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Title: A 'Bawl' for American Cricket
Author: Wister, Jones
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  |                                                                |
  |                      Transcriber's Notes                       |
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  |  Punctuation has been standardized.                            |
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  |  Characters in small caps have been replaced by all caps.      |
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  |  Non-printable characteristics have been given the following   |
  |  transliteration:                                              |
  |      Italic text: --> _text_                                   |
  |        bold text: --> =text=.                                  |
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  |  This book was written in a period when many words had         |
  |  not become standardized in their spelling. Words may have     |
  |  multiple spelling variations or inconsistent hyphenation in   |
  |  the text such as the following:                               |
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  |      anomoly             impliments          posessed          |
  |      atitudes            innure              posession         |
  |      boundarys           instanteneously     robery            |
  |      catastrophy         Isher               Scotts            |
  |      compulsary          MARLEYBONE          Seinor            |
  |      consiantly          Oxfork              suspiciens        |
  |      descision           pavileon            technally         |
  |      enchanced           Pennenden           terrefic          |
  |      Epson               percieve            ther              |
  |      equiblirum          phenominal          tremendious       |
  |      exigincies          ploug               unconciously      |
  |      Hartfordshire       posess                                |
  |                                                                |
  |  Transcriber Notes are used when making corrections to the     |
  |  text for obvious printing errors or to provide additional     |
  |  information for the modern reader. These notes are not        |
  |  identified in the text, but have been accumulated in a        |
  |  single section at the end of the book.                        |
  |                                                                |
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                            “CRICKET”



  Illustration: THE WICKET KEEPER IN POSITION.



                                A
                              “BAWL”
                               FOR
                         AMERICAN CRICKET

                           DEDICATED TO
                          AMERICAN YOUTH

                         BY JONES WISTER.

                           ILLUSTRATED.

                        PHILADELPHIA, PA.:
                              1893.



                          Introductory.


It has been our good fortune to find the fountain of youth lurking in
the out-door pleasures of Skating, Swimming, Rowing, Horseback Riding,
Tennis, Base Ball and Cricket. The “grown-up” folk are now engaged
in utilizing the discovery made by youth thousands of years ago, that
health and happiness depend upon their innocent amusements. College
Faculties have realized that the morals of youth as well as success
in after life, depend upon the good health engendered by competitive
pastimes. The strength of a nation lies in the correct training of the
young. “England’s great victories on land and sea were won by the men,
who when boys wielded a cricket bat, pulled an oar, or kicked the foot
ball.” America too has had her conflicts, and may have others.

These lines are offered to the youth of this fair land, in the hope
that their innocent play may prepare them mentally, physically and
morally for whatever battles life may have in store for them. We
believe there are many who would gladly learn to play cricket, if
the opportunity presented itself. Only the favored few live near
established grounds, while the many are unable to find even a book
upon the game. The enjoyment of cricket, followed by the good health
which it brings, is within the easy grasp of all, nor does it depend
upon the standard of the play, but turns rather upon its equality.

The memories of the past, though dear to many, will not be used
to bore those who look rather to the future. But a few words about
the origin of the game we love, may prove interesting. Early in the
century Englishmen were found playing their national game upon the
beautiful meadows of Germantown. Young America, as quick then as now,
to imitate a good thing, organized a Germantown Cricket Club, and
played upon a field of the Belfield farm from 1840 to 1846. Those
were the glorious days of underhand bowling, forward hits and single
wicket. A stone roller borrowed from a neighboring garden smoothed
the pasture, and almost the only recollection we retain of this
primitive crease, is of two spots bare of grass, indicative of
constant use. This club was the pioneer of cricket by Americans,
and the forerunner of the present Germantown Cricket Club, which
used the impliments left by the old club, to play its first games,
and became the direct heir of both its name and property. But the
Philadelphia Club, which organized a year before the Germantown, grew
out of an organization known as the Union Cricket Club, which upheld
the honor of Philadelphia Englishmen against New York Englishmen
during the “Forties.”

During this decade some University men organized a cricket club known
as the Juniors, and played upon the Union ground. Matches were played
and prize bats were offered by Dr. Mitchell, the father of Dr. S. Weir
Mitchell, one of which is now in the possession of Wm. Rotch Wister,
generally spoken of as the father of American Cricket, who won it
by the handsome score of 44, in the year 1845. All of these clubs
disbanded and cricket slumbered till 1853, when the Philadelphia Club
organized. Camden had been the scene of the Union and Junior Club’s
matches, and it was again selected as the best site for the new
ground.

The names of Englishmen were numerous upon the rolls of this club,
and their professional Tom Seinor was the typical fast round arm
bowler of the period. He trained the elevens to meet the St. George
and New York Clubs, and was regarded with awe and wonder by the young
American cricketer. The boy or even the man, who could block the
cannon balls of the mighty Yorkshireman was the hero of the hour.
The idea of hitting his terrefic balls scarcely entered the heads of
the boys. Only Englishmen were supposed to be able to score against
such speedy bowling.

The Germantown boys who had organized their club in 1854, played only
one or two local teams during its first season, chief of which was
against the Delphian Circumferaneous, whose enthusiasm for cricket
was often evinced before breakfast. A year later when practice had
improved their play, they challenged the Philadelphian’s, who they
had heretofore considered too powerful, but they paid the highest
compliment to Tom Seinor, by barring him; for even in those early
days they had a keen eye to the advantages of victory. But they were
not afraid, old Bradshaw with his high buttoned vest and stiff high
hat, nor of dear old Mrs. Bradshaw, with her kind words and her “coop
of tay.”

From a cricketing standpoint, the English of that day regarded the
American almost with contempt; sixteen, eighteen and often twenty-two,
if the latter number could be mustered, were matched against eleven
Englishmen. Records of many such matches may be found during the
Forties and Fifties. The last we believe was played when George Parr’s
eleven played a twenty-two, composed of the best English and American
cricketers from New York, Newark, and Philadelphia, in the Fall of
1859. Lockyer the great wicket keeper, Jackson, the fast bowler,
Hayward and Carpenter the magnificent batsmen, with Julius Ceasar,
Lillywhite Caffyn, and the rest won a well fought victory. Before
Carpenter had made half a dozen runs, he elevated a mis-called “wide”
into the hands of “mid off” who caught it, the umpire declined to
rectify his palpable error, so the batter was “not out” on a “catch.”
Hayward was in with Carpenter when this culpable descision was made,
and before a separation occurred, more than one hundred runs had been
scored. Many who saw this match declared that but for the error, the
Professionals might have not won the game.

All England elevens composed entirely of professionals, still play
twenty-twos in the country districts of England, and often win, even
against such enormous odds. American patriotism no longer permits
such differences in opposing teams, but prefers to equalize the
merits of players, in order to secure well contested matches.

  Illustration: THE BOWLER IN THE ACT OF DELIVERING.

  Meet the ball with as full a bat as the case admits, but meet
  it. The batsman should not wait for the ball to strike bat.
  This applies to blocking as well as to tapping.

  Patience, fortitude and good temper, should characterize the
  ball player whether upon “diamond” or “crease.”



                            CHAPTER I.

                COMPARING BASE BALL WITH CRICKET.


The popular demand for perfect ball playing, has developed such
marked differences in England and America, that a short comparison
between base ball and cricket may be of interest to some readers,
and may tend to greater toleration. Here the professional has been
brought into undue prominence, because of his recognized skill, while
the people ignore the efforts of the amateurs, and cannot be induced
to part with their “quarter” to see a “comedy of base ball errors,”
or witness the efforts of the undisciplined cricketer, to amuse
himself at their expense.

In England the superiority of the professional cricketer is quite as
marked as that of the professional base ball player, but his skill
is employed in his regular business, which consists in teaching the
amateurs, who abound in countless numbers. They are called “gentlemen”
cricketers, as distinguished from their preceptors, the professionals,
and play their National game as well, or perhaps better. The
exhibition of base ball professionals in every city of America,
has given the youth of this generation, opportunities to learn the
game and their magnificent ball playing upon the diamond, is a worthy
example for American cricketers, and the popularity of the “National
Game” is largely due to the skill of these professional experts. The
organizations are sustained by capitalists, whose investments depend
upon the character of the games, and the system has given it an
impetus which has placed it in the front rank of American sport, and
brought the play up to the highest standard. Cricket on the contrary
is played in America almost exclusively by amateurs, who deserve
the highest praise for the manner in which they have upheld American
Cricket, especially when it is remembered that their English
adversaries, inherit their “national” game from their fathers,
grand-fathers, and great-grand-fathers, and that each generation
of cricketers takes up and improves upon the play of its predecessor.
Many clubs employ “professionals” as teachers, who not withstanding
their superior cricket are always excluded from “trophy” matches.

This comparison we believe will interest enquirers after facts, while
those whose vision is obscured by a total eclipse of either game,
will “skip” to something more interesting. The “base” in the National
game corresponds with the “run” in cricket, and is ninety feet long;
the distance between wickets is sixty-six feet, but between creases
which is the length of a run, the distance is fifty-eight feet, or
thirty-two feet shorter than a base. The average runner of a “base”
must consume enough additional time to cover the added distance.
Supposing that two and one-half seconds is required by the runner of
the base, only one and one-half seconds is consumed by the cricketer
in making his run. This difference in “time” means a preponderating
advantage to the fielder upon the diamond, and a corresponding one
to the batsman in cricket. The public, chiefly for this reason, has
pronounced upon the sloth of cricketers, and the rapidity of those
who play base ball. The unthinking spectator concludes that cricketers
are sleepy, while fielders upon the diamond are consiantly performing
feats of wonder. The cricketer makes his run of only fifty-eight feet
with ease and almost certainty if he uses fair discretion, while the
striker of a base ball must attempt his “run” though bitter experience
tells him that it is an impossibility. It will at once be seen that
the runner of the compulsary long “base” is almost handicapped out
of the race by the cricketer who makes a discretionary short “run.”

The baseball fielder has been given tremendious “time,” advantages
over the cricket fielder by the long base as well as by the “forced”
run. These advantages are increased by the construction of the
diamond, which “fouls off” three-quarters of the field, thereby
permitting eight fielders to be placed almost elbow to elbow in front
of the doomed batter. “Side out” has become such a forgone conclusion
that changes in the rules must follow, if interest in the game is
expected from the public.

Many features of the game of single wicket cricket correspond with
base ball. The efforts of the batter are, limited to hits forward
of the wicket, while the run is one hundred and twenty-four feet,
but this style of cricket has become obsolete, owing to the same
objections which exist in base ball, and has given place to double
wicket cricket. There the impartial observer will find no undue
advantage given either to batter, fielder or bowler. But if a game
is played between cricketers of like standard, every department is
in strict equiblirum, while opportunities are offered to skillful
performers unknown in base ball. Some misguided lovers of American
cricket have tried to popularize the game through base ball
modifications, but their failure was a forgone conclusion, owing to
essential differences in the theories of the two games. If they will
reflect a moment, we think they will see that base ball has reached a
stage only somewhat beyond single wicket cricket, which gave place to
the double wicket game, about the year 1800, but it is so many years
behind modern cricket, that the year 1900 is likely to arrive before
such changes are made, as will place the different departments of
the game in balance. Yet the anomoly of the inferior game producing
the best exponents exists in America, and is the production of that
antagonism between amateurism and professionalism, which seems to
be never ending. The difference though social and educational is
enormously enchanced by business reasons, which have done base ball
little if any good. Cricketers have kept their game above reproach,
and though often taunted because they have imported an English game,
it will be admitted even by the admirers of America’s “national game”
that English cricket has overcome the corruption of the “gambler” and
“blackleg,” of past generations and become the keystone of English
sport, and this result has been brought about by skilful play unaided
by tricks upon players or partiality of umpires.

It is our intention to give some hints to those, who seek pleasure
and health from cricket pure and simple, for we are most firm in the
belief that good fielding, good bowling, and above all good wicket
keeping, now almost a lost art in America will popularize cricket.

  Illustration: No. 1--The “cross bat” illustrated by a cross boy.

  “Cricket requires constant practice; and to be a good cricketer,
  is to be wary, yet bold; strong, yet gentle; self posessed and
  cautious; firm and manly. There is no game in the world that so
  teaches a boy to rely upon his resources, and to be ever ready
  to take advantage of opportunities, as cricket when properly
  played.”--_Wisden_



                          CHAPTER II.

                     DARK DAYS OF CRICKET.


If American parents will take the time to read what the Reverend James
Pycroft says in Chapter VI of his Cricket Field, which we have taken
the liberty of quoting in full, it may give them food for thought. It
was the good fortune of the writer to read this delightful book early
in life, and he has quoted from it whenever he found it possible, and
begs to acknowledge numerous obligations, for it has had much bearing
upon his own conclusions.

                            “CHAP. VI.

            A DARK CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF CRICKET.

  The lovers of cricket may congratulate themselves at the present
  day that matches are made at cricket, as at chess, rather for
  love and the honor of victory than for money.

  It is now many years since Lord’s was frequented by men with
  book and pencil, betting as openly and professionally as in the
  ring at Epsom, and ready to deal in the odds with any and every
  person of speculative propensities. Far less satisfactory was
  the state of things with which Lord F. Beauclerk and Mr. Ward
  had to contend, to say nothing of the earlier days of the Earl
  of Winchelsea and Sir Horace Mann. As to the latter period, ‘Old
  Nyren’ bewails its evil doings. He speaks of one who had ‘the
  trouble of proving himself a rogue,’ and also of ‘the legs
  at Marylebone,’ who tried, for once in vain, to corrupt some
  primitive specimens of Hambledon innocence. He says, also, the
  grand matches of his day were always made for 500_l._ a side.
  Add to this the fact that the bets were in proportion, that Jim
  and Joe Bland, of turf notoriety, Dick Whitlom, of Covent Garden,
  Simpson, a gaming house keeper, and Toll, of Isher, as regularly
  attended at a match as Crockford and Gully at Epson and Ascot;
  and the idea that all the Surrey and Hampshire rustics should
  either want or resist strong temptations to sell is not to be
  entertained for a moment. The constant habit of betting will take
  the honesty out of any man. A half-crown sweepstakes, or betting
  such odds as lady’s long kids to gentleman’s short ditto, is all
  very fair sport; but if a man after years of high betting can
  still preserve the fine edge and tone of honest feeling, he is
  indeed a wonder. To bet on a certainty must be very bad moral
  practice.

  ‘If gentlemen wanted to bet,’ said Beldham, ‘just under the
  pavileon sat men ready with money down to give and take the
  current odds, and by far the best men to bet with, because if
  they lost it was all in the way of business: they paid their
  money and did not grumble.’ Still they had all sorts of tricks
  to make their betting safe. ‘One artifice,’ said Mr. Ward, ‘was
  to keep a player out of the way by a false report that his wife
  was dead.’ Then these men would come down to the Green Man and
  Still, and drink with us, and always said that those who backed
  us, or ‘the nobs,’ as they called them, sold the matches: and so,
  sir, as you are going the round beating up the quarters of the
  old players, you will find some to persuade you this is true. But
  don’t believe it. That any gentleman, in my day, ever put himself
  into the power of these blacklegs by selling matches, I can’t
  credit. Still, one day I thought I would try how far these tales
  were true. So, going down into Kent with ‘one of high degree,’ he
  said to me, ‘Will if this match is won, I lose a hundred pounds.’
  ‘Well,’ said I, ‘my Lord, you and I could order that.’ He smiled
  as if nothing were meant, and talked of something else; and, as
  luck would have it, he and I were in together, and brought up the
  score between us, though every run seemed to me like ‘a guinea
  out of his Lordship’s pocket.’

  In those days foot races were very common. Lord Frederick and
  Mr. Budd were first-rate runners, and bets were freely laid. So,
  one day, old Fennex laid a trap for the gentlemen: he brought
  up to act the part of some silly conceited youngster, with his
  pockets full of money, a first-rate runner out of Hartfordshire.
  This soft young gentleman ran a match or two with some known
  third-rate men, and seemed to win by a neck, and no space to
  spare. Then he calls out, ‘I’ll run any man on the ground for
  25_l._, money down.’ A match was quickly made, and money laid on
  pretty thick on Fennex’s account. Some said, ‘Too bad to win of
  such a green young fellow;’ others said, ‘He’s old enough--serve
  him right.’ So the laugh was finely against those who were taken
  in; ‘the green one’ ran away like a hare!

    Illustration: No. 2--PREPARED TO DRIVE “OFF.”

    It is the unexpected which occurs in life as well as in
    cricket, therefore do not anticipate the movements of your
    antagonist but let your actions be governed by developments.

  ‘You see, sir,’ said one fine old man, with brilliant eye and
  quickness of movement, that showed his right hand had not yet
  forgot its cunning, ‘matches were bought, and matches were sold,
  and gentlemen who meant honestly lost large sums of money, till
  the rogues beat themselves at last. They overdid it; they spoilt
  their own trade; and, as I told one of them, a knave and a fool
  makes a bad partnership: so you and yourself will never prosper.
  Well, surely there was robery enough; and not a few of the
  great players earned money to their own disgrace; but, if you’ll
  believe me, there was not half the selling there was said to be.
  Yes I can guess, sir, much as you have been talking to all the
  old players over this good stuff (pointing to the brandy and
  water I had provided), no doubt you have heard that B---- sold
  as bad as the rest. I’ll tell the truth; one match up the country
  I did sell,--a match made by Mr. Osbaldestone at Nottingham. I
  had been sold out of a match just before, and lost 10l., and
  happening to hear it I joined two others of our eleven to sell,
  and get back my money. I won 10l. exactly, and of this roguery no
  one ever suspected me; but many was the time I have been blamed
  for selling when as innocent as a babe. In those days when so
  much money was on the matches, every man who lost his money would
  blame some one. Then if A missed a catch, or B made no runs,--and
  where’s the player whose hand is always in?--the man was called
  a rogue directly. So when a man was doomed to lose his character,
  and bear all the smart, there was the more temptation to do like
  others, and after ‘the kicks’ to come in for ‘the half-pence.’
  But I am an old man now, and heartily sorry I have been ever
  since, because, but for that Nottingham match, I could have said,
  with a clear conscience, to a gentleman like you, that all that
  was said was false, and I never sold a match in my life; but now
  I can’t. But if I had fifty sons, I would never put one of them,
  for all the games in the world, in the way of the roguery that I
  have witnessed. The temptation really was very great,--too great
  by far for any poor man to be exposed to,--no richer than ten
  shillings a week, let alone harvest time. I never told you the
  way I first was brought to London. I was a lad of eighteen at
  this Hampshire village, and Lord Winchelsea had seen us play
  among ourselves, and watched the match with the Hambledon Club on
  Broad-halfpenny, when I scored forty-three against David Harris,
  and ever so many of the runs against David’s bowling, and no one
  ever could manage David before. So, next year, in the month of
  March, I was down in the meadows, when a gentleman came across
  the field with Farmer Hilton, and thought I, all in a minute, now
  this is something about cricket. Well, at last it was settled,
  I was to play Hampshire against England, at London, in White
  Conduit-Fields ground, in the month of June. For three months I
  did nothing but think about that match. Tom Walker was to travel
  up from this country, and I agreed to go with him, and found
  myself at last, with a merry company of cricketers, all old
  men, whose names I had ever heard as foremost in the game--met
  together, drinking, card-playing, betting, and singing at the
  Green Man (that was the great cricketer’s house), in Oxfork
  Street,--no man without his wine, I assure you, and such suppers
  as three guineas a game to lose, and five to win (that was then
  the pay for players) could never pay for long. To go to London
  by a wagon, earn five guineas three or four times told, and come
  back with half the money in your pocket to the ploug again, was
  all very well talking. You know what young folks are, sir, when
  they get together: mischief brews stronger in large quantities:
  so many spent all their earnings, and were soon glad to make
  more money some other way. Hundreds of pounds were bet upon the
  great matches, and other wagers laid on the scores of the finest
  players, and that too by men who had a book for every race, and
  every match in the sporting world: men who lived by gambling;
  and as to honesty, gambling and honesty don’t often go together.
  What was easier, then, than for such sharp gentlemen to mix with
  the players, take advantage of their difficulties, and say, your
  backers, my Lord this, and the Duke of that, sell matches and
  overrule all your good play, so why shouldn’t you have a share
  of the plunder? That was their constant argument. Serve them as
  they serve you. You have heard of Jim Bland, the turfsman, and
  his brother Joe--two nice boys. When Jemmy Dawson was hanged for
  poisoning the horse, the Blands never felt safe till the rope was
  round Dawson’s neck, and, to keep him quiet, persuaded him to the
  last hour that they dared not hang him: and a certain nobleman
  had a reprieve in his pocket. Well, one day in April, Joe Bland
  found me out in this parish, and tried his game on with me. ‘You
  may make a fortune,’ he said, ‘if you will listen to me: so much
  for the match with Surrey, and so much more for the Kent match--’
  ‘Stop,’ said I: ‘Mr. Bland, you talk too fast; I am rather too
  old for this trick; you never buy the same man but once: if their
  lordships ever sold at all, you would peach upon them if ever
  after they dared to win. You’ll try me once, and then you’ll have
  me in a line like him of the mill last year.’ No, sir, a man was
  a slave when once he sold to these folk: fool and knave aye go
  together. Still they found fools enough for their purpose; but
  rogues can never trust each other. One day a sad quarrel arose
  between two of them; that opened the gentlemen’s eyes too wide
  to close again to these practices. Two very big rogues at Lord’s
  fell a quarrelling, and blows were given; a crowd drew round,
  and the gentlemen ordered them both into the pavilion. When the
  one began, ‘You had 20_l._ to lose the Kent match, bowling leg
  long hops and missing catches.’ ‘And you were paid to lose at
  Swaffham--Why did that game with Surrey turn about--three runs to
  get, and you didn’t make them?’ Angry words came out fast, and,
  when they are circumstantial and square with previous suspiciens
  they are proofs as strong as holy writ. ‘In one single-wicket
  match,’ he continued, and those were always great matches for
  the sporting men, because usually you had first-rate men on each
  side, and their merits known; dishonesty was as plain as this:
  just as a player was coming in (John B. will confess this, if you
  talk of the match) he said to me, ‘You’ll let me score five or
  six, for appearances, won’t you, for I am not going to make many
  if I can?’ ‘Yes,’ I said, ‘you rogue, you shall if I can _not_
  help it.’ But when a game was all but won, and the odds heavy,
  and all one way, it was cruel to see how the fortune of the day
  then would change about. In that Kent match,--you can turn to
  it in your book (Bentley’s scores), played 28th July, 1807, on
  Pennenden Heath,--I and Lord Frederick had scored sixty-one, and
  thirty remained to win, and six of the best men in England went
  out for eleven runs. Well, sir, I lost some money by that match,
  and as seven of us were walking homewards to meet a coach, a
  gentleman who had backed the match drove by and said, ‘Jump up,
  my boys, we have all lost together. I need not mind if I hire a
  pair of horses extra, next town, for I have lost money enough to
  pay for twenty pair or more.’ Well, thought I, as I rode along,
  you have rogues enough in your carriage now, if the truth were
  told, I’ll answer for it; and one of them let out the secret
  some ten years after. But, sir, I can’t help laughing when I
  tell you, once there was a single-wicket match played at Lord’s,
  and a man on each side was paid to lose. One was bowler, and the
  other batsman, when the game came to a near point. I knew their
  politics, the rascals, and saw in a minute how things stood; and
  how I did laugh, to be sure; for seven balls together, one would
  not bowl straight, and the other would not hit; but at last a
  straight ball must come, and down went the wicket.’

  From other information received, I could tell this veteran that,
  even in his much-repented Nottingham match, his was not the
  only side that had men resolved to lose. The match was sold for
  Nottingham too, and that with less success, for Nottingham won:
  an event the less difficult to accomplish, as Lord Frederick
  Beauclerk broke a finger in an attempt to stop a designed and
  wilful overthrow! and played the second innings with one hand.

  It is true, Clarke, who played in the match, thought all was
  fair; still, he admits, he heard one Nottingham man accused on
  the field, by his own side, of foul play. This confirms the
  evidence of the Rev. C. W., no slight authority in Nottingham
  matches, who said he was cautioned before the match that all
  would not be fair.

  ‘This practice of selling matches,’ said Beldham, ‘produced
  strange things sometimes. Once, I remember, England was playing
  Surrey, and, in my judgment, Surrey had the best side; still I
  found the Legs were betting seven to four against Surrey! This
  time they were done; for they betted on the belief that some
  Surrey men had sold the match, but Surrey played to win.

  ‘Crockford used to be seen about Lord’s, and Mr. Gully also
  occasionally, but only for society of sporting men; they did
  not understand the game, and I never saw them bet. Mr. Gully was
  often talking to me about the game for one season; but I never
  could put any sense into him! He knew plenty about fighting, and
  afterwards of horse-racing; but a man cannot learn the odds of
  cricket unless he is something of a player.’”

    Illustration: No. 3--THE FORWARD BLOCK.

    If a suggestion is made as to your style or method, (however
    well meant) do not adopt it in a match, until you have tried
    it in practice and found it a satisfactory improvement.



                          CHAPTER III.

                           FIELDING.


American Cricket owes a debt of gratitude to base ball. The undaunted
pluck that stops and holds the fierce grounder; the strong arm which
returns it to the baseman; the steady judgement that guides the
out-fielder to the fly; all deserve the highest praise. Cricket
welcomes the base ball fielder to the cricket ground, gives him
the post of severest duty, depends upon his keen eyesight, splendid
throwing, quick action and steady nerve. She soon calls him her own;
for these qualities are just what she is always wanting. Let base
ball players then not hesitate, for all their training is in the
line of perfect fielding on the cricket ground.

The most important fielder is thought by many cricketers to be
the bowler, nor do we wish to disparage the judgement of anyone
prejudiced in favor of that opinion. But our belief, reached after
deliberate thought, is that the wicket keeper who performs his
arduous duties successfully, does greater service for his side than
even the best bowler. Like the catcher in base ball, his position is
one of danger, leg guards and gloves must be added to his outfit to
prevent accidents. Even with these, only a man with a cool head, a
correct eye, and a safe pair of hands, should attempt wicket keeping.
He is almost an “unknown” in American cricket, but if we do not err,
Vint of the Irish team, gave some free lessons in the art which will
prove most advantageous. In Lockyer’s era the backstop was a factor
which modern cricket has abandoned. He was the support of the wicket
keeper, whose hands he saved from many hard blows, unnecessarily dealt
him by cannon ball bowlers. He it was who performed the drudgery of a
match.

  Illustration: No. 4--THE HALF FORWARD BLOCK.

  “Among the advantages of cricket are the means it affords for
  physical improvement, the opportunities for bringing rich and
  poor into friendly communication, the inculcation of gentlemanly
  feeling, and the principles of mutual charity, good will, and
  moral harmony.”--_Wisden._

The advent of the fast bowler has been the chief means of changing
the wicket keeper into a back fielder, he has at the same time given
the opportunity to the aggressive batsman. The chief object of the
fast bowler has been to frighten the timid batsman, and drive him
to the tent. If he has been the Simon Pure article, he has fulfilled
his mission, and even the crack batter has failed to score heavily.
But has he not oftener through bumpy ground and wrong pitch, for the
faster the bowling, the less control the bowler has over the ball,
given the other side the victory? Let not this be considered a plea
for the back stop, for he belongs to an almost forgotten age, but
it is rather to put a brake upon the “demon” bowler. It is asking
too much of a wicket keeper to stop every wild attempt of the
machine bowler, or be abused by his side. Speedy bowling, under wise
control and supported by prompt and efficient fielding, has distinct
advantages, but with slow fielding it is a menace to its own eleven,
and has been the means of increasing the score of the adversary, who
need not display even good batting to accomplish the result.

The most serious question which confronts the American captain
of to-day, is a “stumper.” But we believe so thoroughly in the
progressive spirit of American cricket, that when attention is called
to the importance of “stumping,” and to the fact that the aggressive
batter glories in a wicket keeper whose position is twenty feet
behind the wicket, and whose arms are of normal length, that the
wicket keeper will soon become a real, rather than an imaginary
personage upon the cricket field; and that he will again be seen
close behind his wicket, forcing the batsman to display his prowess
within his crease, or suffer the penalty. Let us predict that when
this desirable result is accomplished, bowlers will be found to rely
upon pitch and curve, rather than upon speed, and that skill will
depend more upon brain than muscle. His position must always be such,
that the wicket is between himself and the approaching ball, for he
cannot run the risk of trying to “down” a wicket which he cannot see,
neither can he spare the time to turn around, for the run is short
and the runner may be a “sprinter.”

The object of the bowler should be either to bowl the wicket; to have
a batter give a chance for a catch; or, to force the batter to leave
his ground for a stump. Unless he can vary his intention to thwart
the batsman by the delivery of unexpected and difficult balls, he
cannot expect to rank among the best, nor will he be called a head
bowler. The only ball which the bowler can depend upon for uniform
good results, strikes the turf outside the reach of the batter. Good
batsmen safely block or hit any ball falling within six feet of the
crease, some reach a ball which drops eight feet or more from the
crease. But every batsman has a limit when the wicket keeper is
in place. That spot, a little nearer the bowler than this limit is
known as the “pitch” or “length.” The bowler must direct his efforts
to gauge the batter’s reach, and deliver balls which will prevent
scoring. When a bowler discerns the “length” ball a batsman cannot
play, and his skill enables him to deliver it at will, he may be
relied upon. It is the eager hope of every beginner to become a
superior bowler. We have endeavored to indicate just what a good ball
is and wherein it differs from one which the batter fancies. But this
is not enough; the mind of the young bowler must solve the problem,
and must have a well defined conception of the ball which is expected
to baffle the batter. Having reached a satisfactory conclusion
upon this all important subject, the physical effort to execute
his theories must now be regularly practiced until he has mastered
the art.

1st.--Almost every good bowler holds the ball in the fingers at right
angles to the seams, for two reasons, first a better grip can be
taken; second, if any twist or spin is desired, the roughness of
the seams increases the action of the fingers.

2nd.--Begin delivering what are technally known as slow balls. Do
not attempt fast bowling until your mechanical command of the ball
has in a large degree, been able to materialize from your conception
of what a good ball should be. This mechanical command of the ball
comes from practice only. When it is observed that every batsman
has his own peculiar style, some right handed, some left, some long,
some short reach, some forward, some back, the beginner will at once
percieve that success depends upon this, absolute command of the
ball. When the possible fast bowler has learned to bowl “slows” with
precision, he may put up an occasional fast ball. If he has properly
conceived the art of slows, the chances are all in favor of his also
becoming a good fast bowler. No eleven is perfect with only slow
bowlers. Batters must be worried by fast as well as slow balls. But
let every bowler whose ambition is to attain speed, recollect that
accurate slows are the fore-runners of speedy balls.

3d.--The slow bowler having mastered the pitch or length must
practice twists or spins by which he endeavors to deceive the
batsman. These must be performed with such ease that mind and body
simultaneously act, the ball rotating upon its own axis, with such
force that when it leaves the ground it no longer continues in its
apparent direction, but rising abruptly according to the bowler’s
desire passes the astonished batsman into the wicket.

4th.--An easy elegant style of bowling is attained with less fatigue
than a slouchy one. Some men will start ten yards behind the bowler’s
crease, rush at it as though preparing for a somersault, come to
a halt to deliver a disappointing ball. The fault here lies in the
misconception of the bowler. He has not studied cause and effect, nor
has he studied his own powers. These must not be squandered upon an
over or two, but must be husbanded for a long day’s work.

5th.--Place the ball as near the batsman as possible without its
becoming a full ball, should such a ball strike slightly to leg, all
the chances are in favor of its working between legs and bat into the
wicket.

6th.--The objects of attack are the wickets of the enemy. Straight
balls only can take wickets. The bowler of such balls is likely to
be in demand. He is sure to force a defensive opposition, of which
a good captain can take advantage.

  Illustration: No. 5--THE HALF BACK BLOCK.

  If you play for your side and not for yourself, at the end of the
  match your average will be better, than if you have constantly
  had upon your mind the disturbing element of selfishness.

7th.--Bowling for hits has become a usual method, when persistent
blockers guard the stumps, a dozen runs is a small addition to the
latter’s score in exchange for a wicket.

8th.--“Study the furthest point to which your man can play forward
safely, and pitch just outside that point with every variety of pace
and spin.”

9th.--All other points being equal the bowler who rotates the ball
most rapidly upon its own axis will capture the greatest number of
wickets.

10th.--Learn to bowl from either side of the wicket, or to change the
delivery or speed without the appearance of so doing.

11th.--If a bowler is left-handed he should study bowling with
extra care. He may, if he gives his mind to it, become great in
that department. The reason being found in the simple fact that it
is unusual and disconcerting to the batsman; nine men of every ten
being right-handed.

12th.--A high delivery has its advantages as well as its objections.
It must not be overlooked that what is gained by elevation is lost
by the difference of angle. The angle which the course of the ball
describes is greater when the arm is at right angles with the body
than when elevated. The delivery from an elevated hand is made with
a view to catches more than to bowled wickets. A delivery which
combines elevation and angle has been adopted by the best bowlers.
The ball strikes the ground with greater force, causing a more sudden
and unexpected rise, while the spin and angle add to its disturbing
effect upon the mind of the batsman.

13th.--The bowler more than any other fielder needs patience,
perseverance and pluck. He must be strong, steady and sure. He must
smile and look happy when catches are missed. He must look contented
and satisfied when the umpire gives decisions against his interest.
All will recognize the successful bowler even without the aid of
these few rules.

Point is next in importance, he is always expected to have safe hands,
for when a fast ball is cut to point, a run is sure to result if he
is not alert; in ancient cricket he stood much nearer the batsmen
than at this period. His place is now so far from the striker that
his position upon the field seems to have given way to silly point,
a position so dangerous that a fielder possessing great courage
generally volunteers for it. Few captains would order a man to the
position of silly point, yet there are still fewer who do not delight
in the man who fills it advantageously, for “chances” abound near the
wicket.

The slips, short leg and mid wickets follow in importance, while the
outfielders and covers should not be deficient as stoppers, while
as throwers they frequently have grand opportunities for the display
of great activity. The Australian and English teams who came to
this country were most effective fielders, and our native cricketers
learned much from their prowess. They seemed ubiquitous. The ball
did not seem ever to bore its way through them, their anticipation
of its direction seemed instinctive. But if a hard hit one passed
through the phalanx and did get by the fielder and was rapidly
wending its way to the boundarys, the foreigner chased it with a
speed and determination which gradually overtook it before it reached
the ropes, thus reducing the score to a minimum. Let the cricket
fielder constantly bear in mind that the time allotted to him to pick
up and return the ball to the wicket is less than that required for
a fast runner to traverse 18 yards at speed. If he is just as fast
as the runner his exertions are lost to his side, for the batsman
has reached his crease. The fielder must therefore be mentally and
physically active while the ball is in play. It is not enough for
him to take the ball and return it to the wicket keeper. Thousands
of wickets have been held by a failure on the part of the fielder to
return to the right wicket. Which one that is can only be determined
by instant thought followed by immediate action. If the fielder waits
for notification to receive and return the ball he will in ninety-nine
cases out of every hundred belong to the bump on the log variety.

Fielding should be practiced whenever cricketers meet on the turf.
Many captains advocate meeting for fielding only. In view of the
numerous occasions for practice which constantly present themselves
it seems to the writer unnecessary. But these must be used. The
hardness of the cricket ball causes fear to the unpracticed. It hurts
tender hands to be rudely struck by the hard ball. Companions can
practice fielding indoors or almost anywhere, if a ball is provided.
Cricketers will find a ball a delightful companion. Passing it around
gives the practice which fielders must have to become expert. A
dozen occasions innure the hands to the sensation of stopping a fast
ball. It will no longer feel hard, but the fielder will take it at
lightning speed.

Perfect fielding is absolutely unknown on the American cricket
fields. Errors are so numerous even among the best players, that
bowlers lose courage and nerve. Each fielder should recollect that
he is the support of the bowler. The strength of every bowler depends
upon his field. A catch missed means a game lost which might have
been won. Most fielders feel little of the great responsibility
resting upon them, and even many good ones fail to appreciate it.

When our American gentlemen were winning the match against Surrey on
the “Oval,” the sympathy of the London crowd was with the Americans,
who they thought fielded better than the English gentlemen. One of
the crowd said to the writer our cricketers “worship the bat.” They
play forever in the nets, and forget the importance of fine fielding,
this did not seem a just criticism, for although he has seen every
foreign eleven that has ever played in America, he has never seen
any American fielding compare in excellence with that of the English
and Australians. Almost every American fielder fails to realize that
there are two wickets. He picks up well, returns well, runs well, and
the mechanical part is often better than that of his English brother,
but when head work is needed the English fielder returns to the right
wicket, and the batter little expecting it is run out. The American
batter is expecting the same loose methods to prevail among English
fielders, but disappointment awaits him, for much to his astonishment
the English fielder recollects the other wicket. Nothing has impressed
itself upon the writer’s mind in commenting upon the play of foreign
elevens, like the constant watchfulness of the fielder. If English
cricketers worship the bat at home, they show no evidence of it upon
American cricket grounds. They set an example to American cricketers
which the sooner they follow, the sooner will they equal their alert
foreign competitors.

The last fielder to be spoken of but the most important, is the
captain of the XI. Upon his judgement in placing his men depends the
result. He is responsible for the work of the field. He is looked to
as the one to place his men in good or bad localities. If bad judgment
is used he is most severely criticised by the on-lookers. If he shows
good judgement he gets little credit, as the fielder is supposed to
be doing it all and receives the applause. But the captain must be
watchful, helpful, courageous and sanguine. He must not loose nerve
and energy because his side is hunting leather. He must work harder
because he has an up hill game. In short, he must lead all the time,
and if he expects his side to follow, he must set the example.



                          CHAPTER IV.

                            BATTING.


An expert batsman experiences unspeakable pleasure during his innings.
Cricketers glory in him, his friends delight in him, and the sweetest
smile of his best girl emphasizes his triumph.

Nearly every young American learns base ball before cricket. When
he first stands before a wicket, he is almost paralysed by the fear
of losing it. Nothing corresponding to it appears upon the diamond.
When his wicket has been successfully attacked a few times he is
disheartened, and is likely to abandon cricket and return to his
first love. This is a critical period in the history of the beginner.
But a hint from a cricketer able and willing to explain that the
straight ball can be successfully met by the straight bat may open
the gate of cricket to him.

  Illustration: No. 6--THE LATE BLOCK.

  Courage, energy and decision, mark the successful cricketer.

  A good excuse is more easily made than a good play.

“A straight bat” is the technical term for an upright bat, as
distinguished from a “cross bat.” It should also be explained to
all aspirants that the regulation wicket was not constructed for
beginners but for expert batsmen. But let us not digress from the
blunt “straight bat question,” which staggers the “man out,” as
did the straight ball his wicket. Why can a batsman who wields a
“straight bat” make a long stand, and why does the bowler delight in
the man who plays a “cross bat?” The answer is simple. A “cross bat”
must of necessity be an imperfect defense for a perpendicular wicket.
The minds of many boys seem to be constructed upon the “cross bat”
plan, but when they play the upright game of cricket with an upright
bat, an upright boy is the likely father of an upright man.

Every beginner aspires for the results of batting which are recorded
by the scorer, conveniently ignoring the hard work of those who
by many patient efforts have reached comparative perfection. But
the repeated loss of his wicket will force him to reason out why a
straight bat thwarts the bowler’s efforts, and why when playing a
“cross bat” he has been unconciously reducing his defense in a ratio
of four to one. To help this reasoning process let us demonstrate
by stating that the batsman’s wicket without the bails presents to
the bowler a surface of 216 square inches. The batsman who wields a
straight bat covers about 120 square inches of the wicket, hands and
gloves increasing it to about 130 inches. The “cross bat” presents a
defense of only 34 square inches, or one-fourth that of a “straight
bat,” the hands and gloves ceasing to the part of the defense for
a “cross bat.” When the legs and pads of the batter are added to
the defense, the bowler would seem to have an almost impossible
task to “out” the wielder of the “straight bat.” Yet the “man out”
seldom understands it, for he has not profited by the tremendous
mathematical advantage of a “straight bat” over a “cross bat.”
When this difference is appreciated and acted upon, the lesson of
“blocking” has been learned and the batsman may expect scores: for
he is ready to hit intelligently.

Each ball is a lesson to the eye of the batsman who has learned to
play a “straight bat.” The forward block as shown in illustration,
must obtain for well pitched balls rising to the bails. The bat
must be forwarded to the ball with left shoulder well over it, the
bat carried at an angle of about 70°, the eye of the batsman being
intently fixed upon it in order to insure against personal accidents.
Such action, if prompt, forces the ball forwards towards the bowler.
If the ball is met by the bat it strikes the ground at the angle
of least resistance, bounds quickly into the field, and a run may
result. Having given at length the necessity for the “block” as well
as the scientific reasons for the play, we will refer the reader to
illustrations Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6, which show the “forward block,”
the “half forward block,” the “half back block” and the “late block.”
If the young cricketer will study the attitudes taken by Mr. George
Bromhead when making the four characteristic blocks, he will see
that each ball must be blocked in a manner appropriate to itself.

Thus far only the defensive use of the bat has been considered. But
it is a weapon as well as a shield. The tendency of beginners is to
ignore the shield and use the weapon. One of the objects of these
pages is to emphasize the shield, thereby perfecting the wield of
the weapon, and multiplying the opportunities for its use. Let us
close this portion of the chapter on batting with the remark that the
defense of the wicket is an absolute necessity. It must be cultivated
by beginners and practiced by experts. After it is thoroughly learned,
like swimming, it is never forgotten. The batter must also resemble
the swimmer in another important point, for the swimmer must continue
swimming while in the water, and the batter must continue “blocking”
during the rest of his career.

The hit is the evidence of successful batting. An opportunity taken.
The result hoped for by the batter. As in blocking, well defined
principles govern the successful hit, which depends:

1st--Upon its true conception by the batsman.

2nd.--Upon its being properly timed.

3d.--Upon the amount of energy transmitted by the batsman to the ball.

Last but most important, the correct handling of the bat while in
contact with the ball.

Hits divide themselves into the natural, which comprise all hits
to the “leg,” or “on” side of the wicket, and the acquired which
include all hits to the “off” side. There are three distinct “leg”
hits resulting from striking short pitched, well pitched, and full
pitched, balls together with numerous sub-varieties following strikes
of leg balls which vary from standard lengths.

1st.--The stroke from a “short” or “half volley” leg ball should be
to square leg or a little forward of that point, with the bat held at
such an angle that the ball will strike the ground twenty or thirty
feet from the crease. It is with regret that we observe that this
beautiful hit is often elevated into the hands of the nimble fielder.

2nd.--The hit resulting from the well pitched leg ball, which the
perfect batsman strikes as it rises, to that part of the field just
back of short leg. The appearance of the batsman while making this
satisfying hit is illustrated in figure 7.

3d.--The full pitched leg ball can be properly dealt with in at least
three ways by the perfect batsman. First, he can drive it to long
field if not far to leg. Second, he can wait its arrival to a point
between the umpire and himself, strike it on the fly to the rear
of that long robed individual, bounding to the ropes. Third, while
playing the waiting game an instant longer he may turn his person
two-thirds around on his left foot, and strike the ball from the
rear to sharp leg.

All natural hits require determination and energy on the part of the
batter if good results are expected. Modern cricket does not prepare
itself for natural hits. On the contrary the beginner as well as
the expert will have few balls delivered to him opportune for these
hits. The modern bowler is instructed to force the “off” or unnatural
upon the batsman. But during long matches even the best bowlers send
up flukes, notwithstanding the elaborate instructions in Chapter 3.
Batsmen must therefore understand what is expected of them, and we do
not hesitate to say, that the batter who can deal with good bowling
can usually make the “loose” show upon the score. Many balls are
delivered upon the leg side, from which only the best batsmen can
score.

Illustration No. 8, shows Mr. Bromhead preparing to drive a nearly
straight ball to the mid-wicket on.

The on drives will always excite the admiration of cricketers.
The shoulders, arms and wrists though most prominent promoters of
these beautiful hits are assisted by every muscle of the body. They
exemplify human energy and force. The upright bat plays the prominent
place in this hit, and we must insist that the learner ignores the
“cross bat” if he hopes for success.

  Illustration: No. 7--THE LEG HIT.

  The element of danger is almost eliminated by constant
  watchfulness.

  The mind of a brilliant fielder, extends to the ends of his
  fingers and toes.

The perfect batsman plays every ball with a purpose. Illustration
No. 9, shows how to play a well pitched ball wending its way towards
the leg stump. This ball he robs of all its dangerous tendency by
forwarding his bat toward the bowler, carried at an angle of 85, and
almost perpendicular. This position presents almost a full blade to
the ball, thereby defending his wicket, but also forces it to glance
to the short legs.

No. 10, illustrates a safe and easy method of scoring from a ball
not far enough off the wicket to risk a leg hit. Guarding the wicket
does not enter into the batter’s calculations. But he forces the bat,
carried at an angle of about 70 degrees against the advancing ball,
which rapidly finds its way towards sharp leg. We cannot leave this
portion of our chapter until we emphasize the part the shoulders
should play in making the natural hits. It is in our judgement to be
regretted that the exigincies of the game have largely remanded the
shoulder hitter to the back ground; but it must be acknowledged that
he is no longer the power in the game he was prior to the period of
special “off” bowling. But the best “trundlers” give chances to the
shoulder hitter, and when accepted the spectator feels gratified that
the science of cricket has been momentarily relaxed. If the muscular
power of the batsman be not fully exerted upon the natural hits, we
think all good cricketers will agree with us, that safety demands
that the ball should be “let alone.”

The modern captain instructs his bowlers to give preference to “off”
rather than “on” balls, and places his field in accordance. If the
bowlers do their full duty, the batter must score from unnatural hits
only, if at all.

1st.--He may receive a short pitch “off” ball, which he can drive to
mid off, or “cover,” or he may “pull it” to “leg” by advancing his
right leg towards point, thereby assuming the natural attitude, and
acting as if it were a leg ball.

2nd.--The over pitched “off” ball the batsman drives to long field,
or over the bowler’s head. These “off” balls require little beyond
a correct eye and ready hand. But the modern batsman who expects
great success must learn to “cut,” for the large proportion of balls
delivered are best suited for cutting.

There are three distinct varieties of cuts. First, the forward cut.
Second, the square off cut. Third, the late cut. Each play resulting
from the relative position of the ball to the batsman while he is
making the hit. All the cuts are made from rising balls distinctly
to the off. When an off ball falls outside of the line of safety
for a forward play, the batsman instantly prepares himself for the
forward cut. This he does by elevating the bat as in No. 11, at
the same moment turning his face towards point, with his right foot
somewhat advanced in the same direction, using his left as a pivot.
This movement towards the advancing ball enables him to reach the
spot it is soon likely to occupy. Then while carrying his bat at an
angle of about 70, he suddenly brings it down with a chopping motion
until it comes in contact with the ball, which moves rapidly towards
the boundary in a line between point and mid-wicket. This hit is
illustrated by No. 12. It is effective, as it has a tendency to
spread the field forward.

  Illustration: No. 8--PREPARED TO DRIVE “ON.”

  The Cricket Field says with truth: “You won’t win by a hitting
  game if there is no hit in you,” and adds in somewhat different
  language, “the game to carry you through is the game you play
  best.”

No. 13, illustrates the position of the batter while making the
square cut. This hit is made from a ball rising to the off but
falling somewhat farther from the line of the wicket than that from
which the forward cut is made. Were the batter to stand firm in his
position it would be an impossibility for him to strike this ball,
for it must be remembered that it is advancing obliquely towards
point, and that it will have moved a considerable distance in that
direction by the time it arrives opposite the batsman. But it is his
business to move towards the ball, so that he can at least try to
hit it. Mahomet must go to the mountain, for it is quite evident that
the mountain is rapidly moving away from Mahomet. Having elevated
his bat as in No. 11, the batsman takes a long stride with his right
foot along the line of the popping crease, then suddenly and forcibly
bringing down his bat carried at an angle of 70°, he “cuts” the ball
towards point.

The late or back cut is beautiful as well as the safest and most
graceful hit in the repertoire of the batsman. But he must posess
experience of no mean order to guide the bat to strike the ball,
which is moving by him at a double acute angle and usually at a rapid
rate; for instead of facing the ball and meeting it with his bat as
in the forward and square off cut, he turns his person two-thirds
around towards the wicket keeper using his left foot for a pivot.
Then he takes a long stride with his right towards short slip, which
moves him in the direction of the motion of the ball. While these
movements are in progress the batter has elevated his weapon with
which he strikes the ball a blow, oblique with its course after it
has passed the line of the wicket in the direction of the slips. If
the bat is held at an angle of about 50° when it strikes, the ball
will rebound from the turf and elude the nimble fielder. The force of
the late cut is tremendous, as it combines the power of the shoulder
hit with the speed of the ball. The cut is such an effective play
that the snick has largely encroached upon it. We do not desire to
condemn the tip or snick, for it is a frequent counter, but only
desire to warn beginners, not to flatter themselves into the belief
that snicks are cuts.

The off bowler has come to stay, and if batters want scores they
must cut. Batters are justly proud of their ability to cut, though
but comparatively few make a clean hard hit of it. The tap is more
usual, while for certain bowling safe and effective. The tap is from
the wrist, while the cut is a combination of arm, wrist and shoulder.
For clean hard cuts the Scotts of Belmont, Lord Hawke and George
Patterson may be cited as exponents. The power behind their cuts
is phenominal. The cutting of any of these is a study for experts.

  Illustration: No. 9--Playing a Well-Pitched Straight Ball on
    Leg Stump.

  John Wisden says on page 25 of his _Cricket and How to Play It_:
  “A thoroughly good, active, lively and fearless wicket keeper
  does more to win matches than almost any man on the field.” We
  wish he had made his remarks more emphatic by omitting the word
  “almost.” We think, if Wisden had spent the last few years in
  America, and had seen the disastrous effects of reducing that
  all important position to the rank of an out-fielder, he would
  have used language quite as emphatic as that found in these
  pages.



                            CHAPTER V.

                    THE MANAGEMENT OF A MATCH.


It should be constantly borne in mind that when arrangements for a
match are being made, that the pleasure to be afforded by the game
should be the first desideratum. A fixture having been arranged,
let us suppose that the appointing power has named the elevens. The
players should immediately meet and elect their captain. If the play
of the opposing teams is even, the eleven with the best captain will
win two out of three matches. He should be chosen from among the
superior five. If in addition to his being captain he should be
wicket keeper as well, chances are in favor of that eleven, as from
that position he can silently direct the movement of any fielder
without being observed by the batsman. The captains should be granted
absolute obedience from fielders, for upon discipline depends the
result. The captain should be a natural leader, of more than average
physical endurance. He should be of sanguine disposition, always
encouraging his men to renewed efforts even though disaster is
imminent. He should command respect and obedience rather than exact
it. He should be firm but not overbearing, earnest but not anxious,
serene and not pompous in his bearing. Upon his judgement in posting
his little army depends the score of his rivals. He ought to be a
careful student of the capabilities in his own ranks as well as in
those of his adversary.

Upon the day of the proposed match the captain of the “home” eleven
should reach the ground at least one hour before “play” is to be
called. This timely arrival gives him leisure to assure himself that
the wicket has been selected and rolled, places of absentees filled
by substitutes, that lunch has been prepared, and that all the petty
commissions including lemons and saw dust have been executed. The
visitors having been welcomed, their captain interviewed, and the
toss won, a consultation with his eleven should precede the decision
of “ins” or “outs” according to condition of ground, weather,
and players. A soft turf presents great advantages to the “outs,”
whereas weather not foggy enough to prevent play may give tremendous
advantages to the batsman. While deciding this important point the
captain is entitled to the most intelligent assistance from his
fellow players.

  Illustration: No. 10--SCORING FROM A WELL-PITCHED LEG BALL.

  The good ball takes the wicket.

  There is “a length which Mr. Felix says brings over a man most
  indescribable emotions.”

Before calling “play” the umpires must be selected. These individuals
are usually overlooked in unimportant games, but to their credit
“let it be recorded” that almost without exception they become the
impartial judge, whose absolute authority is acknowledged by all. To
their further repute when judging their own batters, (for in local
matches the umpires are usually chosen from among the “ins”), let it
be said all abide by their decisions, right or wrong. A flagrantly
incorrect decision is usually reversed by the united wish of the
players; for all pleasure would be destroyed if such accidental
result should obtain. For trophy matches the umpires should be
specially chosen because of their thorough knowledge of cricket,
as well as for their patient unbiased judgement. Prompt decision
following close observation, assures implicit obedience on the part
of players and satisfaction to all. Their first duty after consulting
the two captains and before the first ball has been bowled is to
fix the hours of drawing stumps, and all details of time limits.
The captain of the “ins” having numbered and placed his batters,
while the captain of the “outs” has marshalled his field; the umpires
assume control. After “play” is called their power is absolute, and
their decisions final.

The work of the captain now begins. The “outs” if well disciplined
depend largely upon the instinctive aptness of their leader. His
assumption of the double role of captain and wicket keeper is
notice to his men that however severe they may deem their duties,
his require greater muscular strength, greater activity, greater
continuance of effort and energy, greater brain power and keener
eyesight than theirs. Every danger to which the fielders may be
exposed is shared by the captain. When the ball is struck to any
fielder an unobstructed view of it enables him to perform his duties
without fear, for the watchful eye robs it of danger. Not so the
wicket keeper, for the opaque batsman increased in size by pads,
gloves, and bat, moves in uncertain areas between him and the bowler.
Every passed ball has been momentarily obscured--practically lost
for perhaps the one-twentieth of a second, to the man who is expected
to receive it. We think it will be cheerfully acknowledged by all,
that the man who ignoring personal danger, finds a succession of
passed balls through a long match, anyone of which were it to strike
his face would finish his day’s career, is a leader to be proud of.
The ambition of the individual who can combine wicket keeper with
captain to the satisfaction of his eleven need not be limited to one
hemisphere. The points to be carefully watched by captains are:

1st.--Bowler’s lengths and speeds, with a view to pointing out
batsmen’s weak points.

2d.--Change of bowlers, to thwart batsmen who show indications of
making a stand.

3d.--Watchful care of bowlers’ physical endurance, with a view of
changing for rest.

4th.--Easing fielders whose duties require long journeys between
overs.

5th.--Anticipating and preventing overthrows, by keeping the attention
of the fielders upon the ball.

6th.--Preventing accidents from collisions, by promptly naming
the fielder who shall try to catch an elevated ball likely to drop
between men at even distances from its approach.

7th.--Willingness to answer questions without annoyance.

8th.--He should caution his men against excessive practice just
before “play” is called, also against overloading the stomach before
batting, a habit which has a tendency to obscure the sight, as well
as to dull the mental and physical energy.

9th.--He should know that every man is properly equipped, especially
as to cap, spikes and shoes.

10th.--Last, but not least, he should watch the telegraph, keeping
rather better posted in every detail of the game than any one on the
ground.

His duties though arduous and continuous, will be a delight to
himself and a joy to his men.

  Illustration: No. 11--READY FOR THE FORWARD CUT.

  Bat for the score instead of the gallery.

  Cricket is a game of skill against skill.

  A good cricketer is apt to be a good catch.



                          CHAPTER VI.

                        GENERAL REMARKS.


Some cricketers never seem to get beyond the “beginning” period, and
it is in vain to expect anyone to delight in a thing which he cannot
do fairly well. If these lines can convey a hint or two they will
have accomplished a most satisfactory purpose.

Let us for a moment watch a batsman plant himself before the wicket
as though with the determination to stay there the remainder of the
day. His mental purpose becomes his weakness, for no preconceived
idea of what one’s opponent will do is at all likely to occur. The
cricketer is always a creature of circumstances over which he usually
has little or no control, but of which he must be ever ready to take
immediate advantage. We used the words “plant himself” advisedly, for
no other suits. Having planted, a vigorous growth should follow, but
the disappointed spectator sees only a machine cricketer trying to
force hands and wrists to do the duty, which they should but assist
the arms and shoulders in doing. The beauty of the game is sacrificed
to the ounce of precaution, which may have been too much emphasized
by an over careful captain. While the game is in progress cricketers
should be active mentally as well as physically, and they have only
themselves to thank for the erroneous impression which has become
prevalent that cricket is a sleepy game. It is waste of time to play
a pure defensive game, and if the inveterate blocker could waste only
his own time none would have any right to complain, but that of at
least twenty-five others is being sacrificed at the same moment,
until from that and many other delays a game capable of giving
delight has become so little understood, even by American cricketers
themselves that only foreigners can draw a crowd.

The blindness of Americans to their own short comings was illustrated
by their attitude during the recent visit of the Irish Team. The
universal confidence in themselves, was only equalled by the pity
expressed for their visitors who were expected to fall an easy prey
to the representatives of Uncle Sam. Americans have set up a standard
of their own, and many have persuaded themselves to believe in methods
which occasionally succeed, but when the Englishman is at his best
the American has invariably been defeated, excuses taking the place
of good play, which are so generally accepted that American cricket
has temporarily retrograded.

This retrogression has been caused chiefly by ignoring the importance
of the wicket keeper. The star known as the aggressive batter, or
perhaps he had better be called a comet, has turned the heads of
American cricketers. We are all sovereigns, though many of us cannot
show that amount of cash, and why should we not all be star batsmen?
The object is easily accomplished if the wicket keeper can be got rid
of. The attempt has not only been made, but has been actually imposed
upon the American public as cricket; for though wearing the armor
of that great office, he is located ten to fifteen feet behind the
batsman, thereby becoming a fielder; with the tremendious consequence
that first-class wicket keeping is rarely seen in America. But we
have many aggressive batters, who settle down into first-rate bats
when in the presence of a standard wicket keeper. We say most of them,
advisedly, for a star will shine, wicket keeper, or no wicket keeper.
The true aggressive batsman is a combination of cause and effect
which no amount of ambition can even hope to imitate. Brain, guiding
muscle, with discipline resulting from long and patient training. He
can take almost any liberty with the bowler, he can play inside or
outside his crease, for the dangerous ball never reaches the wicket
keeper. But it must be remembered that he is a star. He is the
perfect batsman referred to on several occasions, who hits every
ball which does not threaten his wicket, and many that do. His
powerful physique, eagle eye, and energetic mind have given him
a place beyond his companions. That instinctive knowledge of the
presence of a man immediately behind him who will down his wicket
with a smile of satisfaction, must be forever present in the mind
of the batter. American cricketers may ignore him, but when America
meets her English competitor and hopes for the like convenient
ignorance, she is sure to have her pride injured.

A match is never lost ’till it is won, and the unexpected may at any
time happen, which is a great charm in the game. The disappointment
which follows the fall of wicket after wicket, simply because the
reliable bat has had the misfortune to be bowled, is not easily
described, but we have experienced the keenest anguish when the
catastrophy has happened to our side; while excessive buoyancy
seems to have taken posession of and intoxicated our opponents.
The American audience is so completely bent upon victory that good
cricket is momentarily lost sight of. If cricketers will remember
that superior play ought to be the object, and will forget the result,
these exhibitions of inferior cricket will be fewer. The courage and
nerve which are sure to follow careful training and good discipline,
can and will prepare each batter to depend upon himself, rather than
follow a bad example.

Fielding is too much neglected for the more pleasant occupation
of batting. The net is a useful invention, a tremendous time saver,
thoroughly in accord with other economic devices of the age, but it
has not improved fielding. Fielders should practice their art when
the game is not in progress if they expect success while the eyes of
spectators are concentrated upon a hard hit ball. The silence which
follows faulty fielding is quite as emphatic as the cry of “muff”
or “butter-fingers.” The fielder is always on exhibition in the
proportion of eleven to one batter, so that his opportunities for the
display of either good or bad play are many. If cricketers will bring
to their game the excellent qualities displayed upon the diamond,
theirs will soon be recognized as the popular game. Greater interest
is felt in fine fielding than in brilliant batting by the spectator,
though from a cricketers standpoint a finished batsman will always
be the favorite. There seems no excuse for poor fielding unless to
permit the second-rate bat to score double figures. It is with much
regret that we feel the necessity of dwelling upon this subject at
length, but these hints would be otherwise incomplete. Before closing
we desire to thank Mr. S. V. Merrick, Secretary of the Germantown
Cricket Club, for his kind assistance while these photographs were
being taken at Manheim. The atitudes of Mr. George Bromhead, their
professional cricketer, which illustrates this essay, were made
instanteneously, and wherever possible while bat and ball were in
motion. It may therefore be assumed that for the purpose of either
“beginner” or “expert” these positions are as close to life as it
is possible to secure them.

  Illustration: No. 12--MAKING THE FORWARD CUT.

  “Play as ‘tall’ as you can.”--_Wisden._

  Good bowling surprises the batter by twists, by balls of
  different lengths, and balls of varied speed.



                            CHAPTER VII.

                            DEFINITIONS.


=Bowler’s Crease.=--A lime line, one inch to one and one-half inches
wide, six feet eight inches long, the centre stump being taken as the
centre of the measurement, parallel with the popping crease.

=Call.=--It is the duty of the colleague batsman to watch the
opportunity for scoring for two reasons. First his attention is
not otherwise occupied. Second, a slight loss of time occurs if
the batsman after striking a ball turns his head to look whether
an opportunity for a run has arrived. Captains too often do not give
rigid instructions upon this most important duty (supposing that
cricketers know their business), and also from a desire not to offend
a batter. The unnecessary “run out” being the result. The two men in
together should have an understanding, and when the “call” is given
there should be such perfect confidence in the “caller” that the run
is attempted without misgiving or hesitation.

=Crease.=--The portion of the field set apart and prepared by rolling,
upon which to erect the wickets.

  Illustration: No. 13--THE SQUARE CUT.

  A good fielder makes an effort to stop every ball which comes
  his way not always expecting or even hoping to reach it but to
  keep up his own spirits as well as that of his companions.

=Guard or Block.=--The position of defense selected by the batter to
place the point of his bat. Most batters request the umpire to stand
upon the spot from which the bowler will deliver. If the batter holds
his bat erect the blade will conceal two stumps from the view of the
umpire. This spot is carefully dented in the turf by the bat. Taking
guard is optional with batters.

=Innings.=--In single wicket, the whole number of both sides having
gone to the bat and been decided out by the umpire. In double wicket,
eleven men having gone in and ten having been given out on each side.

=On.=--If a line is extended from boundary to boundary, passing
through the middle of the centre stump of each wicket, all that
portion of the field to the left of the line for a right-hand batter,
is the “leg,” or “on” side of the wicket.

=Off.=--While all that portion of the field to the right of the
line while a right-handed batter is performing, is the “off” side
of the wicket. The reverse obtains for left-handers. These terms
are RELATIVE to the batter. They may change with the batsman every
“over,” or with every ball.

=Popping Crease.=--A line marked four feet in front of the wicket
and parallel to it, extending from boundary to boundary. Only about
six feet of this line is whitened with lime to guide the umpire and
to define the runs.

=Shooter.=--A ball which from any cause does not rise from the ground.

=Tice.=--A ball bowled to tempt a batter to strike.

=Wicket.=--The wicket seems to have developed from a hole in the
ground into which the fielders placed the ball to “put out” the
batsman. A single stick eighteen inches high displaced the hole. Two
upright sticks each a foot high placed two feet apart with a bail
two feet long succeeded the single stick in the year 1700. The years
1781, 1814, and 1817 are all memorable for changes in the wicket,
which since the latter year has remained the same. Single wicket
cricket only was played until 1710, when the Scotch developed double
wicket under the name of “cat and dog.” The game has been and is a
progressive one, each generation revealing improvements. The diagram
shows the various sizes and shapes of the wicket:

  Illustration

=Wicket.=--Three stumps twenty-seven inches high, so erected that
they shall be eight inches from outside to outside, with bails laid
in grooves upon the top. The stumps composing the wicket must be of
such thickness that the ball cannot pass between them.

=Wicket.=--A batter given “out” by the umpire for any cause.

=Wicket.=--The “crease” as a whole with special reference to the
surfacing.

  Illustration: No. 14--THE LATE OR BACK CUT.

  Science has demonstrated that the atmosphere is not dense
  enough to account for the air curve of the ball; but the batter
  who is thereby “out” derives no consolation from the scientists’
  conclusion.



                          CHAPTER VIII.

          LAWS OF CRICKET.--AS REVISED BY THE MARLEYBONE
                     CRICKET CLUB, MAY, 1890.


1. A match is played between two sides of eleven players each, unless
otherwise agreed to; each side has two innings, taken alternately,
except in the case provided for in Law 53. The choice of innings
shall be decided by tossing.

2. The score shall be reckoned by runs. A run is scored--1st, so
often as the batsmen after a hit, or at any time while the ball is in
play, shall have crossed, and made good their ground from end to end.
2d, for penalties under Laws 16, 34, 41, and allowances under 44. Any
run or runs so scored shall be duly recorded by scorers appointed for
the purpose. The side which scores the greatest number of runs wins
the match. No match is won unless played out or given up, except in
the case provided for in Law 45.

3. Before the commencement of the match two umpires shall be
appointed, one for each end.

4. The ball shall weigh not less than 5½ oz., nor more than 5¾ oz.
It shall measure not less than 9 in. nor more than 9¼ in. in
circumference. At the beginning of each innings either side may
demand a new ball.

5. The bat shall not exceed 4¼ in. in the widest part; it shall not
be more than 38 in. in length.

6. The wickets shall be pitched opposite and parallel to each other,
at a distance of 22 yards. Each wicket shall be 8 in. in width and
consist of three stumps, with two bails upon the top. The stumps
shall be of equal and sufficient size to prevent the ball from
passing through, and 27 in. out of the ground. The bails shall be
each 4 in. in length and when in position, on the top of the stumps,
shall not project more than ½ in. above them. The wickets shall not
be changed during a match, unless the ground between them become
unfit for play, and then only by consent of both sides.

7. The bowling crease shall be in a line with the stumps 6 ft. 8 in.
in length; the stumps in the center, with a return crease at each
end, at right angles behind the wicket.

8. The popping crease shall be marked 4 ft. from the wicket, parallel
to it, and be deemed unlimited in length.

9. The ground shall not be rolled, watered, covered, mown or beaten
during a match, except before the commencement of each innings and
of each day’s play, when, unless the inside object, the ground shall
be swept and rolled for not more than ten minutes. This shall not
prevent the batsman from beating the ground with his bat, nor the
batsmen nor bowler from using sawdust in order to obtain a proper
foothold.

10. The ball must be bowled; if thrown or jerked, the umpire shall
call “No ball.”

11. The bowler shall deliver the ball with one foot on the ground
behind the bowling crease, and within the return crease, otherwise
the umpire shall call “No ball.”

12. If the bowler shall bowl the ball so high over or so wide of the
wicket that in the opinion of the umpire it is not within reach of
the striker, the umpire shall call “Wide ball.”

13. The ball shall be bowled in overs of five balls from each wicket
alternately. When five balls have been bowled and the ball is finally
settled in the bowler’s or wicket-keeper’s hands, the umpire shall
call “Over.” Neither a “no ball” nor a “wide ball” shall be reckoned
as one of the “over.”

14. The bowler shall be allowed to change ends as often as he
pleases, provided only that he does not bowl two overs consecutively
in one innings.

15. The bowler may require the batsman at the wicket from which he is
bowling to stand on that side of it which he may direct.

16. The striker may hit a “no-ball,” and whatever runs result shall
be added to his score; but he shall not be out from a “no ball,”
unless he be run out, or break Laws 26, 27, 29, 30. All runs made
from a “no-ball,” otherwise than from the bat, shall be scored
“no-balls,” and if no run be made one run shall be added to that
score. From a “wide ball” as many runs as are run shall be added to
the score as “wide balls,” and if no run be otherwise obtained one
run shall be so added.

17. If the ball, not having been called “wide” or “no-ball,” pass
the striker, without touching his bat or person, and any runs be
obtained, the umpire shall call “Bye;” but if the ball touch any
part of the striker’s person (hand excepted) and any run be obtained,
the umpire shall call “Leg-bye,” such runs to be scored “byes” and
“leg-byes” respectively.

18. At the beginning of the match, and of each innings, the umpire at
the bowler’s wicket shall call “Play;” from that time no trial ball
shall be allowed to any bowler on the ground between the wickets,
and when one of the batsman is out the use of the bat shall not be
allowed to any person until the next batsman shall come in.

19. A batsman shall be held to be “out of his ground” unless his bat
in hand or some part of his person be grounded within the line of the
popping crease.

20. The wicket shall be held to be “down” when either of the bails is
struck off, or, if both bails be off, when a stump is struck out of
the ground.

The striker is out:

21. If the wicket be bowled down, even if the ball first touch the
striker’s bat or person:--“Bowled.”

22. Or, if the ball, from a stroke of the bat or hand, but not the
wrist, be held before it touch the ground, although it be hugged to
the body of the catcher:--“Caught.”

23. Or, if in playing at the ball, provided it be not touched by the
bat or hand, the striker be out of his ground, and the wicket be put
down by the wicket-keeper with the ball or with the hand or arm, with
ball in hand:--“Stumped.”

24. Or, if with any part of his person he stop the ball, which in the
opinion of the umpire at the bowler’s wicket shall have been pitched
in a straight line from it to the strikers wicket and would have hit
it:--“Leg before wicket.”

25. Or, if in playing at the ball he hit down his wicket with his bat
or any part of his person or dress:--“Hit wicket.”

26. Or, if under pretense of running, or otherwise, either of the
batsmen willfully prevent a ball from being caught:--“Obstructing
the field.”

27. Or, if the ball be struck, or be stopped by any part of his
person, and he willfully strike it again, except it be done for the
purpose of guarding his wicket, which he may do with his bat, or any
part of his person, except his hands:--“Hit the ball twice.”

Either batsman is out:

28. If in running, or at any other time, while the ball is in play he
be out of his ground, and his wicket be struck down by the ball after
touching any fieldsman, or by the hand or arm, with ball in hand, or
any fieldsman:--“Run out.”

29. Or, if he touch with his hands or take up the ball while in play,
unless at the request of the opposite side:--“Handled the ball.”

30. Or if he willfully obstruct any fieldsman:--“Obstructing the
field.”

31. If the batsmen have crossed each other, he that runs for the
wicket which is put down is out; if they have not crossed, he that
has left the wicket which is put down is out.

32. The striker being caught no run shall be scored. A batsman being
run out, that run which was being attempted shall not be scored.

33. A batsman being out from any cause, the ball shall be “dead.”

34. If a ball in play cannot be found or recovered, any fieldsman may
call “Lost Ball,” when the ball shall be “dead:” six runs shall be
added to the score, but if more than six runs have been run before
“lost ball” has been called, as many runs as have been run shall be
scored.

35. After the ball shall have been finally settled in the
wicket-keeper’s or bowler’s hand it shall be “dead;” but when the
bowler is about to deliver the ball, if the batsman at his wicket
be out of his ground before actual delivery, the said bowler may run
him out; but if the bowler throw at that wicket and any run result it
shall be scored “no ball.”

36. A batsman shall not retire from his wicket and return to it to
complete his innings after another has been in without the consent
of the opposite side.

37. A substitute shall be allowed to field or run between wickets
for any player who may during the match be incapacitated from illness
or injury, but for no other reason, except with the consent of the
opposite side.

38. In all cases where a substitute shall be allowed, the consent
of the opposite side shall be obtained as to the person to act as
substitute and the place in the field which he shall take.

39. In case any substitute shall be allowed to run between wickets,
the striker may be run out if either he or his substitute be out of
his ground. If the striker be out of his ground while the ball is in
play, that wicket which he has left may be put down and the striker
given out, although the other batsman may have made good the ground
at that end, and the striker and his substitute at the other end.

40. A batsman is liable to be out for any infringement of the laws by
his substitute.

41. The fieldsman may stop the ball with any part of his person, but
if he willfully stop it otherwise the ball shall be “dead,” and five
runs added to the score. Whatever runs may have been made five only
shall be added.

42. The wicket-keeper shall stand behind the wicket. If he shall take
the ball for the purpose of stumping before it has passed the wicket,
or if he shall incommode the striker by any noise, or motion, or
if any part of his person be over or before the wicket, the striker
shall not be out, excepting under Laws 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30.

43. The umpires are the sole judges of fair or unfair play, of the
fitness of the ground, the weather, and the light for play; all
disputes shall be determined by them, and if they disagree the actual
state of things shall continue.

44. They shall pitch ther wickets, arrange boundaries where
necessary, and the allowances to be made for them, and change ends
after each side has had one innings.

45. They shall allow two minutes for each striker to come in and ten
minutes between each innings. When they shall call “Play,” the side
refusing to play shall lose the match.

46. They shall not order a batsman out unless appealed to by the
other side.

47. The umpire at the bowler’s wicket shall be appealed to before
the other umpire in all cases except in those of stumping, hit the
wicket, run out at the striker’s wicket, or arising under Law 42, but
in any case in which an umpire is unable to give a decision he shall
appeal to the other umpire, whose decision shall be final.

48 A. If the umpire at the bowler’s end be not satisfied of the
absolute fairness of the delivery of any ball, he shall call “No
ball.”

48 B. The umpire shall take especial care to call “No ball” instantly
upon delivery, “Wide ball” as soon as it shall have passed the
striker.

49. If either batsman run a short run, the umpire shall call “One
short,” and the run shall not be scored.

50. After the umpire has called “Over” the ball is “dead” but an
appeal may be made as to whether either batsman is out, such appeal,
however, shall not be made after the delivery of the next ball, nor
after any cessation of play.

51. No umpire shall be allowed to bet.

52. No umpire shall be changed during a match unless with the consent
of both sides, except in case of violation of Law 51, then either
side may dismiss him.

53. The side which goes in second shall follow their innings if they
have scored eighty runs less than the opposite side.

54. On the last day of a match, and in a one-day match at any time,
the in-side shall be empowered to declare their innings at an end.


                        ONE-DAY MATCHES.

1. The side which goes in second shall follow their innings if they
have scored sixty runs less than the opposite side.

2. The match, unless played out, shall be decided by the first
innings.

3. Prior to the commencement of a match it may be agreed that the
over consist of 5 or 6 balls.



                      Transcriber’s Notes

  The following corrections have been made in the text:

    Introduction, paragraph 1
        - ‘cicket’ replaced with ‘cricket’
          (when boys wielded a cricket bat,)

    Chapter 1, paragraph 2
        - ‘excldued’ replaced with ‘excluded’
          (are always excluded from)

    Chapter 2, paragraph 6
        - ‘ealled’ replaced with ‘called’
          (the man was called a rogue directly)

    Chapter 2, paragraph 6
        - duplicate ‘came’ removed
          (Angry words came out fast)

    Chapter 3, paragraph 4
        - omitted ‘of’ added
          (spirit of American cricket)

    Chapter 3, paragraph 20
        - removed duplicate ‘the’
          (part of the fielder)

    Chapter 4, paragraph 3
        - add omitted ‘of’
          (father of an upright man)

    Chapter 4, paragraph 16
        - ‘bateman’ replaced with ‘batsman’
          (or unnatural upon the batsman)

    Chapter 4, paragraph 27
        - ‘powder’ replaced with ‘power’
          (The power behind their cuts)

    Chapter 5, paragraph 4
        - ‘increaased’ replaced with ‘increased’
          (batsman increased in size by pads)

    Chapter 6, paragraph 6
        - ‘professsional’ replaced with ‘professional’
          (their professional cricketer)





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