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´╗┐Title: Supplement to Commerce Reports Daily Consular and Trade Reports - Turkey, Harput
Author: Davis, Leslie A.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Supplement to Commerce Reports Daily Consular and Trade Reports - Turkey, Harput" ***

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  ----------------------------------------------------
  Transcriber's note:

  Words in bold typeface are surrounded by plus signs.
  ----------------------------------------------------



  SUPPLEMENT TO

  COMMERCE REPORTS
  DAILY CONSULAR AND TRADE REPORTS

  ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
  DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, WASHINGTON, D. C.

  Annual Series No. 18a March 15, 1915

  +TURKEY,+

  +HARPUT.+

  +By Consul Leslie A. Davis.+

The limited trade of the Harput consular district has almost entirely
ceased since the outbreak of the European War. Under normal conditions
the trade is small and confined to the merest necessaries of life.
Stoves, bedsteads, dining tables, table linen, individual tableware,
and many other articles usually regarded as indispensable in domestic
life are not to be found even in the homes of the better classes.


+Limited Business Opportunities--Population.+

There are no manufacturing establishments or industrial enterprises
of any importance and no business houses of any size in the entire
district. The only stores are small shops or booths of one room, seldom
more than 10 or 15 feet square and usually even smaller than that. The
business of any one merchant is necessarily small, and the quantity of
goods that he can handle limited. The goods are usually obtained by him
through business connections in Constantinople or Aleppo. The district
is essentially agricultural, and the products of the soil supply nearly
all the needs of its inhabitants.

The Vilayet of Mamouret-ul-Aziz, in which Harput is situated, is
said to contain about 500,000 inhabitants, of whom 250,000 reside
in the Sandjak of Mamouret-ul-Aziz, 180,000 in the Sandjak of Malatia,
and 70,000 in the Sandjak of Dersim. Of the total number, about
90,000 are Christians and the remainder Mohammedans. There are nearly
3,000 villages in the Vilayet but no large cities. In addition to
the Vilayet of Mamouret-ul-Aziz, four other Vilayets depend on this
consulate--Sivas, Diarbekir, Bitlis, and Van. This comprises the
greater part of the interior of Asia Minor, a region as large as all
New England and New York combined, with a total population of about
3,000,000.


+Lack of Transportation and Other Facilities--Trade Routes.+

There are no railroads, tramways, electric light or gas plants, public
telephones, places of amusement, automobiles, or newspapers in the
entire district. The lack of means of transportation is the greatest
hindrance to the development of the country. There are not even any
navigable rivers in the district. The distance to any seaport is 200
to 400 miles, and all goods have to be brought here over extremely
rough, mountainous roads, which are never kept in repair. In times
of peace some goods are transported in crude carts, but at all
times the greater part is carried on the backs of camels or donkeys.
Transportation is thus always a matter of many weeks and often of
months, especially in the winter, when the roads are frequently blocked
by snow for two or three months.

The principal trade route in the district begins at Samsun on the Black
Sea and runs southeast to Bagdad, passing through Sivas, Harput, and
Diarbekir. Goods destined for this Vilayet usually come via Samsun,
which is about 372 miles from Harput. This port being inaccessible
at the present time, the few articles that come here are brought
overland from Constantinople via Angora and Sivas or by mule trail from
Alexandretta. Little merchandise has been received during the last few
months. Freight rates are, of course, extremely high at all times,
being many times greater than the rate from the country of export to
the port of arrival in Turkey and often amounting to much more than the
original cost of the goods. This region can never make much progress
commercially until transportation conditions are remedied by the
building of railroads, and this is not likely to be done except with
foreign capital and assistance.


+Housing Conditions--Military Exoneration Tax.+

Owing to the lack of building stone and almost total lack of wood of
any kind in this part of Turkey, all houses in both town and country
are built of mud bricks called "kerpitch," which is a mixture of mud and
straw. The houses are not large and part of them is always used for the
stable, one or two rooms only being reserved for the use of the family,
which lives in the simplest and most primitive manner. Every one sleeps
rolled up in a blanket on the earth floor. The only fuel used by the
majority of the population is manure dried in the sun. Among people
accustomed to this manner of living it can not be expected that there
will be much market for foreign goods. The lot of the people is made
worse by uncertain economic conditions and recent political unrest. The
exoneration tax of 43 Turkish pounds gold ($189.20) levied on those who
have been excused from military service in the present war represents
the life savings of the majority of the people who have paid it.

Yet a certain amount of progress is to be noted. Many of the
inhabitants have been to the United States. They have naturally brought
back some new ideas, and as a result there is a slowly growing demand
for certain articles. Most conspicuous is the increase in the sale of
cheap ready-made and second-hand clothing. A large portion of these
goods now comes from the United States. The total imports in 1914
amounted to about $25,000, as compared with $6,500 in the previous
year. There is also a slight demand for metal roofing, the imports of
which amounted to $8,800 in 1914, as compared with $750 in 1913.


+Business Situation During the Early Part of Last Year.+

Trade in this district was not especially good at the beginning of
1914. It is allways dull in the interior of Turkey during the winter
months. The depression was greater than usual, however, as the country
had not recovered financially from its two recent wars.

After the French loan was negotiated and the first payment received the
prospects were brighter. Concessions were granted in connection with
this loan for the construction of a railroad between Samsun, on the
Black Sea coast, and various points in the interior of Asia Minor, and
work was actually begun at Samsun. As much of the region between Samsun
and Harput is very fertile and at the present time it is impossible
to export the crops because of lack of means of transportation to the
coast, the people were looking forward to a new era. The telegraph and
mail services had already been greatly improved. During the spring
and early summer there was much building activity at Harput and many
new houses were in process of erection. In July the streets here were
publicly lighted for the first time. At Sivas plans were made to
establish an electric-light plant. Crops everywhere were unusually
good and after the trade depression of the first half of the year
a revival of business was anticipated for the autumn. The building
activity resulted in an increased demand for some building materials.
Shopkeepers and merchants were on their way to Constantinople to
replenish their stocks, when suddenly a general mobilization of the
Turkish Army was declared.

Trade ceased, as many merchants and tradesmen had to join the
army. Harvesting was left largely to the women and children and a
considerable portion of the crops was lost. Grain, animals, and goods
of all kinds were requisitioned by the Government. Money was withdrawn
from circulation and the banks refused to make payments.


+Large Decrease in Import Trade.+

The import and export trade of this region in 1914 was therefore
practically limited to the first seven months of the year. The imports,
however, during that period were greater than usual, due largely to the
fact that this city has recently been made the headquarters of an army
corps and increased business was anticipated. The total value of the
imports in 1914 was $1,525,720, as compared with $2,194,450 in 1913. Of
the imports in 1914, goods from abroad amounted to $1,038,660 and goods
from other parts of Turkey to $487,060.

The values of the principal imports from foreign countries into the
Vilayet of Mamouret-ul-Aziz for 1913 and 1914 and the principal
countries of origin for 1914 are shown in the following table (United
States, U. S.; Austria, Aus.; Belgium, Bel.; France, Fr.; Germany,
Ger.; Greece, Gr.; Italy, It.; Netherlands, Neth.; Russia, Rus.;
Sweden, Sw.; Switzerland, Switz.; United Kingdom, U. K.):

  --------------------+---------+---------+------------------------------------
  Articles.           |  1913   |  1914   |   Countries of origin, 1914.
  --------------------+---------+---------+------------------------------------
  Arms and ammunition |  $4.000 |  $1,000 | Bel., U. S., Ger., Fr., Aus.
  Books               |   1,800 |   1,100 | Fr., U. K., U. S., Ger.
  Candles             |   3,500 |   3,000 | Aus., Ger., Fr.
  Chemicals, dyes,    |         |         |
    etc.:             |         |         |
    Alizarin, anilin, |         |         |
      and artificial  |         |         |
      indigo          |  18,000 |   5,000 | Ger., Aus.
    Indigo            |   1,200 |   3,500 | India.
  Clocks and watches  |   4,000 |   3,000 | Aus., Ger., Fr., Switz., U. S.
  Clothing            |   6,500 |  25,000 | U. S., Fr.
  Coffee              |   9,000 |   3,500 | Brazil, Arabia
  Copper, sheet       |  10,000 |   5,000 | U. K.
  Cotton goods:       |         |         |
    Cabots            |   6,100 |  66,000 | U. K., It., Ger., Aus., U. S.
    Calicoes          |  50,000 |  44,000 | U. K., It., Ger., Aus., Rus.
    Flannel           |  35,000 |  11,000 | It., Aus., Bel., Neth., U. K.
    Handkerchiefs     |  10,000 |   2,200 | U. K., Aus., Ger.
    Prints            |  13,000 |  35,000 | U. K., It., Rus.
    Sheetings         |  71,000 |  80,000 | U. K., It., Neth.
    Yarn              | 165,000 | 110,000 | U. K., India.
    Other             |  80,000 |  88,000 | U. K., It., Aus., Ger., Bel.
  Crockery            |   1,800 |   3,500 | Aus., Ger., It., Fr.
  Drugs               |   3,800 |   7,000 | U. K., Fr., U. S., Ger.
  Enameled ware       |   2,400 |  11,000 | Aus., Ger.
  Fezzes              |  45,000 |  15,000 | Aus.
  Glass and glassware |   6,200 |   8,800 | Aus., Ger., U. S.
  Grammaphones and    |         |         |
    supplies          |     400 |         |
  Hides, buffalo      |  65,000 |  88,000 | India, China.
  Iron and steel,     |         |         |
    manufactures of:  |         |         |
    Agricultural      |         |         |
      implements      |   2,500 |   2,200 | U. S., U. K., Ger., Aus.
    Hardware          |   9,000 |   4,400 | Ger., Aus., U. S.
    Machinery--       |         |         |
      Ginning         |   1,000 |         |
      Printing        |     500 |         |
      Other           |   8,900 |   2,000 | U. K., U. S.
    Nails             |   7,000 |  17,600 | U. K., Aus., Bel.
    Roofing, metal    |     750 |   8,800 | Fr., U. S.
    Sheet iron        |   5,000 |   8,800 | Fr., U. K.
    Shovels           |   1,500 |   4,400 |    Do.
    Tools             |   1,700 |     880 | U. S., Ger.
    Water pipes       |     500 |         |
    Other             |  14,600 |   8,500 | Bel., Aus., Ger., Sw., Neth., U. S.
  Jewelry             |   6,500 |   5,000 | Aus., It., Ger.
  Leather             |  11,000 |   8,800 | Fr., Ger., Gr.
  Matches             |  20,000 |  15,000 | Aus., It.
  Mercer's goods      |  44,000 |  13,200 | Aus., U. K., It.
  Paper               |         |         |
    Cigarette         |   9,000 |  15,000 | Aus., Fr., Ger.
    Other             |  12,500 |  10,000 | Aus., Ger., U. K., Bel.
  Perfumes            |   1,000 |     300 | Fr., Ger.
  Petroleum           |  61,000 |  25,000 | Rus., Roumania, U. S.
  Rubber overshoes    |         |         |
    and goods         |   5,000 |   4,400 | U. S.
  Sacks and sacking   |   6,000 |   5,000 | U. K.
  Spices              |   5,000 |   5,000 | India.
  Sugar               |  52,000 |  25,000 | Aus., Rus., Egypt.
  Tea                 |   2,000 |     880 | U. K., Rus.
  Tin                 |         |   6,600 | U. K.
  Velvet              |  14,000 |   4,400 | U. K., It.
  Woolen goods:       |         |         |
    Underwear         |   5,500 |   6,600 | Ger., Aus.
    Other             | 380,000 | 175,000 | U. K., Fr., Ger., Aus., Bel.
  All other articles  |  60,000 |  42,000 |
                      ---------------------
  Total               1,360,750 1,038,000
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The imports into the Vilayet of Mamouret-ul-Aziz from other parts of
Turkey during 1014 were valued at $487,060, compared with $833,700
for 1013. The imported articles and their value for two years were as
follows:

  -------------------------+---------+---------
  Articles.                |  1913   |  1914
  -------------------------+---------+---------
  Aniseed                  |  $3,500 |  $3,500
  Butter                   | 150,000 | 132,000
  Copperware               |  45,000 |   5,000
  Flour                    |   2,000 |   1,760
  Henna                    |   1,500 |   2,200
  Horseshoes               |   4,000 |   3,500
  Ornaments, gold and      |         |
    silver                 |   4,800 |   3,500
  Rice                     |  17,000 |  26,400
  Salt                     | 145,000 |  30,000
  Shares, plow             |         |
   (native make)           |   1,500 |     880
  School supplies          |   5,000 |   2,500
  Sheetings                |   4,400 |   4,400
  Sheep and goats          | 280,000 | 180,000
  Soap                     |  85,000 |  17,600
  Timber                   |   5,000 |   5,000
  Tobacco                  |  34,500 |  26,400
  Towels                   |   3,500 |   1,760
  All other articles       |  42,000 |  40,660
                           -------------------
  Total                      833,700   487,060
  --------------------------------------------

+Effect of War on Export Trade.+

The effect of the disturbed conditions on the export trade was much
worse, as most of the articles exported from here are agricultural
products and are not shipped until the latter part of the year. By that
time all animals that could be used for transport were requisitioned
for the army and shipments either abroad or to other parts of Turkey
were impossible. Consequently, the export trade to foreign countries
from this Vilayet in 1914 amounted to only $137,100, as compared with
$494,390 in 1913, and the value of shipments to other Provinces of
Turkey to $139,600, as compared with $599,740 in 1913--a total of
only $276,700 in 1914, whereas the total exports in 1913 amounted to
$1,094,130. These exports were as follows:

  ------------------+---------+-----------
  Articles.         |  1913   |  1914
  ------------------+---------+-----------
       TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES.  |
  Apricot stones:   |         |
    Bitter          |  $6,000 |
    Sweet           |   8,000 |
  Cocoons           |   8,500 |
  Cotton            |  47,300 |  $60,000
  Embroideries      |  20,000 |    1,000
  Fruits, dried     |  16,000 |
  Furs              |  19,000 |
  Goatskins         |  22,000 |
  Leather, morocco  |  39,000 |
  Nuts:             |         |
    Pistachio       |  12,000 |
    Other           |  12,000 |
  Opium             | 190,740 |  75,000
  Raisins           |  35,000 |
  Rugs and kilims   |  20,000 |
  Sausage casings   |   9,300 |   1,100
  Silkworm eggs     |  19,800 |
  Other articles    |   9,750 |
                    -------------------
  Total               494,390   137,100
  -------------------------------------
       TO TURKISH PROVINCES.  |
  Almonds           |  $6,500 |
  Apricots, dried   |  42,000 |    $440
  Butter            |   6,500 |
  Cotton prints     |   3,000 |  26,400
  Cotton            |  96,000 |  20,000
  Cord and ropes    |   8,000 |     660
  Fruits            |  25,000 |  22,000
  Goatskins         |  75,000 |   2,000
  Hides             |   7,000 |   5,000
  Leather, morocco  |  18,000 |   2,200
  Manoosa           |         |
    (cotton cloth)  | 180,000 |  30,000
  Raisins           |  39,000 |   2,500
  Silk cloth        |   8,000 |   3,500
  Silk, raw         |   6,000 |
  All other articles|  79,740 |  24,900
                    -------------------
  Total               599,740   139,600
  -------------------------------------

The foregoing figures are estimates made after interviewing all the
leading merchants and shopkeepers in this region. No official trade
statistics are kept in the interior of Turkey.

The only declared exports from this consular district to the United
States during 1914 was a shipment of household goods and personal
effects, valued at $92, made by a missionary, who was returning home.


+Advance in Prices of Necessaries.+

The greatest decrease in imports was in the necessaries of life, such
as petroleum, soap, sugar, coffee, tea, and woolen goods. The prices
of these commodities have consequently increased considerably and
are continuing to rise. The Government has endeavored to remedy this
condition by ordering merchants to sell their wares at reasonable
prices.

The prices of kerosene has advanced from 80 to 200 piasters a box (two
tins), soap from 9 to 10 piasters an oke (a piaster is equivalent to
4.4 cents and an oke to 2.82 pounds), sugar from 4 to 10 piasters
an oke, coffee from 15 to 36 piasters an oke, and tea from 5 to 10
piasters a box, while the prices of clothes, shoes, and other articles
of wearing apparel have increased on an average about 50 per cent.


+Trade Opportunities Along Certain Lines.+

Notwithstanding the limited means of the people of this district and
its small trade, there is a slight market here for some kinds of goods.
These opportunities are undoubtedly increased to some extent by the
present situation, which has cut off many of the former sources of
supply, and when means of transportation are again available tradesmen
will have to replenish their stocks.

Among articles formerly obtained from European countries that might
be supplied by the United States are candles, cigarette paper, copper
(sheet), enameled iron and steel ware, fezzes, matches, nails, sheet
iron, shovels, and sugar. The market for sugar is especially good,
and there is also a considerable demand for enameled ware, the sale
of which is increasing rapidly, and for nails and shovels.


+Demand for Cotton Goods.+

The sale of many articles now imported in limited quantities from the
United States may readily be increased. Most important are cotton
goods, especially cabots. On investigation it was found that these are
sold in this district in much greater quantities than was previously
supposed. It is believed that if proper arrangements could be made,
American cabots might take the place, to a great extent, of those
now imported from other countries. The American cabot "A" is well
known in Turkey and is extensively used both in the army and among the
people. Any cabot to be sold here must be cheap and durable. There is
also a good market for calicoes and prints. Calicoes must be unstarched
and prints must be of fast colors. Bright colors with large flower
designs are preferred; prints having animal designs would not sell
here. Large quantities of yarn are used, especially in the region of
Arabkir, in the manufacture of a cotton cloth called "manoosa," which
is made and worn throughout Asia Minor. In the past practically all
the yarn has come from England and India. Care should be taken about
sizes, as only certain numbers are used, and only English numbers are
understood. Remnants of ginghams, calicoes, ribbons, or any other
textile articles would have a good sale here.


+Increased Market for Second-Hand Clothing, Shoes, Knit Underwear, etc.+

Other articles of wearing apparel that are now imported from the
United States in small quantities might be sold more extensively. The
rapid increase in the sale of second-hand clothing is an indication
of the possibilities in this line. The dealers in these goods have no
difficulty in selling all they can get and report a growing demand for
them, due largely to the return of many Armenians who have lived in the
United States. The men in this region are gradually discarding their
native "entari" (a union waist and skirt, in appearance like a woman's
dress) for modern clothes, which they find more convenient. Style is
of less consideration than cheapness. One frequently sees men wearing
second-hand women's jackets.

American shoes are worn here to some extent, and there is a fair market
for shoes that sell for not more than $2 or $8. There is also a growing
demand for rubber overshoes, nearly all of which now come from the
United States. Owing to the present lack of transportation facilities
they are being imported by post.

Knit underwear is beginning to be worn, but only by the better classes.
As they comprise only a small portion of the population, the market for
this line of goods is limited.

Parasols are always carried by the higher-class Turkish and Armenian
women, principally for the purpose of concealing their faces. Bright
colors are always chosen.

Some improvement is to be noted in the styles of women's dresses.
Woolen dress goods are now sold here. Medium qualities of durable
material sell best. This is not as important a market for other woollen
goods as might appear from the import statistics, as only the cheapest
kinds can be sold.

Among other articles for which there is some market might be mentioned
buttons, celluloid collars, suspenders, and thread.


+Government Encouraging the Use of Improved Agricultural Implements.+

There is a great need of certain kinds of agricultural implements
in this district. Agriculture is practically its only industry, but
it is carried on in the most primitive manner with crude wooden and
iron plows and other implements of local manufacture. The Government
has been making some effort, however, to introduce modern farming
implements, and maintains in all the principal cities in the interior
of Asia Minor supply stations where they are sold at cost and free
instruction given in their use. Only the cheapest and simplest kinds of
implements can be sold. Much of the land is rough and stony, and oxen
are used instead of horses.

There is a limited market for hardware and for simple carpenters'
and blacksmiths' tools, such as axes, hammers, hatchets, drills, files,
planes, screw drivers, saws, hinges, locks, latches, staples, chains,
wire, wire nails, knives, forks, spoons, pocketknives, scissors, clippers,
currycombs, small coffee mills, and meat choppers. The last are used
by nearly every one in preparing a favorite native dish of chopped
meat called "kufte". Until recently nearly all the above-mentioned
articles used here have been of local make, but foreign-made goods
are gradually taking their places. American sewing machines have a
good sale. There has also been some demand for American metal
roofing.


+Other Articles that Might Find a Market.+

Among other articles for which there is some market in this
district, only a small portion of which now comes from the United
States, are bicycles, canned fish, clocks and watches, drugs, glass and
glassware, lamps, lanterns, needles and pins, petroleum, second-hand
saddles, shoe polish, soap, stationery, toys, and wooden shoe
pegs. The sale of drugs is rapidly increasing, due partly to the
many Armenians here who have become accustomed to their use in
the United States, and also to the American hospitals in the district,
all of which maintain public dispensaries. The sale of American
petroleum has recently begun in this region; formerly nearly all
came from Russia and Roumania.

There is no market worth seeking in this district for such articles as
automobiles, electrical or other machinery, engines, motor boats, musical
instruments, or office furniture, though there is an occasional
isolated purchase. One automobile was ordered last June through
this consulate, but owing to the outbreak of war its shipment has been
indefinitely delayed.

Plans were being made for the installation of an electric-light
plant at Sivas, but the undertaking has been stopped by the war.
This would have been the first one in the interior of Asia Minor.

+Effect of Emigration on Business--Money Sent from United States.+

One advantage that American firms have in doing business here
is that a large number of Armenians from this district have been to
the United States. They have become familiar with articles of
American manufacture and are useful agents in advertising their
merits. Most of them understand English. Some of them buy small
shops in the market and start in business for themselves. They
naturally favor American goods. Others engage in some trade in
which they employ American tools.

Local bankers estimate that nearly $1,000,000, or $10 per family,
comes into this one Vilayet annually from emigrants who have settled
in the United States. The importance of this revenue to the
poor people here can be appreciated from the fact that the average
family lives on about $150 a year. Many are wholly dependent on
money sent them by relatives in the United States. Great hardship
is being caused, therefore, by the present situation, as it is practically
impossible to send money here.

The only industry of importance in this district is agriculture,
and the prosperity of the region depends on the success of the crops.
The farmers, who constitute a large part of the population, realized
but little on the crops, owing partly to the abundance of yield, the
decreased demand on account of the departure of large numbers of
men for the army, and the scarcity of money. These conditions,
however, benefited those living in the towns and cities.

Wheat sold in 1013 for 50 or 60 piasters per kile (a piaster is
equivalent to 4.4 cents and a kile to about 170 pounds) and barley for
35 piasters per kile. Last year wheat sold as low as 35 piasters per
kile and barley as low as 25 piasters per kile.


+Increased Yield of Cotton.+

Considerable cotton of an inferior quality is raised in this Vilayet.
The bolls are about the size of a walnut, the fiber short, and the
plants small. Other varieties do not thrive here on account of the
shortness of the season. The method of cultivation is primitive, most
of the work being performed by women, and little effort is made to
secure good crops.

It is estimated that last year's yield will amount to between 1,400,000
and 1,600,000 pounds, which is greater than it was in 1013; but as the
ginning is done very slowly with small machines, not more than 40,000
or 50,000 pounds had actually been brought to the market by the end
of the year. None arrived until December and it is probable that the
full crop will not be received before May or June. No cotton is being
exported at the present time, but last year about $60,000 worth of the
1913 crop went to Russia, and about $20,000 worth to other Provinces of
Turkey. About 250,000 pounds of cotton are sold in this Vilayet each
year to be used in making rough cotton cloth and native prints. This
year, however, owing to the impossibility of exportation and to the
difficulty of importing cotton goods, much more than that amount will
probably be used in making native cloth. The price of last season's
cotton when it was first received was 20 piasters a batman (about 5
cents a pound). By the end of December it had advanced to 30 piasters a
batman (7 cents a pound). The average price here is 35 or 40 piasters a
batman (84 to 91 cents a pound).


+Production of Silk, Opium, and Fruit.+

The cultivation of silkworms is carried on in nearly every village
of the district. There are a number of small silk factories and most
of the production of this industry is used locally, but usually some
cocoons are exported each year to Marseille and some silkworm eggs to
Russia, Persia, and Roumania, while raw silk goes to several of the
other Provinces of Turkey. Last year there were no exports abroad in
this line and very little, if anything, sent to other Provinces. The
production of cocoons in this Vilayet was only about half what it was
in 1913, amounting to about 100,000 pounds (making 10,000 or 11,000
pounds of raw silk). One-fourth of this amount was used by one factory,
the only one of any size in the district, but this is now closed
because there is no market for its goods. A small amount was used by a
few other small factories and the remainder is on hand. The amount of
eggs last season was 30,000 ounces, the same as in 1913, of which 5,000
ounces were used here and the remainder is on hand.

The yield of opium last year was practically the same as in 1913,
amounting to about 17,000 okes (47,000 pounds), all of it being produced
in Malatia. Only about half of this amount, valued at $75,000,
has been exported. The price fluctuated considerably last season,
varying from $1.50 to $5 per pound. The average price here is about $4
per pound.

The fruit crop last year was much less than usual, as the trees were
badly damaged by hailstorms in May and much of the fruit destroyed
before it was ripe. There was only about half an average crop of
almonds, grapes, apples, pears, and plums. The price of almonds,
however, is only 9 piasters an oke (13 cents a pound), about half the
usual price, because none were exported. The crop of apricots was about
average, and the peach crop only a little below the average.


+Lack of Fuel--Machinery for Artesian Well.+

The lack of fuel is one of the greatest problems of this region. The
only wood obtainable is scrub oak sapplings, all of which has to be
brought here on the backs of donkeys from a distance of two or three
or even four days' journey. The price is advancing each year as the
supply is getting scarcer and the wood brought from greater distances.
There is no way by which coal or wood could be brought here from other
places. The recent discovery of a deposit of coal in the Paloo region,
two days' journey from Harput, aroused hopes that this problem might be
partially solved, but the coal has proved to be of inferior quality and
hardly worth bringing here.

The machinery for the artesian well mentioned in the last two annual
reports from this consulate was recently set up and drilling has begun
under the direction of a native engineer, but as yet without results.

  WASHINGTON : GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1915





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