward appearance the female insects present very variable
forms. They may be either naked, or covered over with some kind of a
shield, which may be fibrous, or waxy, or cottony, or they may have
simply a thin powdery meal scattered over them. The covered insects
are, of course, stationary, although in some cases, before reaching
their full development, they move about, carrying their houses with
them. The naked insects may be either stationary or active.

They attach themselves either to the bark or stem of a plant or to the
leaves. In the latter case it is rare to find them on the upper side;
but, on turning over a leaf, the under-surface is frequently found
covered thickly with them.

In many cases they exude, in the form of minute globules, a whitish,
thick, gummy secretion, answering probably to the "honeydew" of the
Aphididæ. This secretion drops from them on to the plant, and from it
grows a black fungus, which soon gives an unsightly appearance to the
plant. This fungus or "smut" is an almost invariable indication that a
plant is attacked by insects,[C] and may, indeed, give a useful warning
to tree-growers. It is not, however, produced in appreciable quantities
by all species.

[C] Not necessarily a Coccid insect: the fungus may also grow on the
honeydew of Aphis; but it is easy to recognize the difference between
these insects. In every case there is some insect at work where the
fungus is.

The manner of feeding upon the plant is the same as in all the families
of Homoptera--namely, by means of a protruding rostrum, beak, or trunk,
situated on the under-side of the insect. As there is not, in the
female Coccididæ, any well-defined division between the head and the
rest of the body, this rostrum is seen, on turning over the insect, in
the form, usually, of a minute conical projection between, or nearly
between, the first pair of legs, if the legs are present, or a little
within the circumference, if the legs are absent (Plate i., Fig. 5).
An ordinary lens will generally show, springing from the point of the
conical rostrum, three or four longish, very fine, curling bristles.
These bristles are, in fact, hollow tubes, and the insect, inserting
them into the leaf or bark of the plant, sucks through them its food.
It is thus plain that, with often great numbers of scale-insects
sucking at it--pumping, as it were, its life-blood through their
rostra--a plant must of necessity suffer greatly.

Birds do not, as a rule, seem to care much about eating the Coccididæ,
whose work is thus little interfered with by them. The "white-eye"
(Zosterops) or "blight-bird" has been seen feeding on scale-insects;
but its visits are few and far between, and its assistance to the
gardener in this respect not great. The Coccididæ are, however, much
subject to attacks from Hymenopterous parasites, of which some account
will be found in a subsequent chapter (Chap. IV.).

The effects of the Coccididæ are not confined altogether to damage to
plants: there are some species producing materials useful to man. For
example, _Coccus cacti_ produces cochineal; _Carteria lacca_ produces
shellac; _Ericerus pé-la_ is used by the Chinese for candles: and
others might be mentioned. But, so far, no New Zealand species appears
to be of any commercial use. _Dactylopius alpinus_ makes a rather rich
red dye in alcohol; _Cælostoma zealandicum_ constructs thick, waxy
coverings, which might possibly be turned to some account; but even
these are probably not worth much.


_Groups._

The groups into which the Coccididæ are, in this work, divided are as
follow:--

  1. Female insects constructing for themselves shields
       composed partly of secretion, partly of the pellicles
       discarded from earlier stages; abdomen not cleft; legs
       lost at full growth.
                                                           Diaspidinæ.

  2. Female insects naked, or covered with shields of
       secretion, either waxy, horny, cottony, or felted;
       abdomen in all stages cleft; legs either lost or
       retained at full growth.
                                                           Lecanidinæ.

  3. Female insects naked, or covered with shields of waxy
       secretion; abdomen of larva ending in prominent
       processes, abdomen of adult cleft; legs either lost or
       retained at full growth.
                                                        Hemicoccidinæ.

  4. Female insects naked, or covered with secretion either
       waxy, cottony, or felted; abdomen in all stages ending
       in prominent processes; legs either lost or retained
       at full growth.
                                                            Coccidinæ.


_Life-history._

The life-history of the insects in the above groups is as follows:--

All of them pass through four stages of existence: 1, the egg; 2, the
young larva; 3, the second stage of life, or "pupa;" 4, the adult, or
full-grown insect.

1. _The egg._ This is, in all cases, of regularly-oval form, the colour
varying from white to yellow or red (see Plate i., Fig. 1). It may be
produced in great numbers, and in some cases several times in a year.
As a general rule, the female ejects the eggs from her body; but there
are some species, notably in the group _Lecanidinæ_, where the eggs are
hatched within the body, the insect being thus, in a manner, viviparous.

2. _The young larva_ (Plate i., Fig. 2). This is of precisely the same
form both for the male and the female--or, rather, perhaps it should be
said that no definite character has yet been discovered to show which
are male and which are female larvæ. Neglecting slight variations of
form, the larva is very minute--seldom more than about 1/30 in. long,
often as small as 1/100 in.--oval, flattish, possessing a rostrum and
accompanying bristles (setæ), six legs, and two antennæ: and in all
species it is fairly active, travelling as soon as hatched over the
plant in search of food.

3. _The second stage._ Here the first distinction is noticeable between
the male and the female in most cases; but this distinction usually
depends not so much upon the form of the insect as upon the character
of the covering it makes for itself. Confining ourselves at present to
the female, there are differences now noticeable between the groups.
In the _Diaspidinæ_ the insect begins by slipping out of the skin of
the larva; but it does not cast it aside altogether: it makes use of
the old skin as part of its covering. Adding to it a small portion
of fibrous secretion--produced by organs called "spinnerets," which
will be noticed presently--it attaches itself to the plant by its
rostrum and setæ, and lies, inert and stationary, under a little shield
composed half of its old skin and half of secretion. As it also, in
entering this stage, loses its legs altogether, it must remain in the
position it has chosen for the rest of its life. In the _Lecanidinæ_
and in the _Coccidinæ_ the skin of the larva is thrown away altogether,
and the female in her second stage takes up a new position, in which
she may be either naked or covered with a thin coat of secretion,
active or stationary, retaining her legs in most cases, or losing
them in some instances. In all the groups there is almost always some
approach to the form of the full-grown insect noticeable in this second
stage.

4. _The full-grown insect._ Here there is almost unlimited variety
of form, colour, and habits. The insects may be naked or covered,
active or stationary. In the _Diaspidinæ_ the process just described
is repeated: the female slips out of her second skin, but still keeps
both it and the first over her, adding more fibrous secretion from the
spinnerets; so that, in fact, she lies an inert, legless, slug-like
object, under a covering composed partly of the two skins, partly of
secretion. (See Plate i., Fig. 3: _a_ is the discarded larval skin, _b_
the discarded skin of the second stage, both being used as part of the
shield. In the genus _Aspidiotus_ these skins would be in the centre
instead of at one end.) In the _Lecanidinæ_ (except in one single
genus) and the _Coccidinæ_ the second skin is discarded altogether;
but the insect may either construct a new shield or remain naked, may
be either with or without legs, either active or stationary. Once this
last stage of her existence entered upon, the female prepares for
laying her eggs. In most species the services of a male are needed; in
some, as far as can be made out after investigation of many years, no
males are found. The female, if naked, either hatches her eggs in her
own body or lays them on the plant; if covered, she fills her shield
with the eggs. The naked insects often cover the eggs themselves--e.g.,
_Lecanium hemisphæricum_; or, again, deposit them in an ovisac, a
mass of cottony secretion--e.g., _Pulvinaria camellicola_ or _Icerya
purchasi_.


II. The Male Insect.

It has been remarked above that, as the full-grown males of the
_Coccididæ_ are destitute of any organs for feeding whatsoever, there
is no reason for making systematic attacks on them for economical
purposes. Their function is simply to impregnate the females, and their
life at this stage must necessarily be very brief. It will suffice
in this place to observe that in all cases these males are small,
two-winged flies, their size varying from about 1/40 in. to 1/4 in.
in length; colour usually yellow or red; wings longer than the body,
hyaline (glassy) and often iridescent, and, in repose, lying flat,
partly crossing each other. The antennæ are long, slender, and hairy,
consisting of nine or ten joints. The legs are also slender and hairy,
the tarsus having only one joint, and terminating in a single claw. The
insects are generally very active. Types of antenna, foot, wing and
haltere, and a diagram of the arrangement of the eyes and ocelli, are
given in Plate i., Figs. 7, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17.

The males are thus so small and rapid in their movements that it is
difficult in most cases to find them in a free state. The usual way to
procure them is by hatching them from the pupæ. In their course of life
they pass through four stages, as do the females--viz.: 1, the egg; 2,
the larva; 3, the pupa; 4, the full-grown insect.

1. _The egg_ is, as far as can be made out, precisely the same as that
of the female, though Dr. Signoret believes that in one or two species
there may perhaps be minute differences.

2. _The larva_ is, as stated above, similar to that of the female.

3. _The pupa._ Here the first distinctions between the sexes may be
noted, and these are principally observable in the cocoons or puparia,
rather than in the insect itself--at least to outward appearance.
The male pupa is, in all cases--even in those where the female pupa
is naked--enclosed in some kind of covering. In the _Diaspidinæ_ the
puparium is formed partly of fibrous secretion and partly of discarded
skin; only, as the full-grown male emerges from it as a fly, and does
not remain on the plant, there can be only one such skin--that of the
larva; consequently it is easy to distinguish the male puparia from
the shields of the adult females by the presence of only one discarded
pellicle instead of two. In the _Lecanidinæ_ and the _Coccidinæ_
the male puparia are distinguishable usually by a narrower and more
cylindrical form than those of the females, where these latter are
covered; in the naked species the males are generally in white waxy or
cottony cocoons.

Examination of the pupæ in these coverings will generally show more or
less developed processes on the back and sides, which are so evidently
the rudiments of the future wings that the presence of a male is
not doubtful. In other respects the male pupæ are not always to be
distinguished from the females.

3. _The full-grown male_ has been described above. It is usually
easy to procure specimens, provided the pupæ are obtained. If any of
these, in their coverings, are put into pillboxes with glass tops, or
any place where light reaches them, they will generally produce the
full-grown insect sometimes in a few days, sometimes after several
weeks. The time of year for this seems very variable. Males emerge from
the puparia apparently indifferently (in New Zealand) in summer or
winter.



CHAPTER III.

PRODUCTS OF THE COCCIDIDÆ.

[Waxy or cottony matter: the "honeydew" and the black fungus--"smut" or
"black blight"--growing upon it.]


The Coccididæ, in some parts of the world, excrete various substances
which are of commercial value, as, for example, shellac, "manna,"
candle-wax, &c. Cochineal is not in the same category, as it appears
to be a colouring-matter pervading every cell of the tissues of the
insect from which it is extracted--_Coccus cacti_. But there is no need
to dwell here upon the ordinary excretions of the New Zealand insects,
as they appear to be not sufficient either in quantity or quality
for any practical service. The fibrous puparia of the _Diaspidinæ_
appear to be quite useless. The tests of the _Lecanodiaspidæ_, such as
_Ctenochiton perforatus_, _Inglisia ornata_, &c., although more or less
waxy (but of very brittle material, often more like glass) are much too
insignificant to repay any trouble taken to collect them. Of all the
family, _Cælostoma zælandicum_, in its second stage, seems to produce
the greatest amount of material, its large, hard, waxy tests being
very thick and solid, and often clustered in hundreds on a root or a
twig of Muhlenbeckia; but, supposing this substance (of which the true
chemical nature[D] is not yet known) to be fit for some purpose, there
does not seem to be any means of cultivating the insect to profit.
_Dactylopius alpinus_ produces in alcohol a rich red tint, and this not
by way of excretion, but from the colouring matters of its tissues,
as in the case of _Coccus cacti_; but here, again, the rarity of the
insect and its out-of-the-way habitat would be a bar, even if nowadays
it were worth while to cultivate a New Zealand cochineal. At present,
therefore, there seems no reason to believe that the Coccididæ of this
country are likely to furnish any products of a useful or commercial
character.

[D] A small quantity was submitted to Mr. Skey, Colonial Museum
Laboratory, for analysis, no more being available at the time. Mr. Skey
considered it as a new substance, probably of the nature of a gum, not
resinous; but further examination of larger quantities is necessary.

There is, however, one substance produced by these insects which has an
injurious effect upon the plants they grow on. This is a transparent
glutinous fluid, apparently analogous to that exuding from Aphides,
and which may receive the name of "honeydew," as in that family. In
fact, this fluid would seem to be produced by most of the Rhynchota,
for the Psyllidæ and Aleurodidæ also excrete it. The quantity issuing
from Coccids seems to vary greatly. In some cases--e.g., _Lecanium
hesperidum_, _Ctenochiton viridis_ or _perforatus_, _Fiorinia
asteliæ_--the insects appear to discharge "honeydew" freely; in
others--e.g., _Mytilaspis pomorum_, _Rhizococcus fossor_--none, or
scarcely any fluid, is excreted. But in no case does it appear that
our Coccids[E] form honeydew to the same extent as the Aphides, which
are stated to produce sometimes quantities that may be gathered from
the leaves or the soil by the pound weight. It is not so much the
amount exuding from each insect as the great number of insects on a
plant which renders the Coccid honeydew obnoxious: each individual may
excrete only a little, but when, as usually happens, there are many
hundreds of individuals together, the result, for the reasons given
below, becomes important to the tree.

[E] _Gossyparia mannipara_, an Arabian Coccid, is said to excrete so much
that the Arabs "eat it with their bread like honey." Buckton, "Brit.
Aphides," Vol. I., p. 42.

There is every reason to believe that the honeydew of Coccididæ is of
similar character to that of the Aphididæ, and, according to analyses
by Boussingault, of Paris, and Gunning, of Amsterdam (Buckton, "Brit.
Aphides," Vol. I., pp. 42, 43), the Aphidian honeydew contains a very
large quantity of sugar, and, curiously enough, cane-sugar. Some
observers, noticing in its composition also glucose and dextrine, have
considered it as of vegetable rather than animal origin; but the weight
of evidence appears to make it certainly the product of the Aphides.
As the present work is intended rather as a manual for gardeners and
tree-growers than as a purely scientific publication, there is no
need to enter more fully into the subject here: it may therefore be
simply stated that the honeydew of Coccididæ probably contains a large
proportion of sugar in various forms.

The mode in which this substance is excreted by the insects differs
somewhat from that of the Aphididæ. On the abdomen of Aphis are
seen two erect more or less prominent tubes, called "cornicles"
or "nectaries," and it is the function of these to excrete the
honeydew.[F] No European entomologist has, it is believed, seen or
described the organ of honeydew-excretion in the Coccididæ. Some
observations by the author of this work in 1886 demonstrate its
existence as a cylindrical tube exserted from the anogenital orifice
after the manner of a telescope, the furthest-extended tube being the
most slender. This organ, extremely difficult of detection when not in
use--except in the single genus _Cœlostoma_--is at intervals pushed
out to its full extent, and at its further extremity there appears
a minute globule of yellowish, nearly transparent, glutinous fluid,
which rapidly expands like a soap-bubble, and then, suddenly breaking,
falls in spray on the leaf beneath. In the second stage of the female
of _Cœlostoma zælandicum_ this organ may be detected more easily than
in any other Coccid; but the act of protrusion of the organ and the
formation of the drop of honeydew are apparently by no means frequent,
and many long observations may be made without witnessing either.[G]
(The organ and the honeydew-drop are shown in Plate xxii.)

[F] The fluid also emerges from the anal orifice; but, seemingly, no
mention is made by any observer of any special honeydew-organ protruding
from the anus of Aphis.

[G] Mr. Comstock ("Report on Insects," U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1881, p. 22)
states that on gently rubbing a _Dactylopius_ two small drops of fluid,
which he considers to be honeydew, can be seen to emerge from orifices
on the dorsal side of the sixth abdominal segment; but he mentions no
special organ in the body. The experiment has been tried on _Dactylopius_
in this country without success.

For the purposes of this work further details as to the production
of honeydew are not necessary. But as to its effect on plants it is
requisite to be more particular, and the attention of tree-growers
and gardeners is specially directed to the following points. It has
been said above that when the bubble of honeydew has been expanded to
its full size it breaks into spray. Now, as a general rule, Coccids
are found almost exclusively on the _under_ sides of leaves (when not
on the bark). Some, as _Lecanium hesperidum_ and a few others, may
be seen on the upper side; but the general rule is as here stated.
It follows that the spray of honeydew from the burst bubble falls,
not on the leaf where the insect is, but on the _upper_ sides of the
leaves below it. These upper surfaces, being more exposed to light and
air than the lower ones, are usually deserted not only by the Coccids
but by other insects also, and so there is not much chance that the
honeydew spray so falling will be disturbed. It consequently rapidly
accumulates and forms a coating on the leaf where it rests. From this
result two things, or, rather, the same injurious effect on the plant
is produced in two ways. First, the honeydew itself, being, as stated,
of a glutinous nature, tends to stop up and choke the stomata (or, in
plain English, the breathing-orifices of the leaves) and so retard
the growth of the tree. Secondly, the honeydew, being of a saccharine
nature, is especially attractive to fungoid growths, and these fungi,
rapidly increasing, tend still more to choke the leaves and hamper the
proper functions of the tree.

The second of these is the most important, for, apparently, the
honeydew is scarcely deposited before it becomes the receptacle for
fungus-spores, and these grow with great rapidity. As a general rule,
in New Zealand, these fungi appear to be mostly of the same family--the
Physomycetes, and they are of a black or very dark brown colour. From
the fact above stated, that the honeydew falls from the insects upon
leaves beneath them, the lower leaves of a plant are more covered
with it than the upper ones: these black fungi consequently discolour
chiefly the lower leaves and branches; often the uppermost branches
are nearly free from them. But the effect produced on the tree is not
only unsightly, from the sooty blackness, but also injurious, from the
choking-up of the stomata both by the honeydew and the fungus. As for
ornamental plants, whether under glass or in the open air, the black
coating is quite sufficient to spoil them.

These fungi are of various species, and specimens are given here in
Plate xxii.: on the leaves they form usually a hard, thin, black coat;
while on the twigs and stem they are of a looser texture, forming
masses of minute erect threads. They are not confined to New Zealand,
and most writers on Coccididæ in Europe and elsewhere mention them,
though only casually. They are, in fact, apparently, only the usual
growths appearing on any decomposing substance, such as the honeydew is.

Gardeners and tree-growers ought to clearly understand that the
appearance on their plants of this black sooty covering is almost
always an indication of the presence of some Homopterous insects. In
New Zealand, on account of the greater prevalence of Coccididæ, the
insects will most probably be Coccids; but by no means necessarily
so, for many Aphididæ, Psyllidæ, and Aleurodidæ produce the same
effects. This is by no means as well understood as it should be,
either by gardeners themselves or by those who write on trees and
planting. The fungus growth is usually imagined to be in itself a
disease of the plant, and efforts are made for its treatment without
regard to its real origin, the insects on the leaves or bark. Under
the names of "smut," "black blight," &c., it is often referred to as
a destructive pest; and remedies are suggested which can, of course,
have no permanent effect unless they are equally efficacious against
the insect producing the honeydew. It is probably from this cause that
sulphur, which is an excellent remedy against fungus, has been so
great a favourite with those who pretend to have discovered what are
called "scaly-blight destroyers;" and gardeners, seeing, perhaps, these
nostrums clean some of the fungus from their trees, are under the false
impression that the "scale" is also cleared away. The truth is, that
the real remedy against "black blight" is to kill the insects on whose
excreta it flourishes, if that can be done. As to the modes of doing
this see Chapter V.

It is not, of course, pretended here that fungi of different kinds,
and even those specially referred to, will not grow independently of
insects and honeydew; and trees are, undoubtedly, subject to fungoid
diseases which are not to be traced to any animal action. Still, the
rule holds good; and the first effort of a gardener on the appearance
of black blight on his plants should be to discover the insects on its
leaves or bark, and deal directly with them. Once they are destroyed
the fungus growth will in a short time disappear.



CHAPTER IV.

CHECKS TO INCREASE OF COCCIDIDÆ, PARASITES, ETC.


The Coccididæ, like all Homoptera, produce great numbers of young; but
their increase does not appear to be as rapid as that of some other
families. The numbers of some Aphididæ or Aleurodidæ produced from
a single female in the course of a single year have been calculated
at hundreds of thousands, if not millions; and as many as eleven
generations have been produced in little over half a year. Coccids,
however, as a rule, do not propagate at this alarming rate. Many,
if not the great majority of them, produce in this country but one
generation in the year, e.g., _Mytilaspis pomorum_, _Cœlostoma
zælandicum_, &c. Others, such as _Icerya purchasi_, breed more often;
and probably climate has a good deal to do with the frequency, for
Mr. Comstock says that in the United States _Mytilaspis pomorum_
breeds once a year in the North and twice in the South. In point of
fact, it does not seem possible to lay down any rule on the subject.
Unfortunately, _Icerya_ is not only a frequent breeder, but also the
most destructive insect of the family in New Zealand.

The number of young produced by each female seems also to vary. The
author has counted from 30 to 80 eggs in the puparium of _Mytilaspis
pomorum_; as many as 350 in the ovisac of _Icerya purchasi_, and about
the same number of _Cœlostoma zælandicum_: and a female of _Lecanium
hesperidum_ examined in spring contained 93 embryos. These figures do
not denote any remarkable fertility; but, as in the majority of cases
males are but seldom met with, sometimes even entirely unknown (e.g.,
_Lecanium hesperidum_), it follows that nearly every insect is capable
of propagation, and the increase in numbers is therefore more rapid
than might be anticipated otherwise. How the females in the species
apparently destitute of males are enabled to produce young is perhaps
one of the most mysterious things in Nature. The male of _Mytilaspis
pomorum_ has never been found in New Zealand or Europe, and doubtfully
in America. _Lecanium hesperidum_ has been known and studied for nearly
two hundred years without any male, pupa or adult, being discovered.
Yet both of these species go on increasing regularly and in great
numbers, and show no signs of extinction.

In spite of this absence of males in some cases, and of the
comparatively small numbers of eggs, Coccids would naturally increase
at an exceedingly rapid rate if left undisturbed, on account of the
great proportion of females. They are, moreover, protected, to a great
extent--First, by the fact that birds do not, as a rule, care to eat
them. The "blight-bird" or "white-eye," _Zosterops lateralis_, has
been noticed in this country pecking about in holly-hedges infested by
_Lecanium hesperidum_; but it is not absolutely certain whether it was
eating the Coccids or the other more easily picked-off insects on the
plant, such as _Psocus_, which is very commonly observed among Coccids.
And other birds seem not to devour them at all. Secondly, the usual
position of these insects, on the under side of the leaves, or in the
crevices of bark, is a great shelter and protection for them against
birds or ordinary accidents. Again, they are in many cases effectually
covered by the waxy or fibrous shields, or by the masses of cotton with
which they surround themselves. In countries like the South of France,
California, or the greater part of New Zealand, the winters do not
appear to be sufficiently severe to injure Coccids, and many of them
breed as much in winter as they do in summer. It would therefore seem
that everything combines to assist these insects in their career, and
in their propagation. Nature, however, has provided a check which is
to some extent effective, at least against several species, although,
unhappily, against some of the most noxious--such as _Mytilaspis
pomorum_, the Dactylopii (mealy bugs), _Icerya purchasi_, &c.--it
is not energetic in this country; and this remedy is the attacks of
other minute animals, whether by direct devouring of the Coccids or by
parasitism.

Direct attacks from animal enemies are not frequent. Whether from some
inherent distastefulness, or from the difficulty of getting at them,
Coccids are scarcely subject to being directly devoured. There are a
few exceptions. Under the puparia of _Mytilaspis pomorum_ a minute
white Acarus (mite) may often be found, and it is noticeable that
where it abounds the eggs of the Coccid are often shrivelled or empty.
It is not improbable that this Acarus may feed on the eggs. It appears
to belong to the genus _Tyroglyphus_, a mite which is not usually
carnivorous; but Mr. A. Michael, an authority on mites, seems to be
uncertain whether _Tyroglyphus_ may not make a meal of the Coccid.[H]
No others amongst the Diaspidinæ appear to be directly attacked, nor
any of the Lecanidinæ; but amongst a number of _Dactylopius glaucus_
on a leaf there may often be seen a minute caterpillar, apparently
covered with many tufts of hair. This is the larva of the common
ladybird (_Coccinella_), a beetle which, in both the larval and perfect
states, feeds on Aphides, Coccids, and other insects. The larva may
sometimes be seen holding a _Dactylopius_ in its powerful jaws and
devouring it. Another larva, smooth and without hairs, performs the
same functions--it is the young of a small dipterous fly, apparently
one of the _Syrphidæ_, insects also predatory; but this seems to be
rare. In America, similar larvæ are said to feed upon the "black scale"
(_Lecanium oleæ_). In this country, as far as is yet known, Lecanidæ
are not directly attacked by the ladybirds.

[H] Quart. Journ. Royal Micros. Soc., Feb., 1885.

But this direct warfare by other animals is of small consequence. A
more important check on the increase of many Coccids is afforded by
the indirect action of minute hymenopterous insects, which make use of
them as receptacles for their eggs. This plan is adopted by several
Hymenoptera, of the families Chalcididæ, Ichneumonidæ, Proctotrupidæ,
&c. They do not devour their prey; they allow it to live that they may
live on it. By means of their long ovipositor they pierce its body, and
deposit in it an egg. As the victim grows the egg matures, changes into
a larva, and still remains in the body of the Coccid; changes again
into a pupa, and by this time the Coccid is at liberty to die, for the
parasite has no further use for it except as a shelter; then, when the
proper time arrives, the perfect fly emerges and departs. All Coccids
are by no means equally subject to this system. In the United States,
according to Mr. L. O. Howard,[I] parasites are found in nearly all
genera--Diaspidinæ, Lecanidinæ, or Coccidinæ. In this country, as far
as observation shows at present, the Lecanidinæ are the most liable
to attack, some of the Diaspidinæ next, and the Coccidinæ least of
all. _Mytilaspis pomorum_, so hurtful to apple-trees, does not seem
to be attacked. _Icerya purchasi_, the worst species of all, has not
yet furnished a single parasitic fly. A few specimens of _Dactylopius
glaucus_ contain parasites; a good many of _Fiorinia asteliæ_ and _F.
stricta_; while _Ctenochiton perforatus_ and _C. viridis_ appear to
be the favourite victims, as sometimes scarcely any specimens on a
plant can be examined which do not contain either a larva or a pupa
of a parasite. It is to be observed that in no case is more than one
parasite to be found in a Coccid.

[I] Report of the Entomologist, U.S. Dep. of Agric., 1880, pp. 350-371.

Unfortunately, although this provision of Nature must have a very
considerable effect in preventing the increase of Coccididæ, it is
subject to two drawbacks. In the first place, as just observed, some of
the most injurious pests appear to be unaffected by it. Probably, up to
the present time the worst plant-enemies[J] in New Zealand have been
_Mytilaspis pomorum_, _Aspidiotus coccineus_, _Aspidiotus camelliæ_,
_Lecanium hesperidum_, _Lecanium oleæ_, _Lecanium hemisphæricum_,
_Pulvinaria camellicola_, and _Icerya purchasi_. Here reference is made
not so much to insects which render plants unsightly as to those which
seriously injure its growth: many others, such as _Fiorinia asteliæ_ or
_Ctenochiton viridis_ are ugly enough, but have not been destructive.
Of the injurious species above named none, apparently, are troubled in
this country by parasitic insects up to the present time, at least to
any appreciable extent.

[J] Speaking of Coccids only; _Kermaphis pini_ is equally, if not more,
destructive.

A sketch of Ctenochiton enclosing a parasitic pupa, and of the perfect
fly, will be found in Plate xxiii. In a work like this the generic and
specific characters of these parasites need not be given: they do not
seem to differ much from hymenopterous and dipterous insects of other
countries.

Another mode by which the too rapid increase of Coccids is checked is
by the attacks of vegetable parasites--fungoid growths which permeate
the whole body of the insect, and soon kill it. As far as experience in
New Zealand extends as yet the genera _Ctenochiton_, _Lecanium_, and
probably _Eriochiton_ are the only ones so attacked. On certain plants
in the forests, notably Hedycarya and Coprosma, circular spots may
be commonly found on the under side of the leaves: some dark-brown,
somewhat convex, some bright yellow and often quite globular. In
spring, examination of a young larva of _Ctenochiton viridis_--a
species very common on the above plants--will frequently show, either
within the insect, or on its waxy test, or between the test and the
insect, minute specks, which under a high power of the microscope,
prove to resemble the filaments composing the brown or the yellow spots
just mentioned. On turning over one of the brown fungi, or on pulling
it to pieces, the dead body of a young _Ctenochiton_ or _Lecanium_
larva will always be found in the middle. Apparently this brown fungus
does not attack any but young larvæ; but the bright yellow fungus will
be found filling the bodies also of the females in the second stage,
and the globular portion of the fungus will stand out above them.
These fungi are not of the same genus as _Empusa_, the fungus which so
frequently kills the house-fly; but they seem to act in much the same
way within the insect.

Probably a good many of the _Lecanodiaspidæ_ are preyed on and
destroyed by these fungoid parasites, of which figures are given in
Plate xxiii.



CHAPTER V.

REMEDIES AGAINST COCCIDIDÆ.


Many people are under the impression that scale-insects out-of-doors
are not of much consequence. They are aware that in greenhouses and
hothouses these insects are a trouble to gardeners, and that they
probably injure flowering or fruit-bearing plants in such situations.
But they imagine that in the open air, and on large well-grown trees,
Coccids do no very great harm; or, if the trees are for a time injured,
that recovery and health will come before long, and the pest will
disappear. This is not the place in which to controvert this or any
other opinion. A work professedly dealing with facts should be as free
as possible from controversial discussion. Whatever, therefore, may be
the grounds of the opinion just stated, or the reasons for rejecting
it, it will be sufficient here to say that there seems to be nothing
to lead to the belief that New Zealand is likely to be different
from other countries in this respect. To institute a comparison, it
would be manifestly absurd to include such countries as England, or
Germany, or, on the other hand, India, or Central America, or North
Australia--Firstly, because in the greater part, or at least in the
northern parts, of Europe the winters are much more severe than in
New Zealand, and almost certainly the great cold is injurious to
such insects as Coccids. Secondly, because in tropical countries it
seems that the too great heat is equally obnoxious to them; and, with
the exception of a few species, tropical Coccids are comparatively
harmless. But it is to the warmer temperate or the subtropical regions
that we must look for comparison--regions where there is neither too
scorching a summer nor too ice-bound a winter. And, for this purpose,
we have only to take such lands as California, Florida, the South of
France or Northern Italy, the Cape of Good Hope, the southern regions
of Australia, &c. The experience of these is, that some species of
Coccids do injure, in every way, whether as regards ornamental or
commercial value, a number of trees and plants on which the people of
the country depend largely for subsistence or profit. In the South of
France the olive industry has been in some years greatly cut down. In
Florida, California, Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, oranges and
apples have been so damaged that the value of an orchard or a grove
has been reduced sometimes by 80 per cent. It may be said, moreover,
that even in tropical countries the attacks of scale-insects are
often most damaging: in Mauritius the sugar-cane and in Ceylon the
coffee plantations have suffered from their ravages. The experience
of American fruit-growers is certainly not to be despised, and the
fact that both in California and Florida the people strain every
nerve to get rid of the insect pests on open-air trees would seem to
be distinctly against the notion that these little enemies can be
neglected with impunity.

Nor, indeed, can it be said that in New Zealand itself the attacks of
scale-insects out-of-doors are harmless. Apple orchards throughout the
country bear evidence to the contrary: lemon-groves can be seen about
Auckland where, instead of the thousands of fruit formerly grown, a few
stunted lemons are all that the withered trees afford; and nobody can
glance round the plantations at Nelson or Napier without recognizing
the devastating powers of a scale-insect (_Icerya_).

The opinion that Coccids are not likely to do much harm in the open air
is therefore scarcely tenable, and it will be of use to inquire what
remedies can be provided against them.

There is a point, however, to be noted at the outset, and it is, that
in reality there is not, as far as is yet known, any _certain_ remedy
against scale-insects. Not that ingenuity and experiment have not
succeeded in inventing plans and substances quite efficient in killing
the insects when applied to them. It is easy enough to kill an insect
when you can get at it, in most cases; but the problem in this instance
is not only to kill individual insects, but to do more. What is wanted
is to get rid of whole communities of them, and, at the same time, to
prevent their eggs from hatching and a new brood coming forth. Many of
those who profess to know all about destroying "scale"--especially if
they belong to that class which prides itself upon being "practical
men"--being generally quite ignorant of the habits and life-history of
the insects, are satisfied when they have tried some rule-of-thumb
plan which seems to kill most of the adult insects, not dreaming that
they have left the eggs unharmed and ready to send forth a fresh swarm
at hatching-time. There is another obstacle which often prevents
success in eradicating "scale." This is the difficulty of making sure
of the effects of any remedy. A plan which has answered well in one
place will fail in another, and this, not only as regards different
countries, but even in the same district for neighbouring gardens,
or even for neighbouring trees in the same garden. Tree-growers must
be prepared to find the very same remedy which has cleared their
neighbours' trees fail for their own; and in this country the author
has seen, in one and the same orchard, some trees quite cleared,
while on others, treated in exactly a similar manner, the "scale" was
scarcely injured.

It is from want of knowledge of this and the like points that persons
who have tried various remedies recommended to them have complained of
failure, and condemned both the remedy and their adviser, whilst really
neither was in fault.

Nothing need be said here of carelessness or unskilfulness in applying
a remedy, beyond the following instance: A person whose apple-trees
were being very much damaged by _Mytilaspis pomorum_ was advised
to apply, by way of painting the trunks and branches, a mixture of
kerosene and some other ingredient. In two or three months he found
violent fault with his adviser, for he said every tree was dead
or dying. On inquiry it was found that, from over-zeal or want of
knowledge, he had applied the mixture as if painting a house, had used
it much too strong, and, to make assurance doubly sure, had given his
trees two good coats of the oil.

An intelligent appreciation of the life-history and habits of
scale-insects is necessary to enable any one to select and apply, with
a probability of success, a remedy, and the details given in Chapter I.
of this work will be found useful for this purpose. It will be apparent
from them that, without regarding the generic or specific characters of
these insects, we may lay down a few general principles to start with,
thus:--

I. _Whatever damage is done is effected by the sucking of the juices of
the plant through the rostrum of the insect._ It follows from this that
applications of any fluid to the tree externally, with the object of
poisoning the insects in their feeding, would be useless, as their food
is drawn from beneath the surface.

II. Neglecting entomological distinctions, we may divide the Coccididæ,
roughly, into--

  (_a._) Insects attacking deciduous plants;
  (_b._) Insects attacking evergreen plants;
           or, again,
  (_c._) Insects living usually on the bark;
  (_d._) Insects living usually on the leaves;
  (_e._) Insects living on both bark and leaves;
           or, lastly,
  (_f._) Insects covered with hard shields or "scales;"
  (_g._) Insects covered with cotton;
  (_h._) Insects naked.

It will be clear that a different method will be required for
destroying these different classes; but any one insect will belong
to more than one class. Thus _Mytilaspis pomorum_, the apple-scale,
belongs to (_a_), (_c_), and (_f_), and indeed may be placed also
in (_b_), as such plants as hawthorns, which it attacks, are as bad
as evergreens in the difficulty of reaching the insect on them; or,
_Lecanium hesperidum_ is in (_a_), (_d_), and (_h_); Lecanium oleæ in
(_a_), (_b_), (_e_), and (_h_).

As far as regards the injurious species of Coccids it may usually be
taken for granted that those infesting deciduous plants (class _a_)
live chiefly on the bark (class _c_), and are either naked (class _h_)
or covered with a hard scale (class _f_). If naked they are chiefly
_Lecanium_; if covered, either _Mytilaspis_, _Aspidiotus_ or _Diaspis_.

_Icerya_ is exceptional, being omnivorous, feeding equally on bark or
leaves, deciduous or evergreen plants; it belongs to every class except
(_f_). Every method of destruction has therefore to be resorted to
against it.

The treatment of a deciduous plant infested by Coccids is simple as
to its method. For two reasons the dead winter-time must be chosen
for it--first, because, the leaves being off, the whole plant can be
easily got at; secondly, because the eggs of the insect have not yet
been hatched, and the whole brood can be destroyed at once. The first
operation should be the pruning of the tree, so as to reduce the labour
required to a minimum. A brushing over all the trunk and branches with
a good hard stiff brush and one of the liquid remedies given below is
then often successful. Brushing with a _dry_ brush is adopted by some
persons; but, although this doubtless clears away a good many insects
and scales, and may do the tree itself some good by cleaning off
fungus-growths and incrustations, yet it necessarily fails to destroy
all the eggs, and in consequence the work is only half done. _Any one
who wishes to extirpate Coccids must make certain that he has destroyed
the eggs_--a fact which is quite ignored by numbers of those who glibly
talk of their own success, and blame the advice of others. The object
being, therefore, twofold, the operation should be performed with a
hard, stiff brush dipped in one of the fluids recommended below; and
care should be taken that there is no part of the trunk or branches
escaping untouched. In fact, what should be aimed at is a kind of
painting of the tree, but with a thin coating of the fluid, so as to
close the pores as little as may be; while at the same time the brush
clears away as many as possible of the "scales" and their enclosed
broods of insects and eggs.

Bearing in mind what has been said just now of the want of _certainty_
in any remedy whatsoever, the tree-grower who follows these directions
will most likely find his work successful and his deciduous plants
cleaned of "scale" on the bark.

A second method may be adopted--namely, the painting-over of the trunk
and branches, without attempting to forcibly detach any "scales" with
the brush. This, _properly performed and with proper fluids_, is
likely to be just as efficacious as the other, for the fluid should
"run in" under the scales, surround the eggs, and prevent them from
hatching. It gives less trouble than the hard brushing, and is equally
destructive to the Coccids. It has, however, of course, not the same
cleaning effect upon fungoid growths or incrustations impeding the free
"respiration" of the plant.

For deciduous trees, then, such as apple- or pear-trees in an orchard,
the simple remedy is severe pruning at the dead of winter, and the
coating of the trees with a destructive fluid, laid on with a brush _on
every part_, preferably with a hard brush vigorously used, but leaving
a thin coat of the fluid on the bark.

_It must be thoroughly understood that, a week or two after the first
application, the "scales" left on the tree should be examined, and,
if the eggs are not killed, a second coating of the fluid should be
applied._

The treatment of evergreen plants, or of plants which are attacked both
on the bark and leaves, is really the same as the above as regards its
object, but it necessarily differs in its method. Here, again, it is
desired not only to kill the insects themselves, but also to devitalize
the eggs; but in this case the work is much harder, for the eggs are
especially difficult to reach. Still, there is this advantage: that in
dealing with evergreens the season of the year need not be specially
studied, and, in default of touching the eggs, one may get at the young
larvæ. The remedy is again a fluid, but it must be applied in the form
of spray. Coccids are sometimes found on the upper surfaces of leaves,
but as a rule they affect the lower sides. This, of course, renders
it much more difficult to get at them; and the ordinary rose of a
garden syringe would not, as a general thing, distribute the fluid in a
sufficiently-fine form. The finer the spray and the more it is forced
into every corner and nook of the plant the better. Various force-pumps
and spray-throwers have been invented for this purpose in the United
States; but probably tree-growers in this country need only procure the
finest possible rose for their syringes, and use them in the ordinary
way. The fluid should be thrown as thoroughly as possible on all parts
of the plant, every care being taken to direct it most fully against
the under sides of the leaves.

The work, then, to be done is in itself simple enough. A destructive
fluid must be selected and applied according to the character of the
insect and its position on the tree. For covered or naked insects on
the bark, apply it with a hard, stiff brush; for covered or naked
insects on the leaves, apply it in the form of the _finest spray_
thoroughly forced as much as possible into every nook and cranny, and
especially against the under side of the leaves.

The question, "What is the best fluid to use?" is more complicated.
Many answers have been given to it: many fluids have been strongly
recommended by different people. It must be well remembered that, as
stated above, a sure and sovereign remedy has yet to be discovered, and
failure may attend even the best suggested at present. Bearing this
in mind, tree-growers will find in the following list the result of
the experience of a number of observers, which may serve as a useful
guide. It does not profess to be more than a summary, compiled from the
researches of entomologists such as Mr. Comstock, Professor Riley, Mr.
Hubbard; from suggestions by gardeners and others, embodied in various
parliamentary and private documents; and from actual observation and
experiment in this country: but it is believed that the information
here given may be accepted and relied on.

Some of the substances here given are manifestly unsuitable for general
use on account of their expense, at any rate in the open air. Yet it is
well to include them, as they are all suggested in some work or other,
or in the replies of gardeners and fruit-growers to parliamentary
inquiries; and the objections to them ought also to be known:--

  1. _Alcohol._ Will certainly kill any individual insect; but
       "sprayed over scale-insects produced no apparent effect"
       (Comstock).

  2. _Ammonia._ Whether used pure (diluted) or in urine, damages the
       plants much more than it does the insects (Hubbard; Comstock).

  3. _Ashes._ Powdered, or mixed with lime, salt, soot, &c. Of no
       value whatever (Hubbard; Personal experiment).

  4. _Carbolic acid._ Of no avail, either as spray or brushed on,
       unless used in such strength as to seriously damage the tree
       (Hubbard; Riley; Comstock).

  5. _Castor-oil._ Has been found efficacious in cleaning
       hawthorn-trees at the Agricultural College, Lincoln (T. Kirk).
       It was mixed with soot for some unexplained reason. The time of
       the year when it was applied is not stated; but the author's
       experiments seem to show that castor-oil _does not effectually
       kill the eggs_. Still, it is doubtless a valuable remedy if
       applied repeatedly, so as to kill larvæ and adults, supposing it
       to be sufficiently cheap.

  6. _Cole's Insect-exterminator._ Apparently a mixture of about 2
       parts of "green soap" with 100 parts of strong alcohol. It is
       "effectual as an insecticide, and harmless to growing plants;"
       but "the cost is too great, except on a small scale, as in
       conservatories" (Comstock).

  7. _Gasoline._ Seems to have been used in California on pear-trees:
       result, doubtful (New Zealand Parliamentary Papers: Codlin Moth
       Committee Report, 1885, page 8).

  8. _Gishurst compound._ Very favourably spoken of in many quarters.
       In New South Wales it has been found efficacious on orange-trees
       against _Aspidiotus coccineus_ (Alderton); in Nelson it is said
       to be used beneficially against _Icerya purchasi_. _It does not,
       however, kill the eggs with certainty_ (Personal experiment).
       Applied warm, and properly diluted, it may be recommended as a
       good remedy; but applications of it should be repeated.

  9. _Kerosene._ Seemingly the most valuable of all remedies, when
       properly applied. "Almost the only substance which will
       certainly kill the eggs without at the same time destroying the
       plant" (Hubbard).

       But the application of this remedy must be carefully performed.
       Some trees may endure it without injury, even undiluted or
       unmixed; but this is scarcely to be expected, and the oil should
       therefore be applied in some mixed form. Also, it is important
       to remember _that a hot sun increases the injurious effect of
       kerosene_; consequently winter, or cloudy weather, should be
       chosen for its employment.

       (_a._) _Pure kerosene._ As just stated, it is probably not
       advisable to use this. Still, "a young shoot of orange, not
       more than fourteen days old, was uninjured by an application of
       pure kerosene which thoroughly wet every leaf;" (Comstock); and
       _Lecanium hesperidum_ on ivy, similarly treated, was destroyed,
       without injury to the plant (ibid.).

       (_b._) _Kerosene and milk._ An excellent mixture, if milk can be
       obtained cheap (Riley; Hubbard; Comstock). It must be applied
       in the form of an "emulsion," sprayed over the tree or brushed
       on the bark. Hubbard gives the following directions for use:
       Heat the milk nearly to boiling-point and mix with double the
       quantity of kerosene; churn violently from ten minutes to half
       an hour, according to temperature, until a creamy thick fluid
       is obtained; dilute this with nine or ten times the quantity
       of water. The mixture is of course purely a _mechanical_ one,
       as far at least as the water is concerned, and it must be kept
       constantly stirred, to prevent the substances from separating
       from the water. For evergreen trees impel the mixture on leaves
       and branches _in the finest possible spray_. Sour milk is as
       useful as fresh.

       The object of the milk is not only to lessen the injurious
       qualities of the kerosene, but also to induce it to mix more
       freely with the water; but it is the oil alone which destroys
       the insects _and their eggs_.

       (_c._) _Kerosene and soap._ When milk is not obtainable, or too
       dear, nothing is so excellent as this mixture. Soap itself (see
       below) is a useful insecticide, and in combination with kerosene
       includes the good qualities of both substances. The cheapest
       possible qualities of soap will do. The mixture, which is, even
       more than the last, purely _mechanical_, must be made first
       of all an "emulsion." The American experiments result in the
       following recipe and method of using:--

       Formula:

              Common soap        1/2lb.
              Kerosene           2 galls.
              _Soft_ water       1 gall.

       Dissolve the soap in the water heated to boiling, then add the
       kerosene, and churn the mixture until a creamy fluid results
       which thickens on cooling. Dilute with nine or ten times the
       quantity of water: the quantities given above will make about
       thirty gallons of liquid. Whale-oil soap, soft-soap, or any
       other kind will do. As with the milk emulsion, apply in the form
       of the finest spray for evergreens (Riley; Hubbard; Personal
       experiment).

       (_d._) _Kerosene and oil._ Castor-oil, linseed-oil, whale-oil,
       may be used. A mixture of this kind, in the proportion of 1 part
       kerosene to 3 or 4 of oil, has been found very efficacious for
       apple- and other fruit-trees attacked by the common apple-scale
       (_Myt. pomorum_). But, as observed above, the mixture must
       not be laid on too thick. Thinly brushed all over trunk and
       branches, at dead of winter, it has been found quite successful
       in destroying both insects _and eggs_, without injury to the
       trees (Personal experiment). It would probably not answer for
       evergreens, on account of expense.

       On the whole, it may be said that, as far as certainty can
       be attained in the matter, there is no substance better for
       destroying Coccids _and their eggs_ than kerosene in the form
       of milk or soap emulsion, diluted with water for evergreens or
       for trees with insects on the leaves as well as on the bark.
       Probably, for deciduous fruit-trees the kerosene-and-oil mixture
       is the best.

       The great point in favour of this substance is that _it destroys
       the eggs_; this, few if any of the others will accomplish.

  10. _Lime._ Of no avail whatever.

  11. _Lye._ Concentrated lye is very frequently recommended. In the
       New Zealand Parliamentary Papers (Codlin Moth Committee Report,
       1885, page 7) several statements will be found apparently most
       favourable to it; yet in places we find admissions that "it
       cannot reach all the eggs." In America generally, it has not
       been found satisfactory: "inferior to kerosene in killing-power,
       and far more injurious to trees when used in solutions strong
       enough to be effective as insecticides."

  It is quite possible that the action of lye on the fungus
       accompanying the scale-insects (see Chap. III.) may have led
       "practical" gardeners to imagine that it cleaned their trees of
       scale. Comstock says, "I saw most excellent results from the
       following mixture: 1lb. concentrated lye, one pint gasoline or
       benzine, half pint oil, five gallons water." Probably the good
       results here were due, not to the lye, but to the gasoline and
       oil.

  12. _Pyrethrum._ Useless against Coccids (Comstock).

  13. _Salt._ Useless (Comstock).

  14. _Soap._ Undoubtedly a valuable remedy, and perhaps, in some
       cases, as efficient as kerosene; _but it does not destroy the
       eggs_. A solution of 3/4lb. of soap to a gallon of water,
       _applied hot_, was entirely successful in California: three
       months after its application no living scale-insect could be
       found (Comstock). The time of the year is not stated. In another
       case the solution was applied cold: "four days after no living
       insect could be found;" but, again, the time of the year is not
       stated, and no mention is made of the eggs. Still, a strong
       solution of soap may be said to be one of the best remedies
       against the larvæ and adult insects--proportions from 1/4lb. to
       1/3lb. soap to one gallon of water (Comstock; Hubbard; Personal
       experiment).

  15. _Soda, caustic._ Strongly recommended by many persons. It
       injures the tree, _and does not kill the eggs_--two things which
       are decidedly against its use. Gardeners may have been led to
       employ it from finding that in some instances it clears away the
       black fungus-growths (Chap. III.), and imagining this to be a
       clearance also of the scales.

  16. _Soda, silicate._ Kills some insects, _but no eggs_, and injures
       the tree (Hubbard).

  17. _Sulphate of iron._ "A common ingredient in patent remedies;"
       most injurious to vegetation. It does not affect scale-insects
       (Hubbard).

  18. _Sulphur._ Another substance, the object of a kind of
       superstitious veneration amongst gardeners. It is excellent
       against fungoid growth, but of little value against
       scale-insects. Here, again, the clearing of the black fungus has
       probably been taken to mean also the destruction of the insects
       (Hubbard; Comstock; Personal experiment). Comstock says that in
       America people often bore holes in their trees and stuff them
       with sulphur, under the notion that the substance will be taken
       up by the sap, and poison the insects: quite a futile idea.

  19. _Sulphur and lime._ A dangerous compound, and useless unless
       applied in such strength as to kill the tree. Its fumes are
       poisonous, and it may seriously injure the face and hands
       (Hubbard).

  20. _Sulphur and snuff._ Equal parts mixed and dusted over _Lecanium
       hesperidum_ on a wet day were quite successful (Comstock). But
       the mixture would be too expensive except for conservatory
       plants, and doubtless the snuff alone would be quite as
       efficacious.

  21. _Sulphuric acid._ "Killed nearly all the scale-insects, and very
       nearly killed the tree" (Hubbard). No mention is made of its
       action on the eggs.

  22. _Soot._ Useless (Hubbard; Comstock; Personal experiment).

  23. _Tobacco._ A good remedy against larvæ and adults; _doubtful
       against the eggs_. Fumigation has no effect on scale-insects,
       except sometimes on Dactylopidæ, or "mealy bugs" (Hubbard;
       Comstock; Personal experiment). The tobacco should be applied in
       a pretty strong solution; but the expense in this country would
       be probably too great for general use.

  24. _Whale-oil and whale-oil soap_ have been already alluded to
       under the head "Kerosene." They are both useful ingredients in
       mixture with that substance, if procurable cheaply.

From the foregoing list it will be gathered that, if experiment,
combined with knowledge of the habits and life-history of
scale-insects, can be relied on, there is no substance better adapted
for their destruction than kerosene, mixed with oil, or milk, or
soap solution, and _carefully applied_. It has been already observed
that the killing of the eggs is absolutely necessary for thorough
clearing-away of the insects; and, to quote again the words of Mr.
Hubbard, kerosene is "almost the only substance which will with
certainty kill the eggs without at the same time destroying the plant."

But precautions must not be neglected. Persons who recklessly use any
remedy, or who apply it too thickly or in too strong proportions, must
expect their trees to suffer. Nor must the weather and the time of
the year be overlooked. _Winter is the best season for all remedies_;
and, preferably, cool and cloudy days. Again, if substances soluble in
water, such as potash or soda lye, soap solutions, &c., be employed, it
must be expected that a day's rain will wash a good deal of them off,
and greatly reduce their efficacy. These are things which many people
forget; they fancy that because somebody has cleared his trees with,
say, castor-oil in winter they can do the same thing in full heat of
summer; or, because a lye solution has done well in the dry climate of
California, that it will be equally good in the rains of New Zealand.
Still more is it a fallacy to imagine that rule-of-thumb methods, not
founded upon any knowledge of the nature, habits, and life-history of
the insects, are likely to be really efficacious.

Little need be said here of a remedy which has had, to some extent, the
authority of Professor Riley, and which is recommended by Mr. Howard
(Report U.S. Dep. of Agric. 1880-81, p. 351): viz., the transportation
or acclimatization of parasites on scale-insects. Doubtless the thing
could be done, as experiments in America have shown. But there are
plenty of parasitic insects in New Zealand already, and, although they
seem to have hitherto confined their work to the native and mostly to
the innoxious Coccids, they may at any time begin to attack the others,
and it is only a question of time when they will act usefully as
efficient checks (see Chap. IV.).

There is one Coccid of which it must be said that, whilst kerosene
mixtures will undoubtedly destroy it, by far the best remedy of all is
to destroy and burn at once the infested trees. _Icerya purchasi_ is so
voracious and universal a feeder, so repulsive in its aspect, and so
destructive in its effects that the most drastic remedy is the best.
Any one, therefore, having a tree, especially an ornamental or a fruit
tree, attacked by _Icerya purchasi_, is strongly recommended to make
no delay, but to cut down and burn every stick of the tree as soon as
possible.

It was observed at the beginning of this chapter that some people hold
the opinion that the damage done by scale-insects is not of importance.
The foregoing remarks upon remedies are not directed to those who hold
this view, which is contradicted by the experience not only of other
countries but of New Zealand itself.


_Authorities referred to in this Chapter._

 U.S. Department of Agriculture--

 Reports by Professor Riley, Professor Comstock, Mr. Hubbard, Mr. L. O.
 Howard.

 N.Z. Parliamentary Papers, 1885--

 Report of the Select Joint Committee of both Houses on the
 Codlin-moth, and "various blights to which fruits are subject."

 Personal experiment by the author and friends.

 Replies of farmers, gardeners, and tree-growers to inquiries, official
 or private.



CHAPTER VI.

CATALOGUE OF INSECTS AND DIAGNOSIS OF SPECIES.


Family.--COCCIDIDÆ.

Male and female larvæ similar, apterous, naked or covered, active.

Females in all stages apterous; metamorphosis semi-complete; naked or
covered; active or stationary; rostrum usually present in all stages,
sometimes absent in adult; feet sometimes absent after larval stage;
tarsi where present monomerous; feet, where present, ending in a single
claw; eyes sometimes absent.

Male pupæ apterous; naked or covered. Adult males with two wings and
two halteres; metamorphosis complete; rostrum present in larva and
pupa, always absent in adult; tarsi monomerous; feet ending in a single
claw; abdomen terminating in a spike which forms the sheath of the
penis; eyes present in adult; ocelli often large, sometimes exceeding
three in number.

The above characters sufficiently distinguish this family from the rest
of the Homoptera. Probably the first marks for identification of a
specimen might be the monomerous tarsus and the single claw. The latter
is always to be made out, at least in the earlier stages of the female
and in the adult male.


GROUPS.

  Larvæ active, naked; adult females and pupæ stationary,
  covered with separate shields or puparia, composed partly
  of secretion, partly of the earlier discarded pellicles;
  females apodous after larval stage; abdomen of females not
  exhibiting a median cleft or dorsal lobes
                                                           Diaspidinæ.

  Larvæ active, naked; adult females and pupæ active or
  stationary, naked or covered with secretion; adults
  sometimes apodous; abdomen of females exhibiting a median
  cleft and two dorsal lobes
                                                           Lecanidinæ.

  Larvæ active, naked, exhibiting at the abdominal extremity
  two protruding anal tubercles. Adult females exhibiting
  abdominal cleft and dorsal lobes; naked or covered with
  secretion
                                                        Hemicoccidinæ.

  Females in all stages exhibiting anal tubercles; no
  abdominal cleft or dorsal lobes; naked or covered with
  secretion
                                                            Coccidinæ.


Group I.--DIASPIDINÆ.

Female insects covering themselves with separate shields or puparia
composed partly of fibrous secretion, partly of the discarded
pellicles; females apodous after first stage; no abdominal cleft or
lobes; spinnerets usually arranged in groups on the posterior segment
of female.


GENERA.

  Female puparium circular, pellicles usually in the centre;
  male puparium slightly elongated, not carinated, pellicle
  at one end. Four or five groups of spinnerets, or groups
  absent
                                                           Aspidiotus.

  Female puparium more or less circular, pellicles near the
  centre; male puparium elongated, carinated, pellicle at one
  end. Five groups of spinnerets
                                                              Diaspis.

  Female puparium elongated, pellicles at one end; male
  puparium nearly similar but smaller and narrower, not
  carinated, pellicle at one end. Five groups of spinnerets
                                                           Mytilaspis.

  Female puparium elongated, pellicles at one end; male
  puparium much narrower and smaller, carinated, pellicle at
  one end. Five groups of spinnerets
                                                           Chionaspis.

  Female puparium elongated, pellicles at one end; male
  puparium narrower, pellicle at one end. More than five
  groups of spinnerets. Abdomen of female not fringed
                                                            Poliaspis.

  Female puparium elongated, first pellicle at one end,
  second pellicle almost filling the puparium; male puparium
  smaller and narrower, sometimes carinated, pellicle at one
  end
                                                             Fiorinia.

_Genera not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Female puparium circular or elongated; male puparium
  elongated, not carinated
                                                           Parlatoria.

  Female puparium elongated; male puparium similar but
  smaller. Abdomen of female fringed
                                                            Leucaspis.

  Female puparium double, the scales superimposed, first
  pellicle in the centre of the upper scale; male puparium
  elongated, not carinated
                                                              Aonidia.

  Female puparium completely enclosing the insect; male
  puparium elongated, not carinated
                                                            Targionia.


Genus: ASPIDIOTUS, Bouché.

Female puparium varying in colour; circular in outline, usually flat,
sometimes rather convex; pellicles usually in the centre.

Male puparium rather longer than that of the female, the pellicle at
one end; not carinated above.

Groups of spinnerets usually four, sometimes five, and in one American
species (_A. sabalis_, Comstock) six; or, in a few cases, altogether
wanting.

Adult females usually peg-top shaped.


  1. Aspidiotus Atherospermæ, Maskell.
       N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 198.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 1.)

Female puparium circular, flat, brown; diameter, about 1/20in. The
pellicles in the centre form sometimes a sort of boss or protuberance,
of lighter colour than the rest.

Male puparium oval, flat, brownish, about 1/36in. in length.

Adult female light-yellow in colour, of the usual peg-top shape of the
genus; length, about 1/30in.; corrugated--the last abdominal section,
being very small, is much overlapped by the rest. Four groups of
spinnerets, upper pair with fifteen orifices; lower pair, nine or ten.
Abdomen terminating in several lobes, of which the four median are the
largest; between the lobes scaly serrated hairs.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Atherosperma Novæ Zælandiæ_, Wellington; Hawke's Bay.


  2. Aspidiotus Budlæiæ, Signoret.
      Ann. de la Soc. Entom. de France, 1868, p. 115.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 198.

Female puparium circular, flat, dirty-white, about 1/15in. in diameter.

Male puparium oval, dirty-white, about 1/30in. in length.

Adult female light-yellow, peg-top shaped; abdomen ending in two
somewhat prominent lobes, with scaly hairs and spines. Four groups of
spinnerets: upper groups with five or six orifices; lower groups, three
or four.

Adult male yellow, slightly brown on the thorax; antennæ of ten joints,
all hairy.

Habitat--On silver-wattle, Nelson. The insect is European, and found
there on _Budlæia salicina_.

Closely allied to _A. nerii_, but differing in the lobes and spinnerets
of the abdomen.


  3. Aspidiotus Camelliæ, Boisduval.
      _Kermes camelliæ_, Boisduval, Ent. Hort., p. 334.
      _Aspidiotus camelliæ_, Signoret, loc. cit., 1869, p. 117.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 200; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 21.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 2.)

Female puparium nearly circular, convex, greyish or brownish in colour,
about 1/15in. in diameter; pellicles often at one side.

Male puparium rather smaller, oval.

Adult female of normal shape, but somewhat elongated. Abdomen ending in
two lobes, with a few scattered scaly hairs. No groups of spinnerets.

Habitat--On camellias, Christchurch; on euonymus, weeping willow, &c.,
Wellington.

Very common in gardens about Wellington: sometimes does much damage to
euonymus shrubs and hedges.


  4. Aspidiotus Carpodeti, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 21.

Female puparium usually light-brown, but varying a little with the
colour of the bark of the tree; convex; circular; the pellicles in the
centre; some specimens are slightly elongated. Average diameter, 1/16in.

Male puparium narrow, with parallel sides; not carinated; dirty-white
or brownish colour; length, about 1/16in.

Adult female of the normal peg-top shape, the abdomen not so much
overlapped as usual. Abdomen ending in two median somewhat prominent
lobes, with two others much smaller not in close proximity; edge of
the body jagged, with curvilinear incisions, amongst which and between
the lobes are a number of serrated pointed hairs, as in _A. nerii_.
Four groups of spinnerets: lower pair with four to six orifices; upper,
with six to ten. These groups seem surrounded by a narrow line as if
enclosed in a chamber: the same appearance is presented (according
to a figure of Mr. Comstock's) in _A. nerii_. There are many single
spinnerets.

Adult male of normal form, with antennæ of ten joints, of which the
seventh, eighth, and ninth are the longest. The haltere has a somewhat
long peduncle. The abdominal spike is rather long, and springs from a
large tubercle.

Habitat--On _Carpodetus serratus_ and _Vitex littoralis_ (puriri),
Wellington. The puparia are so like in colour to the bark that it is
difficult to detect them.

This insect is evidently closely allied to _A. nerii_, but differs in
the abdominal lobes of the female and in the antennæ of the male; its
male puparium is also much longer, and that of the female more convex,
than in that species.


  5. Aspidiotus coccineus, Gennadius.[K]
      _Aspidiotus aurantii_, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 199.
      _Aspidiotus citri_, Comstock; Canadian Entom., Vol. XIII., p. 8.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 3.)

[K] The author has not been able to find the original description of
Gennadius, which appears to have been contained in a report to the
Minister for Agriculture in Greece. Dr. Signoret states that there is a
reference to it in "Risso, Histoire Naturelle des Oranges," Vol. I., p.
220.

Female puparium really dirty-white, but seeming yellowish-brown, from
the colour of the insect beneath; sometimes dark-brown; circular, flat;
diameter, about 1/11in.

Male puparium much smaller, rather oval.

Adult female yellow, becoming brown at last; peg-top shaped, but the
abdominal segment is comparatively so small and is so much overlapped
by the others that the insect looks almost globular; length, about
1/15in. Abdomen ending in six lobes (of which the two median are the
largest), and several scaly hairs. No groups of spinnerets.

Adult male very small, brown or yellow in colour. The antennæ have ten
joints: the two first joints are very small, round, and smooth; the
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth equal in length; the seventh, eighth,
and ninth half as long; the tenth somewhat shorter still, and pointed.
All the last eight joints show numerous hairs. The thorax is short and
thick, the thoracic band occupying more than one-half the width; the
abdomen short, the double spike of some length. The wings are oval,
about as long as the body. The legs are hairy, femora thick, tibiæ
longer, thicker at the end next the tarsus than at the other end; tarsi
broad at the top, tapering gradually down to the usual single claw. The
hairs on the femora are much fewer than those on the tibiæ and tarsi.

Habitat--On oranges and lemons in shops, very abundant, often several
hundreds on a single fruit; on orange- and lemon-trees, Governor's Bay,
Canterbury; and Auckland.

This insect is European, and has been introduced here from Australia.
It is exceedingly destructive to orange and lemon groves in America
and Australia. Mr. Comstock (Report of the Entomologist, U.S. Dep. of
Agric., 1881, p. 295) records an instance where a grove of thirty-three
acres, which in 1872 produced a rental of £1,800, could fetch in 1878
only £120, on account of the ravages of this insect.

Orange- and lemon-growers in the north of New Zealand should beware of
this pest. It is scarcely likely that it should be harmless here when
it is so destructive elsewhere.

The remedies most likely to be efficacious have been mentioned in the
introductory chapters of this work.


  6. Aspidiotus dysoxyli, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 198.

Female puparium circular, somewhat convex, brown in colour; diameter,
about 1/15in.

Male puparium smaller, oval, brown.

Adult female bright-yellow, corrugated, the corrugations overlapping
the abdominal region, which is comparatively small. There are four
groups of spinnerets, the upper pair with ten openings, the lower with
nine, many scattered oval and oblong spinnerets. The abdomen ends in
six lobes, of which only the two median are conspicuous; between the
lobes fine serrated hairs. The abdomen is very velvety.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Dysoxylon spectabile_, Wellington.

Allied to _A. atherospermæ_, but differing in the abdominal lobes and
spinnerets.


  7. Aspidiotus epidendri, Bouché.
      _Chermes epidendri_, Boisduval; Ent. Hort., 1867, p. 339.
      _Aspidiotus epidendri_, Signoret, loc. cit., 1869, p. 121.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 197.

Female puparium circular, flat, dirty-white or brownish; diameter,
about 1/12in.

Male puparium elongated, the sides parallel.

Adult female greenish yellow, peg-top shaped. Abdomen ending in several
lobes, of which only the two median are conspicuous; between the
lobes several serrated scaly hairs, and some spines. Four groups of
spinnerets: upper groups, eight to ten orifices; lower groups, six to
eight: many single spinnerets.

Adult male somewhat long, yellowish in colour; antennæ of ten joints;
feet having somewhat thick femora, the tibiæ and tarsi slender; all the
joints hairy. The abdominal spike, or sheath of the penis, is rather
long, and the tubercle at its base is large.

Habitat--On palms and orchids in hothouses, _passim_; on wattle,
rarely, Christchurch.

This is a European insect, affecting hothouse plants, and scarcely
likely to do damage out-of-doors. It is closely allied to _A. nerii_.


  8. Aspidiotus nerii, Bouché; Schadl. Gart. Ins., 1833, 52.
      _Diaspis Bouchei_, Targioni-Tozzetti; "Studie sulle Coccineglie,"
        1867.
      _Aspidiotus Bouchei_, Targioni; Catal., 1868, 45, 1.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 217.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 4.)

Female puparium circular, flat, white or greyish; diameter, about
1/12in.

Male puparium oval, white; about 1/25in. in length.

Adult female yellow, peg-top shaped, but almost globular. Abdomen
ending in six lobes, of which the two median are the largest. Between
and a little beyond the lobes are a number of scaly serrated hairs,
some of which exhibit serrated extremities; also some scaly but smooth
hairs. There are also a few spines. Four groups of spinnerets, which
are surrounded (according to Mr. Comstock, Entom. Report, U.S. Dep. of
Agric., 1880, Plate XV., Fig. 1) by a fine line, as if enclosed in a
sac. Many single spinnerets.

In the larva the abdomen ends in four lobes, of which the two median
are somewhat prominent.

Adult male yellow or brownish; antennæ of ten joints, each with several
hairs; feet having the femora somewhat thick, the tibiæ and tarsi flat
and slender, the former a little expanded at the extremity.

Habitat--On _Coprosma lucida_ and _Corynocarpus lævigata (Karaka),
Wellington.

A species introduced from Europe, where its favourite habitat is
_Nerium oleander_; but it is found on many other plants, and is,
according to Dr. Signoret, "the commonest of all the species of this
genus." It has not yet spread widely in New Zealand.


  9. Aspidiotus sophoræ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 121.

Female puparium nearly circular, flat, bluish-grey; diameter, about
1/24in.

Male puparium oval; length, about 1/36in.

Adult female of the usual peg-top shape, greenish-yellow in colour;
abdomen ending in two conspicuous median lobes, with a number of scaly
serrated hairs, as in _A. nerii_. Five groups of spinnerets: uppermost
group with four orifices; the remainder, seven or eight. Some specimens
show only four groups.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Sophora tetraptera_ (Kowhai), Port Hills, Canterbury.

Only a few species of Aspidiotus are reported with five groups of
spinnerets. The present insect differs from all of them in the scaly
serrated hairs of the abdomen; none of the others has more than a few
spines.

Genus: DIASPIS, Costa.

Female puparium more or less, but never quite, circular; sometimes
flat, but more usually convex; pellicles more or less marginal.

Male puparium elongated, the pellicle at one end; a longitudinal
carina, or keel, appears in the middle.

Groups of spinnerets, five.

Mr. Comstock (Entom. Rep., Cornell Univ., 1883, p. 85) remarks that,
when the pellicles of the female of this genus are marginal, it might
be difficult to distinguish it from Chionaspis, as the male puparia are
alike in both. As regards the species observed hitherto in New Zealand
this difficulty has not occurred.


  10. Diaspis Boisduvalii, Signoret; Ann. de la Soc. Entom.
        de France, 1868, p. 433.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 200; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 23.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 5.)

Female puparium oval, nearly circular, flattish; colour,
yellowish-grey; diameter, about 1/12in.

Male puparium elongated, white, with a strong median keel, and with
the edges raised so as to appear like two other keels; length, about
1/20in. The male puparia frequently occur massed in great numbers, and
covered with white hairs and fluff.

Adult female rather elongated, oval, or somewhat pear-shaped; the body
corrugated, the cephalic portion smooth. At each side, on a level with
the rostrum, or a little above it, is a protruding lobe, which is
characteristic. Colour, light-yellow. Abdomen ending in two lobes, not
prominent, and with a depression between them; beyond the lobes are
many serrations, with small lobelike projections and spiny hairs. Five
groups of spinnerets: uppermost group with five to eight orifices[L];
the two upper side groups with twenty to twenty-five; lower side
groups, fifteen to twenty. A few scattered single spinnerets.

[L] Mr. Comstock (Entom. Rep., Cornell Univ., 1883, p. 87) gives eight to
fifteen orifices for the uppermost group.

Adult male very small, about 1/40in. in length; colour, reddish-yellow;
antennæ of ten joints, all with hairs except the two first; femora
and tibiæ slender, tarsi thick at the base, and tapering to the claw;
digitules, fine hairs. The first and second pair of legs appear
somewhat widely separated, owing to the length of the coxæ.

Habitat--On several hothouse plants, Christchurch and Wellington; and
on wattle in gardens, Wellington.

A European insect. The curious projections at the side, near the head,
of the female, and the arrangement of the male puparia above mentioned,
sufficiently distinguish this species.


  11. Diaspis rosæ, Sandberg.
      _Aspidiotus rosæ_, Sandberg; Abhand., priv. Boh., No. 6, p. 317.
      _Diaspis rosæ_, Signoret, loc. cit., 1869, p. 441.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 201.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 6.)

Female puparium nearly circular, white, often aggregated in masses;
diameter, about 1/12in. Pellicles, marginal.

Male puparium white, elongated, carinated; length, about 1/20in.

Adult female deep-red in colour, elongated, the body deeply segmented.
Cephalic region very large, smooth. On each segment of the body several
spiny hairs. Abdomen ending in two conspicuous lobes with a depression
between them, and some spiny hairs. Five groups of spinnerets, but the
lateral groups are almost continuous; uppermost group with about twenty
orifices; in the lateral groups, fifty to sixty orifices. No single
spinnerets.

Adult male orange-red in colour; antennæ ten-jointed, with several
hairs on all but the first two joints; feet slender, hairy; digitules,
fine hairs. The spike is somewhat long.

Habitat--On rose-trees, Governor's Bay, Canterbury-Napier.

A European species, stated by Mr. Comstock to attack, in America,
blackberries and raspberries, besides the rose.

The deep-red colour and abnormally-large cephalic segment of this
insect distinguish it from all others.


  12. Diaspis santali, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 122.
                         (Plate IV., Fig. 7.)

Female puparium yellowish-grey in colour, sometimes with a greenish
tinge; outline oval; very convex; pellicles at one end, black,
inconspicuous; length of puparium, about 1/15in.

Male puparium white, elongated, carinated; pellicle, black; length,
about 1/25in.

Adult female orange-red in colour, peg-top shaped; the abdominal
segment very small as compared with the rest of the body, and the two
next segments overlap it. Abdomen ending in two conspicuous, prominent,
median lobes, and at each side of them two semi-circular depressions:
several branched and serrated hairs in the region of these lobes. There
are no groups of spinnerets. There is no wide depression of the edge
between the median lobes.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Santalum cunninghamii_ (Maire), Te Aute, Hawke's Bay; and
on pear, plum, and other fruit-trees at Whangarei, having probably
spread from native plants.

The carinated male puparium distinguishes this species from Aspidiotus.
The absence of spinnerets is curious.


Genus: MYTILASPIS, Targioni-Tozzetti.

Female and male puparia similar, or nearly similar, in shape, but
the male puparium is smaller. Puparia elongated, generally more or
less mussel-shaped or pyriform, usually convex, more or less curved;
pellicles at one end. Male puparia not carinated. Five groups of
spinnerets in the female, but the groups are sometimes continuous.


  13. Mytilaspis cordylinidis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 195.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 1.)

Female puparium pure white, elongated, very narrow; usually straight,
sometimes curved; pellicles yellow, at one end; length, about 1/8in.;
breadth, about 1/30in.

Male puparium similar to that of the female, but much smaller; length,
about 1/20in.

Adult female pale yellow in colour, elongated, distinctly segmented.
Rudimentary antennæ on the cephalic segment. A few fine hairs at the
edges of the segments. Abdomen ending in two lobes with a small median
depression; several serrated scaly hairs, and a few spines. Five groups
of spinnerets: uppermost groups, seven or eight orifices; upper lateral
group, fourteen to twenty; lower lateral group, twenty to twenty-five.
A great number of single spinnerets.

Adult male doubtful; very minute and difficult to detect. Antennæ
apparently short and tibiæ large.

Habitat--On _Cordyline australis_ and _C. indivisa_, _Phormium_,
_Gahnia_, _Astelia_, _Eucalyptus_, &c., throughout the islands; but the
chief habitat seems to be _C. australis_ (the common cabbage-tree), on
which it is often very abundant.

This species may at first sight be mistaken for _Fiorinia stricta_,
described below, which also infests Cordyline and Phormium; but, on
inspection, it will be seen that the puparium of the Mytilaspis is much
whiter, and the pellicles yellow, those of _F. stricta_ being black. An
examination of the second pellicles of the two species will, of course,
at once distinguish them.


  14. Mytilaspis drimydis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 196.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 3.)

Female puparium elongated, often straight, sometimes curved; colour,
dirty-white or brown; pellicles at one end; length, about 1/12in.

Male puparium similar, but smaller.

Adult female dull-red in colour, elongated, not very distinctly
segmented. Abdomen ending in a number of small lobes, of which the
four median are the largest; several fine hairs between the lobes; no
groups of spinnerets, but a very great number of single ones, which
are scattered on the segments as far up as the rostrum. Many of these
protrude as short thick tubes with serrated or fringed extremities. On
the cephalic segment are a few spiny hairs and two rudimentary antennæ.

Adult male red in colour; antennæ of ten joints; tarsi somewhat large.
Both antennæ and feet have numerous hairs. Digitules, fine.

Habitat--On _Drimys colorata_, Water of Leith, Dunedin, from which it
has spread to other native plants.


  15. Mytilaspis epiphytidis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 21.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 2.)

Female puparium flat, pyriform, brown in colour, thin; length, about
1/11in.

Male puparium narrower than that of the female, and a good deal darker,
being sometimes almost black; length, about 1/20in.; not carinated.

Adult female dark-grey in colour, elongated, segmented. Abdomen ending
in two median lobes; along the edge several deepish curvilinear
incisions, between which are some strong spines. Five groups of
spinnerets: lower pair with fourteen to sixteen orifices; upper pair,
twelve to sixteen; uppermost group, four to six.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Astelia cunninghamii_, Wellington.


  16. Mytilaspis leptospermi, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 215.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 4.)

Female puparium flat, elongated, irregularly pyriform, light-brown in
colour; length, about 1/12in. The secretion forming the puparium is
mixed with bark-cells of the tree, arranged longitudinally.

Male puparium narrower than that of the female, and darker in colour.

Adult female greyish-green, elongated, segmented; abdomen ending in six
lobes, of which the two median are conspicuous and somewhat large and
floriated, the rest very small. Five groups of spinnerets: the upper
group with about fifteen openings; the others with from twenty-five to
thirty-five. Single spinnerets none, or very few.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Leptospermum scoparium_ (manuka), Wellington; Canterbury;
Auckland. The puparia are often numerous on the loose scaly bark of the
tree.


  17. Mytilaspis metrosideri, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 293.

Female puparium white, pyriform. Female in all stages dark-coloured; in
last stage nearly black. General outline resembling _M. drimydis_, but
the abdomen is much sharper and more pointed, with a finely-serrated
edge, ending in three minute, pointed lobes, joined by a scaly process.
Spinnerets in an almost continuous arch, which may be resolved into
five groups; seventy or eighty openings; several single spinnerets.
The rudimentary antennæ can be made out.

The young female has an elongated oval outline, little corrugated. The
feet, digitules, antennæ, &c., resemble those of _M. pomorum_. The
abdomen is like that of the adult, without the groups of spinnerets.

Male unknown, but puparium smaller and rather darker in colour than
that of the female.

Habitat--On _Metrosideros robusta_ (rata), Wellington, and probably
elsewhere. It is not common.


  18. Mytilaspis phymatodidis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 292.

Female puparium flattish, pyriform, dirty-white or brownish; length,
about 1/12in.

Male puparium similar, brown.

Adult female greyish, elongated, segmented. Rudimentary antennæ
visible. Abdomen ending in two lobes with a median depression: several
scaly and serrated processes, and some spiny hairs. Five groups of
spinnerets: uppermost group, six to nine orifices; upper side groups,
ten to fourteen; lower pair, fifteen to twenty: several single
spinnerets.

Male unknown.

Habitat--On _Phymatodes billardieri_, Wellington; Auckland.

In outward appearance the female resembles _M. pomorum_, but the
puparium is quite different, and the abdominal characters also differ.


  19. Mytilaspis pomorum, Bouché.
      _Aspidiotus pomorum_, Bouché; Ent. Zeit. Stett., 1851,
        XII., No. 1.
      _Aspidiotus conchiformis_, _auctorum_; _nec_ Gmelin,
        Syst. Nat., 2,221.
      _Aspidiotus pyrus-malus_, Kennicott; 1854, Acad. Science of
        Cleveland.
      _Aspidiotus juglandis_, Fitch; Ann. Rep., N.Y. State Ag.
        Soc., 1856; _nec_ Signoret, loc. cit., 1870, p. 95.
      _Aspidiotus falciformis_, Bärensprung; Journ. d'Alton et
        Burm., 1849.
      _Mytilaspis pomicorticis_, Riley; Fifth Rep. State Entom.,
        Missouri, p. 95.
      _Mytilaspis pomorum_ (Bouché), Signoret; loc. cit., 1870,
        p. 98.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 192.
    The common apple-scale.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 5.)

Female puparium usually brown,[M] sometimes white; elongated,
mussel-shaped, convex, slightly curved, sometimes straight; length,
about 1/10in.

[M] Dr. Signoret says, "brun noirâtre." Mr. Comstock calls it "ash-grey."
In reality the colour varies somewhat with that of the bark of the tree.

Male puparium not known in New Zealand. In America it is stated[N] to
be small, "straight or nearly so, and with the posterior part joined to
the remainder of the scale by a thin portion which serves as a hinge."

[N] Comstock; Rep. of Entom., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1880, p. 325.

Adult female greyish, yellowish, or white; elongated, segmented.
Rudimentary antennæ present. At the edge of each segment two or three
strong spines. Abdomen ending in two large lobes, with two others much
smaller on each side; the median lobes are trifoliated. Between and
beyond the lobes some spines. Five groups of spinnerets; numbers of
orifices variable (see below); a few single spinnerets.

Male unknown in New Zealand and Europe, doubtful in America. Colour
stated by Riley (Fifth Missouri Report, p. 95) as "translucent
corneous-grey."

Habitat in New Zealand--On apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot, lilac,
ash, thorn, sycamore, cotoneaster, and other plants, _passim_.

An introduced European species, known in America and elsewhere as
the "oyster-shell bark-louse of the apple." It is the commonest,
apparently, of the Diaspidinæ; and does great damage in orchards.

This species has been referred to by many writers under the specific
name "conchiformis;" some authors include it under the genus
Aspidiotus, others under Coccus, and one--Réaumur--under Chermes. In
the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, February,
1885, Mr. A. Michael refers to it as _Coccus (Mytilaspis) pomicorticis_.

The groups of spinnerets have been stated above to be "variable." The
following table shows the numbers observed in specimens from different
trees in New Zealand:--

                Uppermost  Upper Side  Lower Side
                 Groups.     Groups.     Groups.

  Apple            17          17          14
  Plum             20          17          17
  Lilac            17          19          16
  Ash              10          12           9
  Cotoneaster       7          15          10

A very minute white Acarid (mite) has been observed frequently under
the puparia of this species, among the eggs. The eggs, in most cases
so observed, were shrivelled and dead. Mr. A. Michael, in the paper
above mentioned ("Notes on Tyroglyphidæ") refers to an Acarus found in
America in 1873, also in puparia of _M. pomorum_, by Mr. Riley, and
expresses doubts whether or not it fed upon the insect; yet he says, "A
Tyroglyphus not ordinarily predatory might regard a Coccus as suitable
for gastronomic purposes."


  20. Mytilaspis pyriformis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 194; Vol. XIV., 1881,
        p. 215; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 22.
                          (Plate V., Fig. 6.)

Female puparium light-brown, elongated, pyriform, flat; length,
averaging 1/10in. (sometimes reaching 1/8in.); breadth, averaging
1/15in. (reaching 1/12in.); texture, thin. The second pellicle is
comparatively large.

Male puparium smaller and narrower, brown, not carinated.

Adult female yellowish-brown or greyish; elongated, segmented; on the
segments are a few spiny hairs. Abdomen ending in several lobes, of
which the two median are much the largest. Spinnerets in a continuous
arch, containing sixty to seventy orifices. Many single spinnerets.
Several scaly hairs between the lobes.

Adult male orange-coloured, about 1/30in. long. Antennæ 10-jointed.
Digitules, long fine hairs. Sheath of the penis long.

Habitat--On _Dysoxylon spectabile_ and _Atherosperma Novæ Zælandiæ_,
Wellington; on Coprosma, Riccarton Bush, Canterbury.

In the female puparium and in the length of the abdominal spike of the
male this species resembles _M. buxi_, Bouché (Signoret, loc. cit.,
1868, p. 93), but differs in all other respects.


Genus: CHIONASPIS, Signoret.

Female puparium usually white, elongated; pellicles at one end;
generally flat.

Male puparium white, elongated, carinated; pellicle at one end.

Groups of spinnerets, five (in one American species, six); rarely
wanting.


  21. Chionaspis citri, Comstock; 2nd Rep., Dep. of Entom.,
      Cornell Univ., 1883.
      _Chionaspis euonymi_, Comstock (in part); Ag. Rep., 1880,
        p. 313.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., p. 1884, p. 23.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 1.)

Female puparium dirty blackish-brown, with a grey margin; elongated.
"There is a central ridge from which the sides slope like the roof of a
house" (Comstock).

Male puparium white, narrow, carinated.

Adult female yellowish-white, elongated, segmented. Abdomen ending
in six lobes, of which the two median are the largest: these two are
divergent. Along the edge some spines. No groups of spinnerets: a few
single ones.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On oranges sold in the shops, imported from Sydney.

This insect, apparently an importation from America, was not observed
prior to 1884, and occurs as yet only sparingly, mingled with _A.
coccineus_, from which it is easily distinguished by its elongated
puparium.


  22. Chionaspis dubia, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 216.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 2.)

Female puparium white, flat, elongated, pyriform, very thin; the
pellicles rather small; length, about 1/12in.

Male puparium white, elongated, rather oval; very slightly carinated
above; on the under-side are two longitudinal keels.

Adult female yellow, elongated, segmented; the abdominal segments
somewhat deep. Abdomen ending with a median depression; terminal lobes
inconspicuous (absent?). Five groups of spinnerets: uppermost group,
six to ten orifices; the rest, ten to fifteen.

Adult male reddish in colour. Antennæ hairy, 10-jointed, the first two
joints very short. Feet normal, with four long, fine digitules. At
the base of the abdominal spike is a somewhat large tubercle. Haltere
of normal form, but the terminal seta is very long, four times as
long as the thick basal portion, and has no terminal knob. Thoracic
band conspicuous. The thorax is somewhat long, so that there is a
considerable distance between the first and second pairs of legs.

Habitat--On _Coprosma_, _Rubus_, _Asplenium_, _Pellæa_, Riccarton Bush
and North Kowai River, Canterbury; Auckland.

The female puparium resembles that of _C. aspidistræ_ (Signoret) and
_C. populi_ (Bärensprung), but the abdominal segment of the female
differs from both.


  23. Chionaspis dysoxyli, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 22.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 3.)

Female puparium thin, flattish, pyriform, white in colour, with a faint
pink tinge when the egg-mass beneath shows through it; length, about
1/12in. The second pellicle is comparatively large.

Male puparium white, narrow, carinated; length, about 1/36in.

The insect affects principally the leaves of the plant, and the puparia
are usually clustered thickly along the midrib.

Adult female yellowish-red, elongated, segmented; but not very deeply.
Abdomen ending in a broken curve, with many curvilinear incisions.
There are fourteen lobes, of which the two median are the largest;
separated from them by a spine on each side are two others rather
smaller; then another spine and a short open space; and then three
smaller lobes and another spine; another space, and then a single small
lobe, followed by a spine. Five groups of spinnerets: lower pair with
twelve to fourteen orifices; upper pair with seven to ten; uppermost
group, four to six. A few spiny hairs are on the edge of the abdomen.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Dysoxylon spectabile_ (Kohe-kohe), Wellington; Hawke's
Bay; Auckland.

The large white puparia of this insect do much to spoil the appearance
of Dysoxylon, one of the most showy-leafed plants in New Zealand.


  24. Chionaspis minor, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 33.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 4.)

Female puparium white, small, not more than 1/15in. in length, usually
less; it is narrower and less pyriform than is usual in the genus, and
is often bent in the middle; pellicles yellow.

Male puparium white, narrow, elongated, carinated, about 1/30in. in
length.

Adult female elongated; segmented, but not deeply; colour, dark-brown.
Abdomen ending in six small lobes, of which the two median--the
largest--are closely contiguous. Between them and the next pair is a
spine; then beyond the second pair another spine, a space, and a third
pair of very small lobes; after a long space there is another spine.
Five groups of spinnerets: uppermost group with twelve to fourteen
orifices; upper pair, fourteen to seventeen; lower pair, eighteen to
twenty-four: many single spinnerets.

Adult male not known.

Habitat--On _Parsonsia_, Hawke's Bay; on _Rhipogonum scandens_
(supplejack), Wellington; Canterbury; Otago.

The small puparia and the contiguous abdominal lobes of the female
distinguish this species.


Genus: POLIASPIS, Maskell; N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 293.

Female puparia elongated; pellicles at one end. Male puparia narrower,
elongated, pellicle at one end. Female with more than five groups of
spinnerets; abdomen without fringe.

In the kindred genus, _Leucaspis_, Targioni-Tozzetti (Signoret, loc.
cit., 1868, p. 101), the abdomen has a continuous fringe of long
spines, and the groups of spinnerets vary in number from five to eight.


  25. Poliaspis media, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 293.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 5.)

Female puparium white, elongated, pyriform, slightly convex; length,
about 1/18in.

Male puparium elongated, narrow, white, doubtfully carinated.

Adult female elongated, segmented; greenish-white; length, about
1/24in. Rudimentary antennæ visible. Abdomen ending with a median
depression, and inconspicuous lobes; several scattered spiny hairs.
Eight groups of spinnerets: four, containing each from twenty to thirty
orifices, are placed in opposite pairs, the fifth, with four to six
orifices, being between the upper pair; above these, three other groups
form an arch, the two outer ones having eight to ten openings, the
middle one three to five. Many single spinnerets.

Adult male of a bright scarlet or deep-orange colour. The antennæ,
covered with longish hairs, have ten joints, the first two very short
and thick; the next five long, equal, and cylindrical; the eighth and
ninth somewhat shorter; the tenth fusiform, and as long as the seventh.
The legs are rather long; the femur thick, the tibia more slender,
broadening towards the tarsus, which is about one-third as long as the
tibia, and narrows sharply down to the claw. Both tarsus and tibia are
hairy. The digitules are fine hairs.

Habitat--On _Veronica_, sp., and _Leucopogon Fraseri_, North Kowai
River, Canterbury; on _Cyathodes acerosa_, Wellington; on ferns, Napier.


Genus: FIORINIA, Targioni-Tozzetti. Uhleria, Comstock; 2nd
Entom. Rep., Cornell Univ., 1883, p. 110.

Female puparium elongated; first pellicle small, at one end; second
pellicle very large, entirely covering the insect, and almost extending
to the edges of the puparium.

Male puparium elongated; smaller and narrower than that of the female;
sometimes carinated; pellicle at one end.

Mr. Comstock proposes the name "Uhleria" for this genus, because
Professor Targioni, establishing his genus for the species to which
he originally gave the name of _Diaspis fioriniæ_, changed at the
same time the specific name to "pellucida." This, Mr. Comstock says,
necessitates now an entirely new generic name.

Targioni's nomenclature has been followed here, as likely to lead to
less confusion.


  26. Fiorinia asteliæ, Maskell.
      _Diaspis gigas_, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 201; Vol. XIV., 1881,
        p. 217; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 24.
      _Uhleria gigas_, Comstock; 2nd Entom. Rep., Cornell Univ.,
        1883, p. 111.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 6.)

Female puparium elongated, flat, roughly pyriform or ovate, thin;
the secretion is yellowish-brown or dirty-white, but is scarcely
noticeable, on account of the second pellicle; length variable, from
1/12in. to 1/8in.; breadth, about 1/16in. First pellicle small, at one
end. Second pellicle, very large, almost filling the puparium, roughly
pyriform; abdominal region segmented; cephalic region large, oval;
abdominal segments tapering, exhibiting at the extremity either minute
serrations, floriated lobes, or tusk-like lobes, or a smooth curve;
the first abdominal segment sometimes produced into roundly-triangular
lobes.

Male puparium flattish, elongated; length, from 1/10in. to 1/8in.;
white, thin; roughly pyriform, but narrower than that of the female;
central portion slightly convex, seeming on the under-side to have two
keels; not carinated above.

Adult female yellow or brown; segmented; at first elongated, the
cephalic region comparatively large, but during gestation shrinking
up until the insect assumes the form of Aspidiotus. Abdomen ending in
a minutely-serrated edge, with several small simple lobes, between
which are longish spiny hairs. Spinnerets in an almost continuous arch,
containing seventy to a hundred orifices; several single spinnerets.

Adult male yellow, slender. Antennæ, ten-jointed, as long as the
body; each joint except the two first long and hairy; the last joint
fusiform. Feet, long and slender; digitules, fine hairs. Abdominal
spike, slender, not very long, springing from a small tubercular base.

This is a variable insect in size, colour, edge of abdomen, and
spinnerets. On the bark of _Pittosporum eugenioide_ a variety has
the extremity of the second pellicle richly floriated, other features
remaining as above. It has not been thought advisable to erect all
these varieties into different species.

The male pupa, in its earlier state, is elongated, segmented, and may
be mistaken for a female of _Mytilaspis drimydis_; but differs in its
greyish-yellow colour, and also in the form of the puparium.

Habitat--On _Atherosperma Novæ Zælandiæ_; _Astelia cunninghamii_;
_Coprosma_, sp. var.; _Pittosporum eugenioide_, &c.; Wellington;
Canterbury; Hawke's Bay; Otago; Nelson; Auckland.

The puparia of this insect are frequently covered by a species of
torulaceous (?) fungus which spreads over the leaf they are on in a
thin, brown sheet.


  27. Fiorinia grossulariæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 123.

Female puparium irregularly oval, being formed chiefly by the second
pellicle, with a narrow edge of fibrous secretion; length, about 1/20in.

Adult female elongated; segmented; the cephalic end slightly prolonged
into a compressed cylinder. Segments bearing at the edge three sharp
spines. The edge of the abdominal segment is much broken by serrations,
and ends in two broadish median lobes, with two smaller lobes on each
side. Several sharp, long spines are set in pairs along the serrated
edge. Five groups of spinnerets, the three upper forming a continuous
arch. Colour of insect, dark-grey.

Adult male and puparium unknown.

Habitat--On gooseberries, Amberley, Canterbury.

A doubtful species.


  28. Fiorinia minima, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 122.

Female puparium flat, elongated, oval; length, about 1/36in. First
pellicle, comparatively large; the second almost fills the puparium.

Male puparium rather longer than that of the female, but much narrower;
carinated.

Adult female elongated; segmented; colour, pink. The abdominal segment
somewhat long, the edge broken by a number of deepish curvilinear
serrations, and ending in two inconspicuous median lobes, with three
others, much smaller, on each side. From the serrations spring some
hairs. There are five groups of spinnerets, but the three upper ones,
almost or quite conjoined, form a nearly-continuous arch, containing
forty to fifty orifices; the two lower groups have fifteen to twenty.
There are several single spinnerets. The adult insect, before
gestation, nearly fills the space covered by the second pellicle; after
gestation it shrinks up into very small compass at the cephalic end of
the puparium.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Brachyglottis repanda_; _Panax arboreum_, Port Hills,
Canterbury.

Differs from the European species, _F. pellucida_ (Targioni), in its
extremely-minute size, in the serrations of the abdomen, and the number
of its hairs. Also in _F. pellucida_ the young female larva has two
tubercles between the antennæ, which are not seen in _F. minima_.


  29. Fiorinia stricta, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 124; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 24.
                         (Plate VI., Fig. 7.)

Female puparium elongated, narrow, with sides almost straight and
parallel; length, about 1/11in.; breadth, about 1/50in. Colour of
secretion, white, but seeming black, as the second pellicle shows
through it. First pellicle, black, small, at one end; the cephalic
portion prolonged in a slightly-cylindrical form. Second pellicle,
very long, filling the puparium; black; entire for most of its length,
but at the abdominal extremity cut across by transverse divisions
forming narrow radiating segments; extreme edge semi-circular, sharply
serrated. Texture, horny, hard, and strong.

Male puparium elongated, narrow, like that of the female; length, about
1/12in.; colour white; pellicle, black, at one end; not carinated.

Some puparia, both male and female, are found slightly curved.

Adult female small, elongated, segmented; length, about 1/30in.,
shrivelling at gestation. Cephalic portion compressed, cylindrical.
Abdomen somewhat elongated, ending in a number of sharp-pointed,
triangular, tooth-like lobes, between which may be made out a few
(four?) very minute, roundly-triangular lobes. Five groups of
spinnerets, the three upper groups almost joined in an arch; in the
arch, forty to fifty orifices; in the two lower groups, ten to fifteen.

Adult male, brown. Antennæ, ten-jointed; each joint except the first
two long and hairy; on the last joint one hair longer than the rest,
and ending in a knob. Legs, slender; claw, very thin; digitules, fine
hairs.

Habitat--On _Dendrobium_, sp., _Hedycarya_, sp., Hawke's Bay; _Phormium
tenax_, _Cordyline australis_, _Astelia cunninghamii_, _Muhlenbeckia_,
sp., Wellington; Canterbury; Nelson.


Group II.--LECANIDINÆ.

Female insects flat, convex, or globular; elongated or circular; naked,
or covered with waxy, horny, glassy, cottony, or felted secretion
forming a covering or test. Adults sometimes apodous and without
antennæ. Abdomen in all stages exhibiting a more or less defined cleft,
and, above or beside it, on the dorsal surface, two more or less
conspicuous, roughly triangular, lobes. Mentum usually monomerous or
dimerous.

Male larvæ resembling females. Male pupæ covered with a test of
secretion, waxy or glassy. Male adults not greatly differing from
Diaspidinæ; abdominal spike usually short and thick.


SUBDIVISIONS AND GENERA.


Subdivision I.

  Insects covering themselves with a secretion, composed
  chiefly of waxy, horny, or glassy matter
                                                       Lecanodiaspidæ.

  Test of female horny, partly formed of the second pellicle
                                                         Lecanochiton.

  Test of female waxy, with a single fringe of broad segments
  at the edge
                                                          Ctenochiton.

  Test of female glassy, elevated, striated with air-cells
                                                             Inglisia.


_Not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Test of female waxy, produced into radiating branches
                                                             Vinsonia.

  Test of female waxy, without fringe or branches
                                                          Ceroplastes.

  Test of female waxy, elevated, not striated with air-cells
                                                           Fairmairia.

  Tests agglomerated in a waxy mass containing colonies of
  insects, male and female
                                                             Carteria.

  Test of female absent; tests of males aggregated in a waxy
  mass
                                                             Ericerus.


Subdivision II.

  Female insects naked
                                                             Lecanidæ.

  Females propagating without ovisac, arboreal
                                                             Lecanium.

  Females constructing ovisac, arboreal
                                                           Pulvinaria.


_Not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Females propagating without ovisac, subterranean, retaining
  feet and antennæ
                                                           Lecanopsis.

  Females propagating without ovisac, subterranean, losing
  feet and antennæ
                                                              Aclerda.

Note.--The genus _Physokermes_, Targioni-Tozzetti, is placed
by Signoret (loc. cit., 1874, p. 87) amongst those which here form this
subdivision; but there seems to be no sufficient distinction between it
and _Lecanium_.


Subdivision III.

  Insects covering themselves with secretion of cottony or
  felted matter
                                                       Lecano-Coccidæ.

  Secretion felted, scarcely apparent on adult female,
  conspicuous on male pupæ and female of early stages; edge
  fringed
                                                           Eriochiton.


_Not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Secretion felted, appearing only in the last stage, after
  gestation
                                                           Signoretia.

  Secretion felted, forming a nearly complete sac on adult
  female before gestation
                                                        Lecanodiaspis.

  Secretion felted, forming complete sac on adult female
                                                            Philippia.

  Secretion cottony, covering adult female only after
  gestation
                                                           Lichtensia.

  Secretion cottony, forming a complete sac on adult female
  before gestation
                                                           Eriopeltis.


Subdivision I.--LECANODIASPIDÆ, Targioni-Tozzetti.

Female insects exhibiting in all stages the abdominal cleft and lobes.
Larvæ free, naked, active. Females after the first metamorphosis
constructing over themselves a carapace, shield, or (as called herein)
test, of glassy, waxy, or horny secretion. Test apparently homogeneous,
really in most cases formed of aggregated segments over the insect,
and prolonged beyond the body in a flat single fringe of separate,
more or less triangular or quadrate, segments. Fringe not always
present or conspicuous in all stages. Males, after first metamorphosis,
constructing a test of similar character but varying form.

This subdivision, when first established by Targioni-Tozzetti, included
only the four genera _Pollinia_, _Asterolecanium_, _Planchonia_, and
_Lecanodiaspis_, all of which are apodous in the adult stage of the
female. In this work the two first of these are included in a new
group, Hemi-Coccidinæ; _Planchonia_ belongs to the group
Coccidinæ; _Lecanodiaspis_ is left in the present subdivision.
For the reasons leading to these changes, and the inclusion in this
subdivision of insects retaining the feet in all stages, see N.Z.
Transactions, Vol. XI., 1878, p. 207, and Vol. XVI., 1883, pp. 125-128.


Genus: LECANOCHITON, Maskell.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 222.

Test of adult female horny in texture, formed partly of secretion,
partly of the pellicle of the second stage; abdominal cleft and lobes
normal.


  30. Lecanochiton metrosideri, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 222; Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 129.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 1.)

Test of adult female brown, hard, horny-looking, convex, slightly
elongated, open beneath, loosely attached to twigs by the edges; at the
top is the pellicle of the second stage, which is flat, and gives the
test the appearance of an overturned basket, of which the pellicle is
the foot. Length of test about 1/15in. Remains of the thin white test
of the second stage may sometimes be seen on the pellicle.

Test of the male small, white, glassy, elongated, convex.

The young insect, extremely minute, naked and active, is flat, oval,
brown, or rather reddish, usually found at the tips of young shoots or
on leaves. The antennæ have six joints; on the last joint are several
hairs, amongst which is one excessively long, slightly knobbed. Foot
normal; the joints hairy; upper digitules fine knobbed hairs, lower
pair a little broader.

In the second stage the female is scarcely altered: the antennæ and
feet remain as before; but there is a test, white, waxy, very thin,
covering the dorsal surface, and extending a little beyond the edge
in an irregular fringe. On the edge also are a number of protruding
spinneret tubes, glassy, white, cylindrical, either curved or straight:
a few of these tubes protrude on the surface of the back.

Adult female dark-brown in colour, filling the test; convex above,
flat beneath. Rostrum comparatively large; mentum probably monomerous.
Antennæ short, thick, atrophied; seven-jointed, but the joints are
much confused; on the last joint some hairs. Feet absent. Four rows of
rather large spinnerets radiate from the median region of the dorsum
to the edge, and along these, on the lower side of the test, are
corresponding narrow lines of white cottony secretion.

This insect is viviparous, the young being sheltered awhile by the
mother, whose under-side becomes concave during gestation.

Adult male dark-red; length, about 1/40in. Antennæ of ten joints, of
which the two first are very short; the third much longer and expanded
at the end; the fourth more than twice as long as the third; the
remainder about equal in length to the third, but thicker and rounder,
being almost moniliform. All but the first two joints bear hairs. Foot
normal; digitules fine hairs.

Habitat--On _Metrosideros robusta_ (Rata), Milford Sound; Bluff
Harbour. On _M. tomentosa_ (Pohutukawa), Auckland.

A peculiar species, easily identifiable by the presence of the second
pellicle on the female test.


Genus: CTENOCHITON, Maskell.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 208.

Test of female waxy, with a single fringe of tooth-like, more or less
broad, segments round the edge.

Test of male waxy or glassy, with similar fringe.

The edge of the body, in the second stage of the female, usually
presents a wavy appearance, formed by a series of reentering curves.
This is perhaps most conspicuous in _Ct. perforatus_.

The antennæ of the adult female have six or seven joints. It is often
very difficult to determine the number, as the third joint exhibits
frequently a shallow circular depression or ring which may easily be
mistaken for a division.

During gestation the female, which at first fills the test, shrivels
up at one end into a shapeless mass requiring maceration in potash to
restore the original form for examination. The test thus becomes almost
filled with eggs.

The presence of the fringe, which is noticeable in every species of
this genus at some time or other, distinguishes it from _Ceroplastes_
and _Vinsonia_. In _Ctenochiton viridis_ the test is not to be made out
in the adult stage but is clearly visible in the second stage of the
female, and it is present, with the characteristic fringe, for the male.


  31. Ctenochiton depressus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 132.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 2.)

Test of adult female flat, nearly circular, thin, waxy,
greyish-coloured; fringe inconspicuous or sometimes absent. No
perforations or rows of air-cells. Diameter, about 1/7in.

The fringe is more conspicuous in the test of the second stage.

Test of male elongated, narrow, flat beneath, slightly convex above,
white, glassy, thin and brittle, with a conspicuous fringe of which
the segments are truncato-triangular. The test is divided into
tessellations, the median row of which is quadrangular, with two series
of pentagonal divisions between it and the fringe. Near the abdominal
extremity a transverse narrow slit cuts the test in two, leaving a
small segment at the extreme end apparently separate. Length of the
test about 1/14in.

Adult female filling the test, but shrivelling after gestation; colour
brownish or grey. Antennæ of six joints, the third being the longest,
and, as is commonly the case in the genus, often appearing like two. On
the last joint a few long hairs. Foot normal; the upper digitules are
fine hairs, the lower pair only a little broader. Anal ring and lobes
normal.

In the second stage the usual wavy edge is conspicuous; the test is
thin, glassy, with normal fringe. Antennæ and feet normal. The insect
is somewhat thick, with yellowish colour.

Young insect normal.

Adult male yellowish-red in colour, about 1/25in. in length, exclusive
of the wings. General form normal. Antennæ long, with ten joints, all
long and equal, except the two first, which are very short: all the
joints have several hairs. Legs normal, but the tibiæ are very long and
slender, and only a little thickened at the tip; tarsi somewhat thick;
digitules fine hairs. Abdominal spike long, and very slightly curved.

Habitat--On _Plagianthus_, _Cyathea_, &c.; Hawke's Bay.

This insect resembles, to the naked eye, somewhat nearly _Ctenochiton
perforatus_, but the female differs in the absence of the curious
perforations in the test of that species, and in the shorter and
thicker antennæ, with also more long hairs on the last joint. The test
of the male is also different.


  32. Ctenochiton elæocarpi, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 26.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 3.)

Test of adult female oval, nearly circular, black in colour, divided
into hexagonal and pentagonal segments which are not conspicuous,
and of which the median series forms a very slightly elevated ridge
somewhat lighter in colour. The test is only slightly convex. The
fringe is very long and conspicuous, the segments tooth-like. Diameter
of test, exclusive of the fringe, reaches 1/6in.

Test of male unknown.

Test of second stage of female white, waxy, not homogeneous, but built
up of a number of loosely-aggregated tubuliform plates, somewhat
resembling those of the genus _Orthezia_, Bosc. The fringe of this test
is longer than in that of the adult, the teeth curling in different
ways. Length of test and fringe, sometimes 1/8in.

The adult female fills the test, shrivelling at gestation. Colour
black. Antennæ somewhat long, of seven joints; a few hairs on the last
joint. Foot normal; upper digitules strong and thick, lower pair very
broad. On the skin are a number of large oval spots which appear to be
the orifices of spinneret tubes.

Female of the second stage wanting the usual wavy edge of the genus.
Round the edge of the body is a row of sharp conical spines set
closely together. Antennæ of six somewhat confused joints. Feet normal.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Elæocarpus dentatus_ (hinau), Wellington.

The large size, black colour, and very conspicuous fringe of the adult
female test, and the white loose test of the second stage, distinguish
this species, especially from _Ct. fuscus_.


  33. Ctenochiton elongatus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 212.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 4.)

Test of adult female elongated, narrow, convex. Length sometimes
reaching 1/3in., width about 1/10in. Fringe not always conspicuous; the
segments quadrate outwardly. Test divided into quadrangular divisions.
Colour whitish, but often blackened by fungoid growths.

Test of male unknown.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation. Edge of
the body wavy. Stigmatic spines long and conspicuous. Antennæ
seven-jointed. Feet normal; lower digitules absent (?).

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Geniostoma ligustrifolium_, Auckland; on _Dendrobium_ sp.,
Hawke's Bay; on _Earina_ sp., Wellington.

Easily recognized by the great length and narrowness of the female test.


  34. Ctenochiton flavus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 130; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 26.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 5.)

Female test golden, waxy, flat beneath, convex above; outline circular
or slightly elliptical, with a fringe of broadly triangular segments
round the edge. Apex of the test an irregular elongated mass of wax,
the remainder divided into two concentric series of plates, the inner
series pentagonal with sharp angles, the outer pentagonal with rounded
angles and with the outer side forming the base of the segments of the
fringe. The inner series forms often irregular lumps of wax. Diameter
of test sometimes reaching 1/9in. The colour is often hidden by black
fungoid growths.

Test of male much narrower than that of the female, having an
irregularly rectangular edge with deep curvilinear depressions. It is
glassy, white and shining, flat beneath and elevated above, and marked
with numerous horizontal striæ. The upper central portion is sometimes
flat, sometimes an irregular mass of the glassy secretion. On the lower
side there is often a plate of secretion, so that the pupa is almost
entirely enclosed.

The adult female fills the test, shrivelling up after gestation: it
is consequently flat beneath, convex above, with general outline of
Lecanidinæ. The spiracular spines are very long and conspicuous; from
their base a double row of minute circular spinneret orifices runs as
far as the spiracle, with two or three outlying ones at the base of
the spine; and a single row of the same kind of orifices runs across
the body to the spiracle on the other side. Along the edge of the body
there is a series of conical sharp spines; and scattered all over are
many tubular projecting spinnerets. The abdominal cleft is deep, and
the two lobes are conspicuous on the dorsal side; these lobes are not
smooth, but irregular, and each bears at the end three or four strong
spines. The antennæ have six joints; but the third joint often looks
like two on account of the false division or depressed ring: the last
joint has several long hairs. Feet normal; the upper digitules fine
long hairs, the lower pair very broad. The anal ring bears a number of
long hairs, of which eight seem to be conspicuous. The colour of the
insect is a golden brown; diameter averaging 1/12in.

The second stage of the female is normal of the genus, showing the
wavy outline, somewhat strongly marked in many specimens, but not
conspicuous in others. The spiracular spines are prominent, and a row
of conical spines runs round the edge of the body, as in the adult. The
test is at first very thin and brittle, and with a fringe of broad,
shallow segments; but afterwards becomes thicker, and in the end,
before the change to the final stage, it approaches almost the form of
the waxy test of an adult _Ceroplastes_.

The young insect is normal.

The adult male is normal of the genus. The legs are very long and
slender; the four digitules are fine hairs. At the extremity of the
tibia there is a strong spine. Abdominal spike, or sheath of the penis,
slightly curved, with a seta on each side of its basal tubercle.
Antennæ of ten joints; the first two very short, the rest longer and
equal. On the last joint are several long hairs, of which three are
knobbed.

Habitat--On _Brachyglottis repanda_, _Panax arboreum_, _Leptospermum
scoparium_ (manuka), _Elæocarpus dentatus_ (hinau); Wellington.

The species is distinguishable by the shape and colour of the test and
the arrangement of the spinnerets, in the adult female. The tests of
the second stage may sometimes be taken for adult _Ceroplastes rusci_,
Linn.; but can be easily distinguished on examination of the enclosed
insect.


  35. Ctenochiton fuscus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 131.
                         (Plate VII., Fig. 6.)

Test of the adult female elliptical in outline, flat below, convex
above, the elevation being greater than usual; almost black in colour,
composed of a thin dark waxy secretion. The fringe is conspicuous, and
has the appearance of teeth, the segments being sharply triangular and
set closely together. Length of test sometimes nearly 1/4in., breadth
1/7in., height 1/10in. Inside of the test whitish.

Test of male glassy, white, elongated, slightly convex.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation. Antennæ short,
probably seven-jointed, but the joints are confused; on the last joint
several hairs. Foot having the tibia expanded at the extremity; upper
digitules strong and thick, lower pair ending in conspicuously broad
plates. On the edge of the body a row of conical spines. Colour almost
black.

In the second stage the female is less wavy in outline than in other
species of the genus, and in its later period is somewhat thick, with
the edges turned inwards. Feet normal; digitules fine. Antennæ short
and thick, with six joints, of which the third and fourth are the
longest; on the last joint some long hairs. The abdominal lobes are
irregularly triangular.

Young insect normal.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Brachyglottis repanda_, _Panax arboreum_; Port Hills,
Canterbury (Dry Bush).

Distinguished by its large size, great convexity, and black colour,
which is not due to fungoid growths, although these, as usual,
accompany it.


  36. Ctenochiton hymenantheræ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 25.
                        (Plate VIII., Fig. 1.)

Test of adult female waxy, circular, convex, dirty-white, yellow,
or brownish, formed of a number of hexagonal or octagonal segments,
which are also convex, giving it a rough appearance. Fringe not very
conspicuous. Diameter of test, about 1/12in.

Test of male glassy, dirty-white, oval, segmented, slightly convex,
segments of fringe small. Length, about 1/16in.

Adult female yellowish-brown, filling the test. Antennæ of six joints,
of which both the second and third seem sometimes double. Foot normal;
upper digitules long fine hairs, lower pair broad. The spiracular
spines are strong and conspicuous. The skin is divided into segments
corresponding with those of the test, the divisions being marked by
lines of spinneret orifices which are small and simple.

In the second stage the usual wavy edge of the genus is not generally
apparent.

Adult male somewhat thick and short. Antennæ of nine joints, the first
short and thick, the remainder long and nearly equal; each joint after
the first has many nodosities, from which spring longish hairs. Foot
long and slender, especially the tibia. Digitules fine hairs. Thoracic
band inconspicuous. Abdominal spike short and blunt.

This species is usually accompanied by a great quantity of very black
fungus covering and rendering unsightly the whole plant on which it
lives.

Habitat--On _Hymenanthera crassifolia_, Evans Bay, Wellington.

This insect seems to be intermediate between _C. piperis_ and _C.
depressus_, differing from both in the rugose female test and the
distribution of the spinneret orifices.


  37. Ctenochiton perforatus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 280; Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 130.
                        (Plate VIII., Fig. 2.)

Test of adult female white, waxy, circular, nearly flat, brittle,
thin except at the edge. Fringe thin, segments broadly triangular.
Diameter nearly 1/6in. The test is divided by narrow lines of minute
spots, corresponding to the spinneret orifices of the insect, into
rows of pentagonal or hexagonal segments. The interior segments are
only dotted, but the exterior row exhibits curvilinear series of small
perforations or air-cells arranged in slightly radiating rows, which
extend also to the corresponding segments of the fringe.

The test of the second stage of the female is very thin and filmy,
waxy, flat, slightly elongated; the fringe as in the adult; but there
are no perforations or air-cells. Length, about 1/14in.

Test of male waxy, thin, slightly elongated, rather convex; length,
about 1/15in. Fringe and air-cells as in the female test. At the
abdominal end is a joint or hinge separating the last segment.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation; colour greyish
or greenish-white. General appearance somewhat leathery. Rows of minute
oval spinnerets run round the edge and across the body, corresponding
with the divisions of the test. Antennæ of six joints, the third joint
being the longest, and seeming double on account of the depressed ring:
on the last joint some hairs. Feet normal, with somewhat thick coxæ and
femora: upper digitules long; lower pair narrow. Anal ring with eight
hairs. A row of scattered small hairs runs round the edge of the body.

Female of second stage very thin and transparent, seeming like a
bluish-green film. The wavy edge is conspicuous. Antennæ of six joints.

Adult male yellowish. Antennæ nine-jointed, every joint except the
first bearing several hairs. Feet normal; upper digitules not long,
lower pair fine hairs. Thoracic band conspicuous and long. Abdominal
spike short.

Habitat--On _Pittosporum eugenioide_, _P. tenuifolium_, _Panax
arboreum_, _Coprosma lucida_, _Rubus_, &c., Riccarton Bush,
Christchurch; Nelson; Dunedin; Wellington.


  38. Ctenochiton piperis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 218; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 25.
                        (Plate VIII., Fig. 3.)

Test of adult female circular, convex, regularly tessellated in
hexagonal segments; fringe not very regular, sometimes almost or quite
absent; waxy, somewhat thick; diameter, about 1/15in. Colour variable;
outer parts white, yellow, or greenish-white, central segments purplish.

Test of second stage of female waxy, very thin, flat, with fringe of
broadly triangular segments: no air-cells. Length, about 1/30in.

Test of male elongated, convex, glassy, segmented. Length, about
1/20in. Slightly coloured like that of the female.

Adult female filling the test. Colour corresponding with that of the
test. At gestation the under-side becomes hollow, and the young are
sheltered beneath it for awhile. Antennæ seven-jointed; on the last
joint several hairs. Feet normal; lower digitules rather broad. Round
the dorsal surface, half-way between the centre and the edge, is a row
of swellings[O] or tubercles.

[O] Possibly spiracular.

Female of second stage elongated, the cephalic portion narrower than
the abdomen; flat, thin; edge wavy; stigmatic spines rather stout; a
few small spines on the edge. Antennæ six-jointed; feet normal.

Young insect of normal form, but with numerous minute wrinkles on the
edge of the body.

Adult male greenish-yellow; antennæ nine-jointed. Foot normal, with
somewhat thick tarsus. Penis ending in a round, somewhat large knob.

Habitat--On _Piper excelsum_ (kawakawa); Auckland, Hawke's Bay,
Wellington.

The regularly-circular form and coloured segments of the female test,
and the tubercles of the dorsum, distinguish this species.


  39. Ctenochiton viridis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 211; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 24.
                         (Plate IX., Fig. 1.)

Test of adult female absent or fragmentary; very thin, waxy, white,
divided into pentagonal or hexagonal segments, each of which exhibits
numerous concentric wavy curves, crossed by straight lines radiating
from the centre;[P] the segments are separated by double lines of
minute spots, corresponding to the spinneret orifices of the insect. No
air-cells. Fringe seldom visible.

[P] The radiating lines and concentric curves of these segments are
usually somewhat conspicuous, at least on the adult female, and serve
to distinguish the test from that of _C. elongatus_, which otherwise
resembles it.

Test of female of second stage very thin, white, waxy, flat, divided
into segments with concentric curves and radiating lines as in the
adult. Fringe of broad segments. No air-cells. Length, about 1/15in.

Test of male glassy, white, elongated, slightly convex, divided into
segments similarly marked to those of the female. Abdominal segments
separated from the test by a transverse line, or hinge. Length, about
1/6in.

Adult female bright-green in colour, thick, elongated or pyriform,
the cephalic portion somewhat acuminate; length sometimes reaching
1/2in. It produces a conspicuous depression in the leaf, in which the
body is partially buried. Antennæ of six joints (apparently seven, but
the third joint shows the false division or depressed ring), often
atrophied. Feet normal, coxæ and femora thick. After gestation the
insect frequently becomes brown, covered with a mass of white mealy or
felted secretion.

Female of the second stage thin, filmy, translucent; flat, elongated,
with wavy outline; colour green; length, about 1/20in. Antennæ of six
joints.

Adult male greenish-yellow; length, about 1/15in. Antennæ of nine
joints. Feet normal; digitules absent. A strong spine at the extremity
of the tibia.

Habitat--On _Panax arboreum_, _Coprosma lucida_, _Hedycarya dentata_,
_Atherosperma Novæ-Zælandiæ_, _Rubus australis_; Canterbury, Otago,
Wellington, Nelson, Auckland, Hawke's Bay.

This is probably the largest known species of the Lecanidinæ. Its size
and bright-green colour in the adult state clearly distinguish it. The
female of the second stage resembles nearly that of _Ct. perforatus_,
but is somewhat thicker, and the markings of the segments of the test
are different.


Genus: INGLISIA, Maskell.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 213.

Test of female glassy, elevated, striated with radiating rows of
air-cells. Fringe not always present in the adult stage.

In the genus _Fairmairia_, Signoret, there is also an elevated test,
but it is waxy, and exhibits no air-cells, and has no fringe in any
stage.


  40. Inglisia leptospermi, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 220; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 27.
                         (Plate IX., Fig. 2.)

Test of adult female white, glassy or waxy, elongated, convex above,
flat and open beneath, formed of several agglutinated segments, each
segment more or less convex or conical, median segments usually five
in number; at the edge an irregular fringe, but the fringe is often
absent. Average length of test, 1/10in. The marginal segments sometimes
assume the form of small cones, as if a number of secondary tests were
attached to the principal one. All the segments are marked with striæ
radiating from the apex of each: the striæ, which are composed of
air-cells, widen from the apex to the base.

Test of the male white, glassy, elongated, convex, not unlike that of
the female, but with a longer fringe; it has also its posterior segment
divided from the rest by a transverse slit or hinge; average length,
about 1/15in.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation; colour brown;
abdominal lobes yellow, conspicuous. The flat under-surface is smooth;
the dorsum divided by large corrugations, each segment corresponding
to one in the test. Antennæ of seven joints, of which the third is
the longest, the fourth, fifth, and sixth the shortest; a few hairs,
especially on the last joint. Feet normal; the tibia is somewhat thin,
and has one spine or hair at its tip. Digitules normal; upper pair long
knobbed hairs, lower pair very broad.

The female in the second stage is also convex above, flat below, but
is less thick than the adult, and has not the corrugations. General
form elongated-oval; the abdominal lobes are not, as usual, smooth,
but approach by irregularity the anal tubercles of the Coccidinæ, and
like them bear a few hairs. The anal ring has eight hairs. Antennæ of
six joints. Feet normal; digitules as in adult. On the skin are several
scattered, circular, very minute spinnerets; the stigmatic spines are
long and conspicuous, and along the edge runs a row of conical hairs or
spines.

Adult male yellowish-green in colour, the body slender and tapering.
From the abdomen spring two very long white cottony setæ, one on each
side of the spike, which is straight and short. Antennæ of ten joints;
the first two short, the rest long, thin, and hairy. Of these, the
seventh, eighth, and ninth are the shortest; on the last joint three
long knobbed hairs. Feet slender, hairy; digitules normal. Thoracic
band inconspicuous.

Habitat--On _Leptospermum scoparium_ (manuka); Christchurch, Kaiapoi,
Wellington, Auckland. It affects the twigs of the plant, and not the
leaves.


  41. Inglisia ornata, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 27.
                          (Plate X., Fig. 1.)

Test of adult female reddish-brown, the base more or less oval, the
rest elevated in a cone and ending in a prominence standing up like
a more or less sharp horn; sometimes there are two of these horns.
The test is formed of a number of polygonal segments, each slightly
elevated, and all are marked with the radiating striæ peculiar to the
genus. There is a fringe of sharply triangular segments, also striated.
Average length of test, about 1/6in., but specimens attain a length of
1/4in.; height, about 1/10in.

Test of second stage generally resembling that of the adult, but
smaller and less conical, and more tinged with green; and at the edge a
number of short spinneret tubes may be seen protruding.

Test of the male elongated-oval, convex, but wanting the prominent horn
of the female, glassy, white tinged with yellowish-brown, composed of
segments marked with conspicuous striæ. Length, 1/12in. Fringe often
present, but irregular; often absent.

The adult female fills the test, shrivelling after gestation. It
exhibits the horn, or two horns, as in the test. Antennæ of seven
joints, the third joint showing the false division noted in other
species of Lecanodiaspidæ. Feet normal; upper digitules strong and
thick, lower pair rather broad. Along the edge of the body is a row of
sharp lanceolate spines set closely together, and the spiracular spines
are long and conspicuous. A double or triple row of minute circular
spinnerets marks the divisions corresponding to the segments of the
test. Colour of the insect greenish, turning brown after gestation. The
abdominal lobes are brown.

In the second stage the female resembles generally the adult; but the
antennæ have six joints, and amongst the marginal spines are some very
much larger than the rest.

The young larva is flat and oval, and at the margin shows a fringe of
long glassy pointed tubes, springing from the marginal spines.

The adult male is about 1/20in. in length (exclusive of the wings),
brownish or reddish-yellow in colour, the wings hyaline and iridescent,
with red nervures. Antennæ of ten joints, on the last of which are,
amongst others, three long knobbed hairs. Foot with a spine at the
extremity of the tibia; digitules fine hairs. At each side of the
abdominal spike springs a strong seta, from which extends a white
cottony pencil, as long as the body of the insect. The penis is a long
soft cylindrical tube covered with minute recurved spines. Thoracic
band short and narrow.

Habitat--On _Elæocarpus dentatus_ (hinau), _Leptospermum scoparium_
(manuka); Wellington.[Q]

[Q] The male pupæ may be found not unfrequently on other plants, such as
_Coprosma_, _Pittosporum_, &c.

This is a handsome species: the colour and the horns of the test are
clear distinctions.


  42. Inglisia patella, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 213; Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 219.
                          (Plate X., Fig. 2.)

Test of adult female conical or limpet-shaped, white, glassy, slightly
elongated, striated with rows of air-cells radiating from the apex, and
increasing in size to the edge. Length of test, about 1/14in.; height,
about 1/40in. The edge is usually very wavy.

Test of male similar, but a little smaller and more elongated.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation. Colour
greenish-yellow. Edge wavy, corresponding to the curves of the test.
Antennæ very short, six-jointed; on the last three joints some hairs.
Feet normal; upper digitules very long, lower pair narrow. On the edge
of the body is a row of spines, of which each alternate one is conical,
the remainder club-shaped; the edge seems double or ribbon-like, and
inside it is a row of spinnerets, beyond which is a narrow line of
short regular curves. Abdominal cleft wide and circular above, the
extremities almost meeting. Anal ring with eight long hairs.

Female of second stage flattish, elongated, wavy-edged; not exhibiting
alternate conical and clavate spines.

Young larva naked, flat, active; round the edge a row of clavate
spines, but no conical spines. Length, about 1/50in.

Adult male greenish-yellow; length, 1/24in. Antennæ of ten joints, all
except the first bearing hairs. Foot normal; digitules fine hairs.
Abdominal spike about half the length of the abdomen, with two long
white setæ springing from the basal tubercle.

Habitat--On _Coprosma lucida_, Riccarton Bush, Christchurch; _Drimys
colorata_, (plentifully) on hill above Lyttelton; _Atherosperma_,
Wellington.

A very pretty little species, clearly distinguished by the form of the
test and the alternate spines of the adult female.


Subdivision II.--LECANIDÆ.

Female insects naked in all stages; form variable; apodous in adult
stage, or retaining the feet; viviparous or oviparous, with or without
attached ovisac; abdominal cleft and lobes always present. Male pupæ in
some cases covered with waxy secretion.


Genus: LECANIUM, Illiger.

Females naked, flat or convex; viviparous or oviparous; propagating
without ovisac; arboreal.

Dr. Signoret (loc. cit., 1873, p. 396) divides the genus into six
series, as follows:--

  (1.) Species flat, usually viviparous; example, _L. hesperidum_.

  (2.) Species more or less convex, elongated; example, _L. persicæ_.

  (3.) Species more or less globular, the skin tessellated; example,
         _L. aceris_.

  (4.) Species more or less globular, the skin perforated with oval
         markings; example, _L. hemisphæricum_.

  (5.) Species rugose, with dorsal keels; example, _L. oleæ_.

  (6.) Species globular, with cleft beneath for attachment to twigs;
         example, _L. emerici_.

The following are the only species reported as yet in New Zealand; but
the genus is so widely spread and the species are so numerous that
doubtless many others will hereafter occur in this country.


  43. Lecanium depressum, Targioni-Tozzetti, Catal. (1868),
        37, 8; Stud. sul Coccin., 29.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 206.
                         (Plate XI., Fig. 1.)

Adult female elongated, somewhat acuminate at the cephalic end,
slightly convex; reddish-brown; skin marked with two dorsal keels and
numerous irregular tessellations, finely punctate. Antennæ of eight
joints; on the first two and the last three joints some hairs. Feet
normal, rather long; one of the lower digitules is larger than the
other. Length of insect, about 1/10in.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--On plants in greenhouses; Christchurch,
Wellington. In Europe, on _Ficus_, in hothouses.

This insect belongs to Signoret's fifth series.


  44. Lecanium hemisphæricum, Targioni-Tozzetti, Stud. sul
        Coccin., 27.
      _Chermes filicum_, Boisduval (1867), 336; Targioni, Catal.,
        1868, 38, 17.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 29.
                         (Plate XI., Fig. 2.)

Adult female hemispherical, with broad flattened edges; reddish-brown;
diameter, about 1/15in. Skin regularly marked with oval perforations;
no keels. Antennæ of eight joints. Feet normal, thin. Anal ring with
eight hairs.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--On Camellia, Hutt Valley, Wellington; in
Europe, on _Dracæna australis_; in America, on various greenhouse
plants (Comstock). Query--Does the European habitat denote an
Australian origin?

This insect belongs to Signoret's fourth series.


  45. Lecanium hesperidum, Linnæus.
      _L. hesperidum_, Linnæus, Syst. Nat., 1735, II., 739, 1;
        Faun. Suec., 1746, 1015.
      _Coccus hesperidum_, various authors.
      _Calymnatus hesperidum_, Costa, Nuov. Osserv., 1835?
      _Calypticus hesperidum_, Costa, Faun. Ins. Nap. Gall-insect.,
        1837, 8, 1; Lubbock, Proc. Roy. Soc., IX., 480; Beck,
        Trans. Roy. Micr. Soc., 1861, 47, &c.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 205.
    _The Holly and Ivy Scale._
                         (Plate XI., Fig. 3.)

Adult female naked; yellow, brown, or reddish; flat or slightly convex;
elongated; skin smooth, sparsely punctate; length averaging 1/10in.,
but specimens reach sometimes 1/5in. Antennæ of seven joints; a few
hairs on most, but the seventh has several. Abdominal cleft and lobes
normal. Feet normal. On the edge of a body a row of small hairs, not
set closely together. Viviparous; at gestation the under-side becomes
concave, forming a shelter for the young; and this cavity is often
of a blood-red colour. On the under-side may be seen sometimes four
cottony trails starting from the region of the four stigmata.

Young larva reddish-brown; oval, flat; antennæ of six joints. From the
abdominal lobes spring two long setæ.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--Everywhere, on ivy, holly, camellia, orange,
laurel, myrtle, box, and many other plants out of doors or in
greenhouses. In Europe, chiefly on ivy and oranges, but frequently on
other plants. In America on many plants.

This is the commonest of the Lecanidæ in this country; it may be
distinguished from _L. mori_ (below) by its flatness and sparse
punctuation.

This insect belongs to Signoret's first series.


  46. Lecanium hibernaculorum, Targioni-Tozzetti, Catal. (1868),
        37, 9.
      _Chermes hibernaculorum_, Boisduval, Ent. Hort., 1867, 337.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 207.

Adult female nearly globular; naked; reddish-brown; diameter about
1/9in.; at gestation the body becomes simply an inverted bag covering
the eggs and young. The insect appears to be partly oviparous, partly
viviparous. Antennæ of eight joints. Feet normal. Skin pretty regularly
marked with oval perforations.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--On various greenhouse plants, Christchurch. In
Europe on _Brexia_, _Phajus_, &c.

The insect belongs to Signoret's fourth series, and may perhaps be only
a large variety of _L. hemisphæricum_.


  47. Lecanium maculatum, Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de
        France, 1873, p. 400.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 207.

Adult female naked; flat, elongated; dorsal skin marked with a median
row of rather large oval spots reaching from the abdominal cleft to the
region of the rostrum. Length, about 1/15in. Colour yellowish-brown.
Antennæ of seven joints. Feet normal.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--On _Bavardia_, in hothouses, Christchurch. In
Europe on ivy.

This insect belongs to Signoret's first series: the dorsal spots
distinguish it from _L. hesperidum_.


  48. Lecanium mori, Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France,
        1873, p. 407.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 29.
                         (Plate XI., Fig. 4.)

Adult female naked; elongated, convex; reddish; length, about 1/9in.
Skin smooth, without spots, tessellations, or keels. Antennæ of seven
joints. Feet normal.

Adult male unknown: pupa covered by a white, elongated, segmented,
glassy test.

Habitat in New Zealand--On _Alsophila Colensoi_ and other ferns,
Botanical Gardens, Wellington. In Europe on mulberry, &c.

The insect belongs to Signoret's second series.


  49. Lecanium oleæ, Bernard.
      _Chermes oleæ_, Bernard, Mem. d'Hist. Nat. Acad., 1872, 108.
      _L. oleæ_, Signoret, loc. cit., 1873, p. 440.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 28.
    _The "Black Scale."_
                         (Plate XI., Fig. 5.)

Adult female naked; semi-globular; dark-brown, sometimes almost black.
Skin marked by one longitudinal and two transverse keels, not very
conspicuous. Diameter, about 1/15in. Antennæ of eight joints. Feet
normal. Anal ring with six hairs.

Young insect flat, elongated, reddish-brown. The keels are more
conspicuous than in the adult. Skin marked with numerous oval
perforations.

Male unknown.

Habitat in New Zealand--On camellia, _Cassinia leptophylla_ (tauhine),
and other plants, Wellington; Hawke's Bay; on various native trees,
Whangarei. In Europe on olive. In America (where it is called the
"black scale") on oranges and very many other plants.

This insect belongs to Signoret's fifth series.

A European species, _L. cycadis_, Boisduval, is said by Dr. Signoret to
closely resemble _L. oleæ_, the only difference apparently being the
possession of nine-jointed antennæ. This character is so exceptional in
the genus that it perhaps may be but doubtful.


Genus: PULVINARIA, Targioni-Tozzetti.

Female insects naked, arboreal, constructing an ovisac. Male pupæ in
cottony or waxy sacs.


  50. Pulvinaria camellicola, Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de
        France, 1873, p. 32.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 207.
                         (Plate XII., Fig. 1.)

Adult female yellowish- or reddish-brown, naked, slightly convex,
elongated; skin smooth, with puncta; length variable, from about 1/7in.
to 1/9in. Antennæ (according to Signoret) with sometimes six, sometimes
seven, joints. Abdominal cleft and lobes normal. The insect excretes a
narrow, white, cylindrical cottony ovisac, which is conspicuous on the
leaf of the plant, and the brown body of the female can be seen at one
end of it. The eggs in this ovisac are numerous, perhaps some hundreds.

Larva and second stage of female flat, oval, yellowish-brown.

Male pupa covered with a waxy, elongated test as in the genus
_Ctenochiton_, but there is no fringe and the segments of the test are
not conspicuous; the test is oval and convex.

Adult male yellowish-grey, the head rounded, with an anterior
protuberance. Two dorsal and two ventral eyes, and two ocelli. Antennæ
of ten joints, all hairy. Feet exhibiting only two digitules, the upper
pair. Abdominal spike short, with two longish setæ on each side, each
pair of which are covered with cotton which is produced into a long
white conspicuous cauda.

Habitat--On camellia. In the South, chiefly in greenhouses. In the Hutt
Valley, Wellington, camellias in the open air are much subject to it.

The female of this species is not unlike _Lecanium hesperidum_, but the
formation of the white ovisac is a clearly distinguishing character. In
late summer the female often drops off to the ground, leaving only the
ovisac observable on the leaf.


Subdivision III.--LECANO-COCCIDÆ, Maskell.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 128.

Female insects covering themselves with a secretion of cottony or
felted matter, forming more or less complete sacs. Male insects (where
known) covered with similar secretion.


Genus: ERIOCHITON, Maskell.

Secretion white, felted, formed of threads issuing from prominent spiny
spinnerets; inconspicuous or absent on adult female, thicker on male
pupa. Abdominal cleft and lobes present in all stages of female.[R]

[R] In both of the species here described the adult female has the tibiæ
shorter than the tarsi. The author has hesitated to found a generic
character on it until the discovery of other species; the character is
quite exceptional in the family, occurring (besides) only in some species
of _Acanthococcidæ_. In all others a tibia shorter than the tarsus would
indicate an immature insect.

[This genus contains the insect named hitherto _Ctenochiton spinosus_.]


  51. Eriochiton hispidus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIX., 1886, p. 47.
                        (Plate XIII., Fig. 1.)

Secretion of female white, thin, felted, formed of thin threads
excreted from the numerous prominent spiny spinnerets, the threads
becoming more or less matted over the dorsal surface. At the edge each
thread corresponds to a spine, but has not the feathery form exhibited
in the next species, _E. spinosus_, being more tubular. On the adult
female the covering is often not to be detected, or presents only
fragmentary portions; it is best observed on the female of the second
stage.

Secretion of the male pupa white, felted, thick, covering the insect
all over, and exhibiting at the edge a small fringe. At first sight the
test, being obscurely segmented, presents somewhat the appearance of a
Dactylopid. Length of the felted mass, about 1/16in.

Larva normal, flat, elliptical, active, exhibiting the usual abdominal
cleft and lobes. Dorsal surface covered with spines, excreting a thin
white mass of tubes and a tubular fringe.

Female of the second stage more or less elliptical, slightly convex,
brown in colour beneath the thin white felted covering, which usually
presents a segmented appearance, due to the transverse rows of
prominent spinnerets. Body covered thickly on the dorsal surface with
spines, which are subcylindrical, the ends rounded, springing from
tubercular bases. On the ventral surface many smaller spiny hairs.
Abdominal cleft normal, the lobes large. Mentum probably monomerous:
the tip bears several hairs. Antennæ of six somewhat hairy joints.
Feet with rather large femora; the lower digitules are fine hairs.
Anogenital ring bearing numerous hairs.

Adult female elliptical, convex, hollow beneath, brown in colour,
usually affecting the twigs and branches of the plant in preference to
the leaves. Apparently naked, but on close inspection found to retain
at least portions of the thin felted covering. Dorsal surface covered
with great numbers of spines similar to those of the second stage;
ventral surface with many small spiny hairs. Antennæ of seven joints.
The feet have large coxæ and femora; the tibia is only about half as
long as the tarsus; the lower digitules are only fine hairs.

Adult male of normal form of _Lecanidinæ_: colour brown. On the head
are six visual organs: two dorsal eyes, two ventral, and two ocelli.
Antennæ reddish, ten-jointed; the second joint a good deal thicker than
the rest, the second, third, and fourth joints the longest; the last
three moniliform; all the joints hairy. On the five last joints are
several hairs with knobbed extremities. Feet slender, hairy; digitules
fine hairs. Abdominal spike short and rather broad. On each side of the
base of the spike is a tubercle bearing a pair of longish setæ; each
pair of setæ becomes enclosed in a long white cottony thread, and the
two threads form conspicuous "tails," as is common with most males of
the Coccid family.

Habitat--On _Olearia Haastii_, Botanical Gardens, Wellington. This is
an alpine plant cultivated in the Gardens, and the insect probably came
with it from the mountains.

This species is distinguished from _E. spinosus_ by the great number
of spiny spinnerets on the dorsum of the female and by the tubular
character of the fringe.

The curious and exceptional character of a tibia shorter than the
tarsus in the adult female, as observed above, is found only in this
genus and some _Acanthococcidæ_.


  52. Eriochiton spinosus, Maskell.
      _Ctenochiton spinosus_, Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878,
        p. 212; Vol. XII., 1879, p. 292; Vol. XIV., 1881,
        p. 218; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 25.
                        (Plate XIII., Fig. 2.)

Test of female white, thin, formed of felted threads excreted from
spiny spinnerets; inconspicuous at all stages, and often absent on
the adult, but distinguishable on the larva and the second stage. The
excreting spinnerets are almost all at the edge of the body, and the
fringe is formed of feather-like segments, each segment corresponding
to a spine.

Test of male white, thick, felted, oval, and convex; length, about
1/16in. Fringe as in the female.

Adult female dark-brown, sometimes almost black; slightly elongated,
convex, affecting almost altogether the twigs and branches in
preference to the leaves. Average length, about 1/9in. Antennæ of seven
joints: on the last joint some hairs. Feet with the tibia about half as
long as the tarsus (see note above, under the genus). On the edge of
the body is a row of conspicuous spines, subcylindrical or subconical,
with tubercular bases; and on the dorsum, in some specimens, may be
seen a few others on the median region.

Female of second stage brown, elongated-elliptical, slightly convex.
Antennæ six-jointed. Marginal spines as in the adult, but no dorsal
spines. Length, about 1/25in.

Larva red, flattish, elliptical; marginal spines as in adult,
conspicuous. Antennæ of five joints. Abdominal lobes large.

Adult male brown, rather more slender than in _E. hispidus_. Antennæ of
ten joints, all hairy; the second joint much thicker than the rest. The
last three joints are not so globular as in _E. hispidus_. On the last
five joints are several knobbed hairs. Feet slender, hairy; digitules
fine hairs. Abdominal spike shortish, broad: at each side of the base
a tubercle bearing a pair of longish setæ enclosed in a long filament
of white cotton. Eyes four; ocelli two. Length of body, exclusive of
spike, about 1/25in.

Habitat--On _Atherosperma Novæ-Zælandiæ_, _Melicope ternata_,
_Elæocarpus dentatus_, Wellington; _Muhlenbeckia adspersa_, Sumner
Road, Lyttelton; Port Hills, Christchurch; and Wellington.

Distinguished from _E. hispidus_ by the feather-like segments of the
fringe, and by the almost complete absence of dorsal spines on the
female. The male is apparently almost identical.


Group III.--HEMICOCCIDINÆ.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 128.

Larvæ presenting at the extremity of the abdomen two conspicuous
protuberances, or "anal tubercles," as in the following group,
_Coccidinæ_; abdominal cleft and lobes absent.

Adult females exhibiting the abdominal cleft and lobes of _Lecanidinæ_.
Insects naked or covered with secretion.

The formation of this group has been necessary to include certain
insects, _e.g._, _Kermes_, which are evidently intermediate between
the _Lecanidinæ_ and the _Coccidinæ_, exhibiting at various stages the
characters of each.


SUBDIVISIONS AND GENERA.


Subdivision I.

  Adult females naked or covered with horny secretion,
  without fringe
                                                            Kermitidæ.

  Adult females globular
                                                               Kermes.


Subdivision II.

  Adult females covered with a test of glassy or waxy
  secretion
                                                      Cryptokermitidæ.

  Test hard, waxy, with single fringe
                                                             Pollinia.

  Test hard, waxy, with double fringe
                                                       Asterolecanium.

None of the insects belonging to this group have as yet been reported
as occurring in New Zealand.

As regards the name "Kermes" included in the foregoing list, see N.Z.
Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 17.


Group IV.--COCCIDINÆ.

Adult females variable in form and colour; body segmented, the segments
more or less conspicuous; naked, or covered with secretion which is
mealy, cottony, felted, or waxy; active or stationary. No abdominal
cleft or dorsal lobes; abdomen ending in two more or less conspicuous
protruding processes, or "anal tubercles." Mentum, when present, bi- or
triarticulate.

Larvæ exhibiting anal tubercles as in adult.

Adult males of general form of the family: abdominal spike usually
short. Antennæ usually of ten joints. Eyes often facetted.


SUBDIVISIONS AND GENERA.


Subdivision I.

  Adult females stationary; naked, or covered with cottony or
  felted secretion; antennæ of not more than seven joints;
  anogenital ring with six or eight short hairs; anal
  tubercles conspicuous. Eyes of male not facetted
                                                       Acanthococcidæ.

  Adult female enclosed in closely-felted or waxy sac with
  double glassy fringe; apodous and without antennæ
                                                           Planchonia.

  Adult females enclosed in a felted sac without fringe;
  retaining feet and antennæ
                                                           Eriococcus.

  Adult females naked; retaining feet and antennæ
                                                          Rhizococcus.

_Genera not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Adult females lying on cushion of cotton; apodous and
  without antennæ
                                                            Nidularia.

  Adult females lying on cushion of cotton; retaining feet
  and antennæ
                                                           Gossyparia.

  Adult females enclosed in a cottony sac; apodous; with or
  without antennæ; excreting from the abdomen a very long
  cottony appendage
                                                             Antonina.

The genus _Acanthococcus_, Signoret (loc. cit., 1874, p. 34), is here
united to _Eriococcus_; and the genus _Capulinia_, Signoret (loc. cit.,
1874, p. 27), to _Antonina_.


Subdivision II.

  Adult females active or stationary; naked, or covered with
  mealy, cottony, or waxy secretion; antennæ of from six to
  nine joints; anogenital ring conspicuous, with several long
  hairs; anal tubercles inconspicuous. Eyes of male sometimes
  facetted
                                                          Dactylopidæ.

  Adult females having antennæ of eight joints; anogenital
  ring with six hairs; naked, or covered with meal or cotton
                                                          Dactylopius.

  Adult females having antennæ of nine joints; covered with
  cottony secretion; anogenital ring with six hairs; upper
  digitules of foot absent
                                                         Pseudococcus.

_Genera not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Adult females having antennæ of six joints; covered with
  mealy secretion; anogenital ring with six hairs
                                                             Ripersia.

  Adult females having antennæ of nine joints; anogenital
  ring with eight hairs; upper digitules of foot present
                                                                 Puto.

  Adult females having antennæ of eight joints; covered with
  plates of waxy secretion; anogenital ring with six hairs.
  Eyes of male facetted
                                                             Orthezia.

The genera _Westwoodia_ and _Boisduvalia_, Signoret (loc. cit., 1874,
pp. 337, 338), are here united to _Dactylopius_.


Subdivision III.

_Not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Adult females active, covered with mealy secretion; antennæ
  of seven joints; no hairs on anogenital ring. Eyes of male
  not facetted
                                                              Coccidæ.

  Adult females having antennæ of seven joints; no hairs on
  anogenital ring
                                                               Coccus.


Subdivision IV.

  Adult females active or stationary; naked, or covered
  with mealy, waxy, or cottony secretion; antennæ of ten
  or eleven joints; anterior pair of feet similar to the
  rest; anogenital ring without hairs; anal tubercles
  inconspicuous. Males with facetted eyes and no ocelli
                                                         Monophlebidæ.

  Adult females with elongated antennæ of eleven joints;
  covered with mealy or cottony secretion; with or without
  ovisac; rostrum present
                                                               Icerya.

  Adult females with antennæ of eleven joints; naked, or
  covered with cottony or mealy secretion; rostrum absent
                                                            Cœlostoma.

_Genera not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Adult females having antennæ of eleven joints; naked. Males
  with several long processes, or tassels, on the abdominal
  segments
                                                          Monophlebus.

  Adult females with antennæ of eleven joints; naked. Males
  without tassels
                                                              Leachia.

  Adult females with conical antennæ of eleven joints;
  covered with cotton
                                                              Ortonia.

  Adult females with antennæ of ten joints. Males bearing a
  long mass of silky hairs on the last abdominal segment
                                                          Callipappus.

  Adult females with antennæ of ten joints; covered with
  secretion, partly cottony, partly plates of wax
                                                           Walkeriana.

The genera _Drosicha_, Walker (list of Homop. Suppl., 1858, 306, 1) and
_Guerinia, Targioni-Tozzetti (Signoret, loc. cit., 1875, p. 356)
are here united to _Monophlebus.

The genus _Llaveia, Signoret (loc. cit., 1875, p. 370), is
omitted, its affinities being doubtful.


Subdivision V.

_Not yet represented in New Zealand._

  Adult females with antennæ of variable number of joints;
  anterior pair of feet abnormally enlarged, deformed;
  rostrum, mentum, and buccal apparatus absent. Eyes of male
  facetted
                                                      Porphyrophoridæ.

  Adult females with antennæ of eleven joints; covered with
  mealy or cottony secretion
                                                        Porphyrophora.

  Adult females with antennæ of seven joints; covered with
  waxy or calcareous secretion
                                                           Margarodes.


Subdivision I.--ACANTHOCOCCIDÆ.

Female insects exhibiting in all stages the anal tubercles. Young larvæ
free, naked, active. Females of second stage active, covered with thin
cottony secretion. Adult females stationary; naked, or either resting
on or covered with a thick cottony or felted secretion. Anal tubercles
in all stages conspicuous, bearing terminal hairs. Anogenital ring
inconspicuous, with fine short hairs. Body distinctly segmented.

Male pupæ enclosed in cottony or felted sac. Abdominal spike of adult
usually short, with a curved appendage.


Genus: PLANCHONIA, Signoret, Ann. de la Soc. Entom. de France, 1868, p.
282.

      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 223.

Adult females enclosed in a sac, or test, of secretion so closely
felted as to appear waxy; round the edge of the sac a double fringe of
glassy tubes; apodous; antennæ absent. Anal tubercles present in all
stages.

The differences between this genus and _Asterolecanium_ (see above
under _Lecanidinæ_) are not to be made out from external examination of
the sac, nor without close investigation. It is possible, indeed, that
_Asterolecanium_ should be removed from the _Lecanidinæ_ and united
with _Planchonia_.


  53. Planchonia epacridis, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 224.
                         (Plate XII., Fig. 2.)

Test of adult female closely felted, smooth, hard, semi-transparent;
flat beneath, convex above; elongated-oval, tapering towards the
posterior end; completely enclosing the insect except at extreme
posterior end, where there is a small orifice; colour partly green,
partly yellow. Round the edge a fringe of long white glassy tubes
in double row, one row over the other. Average length, exclusive of
fringe, about 1/16in.

Test of male unknown.

Adult female filling the test, shrivelling at gestation. Antennæ
absent, but represented by circular rings, each bearing four hairs.
Feet absent. Anal tubercles small, setiferous. Anogenital ring
inconspicuous, with six fine short hairs. Mentum uni-articulate;
rostral setæ short. Round the edge of the body a row of figure-of-8
spinneret orifices; on the dorsal surface many circular spinnerets and
a number of protruding tubes.

Female of second stage elongated, flattish; colour, reddish-brown;
length, about 1/20in. Antennæ absent, represented by rings, as in
adult. Feet absent. Anal tubercles as in adult. Spinnerets and fringes
as in adult.

Young insect elongated-oval, tapering towards anal extremity, flat;
anal tubercles clearly distinguishable, setiferous. Antennæ of five
joints; the last joint clavate and bearing hairs. Feet normal; upper
digitules fine hairs; lower digitales absent. Colour reddish-brown; on
the dorsal surface many scattered figure-of-8 spinnerets, from which
spring long, curling, white, glassy tubes. Length of insect, about
1/40in.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Leucopogon Fraseri_, Amberley and Sumner, Canterbury; on
_Leptospermum scoparium_ (manuka) (sparingly), Nelson.

A very pretty little species, resembling in outward appearance
_Asterolecanium quercicola_, Signoret, but much smaller, and
distinguishable by the presence of the anal tubercles.


Genus: ERIOCOCCUS, Targioni-Tozzetti.

      Signoret, loc. cit., 1874, p. 29.
      Maskell, N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1879, p. 218.

Adult female enclosed in an elongated sac of white or yellow felted
cotton; body elongated, segmented; anal tubercles conspicuous; feet
and antennæ present; several rows of conical spines on dorsal surface.
Antennæ of six joints.


  54. Eriococcus araucariæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 218; Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 134.
      _Rhizococcus araucariæ_, Comstock; Rept. of Entom., U.S.
        Agric. Dept., 1881, p. 339.
                         (Plate XIV., Fig. 1.)

Sac of adult female white, cottony, elongated, often aggregated in
masses; length, about 1/10in.

Sac of male similar, but much smaller.

Adult female elongated-oval, convex, segmented; colour yellowish;
anal tubercles brown, conspicuous. Length of insect, about 1/12in.
Antennæ of six joints, with some hairs. Feet normal. Anogenital ring
inconspicuous, with eight short hairs. On the edge of the body a row
of conical spines (spinnerets). After gestation the insect loses its
regular oval outline, shrivelling up at one end of the sac.

Young larva and female of second stage similar to adult, but smaller.

Adult male, "a delicate fly-like creature, with two large wings and
a pair of long waxen filaments projecting from posterior part of the
abdomen; these filaments are very conspicuous, being white, and longer
than the body of the insect. Colour of body white, with many irregular
markings" (Comstock, loc. cit.).

Habitat in New Zealand--On _Araucaria excelsior_ (Norfolk Island pine),
Governor's Bay, Canterbury. In America, on same plant.

This insect is not greatly different from _E. buxi_, Signoret; but the
sac differs, and there are a few distinguishing characters in the form
of the antennæ and feet.


  55. Eriococcus hoheriæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 298; Vol. XIX., 1886.
                         (Plate XIV., Fig. 2.)

Sac of adult female white, cottony, irregularly elliptical, slightly
convex, often aggregated in masses; frequently so covered with black
fungus as to present the appearance of a minute gall.

Sac of male white, convex, smaller and more elongated than that of the
female.

Adult female elongated-oval, convex, red in colour; length, about
1/30in. Body segmented, tapering rapidly to the posterior extremity;
the cephalic segment occupying more than half the length. Anal
tubercles conspicuous, apparently two, but on close inspection found
to be four, brown in colour; two of them bear longish setæ; all the
four are much corrugated and bear many short spiny hairs. Anogenital
ring inconspicuous, with eight fine hairs. Antennæ of six short joints,
tapering. Foot as if atrophied, the joints small and swollen; digitules
all fine hairs. On the body are many small conical spines, which are
most numerous on the last two abdominal segments.

Larva free, active, red in colour, flattish, elongated, tapering to
the abdominal extremity; length, about 1/50in. Body segmented; anal
tubercles two, conspicuous, setiferous, with some short hairs. Antennæ
of six joints; feet normal.

Adult male red, about 1/20in. long; wings rather narrow, hyaline.
Antennæ ten-jointed, hairy. Feet normal. Abdominal spike short, thick,
and accompanied by a curved appendage; at each side a tubercle bearing
longish setæ.

Habitat--In crevices (and sometimes on surface) of bark of _Hoheria
angustifolia_, on hills above the town of Lyttelton. About midsummer
individuals may be found which have just completed their sac and have
not yet become coated with the black fungus.

The peg-top form and the four anal tubercles of this insect distinguish
it from all others of the genus.


  56. Eriococcus multispinus, Maskell.
      _Acanthococcus multispinus_, Maskell; N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI.,
        1878, p. 217; Vol. XII., 1879, p. 292; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 29.
                         (Plate XV., Fig. 1.)

Sac of adult female yellow, felted, elongated-oval. Length, about
1/20in. Abdominal extremity open.

Sac of male similar to that of the female.

Adult female pinkish in colour, elongated-oval, convex, filling the
sac, shrivelling at gestation; segmented, segments not conspicuous.
Length, about 1/25in. Anal tubercles brownish, conspicuous, setiferous.
Anogenital ring small, with eight fine hairs, which are often glued
together by cottony secretion, forming a pencil between the tubercles.
Antennæ of six joints. Feet having the tibia shorter than the
tarsus;[S] digitules fine hairs. On the dorsal surface are a great
number of conical spines, of which the largest are arranged in six
longitudinal rows; from the spines sometimes protrude some cottony
tubes with an expansion a little below the tip.

[S] As a rule, a tibia shorter than the tarsus characterizes an insect
not yet arrived at the adult stage. The genera _Eriococcus_ and
_Rhizococcus_ sometimes present exceptions to this rule. See also, above,
the genus _Eriochiton_.

Young larva free, active, elongated-oval, flattish; spines as in adult.

Adult male orange-red in colour; length, about 1/25in. Antennæ of ten
joints. Abdominal spike short, thick, with a curved appendage. Feet
normal.

Habitat--On _Rubus australis_, Riccarton Bush, Canterbury; on _Knightia
excelsa_, _Cyathodes acerosa_, Wellington.

The very numerous conical spines distinguish this species from that
known as _Acanthococcus aceris_, Signoret, the European species.

There seems to be no sufficient reason why the genus _Acanthococcus_
should have been separated from _Eriococcus_, and they have been here
reunited. The only difference mentioned by Signoret is the colour and
texture of the sac, an unimportant character in this case.


  57. Eriococcus pallidus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 29.
                         (Plate XV., Fig. 2.)

Sac of adult female yellowish-white, elongated-oval, convex, closed at
both ends. Length, about 1/9in.

Sac of male unknown.

Adult female greenish-grey, turning to brown after gestation; filling
the sac; shrivelling at gestation. Anal tubercles rather large and
conspicuous. Anogenital ring small, with eight (sometimes six?) fine
short hairs. Antennæ of six joints. Feet normal, slender; lower
digitules narrow and rather long. Body segmented; segments not very
distinct. On the middle of each segment a transverse row of small
slender conical spines not set closely together. Very many small
scattered oval spinneret orifices.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Myoporum lætum_ (ngaio), _Elæocarpus dentatus_ (hinau),
&c.; throughout the Islands.

Allied to _E. buxi_, Signoret (European), and _E. multispinus_, ante:
but different from both in colour, in the arrangement of the spines and
spinnerets, and in the form of the antennæ.


Genus: RHIZOCOCCUS, Signoret.

Adult females naked, usually stationary; body segmented; anal tubercles
conspicuous. Antennæ of six or seven joints. Feet present. Anogenital
ring inconspicuous, with fine hairs.

Male pupa enclosed in a cottony sac.

Mr. Comstock proposes (Ann. Rept. of Entom., U.S. Agric. Dept., 1881,
p. 339, note) to include in this genus all the species of _Eriococcus_.
The organic difference disclosed by the formation of a sac in that
genus and the absence of a sac in _Rhizococcus_ seems to render the
separation of the two necessary.


  58. Rhizococcus celmisiæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 135.
                         (Plate XVI., Fig. 1.)

Adult female deep red in colour, elongated-oval, convex above and
flattened below; length about 1/11in. The segments of the body are
not very distinct. The abdomen ends in two large and conspicuous anal
tubercles, each of which bears one strong and fairly long terminal seta
and three other spines. The anal ring has eight hairs. Antennæ of six
joints, sometimes looking like seven. Mentum doubtfully dimerous. The
four digitules of the foot are long fine hairs. The tibia is a little
shorter than the tarsus.[T] The trochanter bears one long hair and two
short ones. A few large conical spines (spinnerets) are scattered over
the body, and a row of smaller ones, like hairs with tubercular bases,
runs transversely on each segment; also some circular spinnerets. At
the edge of the body, all round, is a row of the large conical spines,
which are set in groups of three on the posterior segments, of four or
five on the median segments, and almost continuous on the head. When
the insect is alive these spines are often agglutinated with cottony
secretion so as to give the appearance of a short fringe. The four
spiracles are somewhat large and circular.

[T] See note, above, under _Eriococcus multispinus_.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Celmisia_ sp., Southern Alps, Canterbury.

Differs from the European _R. gnidii_ in size, colour, and habitat,
that species living on the roots of grass, while the New Zealand
insect is arboreal. There are also differences in the foot and in the
arrangement of the spines and hairs.

It is possible that this insect may, in its latest stage, construct a
sac: in that case, it would belong to _Eriococcus_.


  59. Rhizococcus fossor, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 136.
                         (Plate XVI., Fig. 2.)

Female naked in all stages, but the adult usually buried in a pit.

Male pupa enclosed in a white, elongated, cottony sac, which is about
1/20in. long.

Adult female greenish-yellow in colour, sometimes brown, stationary;
sometimes resting on the leaf, usually partly enclosed in a circular
pit; almost circular in outline, flat beneath and slightly convex
above; length, about 1/15in. In the last stage, after gestation,
it becomes dark-brown. The cephalic part is smooth; the remainder
segmented. The abdomen ends in two very small anal tubercles, which
are nevertheless somewhat conspicuous on account of their brown
colour. Between them there protrudes a long thick pencil of white
cotton. Antennæ short, with six joints, the last joint bearing several
long hairs. Feet very small; the femur rather thick; the tibia is
shorter than the tarsus by about one-third; the four digitules are
long fine hairs. The anal tubercles have not terminal setæ; anal ring
inconspicuous. A row of a few conical spines, set far apart, runs round
the edge of the body, but none elsewhere, nor any circular spinnerets.
There is no sign of a sac in any stage.

Female of the second stage oval, flatter than the adult, and of a
rich golden colour; length, about 1/40in. The segments of the body
are somewhat more distinct than in the adult. The anal tubercles are
proportionately larger, and bear terminal setæ. Antennæ longer than
in the adult, with six joints. Feet also longer. All round the edge
runs a row of conical spines, set more closely than in the adult; and
from each of these springs a long curly tube of white cotton, making a
kind of fringe to the body; each tube is a little dilated at the end,
and then tapers to a narrow point. The base of each conical spine is a
somewhat large tubercle.

Young larva free, active, elongated, slightly convex, tapering to the
anal extremity; colour yellow; length, about 1/60in. Antennæ as in
adult, with six joints. Feet somewhat large. Anal tubercles thick,
conspicuous, setiferous, with one short hair. On the edge of the body
a row of conical spines set far apart, and on the dorsum four other
longitudinal rows.

Adult male red in colour, about 1/30in. long. Antennæ of nine joints,
all bearing hairs; the last joint nearly globular. Feet slender;
digitules fine hairs. Abdominal spike short, thick, with sometimes a
curved appendage. A rather strong seta on each side of the base of the
spike.

As a rule, the adult female is nearly buried in a circular depression,
or pit, formed in the leaf, and with the wall of the pit somewhat
curled over it. On the other side of the leaf is a corresponding
elevation, of a brown colour. Diameter of pit, about 1/18in. The
abdominal pencil of cotton and the anal tubercles of the female usually
protrude at the edge of the pit, probably to attract the male. After
gestation, the female disappears within the pit, and the young larvæ
are also sheltered in it for a while.

Sometimes two females inhabit the same pit.

The females which are not in pits are generally of a dark-red, or
brown, colour.

Habitat--On _Santalum Cunninghamii_ (maire), Te Aute, Hawke's Bay.

A very distinct species, easily distinguishable by the pits on the
leaves.


Subdivision II.--DACTYLOPIDÆ.

The "Mealy-bugs."

Female insects active or stationary; naked, or covered with mealy,
cottony, or waxy secretion. Body segmented. Antennæ of from six to nine
joints. Feet present. Anogenital ring large, usually conspicuous, with
several long hairs. Anal tubercles small, inconspicuous.

Males of general form of the family. Eyes sometimes facetted, usually
granular.


Genus: DACTYLOPIUS, Costa.

Adult females having antennæ of eight joints; anogenital ring with six
hairs. Naked, or more usually covered with mealy or cottony secretion.

Male pupa enclosed in cottony sac.


  60. Dactylopius alpinus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 138.
                        (Plate XVII., Fig. 1.)

Adult female dark-purple in colour, producing a rich red tint in
alcohol; body segmented, convex, slightly elongated, stationary;
enclosed in a thick mass of white cottony secretion. Length, about
1/7in. Internal substance very oily. Anal tubercles inconspicuous,
thick, with broad bases. Anogenital ring large, with six hairs. Feet
normal; upper digitules long fine hairs; lower digitules somewhat
broader. Antennæ of eight joints. On the dorsum a number of tubular
projecting spinnerets, and others circular. On each of the last three
abdominal segments a row of large conical spines.

Female of second stage dark-brown, active, elongated, segmented,
flatter than the adult; length, about 1/20in. Anal tubercles
inconspicuous, setiferous. A few conical spines on the posterior
segments. Antennæ of six joints. A thin mealy secretion on the body.

Young larva dark-brown, naked, active, elongated, segmented; length,
about 1/40in. Antennæ of six joints. Anal tubercles thick, broad, and
more conspicuous than in the adult. A few small spines on the dorsum.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On Veronica sp., Upper Waimakariri Valley, Southern Alps.

A species easily distinguished by its cottony sac, its rich colour
in alcohol, and its conical spines. It would seem to be intermediate
between _Rhizococcus_ and _Dactylopius_.


  61. Dactylopius calceolariæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 218; Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 138.
                        (Plate XVII., Fig. 2.)

Adult female dull-pink in colour, elongated, distinctly segmented,
slightly convex; active; covered with thin mealy secretion; length
variable, from 1/8in. to 1/4in. Very short cottony appendages sometimes
along the edge of the body. Anal tubercles inconspicuous, bearing fine
hairs, from which spring two long cottony filaments. Anogenital ring
large, with six long hairs which are often glued together by white
cotton, forming a pencil between the anal tubercles. Interior substance
very oily. Antennæ of eight joints, each bearing hairs. Mentum
triarticulate, with a few hairs at the tip. Feet normal.

Female of second stage similar, but smaller. Antennæ of six joints.
Anal tubercles somewhat more conspicuous than in the adult.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Calceolaria_, Christchurch; _Danthonia_, Stewart Island;
_Phormium tenax_, Christchurch.

The large size, and the absence of long cottony marginal appendages,
distinguish this species from the European _D. adonidum_.


  62. Dactylopius glaucus, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 219; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 30.
                        (Plate XVII., Fig. 3.)

Adult female green, sometimes brownish-red, elongated, distinctly
segmented, slightly convex; active; covered with thin mealy secretion.
Length, averaging 1/14in. Body oval, tapering somewhat to the posterior
extremity. Anal tubercles inconspicuous, each bearing fine hairs and
a long cottony filament. Anogenital ring large, with six hairs often
forming with cotton a protruding pencil. A few cottony appendages
sometimes round the edge of the body, often absent. Antennæ of eight
joints, each bearing hairs. Feet normal; lower digitules rather broad.

Sac of male pupa narrow, cylindrical, white, cottony, open at the
posterior end. Length, about 1/8in.

Adult male about 1/20in. long; brown, covered when newly hatched with
white meal. Body rather thick; abdominal spike short. Antennæ of ten
joints, hairy; the last eight joints equal to each other. Feet slender,
hairy; upper digitules long, fine; lower digitules short.

Habitat--On _Panax_, _Rubus_, _Coprosma_, _Pittosporum_, _Piper
excelsum_, &c.; throughout the Islands: also frequently on fruit-trees.

A species more nearly resembling the ordinary "mealy bug," _D.
adonidum_, than any other in New Zealand; but differing in colour, in
the absence of long marginal appendages, and in the form of the foot
and antennæ.


  63. Dactylopius poæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 220.
                        (Plate XVIII., Fig. 1.)

Adult female pink, covered with thin white meal; slightly elongated,
sometimes globular; flat beneath, convex above; segmented, the segments
indistinct. Length reaching about 1/10in. Antennæ of eight joints, very
short. Feet normal, very short; upper digitules short, lower digitules
absent (?). Anal tubercles extremely small and inconspicuous; each has
three conical spines, but no hairs. Anogenital ring large, with six
hairs. On the dorsum are numbers of small circular spinnerets.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On the common tussock grass, _Poa anceps (australis?)_, Mount
Grey Downs and Port Hills, Canterbury; either just above the ground, or
more often an inch or two below the surface.

A species clearly distinct in form and habit.


Genus: PSEUDOCOCCUS, Westwood.

Adult females covered with cottony secretion; stationary; antennæ
of nine joints; anogenital ring conspicuous, with six hairs; upper
digitules of the foot absent.


  64. Pseudococcus asteliæ, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 139.
                        (Plate XVIII., Fig. 2.)

Adult female about 1/10in. long, yellowish-brown, covered with a not
very abundant white cotton; segmented; anal tubercles inconspicuous;
anal ring with six hairs. Antennæ with nine joints, of which the
third, fourth, and fifth are the longest; the second, sixth, and ninth
a little shorter; the first, seventh, and eighth the shortest. The
fourth, fifth, and sixth are the narrowest, the two ends of the antennæ
being thicker than the middle. The eighth joint is a little expanded at
the tip; and the ninth is fusiform, with a shallow depression at the
extremity. All the joints have a few long hairs, and on the eighth is
one a good deal stronger than the others. The legs have the tibiæ twice
as long as the tarsus; the claw is slender, and has no tooth on the
inner edge. There are only two digitules (the lower pair), which are
long and fine. The trochanter bears one short bristle. The whole leg
is slender and long. The eyes are tubercular and smooth, showing after
maceration in potash a small dark terminal spot. The body is covered
with a number of spinnerets of two kinds: those with simple concentric
circles are the largest, and are found all over the integument; the
others are multilocular, and are placed in groups at the edges of
the segments and also in great numbers at the cephalic and abdominal
extremities. Interspersed with these spinnerets are several hairs,
mostly very short, but on the head are some pretty long. From the
anal tubercles spring two strong setæ with tubercular bases, not very
long. The mentum is dimerous, and bears a few hairs on the tip. In the
groups of spinnerets at the edges of the segments are found a few small
conical spines. The four spiracles are small and simple.

Adult male unknown.

Habitat--On _Astelia_ sp., in forests, Hawke's Bay.

Allied to _P. Mespili_, Geoffroy; but differs in the antennæ, feet, and
spinnerets.


Subdivision III.--COCCIDÆ.

Adult females active, covered with mealy secretion; antennæ of seven
joints; no hairs on anogenital ring. Eyes of male not facetted.

This subdivision, which includes the single genus _Coccus_, of which
there would seem to be not more than one distinct species--_Coccus
cacti_ (the cochineal insect)--and two or three varieties, has not yet
any representatives in New Zealand.


Subdivision IV.--MONOPHLEBIDÆ.

Adult females active or stationary; naked, or covered with mealy,
cottony, or waxy secretion; segmented; antennæ of ten or eleven joints;
anterior pair of feet similar to the rest; anogenital ring without
hairs; anal tubercles inconspicuous.

Males with facetted eyes and no ocelli.

Strictly speaking, the wings of the males of this group should,
according to its name, present only a single nervure. This, however,
is not the case, or, rather, it should be said that the nervure is
precisely similar to that of all other Coccids, branching once, so
that it cannot form a distinctive character. Possibly the name of
_Monophlebus_ was originally given by Leach to an abnormal or imperfect
specimen.


Genus: ICERYA, Signoret.

Adult females having antennæ of eleven joints; covered with thin mealy
secretion or with cotton; stationary; with or without ovisac. Rostrum
and mentum present. Segmentation inconspicuous.

Adult males without tassels on the abdomen; antennæ with two dilations
on each joint.

Two species only of this genus are at present known, the one described
below and another, _I. sacchari_, infesting sugar-canes in Mauritius.
The male of the latter is unknown. Possibly researches in Australia
might result in the discovery of others.


  65. Icerya Purchasi, Maskell.
      N. Z. Trans., Vol. XI., 1878, p. 221; Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 140;
        p. 140; Vol. XVII., 1884, p. 30; Vol. XIX., 1886, p. 45.
    _The "Cottony-cushion Scale."_
                             (Plate XIX.)

Adult female dark reddish-brown, covered with a thin powdery secretion
of yellowish meal, and with slender glassy filaments; stationary at
gestation, and gradually raising itself on its head, lifting the
posterior extremity until nearly perpendicular, filling the space
beneath it with thick white cotton, which gradually extends for some
distance behind it in an elongated, white ovisac, longitudinally
corrugated; ovisac often much longer than the insect, and becoming
filled with oval red eggs. Length of female, about 1/5in., reaching
sometimes nearly 1/3in. Body previous to gestation lying flat on the
plant, the edge slightly turned up; on the dorsum a longitudinal raised
ridge, forming one or more prominences. Insect covered all over with
numerous minute fine hairs, most thickly on the thoracic region; round
the edge these hairs are longer, and are arranged in tufts somewhat
closely set; the tufts are black, and contain from twenty to thirty
hairs in each. Amongst the hairs in the tufts are several protruding
tubular spinnerets, having on the outer end a kind of multiglobular
ring or crown; from these proceed cylindrical, glassy, straight tubes
as long as the tufts of hair. Long, fine, glassy, delicate filaments,
as long as the body of the insect, radiate from the edge all round;
but these, being very fragile, are often irregular, or absent. During
gestation thick, short, cottony processes form at the edge of the
thorax, seemingly attached to the feet. Antennæ of eleven joints, very
slightly tapering; each joint bearing hairs. Feet normal, somewhat
thick. Rostrum not long; mentum triarticulate. Procreation commencing
soon after the first formation of the ovisac, the eggs being ejected
into the sac as it grows; ovisac at completion containing sometimes as
many as 350 eggs; ovisac convex above, sometimes irregularly split,
more often nearly conical, divided by several regular longitudinal
grooves or ribs.

Female of second stage dark-red, elongated, slightly convex, active,
covered with thin meal, or short curly cotton. Body hairy with marginal
tufts and spinnerets, as in adult. Anal tubercles inconspicuous,
but the abdomen exhibits three small lobes on each side, from which
spring six short setæ. Antennæ of nine nearly equal joints, hairy.
Feet normal, thick. Several radiating, fine cottony filaments. Length
of insect variable, from 1/10in. to 1/6in. The dorsum exhibits the
longitudinal raised ridge, but less conspicuously than in the adult.

Young larva, about 1/24in. long, dark-red, elongated, flattish, active;
covered with yellow cottony down. Antennæ of six joints, hairy; the
last joint is much the largest, clavate, apparently four-ringed,
bearing four long hairs. Feet slender; digitules short, fine hairs.
Eyes prominent, tubercular. Mentum biarticulate. Anal tubercles
represented by three small processes at each side of the abdominal
extremity, each process bearing a very long seta. Six longitudinal
rows of circular multilocular spinnerets, four on the dorsum and one
on each edge. Alternating with these are rows of hairs with tubercular
bases.

Adult male large, the length slightly varying; some specimens reach
1/8in.; expanse of wings, 1/4in.; length of antennæ, about 1/8in. Body
red, with a shining, diamond-shaped, black patch on the dorsal surface
of the thorax; legs and antennæ black. Wings dark-brown with (in some
lights) a bluish tinge, marked with oblique, narrow, wavy stripes; main
nervure red, branching once; there are also two longitudinal, whitish,
narrow bands.[U] Antennæ very long and slender, with ten joints, which
may easily be taken for nineteen, for, after the first which is short,
round, and simple, all the other nine have two dilated portions with
a constriction in the middle, and on each dilation is a ring of very
long hairs, giving the antenna a feathery appearance.[V] Eyes very
large and prominent, almost pedunculated, brown, divided into numerous
semi-globular facets. Feet long and very hairy; coxæ short and thick,
tibiæ long and slender, claw thin; upper digitules absent, lower pair
only short bristles. Abdomen slender, segments somewhat distinct;
on each segment some hairs; the last segment ends in two thick,
conspicuous, cylindrical processes, which, in side view, are seen to
incline upwards, and beneath them is the short, conical spike sheathing
the penis. Penis red, longish, tubular, and thick, with many recurved
short hairs, and at the end a ring of short spines. Each of the two
processes on the last segment bears three or four long setæ, but there
do not appear to be any of the long cottony appendages seen in the
males of most Coccids.

[U] Signoret (Ann. de la Soc. Ent. de France, 1875), under the genus
_Monophlebus_, speaks of "les plis hyalins" as existing also in the wings
of the males of that genus.

[V] Misled by similar appearances, Burmeister and Westwood assign
twenty-five joints to the male antenna of _Leachia fuscipennis_.

Habitat--On wattle, pine, orange, lemon, cypress, rose, gorse, grass,
and, in fact, on almost every kind of native and introduced plants,
Nelson, Hawke's Bay, Auckland. It will probably appear also elsewhere,
but the climate of Canterbury and Otago may prove too cold in winter
for it.

Allied to _I. sacchari_, Guérin, which damages sugar-canes in
Mauritius; but differing in the formation of the ovisac, the presence
of the marginal tufts and spinneret tubes in the female, and in other
particulars. The male of _I. sacchari_ has not been described. The male
of _I. Purchasi_ is probably quite distinct.

This species is supposed to have come originally from Australia. It has
been very injurious to orange and lemon trees at the Cape of Good Hope
and in California. In Auckland it has destroyed whole orchards of the
same trees, and in Nelson and Hawke's Bay it is a dreadful pest on all
kinds of plants.

Tree-growers should especially beware of this insect, and the best plan
to adopt would be to burn at once any tree found infested with it.


Genus: CŒLOSTOMA, Maskell.

      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1889, p. 294.

Adult females with antennæ of eleven joints; segmented; naked, active;
at gestation becoming stationary and enclosed in a thick mass of white
cottony secretion. Anal tubercles absent or inconspicuous. Rostrum and
mentum absent in the adult female.

Males with prominent, facetted eyes; ocelli absent. Abdomen without
tassels.

In one New Zealand species the female in the second stage is
stationary, enclosed in a thick, hard mass of waxy secretion, of which
some account is given in Chap. III. The other species included in this
work inhabits a remote and scarcely visited district, and the female
has not hitherto been found; it is not possible therefore to include
the excretion of wax and the stationary position amongst the generic
characters at present.

This genus is allied to _Porphyrophora_, Brandt, and to _Monophlebus_,
Leach; differing from the former by the presence of an œsophagal
orifice, and from the latter by the absence of tassels on the abdomen
of the male. In the genus _Ortonia_, Signoret, the female possesses a
rostrum and mentum.


  66. Cœlostoma zealandicum, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XII., 1879, p. 294; Vol. XIV., 1881, p. 226;
        Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 141.
                   (Plate XX.; Plate XXI., Fig. 1.)

Adult female brick-red, elongated, distinctly segmented, convex; length
about 1/2in.; before gestation active, naked or covered with thin
meal; during gestation stationary, enclosed in a thick mass of white
cotton. Antennæ of eleven joints, tapering to the tip; the joints all
nearly equal, and bearing several hairs. Feet black, short, strong;
all the pairs placed somewhat forward; digitules absent, a short seta
at the base of the claw; on the inner edge of the tibia and tarsus a
fringe of strong hairs; on the trochanter a long hair. Rostrum and
mentum absent; mouth represented by a minute orifice between the
second pair of feet. Eyes very minute, tubercular, projecting, placed
behind the antennæ. Anal tubercles absent; anogenital opening small,
elliptical, simple, hairless. Body flattish beneath, more convex above;
segments distinct, generally smooth, sometimes bearing hard projecting
callosities. Skin covered with minute hairs interspersed with circular
spinnerets.

Female of second stage deep-red in colour, nearly globular, very
indistinctly segmented; stationary, enclosed in a thick, hard solid
test of yellow wax; tests attaining sometimes the size of a large pea;
enclosed insect averaging 1/5in. in length. Insect filling the test;
skin smooth, very thin; general appearance like a hard, round, smooth
ball. Anal tubercles absent; anogenital ring small, simple, hairless:
from this ring springs often a tuft of short white cotton, and a long
white cottony seta protruding through an orifice in the test. Rostrum
and mentum present, very small; mentum triarticulate, with a few hairs
at the tip. Antennæ very short, of eight joints, conical, tapering
to the tip, hairy. Feet atrophied, bloated-looking, apparently only
consisting of a very short femur, tibia, and tarsus; digitules two,
very small. Skin covered with a great number of circular spinnerets of
two sizes, the larger ones simple, the smaller multilocular. Tracheæ
very large; spiracular orifices containing brown tubes with beaded
extremities on the inner end. Anal extremity dark-brown, the anal ring
in the centre; spinnerets here very numerous, converging towards the
anus. Insect in this stage emitting a strong, persistent, and fetid
odour.

Young larva brick-red, elongated, active, naked; length, about 1/24in.
Antennæ of six joints, hairy; last joint the largest, clavate. Eyes
and feet as in adult, but there is no fringe on the tibia and tarsus.
Rostrum and mentum large, conspicuous. Skin covered with circular
spinnerets and minute hairs; the spinnerets are most numerous on the
abdomen. Anogenital ring apparently folded. At the extremity of the
abdomen two long hairs springing from quadrate tubercular bases which
represent the anal tubercles.

Adult male red or purplish in colour, wings bluish-purple with red
nervures; length, about 1/5in.; width across expanded wings, about
1/2in. Eyes large, prominent, facetted. Antennæ of ten joints, each
joint bearing many hairs. Feet long, slender, with somewhat large
trochanter; on the tibia and tarsus a fringe of hairs as in the female.
Upper digitules two long fine hairs; lower digitules absent. The
nervure of the wings branches twice at least. Haltere large, inflated,
sac-like; bearing four curling setæ. Abdomen distinctly segmented, each
segment bearing many fine short hairs and several small circular marks.
Abdominal spike short, broad, bivalvular; penis protruding as a long
soft white tube covered with minute recurved hairs.

Habitat--For the adult female and larva the trunks of trees and shrubs
in forests, or rocks and bushes in open country, Otago, Nelson,
Canterbury, Wellington. For the second stage the stems and roots of
_Muhlenbeckia adspersa (complexa?)_; Sumner Road, Lyttelton; Evans
Bay, Wellington: _Rhipogonum scandens_ (supplejack); Riccarton Bush,
Canterbury; Nelson; Wellington. On _Muhlenbeckia_ the waxy tests are
often largest and most numerous underground. Male insects sometimes
found clustering, attached to females.

This is a very large and peculiar species, its transformations and
changes of secretion being abnormal. It cannot be said to be greatly
harmful; but the odour of the second stage is unpleasant.

  67. Cœlostoma wairoense, Maskell.
      N.Z. Trans., Vol. XVI., 1883, p. 141.
                         (Plate XXI., Fig. 2.)

Adult female, female of second stage, and larva unknown.

Adult male very nearly resembling that of _C. zealandicum_; body red or
purplish, wings blue with red nervures. Length of body, about 1/6in.
Eyes prominent, facetted. Antennæ of ten joints, slender, with fine
hairs. Feet as in _C. zealandicum_, but with fewer hairs. Digitules
twenty-four, all springing from the claw, none from the tarsus.
Haltere, abdominal spike, penis, and abdomen as in _C. zealandicum_;
but the circular marks on the segments in this species are multilocular.

Male pupa bright-red, enclosed in a cylindrical sac of white cotton.
Pupæ occurring in numerous colonies.

Habitat--On _Phormium tenax_, _Leptospermum scoparium_ (manuka),
Northern Wairoa, Auckland.

The female of this species will, when found, probably nearly resemble
that of _C. zealandicum_: at present the great number of digitules on
the foot of the male sufficiently distinguish it.



INDEX OF PLANTS AND THE COCCIDIDÆ ATTACKING THEM.


This list is of course only approximate, as insects may at any time be
found on other trees than those given.

_Icerya Purchasi_ is omnivorous, and it has not been thought necessary
to repeat it here against every plant in the list; but it has been set
against some.

The adult female of _Cœlostoma zælandicum_ may also be found wandering
over numbers of native trees in forests.

In hothouses and greenhouses all sorts of plants are liable to attack.

        Key to Symbols Following Insect Listings

            * Unsightly: spoiling appearance of plant.
            † Usually accompanied by much black fungus.
            ‡ Likely to do much injury to plant.


            Plants.                                       Insects.

  Alsophila Colensoi (fern)                      Lecanium mori. *
  Apple                                          Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
    "                                            Dactylopius glaucus. * ‡
  Apricot                                        Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Ash                                                "      pomorum. ‡
  Asplenium bulbiferum (fern)                    Chionaspis dubia. * †
      "     lucidum                                  "      dubia. * †
  Astelia Cunninghamii                           Mytilaspis cordylinidis. *
     "         "                                     "      epiphytidis.
     "         "                                 Fiorinia asteliæ. * †
     "         "                                     "    stricta.
     "         "                                 Pseudococcus asteliæ.
  Atherosperma Novæ-Zælandiæ                     Aspidiotus atherospermæ.
       "             "                           Mytilaspis pyriformis. *
       "             "                           Fiorinia asteliæ. *
       "             "                           Ctenochiton viridis. * †
       "             "                           Inglisia patella.
       "             "                           Eriochiton spinosus.
  Bavardia                                       Lecanium maculatum. * † ‡
  Box                                                "    hesperidum. * † ‡
  Brachyglottis repanda                          Fiorinia minima.
       "           "                             Ctenochiton flavus.
       "           "                                 "       fuscus. * †
  Budlæia salicina                               Aspidiotus budlæiæ.
  Calceolaria                                    Dactylopius calceolariæ. * † ‡
  Camellia                                       Aspidiotus camelliæ.
     "                                           Lecanium hemisphæricum. * † ‡
     "                                               "    hesperidum. * † ‡
     "                                               "    oleæ. * † ‡
     "                                           Pulvinaria camellicola. * † ‡
  Carpodetus serratus                            Aspidiotus carpodeti.
  Cassinia leptophylla (tauhine)                 Lecanium oleæ. * † ‡
  Celmisia                                       Rhizococcus celmisiæ. *
  Coprosma                                       Aspidiotus nerii.
     "                                           Mytilaspis pyriformis. *
     "                                           Chionaspis dubia.
     "                                           Fiorinia asteliæ. *
     "                                           Ctenochiton perforatus. * †
  Coprosma                                       Ctenochiton viridis. * †
     "                                           Inglisia patella.
     "                                           Dactylopius glaucus. *
  Cordyline australis (cabbage-tree)             Mytilaspis cordylinidis. * ‡
     "          "           "                    Fiorinia stricta. * ‡
     "      indivisa (large-leaved cabbage-tree) Mytilaspis cordylinidis. * ‡
     "          "           "           "        Fiorinia stricta. * ‡
  Corynocarpus lævigata (karaka)                 Aspidiotus nerii.
  Cotoneaster microphylla                        Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Cyathea Smithii (tree-fern)                    Ctenochiton depressus. *
  Cyathodes acerosa                              Poliaspis media. *
     "        "                                  Eriococcus multispinus. *
  Cypress                                        Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Danthonia (grass)                              Dactylopius calceolariæ. *
  Dendrobium                                     Fiorinia stricta. *
      "                                          Ctenochiton elongatus. * †
  Drimys colorata                                Mytilaspis drimydis.
    "       "                                    Inglisia patella.
  Dysoxylon spectabile                           Aspidiotus dysoxyli.
      "         "                                Mytilaspis pyriformis. *
      "         "                                Chionaspis dysoxyli. * ‡
  Earina                                         Ctenochiton elongatus.
    "                                            Fiorinia stricta. *
  Elæocarpus dentatus (hinau)                    Ctenochiton elæocarpi.
      "         "        "                            "      flavus.
      "         "        "                       Inglisia ornata. *
      "         "        "                       Eriococcus pallidus.
  Eucalyptus                                     Mytilaspis cordylinidis. *
  Euonymus                                       Aspidiotus camelliæ. * ‡
  Ferns, various                                 Chionaspis dubia.
    "       "                                    Poliaspis media.
    "       "                                    Ctenochiton depressus. *
    "       "                                    Lecanium mori.
    "       "                                    Dactylopius glaucus. * ‡
  Gahnia                                         Mytilaspis cordylinidis. *
  Geniostoma ligustrifolia                       Ctenochiton elongatus. *
  Gooseberry                                     Fiorinia grossulariæ.
  Gorse                                          Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Grasses, various                               Dactylopius poæ.
     "        "                                  Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Hawthorn                                       Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Hedycarya                                      Fiorinia stricta.
  Hoheria angustifolia                           Eriococcus hoheriæ.
  Holly                                          Lecanium hesperidum. * † ‡
  Hymenanthera crassifolia                       Ctenochiton hymenantheræ. * †
  Ivy                                            Lecanium hesperidum. * † ‡
  Knightia excelsa                               Eriococcus multispinus. *
  Laurel                                         Lecanium hesperidum. * † ‡
  Lemon                                          Aspidiotus coccineus. * ‡
    "                                            Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)                Mytilaspis leptospermi.
       "           "        "                    Ctenochiton flavus.
       "           "        "                    Inglisia leptospermi.
       "           "        "                        "    ornata.
       "           "        "                    Planchonia epacridis.
       "           "        "                    Cœlostoma wairoense. *
  Leucopogon Fraseri                             Poliaspis media. *
      "         "                                Planchonia epacridis.
  Lilac                                          Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Melicope ternata                               Eriochiton spinosus.
  Metrosideros tomentosa (pohutukawa)            Lecanochiton metrosideri. * †
       "       robusta (rata)                    Mytilaspis metrosideri.
       "          "       "                      Lecanochiton metrosideri. * †
  Muhlenbeckia adspersa                          Fiorinia stricta.
       "          "                              Eriochiton spinosus.
       "          "                              Cœlostoma zælandicum.
  Myoporum lætum (ngaio)                         Eriococcus pallidus.
  Myrtle                                         Lecanium hesperidum. * † ‡
  Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria)                Eriococcus araucariæ. * † ‡
  Olearia Haastii                                Eriochiton hispidus. * †
  Orange                                         Aspidiotus coccineus. * ‡
    "                                            Chionaspis citri.
    "                                            Lecanium hesperidum. * † ‡
    "                                                "    oleæ. * † ‡
    "                                            Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Orchids (hothouse)                             Aspidiotus epidendri. * ‡
     "        "                                      "      nerii. * ‡
     "        "                                  Dactylopius glaucus. * ‡
  Palms (hothouse)                               Aspidiotus epidendri. * ‡
    "       "                                        "      nerii. * ‡
    "       "                                    Dactylopius glaucus. * ‡
  Panax arboreum                                 Fiorinia minima.
    "       "                                    Ctenochiton flavus. * †
    "       "                                         "      fuscus. * †
    "       "                                         "      perforatus. * †
    "       "                                         "      viridis. * †
    "       "                                    Dactylopius glaucus. *
  Parsonsia                                      Chionaspis minor.
  Peach                                          Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Pear                                           Diaspis santali.
    "                                            Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Pellæa rotundifolia (fern)                     Chionaspis dubia.
  Phormium tenax (New Zealand flax)              Mytilaspis cordylinidis. *
      "      "          "                        Fiorinia stricta. *
      "      "          "                        Dactylopius calceolariæ. *
      "      "          "                        Cœlostoma wairoense. *
  Phymatodes Billardieri (fern)                  Mytilaspis phymatodidis. *
  Pines and firs                                 Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Piper excelsum                                 Ctenochiton piperis.
    "      "                                     Dactylopius glaucus. *
  Pittosporum (various)                          Fiorinia asteliæ.
       "          "                              Ctenochiton perforatus. * †
       "          "                                   "      viridis. * †
       "          "                              Dactylopius glaucus. * †
  Plagianthus                                    Ctenochiton depressus. *
  Plum                                           Diaspis santali. ‡
    "                                            Mytilaspis pomorum. ‡
  Poa anceps (tussock-grass)                     Dactylopius poæ.
  Rhipogonum scandens (supplejack)               Chionaspis minor. *
      "         "          "                     Cœlostoma zælandicum.
  Rose                                           Diaspis rosæ. * ‡
    "                                            Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Rubus australis (bush-lawyer)                  Chionaspis dubia. *
    "       "          "                         Ctenochiton perforatus. * †
    "       "          "                              "      viridis. * †
    "       "          "                         Eriococcus multispinus.
  Rubus australis (bush-lawyer)                  Dactylopius glaucus. *
  Santalum Cunninghamii (maire)                  Diaspis santali. *
      "         "          "                     Rhizococcus fossor.
  Sophora tetraptera (kowhai)                    Aspidiotus sophoræ.
  Sweetbriar                                     Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Sycamore                                       Mytilaspis pomorum.
  Thorn                                              "      pomorum. ‡
  Various greenhouse or hothouse plants          Aspidiotus epidendri. * ‡
     "        "            "       "                 "      nerii. * ‡
     "        "            "       "             Diaspis Boisduvalii. * † ‡
     "        "            "       "             Lecanium hemisphæricum. * † ‡
     "        "            "       "                 "    hesperidum. * † ‡
     "        "            "       "                 "    hibernaculorum. * † ‡
     "        "            "       "                 "    mori.
     "        "            "       "                 "    oleæ. * † ‡
     "        "            "       "             Dactylopius glaucus. * ‡
     "        "            "       "             Icerya Purchasi. * ‡
  Veronica (various)                             Poliaspis media.
     "         "                                 Lecanium hesperidum. * †
     "         "                                 Dactylopius alpinus. *
  Vitex littoralis (puriri)                      Aspidiotus carpodeti.
  Wattle (various)                                   "      epidendri. *
    "        "                                   Diaspis Boisduvalii. *
    "        "                                   Icerya Purchasi. * †
  Weeping-willow                                 Aspidiotus camelliæ.



INDEX OF GROUPS, SUBDIVISIONS, GENERA, AND SPECIES INCLUDED IN THIS
WORK.

  _Names in italics_ are synonyms.
  * Signifies that the insect has not yet been found in New Zealand.

                      Page

  Acanthococcidæ, 88, 91
  _Acanthococcus_, 95
    _multispinus_, 94
  Aclerda*, 63
  Antonina*, 88
  Aonidia*, 39
  Aspidiotus, 39, 40
    atherospermæ, 40
    _aurantii_, 42
    _Bouchei_, 44
    budlæiæ, 40
    camelliæ, 41
    carpodeti, 42
    _citri_, 42
    coccineus (the orange-scale), 42
    _conchiformis_, 51
    dysoxyli, 43
    epidendri, 44
    _falciformis_, 51
    _juglandis_, 51
    nerii, 44
    _pomorum_, 51
    _pyrus-malus_, 51
    _rosæ_, 47
    sophoræ, 45
  Asterolecanium*, 64, 87, 91
    quercicola*, 92

  _Boisduvalia_*, 89

  Callipappus*, 90
  _Calymnatus hesperidum_, 80
  _Calypticus hesperidum_, 80
  Capulinia*, 89
  Carteria*, 62
  Ceroplastes*, 62
  _Chermes epidendri_, 44
    _filicum_, 80
    _hibernaculorum_, 81
    _oleæ_, 82
  Chionaspis, 39, 54
    citri, 54
    dubia, 54
    dysoxyli, 55
    _euonymi_, 54
    minor, 56
  Coccidæ, 89, 103
  Coccidinæ, 38, 88
  Coccus* (the cochineal-insect), 89
    _hesperidum_, 80
  Cœlostoma, 90, 107
    wairoense, 109
    zælandicum, 107
  Cryptokermitidæ, 87
  Ctenochiton, 62, 65
    depressus, 66
    elæocarpi, 67
    elongatus, 68
    flavus, 68
    fuscus, 70
    hymenantheræ, 71
    perforatus, 72
    piperis, 73
    _spinosus_, 86
    viridis, 74

  Dactylopidæ (the "mealy-bugs"), 89
  Dactylopius, 89
    alpinus, 99
    calceolariæ, 100
    glaucus, 100
    poæ, 101
  Diaspidinæ, 37, 39
  Diaspis, 39, 45
    Boisduvalii, 46
    _Bouchei_, 44
    _gigas_, 58
    rosæ, 47
    santali, 47
  _Drosicha_*, 90

  Ericerus*, 62
  Eriochiton, 63, 84
    hispidus, 84
    spinosus, 86
  Eriococcus, 88, 92
    araucariæ, 93
    hoheriæ, 93
    multispinus, 94
    pallidus, 95
  Eriopeltis*, 63

  Fairmairia*, 62
  Fiorinia, 39, 57
    asteliæ, 58
    grossulariæ, 59
    minima, 59
    stricta, 60

  Gossyparia*, 88
  _Guerinia_*, 90

  Hemicoccidinæ, 38, 87

  Icerya, 90, 104
    Purchasi (the cottony-cushion scale), 104
    sacchari*, 106
  Inglisia, 62, 75
    leptospermi, 75
    ornata, 76
    patella, 78

  Kermes*, 87
    _camelliæ_, 41
  Kermitidæ*, 87

  Leachia*, 90
  Lecanidæ, 63, 79
  Lecanidinæ, 38, 62
  Lecanium, 63, 79
    depressum, 79
    hemisphæricum, 80
    hesperidum (the holly and ivy scale), 80
    hibernaculorum, 81
    maculatum, 81
    mori, 82
    oleæ (the "black scale"), 82
  Lecanochiton, 62, 64
    metrosideri, 64
  Lecanococcidæ, 63, 84
  Lecanodiaspidæ, 62, 63
  Lecanodiaspis*, 63, 64
  Lecanopsis*, 63
  Leucaspis*, 39
  Lichtensia*, 63
  _Llaveia_*, 90

  Margarodes*, 91
  Monophlebidæ, 90, 104
  Monophlebus*, 90
  Mytilaspis, 39, 48
    cordylinidis, 48
    drimydis, 49
    epiphytidis, 49
    leptospermi, 50
    metrosideri, 50
    phymatodidis, 51
    _pomicorticis_, 52
    pomorum (the apple-scale), 51, 52
    pyriformis, 53

  Nidularia*, 88

  Orthezia*, 89
  Ortonia*, 90

  Parlatoria*, 39
  Philippia*, 63
  _Physokermes_*, 63
  Planchonia, 64, 88, 91
    epacridis, 91
  Poliaspis, 39, 56
    media, 57
  Pollinia*, 64, 87
  Porphyrophora*, 91
  Porphyrophoridæ*, 91
  Pseudococcus, 89, 101
    asteliæ, 102
  Pulvinaria, 63, 83
    camellicola, 83
  Puto*, 89

  Rhizococcus, 88, 96
    _araucariæ_, 93
    celmisiæ, 96
    fossor, 97
  Ripersia*, 89

  Signoretia*, 63

  Targionia*, 39

  _Uhleria_, 57
    _gigas_, 58

  Vinsonia*, 62

  Walkeriana*, 90
  _Westwoodia_*, 89



DESCRIPTIONS OF PLATES.


Plate I.

Fig.

  1. Eggs of Coccididæ.

  2. Larva of Diaspidinæ.

  3. Diagram of life-history of female Diaspidinæ. _a_, pellicle
       of larva; _b_, second pellicle; _c_, adult female somewhat
       shrivelled after egg-laying; _d_, eggs; _e_, secreted matter
       forming the "scale." In this diagram the scale is shown as
       overturned.

  4. Types of various spinnerets. _a_, simple orifices
       (_Mytilaspis_); _b_, double orifice (_Planchonia_); _c_,
       multilocular orifice (_Ctenochiton_); _d_, multilocular orifice
       (_Cœlostoma_); _e_, simple protruding spinneret (_Aspidiotus_);
       _f_, serrated protruding spinneret (_Mytilaspis drimydis_);
       _g_, protruding spinneret (_Acanthococcus_); _k_, conical spiny
       spinneret and cottony secretion (_Rhizococcus_); _m_, lanceolate
       spinneret and glassy secretion (_Inglisia_); _n_, group of
       abdominal spinnerets, with detached orifices (_Mytilaspis_);
       _p_, double multilocular orifice (_Cœlostoma_); _s_, coronetted
       spinnerets and part of glassy secretion (_Icerya_).

  5. Rostra. _a_, simple rostrum of Diaspidinæ; _b_, rostrum and
       trimerous mentum of Coccidinæ.

  6. Foot of a female insect. _c_, coxa; _tr_, trochanter; _f_,
       femur; _ti_, tibia; _ta_, tarsus; _cl_, claw.

  7. Foot of a male insect. The letters as in Fig. 6.

  8. Foot with digitules, upper and lower.

  9. Type of female antenna (_Ctenochiton_).

  10. Type of female antenna (_Dactylopius_).

  11. Type of antenna of larva (_Icerya_).

  12. Type of male antenna (_Fiorinia_).

  13. One joint of antenna of Monophlebidæ (_Icerya_).

  14. Diagram of head of male of Lecanidinæ (after Signoret), both
       dorsal and ventral aspects being shown together. _a_, antennæ;
       _e_, _e_, true eyes, the lower pair being on the ventral surface
       in the place of the mouth; _oc_, _oc_, ocelli.

  15. Head of male Icerya, with facetted eyes.

  16. Wing of male insect. _n_, nervure.

[Illustration: PLATE I.]


Plate II.

  Fig.

  1. Types of anogenital rings. _a_, Diaspidinæ; _b_, Lecanidinæ;
       _c_, Acanthococcidæ; _d_, Dactylopidæ; _e_, Monophlebidæ.

  2. Types of last abdominal segments of female. _a_, Diaspidinæ;
       _b_, Lecanidinæ; _c_, Acanthococcidæ; _d_, Dactylopidæ; _e_,
       Monophlebidæ.

  3. Types of last abdominal segments of male, and sheath of the
       penis. _a_, Diaspidinæ; _b_, Lecanidinæ (_Ctenochiton_); _c_,
       Acanthococcidæ; _d_, Lecanidinæ (_Inglisia_); _e_, Dactylopidæ;
       _f_, Monophlebidæ (_Icerya_).

  4. Respiratory system. _a_, spiracle of _Lecanium_ (after
       Targioni); _b_, spiracle of _Coccus_ (after Targioni); _c_,
       diagram of arrangement of the four spiracles and the tracheal
       tubes (Lecanidinæ) (s. spiracles); _d_, spiracle and trachea of
       Cœlostoma.

  5. Types of spines and hairs. _a_, anal serrated hairs (_Aspidiotus
       nerii_); _b_, spiracular spines (_Ctenochiton_); _c_, marginal
       spines (_Ctenochiton_); _d_, lanceolate marginal spines
       (_Inglisia_); _e_, spines on anal tubercles (_Rhizococcus_);
       _f_, marginal spines (_Eriococcus_); _g_, conical spines
       (_Eriococcus_); _k_, marginal hairs (_Dactylopius_); _m_, hairs
       (_Icerya_); _n_, anal hairs (_Cœlostoma_).

[Illustration: PLATE II.]


Plate III.

Types of Last Abdominal Segments of the Diaspidinæ.

  Fig.

  1. _Aspidiotus coccineus_ (after Comstock); no groups of spinnerets.

  2. _Diaspis rosæ_; five groups of spinnerets.

  3. _Mytilaspis cordylinidis_; five groups of spinnerets and single
       orifices.

  4. _Mytilaspis pyriformis_; five groups of spinnerets, almost
       forming an arch.

  5. _Chionaspis dysoxyli_; five groups of spinnerets.

  6. _Poliaspis media_; eight groups of spinnerets.

  7. _Fiorinia asteliæ_; arch of spinnerets.

  8. _Fiorinia stricta_; five groups of spinnerets, the three upper
       groups almost forming an arch.

[Illustration: PLATE III.]


Plate IV.

  Fig.

  1. _Aspidiotus atherospermæ._ _a_, insects on leaf of Atherosperma;
       _b_, adult female.

  2. _Aspidiotus camelliæ._ _a_, insects on twig of Euonymus; _b_,
       adult female; _c_, _d_, puparia of female.

  3. _Aspidiotus coccineus._ _a_, insects on rind of orange; _b_,
       adult female in puparium (overturned); _c_, puparium of male.

  4. _Aspidiotus nerii._ _a_, insects on leaf of wattle; _b_,
       puparia, male and female.

  5. _Diaspis Boisduvalii_, adult female (after Signoret).

  6. _Diaspis rosæ._ _a_, insects on twig of rose; _b_, adult female;
       _c_, puparia, male and female.

  7. _Diaspis santali._ _a_, insects on twig of pear; _b_, male and
       female puparia; _c_, last abdominal segment of female.

[Illustration: PLATE IV.]


Plate V.

  Fig.

  1. _Mytilaspis cordylinidis._ _a_, insects on leaf of Cordyline
       australis (cabbage-tree); _b_, male and female puparia; _c_,
       adult female.

  2. _Mytilaspis epiphytidis._ _a_, female puparium; _b_, male
       puparium; _c_, adult female.

  3. _Mytilaspis drimydis._ _a_, insects on leaf of Drimys colorata;
       _b_, male and female puparia; _c_, adult female; _d_, marginal
       spinnerets.

  4. _Mytilaspis leptospermi._ _a_, insects on bark of Leptospermum
       (manuka); _b_, male and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  5. _Mytilaspis pomorum._ _a_, insects on twig of hawthorn; _b_,
       female puparia; _c_, adult female; _d_, puparium overturned,
       showing enclosed female, _f_, and eggs, _e_.

  6. _Mytilaspis pyriformis._ _a_, insects on leaf of Dysoxylon
       spectabile; _b_, male and female puparia; _e_, adult female;
       _d_, male; _e_, last three joints of male antenna; _f_, foot of
       male.

[Illustration: PLATE V.]


PLATE VI.

  Fig.

  1. _Chionaspis citri._ _a_, insects on rind of orange; _b_, male
       and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  2. _Chionaspis dubia._ _a_, insects on fern-leaf (Pellæa); _b_,
       male and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  3. _Chionaspis dysoxyli._ _a_, insects on leaf of Dysoxylon; _b_,
       male and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  4. _Chionaspis minor._ _a_, insects on twig of Parsonsia; _b_, male
       and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  5. _Poliaspis media._ _a_, insects on leaves of Cyathodes; _b_,
       male and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

  6. _Fiorinia asteliæ._ _a_, insects on leaves of Coprosma; _b_,
       male and female puparia; _c_, adult female; _d_, pellicles of
       second stage.

  7. _Fiorinia stricta._ _a_, insects on leaves of Earina; _b_, male
       and female puparia; _c_, adult female.

[Illustration: PLATE VI.]


Plate VII.

  Fig.

  1. _Lecanochiton metrosideri._ _a_, insects on branch and leaves of
       Metrosideros (rata); _b_, test of female, upper side; _c_, test
       of female, under-side; _d_, female of second stage, ventral
       aspect; _e_, antenna of adult female; _f_, test of male.

  2. _Ctenochiton depressus._ _a_, insects on leaf of Plagianthus;
       _b_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _c_, test of male; _d_, part
       of fringe of female test.

  3. _Ctenochiton elæocarpi._ _a_, insect on bark of Elæocarpus
       (hinau); _b_, female of second stage in test, on leaf.

  4. _Ctenochiton elongatus._ _a_, female tests on leaves of Earina;
       _b_, part of fringe.

  5. _Ctenochiton flavus._ _a_, insects on half leaf of Panax; _b_,
       female tests; _c_, male test; _d_, adult female, ventral aspect;
       _e_, spiracular and marginal spines and spinnerets of female.

  6. _Ctenochiton fuscus._ _a_, insects on half leaf of Panax; _b_,
       female test, upper side.

[Illustration: PLATE VII.]


PLATE VIII.

  Fig.

  1. _Ctenochiton hymenantheræ._ _a_, insects on leaves of
       Hymenanthera; _b_, female test; _c_, male test.

  2. _Ctenochiton perforatus._ _a_, insects on leaf of Coprosma; _b_,
       adult female in test, ventral aspect; _c_, male test; _d_,
       female test and fringe; _e_, portion of edge of female test with
       three segments of fringe, showing the rows of perforations; _f_,
       antenna of adult female; _g_, male; _k_, head of male, upper
       side; _m_, head of male, under-side.

  3. _Ctenochiton piperis._ _a_, insects on leaf of Piper excelsum;
       _b_, females in tests, dorsal aspect; _c_, male pupa in test,
       dorsal aspect; _d_, female of second stage, dorsal aspect; _e_,
       two of the tubercles on the dorsum of the adult female, after
       pressure.

[Illustration: PLATE VIII.]


PLATE IX.

  Fig.

  1. _Ctenochiton viridis._ _a_, insects on leaf of Coprosma; _b_,
       female of second stage; _c_, adult female (the test removed);
       _d_, male test; _e_, a segment of the female test; _f_, diagram
       of head of male, upper and under sides shown together, eight
       eyes and two ocelli; _k_, antenna of male.

  2. _Inglisia leptospermi._ _a_, insects on twig of Leptospermum
       (manuka); _b_, female test, side view; _c_, female test, upper
       side; _d_, male test; _e_, a segment of the female test; _f_,
       adult female, dorsal aspect; _g_, antenna of female; _k_, foot
       of female.

[Illustration: PLATE IX.]


Plate X.

  Fig.

  1. _Inglisia ornata._ _a_, insects on twig of Elæocarpus (hinau);
       _b_, female test, side view; _c_, female test, dorsal view; _d_,
       a segment of the female test and three segments of fringe; _e_,
       male test; _f_, adult female, side view; _g_, marginal spines of
       female.

  2. _Inglisia patella._ _a_, insects on leaf of Coprosma; _b_, _c_,
       female tests, upper side; _d_, adult female, ventral aspect;
       _e_, marginal spines of female.

[Illustration: PLATE X.]


PLATE XI.

  Fig.

  1. _Lecanium depressum._ _a_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _b_,
       markings of the skin.

  2. _Lecanium hemisphæricum._ _a_, insects on Camellia; _b_, adult
       female, dorsal aspect; _c_, adult female, side view; _d_, female
       of second stage.

  3. _Lecanium hesperidum._ _a_, insects on leaf of ivy; _b_, adult
       female, dorsal aspect; _c_, female of second stage; _d_,
       markings of skin.

  4. _Lecanium mori._ _a_, insects on fern-leaf (Asplenium); _b_,
       adult female, dorsal aspect.

  5. _Lecanium oleæ._ _a_, insects on twig of Camellia; _b_, adult
       female, dorsal aspect; _c_, adult female, side view; _d_, female
       of second stage, dorsal aspect; _e_, markings of skin.

[Illustration: PLATE XI.]


Plate XII.

  Fig.

  1. _Pulvinaria camellicola._ _a_, insects on branch and leaf of
       Camellia; _b_, adult female and ovisac, dorsal aspect; _c_,
       adult female and ovisac, side view; _d_, adult female, dorsal
       aspect; _e_, female of second stage; _f_, markings of skin, with
       hairs; _g_, antenna of adult female; _k_, diagram of head of
       male, upper and under sides shown together, four eyes and two
       ocelli.

  2. _Planchonia epacridis._ _a_, insect in test on leaf of
       Leucopogon; _b_, female in test, dorsal aspect; _c_, portion of
       the double fringes; _d_, extremity of abdomen of female; _e_,
       anogenital ring and anal tubercles of female; _f_, antenna of
       larva; _g_, rings with hairs replacing antennæ of adult female.

[Illustration: PLATE XII.]


Plate XIII.

  Fig.

  1. _Eriochiton hispidus._ _a_, Insects on twig and leaves of
       Olearia Haastii; _b_, adult female, dorsal aspect, with
       fragments of test and fringe; _c_, adult female without test,
       dorsal aspect; _d_, male test, upper side; _e_, male test,
       under-side; _f_, larva, with fringe; _g_, female of second
       stage, without test, dorsal aspect; _k_, _m_, spines and tubular
       fringe; _n_, antenna of adult female; _p_, foot of adult female;
       _s_, last five joints of male antenna; _t_, abdominal spike of
       male.

  2. _Eriochiton spinosus._ _a_, insects on twig of Melicope; _b_,
       adult female, without test; _c_, female of second stage; _d_,
       male test; _c_, marginal spines and feathery fringe of female;
       _f_, foot of adult female; _g_, antenna of adult female.

[Illustration: PLATE XIII.]


PLATE XIV.

  Fig.

  1. _Eriococcus araucariæ._ _a_, insects on twig of Araucaria
       excelsa (Norfolk Island pine); _b_, sac of female, upper side;
       _c_, sac of female, under-side, with enclosed shrivelled female
       and eggs; _d_, sac of male; _e_, adult female before gestation;
       _f_, extremity of abdomen, anogenital ring, and anal tubercles
       of female.

  2. _Eriococcus hoheriæ._ _a_, insects on bark of Hoheria; _b_, sac
       of female, upper side; _c_, sac of male; _d_, adult female; _e_,
       extremity of abdomen and anal tubercles of adult female; _f_,
       foot of adult female; _g_, antenna of adult female; _k_, larva,
       ventral aspect; _m_, male; _n_, abdominal spike of male; _p_,
       antenna of male.

[Illustration: PLATE XIV.]


Plate XV.

  Fig.

  1. _Eriococcus multispinus._ _a_, insects on leaf of Knightia; _b_,
       sac of female, upper side; _c_, sac of female, under-side, with
       enclosed insect; _d_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _e_, diagram
       of arrangement of spines on female; _f_, spines of female; _i_,
       antenna of female; _k_, head of male, upper side; _m_, abdominal
       spike of male.

  2. _Eriococcus pallidus._ _a_, insects on leaf of Myoporum (ngaio);
       _b_, sac of female; _c_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _d_, part
       of abdomen of female; _e_, antenna of female.

[Illustration: PLATE XV.]


Plate XVI.

  Fig.

  1. _Rhizococcus celmisiæ._ _a_, Insects on leaves of Celmisia; _b_,
       adult female dorsal aspect.

  2. _Rhizococcus fossor._ _a_, Insects on leaves of Santalum
       (maire); _b_, elevation produced by insect on _upper_ side of
       leaf; _c_, female in pit on _under_-side of leaf; _d_, sac of
       male; _e_, adult female before gestation, from a pit; _f_, adult
       female from surface of leaf; _g_, female of second stage; _k_,
       marginal spines and tubular cotton of second stage; _m_, antenna
       of adult female; _n_, male; _p_, diagram of head of male, upper
       and lower sides shown together, four eyes and two ocelli; _s_,
       abdominal spike of male; _t_, antenna of male.

[Illustration: PLATE XVI.]


Plate XVII.

  Fig.

  1. _Dactylopius alpinus._ _a_, Insects on twig of Veronica; _b_,
       adult female, dorsal aspect; _c_, female of second stage; _d_,
       anogenital ring; _e_, antenna of adult female.

  2. _Dactylopius calceolariæ._ _a_, Insects on leaf of Phormium
       tenax; _b_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _c_, antenna of adult
       female.

  3. _Dactylopius glaucus._ _a_, Insects on leaf of Coprosma; _b_,
       adult female, green variety; _c_, adult female, brown variety;
       _d_, sac of male; _e_, antenna of male.

[Illustration: PLATE XVII.]


Plate XVIII.

  Fig.

  1. _Dactylopius poæ._ _a_, Insects on roots of Poa (tussock-grass);
       _b_, adult female; _c_, antenna of adult female; _d_, foot of
       adult female; _e_, anogenital ring and anal tubercles of adult
       female.

  2. _Pseudococcus asteliæ._ _a_, Insects on leaf of Astelia; _b_,
       adult female, dorsal aspect; _c_, antenna of adult female; _d_,
       foot of adult female; _e_, various spinnerets.

[Illustration: PLATE XVIII.]


Plate XIX.

  _Icerya Purchasi._ _a_, Insects on twig of Acacia (wattle); _b_,
       adult female and ovisac, upper view; _c_, adult female and
       ovisac, side view; _d_, female of second stage; _e_, larva, with
       yellow cotton; _f_, male; _g_, haltere of male; _k_, two joints
       of male antenna; _m_, hairs, spinnerets, and glassy tubes; _n_,
       antenna of adult female.

[Illustration: PLATE XIX.]


Plate XX.

  _Cœlostoma zælandicum._ _a_, adult female, dorsal aspect; _b_, adult
       female, ventral aspect; _c_, waxy tests of females of second
       stage on twig of Muhlenbeckia; _d_, female of second stage,
       dorsal aspect; _e_, female of second stage, ventral aspect, with
       anal tuft of cotton and seta; _f_, larva, with yellow mealy
       secretion; _g_, eggs, in cottony mass; _k_, antenna of female,
       second stage; _l_, foot of female, second stage; _m_, antenna
       of adult female; _n_, spiracle and trachea of female; _p_, anal
       extremity and "honeydew" organ of larva and female of second
       stage.

  N.B.--The foot of the adult female is shown in Plate I., Fig. 6.

[Illustration: PLATE XX.]


Plate XXI.

  Fig.

  1. _Cœlostoma zælandicum._ _a_, male insect; _b_, abdomen of male;
       _c_, foot of male; _d_, hairs and marks, abdomen of male; _e_,
       antenna of male; _f_, circular marks, abdomen of male; _k_,
       abdominal spike and penis of male; _m_, haltere of male.

  2. _Cœlostoma wairoense_. _a_, male insect; _b_, head of male,
       upper side, with facetted eyes; _c_, foot of male; _d_, circular
       marks, abdomen of male.

[Illustration: PLATE XXI.]


Plate XXII.

The Honeydew, and resulting Fungi.

  Fig.

  1. _a_, Lecanid female (Ctenochiton) with protruded honeydew organ;
       _b_, abdominal extremity of the same, enlarged, the drop of
       honeydew bursting in spray.

  2. _a_, fungoid growth on upper side of leaf; _b_, fungoid growth
       on twig; _c, d, e_, various forms of black fungi from honeydew.

[Illustration: PLATE XXII.]


Plate XXIII.

Parasites of Coccididæ.

  Fig.

  1. _a_, pupa of hymenopterous parasite; _b_, the same pupa under
       the waxy test of _Ctenochiton perforatus_; _c_, imago, or
       full-grown parasite.

  2. _a_, brown and yellow fungi on _Ctenochiton viridis_ (leaf of
       Hedycarya dentata); _b_, upper side of brown fungus; _c_,
       under-side of the same, with attached fungoid sheet; _d._,
       _Ctenochiton viridis_ (test removed) filled with yellow fungus,
       and with globular mass of the same above it.

[Illustration: PLATE XXIII.]


Since this work has been in type, the author has received a letter from
the State Inspector of Fruit Pests for California, in which the writer
states that the insect _Icerya Purchasi_ has there, especially in the
southern part of the State, gained such hold on the orange-groves,
in spite of the most strenuous efforts, that the people find it
impossible to keep it down. Orange- and lemon-growers (and indeed other
tree-growers) in New Zealand, especially in the North Island, should
take note of this fact, and beware of ever letting this omnivorous and
most destructive insect obtain any footing on their trees. _A speedy
burning of every infected tree is the best remedy in this case._



Transcriber Notes


All illustrations moved so as to not split paragraphs.

The notes explaining the damage done by the insects in the "INDEX OF
PLANTS AND THE COCCIDIDÆ ATTACKING THEM." were moved before the table.





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