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Title: Homes and Careers in Canada
Author: Jeffs, Harry
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                           HOMES AND CAREERS
                               IN CANADA

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            PUBLISHER’S NOTE


_After the sheets of this book were printed off, it was found that the
title chosen_, Making Good in Canada, _had been used for
another book that just secured priority of publication. It was necessary
to change the title, but the original title had to remain at the heads
of the pages._



[Illustration: PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS AT OTTAWA.]



                           HOMES AND CAREERS
                               IN CANADA



                                   BY
                                H. JEFFS


                      _WITH SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS_


                                 LONDON
                JAMES CLARKE & CO., 13 & 14 FLEET STREET

                                  1914



                          THE AUTHOR’S THANKS

                                   TO

                        THE HON. DR. W. J. ROCHE

                   DOMINION MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR

                           FOR KINDNESS SHOWN



                                CONTENTS


                                  CHAPTER               PAGE

                    FOREWORD                             vii

                 I. WHY PEOPLE GO TO CANADA                9

                II. THE HOME OF A NATION                  25

               III. THE MAKING OF MODERN CANADA           31

                IV. THE ROMANCE OF RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION   50

                 V. SETTLING ON THE LAND                  70

                VI. CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT      104

               VII. “REAL ESTATE”                        146

              VIII. THE HOMES OF CANADA                  164

                IX. LEAVING THE OLD COUNTRY              183



                             ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                                  PAGE

    PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS AT OTTAWA                      _Frontispiece_

    THE “EMPRESS OF BRITAIN” WITH EMIGRANTS AT RIMOUSKI             18

    SIX MONTHS OUT FROM HOME                                        24

    QUEBEC FROM THE RIVER                                           34

    COUNTRY SCENE IN OTTAWA                                         44

    THE POWER PLOUGH IN SASKATCHEWAN                                62

    EVANGELINE’S WELL, ANNAPOLIS VALLEY, NOVA SCOTIA                70

    STEAM PLOUGH IN ALBERTA                                         84

    TORONTO, YONGE STREET                                          104

    GALA DAY AT WINNIPEG                                           116

    REGINA                                                         126

    CALGARY                                                        137

    PLOUGHING AND HARVESTING                                       164

    STRATHCONA MONUMENT AT MONTREAL                                171

    A SASKATOON SCHOOL                                             182

    EMIGRANTS LANDED AT QUEBEC                                     188



                                FOREWORD

This book is the fruits of a visit to Canada in which the author crossed
the country from Montreal to Vancouver, and returned from Halifax, Nova
Scotia. As a journalist and National President of the Brotherhood
Movement, which advises Brotherhood emigrants going out, and arranges
for their welcome by Canadian Brotherhood men, he found all doors open
to him. He had countless talks with men of all classes, native Canadians
and British settlers who had been in the country from two or three to
forty years. Ministers of the Dominion and Provincial Governments freely
answered his numerous questions as to the wisest course to be adopted by
various classes of emigrants, and Dominion and Provincial State
officials gave him all possible information in frank talk and by placing
at his disposal valuable State publications. Ministers of religion,
prominent business and professional men, journalists, “real estate” men,
hosts and hostesses in whose homes he was graciously received, heads of
Emigration Departments, leading officials of the great transcontinental
railways, all contributed to his accumulating stock of information; and,
needless to say, he lost no opportunity of seeing things for himself and
forming his own judgments. In his railway journeys, amounting to 10,000
miles, he fraternised with the commercial travellers on the trains, and
from them, and their discussions and comparison of notes among
themselves, he picked up a vast amount of invaluable information as to
the development, the trading methods, and the prospects of the country.
It has been a long business digesting and reducing the material to
order, but the author hopes that the book will prove helpful to those
seeking a career in a land of illimitable possibilities, and to the
increasing number of people at home who are tempted to invest money in
Canadian undertakings. He is specially concerned to help those who
decide on making Canada their homeland.



                             MAKING GOOD IN
                                 CANADA



                               CHAPTER I


                        WHY PEOPLE GO TO CANADA


Between 350,000 and 400,000 people every year enter Canada with the
intention of making Canada their home: 60,000 of these cross the border
from the United States. Probably 50,000 to 70,000 are emigrants from the
various non-British countries. The remainder are from the British Isles,
and chiefly from England, Scotland, and Wales. The Irish prefer to go to
the United States, where some twelve millions of people of Irish blood
are already settled, and nearly every Irish family in the homeland has
some representative in the States who will lend a helping hand. During
the emigration season—from March to the middle of November—from 10,000
to 15,000 a week leave Glasgow, Liverpool, Bristol, and Southampton by
the various lines for Canada. The steerage of an emigrant ship, viewed
from one standpoint, is a melancholy spectacle. There would be from 700
to 1,500 people, men and women mostly under the age of twenty-five, and
even whole families, leaving the Old Country behind them in order to
make themselves citizens of a new country 3,000 miles across the
Atlantic. In Parliament, and out of Parliament, there is dismal talk
about “draining the country of its best blood,” and of “sending the
cream of the working manhood and womanhood of our nation to become rival
producers with our British farmers and workers in factories that will
compete with ourselves.” Such talk is natural enough, but who can blame
these people for leaving a land where they have seemed to be hopelessly
pressed down by force of circumstances, with no prospect of ever rising,
to a land that offers all sorts of opportunities to the man or woman
with capacity, good character and grit? The way to quench the desire for
emigration is to open wider the doors of opportunity at home, but that
opening of the doors seems to baffle the wisest and most progressive and
the most humanitarian of our statesmen. We live in a state of society
that is the resultant of fifteen hundred years of social evolution, and
evolution that has not always proceeded on right lines. We are a small
country with a very great population, and the land for the most part is
held up by a handful of owners, few of whom have had the vision to see
that the real wealth of Great Britain lies not in its property but in
its people. We have given rights to property and denied rights to
people. Horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, deer, and pheasants must be taken
great care of, for they have a saleable value, or they provide pleasure
for the rich in their happy hunting grounds; but in our villages,
country towns, and great cities hundreds of thousands of men and women
with capable hands and willing hearts are either denied the right to
earn a living wage or are compelled to work under such conditions as rob
life of its joy and buoyancy. What wonder if the townsman whose wages
are at starvation level, and whose employment is most precarious, who
may be thrown out of work at any moment, who is dependent for his daily
bread on the power or the will of an employer to provide him with a few
miserable shillings a week in return for his labour, gets tired of it,
and when he hears that in Canada there is work for all, and well-paid
work, with opportunities to rise out of the ruck of the wage-earners
into the proud position of landownership, should decide to try his luck
and should find himself soon afterwards in the steerage of one of the
great Atlantic liners with hundreds of like-minded companions? If we
would stop emigration from the towns we must tackle the employment
question, we must make employment secure, we must raise wages to a level
that will make it worth a man’s while to stay in the homeland amid
familiar surroundings. We must tackle the slums question. We create
slums by our conditions of industry and employment. The unemployed
rapidly degenerate physically, mentally and morally, and drift into the
slums, consorting there with other hopeless and helpless ones who have
been cast on to the social scrap-heap. London is the great
wealth-producing, wealth-distributing and wealth-exchanging centre of
the world. The Chancellor of the Exchequer recently said in the City of
London that values to the extent of seventeen thousand millions passed
through the Bank Clearing House of London in 1912, and yet there are
districts in North, East and South London where in street after street
whole families are herded in single rooms, sarcastically called “homes,”
in house after house, living under conditions of misery which would be
unendurable were it not that the misery is so continuous that the sense
of pain has been dulled almost out of existence.

In our villages, which, it is complained, are being depopulated by the
increasing emigration of the labourers to Canada, what has been done to
induce the young countryman to remain at home? There are few
characteristic agricultural villages in which the worker on the land
receives as much as 15_s._ a week, and he is taught to regard himself as
a very happy man if anybody is good enough to employ him at all. The
housing and the sanitary conditions in many of these villages are still
of the most repulsive character. The land often belongs to one or two
owners who decline either to part with plots of it for building cottages
or to build themselves. Young men wishing to marry are prevented from
realising the desire because there is no cottage vacant in which they
can start housekeeping. I was told that from one village of little more
than a thousand population half-a-dozen young men migrated in little
more than a year because they wanted to get married and would have to
wait until somebody died and vacated a cottage. The land question will
have to be settled in a revolutionary way, a way that will make it
possible for a labourer to become a small-holder in his own country, and
to occupy a decent house which shall either be his own freehold or shall
be let to him at a reasonable rent, if the emigration from the villages
to Canada and the increasing emigration to Australia is to be checked.
Why should a young fellow who has been educated at the expense of the
State, who reads his halfpenny paper and perhaps frequents the village
reading-room and has learned to think for himself, remain in the
village, submitting to the humiliating conditions which would be imposed
upon him, and to the closing of the door of hope to his legitimate
aspiration to better himself? Young fellows of the middle class and the
upper class naturally look to the prospect of bettering themselves. They
are educated with that object in view, and in every possible way are
encouraged to make the most of their natural capacity and their
education; but to the village labourer, as to the average wage-earner in
the city, education in the vast majority of cases only sharpens the
sting of misery and deepens the sense of humiliation. We must take human
nature as it is. We must accept the logic of our social system. If we
are not prepared at whatever cost to make Great Britain worth remaining
in to the more intelligent and aspiring of our young men and young women
we have no right to complain if they leave Great Britain, and if, by
leaving the homeland, the country is drained of its best blood.

But, after all, ought we to take so tragic a view of the situation? We
are coming to understand that the world to-day is not divided into so
many water-tight compartments. The old idea of a country and a nation as
an isolated entity, enjoying its own advantages and regarding other
countries as rivals, whose gains were its loss, has gone by the board.
The world has been wonderfully opened up in these later years. The seas
are ploughed by countless ships, carrying from country to country the
products of their agriculture and their manufacturing industries. Wealth
is made all round by the mutual exchange of those products. If France
prospers, or Germany, or Russia, England gains, for those countries have
the more to spend on the things that England manufactures. Still more is
this the case with the British dominions beyond the seas. South Africa,
Australia, New Zealand, and Canada are countries of our kinsmen. Blood
is thicker than water. Those people look naturally to the home country
as the country that offers them the most valuable market and as the
country from which they shall obtain what they themselves desire to buy
and use. Take Canada, for instance. Year by year it is increasing not
only its selling but its buying power; it is becoming a most valuable
customer to the homeland. Those who go out from us become our customers.
The more they prosper the more they purchase from the Old Country. The
farm labourer earning his 15_s._ a week goes to Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
Alberta, or British Columbia and takes a pre-empted homestead of 160
acres. He has served, probably, a year or two on a farm, learning the
methods, studying the situation, developing his manhood. If “the magic
of property turns sand into gold,” what can it not do for 160 acres of
fertile prairie? The labourer “breaks the prairie,” plants his corn,
reaps his harvest, sends it to the elevator, fills his pocket with the
price, and is so satisfied with himself that he wants to increase his
holding. He does increase it. He spends money on stock, machinery, all
the necessaries and some of the luxuries of life, and much of the money
that he spends comes to the Old Country to stimulate our manufactures
and our commerce. A young fellow who has left a Warwickshire or
Berkshire or Leicestershire village returns to his village five years
afterwards on a winter holiday after he has disposed of his crops. He
spends his money freely. He is as independent as the biggest farmer in
the district. The other young fellows of the village talk with him and
hear his story. “Why don’t you fellows go out?” he says to them. “Why do
you stop here? You will never be any better off here. Do as I did—go to
Canada. There are farmers there almost fighting each other for every
good man going out who can do anything on the land. You will find a job
at once with good wages, and there is no reason why in four or five
years you should not be doing as well as I am.” The village lads listen
with both ears and with eyes and mouths open. Their latent discontent
with the conditions under which they work and live is roused to
activity. Whenever two labourers meet together in the field or on the
road, in the barber’s shop, in the public-house, the talk is of “how
well Tom Jenkins or Sam Brown has done” in Saskatchewan or Alberta. He
is besieged with inquirers who bombard him with questions about the
country, the climate, the prospects, and what steps they should take to
get out and what they ought to do when they arrive. There are old
schoolmates whom he encourages and tells them that if they will only
come out to his district he will see to it that they get a job
immediately on their arrival—very likely he will be able to give them a
job himself. One such labourer’s return—and there are few villages in
the country in which you do not hear of such returns—sets up a stream
of emigration to Canada from that village, and the stream, unless a
thorough-going scheme of land reform is carried out, and carried out
soon, is bound to deepen and broaden.

[Illustration: “THE EMPRESS OF BRITAIN,” WITH EMIGRANTS, AT RIMOUSKI,
MOUTH OF THE ST. LAWRENCE.]

Then there are the tenant farmers and their sons. In the Old Country
good land is highly rented and the conditions of tenure often such as to
make farming one of the riskiest of occupations. A man wants security of
tenure if he is to get the best out of his land. The old rough-and-ready
methods of agriculture are little good in these days. Intensive culture
is the means of making money to-day. Brains and capital must be put into
the land if the land is to yield a profit. The farmers who are making
most money in our country are those in districts where it is possible to
secure the freehold of the farms they cultivate. Quite recently I was in
Leicestershire in a district where almost all the farming land is
freehold property. There I found a farming family who were making large
profits out of the intensive culture of open land and out of the growing
of tomatoes, cucumbers, and grapes under glass. A member of the family
told me that this could not or would not have been done on rented land,
for a man will not be fool enough to invest capital in the land, and
people will not lend him the money to invest, unless he can look forward
for several years to getting the return. It is little wonder, therefore,
that the farmer, still young, heavily rented, with one or two
experiences of a bad season, with the fluctuation of prices inevitable
in a country like our own, and always at the mercy of a landlord, should
look longingly across the seas to Canada, when he has heard of the ease
with which there a man may become owner of his farm and may make money
in all sorts of ways if he has the farming instinct properly developed,
is a good business man, is able to adapt himself to the circumstances of
the district in which he settles, and is prepared to put brains and
“elbow grease” into the land.

The Governments of all the Provinces of Canada just now are offering
large inducements to such men to settle in the territories of the
Dominion. Within the last year or two the Legislatures of Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick have passed Acts under which large farms may be
purchased, in a condition ready to yield immediate profits, by loans, 80
per cent. of which will be guaranteed by the Province, to suitable men.
Thousands of small farmers and farmers’ sons are now doing exceedingly
well in the Provinces of Canada who went out with very little capital,
but, being the right sort of men, every opportunity was given them to
show of what metal they were made.

Probably, at this moment, three millions of the seven millions and a
half of the population of Canada were British-born. This means that
hundreds of thousands of families in the Old Country are linked by ties
of tender relationship to the citizenship of Canada. The British-born
Canadians return home to spend their Christmases. The winter is their
holiday season, and they have alike plenty of time and plenty of money
to dispose of. They tell their stories of their success in Canada, they
remove prejudices against the people, the country and the climate, and
they awaken the ambition of young and ambitious members of their
families to “go and do likewise.”

Again, Canada has offered a field for the investment of British surplus
profits second to none in the world. During the last few years our
country has been passing through a period of unprecedented prosperity.
It has been impossible to find employment in the industries of our
country for the annual two hundred millions or so of surplus profits,
and much of that surplus has been pouring in a river of gold into
Canadian channels for the development of the country.

There are tens of thousands of business men and financiers in Great
Britain who are deeply interested in the exploitation of Canadian land,
railways, and manufacturing industries. They pay frequent visits to
Canada to look after their interests there, and Canadian representatives
of those interests are continually coming over to this country to
propose further developments and to open up new channels for investment.
These business firms and financial concerns are the means of increasing
the stream of emigration into Canada. They send their travellers,
clerks, expert engineers, mechanics, and what not to Canada to assist in
the development of their interests. It is said that Canada has taken
almost more British capital during the last ten or fifteen years than it
has been able to absorb and that there may be a temporary set-back. The
set-back could not be more than temporary, for everybody who has
investigated the resources of Canada is convinced that those resources
are rich beyond all calculation and that thousands of millions of
capital can be profitably employed in developing them. I hope that
incidentally this little book may be of some use to those who have
legitimate financial interests in Canada as well as to those who may be
thinking of emigrating and to those who are interested in emigrants.

The Canadian Governments are all very keenly alive to the social and
economic value of every immigrant of the right sort. Every man able and
willing to work and to adapt himself to the conditions means an addition
to the economic development power of the country. He is alike a producer
and a consumer. He makes a home, and that home means increased trade to
the producer and consumer of every necessary of life. This is why not
only the Dominion but all the Provincial Governments are offering
inducements to the right sort of emigrant to make his home in Canada.
There are many emigrants who are not of the right sort. The man who is
shiftless, aimless, addicted to self-indulgent vices at home, who shirks
work, who is always grumbling, is not wanted in Canada. The man who can
work, but whose ideas are limited, who has been employed in some
specialised branch of a specialised industry at home, and who expects to
find employment in that specialised branch of that identical industry in
Canada, and thinks himself deceived and deeply wronged if he cannot find
employment in that specialised branch—he, too, ought not to go to
Canada. The man who succeeds is either the man willing to go on the land
and who is prepared to stand the racket of a little hardship until he
has learnt the ropes, or else the man—clerk, mechanic or what not—who
is willing to take the best job that offers and to work at it until
something more congenial and offering greater opportunity turns up. Men
such as these, granted that they have good health and a reasonable
amount of intelligence, simply cannot fail in Canada.

[Illustration: SIX MONTHS OUT FROM HOME.]

                 *        *        *        *        *



                               CHAPTER II


                          THE HOME OF A NATION


Canada is the splendid and spacious home of a great nation now in the
making. It is not so much a country as half a continent. It marches
conterminously with the United States for 4,000 miles at a latitude
corresponding to that of the south of Europe. Its Eastern Provinces are
washed by the Atlantic waves and blown on by the Atlantic breezes: 3,000
miles westward British Columbia and the Yukon territory face the
Pacific: northward from the United States Canada stretches into the
Arctic Ocean. It is curious to think that the first English hold on what
is now Canada was limited to three or four forts and trading stations on
the Hudson’s Bay. Trading stations are still there in charge of servants
of the Hudson’s Bay Company, but that Company has been shorn of its
glory, although it is still doing a prosperous trade between its
collection of furs from the Indians, its Stores in the Prairie
Provinces, and the selling of its lands. North Central Canada, however,
with the development of its Prairie Provinces, ceased to be the mere
commercial backyard of the Hudson’s Bay Company. It has ceased also to
be a collection of British “Colonies.” You cannot offend the modern
Canadian more than by describing him as a “Colonial.” He is a
Canadian—an Imperialist, a man who claims his full share in the
concerns of the British Empire—a man who has firmly convinced himself
that within a hundred years Canada, so far from being a British
Dependency, will be the most stalwart protector of the Mother Country.
The epoch-making offer of a gift of seven millions for the addition of
three super-Dreadnoughts to the British Navy is the first expression of
the Canadian sense of Imperial destiny. That offer will certainly be
only the first of many Canadian contributions to Imperial defence and
British supremacy on the seas. It was not merely inspired by the feeling
of men of all political parties in the Dominion that the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts must be safeguarded against foreign attack and the
blocking up of the outlets and inlets of Canadian trade, but by the
over-mastering consciousness of the Canadian people that they are a
Nation of Destiny and that in the near future they will play a great and
increasing part in the shaping of the industrial and political history
of the world.

Already there is the keenest sense of nationality in the Canadian
people. There has grown up in recent years an interest in the history of
Canada which would have surprised the fathers and grandfathers of the
present generation. An illustration of this interest is the arrangement
by Dr. Lock (the very able Public Librarian at Toronto) of gatherings of
school children two or three times a week to hear stories from Canadian
history told in ways that will make the future citizens proud of being
Canadians. In talks that I had with public men in all the Provinces the
necessity of keeping the Anglo-Saxon type and Anglo-Saxon ideals
dominant was continually urged. Canada opens wide its doors to men of
all nations seeking a larger life and richer opportunities in the
spacious Provinces and the freer air of the Dominion. But there is the
firm resolve that in the composite nation now in its infancy the
Anglo-Saxon type shall not be swamped or weakened by the infusion of
foreign blood. This is why the Dominion and Provincial Governments give
the heartiest welcome to immigrants from the American side as well as
from Great Britain. At least 100,000 Americans are pouring yearly into
the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia. They bring with them
Anglo-Saxon ideas, Anglo-Saxon religion, the Anglo-Saxon spirit of
democracy, Anglo-Saxon energy and inventiveness in industry, and
Anglo-Saxon solid and scientific methods of agriculture. The Americans
in three or four years are blended with the native-born population, and
the blend is considered the finest possible from the point of view of
the development of the Dominion along Anglo-Saxon lines. As a matter of
fact, the Americans a few years after arrival are almost more Canadian
than the Canadians themselves—it is the Americans rather than the
Canadians who show jealousy at the flocking in of people of other
nationalities and raise the cry of “Canada for the Canadians.” There is
ample room, however, in the Provinces (most of which equal or exceed in
size the area of France or Germany) for immigration from every nation
under the sun, and there is no reason why the process of assimilation
should not be even more complete than it has been in the United States.
Canada believes in churches and schools. The Governments of the Dominion
and of the Provinces see to it that the schools are put up among the
first buildings that arise in the new towns and that they are richly
provided with all the equipment they need and all the funds that ensure
their being carried on in the highest state of efficiency. These schools
catch the children of the immigrants and manufacture them into citizens
with Anglo-Saxon democratic ideals. The people themselves provide the
churches. I was surprised during my tour in Canada to find how many
churches there are, and how fine are the church buildings even in cities
that cover what twenty years ago was virgin prairie. The Canadians are
fully alive to the part played by religion in the development of
nationhood and civilisation. The churches catch the immigrants,
especially the bright young fellows and young women who are settling in
the Dominion. They are not only spiritual hearths, but they are social
centres, and nothing is more needful than social centres of the right
kind in a new country with a rapidly flowing-in population. It is in the
churches that the ideals are held up and kept alive which will save
Canadian nationality from being materialised in its cradle. There is a
possibility that the very richness of the resources of Canada, the
variety and greatness of the opportunities it presents for getting on in
the material sense, may lead to a coarsening of the national fibre which
would prejudice the whole future of Canada. Canadians must be made to
realise that a nation, like an individual, “lives not by bread alone,”
that it has a soul to be saved as well as a body to be fed. Canada must
be preserved from the national tragedy of growing to be a giant in bulk
with the strength of a giant—but a giant without a soul.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                              CHAPTER III


                      THE MAKING OF MODERN CANADA


Though Canada, as a country explored and occupied by white men, is more
than three centuries old, it is only within the last half century that
its possibilities have begun to be realised even by its own settlers.
There are reasons to explain this tardy awakening to the significance of
the country. During the French occupation, which was decided on that
dark night of 1759 when Wolfe’s army scaled the Heights of Abraham at
Quebec and sent its crashing volleys into the regiments of Montcalm,
Canada was as badly governed as any dependency of a Western nation has
ever been. So far from encouraging colonisation and laying the
foundation of a French nation on American soil, the French Government of
Canada did everything, both positively and negatively, to strangle the
child in its cradle. The France of Louis XV. especially did worse than
neglect Canada. It sent to Quebec and Montreal men who were not merely
incompetent, but who ruthlessly pillaged the Canadians by every legal
and illegal means. The story told by Parkman and other recent historians
who have examined the contemporary historical material of the way in
which, with the connivance of the Quebec Government, the people were
almost flayed alive by the malpractices of agents and contractors, is
unparalleled in the history of wholesale robbery and corruption. The
Verres of Cicero’s impeachment was a heaven-sent benefactor of the
Sicilians compared with the Canadian Intendant of Finances, Bigot. The
Canadian farmers had not only no encouragement to wring its riches from
the soil, but they were punished for their success. They were made to
pay over and over and over again for everything that was necessary to
agriculture in order that the Governor-General, the Intendant, and their
swarm of male and female satellites might strut as in a miniature
Versailles, mimicking alike the manners and the morals of Versailles.
The French Colonials fought well, in spite of all they suffered from the
French Government, for the French dominion of Canada, but when, after
the capitulation and the Treaty of Peace, the horde of ruffianly
officials were sent back to France, they soon reconciled themselves to
the British Government. They found that the alien Government was at
least a Government and not a systematised official brigandage, and they
settled down to their farming and to the enjoyment of their legal
parochial self-government and of their complete liberty for their Roman
Catholic worship. The French Canadians to-day number two millions,
mostly concentrated in the Province of Quebec, though there is an
increasing movement westward of the young French-speaking Canadians who
have had their appetites whetted by the stories of fortunes to be made
in the Prairie Provinces. The old folk at home and the Roman Catholic
parochial clergy look askance at this movement of population, as they do
at the increasing proportion of British and other non-French settlers in
the Province. It is useless for them to fight against it. Quebec
Province contrives to combine the most intense conservatism with regard
to religion, language, methods of farming and manner of life with
political Liberalism of a peculiar kind. The French claim that they are
the real Canadians. “We were here before you,” they say to the English.
They are proud of the fact that a French Canadian, Sir Wilfrid Laurier,
was Prime Minister of the Dominion for fourteen years, and that during
his term of office the country sprang forward by leaps and bounds. They
are the backbone of the Liberal Party of the Dominion, they are
Imperialists of the Imperialists, and yet at the same time they are Home
Rulers of the Home Rulers. A saying of a French Canadian has been often
quoted, that “The last rifle fired in defence of the British dominion in
Canada will be fired by a French Canadian,” and yet it is the French
Canadian Liberals who have made it an article of their political creed
that the future Canadian Navy shall be a Canadian Navy and not an
integral part of the British Navy; that is, that it shall be built,
manned, and be under the control of Canada and not be regarded as merged
in the ships of and directly controlled by the British Admiralty. By a
curious reversion of position, Liberalism in Quebec Province means
Provincial Home Rule carried to the extreme limit, while Liberalism in
the Prairie Provinces means the maintenance of Dominion control of the
Provincial land tax, and Prairie Province Conservatism means Provincial
control of land tax raised in the Province.

[Illustration: QUEBEC FROM THE RIVER.]

The French Canadians have good reason to be satisfied with British
government, for under it they have privileges with regard to
self-government and the maintenance of their religion such as are not
possessed by any section of the population in any of the other
Provinces. There is no country in the world where the Roman Catholic
Church is in such complete possession as in Quebec Province, where it
has a parochial system so thoroughly and so completely worked, and the
people are so submissive to the parish priests, that the priests
generally, to use a vulgarism, “boss the show.” One of the difficulties
at present confronting the Dominion Government is the marriage law in
Quebec Province. The Catholic Hierarchy of the Province have put into
force the _Ne Temere_ Decree of the Vatican, designed to check marriages
between Roman Catholics and Protestants, and the Supreme Court of the
Province has had to bend, as always, to the will of the Hierarchy. The
Dominion Government desires to unify the marriage law throughout the
Dominion, but it is brought up against the stone wall of the Roman
Catholic Hierarchy and of Home Rule in Quebec Province. At present there
seems no way of getting over the difficulty, but it is pretty certain,
as years go by, that the strong grip of the Hierarchy will be relaxed,
as it is already relaxing with the broader ideals with which the minds
of the young French Canadians are infused as a result of travelling
outside the Province, and so many of them seeking careers in the
English-speaking Provinces.

It was fortunate for British supremacy in Canada that the French
Canadians had been so often at war with the Yankees that at the War of
Independence they were all instinctively on the side of the Power that
was hostile to the Yankees. The French Canadians could have wished for
nothing less than incorporation with the Puritan New England States and
the Quaker State of Pennsylvania. They were already feeling the good
effects of English government and were settling down to the peaceful
development of their lands. There might have been danger of them
instinctively favouring France in future wars between England and
France, but the Revolution of 1789 put an end to all that. The
Revolution was the end of the ancient _régime_ in France and with it of
the colonial domination of the Gallican Catholic Church. The French
Canadians belonged to the ancient _régime_ and had been preserved from
the worst vices and corruptions of the Roman Catholic Church in the Old
Country. Canada offered a refuge to a large number of priests and
_émigrés_, and the French Roman Catholics brought with them appalling
stories of the horrors and blasphemies of the Revolution. The French
Canadians regarded the English, during their long war with the Republic
and then with Napoleon, as the restorers alike of Royalty and
Catholicism in France, and they thanked heaven every day that they were
living under the Union Jack rather than under the Imperial standard of
the Corsican usurper.

When in 1812 the United States declared war against Great Britain, the
French Canadians fought as patriotically and valiantly as the English
Canadians against the Yankee invaders, and shared in the glory of
driving back the Americans and defeating them on their own soil. A long
period followed in which little interest was taken by the Old Country in
Canada. England attached small value to its Dominion across the
Atlantic. Then there came political troubles which might have led to
serious insurrection and civil war between the English Colonials and the
French Canadians. The population was increasing and the French were not
satisfied with the share they were taking in the government. The
troubles were settled by a wise measure of conciliation which led to the
laying of the foundation for the federation of the Canadian Provinces in
the present Dominion. Now, though the French Canadians still keep
themselves very much to themselves and regard their religion and their
language almost as superstitiously as savages their fetishes, the only
rivalry between the French and English-speaking Canadians is rivalry as
to which are the best Canadians, the most fervent patriots, and the most
loyal British Imperialists.

One reason for the late development of Canada was the flow of
immigration during the greater part of the nineteenth century to the
United States. The States had nearly three centuries start of Canada.
Since 1772 they were an independent nation. They governed illimitable
areas of cultivable land. Centres of manufacturing industry were early
established and grew at an amazing rate. There was enormous railway
development, facilitating intercommunication between the various States
and encouraging settlement along the lines of railway construction.
Along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts there was an interminable
seaboard offering farmers and manufacturers harbours and rivers for the
carrying on of sea trade. The great emigrant nations of the
world—Ireland, Scotland, Italy, Germany—found the United States a
congenial country in which to settle their surplus population, and those
already settled sent home glowing stories of the prospects and much
money for their relatives and friends to follow them. The United States
grew populous, rich and great by these feeders from the Old World.
Canada, on the contrary, held out few inducements for settlement. Its
people were satisfied with a moderate degree of comfort and showed
little disposition to welcome new-comers. So Canada would have remained
till to-day had it not been for the opening up of the country by railway
construction, to the story of which a future chapter will be devoted.
Somehow the idea had got into the mind of the world that Canada was a
country of intolerable cold, covered in the Eastern Provinces with
monotonous and depressing woods and practically a desert as to Central
Canada, while only the Indians and a few Scotsmen of iron constitution
in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company endured the terrors of the
arctic North. Certain novelists, who had drawn their material partly
from the facts of the life of the Canadian Far West, but mainly from
their fertile imaginations, conveyed the impression that Canada was
infested with tomahawking Indians and that no man’s life and no woman’s
life was worth much if they settled outside the bounds of Old Canada.
The Hudson’s Bay Company, during its hold of the Far West, rather
encouraged such ideas. It did its utmost to keep immigrants at arms’
length and to prevent any rivalry with its profitable fur trade, even
from enterprising Scotsmen and French Canadians at Quebec and Montreal
who were not disposed to recognise the rights which Charles II. lightly
gave away when he granted the charter to the Hudson’s Bay Company in
1672, conferring on them the lordship of all lands watered by streams
running into Hudson’s Bay. Fort Garry, where now is Winnipeg, the
capital of the Prairie cornlands, was the western boundary of known
Canada, and to get even to Fort Garry before the Canadian Pacific struck
across the continent was a most tremendous adventure. When the Canadian
Pacific pioneers, however, opened up the country, and the Red River
Rebellion, inspired by the unfortunate half-breed Louis Riel, was
suppressed by the expedition in which Sir Garnet Wolseley’s name first
became known to fame, the Hudson’s Bay Company saw the days of its
supremacy at an end. Its rights were bought out, though it received
magnificent concessions as the price of surrender, and very soon the
incalculable possibilities of the prairie and of British Columbia began
to be realised and the stream of immigration set in which is now
gathering strength every year. Within the last five years the rate of
annual immigration has increased from 300,000 to nearly 400,000. The
population of Canada is still under eight millions, but even cautious
Canadians predict that in less than twenty years it will be twenty
millions, and that by 1930 the immigrant population will exceed the
native-born population.

English interest in Canada naturally grows with the growth of English
immigration into the Dominion. There are tens of thousands of families
now represented in the Dominion where a dozen years ago such families
might have been counted by hundreds, and the type of immigrant is
changed. Time was, not long since, when Canada was considered the most
suitable dumping ground for the social wreckage of Great Britain.
Immigrants might have been divided into two classes. First there were
the scapegraces of good families—young fellows who had gone the pace at
home and had either gone to Canada to keep out of the clutches of
creditors or the police, or were sent to Canada by relatives who were
none too fond of them, but were glad to be rid of them even though it
meant sending remittances to keep them going in the new country until
they settled down to something honest, if they developed any disposition
to try work for a change. Then there were the out-of-works, the
unemployables, the “social problems,” the men of the proletariat who
were the despair of the Old Country and whom the Salvation Army and
other philanthropic societies got hold of, and sent to Canada with the
optimistic belief that men who had failed in the Old Country might
possibly succeed in a new. Canada proved a good testing ground for
emigrants so sent out. If they were caught young and had received some
moral training and some training in industry before they were shipped
they did well; but men whose moral backbone had been broken, and whose
physical stamina was weakened by self-indulgence at home, too often
found that success to a moral and physical weakling was no more possible
in Canada than in England. During the last few years the Dominion and
Provincial Governments have been setting their faces sternly against the
making of Canada a dumping ground for the scapegraces and social
wreckage of Great Britain and the world, and they have given strict
instructions to societies and institutions receiving grants and
commissions from Canadian Government funds that only suitable men must
be sent out, while an eye is kept on unsuitables who get in with a view
to returning them, after a couple of years or so, as undesirables, to
the countries of their origin. It is quite easy to understand the
dislike which not only the Dominion and Provincial Governments, but
Canadians as a whole, have of immigrants of the types referred to. They
give a bad name to the country and prejudice it in the minds of people
at home and people in other countries in whose estimation the Canadians
desire to stand well. Canada requires and desires immigrants of the best
type—physically, intellectually and morally—to contribute towards the
making of the Canadian nation that is to be. Only such men can play a
worthy and valuable part in developing the amazing resources of the
country and making the population of the great cities which are
springing up in all the Provinces. During the last few years emigrants
have been going out from the best families in the Old Country—young men
of education and with a certain amount of capital at their disposal.
Canada offers to these a career unequalled in its opportunities, while
at the same time such men are a contribution to the future prosperity of
Canada even more valuable than the placing in Canada of British capital,
which is flowing into the Dominion in ever deepening and widening
streams.

[Illustration: A COUNTRY SCENE IN OTTAWA.]

That inflow of British capital into Canada is one of the most
significant of the developments of the last few years. British noblemen,
who have found it increasingly difficult to get profits out of the land
in the Old Country, have been prospecting in Canada. They have bought up
large blocks of land along the lines of railway development, and have
been making large profits out of the reselling and the settlement of
their estates. Not that Canada will tolerate in the Dominion the
creation of a feudal land system such as we have in the Old Country.
Land ownership, not tenancy from a landlord, is the rule in Canada, and
if there were any danger of landlord monopoly being created in Canada
public opinion would soon force the Dominion and Provincial Governments
to put a stop to it, but in land purchase and the reselling, in railway
construction and in the development of the rapidly-growing industrial
concerns of Canada, hundreds of millions of British capital have already
been absorbed and the cry is still for more. Everywhere on my tour in
the Dominion I heard the complaint, “All we want is capital. We have all
the natural resources that any country could desire, but for years to
come every penny we can get hold of has to go into capital expenditure.”
The head of a great firm of agricultural implement manufacturers at
Hamilton told me that his firm, a branch of an American firm, has spent
within five years something like five million dollars in opening
branches at various centres, and he said, “I might almost say we have
not yet got back a dollar. The farmers are making large profits, but
they have no money to spend. As soon as they sell their wheat they need
money to increase their holdings, to buy machinery and stock, and we
have to let them have our machines on long credit, or to be paid for on
the instalment principle. But,” said my informant, “we are absolutely
sure that we shall reap our reward, and a very rich reward, within a
year or two.” The commercial travellers told me the same story. They are
doing a great and increasing trade in the new cities that are springing
up at the rate of one a day along the lines of railway construction.
“But,” they said, “at present the traders, the farmers, the business
men, have to be putting all the money they can make or borrow into the
land, into building and into stock. They will give us their orders on
condition that we allow them a year, two years, three years to pay for
the stuff. We know they will pay and we let them have the stuff,
confident that we are getting in our footing for a trade that will be
enormously and increasingly profitable as years go by.” Travellers of
Canadian and American firms told me that here is where British firms are
being beaten just now. They have not taken the trouble to understand the
conditions in which trade has to be done in a new country with a rapidly
increasing population and with its resources only beginning to be
developed. British firms want to do trade as in the Old Country and with
their European continental customers on practically cash down or short
credit terms, and if they cannot do trade on these terms they do not
think it worth while doing it at all. The consequence, so the Canadian
and American commercials assured me, will be that the trade will be
almost monopolised by the Canadians and Americans and European firms
that recognise the necessity of meeting Canadian customers on their own
ground. Long credit and easy instalment terms must be regarded in the
light of initial capital expenditure. Waiting for the money for what
seems to English traders an exasperating and inordinate time is the only
condition on which Canadian connections can be built up. British traders
will have only themselves to blame if they refuse to conform to the
conditions and find within five years or so that the ground has been
hopelessly cut from under their feet.

The increasing immigration of British young people into Canada, the
increasing inflow of British capital, are of course making Canada a
country of surpassing interest to people in the homeland. My hope in
these chapters—based on my personal observation and on talks with a
large number of men “in the know” in all the Provinces of the
Dominion—is that this book will prove useful to British readers. There
is an earnest desire alike on the part of those who are considering
Canada as a country offering careers to bright and energetic young men,
and on the part of those with capital to invest, and who want a larger
profit than capital usually yields in our own country, to learn what are
the real facts about Canada—the country, the people, the resources, the
development, the prospects. My desire is to make this book thoroughly
practical, with a view to meeting the wants of such readers.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                               CHAPTER IV


                  THE ROMANCE OF RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION


Modern Canada, as has been intimated, is the creation of railway
enterprise. But for the railway, not only the Prairie Provinces and
British Columbia, but the larger portion of the Eastern Provinces must
have remained unpopulated and undeveloped. In pre-railway days
population followed the banks of the St. Lawrence and the shores of the
Great Lakes. There were a few small scattered inland villages kept in
communication with the world by different “portages.” What was the use
of cultivating the land, felling the timber, and working the minerals
when there were no means for their conveyance and marketing? With the
coming of the railway, however, a great and glorious future dawned upon
Canada. Millions of square miles of “acreage” of what had been
considered worthless wilderness were seen to be rich in untold
potentialities of corn-raising. The interminable forests presented
themselves as sources of inexhaustible wealth. The lakes, other than the
Great Lakes, scattered through the Provinces, and the rivers navigable
for hundreds of miles, were seen through the eyes of practical
imagination as equally sources of wealth to vast populations of the
future who should reap the harvest of the fish and use the waters, in
conjunction with the railways, as means of transport.

The first railway in Canada was the short local line between Laprairie,
Quebec Province, opposite Montreal, and St. John, on the Richelieu
River, a distance of just under seventeen and a half miles. This railway
was incorporated into the system of the Grand Trunk Railway, which
received its Charter in 1852 from the Provinces of Upper and Lower
Canada. For a long time, however, railway construction hung fire, partly
due to the political troubles which came to an end with the
reconciliation of the French and English and the creation of the
Dominion of Canada by the Act of Confederation. It was the daring
enterprise of the Canadian Pacific Company that really inaugurated the
development of Canada to which the Dominion owes its present prosperity
and its great future.

We are not accustomed in the Old Country to talk affectionately about a
railway as a friend of the people and the country, but I had not been
long in Canada before I found that everybody talks of the “C.P.R.” as if
it were a personal friend. As I travelled westward through the Prairie
Provinces to Vancouver, farmers, commercial travellers, business men,
politicians, everybody kept bringing up what the Canadian Pacific
Railway has done for the Dominion. “The C.P.R. has made Canada,” “The
C.P.R. is at the back of Canada,” “Canada owes its future to the
C.P.R.,” and such expressions are heard all the while with monotonous
reiteration. The C.P.R. appears to fulfil the function in Canada
discharged by the weather in England of bridging awkward pauses in
conversation. It might be imagined that fairy financiers with no sordid
thought of dividends devised the scheme and carried through the
construction of the C.P.R. out of sheer benevolent desire to do good.
But financiers are not built that way. The fathers of the C.P.R. were
just men with vision who had a great dream, and they persuaded investors
to back the dream with millions of capital in the face of the
pessimistic cawings of a grand army of croakers. “The earnings of the
C.P.R.,” it was said, “will not pay for the axle-grease that it will
use.”

Forty years ago Canada was practically the Canada of the British
conquest of Quebec and the French cession to England. Even to-day the
entire population of the Dominion, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, is
not more than that of Greater London. West of Ontario stretched for
nearly 1,500 miles the level prairie land, many hundreds of miles from
the United States border northwards to the regions of Hudson’s Bay. The
prairie was roamed by buffalo, moose and caribou, who found rich feeding
in the abundant grass of the most productive soil of the world. Few
besides the Indians and the Hudson’s Bay traders, following certain
traditional trails, traversed the prairie. It was regarded as for ever a
waste as the sea is a waste. What was the use of cultivating an inland
wilderness 1,500 miles from the populated part of Ontario, and cut off
by the Rocky Mountains from British Columbia and the Pacific? But the
projectors of the C.P.R., in their dream, saw the prairie waving with
harvests; they saw cities rising amid the “waste,” and their financial
souls rejoiced in visions of phantom trains conveying wheat enough to
feed hundreds of millions along the phantom “steel” of the as yet
unsubstantial dream of the C.P.R. They convinced the Government that
there was “something in it,” and the Government gave every encouragement
to them to “go ahead.” To-day it might seem to some that the Government
was too generous in the concession of miles of land on either side of
the line to be constructed, but then the land had no value at all at the
time, and it never would have value till the “steel” was laid, and lots
of people who were considered shrewd judges prophesied that even then
the line would stretch for thousands of miles through country doomed for
ever to be uninhabited and profitless. To-day, for 3,800 miles, the
C.P.R. “steel” spans Canada from Halifax, Nova Scotia, on the Atlantic,
to Vancouver, on the Pacific. Its sleepers are laid a foot apart. Its
sectional construction parties have their wooden houses and workshops at
convenient intervals along the route. Thousands of towns and villages
have sprung up on either side and several of them are leaping ahead to
the size of cities running into hundreds of thousands of population. The
C.P.R. literally created four new Provinces of the Dominion, each now
with a Government of its own, Prime Minister, Cabinet and Parliament
complete—Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. Other
railways are striking across Canada—the Canadian Northern and the Grand
Trunk are racing each other to the Pacific, which they expect to reach
this year—but the C.P.R. was the prophet pioneer, and on running down
by its line from the Rockies into Vancouver I found, thirty to forty
miles out of Vancouver, the construction men at work on the double
track, which is to duplicate the single line from the Pacific to the
Atlantic. The C.P.R. feels that it has got to be “on its mettle,” as
well as on its metal. Quite apart from rivalry, which it does not fear,
for the new lines will open up new country and get their traffic from
the new towns and villages and farming and lumber districts, the present
resources of the C.P.R. are heavily overtaxed to meet the growing
traffic of the Prairie Provinces, while the opening of the Panama Canal
is certain to set in a tremendous flow of traffic towards the Pacific,
as well as through the Lakes to the States and westward to the St.
Lawrence and the Atlantic.

People tell stories of the ubiquity and omniscience of the C.P.R.; of
its grandmotherly benevolence to the farmers, and its liberal treatment
of its _employés_. One shrewd settler at Regina told me that the C.P.R.
has rather “spoiled” the farmers by doing too much for them. There is
the matter of grain elevators, for instance. Grain is stored in these
huge tin-plate structures until it can be removed by the freight trains.
The farmers, said the critic, ought not to depend on a railway for the
storing of their grain. They should combine to provide their own
elevators. As it is, scores of millions of bushels have to remain in ear
on the prairie waiting to be threshed until the elevators are empty, or
the freight trains are available in the sidings. Prompt transit is
necessary, or the best of the market may be missed. The C.P.R. has
encouraged settlement on its concessions on the easiest terms to
suitable men. Just now it is creating “ready-made farms,” with house,
etc., all provided, for men with a little capital to enter into
possession of at once. Then it has its hotels all along the line. At a
pleasure resort in the Rockies a Canadian “drummer” said “the C.P.R. is
running up a sixteen-storey two-million dollar hotel at Lake Louise.” It
even regulates the time along the route. There is “C.P.R.” time,
changing in the central part of Canada to the European-Continental
twenty-four hour system. The story is told of a visitor who got tired of
having C.P.R. “deepos,” elevators, hotels, and the rest pointed out to
him, and when he asked what hour it was, and was told “22.18 C.P.R.
time,” he answered, “Good heavens! Does the C.P.R. own the sun and the
time, too?”

The piercing of the Rocky Mountains and the construction of the line
through 800 miles of mountainous country down to Vancouver was one of
the most audacious and successful pieces of railway engineering ever
done. British Columbia was worthless before the railway; to-day
Vancouver City has a population of 100,000, risen from 5,000 in less
than twenty years, and Victoria, the capital, on Vancouver Island, is
even larger, and one of the most beautiful cities of the world. It was a
wonderful revelation to see freight trains of a hundred wagons laden
with the lumber of British Columbia, and equally long trains on the
prairie laden with grain. Most of the grain is shipped at Fort William
and Port Arthur, the “twin cities” at the north-west angle of Lake
Superior. It is carried on ships rising from 12,000 and 15,000 tons
through the chain of the Great Lakes to the great distributing centres
of the Dominion and the United States.

A journey across Canada by the C.P.R. gives the finest bird’s-eye view
of the Dominion. Space fails to tell of experiences in the
sleeping-cars, and the dining-cars, which serve first-class hotel menus,
with such native specialities as turkey and cranberry sauce, prairie
chicken, and trout and white fish of the lakes. But it takes an English
visitor, to whom a journey from London to Edinburgh is an adventure,
some time to get used to stages of 1,400 miles, 890 miles, and 1,110
miles, which are samples of those we took.

The Grand Trunk Railway was never a financial success until it was taken
in hand by Mr. Charles Hays, one of the victims of the _Titanic_
tragedy. Mr. Hays was trained in the United States. It was a fortunate
day for the Grand Trunk when, at the period of the reconstruction of the
company in 1895, Mr. Hays, then Vice-President and General Manager of
the Wabash Railroad, was appointed General Manager with headquarters at
Montreal, and given the fullest freedom to go ahead. He began by
acquiring various local lines which were incorporated into the Grand
Trunk system. Many English capitalists were interested in the Grand
Trunk, and it has been very heavily financed with English money. Mr.
Hays completely revolutionised the whole system, had the single line
doubled, struck out branch lines in all directions, linked the Grand
Trunk up with other systems, and induced the company to follow the
example of the C.P.R. and strike straight across the continent to the
Pacific. By 1908 the Grand Trunk system included 5,192 miles of line.
Its Grand Trunk Pacific route lies partly in Canada and partly in the
United States, and the Pacific line is fed with passengers and freight
from both countries. The Grand Trunk struck into the Prairie Provinces
with depots at Fort William, Port Arthur, and many other strategic
centres. Mr. Hays had a great idea of the value of bridges. One of his
conceptions was a single-span double-track bridge crossing the Niagara
Gorge. This was opened in 1897, replacing the suspension bridge opened
in 1853. The Gorge Bridge is a splendid piece of engineering, the span
of the arch being 550 feet and the width of the railway flooring 32
feet, the lines being 245 feet above water. The Jubilee Bridge across
the St. Lawrence River is one of the great bridges of the world. It is
9,144 feet long with twenty-four piers 66 feet in width and 60 feet
above the water. Two other famous bridges are the International Bridge
across the Niagara between Fort Erie and Buffalo, 2,400 feet in length
with ten piers, and the bridge across the St. Lawrence at Coteau
Landing, which is 4,025 feet long. The once despised Grand Trunk is now
a formidable rival of the C.P.R. Mr. Hays’ ambition to make it a
trans-continental railway has been realised, for the “steel” has been
carried to the Pacific, opening up a vast stretch of new country for
settlement and development. Its terminal on the Pacific coast is Prince
Rupert, British Columbia, which is destined to run Vancouver very close
as a great western gateway of Canadian trade. The Grand Trunk is
developing hundreds of thousands of miles of the most fertile country of
the Prairie Provinces, and expects to play a leading part in the
development of the British Columbia resources of forestry, fruit
farming, mining and manufacturing industries. In Alberta it is looking
to take a very large share of the railway profit from the working of the
inexhaustible coal supplies and the manufacturing centres that will be
consequent on the development of the coal. Central Alberta, from
Edmonton to the Rocky Mountains, is likely in the future to be the
Canadian “Black Country,” far more extensive and productive than even
the original Black Country. It is calculated that the areas known as the
Edmonton coal district cover at least 10,000 square miles and contain at
least sixty million tons of workable coal. Already branch lines are
running to districts where the coal is even now being got, eastward from
Winnipeg to Moncton, the capital of New Brunswick. Main lines are being
constructed by the Canadian Government for leasing to the Grand Trunk
Pacific for a period of fifty years on conditions which ensure alike the
Government receiving a fair return for its money and the users of the
railway getting the fullest advantage of the lines. Altogether there is
every prospect of the Grand Trunk Railway fulfilling the most sanguine
dreams of the railway king who perished in the _Titanic_.

[Illustration: THE POWER PLOUGH IN SASKATCHEWAN.]

The third great Canadian Railway and youngest of the three, the Canadian
Northern, is forging ahead at a marvellous rate. The pioneers of the
Canadian Pacific struck through 3,000 miles of country practically
unpopulated, always with the Pacific as the object of their ambition.
The Canadian Northern promoters also had from the first in view the
construction of a trans-continental line, but their policy was not quite
the same as that of the C.P.R. founders. Their idea was to make their
line pay from the first by creating passenger and freightage traffic as
they went. This meant that the trans-continental ideal must wait for
realisation while the profit producing sections of the line were
establishing their earning capacity. The policy of the C.N.R. has
steadily justified itself. The main lines have been constructed section
by section, with branch lines striking out from them, each branch line
opening up productive new country. The Canadian Northern has
specialised, so to speak, on the Prairie Provinces, with Winnipeg as its
centre of operations, and the development of the West is largely due to
the enterprise of the C.N.R. It has linked up the West with the northern
part of Ontario, and its lines are ministering alike to the agricultural
prosperity of the West and the manufacturing and commercial prosperity
of the East. The C.N.R. runs through great forest regions and makes the
most of the lumber traffic. At Prince Albert, for instance, in the
centre of Saskatchewan, it has opened up an area of forest country into
which the widening stream of immigrants is always flowing. Prince
Albert—as I know from a Prince Albertian I met on the homeward
voyage—believes that it is “It.” Its ambition is to be a great
distributing centre for a territory as large as France and at the same
time a magnificent residential city on a site beautiful for situation.
The mills of the Prince Albert Lumber Company are the largest in Canada,
driven by electrical power supplied at an incredibly cheap rate.

The C.N.R. figures largely at Port Arthur, on the western shore of Lake
Superior, one of the great twin grain ports where hundreds of thousands
of bushels of the prairie crops are annually shipped. Port Arthur owes
its great and growing prosperity largely to the C.N.R., which has there
an elevator capable of storing 7,250,000 bushels of wheat. A 5,000-ton
steamer can lie alongside the elevator and be loaded up within an hour
or two and steam through the Great Lakes with its food freight to the
most important points in Canada and the United States.

The C.N.R., again, opens up new country in British Columbia, and is
certain to capture a very lucrative trade in that most beautiful
Province.

Each of these three railways, with continual construction, is founding
almost daily towns and cities of the future. Every three or four miles
there is a station. Immigrants and traders are encouraged in every
possible way to settle along the line. The station, the elevators,
facilities to acquire stock and land and to erect houses, are held out
as irresistible baits. The baits are eagerly seized by the more
enterprising men keen on taking advantage of the opportunities offered
by places at their very beginning. It is well recognised in Canada that
a man with grit, enterprise, ideas, willing to endure a little temporary
hardship, is bound to get on if he is in at the birth of an infant
community. He arrives with a few dollars in his pocket or with nothing.
Within ten years he may be the proprietor of a big hotel, a flourishing
newspaper, or may be mayor of a city with a population of anything
between 3,000 to 10,000. The fascination of the new life to a man whose
habits have not been crystallised in the environment of a populous city,
who likes a free and unconventional life, and who is prepared to devote
his attention exclusively to business until he has laid a solid
foundation for the future “pile,” is particularly attractive to one who
has youth and strength. I heard endless stories of men who in a
phenomenally short time had established themselves in such new cities,
and are now rich men able to give themselves, if they choose, a summer
in Europe or to spend the winter in Toronto or Montreal. Commercial
travellers hunting up trade in the new towns springing up along the
lines of construction told me many stories of the changes a year or two
makes in these new towns. You go to the end of the “steel” in course of
construction. You find a few shacks and a rough shanty that calls itself
an hotel. You return a year later when the line has advanced another
hundred or two hundred miles, and you find a street a third of a mile
long of wooden houses. There are several stores very likely; there is an
infant newspaper. There is an hotel, still primitive in its simplicity,
but tolerable. You can sleep on the beds and you can eat the rough food.
You return at the end of another couple of years—the street is a mile
long, several of the wooden houses have given place to houses of brick
and stone; the newspaper has quite established itself. Its editorials,
its “notes” and its “personals” have the breezy audacity and the
intimate personal touch which are characteristic of Canadian journalism.
There is a municipality which has learnt the art of “boosting,” and the
Real Estate man is well in evidence. He has snapped up enticing plots,
and in Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and other centres he is “boosting”
the town and its unequalled possibilities for all he is worth. This
springing up and rapid growth of new cities is repeating itself hundreds
of times a year in all the Provinces of Canada, from Nova Scotia to the
Pacific.

There is a fourth railway, the Intercolonial, constructed and owned by
the Dominion Government. This runs from Montreal to the Atlantic coast,
serving the Provinces of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. It is
managed by a department of the Ministry of the Interior at Ottawa. The
Intercolonial is considered by Canadians rather slow-going.
Nationalisation and State control of railways is not yet a particularly
popular proposition in Canada; in fact, throughout all the Provinces,
and especially the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, the idea of
State control and management of anything is regarded with increasing
suspicion. The Canadian prides himself on his independence and on his
ability to manage his own affairs. To the financing of railways by the
Dominion Government, and the great inducements held out to the C.P.R.,
Grand Trunk and the C.N.R. to push on with their construction, the
phenomenal railway development has been largely due.

As indicated in my account of the C.P.R., there are dangers to the
country through the powers granted to the companies in their early years
of constructive enterprise, but I found a very optimistic belief on the
part of Canadians that the Canadian people will be strong enough to
grapple with the railway companies if they show any signs of seriously
abusing their privileges. The competition between the three great
companies at present is so strong and so keen that the danger of their
uniting for the oppressive exploitation of the people by a trust
combining them all seems a possibility of the dim future. It is likely
enough that some Napoleon of finance in the United States, Canada, or
Great Britain may conceive and try to carry out the idea of such a
Dominion Railway Trust. If and when that happens a very interesting
situation will be created. He will not only have the public opinion of
the Dominion expressing itself and bringing itself to bear upon the
Dominion Parliament and Government, but he will have to deal with the
public opinion of the several Provinces, and this is a power that will
more and more have to be reckoned with. The Provinces are not at all
likely to consent to the Dominion Government bartering away their
Provincial rights in the use of the railways. It will be a very
dangerous thing to the Dominion Government if it provokes a conflict
between itself and the Governments of the Provinces. All the
probabilities point to the continuance of the independent companies.
There is room enough and to spare for a good fifty years to come for
each of them to use all the capital it can command in the development of
its own spheres of influence, and while that is so there seems no
necessity for any big combine that would compromise the interests either
of the passengers or the manufacturing and industrial users of the
railways.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                               CHAPTER V


                          SETTLING ON THE LAND


The largest proportion of emigrants to Canada go with the intention of
settling on the land. The villages of England, Scotland, and Wales are
sending out tens of thousands of labourers’ and farmers’ sons dreaming
golden dreams of success in the mixed farming of Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario, in the wheat growing and cattle raising
of the Prairie Provinces, or in the fruit farming of British Columbia.
They have been brought up in British methods of agriculture in a country
where land is monopolised by the few, is rented by the cultivators, is
subject to heavy taxation, and in which the drain upon the land for
centuries has been so heavy that the soil has to be continually enriched
with expensive fertilisers, and even then there must be rotation of
crops. British agriculture is a most hazardous speculation in view of
the uncertainty of our seasons, the increasing importation of foreign
supplies, the fluctuation of prices, the nature of the soil, our
climatic conditions, and our methods of agriculture. Of late years the
tendency has been towards intensive cultivation and cultivation of early
crops and fruit and vegetables under glass. We are naturally a
conservative-minded people, and nobody is so conservative as the man
bred on the land. The first thing to be impressed upon the British
emigrant deciding to settle on the land in Canada is that he should keep
on assuring himself that he knows nothing about farming at all, that
when he reaches Canada he will have everything to learn and a very great
deal to unlearn. This is a primary and essential condition of success. I
was told many stories of immigrants from the Old Country who have
arrived full of assurance, prepared to “knock spots” off the Canadians
with their primitive methods of agriculture. They took a farm, they
refused to ask or to take advice, and at the end of the first year they
were poorer and sadder but wiser men. A good many of this type dropped
farming altogether when their small stock of money was exhausted, and
they were at their wits’ end to know how to carry on. They got a job on
the railway, in a business house, or in some other occupation and had
time to think about their mistakes, and if their desire was to resume
farming they resumed it when they had saved a little money with the
profitable wisdom of their past experience.

[Illustration: EVANGELINE’S WELL, ANNAPOLIS VALLEY, NOVA SCOTIA.]

Canada is a land of inconceivable distances. This alone means much
modification of English methods of marketing produce, and every wise
farmer knows that skilful marketing is as essential as skilful growing.
The English farmer hates nothing more than co-operation with other
farmers. Almost every attempt to induce the English farmer to co-operate
has failed in the face of his invincible objection to “allow anybody to
come round ordering him what to grow and how to grow it,” what breeds of
cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry he should raise and how he should feed
them, when and how he should milk his cows and so on. His father and
grandfather made their own butter and cheese in their own way, and he is
going to make his in his way—he will be hanged if he will send his milk
to a co-operative dairy for the butter and cheese to be made by these
new-fangled methods. The Canadian farmer realises that apart from a
considerable co-operation he is going to fail. He belongs to a little
district commonwealth of farmers and is prepared to fall in with the
commonwealth view of things.

Then the climate of Canada completely nonplusses the Britisher until he
has learned to understand it. What are you to make of a temperature of
forty below zero in winter and a foot and a half of snow frozen to the
solidity of marble on the ground for three months at a time? And what
are you to think of summer heat waves with the temperature mounting up
beyond a hundred in the shade until you feel as if you were in a baker’s
oven; and on the prairie, from 1,500 to 4,000 feet above sea level, the
atmosphere for long periods is so dry that the surface soil is like dust
and you have such incidents as hail-storms with stones from the size of
a pea to the size of an egg, and “electrical storms” with an occasional
cyclone thrown in? The agriculture of the prairie is “dry agriculture,”
which is a science in itself. Canadian farmers accustomed to the
conditions know how to deal with the conditions and make profits at
which the British farmer’s mouth would water, and all they have to pay
out of the profits beyond the cost of the growing is the cost of sending
the produce to the nearest elevator or railway siding. Rent and rates do
not worry them. The seasons are remarkably alike. Once in a dozen years,
there may be a too dry or too wet summer with serious consequences to
the quantity and quality of the corn they raise. There is practically
little fluctuation in prices to worry them, for the more corn Canada
produces the greater appears to be the world demand, and prices are much
more likely to advance than to recede.

Let it be repeated, then, that the British labourer or farmer’s son or
townsman impatient to adopt the simple life had better go out with a
perfectly open mind, prepared to learn from those who know. I had many
talks with farmers, business men who know the conditions of the country,
and with the Ministers and Assistant Ministers of Agriculture of two of
the Prairie Provinces. I wanted them to give me the best advice that I
could pass on to different types of men thinking of emigrating from the
Old Country and settling on the land in Canada. They were unanimous that
the only wise course to adopt, whether the man were at home a
wage-earning labourer or a farmer’s son whose father could give him a
little capital, was to take the position of a farm hand under a Canadian
farmer for at least a year. This would give him an insight into the
conditions, and there need be no sense of humiliation, even to the son
of a prosperous farmer at home, in taking the position of farm hand. The
distinction between classes in Canada is almost obliterated. Most of the
well-to-do farmers themselves started as farm hands. The independence of
the working man is so developed that he thinks himself as good as the
man who employs him. It is not considered a privilege conferred upon a
farm hand to employ him, a privilege so great that he should regard his
employer as an awful being holding his men’s fate in his hands. I heard
of University men, young barristers, young journalists, young doctors,
who had got tired of waiting at home for an opportunity that was slow to
come, or who found themselves of too energetic and restless a temper to
settle down under the conditions of British life, who had gone out to
Canada and hired themselves to farmers in Ontario or the Prairie
Provinces and were soon working on the land as to the manner born. It is
the man with this willingness to learn and adapt himself to the
conditions of work cheerfully, not counting the hours or the
strenuousness of his labour in busy times, who is bound to get on as a
settler on the land in Canada.

Let me take first the prospects of an English farm labourer. Of course,
if he is a haunter of the public-house, if he only works because he
must, if he has in him the soul of a slave, if he is a born shirker, he
is not likely to do in Canada unless a moral transformation should take
place and change him to a new man altogether. The ideal labourer
emigrant is the man who works in his own garden and in his allotment in
his own time, who lives a decent life, keeps away from the drink, and
out of his wages and what he grows in his garden and allotment contrives
all the while to be putting a little by. Such a man, revelling in work,
with a fair amount of intelligence and some ambition, can scarcely fail
in Canada. He is the man who will be received and welcomed with open
arms by the farmers competing with each other for competent, willing
labour. I was told in the Ministries of Agriculture at Winnipeg and
Regina that lists are kept of hundreds of farmers who are applying for
such men and are willing to guarantee them work during the six months
between sowing time and the gathering in of the harvest. The Ministries
of Agriculture are more than willing to assist such men in every way to
find suitable situations. Many of the farmers are prepared to advance
the passage money to really good men willing to sign on for the season.
They are boarded and fed and receive a wage equal to £4 or £5 a month.

The difficulty, of course, will be with the married man, having a wife
and children. It would be best for him to make arrangements to leave the
wife and children at home for a year if he can possibly manage it. By
the end of a year, if he is the right sort of fellow, he will see his
way and perhaps be able either to take a homestead or to enter on an
arrangement for a year or two of continuous employment and to make a
home for the wife and children. Such a man, with the money he may save
in a couple of years, would find it quite easy, if he does not desire to
take a homestead which may be in a lonely district and may mean
considerable hardship for two or three years, to take on easy instalment
terms a ready-made farm within an area that affords a certain amount of
society. It is the woman rather than the man who finds the loneliness of
the homestead on the fresh-broken prairie almost unbearable. She cannot
live without the company-keeping and social gossip of the village. The
man is busy on the land; he has the inspiring sense that his foot is on
the ladder of success; he dreams of going on from little to more, and
from more to much, and of ultimately becoming a very substantial man. It
is not always so with the woman. She finds it far more difficult to
reconcile herself to the lonely conditions. Of course, if she is the
right sort of woman to be a farmer’s wife, and can find her interest in
raising chickens and such occupations, she will, after settling down, be
happy enough; but there is always the risk, and if the man can possibly
secure a ready-made farm he considerably reduces the risk of the woman’s
moping and wanting to return to the familiar village in the Old Country
again, even though it may mean returning to 15_s._ a week and no
prospect but the old age 5_s._ a week at seventy.

The Provincial Governments, agricultural associations, and a number of
financial corporations are very willing to give every assistance to a
_bona-fide_ settler on the land. When he has established the fact that
he is a safe man to trust, he may get his stock and implements on
credit, and the land will be broken at a nominal charge to lessen the
burden of his first effort.

A Canadian writer says he knows of specific cases in which English
immigrant buyers paid $30 and $15 an acre respectively for farms.

“One case was a very choice piece of land near to the social and
educational advantages of a large town, and another enjoyed the same
favourable position but was not quite such good land throughout, but had
the very best grazing where it could not be used for cereals or root
crops. In the one case the payments ($30 an acre) were completed in
seven years, and in the other ($15) five years were found sufficient to
acquire a clean bill of the rights to the property, and both men are
wealthy citizens to-day. This does give assurance that is certainly
needed in the face of the misrepresentative and conflicting statements
which have been circulated in the Motherland, where it is impossible to
verify on the spot one account or another. It provides an opening at
once for the family or for the young couple without children, who are
rightly advised that they should not take up a homestead at a point far
distant from social life, at least until they have had experience, which
they can only acquire by living in close touch with neighbours who are
farming to some purpose.

“Candidly, the homesteads now available, and until the railway system
has been further developed, are too far away from the railway track. But
it is only a question of a few years of legitimate development until
these points have been opened up, where some of the finest land on the
continent will be brought within easy reach of the world’s markets. In
the meantime, and while the new-comer is gaining experience and paying
by his labour for a piece of land that can never depreciate in value, he
is not precluded from selecting and acquiring his homestead. But the
writer cannot advise penniless individuals to come out in the hope of
taking up homestead duties at a remote point from the railway with the
expectation of making good on it right away. The man with a bit of
capital cannot fail to employ it to far better purpose in Canada than he
is ever likely to use it at home. He need not ‘risk’ it until he has had
every opportunity to test his investments on the spot. It is broadly on
the land, the value of which by the legitimate process continues to
increase with every season in which it has come under the hand of the
cultivator. In the more thickly populated centres land values have
increased enormously within the short period of five years; many of
these, no doubt, have been rushed up to a fictitious figure by real
estate jobbers, but where large manufacturing and wholesale houses have
been compelled to establish themselves in response to a demand that is
almost unprecedented in its all but instantaneous growth, these values
are at once legitimate and permanent.”

From a very informative booklet issued in connection with the
“International Dry Farming Congress” at Lethbridge, Alberta, in October,
1912, I extract these interesting particulars about the conditions of
prairie settlement and farming:—

“Settlement progresses so rapidly that pioneering is shorn of its
desolation. It is no uncommon event to find a whole township or an
entire district taken up in a single summer. The pioneer will always
have neighbours in his new Alberta home. Roads and schools follow in due
course. Recent legislation has established a system of local government
which affords all the machinery necessary to a local community to carry
out public improvements. Commercial life develops very rapidly. The
settlement of a district is invariably followed by the extension of the
telephone and the railway.

“Land is cleared and prepared for cultivation at comparatively small
cost. In the southern part of the province no clearing is necessary. In
the central and northern part, where there is considerable scrub and
timber, the cost of preparing the land for crops is higher and will vary
from $5 to $10 per acre. The trees are nearly all surface rooted, and in
a few years the most thickly wooded farm will be as free from roots as a
market garden. Raw homesteads in a year or two become profitable farms.
Towns spring up along the railway as if by magic, and the erstwhile
wilderness is transformed into a populous and prosperous community.

“From the earliest times explorers have expressed the greatest hope in
the future of Alberta. It was the home of the most powerful and
civilized Indian tribes of the whole North-West. Its luxuriant pastures
supported vast herds of antelope, deer and buffalo, while its mountains,
lakes and canyons comprised the richest territory exploited by the fur
companies.

“Ninety-six different varieties of wild grasses have been identified, of
which forty-six make excellent hay. Of the sedges and rushes there are
at least ninety-four varieties, many of which make good hay, and all
make splendid pasture during the spring and the early part of the
summer. The sedges grow on the lower lands and marshes, and are
diligently sought for by stock in the early spring, and during those
seasons when the upland grasses harden. Cultivated grasses also do well,
timothy, alfalfa, western rye grass, and blue grass having been
introduced and all proving very successful.

“The establishment of agriculture depends upon many natural resources,
such as extent of fertile soil, rainfall, and energy of the people. All
these elements are compounded in the case of Alberta. The soil is deep
and black, composed of a covering of vegetable humus which sits
undisturbed since it was laid down many centuries ago. The chief
nutriments are nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid, but what is of
principal importance is the lime contained in the soil whereby the
nitrogen is set free and ready to be absorbed by vegetable organism. The
richness of the soil is illustrated in the number of grains in the
cluster found in the heads of the wheat plant. Three, four and five
grains occur in each spikelet, a fact which explains the large average
yield of the Alberta wheat fields.

“The rainfall is sufficient to nourish crops, and the climate is dry and
equable for long seasons. The rainy season coincides with the growing
season. There is abundance of rain and heat during June and July. As the
weather cools the rainy season ceases, the air becomes dry, hardening
the grain and giving it a colour and hardness which accounts for the
splendid quality of Canadian wheat. Even the frost of winter exerts a
beneficial influence, as it pulverizes the ground and puts it in ideal
condition for the rains of the following season. A prominent scientific
authority says: As long as the West is blessed with winter frosts and
summer rains, teeming crops will be the product of her soils.’”

[Illustration: STEAM PLOUGH IN ALBERTA.]

On the question of wages a publication of the Ontario Government
says—and the wages will not vary much from this rule in the Prairie
Provinces:—

    “The standard of wages at present for a twelve months’
    engagement is as follows:—

    “_Experienced Men._—Farm labourers, well able to plough, to
    milk, and to do general farm-work, £4 to £5 and over per month.

    “_Partly experienced._—Eighteen years of age and upwards,
    strong, well able to handle horses, £3 to £4 and over per month.

    “_Inexperienced._—Eighteen years and upwards, strong, unused to
    any kind of farm work, £2 to £3 per month, according to ability.

    “Each class is supplied with board, lodging and washing free.

    “Families, as a rule, are provided with cottages and such extras
    as milk, firewood and vegetables in season. They are expected to
    board themselves and sometimes the hired men, but getting
    payment for the latter. The man accustomed to farm work receives
    from £50 to £70 per year. Where the wife assists the farmer in
    housework, milking, &c., she is paid in proportion to her
    services. Part experienced and inexperienced married couples are
    paid according to the scale. Children are often more of an asset
    than a liability, and receive payment when able to render any
    assistance in the work of the farm.”

                                                Per month.
            Female domestics (General servants) £2 to £3
              ”       ”      (Cooks)            £2 9_s._ to £5
              ”       ”      (Housemaids)       £2 1_s._ to £3
              ”       ”      (Tablemaids)       £2 9_s._ to £4

The man who should take up a homestead, prepared to rough it for a year
or two, is the young, unmarried man, steady, determined, with a strong
inclination for the life on the land. To him, even if he goes out
penniless, the Provincial Governments offer the position of a farmer on
his own land—land for which he need not pay a penny piece. He has only
to conform to certain regulations as to living on the land for part of
the year, building some sort of a shanty in which he can sleep, and
bringing a stipulated number of acres under cultivation, and at the end
of three years the land becomes his freehold. In addition to that there
are many districts in which, having secured the freehold of his
homestead, the homesteader is permitted to pre-empt a second 160 acres
at the nominal price of $3 an acre. For the benefit of such a man I
quote a synopsis of the Canadian North-West Land Regulations, for which
I am indebted to a pamphlet issued by the Grand Trunk Railway:

“1. Any person who is the sole head of a family, or any male over
eighteen years old, may homestead a quarter section (160 acres, more or
less) of available Dominion land in Manitoba, Saskatchewan or Alberta.
The applicant, who must be a British subject or declare his intention of
becoming one, must appear in person at the Dominion Lands Agency or
Sub-Agency for the district. Entry by proxy may be made at any agency,
by father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister of intending
homesteader, when duly authorised on proper form.

“2. A widow having minor children of her own dependent upon her for
support is permitted to make homestead entry as the sole head of a
family.

“DUTIES.—Six months’ residence upon and cultivation of the land in each
of three years. A homesteader may live within nine miles of his
homestead on a farm of at least 80 acres solely owned and occupied by
him or by his father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister.

“3. In certain districts a homesteader in good standing may pre-empt a
quarter-section alongside his homestead. Price $3 per acre.
Duties.—Must reside six months in each of six years from date of
homestead entry (including the time required to earn homestead patent)
and cultivate 50 acres more than required on his homestead, which
cultivation may be on both his homestead and pre-emption or either.

“4. A homesteader who has exhausted his homestead right by already
homesteading and cannot obtain a pre-emption may acquire a homestead by
purchase in certain districts. Price $3 per acre. Such homesteads may be
acquired on any available lands on either odd or even numbered sections
south of township 45, east of the railway from Calgary to Edmonton, and
the west line of range 26, and west of the third meridian. Duties.—Must
reside six months in each of three years, cultivate 50 acres, and erect
a house worth $300.

“The entry fee for a homestead is ten ($10) dollars.

“Low rates for settlers’ effects apply from Eastern Canada and many
United States points to Winnipeg and West.”

The best thing an unmarried man settler can do is to go out with one or
more settlers similar to himself who shall take up neighbouring
homesteads. If they go out from the same village or district they will
immediately form a congenial society and will have the common interest
of old acquaintance and of common knowledge of the people among whom
they have been brought up. A great number of homesteads have been taken
up by such companions, who, when they have “made good,” have sent for
their brothers and friends to come and do likewise, with the result that
a neighbourhood becomes in a sense a replica, as far as the settlers are
concerned, of the familiar village or country-side out of which they
have gone.

As has been said, if they are the right sort of men, they will find it
quite easy to get the first 30 acres, which is a condition of taking the
homestead, ploughed for them, either by a neighbouring farmer or by the
Farmers’ Association of the district. Such homesteaders usually work for
a neighbouring farmer during their first year, saving money, learning
the business, and putting in odd time on their own land. The requisite
first home, which is also a condition of the tenure, may be simply a few
rough boards knocked together or a turf hut. This is the familiar
“shack.” The shack serves very well for a single young fellow whose
necessities are reduced to the barest minimum. If he is an adventurous
spirit with a dash of humour he relishes his life, and if he has two or
three companions settling at the same time as himself on neighbouring
homesteads they will work together and tide each other over the roughing
period. The shack at the end of the second year will give place to a
wooden house—small it may be, just a combined living-room and kitchen,
a washing-up place and one or a couple of bed-rooms, but if there is a
“girl he has left behind him” this will be sufficient to warrant sending
out for her, and a sensible practical wife is a very valuable asset to
the homestead if she is prepared to accept the conditions. Some of the
largest farmers in the Far West began in this way less than a dozen
years ago. They have added “quarter section” to “quarter section” to the
original homestead, until now they may be farming a square mile or a
square mile and a half and making money enough every year to allow them
to spend three months in the Eastern Provinces or to visit the Old
Country, putting up at the best hotels, and spending money with a free
hand.

I come now to the farmer’s son or to the enterprising young fellow with
a bit of money, say £100 to £500, at his disposal. As I have said, if he
is a wise man, he will start as a farm hand and get his experience in
the only certain way before he disposes of his money in taking a
ready-made farm, or even in taking a homestead and spending his money on
the machinery and stock required to work it. The Canadian Pacific
Railway, the Grand Trunk Pacific, the Hudson’s Bay Company, and a number
of land companies offer ready-made farms of various sizes under the most
attractive conditions. The land has been broken, a house has been built
upon it. It has been fenced and irrigated, if irrigation is necessary.
The man can step on to the farm, occupy the house and immediately
commence operations, making the profit of the harvest the very first
year. Suppose a man with a bit of money wants to buy a farm ready for
cultivation. Mr. E. S. Bayard, editor of _The National Stockman and
Farmer_, Pittsburg, Penn., a famous American breeder of prize cattle,
who studied the question along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific,
says:—

“Much of the farm land is now selling at from $15 to $25 per acre. Lands
can be found, well-improved and favourably located, which sell from $40
to $60 per acre. And homestead lands can also be found within reasonable
distance from the Winnipeg-Edmonton line of the Grand Trunk Pacific and
the branch lines of this road. In the spring of 1911, there were still
available for homestead some 8,000 farms of 160 acres each. Many of
these were settled on during the spring and summer of 1911.

“One method of selling land in this new country is the payment of a
certain amount per acre down and the balance of the purchase price is
extended over a period of years. One typical illustration is cited. A
farm of 320 acres, unimproved, was purchased with a payment of $3 per
acre down, or $960. For breaking and discing the land the cost was $5
per acre, or $1,600. That is what it costs when the buyer hires it done.
The second payment and interest amounted to $1,170, and the buildings
complete are estimated to cost about $2,000. This made a total outlay
the first year of $5,730. Over against this the first year 300 acres of
wheat yielded thirty bushels to the acre, or 9,000 bushels at 60 cents
per bushel, or $5,400. And 20 acres of oats produced 70 bushels to the
acre, or 1,400 bushels at 25 cents per bushel, amounting to $350, or a
total from the farm of $5,750. Thus the farm the first year more than
paid for its original cost and the profits the second year more than
paid for the improvements and all other expenses, leaving a goodly
profit.

“Thus it is that the low prices asked for this productive land are one
of the conditions which strike a man from the States most forcibly. He
comes from a region where the farm lands sell from $100 to $200 per
acre, well improved, productive and favourably located to be sure, but
to find such a vast area of wonderfully productive land, with good
markets available and prices as high on the average as in the States, is
positive proof that there are big opportunities for money-making in
Canada.

“These lands are advancing in value quite naturally. With the tremendous
immigration into Western Canada, the great railroad development and the
money which is being invested in this new country, the vast prairie
region is developing not alone rapidly but substantially. This of course
means increased land values, and when it is remembered that the land is
now very low in price, it is readily seen that there is every reason why
it will advance steadily from year to year.”

Having got his land the farmer will, of course, require machinery,
stock, seed, &c., to work it. If he has, say, £200, he can purchase a
farm quite as large as he will be able to manage at first on the
instalment plan, the payments to cover, say, a period of five to ten
years. He may have to learn the art of doing without a good many things
to which he has been accustomed during the first year or so, but if he
reduces his wants, uses “elbow grease,” and is not ashamed to earn a
hundred or couple of hundred dollars by working for established farmers,
he will win through, and after the first year he will see daylight and
be the stronger man for the endurance of a little hardship. I quote an
expert estimate of the minimum amount required to start farming right
away with the best prospects:—

                                                          $
           1 team of horses                             350
           1 set harness                                 32
           1 farm waggon                                 75
           1 sleigh                                      25
           1 breaking plough                             25
           1 stubble plough                              18
           1 3-section harrow                            15
           1 disc harrow                                 25
           1 seeder                                      85
           1 mowing machine                              50
           1 harvester                           135 to 155
           Other implements and tools                    50
           4 good cows at $40                           160
           4 good pigs at $15                            60
           4 good sheep at $5                            20
           Poultry                                       10
                                                     ------
                                                      Total
                                                     $1,155
                                                     ------
                                                     = £235
                                                     ------

Let me close this chapter by quoting the stories told by some sample
settlers from the Old Country who went out within the last seven years.
I take them from a pamphlet issued from the office of the Dominion
Ministry of the Interior.

Arthur Newman went out to Alberta in 1907 from New Shildon, County
Durham, England, and at once took up a homestead. He writes:—

“My father and brothers came out and we were in partnership, but I
pushed ahead, as we had some drawbacks like all homesteaders. We had
everything to haul from Lloydminster, forty-two miles either way, but we
have a town twelve miles from us now. We have about 100 acres in crop
this year, 57 wheat, and about 43 oats, besides potatoes and a garden
patch. If the season permits, we hope to break about 100 acres more. Our
wheat turned out 35 bushels to the acre and the oats 70 bushels to the
acre. This was our second year’s crop; our first was hailed out. Our
stock is getting along finely. I lost a fine mare the first year, but am
still ahead. We have four oxen, four fine mares in foal, about fifteen
head of cattle, seven pigs, and about seventy hens. I might also say we
have all the machinery that is wanted for the farm, &c., and all of it
is paid for. So if our crops turn out well this year, we shall be all
right and making fine success. I often have letters from friends at home
asking me if I should not like to come back, and I always tell them just
for a holiday but not to stay. This is the home I prefer.”

W. Hordern, a native of Leicester, who settled in Saskatchewan,
writes:—

“I came out six years ago. The first three years were mostly spent in
learning by defeats. We earned very little at first, and my capital of
£400 disappeared after buying horses, &c., but I knew I was getting on
the right line. Then, with a family of six young children, we made a
comfortable living. Now I value my farm and stock little short of
£2,000. I have six work horses and three others, fourteen head of
cattle, twelve hogs, hens, and the full outfit of farm machinery, some
in double sets, and three waggons. By last summer we had 150 acres
broken and in crop. The total earnings were £460; total farm expenses
were £140, leaving a clear income of £320.

“I am now fifty-five, and was far gone towards being a worn-out man
before leaving Old England. The first year I broke 15 acres with a yoke
of oxen; had a one-room house, 14 feet by 16 feet of bought prepared
timber, cost £30, and dug a 23-foot well. Next year was in England eight
months and did little good here. Third year my eldest boy took up the
heavy work. I am practically a gentleman farmer in these days—ride
around in a light four-wheeler and do the errands to town and about. My
hobby is the school board, of which I am also the clerk and collector.
My second lad helps in stable work and odd jobs, and a third lad
assisted in the fall. Between them my lads earned £55 out, mostly
helping other farmers, which I have included in the income.

“Last year we raised 239 bushels of linseed, 1,030 bushels oats, 12
acres barley, 1,818 bushels of wheat. After keeping enough for seed,
sold the wheat for £300, freight cost £33 to Port Arthur, on Lake
Superior. My threshing bill was £45, twine for tying up sheaves £6,
rates, all told, £8 10s. My family have cost nothing yet in doctoring,
and we all have good health. We produce, free of charge, our own butter,
milk, fuel, water, stock and meat, and these items save us 25_s._ a
week. I have carefully kept a record of every cent coming in and going
out last year. My farm is now 415 acres. I bought 164 acres three years
ago, which is now worth twice what I gave for it. My son has 200 acres
also, worth £800, outside my own property.”

Joseph Williams, formerly of Abergele, came to Canada three years ago.
After working in Eastern Canada for a while he went West. He writes:—

“I got a job at Yorkton which was the turning point to success. I may
say here that when I arrived at Yorkton I had the enormous sum of 3
cents (1½_d._) in my pocket. Six months later I started business there,
butchering, with my brother Arthur as a partner, and twelve months later
sold out at a good sum, and to-day I am pleased to say I can sit and
look at my crop growing, from which I hope to receive somewhere from
$2,000 to $3,000 (£400 to £600) next fall, besides being the owner of
three fine mares and foals, and all necessary farming implements.

“You can show this letter to all my old friends at Abergele, and if you
like you can send it to the press, if you think it will benefit any
young men or women who think of coming to Canada. I can say without the
least hesitation that this is a much better country than the Old
Country, and there is no reason whatever why a young man or woman could
not succeed here.

“I may say that there is a Welsh colony here, with about 200 Welsh
families, Welsh chapels, Sunday schools, and literary meetings, Welsh
store-keepers and restaurants, and plenty of land for sale right in the
centre of the colony. Anyone wishing to buy an improved farm can do so
with a small cash deposit, and the balance in yearly crop payments; or
there are homesteads, further West, in Alberta, which are available for
entry.”

J. G. Lindsay, a Saskatchewan homesteader, writes:—

“I belonged to Stonehaven, Kincardineshire, Scotland, came out here in
June, 1905. I used to work on a farm in Auchinblae district on Kennell
and Chapelton farm; average wages about £10 to £20. I arrived at Indian
Head, Saskatchewan, and worked on a threshing rig that year, receiving
7_s._ a day, and then came up here, took a homestead, and stayed here
ever since. I landed out on my land with about $300, or £60, built a
small shack, bought a team of horses, part on time, worked around here
during ploughing for new settlers the first summer to pay for the
horses. I now own five all paid for, all the necessary implements to
work a farm. I have 100 acres ready for crop this spring. I could never
have had an acre in Scotland in crop, let alone own the land, which is
worth $20, or £4, an acre. I am seven miles from town and a new railroad
from Saskatoon to Calgary. I would not take £700 for my rights to-day. I
find there are many here just the same. I will put a word for my
brother. He has done better than me. He came here with £20 and team of
oxen; now he has five horses and 130 acres for crop this spring. We were
well known in Rickarton, Stonehaven, as my father had a farm there. My
opinion of this country is to all get hold of land, work hard for two or
three years to start on, then all is right.”

Joseph Watson, who was head game-keeper and general manager to the late
Sir James Musgrave, County Donegal, Ireland, came to Saskatchewan in
1905. He writes:—

“I arrived at File Hills in the end of March, 1905, and the first thing
I did was to buy two good milk cows at the calving and a horse and mare.
I then commenced to build a log house, 30 feet by 14 feet inside, and
two stories high with a lean-to kitchen at back, and soon had a good
comfortable dwelling. I then built stables for cattle.

“In the fall I bought ten of the best yearling heifers I could get and a
few steers. The total outlay was about £140. From that number of stock I
have now fifty head of cattle and five horses, and if all goes well I
should have another twenty calves and two colts this spring. I think
anyone should be satisfied with that increase.

“I milked all my best cows, and the proceeds of butter practically paid
the household expenses for the last two years. Last year I made nearly
£80 off butter, and I expect to make as much this year, and besides I
hope to sell ten steers at an average price of £8 a head.

“I am well satisfied with the progress I have made, and I may say that I
am now independent, as my income is now much greater than the
expenditure. I have 160 acres of good grazing and hay land, and as
practically none of the company lands are occupied, there is plenty of
grazing for cattle on every side of me.

“I estimate the value of my farm, stock, buildings, &c., now to be
$5,000. I have done no cropping except a few acres of oats for feed and
the kitchen garden, but I intend to go in more for cropping in future.
The soil is rich and grows heavy crops.

“The climate is very healthy. I have enjoyed better health since coming
to Canada than I had for many years before leaving the Old Country.”

                 *        *        *        *        *



                               CHAPTER VI


                    CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT


On the voyage up the St. Lawrence to Montreal a leading citizen of
London, Ontario, discussed with me the question of Protection and Free
Trade. We were passing French Canadian villages and towns on either side
of the river in the Province of Quebec. The French Canadians now, as
ever, are agriculturists, living a quiet rural life, raising their
crops, fattening their cattle, breeding their pigs, which contribute so
largely to their own larders. Said my London friend, “I have been
spending six months in Europe, partly on the Continent, but with
frequent visits to England. I have been amazed at the evidences of the
overpowering prosperity of your British industries under the system of
Free Trade. If I were living in Great Britain I should be a Free Trader
out and out. You have the instinct of manufacturing industry. You had a
long start of all your rivals. Geographically you are marked out to be
the great manufacturing, producing and distributing centre of the world.
You would be most foolish to attempt to overthrow a fiscal system under
which you have done so well. But when I come to Canada I am a
Protectionist out and out. You see those villages and towns. From the
agricultural point of view Quebec is a flourishing Province enough, but
you cannot build up a modern nation out of a race of agriculturists pure
and simple. You must have manufacturing industries, and at present, as a
manufacturing country, Canada is in its infancy. Our people have to
acquire the manufacturing instinct. Until they have acquired it, if we
allowed our country to be flooded with the manufacturing products of the
United States, of the Old Country, and of France, Germany, and other
countries, we should be beaten hands down and our rising manufacturing
industries would be strangled in their cradle. You Britishers do not
understand why we Canadians favour Protection. Protection really means
that we are compelling the United States and yourselves to teach us how
to become a manufacturing nation.” This will not satisfy, perhaps,
English Free Traders, among whom I confess myself to be a convinced
believer in the open market, but it is the view-point from which I found
Canadians throughout the Eastern Provinces generally looked at the
question. When I visited some of the manufacturing cities and saw the
factories, through several of which I was taken, I was forced to think
there was something after all in the views of the Ontario Londoner.

[Illustration: TORONTO. YONGE STREET, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ADELAIDE
STREET.]

Take Hamilton, Ontario, for instance. This flourishing city is one of
the oldest in Canada. It is magnificently situated for trading on the
shores of Hamilton Bay, a land-locked harbour at the head of Lake
Ontario. The manufacturing quarter is well away from the beautiful
residential quarters, where the prosperous Hamiltonians live in
handsomely-built houses, each isolated on its own freehold plot,
surrounded by a border of grass or shrubs with abundance of forest
trees. It rises to the Mountain, as a steep hill is called, from the
summit of which there is a very striking view of the city and a
picturesque outlook over one of the most fruitful parts of the Dominion,
abounding in peach and apple orchards and vineyards. Hamilton is only
forty miles from Niagara Falls, and its interest in the Falls is
utilitarian as well as artistic and sentimental, for it is the electric
power generated at the Falls which drives the works of Hamilton, lights
its streets and houses, and supplies the heating power. On my visit to
the Falls I saw the great power-house in which the mighty rush of the
Rapids is harnessed and tamed by the engineering skill of man and
compelled to serve alike the industrial prosperity, the domestic
comfort, the tram service, and the house and street lighting not only of
Hamilton, but of Toronto and of many other cities. The first thing that
strikes a visitor to Hamilton, if he should arrive after dark, is what
he will consider the scandalous luxury of the brilliant electric
lighting with which the fronts of business houses and places of
entertainment literally blaze, but should the visitor express his
concern at such apparent wicked waste he will be told that electricity
is so cheap that its cost is practically negligible. It is to the
cheapness of natural sources of power, that is given without stint, that
the growing manufacturing prosperity of Canada is largely due.

It was my privilege to be convoyed around Hamilton and to be introduced
to the heads of departments of some of the principal factories by Mr. H.
M. Marsh, Commissioner of Industries. Through him I learned that there
are no less than 400 manufacturing industries in the city, with four
suburban electric railways having a combined mileage of eighty-three.
There are seventy-eight churches, thirty public and four private
schools, not counting a technical school, a college of music, a normal
school, and a collegiate institute. There are six steamship lines
connecting Hamilton with the chain of the Great Lakes and enabling it to
send its products cheaply right into the centre of Canada and far south
and west into the heart of the United States. Seven steam railways also
enable Hamilton to send its manufactures by land transit over the North
American continent and to the principal ports of the Dominion and the
United States. The extent of the turnover of money in the city is shown
by the fact that the bank clearings in 1911 were $125,250,000, an
increase of more than $24,000,000, or nearly £5,000,000, over 1910.

A more significant fact forcibly driven home to me is that some of the
largest and most rapidly advancing factories are branches of American
firms. More than thirty-five American firms have invested an enormous
amount of capital in buildings and plant to produce their specialities
in Hamilton. On the Canadian side at Niagara Falls I found the same
significant fact. The explanation is that given by my London, Ontario,
friend. The Canadians are compelling the Americans to plant their
factories in Canada in order that they may employ Canadian labour and
teach the Canadians how to become a manufacturing nation. At the Falls I
was told that by manufacturing on the Canadian side the American firms
save from 10 to 35 per cent. duty which they would have to pay if their
goods crossed the river. It pays them better to build and manufacture in
Canada than to pay the duty.

The manufacture of agricultural implements of the most modern type for
culture on the wholesale scale plays a very large part in the industrial
life of Hamilton. I went over the Oliver Chilled Plough Works, an
undertaking of the last year or two, but which is already doing business
on an enormous scale. The works, I was told, are more up to date than
even the parent works in the States, for with the ground at their
disposal, and with the experience of the past, it was possible to
eliminate everything that was disadvantageous and so to construct the
factory and to lay down the plant as to meet exactly the requirements of
the business alike in Canada and in other markets. Nothing could be more
ideal than the conditions under which this industry is carried on. The
ploughs produced are power ploughs furnished each with a number of
coulters, from half-a-dozen to nine or more, capable of dealing with the
most refractory surface. The coulters are modified to meet the varying
conditions of heavy or light soil. I saw a vast number of the component
parts, witnessed the processes of manufacture, the dipping of parts into
baths of paint, and complete ploughs ready to be sent out either to
break the virgin prairie or to replough land that had been harvested.

On a still greater scale were the works of the International Harvester
Company, another branch of a famous American firm. More than
three-quarters of a century ago Mr. McCormick, forbear of the present
controlling McCormick—he was a pious Presbyterian with the Scottish
instinct for getting on—invented a reaping machine which answered so
well in a Virginia wheatfield that it led to a revolution in
agricultural machinery. All sorts of machines were produced and have
been continuously improved for all the principal operations of
agriculture on the grand scale. To-day McCormick’s International
Harvester Company is the greatest agricultural machinery industry in the
world. The firm saw the opportunities offered by the development of the
Prairie Provinces and were quick to take advantage of them. I was told
that farmers can get all the machinery they need without paying a cent
down. The firm looks to the future rather than to the present. It knows
that its money is safe and will fructify in the fields of the farmers,
to whom it gives the longest credit. Again I saw the processes of
manufacture of the parts of reapers, binders, tedders, self-dumping and
other rakes, hay lubbers, huskers and shredders, harrows, drills, and
ploughs. I was shown a forty-five horse power plough driven by a
gasolene engine. It is furnished with twelve coulters, each 14 inches
deep. It will plough twenty acres a day of ten hours, and if necessary
can be run throughout the whole twenty-four hours at certain seasons.
Anything more perfect and capable of getting through so much work at
such a small expenditure of human labour it would be impossible to
conceive. It is such machinery as that turned out by the Oliver Chilled
Plough Works and the International Harvester Works that has made the
marvellous wheat production of the Prairie Provinces, increasing
constantly at the rate of millions of bushels a year, possible.

Hamilton is also the scene of enormous works of the Canadian
Westinghouse Brake Company, a branch of the Pittsburg Company, whose
brakes are necessities of existence to every railway company and to most
of the electrical tram systems of the world.

A constant stream of immigrants pours into Hamilton. The demand for
labour is insatiable. I noticed in the International Harvester Works
that warnings and regulations for the guidance of the _employés_ were
printed in seven languages. It was evident that the workmen were a
cosmopolitan mixture of races. They included many men from the Balkan
States, Italians, Russians, and others who in Canada take more kindly to
manufacturing and railway construction employment than to the life of
agriculture. Mr. Marsh informed me that in March 1,200 men could readily
be found employment in the various Hamilton factories.

Ontario, with its four millions of population out of the seven millions
of Canada, is the great manufacturing Province, although there are
growing manufactures in the Eastern Provinces of Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, and Quebec. A Government publication summarising the
industries of Ontario states that, in addition to Hamilton and in and
around Toronto, at London, further west on its own river Thames; at
Brantford, Chatham, Guelph, Kingston, Ottawa, Peterborough, St.
Catharines, St. Thomas, Stratford, Berlin, Collingwood, Galt, Ingersoll,
Oshawa, Sarnia, Sault Ste. Marie, Woodstock, and scores of other
centres, the mills and factories are busy. They produce vast quantities
of iron and everything that iron makes, from a tin-tack to a locomotive.
The agricultural machinery made in Canada stands so high in reputation
that it finds a market not only in South America and in the sister
realms of Australia and New Zealand and in the Mother Country itself,
but in continental Europe. Several other special lines of manufacture,
including parlour organs, are now well known abroad; but in most
branches the Canadians themselves use all that their manufacturers
produce; and here in the towns of Ontario are produced not only such
wares as we have just mentioned, but cotton, woollen and leather goods
and clothing; waggons and carriages, on wheels or runners; furniture,
paper, and almost everything else that is made of wood; foodstuffs,
plain and fancy—but really there is no end to the list.

These manufacturing towns are spread over the Province in a way rather
strange to Old Country men, whose centres of industry are generally to
be found clustering in a few districts marked out for such a purpose by
particular local advantage. There is no “Black Country” in Ontario.
There is, however, one district where manufacturing towns are
particularly numerous, in the south-west part of the Province. There is
no coal-field here, but the great coal-fields of Pennsylvania lie just
across Lake Erie; and this region has the enormous advantage of lying
within easy reach of Niagara Falls. The glory of the Falls is their
beauty, and it is to be hoped that their beauty and grandeur will be
religiously preserved for ever. The Falls, however, provide an enormous
force, which can be used without destroying or greatly injuring their
appearance. This force is already being developed by the Ontario
Government and private enterprise, and is being conducted through
electric cables to the manufacturing towns, where it will provide motive
power for almost unlimited machinery.

At Sault Ste. Marie, where the water of Lake Superior pours out into
Lake Huron, a gigantic iron and steel industry is being developed. At
the upper end of Lake Superior again are the twin seaports, Fort William
and Port Arthur, where millions of bushels of prairie grain are loaded
yearly in a multitude of steamers and shipped down to ports on the
eastern shores of Lake Huron.

[Illustration: GALA DAY AT WINNIPEG.]

Travelling westward I passed out of Ontario with its lakes and wooded
hills into Manitoba, the first of the Prairie Provinces. Within the
memory of middle-aged men Manitoba and all west of it was practically a
grass-grown wilderness, spangled during the summer months with a
succession of flowers of many varieties that grow magnificently—some of
them such as are the pride of gardens at home. There is a picture of the
Provincial capital, Winnipeg—which is now as large as Bradford—in
1872, showing a tiny market town of about 2,000 population. Among the
figures in the picture is that of the late Lord Strathcona, then the
directing spirit of the Hudson’s Bay Company. To his enterprise is
largely due the subsequent development of the country. The population
to-day exceeds 200,000, and the city, at the fork of the Red River and
the Assiniboine, in addition to being the corn exchange of the West, is
becoming a manufacturing centre of the first importance. Main Street,
Winnipeg, is a scene of surpassing interest to the English visitor. I
was told that, if you knew how to distinguish them, you might meet in a
walk along Main Street people of forty nationalities. At night it
dazzles with the glare of its electric lights. There are hotels to suit
every pocket, great departmental stores employing each their 500 to
2,000 “clerks,” shops fitted up in the most modern American style and
offering the world’s best to the Winnipeg folk and visitors to the city,
who appear to have inexhaustible supplies of dollar bills. The money
turned over in Winnipeg would make a handsome revenue for a fair-sized
kingdom. Its citizens build churches without counting the cost, and the
churches, with such preachers as the Congregational Dr. J. L. Gordon, a
flaming orator, with a rush of rainbow rhetoric, and the Presbyterian
“Sky Pilot,” Dr. C. R. Gordon, draw crowded congregations and often turn
away hundreds from their services. There are no fewer than 115 churches
and five colleges, including the Wesley Training College for ministers.
At St. Boniface, near by, is a large French settlement with a fine
cathedral church, recalling the fact that here was a famous Roman
Catholic mission to the Indians and half-breeds. In the burial ground of
the cathedral I saw the tomb of Louis Riel, the French half-breed who,
at the beginning of the development of the West, raised the Indians and
half-breeds against the Canadian Government and paid for the rebellion
with his life. It is the development of the West with its increasing
population that has been the making of Winnipeg. It does a wholesale
trade of more than £6,000,000 a year, and has more than 400 factories,
employing something like 20,000 workers. A very large number of English
immigrants have settled in Winnipeg, and many of them have rapidly
become rich men, while they have sent for their young relatives and
friends to join with them in taking advantage of the wonderful
opportunities offered to men with grit and business enterprise. For
young men not disposed to go on the land, but desiring a business
career, I should say there is not a better place to make for than
Winnipeg. Such departmental stores as Eaton’s and the Hudson’s Bay
Company’s establishments, with the scores of huge concerns in every
department of trade, with the sixty banks and the offices of
professional men, Real Estate agents and the like, are always on the
look-out for young fellows who are not afraid of work and are willing to
adapt themselves to the conditions of the country. I did not gather from
what I saw of business methods in Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg and the
cities farther west that the work is more exacting than it is in the Old
Country. The hours usually are certainly shorter. What is demanded is
the willing heart, a quick intelligence and the ability to do just what
is required. The “slacker” in Canada hangs fire as he does in England. I
heard some comparisons between native Canadians and English new-comers
in business houses, which were rather in favour of the new-comers. It is
said that the young Canadian is much more ready to get time off for a
baseball match or a pool contest than is his English competitor. It may
be that the English competitor is usually a young fellow with ambition
and energy above the average, or he would have stayed in the Old
Country, where the temptations to slacking are so numerous and so
fascinating.

On the journey of 300 miles odd from Winnipeg to Regina, the capital of
the central Prairie Province of Saskatchewan, the traveller sees the
prairie stretching out on either side of the line to the horizon. Early
in the summer it is a sea of green growing wheat; towards harvest time
it is a sea of gold, with the wheat to the height of a man; after
harvest the prairie presents the appearance of a vast encampment with
the wheat stooks waiting for the threshing. The threshing over, the
prairie glows at night with conflagrations as if a hostile army was
marching through the land destroying as it went, but all that is
happening is the burning of waste straw and refuse from the threshing,
the ashes being the only fertiliser that the soil has so far received.
There are brand-new towns and villages at every three or four miles,
each the centre of a rapidly-growing trade with the farmers and other
settlers in the district. What will most strike the English visitor,
however, is the succession of elevators along the line, resembling huge
square or oblong towers with a turret on the top. The elevators are the
receptacles of the corn ready for the market. Each will hold an enormous
quantity, ranging from scores of thousands to millions of bushels. Many
of the elevators belong to the wholesale buyers or to great milling
firms. A large number have been built, however, by the railway companies
to hold the grain until transport is available to convey it to the
markets. So great is the pressure between the harvest and Christmas time
that all the freightage rolling stock of the companies is called into
service, and all the elevators are crammed to bursting point with the
wheat and oats, and even then the farmers complain that wheat has to
remain in the fields week after week because the elevator accommodation
is insufficient. It is a revelation to the travelling visitor of the
inconceivable food-growing capacity of Central Canada, of which as yet
scarcely the half of the cultivable soil has been broken. It is easy to
understand and to believe the boast that Canada, when its cornlands are
fully cultivated, will be able to feed four-hundred-millions of the
world’s population.

This enormous agricultural production means, of course, great and
expanding demands for the products of manufacturing industries. In the
early years of the Prairie Provinces’ development the needs were all
supplied from the East, but the Prairie Provinces, like the Eastern
Provinces, have their own industrial ambitions, and they are setting to
work to become as far as possible manufacturing suppliers of their own
necessities. Let me describe as illustrations what is taking place at
Moose Jaw and Regina, the latter the capital of Saskatchewan Province.

Moose Jaw, as the name of a city, provokes smiles. It derives its name,
according to local belief, from the discovery of the jaw of a moose on
its site before the Canadian Pacific Railway drove its steel across the
prairie. Moose Jaw was an insignificant village, and, but for the
railway, an insignificant village it would have remained, its only
population a few Indians and a handful of half-breeds, with an
occasional visitor in the person of a Hudson’s Bay or Eastern trader or
a mounted police trooper. The railway pioneers, however, saw in Moose
Jaw a strategic position for a railway centre, and immediately the
village began to grow by leaps and bounds. The C.P.R. has spent millions
of dollars in Moose Jaw on its fifty-three miles of trackage, its
stock-yards, its freight sheds and its trains and depots, built
prophetically with a view to the needs of the future great manufacturing
and distributing city. The Grand Trunk and Canadian Northern Railways
are now entering Moose Jaw, and within a year or two fourteen lines will
radiate from the city, linking it up with all Canada and the United
States. Great flour mills have been established, and huge meat-packing
plants, bridge and iron works are among other manufacturing concerns.
The applications for building permits for new factories, mills, banks,
business houses and the like are increasing with a rapidity that makes
the people early on the spot smile their broadest and shake hands with
each other at the stream of gold flowing into their bank accounts. To
the Englishman, accustomed to the harmonious lines of handsomely-built
business streets and macadamised roads, with their hard surface and the
broad pavement, Moose Jaw does not make a particularly favourable first
impression.

Moose Jaw is at present a muddy place, with “side walks” only just
making their appearance. With sewage construction, water and gas supply
and other necessaries in progress, the roads are always “up,” but the
automobile owners who kindly “run us round” care nothing for a foot
depth of mud and ruts such as were never seen in English lanes. They are
“cross country” riders of the most fearless type, and bump English
visitors in and out of the ruts and up and down folds of the prairie in
a fashion that puts British courage to a severe test. Moose Jaw mud,
like all prairie mud, is of the fattest, stickiest kind, but, as a
leading citizen said to me, “Our streets five years ago were just muddy
tracks, but it was prairie mud; it grew our ‘No. 1 Hard,’ the world’s
standard in wheat; it gave us our money, and we cheerfully put up with
it.”

Moose Jaw has boundless confidence in itself. It believes, like all the
cities of the West, that it is the city with a future. Other cities may
be going ahead, but Moose Jaw will always show them the way. The pride
of local patriotism is nowhere so highly developed as in these Western
cities.

“Have you been at Winnipeg lately?” asked a Winnipegian of a man on the
train. “Yes, I was there at the beginning of last week. It’s a growing
city.” “Ah!” said the Winnipegian, “but you should see it now!” And
here, be it said, the people of all these provinces and cities are
consummate masters of the art of “boosting.” They have boundless faith
in their cities and themselves, and they try to infuse their faith into
others. They say, in effect, as a firm that opened a new shop in one of
the cities inscribed across the frontage, “We are It. Watch us Grow.”

Moose Jaw, I am certain, would never dream of yielding the palm to
Winnipeg or any other city of the prairie. Those other cities might have
got the start, but Moose Jaw will catch them up and overtake them. Since
my return it is reported that an inexhaustible supply of natural gas has
been discovered near to the city. If this be so, then the cheapening of
power which the gas will cause will certainly justify Moose Jaw in its
most optimistic anticipations of its future.

As to Regina, it is bound, as the capital city, to go ahead alike as a
business, a manufacturing, and a social centre. It is the commercial
centre—the Railway Junction City—of millions of acres of corn-growing
prairie. At Regina I had an insight into the municipal life of a Western
Canadian city. We are discussing at home town planning, the land
question, the education question and all sorts of social reforms which
to carry out make heavy demands on the rates and taxes. We are a very
ancient country with a most complicated web of vested interests and an
overcrowded population. There is sharp division between class and class,
Church and Church, party and party. Canada, and especially Western
Canada, with its unlimited area of land, originally the property of the
State, is able to deal with all such questions and problems in a way
that is impossible in our own country. “Single tax” and “town planning”
go together in these new cities. The newborn municipal authority decides
what shall be the area of the city. The lines of development are decided
on. The city surveyor draws up a plan of the sections, which are
sub-divided into convenient lots. The plots are then assessed. Those
purchasing a plot must pay the tax on the assessment, whether it is
built on or not. Plots are reserved not only as sites for schools, city
hall, parks, and other public purposes, but to provide by their sale,
when the value has enhanced by natural increment, for the building and
possibly the maintenance of the schools and other public institutions.
Thus, at Regina, I was shown the new City Hall, built at a cost of
£100,000, and was told it had not cost a penny in rates, for the whole
of the cost was met by the sale of municipal reservations of land. In
those cities schools, as soon as families arrive, are among the first
and finest buildings to be erected, but the cities grow so fast that the
school accommodation is soon out-distanced, and temporary schools spring
up, to give way at the earliest possible moment to splendid permanent
buildings. It was good to see the youngsters romping in their playtime,
and to be told that “There’s not a poor person in our city, Sir, and we
don’t mean there to be one. Sure!” Banks are numerous, with very
handsome buildings, but one soon understands why they multiply. The
banks finance the builders of the great hotels, “departmental stores,”
the builders of their own homes on the residential lots secured—for
every householder wants to live in his own detached freehold house on
his own freehold plot—and they also finance the farmers and others
engaged in gathering the “gold of the prairie.”

[Illustration: REGINA.]

Regina is laid out on the best lines with wise prevision of the needs of
the future. In the town planning quarters are reserved for manufacturing
industries, business centres, residential streets and suburbs, schools
and churches. The quarters are being rapidly occupied, but the city, of
course, is still in a very unfinished condition. Like Winnipeg and Moose
Jaw, however, it believes that Regina is “It.” It has a brand-new
Parliament House, a long, spacious building, with a handsome façade
facing a grassy park with a lake fed by the Waskanna rivulet. I had a
chat with Mr. Motherwell, Minister of Agriculture, himself a model
farmer, a prairie Cincinnatus, who is deservedly held in the highest
estimation by his fellow-citizens. Those Ministers of State of the
Prairie Provinces, and even those of the Dominion Government at Ottawa,
are not the awful unapproachable beings that Ministers of State are in
the European Governments. They are men of the people, sprung from the
people, not usually educated in colleges and universities, but educated
practically in the school of the world. They understand thoroughly the
conditions and the needs of their country, and my talks with Mr.
Motherwell and other public men, with the information in the shape of
Government publications which they placed at my disposal, were a
revelation of the practical foresight and wisdom with which the Canadian
Governments are laying the foundations of the vast populations which
within a few years will occupy the Provinces. Nowhere in the world is
the necessity of an educated people more keenly realised, and nowhere is
such generous provision made for the education. The best lots on the
surveyed sites of the town to be laid out by newly-formed municipalities
are reserved for schools—not only the spots on which the schools are to
be built, but spots which by their unearned increment, as the town
develops, shall be sold and the proceeds applied to the maintenance of
the schools. This avoids trouble over the levying of rates for
educational purposes, for it was impressed upon me that the schools and
their maintenance, and other public services, do not cost a penny to the
ratepayer. My Regina cicerone, a migrant from the East, “ran me round”
on an automobile, and continually called my attention to buildings just
finished or in process of construction, such as “Our City
Hall—$500,000; a new bank at that corner, $600,000; a new church,
$70,000; a departmental stores going up there, $1,000,000; a railway
company is to build a million dollars hotel there.” In the early summer
of 1912 a cyclone cut a path through the centre of the city, destroying
three churches, with much private property. At five on the morning
following the cyclone, architects, builders and owners of the destroyed
property were surveying the ruins and planning the buildings to rise on
the cleared site. At a “turkey supper” the Mayor of Regina, Mr. M’Ara,
told how the city has advanced in civilisation since, a very few years
ago, a predecessor in the mayoral chair went to welcome the first
religious convention held in the town. That mayor had been a “Wild
Westerner,” more at home at the poker table than at a gathering of grave
divines, but he did his best to make them feel at ease. “You are very
welcome,” he said, “to our city. I hope you will make yourselves
thoroughly at home. In order that you may feel perfectly free, I have
given orders to lock up the entire police force.” Regina has three daily
papers and a weekly.

Regina’s manufacturing quarter is already a hive of most profitable
industry. As at Hamilton, the workers are a very cosmopolitan company.
There are something like 10,000 people from the Balkan States and other
countries of Eastern Europe, while there is a large and prosperous
German colony. The English and American elements of the Regina
population are somewhat concerned over the growth of the non-Saxon
element. They are taking steps to Canadianise these people by means of
schools, missions, and other educational and moralising forces. There is
no reason why, within half a century, the present population of 50,000
to 60,000 of Regina should not swell to half a million. I must not
forget the Methodist College, opened in 1912 at a cost of something like
£120,000, to give the best possible higher school education to the lads
and girls of prosperous families of the Province. The Presbyterians are
following suit with a proposed college on even a greater scale. A Regina
correspondent tells me that within a month £100,000 was promised towards
the Presbyterian college. Men so keenly alive to the educational needs
of the city and Province may be trusted not to let the grass grow under
their feet in matters of industrial development.

Beyond Saskatchewan is the Province of Alberta. Alberta, Canadian
fashion, firmly believes that it is “It.” Not only is the Province
destined to become one of the richest cornfields and most luscious
ranching grounds of Canada, but it is enormously rich in mineral
resources, which will be the basis of great manufacturing industries in
the future. Already coal-fields covering an area of at least 11,000
square miles have been located. Alike in North and South Alberta, towns
are growing with mushroom rapidity, and new towns are being planted
every week with the rapid pushing of the “steel” of the railway
companies. An American journalist, Mr. W. J. Shunks, of Chicago, has
described in picturesque American fashion how towns are “built while you
wait,” so to speak, in these amazing Western Provinces:—

“Half-way between Lake Superior and the Manitoba prairies, in the heart
of the virgin forest, the Grand Trunk Pacific town-builders put their
pencils on the map and gave orders. Presto! The new town of Graham, with
its divisional railway shops, its roundhouses, its stores and banks,
springs into being. At the edge of the prairie section they decree
another larger railway city, with immense repair shops, car works and
foundries. Transcona is born! As the rails are flung Pacificward, across
the prairies, there spring into being a string of communities, with
important divisional centres of the Melville, Watrous, Wainwright and
Edson type, at regular intervals.

“I don’t know whether these Grand Trunk town-builders deliberately
planned a _de luxe_ edition or not. Certainly, they got one out when
they put Mirror, Alberta, on the map. Mirror is about half-way between
Calgary and Edmonton. It is almost in the geographical centre of the
Province of Alberta—in the heart of one of the richest agricultural
sections. It is to be an important divisional centre, on the Grand Trunk
Pacific’s line connecting Calgary and Southern Alberta with the main
trans-continental line from Winnipeg to Edmonton.

“The town site of Mirror is natural—that is, the railway company did
not have to look for one in that particular location. They found it,
ready made, on the west bank of Buffalo Lake, the largest body of fresh
water in the province, and a natural summer resort. The town site is on
a ridge with gentle slopes—eastward to the lake, and westward to the
railway right of way.

“Mirror—though it borrows its name from an English publication, _The
London Mirror_—will be a typically cosmopolitan town of the Canadian
west. Around it are farming districts of marvellous prosperity. There
are rich and vast coal mines in the immediate vicinity. Scientists say
that this district is in the heart of the gas and oil belts of Alberta.
In natural resources, beauty of location, and future prospects, Mirror
is a blue ribboner among the new municipalities.

“When the town site of Mirror was first placed on the market—July 11
and 12, 1911—there were 577 lots sold at auction in 660 minutes. The
aggregate purchase price of these lots was $250,000. That was the
beginning. Many more lots have been sold since. Before Mirror was a
month old it had two banks, five stores, three lumber yards, one hotel,
three restaurants, two pool rooms, a sash and door factory and a
newspaper. When it reaches the mature age of one year it will be a
wonder.

“The really important feature in all this town building is that
conditions require it. The country is being thickly settled with
prosperous farmers. Merchants, manufacturers, bankers, artisans,
doctors, lawyers, ministers—all the factors in urban population—follow
the trails the farmers blaze. It is their door of opportunity.”

In Southern Alberta is the city of Medicine Hat, whose name is a
constant joke to the Englishman who knows it only as a name. I must
confess to sharing in the ribald joking until I made the acquaintance of
Medicine Hat. Having seen it, how can I describe it? I had chaffed a
London journalist—standing in the front rank of newspaper globe
trotters—until he scowled savagely at the mention of it. I shall joke
about it no longer. Medicine Hat has got to be taken very seriously
indeed.

Locally its name is familiarly shortened to “The Hat.” It gets its name
from its extraordinary location. There is a large circular depression of
the prairie, surrounded by sharply-rising sandy walls. The depression,
with the prairie stretching out above from the rim of the walls, bears a
rough resemblance to an inverted low-crowned hat, with an endless Quaker
brim. Through the depression runs the broad silver belt of the South
Saskatchewan River. The depression suggests a worn-down volcano crater,
and the speciality of Medicine Hat confirms the suggestion. Underneath
is pent up an inexhaustible storage of natural gas. The Indians knew of
the gas, and associated it with magic and devilry, hence the name of
“Medicine Hat.” Rudyard Kipling’s imagination was impressed by Medicine
Hat, and he styled it “City born fortunate, built upon hell.” No wonder
the hollow crown is being filled with huge flour mills and factories,
while the brim is being eagerly snapped up for residential purposes. The
gas is pure and ready for use to supply alike power, light and heat.
There are “gas wells,” from which the gas rushes at a tremendous
pressure, but it is tamed and made to do its work, at a cost to the
consumer of only 7½_d._ per thousand cubic feet. That means to the
householder fuel as well as light. Manufacturers are encouraged to
settle in “The Hat” by the offer of “free power” for five years. As it
costs nothing to generate the power, and the supply is unlimited, it
pays the authorities to make the concession. Last winter four huge flour
mills were to be put up by different companies, and about thirty
factories are already at work, while inquiries are crowding in from
other firms. “The Hat” expects to have a population of half-a-million by
the time its young men are middle-aged. The South Saskatchewan gives it
the purest drinking water, and in the summer the prairie will be making
gold for the farmers, much of which will gravitate into “The Hat.” I
might add that the street lamps burn all day because it is cheaper to
let them burn than to employ labour in putting them out and relighting
them.

[Illustration: CALGARY.]

I found further on, at Calgary, that that city is also utilising natural
gas, but in this case it has to be brought in pipes some 200 miles. I
was told that the work of trenching, laying the pipes, and putting on
the gas supply had been done within two months—a fact of which Calgary
was properly proud. At Calgary, a cattle and horse-raising centre, I saw
the month-old University of Calgary, housed in a modest temporary
building, with some seventy students. The Dean, Dr. Braithwaite, showed
me a syllabus of some seventy subjects, and the plan of a block of
University buildings that might well make Oxford or Cambridge “sit up
and take notice.” It would take at least $50,000,000 (£10,000,000) to
realise the scheme, but the Dean said, “It may take fifty years, but it
will be done.” Already a few citizens have subscribed 450 acres of land,
in a glorious situation, on high ground a few miles from the centre of
the city, with the serrated line of the Rocky Mountains cutting the
western horizon seventy miles away, and $500,000 are given as a
beginning. There is a strong rivalry between Calgary and Edmonton and
Saskatoon, further north in Alberta. The State University is at
Saskatoon, but Calgary is going ahead with its University for South
Alberta, and will worry the Government for a charter empowering it to
confer degrees when its students are ready for the degrees.

Central Alberta, unfortunately, I was unable to see, but I heard much
about it even on the Atlantic before I landed in Canada. There were on
board two of the leading citizens of Edmonton, Alberta. They told me of
the inexhaustible natural resources of the western-most Prairie
Province, backing on to the Rocky Mountains—land that yields 36 to 40
bushels of wheat and 50 and more bushels of oats to the acre, and under
the surface thousands of square miles of the best coal waiting to be
mined. “And there are other things,” said an ex-City Commissioner. “We
have a lake—Cold Lake—scarcely noticed on the map, yet I have seen
forty teams a day drawing the white fish from that lake for the American
market. When the great lakes, such as the Great Slave and the Lesser
Slave, are opened up, they will yield inexhaustible supplies of fish, of
enormous value. It’s marvellous! I’ve been ten years farming at
Edmonton—that is to be an old-timer in a city that has risen in
population from 5,000 to 55,000 within the decade—and I never cease to
marvel at what both land and water give us.” That “It’s marvellous!” I
kept hearing from Canadian lips all the way across.

As to British Columbia, it is destined to be a great holiday resort
alike of Canada and of the North-Western American States. We catch sight
of the serrated line of the Rockies at Calgary, clearly visible through
the transparent atmosphere at a distance of seventy miles. From Calgary
over the Rockies, and the descent through British Columbia to Vancouver,
is a run of twenty-six hours. The scenery surpasses even that of
Switzerland.

Canadians who have spent a holiday at Lake Louise or other centres for
mountain climbing and glacier exploration find even their abundant and
eloquent vocabulary insufficient to express their ecstatic admiration. I
passed through British Columbia and back in the middle of November, but
even then the hours of daylight were hours of continuous delight. From
the windows or the platform of the observation car rise on either side
the shaggy sides of mountains and beyond them peaks and peaks towering
above each other over the snow line, until they are lost in the dim
distance. Anything more exquisitely lovely than sunrise in the Rocky
Mountains it is impossible to imagine. The gilded snow peaks look like
cubes and pyramids of glittering gold. The railway itself is a continual
wonder. It is a triumph of the mind, the resolute will, the skilful
hands, and the Napoleonic organisation of labour and mechanical
ingenuity over the forces of Nature, which it would almost seem intended
to place the Rockies as an everlasting barrier between the prairie and
the Pacific. The railway now tunnels through the living rock, now
corkscrews up apparently impossible gradients, now throws itself across
terrific chasms, now winds along the edge of precipitous cliffs, now
runs through gloomy ravines as it makes its westward journey to the
coast.

British Columbia is as confident of its magnificent future as are its
sister Provinces. With the opening of the Panama Canal it looks forward
to such an outlet for its agricultural and manufacturing products as
will draw millions of people to the country and make it not only by its
scenic glories a gem of the Imperial crown, but one of the Empire’s
richest wealth-producers. As the railway descends to the lower slopes of
the Rockies the country opens out. There are large and lovely lakes
swarming with fish, a country abounding with valleys that rival
Annapolis valley of Nova Scotia and the Niagara country of South Ontario
in their fitness for fruit growing, while the humidity of the
atmosphere, the soft Pacific breezes, the flood of summer sunshine, and
the mildness of the winter give British Columbia enormous advantages
over its eastern fruit-producing rivals. Fruit alike of temperate and
sub-tropical climates ripens to perfection with marvellous rapidity,
yields incredible crops, and is of the richest flavour. In the autumn of
1912 and again in 1913 collections of British Columbia fruit won the
gold medal of the Royal Horticultural Society in London. Already British
Columbia is sending its apples and other fruit to Australia and New
Zealand, having the profitable advantage of producing its fruit during
the antipodean winter. Large numbers of British and American farmers are
settling in the valleys of British Columbia, and millions of British
capital are being invested in the purchase and development of farms.

Then British Columbia is one of the greatest lumber producing countries
of the world. Millions of square miles of forests are waiting to be
utilised. One of the sights of British Columbia is the freight train,
sometimes a hundred waggons long, drawn by two powerful engines,
conveying the prepared lumber to the coast for shipment to the States,
or climbing the Rockies eastward for the prairie. The country is
fabulously rich also in minerals, including gold. Scarcely the surface
of the mineral richness has yet been scratched. When the mining
resources are fully developed those resources alone would mean that
British Columbia will be one of the richest States of the Dominion. The
population of a country more than twice the size of Great Britain is as
yet only about 600,000, and more than a third of its population is that
of Vancouver city and Victoria in Vancouver island. I spent some time in
Vancouver city, which, within a dozen years, has grown from 12,000 to
over 100,000. Its main streets, such as Hastings Street, with its
splendid shops, would do credit to Leeds or Manchester. The “sky
scraper” is evident in Vancouver, and will be more evident if land
values continue to increase as they are increasing now. During my stay a
record in land values was made by the sale of a site on Hastings Street
at $7,500 per foot frontage. The site was already occupied by a fine
block of buildings, but the block was scarcely considered in the
transaction. It was to be torn down in order that a new block of
palatial magnificence might be erected upon it. It is clear as the day
that with its possibilities British Columbia within fifty years will be
the home of a people exceeding the population of Belgium and Holland,
and even richer than the people of those two most industrious countries.
The Grand Trunk and the Canadian Northern “steels” have already reached,
or are about to reach, the coast, opening up huge tracts of country that
will be developed after the Canadian fashion, towns being started every
other day of the week and becoming within ten years places of importance
as centres for the supply of the surrounding country. A great number of
these towns will become centres of manufacturing industry, for in
British Columbia, as in the other Provinces, the desire for
manufacturing industries is almost a fever. The banks, the great
insurance companies, and other financial concerns express their faith in
the future of British Columbia by their willingness to advance millions
for its agricultural and industrial development. The visitor to British
Columbia soon discovers that the Province might well be named the Nova
Scotia of the Pacific, for, as men of Scottish blood were among the
pioneers, discoverers and settlers, so Scotsmen by the thousand, with
their keen scent for places where money is to be made, have flocked, and
are flocking, into British Columbia. The outstanding names in Vancouver
and Victoria are Scottish names. I met one Scotsman in the timber trade
just arrived from Glasgow. He had done well in Glasgow, but he told me
that Glasgow was nothing compared to British Columbia.

The notes I have given with regard to the industrial development and the
industrial prospects of the Provinces of Canada are scanty enough, but I
hope that the glimpse given of the conditions and the outlook will prove
serviceable alike to those in the Old Country seeking homes and careers
in Canada, and to those also with loose money, who cherish a legitimate
desire to invest that money in something more remunerative and less
precarious than are most of the openings for investment in Great
Britain. A Lethbridge man told me that for ten years he had been trying
to convince his friends in England that the current rate of 8 per cent.
interest on mortgage loans in the Canadian Far West was as safe as 4 or
5 per cent. invested in gilt-edged securities in the Old Country. He had
succeeded at last in so persuading them, and several of his friends had
commissioned him to take charge of their savings and make fructifying
use of them in assisting the agricultural and industrial development of
the Far West.

The warning, of course, must be given that land sharks and sharks of
other descriptions run in hungry troops in Canada, and that a man in
England with money to invest should be quite sure that his agents or
friends in Canada are in the know and can be thoroughly relied upon.

                 *        *        *        *        *



                              CHAPTER VII


                             “REAL ESTATE”


Before leaving for Canada a word of advice was given to me by a Member
of Parliament friend who had recently returned from a tour through the
Dominion. “If you meet a Real Estate man,” he said, “and he wants to
talk to you, get into the next street as soon as you can.” I bore the
warning in mind, but the difficulty that presented itself in Canada was
that there are not enough next streets in the whole Dominion in which to
take refuge from the Real Estate man. He has his offices in every street
of every town and almost in every village. His windows are decorated
with maps and plans showing districts of new towns and suburban
districts of the older towns ripe for development. Facts and figures
about the unequalled opportunities are put before you in ways more
enticing than are those of a London company promoter. You are told how
the population has increased within five years from 5,000 to 17,000, and
it is bound to increase in a sort of geometrical progression. You are
advised to “get in early,” secure “snips,” and your fortune is made. You
may be a shy fly and decide to keep out of the spider’s parlour, but
that does not save you. In the entrance hall of your hotel, with its
great windows like those of an hotel or boarding house front at Ostend,
the Real Estate man, the picture of prosperity, evidently feeling that
all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds, is smoking his
Havana. In the affable manner which the Canadian shares with the Yankee
he gets into conversation with you without introduction and without
encouragement. How can you resist a man so stuffed with interesting
information, so genial and so pleasant? He asks you if you have been in
“our city” before, what you think about the city and the Province, how
long you have been in Canada, when do you propose to return to the Old
Country, are you on pleasure or on business bent, and if on business,
what business? Having taken such a friendly interest in you, you
naturally reciprocate the interest and inquire in what line your affable
friend is. “Real Estate, sir,” he says, “and if you want to be put on to
a good thing you have hit on the right man, sure.” He dives into his
pocket or opens his dispatch case and out comes a plan of an estate
showing hundreds of lots in a chequer a yard and a half or two yards
square. He tells you that you have to be careful when you deal in Real
Estate, for there are mighty cute men in Canada, and before you can say
“snap” they have you. He, of course, as you have gathered from his
conversation, does his business on purely philanthropic principles. So
pleasant a man could not deceive you. He is soon pointing out the
choicest bits on his map and telling you, as a friend rather than as a
seller, that if you want half-a-dozen, or a dozen, or a score of lots he
can let you have the cream of the bunch at a giving-away price. “They
are real snips, sir, you can take it from me. I know what I am talking
about. I have it on the best authority that the C P.R. is going to make
that town a divisional point, or is going to connect up with the
Canadian Northern or the Grand Trunk. It is going to build a two million
dollar ‘deepo’ there and arrange a freightage shed that will astonish
creation in that part of the country. Do you know, sir, that I sold six
lots there three months ago at $10 a foot”—which means foot
frontage—“to a friend of mine, and when I saw him only last Thursday he
told me he had just refused $20 a foot for those lots. Now I can let you
have these lots at $12 a foot, and you can take my word for it that
within three months you will either have sold them for double the amount
or you will have come to me for another dozen or score of lots. They are
going just like hot cakes.” You wonder why a man with such gold mines in
his possession should be willing to part with them at all.

It is not only Real Estate men, however, who talk Real Estate. Everybody
talks it. In the hotel, at the street corner, in the departmental store,
on the railway, you hear Real Estate, Real Estate, Real Estate all the
time. It is a subject of the most thrilling and never-fading interest to
the Canadian. You meet men everywhere who have been dabbling in lots,
and to a certain extent they confirm the Real Estate man’s rosy pictures
of the money to be made out of this form of speculation. A man not a
year out from England told me, for instance, that he had bought four
lots at $300 a lot and within six months had refused $2,500 for them.
Real Estate has become not only a Canadian business, but a Canadian
pastime, rivalling baseball and pool in its capture of the imagination
and the absorbing interest that its votaries take in it.

There is money to be made out of Real Estate—endless money, profits
that grow as Jonah’s gourd grew, if you only understand the game. “If
only!” But there is the rub. You want to be the man on the spot with
access to all sources of information, a man with sound judgment who can
forecast developments in the near future, if you are to dabble in Real
Estate without getting your fingers badly burned. Or if you are not the
man on the spot you should know the man on the spot and be thoroughly
convinced that he has the judgment and is straight, or you should deal
only with a company or agency of unblemished reputation—a reputation of
not taking wild-cat risks, but of buying only where there is a
reasonable prospect of increased increment and selling at a fair rate to
customers who will be content with a reasonable profit—the word
“reasonable” to be interpreted in the Canadian sense. With such provisos
there is perhaps no form of investment which will yield such large
profits in so short a time as investments in Canadian Real Estate. It is
gambling, of course, as much as speculation in futures on the Stock
Exchange or the buying and selling of shares in industrial concerns with
rapid vicissitudes is gambling, but after all the Real Estate business
is playing an important part in the economic development of Canada. The
Real Estate men are champion “Boosters,” the most enterprising and
effective publicity men of the towns and districts where the lots lie.
There are plenty of honest Real Estate men who have found that honesty
pays, because clients for whom they have made profits come to them again
and introduce their moneyed friends to them.

The peculiarity of the Real Estate business in Canada is the undoubted
incredible increase of unearned increment due to the miraculous growth
of towns and the continual opening up of fertile country. In the new
towns of Canada the Single Tax system lends itself to the Real Estate
man’s activities. A town site is surveyed by the municipal surveyor. It
is cut up into thousands of lots which are registered. The rateable
value of the lots is estimated, and the purchaser of each lot purchases
it with the obligation of paying the rate on the assessed value as soon
as he takes possession, whether he builds on it or not. The Real Estate
man carefully studies the municipal map. He estimates the value of the
lots for himself. He collects all the information available as to the
directions in which the town is likely to spread from the centre. He
finds out, as far as possible, what are the probabilities of railways
coming to the town. He decides to take a batch of lots—50, 100, or 250.
The process is so simple and so free from legal technicalities and costs
that he soon finds himself in possession. The municipality wants a rate
income, and in the early years of its existence favours the Real Estate
man or anybody else who will risk taking the lots and begin contributing
the rates upon them. The Real Estate man, having secured his block of,
say, 250 lots, has his map drawn with the block coloured and issues the
map, probably with a booklet designed to demonstrate that his lots are
the snippiest of all the snips in that town. Having to pay the rates and
to pay quarterly instalments on the price of the land beyond the rates,
if the municipality puts a value on the lots, it is to his interest to
dispose of them as speedily as possible. He does not want to build, and
certainly he does not want to go on paying those rates and instalments
on unproductive land. He sets a value on the lots. If for houses of
about 25 to 30 feet frontage and a depth, say, of 120 feet, the value
may be $10 to $20 per foot frontage. He disposes of them at this price
to new-comers and others wanting to build their houses or to men
desirous of having a little fling in the way of a speculation in
unearned increment. It is these speculators on increment out of whom the
Real Estate man relies to make his main profit. A few lots are sold at
$10 and $12 a foot to be paid in one payment down, and the rest in
quarterly instalments spread over three, four, or five years. A man
buys, say, half-a-dozen lots and pays his first instalment. The
agreement is signed then and there in the Real Estate man’s office, and
the transaction is entered and a trifling fee paid in the Land Titles
Office of the municipality. The whole thing may have been discussed,
agreed upon, the deed signed, and the transaction legally concluded
within an hour. The purchaser has got his half-a-dozen lots at $300 each
and has paid a twelfth of the price. The first instalment may have
exhausted the whole of his available money. His hope is that before the
next instalment is due he will re-sell to a purchaser and make $5 or
more profit per foot out of the purchaser. The second buyer is also a
speculator in increments. He pays his instalment with the same hope of
selling at a satisfactory advance price before the second or third
instalment becomes due. So it goes on. It is all right if you are one of
the early purchasers and get rid of the lots according to your
expectation, but if the speculation fever is very high and the
expectations as to the future of the town or the district of the town in
which the estate is situated are too rosy, the lots are sure, within a
limited time, to be forced up to a selling price far beyond their
intrinsic value, and a too sanguine buyer at last will find himself in
possession of them and have them left unsaleable upon his hands. As it
was put to me by a shrewd man very familiar with the business, “It is
the last man who will get the pinch.” If you go in for Real Estate
speculation you must take care not to be the last man.

The head of a great Canadian financial corporation said to me, “There is
plenty of money to be made out of Real Estate if you can trust the man
you deal with, but my advice to all my friends is to avoid as far as
they can long-range Real Estate speculation. It is safer to put money
into good industrial investments. The profits may not be so quick or so
great, but there is much less risk.”

Several Real Estate men were perfectly frank in describing to me the
dangers of Real Estate investment by men not in the know dealing with
Real Estate men in whom they have not the fullest reason to put
confidence. “The thing,” said one of them, “may look all right on the
map. The map shows you that the lots for instance, are within two or
three minutes of the post office or the Town Hall. So they are, but you
want to know just where the post office or the Town Hall is in its
relation to the business and the best residential quarters of the town.
It may be that the location of the post office was fixed when the
township site was first laid out. It was expected then that the town
would grow from the post office location as a centre, but for some
reason or other it has not grown all round the post office, but has
spread away, say, east and south and has not spread north and west. The
lots shown to you on the map may be north or west of the post office and
not be worth $10 a foot, whereas if they were at an equal distance east
or south they would be worth $25 or $30 a foot. Or the post office in
those infant days may have been given to somebody by a bit of
favouritism and been located just where it is because the man happened
to have a lot there, without regard to the public convenience at all,
and it is now practically stranded. Again, the Town Hall, by the same
mysterious tendencies of growth, may be three or four hundred yards out
of the profit-making centre and the lots shown to you may be in a
comparatively unprofitable area. You want to know such matters as these
to be quite sure that you have got the real snips.”

The Real Estate man has certainly nothing to learn in the art of pushing
his wares and prevailing on customers anxious to get rich quick. Every
self-respecting Real Estate man has his automobile in which “to run”
inquirers “round.” It is a very good automobile, has probably cost him
$2,000 or $3,000. It runs as smoothly as an automobile can on such roads
as they have in and around the new growing cities and the new suburbs of
the older cities. As you are being run to the estate where the most
attractive snips are to be shown you the Real Estate man tells you
marvellous stories of profits made out of lots purchased on an estate
just this side of the one you are going to. “Only three years ago, sir,
that estate was laid out. Lots were sold at $13 a foot, and to-day the
men who have got them would not take $50 a foot for them. There is no
reason whatever why our estate should not do as well and even better,
for the C.P.R. is putting down a station right in the middle of it, and
already the municipality has determined to run its street car track
right through the estate to such and such a bit of lake-side or river or
wood that is the favourite summer outing place for the citizens.” You
are so interested and the car runs so smoothly that you seem to be on
the estate in no time. You see the lots. It is impressed upon you that
if you miss this opportunity you will regret it all your life, and
unless you are amongst the “once bitten twice shy” you are almost
persuaded. The Real Estate man completes the persuasion by telling you
“We are only seven minutes here from the Town Hall.” You think seven
minutes is almost next door to the Town Hall. You decide to buy and are
driven back to the Real Estate man’s office with mind full of happy
anticipation of the profit you will make when selling time comes next
spring. It is only afterwards, when you meet a citizen of the town, a
commercial traveller or some other frequent visitor who knows the
distances, that you learn the Real Estate man was quite right when he
told you the estate was only seven minutes from the Town Hall, but he
forgot to tell you that it was also seven miles which the automobile had
covered in the seven minutes. During my time in Canada I was offered a
good score of “snips,” and was tempted to regret that I was not moneyed
man enough to take advantage of them. Perhaps, if I had had the money
and had secured possession of the lots, I should by now have reaped 50
per cent. on the investments—perhaps I should have had the lots still
on my hands and been cudgelling my brains to find the means of keeping
up the payment of the instalments.

In Moose Jaw one of the three or four drunken men whom I saw in
Canada—the drunken woman, I am told, is happily an unknown figure in
the Dominion—was going along the main street repeating joyously “I’ve
got some lots, I’ve got some lots.” Let us hope he had secured them
before he had taken the liquor, otherwise he might wake up sober and
find he was amongst those who had burnt their fingers.

It is not only in home or business sites, however, that the Real Estate
man deals. There is a vast amount of Real Estate business done in
“acreage,” as the Canadian calls agricultural land. A man or a company
secures 10,000, 15,000, 20,000 or 50,000 acres of unbroken prairie. This
is divided into farms. The usual map is produced showing the position of
the farms. The railway line in actual existence or in contemplation is
seen striking through the estate. There are three or four or
half-a-dozen stations shown along the line within the boundary of the
estate. You are told that the Canadian Northern or the Canadian Pacific
Railway is going to make one of the stations a divisional point—you are
further told that all around the region towns are springing up and other
towns are certain to be started in a year or two. Every farm on the
estate will be within three or four miles of a railway. These farms can
be had at the giving-away price of $20 an acre to be paid for by $2 an
acre down now and the remainder in instalments covering five or ten
years. I was offered my choice in Toronto of as much as I liked to take
of a 25,000 acre estate in Manitoba. The Real Estate man spread out his
map before me and earnestly impressed upon me the quite exceptional
“snip” that this acreage proposition was. I could not do better than to
snap up some farms for myself and persuade my friends in England to do
likewise. I am afraid that the half-hour of that Estate man was wasted,
for reasons into which I need not enter. Now the proposition may have
been all he stated it to be. A number of Anglo-Canadian combines have
purchased such properties and divided them up into farms of from 25 to
500 acres, and men who have taken the land are fully satisfied with
their bargains. On the other hand, the same speculator, not knowing much
about acreage values, might easily get badly burnt over acreage. As a
practical Canadian farmer said to me: “The land may look all right on
the map and the visitor who does not know farming—especially the
Englishman who does not know Canadian farming—may think it looks all
right when he is taken over the estate; but the practical Canadian
farmer has sharp eyes and wants to be assured that the thing is as good
in reality as it looks on the map. You may buy a farm, for instance, and
find that the land is stony and dry and that a lot of money will have to
be spent in irrigation if crops are to be raised out of it. On the other
hand, you may find that it may be low-lying and swampy, and that even
more money will have to be spent on draining the land if it is to be any
good for farming. Or it may be covered with trees that want stumping
out, or the good surface soil may be very shallow and ten years of
cropping will exhaust it, or there may be a dozen other things that will
depreciate the value of the land.” Again there is that danger of
“long-range speculation.” The projected railway may never become a
reality. The station within four miles of your farm may exist only in
the imagination. You may have to cart your stuff not four miles, but
seven or ten miles, and the extra cost of cartage and of labour will
considerably reduce the margin of profit. You may be fifty miles from a
populous town which offers a market for produce other than wheat, and if
you want to succeed in Canada it is well not to put all your eggs into
the wheat basket, but to have dairying, chicken and egg-raising, and
market gardening as other resources. No English farmer ought to buy land
until, in the company of an experienced Canadian farmer, he has
thoroughly examined it and studied its capabilities. The English
investor, knowing nothing about Canadian acreage values and still more
ignorant about the actual value of lots offered to him on this
particular acreage investment proposition, should not risk his money
without expert advice from the district. Such expert advice is usually
to be had, though of course it has to be paid for, but no money is
better spent than that spent in gaining such knowledge.

This chapter on Real Estate is written in no unfriendly spirit to the
Real Estate men. I am convinced that many of those whom I met, both
those dealing in town sites and those dealing in acreage, were men of
sound judgment and good commercial honesty; but business is business,
and the principle in the minds of a large number of the Canadian Real
Estate men generally is _caveat emptor_—“let the buyer keep his eyes
skinned—my business is to sell. I have to make my profit—it is the
buyer’s business to take care that he makes his. If the land is not what
he expected that is his look out—he must find somebody else as simple
as himself to relieve him of it.”

                 *        *        *        *        *



                              CHAPTER VIII


                          THE HOMES OF CANADA


The people on the great ocean liners leaving the Clyde, the Mersey, and
the Severn for Canada cross the Atlantic to make homes across the seas.
The object of all business and agriculture is home-making. If Canada was
simply a country in which money was to be made under uncomfortable
conditions, people would soon get tired of going to Canada. There are
countries under the British flag and under the flags of other colonising
Governments which are simply money-making countries. The climate is
unhealthy or enervating, the conditions of life are such as are
uncongenial to those who have been brought up in this great homeland of
the world. It used to be thought that Canada was not the kind of country
in which it would be possible to settle down to such home life as is the
ambition of men in Old England, in Germany and France, and in the older
cities of America. It was a legend that Canada for a great part of the
year was a country under the dominion of unbearable cold—a country in
which the thermometer went down to arctic depths, in which the icy
atmosphere cut as with dagger stabs to the marrow of the bones, a
country that was buried under fathomless depths of snow. Well, during
three or four months of the winter—from the end of November to the
middle of March—the greater part of Canada is decidedly cold. The
thermometer _does_ sink to many degrees below zero, and the earth is
hidden by a thick wintry white mantle. Canadians, however, laugh with
huge enjoyment when they are asked whether they feel the cold—whether
they ever keep warm in winter. They declare to a man and a woman that
they never feel a quarter so cold in Canada as they do when they visit
the Old Country, whether the visits are in an English winter or in a wet
and cold summer. They resented Rudyard Kipling’s description of Canada
as “Our Lady of the Snows.” This, they said, conveyed an entirely false
impression of their country. As a matter of fact, they regard the winter
as the most enjoyable season of the year. The virgin whiteness of the
snow, the clear crisp air, the sunshine that floods the country week
after week and month after month, the blueness of the sky, make it joy
to be alive. The most pessimistic of curmudgeons feels happy and hopeful
during the Canadian winter. His blood circulates briskly, his lungs
drink in air of such purity that he feels almost as if he were walking
on air with light and springy step. I met many Canadians who told of
having experienced temperatures as low as 40 deg. F. below zero, and
yet, they said, they kept warm and never experienced that
marrow-chilling feeling that they get during an English December or
March or even during an English summer, with its leaden skies, with a
temperature somewhere in the 40’s or early 50’s, and the gusts of wind
that search out every weak place in the body. The air is dry and still,
and with these conditions it does not matter how low the thermometer may
sink. The temperature is not only tolerable, but enjoyable, providing,
of course, that the right clothing is worn, that the house is equally
warmed, and that reasonable precautions are taken.

[Illustration: PLOUGHING AND HARVESTING.]

As to houses, an indispensable institution of Canadian home life is the
heat-raiser—the stove apparatus in the basement which supplies the
steam-pipes carried through every room and also through every passage in
the house. The heat-raiser has been carried to the last pitch of
perfection to meet the needs of the Canadian winter. As a Montreal
resident said to me, it would not do to go out of a room heated to 60 or
70 degs. into a passage where the temperature was below zero. It is this
equal heating that prevents Canadians feeling cold in their homes, and
Canadians coming to this country always complain of the coldness of our
houses, and especially of the coldness of unheated bedrooms. English
visitors to Canada, on the other hand, always complain that the houses
are too hot, and still more that the railway trains, which are heated in
the same fashion, are too hot. My own experience of railway travelling
in Canada, of many nights spent sleeping in Pullman cars, confirms the
testimony of English travellers. The temperature at times in the railway
trains is almost unbearable, and it was a delight when the train stopped
for five or ten minutes to alight on platforms sprinkled with snow and
to breathe the clear crisp air. I have no doubt that the train-heating
is as necessary as the house-heating having regard to the conditions.
Canadians adapt themselves to the conditions, and what is abnormal to us
becomes normal to them. The English visitor to Canada misses the open
grate; the Canadian, and especially the Canadian housewife, testifies
that the absence of the open grate is the greatest boon to the Canadian
householder. It means cleanliness, saving of trouble, doing away with
alternations of temperature which mean colds and general _malaise_. The
cooking arrangements of Canadian home life are simplified, as are the
heating arrangements, and in view of the difficulty—which is
practically an impossibility—of obtaining domestic servants it is
necessary to adopt every kind of labour-saving appliance on the market.
The heating and cooking apparatus of Canadian homes is due mostly to the
inventiveness of American manufacturers. Generally speaking Canadian
home conditions are, as the Scots would say, “homologated” to the
conditions prevailing on the American side of the border.

With regard to the domestic servant difficult, I had many talks with
Canadian housewives on the question. The problem is solving itself by
American ladies doing their own housework and simplifying their domestic
arrangements accordingly. The wives of men of high social position do
most of their own housework and seem to enjoy it. All this has its
effect on the social etiquette. Ladies visiting each other in the
afternoon, for instance, do not expect to be asked to tea, though of
course if a lady chooses to ask her most intimate friends to tea there
is nothing to prevent her. It is understood, however, that to get tea
for visitors means that the hostess herself must prepare the meal and do
the necessary washing-up afterwards. The servant problem is responsible
also for Canadians of good social position living in houses much smaller
than people in the same station would occupy at home. Driving round the
“bon-ton” suburbs of rising cities in the Prairie Provinces I was
surprised at the bijou residences in which I was told prominent citizens
who were credited with fortunes of half a million to a million dollars
were content to live. You must never judge of a man’s wealth in Canada
by the size of his house and the style of his living. It is a question
of the impossibility of getting servants, and Canadians are sensible
enough to realise that the impossibility has its advantages. They have
neither the time nor the inclination to create a lot of social duties
such as are considered necessities of social suburban life at home,
which would mean in Canada not only vast expense, but the eating up of
invaluable time without any adequate compensation in the way of real
social enjoyment. Well-to-do Canadians do not often invite mere
acquaintances as guests to their homes. What they do is to put their
guests up at a good hotel—and good hotels are plentiful enough, even in
towns which have sprung up on the Prairie during the last twenty years.
There is a surprising number of excellent hotels with a cuisine,
attendance, and bedroom arrangements that any reasonable man should be
satisfied with. When religious or other conferences meet in a Canadian
town the delegates are not, as in this country, placed out with hosts
who give them a bedroom, breakfast, and supper for three, four or more
days, but the hosts send them to hotels. This practice has mutual
advantages. It is not always convenient for a man to take in a stranger,
though he may be an angel unawares; very often, as hosts in this country
know to their cost, he is far from being an angel. But though he might
be the most desirable of guests, the host, if a business or professional
man, might feel it irksome to give his guest the attention he felt was
due from him. On the other hand, the guest is free in the hotel to enjoy
himself in his own way with fellow delegates. At several towns where I
stayed there were groups of delegates to synodal meetings of religious
denominations, trade conferences and the like, and it struck me that
their informal conferences over the tables were contributing a good deal
to the success of the meetings which had brought them to the towns.

[Illustration: STRATHCONA MONUMENT AT MONTREAL.]

A distinction has to be drawn between cities and towns of Old Canada and
the cities and towns of the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia. In
Old Canada, at Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, London, Hamilton, and many
other cities life has settled down; there are traditions going back
through several generations. There are old families and family
relationships, old churches, institutions, colleges and schools. The
life in these old cities has plenty of social intercourse and social
enjoyments, and yet there is a freshness and exuberance which are
missing in the crowded cities of the Old Country with their sharp social
distinctions and their social problems. In these old cities there is
culture of literature, art and music. The Toronto University and the
McGill University at Montreal draw their thousands of students, who
receive an education that covers all the departments of learning. Young
men and young women are brought together in the various colleges,
friendships are formed, wits sharpen wits. These young men and women are
trained to become leaders of thought and action in every department of
business, professional and social activity. Cultured English people
settling in Old Canada might find to their surprise a keener appetite
for artistic and intellectual interests than is at all common among the
suburbanites of London and the other British provincial cities. The home
life of these Canadian cities, judging by what I saw of it, is very
charming. During the summer the fullest advantage is taken of the
opportunities which are offered for holidays, week-ends and picnics on
the rivers, lakes, and among the hills and woodlands of the beautiful
Provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Canadians grew enthusiastic as they
told of holidays spent canoeing on the rivers and lakes, camping out in
the woods, fishing and shooting—getting, at a trifling cost and in a
few hours of railway travelling, right away from civilisation into the
heart of primeval forests, or camping in tents or living in huts in some
Eden of an island embosomed in a lovely lake; and then in the winter
there are endless sources of enjoyment such as we in the Old Country
have to spend expensive winter holidays in Switzerland to be able to
indulge in. I was in Montreal when the first snow of winter fell. It was
a blizzard, with heavy flakes driven before a fierce wind. The blizzard
began on a Sunday evening and continued throughout the night. In the
morning the snow had ceased, but the appearance of the city was
transformed. Every tree glittered outlined in dazzling whiteness, every
building was pointed and glistening with the lodging snow. There was a
foot of snow of crystal purity in the streets. The people of Montreal
were as cheerful as if they had just come into fortunes. They recognised
the snow as an old and welcome friend returned to them. There was a
hunting out of “rubbers,” goloshes in which to envelop the boots. There
was a tinkling of bells in the streets, reminding one of the “Alpine
chimes” heard on the pastures of Switzerland when the cattle are let
loose to browse as and where they will. All wheels had been taken off
vehicles, and sledge methods of conveyance adopted in their place.
Wheels would not appear again until the end of March. My Montreal host
regretted that I could not remain in the city, for he was promising his
family the most delightful sledge outing over the new fallen snow.
Drays, tradesmen’s traps, automobiles, taxis, handcarts, every kind of
vehicle was running on sleighs, and bells were jingling from the neck of
every horse and from every vehicle. Sleighing is an ever-exhilarating
pastime during the Canadian winter. Then, again, there are toboganning
and all sorts of winter sports to be enjoyed at home, and not as the
rare luxury of the rich, who can afford to break away from business and
put up at expensive Swiss hotels. Skating, of course, is an enjoyment
within the reach of the poorest, and it is an enjoyment available at
least four months of the year, and not, as in England, the rarest of
accidents following on a four days’ frost and put an end to by the thaw
that inevitably comes when the skates are being looked out from the
place they were put three years ago and polished of the gathered rust.

Out in the Prairie Provinces, where new cities and towns are “rising
like an exhalation,” there is plenty of summer and winter enjoyment,
although, of course, many of the people are far too busy in laying the
foundations of their future prosperity to be able to sacrifice much time
to mere recreation. Prairie dwellers told me, however, that the winter
is to them, as to the people of the Eastern Provinces, the playtime of
the year. The harvest of the prairie has been got in. There is a
slackening down of business until the spring. The people in the rising
cities have more time at their disposal to foregather at all sorts of
meetings for social enjoyment. The young man is a great institution of
the prairie town. He goes out in his thousands from the Old Country; he
crosses over from the United States. The Y.M.C.A.’s (which are run in
Canada on the broadest and most progressive lines) cater for the young
man. They and the churches, which appreciate the value of the young man
and realise that he will not be content with purely religious meetings
alone, cater generously for him. The Y.M.C.A.’s are splendid clubs
provided with gymnasia, swimming baths, facilities for the playing of
billiards, basket-ball, and other competitive recreations. Then football
has solidly established itself in Canada, as cricket has done during the
summer months, and the sportively inclined young man of Regina, Medicine
Hat, or Calgary is as keen on playing or watching a good game as the
young man in Old England, though I believe he does not allow his
interest in such games to become so absorbing as to distract his
attention from his business, in which he sees the means of forcing his
way to the front in the new country of his settlement. The young man of
the Prairie Provinces is a great camper-out in the summer and finds
plenty of interest on the prairies, whether in watching the rapid growth
of the harvests, in studying the varied flora (which is exquisitely
beautiful), or in the Nimrod pursuit of wild birds and wild animals. For
the bookish young man there are literary societies even in towns that
are not a dozen years old, and it is a very “one-horse” prairie town
indeed that does not possess a theatre and an opera house, while the
picture palace is everywhere.

Returning to home life: One does not have to be long in Canada before
discovering that nothing is more unpopular in the Dominion than
rent-paying, whether for land or for a house. Every householder wants to
own his home, and the powers that be in the State Governments and in the
municipalities encourage this ambition. It is this desire to own the
home that accounts for the ubiquity of the Real Estate agent, who swarms
all over Canada. No sooner is it decided to lay out a town, and the
municipality is created and invested with authority, than the Real
Estate man puts in an appearance. He snaps up the tit-bits in the way of
lots along the lines of the streets and the roads that are being laid
out in the town planning. He is waiting for the influx of population and
knows that there will be an increasing “home” hunger. Store-keepers will
come, with wives and children; building contractors with their foremen
and staffs of workmen; banks with their managers, cashiers and clerks;
branches of Insurance and other companies; lawyers, doctors, and the
like; all sorts and conditions of men, middle-aged and young, migrate
from the older Canadian cities, young fellows irresistibly attracted
westward by the fascination of the new, emigrants from the States, Great
Britain and the Continental countries. The married men will want
comfortable houses as soon as possible. The young bachelors will want
“diggings.” “Rooming-house” keepers will be laying themselves out to
attract boarders of both sexes. There is no fear that suitable lots for
homes will lack inquirers. There will be quarters for cheap houses,
better houses, and the best houses, to suit the various social
positions. If there is a river running through or by the town, the
bankside lots, away from the business or industrial quarters, will be in
demand for villas with gardens—the villas in the Prairie capitals, and
such cities as Medicine Hat and Calgary, following very likely
“bungalow” or Californian models. On the cheaper lots, at first, the
houses may be only “frame,” run up at small cost, to be replaced later
by brick and stone. On the outskirts of the towns tiny frame cottages
may be built by two or more young fellows who will do their own
housekeeping, enjoying the independence and the Robinson Crusoe
conditions. This is an excellent way of learning how to do without
things, and many such young fellows, by having to cook, clean, and do
everything for themselves, are in training for model husbands, ready to
help their future wives in the most diverse and practical ways. The Real
Estate man knows them all, and caters for all. His voice quivers with
sympathetic sentiment when he dilates on the ideal situation of the lot
for a home—five minutes from a projected public park or recreation
ground, and only three minutes from the street car line. Some purchasers
of lots put up houses to let furnished, and in a new Prairie city they
make a very good thing of it, but every Canadian wants to be his own
landlord as soon as he can manage it.

The Canadian’s determination to own his own home at whatever cost, and
to own the land on which he builds his office, his store or his factory,
accounts for the apparently extravagant prices cheerfully paid for these
lots. A contributory cause is the ease with which at present, and in all
likelihood for years to come, money can be made in developing the
inexhaustible resources of this rich country. Canadians admit that they
are frightfully extravagant. Money comes easily and goes easily. If a
man makes up his mind to build his home in a certain situation that has
taken his fancy, no price, apparently, will stop him. He must have that
lot of 30 or 50 feet frontage with its 120 or 130 feet depth, whether he
has to pay $10 or $50 a foot frontage. Perhaps he has hesitated over the
purchase of land that had previously taken his fancy—he was asked $20 a
foot frontage and was not at the moment disposed to go beyond $15. Three
months after he has changed his mind, has gone to the agent and has been
told that it has been disposed of at $40 a foot frontage, or that it is
still available, but that it cannot now be parted with under $45 or $50
a foot frontage. The man, let us suppose a young man getting on rapidly
with a new business or occupying an improving position in a bank or a
business house, wants to get married and wants to get his house ready at
the earliest possible moment; whether it is $100, or $200, or $300 extra
does not matter if he can only get what he has set his heart on. He
secures the wished-for lot, sees an architect, has planned for him a
picturesque bungalow or bijou villa, with the inevitable verandah, and
has the happiest of times in watching the home grow up. Most of these
homes (the property of their owners), standing on their own lots, are
detached. The streets of detached houses are characteristic of the new
cities and towns and of the new suburbs of the older cities. Canadians
do not like the continuous unbroken line of houses of our English towns.
As to this ownership of his home by the householder, a resident of
Berlin, Ontario, a city of some 14,000 people, told me that 64 per cent.
of the houses in that flourishing town belonged to their occupiers.

The furnishing of Canadian homes is tasteful and practical. There is not
the crowding and the heaviness apparent in the furnishing of many homes
in the Old Country. I gather that the Canadians like variety and
artistic merit in their furniture. They do not go in for suites and
extreme substantiality, if I may so express it, although one or two
visits I paid to the furniture departments of great departmental stores
showed that, while the furniture as a whole looks lighter in effect than
English furniture, it is well made and calculated to stand a lot of wear
and tear. The manager of a furniture department of a great departmental
store at Toronto told me that New England models are popular in Canada.
The old New Englanders developed styles of their own, which lend
themselves admirably to modern imitation and fit in well with the scheme
of the Canadian house, with its usually smaller rooms than those of an
English house of a middle-class family; but old English and old French
styles of furniture compete with the New England models, so that there
is plenty of material on which the Canadian man and the Canadian woman
can exercise taste in choosing furniture for the use and ornament of the
home.

[Illustration: A SASKATOON SCHOOL (ACCOMMODATING 1,500 CHILDREN).]

                 *        *        *        *        *



                              CHAPTER IX


                        LEAVING THE OLD COUNTRY


When a man has made up his mind to seek his fortune in Canada he
naturally wants to know the steps to be taken. The Dominion Government
is more than willing to assist him in every possible way. It regards
every man able and willing to work, with a good character, as a valuable
asset to Canada. Not only the Dominion Government, but the various
Provincial Governments have established agencies and offices in this
country to supply intending emigrants with all the information they
desire. It will be useful to give here a list of the Dominion offices
and agencies:—

    ENGLAND AND WALES.

    Mr. J. Obed Smith, Assistant Superintendent of Emigration,
    11—12, Charing Cross, London, S.W.

          Branch offices:— 48, Lord Street, Liverpool.
                           139, Corporation Street, Birmingham.
                           81, Queen Street, Exeter.
                           16, Parliament Street, York.

                                        SCOTLAND.

                           107, Hope Street, Glasgow.
                           26, Guild Street, Aberdeen.

                                         IRELAND.

                           17—19, Victoria Street, Belfast.
                           44, Dawson Street, Dublin.

No fees are charged at these offices for the information given.
Inquirers should write, stating what they want to know, and they will
receive replies to their inquiries and literature which will further
inform their minds. A large number of booking agents are appointed in
various towns throughout the country by the Canadian Immigration
Department. These local agents are also commissioned and required to
give all necessary information and to arrange for the transportation of
emigrants by the various steamship lines. It is forbidden to such agents
to charge fees for letters of introduction to officials on the Canadian
side and for other services that fall within the duties for which they
are paid commission. The spring is far and away the best time of the
year to arrive in Canada. It is when agricultural operations are
commencing that the demand for labour invariably exceeds the supply and
the activity in industries other than agricultural is also at its
greatest. Through the winter there is a general slackening both on the
land and in the cities. Farmers, farm labourers, and female domestic
servants are the classes who are most encouraged by the Canadian
Immigration Department to go out. All others are advised to get definite
assurance of employment in Canada before leaving home. They should be
provided with a few pounds for use on the other side after all the
expenses of going out have been paid. As has been indicated in an
earlier chapter, there are usually a large number of Canadian farmers
willing to advance the passage money if necessary to well-recommended
men. Lists of such farmers are kept in the Departments of Agriculture in
the various Provinces. The Dominion immigration agents on this side
would tell intending emigrants desiring such assistance to whom to
apply. The various Canadian railway companies and their shipping lines,
with the great Cunard line, which specialises in the emigrant business,
are also well furnished with information of value to emigrants. At the
offices of these lines information with regard to employment and getting
the money for the passage advanced to selected men, if that is
absolutely necessary, is also given.

As to the cost of going out, it may be put down for those going steerage
at from £6 10_s._ and £10 to £12 for second class. On the other side the
railway companies convey settlers at very cheap rates, and there are
special freightage rates for settlers’ goods. A steerage passenger will
be conveyed third class to Winnipeg or Regina, for instance, involving
nearly 2,000 miles of land travel, for £10 or £12 from Great Britain.
The steerage accommodation, as a rule, is necessarily somewhat crowded,
for the fares have been cut down to such a low level that it is a wonder
it can be done at the price at all. A very great improvement, however,
has been effected as compared with the emigrants’ accommodation given
only a dozen years ago. A steerage emigrant must not mind a little
roughing it on board. He is assured, any way, of a plentiful supply of
wholesome and varied food, and the ship’s doctor and stewards and
stewardesses are there to see that there is proper attendance in case of
sickness and that the sanitary conditions are all right. I have been
through the steerage quarters of several emigrant ships and seen the
steerage passengers at their meals. They seemed cheerful enough provided
the sea was moderately quiet. Of course, in a gale or when the sea is
swelling in long rollers, even first-class passengers on the most
luxurious of modern ships are bowled over and tempted to wish that they
had never left land. During the first two or three days there is usually
a good percentage unable to take any interest in meals. When they have
found their sea-legs, however, and the appetite for food returns, it is
surprising how cheerful the steerage passengers become. There are games
on the deck, sports are arranged, boxing-gloves are produced, the
combatants being surrounded by a ring of interested spectators. The
young women work off their exuberant vitality with the skipping rope.
The children of families going out romp as freely as if they were in the
streets or in fields. In the evening sing-songs are got up.

Great is the excitement when, on the sixth day or so, land comes in
sight, and when the ship enters the Gulf of the St. Lawrence the
“steerage” during the daylight is all on deck, scanning the scenery on
either side. No scenery can give a more favourable first impression of
the country. The ranges of wooded hills, the towns and villages, each
with its church spire in the centre, the fishing boats, are all objects
of never-failing interest. Quebec is the landing place for the
immigrants. There is no more picturesque approach to any city than the
approach up the river to Quebec, the old capital of French Canada. The
cliffs rise sheer from the water’s edge, crowned by the buildings of the
Old Town. If the approach is by night the lights of Quebec give it a
most picturesque appearance. It is always the effort of the pilot who
takes the boat in to reach Quebec by six in the evening, otherwise the
immigrants have to remain on board till the morning. The ship by which I
travelled, the _Royal George_ of the Canadian Northern Royal Line, did
not reach Quebec until two in the morning, when all but a few of the
passengers were sound asleep. They could not be landed until the
immigration officials were at their duty at the immigration landing
stage. Breakfast was served at five o’clock, and by half-past five the
party of a thousand or so steerage passengers were waiting on the deck
with their belongings to go ashore. It was a dramatic and a pathetic
sight to see them crossing the gangway. A large number of them were
young fellows, some well-dressed, educated-looking men of the clerk or
shop assistant type. They were well set-up athletic fellows who had
found the competitive conditions of London and the provincial cities and
towns of the Old Country such as gave them little, if any, hope of
rising above the earning of 30_s._ or £2 a week. In Canada the world was
before them, and they landed with hope in their hearts, though no doubt
with heart pangs as they thought of those they had left behind them.
Then there was a rougher class, the class that dispenses with collars,
wears a cap and very likely corduroy trousers, labourers from the
villages, unskilled men from the towns, muscular fellows—the men who
rely upon their brawn rather than their brains to make their way. The
young fellows of the clerk and shop assistant type had trunks and
portmanteaux—“grips,” as the Canadians call them. The men of the
labourer type carried their scanty belongings usually done up in a
bundle or a rough box. There were older men with wife and sometimes
children. These were the most pathetic to watch as they crossed the
gangway—the man with the heaviest trunk, the woman very often with a
bundle or a big cardboard box tied with string, the elder children also
carrying bundles, sometimes a baby warmly wrapped up in a shawl—these
also had found the Old Country too hard for them, and they had come to a
country where, in most cases, a situation was awaiting the man and it
would depend largely upon himself whether, having got his foot on the
lowest rung of the ladder, he should climb up to the highest. A large
number of the skilled artisans had had situations secured for them
before they left England—thirty joiners, for instance, were going to
situations at one town in Ontario. Then there were a number of
rough-looking fellows on whom a master-builder or an engineer’s ganger
would have had his eye at home. For this class there is plenty of work
in Canada, for railway construction takes in an endless supply of
labour. Building is going on all over the Dominion at an incredible
rate, and the factories that are springing up in the Eastern Provinces,
especially in Ontario, are taking on every year thousands of additional
_employés_.

[Illustration: EMIGRANTS LANDED AT QUEBEC.]

From Quebec the steerage passengers are despatched by the various
railways to their destinations. There are representatives of the
immigration departments of the railway and steamship companies to convoy
parties westward as far as Winnipeg, the great distributing centre for
the Prairie Provinces.

In addition to the Dominion, the Provincial Governments’, and the
railway and shipping companies’ emigration agencies in Great Britain,
there are plenty of societies, institutions, and religious organisations
which have organised emigration work. The Salvation Army, for instance,
sends out a large number every year. Those men do best who have received
some preliminary training on a farm colony at home. The Dominion and
Provincial Governments are much more exacting than they formerly were
with regard to the quality of emigrants sent out. Canada does not want
the human refuse for which the Old Country can find no use at home
dumped on its shores. A prospective immigrant has to run the gauntlet of
strict inquiry and examination with regard to his health and habits.
This is as it should be, for it is no kindness to send out men whose
physique is unequal to the climate and conditions of the country or
whose morals and intelligence unfit them to become useful citizens. In
the East of London and elsewhere there are self-help emigration
societies through which a man is enabled to save up the money requisite
to go out and otherwise prepare to become a successful colonist. The
Wesleyan Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Churches in Scotland, and
other Churches have organised means to assist emigrants to go out and to
be received and helped at the ports of landing and the chief centres of
distribution.

Latterly, the Brotherhood Movement of England and Wales has undertaken
the work of assisting emigrants belonging to Brotherhoods and Pleasant
Sunday Afternoon Societies by giving them reliable information and by
arranging for them to be assisted by representatives of the Brotherhood
Movement in Canada when they land. It is a very great advantage for a
man going out to find somebody willing to take a disinterested and
friendly interest in him on his arrival. He naturally feels lonely on
landing in a new country, and if he arrives with only a pound or two in
his pocket and no situation awaiting him and does not immediately get
employment he is distressed and humiliated. Mr. R. J. Harry, hon.
secretary of the International Committee of the Brotherhood Movement, is
willing to give such advice as he has at his disposal to members of
Brotherhood, P.S.A. and Sisterhood Societies who communicate with him at
the National Brotherhood Offices, 37, Norfolk Street, Strand, London,
W.C. The Brotherhood Movement has arranged with influential men in the
principal Canadian cities to act as counsellors of Brotherhood men
accredited to them, assisting them to obtain situations and lodgings and
introducing them to Churches and Brotherhoods where such exist. I found
that in Winnipeg, Vancouver, and other Canadian cities the Brotherhoods
have devised the happy institution of Sunday afternoon tea to which the
new-comers are invited. I was present at two such teas, and heard from
recently arrived immigrants how their friendly reception at this
pleasant function and the fraternisation with them of Canadians had made
them feel at once at home.

Let it be impressed on all emigrants to Canada that the sooner they get
into friendly touch with Churches, Brotherhoods, the splendid
Y.M.C.A.’s, and other institutions of the Dominion, the better it will
be for them. Canada is no more than any other country a paradise without
a serpent. There are temptations, moral dangers, land sharks on the look
out for easy victims. The members of the Canadian Churches, Brotherhoods
and Y.M.C.A.’s are willing and eager to safeguard immigrants from the
moment of their arrival from all such dangers.

It will not be long after arriving in Canada before homesickness makes
itself felt. A young man or a young woman never realises how much home
and relatives mean to them until they find themselves 4,000 to 5,000
miles away from them. There is sure to be a sinking of heart and a
longing to be back amid the old scenes and with the old friends, and it
may take months or a year before they settle down with a fair amount of
contentedness to the new and strange conditions. The best cure for
homesickness is to take the coat off and plunge at once into work with
all the physical and mental energy that one commands. The work, the
companionships that will be formed, the social connections of Church,
Brotherhood or Y.M.C.A. membership, will soon give the new-comer an
interest in the country. If he is made of the right stuff it will not be
long before, in the Canadian phrase, he “makes good.” When he begins to
make good and to feel that he did well in emigrating, and that there is
a future for him in his adopted country, the homesickness will gradually
wear away. A considerable number of the young men leave the Old Country
with the idea as soon as possible of sending for a wife. The prospect of
making a home for the girl he has left behind him is one of the best
inducements to “make good” in Canada. On the train by which I travelled
from Montreal there were three prospective brides who at different
points of the route were to meet their bridegrooms and be immediately
married. This is a romance of daily occurrence in Canada. A minister
told me that he had often married couples on the bride’s arrival at
midnight or in the small hours of the morning, for a girl coming out as
an immigrant bride of course knows nobody in the town she is going to
but her young man, and it is best on every ground that the wedding
should be celebrated without delay.

On the subject of woman emigrants I heard a great deal from many
Canadian men and women. The girl willing to engage in domestic service
is regarded in Canada as having a price far above rubies. She will find
in any town of considerable size most flattering competition for her
services. The domestic servant is, indeed, so rare that, as has been
indicated, Canadian families of high position often have to contrive to
do without female help. Where a girl is willing to engage in domestic
service, however, she has the best of good times. She is tempted,
indeed, to lose her head on finding what a jewel she is. She enters
Canada with the Old Country ideas of dutiful submission to her mistress.
When she has been a month in her first situation her mistress must not
be surprised if she asks for her wages to be doubled, for every Sunday
off, and for time off each evening of the week. She does not expect to
polish boots, to carry coals, or to perform other duties which the
English domestic takes as a matter of course. No domestic servant need
hesitate about going to Canada through fear of not finding employment.

With regard to other young women I was told that there is the keenest
demand for clever needlewomen who can earn usually $10 to $15 a week by
plain sewing.

Canada, especially the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, is very
largely a men’s country, and the men will give almost any price to a
clever needlewoman for making and mending their things. Laundry work in
Canada is done almost exclusively by Chinese. They make plenty of work
for a woman who can mend shirts and the like, for the Chinese methods of
washing things are simply disastrous to the things washed. The clever
typewriter is in the greatest demand in the Canadian towns. She works
short hours, she receives high wages, and is a particularly clever young
person. Then the great departmental stores employ girl “clerks”—that
is, shop assistants—by the hundred and the thousand. These work under
conditions such as might well excite the envy of their sisters in
similar establishments in the Old Country. The hours are short, the
business day usually closing at five o’clock. It is one of the sights of
Quebec, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, to see the street cars between five
and six o’clock simply swarming with young women returning to their
homes, all remarkably well-dressed, looking as if they got the maximum
amount of enjoyment out of life.

The teaching profession in Canada offers an excellent career to trained
teachers from the Old Country. Magnificent primary, secondary, and
normal schools are springing up like mushrooms everywhere, and it is
impossible to create teachers fast enough to meet the needs. A trained
girl teacher with a good recommendation will be greedily snapped up in
scores of towns of any of the Provinces and will have a career before
her infinitely more promising than is possible under the conditions of
the Old Country.

As to married women accompanying their husbands, there is no reason why
they should not add materially to the family income. A woman on the land
is a most valuable asset. She can raise chickens, sell eggs, collect and
sell cream, attend to the garden, do needlework and laundry work for the
farmers and others, and in many other ways find occupation at high rates
of pay. If there is a daughter or two capable of doing anything, they
also can earn from 10_s._ to 20_s._ a week to add to the family
exchequer.

Girls are employed in newspaper offices and other printing works as
linotype operators. I was told that in some cities girls skilled in the
manipulation of the linotype are earning from $20 to $25 a week.
Altogether, there is no country in the world that so fully appreciates
the value of women’s work and is so cheerfully prepared to pay for it as
Canada.

One class of woman worker that Canada has no use for is the barmaid. The
employment of women in drink shops is absolutely forbidden. It may be
added that for a woman to enter a public-house in Canada is to write
herself down as a pariah. No Canadian woman could enter a public-house
without being regarded as outside the ranks of decent society. As a
matter of fact, except perhaps in Vancouver and one or two other
cosmopolitan ports, no woman does enter a public-house. There is less
drunkenness, perhaps, in Canada than in any other country of the world,
and the attitude of Canadians with regard to women and drink contributes
undoubtedly towards the general sobriety of the country. In Ontario
entire prohibition of the drink trade prevails in many towns under the
Local Option Law. Public-houses are closed, as in Scotland, from
Saturday to Monday. Most of the great hotels are run on temperance
lines. Canada realises that its greatest asset is the working capacity,
the alert intelligence, and the moral character of its people. It sets
its face against drunkenness and other vices that depreciate the value
of its human assets.


      BRADBURY, AGNEW, & CO. LD., PRINTERS, LONDON AND TONBRIDGE.



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                                  3/6


                       THE MESSAGES OF THE BIBLE

Edited by FRANK KNIGHT SANDERS, Ph.D., Woolsey Professor of Biblical
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      XI. THE MESSAGES OF PAUL. By George Barker Stevens, Ph.D., D.D.

     XII. THE MESSAGES OF THE APOSTLES. By George Barker Stevens,
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                          INDEX (of Titles)

Abbey Mill, The, 21
America in the East, 6
Among the Malagasy, 9
Ancient Musical Instruments, 25
Animal Gambols, 28
Animal Happyland, 28
Animal Playtime, 28
Animals in Fun-Land, 28
Apocalyptical Writers, The Messages of the, 14
Apostles, The Messages of the, 14
Aspects of the Spiritual, 12
Asquith, The Right Hon. H. H., M.P., 10
Astronomy Simplified, 15
Atonement and Progress, 20
Atonement in Modern Thought, The, 11
Augustinian Revolution in Theology, 17
Aunt Agatha Ann, 30
Authority and the Light Within, 20
Awe of the New Century, The, 27

Beads of Tasmer, The, 13, 22
Beatitudes and the Contrasts, The, 17
Between Two Loves, 13, 31
Bible Definition of Religion, The, 27
Birthday of Hope, The, 30
Black Familiars, The, 6, 21
Border Shepherdess, A, 13
Bow of Orange Ribbon, The, 22, 31
Britain’s Hope, 24
Brudenelle of Brude, The, 21
Burning Questions, 24

Canonbury Holt, 21
Challenge, The, 18
Character through Inspiration, 25
Chats with Women on Everyday Subjects, 23
Children’s Pace, The, 25
Children’s Paul, The, 21
Christ in Everyday Life, 17
Christ of the Children, The, 21
Christ or Chaos?, 9
Christ that is To Be, The, 13
Christ, the Church and the Child, The, 16
Christ, The Private Relationships of, 7
Christ Within, The, 25
Christ’s Pathway to the Cross, 22
Christian Certitude, 10
Christian Life, The, 25, 30
Christian Life and Belief, 17
Christian of To-day, The, 10
Christian Union in Social Service, 15
Christian World Pulpit, The, 7
Christian World Album of Sacred Songs, The, 26
Christianity in Common Speech, 29
Chronicle of the Archbishops of Canterbury, A, 4
Christ’s Vision of the Kingdom of Heaven, 4
Chrystabel, 13, 21
Church and Modern Life, The, 11
Church and the Kingdom, The, 25
Church and the Next Generation, The, 20
Church Questions of Our Time, 14
Cinderella, 5, 21
Common Life, The, 12
Concerning Conscience, 8
Conquered World, The, 25, 30
Conquering Prayer, 18
Constructive Christianity, 16
Constructive Natural Theology, 8
Courage of the Coward, The, 11
Crucible of Experience, The, 22

Dante for the People, 7
Darwin, Charles, and other English Thinkers, 7
Daughter of Fife, A, 31
Days of Old, 9
Debt of the Damerals, The, 22
Divine Satisfaction, The, 28
Dutch in the Medway, The, 13

Earlier Prophets, The Messages of the, 14
Earliest Christian Hymn, The, 20
Early Pupils of the Spirit, 21
Ecce Vir, 26
Education of a Soul, The, 16
Emilia’s Inheritance, 21
England’s Danger, 30
Epistle to the Galatians, The, 19
Esther Wynne, 13, 21
Eternal Religion, The, 12
Eucken and Bergsen, 16
Evangelical Heterodoxy, 10
Everychild, 26
Evolution, Life and Religion, 6
Evolution of Old Testament Religion, The, 11
Exposition, The Art of, 9
Ezekiel, The Book of, 3

Facets of Faith, 23
Faith and Form, 23
Faith and Verification, 7
Faith of a Wayfarer, The, 26
Faith the Beginning, Self-Surrender the Fulfilment, of the Spiritual Life,
  25, 30
Family Prayers for Morning Use, 13
Father Fabian, 21
Fifty Years’ Reminiscences of a Free Church Musician, 16
Fighters and Martyrs for the Freedom of Faith, 9
Fireside Fairy Tales, 28
First Christians, The, 11
Flower-o’-the-Corn, 21
Flowers from the Master’s Garden, 26
For Childhood and Youth, 23
Fortune’s Favourite, 21
Fortunes of Cyril Denham, The, 21, 31
“Freedom of Faith” Series, The, 22
Friend Olivia, 6

Gamble with Life, A, 13
Garrisoned Soul, The, 26
Gloria Patri, 13
Glorious Company of the Apostles, The, 20
Good New Times, The, 19
Gospel of Grace, The, 10
Great Embassy, The, 25
Grey and Gold, 21
Grey House at Endlestone, The 21
Growing Revelation, The, 7

Hampstead, Its historic houses; its literary and artistic associations, 4
Harvest Gleanings, 19
Health and Home Nursing, 29
Health in the Home Life, 18
Heaven and the Sea, 8
Heavenly Visions, 9
Heirs of Errington, The, 21
Helga Lloyd, 5
Helps to Health and Beauty, 29
His Next of Kin, 13, 21
History of the United States, A, 4
Holidays in Animal Land, 28
Holy Christian Empire, 31
House of Bondage, The, 21
House of the Secret, The, 5
How to Become Like Christ, 25
How to Cook, 26
How to Read the Bible, 28
Husbands and Wives, 21

Ideals for Girls, 20
Ideals in Sunday School Teaching, 24
Illustrations from Art for Pulpit and Platform, 8
Immanence of Christ in Modern Life, The, 18
Imperishable Word, The, 16
Impregnable Faith, An, 17
Incarnation of the Lord, The, 7
Infoldings and Unfoldings of the Divine Genius, 25
Inner Mission Leaflets, The, 24
Inner Mission Pamphlets, The, 20
Inspiration in Common Life, 22
Interludes in a Time of Change, 10
Invisible Companion, The, 23
Inward Light, The, 11
Israel’s Law Givers, The Messages of, 14

Jan Vedder’s Wife, 22, 31
Jealousy of God, The, 25
Jesus and His Teaching, 11
Jesus or Christ?, 24
Jesus: Seven Questions, 11
Jesus, The First Things of, 10
Jesus, The Messages of, According to the Gospel of John, 14
Jesus, The Messages of, According to the Gospel of Paul, 14
Jesus, The Messages of, According to the Synoptists, 14
Joan Carisbrooke, 21
Joshua, The Book of, 4
Jowett, J. H., M.A., D.D., 23
Judges of Jesus, The, 20
Judges, The Book of, 4

Kid McGhie, 5, 21
Kingdom of the Lord Jesus, The, 25, 30
King George and Queen Mary, 17
Kit Kennedy: Country Boy, 5, 21

Lady Clarissa, 21
Last of the MacAllisters, The, 13, 22
Later Prophets, The Messages of the, 14
Leaves for Quiet Hours, 18
Led by a Child, 15
Letters of Christ, The, 22
Letters to a Ministerial Son, 17
Liberty and Religion, 18
Life and Letters of Alexander Mackennal, The, 7
Life and Teaching of Jesus, Notes on the, 24
Life and the Ideal, 12
Life, Faith, and Prayer of the Church, 26
Life in His Name, 10
Life of the Soul, 12
Life’s Beginnings, 17, 23
Life’s Little Lessons, 23
Lifted Veil, A, 17
Living Pleasures, 15
Looking Inwards, 16
Loves of Miss Anne, The, 5, 21
Lynch, Rev. T. T.: A Memoir, 6
Lyrics of the Soul, 18

Main Points in Christian Belief, The, 16
Making of Heaven and Hell, The, 24
Margaret Torrington, 21, 31
Marprelate Tracts, The, 3
Martineau’s Study of Religion, 25, 30
Merry Animal Picture Book, The, 28
Merry Times in Animal Land, 28
Messages of Hope, 16
Messages of the Bible, The, 14
Millicent Kendrick, 21
Miss Devereux, Spinster, 22
Model Prayer, The, 20
Modern Minor Prophets, 16
Modern Theories of Sin, 10
More Tasty Dishes, 29
Morning Mist, A, 22
Morning, Noon, and Night, 29
Mornington Lecture, The, 6
Mors Janua Vitæ, 26
Mr. Montmorency’s Money, 13, 21
My Belief, 11
My Neighbour and God, 18

New Evangel, The, 18
New Mrs. Lascelles, The, 22
New Testament in Modern Speech, The, 19, 22
Nineteen Hundred?, 13
Nobly Born, 21
Nonconformist Church Buildings, 20
No Room in the Inn, 23

Old Pictures in Modern Frames, 25
Old Testament Stories in Modern Light, 23
Oliver Cromwell, 27
Oliver Westwood, 21
Our City of God, 12
Our Life Beyond, 26
Our Girls’ Cookery, 27
Our Protestant Faith, 15
Ourselves and the Universe, 12, 31
Outline Text Lessons for Junior Classes, 28
Overdale, 13, 21

Passion for Souls, The, 22
Paton, J.B., M.A., D.D., 7
Paul and Christina, 13
Paul, The Messages of, 14
Pearl Divers of Roncador Reef, The, 13
Person of Christ in Modern Thought, The, 5
Personality of Jesus, The, 14
Peter in the Firelight, 16
Phyllistrata and Other Poems, 15
Pilot, The, 18
Poems. By Mme. Guyon, 14
Poets, The Messages of the, 14
Polychrome Bible, The, 3, 4
Popular Argument for the Unity of Isaiah, A, 19
Popular History of the Free Churches, A, 6, 19
Practical Lay-Preaching and Speaking to Men, 18
Prayer, 22
Preaching to the Times, 13
Price of Priestcraft, The, 27
Pride of the Family, The, 22
Problems and Perplexities, 16
Problems of Immanence, 16
Problems of Living, 12
Prophetical and Priestly Historians, The Messages of, 14
Psalmists, The Messages of the, 14
Purpose of the Cross, The, 20

Quickening of Caliban, The, 13
Quiet Hints to Growing Preachers in My Study, 14

Reasonable View of Life, A, 22
Reasonableness of Jesus, The, 23
Reasons Why for Congregationalists, 24
Reasons Why for Free Churchmen, 26
Reconsiderations and Reinforcements, 25
Reform in Sunday School Teaching, 24
Religion and Experience, 12
Religion and Miracle, 10
Religion and To-day, 12
Religion of Jesus, The, 21
Religion: The Quest of the Ideal, 17
Religion that will Wear, A, 28
Resultant Greek Testament, The, 19
Rights of Man, The, 7
Rise of Philip Barrett, The, 19
Robert Wreford’s Daughter, 13
Rome from the Inside, 27
Rosebud Annual, The, 7, 15

Sceptre without a Sword, The, 27
School Hymns, 15, 31
Scourge of God, The, 22
Sculptors of Life, 16
Secret of Living, The, 12
Seed of the Kingdom, The, 26
Self-Realisation, 15
Sermon Illustration, The Art of, 10
Sermons on God, Christ and Man, 8
Sharing His Sufferings, 23
She Loved a Sailor, 13
Ship’s Engines, The, 30
Short Talks to Boys and Girls, 28
Sidelights on Religion, 12
Simple Cookery, 20
Simple Things of the Christian Life, The, 22
Singlehurst Manor, 13, 21
Sissie, 13, 21
Sister to Esau, A, 22
Small Books on Great Subjects, 25, 30
Smith, John, the Se-Baptist, Thomas Helwys, and the First Baptist Church
  in England, 6
Social Salvation, 7
Social Worship on Everlasting Necessity, 25, 30
Song of the Well, The, 8
Spirit and Power, 15
Spoken Words of Prayer and Praise, 9
Squire of Sandal Side, The, 13, 22
St. Beetha’s, 21, 31
St. Paul and His Cities, 8
Storehouse for Preachers and Teachers, 24
Stories of Old, 21
Story of Clarice, The, 5
Story of Congregationalism in Surrey, The, 11
Story of Joseph the Dreamer, The, 20
Story of Penelope, The, 21
Story of the English Baptists, The, 11
Story of the Twelve, 15
Studies in Christian Mysticism, 15
Studies of the Soul, 12, 31
Sunday Afternoon Song Book, 31
Sunny Memories of Australasia, 24
Supreme Argument for Christianity, The, 25

Tale of a Telephone, A, 30
Talks to Little Folks, 29
Taste of Death and the Life of Grace, The, 25, 30
Tasty Dishes, 29
Ten Commandments, The, 19
Theology and Truth, 7
Theophilus Trinal, Memorials of, 6
Things Most Surely Believed, 18
Things that Matter Most, 8
Thornycroft Hall, 21
Thoughts for Life’s Journey, 17
Through Science to Faith, 6
Town Romance, A, 22
Transfigured Church, The, 9
Translation of Faith, The, 15
True Christ, The, 17
Types of Christian Life, 25

Unfettered Word, The, 8
Ungilded Gold, 18, 24
Unique Class Chart and Register, 31
Universal Over-Presence, The, 17
Unknown to Herself, 22
Until the Day Dawn, 8
Unveiled Glory, The; or, Side-lights on the Higher Evolution, 16
Uplifting of Life, The, 15

Value of the Apocrypha, The, 22
Value of the Old Testament, 20
Vida, 5
Violet Vaughan, 13, 21, 31
Voice from China, A, 11
Voices of To-day: Studies of Representative Modern Preachers, 9

Waiting Life, The; By the Rivers of Water, 15
Warleigh’s Trust, 21
Wayfarer at the Cross Roads, The, 23
Way of Life, The, 30
Way of Prayer, The, 23
Way of Understanding, The, 8
Wayside Angels, 29
Westminster Sermons, 9
What is the Bible?, 9
Who was Jesus?, 15
Who Wrote the Bible?, 24
Why We Believe, 19
Winning of Immortality, The, 10
Wisdom of God and the Word of God, The, 9
Woman’s Patience, A, 21
Women and their Saviour, 26
Women and Their Work, 24
Words by the Wayside, 24
Working Woman’s Life, A, 10
Woven of Love and Glory, 13, 22

Young Man’s Ideal, A, 16
Young Man’s Religion, A, 19


                           INDEX OF AUTHORS

Abbott, Lyman, 7, 11
Adeney, W. F., 11, 28
Aked, C. F., 11
Allin, T., 17
Andrews, C. C., 22
Angus, A. H., 24
Antram, C. E. P., 26
Armstrong, R. A., 25, 30

Barr, Amelia E., 6, 13, 22, 31
Barrett, G. S., 20
Barrows, C. H., 14
Becke, Louis, 13
Begbie, H., 26
Bennett, Rev. W. H., 4
Betts, C. H., 15, 17
Blake, J. M., 22, 24
Blomfield, Elsie, 28
Bloundelle-Burton, J., 22
Blue A. W., 23
Bosworth, E. I., 17
Bradford, Amory H., 11
Brierley, J., 12, 31
Briggs, C. A., 7
Brown, C., 9, 22, 23
Brown, C. R., 16
Bulcock, H., 15
Burford, W. K., 29
Burgess, W. H., 6
Burgin, Isabel, 6
Burns, David, 8
Burns, Rev. J., 8

Cadman, S. P., 6
Campbell, R. J., 11
Carlile, J. C., 11, 15, 28, 29
Cave, Dr., 11
Caws, Rev. L. W., 16
Chaplin, Gauntlett, 7
Cleal, E. E., 11
Clifford, John, 25, 30
Collins, B. G., 20
Compton-Rickett, Sir J., 13, 29
Cowper, W., 14
Crockett, S. R., 5, 21
Cubitt, James, 20
Cuff, W., 24

Davidson, Gladys, 28
Dods, Marcus, 11, 25
Dyson, W. H., 15

Elias, F., 8, 10
Ellis, J., 24
Evans, H., 27

Farningham, Marianne, 10, 13, 18, 19, 24, 26
Farrar, Dean, 11
Finlayson, T. Campbell, 30
Fiske, J., 4
Forsyth, P. T., 11, 25, 30, 31
Foston, H., 15, 17
Fremantle, Dean, 11
Furness, H. H., 3

Garvie, A. E., 17
Gibberd, Vernon, 23
Gibbon, J. Morgan, 10, 19
Giberne, Agnes, 22
Gladden, Washington, 7, 11, 24, 25
Godet, Professor, 11
Gordon, George A., 10
Greenhough, J. G., 18, 25
Griffis, W. E., 6
Griffith-Jones, E., 7, 25
Grubb, E., 20, 24
Gunn, E. H. M., 15, 31
Guyon, Madame, 14

Hampden-Cook, E., 18
Harnack, Professor, 11
Harvey-Jellie, W., 9
Haupt, P., 3
Haweis, H. R., 20
Heddle, Ethel F., 22
Henderson, Alex. C., 15
Henson, Dean H. Hensley, 9, 13
Hermann, E., 16
Hill, F. A., 4
Hocking, S. K., 13
Hodgson, J. M., 17
Holborn, Alfred, 15
Horder, W. Garrett, 25
Horne, C. Silvester, 6, 11, 15, 19
Horton, R. F., 11, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30
Houlder, J. A., 9
Hunter, John, 11

“J. B.” of _The Christian World_, 27
J. M. G., 13
Jefferson, C. E., 14
Jeffs, H., 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19
John, Griffith, 11
Jones, J. D., 8, 10, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 30
Jones, J. P., 8
Jowett, J.H., 8, 9, 22, 23

Kennedy, H. A., 27, 31
Kennedy, John, 19
Kent, C. F., 14
Kenyon, Edith C., 23
Kirk, E. B., 6
Knight, W. A., 16, 23

Lansfeldt, L., 22
La Touche, E.D., 5, 10
Layman, A., 26
Lee, E., 5
Lee, W. T., 18
Leggatt, F. Y., 23
Lewis, E. W., 23
Lyall, David, 6, 19
Lynch, T. T., 6
Lynd, William, 25

McEvoy, Cuthbert, 23
Macfadyen, D., 7, 14
MacFadyen, J. E., 23
Macfarlane, Charles, 13
M’Intyre, D. M., 15
Mackennal, Alexander, 25, 30
McKilliam, A. E., 4
Maconachie, D. H., 15
Manners, Mary E., 30
Man of the World, A, 17
Marchant, Bessie, 22
Marchant, J., 7
Mark, Thistleton, 23
Marshall, J. S., 26
Marshall, N. H., 7, 20
Martineau, Jas., 25, 30
Mason, E. A., 30
Mather, Lessels, 29
Matheson, George, 16, 18, 24, 27
Maver, J. S., 25
Maxwell, 4
Meade, L. T., 22
Metcalfe, R. D., 27
Michael, C. D., 21
Minshall, E., 16
Moore, G. F., 4
Morgan, G. Campbell, 19, 22
Morison, F., 23
Morten, Honnor, 18
Munger, T. T., 11, 25

Neilson, H. B., 28

Orchard, W. E., 8, 11, 16

Palmer, Frederic, 10
Paton, J. B., 14, 20, 24 26
Peake, A. S., 24
Pharmaceutical Chemist, A, 29
Picton, J. Allanson, 21
Pierce, W., 3
Piggott, W. C., 16
Pounder, R. W., 8
Pringle, A., 23, 24
Pulsford, John, 25

Reid, Rev. J., 10, 15
Riddette, J. H., 31
Roberts, E. Cecil, 15
Roberts, R., 20
Roose, Rev. J. S., 15
Russell, F. A., 22

Sabatier, A., 11
Sanders, F. K., 14
Schrenck, E. von, 11
Scottish Presbyterian, A, 28
Shillito, Edward, 16
Sinclair, H., 8
Sinclair, W. M., 25, 30
Smyth, Newman, 6, 8
Snell, Bernard J., 11, 20, 22
Souper, W., 15
Steuart, J. A., 6
Stevenson, J. G., 17, 18, 20, 21
Stewart, D. M., 17, 26
Stirling, James, 4
Storrow, A. H., 15
Street, J., 26
Stuart, Duncan, 6
Sutter, Julie, 24
Swan, F. R., 18
Swetenham, L., 17

Tarbolton, A. C., 20
Thomas, H. Arnold, 25
Tipple, S. A., 9
Toy, Rev. C. H., 3
Tymms, T. V., 7
Tynan, Katharine, 5
Tytler, S., 22

Varley, H., 23
Veitch, R., 10, 11

Wain, Louis, 28, 30
Walford, L. B., 6, 21
Walker, W. L., 17
Walmsley, L. S., 9
Warschauer, J., 8, 9, 11, 16, 18, 24
Warwick, H., 17
Waters, N. McG., 19
Watkinson, W. L., 22
Watson, E. S., 9
Watson, W., 16, 22
Weymouth, R. F., 19, 22
White, W., 6
Whiton, J. M., 10, 13, 21, 25, 28
Williams, T. R., 23, 25
Wilson, P. W., 18, 19
Winter, A. E., 26
Worboise, Emma J., 13, 21, 31

Yates, T., 16

                 *        *        *        *        *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Page numbers for the publisher's catalogue at the end of the eBook have
been prefixed with a C to clearly distinguish them from those of the
body of the book. Punctuation has been corrected without note.
Typographical errors have been corrected as noted below:

Page v, IX. LEAVING THE OLD COUNTRY 182 ==> IX. LEAVING THE OLD COUNTRY
  183
Page 126, which ars sub-divided into ==> which are sub-divided into
Page C5, is quite and simple. ==> is quiet and simple.
Page C10, A Brief Descripton of His ==> A Brief Description of His


Page C21, of Jesus for Litle ==> of Jesus for Little
Page C21, _The Methodst Recorder_ ==> _The Methodist Recorder_
Page C21, OF EMMA JANE WORBOISE’S NOVES ==> OF EMMA JANE WORBOISE’S NOVELS
Page C21, Millicent Kendrck ==> Millicent Kendrick.
Page C21, Warleigh’s Trut. ==> Warleigh’s Trust.





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