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Title: Early Western Travels 1748-1846, v. 17
Author: Various
Language: English
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                         Early Western Travels

                               1748-1846

                              Volume XVII



                         Early Western Travels

                               1748-1846

          A Series of Annotated Reprints of some of the best
        and rarest contemporary volumes of travel, descriptive
                   of the Aborigines and Social and
                   Economic Conditions in the Middle
                    and Far West, during the Period
                     of Early American Settlement


           Edited with Notes, Introductions, Index, etc., by

                      Reuben Gold Thwaites, LL.D.
   Editor of "The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents," "Original
       Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition," "Hennepin's
                         New Discovery," etc.

                              Volume XVII
         Part IV of James's Account of S. H. Long's Expedition
                               1819-1820

                            [Illustration]

                            Cleveland, Ohio
                      The Arthur H. Clark Company
                                 1905

                          COPYRIGHT 1905, BY
                      THE ARTHUR H. CLARK COMPANY

                          ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

                          The Lakeside Press
                    R. R. DONNELLEY & SONS COMPANY
                                CHICAGO



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XVII


  CHAPTER I [IX of Vol. III, original ed.]--Journey from
  Belle Point to Cape Girardeau. Cherokee Indians.
  Osage War. Regulator's Settlements of White River                   11

  CHAPTER II [X of Vol. III]--Hot Springs of the Washita.
  Granite of the Cove. Saline River                                   42

  CHAPTER III [XI of Vol. III]--Red River. Exploring
  Expedition of 1806. Return to the Arkansa. Earthquakes              61

  A General Description of the Country traversed by the exploring
  Expedition. _Stephen Harriman Long_                                 94

  Observations on the Mineralogy and Geology of a Part of the
  United States west of the Mississippi. _Augustus Edward
  Jessup_                                                            183

  Calculations of Observations made ... on a tour from
  the Council Bluffs on the Missouri River, westward along
  the river Platte to its head waters in the Rocky Mountains,--thence
  southwardly to the head waters of the
  Arkansa and Canadian rivers, and down said rivers to
  Belle Point, performed in 1820. [From Philadelphia
  edition, 1823]. _Stephen Harriman Long_, and _William
  Henry Swift_                                                       256

  Vocabularies of Indian Languages [from Philadelphia edition,
  1823]. _Thomas Say_                                                289



ILLUSTRATION TO VOLUME XVII


  Vertical Section on the Parallel of Latitude 41 degrees North;
  and on the Parallel of Latitude 35 degrees North                   185



PART IV OF JAMES'S ACCOUNT OF S. H. LONG'S EXPEDITION, 1819-1820

    Chapters ix, x, and xi, General Description of the Country, and
        Observations on the Mineralogy and Geology, reprinted from
        Volume III of London edition, 1823

    Calculations of Observations by Long and Swift, reprinted from
        Part II, Volume II, Philadelphia edition, 1823

    Vocabularies of Indian Languages, by Say, reprinted from Volume
        II, Philadelphia edition, 1823

EXPEDITION FROM PITTSBURGH TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS

[PART IV]



{124} CHAPTER I [IX][1]

         Journey from Belle Point to Cape Girardeau--Cherokee
            Indians--Osage War--Regulator's Settlements of
                             White River.


The opportunity afforded by a few days residence at Fort Smith,
was seized for the purpose of ascertaining, by several successive
observations, the latitude and longitude of the place. The results
of several observations of the sun's meridian altitude, and of lunar
distances, had between the 14th and 19th September, give for the
latitude of Belle Point, 34° 50´ 54˝, and for the longitude 94° 21´
west of Greenwich.[2]

On the 19th, Captain Bell left the fort to proceed on his way to Cape
Girardeau,[3] accompanied by Dougherty and Oakly, two of the engagees
whose services were no longer required. On the 20th, Doctor James
and Lieutenant Swift departed in company with Captain Kearny,[4] who
had visited the post in the discharge of his duties as inspector and
pay-master. It was the design of this party to descend the Arkansa to
the Cherokee agency, and to proceed thence to the hot springs of the
Washita.

On the 21st, the party, now consisting of Major Long, Messrs. Say,
Seymour and Peale, accompanied by Wilson, Adams, Duncan, and Sweney,
the other soldiers being left at the fort, commenced their journey
towards Cape Girardeau. We took with us five horses and five mules,
two of the latter being loaded with packs. Captain Ballard kindly
volunteered his services as guide, and, attended by a servant,
accompanied us the first day's journey on our march.

{125} Our route lay on the south side of the Arkansa, at considerable
distance from the river, and led us across two small creeks--one called
the Mussanne or Massern, and the other the Vache Grasse.[5] The latter
stream has a course of several miles, but during the dry season,
discharges very little water. The small path we followed lay for the
most part through open woods of post oak, black jack, and hickory,
occasionally traversing a narrow prairie. In these open plains, now
covered with rank grass and weeds, we discovered here and there some
traces, such as a skull or a hoof of a bison, indicating that the
undisputed possession of man to these regions had been of a very recent
date.

It was near five o'clock when we arrived at the solitary cabin of a
settler, and though we found no inhabitant about the place, we halted,
and encamped near the spring. Our horses were scarce unsaddled, when a
man, who seemed to be the occupant of the house, came up, and informed
us, that half a mile further on our way, we should find a house and
good accommodations. Accordingly, we again mounted our horses, and
rode on to "Squire Billingsby's," as our destined host was entitled,
where we met a very hospitable reception.[6] As the night approached,
we observed that several young women and men, the sons and daughters
of the family, disappeared, going to the cottages of the neighbours
(the nearest of which seemed to be the one we had passed) to spend the
night, that they might leave their beds for our use. Our hospitable
landlord had many swarms of bees, some of which had been taken from
the neighbouring forests. Wishing to make the addition of some honey
to the bountiful table spread for our entertainment, he went with a
light, and carefully removing the top of one of the hives, took out
as much of the comb as he wished, and then replaced the top without
killing or injuring the bees. In this manner, he assured us, honey may
{126} at any time be taken without destroying the insects, who will, if
the season admits, speedily make up the deficiency thus produced. Some
feather beds having been given up by their ordinary occupants expressly
for our use, we could not well avoid accepting the accommodation thus
offered, but instead of proving an indulgence, we found the use of them
partook more of the nature of a punishment. We spent an unquiet and
almost sleepless night, and arose on the following morning unrefreshed,
and with a painful feeling of soreness in our bones, so great a change
had the hunter's life produced upon our habits. Those of the party who
spread their blankets, and passed the night on the floor of the cabin,
rested much more pleasantly.

On the succeeding morning, Captain Ballard returned to Belle Point, and
we resumed our journey, accompanied by one of the sons of our landlord,
who undertook to guide us on our way, until we should fall in with
a path which we might continue to follow. We passed through a hilly
country, crossing two creeks, heretofore called the Middle and Lower
Vache Grasse. At the distance of four or five miles from the Arkansa,
on each side, the country is broken and mountainous, several of the
summits rising to an elevation of near two thousand feet above the
surface of the water. Several trees which stood near our path had been
in part stripped of their bark, and the naked trunks were marked with
rude figures, representing horses, men, deer, dogs, &c. These imperfect
paintings, done with charcoal, and sometimes touched with a little
vermilion, appeared to be historic records, designed to perpetuate,
or at least to communicate the account of some exploit in hunting, a
journey, or some similar event. We have already remarked, that this
method of communication is sufficiently understood by the Indians, to
be made the vehicle of important intelligence.

A little before sunset we arrived at a settlement on the stream, called
Short Mountain Bayou. The little {127} cabin we found occupied by two
soldiers belonging to the garrison, who were on their return from the
settlement at Cadron, whither they had been sent with letters on our
arrival at Fort Smith, Cadron being the nearest post-town. We had
expected letters from our friends by the return of the express, but
were disappointed.[7]

The soldiers informed us, that the house in which they had quartered
themselves for the night, had been for a week or two deserted, since
its proprietor had died, and his wife, who was sick, had been removed
to the nearest settlement. The place is called the Short Mountain
Settlement,[8] from a high ridge of sandstone, a little to the
north-west, rising in the form of a parallelogram to an elevation of
about twelve hundred feet.[9] Its sides are abrupt, and in many places,
particularly towards the summit, perpendicular. The summit is broad
and nearly tabular, being covered with small trees, among which the
red cedar, or some other ever-green tree, predominates. The plantation
is somewhat elevated on a rocky eminence, at a little distance from
the creek, but it is surrounded on all sides, save one, by the heavily
wooded low grounds, in which we are to look for the causes whose
operation have made it so soon desolate. Short Mountain Bayou, if we
may judge from the depth and width of its channel, and the extent of
its low grounds, is a large stream, or rather one which drains an
extensive surface, but at this time it exhibited a succession of green
and stagnant pools, connected by a little brook, almost without any
perceptible current. On the surface of these pools, we saw the floating
leaves of the nymphæa kalmiana, some utricularias, and other aquatic
plants.

{128} September, 23d. After leaving the wide and fertile bottoms
of the Short Mountain Bayou, our path lay across high and rocky
hills, altogether covered with woods. The upland forests are almost
exclusively of oak, with some little intermixture of hickory, dogwood
and black gum. They are open, and the ground is in part covered with
coarse grasses.

At noon we arrived at the Cherokee settlements on Rocky Bayou, and were
received with some hospitality at the house of the metif chief, known
by the name of Tom Graves. Though entirely an Indian in his character
and habits, he has the colour and features of an European, and it was
not without some difficulty we could be made to believe that he was
in reality allied by birth to the people among whom he holds the rank
of a chief. His house, as well as many we passed before we arrived at
it, is constructed like those of the white settlers, and like them
surrounded with enclosed fields of corn, cotton, sweet potatoes, &c.,
with cribs, sheds, droves of swine, flocks of geese, and all the usual
accompaniments of a thriving settlement.

Graves, our landlord, though unable to speak or understand our
language, held some communications with us by means of signs,
occasionally assisted by a black girl, one of his slaves, who
interpreted the Cherokee language. He told us, among other things, that
the Osages do not know how to fight; that the Cherokees were now ready
to give up the Osage prisoners, if the Osages would deliver into their
hands the individuals who had formerly killed some of the Cherokees,
&c. He has shown his admiration of military prowess, by calling one of
his children Andrew Jackson Graves. He treated us with a good degree
of attention, and showed himself well acquainted with the manner of
making amends by extravagant charges. Our dinner was brought in by
black slaves, and consisted of a large boiled buffaloe fish, a cup of
coffee, corn bread, {129} milk, &c. Our host and his wife, of unmixed
aboriginal race, were at table with us, and several slaves of African
descent were in waiting. The Cherokees are said to treat their slaves
with much lenity. The part of the nation now residing on the Arkansa,
have recently removed from a part of the state of Tennessee. They are
almost exclusively agriculturists, raising large crops of corn and
cotton, enough for clothing their families, which they manufacture in
their own houses.

After dinner we proceeded a few miles, taking with us one of Graves's
sons as a guide, who led us to a place affording good pasture for our
horses. Here we encamped.

September 24th. From the settlement of the Cherokees, at Rocky Bayou,
our route lay towards the south-east, across the succession of rocky
hills, sparingly wooded with oak, intermixed with the cornus porida,
attaining an unusual magnitude.

As we descended towards the Arkansa, we perceived before us the cabins
and plantations of another settlement of Cherokees. Passing near a
wretched and neglected tenement, we observed a white man, who appeared
to be the occupant, and called upon him to direct us to the place
where, as we had been told, the river could be forded. It was not until
we had repeated our request several times, that he seemed disposed to
give any attention. He then approached at a snail's pace, and setting
himself down upon the ground, drawled out his direction, terminating
each word with a long and hearty yawn. The depression and misery which
seemed written on his features, and the sallowness of his complexion,
convinced us that disease, as well as native indolence, had some share
in occasioning the apparent insolence he had shewn, and cured us of any
wish we might have felt to reproach him.

Following a winding pathway, which led through deep-tangled thickets
and heavy cane-brakes, we {130} arrived at the ford, and crossing
without difficulty, halted at the settlement of Walter Webber,[10] a
young chief of the Cherokees.

Here we found the gentlemen of our party who had left the garrison
before us.

The chiefs of the Cherokee nation had called a grand council, to meet
at Point Pleasant the day after our arrival there, to adopt measures to
forward the negotiations for peace with the Osages, with whom they had
been at variance for many years. The origin of the quarrel, existing
between these powerful and warlike nations, is by some referred to the
period of the American revolution, when the Osages killed a number of
refugees, who had fled to them for protection. Among these were some
Cherokees, some Indians of mixed breed, and it is said some Englishmen,
to whom the success of the American arms rendered unsafe a longer
residence in the country then occupied by the Cherokee nation. Whether
the outrage thus alleged against the Osages was in fact committed, it
is not at this time easy to determine. It appears, however, agreeably
to the information we have been able to collect, that of late years the
Cherokees have almost uniformly been the aggressors, while the abuses
of the Osages, so loudly complained of, both by the Cherokees and the
Whites, have been acts of retaliation. A large number of Cherokees
now live on the south side of the Arkansa, upon lands claimed by the
Osages; and all the Cherokees of the Arkansa are in the habit of
hunting and committing depredations upon the Osage hunting grounds. In
1817, the Cherokees, with a number of Delawares, Shawnees,[11] Quapaws,
and eleven American volunteers, the whole amounting to about six
hundred men, made an irruption into the territory of the Osages, having
previously taken measures to quiet the suspicions of their enemies, by
occasional messages, professing a peaceable disposition on their part.
When they had arrived near the village, they {131} sent a deputation to
the Osages, concealing at the same time their numbers and their hostile
intention, and inviting Clermont, the chief, to a council which they
proposed to hold at a little distance from the town. Clermont being
absent on a hunt with the young men of his village, an old Indian,
and one in high standing with his people, was appointed to act in
his stead, and commissioned to conclude a peace with the Cherokees,
according to the wish they had expressed by their messengers. But what
was his surprise, when, on arriving at the spot designated as that at
which the council was to be held, instead of a few chiefs and old men,
as had been represented, he found himself surrounded by the whole armed
force of the Cherokees. He was seized and put to death on the spot. The
design of this act of perfidy had been to effect the destruction of
Clermont, the bravest and most powerful of the Osages. The Cherokees
then proceeded to the attack of the town, where, on account of the
absence of the efficient men, they encountered little resistance. A
scene of outrage and bloodshed ensued, in which the eleven Americans
are said to have acted a conspicuous and a shameful part. They fired
the village, destroyed the corn and other provisions, of which the
Osages had raised a plentiful crop, killed and took prisoners between
fifty and sixty persons, all old men, women, and children. Four of
these prisoners, who had been since held in captivity by the Cherokees
east of the Mississippi, had been brought to Point Pleasant, by a
metif called Captain Rogers, and a consultation was now to be held,
concerning the manner of restoring them to the Osages.

In the winter of 1817-18, some of the leading men of both nations had
been summoned to a council at St. Louis, by Governor Clark, for the
purpose of negotiating a peace. By the treaty then made, the Cherokees
had agreed to relinquish the prisoners in question, in consideration
of which they were to be {132} allowed the privilege of hunting in the
country north of the Arkansa, as high as the Grand river or Six Bulls,
and on the south side as high as they pleased.[12] The stipulated
surrender of the prisoners not having been made, a party of Osages,
who were hunting on Red river, some time in the ensuing winter, fell
in with three Cherokee hunters, and whom they murdered by way of
retaliation. This circumstance tended to widen the breach between them,
till at length both parties were resolved on war, which was for the
present prevented by the interference of Governor Miller, and by the
check imposed by the presence of an armed force at Belle Point, on the
frontiers of the two nations. At the time of our visit, it was hoped
the influence of Governor Miller would effect the establishment of a
permanent peace. The first of the ensuing month (October) had been
appointed for the surrender of the prisoners, and Governor Miller was
said to be then on his way to Belle Point, to ensure the fulfilment of
the conditions stipulated between the contending parties. The Osages
were to give up the men concerned in the murder on Red river, in
exchange for the women and children then prisoners with the Cherokees.

The Cherokees were taught the culture of cotton many years since, by
Governor Blount[13] of North Carolina, who offered them a stipulated
price per pound, for all they would deliver at the trading-house.
They were for several years paid regularly for their cotton; but the
factor at length refusing any longer to receive it, they complained
to Governor Blount, who advised them to manufacture it into clothing
for their own use, which they consented to do, on condition of being
furnished with a person to give the requisite instruction. They
now raise considerable quantities of cotton, and many of them are
comfortably clad in garments of their own manufacture.

The introduction of a considerable degree of civilization among the
Cherokees, has been attended {133} with the usual consequence of
inequality in the distribution of property, and a larger share of the
evils resulting from that inequality, than are known among untutored
savages. Encroachments upon the newly-established rights of exclusive
possession have been frequent, and have rendered the numerous class
of the poor among the Cherokees troublesome neighbours, both to the
wealthy of their own nation, and to those of the white settlers in
their vicinity who had any thing to lose. But wealth seldom finds
itself destitute of the means of protection. Three bands of regulators,
or troops of light horse, as they are sometimes called, are maintained
among the Cherokees, consisting each of ten men well armed and
mounted, and invested with an almost unlimited authority.[14] A few
days previous to our arrival at Point Pleasant, a young man had been
apprehended by one of these bands of regulators, on suspicion of
horse-theft. On examination, the supposed delinquent proved stubborn
and refractory, whereupon the captain ordered the infliction of
fifty lashes; and this not seeming to produce the desired effect, an
additional fifty was commenced, when the culprit confessed himself
guilty, and disclosed the whole transaction, in which he had been
concerned. We were called upon for advice in the case of the Osage
prisoners, a young woman and three children labouring under an attack
of intermitting fever. The young woman we found sitting upon the
floor in a little cabin, near the trading-house, and crying bitterly,
not more, as we were informed, on account of ill-health, than of
her reluctance to return to the Osages. She had been long among the
Cherokees, whose customs she had adopted, and among whom she had formed
attachments.

Tikatok's village, which we passed on the 25th, is situated on the
Illinois Bayou,[15] about seven miles above Point Pleasant. It
consists of no more than {134} five or six cabins, but is the residence
of the venerable Tikatok, who, since the death of Tallantusky in 1817,
has been considered the principal chief of this portion of the Cherokee
nation. He has been a distinguished benefactor to his people, and is
familiarly known by the name of "The Beloved." The Cherokees who live
at and about this village, and those settled at a distance from the
Arkansa, generally are less subject to fevers than those who reside on
the river bottoms. At a little distance above the village we left the
Illinois, and proceeded across the wilderness towards Little Red river,
on our route to Cape Girardeau. Two or three scattered plantations,
occupied by Cherokees, occur in the country between Point Pleasant and
Little Red river, where we arrived on the 28th. This river has a deep
rocky channel, sixty or one hundred yards in width, at the point where
we crossed it, which is distant about eighty miles from its confluence
with White river. It had at this time scarcely a perceptible current,
and in many places might be crossed on foot without wading. It is,
however, like most of the rivers of this region, subject to great and
sudden floods, which, in several instances, have drowned the cattle,
and destroyed and swept away the crops of those who were settled along
the banks. From the marks left by the last flood upon the banks, we
perceived that the range, from high to low water, could not be less
than sixty feet. From Stanley's settlement on Little Red river, it is
about thirty-six miles north-east to Harding's ferry on White river.
Here are numerous settlements of Whites; but notwithstanding the
country is hilly and profusely irrigated with numerous rapid streams,
the inhabitants have almost without exception a sickly appearance.
Harding's ferry is about four hundred miles distant from the confluence
of White river and the Mississippi.[16] White river is navigable for
keel-boats at high water to this place, and during a considerable
portion of the year, they {135} may ascend one hundred miles farther.
It is here about three hundred yards wide. Its water is remarkably
clear, and flows with a moderate current over a gravelly or stony-bed.

Near Harding's ferry, on the south side of White river, is the
Chattahoochee mountain,[17] of about two thousand feet elevation,
somewhat surpassing any other point in its vicinity. The top of this
mountain marks the north-eastern angle of the Cherokee boundary, as
established by General Jackson's treaty. The eastern boundary of the
tract, ceded by that treaty to the Cherokees, runs in a straight line
from the top of the Chattahoochee to the mouth of Point Remove or Eddy
Point creek, which enters the Arkansa about thirty miles above Cadron.
This line coincides nearly with the eastern limit of the mountainous
region. Many small portions of valuable land are included in the
territory lately ceded to the Cherokees, but by far the greater part
is mountainous and barren, and unfit for cultivation. White river
has its source in the Ozark mountains, near the 94th degree of west
longitude, and about the 36th degree north latitude, in the same
district, from which descend, on the south-west the Illinois river of
Arkansa, and on the north the Yungar Fork of the Osage. The average
direction of its course is nearly due east parallel to the Arkansa,
crossing about four degrees of longitude to its confluence with Black
river, in latitude 350° 15´, then turning abruptly south, it flows
through 1º 15´ of latitude to its bifurcation, and the confluence of
its eastern branch with the Mississippi in 34 degrees north.[18] Below
the point where it receives the Black river from the north, and even at
the Chattahoochee mountains, near one hundred miles above that point,
White river is little inferior, either in the width of its channel, or
in its volume of water, to the Arkansa under the same meridian. When
we have had occasion to mention among the people of White river, that
we {136} had crossed the Arkansa at the Rocky Mountains, more than one
thousand miles to the west, the question has been repeatedly put to us,
"Where did you cross White river?" Those who have known only the lower
portions of both rivers, consider them as nearly of equal length,
and as heading near each other; whereas the entire extent of country
drained by White river, compared to that of the Arkansa, is as one to
six nearly. Three miles above its confluence with the Mississippi,
White river divides into two branches, the lesser of which, turning
off at right angles, flows south-west, with a current sometimes equal
to three miles per hour, and falls into the Arkansa at the distance
of four miles and a half. It is said the current flows through this
communication alternately to and from the Arkansa, according as the
water in that river is higher or lower than in White river. Major Long
entered the Arkansa through this cut-off on the 13th of October 1817,
and it has been passed more recently by Mr. Nuttall,[19] in 1819. In
both these instances the current flowed from White river towards the
Arkansa. The mouth of that branch of White river which communicates
immediately with the Mississippi is situated fifteen miles above
the mouth of the Arkansa,[20] and is about two hundred yards wide.
The current is very gentle, and the water deep. Though perfectly
transparent, it is of a yellowish colour. The banks are low, and
subject to periodical inundations. The soil near the mouth of White
river is an intermixture of clay and fine sand, the clay predominating,
and the whole of a reddish tinge.

Numerous settlements have heretofore been formed on the lands
contiguous to White river, and several in the portion above the
Chattahoochee mountain on the south side; but all these lands having by
treaty been surrendered to the Cherokees, many whites {137} have been
compelled to withdraw, and leave their farms to the Indians. The tract
of land ceded to the Indians by the treaty above alluded to, is for
the most part rocky and barren. Some of the tributaries of White river
have extensive and fertile bottoms, but the greater part of the country
watered by this river, is mountainous and unfit for cultivation. At
MacNeil's ferry, where the road from Little Rock on the Arkansa to
Davidsonville, in Lawrence county, crosses White river, the bottoms
are wide, and as fertile as any of those on the Arkansa.[21] Here the
miegia and the papaw attain their greatest perfection, and the soil is
found well adapted to the culture of corn, cotton, and tobacco. At the
point formed by the confluence of White and Black rivers, is a portion
of land of a triangular form, and bounded by sides about fifteen miles
in extent, which, in the excellence of its soil, as we were informed
by the surveyors, is surpassed by none in the western country. There
are considerable portions of the upland soil of White river, where the
profuse supply of streams and springs of excellent water, the elevation
and comparative healthfulness of many situations, and the vicinity of
navigable rivers and other local advantages, make amends for the want
of exuberant fertility in the soil. The same remark is applicable to
the country south of the Arkansa, where are extensive tracts of hilly
and rocky soils, which seem admirably adapted to the culture of the
vine and the olive. In every part of the Ozark mountains, there are
vallies, and small portions of land within the hills, having a deep
and fertile soil, covered with heavy forests of oak, ash, hickory,
and in some places with the sugar maple, and abounding in excellent
water. The labour of a few years will be sufficient to convert these
tracts into productive farms, but the inconvenience resulting from the
difficulty of communication and access to the different {138} parts of
the country, will for a long time retard their settlement.

In several parts of the Arkansa territory we were shewn dollars, which
were believed to have been coined in some of the upper settlements of
White river; and it has been currently reported, that mines of silver
exist, and are wrought there. It appears, however, upon examination,
that much spurious coin is here in circulation; and it is probable that
the White river country owes its present reputation for mineral wealth
to the successful labours of some manufacturer of imitation dollars.
Since the time of De Soto, it has been confidently asserted by many
who have written concerning Louisiana, that mines of gold and silver
exist in that part of the country of which we are speaking. In an old
map, by Du Pratz, a gold mine is placed somewhere near the confluence
of the Illinois and the Arkansa; a silver mine on the Merameg, and he
says, "I myself saw a rivulet whose waters rolled down gold dust."[22]
We are informed by Schoolcraft, that granite exists about the sources
of the St. Francis, which are near those of White river.[23] Of the
extent and character of this formation of granite, we have not yet
been able to form any very definite ideas; it is, however, by no means
improbable, that to its plates of yellow and white mica, we are to
look for the origin of the fabulous accounts of the precious metals in
those regions. Like the country of the gilded king, the El Dorado of
South America, it is probable the gold and silver mines of the Arkansa
territory will recede, before the progress of examination, first into
the wildest and most inaccessible parts, and at length disappear
entirely. We by no means intend to assert, that the region in question
will not prove of immense importance, on account of its mineral
treasures; valuable mines of lead and iron are certainly frequent in
many parts of it. And we can assign no reason why silver {139} and
other metals should not be found in the argillite with quartzy veins,
and in the other rocks of the transition period, which we know to
exist in these mountains. We only intend to give it as our opinion,
that there has as yet been no foundation in actual discovery for the
belief that such mines do exist.

The bed of White river, at the place where we crossed it, is paved
with pebbles and fragments of a yellowish white petrosiliceous stone,
intermixed with rounded masses of transparent quartz, and sometimes
with pieces of calcedony. Its water is uncommonly transparent, and
this, with the whiteness of its bed, and the brisk motion of the
current, gives it an aspect of unusual beauty. The banks are high, and
in many places not exposed to inundation. Dense and heavy forests of
sycamore and cotton-wood stretch along the river, disclosing here and
there, at distant intervals, the solitary hut and the circumscribed
_clearing_ of the recent settler. Some who have been no more than two
or three years resident upon their present farms, and who commenced in
the unbroken forests, have now abundant crops of corn and pumpkins,
with large fields of cotton, which is said to equal in quality that of
the uplands of Georgia and Carolina. Few attempts have hitherto been
made to cultivate any grain, except Indian corn, though the soil is
thought to be in many places well adapted to wheat, barley, oats, &c.
The maize cultivated in the Arkansa territory, and in the southern and
western states, generally is the variety called the ground seed, having
a long and compressed kernel, shrivelled at the end when fully ripe;
and crops are not uncommon yielding from sixty to ninety bushels per
acre. In all the uplands, the prevailing growth is oak. At the time
of our journey, the acorns were falling in such quantities, that the
ground for an extent of many acres was often seen almost covered with
them. Many recent settlers, indulging the disposition to indolence
which seizes upon almost every man who {140} fixes his residence in
these remote forests, place as much dependence upon the crop of mast
as on the products of their own industry. Vast numbers of swine are
suffered to range at large in the forests, and in the fall of the year,
when they have become fat by feeding on the acorns, they are hunted and
killed like wild animals, affording to the inhabitants a very important
article of subsistence. It is remarked also, that the venison becomes
fat somewhat in proportion as acorns are abundant. Turkeys, which are
still vastly numerous in the settlements of White river, feed upon
them, but are said to grow poor in consequence.

Sweet potatoes[24] are produced in great perfection in many parts of
the Arkansa territory, and are but too much cultivated and eaten, their
constant use as an article of food being little beneficial to health.
The common or _Irish potatoe_, as it is here universally called,
succeeds but indifferently, and few attempts are made to cultivate it.

A few of the roads which traverse the country from the Mississippi
to the upper settlements of Red river and the Arkansa, have been
sufficiently opened to admit the passage of waggons. On these are seen
many families migrating from Missouri to Red river, and from Red river
to Missouri. The first settlements in the wilderness are most commonly
made by persons to whom hardihood and adventure have become confirmed
and almost indispensable habits, and who choose to depend upon the
chase, and the spontaneous products of the unreclaimed forest, rather
than submit to the confinement and monotony of an agricultural life.
They are therefore, of necessity, kept somewhat in advance of those
settlers who intend a permanent residence in the situations they first
occupy. Removing from place to place with their cattle, horses, and
swine, they confine themselves {141} to one spot no longer than _the
range_ continues to afford a sufficient supply of the articles most
necessary to life. When the canes are fed down and destroyed, and the
acorns become scarce, the small corn-field and the rude cabin are
abandoned, and the _squatter_ goes in search of a place where all the
original wealth of the forest is yet undiminished. Here he again builds
his hut, removes the trees from a few acres of land, which supplies
its annual crop of corn, while the neighbouring woods, for an extent
of several miles, are used both as pasture and hunting grounds. Though
there is in this way of life an evident tendency to bring men back to a
state of barbarism, we have often met among the rudest of the squatters
with much hospitality and kindness. Near White river, we called at a
house to purchase food for ourselves and our horses, but having no
silver money, our request was refused, although we offered the notes of
the bank of Missouri, then in good credit. In a few miles we arrived
at another cabin, where we found every member of the numerous family
sick with the ague and fever, except one young girl. But here they
were willing to furnish every refreshment their house afforded. There
were at this time very few houses, particularly in the settlements
about White river, which did not exhibit scenes of suffering similar
to those in the one of which we were now the reluctant guests. We have
seen some instances, where, of a family of eight or ten, not a single
individual was capable of attending to the services of the household,
or of administering to the wants of his suffering relatives. In these
instances we thought it better to pitch our tents at a little distance,
and intrude ourselves no farther than was necessary to procure corn and
other indispensable supplies.

On the evening of September 30th, we halted at a little rivulet called
Bayou Curæ.[25] The dwelling of our landlord consisted, as is commonly
the case in the new settlements, of a single room, with beds in {142}
two or three of the corners. We were cordially invited to make use
of the beds, though it would have been at the expence of rendering
it necessary for our host, his wife, and daughters, to sleep upon
the floor of the same room. We accordingly spread our blankets, and
deposited ourselves around the hearth, while the family occupied their
usual stations. On the first of October we arrived at the ford of
Strawberry river, a tributary entering the Big Black, not far from the
confluence of the latter with White river, and about fourteen miles
beyond, at the ford of Spring river, a parallel stream. Both of these
are rapid and beautiful rivers, possessing all the peculiarities, as
to the abundance, transparency, and purity of their waters, usually
observed in those rivers which traverse elevated and mountainous
districts. The entire length of Spring river is said to be but about
one hundred and forty miles; yet in the quantity of water which it
discharges, it more than twice exceeds the Canadian, having a course
of more than nine hundred miles. It is said to have its principal
source in a spring of uncommon magnitude. Spring river unites with
another, called Eleven Point, near the little town of Davidsonville,
the seat of justice for Lawrence county, and flows thence nearly due
east, two or three miles to its junction with Big Black. The country
around Davidsonville is hilly, having a deep and fertile primary soil,
and abounding in heavy forests. The sources of Eleven Point, we have
been told, are in eleven large springs, and are near those of Spring
river.[26]

To those who have been long accustomed to the thirsty regions of the
Missouri, the Platte, and the Upper Arkansa, it is somewhat surprising
to meet in tracts, having nearly the same elevation, and resting to
a great extent on rocks of a similar character, so great a number of
large streams crowded into such narrow compass.

{143} Is it not probable, that a large portion of the water falling
in rains upon the extensive plains at the eastern side of the Rocky
Mountains, may sink through the loose and porous soil, till at length,
meeting with some compact stratum, it may be collected into rills, and
even considerable streams, which, descending along the surface of this
stratum in the direction of the general inclination of the country,
at length meet with the nucleus of the Ozark mountains, traversing
the secondary strata like a mineral dike, and are consequently made
to appear in the form of large springs? Whether any course of this
kind operates to supply the unusual profusion of water with which this
hilly tract is irrigated, must be for others to decide. The fact is an
established one.

Black river originates in an elevated part of the Ozark mountains,
between 37° and 38° north latitude, and between 90° and 91° west
longitude. From the same tract descend, on the north, the waters of
the Merameg; on the north-east, those of Big river;[27] on the east
and south, those of the St. Francis and Black river; and on the west,
those of the Osage and the Gasconade. By an examination of the map
which accompanies this work, it will be seen that the direction of the
watercourses clearly indicates the existence of an elevated ridge,
running from the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi, on the
north-east, to the junction of the Arkansa and the Canadian on the
south-west. On the north-western side of this ridge, we observed the
Osage, the Grand river, the Verdigrise, and even the Arkansa, inflected
from that due eastern course, which the tributaries of the Mississippi
and Missouri on the west incline to pursue; and coming near its base,
we find the Illinois river of the Arkansa, and the Yungar Fork of
Osage, running in opposite directions, and nearly at right angles to
the general course of the Canadian, the Arkansa, the Main Osage, and
Konzas.

The Illinois, and the great eastern tributary of the Osage, {144}
receive numerous streams from the western slope of the Ozark mountains,
but they traverse a region hitherto very imperfectly known. It appears,
however, that these two rivers drain all the north-western side of
the mountainous range in question. Black river runs nearly parallel,
that is, from north-east to south-west, along the south-eastern side
of the range. Its sources are in the district of the lead mines, and
at no great distance from those of the Merameg and the St. Francis.
Its course is at first south-east, about sixty or one hundred miles;
then turning to the south-west, it receives in succession from the
south-eastern side of the mountains, the Little Black, the Currents,
Fourche De Thomas, Eleven Point Spring, and Strawberry rivers, uniting
at length with White river, in latitude 35° 15´. As far as hitherto
known it receives no considerable tributary from the east.[28] About
the sources of Black river reside the Peola or Peoria Indians, who
are said to number about fifty warriors. Parallel to this river, and
from twenty to sixty miles distant on the east, is the St. Francis,
a larger river, but one in many respects resembling Black river.
It rises in the high lands, about one hundred miles to the westward
of St. Genevieve in Missouri, and receiving, before it leaves the
hills, Bear Creek, Castor, White water, and numerous other streams,
it descends toward the south-east, soon entering the extensive swamp
which stretches from New Madrid on the Mississippi, along the base of
the mountains, to the Arkansa.[29] We have been informed by some of
the inhabitants of the counties of Cape Girardeau and Madison, that in
this swamp the St. Francis is so much obstructed with rafts, and so
lost among islands, that its course can with difficulty be traced. It
is well known that in the lower part of its course it is so obstructed
by a large raft, as not to admit the passage of the smallest boats.
Its confluence with the Mississippi is about three hundred and five
miles below the Ohio, and eighty above the mouth of White {145} river.
Running parallel both to the Mississippi and White river, and at no
great distance from either, the St. Francis can have no very large
tributaries; indeed we know of none on either side which deserve the
name of rivers. We have no very definite information respecting the
great swamp in which the St. Francis is said to lose itself soon after
leaving the hills; the accounts of the hunters, and of some settlers
who have seen it, agree in representing it as almost impassable,
covered with heavy forests of cypress, and wholly unfit to become
the residence of men. This swamp, and the country about the sources
of Black river and the St. Francis, appear to be near the centre of
the region so powerfully affected by earthquakes in the year 1811. The
fertile lands, on the upper branches of the St. Francis, are not very
extensive, and are all more or less subject to inundation by the sudden
overflowing of the streams. On this account they cannot be considered
as of great value for agriculture; but the wealth which this region
possesses in its mines, renders it one of the most important parts of
ancient Louisiana.

On the 8th October we arrived at Jackson, the seat of justice for the
county of Cape Girardeau, and, after St. Louis and St. Charles, one of
the largest towns in Missouri.[30] It lies about eleven or twelve miles
north-west of the old town of Cape Girardeau, on the Mississippi, and
is surrounded by a hilly and fertile tract of country, at this time
rapidly increasing in wealth and population. Jackson is what is called
a thriving village, and contains at present more than fifty houses,
which, though built of logs, seem to aspire to a degree of importance
unknown to the humble dwellings of the scattered and solitary settlers,
assuming an appearance of consequence and superiority similar to that
we immediately distinguished in the appearance and manners of the
people. Our horses, having never been accustomed to such displays of
magnificence, signified great reluctance to enter the {146} village.
Whips and heels were exercised with unusual animation, but in a great
measure without effect, until we dismounted; when by dint of coaxing,
pushing, kicking, and whipping, we at length urged our clownish animals
up to the door of the inn.

Fifteen miles north of Jackson, on a little stream called Apple creek,
reside about four hundred Indians, mostly Delawares and Shawnees. At
the time of our visit the head of a Shawnee, who had been concerned in
the murder of a white woman, was to be seen elevated on a pole by the
side of the road leading from Jackson to the Indian settlement of Apple
creek. It was related to us that the crime, for which this punishment
had been inflicted, was committed at the instigation of a white man.
The murderer was demanded of the Shawnees by the people of Jackson, and
being at length discovered by the Indians, and refusing to surrender
himself, he was shot by his own people, and his head delivered up,
agreeable to the demand.

It is painful to witness the degradation and misery of this people,
once powerful and independent; still more so to see them submitting
to the unnecessary cruelties of their oppressors. We have not been
informed by what authority the punishment above mentioned was inflicted
upon a whole community for the crime of one of its members, and we are
sorry to have occasion to record a circumstance so little honourable to
the people of Missouri.

A miserable remnant of the Shawnee, Delaware, and Peola tribes, with a
few Chickasaws and Cherokees, were at this time scattered through the
country, from the Mississippi at the mouth of Apple creek westward to
the sources of Black river. They were, however, about to remove farther
west, and many of them were already on their way to the country about
the upper branches of White river, where, by becoming intruders upon
the territories of the Cherokees, it may be expected their speedy and
entire extinction will be insured.[31]

{147} The road from White river joins that from the upper settlements
on the St. Francis, at some distance beyond Jackson. Castor and White
water are two beautiful streams, traversing the country west of
Jackson. They run towards the south, and soon after their confluence
enter the great swamp through which they find their way to the St.
Francis.

The district of the lead mines, situated near the sources of the
Merameg, the Gasconade, and the St. Francis, has been repeatedly
described. The best accounts of it are in the works of Bradbury,
Brackenridge, Stoddart, and Schoolcraft.[32] To those accounts we have
to add a few observations respecting the rocks and soils of the region,
a considerable part of which we have seen and examined as attentively
as circumstances would admit. But as discussions of this kind have
little interest for the general reader, we propose to give at the
end of the work such remarks as we have had the opportunity to make
connected with the mineralogy of this interesting territory.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Chapter ix in volume iii of the original London edition.

For the following topics mentioned in this chapter, see Nuttall's
_Journal_, volume xiii of our series: Massern (note 181), Vache Grasse
(164), Cadron (133), Short Mountain (162), Rocky Bayou (158), metif
(114), Quapaw Indians (84), Osage-Cherokee hostilities (155), Governor
William Clark (105), Governor James Miller (214), Tallantusky (148),
Cherokee treaty (145), Point Remove (139), White River Cut-Off (72),
Little Rock (123), roads through Arkansas (126), gold and silver in
Arkansas (128).--ED.

[2] Later observations give the following results: latitude 35° 23´
14˝; longitude 94° 25´ 52˝.--ED.

[3] In the Missouri county of the same name, on the Mississippi, a
hundred and forty miles below St. Louis. It is one of the oldest towns
in the state. For historical sketch, see André Michaux's _Travels_, in
our volume iii, note 154.--ED.

[4] Stephen W. Kearney (1794-1848), of New Jersey, left his studies
in Columbia College at the outbreak of the War of 1812-15, to enter
the army as first lieutenant of the Thirteenth Infantry. A year later
he was made captain for bravery at Queenstown Heights. Being retained
at the close of the war, he was at the beginning of the Mexican War a
colonel of dragoons. He led the Army of the West which marched from
Bent's Fort to New Mexico, and later assisted in the conquest of
California. In 1846 Kearney was breveted major-general, and appointed
governor of California. Afterwards, he joined the army in Mexico, and
there contracted the disease which resulted in his death.--ED.

[5] The word Massern, applied by Darby as a name to the hills of the
Arkansa territory, near the boundary of Louisiana, and by Nuttall,
to the mountains at the sources of the Kiamesha and the Poteau, is
supposed to be a corruption of _Mont Cerne_, the name of a small
hill near Belle Point, long used as a look-out post by the French
hunters.--JAMES.

[6] "Squire" Billingsley came from middle Tennessee to Arkansas in
1814, and after a year passed at Cadron, settled on the Mulberry, in
Franklin County, where he lived two years. When by the terms of the
treaty with the Cherokee the white settlers were compelled to abandon
this settlement, Billingsley removed to the Vache Grasse. He was a
member of the first territorial legislature. See Nuttall's _Journal_,
in our volume xiii, note 162.--ED.

[7] Short Mountain Creek rises in south central Logan County, on the
slope of the mountain of this name, and pursues a north-easterly course
to the Arkansas.

When Fort Smith was first established, mail was brought from Arkansas
Post by soldiers detailed for that duty. The trip by water consumed
three weeks.--ED.

[8] The deserted house occupied by the soldiers appears to have been
the only one in this so-called settlement. There were, however, other
settlers not far distant. John Tittsworth and two sons located near
Short Mountain as early as 1814. A number of immigrants are said to
have come to the county soon after the New Madrid earthquake (1812),
and when the Cherokee were placed in possession of the north side of
the Arkansas, others came in from that region. See Nuttall's _Journal_,
in our volume xiii, note 162.--ED.

[9] It may be proper to remark, that the elevation of none of the Ozark
mountains having been ascertained, the estimates which we have made are
only to be considered as approximating towards the truth.--JAMES.

[10] Webber lived near the mouth of Illinois Creek, in Pope County.--ED.

[11] For the Delaware Indians, see Post's _Journals_ in volume i of
our series, note 57; for the Shawnee, Weiser's _Journal, ibid._, note
13.--ED.

[12] This treaty was dated October 6, 1818. Article 3, which grants the
hunting privileges, reads as follows: "The Osages do hereby grant to
the Cherokees and their allies an undisturbed passage to the hunting
country, with permission to occupy and hunt on all the lands which
they claim south of the Arkansas river." See _American State Papers_,
"Indian Affairs," ii, p. 172.--ED.

[13] For sketch of William Blount, see André Michaux's _Travels_, in
our volume iii, note 95.--ED.

[14] Mr. John Rogers, a very respectable and civilized Cherokee, told
me that one of the regulators happening to have a relation who had been
repeatedly guilty of theft, and finding him incorrigible, he destroyed
his eyesight with a penknife; saying, "As long as you can see you will
steal; I will, therefore, prevent your thefts by the destruction of
your sight." Nuttall's Travels into the Arkansa Territory, p. 135.,
to which work the reader is referred for an interesting sketch of the
history, and of the present condition of the Cherokees. We think it
unnecessary to dwell longer upon a subject which has been so frequently
discussed.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ See reprint in our volume xiii, p. 190.

[15] Illinois Bayou is a large creek draining Pope County, on the
north side of the river. Near the Indian village, Dwight Mission was
established in 1820 (see Nuttall's _Journal_, in our volume xiii, note
148). By inference, Point Pleasant was at the creek's mouth.--ED.

[16] The waters of Little Red River are gathered from creeks heading
in Van Buren, Searcy, and Stone counties. The main stream traverses
Cleburne and White counties; it is navigable by small boats for about
fifty miles. The route of the party from Illinois Creek to White River
lay through the present counties of Pope, Van Buren, the north-west
corner of Cleburne, and the adjoining portion of Stone; they probably
crossed Little Red River near Clinton, seat of Van Buren County. The
permanent occupation of this region by whites dates from the removal of
the Cherokee (1825), and little record remains of earlier settlements.

Harding's (Harden's) Ferry was near the present Stone-Independence
county boundary; the proprietor's house stood on the right bank of the
river, ten miles above Batesville, seat of Independence County.--ED.

[17] The treaty specified Shield's Ferry, on White River, as the
locus of the north-eastern corner of the Cherokee reservation. A bold
headland on the south side of the river, five miles above Batesville,
still known as Shield's Bluff, is pointed out by residents as the point
where the Cherokee line began. This bluff rises about six hundred feet
above the river.--ED.

[18] The geographical position of the sources of White River is
accurately given in the text, but the statement is surprising, that
"the average direction of its course is nearly due east parallel to
the Arkansas." From its origins in Washington and Madison counties, in
north-western Arkansas, the river flows north, entering Barry County,
Missouri, and traversing Stone and Taney counties before leaving that
state. In Arkansas, its direction is south-east to the confluence with
the Black, and thence almost south to the Mississippi.

The sources of Black River are in Reynolds and Iron counties, Missouri;
its course is nearly south.--ED.

[19] Nuttall's Travels, p. 65.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ Page 98 of our reprint.

[20] The confluence of White river with the Mississippi, has been said
to be "situated fifty miles above the mouth of the Arkansa." It has
also been asserted, that its bifurcation is at "about thirty miles
above its junction with the Mississippi." See _Schoolcraft's_ View
of the Lead Mines of Missouri, p. 248-253. There is, however, little
reason to fear, that errors of this sort, upon a subject so familiarly
known, will obtain general currency. In the same work, the length of
White river is said to be thirteen hundred miles.--JAMES.

[21] This road crossed White River a few miles, perhaps ten, below
Batesville. The St. Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad follows the line
of the old road, although somewhat to the eastward.

The site of Davidsonville was chosen in the autumn of 1815; it was at
the mouth of Spring River (see _post_, note 26). The town was seat of
Lawrence County until 1829; but after the removal of the court to a
rival village, it declined and became extinct.--ED.

[22] The mine of Merameg, which is silver, is pretty near the
confluence of the river which gives it name, which is a great advantage
to those who would work it, because they might easily, by that means,
have their goods from Europe. It is situate about 500 leagues from the
sea. _Du Pratz_' Louisiana, vol. i, p. 294.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ The reference is to volume i of the London edition of
1763; the quotation in the text is from _ibid._, pp. 362, 363.

[23] P. 213.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ Granite from quarries in Iron County, Missouri, was
used in the construction of the capitol at Springfield, Illinois, of
the custom houses at St. Louis and Cincinnati, and of other important
works.

St. Francis River rises in St. François County, Missouri, a few miles
east of the sources of Black River. The mention of White River in the
text is a slip of the pen. The whole course of the St. Francis is
parallel to that of Black River and lower White River. It falls into
the Mississippi at the north-east corner of Phillips County, Arkansas.

[24] The tuberous roots of the convolvulus batatas of Linnæus.--JAMES.

[25] Now Cura Creek, which falls into the Black from the west, in
north-eastern Independence County.--ED.

[26] Strawberry River is a considerable stream, which unites with Black
River on the southern line of Lawrence County. It flows from Izard
County across Sharp, and the south-west portion of Lawrence. Some of
the earliest settlers in this region occupied its fertile bottom lands
as early as 1810-12.

The chief source of Spring River is known as the Mammoth Spring of
Fulton County; it is near the Missouri boundary, in the north-eastern
corner of the county. The water issues from an opening a hundred and
twenty feet in circumference, at the rate of nine thousand barrels per
minute. An apparent boiling is produced by gas in solution. Myatt's
Creek and South Fork, branches of Spring River which are longer but
convey less water, rise beyond the state line, traverse Fulton County
in a south-easterly direction, and join the main stream near the Sharp
County line. Thence the course is south-east across Sharp County, and
along the Randolph-Lawrence county boundary to Black River.

Eleven Point River rises in Howell County, Missouri, crosses Oregon
County, and thence flows south through Randolph County, Arkansas.--ED.

[27] Big River originates in Iron County, Missouri, near the sources
of Black River; it pursues a devious course, traversing Washington,
St. François, and Jefferson counties, and falls into the Merameg
about thirty miles above the confluence of the latter with the
Mississippi.--ED.

[28] Little Black River heads in Carter County, Missouri; it is a
tributary of the Currents, although the combined stream is sometimes
called Little Black.

Currents (Current) River rises in Texas County, Missouri, and flows
first north-east then south-east, traversing Shannon, Carter, and
Ripley counties, in that state, and portions of Clay and Randolph
counties in Arkansas. It joins Little Black in Clay. Currents River
rivals Black River itself in size.

There are many variants of the name of the stream here called Fourche
De Thomas. The Philadelphia edition has Thomas' river or fork;
elsewhere it is given indifferently as Fourche à Thomas, Fourche à
Dumas, and Fourche Dumas, while a recent map has Fouche or Dumaz. It
heads in Ripley County, Missouri, and flows south. Pocahontas, seat of
Randolph County, Arkansas, is just below its mouth.

In addition to those mentioned, Black River receives a few small
western tributaries above the Missouri line--among them, Cane Creek in
Butler County, and Logan's Creek in Reynolds County.--ED.

[29] Dr. James did not possess accurate information relative to these
watercourses. Bear Creek is a Wayne County, Missouri, branch of Castor
River. The latter rises in St. François County and loses itself in the
swamp near the state line. Whitewater rises near Castor, but flows as
far east as Cape Girardeau County, below which it is known as Little
River. It also enters the swamp; the St. Francis receives the overflow
from the swamp district, where the waters of many streams mingle. The
New Madrid earthquake caused a general subsidence of the surface in
this region, and altered the courses of many waterways.--ED.

[30] Jackson was laid out in 1815. Its selection as county seat was
a severe blow to the older town of Cape Girardeau; but the growth of
river trade, after steam-boat navigation became regular, restored the
latter's ascendency. The population of Jackson in 1818 was about three
hundred; at present it numbers a thousand.--ED.

[31] The Peoria Indians were an Algonquian tribe of the Illinois
family. The French explorers found them on the Illinois River, in the
vicinity of the present city of Peoria; but early in the eighteenth
century, hard pressed in war, they joined the kindred Cahokia and
Kaskaskia near the villages of the same names. The remnant of the
tribe, numbering about two hundred, is established on the Quapaw
Reservation in Indian Territory.--ED.

[32] Bradbury's Travels in the Interior of America, p. 258, 2d edition
[our volume v, p. 248]. Brackenridge's Views of Louisiana, p. 390.
Stoddart's Sketches of Louisiana, p. 390.--JAMES.



{148} CHAPTER II {X}[33]

        Hot Springs of the Washita--Granite of the Cove--Saline
                                 River


We return to give a hasty account of an excursion from Point Pleasant,
in the country of the Cherokees, to the hot springs of the Washita.

On the morning of the 25th, our little party, consisting of Captain
Kearney, Lieutenant Swift, and myself, having taken leave of our
companions, recrossed the Arkansa from Webber's, and proceeded on our
journey without a guide.

Having mistaken the route we had been directed to follow, we were
bewildered during a considerable part of the day, wandering about
through a fertile country without settlements, and so covered with
dense forests as to render the travelling exceedingly harassing.
Towards evening we arrived at a settlement of Cherokees, where we
engaged a guide to conduct us to the trace leading to the springs. For
this service we paid him two dollars. At night we encamped in an open
forest of oak, where we found a sufficient supply of grass for our
horses. The hills south of the Arkansa range from N.E. to S.W. , their
sides are sometimes nearly naked, but more commonly covered with small
and scattered trees. Several kinds of oak, and the chinquapin (castanea
pumila, Ph.) attaining the dimensions of a tree, are met with in the
sandstone tracts. We distinguished here, in the uplands, two separate
varieties of soil. That just mentioned, based upon a compact hard
sandstone, and bearing forests of oak, and another resting upon a white
petrosiliceous rock, with fragments of which it is much intermixed.
This latter is often covered {149} with pine forests. The most common
species, yellow pine (P. resinosa,) attains unusual magnitude. The
rigida, and some other species occur, but are not frequent. We also
observed several species of vaucinum, the mitchella, the kalmia
latifolia, hamamelis virginica? cunila mariana, and many other plants
common to this region and the Alleghany mountains.

There are no settlements between those of the Cherokees about Derdonai
on the Arkansa and the hot springs. The blind path which we followed
traverses a rugged and mountainous region, having considerable
resemblance, except in the want of parallelism in the ranges, to the
sandstone portions of the Alleghanies. As the weather was rainy we felt
the inconvenience of travelling in the wilderness and encamping without
tents. On the 28th we arrived at the hot springs. The country near
these, on the north and north-west, is high and rocky. The sandstone,
which extends from the Arkansa to within a few miles to the springs,
becomes, as you go south, something inclined, and apparently of a
more ancient deposition, until it is succeeded by a highly inclined
primitive argillite. Both these rocks are traversed by large veins of
white quartz. They are inclined towards the south, and the argillite at
a great angle. In some localities it is but indistinctly slaty in its
structure, and its laminæ are nearly perpendicular.

It contains extensive beds of a yellowish white siliceous stone,
which is often somewhat translucent, and resembles some varieties
of hornstone. Its fracture is a little splintery, and sometimes
largely conchoidal; it is of a close texture, but the recent surface
is generally destitute of lustre. It is this rock which affords the
stones called Washita oilstones. It may, with propriety, be denominated
petrosilex. This name is, however, to be understood as having the
application given it by Kirwan,[34] who uses it to designate the
fusible varieties of the hornstone of {150} Werner, and not the several
varieties of compact felspar to which it has been sometimes applied.
In passing from the hot springs, north-east to the lead-mine country,
about the sources of the Merimeg, this rock is found to be intimately
connected, and to pass by minute and imperceptible gradations, into
the flint rock of that district, which is decidedly secondary, and of
contemporaneous origin with the compact limestone which it accompanies.
About the hot springs it is not distinctly stratified, but occurs in
very extensive masses, sometimes forming the body of large hills, and
is marked by perpendicular seams and fissures, often placed very near
each other.

The hot springs of the Washita are in north latitude 34° 31´, and west
longitude 92° 50´ 45˝,[35] near the base of the south-eastern slope of
the Ozark mountains, and six miles north of the Washita. They have been
erroneously represented as the principal sources of that river, which
are more than one hundred miles distant.[36]

We have been informed that these remarkable springs were unknown, even
to the American hunters, until the year 1779. At that time, it is said,
there was but one spring discharging heated water. This is described as
a circular orifice, about six inches in diameter, pouring out a stream
of water of the same size, from the side of a perpendicular cliff,
about eight feet from its base. This cliff was situate then, as it is
now, along the eastern side of a small creek, but was at a greater
distance from the stream than at present. At another place, near the
top of the mountain, which rises abruptly towards the east, the heated
water is said to have made its appearance near the surface of the
ground, in a state of ebullition, and to have sunk and disappeared
again upon the same spot. It is probable these representations {151}
are in a great measure fabulous; all we are to understand by them
is, that the gradual augmentation of the thermal rocks, which are
constantly forming about the springs, has changed the position, and
perhaps increased the number of the orifices.[37]

These springs were visited by Hunter and Dunbar in 1804, and the
information communicated by them, as well as much derived from other
sources, together with an analysis of the waters, has been placed
before the public by Dr. Mitchell.[38] They have been subsequently
examined by Major Long, in January 1818, from whose notes we derive
much of the information we have to communicate respecting them. They
are about seventy in number, occupying situations at the bottom and
along one side of a narrow ravine, separating two considerable hills
of clay-slate. A small creek enters the ravine from the north by two
branches, one from the north-west, and the other from the north-east,
flowing after their union nearly due south, and blending with the water
of the springs, increasing rapidly in size, and acquiring so high a
temperature, that at the time of our visit the hand could not be borne
immersed in it. After traversing from north to south the narrow valley
containing the springs, this creek meanders away to the south-east,
and enters the Washita at the distance of eight or ten miles. All the
springs are within a distance of six hundred yards below the junction
of the two brooks, and all, except one, on the east side of the creek.

We subjoin a note, containing some particulars observed by Major Long
at the time of his visit in 1818.[39]

During the winter the steam which rises from the springs is condensed
to a white vapour, which is often visible at a great distance.

The water of the springs is limpid and colourless, and destitute,
when cooled, of either taste or smell, {152} and, according to the
analysis of Dr. Mitchell, purer than ordinary spring water. It however
deposits, as it comes in contact with the air, a copious sediment,
which has gradually accumulated until it has become an independent
rock formation of considerable extent. This rock appears to consist
of flint, lime, and a little oxide of iron. It is often of a porous or
vascular texture, and the amygdaloidal cavities are sometimes empty and
sometimes contain very delicate stalactites. Hæmatitic iron ore occurs
disseminated in every part. Also extensive caverns, sometimes filled
with a bright red metallic oxide. Dr. Wilson, who has been some time
resident at the springs, informed us, that the continued use of the
water occasions salivation, from which it has been commonly inferred
that mercury exists in the water in solution.[40]

The time of our visit to the springs being one of very unusual drought,
the quantity of water was somewhat less and the temperature higher than
ordinary. The time required to boil eggs, as much as they usually are
for the table, was fifteen minutes. In the same time a cup of coffee
was made by immersing our kettle in one of the springs.[41]

A number of baths have been made, by hollowing out excavations in the
rock, to which the hot water is constantly flowing. By cutting off or
increasing the supply the temperature can be regulated at pleasure;
over some of these are built small log cabins, and in the neighbourhood
are twenty or thirty huts, occupied at some seasons of the year by
persons who resort hither for the benefit of the waters.

Three miles north-east from the hot springs is a large fountain of
water, of the ordinary temperature, forming the source of the small
stream already mentioned as flowing down from that direction. It rises
from the summit of a little knoll, six or eight feet in diameter, and
divides into two streams, one of which flows towards the east, the
other towards the west. Both, however, unite at the base of the knoll,
and {153} the brook flows thence south-west, between two petrosiliceous
hills, to its confluence with another from the north-west, to form the
hot spring creek. The quantity of water discharged by this spring can
scarcely be less than from eighty to one hundred gallons per minute.
Immediately on the south rises a large hill, and the elevation of the
spring itself, above the level of the highest of the thermal springs,
is thought to be not less than one hundred and fifty feet. The water is
transparent, but has a perceptible metallic taste, and deposits upon
the stones over which it flows a copious rust-like sediment. The spring
is known in the neighbouring settlements as the "poison spring," a name
which we were told it had received from the following circumstance,
said to have taken place many years since. A hunter who had been
pursuing a bear, and was much exhausted with heat and fatigue, arrived
at this spring in the middle of the day, and finding the water cool,
and not unpleasant to the taste, drank freely of it, but immediately
afterwards sickened and died. His death was occasioned, probably, not
by any deleterious quality in the water, but by the disease commonly
induced by drinking too largely of cold water when the body is heated.
The neighbouring inhabitants, however, imputed the hunter's death to
some supposed poisonous property in the spring. Not long afterwards a
discontented invalid, residing at the hot springs, came to a resolution
of putting a period to his own life. This he concluded to bring about
by drinking the water of the poison spring. He accordingly repaired
to it, and after drinking as much as he could, filled his bottle, and
returned home. Instead of dying, as he had expected, he found himself
greatly benefited by his potation. Notwithstanding this discovery of
the sanative quality of the water the spring still retained its former
name. It is however used without apprehension, and is much resorted to
by people who visit the warm springs.

{154} About two miles to the north-east of this spring, a little to
the left of the road leading to the settlement of Derdonai, is the
principal quarry from which the Washita oilstones are procured. It
is near the summit of a high and steep hill of the petrosiliceous
rock already mentioned. The oilstones are found in the perpendicular
seams or fissures of the rock, from which they are detached with
little difficulty, having, as they are dug from the quarry, nearly the
requisite shape and size. They are then carried by hand, or thrown to
the foot of the precipice, whence there is an easy transportation of
ten or twelve miles to the Washita. By this river they descend to New
Orleans, and some have been carried thence to New York, where they
are known as the Missouri oilstones. These stones are said not to be
inferior in quality to the oilstones from Turkey.

In the immediate neighbourhood of the hot springs we observed a number
of interesting plants. The American holly (ilex opaca) is a conspicuous
and beautiful tree in the narrow vallies within the mountains. The
leaves of another species of ilex (I. cassine), the celebrated cassine
naupon frequent about the springs, are there used as a substitute
for tea. The angelica tree (aralia spinosa, Ph.) is common along the
banks of the creek, rising to the height of twelve to fifteen feet,
and bending beneath its heavy clusters of purple fruit. The pteris
atropurpurea, asplenium melanoraulon, A. ebeneum, and other filices
are found adhering to the rocks. In the open pine woods the germandia
pectinata, considered as a variety of G. pedicularia, is one of the
most conspicuous objects.

The sources of the Washita are in a high and broken part of the Ozark
mountains, in north latitude 34° 15´, and between 93° and 94° west
longitude, and sixty or an hundred miles south-west of the settlement
of Cadron on the Arkansa. From the same mountainous district descend
towards the north-east the Petit Jean and Le Fevre, tributaries to the
Arkansa; on {155} the north-west the upper branches of the Poteau;
on the south-west the Kiamesha; and on the south-east the Mountain,
Cossetot, Rolling Forks, and other streams, discharging into Little
river of Red river.[42] The principal source of the Washita is said
to be very near that of the Fourche Le Fevre, and to descend towards
the west from the same hill, out of which flow the upper branches of
the Le Fevre towards the east. These particulars are, however, of
little importance, except as serving to illustrate the character of
that portion of the country. The whole of that region is strictly
mountainous, and its numerous streams are rapid and circuitous, winding
their way among abrupt and craggy hills, so thinly covered with pine
and post oak, that the sober gray of the sandstone is often the
prevailing colour of the landscape. The hills, at the sources of the
Poteau and the Kiamesha, abound in clay-slate, and a slaty petrosilex
destitute of organic remains.[43] It is remarked by hunters, that the
most remote and elevated sources of all the rivers of this region are
joined in or near extensive woodless plains. As far as this is the
case, it would seem to prove that the existing inequalities of the
surface have been produced almost entirely by the currents of water
wearing down and removing extensive portions of the horizontally
stratified rocks. In districts where secondary rocks only are found,
as in the country of the Ohio, there appears little difficulty in
attributing this origin to all the hills; and even in the mountainous
district under consideration, as the most recent rocks, and those of
horizontal stratification, occupy the highest portions of the hills,
we may perhaps be allowed to suppose they formerly covered a much
greater extent of country than at present, overlaying those strata of
more ancient deposition, which now appear upon the declivities of the
mountains. It cannot escape {156} the remark of any person who shall
visit the range of country, which we call the Ozark mountains, that the
direction of the ridges, (particularly of those where sandstone is the
prevailing rock,) conforms to the course of the principal streams.

None of the tributaries to the Washita, above the hot springs, have
hitherto been explored. The Little Missouri and the Fourche-au-Cadeau,
enter it in succession from the west, in the course of a considerable
bend which it makes to the south, after receiving the waters of Hot
Spring creek.[44] These two streams run mostly in a mountainous
country, though some fertile lands and some settlements occur on each.
On the Little Missouri, Hunter and Dunbar found the maclura, a tree
confined to fertile soils. The first considerable stream entering
the Washita from the north is the Saline, rising in three principal
branches, twenty or thirty miles north-west of the hot springs. The
road from Derdonai to the springs crosses these streams near their
sources, in an extremely rugged and mountainous region. The Saline,
like the Washita itself in this part, and the other tributaries already
enumerated, is liable to great and sudden floods, and also to great
depression in seasons of drought. Originating in a mountainous tract,
and in the continuation of the range so profusely supplied with springs
in the country about the sources of White river, we might expect that
the Washita would be fed by numerous and unfailing fountains. It
appears, however, to derive the greater part of its supplies from the
water of rains, and consequently to rise and fall according to the time
of year and the state of the weather. Where Major Long crossed the
Washita, on the 31st December 1817, six miles south-west of the hot
springs, the river was one hundred and fifty yards wide, about four
feet deep, and extremely rapid.

In the latter part of October 1820, at the time of our journey, the
Washita at Keisler's settlement, about fifteen miles below the springs,
was something {157} less than one hundred yards in width, flowing
in a deep and unequal channel over a bed of clay-slate. The water
is here ten or fifteen feet deep in many places, and the currents
scarce perceptible; as we looked down upon the river from the elevated
banks it appeared like a quiet lake, and the unusual blackness of
the waters suggested the idea of its great depth. Little groups of
naked rocky islands were disclosed here and there in different parts
of the channel. On examination we found the apparent dark colour of
the water to depend upon the complexion of the rocks which form the
bottom and sides of the bed, they being principally of a dark-coloured
argillite; and not only these, but the small fragments of quartz and
other whitish stones, had acquired, from lying in the water, a peculiar
tinge of dark brown. We expected to find an incrustation covering the
surfaces of these stones, but upon examination the colouring matter
seemed inseparably blended with the rock itself. The water, seen by
transmitted light, was entirely transparent, and had no perceptible
saltness.

At the distance of five or six miles south-east from the hot springs,
on the road leading towards the town of Little Rock, on the Arkansa,
commences a tract of land, having a fertile soil and a beautiful
situation, and extending to the Washita. Some parts of this region
afford exceptions to the remark generally applicable to Arkansa
territory, that the best soils are found in the alluvion of the
rivers. Some extensive districts of primary soil along the base of the
mountains are of a quality rarely surpassed in fertility, bearing heavy
forests of oak, ash, and sugar maple, which attain here to greater size
than we have seen in other parts of the United States.

We arrived about sunset on the 28th at Keisler's plantation,[45] where
we made application for permission to spend the night. This was readily
granted, though, as is often the case in such remote and solitary
habitations, the house was not in the most complete {158} readiness
for the accommodation of travellers. A quantity of Indian corn was
immediately gathered in the adjoining field, a part of it given to our
horses, and a part prepared for our own supper. During the green-corn
season, which is a time of jubilee and rejoicing among the agricultural
Indians, and scarcely less so with many of the white settlers, those
who live remote from corn mills use no other bread than such as we now
saw prepared, within the space of an hour, from the standing corn. Such
ears are selected as are fit for roasting, and the corn grated from the
cob by means of the side of a tin lanthorn, or some portion of an old
coffee-pot, perforated with several holes. In this state it forms a
soft paste, which, with the addition of a little salt, is spread upon
a heated stone or an iron pan, and baked before the fire. Our supper
consisted of bread of this sort, bear's meat, and coffee--a treat
worthy the attention of an epicure.

The Cove is a valley commencing among the mountains at no great
distance to the east of the hot springs, and containing a small rivulet
which enters the Washita six or eight miles below Keisler's.[46]
This valley is bounded towards the west by loamy hills, disclosing
at intervals cliffs and ledges of clay-slate and petrosilex. In the
lowest part of this valley, at a place called Roark's settlement, we
discovered a bed of granite forming the basis of a broad hill, which
rose by a very gradual ascent towards the east. We were directed to
the examination which brought us acquainted with the existence of this
rock by the representation of Roark, that in his corn field, not far
from the house, was a bed of plaister of Paris. Being conducted to
the spot, we found a quantity of loose granitic soil, that had been
raised from a shallow excavation, and was intermixed with numerous
large scales of talc. The examination had been carried a few feet below
the surface, and had terminated upon the granite in question. Having
collected {159} several beautiful masses of an aggregate of felspar,
talc and quartz, we returned to the house where our breakfast was in
preparation. Being informed by our landlord that blue vitriol, native
copper, and other interesting minerals, had been formerly discovered
near the sources of the little brook that ran past the house, we
delayed our journey some time, that we might continue our examination.
In following the brook towards its sources, we were much gratified in
finding an extensive bed of native magnet, which seemed to be embraced
in the granite. Not far distant the same rock contained large masses
of pyrites and of bluish green mica. In these we readily perceived the
blue vitriol and native copper mentioned by our host. In some places
we found the bed of the brook paved almost exclusively with detached
schorls. We collected also several other interesting imbedded minerals.
More extensive examinations will hereafter show this spot to be one
among the most interesting in America to a mineralogist. The great
depth of soil resting upon this formation of granite prevented our
examining it at as many points as we could wish; also from ascertaining
to our satisfaction its extent, and its connexion with the neighbouring
rocks. It appears, however, at several points in an area of fifteen or
twenty acres, and always in place. We saw not a single detached mass
at any distance. This may be owing in part to the perishable structure
of the granite, and in part to its being surrounded on all sides by
more elevated rocks of slate or sandstone. On the summit of the hill a
grave had recently been dug. In the granitic soil which lay about it
we saw many fragments of pyrites, also uncommonly large and beautiful
laminæ of talc intermixed with scales of mica. These two minerals
are, we think, rarely found in such intimate connexion, yet retaining
so perfectly their distinctive characters, as in the instance under
consideration. The talc in some instances forms an integrant part of
the granite, and {160} we have seen it blended with mica in the same
specimen.

The road, leading towards the Little Rock on the Arkansa, passes from
the granite of the Cove over a coarse hard sandstone, embracing beds of
conglomeratic or puddingstone, and in many respects closely resembling
some of the varieties of the old red sandstone of the Alleghany
mountains. Towards the east the surface of the country rises gradually,
and the sandstone, without giving place to any other stratum, becomes
more micaceous and slaty, and at length assumes all the characters of a
sandstone accompanying coal.

In the afternoon of the 29th we arrived at Lockhart's settlement, on
the Saline Fork of the Washita. The soil of some of the bottom lands
along this stream is not inferior to any we have seen west of the
Mississippi. It is well watered, and abounds in excellent timber. Pine
and oak are intermixed with the ash, hickory, and sugar maple. Here
are some well cultivated gardens, and extensive plantations of corn,
cotton, and tobacco. Mr. Lockhart and his family, who are emigrants
from North Carolina, consider the climate more agreeable than that of
the country they came from, and have continued, during a residence of
several years, to enjoy good health. We could not fail to attribute
this remarkable exemption from disease, in a great measure, to the
regularity, neatness, and good order of their domestic economy.

October 30th. In crossing some broken ridges of sandstone, which occupy
the high and uninhabited tract between the vallies of the Arkansa
and Washita, we followed the obscure path communicating between the
settlements on the Saline and the town of Little Rock. As we were
descending from one of these ridges our attention was called to an
unusual noise, proceeding from a copse of low bushes on our right,
at a few rods from the path. On arriving at {161} the spot we found
two buck deer, their horns fast interlocked with each other, and both
much spent with fatigue, one, in particular, being so much exhausted
as to be unable to stand. As we perceived it would be impossible they
should extricate themselves, and must either linger in their present
situation until they died of hunger, or were destroyed by the wolves,
we despatched them with our knives, not without having first made an
unavailing attempt to disentangle their antlers. Leaving their bodies
in the place where we had killed them, we called at the cabin of a
settler, which we found within a few miles, and requested him to go
back and fetch the venison for the use of his family.

From the occasional occurrence of the skulls of deer and elk with the
horns interlocked with each other, and from the fact above mentioned,
it appears that the contests of these animals at the rutting season
often prove fatal to both parties. From the form of the horns, and the
manner of fighting, it seems probable they must often be entangled with
each other, and when this is the case both fall an easy prey to the
wolves.

The Saline has an entire length of about one hundred and fifty miles,
running all the way nearly parallel to the Washita, to its confluence
near the latitude 33° north. After entering the state of Louisiana, the
Washita receives from the east the Barthelemi, the Boeuf, the Macon,
and the Tensa, all of which, having their sources near the west bank
of the Mississippi, may be considered as inosculating branches of that
river, since at times of high floods they are fed from the Mississippi.
The western tributaries are the Saluder, Derbane, and Ocatahoola,
deriving their sources from a spur of the Ozark mountains, which, in
the northern part of Louisiana, divides the broad alluvial valley of
Red river from that of the Mississippi. About twenty miles south-west
from the confluence of the Tensa, Washita, and Ocatahoola, {162}
the latter expands into a considerable lake, and sends off a branch
to Red river. Indeed the Washita might, without great impropriety,
be considered as entering the Mississippi at the point where its
waters unite with those of the Ocatahoola and Tensa. The periodical
inundations cover the country westward to this point, and even in
times of low water the channels communicating with the Mississippi are
numerous. From this point there is an uninterrupted connexion, through
a system of lakes and watercourses, stretching along parallel to the
Mississippi, about thirty miles distant, and communicating, through the
river and lake Atchafalaya, with the gulf of Mexico, at a point more
than one hundred and fifty miles west of the principal debouchure of
the Mississippi.[47]

FOOTNOTES:

[33] For the following topics mentioned in this chapter, see Nuttall's
_Journal_, in our volume xiii: Derdonai (note 146), Hot Springs (135),
Hunter and Dunbar (211), Petit Jean River (140), Le Fevre (119, 132),
Poteau River (169), roads in Arkansas (126), Kiamichi River (177),
Saline of Ouachita (125).--ED.

[34] Richard Kirwan (1733-1812), an Irishman, ranked as one of the
most brilliant scientific thinkers of his time. His studies included
chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and agriculture. Many of his writings
were translated into other languages.--ED.

[35] Hunter and Dunbar.--JAMES.

[36] The sources of Ouachita River are near the western state line in
Polk County.--ED.

[37] "There are four principal springs rising immediately on the east
bank of the creek, one of which may be rather said to spring out of
the gravel bed of the river; a fifth, a smaller one than that above
mentioned, as rising on the west side of the creek; and a sixth of
the same magnitude, the most northerly, and rising near the bank of
the creek; these are all the sources that merit the name of springs,
near the huts; but there is a considerable one below, and all along
at intervals the warm water oozes out, or drops from the bank into
the creek, as appears from the condensed vapour floating along the
margin of the creek, where the drippings occur." This extract from the
"Observations" of Hunter and Dunbar, when compared with our account,
will show that some changes have happened in the number and position of
the springs, since the time of their visit in 1804.--JAMES.

[38] See the New York Medical Repository.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ Samuel Latham Mitchill (1764-1831), "the Nestor of
American science," began the publication of the _New York Medical
Repository_ in 1797. He was a member of the faculty of Columbia College
from 1792 to 1801; later he was professor in the College of Physicians
and Surgeons of New York City (1808-26), and in Queen's College
(1826-30). He served several terms in the New York legislature, and
from 1801 to 1813 was in Congress, part of the time in the Senate.

[39] On the 1st of January, 1818, the thermometer, in the air, at
sunrise, stood at 24°, at 2 P.M. 49°, at sunset 41°.

Immersed in the water of the creek, below the springs, at 61º.

  In spring No. 1. being the lowermost on the creek, 122°,
            water discharged, 4 gallons per minute.

          No. 2. A few feet from No. 1, 104°, discharges 1 gallon
            per minute.



          No. 3. Twenty-five yards from the last, 106°, discharges
            two gallons per minute.

          No. 4. Six yards above the last, 126°, discharges 2
            gallons per minute.

Temperature of a spring issuing from the ground, at a considerable
distance up the side of the hill, 64°.

Springs, No. 5, 6, and 7, 126°, 94°, 92°. These rise very near each
other, the warmest being more elevated than the rest; the three
discharge about 8 gallons per minute.

No. 8. Issuing from the ground, fifty feet above the level of the
creek, uniting, as it rises, with another at 54°; temperature of the
mixture, 128°, discharge of the two, 10 gallons per minute.

No. 9. Rising on the point of a small spur, sixty feet above the level
of the creek, 132°, discharges two gallons per minute.

No. 10. Forty feet above the creek, 151°, discharges 10 gallons per
minute. Green bushes in the edge of this, which is the hottest spring.

No. 11. Three feet above the creek, 148°, discharges 12 gallons per
minute.

No. 12. Twenty yards above the last, 132°, discharges 20 gallons per
minute.

No. 13, 14, 15. Near the last, 124°, 119°, 108°, discharges each 4
gallons per minute.

No. 16, 122°, discharges 2 gallons per minute.

No. 17. The uppermost on the creek, 126°.

No. 18, 126°; 19, 128°; 20, 130°; 21, 136°; 22, 140°. All these are
large springs, and rise at an elevation of at least 100 feet above
the creek. In the same area are several others, and what is more
remarkable, several cold ones. In any of the hot springs I observed
bubbles rising in rapid succession, but could not discover any
perceptible smell from them. Not only confervas and other vegetables
grow in and about the hottest springs, but great numbers of little
insects are seen constantly sporting about the bottom and sides.
Temperature of the water of the creek, above the springs, 46°. The
entire quantity of water flowing in the creek after it receives the
water of the hot springs, may be estimated at from 900 to 1000 gallons
per minute.--JAMES.

[40] Wilson must have been one of the transient residents common at
this period; the first permanent settlers did not come until 1826 or
1828.--ED.

[41] The temperature was, however, no more than sufficient to raise the
mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer to 160°. It has been represented by
Bringier, in a paper published in Silliman's Journal, that "the heat of
the water is 192° Fah." On what observations this assertion rests we
know not. See "The American Journal of Science and Arts," Vol. iii. No.
I. p. 29.--JAMES.

[42] Little River rises in north-western Polk County, crosses the state
line into Indian Territory, and re-enters Arkansas to separate Sevier
and Little River counties; it falls into Red River at the south-east
corner of the latter county. Rolling Fork and Cossetot rise in southern
Polk County and flow south through Sevier. Mountain Fork is one of
several small streams the waters of which unite in Indian Territory to
form Little River.--ED.

[43] Nuttall's Travels, p. 150.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ Page 211 of reprint in our volume xiii.

[44] Ouachita River pursues an easterly course until it enters Hot
Springs County; then it turns sharply to the south-west, changing
direction again on leaving the county, and flowing south-south-east
until it enters Louisiana.

Fourche-au-Cadeau (now contracted to Caddo Creek) heads in Montgomery
County, and flowing south-east meets the Ouachita on the northern
line of Clark County. Cadeau is a corruption of Cadaux. Both words
are French, the former meaning a gift, the latter being the plural of
the name of an Indian tribe (Caddo in English) whose range included
southwestern Arkansas. The stream is called Fourche des Cadaux (Fork of
the Caddos) in Dunbar and Hunter's "Description of the Washita River"
(_American State Papers_, "Indian Affairs," i, p. 731).

At the south-east corner of Clark County is the mouth of the Little
Missouri, which rises on the Polk-Montgomery county line, traverses
Pike, and forms the southern line of Clark.--_Ed._

[45] The permanent occupation of this region, outside of the village
at the Hot Springs, hardly began before the middle of the nineteenth
century; earlier comers were mostly hunters and trappers, who
"squatted" for a time and then passed on. It is uncertain whether the
individuals mentioned were of this class or were permanent settlers;
their names are not in local histories. Any spot containing even a
single habitation was by courtesy styled a "settlement."--ED.

[46] The village of Cove Creek, on the line between Garland and Hot
Springs counties, marks the entrance to this valley.--ED.

[47] James did not base this description of watercourses in Louisiana
on personal observation, yet it is fairly accurate. A few comments may
be added. Macon River is a tributary of the Tensas; their confluence
is several miles from the Ouachita, east of the hill called Sicily
Island. Opposite the mouth of the Tensas is that of the Ocatahoola
(Little River); below this point the Ouachita is called Black River
(_Rivière Noire_), a name given by the French on account of the dark
appearance, due to depth, overshadowing forests, and a black sand
bottom. The expansion of Little River is Catahoula Lake, in the county
of the same name; its depth fluctuates from mere marsh to about fifteen
feet. The Derbane is now Bayou Corney, a branch of which is still
Bayou D'Arbonne; its mouth is nearly opposite that of the Barthelemi
(Bartholomew). The Saluder is apparently Bayou Loutre (Otter), a
short distance above Bayou Corney. Lake Atchafalaya (Grand Lake), an
expansion of the river of the same name, is a few miles from the Gulf
coast, north of Atchafalaya Bay. Recently an effort has been made to
force all of the current of Red River into the Mississippi, by damming
the Atchafalaya.--ED.



CHAPTER III {XI}[48]

           Red River--Exploring Expedition of 1806--Return to
                        the Arkansa--Earthquakes


The Red river of Louisiana enters the Mississippi from the west,
in north latitude 31° 5´,[49] and in 16° 35´ west longitude from
Philadelphia. From the Mississippi to the mouth of Black river (as
the Washita is called below the confluence of the Ocatahoola and
Tensa) is twenty-six miles by water. The aggregate width of Red river,
for this distance, is from three hundred to three hundred and fifty
yards. The depth of the water in summer varies, according to the
actual measurement of Messrs. Freeman and Humphrey, from eighty-four
to forty-two feet, the range from extreme high to low-water is from
twenty-five to thirty feet, and the banks are elevated from fourteen
to twenty-five feet above the surface of the river at low-water. At
no great distance, on each side, is a second alluvial bank, rising a
few feet higher than the immediate bank of the river. Back of this the
surface is elevated nearly to high-water mark, but descends gradually
towards the lakes and swamps, which occur along both sides of the
valley of the river. In the wet season the lower part of Red and Black
rivers are lost in an extensive lake, covering the country from the
Mississippi westward near one hundred miles to the settlement of the
Avoyelles.[50]

The distinction made by Du Pratz, between the country on the south and
that on the north side of Red river, appears to be strictly applicable
only to {164} the part lying below the point where Red river enters the
immediate valley of the Mississippi.[51]

Above the confluence of Black river the bed of Red river immediately
contracts to one hundred and twenty yards, which is its average width
from this point to the rapids seventy-two miles above: the current
becomes in a corresponding degree more rapid, running with a velocity
of from two and a half to three miles per hour, at a moderate stage
of water, in the early part of summer. The average depth in this
section is stated at from eighteen to twenty feet, at a time when the
water is twenty-one feet below its maximum of elevation. The banks
are generally bold and steep on one side or the other, and often on
both. The bottom lands are level and exceedingly fertile, but bear
the marks of periodical inundation. The forests of the lower section
of Red river differ little from those of the Mississippi and the
Arkansa. White gum, cotton-wood, pecan, locusts, white oak, mulberry,
sycamore, hackberry, and cypress occupy the low grounds, while the low
and scattered hills are covered with pine, intermixed with a small
proportion of oak and hickory. The only portion of the low lands in
any sort fit for cultivation is a narrow strip immediately on each
bank, commencing a little above the mouth of Black river, and enlarging
upwards; but even here the settler is not secure, as uncommon swellings
of the river sometimes lay the whole under water. Aside from this, the
extreme insalubrity of the air, occasioned by the vicinity of extensive
swamps, stagnant ponds, and lagoons, tends to retard the progress of
settlements in this quarter.

At the rapids the river spreads to three hundred yards in width. The
banks are thirty feet high, and never overflowed. Here has for many
years been a settlement. The soil of the neighbouring country is
extremely fertile.[52] A bed of soft sandstone, or indurated clay,
crosses the river, causing a fall of ten feet {165} in fifty yards.
"This stone, when exposed to the air, becomes as hard as freestone; but
under water it is found as soft as chalk. A channel could, with very
little labour or expense, be cut through any part of the bed of the
river, and need not be extended more than two hundred yards. It appears
to me that twenty men, in ten days, with mattocks only, could at low
water open a channel sufficiently wide and deep for all the barges that
trade in this river to pass with safety and ease."[53] Three quarters
of a mile above this rapid is another, very similar in extent and
magnitude.

Thirty miles above the rapids we find the river divided into two beds,
each having a high bold bank. The right-hand channel contains about one
third of the volume of water of the whole river. They separate from
each other four or five miles below Natchitoches, and unite again here,
forming an island sixty miles long and five wide.

The right-hand branch is called by the French Rigolet Bon Dieu, and the
other Old river. Another island, commencing one-fourth of a mile below
Natchitoches, extends parallel to that above mentioned, thirty-four
miles and a half; this is about four miles wide. The current, in all
the branches which lie between these islands and the main-shore, is
rapid, but not equally so. The description already given of the valley
of the river is applicable to this portion; on each side the surface
descends from the river, terminating in a line of pools and cypress
swamps, which extend along the base of the bluff. Settlements were
here somewhat numerous in 1806. The small cottages are placed near the
bank of the river, and the cultivated lands extend back but a little
distance. "The inhabitants," says Freeman "are a mixture of French,
Spanish, Indian, and Negro blood, the latter often predominating."[54]

{166} The separation of the water of the river into three distinct
branches, each confined within high and steep banks, raised twenty
and even thirty feet above the medium elevation of the water, and
their reunion, after traversing severally an extent of sixty and
thirty miles, might at first view appear a matter of curious inquiry;
but upon the slightest investigation it will be discovered that this
whole country adjacent to the river has been made or raised to its
present elevated position by frequent inundation and depositions from
the water. This evidently appears from the great quantities of timber
frequently seen as you ascend the river, deposited as low as low-water
mark, under steep banks of different heights from twelve to thirty feet.

Red river takes its name from the colour of its water, which is in
time of floods of a bright red, and partakes more or less of this
colour throughout the year. There can be no doubt the colouring matter
on which this tinge depends is derived from the red sandstone of the
salt formation already described when speaking of the sources of the
Canadian river of Arkansa, although no person qualified to give a
satisfactory account of the country has hitherto traced Red river to
that formation. We propose to add some brief notices of this important
river, derived from the unpublished materials of the exploring party
sent out by the government of the United States in 1806; also from
the notes of Major Long, who visited the upper settlements in 1817;
not neglecting such additional information from the works of Darby,
Nuttall, and others who have written of Louisiana, as may appear
deserving of confidence.

Red river was explored at a very early period by the French, but their
examinations appear to have extended no farther than to the country
of the Natchitoches and the Cadoes;[55] and although subsequent {167}
examinations have a little enlarged our acquaintance with its upper
branches, we are still unfortunately ignorant of the position of its
sources. Three years after the cession of Louisiana to the United
States, a small party, known by the name of the "Exploring Expedition
of Red river," and consisting of Captain Sparks, Mr. Freeman, Lieut.
Humphrey, and Dr. Custis, with seventeen private soldiers, two
non-commissioned officers, and a black servant, embarked from St.
Catherine's landing, near Natchez, on board several barges and small
boats, with instructions to ascend Red river to its sources.[56] On the
3d of May 1806 they entered Red river, expecting to be able to ascend
with their boats to the country of the Pawnee Piqua Indians. Here it
was their intention to leave their boats, and packing their provision
on horses which they should purchase of the Pawnees, they were to
"proceed to the top of the mountains," the distance being, as they
believed, about three hundred miles.

On the 19th of May they arrived at Natchitoches, distant from the
Mississippi 184 miles 266 perches, measured by log-line and time. At
this place they delayed some days; and having received information that
their progress would be opposed by the Spaniards, they resolved to
increase the strength of their party by retaining a detachment which
had been ordered by the secretary at war to join them at Natchitoches,
"for the purpose of assisting the exploring party to ascend the river
to the upper end of the Great Raft, and to continue as far afterwards
as might appear necessary to repel by force any opposition they might
meet with." Accordingly, twenty men were selected from the garrison at
Natchitoches, and, under the command of Lieutenant Duforest,[57] joined
the exploring {168} party. They were now thirty-seven in number aside
from the officers, and were furnished with a supply of flour sufficient
for nine months' provision. On the 2d of June they left Natchitoches,
and proceeded towards their destination. The journal of their tour
by Mr. Freeman, which has been obligingly put into our hands by
General D. Parker,[58] is extremely circumstantial, and embraces much
valuable information. We make use of it, without particular reference,
whenever we have occasion to speak of that part of Red river visited
by the expedition. On the 7th of June the party were overtaken, near
a small village of Natchitoches and Paskagoulas,[59] by an Indian
guide and interpreter, whom they had hired at Natchitoches. He brought
a letter from Dr. Sibley,[60] the Indian agent, giving information
that a detachment of Spanish troops were already on their march from
Nacogdoches,[61] with a design to intercept the exploring party. At
the distance of one hundred and two miles above Natchitoches they
left the bed of the river, turning out through one of those numerous
communications called Bayous, which connect the principal channel with
those lateral chains of lakes, pools, swamps, and marshes, which extend
along the sides of the valley. Their design in leaving the river was
to avoid that singular obstruction to the navigation called the Great
Raft, having been informed by Mr. Toolan, an old and respectable French
inhabitant, that it would be impossible for them to pass through it.
They had already encountered three similar obstructions, through which
they had made their way with extreme toil, by loosening and floating
out the logs and trunks of trees, that had been piled upon each other
in such numbers as to fill the bed of the river from the bottom,
usually at the depth of thirty feet, and rising three or four feet
above the surface of the water.

The Bayou Datche, as the part of the river is called into which they
entered, conducted them to a {169} beautiful lake called Big Broth.[62]
It is thus described by Mr. Freeman. "This beautiful sheet of water
extends, from the place we first entered it, seventy miles in a
north-westerly direction; and, as far as we saw it, is beautifully
variegated with handsome clumps of cypress trees thinly scattered in
it; on the right-hand side it is bounded by high land, which ascends
from the surface of the water, and at the distance of one hundred yards
is elevated about forty feet, and covered with forests of black oak,
hickory, dogwood, &c.; soil good second-rate. It is bounded on the
left by a low plain covered with cypress trees and bushes. The depth
of water is from two to six feet. High-water mark ten feet above the
present surface. It is called by the Indians _Big Broth_, from the
vast quantities of froth seen floating on its surface at high water.
The passage out of this lake is by a very difficult communication,
through bayous, into another very handsome lake of about one mile wide
called Swan lake, and so on, through long crooked bayous, lakes, and
swamps, full of dead standing timber." Having made their way for many
days along this chain of lakes, they were at length anxious to return
to the river. After searching several days for a passage, and finding
their pilot incapable to direct them, they resolved to wait while they
could send messengers by land to the Coashatay village,[63] and procure
a guide. The return of this messenger brought them some information
calculated to aid in extricating themselves from the labyrinth of
lakes in which they were bewildered, also the promise of the Coashatay
chief, that he would join the party himself, and conduct them to the
river. This promise, however, it was not his intention to fulfil.
The party therefore, on the 20th of June, resumed their search for a
passage, returning some distance on their route. {170} On the 25th
they discovered a narrow and obstructed channel, through which, after
removing several rafts, trees, &c. they found their way into the river.
"Thus," says the journal of the expedition, "after fourteen days of
incessant fatigue, toil and danger, doubt and uncertainty, we at length
gained the river above the Great Raft, contrary to the decided opinion
of every person who had any knowledge of the difficulties we had to
encounter."[64]

The distance from Natchitoches to the point where the party entered
Red river, above the Great Raft, is two hundred and one miles by the
meanders of their route. Above the Raft the river is two hundred
and thirty yards wide, thirty-four feet deep, and has a very gentle
current. The banks are ten or twelve feet high. On the north side the
lands rise considerably at a little distance, and are covered with
heavy forests of oak, poplar, and red cedar. At the Coashatay village,
about twenty miles above the Great Raft, the commander of the exploring
party received information, by an express, from the chief of the
principal village of the Cadoes, which is thirty miles farther to the
west, "that about three hundred Spanish dragoons, with four or five
hundred horses and mules, were encamped near that village, with the
design to prevent the further progress of the Americans." The Coashatay
and Cadoe Indians of this part of Red river are an agricultural
half-civilized people, like the Cherokees.[65]

On the 1st of July a messenger arrived at the encampment of the party,
near the Coashatay village, giving information of the near approach
of the Cadoe chief, with forty young men and warriors of his village.
About noon they made their appearance on the opposite bank of the
river, and kept up, for a few minutes, an irregular firing by way
of salute. This was returned both from the camp and the village, in
a manner highly gratifying to the Cadoe party. The {171} customary
ceremonies used in meeting Indians being past, an exchange of
complimentary speeches followed.

The Cadoe chief expressed great uneasiness on account of the Spaniards
who were encamped near his village. Their commandant, he said, had
come to see him, had taken him by the hand, and asked him, if he
loved the Americans; he answered, he did not know what to say, but if
the Spaniards wished to fight the Americans, they might go down to
Natchitoches, and fight them there; but they should not shed blood
in his territories. He said he was pleased with what he had heard
respecting the designs of the exploring party; he wished them to go
on and see all his country, and all his neighbours. "You have far to
go, and will meet with many difficulties, but I wish you to go on. My
friends, the Pawnees, will be glad to see you, and will take you by
the hand. If you meet with any of the Huzaa's (Osages), and kill them,
I will dance for a month. If they kill any of your party, I will go
with my young men and warriors, and we will be avenged for you." The
soldiers belonging to the expedition having paraded in open order and
single file, the forty young Cadoes commenced on the right of the line,
and marching towards the left, shook each man by the hand in the most
earnest manner. When their leader had reached the other extremity of
the line, they instantly placed themselves in a corresponding line,
about three paces distant, and their partizan or principal warrior
delivered a short address to the serjeant.

"Here we are," said he, "all men and warriors shaking hands together,
let us hold fast, and be friends for ever." It was said by the
interpreter he prefaced his observation by saying, he was glad to see
that his new brothers had the faces of men, and looked like men and
warriors.

After a delay of a few days the Cadoe chief, professing the most
friendly disposition towards the exploring {172} party, withdrew with
his young men to his own village. On the 11th of July the officers of
the party, having as yet no certain knowledge of the designs of the
Spaniards, re-embarked on board their little fleet, and began to ascend
Red river from the Coashatay village, having engaged the Cadoe chief to
watch the motions of the Spanish troops, and to give timely notice of
any thing interesting to the expedition. The river, above the Coashatay
village, became very crooked and wide, and the water was so low that
the boats were often aground, though they drew no more than from
sixteen to twenty inches of water.

On the 26th of July, in the afternoon, three Indians appeared on the
sand-beach, who were found to be the runners sent from the Cadoe
chief, agreeable to previous engagement. They brought information
that the Spaniards had returned to Nacogdoches, for a reinforcement
and new instructions; that six days since they had arrived at the
Cadoe village, about one thousand strong; that they had cut down the
United States' flag in the Cadoe village, and had said, it was their
intention to destroy the exploring party. They had taken from the
Cadoe village two young men to conduct them to a handsome bluff, a
few miles above where they were now encamped, to await the arrival
of the party. The Indian messengers, and the Cadoes who had remained
with the party, appeared much alarmed, and intreated the commanding
officer to return, saying, if they met the Spaniards, not one would
come back alive. The distance to the Spanish camp was three days'
journey. On the following day the party made a deposit of some of their
most important papers, with a small stock of ammunition, provisions,
and astronomical instruments in a retired place, that they might not
be entirely destitute of resources after the contemplated rencontre
with the Spaniards should have taken place. At sunset, on the 28th
of July, as they were {173} about to encamp, they heard several guns
a-head of them, which left no doubt that they had arrived near the
Spanish camp. On the ensuing morning Captain Sparks, Mr. Freeman, and
a favourite Indian, walked a-head of the boats, along the sand-beach,
with their guns in their hands. The Indian soon discovered some tracks,
ran hastily up among the bushes on the bank, and then returning, made
signs that the Spaniards were there. The party was now halted, the arms
examined, and put in readiness for immediate action; then all went on
board the boats, and they continued their ascent, as if they had known
nothing of the Spanish troops. The advanced guard which the Indian
had discovered consisted of twenty-two men, stationed a mile and a
half below the encampment of the main body. On seeing the boats they
fled instantly, and hid themselves in the woods, leaving behind their
clothes and provisions.

On turning the next bend they commanded a beautiful view of the river,
extending about a mile, with steep banks on both sides, and level sand
beaches, occupying more than half the bed of the river. On one of
these, at the distance of half a mile, they discovered a sentinel, and
soon afterwards saw a detachment of horse gallop from thence through
the small cotton-wood bushes near the next bend of the river, and
shortly after return to their former station. As it was now the middle
of the day, the exploring party halted according to custom, and kindled
fires to prepare their dinner.

About half an hour after they had halted, a large detachment from the
Spanish camp were seen riding down the sand-beach, enveloped in such a
cloud of dust that their numbers could not be accurately estimated. The
soldiers belonging to the exploring party were sent to take possession
of a thick cane brake on the immediate bank of the river, at a short
distance above the boats, to be in readiness, should there be occasion,
to attack the advancing party on {174} their flank. A non-commissioned
officer and six men were sent still farther up the river, and ordered
to be in readiness to assail the Spaniards in the rear.

The advancing party of horse came on at full speed, and neglecting
the first challenge of the two sentinels stationed at some distance
in advance of the boats. When the sentinels cried "halt" the second
time, they cocked their pieces, and were in the act of presenting them
to fire, when the Spanish squadron halted, and displayed on the beach
about one hundred and fifty yards distant. Their officers moved slowly
forward, and were met by Captain Sparks, whom the Spanish commandant
politely saluted, and a parley ensued, which continued about
three-quarters of an hour. The Spaniards being greatly superior in
numbers, and expressing a determined resolution to fulfil their orders,
which were to prevent, at all hazards, the farther progress of the
exploring expedition, the officers of that party reluctantly consented
to relinquish their undertaking. The spot where this interruption took
place is two hundred and thirty miles by water above the Coashatay
village, consequently six hundred and thirty-five miles above the mouth
of Red river.[66]

Below this point it appears the river and the country lose, in a
great measure, the peculiar characters which belong to the region of
recent alluvial lands near the mouth of the river. Swamps, bayous,
and lagoons, are less frequent; the forests are more open, the trees
smaller, and the soil less fertile and open; meadows more frequent here
than below. A portion of Red river above, between this point and the
upper settlements,[67] is but imperfectly known.

The average direction of Red river, as far as it has been hitherto
explored, from the confluence of the Kiamesha, in latitude 33° 30´,
to its junction with the Mississippi in 31° 5´, is from north-west
to south-east. Above the Kiamesha it is supposed to flow more
directly from west to east. The streams tributary {175} to Red river
are comparatively small and few in number. Above the Washita the
principal are the Little river of the south and the Little river of
the north,[68] both entering near the north-western angle of the state
of Louisiana, and both hitherto little known. The next in order is
the Kiamesha, rising in the Ozark mountains, opposite the Poteau, and
entering Red river about one thousand miles from the Mississippi. The
Kiamesha has been explored from its sources to its confluence by Major
Long, who first visited it in 1817. The country about the sources of
this river is mountainous, being broken into numerous irregular peaks
and ridges, of an old ferruginous sandstone, with its stratifications
highly inclined towards the south. The timber in the mountainous
country is the yellow pine, intermixed with red, white, and mountain
oak, the small chesnut, the American box or hop hornbeam (ostrya
virginica), the red cedar, &c.

In the low lands, towards Red river, all the forest trees common to
the valley of the Arkansa are found, with the addition of the maclura,
which is now so rare about the Arkansa that it can scarcely be said
to make a part of the forests there. Extensive prairies exist on the
lower part of the Kiamesha, some of which command delightful views
of the surrounding country. Before you lies the great valley of Red
river, exhibiting a pleasing variety of forests and lawns; beyond
rises the gentle slope of the Ozark mountains, imprinting the broad
outline of their azure summits upon the margin of the sky. At the
mouth of the Kiamesha, Red river is about two hundred yards wide. Its
course is meandering, forming points alternately on the right and left,
terminating in sand-bars, covered with red mud or clay, deposited from
the water of the river. In its lowest stage the river may be forded at
any place, so that a person may pass along the bed, as in the Canadian,
by travelling on the sand-bars, and occasionally crossing the water
{176} between them. The soil and climate of Red river are said to be
peculiarly adapted to the culture of cotton. The crop sometimes yields
twenty-five hundred pounds of seed-cotton per acre, and this of a
quality inferior to none, except the Sea island.

Of the Vaseau, or Boggy Bayou, and the Blue river, two considerable
streams tributary to Red river, next above the Kiamesha, we have little
information. They appear to enter like what are called the north and
south forks of the Canadian, near the foot of the western slope of
the Ozark mountains. Above these the principal tributary is the Faux
Ouachita, or False Washita, from the north, which has been described to
us (by Mr. Findlay, an enterprising hunter, whose pursuits often led
him to visit its banks), as bearing a very near resemblance to the
Canadian river of Arkansa.[69]

We are as yet ignorant of the true position of the sources of Red
river; but we are well assured the long received opinion, that its
principal branch rises "about thirty or forty miles east of Santa Fé,"
is erroneous.

Several persons have recently arrived at St. Louis in Missouri, from
Santa Fé, and, among others, the brother of Captain Shreeves, who gives
information of a large and frequented road, which runs nearly due east
from that place, and strikes one of the branches of the Canadian, [and]
that at a considerable distance to the south of this point in the
high plain is the principal source of Red river. His account confirms
an opinion we had previously formed, namely, that the branch of the
Canadian explored by Major Long's party, in August 1820, has its
sources near those of some stream which descends towards the west into
the Rio Del Norte, and consequently that some other region must contain
the head of Red river. From a careful comparison of all the information
we have been able to collect, we are satisfied that the stream on
which we encamped on the 31st of August [July] is the Rio Raijo [Rojo]
of Humboldt, {177} long mistaken for the source of the Red river of
Natchitoches, and that our camp of September [August] 2d was within
forty or fifty miles east from Santa Fé. In a region of red clay and
sand, where all the streams have nearly the colour of arterial blood,
it is not surprising that several rivers should have received the same
name; nor is it surprising that so accurate a topographer as the Baron
Humboldt, having learned that a Red river rises forty or fifty miles
east of Santa Fé, and runs to the east, should conjecture it might be
the source of the Red river of Natchitoches. This conjecture (for it
is no more) we believe to have been adopted by our geographers, who
have with much confidence made their delineations and their accounts
correspond to it.[70]

In relation to the climate of the country on Red river we have received
little definite information. The journal of the Exploring Expedition
contains a record of thermometric observations for thirty-six days,
commencing with June 1st, 1806, and extending to July 6th. These
were made between Natchitoches and the Coashatay village; and the
temperature, both of the air and the water of the river, are noted
three times per day, at 6 a.m. and 3 and 9 P.M. They indicate a climate
extremely mild and equable. The range of atmospheric temperature is
from 72° to 93° Fah. that of the water from 79° to 92°. The daily
oscillations are nearly equal, and the aggregate temperature rises
slowly and uniformly towards midsummer.

From Lockhart's settlement on the Saline river of Washita to Little
Rock on the Arkansa, is a distance about twenty-five miles. As we
approached the Arkansa, we found the country less broken and rocky than
above. The soil of the uplands is gravelly and comparatively barren,
producing almost exclusively scattered forests of oak, while along the
streams are small tracts of extremely fertile bottom lands. In some of
the vallies, however, the cypress appears filling extensive swamps, and
imparting a gloomy and {178} unpromising aspect to the country. This
tree is well known in all the southern section of the United States,
to indicate a low and marshy soil, but not universally one which is
irreclaimable. It is rarely if ever met with north of the latitude
of 38°. In many respects, particularly in the texture, firmness, and
durability of its wood, and in its choice of situation, it resembles
the white cedar[71] of the northern states, but far surpasses it in
size, being one of the largest trees in North America. "There is,"
says Du Pratz, "a cypress tree at Baton Rouge, which measures twelve
yards round, and is of prodigious height." In the cypress swamps, few
other trees, and no bushes are to be seen, and the innumerable conic
excrescences called knees, which spring up from the roots, resembling
the monuments in a church-yard, give a gloomy and peculiar aspect to
the scenery of those cypress swamps. The old error of Du Pratz, with
regard to the manner of the reproduction of the cypress, is still
maintained by great numbers of people who never heard of his book. "It
renews itself," says he, "in a most extraordinary manner:--A short time
after it is cut down a shoot is observed to grow from one of its roots,
exactly in the form of a sugarloaf, and this sometimes rises ten feet
high before any leaf appears; the branches at length rise from the
head of this conical shoot."[72] We have often been reminded of this
account of Du Pratz, by hearing the assertion among the settlers, that
the cypress never grows from the seed; it would appear, however, that
he could have been little acquainted with the tree, or he would have
been aware that the conic excrescences in question spring up and grow
during the life-time of the tree, but never after it is cut down.

At Little Rock, a village of six or eight houses, we found several of
the members of a missionary family {179} destined to the Osages. They
had exposed themselves during the heat of summer to the pestilential
atmosphere of the Lower Mississippi and Arkansa; and we were not
surprised, when we considered their former habits, to find they had
suffered most severely from their imprudence. They had all been
sick, and two or three of their number had died; the survivors, we
understood, were on the recovery. They had been some time at Little
Rock, the water in the Arkansa having fallen so low as to render their
further ascent impracticable.[73]

The village of Little Rock occupies the summit of a high bank of
clay-slate on the south-west side of the Arkansa. Its site is elevated,
and the country immediately adjoining, in a great measure, exempt from
the operation of those causes which produce a state of the atmosphere
unfavourable to health. It is near the commencement of the hilly
country, and for a part of the year will be at the head of steam-boat
navigation on the Arkansa. The country in the rear of the projected
town is high, and covered for the most part with open oak forests.

October 3d. We left Little Rock at an early hour, taking the road
towards Davidsonville. This led us for about four miles through the
deep and gloomy forests of the Arkansa bottoms. Here we saw the ricinus
palma christi growing spontaneously by the road side, and rising to the
height of twelve or fourteen feet. We arrived at Little Red river by
about nine o'clock, the distance from the Arkansa being not more than
eight or nine miles. In the high and rocky country about White river,
we fell in with the route which had been pursued by Major Long and his
party, and following this, we reached Cape Girardeau a few days after
their arrival. The distance from Belle Point to Little Rock by the way
of the hot springs is two hundred and ten miles, from Little Rock to
Cape Girardeau three hundred; in the whole, five hundred and ten miles.

{180} Major Long's notes of a tour in the Arkansa territory contain
tables of meteorological observations, showing the variations of
temperature from September 30th, 1817, to January 31st, 1818. The
country in which these observations were made, is that between the
Arkansa at Fort Smith, and the Red river at the mouth of the Kiamesha,
about the hot springs of the Washita, the settlement of Cadron, &c.
Here we find in the month of January the mercury at zero, and shortly
after at 58°, a degree of cold that would not discredit the climate
of Moscow, and a rapidity of change and violence of vicissitude to
compare with the ever-varying temperature of the Atlantic states. We
might expect in the latitude of 34°, and in a region placed along the
south-eastern slope of a moderately elevated range of mountains, a mild
and equable climate. But almost every portion of the territory of the
United States seems alike exposed to the influence of the western and
north-western winds, refrigerated in their passage over the wide and
frozen regions of the Rocky Mountains, and rushing down unobstructed
across the naked plains of the great desert, penetrating with almost
unmitigated rigour to the Atlantic coast. It is proper to remark, that
the winter of 1817-18 was considered one of unusual severity in the
Arkansa territory. From the accounts of Hunter and Dunbar, it appears,
that in December 1804 the weather was much milder in the same portion
of country. An alligator was seen in December many miles above the
confluence of the Saline Fork, and even at the hot springs many plants
were in flower, and the ground in the woods had considerable appearance
of verdure. We have been assured by emigrants from North Carolina, that
the winter temperature of the country, about the upper branches of
the Washita, is more mild and equable than that of the corresponding
latitudes on the Atlantic coast.

{181} On the 12th October the exploring party were all assembled
at Cape Girardeau. Lieutenant Graham, with the steam-boat Western
Engineer, had arrived a day or two before from St. Louis; having
delayed there some time subsequent to his return from the Upper
Mississippi. In the discharge of the duties on which he had been
ordered, Lieutenant G. and all his party had suffered severely from
bilious and intermitting fever.

A few days subsequent to our arrival at Cape Girardeau, the greater
number of those who had been of the party by land, experienced severe
attacks of intermitting fever; none escaped, except Captain Bell, Mr.
Peale, and Lieutenant Swift. Major Long and Captain Kearney, who had
continued their journey immediately towards St. Louis, were taken ill
at St. Genevieve, and the latter confined some weeks. The attack was
almost simultaneous in the cases of those of the party who remained
at Cape Girardeau; and it is highly probable we had all received the
impression which produced the disease nearly at the same time. The
interruption of accustomed habits, and the discontinuance of the
excitement afforded by travelling, may have somewhat accelerated the
attack. We had observed that we had felt somewhat less than the usual
degree of health, since breathing the impure and offensive atmosphere
of the Arkansa bottoms about Belle Point, and there we have no doubt
the disease fastened upon us. In every instance, we had the opportunity
of observing, the attack assumed the form of a daily intermittent.
The cold stage commenced with a sensation of languor and depression,
attended with almost incessant yawning, and a disinclination to motion,
soon followed by shivering, and a distressing sensation of cold. These
symptoms pass off gradually, and the hot stage succeeds. The degree of
fever is usually somewhat proportioned to the violence of the cold fit,
the respiration becomes full and frequent, the face flushed, the {182}
skin moist, and the patient falls into a heavy slumber; on awaking,
after some time, extreme languor and exhaustion are felt, though few
symptoms of fever remain. This routine of most uncomfortable feelings,
commencing at nine or ten in the morning, occupied for some time the
greater part of our days. Late at evening, and during the night, we
suffered less. Intermitting fevers are of such universal occurrence in
every part of the newly-settled country to the west, that every person
is well acquainted with the symptoms, and has some favourite method of
treatment. A very common practice, and one productive of much mischief,
is that of administering large draughts of whiskey and black pepper
previous to the accession of the cold stage. Applications of this
kind may sometimes shorten the cold fit, but the consequent fever is
comparatively increased, and the disease rendered more obstinate. The
Peruvian bark is much used, but often so injudiciously as to occasion
great mischief.

Cape Girardeau, formerly the seat of justice for a county of the same
name, is one of the oldest settlements in Upper Louisiana, having been
for a long time the residence of a Spanish intendant or governor.
Occupying the first considerable elevation on the western bank of
the Mississippi, above the mouth of Ohio, and affording a convenient
landing for boats, it promises to become a place of some little
importance, as it must be the depôt of a fertile district of country,
extending from the commencement of the great swamps on the south-east
to the upper branches of the St. Francis. The advantages of its
situation must be considered greater than those of the settlements of
Tyawapatia and New Madrid, which are not sufficiently elevated. It is
at the commencement of the hilly country, extending up the Mississippi
to the confluence of the Missouri, north-west of the Gasconade and
Osage rivers, and south-west to the province of Texas. Two or three
miles below Cape {183} Girardeau the cypress swamps commence,
extending with little interruption far to the south.

The town comprises at this time about twenty log-cabins, several of
them in ruins, a log-jail no longer occupied, a large unfinished brick
dwelling, falling rapidly to decay, and a small one finished and
occupied. It stands on the slope, and part of the summit of a broad
hill, elevated about one hundred and fifty feet above the Mississippi,
and having a deep primary soil resting on horizontal strata of compact
and sparry limestone. Near the place where boats usually land is a
point of white rocks, jutting into the Mississippi, and at a very low
stage of water producing a perceptible rapid. These are of a white
sparry limestone, abounding in remains of encrini and other marine
animals. If traced some distance, they will be found to alternate with
the common blue compact limestone, so frequently seen in secondary
districts. Though the stratifications of this sparry limestone are
horizontal, the rock is little divided by seams and fissures, and would
undoubtedly afford a valuable marble, not unlike the Darling marble
quarried on the Hudson.

The streets of Cape Girardeau are marked out with formal regularity,
intersecting each other at right angles; but they are now in some parts
so gullied and torn by the rains, as to be impassable; in others,
overgrown with such thickets of gigantic vernonias and urticas, as
to resemble small forests. The country, back of the town, is hilly,
covered with heavy forests of oak, tulip-tree, and nyssa, intermixed
in the vallies with the sugar-tree and the fagus sylvatica, and on the
hills, with an undergrowth of the American hazel, and the shot-bush
or angelica tree. Settlements are considerably advanced, and many
well-cultivated farms occur in various directions.

Two or three weeks elapsed previous to Major Long's return from St.
Louis; when, notwithstanding his ill health, he left Cape Girardeau
immediately, as {184} did Captain Bell, both intending to prosecute,
without delay, their journey to the seat of government.

About the 1st of November, Messrs. Say, Graham, and Seymour had so far
recovered their health, as to venture on undertaking a voyage to New
Orleans on their way home. They left Cape Girardeau in a small boat,
which they exchanged at the mouth of the Ohio for a steam-boat about
to descend the Mississippi. Mr. Peale, who had escaped the prevailing
sickness, accompanied them, leaving only Dr. James and Lieut. Swift
with the steam-boat Western Engineer at Cape Girardeau. Lieut.
Swift had received instructions, as soon as the water should rise
sufficiently, to proceed with the boat to the Falls of Ohio, where it
was to remain during the winter.

Early in November, the frosts had been so severe at Cape Girardeau,
that the leaves were fallen, and the country had assumed the aspect
of winter. On the 9th, at four P.M. the shock of an earthquake was
felt. The agitation was such as to cause considerable motion in the
furniture and other loose articles in the room where we were sitting.
Before we had time to collect our thoughts and run out of the house,
it had ceased entirely; we had therefore no opportunity to form an
opinion of its direction. Several others occurred in the time of our
stay at the Cape, but they all happened at night, and were all of short
duration. "Shakes," as these concussions are called by the inhabitants,
are in this part of the country extremely frequent, and are spoken of
as matters of every day occurrence.[74] Several houses in and about
Cape Girardeau have formerly been shaken down, forests have been
overthrown,[75] and other considerable changes produced by their {185}
agency. Their effect upon the constantly varying channels and bars in
the bed of the Mississippi must doubtless be very important.

These concussions are felt through a great extent of country, from the
settlements on Red river and the Washita to the falls of Ohio, and from
the mouth of the Missouri to New Orleans. Their great extent, and the
very considerable degree of violence with which they affect not only
a large portion of the valley of the Mississippi, but of the adjacent
hilly and mountainous country, appear to us most clearly to indicate
that they are produced by causes far more efficient and deep-seated
than "the decomposition of beds of lignite or wood-coal situated
near the level of the river, and filled with pyrites," according to
the suggestion of Mr. Nuttall.[76] It has been repeatedly asserted,
that volcanic appearances exist in the mountainous country between
Cape Girardeau and the hot springs of the Washita, particularly
at the latter place; but our observation has not tended to confirm
these accounts; and Hunter and Dunbar, who spent some time at the hot
springs, confidently deny the existence of any such appearances in
that quarter. Reports have been often circulated, principally on the
authority of hunters, of explosions, subterraneous fires, blowings and
bellowings of the mountains, and many other singular phenomena, said
to exist on the Little Missouri of Washita, and other parts of the
region of the hot springs; but it is easy to see that the combustion
of a coal-bed, or some other affair of equal insignificance, may have
afforded all the foundation on which these reports ever rested. But
though no traces of existing or of extinct volcanoes should be found
in any part of the country affected by these earthquakes, it is not
therefore necessary to go in search of some cause unlike those which in
{186} other parts of the earth are believed to produce similar effects.

On the morning following the earthquake above mentioned, a fall of snow
commenced, and continued during the day; towards evening it fell mixed
with hail and rain, and covered the ground to the depth of about six
inches.

The rain continued for some days, the mercury ranging from 40° to 48°
and 50°, a temperature and state of weather as little grateful to an
ague-shaken invalid as any weather can be. The snow which fell on
the 10th remained on the ground until the 15th, when it had nearly
disappeared, and a succession of bright days followed. The air was
now filled with countless flocks of geese, sandhill cranes, and other
migratory birds on their passage to the south. The migrations of the
ardea canadensis afford one of the most beautiful instances of animal
motion we can any where meet with. These birds fly at a great height,
and never in a direct line, but wheeling in circles, they appear to
float without effort on the surface of an aerial current, by whose
eddies they are borne about in an endless series of revolutions. Though
larger than a goose, they rise to so great an elevation as to appear
like points, sometimes luminous, and sometimes opaque, as they happen
to intercept or reflect the rays of the sun; but never so high but
their shrill and incessant clamours may be heard.

While at Cape Girardeau we were induced, from motives of curiosity,
to attend at the performance of some ceremonies by the negroes, over
the grave of one of their friends, who had been buried a month since.
They were assembled round the grave, where several hymns were sung.
An exhortation was pronounced by one, who officiated as minister of
the gospel, who also made a prayer for the welfare of the soul of the
deceased. This ceremony, we are told, is common among the negroes in
many parts of the {187} United States: the dead are buried privately,
and with few marks of attention; a month afterwards the friends
assemble at the grave, where they indulge their grief, and signify
their sorrow for the deceased, by the performance of numerous religious
rites.

On the 22d of November, having been informed the Ohio had risen several
inches, Lieut. Swift determined to leave Cape Girardeau with the
steam-boat on the following day. Dr. James had so far recovered as to
be able to travel on horseback; and immediately set forward on the
journey to the Falls of Ohio, intending to proceed by the nearest route
across the interior of Illinois.

The immediate valley of the Mississippi, opposite the little village
of Bainbridge, ten miles above Cape Girardeau, is four miles wide,
and exclusive of the river, which washes the bluffs along the western
side. Upwards, it expands into the broad fertile and anciently populous
valley, called the American bottom; on the east, it is bounded by
abrupt hills of a deep argillaceous loam, disclosing no rocks, and
rather infertile, bearing forests of oak, sweet gum, tupelo, &c.
The road crossing the hilly country between the Mississippi and the
village of Golconda on the Ohio passes several precocious little towns,
which appear, as is often the case in a recently settled country, to
have outgrown their permanent resources. The lands, however, are not
entirely worthless; and on some of the upper branches of the Cache, a
river of the Ohio, we passed some fertile bottoms, though they are not
entirely exempt from inundation at the periodical floods. The compact
limestone about Golconda, near the sources of Grand Pierre creek,
and near Covedown rock, contains beautiful crystals of Derbyshire
spar; sulphuret of lead also occurs in that vicinity, as we have been
informed, in veins accompanying the fluate of lime.[77]

On arriving at Golconda, Dr. James had become so much indisposed, by
a recurrence of fever and {188} ague, as to be unable to proceed.
This circumstance, with others, induced Lieut. Swift to leave the
steam-boat, for the winter, at the mouth of Cumberland river. After a
delay of a few days, he continued his journey towards Philadelphia on
horseback.[78]

       *       *       *       *       *

Having thus traced the progress of the exploring party to their final
separation, we shall add some discussions concerning the countries
west of the Alleghany mountains, of a more general description than
deemed compatible with the humble style of a diary, which we thought
convenient to be retained in our narrative.

The following paper, from Major Long, comprises, moreover, the results
of many observations made on various journeys previous to those
detailed in the foregoing account, and in parts of the country remote
from those traversed by the expedition.

FOOTNOTES:

[48] For the following topics mentioned in this chapter, see Nuttall's
_Journal_, in our volume xiii: William Darby (note 181), Caddo Indians
(103), Little Rock (123).--ED.

[49] Ellicott; 31° 1´ 15˝, according to M. de Ferrer.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ 30° 58´ 50.28˝ is correct.

[50] The settlement of Avoyelles occupied an island of prairie, about
forty miles in circumference, rising out of the swamp thirty or forty
feet above high water. The name was that of a small tribe of Indians
found there by the early French. Acadians went thither in considerable
numbers during the last fifteen years of the eighteenth century. In
1803 the inhabitants were a mixture of French, Irish, and Americans,
settled around the edge of the prairie, near the woods, their houses
facing the open land, which they cultivated. A decade later the
population was estimated at four hundred and fifty whites and a hundred
and fifty slaves.--ED.

[51] "The south side of this river, quite to the rapid part, is
entirely different from the opposite side; it is something higher,
and rises in proportion as it approaches the height I have mentioned;
the quality is also very different. This land is good and light, and
is disposed to receive all the culture imaginable, in which we may
assuredly hope to succeed. It naturally produces fruit trees and vines
in plenty; it was on that side muscadine grapes were found. The back
parts have neater woods and meadows, intersected with tall forests. On
that side the fruit trees of the country are common, and above all, the
hickory and walnut trees, which are sure indications of good soil." _Du
Pratz'_ Louisiana, p. 166.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ This reference is to the second London edition (1764).

[52] Sibley's report on Red River says of the settlement at the rapids
(1803), "No country whatever can exhibit handsomer plantations." See
_American State Papers_, "Indian Affairs," i, p. 726. There were also
at that time a few settlers on the north side of the river between the
rapids and Avoyelles, but none on the south side which was more subject
to inundation.--ED.

[53] Freeman's MS. Report to W. Dunbar, esq.--JAMES.

[54] Compare Sibley's description of this portion of the river in 1803
(see reference, _ante_, note 52). Rigolet means a little irrigation
ditch, giving the name of the east channel the curious meaning,
Little Ditch of the Good God. This is now the main channel, and is
sometimes called Red River; its upper mouth is four or five miles
above Natchitoches, instead of below, as stated in the text. The other
channel was also called Cane River. In 1803, there was a settlement
of forty families on this branch, about twenty-four miles above the
end of the island. Near this point the river again divides, forming
Isle Brevel, so called from the first settler upon it. The branch west
of this island is called Old, or False, River. The other, or middle,
branch was, in 1803, called Little River, its banks being thickly
settled; it is now considered as the upper portion of Cane River. The
upper junction of Cane and False rivers was near Natchitoches. Thus
it appears that each channel has borne, or bears, two names: the east
channel is Rigolet du Bon Dieu, or Red River; the middle one at Isle
Brevel is Cane, or Little River; and the west one Old, or False River;
while at the lower island it is Old or Cane River.

Natchitoches, now chief town of the parish of the same name, was
established in 1714, by St. Denys, as a mission station; a fort was
erected in 1717, under Governor Bienville.--ED.

[55] In 1700 M. de Bienville ascended the Red river to the country
of the Natchitoches and Yatassee Indians, but could find no Spanish
establishments in that quarter. The Yatassee village was about forty
miles north-west of the present town of Natchitoches, in the settlement
of Bayou Pierre.

                          _Darby, on the Authority of La Harpe._--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ See Margry, _Découvertes et Établissements des
Français_, vi, pp. 241-307.

[56] The official report of the expedition under Captain Sparks was
never published, and the account here given is the only one extant,
drawn from the notes of the party. Richard Sparks, the leader, first
saw service in the "levies of 1791," under Gen. Arthur St. Clair. The
next year he was made captain in the infantry, and later promoted to
major (1806) and lieutenant-colonel (1807). During the War of 1812-15
he was colonel in the Second Infantry; at the close of the war he
received an honorable discharge and died the same year (1815).

Freeman's given name was probably Thomas, but nothing more is known
about him. "Lieutenant Humphrey" was probably Enoch Humphreys, of
Connecticut, who entered the First Artillerists and Engineers in 1801
as lieutenant. He became an artillery captain in 1809, and remained
in this branch of the service until his death in 1825, being breveted
major for gallant conduct at New Orleans in 1814.--ED.

[57] John Joseph Duforest, of Louisiana, was an ensign in the Second
Infantry in 1805, was promoted to a second lieutenancy in 1806, and two
years later became first lieutenant. His death occurred in 1810.--ED.

[58] Daniel Parker (1782-1846) graduated from Dartmouth (1801), became
chief clerk in the war department (1810), and then brigadier-general,
adjutant and inspector-general (1814). Later, for one year (1821), he
was paymaster-general. Meanwhile he published a register of the army
(Washington, 1816). In 1841 he returned to his former position of chief
clerk in the war department.--ED.

[59] The Natchitoches (whence the name of the town) were a small tribe
of Caddo stock, who dwelt on upper Red River. In 1805 only thirty souls
remained of this tribe; they lived in a village on Black Lake, north of
Natchitoches. A hundred years earlier, they were said to have numbered
six hundred men.

The Paskagoulas (Pascagoulas) were one of several small tribes of
Siouan stock, who lived south of the main territory of the family,
near the gulf. In 1805 they had a village on Red River, about sixty
miles below Natchitoches, whither they had come from Pascagoula River,
Mississippi.--ED.

[60] John Sibley had been a surgeon in the Revolutionary War. His
account of Red River (1806) has been cited in foregoing notes. He was
the father of George C. Sibley (see Bradbury's _Travels_, in our volume
v, note 36).--ED.

[61] Nacogdoches, seat of the Texas county of the same name, was
established in 1716, as a Spanish mission post; the mission Indians
were removed to San Antonio in 1772. Spanish garrisons occupied
Nacogdoches for many years, and kept watch on the movements of the
French across the border, at Natchitoches, and, after the cession of
Louisiana to the United States, of the Americans in that quarter.--ED.

[62] Lake Bistineau.--JAMES.

[63] Coshatta, _Darby, &c._--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ The Coshatta tribe was of Muskogee stock; they came
to Louisiana at the close of the eighteenth century from east of the
Mississippi, and established their chief village on Sabine River, about
eighty miles south of Natchitoches; at that time they numbered about
two hundred souls.

[64] The accumulation of drift known as the Great Raft began near
Campti, in Natchitoches Parish, and extended a hundred miles or more up
the river. At places the drift was covered with soil which supported
a considerable growth, including even small trees; it is said that
the river might at some places be crossed without the water beneath
being seen; while at other places the drift was open, sometimes for
several miles. The national government began the work of removing the
obstruction in 1832, and by 1840 had cleared the river. Constant labor
has been required, however, to keep the channel open; neglect has
repeatedly resulted in the formation of new rafts many miles in length.
As intimated in the text, it was possible to pass around the raft by
water, through the side bayous and lakes connected with the river.--ED.

[65] The Caddo Indians here mentioned were an important tribe of the
stock of the same name. In 1806 their home was on Caddo Lake, which
lies partly in Caddo County, Louisiana, and partly in Texas. The tribe
went thither about 1790 from north-eastern Texas, where they had dwelt
from time immemorial.--ED.

[66] The spot where Sparks's party was stopped must have been near
Little River (of the North); the account is too indefinite to permit
an exact statement. In this same year, Pike and his companions were
arrested on the upper Rio Grande and taken to Santa Fé. Several recent
events had aroused the apprehension of the Spanish authorities; in
1801 one Nolan had led a filibustering expedition into Texas, and
Burr's conspiracy aimed, probably, at the Spanish dominions, had not
yet been forgotten. Information of the proposed expeditions under Pike
and Sparks had reached the Spanish officials before the Americans had
completed their preparations, and Pike found upon reaching the Pawnee
village on Republican River that a large body of Spanish cavalry had
preceded him in visiting the tribes of the Great Plains. During his
detention by the Spanish, he learned that this party had been sent out
primarily to intercept and turn back both American explorers. They
themselves, however, were not only to make explorations within the
bounds of the United States, but to renew their former friendship with
the Indians in our territories.--ED.

[67] Under the French régime, a fort was built near the old Caddo
village, and several families settled in the vicinity. This was
known as the "upper settlements;" but about 1780 the French families
abandoned the location and removed to Campti, a few miles above
Natchitoches. For many years thereafter Campti was the "upper
settlement;" but in 1818 there were twenty families at the mouth of the
Kiamichi and a dozen more a few miles below, at Pecan Point.--ED.

[68] Little River of the South, so called to distinguish it from Little
River (of the North), is the present Sulphur Fork of Red River. Its
course is eastward, parallel to the Red, into which it falls in Miller
County, Arkansas. For Little River, see _ante_, note 42. Notes on the
Poteau and Kiamichi are given in Nuttall's _Journal_, our volume xiii
(169, 177).--ED.

[69] Boggy (Vaseux) River rises in the Shawnee Hills, very near the
main stream of the Canadian, and flows south-east; its mouth is
opposite Lamar County, Texas. Blue River is a smaller stream; its
course is parallel to that of Boggy River, and its mouth is near the
ninety-sixth meridian. The False Washita has already been described
(preceding volume, note 66), and the sources of Red River indicated
(_ibid._, note 52).--ED.

[70] Rio Rojo (Red River) was the Spanish name for the upper
Canadian--the portion marked Rio Mora on the map--but Long's party
struck the Canadian considerably to the east of this portion (see
preceding volume, note 71). However, the same name was commonly given
to other streams. Humboldt's conjecture was that the Pecos (which had
not been explored to its mouth) was the upper course of Red River
of Natchitoches. See _Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain_
(London, 1811), ii, p. 313. The head-waters of the Pecos lie between
the upper Canadian and Santa Fé.--ED.

[71] Thuja occidentalis.--JAMES.

[72] P. 239 [London edition, 1774].--JAMES.

[73] This missionary "family" consisted of nine men, eight women, and
four children, sent out by the United Foreign Missionary Society under
the leadership of a clergyman named Vaill. The illness of most of the
party was nothing worse than ague and bilious fever; but two of the
young women were attacked by typhus fever, and died a few days after
reaching Little Rock, where they arrived on July 23. Low water detained
the missionaries there until the following January; then they proceeded
up the Arkansas, and established Union Mission on the Neosho River,
twenty miles from the Arkansas.--ED.

[74] Several persons, passengers on board a steam-boat, ascending the
Mississippi, in 1820, went on shore near New Madrid. In one of the
houses which they entered they found a small collection of books: as
they were amusing themselves with the examination of these, they felt
the house so violently shaken, that they were scarce able to stand upon
their feet; some consternation was of course felt, and as several of
the persons were ladies, much terror was expressed; "Don't be alarmed,"
said the lady of the house, "it is nothing but an earthquake."--JAMES.

[75] The forest adjoining the settlement of Little Prairie, below New
Madrid, presents a singular scene of confusion; the trees standing
inclined in every direction, and many having their trunks and branches
broken.--JAMES.

[76] See Mississippi Navigator, p. 180.--JAMES.

_Comment by Ed._ See the account of the earthquake of 1811 in
Bradbury's _Travels_, in our volume v, pp. 204 _et seq._

[77] Golconda is the seat of Pope County, Illinois. Its origin as
Lusk's Ferry, dates from 1800. Grand Pierre is a small creek which
falls into the Ohio four miles above Golconda. On Cache River, see our
volume xiv, note 51.--ED.

[78] Most of the collections made on this expedition have arrived at
Philadelphia, and are in good preservation; they comprise, among other
things, more than sixty prepared skins of new or rare animals. Several
thousand insects, seven or eight hundred of which are probably new;
five hundred have already been ascertained to be so, and have been
described. The herbarium contains between four and five hundred species
of plants new to the Flora of the United States, and many of them
supposed to be undescribed.

Many of the minerals collected by Mr. Jessup were left at Smithland,
Kentucky. A suit of small specimens, adapted to the illustration of the
geology of the country from the Alleghenies to the Rocky Mountains, has
been received.

A collection of terrestrial and fluviatile shells was also made. Of
these more than twenty new species have already been described and
published. The organic reliquiæ collected on the voyage from Pittsburgh
to St. Louis have not as yet been received in Philadelphia, but are
daily expected.

The sketches, executed by Mr. Peale, amounted to one hundred and
twenty-two. Of these, twenty-one only were finished; the residue being
merely outlines of quadrupeds, birds, insects, &c.

The landscape-views, by Mr. Seymour, are one hundred and fifty in
number; of these, sixty have been finished.--JAMES.



A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY TRAVERSED BY THE EXPLORING
EXPEDITION

            BEING THE COPY OF A REPORT OF MAJOR LONG TO THE
                  HON J. C. CALHOUN, SECRETARY OF WAR

                  Dated Philadelphia, Jan. 20. 1821.


SIR,

In obedience to your order of the 28th of November, I have the honour
to submit the following report, embracing a concise account of the
movements of the exploring expedition under my command, and a general
description of the country explored by them. Although there may be no
very striking incidents to embellish the narration, yet the diversity
of scenery presented to the view, the changes in the character and
aspect of the country, and the variety of other interesting matter in
the several departments of natural science, which have been subjects of
particular attention, cannot fail to awaken a lively interest in the
minds of an enlightened community, inasmuch as a discussion of them
must lead to a knowledge of the condition and natural resources of a
large portion of the United States' territory. But as the principal
object contemplated in this report is a general view of the topography
of the country, the subjects of description will be such only as are
thought to be illustrative of such a view.


{190} MOVEMENTS OF THE EXPEDITION

The expedition embarked on board of the United States' steam-boat,
Western Engineer, at Pittsburgh, on the 4th of May, 1819. Their outfit
consisted of such books, instruments, stationery, &c. (a return of
which is on file in the engineer department), together with such
provisions, &c. as were deemed requisite at the commencement of their
voyage. They proceeded down the Ohio river, making such observations
and surveys along its banks as are calculated to augment the stock of
intelligence already acquired in relation to that part of the country.
This part of their route having been previously traversed by gentlemen
of science, who have judiciously arranged and generously promulgated
the intelligence they have collected, but little matter of a novel or
interesting character could be expected. Yet an investigation of the
numerous organic remains, and mineral productions, discoverable on the
Ohio throughout its whole extent, together with such an examination of
the country as is requisite to a general description of its aspect,
soil, and vegetable productions, were considered as objects meriting
their attention in the discharge of their several duties.

On arriving at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi, they
proceeded up the latter to the Missouri, and thence up the river
last mentioned to the Council Bluffs, improving every opportunity of
extending their researches in the various branches of natural science.
At the time of their arrival at the Council Bluffs, the season was so
far spent, that it was deemed inexpedient to proceed further till the
ensuing season; and the boat was accordingly dismantled, and moored
in a safe harbour, and quarters constructed for the accommodation
of the party during the then approaching winter. Being located in a
situation central to a variety of Indian tribes and nations, inhabiting
the neighbouring country, {191} they were enabled to acquire a pretty
extensive acquaintance with the manners, customs, and character of
the natives in that quarter. Surveys of the surrounding country were
made; observations for determining the latitude, longitude, magnetic
variation, dip, &c. were taken; the changes of the weather, and other
meteorologic phenomena were recorded; and such other duties performed,
as pertained to the pursuits of the expedition.

On the voyage up the Missouri, a party was detached from the steam-boat
at Fort Osage, with instructions to proceed across the country by land,
to the Konzas village, and thence to the villages of the Pawnees,
on the river Platte, and to return on board again at the Council
Bluffs. This excursion was undertaken with a view of prosecuting the
business of the expedition. The party had accomplished part of the
duties assigned them, when they were met near the Konzas village by
a war-party of the Republican Pawnees, and robbed of their horses,
baggage, &c., which compelled them to give up the further prosecution
of their enterprize. This misfortune rendered it necessary for them
to change their route, and shape their course for the Missouri, which
they reached at Cow Island, having obtained much useful information
concerning the country through which they passed, and the natives
inhabiting it.

On my return to the wintering post of the expedition, to which we had
given the name of Engineer Cantonment, I pursued a course north of the
Missouri, from near its mouth to that place, taking sketches of the
country, preparatory to a topographical delineation. The observance
of courses, distances, magnetic variations, &c. were objects of our
particular care and attention in all the movements of the expedition.

On my arrival at the cantonment, which I reached on the 27th of May
last, preparations were made, with all convenient despatch, for
reconnoitring the country {192} westward to the Rocky Mountains, in
conformity to your order of the 28th of February, 1820. The steam-boat
was ordered on topographical duties under the command of Lieut. Graham,
who proceeded with her down the Missouri to St. Louis, thence up the
Mississippi to the De Moyen rapids, and thence down the river to Cape
Girardeau, taking such observations and sketches on the voyage as are
requisite in constructing a chart of that part of the river and the
adjacent country.

Having made the necessary arrangements, and rendered our outfit,
for the western tour, as complete as circumstances would permit, we
commenced our march on the 6th of June, all in good health, except Mr.
Say, the zoologist for the expedition. It may not be improper here to
give a list, exhibiting the names of the persons composing the party,
and the several capacities in which they served.

  S. H. Long, Major I. Engineers, commanding Expedition.
  J. R. Bell, Capt. Lieut. Artillery, Journalist.
  W. H. Swift, Lieut. Artillery, Assistant Topographer and
    Commanding Guard.
  T. Say, Zoologist, &c.
  E. James, Botanist, Mineralogist, and Surgeon.
  T. R. Peale, Assistant Naturalist.
  S. Seymour, Landscape-painter, &c.
  Joseph Bijeau, Guide and Interpreter.
  Abraam Ledoux, Farrier and Hunter.
  Stephen Julien, Interpreter.
  H. Dougherty, Hunter.
  Zachariah Wilson, Baggage Master.
  J. Duncan, J. Oakley, and D. Adams, Engagees.
  John Sweney, Private of the Corps of Artillery.
  Joseph Verplank, William Parish, Robert Foster, Mordecai
    Nowland, Peter Barnard, and Charles Myers, Privates of the
    Rifle Regiment, Pack-horsemen and Hunters.

{193} The number of horses and mules, provided for the use of the
party, was thirty-four, including several that were the property of
individuals; so that we were able to have all of the party mounted,
and also a sufficient number of horses besides, for the transportation
of baggage. In addition to arms, ammunition, a small quantity of
provisions and other necessaries for the tour, our outfit embraced a
small supply of Indian goods for presents, not exceeding £150 in value.

The instruments for astronomical and other observations, comprehended
in our outfit, were very limited, both in number and variety. The
mode of transporting them that we were compelled to adopt was by no
means suited to the conveyance of delicate instruments, or such as
required much space in packing. We, however, took all belonging to the
expedition that were in good repair and of a portable construction. The
principal were the following: one sextant of five inches radius; one
snuff box sextant; one mercurial horizon with a glass frame; one patent
lever watch of an excellent quality; three travelling compasses; one
measuring tape; two thermometers; and some few articles of apparatus
for the use of the naturalists.

Every man being accoutred with a gun, shot-pouch, and powder-horn, and
most of them with pistols, the exploring party proceeded westwardly to
the Pawnee villages, situated on a branch of the Platte called the Loup
Fork, thence southwardly to the Platte, and thence westwardly along
the valley of the Platte, to the place where it issues from the Rocky
Mountains. Having examined the mountains at that place, and finding
the country too hilly and broken to penetrate with horses within their
range, we shaped our course southwardly along their base, taking
occasion to ascend the peaks and spurs of the mountains whenever a
favourable opportunity presented, for the purpose of ascertaining their
geological character, and that of the vegetables growing upon them.

{194} On arriving at the Arkansa Captain Bell was detached with a small
party to ascend along the river as far as it was practicable to travel
with horses, and was able to ascend nearly thirty miles, when his
further progress was intercepted by the proximity of the hills to the
river.

Having descended the Arkansa about one hundred miles to the point
whence it was judged expedient to strike upon a southwardly course in
quest of the source of the Red river, the party was formed into two
detachments; the one to proceed down the Arkansa, under the direction
of Captain Bell, and the other to accompany me, with the view of
exploring the country southwardly to Red river, and thence down its
valley to the upper settlements thereon.

Captain Bell's party, with the exception of three soldiers last
mentioned in the foregoing list, who deserted on the march, arrived in
safety at Belle Point, their place of destination, having performed the
duties assigned them.

On separating from Captain Bell, the detachment under my direction
proceeded southwardly in view of the mountains about one hundred and
fifty miles, and arrived at a creek, having a southwardly course, which
we took to be tributary to Red river. Having travelled down its valley
about two hundred miles, we fell in with a party of Indians of the
nation of Kaskaias, or Bad-hearts, who gave us to understand that the
stream along which we were travelling was Red river. We accordingly
continued our march down the river several hundred miles further; when,
to our no small disappointment, we discovered that it was the Canadian
of the Arkansa, instead of Red river, that we had been exploring. Our
horses being nearly worn out with the fatigue of our long journey,
which they had to perform bare-footed, and the season being too far
advanced to admit of retracing our steps and going again in quest of
the source of Red river with the possibility of exploring it before the
commencement {195} of winter, it was deemed advisable to give over the
enterprize for the present, and make our way to the settlements on the
Arkansa. We were led to the commission of this mistake in consequence
of our not having been able to procure a guide acquainted with this
part of the country. Our only dependence, in this respect, was upon
Pike's map, which assigns to the head-waters of the Red river the
apparent locality of those of the Canadian. We continued our march,
therefore, and arrived at Belle Point on the Arkansa on the 13th
September, four days after the arrival of Captain Bell and his party.

Both parties suffered occasionally for the want of food and water;
but in general the game of the country yielded us an ample supply of
the former, and the watercourses, along which we for the most part
travelled, satisfied our demands for the latter. In regard to health
we were all highly favoured, except Mr. Say, who was more or less
indisposed throughout the tour. Some of the rest were occasionally
affected with slight indisposition.

It is a source of much regret that we had the misfortune to lose some
of our most valuable manuscripts by the desertion of three soldiers of
Captain Bell's party before mentioned. They deserted on the head-waters
of the Verdigrise river, within about two hundred miles of the upper
settlements of the Arkansa, taking with them three horses, the best
belonging to the party, four saddle-bags, containing wearing apparel
and other things belonging to the gentlemen of the party, besides the
following manuscripts: viz. Journal of the Tour, one number; Manners
and Customs of the Indians, one number; Zoological Description and
Remarks, one number; Vocabularies of Indian Languages, two numbers;
all by Mr. Say; and one number, containing Topographical Notes and
Sketches, by Lieutenant Swift. In addition to the above, the loss of
a few horses that died {196} on the march was the only accident or
misfortune worthy of notice that befell the expedition.

From Belle Point the exploring party proceeded across the country in a
north-eastwardly direction to Cape Girardeau, where they arrived on the
10th October, having been occupied a little more than four months in
the performance of the tour from the Council Bluff.

Throughout the whole excursion the attention of the gentlemen of
the expedition was constantly occupied upon the several subjects of
investigation which were deemed essential to a topographical and
scientific description of the country. In the discharge of our duties,
however, we laboured under many disadvantages for want of a sufficient
variety of instruments to furnish all the data proper and desirable
in giving an account of the geology and meteorology of the country.
A barometer would have been particularly useful; but out of three
belonging to the expedition two were rendered completely unfit for use,
partly by accident and partly by defects in their construction, and
the third was in such a condition that it was not deemed advisable to
take it with us, as it was not likely to remain fit for service but
for a short time only. In ascertaining the humidity of the atmosphere
a hygrometer would have been particularly useful, but it has never
been in my power to procure one that had any claim to being accurate.
In taking the various observations, however, that could be effected
by means of the few instruments we had with us, no pains were spared,
and no opportunities lost; those in particular, for the calculation
of latitude and longitude, were taken as often as it was thought
necessary, and with the utmost care and precision that circumstances
would permit.

On our arrival at Cape Girardeau we had contemplated to embark on
board of the Western Engineer, which was at that port ready for our
accommodation, {197} and sail for Louisville; but, learning that the
water of the Ohio was at that time too low to admit even the passage
of a boat drawing no more than fifteen or sixteen inches of water,
we were compelled to seek another mode of conveyance. Those of the
expedition who had been on duty during the two last seasons, being very
anxious to visit their homes, arrangements were accordingly made for
their return to Philadelphia, when they would be enabled to complete
and report the intelligence they had collected. Messrs. Say, Peale,
Seymour, and Lieut. Graham, being desirous to return by water, waited
the opportunity of taking a passage to New Orleans, and thence to
Philadelphia. Most of the curiosities collected by the expedition were
placed in the charge of Mr. Say, to be shipped for this place.

Lieut. Swift was left in command of the steam-boat and crew, with
instructions to proceed with them to Louisville as soon as the water
would permit. He was instructed to leave the boat in the care of the
pilot employed on board of her,--order her crew of United States'
soldiers to Newport, Kentucky, for winter quarters and subsistence, and
report in person at Philadelphia, for topographical duty.


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY TRAVERSED BY THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION

Having given the foregoing brief account of the movements of the
expedition, we next proceed to a consideration of the region explored
by them, which embraces a very considerable portion of the immense
valley situated between the Alleghany and Rocky Mountains. The portion
of this valley to which their attention has been more particularly
directed, and relative to which intelligence has been collected, is
situated between thirty-five and forty-two degrees of north latitude,
and eighty and one hundred and six degrees of west longitude, embracing
an extent of {198} about five hundred miles in width from north to
south, and thirteen hundred miles in length from east to west. As might
be expected in a region of this extent, a great diversity of surface
is presented to view, exhibiting all the varieties, from the most
level and unbroken to the most rugged and mountainous aspect. The most
broken parts of this region are those situated along the Ohio, from
its source to its confluence with the Mississippi, and on the west of
the Mississippi, between Red river and the Arkansa, and between the
latter and the Missouri, extending westward about four hundred miles
from the Mississippi. The whole region, in a geological point of view,
is constituted of three varieties of formations, which characterize
the surface throughout; viz. transition, secondary, and alluvial. A
tract, however, of considerable extent, including the hot springs of
the Washita, and extending northwardly to the lead mines back of St.
Genevieve, has, by some, been considered as possessing a primitive
character; but it is believed that the rocks discoverable therein are
not sufficiently uniform to warrant such a decision. Moreover, an
insulated tract of primitive country, surrounded by others exhibiting
the most unequivocal marks of their being secondary, and at the same
time presenting a similar conformation in their general aspect, is such
an anomaly in natural science as requires more than ordinary proof
to be admitted. The particular tract under consideration is probably
analogous to other tracts within the region above specified, exhibiting
a surface characterized by primitive formation superincumbent upon
others of a secondary character.

In order to give a more distinct conception of the country or region
under consideration, it may be regarded as divisible into the following
sections: viz. 1st, the country situated between the Ohio river and
the Alleghany mountains; 2d, the country situated between the Ohio,
Mississippi, and the Lakes; {199} 3d, the country situated between the
Mississippi and Missouri rivers; 4th, the country situated between
the Red and Missouri rivers, west of the Mississippi and east of
the meridian of the Council Bluff; and 5th, the country between the
proposed meridian and the Rocky Mountains.


_Of the country situated between the Ohio river and the Alleghany
mountains_

The country on the south side of the Ohio, including the northerly
parts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee, together with the whole
of Kentucky, abounds in hills elevated, in the vicinity of the Ohio,
from four to eight hundred or a thousand feet above the water-table of
the river, and rising many hundred feet higher in the neighbourhood of
the Alleghany mountains. This section is watered by many streams of
considerable magnitude tributary to the Ohio, the most important of
which are the Monongahela, Kenhawa, Great Sandy, Licking, Kentucky,
Salt, Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee. These rivers are all navigable
for keel-boats, and many of them for steam-boats, some hundreds of
miles, during the boating season, which generally commences about
the 20th February and terminates early in June. Occasional freshets
contribute to render them navigable during short portions of the other
months of the year; but no reliance can be placed in periodical returns
of freshets, excepting those of the spring season. Upon these rivers
are extensive and valuable tracts of bottom land covered with deep and
heavy forests, and possessed of a soil adapted to the cultivation of
all the variety of vegetable products common to the various climates in
which they are situated. The highlands, back of the bottoms, although
variegated with hills and vallies alternating with each other in quick
succession, are generally possessed of a surface susceptible of being
tilled, and in many instances of a soil equally rich and prolific with
that of the bottoms. {200} In many parts of the country, however, the
hills are abrupt and stony to such a degree as renders them unfit for
tillage. The average produce per acre, upon the farming lands of this
section, may be estimated at the following rates: viz. Indian corn
or maize, forty bushels; wheat, twenty-two; rye, twenty-six; oats,
thirty-five; barley, thirty; tobacco, from twelve to fifteen cwt.,
and cotton from five to seven cwt. In regard to the products last
mentioned, viz. cotton and tobacco, it should be observed, that they
are cultivated only in the south-westerly parts of this section, and
that oats and barley are seldom cultivated except in the upper or
north-easterly parts.

Of the population of this section, if we except the towns and villages
and their immediate vicinities, as also a large portion of country
surrounding Lexington, Kentucky, and another of considerable extent,
including Nashville, Tennessee, it is yet but thinly inhabited,
affording room for a population far more numerous and more widely
diffused. There are extensive tracts of country between the Alleghany
mountains and the Ohio as yet almost entirely destitute of inhabitants,
the most considerable of which are situated in the vicinity of the
mountains, also the country generally between Tennessee river and the
Mississippi. As this section of country is pretty generally well known,
the foregoing outline of its topography will suffice.


_Of the country situated between the Ohio, Mississippi, and the Lakes_

The section of country next in the order proposed is situated north
of the Ohio river, and comprehends the states of Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois. This section may be subdivided into three orders or varieties
of country, which merit a separate consideration, viz. the hilly, the
plain or rolling, and the valley country.

{201} The hilly country, like that south of the Ohio, exhibits a
very uneven surface, variegated with hills and dales irregularly
distributed, and occupying about one third part of the section under
consideration. This portion of the country is of an oblong shape,
bounded on the south-east by the Ohio river, and on the north-west
by an imaginary line, commencing on the Mississippi near the grand
tower, and running in a direction nearly E.N.E., till it approaches
the easterly part of Lake Erie. On the east it mingles with the hilly
country, comprehending the back parts of Pennsylvania and New York.
In short, the whole region situated between the Alleghany mountains
and the imaginary line above specified, or in other words, the country
through which the Ohio and its tributaries, except the Wabash, have
their courses, may be arranged under this head. The hills throughout
the whole are very similar in respect to their altitudes, multiplicity
and conformation.

Although the hilly country north of the Ohio is in many places rugged
and broken, yet a large proportion of it is susceptible of cultivation.
No high mountains are to be seen; the hills usually rise from six to
eight hundred feet above the common level, or about one thousand feet
above the water-tables of the principal rivers, and invariably present
rounded summits. Interspersed among the hills are numerous fine tracts
of arable land, which may in general be alleged of the valleys of
the numerous rivers and creeks by which the country is watered. The
soil upon the hills is generally productive, except where the surface
is rocky and the declivities abrupt, which is more particularly the
case in the vicinity of rivers, where the high lands are divided into
numerous knobs, being cut by deep ravines with abrupt and precipitous
banks.

The hilly country, having been generally esteemed more healthy than
either of the other varieties above mentioned, has acquired a more
numerous population {202} than the latter. As yet, however, no part
of this section has its full complement of inhabitants, if we except,
as before, the numerous towns and villages and their immediate
neighbourhoods. In regard to the products of agriculture, the same
remarks that have been made concerning the section south of the Ohio
are equally applicable to the country under consideration, with the
exception that cotton is cultivated only in the south-westerly extreme
of this section, and tobacco is raised for domestic uses only.

The most considerable rivers intersecting this section of country are
the Muskingum, Sciota, Big Miami, and Wabash, all of which, in the
spring season, are navigable two or three hundred miles from their
mouths.

The valleys of these rivers give place to many extensive and fertile
bottoms well adapted to cultivation, and producing the necessaries of
life in great abundance and variety.

The plain, or rolling country, is separated from that last under
consideration by the imaginary line above mentioned. It is not to
be inferred, however, that the junction of these two regions is
distinctly marked by any characters whatever by which the line can
be traced with precision, but that a gradual change of aspect is
observable in travelling from one variety of country to the other,
and that the general direction of the line indicated by this change
is that specified above. The other boundaries of this variety are the
Mississippi on the west, and the Lakes Erie and Michigan, and the Fox
and Wisconsan rivers on the north and east. This variety of country,
although not entirely destitute of hills, is almost throughout its
whole extent possessed of an undulating or rolling surface, rising into
broad and gentle swells in some parts, and subsiding into extensive
flats or plains in others. The valleys of numberless watercourses,
bounded by abrupt bluffs or banks, afford some diversity to its aspect;
and the bluffs in {203} particular of the principal streams, being cut
by numerous ravines, contribute in many places to give the surface a
hilly and broken appearance. Although no part of this region can with
propriety be denominated hilly, especially when compared with the
portions of country above considered, yet upon the Wisconsan, Fox, the
head-waters of Rock and Melwakee rivers, the country is considerably
diversified with hills, or rather swells, and valleys. The only hills
worthy of particular notice, not only in this variety, but in the whole
section under consideration, are the Ocooch and Smokey mountains, which
are broad and elevated ridges rather than mountains. The former is
situated about twelve miles north of the Wisconsan, one hundred miles
above its mouth, and the latter about forty miles south of the portage
between the river just mentioned and Fox river of Green Bay. The rivers
of most note within this region are, the Wabash, above the hilly
country before described, the Kaskaskias, Illinois, Rock and Wisconsan,
tributary to the Mississippi; the Fox of Green Bay, the St. Joseph of
Lake Michigan, and the Maumee and Sandusky, tributary to Lake Erie.
These rivers are all navigable for boats of ten or fifteen tons burden
when swollen by spring freshets; but, during the greater part of the
summer and fall, they have not a sufficient depth of water for boats of
burden, and in winter their navigation is entirely obstructed by ice.
The spring freshets, consequent to the melting of the snow and ice,
usually take place in the month of March, the southerly streams being
open for navigation much earlier than those in the north.

The prairies, or champaigns, east of the Mississippi, are mostly
situated in this particular region, occupying at least three fourths
of it. These are waving or flat tracts of country, of greater or less
extent, separated from each other by narrow skirts of woodland situated
upon the margins of rivers and creeks. They are generally possessed of
a rich soil, yielding {204} a spontaneous growth of grass and herbage
of a luxuriant appearance. They are well adapted to the cultivation of
corn, wheat, rye, barley, oats, &c. of which they yield plentiful crops.

The prevailing opinion in regard to this portion of the country, viz.
that it is unhealthy, appears too well founded to admit of refutation.
The causes that contribute to render it so are very obvious: a large
proportion of the prairies are so flat that much of the water deposited
upon them by showers remains stagnant upon the surface till it is
carried off gradually by evaporation, which renders the atmosphere
humid and unhealthy. The vegetable mould of which the immediate surface
is composed, and the abundance of vegetables that spring and decay
upon the ground, contribute largely to render these exhalations more
deleterious. Although there are but few swamps or marshes, and very
rarely pools of stagnant water, to be met with in this region, still
the general water-table of the country is so little inclined, that
the streams, having but a moderate descent, are uniformly sluggish,
often exhibiting the appearance of a succession of stagnant pools. The
consequence is, that the vegetable matter they contain, instead of
being carried away by the strength of the current, is deposited upon
the bottoms and sides of the channels, and, while in its putrescent
state, serves to augment the quantity of noxious effluvia with which
the atmosphere is charged.

The population of this region, compared with its extent, is very
limited; and with the exception of a few villages the settlements are
very scattering. Large portions of it, embracing the northerly parts
of Indiana and Illinois, are almost entirely destitute of inhabitants.
Many parts of the country must remain uninhabited for many years to
come, on account of the scarcity of timber and other deficiencies,
such as the want of mill-seats, springs of water, &c. which are serious
blemishes in the character of a large {205} proportion of the country.
There are, however, numerous and extensive tracts within this region
possessed of a rich soil, and in other respects well adapted for
settlements, and presenting the strongest inducements for emigrants to
occupy them.

The country of the third order, agreeably to the subdivision above
given, viz. the valley country, is situated upon the rivers, and is
included within the hilly and plain country above described. The tracts
belonging to this order, usually denominated bottoms, are altogether
alluvial, being composed of alternate layers of sand and soil deposited
from the water of the rivers upon which they are respectively situated.
The alluvion thus deposited, having once constituted a part of the
surface of the countries drained by the watercourses tributary to
the rivers along which the deposit has been made, it will readily
be inferred that the fecundity of the valleys will in some measure
correspond with that of the countries whence their alluvion was
derived. Accordingly we find the bottoms more or less productive in
proportion to the fertility of the regions in which the rivers take
their rise and through which they flow. In the valley of the Ohio the
quality of the soil appears to improve from its source downwards. The
alluvion, of which it is composed is supplied by the Alleghany and
Monongahela rivers, which have their origin and courses in a hilly
and mountainous country, possessed in general of a sandy surface. The
alluvion, supplied by other tributaries entering the Ohio at various
points between its source and its mouth, is of a better quality, being
composed principally of argillaceous and calcareous earth, which are
prevailing ingredients in the soil of the country drained by those
tributaries.

It should be remarked, however, in relation to all the varieties of
alluvia, that they are partially composed of the fine particles of
decayed vegetable {206} matter with which the water drained from the
surface of the ground is invariably charged. This property in alluvial
deposits often prevails to such a degree as to render soils, apparently
sandy and sterile, remarkably productive. The alluvial bottoms
throughout the United States afford innumerable examples of this fact.
The fertilizing matter often exhibits itself in the slimy deposits left
upon the surface of the ground after an inundation.

The most extensive tract of valley country east of the Mississippi is
that situated within the bluffs of this river, usually denominated the
American Bottom, extending from the mouth of the Ocoa, or Kaskaskias
river, northwardly to that of the Missouri. This spacious bottom,
although at present elevated much above the range of the highest
freshets, is nevertheless alluvial. Its length along the Mississippi
is about eighty, and its average breadth about four miles. It is
generally destitute of a timber growth, except along the margin of
the river, upon which there is a skirt of woodland extending almost
from one end of the tract to the other. The alluvion of the American
Bottom is composed of the rich mud brought down by the turbid Missouri,
united with an abundance of vegetable matter yielded by the waters of
the upper Mississippi, which also characterizes the bottoms of this
extensive river from the Missouri downward to its mouth. Upon this
bottom are situated the town of Kaskaskias, the villages of Prairie de
Rocher, Harrison, Prairie de Pont, Cahokia and Illinois, together with
many other settlements.

On the same side of the river another large tract of valley land,
called the Mississippi Bottom, commences a few miles below the mouth
of the river Kaskaskias, and extends downwards along the Mississippi,
between fifty and sixty miles, having an average width of about
three miles. This tract, in regard {207} to soil and aspect, is of
a character similar to that of the American Bottom, except that the
former is more plentifully stocked with timber.

Besides these, there are numerous other bottoms on the Mississippi,
within the limits prescribed for this report, all of which are composed
of a rich alluvion. Those in particular situated below the confluence
of the Mississippi and Missouri are possessed of a soil exceedingly
luxuriant, being composed, as before observed, of the rich and
fertilizing mud deposited from the water of the Missouri. Most of them
are covered with deep and heavy forests of timber, accompanied with a
luxuriant undergrowth of vines, shrubs, grass and other herbage.

The bottoms of the Wabash, Kaskaskias, Illinois, and Rock rivers, are
also made up of a rich alluvion of sand and loam, containing a large
proportion of vegetable mould. Their surfaces, like those of the
Mississippi bottoms, are generally flat, exhibiting tabular elevations
or benches, formed by the washing of their rivers at different periods.
Large tracts of prairie land are to be met with upon them; but for the
most part the proportion of woodland is amply sufficient to supply the
adjacent country with timber and fuel.

The valleys of these rivers differ from that of the Ohio, not only
in having a greater width, but also in being limited on both sides by
bluffs stretching along their whole length, and maintaining nearly a
parallel direction; whereas the valley of the Ohio is bounded by abrupt
hills irregularly disposed, in some instances protruding far into the
valley like promontories, and in others retiring from the river, and
affording room for bottoms of pretty large extent. The Ohio bottoms are
uniformly clad in deep forests, except where they have been removed by
settlers; no prairies worthy of notice making their appearance.

{208} The valley country, from the circumstances already detailed in
allusion to the country constituting the second variety, is almost
without exception unhealthy. But at the same time it appears evident,
that this evil gradually decreases in proportion to the increase
of population, and the consequent advancement of agriculture; for
the products of the soil, which the bottoms yield in the greatest
profusion, instead of being left to wither and decay upon the surface,
are necessarily consumed in the subsistence of man and beast; in
consequence of which, one of the most fruitful causes of pestilential
effluvia, viz. vegetable putrefaction, is in a very considerable degree
removed.

The prevailing timber growth of the region comprehending the two
sections of country already described, is exhibited in the following
list of trees: viz. cotton-wood, willow, sycamore, black walnut, pecan,
coffee-tree, sweet and sour or black gum, red and water elm, hackberry,
blue and white ash, linden, yellow and white poplar, catalpa, black
and honey locust, buck-eye, bur oak, white and black oak, mulberry,
box, elder, white dogwood, sugar-tree, white maple, wild cherry, red
oak, hickory, iron-wood, and hop hornbeam. The foregoing constitute
the principal timber growth of the valley country, and are to be met
with more or less frequently throughout the whole of it. Red beech
is abundant in some parts of the valley of the Ohio, and in those of
many of its tributaries; it abounds also in the northerly parts of the
States of Ohio and Indiana. Post oak, black jack, and several other
varieties of the oak, also chesnut, white and shell bark, hickory,
persimmon, &c. are sometimes found in the bottoms, but are more
prevalent upon the hills and highlands. Pitch pine abounds in many
parts of Ohio and Indiana, and generally in the neighbourhood of the
Alleghany mountains. White pine occasionally {209} makes its appearance
in the northerly parts of Ohio. Red cedar is found in a great variety
of places throughout the country, but no where in great abundance.

The undergrowth of the several tracts of country above considered
includes a great variety of shrubs, vines, brambles, grass and other
herbage, to be enumerated in a botanical catalogue daily expected from
Dr. James.

The most valuable timber trees are the white, post, and bur oaks, the
white and blue ash, the shell bark hickory, the black walnut, the
cherry, the locust, chesnut, poplar, mulberry, beach, cotton-wood and
linden. The two last mentioned are seldom used where other kinds of
timber are to be had. The cotton-wood is not only the most abundant
timber-growth upon the bottoms, but is more widely diffused than any
other, and in many places is the only variety of forest trees that
make their appearance; which, however, is more particularly the case
westward of the Mississippi.


_Of the country situated between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers_

We next proceed to a consideration of the country west of the
Mississippi, and shall begin with that situated between this river and
the Missouri. This section contains no mountains, or indeed hills, of
any considerable magnitude. The term _rolling_ appears to be peculiarly
applicable in conveying an idea of the surface of this region, although
it is not entirely destitute of abrupt hills and precipices. The
aspect of the whole is variegated with the broad valleys of rivers and
creeks, and intervening tracts of undulating upland, united to the
valleys by gentle slopes. Its surface is chequered with stripes of
woodland situated upon the margins of the watercourses, and dividing
the whole into extensive parterres. If we {210} except those parts of
the section that are contiguous to the Mississippi and Missouri, at
least nineteen-twentieths of the country are completely destitute of a
timber-growth.

Within the valleys of these two rivers are extensive tracts of
alluvial bottom possessed of a rich soil. The bottoms of the Missouri
in particular are probably inferior to none within the limits of the
United States in point of fertility. Those of the Mississippi are very
rich, but do not exhibit symptoms of so great fecundity as the former.
The bottoms of both, on ascending the rivers, become more sandy, and
apparently less productive.

The bottoms of the Missouri are for the most part clad in a deep and
heavy growth of timber and under-brush, to the distance of about three
hundred and fifty miles above its mouth. There are, however, prairies
of considerable extent occasionally to be met with on this part of the
river. Higher up, the prairies within the river valley become more
numerous and extensive, till at length no woodlands appear, except
tracts of small size, situated at the points formed by the meanders of
the river.

The bottoms on the Upper Mississippi (that part of the Mississippi
situated above its confluence with the Missouri being distinguished by
this appellation) contain less woodland, in proportion to their extent,
than those of the Missouri. The prairies upon this river also become
more numerous and extensive as we proceed upward.

The interior of the country, situated between the valleys of these
rivers, presents, as before remarked, a rolling aspect, inclining to
hilly, and broken in some parts, but generally variegated with gentle
swells and broad valleys. Within this section are numerous small
rivers and creeks, with valleys of a character similar to those of the
Mississippi or Missouri, but not so fertile. These valleys expand to
a great width, compared with the magnitude of the streams upon which
they are situated, {211} but are not bounded by abrupt bluffs, like
those of the two rivers just mentioned. They are generally covered
with a luxuriant growth of grass and other herbage, and occasionally
present copses of woodland of moderate extent. The timber-growth of the
bottoms is similar to that of the Mississippi bottoms; cotton-wood,
blue and white ash, hackberry, black walnut, cherry, mulberry, hickory,
and several varieties of the oak, being the prevailing timber trees.
The hills or high lands are in some instances covered with a scrubby
growth of timber and furze, consisting of post oak, black jack, hazel,
green brier, &c. The soil of this section is probably equal, if not
superior, to that of any other tract of upland of equal extent within
our territory. But the scarcity of timber, mill-seats, and springs of
water,--defects that are almost uniformly prevalent,--must for a long
time prove serious impediments in the way of settling the country.

The population of this section of country is located almost exclusively
within the valleys of the Mississippi and Missouri, and in their
immediate neighbourhood, extending upwards along the former about one
hundred and sixty, and along the latter about three hundred and twenty
miles above their confluence. The most populous parts of the country
are the county of St. Charles, situated near the junction of these
two rivers; Cote Sans Dessein and its vicinity; that part usually
denominated the Boon's Lick country, extending from the mouth of Osage
river upward along the Miami to the river Chariton; and the country
on the Mississippi, including the Salt river settlements, which have
become numerous and pretty widely diffused.

Along the valleys, both of the Mississippi and Missouri, there are
still innumerable vacancies for settlement, holding forth inducements
for emigrants to occupy them, equally as strong as any of the positions
already occupied. The inhabitants of this {212} section have frequently
been visited by the prevailing epidemics of the western country,
which may be attributed, in all probability, to the same causes
that have been herein assigned in relation to the country east of
the Mississippi, which operate with equal force and effect upon the
inhabitants of this section.


_Of the country situated between the Missouri and Red rivers, west of
the Mississippi and east of the meridian of the Council Bluff._

Although no precise limits can be assigned as the western boundary
of this section, yet the meridian above proposed may be regarded as
a line of division between two regions differing in their general
character and aspect. It is not pretended that the immediate course of
the line is marked by any distinct features of the country, but that a
gradual change is observable in the general aspect of the two regions,
which takes place in the vicinity of the proposed line. The assumed
meridian is in longitude ninety-six degrees west nearly, and crosses
the Platte a few miles above its mouth, the Konzas near the junction
of the principal forks, the Arkansa about one hundred miles above the
Verdigrise, or seven hundred miles from its mouth, the Canadian about
one hundred and fifty miles from its mouth, and the Red river about one
hundred and fifty miles above the Kiamesha river.

The section of country under consideration exhibits a great variety of
aspect, the surface being diversified by mountains, hills, valleys,
and occasional tracts of rolling country; within the section, is an
extensive tract of bottom land deserving of a particular consideration.
It is situated on the Mississippi, commencing a few miles below the
Ohio, and extending downward to Red river, uninterrupted by hills
or high lands, and subject in many places to inundation from the
freshets of the Mississippi. The bottoms contain many large swamps,
rendered almost {213} impenetrable by a dense growth of cypress
and cypress-knees (the latter of which are conical excrescences
springing from the roots of the cypress, and shooting up in profusion
to the height of from one to eight or ten feet). The most extensive
of these swamps commences near the head of the bottom, and passes
south-westwardly back of New Madrid, the Little Prairie, St.
Francisville, &c., and terminates near the village of the Port of
Arkansa. The Great Swamp, the name by which this extensive morass is
designated, is about two hundred miles in length, and is of a variable
width, from five to twenty or thirty miles. The timber-growth of
this and of the other swamps, which are of a similar character, but
inferior in magnitude, consist principally of cypress of a superior
quality. But the difficulty of removing it renders it of little value
to the country. Within the bottom are also numerous lakes, lagoons,
and marshes, once, no doubt, parts of the bed of the Mississippi, or
of some of its tributaries that have their courses through the bottom.
Notwithstanding the general depression of this bottom, it contains many
insulated tracts of considerable extent, elevated above the range of
the highest floods. The bottom, almost throughout its whole extent,
supports a dense and heavy growth of timber, of an excellent quality,
together with a luxuriant undergrowth of cane brake, vines, &c.

It may not be improper to remark in this place, that great havoc is
annually made amongst the timber of this tract, by lumber and fuel
mongers, who furnish the New Orleans market with large supplies of
these articles, particularly of the former.

The bottom is bounded on the west by a chain of heights, corresponding
to the river bluffs on other parts of the Mississippi, but not arranged
in so regular a manner. These are the commencement of a part of
the hilly country hereafter to be considered. The most considerable
rivers that flow through the bottoms, and pour their tribute into the
Mississippi, {214} are the St. Francis, the Big Black and White rivers,
which are confluent, the Washita and Red river.

There are also a few other bottoms on the west side of the Mississippi
of moderate size. The largest of these are Tywapata and Bois Broulè,
situated a little above the mouth of the Ohio.

The hilly and mountainous country commences immediately west of
the Mississippi bottoms, and extends westwardly about four hundred
miles. Although the terms _hilly_ and _mountainous_ are expressive
of the general character of the country, yet the following portions
of this section may be enumerated as exceptions, viz. a tract of
country comprehending St. Louis, Belle Fontain, Florissant, and
extending south-westwardly so as to include the lead mine tract, Belle
View, &c. This tract (which embraces the most populous part of the
Missouri territory) may be denominated rolling, or moderately hilly.
Considerable portions of the country situated between the Arkansa and
Red rivers, particularly in the vicinity of the latter, are also of
this character. On the Arkansa, above Belle Point, is an extensive
tract of a similar description; as also many tracts of inferior size,
on the north side of the Arkansa, between the villages of the Port and
the Cadron settlements. On the south side of the Missouri is also an
extensive tract of rolling country, commencing at the river Le Mine,
six miles above Franklin, and extending upward along the Missouri, with
occasional interruptions, to the Council Bluff. Such is the extent of
this tract, that it comprises almost the whole of the country situated
between the assumed meridian line and the Missouri, from Fort Osage
upward. On the head waters of the Osage river, and on those of its
principal tributaries, the country is said to be of a similar character
also. To these may be added large portions of country situated on the
Verdigrise river, upon the Arkansa, above Grand river, and upon the
{215} Canadian, from its mouth upwards to the distance of about two
hundred miles. The tracts here designated, exhibit broad and elevated
swells of land, separated from each other by deep and spacious valleys.

These portions of country are chequered with woodlands and prairies, in
many instances alternating with each other in due proportion, for the
accommodation of settlers with farming and woodlands. On the Missouri
above Fort Osage, and on the Osage river, however, the proportion of
woodland is very inconsiderable, and the timber it affords of a scrubby
character. The prairies here, as on the north of the Missouri, occupy
at least nineteen-twentieths of the whole surface. Some portions of
the Red river country are also deficient in the quantum of woodlands
allotted to them; but in general it may be observed, that the more
southerly regions are better supplied with timber than those farther
north. The growth of the woodlands interspersed amongst the prairies
is mostly post oak, hickory, black jack, and white oak upon the high
lands; and cotton-wood, sycamore, black and white walnut, maple, bur
oak, and several other trees common to the western bottoms, in the
valleys. The bow wood, or, as it is sometimes called, the Osage orange,
is found upon the southerly tributaries of the Arkansa, and upon the
Red river and its tributaries. This tree is deserving of particular
notice, inasmuch as it affords a timber extremely compact and elastic;
its trunk and roots may prove very useful in dying yellow, and its
fruit of importance in medicine.

The residue of this section, with the exception of the river bottoms,
and tracts of valley land scattered in various directions throughout
the whole, is extremely hilly, broken, and mountainous, the hills
and mountains rising from five to fifteen hundred feet above the
water-table of the country in which they are situated. They are
exceedingly numerous, and are divided into a multiplicity of knobs
and peaks, {216} having rounded summits, and presenting perpendicular
cliffs and abrupt precipices of sandstone. Their surfaces generally are
covered with rocks of this description, or flinty fragments strewed in
profusion upon them. The growth upon them is, almost exclusively, pitch
pine, cedar, scrubby oaks, hickory, haw and bramble; the poverty of the
soil in some instances, and the scarcity of it in others, excluding the
more luxuriant vegetable productions common to the more level country
in their vicinity.

The range of mountains situated between the Arkansa and Red rivers
gives rise to the following streams, all of which are sufficiently
copious for mill-seats, and abound in cascades and falls, well adapted
to such purposes; viz. the Blue Water, Kiamesha and Little rivers; the
Mountain, Rolling, Cossetot and Saline forks of Little river, all of
which are tributary to Red river; the Little Missouri, Cadeau, Washita,
and the Saline, all confluent; the Mamelle, Le Fevre, Petit Jean and
Poteau, tributary to the Arkansa, besides numerous creeks of less note.

The hills and mountains between the Arkansa and Missouri are equally
prolific in watercourses. The most considerable of these are the
Verdigrise, Neosho or Grand river, Illinois; together with the Frogs,
Mulberry, White Oak, Spadra, Pine, Illinois, Point Remove and Cadron
creeks, tributary to the Arkansa; the Little Red and White rivers,
confluent streams; the Strawberry, Spring, Eleven Point, Currant,
Little and Big Black, all confluent, and tributary to White river,
which enters the Mississippi about thirty miles above the mouth of the
Arkansa. The St. Francis and the Merameg have their sources in this
broken region also, and discharge themselves into the Mississippi. Of
the valleys of the rivers last enumerated, viz. those north of the
Arkansa and tributary to the Mississippi, it is observable that they
are uniformly possessed of a rich soil, but owing to the excessive
floods occasionally brought down through them from {217} the hills and
mountains, their cultivation is very precarious. The valley of White
river, and those of some few others, are in many places elevated above
the reach of the highest freshets, and are not altogether subject to
this inconvenience. But for the most part they are liable to being
swept by overwhelming freshets, which prostrate fences, buildings,
and every artificial structure that opposes their march. Even a fall
freshet has been known to inundate plantations situated within the
valleys, to the depth of eight or ten feet. These floods are generally
very sudden, as well as excessive, to such a degree, that on some
occasions the water has risen, in the course of one night, more than
twenty feet. By these sudden rises of the water, the planter that in
the evening thought his family and possessions secure from harm, has
been compelled the next morning to embark with his family in a canoe,
to save themselves from impending destruction, while his habitation,
fields, cattle, and all his effects, are abandoned to the fury of the
torrent.

The streams rising in the same hilly country, and tributary to the
Missouri, are the following, viz. the Bon Homme creek, the Gasconade,
the Osage and its tributaries, the Le Mine, the Blue Water, and several
streams tributary to the Konzas river. Upon some of these, as the
Bon Homme, Gasconade, and some few creeks besides, mills have been
constructed, at which much of the timber of the St. Louis market is
sawed.

This section, as yet, is but very partially populated, although the
inhabitants in some portions of it are considerably numerous. The
most populous part of the section is the country situated immediately
below the mouth of the Missouri, including the town of St. Louis and
the villages of Florissant and Carondelet, Herculaneum, St. Genevieve,
Bainbridge, Cape Girardeau, Jackson, St. Michael's, and the country
in their vicinity; the lead mine tract, including Mima {218} Berton,
Potosi, and Belle View, are considerably populous. The settlements in
these places, however, if we except the sites occupied by the towns
and villages just enumerated, are still very scattering, and but a
small proportion of the land susceptible of agriculture is yet under
cultivation. Besides these, there are numerous other settlements and
several small villages within this part of the Missouri territory,
distributed in various directions, and constituting but a very scanty
population. They are scattered along the Missouri from its mouth
to Fort Osage, a distance of more than three hundred miles, on
the Gasconade, Merameg, St. Francis, Big Black, and several of its
tributaries.

Within the Arkansa territory, there are but few villages, and the
settlements are as yet very scattering. The principal villages are
the Port of Arkansa, situated about sixty miles above the mouth of
the river; Davidsonville, on Big Black river; a small village at the
commencement of the high lands on the Arkansa, at a place called the
Little Rock, about two hundred miles from the mouth of the river,
selected as the seat of government for the territory. Besides these,
there are a few other inconsiderable villages on the Arkansa river, as
also several of small size, situated in the country between the river
just mentioned and the Red river, the most considerable of which are
at Pecan Point, Mount Prairie, Prairie de Inde, &c. These villages
contain but very few houses, and those generally of a rude structure,
a circumstance attributable only to the infancy of the territory. The
settlements of the territory are scattered along the Arkansa, from the
White river cut off (a channel uniting these two rivers at the distance
of thirty miles above the mouth of the former, and three miles above
that of the latter) to Belle Point, a distance of about four hundred
miles. On Little Red, White, and Strawberry rivers, are many scattering
settlements, as also on the Washita, Cadeau, Little Missouri, {219}
and the several forks of Little river. The settlements upon Red river
extend upward to the Kiamesha, a distance of about nine hundred miles
from its mouth, following the meanders of the river.

The settlements of the section under consideration are most numerous
in those parts represented, in the foregoing description, as being
variegated with prairies and woodlands alternating with each other. In
the valley of the Arkansa, however, which is generally clad in rich
forests and luxuriant cane brakes, prairies are seldom to be met with,
and settlers have had recourse to clearing the land necessary for their
plantations.

In addition to the white settlements above pointed out, there are
numerous villages and settlements of the Cherokee Indians extending
along the Arkansa, from the mouth of Point Remove creek upward
to Mulberry river, a distance of about one hundred miles. These
settlements, in respect to the comforts and conveniences of life they
afford, appear to vie with, and in many instances even surpass, those
of the Americans in that part of the country.

There are a few villages of the Quapaws or Arkansas, and Choctaws,
situated on the south side of the Arkansa river, below the high lands.
They are not numerous, subsist principally upon game and Indian corn of
their own raising, and have ever been friendly to the whites. Upon the
river St. Francis are a few settlements of the Delawares and Shawnees,
dispersed remnants of those unfortunate nations. The several bands of
the Osage nation resident upon the Verdigrise, and upon the head waters
of Osage river, also the Konzas Indians living upon the river bearing
their name, are included within this section of the country.

In regard to climate, this region, as it expands through more than
eight degrees of latitude, may be expected to afford a considerable
variety; and the position is sufficiently verified by the commencement
{220} and progress of annual vegetation. The change of climate is
also indicated by certain peculiarities observable in the vegetable
products of different parts of the country. For example, vegetation
begins at least a month earlier in the southern than in the northern
extreme of the region. The Spanish moss disappears northwardly of the
33d degree of north latitude; cotton and indigo cannot be cultivated
to advantage in a latitude higher than 36 or 37 degrees; and the cane
brake is seldom found north of 37½ degrees.

In regard to the salubrity of the climate, there is also a diversity,
depending upon local circumstances rather than upon the temperature
of the weather. A luxuriant soil yielding its products to decay and
putrefy upon the ground, also stagnant waters, flat lands and marshes
in which the river valleys of this region abound, cannot fail to load
the atmosphere with pestilential miasmata, and render the country
unhealthy, wherever these occurrences are to be met with. But it is
presumed that the causes of disease will gradually be exterminated as
the population of the country increases.

Of the rivers of this region there are many that are navigable for
keel-boats of several tons burden, but all of them have more or
less obstructions from shoals and frosts at different periods. The
Arkansa, which, in point of magnitude and extent, deservedly ranks
second amongst the tributaries of the Mississippi (the Missouri being
the first), is navigable to the mouth of the Neosho, or Grand river,
a distance of about six hundred miles. In this part of the river,
however, the navigation is liable to obstructions, for want of a
sufficient depth of water, during a period of two and a half or three
months, commencing in July. Occasional obstructions are also imposed
by ice forming in the river during the winter season, but these are
seldom of long continuance, the winters being usually short and mild.
As the freshets {221} of the river seldom prevail more than a few
days at a time, and are usually attended by sudden rises and falls of
the water, boats of moderate draft and burden only are suited to its
navigation. The Arkansa is navigable at all seasons for boats of this
description about two hundred miles, which comprehends the distance
by the meanders of the river from the Mississippi to the commencement
of the high lands. Above the mouth of the Neosho it spreads to a much
greater width than below, and the water is more extensively diffused
over its bed, which renders the shoals more numerous and the navigation
more precarious. This part of the Arkansa cannot indeed be considered
navigable, even for pirogues of a large size, except during the short
period of a freshet, which is seldom long enough to complete a voyage
of one hundred miles ascending and descending.

The Red river is navigable, during most of the year, to the Great Raft,
about five hundred miles from its mouth. At this place its navigation
is effectually obstructed, except in a high stage of water, when
keel-boats of ten or fifteen tons burden may pass around it and ascend
several hundred miles above. That part of the river situated above
the Raft, however, like the upper part of the Arkansa, is rendered
impassable for boats of burden, by shoals and sand-bars.

The Washita, tributary to Red river, is navigable many miles. That
part of it particularly situated within the valley of the Mississippi,
and denominated Black river, admits of constant navigation for boats
of considerable burden. The Little river, which is also tributary
to Red river, together with its forks, heretofore enumerated, is
navigable in high water. White river is navigable in a moderate stage
of water between three and four hundred miles. Also the Big Black, its
principal tributary, and several branches of the river last mentioned,
viz. the Strawberry, Currant, {222} Eleven Point, and Spring rivers.
The navigation of the St. Francis is blocked up near its mouth, and
rendered impassable for boats of every description, by rafts of logs
and drift-wood, completely choking the channel of the river, and in
many places occupying the whole of its bed for the distance of several
miles together. The Merameg is also navigable in a moderate stage of
water for many miles.

The Gasconade, Osage, and Konzas rivers are navigable in the spring
season, but their navigation seldom extends far inland from their
mouths, being obstructed by shoals or rapids.

Of the rivers tributary to the Missouri, it is remarkable that their
mouths are generally blocked up with mud, consequent to the subsidence
of the summer freshet of that river, which usually takes place in
the month of July. The reason is obvious; the freshets of the more
southerly tributaries are discharged early in the season, and wash from
their mouths the sand and mud previously deposited therein, leaving
them free from obstructions. These freshets having subsided, the more
northerly branches discharge their floods, formed by the melting of
the snow at a later period. The Missouri being swollen thereby, backs
its waters, charged with mud, considerable distances up the mouths of
the tributaries before alluded to. The water here becoming stagnant,
deposits its mud; and the tributaries, having no more freshets to expel
it, remain with their mouths thus obstructed till the ensuing spring.

The lower part of the Canadian river, although it is included within
the section under consideration, will be described in the sequel of the
report, in connexion with the rest of that river.

Of the animals found in the several sections of country above
described, there are a great variety in almost every department of
zoology. But as most of them are common in other parts of the United
States, they need not to be enumerated here.


{223} _Of the country situated between the meridian of the Council
Bluff and the Rocky Mountains_

We next proceed to a description of the country westward of the assumed
meridian, and extending to the Rocky Mountains, which are its western
boundary. This section embraces an extent of about four hundred miles
square, lying between 96 and 105 degrees of west longitude, and between
35 and 42 degrees of north latitude.

Proceeding westwardly across the meridian above specified, the hilly
country gradually subsides, giving place to a region of vast extent,
spreading towards the north and south, and presenting an undulating
surface, with nothing to limit the view or variegate the prospect,
but here and there a hill, knob, or insulated tract of table-land. At
length the Rocky Mountains break upon the view, towering abruptly from
the plains, and mingling their snow-capped summits with the clouds.

On approaching the mountains, no other change is observable in the
general aspect of the country, except that the isolated knobs and
table-lands above alluded to become more frequent and more distinctly
marked, the bluffs by which the valleys of watercourses are bounded
present a greater abundance of rocks, stones lie in greater profusion
upon the surface, and the soil becomes more sandy and sterile. If, to
the characteristics above intimated, we add that of an almost complete
destitution of woodland (for not more than one thousandth part of the
section can be said to possess a timber-growth) we shall have a pretty
correct idea of the general aspect of the whole country.

The insulated tracts herein alluded to as table-lands, are scattered
throughout the section, and give to the country a very remarkable
appearance. They rise from six to eight hundred feet above the common
{224} level, and are surrounded in many instances by rugged slopes and
perpendicular precipices, rendering their summits almost inaccessible.
Many of them are in this manner completely insulated, while others are
connected with the plains below by gentle acclivities, leading from
their basis to their summits, upon one side or other of each eminence.
These tracts, as before intimated, are more numerous, but less
extensive in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains than they are farther
eastward; and in the former situations, they are more strikingly
characterized by the marks above specified than in the latter.

The geological formations that present themselves along the declivities
of those heights are principally horizontal strata of secondary
sandstones, and breccia or puddingstone, alternating with each other.
Clinkstone prevails upon the surface of them in many places, but in
general the superior strata are rocks of the description just before
mentioned. These tracts are denominated tabular, not from any flatness
of surface by which they are characterized, but from their appearance
at a distant view, and from the horizontal disposition of the
stratifications imbedded in them. Their surfaces are usually waving,
and in some instances rise into knobs and ridges of several hundred
feet high; many of them are clad in a scanty growth of pitch pine,
red cedar, scrubby oaks, &c., while others exhibit a bald or prairie
surface.

By far the greater proportion of this section of country is
characterized by a rolling and plain surface, which may be alleged
not only of the space included within the limits above assigned, but
of extensive portions of country north and south of it. Although the
elevated table-lands, a description of which has just been given, are
situated within this region, they occupy but a small proportion of it.
In addition to these inequalities in the surface of the country, there
are numerous mounds or knobs of different magnitude, and occasionally
swells of greater {225} or less extent, which contribute to give a
pleasing variety to the prospect. The country is also divided into
extensive parterres by the valleys of rivers and creeks, which are
usually sunk 150 or 200 feet below the common level, and bounded in
some places by perpendicular precipices, and in others by bluffs, or
banks of gentle slopes.

Immediately at the base of the mountains, and also at those of some of
the insular table-lands, are situated many remarkable ridges, rising in
the form of parapets, to the height of between fifty and one hundred
and fifty feet. These appear to have been attached to the neighbouring
heights, of which they once constituted a part, but have, at some
remote period, been cleft asunder from them by some extraordinary
convulsion of nature, which has prostrated them in their present
condition.

The rocky stratifications, of which these ridges are principally
composed, and which are exactly similar to those of the insulated
table-lands, are variously inclined, having various dips, from
forty-five to eighty degrees.

Throughout this section of country the surface is occasionally
characterized by water-worn pebbles, and gravel of granite, gneiss,
and quartz, but the predominant characteristic is sand, which in many
instances prevails almost to the entire exclusion of vegetable mould.
Large tracts are often to be met with, exhibiting scarcely a trace of
vegetation. The whole region, as before hinted, is almost entirely
destitute of a timber-growth of any description. In some few instances,
however, sandy knobs and ridges make their appearance, thickly covered
with red cedars of a dwarfish growth. There are also some few tracts
clad in a growth of pitch pine and scrubby oaks; but, in general,
nothing of vegetation appears upon the uplands but withered grass
of a stinted growth, no more than two or three inches high, prickly
pears profusely covering extensive {226} tracts, and weeds of a few
varieties, which, like the prickly pear, seem to thrive best in the
most arid and sterile soil.

In the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains, southwardly of the Arkansa
river, the surface of the country, in many places, is profusely covered
with loose fragments of volcanic rocks. On some occasions, stones of
this description are so numerous as almost to exclude vegetation. A
multiplicity of ridges and knobs of various sizes, containing rocks of
this character, also make their appearance. All these formations seem
to be superincumbent upon horizontal strata of secondary sandstone.
But the volcanoes whence they originated have left no vestiges by
which their exact locality can be determined. In all probability, they
were extinguished previously to the recession of the waters that once
inundated the vast region between the Alleghany and Rocky Mountains.

Of the rivers that have their courses through this section, those of
most note are the Platte, the Konzas and its forks, the Arkansa, and
the Canadian tributary to the Arkansa. The Platte rises in the Rocky
Mountains, and after an easterly course of about eight hundred miles,
falls into the Missouri, at the distance of about seven hundred miles
from the Mississippi. It derives its name from the circumstance of its
being broad and shoal; its average width being about twelve hundred
yards, exclusive of the islands it embosoms; and its depth, in a
moderate stage of water, so inconsiderable, that the river is fordable
in almost every place. The main Platte is formed of two confluent
tributaries of nearly equal size, called the North and South forks,
both of which have their sources considerably within the range of the
Rocky Mountains. They unite about four hundred miles westward from
the mouth of the Platte, having meandered about the same distance
eastwardly from the mountains. Besides these, {227} the Platte has
two considerable tributaries, the one called the Elk Horn, entering
a few miles above its mouth, and the other the Loup Fork, entering
about ninety miles above the same place. The valleys of the Platte
and its several tributaries are extremely broad, and in many places
considerably fertile. They gradually become less fertile on ascending
from the mouths of the rivers on which they are situated, till at
length they exhibit an arid and sterile appearance. The alluvion of
which the bottoms are composed contains a large proportion of sand,
which, added to the nitrous and saline matter blended with it,
occasions frequent appearances of complete barrenness. Magnesia also
appears to be a component part of the soil, a quality invariably
derogatory to the fertility of any soil. The valley of the Platte, from
its mouths to its constituent forks, spreads to the width of ten or
twelve miles, and forms a most beautiful expanse of level country. It
is bounded on both sides by high lands, elevated twenty-five or thirty
feet above the valley, and connected therewith by gentle slopes.

The river in several places expands to the width of many miles,
embosoming numerous islands, some of which are broad and considerably
extensive, and all of them covered with a growth of cotton-wood and
willows. These are the only woodlands that make their appearance along
the river, and in travelling westward these become less numerous
and extensive, till at length they entirely disappear. Copses and
skirts of woodland again present themselves in the neighbourhood of
the mountains, but they are of small magnitude, and the trees they
furnish are of a dwarfish growth. For a distance of nearly two hundred
miles, commencing at the confluence of the North and South forks, and
extending westwardly towards the mountains, the country is almost
entirely destitute of woodland, scarcely a tree, bush, or even a shrub,
making its appearance.

{228} The Platte is seldom navigable, except for skin canoes, requiring
but a moderate depth of water, and for these only when a freshet
prevails in the river. No attempts have ever been made to ascend the
river in canoes for any great distance; the prevalence of shoals, and
the rapidity of the current, discouraging such an undertaking. The bed
of the Platte is seldom depressed more than six or eight feet below the
surface of the bottoms, and in many places even less; and spreads to
such a width, that the highest freshets pass off without inundating the
bottoms, except in their lowest parts; the rise of the water, on such
occasions, being no more than five or six feet.

In order to account in some measure for the diversity of soil
observable in the vallies of most of our western rivers, it may not
be improper in this place to assign one of the principal causes that
operate in producing this effect. The alluvial deposits of which the
river bottoms are formed, consist of particles of mud and sand, more
or less minute. The coarser and more ponderous particles are of course
soonest deposited, while the finer are transported by the current
to a greater distance, and deposited near the mouths of the rivers.
Thus it happens, that the bottoms situated nearest to the sources of
the western rivers, are sandy, and contain but a small proportion
of vegetable mould, while those nearer their mouths are generally
furnished with a rich and fertile loam.

The Konzas, or Konzays, as it is pronounced by the Indians, is made
up of two considerable streams, heading in the plains between the
Platte and Arkansa rivers, called the Republican and Smoky-hill forks;
tributary to the former of these, are the Solomon's and Salim forks, of
less magnitude, rising also in the same plains. The Konzas is navigable
only in high freshets for boats of burden, and on such occasions not
more than one hundred and fifty or two hundred miles, the navigation
being obstructed by shoals. {229} The character of this river and its
several branches is similar to that of the Platte and its tributaries.
Woodlands are seldom to be met with, except in narrow skirts and
small copses along the watercourses. Much of the country situated upon
its forks is said to be possessed of a good soil, but is rendered
uninhabitable for want of timber and water. The bottoms are possessed
of a light sandy soil, and the uplands are in many places characterized
by aridity and barrenness. The surface for the most part is rolling,
but in some instances inclines to hilly.

That portion of the Arkansa included within the section under
consideration has a bed or channel varying in width from four hundred
yards to more than a mile, exclusively of islands. In the neighbourhood
of the mountains, its width does not exceed fifty or sixty yards,
gradually growing wider in its progress downward. Its valley, for a
distance of more than one hundred miles from the place where it issues
from the mountains, contains a considerable timber-growth, principally
of cotton-wood, in skirts bordering upon the river, which occasionally
embosoms islands clad in the same kind of growth. Every appearance of
timber, however, is lost on a further progress eastward, and nothing
is presented to variegate or adorn the prospect inland, but a broad
expanse of waving prairies.

Proceeding eastward along the river, its valley gradually widens, and
the bluffs or banks by which it is bounded become less elevated and
abrupt. The bottoms rise but a few feet above the water-level of the
river, but the freshets, having a broad bed like that of the Platte to
expand upon, seldom rise so high as to inundate the bottoms. This part
of the Arkansa, as before hinted, cannot be considered as navigable,
except for boats of light burden during the prevalence of a freshet. In
a very low stage, the river is said to disappear in many places, the
{230} whole of its water passing off through the immense body of sand
of which its bed is composed.

The Arkansa, having a direction nearly east and west, has no great
variety of climate to traverse in its course from the mountains to the
Mississippi; consequently there is no succession of thaws taking place
upon the river, calculated to maintain a freshet for any considerable
length of time. The freshets are occasioned by a simultaneous melting
of the snow throughout the whole extent of the river, and by showers of
rain, which, falling upon a rolling surface, is quickly drained off,
and causes sudden, but seldom excessive rises in the river. I have
witnessed, in the Arkansa, no less than three considerable rises and
falls of the water in the course of two weeks.

The most considerable streams tributary to this part of the Arkansa are
the Negracka or Red Fork, and the Newsewketongu, or Grand Saline, on
the south, and the Little Arkansa and Stinking Fork on the north side.
The Negracka rises within fifty or sixty miles of the mountains, and
after meandering eastwardly between four and five hundred miles, unites
with the Arkansa at the distance of about nine hundred miles from the
mouth of the latter. The Newsewketongu has its source in the plains
between the Arkansa and Canadian rivers, and unites with the former
about one hundred and fifty miles below the Negracka. The head waters
of the Little Arkansa interlock with those of the Smoky-hill Fork of
the Konzas, and are discharged into the Arkansa, about fifteen hundred
miles above its mouth. The Stinking Fork rises amongst the head-waters
of the Neosho, and enters the Arkansa about eight hundred miles from
its mouth. Besides these, there are many other streams of smaller size
entering on both sides of the river.

The Canadian rises at the base of the Rocky Mountains, and after a
meandering course of about {231} one thousand miles, enters the Arkansa
at the distance of about five hundred and fifty miles from the mouth of
the latter. This river has generally been represented, upon the maps
of the country, as having a north-easterly course; whereas its source
is nearly in the same latitude as its confluence with the Arkansa,
consequently its general course is nearly east. In its course, it forms
an extensive curve to the southward, leaving a broad space between
it and the Arkansa, in which several streams, many hundred miles in
length, tributary to both of these rivers, have their origin and course.

This river has a broad valley, bounded by bluffs from two to five
hundred feet high, faced with rocky precipices near its source, and
presenting abrupt declivities, intersected by numerous ravines lower
down. It has a spacious bed, depressed but a few feet below the
bottoms, and exhibiting one continued stratum of sand through the
greater part of its length. It is the channel through which the water
of a vast extent of country is carried off, yet, during most of the
summer season, it is entirely destitute of running water throughout a
large proportion of its extent, a circumstance in proof of the aridity
of region drained by it. Fifty miles above its mouth, it receives at
least two-thirds of its water from its principal tributary, denominated
the North Fork. This fork rises between the Arkansa and Canadian, and
has a meandering course of about seven hundred miles. Six miles above
the fork just mentioned, another tributary enters the Canadian called
the South Fork, about half as large as the other. Notwithstanding the
supplies afforded by these two tributaries, the Canadian has not a
sufficiency of water in summer to render it navigable even to their
mouths. At the distance of twenty miles above its mouth, a chain of
rocks (slaty sandstone) extends across the bed of the river, but
occasions no considerable fall. A little above the entrance of the
South Fork, is another of the same {232} description, forming rapids
of moderate descent, not more than four hundred yards in length. With
these exceptions, the bed of the river presents no rocky formations
in place, for more than four hundred miles from its confluence with
the Arkansa. About three hundred and fifty miles from that point,
beds of gypsum, or plaster of Paris, begin to make their appearance
in the bluffs fronting upon the river, and upon the declivities of
the highland knobs. A great abundance of this article is to be met
with, not only upon the Canadian, but also upon the upper part of
the Arkansa. The hills, in which it is imbedded, are composed of
ferruginous clay and fine sand of a deep red complexion. Hence the
Arkansa derives the colouring matter that gives to its waters their
reddish hue.

The bottoms of the Canadian, in the neighbourhood of its mouth, are
possessed of a soil exceedingly prolific; but, like those of the other
rivers of this region, the more remote their situation from the mouth
of the river, the more sandy and sterile is their appearance. Its
valley is plentifully supplied with timber of an excellent quality,
for a distance of about two hundred miles on the lower part of the
river; and the high lands, for nearly the same distance, are agreeably
diversified with prairies and woodlands. This portion of the river is
situated eastward of the assumed meridian, and the country upon it has
already been partially described in a former part of this report.

The woodland growth, upon the lower part of the Canadian, consists of
cotton-wood, sycamore, white, blue, and black ash, swamp cedar, red
elm, coffee tree, yellow wood, sugar tree, box elder, white and black
walnut, wild cherry, mulberry, &c. in the river valley; and hickory,
white and post oak, black jack, black oak, &c. upon the adjacent
uplands. On a progress westward, the most valuable of the timber
trees above enumerated disappear, till at length occasional groves
of cotton-wood, mingled with mulberry, {233} red elm, and stunted
shrubbery of various kinds, constitute the only woodlands of the
country. On this occasion, it may be observed, that the cane or reed,
the pea-vine, pawpaw, spice-wood, hop-vine, and several other varieties
of shrubs and vines common only to rich soils, are no where to be found
within this section, or westward of the proposed meridian.

The country of the Canadian above that last considered, or that portion
of it west of the assumed meridian, appears to be possessed of a soil
somewhat richer than the more northerly parts of the section, but
exhibits no indications of extraordinary fecundity in any part of
it. Proceeding westward, a very gradual change is observable in the
apparent fertility of the soil, the surface becoming more sandy and
sterile, and the vegetation less vigorous and luxuriant. The bottoms
appear to be composed, in many places, almost exclusively of loose
sand, exhibiting but few signs of vegetation. Knobs and drifts of
sand, driven from the bed of the river by the violence of the wind,
are piled in profusion along the margin of the river throughout the
greater part of its length. It is remarkable, that these drifts are
in many instances covered with grape vines of a scrubby appearance,
bearing fruit in the greatest abundance and perfection. The vines grow
to various heights, from eighteen inches to four feet, unaccompanied,
in some instances, by any other vegetable, and bear a grape of a dark
purple or black colour, of a delicious flavour, and of the size of a
large pea or common gooseberry.

The waters of this section, almost in every part of it, appear to hold
in solution a greater or less proportion of common salt and sulphate
of magnesia, which, in many instances, render them too brackish or
bitter for use. Saline and nitrous efflorescences frequently occur
upon the surface, in various parts of the country, and incrustations
of salt, of considerable {234} thickness, are to be found in some few
places south of the Arkansa river. As to the existence of rock salt in
a mineral state some doubts are to be entertained, if the decision is
to rest upon the character of the specimens exhibited as proofs of the
fact. The several examples of this formation that we have witnessed,
are evidently crystalline salt deposited by a regular process of
evaporation and crystallization, and formed into concrete masses or
crusts upon the surface of the ground.

Indications of coal are occasionally to be seen, but this mineral
does not probably occur in large quantities. The geological character
of this section is not such as to encourage the search for valuable
minerals. A deep crust of secondary sandstone, occasionally alternating
with breccia, with here and there a superstratum of rocks of a
primitive type, are the principal formations that present themselves.

Of the animals of this region, the buffaloe or bison ranks first in
importance, inasmuch as it supplies multitudes of savages not only with
the principal part of their necessary food, but also contributes to
furnish them with warm clothing. The flesh of this animal is equal, if
not superior, to beef, and affords not only a savoury but a wholesome
diet. A large proportion of this section, commencing at the assumed
meridian, and extending westward to within one hundred miles of the
Rocky Mountains, constitutes a part only of their pasture ground,
over which they roam in numbers to an incredible amount. Their range
extends northwardly and southwardly of the section, as far as we have
any particular account of the country. The animal next in importance is
the wild horse, a descendant, no doubt, of the Spanish breed of horses,
to which its size, form and variety of colours, show that it is nearly
allied. In regard to their contour, symmetry, &c. they afford all the
varieties common to that breed of horses. They are {235} considerably
numerous in some parts of the country, but not abundant. They are
generally collected in gangs, but are sometimes solitary.

Grizzly or white bears are frequently to be seen in the vicinity of
the mountains. They are much larger than the common bear, endowed with
great strength, and are said to be exceedingly ferocious. The black or
common bears are numerous in some parts of the country, but none of
these animals are found remote from woodlands, upon the products of
which they in a great measure depend for their subsistence.

The common deer are to be met with in every part of this section, but
are most numerous in the vicinity of woodlands. The black-tailed or
mule deer is found only in the neighbourhood of the mountains; hilly
and broken lands seem to afford them their favourite pasture ground.
The elk is also an inhabitant of this section, but is not to be
found remote from woodlands. The cabric wild goat, or, as it is more
frequently called, the antelope, is common. They are numerous, and with
the buffaloe are the common occupants of the plains, from which they
retire only in quest of water.

Wolves are exceedingly numerous, particularly within the immediate
range of the buffaloe. Of these there are many varieties,
distinguishable by their shape, size and colour.

The marmot, commonly called the prairie dog, is more abundant
throughout this section than any other quadruped. They live in villages
scattered in every direction, and thickly inhabited; a single village
in some instances occupying a tract of ground three or four miles in
extent. Their habitations are burrows three or four inches in diameter,
situated at the distance of fifteen or twenty paces asunder. Their
habits and manners in other respects are peculiarly interesting. They
subsist on vegetables; their {236} flesh is similar to that of the
ground hog, and their hair equally as coarse.

The beaver, otter, mink, and muskrat, are numerous upon the rivers,
creeks, and rivulets issuing from the mountains, and generally upon
those whose valleys are supplied with woodland.

Badgers, raccoons, hares, polecats, porcupines, many varieties of
squirrels, panthers, wild cats, lynxes and foxes of several species,
are also inhabitants of this section. Besides these, the country
affords a great variety and abundance of reptiles and insects, both
venomous and harmless.

Of the feathered tribes, no very considerable variety is observable.
The turtle-dove, the jay, the barn swallow, the quail (partridge of
the Middle States), the owl, whip-poor-will, and lark, which seem more
widely distributed over the territory of the United States than any
other birds, are found here. Several varieties of the hawk, containing
some new species, the bald and gray eagle, the buzzard, raven, crow,
jackdaw, magpie, turkey, two or three varieties of the grouse,
pheasant, pigeon, many varieties of the sparrow and fly-catcher, the
whooping or sandhill crane, curlew, sandpiper, together with a variety
of other land and water fowls, are more or less numerous in this
region. It is remarkable that birds of various kinds common to the
sea-coast, and seldom found far in the interior, pervade the valley
of the Mississippi to a great distance from the gulf of Mexico, and
frequent the regions adjacent to the Rocky Mountains.

In regard to this extensive section of country, I do not hesitate in
giving the opinion, that it is almost wholly unfit for cultivation,
and of course uninhabitable by a people depending upon agriculture
for their subsistence. Although tracts of fertile land considerably
extensive are occasionally to be met with, yet the scarcity of wood
and water, almost {237} uniformly prevalent, will prove an insuperable
obstacle in the way of settling the country. This objection rests not
only against the section immediately under consideration, but applies
with equal propriety to a much larger portion of the country. Agreeably
to the best intelligence that can be had, concerning the country
both northward and southward of the section, and especially to the
inferences deducible from the account given by Lewis and Clarke of the
country situated between the Missouri and the Rocky Mountains above
the river Platte, the vast region commencing near the sources of the
Sabine, Trinity, Brases, and Colorado, and extending northwardly to
the forty-ninth degree of north latitude, by which the United States'
territory is limited in that direction, is throughout of a similar
character. The whole of this region seems peculiarly adapted as a range
for buffaloes, wild goats, and other wild game; incalculable multitudes
of which find ample pasturage and subsistence upon it.

This region, however, viewed as a frontier, may prove of infinite
importance to the United States, inasmuch as it is calculated to serve
as a barrier to prevent too great an extension of our population
westward, and secure us against the machinations or incursions of an
enemy that might otherwise be disposed to annoy us in that part of our
frontier.

The Indians of the section last described, whose numbers are very
limited compared with the extent of country they inhabit, will be
considered in the sequel of this report.


_Of the Rocky Mountains_

This range of mountains has been distinguished by a variety of
appellations, amongst which the following are the most common, viz.
Rocky, Shining, Mexican, Chippewyan, Andes, &c. The general {238}
course of the range is about N.N.W. or S.S.E. Its breadth varies from
fifty to one hundred miles. They rise abruptly out of the plains, which
lie extended at their base on the east side, towering into peaks of
great height, which renders them visible at the distance of more than
one hundred miles eastward from their base. They consist of ranges,
knobs, and peaks, variously disposed, among which are interspersed many
broad and fertile valleys. The more elevated parts of the mountains are
covered with perpetual snows, which contribute to give them a luminous
and at a great distance even a brilliant appearance, whence they have
derived the name of Shining Mountains.

Between the Arkansa and Platte, on a small creek tributary to the
former, is situated a high part of the mountains, denominated the
"Highest Peak" on many maps of the country, and said to be more
elevated than any other part within the distance of one hundred and
fifty or two hundred miles. This peak, whose summit has been accounted
inaccessible, was ascended by a detachment of the expedition conducted
by Dr. James, from which circumstance it has been called James's Peak.
Its elevation above the common level, ascertained by a trigonometrical
measurement, is about eight thousand five hundred feet. But the
correctness of the statement, that it is higher than any other parts
of the mountains within the distance above mentioned, is questionable.
Judging from the position of the snow near the summits of other peaks
and ridges at no great distance from it, a much greater elevation is
apparent.

The mountains are clad in a scattering growth of scrubby pines, oak,
cedar, and furze, and exhibit a very rugged and broken aspect. The
rocky formations embodied in them, contrary to the opinion generally
received, are of a primitive character, consisting of granite, gneiss,
quartz rocks, &c. It {239} should be remarked, however, that a deep
crust of secondary rocks, the same as the stratifications of the plains
before mentioned, appears to recline against the east side of the
mountains, extending upward from their base many hundred feet.

At the base of James's Peak above designated, are two remarkable
springs of water, considerably copious, and strongly impregnated
with fixed air. At the place also where the Arkansa issues from the
mountains, are several medicinal springs on the north side of the
river, rising in a small area at the base of the mountain. These
springs were discovered by Captain Bell, and, in consequence, I have
taken the liberty to call them Bell's Springs. They are six in number,
one of which is strongly impregnated with fixed air, another with
sulphurated hydrogen, and the rest with salt and sulphur; the water of
all being more or less chalybeate.


_Of the Indians inhabiting the section of country last described_

This country is exclusively inhabited by savages, no other beings of
the human family having fixed their abode within it. They consist of
the following tribes and nations, whose numbers, places of residence,
and mode of life, will be subjects of consideration as far as our
knowledge of them extends.

The Otoes, or as they are called in their own language, the
Wahtooh-tah-tah, reside in a permanent village of dirt or earthen
lodges, on the south bank of the river Platte, about fifty miles from
its confluence with the Missouri, and thirty miles south-westwardly
from the Council Bluff. The principal remnant of the old Missouries,
who have become extinct as a nation, have their residence with the
Otoes. In the course of the last winter, whilst these Indians were
absent from their village on their winter-hunt, their town was
partly burnt by the {240} Sauks, which misfortune induced them to
take up a temporary abode upon Salt river, a few miles from their
former residence. But it was generally supposed that they would return
again, and rebuild their town. The name of their principal chief is
Shongotongo, or Big Horse. Probable number of lodges 100, of persons
1400. The Otoes and Missouries are esteemed a brave people, and are
friendly towards the Americans. They are at war with the Sauks, Foxes,
Sioux, Osages, Ietans, and other Indians west of the Missouri. A small
band of the Ioways resided for some time with these Indians, but not
being able to harmonize with them, lately returned to their old village
on the river De Moyen of the Mississippi. Their principal chief,
usually called Hard Heart, being dissatisfied with the conduct of his
tribe, remains with the Otoes.

The Omawhaw, or as it is commonly written the Maha nation, exultingly
boast that they have never killed an American. On the contrary, they
have ever been friendly, and still hold the Americans in the highest
estimation. Under the influence of their present principal chief,
Ongpatonga, or the Big Elk, they never go to war except in the pursuit
of a predatory war-party, in consequence of which the traders have
given them the reputation of being cowardly. But the history of this
people shows that they have been as ambitious of martial renown, and
have acquired as large a share of it, as any of their neighbours. They
formerly resided in a village of dirt lodges upon Omawhaw creek, a
small stream entering the Missouri about two hundred miles above the
Council Bluff; but they have recently abandoned it, and are about
building a town on Elk Horn river. Their number of souls is about 1500.

The Puncahs have their residence in a small village of dirt lodges,
about one hundred and eighty miles above Omawhaw creek. This tribe have
a common origin with the Omawhaws, and speak the same language. {241}
Their principal chief is called Smoke Maker. Their number is about 200
souls.

The tribes above enumerated evidently sprung from the same common
stock, the language of all being radically the same. They have a
tradition that their fathers came from beyond the Lakes.

The Pawnees are a race of Indians distinct from the preceding, their
language differing radically from that of the Indians alluded to. The
Pawnees consist of three distinct bands, that have their residence at
present on a branch of the river Platte called the Loup Fork, about
sixty miles from the mouth of the latter, and between 100 and 115 miles
westward from the Council Bluff. The three bands are distinguished by
the appellation of the Grand, the Republican, and the Loup Pawnees. The
two former acknowledge a common origin, but the latter deny having any
natural affinity with them, though their habits, language, &c. indicate
the same ancestry. They live in three villages, included within an
extent of about seven miles on the north bank of the Loup Fork, all
compactly built.

The village of the Grand Pawnees is situated immediately on the bank
of the river, and contains about 180 earthen lodges, 900 families,
or 3500 souls. The name of the principal chief of this village is
Tarrarecawaho, or Long Hair.

The village of the Republican Pawnees is situated about three miles
above that of the Grand Pawnees, contains about 50 lodges, 250
families, or 1000 souls. The name of their principal chief is Fool
Robe, who is very much under the influence of Long Hair. This band
separated many years since from the Grand Pawnees, and established
themselves upon the Republican fork of Konzas river, where they were
visited by Pike on his tour westward. They seem to be gradually
amalgamating with the present stock, and their village wears a
declining aspect.

The village of the Loup Pawnees, or Skeree, as they call themselves, is
situated four miles above {242} that last mentioned, immediately on the
bank of the river; it contains about 100 dirt lodges, 500 families, or
2000 souls, making an aggregate of 6500 souls belonging to the three
villages. The name of their principal chief is the Knife Chief. A few
years since the Loup Pawnees had a custom of annually sacrificing a
human victim to the Great Star, but this was abolished by their present
chief, aided by the noble daring of his gallant son. They appear
unwilling to acknowledge their affinity with the other Pawnees; but
their language being very nearly the same, proves them to be of the
same origin.

Although these bands are independent of each other in all their
domestic concerns, government, &c., yet in their military operations
they generally unite, and warfare becomes a common cause with them.
Their arms are principally bows and arrows, lances, war-clubs, and
shields, with some few firearms. They are expert horsemen, but
generally fight on foot. They are more numerous, and accounted more
formidable in warfare, than any other combination of savages on
the Missouri. Their confidence in their own strength gives them a
disposition to domineer over their weaker neighbours. They are at war
with the Osages, Konzas, Sioux, Ietans, Kaskaias, Kiaways, Shiennes,
Crows, &c.

The several tribes above described cultivate maize or Indian corn,
pumpkins, beans, watermelons, and squashes. They hunt the bison or
buffaloe, elk, deer, beaver, otter; the skins of which they exchange
with the traders for fusees, powder, and lead, kettles, knives,
strouding, blankets, beads, vermilion, silver ornaments, and other
trinkets. They prefer the Mackinaw guns, blankets, &c., and will give a
higher price for them, knowing that they are greatly superior to those
furnished by American traders.

The Konzas and Osages, both of which reside in the vicinity of the
meridian assumed as the eastern boundary of this section, may here be
admitted to a more particular consideration than that already {243}
allowed them in this report. The Konzas Indians reside in a village of
earthen lodges, situated on the north side of the river bearing their
name, about one hundred miles from its mouth. Their village consists
of about 130 lodges, and contains about 1500 souls. This tribe was
formerly very troublesome to our traders, frequently robbing them of
their goods, but since the establishment of the upper posts on the
Missouri they have become very friendly. They are at war with most
of the other tribes and nations herein enumerated, except the Osages
and Otoes, with the last of whom they have lately made peace, through
the agency of Major O'Fallon, Indian agent for the Missouri. Several
Indians of the Missouri tribe reside with them.

The Osages are divided into three bands or tribes, called the Grand
Osage, the Little Osage, and Clermont's band; the two former of which
reside in permanent villages, situated on the head-waters of Osage
river, and the last upon the Verdigrise, about sixty miles from its
confluence with the Arkansa. According to Pike, whose estimate of their
numbers is probably near the truth, the Grand Osage band amounts to
1695, the Little Osage to 824, and Clermont's to 1500 souls, making
an aggregate of about 4000. These Indians are not accounted brave by
those inhabiting the country to the north and east of them, but are the
dread of those west and south of them. Although they have occasionally
been chargeable with depredations committed against the whites, they
have been provoked to the perpetration of them by aggressions or
trespasses on the part of the latter, or else the depredations have
been committed by malcontents of the nation, who will not be governed
by the counsel of their chiefs. These Indians hold the people and
government of the United States in the highest estimation, and have
repeatedly signified their strong desire to be instructed by them in
the arts of civilization. The United States have purchased from them
large and valuable tracts of country {244} for mere trifles, which the
Osages have been the more willing to relinquish, under the prospect
and encouragement given them, that the Americans would become their
neighbours and instructors. They are in a state of warfare with all the
surrounding tribes and nations of Indians, except the Konzas. It is
said, that they are about forming an alliance with the Sauks and Fox
Indians of the Mississippi, and that the latter are preparing to remove
to their country. They have recently driven the Pawnees of Red river
from their place of residence, and compelled them to seek an abode upon
the head waters either of the Brases or Colorado.

The Konzas and Osages are descendants from the same common origin with
the Otoes, Missouries, Ioways, Omawhaws, and Puncahs, to which may be
added the Quapaws, and several other tribes, not mentioned in this
report. The languages of all of them are radically the same, but are
now distinguished by a variety of dialects.


_Of the Arrapahoes, Kaskaias, Kiaways, Ietans, and Shiennes_

These nations have no permanent residences or villages, but roam,
sometimes in society and sometimes separately, over the tract of
country constituting the section last described. They hunt the bison
principally, and migrate from place to place in the pursuit of the
herds of that animal, upon the flesh of which they chiefly subsist.
Being thus accustomed to a roving life, they neglect the cultivation of
the soil, and are compelled to subsist almost exclusively upon animal
food. They formerly carried on a limited trade with the Spaniards of
Mexico, with whom they exchanged dressed bison-skins for blankets,
wheat, flour, maize, &c.; but their supplies of these articles are now
cut off by a war, which they at present are waging against that people.
They also, at distant periods, held a kind of fair on a tributary of
the {245} Platte, near the mountains (hence called Grand Camp creek),
at which they obtained British merchandize from the Shiennes of Shienne
river, who obtained the same at the Mandan village from the British
traders that frequent that part of our territory. Last winter they
traded a great number of horses and mules with a party of white men,
who had ascended Red river, but whence the party came from could not be
ascertained; it however appeared probable that they were citizens of
the United States, or possibly freebooters from Barataria.

The Shiennes associated with these wandering tribes are a small band of
seceders from the nation of the same name residing upon Shienne river.
They are said to be daring and ferocious. They are however kept under
restraint by the energy and firmness of their chief. The Bear Tooth,
who is the principal chief of the Arrapahoes, and the head chief of all
these nations, possesses great influence over the whole. His mandates,
which are uniformly characterized by discretion and propriety, are
regarded by his subjects as inviolable laws.

The Kaskaia and Kiaway languages are very difficult to acquire a
knowledge of. Our interpreter, who had lived several years with
them, could only make himself understood by the language of signs,
with the aid of a very few words of the Crow language, which many of
them appeared to understand. Indeed many of the individuals of these
different nations seemed to be ignorant of each other's language; for
when they met, they would communicate by means of signs, with now and
then an oral interjection, and would thus maintain a conversation,
apparently without the least difficulty or misapprehension.

These nations are at war with all the Missouri Indians, as far down as
the Osages, who are also included amongst their enemies; and it was
rumoured that hostilities had recently commenced between them and the
Shiennes, upon the river of the same name. {246} Their implements of
war consist of the bow and arrow, the lance, war-club, and shield. They
usually fight on horseback, and as horsemen display great skill and
activity. Their habitations are leather lodges, which serve them as
tents on the march, and dwellings at the places of their encampment.

Widely diffused as these Indians are, and never embodied, it is
impracticable even to conjecture their numbers with any degree of
probable accuracy. They rove not only throughout the section above
specified, but extensively within the range of the Rocky Mountains.

The foregoing remarks concerning the Indians of this part of the
country have been made for the most part agreeably to the suggestions
of Mr. Say, whose attention was particularly directed to researches
of this nature. But having been robbed of his notes upon the customs,
manners, traditions, &c. of the western Indians, by the men who
deserted from Captain Bell's party, he could give no farther account
of them than what his recollection could supply. Of the Konzas, Otoes,
Pawnees, and other Indians near the Council Bluff, his notes are
considerably extensive; but the vessel on board of which they, with
other articles, were shipped from New Orleans, having been obstructed
in her passage up the Delaware by ice, we have not yet received them.


_Observations embracing several traits of character common to the
Indians of the western country_

An accurate and extensive knowledge of the numerous tribes and
nations of Indians living within the United States' territory can
only be attained by a long residence with them. They are seldom
communicative, except upon subjects intimately connected with their
personal experience or present interests and welfare. In regard to
matters of an abstract or metaphysical nature their ideas {247}
appear to be very limited; at any rate very little is known of their
sentiments upon subjects of this kind, owing, in a great measure,
to the inability of the persons usually employed as interpreters to
converse intelligently concerning them. The delicate trains of thought
and reflection attributed to them by writers who have attempted to
enlarge our acquaintance with the Indian character, usually have their
origin in the ingenuity of the writers themselves. The exploits of
their war-parties, and particularly those of individuals, are often
recounted, but are seldom transmitted to succeeding generations, unless
they are characterized by some signal advantage to the tribe or nation
to which the party or individual belongs. Hence their history is very
defective, affording but few incidents, and characterized by no regular
series of events. In regard to the number of persons, and strength
of the several tribes and nations, also the ages of individuals, no
precise statements can be made; all the information given under these
heads is almost without exception conjectural. In relation to subjects
of this kind the Indians are either ignorant or wilfully silent;
and deem it an impertinent curiosity that prompts a stranger to the
investigation of them.

Notwithstanding these obstacles in the way of acquiring authentic and
credible information concerning the savages, yet there are certain
traits in their general character that are observable on a partial
acquaintance with a variety of tribes and nations, and upon these the
following remarks are grounded.

They are, almost without exception, addicted to habits of extreme
indolence; self-preservation, self-defence, and recreation being
their usual incitements to action. The laborious occupations of the
men consist almost exclusively in hunting, warfare, and tending their
horses. Their amusements are principally horse-racing, gambling,
and sports of various kinds. The cultivation of corn and other
vegetables, {248} the gathering of fuel, cooking, and all other kinds
of domestic drudgery, is the business of the women, the men deeming
it degrading to their dignity to be occupied in employments of this
kind. Their religion consists in the observance of a variety of rites
and ceremonies, which they practise with much zeal and ardour. Their
devotional exercises consist in singing, dancing, and the performance
of various mystical ceremonies, which they believe efficacious in
healing the sick, frustrating the designs of their enemies, and in
giving success to any enterprize in which they may be embarked.

Amongst all these tribes and nations secret associations or councils
are common, the proceedings of which are held sacred, and not to
be divulged, except when the interests of the people are thought
to require a disclosure. To these councils, which they denominate
medicine, or rather magic feasts, none are admitted but the principal
men of the nation, or such as have signalized themselves by their
exploits in battle, hunting, stealing horses, or in any of the pursuits
accounted laudable by the Indians.

In these assemblies the policy of making war or peace, and the manner
in which it is to be effected, also all matters involving the interests
of the nation, are first discussed. Having thus been the subject of
deliberation in solemn council (for the proceedings at these feasts
are conducted with the greatest solemnity,) the decision, of whatever
nature it may be, is published to the people at large by certain
members of the council performing the office of criers. On such
occasions, the criers not only proclaim the measures that have been
recommended, but explain the reasons of them, and urge the people
zealously to support them. It is also the business of the criers, who
are generally men of known valour and approved habits, and are able
to enforce their precepts by the examples they have set, to harangue
the people of their village daily, and exhort them to such a course
{249} of life as is deemed praiseworthy. On such occasions, which
are usually selected in the stillness of the morning or evening, the
crier marches through the village, uttering his exhortation in a loud
voice, and endeavouring to inculcate correct principles and sentiments.
The young men and children of the village are directed how to demean
themselves, in order to become useful and enjoy the esteem of good
men, and the favour of the good spirit. In this way they are incited
to wage war or sue for peace; and to practise according to their ideas
of morality and virtue; and may be swayed to almost any purpose that
their elders, for such are their men of _medicine_ (or as the term
imports, magic wisdom), think proper to execute. They appear to have
no laws, except such as grow out of habitual usages, or such as are
sanctioned by common consent. The executive of their government seems
to be vested in the chiefs and warriors; while the grand council of the
nation is composed of the medicine council above mentioned, at which
the principal chief presides. In all their acts of devotion, as also on
all occasions where their confidence is to be won, or their friendship
to be plighted, the smoking of tobacco seems to be invariably regarded
as an inviolable token of sincerity. They believe in the existence of a
Supreme Being, whom they denominate "Master of Life" or "Good Spirit,"
but of his attributes their ideas are vague and confused. They are
generally in the habit of offering in sacrifice a portion of the game
first taken on a hunting expedition, a part of the first products of
the field, and often a small portion of the food provided for their
refreshment. In smoking, they generally direct the first puff upward,
and the second downward to the earth, or the first to the rising and
the second to the setting sun; after which they inhale the smoke
into their lungs, and puff it out through the nostrils for their own
refreshment.

{250} They have some indistinct notions of the immortality of the
soul, but appear to know no distinction of Heaven or Hell, Elysium or
Tartarus, as the abode of departed spirits.

The arts of civilized life, instead of exciting their emulation, are
generally viewed by the Indians as objects unworthy of their attention.
This results, as a natural consequence, from their habits of indolence.
They are aware that much labour is requisite in the prosecution of
them, and being accustomed from their infancy to look upon manual
labour of every description as a drudgery that pertains exclusively
to the female part of their community, they think it degrading to the
character of men to be employed in them. Hunting, horsemanship, and
warfare are the only avocations in which their ambition or sense of
honour prompts them to engage.

Their reluctance to forgive an injury is proverbial. "Injuries are
revenged by the injured; and blood for blood is always demanded, if
the deceased has friends who dare to retaliate upon the destroyer."
Instances have occurred where their revenge has become hereditary, and
quarrels have been settled long after the parties immediately concerned
have become extinct.

Much has been published in relation to the high antiquity of Indian
tradition, of those particularly which relate to their origin and
their religion. But from the examples afforded by the several nations
of Indians resident upon the Mississippi and its waters, but little
proof is to be had in favour of the position. It is not doubted that
the immediate objects of their worship have been held in reverence
by their predecessors for a long succession of ages; but in respect
to any miraculous dispensations of providence, of which they have a
traditional knowledge, their ideas are at best exceedingly vague and
confused; and of occurrences recorded in sacred history they appear to
be entirely ignorant. The knowledge they {251} have of their ancestry
is also very limited; so much so, that they can seldom trace back
their pedigree more than a few generations; and then know so little of
the place whence their fathers came, that they can only express their
ideas upon the subject, in general terms, stating, that they came "from
beyond the lakes,"--"from the rising or setting sun"--"from the north
or south," &c. In some instances, where their term of residence in a
place has evidently been of limited duration, they have either lost or
conceal their knowledge of the country whence their ancestors came, and
assert that the Master of Life created and planted their fathers on
the spot where they, their posterity, now live. They have no division
of time, except by years, seasons, moons, and days. Particular
periods are distinguished by the growth and changes of vegetables, the
migrations, incubations, &c. of birds and other animals.

Their language is of two kinds, viz. verbal and signal, or the
language of signs. The former presents a few varieties, marked by
radical differences, and a multiplicity of dialects peculiar to
individual tribes or nations descended from the same original. The
latter is a language common to most, if not all, of the western
Indians, the motions or signs used to express ideas being, with some
slight variations, the same amongst all of them. Nearly allied to the
language of signs is a species of written language which they make
use of, consisting of a few symbolical representations, and of course
very limited and defective. The figures they make use of have but a
faint resemblance to the object described, and are rudely imprinted
upon trees, cliffs, &c. by means of paints, charcoal, and sometimes by
carving with a knife or other edged tool, and are significant of some
movement, achievements, or design of the Indians. A variety of figures
of this description are to be seen upon the cliffs, rocks, and trees in
places held sacred and frequently resorted to by the Indians, {252} but
of their import little is known. Many of these symbols are made by the
magicians, or men of medicine, and are probably of sacred or devotional
import.

Much intrigue, cunning, and artifice are blended with the policy of the
Indians, and judging from their usual practice, it is a favourite and
well approved maxim with them, that "the end sanctifies the means."
In an interview with strangers it appears to be their first object to
ascertain their motives and the objects of their visits; and after
regarding them for some time without a show of curiosity, a variety
of interrogatories are proposed, in order to satisfy themselves upon
these points. This they appear to do with the view also of scrutinizing
into the character and disposition of their guests. In the course of
the conversation they become more and more familiar and impertinent,
till at length their familiarity is succeeded by contempt and insult.
Thus, from the coldest reserve, they are in a short time impelled
by curiosity and a propensity to abuse, where they are not in some
measure compelled to respect, to the commission of outrages, even
without the slightest provocation. This kind of treatment, however,
is easily obviated at the commencement of an interview, by resisting
every advance made by the Indians towards familiarity, and by uniformly
opposing firmness and reserve to the liberties they are disposed to
take.

These attributes of the Indian character manifest themselves not
only in the well-known stratagems they adopt in warfare, but in the
management of their domestic concerns, in which rivalships of one kind
or other are created; parties are formed and pretenders arise, claiming
privileges that have been withheld from them, and placing themselves
at the head of factions, occasionally withdraw from the mother tribe.
Thus new tribes are formed and distributed in various directions over
the country, with nothing to {253} mark their genealogy, but the
resemblance of their language to that of the parent stock, or of other
Indians that sprung from the same origin.

The chiefs, or governors of tribes, have their rank and title by
inheritance; yet in order to maintain them, and secure themselves in
their pre-eminence, they are under the necessity of winning over to
their interests the principal warriors and most influential men of
their tribe, whose countenance and support are often essential to their
continuance in authority. In conciliating the friendship of these, the
chief is often compelled to admit them to participate in the authority
with which he is invested, and to bestow upon them any effects of which
he may be possessed. Thus it often happens that the chiefs are amongst
the poorest of the Indians, having parted with their horses, clothes,
trinkets, &c. to ensure the farther patronage of their adherents, or to
purchase the friendship of those that are disaffected.

The situation of principal chief is very frequently usurped during
the minority of the rightful successor, or wrested from an imbecile
incumbent by some ambitious chief or warrior. In this case the
ascendancy obtained over the nation by the usurper is gradual, and
depends upon the resources of his own mind, aided by his reputation for
generosity and valour.

The condition of the savages is a state of constant alarm and
apprehension. Their security from their enemies, and their means of
subsistence, are precarious and uncertain, the former requiring the
utmost vigilance to prevent its infraction, and the latter being
attended with no regular supplies of the necessaries of life. In
times of the most profound peace, whether at their villages or on
a hunting expedition, they are continually on the alert lest they
should be surprised by their enemies. By day scouts are constantly
kept patrolling for a considerable distance around them, and by night
sentinels are posted to give notice of the approach of strangers.

{254} When they engage in a hunt, they generally abandon their
villages, old men, women, and children joining in the enterprize,
through fear of being left at home without the strength of their nation
to protect them. On their march they endeavour to make as great a
display of force as practicable, in order to intimidate any of their
enemies that may be lurking to spy out their condition. With this
view they are careful to pitch their lodges or tents at the places of
their encampment in such a manner, and in such numbers, as to give the
impression, at a distance, that they are numerous and formidable. We
have witnessed a hunting party on their march, consisting of not more
than one hundred persons, including men, women, and children, yet at
their encampment more than thirty lodges were pitched, each of which
would accommodate at least twelve adult persons.

It is an opinion generally credited, that the Indians are possessed
of strong natural appetites for ardent spirits, but there is at least
room to doubt of its being well-founded. That the appetites for them
are often strong and ungovernable is very certain; but they may be
considered as factitious rather than natural, having been created by
occasional indulgencies in the use of intoxicating liquors. Instances
are not rare in which Indians have refused to accept liquor when
offered them. After a long abstinence from food, any thing calculated
to allay the cravings of the appetite is eagerly swallowed, and on
such occasions nothing perhaps produces such an effect more speedily
than spirituous liquors. Indians, while lounging about a trading
establishment, are often destitute of food for a considerable time, and
can obtain no other kind of refreshment from the trader but liquor,
which is bestowed partly in exchange for commodities they may have to
dispose of, and partly by way of encouraging them to return to him with
the products of their next hunt. A small draught, on such occasions,
produces intoxication, and the sudden {255} transition from a state
of gnawing hunger to that of unconcerned inebriety cannot fail to
make them passionately fond of a beverage that can thus change their
condition so much to their immediate satisfaction. In their use of
ardent spirits, the Indians appear to be less captivated with their
taste than with their exhilarating effects. The quality of liquor is
not a subject of discrimination with them; provided it has sufficient
strength to inebriate they are satisfied, let its character in other
respects be what it may. Having contracted the habit of intoxication,
they seldom appear thankful for liquor, unless it has been bestowed in
such quantities as are sufficient to produce that effect.

In the indulgence of their appetites they display but few or no traits
of epicurism, choosing those kinds of food that are most nutritive,
without regarding their taste or flavour. In the preservation of
their food, no pains are taken to render it savoury or palatable;
their object is solely to reduce it to a state of security against
putrefaction. They make no use of spices or other aromatics, either
in preserving or cooking their food. Even salt is not considered as
an essential, and is seldom used as an appendage in their cookery.
This article is only prized by them on account of its usefulness
for their horses. In regard to their choice of food, however, and
manner of cooking it, the small variety within their reach, and the
impracticability of obtaining condiments of different kinds, perhaps
renders them less particular in these respects, than they would be
under different circumstances. It cannot be supposed that they are
entirely insensible to dainties of every description; on the contrary,
they appear remarkably fond of sugar and saccharine fruits.

They appear to have a natural propensity for the fumes of tobacco,
which they invariably inhale into the lungs, and eject through the
nostrils. They make no use of this article except in smoking, which
is an {256} indulgence of which they are exceedingly reluctant to be
deprived. When they cannot obtain tobacco, they use as a substitute the
dried leaves of the sumac, the inner bark of the red willow dried, and
the leaves and bark of a few other shrubs, the fumes of which are less
stimulating, but equally as palatable as those of tobacco.

The Indians under consideration know not the use or value of the
precious metals, except as trinkets or ornaments for their dress.
They use wampum, and in some few instances shells of a small size and
of a particular character, as a substitute for money. But in general
furs, peltries, horses, and various articles of dress at standing or
fixed rates of barter, are the immediate objects, both of internal and
external trade. They do not hold their property in common, but each
individual enjoys the fruit of his own toil and industry. They are
accounted more or less wealthy according to the number of horses they
are possessed of, and the style in which they are able to dress.

Polygamy is common amongst them, every man being allowed to have
as many wives as he can maintain. Marriages are binding upon the
parties only as long as they think proper to live together, and are
often contracted for a limited term particularly specified. Females,
during the periods of their catamenia, are excluded from society, and
compelled even to sleep apart from their families, in small tents or
lodges constructed for their use.

Dancing is common amongst them, both as a devotional exercise and an
amusement. Their gestures on both occasions are similar, except that
on the former they are accompanied by solemnity, and on the latter
by cheerfulness; and are characterized by extraordinary uncouthness,
rather than by gracefulness. No ribaldry, however, or tricks of
buffoonery are practised on these occasions; on the contrary, their
deportment is uniformly accordant with their {257} ideas of decorum.
This exercise is invariably accompanied by singing, or a kind of
chanting, in which the women, who are usually excluded from a
participation in the former, perform their part. Their music consists
in a succession of tones of equal intervals, accompanied by occasional
elevations and depressions of the voice. The modulations with which it
is variegated are by no means melodious; the voices of all the chanters
move in unison, and all appear to utter the same aspirations. The same
series of sounds appears to be common to the chanting of all the tribes.

The foregoing are among the most common features in the general
character of the western Indians. Although in a region so extensive
as that inhabited by them, and amongst so great a variety of tribes
and nations, a considerable diversity of character is to be expected
and admitted, yet it is believed that the traits above considered are
common to the whole, as a race of barbarians. And although the shades
of barbarism in which they are enveloped uniformly exclude the light of
civilization, yet it is not to be presumed that they are equally dark
and malignant in all cases.


OF THE MISSISSIPPI, MISSOURI, AND OHIO RIVERS

I trust it will not be deemed improper on this occasion, to offer a few
remarks upon the character of these rivers, embracing more particularly
the condition of their navigation.

The causes heretofore alleged as giving occasion to a diversity of
soil within the valleys of the western rivers, have an effect also in
giving character to their channels or beds. For example: the banks
near the mouths of the rivers, being composed of a fine unctuous and
adhesive alluvion, are less liable to crumble and wash away, and
constitute a more permanent barrier to resist the force of the current,
than those {258} higher up, that are composed of coarser materials. In
consequence, the beds of the rivers are rendered narrower and deeper
towards their mouths than at greater distances above them. This is
more particularly the case with the Mississippi, Red, Arkansa, and
some others, whose beds or channels gradually dilate, and become more
shoal on ascending from their mouths. Thus it happens also, that the
navigation of the Mississippi has fewer obstructions between Natches
and its mouth than above this part of the river, having so great a
depth of water, that mags, bars, &c. are sunk below the reach of any
kind of water-craft employed in its navigation. From Natches upward
to its confluence with the Missouri, the river presents impediments
that become more and more numerous and difficult to pass. Still,
however, the main channel, though intricate in many places, affords
a sufficient depth of water in all stages for boats of five or six
feet draft to ascend to the mouth of the Ohio. From this point to the
Missouri, a distance of more than two hundred and twenty miles, the
navigation is partially obstructed, during a very low stage of the
water, by shoals, so that it is navigable only for boats of moderate
burthen, requiring but about three feet of water. At the distance of
about thirty miles above the mouth of the Ohio there are two rocky bars
extending across the Mississippi, called the Big and Little Chains,
which in the deepest channel across them afford no more than five or
six feet of water in a low stage, and occasion a great rapidity of
current. The Mississippi is usually at its lowest stage about the
middle of August, the summer freshet of the Missouri having subsided
previously to that time. It usually continues in this stage till it is
swollen by the fall freshet of the Ohio, after which it subsides again,
and remains low during the winter. The distance from New Orleans to
the mouth of the Missouri is estimated at about twelve hundred miles;
its current in the main channel of {259} the river is supposed to have
an average velocity of three miles and three quarters per hour, in a
moderate stage of the water; but when the river is high its velocity
is considerably accelerated. Its water is turbid, being charged with a
fine argillaceous mud, of a light colour, derived exclusively from the
Missouri.

The Missouri is a very wild and turbulent river, possessing the
ruder features of the Mississippi, but destitute of the gentleness
characteristic of the latter in many places. The obstructions to the
navigation of the Missouri, although they are of the same character
with those of the Mississippi, are far more numerous and formidable
than those of the latter. The channel is rendered exceedingly
intricate by means of sand-bars and islands, and the navigation in many
places is very hazardous, on account of the multiplicity of rafts,
mags, sand-bars, &c. with which the channel is beset. No part of the
river is exempt from these obstructions for any considerable distance,
particularly when the water is low.

As this river in connexion with some of its principal tributaries
traverses a considerable variety of climates, embracing more than ten
degrees of latitude, a succession of spring freshets invariably takes
place, and maintains an elevated stage of water from the breaking up
of winter early in March, to the middle, and sometimes the last of
July, when the summer freshet, yielded by the most northerly of its
tributaries, takes place. During this period there is a sufficient
depth to admit boats of almost any burthen; but during the residue of
the year it can hardly be called navigable, except for boats drawing no
more than twenty-five or thirty inches. The river is usually blocked up
with ice during the winter season. The average velocity of its current,
in a middling stage of water, may be estimated at four miles and one
third. In time of a high freshet it moves with an {260} accelerated
velocity, equal to five or five and half miles per hour.

The Ohio river, as before hinted, differs from those just described,
in the rapidity of its current, the width of its bed, the character
of its channel, and in several other respects; but as its general
character is well known, a few remarks in relation to it will here
suffice. The obstructions to its navigation are sand-bars, some few
rafts and mags, and rapids, to which the intricacy of its channel in
several places may be added. During a middle and high stage of water,
the obstructions entirely disappear, and an accelerated current is the
only difficulty to be encountered. The average velocity of the current,
in a moderate stage of water, may be estimated at two miles and a half,
and in a high stage, at three miles per hour. The season in which the
navigation of the Ohio can be relied on, commences between the middle
of February and first of March, and continues to the latter part of
June. A fall freshet usually takes place in October or November, and
the river is again navigable for a few weeks. During the rest of the
year, boats of inconsiderable burthen meet with numerous obstructions
in their progress from the lowness of the water, and in many places
no channel can be found of sufficient depth to admit their passage.
At the distance of about seventeen miles from its mouth is the first
serious obstruction to its navigation, consisting of a limestone bar
extending across the river, denominated the Big Chain. Three miles
above is another of a similar description. The range of rocks, of which
these appear to be a portion, seems to extend across the point of land
situated between the Ohio and Mississippi, presenting itself again on
the latter, at the Big and Little Chains before mentioned. The falls
of the Ohio at Louisville are impassable for boats of burthen, except
in the higher stages of the water. Le Turt's Falls, and {261} numerous
other rapids, denominated ripples, are also impassable for boats of
heavy burthen when the river is at its lowest stages. In this state the
river is fordable in numberless places.


OF THE GREAT VALLEY OR BASIN OF THE MISSISSIPPI

This vast region, embracing more than twenty degrees of latitude and
about thirty of longitude, although it has been explored in various
directions by men of intelligence, is yet but imperfectly known; and
probably no country in the world affords a more ample or interesting
field for philosophic investigation. A thorough acquaintance with
its geological character would in all probability lead to the most
important conclusions in forming a correct theory of the earth, while
a knowledge of its vegetable and mineral productions may be conducive
to the comforts and enjoyments of a large portion of the human family.
All we shall presume to offer under this copious head, will be a
few general remarks relative to the position and conformation of
the valley, grounded almost exclusively upon the hydrography of the
country, so far as it has come under our observation.

The valley is bounded on the west by the Rocky Mountains, on the
east and south-east by the Alleghanies, and on the south by the Gulf
of Mexico. To the northward, no precise limits can be assigned as
its boundary. Although many have supposed that the waters of the
Mississippi are separated from those running north-westwardly into the
Pacific Ocean, and north-eastwardly into the Atlantic, by a mountainous
range of country, yet, from the best information that can be had on
the subject, the fact is quite otherwise. The old and almost forgotten
statement of savage origin, viz. that "four of the largest rivers on
the continent have their sources in the same plain," is entitled to
far more {262} credit. The rivers alluded to are the Mississippi,
the St. Lawrence, the Saskashawin, and the Oregon or M'Kenzie's
river. Agreeably to the accounts of Colonel Dixon and others who have
traversed the country situated between the Missouri and the Assinaboin,
a branch of Red river of Hudson's Bay, no elevated ridge is to be
met with; but, on the contrary, tributaries to both these streams
take their rise in the same champaign, and wind their way in various
directions to their far distant estuaries. Judging from the maps that
have been given of the country near the sources of the Mississippi, and
of the region generally situated northwardly of the great lakes, as
also from the accounts of various travellers who have penetrated many
parts of those countries, the same remarks appear equally applicable
to a large portion of the whole. The watercourses are represented as
chains of lakes of various magnitudes, while lakes and stagnant pools
are scattered in almost every direction, without ridges or perceptible
declivities to show the direction in which they are drained. But we
forbear to enlarge on this subject, and beg leave that reference
may be had to Bouchette's map of the region of which we have just
been treating, as a document containing ample illustrations of our
opinion. Hence it will be inferred that the valley of the Mississippi
is merely a portion of an immense region of valley or flat country,
extending from the Gulf of Mexico north-eastwardly to the Atlantic, and
north-westwardly to the Pacific Ocean.

Within the valley or region drained by the Mississippi, are situated no
less than three distinct ranges of mountainous country, the localities
of which we will attempt to point out. The first and most considerable
is a range of mountains commencing within the Spanish province of
Texas, and stretching in a north-eastward direction, till it is
terminated by the high lands on the lower part of the Missouri river.
To this range we have given the name of the Ozark {263} Mountains, an
appellation by which the Arkansa river was formerly distinguished, as
also the tribe of Indians, since denominated the Quapaws, inhabiting
near that river. Its direction is nearly parallel to that of the
Alleghanies. Its peaks and ridges are less elevated than those of the
latter, and do not present the same regularity in their arrangement.
The second is denominated the Black Hills, commencing on the South or
Padouca fork of the river Platte, at the distance of about one hundred
miles eastward of the Rocky Mountains, and stretching north-eastwardly
towards the great northerly bend of the Missouri. Of this range very
little is yet known; and the fact that there is such a range is
partially substantiated by the concurrent testimony of the traders and
hunters of the Missouri, with whom it is a noted landmark, but it is
more fully corroborated by the hydrography of the country, as may be
shown by the map.

The third is a range of hilly and broken country, commencing on the
Wisconsan near the Portage, and extending northwardly to Lake Superior.
To this range we have taken the liberty to give the name of the
Wisconsan Hills. The Ocooch and Smokey Mountains before mentioned,
are connected with this range. In its geological character, and more
especially in its metallic productions, so far as our inquiry will
enable us to decide, it appears nearly allied to the Ozark Mountains,
and circumstances are not wanting to induce the opinion, that they were
once the same continuous range. Dr. James is decidedly of opinion,
that the metalliferous region of the Mississippi, which extends from
Red river to Lake Superior in the direction of these two ranges,
strongly indicates that a continuous range, as just hinted, once had an
existence.

The Mississippi river may be regarded as occupying the lowest part
of the valley, from its great estuary, the Gulf of Mexico, to its
confluence with the Missouri and Illinois. Thence to Lake Michigan,
{264} the immediate valley of the Illinois is to be viewed as the
lowest part of the great valley under consideration. This conclusion
necessarily results from an attentive consideration of the characters
of the three rivers just mentioned. If the inclinations of the
plains down which these rivers respectively flow, be in any degree
proportionate to the velocities of their currents, the plain of the
Illinois will be found to have far the least inclination, inasmuch as
the velocity of its current is not more than one-fourth of that of
either of the others. But in order to have a more distinct view of
the matter, let us assume the parallel of latitude intersecting the
Illinois at its head, or point of confluence of the Kankakee and Des
Plaines rivers, and suppose a vertical section cut in the direction
of the parallel. Such a section would intersect the Missouri at the
distance of nearly seven hundred miles from its mouth, the Mississippi
at about two hundred and sixty, and the Illinois at two hundred and
fifty from the same point. Hence, allowing that the plains of each have
the same inclination, the point of intersection on the Missouri would
be at a greater elevation than that on the Mississippi, and that on
the Illinois would be less elevated than either. But the difference
of inclination in these plains is manifest, not only from the
comparative velocities of the several streams alluded to, but from the
circumstance, that the Illinois is destitute of any considerable rapids
throughout its whole course, whereas the Mississippi, in addition to
a current uniformly more rapid, is hurried down the De Moyen rapids,
eleven miles in length; and the Missouri, without a perversion of
terms, may be denominated a rapid throughout the distance above
specified. By a similar course of reasoning it may also be made to
appear, that the assumed point of intersection on the Illinois is less
elevated than any other point in the same parallel of latitude between
that river and Lake Erie, and even that it is somewhat lower than the
surface of {265} the lake itself; for the aggregate descent, from the
surface of Lake Michigan to the point under consideration, is evidently
greater than from the surface of the same lake to that of Lake Erie;
or, in other words, the descent of the Des Plaines, from Chicago to its
confluence with the Kankakee, is greater by a few feet than that of the
stream uniting Lakes Huron and Erie.

This view of the subject affords us a clue whereby to ascertain, with
some degree of precision, the aggregate fall of the water, from the
head of the Illinois, to the Gulf of Mexico. Agreeably to the surveys
of the Great Canal of New York, the elevation of Lake Erie above
tide-water is found to be 564 feet. Hence we may assume, in round
numbers, 450 feet as the altitude of the head of the Illinois above the
ocean.

Of the conformation of the valley in other respects, no other ideas
can be advanced but such as are suggested by a general view of the
topography of the country, and especially of the courses of the
principal rivers, as exhibited in the map of the country drained by the
Mississippi. We will only add, that the inclined plain constituting
the western side of the valley, or, in other words, the great slope
down which the Red, Canadian, Arkansa, Konzas, Platte, and other
large rivers have their courses, has probably a greater general
inclination than any other side of the valley. In forming an estimate
of the aggregate descent of this slope, commencing at tide-water,
and extending to the base of the Rocky Mountains, Pike allows 8000
feet, which probably exceeds the truth by more than one-half. We
would substitute 3000 feet as the aggregate elevation of the base of
the mountains above the ocean, and are of opinion, that this amount
rather exceeds the truth. This altitude, added to that of James's Peak
as before stated, would give for the height of that Peak above the
ocean, 11,500 feet; comparing this altitude with that of the "inferior
{266} limit of perpetual snow," as estimated by M. De Humboldt for the
latitude of 40 degrees, viz. 9846 feet above the ocean, we find the
summit of the Peak 1654 feet higher than that elevation; and judging
from appearances, this difference of altitude seemed sufficiently well
marked by the distance to which the snow extended from the summit
downward, upon the sides of the Peak, to authenticate in a good degree
the calculation above stated.

       *       *       *       *       *

The foregoing report is intended as a civil rather than a military
description of the country. For a partial description of its military
features, I beg leave to refer to my report of the 12th May, 1818, to
Brigadier General T. A. Smith, on file in the War Department.

In the performance of topographical duties I have been aided by
Lieutenants Graham and Swift, who have rendered essential service in
these and other operations. The former of these gentlemen is at present
occupied in completing the calculations upon the various astronomical
and other observations we took in connexion with our duties; the latter
is engaged in delineating the surveys made in behalf of the expedition.

The services of Captain Bell are to be recognized as highly important
and useful to the expedition, in keeping a journal of our proceedings,
and conducting detached parties whenever an occasion required. He is
now busily engaged in revising his journal, a copy of which will soon
be in readiness to be disposed of agreeably to your instructions.

The duties in the various departments of natural science were
discharged with zeal and ability by Mr. Say and Dr. James, assisted
by Mr. Peale, who was active and industrious in the collection and
preservation of such rare specimens of animals, &c. as came under our
observation. The vessel on board of which most of these specimens were
shipped {267} from New Orleans, has very lately arrived in this port,
and discharged our packages in good order. I take this opportunity to
express my acknowledgements of the politeness of her owners, Messrs.
Price and Morgan, who have kindly franked the transportation of the
collections. A catalogue, embracing the zoology of the country explored
by us, is shortly expected from Mr. Say, and shall be forwarded by the
earliest opportunity. Dr. James has been instructed also to furnish a
mineralogical and botanical catalogue, which is daily expected. Both of
these are intended as accompaniments to this report.

Mr. Seymour has taken numerous landscape views, exhibiting the
characteristic features of various parts of the country, besides many
others of detached scenery.

A map of the country situated between the meridian of Washington City
and the Rocky Mountains, shall be reported as soon as the necessary
elements and data can be compiled and the drawings executed.

                       I have the honour to be, Sir,
                            most respectfully,
                            Your obedient and humble Servant,

                                                            S. H. LONG,
                                                   Major U. S. Engineers.

  _Honourable J. C. Calhoun,
      Secretary of War._



OBSERVATIONS ON THE MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY OF A PART OF THE UNITED
STATES WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

               EXTRACTED FROM A REPORT TO MAJOR LONG[79]


The following remarks are designed to give a summary and connected
view of the facts and observations collected during the progress of
the exploring expedition, relative to the geology and mineralogy of
the several regions traversed by the party, more particularly of the
Rocky Mountains, and the western portions of the great valley of
the Mississippi. In an attempt of this kind, some difficulty arises
from the unsettled and progressive condition of geognostic science.
A nomenclature, constructed upon principles applicable to the other
branches of natural history, has been extended to this. Attempts
have been made to define classes, orders, genera, and species of
rocks; while it must be acknowledged, that the inventors of systems
have hitherto failed to point out such infallible foundations for
distinction of character as exist in the animal and vegetable kingdoms.
Among minerals, from one extreme of the series to the other, there is
a constant transition of approximating aggregates into each other.
The particles of unorganized matter, being exempt from the influence
of those peculiar laws which regulate the forms and characters of
living {272} beings, and moving in obedience only to the impulses
of attraction and affinity, arrange themselves together not always
in an invariable order, and after a permanent and unalterable type,
but are variously intermixed and confounded, as circumstances may
have variously influenced their aggregation. Definitions, it must be
acknowledged, have been constructed, strictly applicable to particular
portions of matter, which may occur under similar circumstances in
remote quarters of the globe. Fragments of granite may be found in
the Rocky Mountains of America which could not be distinguished from
the granite of Egypt, such as is seen in our collections. These
definitions, then, may be sufficient for the purposes of the naturalist
who confines his inquiries to his cabinet; but when examinations are
extended, when we approach the imaginary limits of these artificial
divisions, we not uncommonly find ourselves deserted by our boasted
distinctions and definitions. It must be evident to any person in
the slightest degree familiarized to the examination of the rocky
materials composing the earth's surface, that between any two of the
contiguous artificial divisions there is often-times no definite and
discoverable boundary. Granite must consist essentially of felspar,
quartz, and mica; so must gneiss and mica-slate; and between the two
former, it is often extremely difficult to point out the line which
shall be considered as marking the termination of the one and the
commencement of the other. It will, we think, be acknowledged, that not
one of the names applied to rocks, as constituting extensive strata,
conveys of itself a definite and satisfactory idea. Hence the necessity
which is felt, in attempting to give a detailed account of the rock
formations of any particular district, to define the names in almost
every instance of their application. If the following remarks should
on this account seem faulty, by a certain monotony and appearance of
{273} repetition, we hope there are a few, who, for the sake of the
facts detailed, will excuse any want of precision in the language which
may have necessarily resulted from the unsettled condition of the
nomenclature.

[Illustration: VERTICAL SECTION on the PARALLEL of LATITUDE 41 degrees
North

_intended as a continuation of MACLURE'S third Section from the
sea-shore to the summit of the Alleghenies_.

VERTICAL SECTION on the PARALLEL of LATITUDE 35 degrees North

_intended as a continuation of MACLURE'S fifth Section_.]

No part of the earth, it is probable, presents a greater degree of
simplicity and uniformity in the structure and conformation of its
surface than North America. The mountain ranges are here distinct,
forming each its own particular system, and preserving severally,
through their whole extent, a similarity in external appearance, as
well as in the structure and aggregation of the various rocks of which
they are composed.

The outlines of a physical delineation of the continent of North
America would present, first, the great chain of the Rocky Mountains,
evidently a continuation of the Andes of the southern hemisphere,
stretching parallel to the direction of the western coast from the
isthmus of Panama to the northern ocean. Their summits penetrating
far into the regions of perpetual winter, look down upon the vast
plains of the Mississippi and its tributaries; in which we distinguish
a comparatively inconsiderable range of rocky hills, commencing
near the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi, and running
south-west of the Gulf of Mexico, near the estuary of the Rio del
Norte. Beyond these, the surface subsides to a plain, stretching
eastward to the commencement of the great chain of the Alleghanies.
The range of the Alleghanies, far less elevated and alpine than that
of the Rocky Mountains, traverses the continent in a direction nearly
parallel to the Atlantic ocean, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the
north-east, to the confluence of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, in
the south-west. Compared to the Rocky Mountains, this range is without
summits, presenting, instead of conic peaks, long and level ridges,
rising in no point to the inferior limit of perpetual frost, and scarce
in any instance reaching that degree of {274} elevation which is
incompatible with the growth of forests.

In many particulars there is a manifest resemblance between the
Alleghanies, and the comparatively inconsiderable group known by the
name of the Ozark mountains. They are parallel in direction, making an
angle of about forty degrees with the great range of the Andes. They
agree in having their most elevated portions made up of rocks of recent
formation. It is well known, that, from the highly primitive gneiss
rock at Philadelphia, there is a gradual ascent, across strata more and
more recent, to the rocks of the coal formation, about the summit of
the Alleghanies. Whether the same thing happens in every part of the
range, our examinations have not yet been extensive enough to decide.
We know that some of the granitic mountains of New England are far
surpassed in elevation by the neighbouring hills and ridges of mica
slate, talcose rocks, or even more recent aggregates.

In the Ozark mountains, as far as they have been hitherto explored,
the granites and more ancient rocks are found at the lowest parts,
being surmounted by those of a more recent date, the newest horizontal
sandstone, and strata of compact limestone, forming the highest
summits. What we wish to remark is, that the reverse of this being the
case with the Rocky Mountains, the granite there far surpassing, both
in extent and elevation, all the other aggregates forming the central
and higher portions of all the ridges, that range has a character very
distinct from the Ozark or Alleghany mountains.

It has been suggested by Major Long, that the hydrography of the upper
portion of the Missouri seems to indicate the existence of a mountain
range, approaching that river from the south-west, near the great
northern bend, in the country of the Mandans. From Lewis and Clarke we
have also some accounts tending to the confirmation of this opinion.
Further {275} examination may perhaps prove this third range, called
the Black hills, to resemble in direction and general character the
Alleghany and Ozark mountains. The Rocky Mountains have not inaptly
been called the backbone of the continent: these three lateral ranges,
going off at an angle of about forty degrees, may with equal propriety
be called the ribs. In latitude 38° north, the eastern base of the
Rocky Mountains is found to be in about 106° west longitude: following
the same parallel of latitude eastward, you arrive at the base of
the Ozark mountains, nearly in longitude 94°. The intervening space,
occupying the extent of near twelve degrees of longitude, is a wide
and desolate plain, destitute of timber; scorched in summer by the
reverberation of the rays of the sun, howled over in winter by the
frozen west winds from the Rocky Mountains.

Though we have assumed twelve degrees of longitude as the medium width
of this great plain, it is to be remarked, that to many parts of it
our examinations have not been extended. In the latitude of 41°, no
mountain, and scarce an elevation deserving the name of a hill, occurs
between the western range of the Alleghanies and the Rocky Mountains.
But at no great distance north of this parallel, low ranges of hills
begin to appear in the region south-west of Lake Michigan; and though
too inconsiderable in point of elevation to deserve particular notice,
still they exhibit peculiar characters, which seem to designate an
intimate connection with the Ozark mountains, south of the Missouri.
The same succession of strata, the same alternation of crystalline
beds, with those of mechanical deposition, and similar depositories of
metallic ores, are observed here, as in the regions about the Merameg
and St. Francis. A marked difference is also, as we think, to be
discovered between the rocks and soils on the different sides of this
range. Of this we shall speak more {276} particularly in another place.
For our present purpose, it is sufficient to assume as a boundary
of the region we propose first to consider, a line running from the
confluence of the Arkansa and Canadian rivers on the south-west, to
the junction of the Mississippi and Wisconsan, on the north-east.
Assuming this as the direction of the range of the Ozark mountains,
it will be perceived, by examining the map, that to the north-west
of this line spreads an extensive plain, reaching to the base of the
Rocky Mountains. This plain has been crossed in three different places
by the exploring party, as already detailed in our narrative; once in
ascending by the River Platte, between latitude 40° and 41° 30´; again,
in descending the Arkansa, in 38°; and, thirdly, by the route of the
Canadian, in 34°. To the information collected in these journeys, we
have added a little from other sources; but the greater part of this
extensive region yet remains unknown.


_Of the Great Desert at the base of the Rocky Mountains_

The portion of country which we design to consider under this division
has an average width of five or six hundred miles, extending along the
base of the Rocky Mountains from north to south: as far as we have any
acquaintance with that range, consisting entirely of granitic sands, or
of secondary aggregates made up of the _detritus_ of that great chain
of primitive mountains, there seems to be a degree of propriety in
designating it by some name recognising relation to those mountains.
It has been mentioned as the "Mexican desert;" a name sufficiently
applicable, perhaps, to some portions of it, but one by no means to
be extended to every part alike, as there can be little doubt of
its occupying an extensive {277} portion of the interior of North
America. That a similar desert region exists on the western side of the
mountains, we have sufficient evidence; but whether as uninterrupted
and as extensive, we have not the means of determining.

The Jesuit Venegas, speaking of the early history of California, says
"Father Kino and his companions, after travelling thirty leagues from
San. Marcelo, came to a small rancheria (Indian village); and leaving
on the north the great mountain of Santa Clara, whose sides, for the
length of a league, are covered with pumice-stone, they arrived at the
_Sandy Waste_, on the 19th of March." Our information is, however, too
limited to justify an attempt to fix the boundaries of this desert; we
will, therefore, content ourselves with communicating the observations
our opportunities have enabled us to make.

The channel of the Missouri, near the mouth of the Platte, discloses
here and there rocks of horizontal limestone; which, from their
peculiar character, we are disposed to consider as belonging rather
to the Ozarks, than having any connection with the Rocky Mountains.
These rocks appear at the lowest parts of the valleys, and are usually
surmounted by extensive beds of soil, consisting principally of flinty
sand in the most minute state of division, but variously intermixed
with the remains of organized beings, and sometimes with calcareous
and aluminous earth. Proceeding westward, the sand becomes deeper and
more unmixed; not a rock or a stone, in place or out of place, is to
be met with for some hundreds of miles. It is believed that no rocky
bluffs appear along the valley of the Platte, within three hundred
miles of its mouth, though a small part of this distance, on the lower
portion of the river, has not hitherto been explored. The surface is
not an absolute plain, but is varied with gentle undulations, such
{278} as the draining of water, from an immense table of a light
arenaceous earth, for a succession of centuries, may be supposed to
have occasioned. The gradual intermixture of the exuviæ of animals
and vegetables, with what was formerly a pure siliceous sand, has
at length produced a soil capable of supporting a scanty growth of
grasses; now almost the only covering of these desolate regions. Scales
of mica, little particles of brownish felspar, and minute fragments of
hornblende, may here be detected in the soil.

About four hundred miles west of the mouth of the Platte, a low range
of sandstone hills crosses the country from south-west to north-east.
The strata composing these hills have no perceptible inclination, and
present appearances which indicate their deposition to have been
nearly contemporaneous to that of many of our coal formations. It has
already been suggested that this range may probably be a continuation
of the Cotes Noir, or Black hills, said to contain the sources of
the Shienne, the Little Missouri, and some branches of the Yellow
Stone.[80]

These inconsiderable hills being passed, the surface again subsides
nearly to a plain. The fine and comparatively fertile sand which
prevailed to the east of the ranges, is exchanged for a gravel made
up of rounded granitic fragments, varying in dimensions from the
size of a six-pound shot to finish sand. This great mass of granitic
fragments, evidently brought down by the agency of water from the
sides and summits of the Andes, slopes gradually from their base,
appearing, as far as examinations have extended, to correspond in some
measure, in magnitude, to the elevation and extent of that part of the
mountains opposite which it is placed. The minute particles derived
from the quartzy portions of the primitive aggregates, being least
liable to decomposition, have been carried to the greatest distance,
{279} and now form the almost unmixed soil of the eastern margin of the
great sandy desert. The central portions are of a coarser sand, with
which some particles of felspar and mica are intermixed: nearer the
mountains, pebbles and boulders become frequent, and at length almost
cover the surface of the country.

The opinion above advanced, that the great sandy desert has resulted
from the wearing down of the mountains, both before and since the
retiring of the ocean, should, perhaps, be received with some caution.
We have no foundation for the belief, but in the examinations which
enabled us to discover that the materials composing both regions are
similar in kind; that the granitic soils of the plain are precisely
such as would result from the disintegration of the rocks now existing
in the mountains; and that the numerous deep ravines and water-worn
valleys traversing the mountains in various directions, indicate the
change here supposed to have happened.

It is probable many parts of this extensive desert may differ from that
traversed by the Platte, in having the surface more or less covered
with horizontal strata of sandstone and conglomerate, instead of loose
sand and pebbles. Indeed, there are many appearances indicating that a
formation of this kind formerly extended down the Platte much farther
than at present. From the minute account given in the narrative of
the expedition, of the particular features of this region, it will be
perceived that its eastern portions bear a manifest resemblance to
the deserts of Siberia. The soils, and I believe the rocks, wherever
any occur, are saline: plants allied to chenopodium and salsola
are peculiarly abundant, as are the astragali and other herbaceous
leguminæ; while trees and forests are almost unknown.

The surface of the sandy plain rises perceptibly towards the base
of the mountains; and becoming constantly more and more undulating,
is at length broken, disclosing some cliffs and ledges of micaceous
{280} sandstone. Near the Platte this sandstone occurs in horizontal
strata, sometimes divided by the beds of the streams, and forming
low ridges parallel to the Rocky Mountains. Whether they continue in
an uninterrupted line along the base of the mountains, we have not
been able to ascertain. They are separated from the first range of
primitive, by more elevated cliffs of a similar sandstone, having
its strata in a highly inclined position. Behind these, occur lofty
but uninterrupted ranges of naked rocks, destitute of any covering
of earthy or vegetable matter, and standing nearly perpendicular. At
a distant view, they present to the eye the forms of walls, towers,
pyramids, and columns, seeming rather the effects of the most laborious
efforts of art, than the productions of nature. When surveyed from the
more elevated summits of the first granitic range, these immense strata
of sandstone standing on edge, and sometimes inclining at various
angles towards the primitive, resemble the plates of ice often seen
thrown into a vertical position in the eddies and along the banks of
rivers.

Climbing to the summits of such of these elevations as are accessible,
and crossing their stratifications towards the primitive, we observe
appearances similar to those found in the valleys, when circumstances
enable us to push our inquiries to a corresponding extent below the
surface. Having crossed the upturned margin of the whole secondary
formation which occupies the plain, and arriving at the primitive, we
find these highly inclined strata of sandstone reposing immediately
against the granite. We search in vain for any traces of those rocks
distinguished by the Wernerians as rocks of the transition period. We
also observe an entire deficiency of all those primitive strata which
the doctrine of universal formations may have taught us to look for in
approaching the granite.

The sandstone along the base of the mountains, {281} though apparently
not very recent, contains the remains of marine animals and plants,
and embraces some extensive beds of puddingstone. It may be remarked
that the sand and gravel composing these aggregates have in general
the same close resemblance to the materials of the granitic mountains,
as we have already observed in the un-cemented materials of the
plain. Indeed, it does not seem easy to determine whether the sands,
gravel-stones, and pebbles, now loosely strewed over the extensive
plains of the desert, have been brought down immediately from the
granitic mountains whence they were originally derived, or have
resulted from the disintegration of the stratified sandstone and
conglomerates deposited during a long series of ages, while the waters
of the ocean rested upon the great plain, and washed the bases of the
Rocky Mountains. The very wide and equal distribution of these sands,
in other words, the very gradual slope of the débris of the mountain,
would seem to countenance the latter supposition.

The position of the strata of sandstone varies in the distance of a
few miles from nearly horizontal to an inclination of more than sixty
degrees, and that without any very manifest change of character, or
the interposition of any other stratum. The laminæ most distant from
the primitive, occupying the eastern sides of the first elevations,
though lowest in actual elevation, may with propriety be considered
the uppermost, as resting on those beyond. At the level of the
surface of the great plain, they sink beneath the alluvial; and in
the neighbourhood of the river Platte, they are no more seen. The
uppermost are of a yellowish-gray colour; moderately fine; compact and
hard; constantly varying, however, at different points, in colour as
well as most other characters. The light-coloured varieties usually
contain small round masses about the size of a musket-ball, which
are more friable than the rock itself, {282} from which they are
easily detached, leaving cavities corresponding to their own shape
and dimensions. They are commonly of a dark-brown colour, and of a
coarser sand than that which constitutes the rock itself. Where these
are found, I could never discover any of those remains of shellfish so
distinctly seen in many of the secondary rocks in this neighbourhood.

Passing downwards, or in other words, proceeding towards the primitive,
crossing the edge of the secondary, the sandstone becomes more coarse
and friable, its colour inclining more to several shades of brown and
red. This variety contains numerous masses of iron ore, and does not
appear to abound in the remains or impressions of organized beings. It
is also less distinctly stratified than that just mentioned; and it
often becomes exceedingly coarse, with angular fragments intermixed,
being in no respect different from the rock denominated breccia, and by
some geologists considered a distinct stratum.

This tract of sandstone, which skirts the eastern boundary of the Rocky
Mountains, and appears to belong to that immense secondary formation
which occupies the valley of the Mississippi, abounds in scenery of a
grand and interesting character. The angle of inclination of the strata
often approaches 90°, and is very rarely less than 45°. That side of
the ridges next the primitive appears to have been broken off from a
part of the stratum beyond; and is usually an abrupt and perpendicular
precipice, sometimes even overhanging and sheltering a considerable
extent of surface. The face of the stratum is usually smooth and hard,
and both sides are alike destitute of soil and verdure. Elevations of
this description are met with, varying from twenty to several thousand
feet in thickness; neither are they by any means uniform in height.
Some of them rise, probably, three hundred or four hundred feet; and
considering their singular character, would appear {283} high, were
they not subjected to an immediate and disadvantageous comparison with
the stupendous Andes, at whose feet they are placed. Their summits
in some instances are regular and horizontal, and are crowned with
a scanty growth of cedar and pine. Where the cement and most of the
materials of the sandstone are siliceous, the rock evinces a tendency
to break into fragments of a rhombic form; and in this case the
elevated edge presents an irregularly notched or serrated surface.

Sandstones consisting of silex, with the least intermixture of foreign
ingredients, are the most durable. But in the region of which we
speak, the variations in the composition, cement, and characters of
the sandstone, are innumerable. Clay and oxide of iron entering into
its composition in certain proportions, seem to render it unfit to
withstand the attacks of the various agents, whose effect is to hasten
dissolution and decay. Highly elevated rocks of this description may
well be supposed in a state of rapid and perceptible change. The
sharp angles and asperities of surface which they may have originally
presented, are soon worn away; the matter constantly removed by the
agency of water from their sides and summits is deposited at their
feet; their elevation gradually diminishes, and even the inclination of
their strata becomes at length obscure or wholly undiscoverable. This
appears to have been a part of the process by which numerous conic
hills and mounds have been interspersed among the highly inclined naked
rocks above mentioned. These hills, often clothed with considerable
verdure to their summits, add greatly to the beauty of the surrounding
scenery. The contrast of colours in this rude but majestic region, is
often seen to produce the most brilliant and grateful effects. The deep
green of the small and almost procumbent cedars and junipers, with the
less intense colours of various species of deciduous foliage, acquires
new beauty from being {284} placed as a margin to the glowing red and
yellow seen in the surfaces of many of the rocks.


_Of the Sandstones of the Rocky Mountains_

Having commenced our account of the Rocky Mountains with the
consideration of that vast accumulation of rounded fragments
constituting the Great Desert, which may be reckoned the most recent
formation connected with that great range of mountains, we proceed to
speak of the sandstones, the next member in the inverted order we have
adopted; and here we take occasion to remark the peculiar grandeur and
simplicity of features which distinguish the mineral geography of this
part of our continent. We have here a stupendous chain of granitic
mountains, many hundred miles in extent, and with no stratified rocks
resting about their sides, except a few sandstones, equally granitic,
and almost equally primitive. We discover here comparatively few traces
of that magnificent profusion of animal and vegetable life, which in
other parts of the globe has reared mountains of limestone, clay-slate,
and those other aggregates, which if not entirely, are often in a great
measure, made up of the exuviæ of living beings. We shall not here
be understood to contradict the assertion we have before made, that
the sandstones along the base of the Rocky Mountains contain organized
remains, and bear abundant evidence of having been at a comparatively
recent period deposited gradually from the waters of the ocean. The
particular we wish to remark as distinguishing these mountains most
strikingly from the Alleghanies, and many other ranges, is the entire
want of the aggregates referred by the Wernerians to the transition
period, as well as nearly all the stratified primitive rocks, and the
limestones of the secondary formations.[81] This great range, as far
as hitherto known to us, lies nearly from north to south. Considered
{285} topographically, the sandstone formation belongs both to the
mountains and the plains, sloping down from the sides of the granite,
and disappearing under the sands of the Great Desert.

The western boundary of this formation of sandstone, as far as our
examinations have searched, appears to be defined, and corresponds to
the side of the easternmost granitic ranges. From the Platte towards
the south, the sandstone increases in width, and on the Canadian it
extends more than half the distance from the sources of that river to
its confluence with the Arkansa. This sandstone formation we consider
as consisting essentially of two members.

1st. _Red sandstone._--This rock, which is the lowest of the horizontal
or fletz rocks met with in this part of the country, is very abundant
in all the region immediately subjacent to the Rocky Mountains. We have
never met with a similar rock in the eastern part of the valley of the
Mississippi. It occurs at intervals along the base of the mountain,
reposing against the primitive rocks, in an erect or highly inclined
position. It varies in colour from bright brick red, to dark brown; and
is sometimes found exhibiting various shades of yellow and gray. It is,
however, almost invariably ferruginous; and the predominance of red
in the colouring certainly entitles it to the distinctive appellation
of red sandstone. The lowest part of the stratum has frequently least
colour, and is also the most compact and hard. This is not, however,
invariably the case; for in the neighbourhood of the Platte, that part
of it which lies immediately upon the granite is white, and contains
beds of coarse conglomerate or puddingstone. At the lowest points we
have been able to examine, are found embodied large oval or irregular
masses of hornstone, usually of a yellowish-white, or bluish colour;
and near the surface of these masses are found the few well-marked
organic relics the stratum can be said to contain. Higher {286} up
the rock becomes much softer, and usually of a browner colour. It is
disposed in immense horizontal laminæ or strata, which, when broken
transversely, exhibit some tendency to separate into fragments of a
rhombic form. Near the upper part of the stratum are frequently seen
broad belts of a lighter colour, conspicuously marked with reticulating
yellowish veins. The cross fracture of the stone is even and earthy,
except in the conservatories. When divided in a direction parallel to
that of the strata, small scales of mica are seen; but this is usual
only in those parts of the stone where natural seams or fissures
existed. Small specimens from many parts of this stratum could not be
distinguished from the red sandstone quarried at Nyae in New Jersey,
and used in great quantities in the cities of New York, Albany, &c.
for building. The character which most particularly distinguishes this
rock from "the old red sandstone of Werner," pointed out by Maclure
in New York and New Jersey, appears to be the constant accompaniment
of gypsum, and muriate of soda; the colour of the stratum is also in
general of a brighter red, approaching vermilion, and is more copiously
imparted to such streams of water as traverse it.

2d. _Argillaceous or gray sandstone._--Immediately above the red
sandstone, we have invariably found, where any rock rests upon it,
a grayish or yellowish-white sandstone, which we distinguish as
the second variety. It most frequently contains a large proportion
of argillaceous earth in the cement, and has a more or less slaty
structure. Hence it may with propriety be denominated argillaceous
sandstone, though it may in some respects differ from the rock known
to many by that name. This variety being uppermost in actual position,
is perhaps more frequently seen than the other, while at the same
time it is probably less abundant. The line of separation betwixt the
two is often manifest and well defined; and in other instances, they
pass by imperceptible gradations into each other. {287} The upper, or
gray sandstone, is usually more compact and homogenous than the red;
it breaks like the other, though more rarely, into large cubic or
rhombic masses, which, on account of the more compact texture of the
stone, retain their form longer than those of the other variety. The
precipices formed by both are often lofty and perpendicular; but the
projections and angles of the red are more worn and rounded than those
of the gray. The narrow defiles and ravines which the streams of water
have excavated, are less tortuous when they are made entirely in the
gray sandstone, than in other instances. The springs of water flowing
from it are more free of mineral impregnations, than such as are found
in the other variety. It sometimes consists of glittering crystalline
particles, but does not in this case appear to be a chymical deposit.
In fine, it appears under an endless variety of characters, of which
it would be in vain to attempt the enumeration. Although the gray
sandstone is not invariably distinguished by the presence of an
argillaceous ingredient, yet it is constantly found accompanying soft
clay-slate, or bituminous shale and coal, wherever these last are met
with.

If this formation of sandstone, consisting of the two varieties just
mentioned, ever extended across the valley of the Mississippi to the
Alleghany mountains, as some might be disposed to believe, we cannot
pretend to determine what was its position relative to the immense
masses of fletz, limestone, and other rocks now found in that valley.
But as the red variety is still extensively disseminated, and usually
accompanied by those valuable substances, salt and plaister, it may
not be amiss to trace, as far as our examinations have enabled us
to do it, the outline of the region which it occupies. As we have
before mentioned, it is found in the vicinity of the river Platte,
in a highly inclined position, covering a narrow margin immediately
at the foot of the Rocky Mountains. {288} From the accounts of Lewis
and Clarke, we are induced to believe that it exists under similar
circumstances, near the falls of the Missouri. On the Canadian it is
constantly met with, from the sources of that river on the borders of
New Mexico, near Santa Fé, 106° west, until you arrive within a short
distance of its confluence with the Arkansa, in long. 97° west. The
waters of the Canadian, from flowing over the sandstone in question,
acquire an intense red colour, and are so impregnated with muriate
of soda and other soluble salts as to be unfit for use. This, we are
credibly informed, is also the case with the waters of three small
rivers tributary to the Arkansa, above the Canadian, on the same side;
also with the waters of Red river. Hence the conclusion appears to be
justified, that this rock extends from near the Arkansa on the north,
to a point beyond Red river on the south; and from near the mouth of
the Canadian, an unknown distance to the west. It is not unlikely it
may exist about the sources and upper branches of the Rio Colorado of
California, the Red river of Santa Fé, and the other Red rivers of New
Mexico. Near the mountains, and for a great distance to the south and
east of the High Peak, it is covered by the gray sandstone already
mentioned. This gray sandstone is the uppermost of those horizontally
stratified rocks which are seen in this region, possessing convincing
evidence of their being the deposition of an ocean or lake of salt
water.

Perhaps the most striking feature of this formation of sandstone, is
the great and abrupt change in the inclination of the strata in the
parts near the granite. We have already described this in a manner
sufficiently explicit, as we suppose, to convince most of our readers
that since the deposition of the sandstones, a signal change must have
happened in the elevation of the secondary aggregates as compared
with the granite. The appearances are precisely {289} such as we must
suppose would have ensued, had the sudden emerging of the granite
broken off, and thrown into an inclined or vertical position the margin
of the horizontally stratified rocks of the plains. We are conscious
that inclined strata of sandstone are by no means infrequent about the
declivities of lofty mountains, but we are not well assured that the
same strata being traced to a little distance, are often found in a
horizontal position in the plains, as is the case in the instance under
consideration.

It may perhaps be thought possible that the gradual wearing away, by
the agency of rivers, of some portions of the sandstone, may have been
sufficiently extensive to have occasioned that change of elevation
of which we speak; and that those rocks now found in an inclined
position, are insulated portions of what was formerly the upper part
of the stratum, which having been undermined on their eastern side,
and supported by the granite on their western, have fallen into their
present situation.

This supposition, however, seems incompatible with the vast magnitude
and extent of these rocks, and entirely irreconcilable to the fact that
they dip to a great and indefinite extent below the present level of
any of the beds of the river.

The position of this formation in relation to the granite is similar
to that of the sandstone of Guachaco, in South America, observed by
Humboldt; also to that spoken of by Mr. Burkhardt, at the entrance of
Nubia, superimposed upon the granite of Syene, and to that mentioned
by Mr. Schoolcraft, as found near Lake Superior, but it does not
appear that those formations have the same peculiarities in regard to
inclination.


FLETZ TRAP ROCKS

Another family of rocks, of recent formation, and connected with the
sandstone last mentioned, remains to be noticed.

{290} These are rocks of basaltic conformation, belonging to the
class, by some mineralogists denominated superincumbent rocks, and by
many considered of volcanic origin. They present a striking contrast,
by their dark colour, by the vastness and irregularity of their
masses, to the smooth, light, and fissile sandstone on which they
rest. Sometimes they are observed compact and apparently homogeneous
in their composition, and in many particulars of structure, form,
hardness, &c. seeming more analogous to the primitive rocks than to
those recent secondary aggregates with which they are associated. In
other instances, black and formless masses of porous and amygdaloidal
substances are seen scattered about the plains or heaped in conic
masses, but having no immediate connection with the strata on which
they rest. Most of the rocks belonging to this class were observed
in the neighbourhood of the sources of the Canadian. Among them we
distinguish two kinds, referable to the two divisions called greenstone
and amygdaloid.

1. _Greenstone_, JAMESON.--It appears in the limited district we
examined under almost every variety of form and character noticed
by mineralogists. Sometimes it is nearly or quite free from any
intermixture of hornblende, is of a fine dark green colour, and
closely resembles some varieties of serpentine. Sometimes its colour
is a dull gray, graduating into brown and black of various shades and
intensities. It forms numerous conic hills of considerable elevation,
scattered without order, or grouped in various directions. These
hills are usually of a regular and beautiful form. The great plain on
which they are based is elevated and destitute of timber or water,
but ornamented with a carpet of thick and verdant grasses. The hills,
though steep and high, are sometimes smooth and green to the summit,
the surface on all sides being unbroken by trees or rocks, and covered
with thick turf. The whole forms a scene of singular {291} beauty.
During our journey across the district, based upon the rocks now under
consideration, we had constantly occasion to admire the freshness
and abundance of the grasses and other herbaceous plants. The plains
of the Platte and Arkansa we had seen brown and desolate, as if
recently ravaged by fire; but here we passed elevated tracts, where,
for many miles, we could find no water for our own necessities, yet
the vegetation possessed the freshness of spring in the most fertile
regions. But the conic hills just mentioned, are not invariably the
form under which the greenstone appears. It sometimes rises in low
irregular ridges, extending a considerable distance, and sloping on
both sides into the level of the plain.

In the narrow channels which the streams of water have sunk in it,
may be seen perpendicular precipices of great elevation, but the
valley between them is usually almost filled with large broken masses
of the rock, which frequently exhibit a prismatic form. It falls
readily into large masses, but seems strongly to resist that progress
of disintegration which it must undergo before it can be removed
by the water. The face of the perpendicular precipices are almost
invariably marked by distinct and large seams running nearly parallel
to each other, and at right angles with the horizon. Following the
watercourses, which are sunk considerable distance below the surface,
the line of separation from the sandstone on which the greenstone
rests, at length becomes visible on account of the descent of the
surface.

2. _Amygdaloid_, KIRWAN, JAMESON.--We apply this name to a porous
or vesicular rock, of a very dark gray, greenish or black colour,
usually found near the greenstone, but sometimes in connection with the
sandstone. In its ultimate composition it resembles greenstone, but we
have never seen in it such large fragments of felspar and scales of
mica, as are observed in that rock. The amygdaloidal {292} cavities
which every where penetrate this rock, are of various sizes, some of
them appearing like bubbles which have been formed in a semifluid mass,
and afterwards lengthened and variously distorted by the motions of
the contiguous matter. Near the surface they contain a soft white, or
yellowish white substance, very different from the rock itself, usually
a soft chalk-like carbonate of lime. This gives the recent surface a
mottled appearance. In surfaces which have been for some time exposed
to the air, this soft substance has been removed, and the pores and
vesicles are found empty.

Amygdaloid does not appear to occupy any very great extent of the
country near the Rocky Mountains. We have not met with it imbedded in,
or surmounted by any other rock. Like the greenstone, it forms conic
hills which sometimes occur in deep water-worn vallies, bounded on
both sides by perpendicular walls of sandstone. It is likewise seen in
the high plains, sometimes in the form of narrow and crooked ridges,
apparently following what were anciently the beds of small brooks. Some
very high and sharp conic hills were visible to the westward, but at a
great distance. Two of this kind which stand near each other, and seem
to be detached from the primitive mountains, are called the Spanish
peaks, and at the end of July, snow was still to be seen on them.

When either of the two rocks last mentioned occur, it is not uncommon
to find detached masses of a stone somewhat resembling the pumice-stone
of commerce. It is usually of a faint red, or yellowish white colour,
but sometimes it is brown, or nearly black. It feels less harsh than
the pumice-stone which is used in the arts, and seems to consist in
a great degree of clay. It appears to be entirely similar to the
substance brought down the Missouri by the annual floods, and by many
considered as a {293} product of pseudo-volcanic fires, said to exist
on that river.

With regard to the soils resting upon the rocks of this trap formation,
it may be worthy of remark, that gravel and water-worn pebbles rarely
occur, except in situations where it is easy to see they may have
been derived from the substratum of sandstone. We are not disposed to
enter into any discussion concerning the origin of the trap rocks. The
volcanists, and those who believe the trap formations to have been
thrown up in a state of fusion from beneath the crust of the earth,
will have an easy method of accounting for a fact mentioned in our
journal, namely, that pieces of charred wood were found enclosed in
the sandstone underlying the formation in question. Though we sought
in vain for some evidence that the rocks of this formation traversed
the strata of sandstone in the manner of the whin dikes of England,
we are conscious our examinations were far too limited to justify us
in asserting that this is not the case; nor can we adduce a single
fact from which it could be inferred that these basaltiform rocks
have been deposited, like the accompanying strata of sandstone, from
suspension in water. The country occupied by this formation, exhibits
scenery of a very peculiar and interesting character. It is remarked
by Humboldt,[82] that "in the Canary islands, in the mountains of
Auvergne, in the Mittelgebirge, in Bohemia, in Mexico, and on the banks
of the Ganges," and we may add, in the United States, the formation
of trap is indicated by a symmetrical disposition of the mountains
by truncated cones, sometimes insulated, sometimes grouped, and by
elevated plains, both extremities of which are crowned by a conical
rising. In some of the unpublished drawings by Mr. Seymour, these
peculiar {294} features of the scenery of the fletz trap formation,
have been preserved.


RECAPITULATION

The secondary formations along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains,
are:

1st. _Red Sandstone_--Rests immediately upon the granite, is rather
indistinctly stratified; strata sometimes inclined and sometimes
horizontal; abounds in gypsum, salt, and iron, but exhibits no
indications of coal.

2d. _Argillaceous_, or _Gray Sandstone_--Overlays the red, conforming
to it in the inclination of the strata, occurs principally near the
primitive; contains coal and iron.

3d. _Greenstone_ and _Graystone_[83]--Of an imperfectly columnar
structure, resting on the argillaceous sandstone.

4th. _Amygdaloid_--Sometimes containing argil, and sometimes
hornblende, occurs with the greenstone about the sources of the
Canadian river, constituting with the former the newest fletz trap
formation.

5th. _Sand_ and _Gravel_--Accompanying the sandstones and extending
over the great desert, but rarely found resting on the trap rocks.

The sandstones being entirely mechanical aggregates, consisting
of rounded fragments of rocks formerly constituting a part of the
primitive mountains, would seem to have been deposited at a very remote
period, when the waters of the primeval ocean covered the level of the
great plain and the lower regions of the granitic mountains.

Subsequent to the deposition of the horizontally stratified rocks,
the position of these in relation to the primitive, has been somewhat
changed either by the action of some force beneath the primitive
rocks, {295} forcing them up to a greater elevation than they formerly
possessed, or by the sinking down of the secondary, produced by the
operation of some cause equally unknown. Without supposing some
change of this kind, how can we account for the great inclination of
the margin of the sandstone rocks which is found resting against the
granite almost perpendicularly? Nearly contemporaneous to this change,
was the retiring of the sea, and the formation of the trap rocks. The
beds of loose sand and gravel which are still constantly accumulating,
have been formed in part from the disintegration of the sandstones and
puddings, and partly by the action of those currents of water which are
constantly bringing down small fragments from the primitive rocks, and
depositing them in the plains.

The absence of any formation of limestone is a distinguishing
characteristic of the country under consideration. A traveller to the
upper part of the Missouri mentions "calcareous and petrosiliceous
hills," as existing in the coal districts on that river. But in
ascending the Platte from its confluence with the Missouri to the
mountains, we saw not a single fragment of limestone. Small veins
of carbonate of lime crystallized in the usual form, are met with
in the argillaceous sandstone of the Arkansa, also the sulphate in
small quantities. Gypsum is very abundant on the Canadian river, at
a distance of three or four hundred miles from the mountains. It is
disseminated in veins and thick horizontal beds in the red sandstone.
The extent and thickness of these horizontal beds are, perhaps, such as
would justify the appellation of stratum, but as it is not met with in
great quantities, except in connection with the sandstone, with which
it often alternates, it may with propriety be considered a subordinate
rock.

_Rock Salt._--This substance has often been said to exist in some
part of upper Louisiana, in the form of {296} an extensive stratum:
we have met with salt among the natives in masses of twenty or thirty
pounds weight. The interior of these masses when broken, presented a
crystalline structure, being made up of incomplete cubic crystals
variously grouped together. On one of the surfaces, which had probably
been the one in contact with the ground or rock on which the salt had
rested, a considerable mixture of red sand was discoverable. These
masses had apparently been produced by the evaporation, during the dry
season, of the waters of some small lake. The whole country near the
mountains abounds in licks, brine springs, and saline efflorescences,
but it is in the neighbourhood of the red sand-rock before mentioned,
that salt is met with in the greatest abundance and purity. The
immediate valley of the Canadian river in the upper part of its course,
varies in width from a few rods to three or four miles, but it is
almost invariably bounded by precipices of red sand-rock, forming "the
river bluffs." In the valley between these, incrustations of nearly
pure salt are often found, covering the surface to a great extent,
in the manner of thin ice, and causing it to appear when seen from a
distance, as if covered with snow.

Most of the remarkable formations of rock-salt hitherto known, have
been found in the stratum denominated "the lowest red sand rock,"
which appears to correspond in character, position, &c. with the
sandstone above mentioned. Rock salt is found in connection with this
sandstone in Cheshire, and at Northwich and Droitwich, in England, at
Cardona in the province of Catalonia in Spain, and at the base of the
Carpathian mountains in Moldavia and Poland. In Peru it is accompanied
by sandstone and gypsum.

Accident, or further examination, it is probable, may hereafter bring
to light those extensive beds of {297} this substance, which there is
reason to believe exist in the neighbourhood of the Rocky Mountains.
The briny character of those great streams, the Arkansa and Red rivers,
flowing over the red sandstone formation, and receiving from it the
peculiar character and colour of their waters, affords sufficient
evidence of the existence of such beds, and the greatness of the
quantity washed away in any given time, would lead to the conclusion,
that they must be of vast extent. By the analogy of other rock salt
formations apparently similar in character, we should be instructed
to search for these beds in depressed situations and basin-shaped
cavities, whose contents had not been worn down and removed by the
currents of water.

Other secondary rocks found in different parts of the great valley
of the Mississippi will be noticed hereafter. Those above enumerated
seem to have a peculiar dependence upon the Rocky Mountains, and for
this reason, we thought proper to consider them in connection with
that range; they also appear to be, in some measure, independent of
the other members of that great secondary formation on the borders of
which they occur. The peculiar features of the region occupied by these
rocks have been minutely described in the narrative of our journey. It
is a region unfitted by the barrenness of its soil, the inhospitable
character of its climate and other physical disadvantages, to become
the residence of a permanent and numerous population. The immense
grassy plains of the southern and eastern portions are adapted to the
feeding of cattle and horses; and it is not improbable the countless
herds of bisons and wild horses will soon give place to domesticated
animals. The coal, salt, plaster, and iron, which constitute the
mineral wealth of this portion of the United States' territory, lose
much of their value on account of their remoteness from navigable
streams. Beautiful carnelions and agates occur in the alluvial regions
of {298} the Platte and the Missouri; but these will never become
objects of any importance.


_Of the Ozark Mountains_

Leaving the newest fletz trap rocks, about the sources of the Canadian,
and returning eastward along the great woodless plain between the
Arkansa and Red rivers, we find an extensive tract occupied exclusively
by the red sandstone of the salt formation. This rock, as we have
already remarked, is constantly accompanied by gypsum and muriate of
soda. The red and somewhat argillaceous soil which results from its
disintegration is far more fertile than that of the gravelly plains of
the Platte, being often covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses, and
affording pasturage to great numbers of herbivorous animals.

About one hundred and fifty miles west from the confluence of the
Arkansa and Canadian, this red sandstone is discontinued, being
succeeded, or perhaps overlaid by an extensive coal formation. The
argillaceous sandstone of this formation assumes various characters at
different points. The Falls of the Canadian, particularly described in
our narrative, are occasioned by a small ridge of fine argillaceous
sandstone of a deep green colour, crossing the bed of the river
obliquely. The coal beds in this region are of great thickness, and
are apparently extensive and numerous. This formation appears, in a
great measure, unconnected with the coal strata along the base of the
Rocky Mountains, and the sandstone of the two districts are often
remarkably dissimilar. Though the strata in both instances are nearly
horizontal, the formation at the base of the Rocky Mountains must have
an actual elevation greatly surpassing that of the district now under
consideration. For these reasons, we have been induced to consider
{299} this as belonging to the small group of mountains we have already
had frequent occasion to mention, and which have received from Major
Long, the name of Ozark mountains. These we shall now proceed to
describe, according to the information in our possession.

From an inspection of the map annexed to this work, it will be
perceived that the course of the Missouri, below the mouth of the
Konzas, is considerably inflected to the east, in order to pass round
the end of a range of hills, rising in the angle between this river and
the Mississippi. This range increases in elevation for some distance
to the south-west, its highest point being somewhere near the sources
of the White and Osage rivers, the two most considerable streams
originating in these mountains. Farther to the south-west, losing a
part of its elevation, it is traversed in succession by the Arkansa and
Red rivers from the west, and gives origin to the Washita, the Sabine,
and some other rivers of inconsiderable magnitude. Our acquaintance
with the country between Red river and the Rio del Norte is too
imperfect to enable us to trace particularly the continuation of the
Ozark mountains, which is believed to extend to that river, and to have
some connection with its great southern bend, below the confluence of
the Rio Conchos. We will, therefore, at present, confine our attention
to that portion north-east of Red river. Though there is no point
of great elevation in any part of the range, the whole is truly a
mountainous region, and well entitled to a distinctive appellation. Its
parallelism in general direction to the Atlantic coast, and the great
chain of the Alleghanies, as well as the character and inclination of
its component strata, afford unequivocal indication that it belongs
to a different system from the great chain of the Rocky Mountains. In
several particulars, there is a striking resemblance between this range
and the Alleghanies, {300} and in some, as we shall notice hereafter,
as manifest a dissimilarity.

Near the western limits of the coal formation, which are also the
limits of the mountainous countries on the Canadian and Arkansa,
compact limestone occurs for the first time (as far as our acquaintance
extends) on this side the Rocky Mountains. This formation of limestone,
and the accompanying strata of argillaceous sandstone, though they
do not, perhaps, always strictly coincide in position, may be traced
far to the north; and these we consider as marking the western limits
of the Ozark mountains. It is to be remarked, however, that in
these observations, we do not intend to apply this name with strict
geographical precision to those portions only which are sufficiently
elevated to be called mountains; but so far to extend its signification
as to include not only the high and broken ridges, but several less
elevated tracts possessing the same peculiar mineralogical features.

The few facts and observations we have it in our power to contribute
towards an account of this interesting range, were collected during
a pedestrian excursion from Bainbridge on the Mississippi, through
the country of the lead-mines, at the sources of the Merameg and
St. Francis, and a journey from Belle Point, by the way of the hot
springs of the Washita, and the upper settlements of White river,
to Cape Girardeau. For many important facts we are indebted to Major
Long's unpublished journals of tours in various parts of the region in
question, and to Mr. Nuttall's "Travels into the Arkansa Territory."

_Compact Limestone._--We commence with the consideration of this
stratum, as it is one of frequent occurrence, and perhaps occupies a
greater extent of surface than any other. It so frequently alternates
with the micaceous sandstones, and with the peculiar flint-rock of
this district, that we have never been able to devise any theory
of arrangement {301} which appeared applicable to more than an
inconsiderable extent of territory.

A few miles west of the Rapids of the Canadian, a thin stratum of
compact limestone, of the common blue variety, and abounding in
organized remains, overlays the argillaceous sandstone of the coal
formation. This limestone becomes more abundant towards the south,
and is the prevailing rock on that part of Red river, near the
confluence of the Kiamesha.[84] At Cape Girardeau, in the country a
few miles in the rear of Herculaneum and St. Genevieve, and in many
places throughout the district of the lead-mines, there is a coarse
crystalline limestone, of a light gray colour, which is usually
the lowest rock exposed in those places. It is very indistinctly
stratified, and has in many respects a considerable resemblance to
the more crystalline varieties of primitive limestone: for such it
appears to have been mistaken by Mr. Schoolcraft, who, in his work on
the lead-mines, asserts that the "mineral soil at Mine a Burton, and
the numerous mines in its vicinity, reposes on primitive limestone,"
page 108. Afterwards, at page 119., speaking of this same primitive
limestone, he says, "On going deeper, the rock again graduated into a
compact limestone, very hard, and of a bluish gray colour, in which
were frequently found small cavities studded over with minute pyramids
of limpid quartz." And again, at the page first referred to, he informs
us, "The primitive limestone passes into transition, and secondary, in
various places on the banks of the Mississippi, between Cape Girardeau,
and Saint Louis." We adduce these statements as confirming our own
observations of the alternation of the _crystalline_ or _sparry_
limestone, with the compact blue variety; but as we have examined with
great care several of the places mentioned by Mr. Schoolcraft, and many
others apparently similar, we are disposed to think he has mistaken
the character of the rock. We have never met with any {302} limestone
about the lead-mines which did not contain organized remains; and the
white crystalline variety abounds particularly in casts of encrinites,
though these are not always manifest without careful examination.

This limestone, though rather indistinctly stratified, is marked by
horizontal seams, distant one or two feet, and sometimes more, from
each other. Its exposed surface becomes somewhat bleached and rough
with small prominences, in which we may often distinctly trace the
forms of animal remains. The recent fracture is uneven, distinctly
crystalline, and much like that of many moderately fine-grained
granites. Careful examination shows that in many instances the most
minute particles visible under a lens, have assumed the rhombic form
so common to the carbonate of lime. These crystalline particles vary
greatly in size, and are sometimes half an inch across. In the interior
of the casts of animal remains, they are sometimes less distinct than
in parts of the rock where no such remains are discovered.

These vast beds of sparry limestone, made up almost exclusively of
deposits from chymical solution, would seem to have been formed during
periods when great tranquillity prevailed in the waters of the primeval
ocean; and their alternation with limestones of the common earthy
variety, and with sandstones made up of fragments rounded by attrition,
may be considered as proofs that those periods, whatever may have been
their distinguishing peculiarity, alternated with other periods of a
different character.

This variety of limestone is perhaps the lowest rock hitherto
noticed in the country of the lead-mines, and it may, according to
the suggestion of Schoolcraft, be considered as the basis rock in
that district; but as it certainly passes through every intermediate
variety into the compact blue limestone, there seems to be no propriety
in separating it from that rock, which often overlays the newest
sandstones. If this view of the subject be admitted, it results that
we are to consider {303} the whole of that part of the Ozark mountains
which contains the lead-mines as belonging to a coal formation. We have
met with nothing north of the Arkansa which appears to us to have any
claim to be considered as belonging to the class of primitive rocks.

Mr. Schoolcraft informs us, that granite, gneiss, and mica slate exist
in Missouri, but has omitted to point out the particular localities.
See Views of the Lead Mines, page 92.

At St. Louis, Cote sans Dessein, Isle a Loutre, and at many points
on the Missouri, the limestone partakes of the character of both
the varieties above mentioned, but is rarely if ever so exclusively
crystalline as in the lead-mine district. Most of the limestones
between Franklin on the Missouri, and the Council bluffs, are
distinctly crystalline, and are usually of a yellowish or reddish white
colour.

The horizontal limestone near the mouth of the Ohio, is of a bluish
gray colour, of a compact or fine granular structure, and contains some
metallic ores often occurring in veins of beautifully crystallized
fluat of lime. Near some of these localities of fluat of lime, we have
observed the rock itself to contain small and apparently water-worn
masses of hornstone, and some fragments of a perfectly white granular
limestone.

_Petrosilex._--In the vicinity of Bainbridge, ten miles above Cape
Girardeau, is a stratified gray flint rock very similar in aspect, and
having nearly a similar fracture to the common gun-flint. This rock
is here an extensive stratum, and occurs in connection with compact
limestone. In tracing it towards the south-west, we have not been
able to detect the slightest interruption to its continuity through
an extent of more than two hundred miles along the central portion
of the mountainous district. Towards the south-west it is found to
acquire gradually a more and more primitive character, and losing,
near the Chattahoocke mountain the accompanying stratum {304} of
compact limestone, it appears near the hot springs of the Washita,
associated with the highly inclined argillite of that district. This
rock, as far as our limited observations have extended, exhibits no
traces of organized remains. Its colour seems gradually to change
according to its age, or at least with the apparent age of the rocks
associated with it. South of the Arkansa it is of a yellowish or
pearly white colour; about White river, it is a dirty yellow, and at
the St. Francis a grayish brown. A corresponding change may also be
noticed in the inclination of the strata, and in other particulars.
Aside from this apparently intimate connection there is a particular
resemblance between the petrosilex of the Washita, and the flint rock
of the lead-mine district. The rock in both instances falls readily
into small masses of a few ounces weight. The hills it forms have
usually a rounded outline, and often bear open forests of pine, while
the timber on the sandstone hills is usually oak. Open woods of pine
and oak occur in almost all the uplands in the Ozark mountains, and are
considered unfailing indications of a meagre and flinty soil.

_Argillaceous Sandstone._--The sandstones of this small group of
mountains appear under almost every variety of character, but in most
of them, as far as hitherto examined, we discover traces of coal or of
those minerals and organized remains which usually accompany it. In
the inclined sandstone near the hot springs, there are, it is true, no
indications of coal; and that rock is in every respect similar to what
are called the transition sandstones of the Alleghany and Coatskill
mountains, but by following it an inconsiderable distance either east
or west, it is found passing imperceptibly into the coal strata of the
Poteau, and of the Little Red river of White river. In this instance,
as in that of the stratum last mentioned, we find a rock apparently
possessing as much unity as can belong to such a subject, passing from
{305} recent _secondary_ down, through all the intermediate grades, to
the oldest _transition_, and thus heaping confusion upon our doctrines
of the original continuity and systematic succession of strata.

A conspicuous character in the sandstones about the central and western
portions of the region under consideration, is the great proportion of
mica, in large scales, which enters into their composition. Fragments
of the sand-rock, about the mouth of the Poteau, might be mistaken for
mica slate. This mica is rarely if ever of that dark coloured variety
which prevails in the Rocky Mountains; and in the other materials of
these aggregates, there is a manifest want of resemblance to those
mountains. A very slight comparison of the secondary formations at the
base of the Rocky Mountains, with the similar aggregates in the Ozark
range, will be sufficient to convince any one that they have resulted
from the wearing down of primitive mountains, very dissimilar in
character to each other.

We might have remarked, when speaking of the Rocky Mountains, the
absence of any formation of talcose rocks, and indeed of magnesian
fossils of any kind, and a corresponding deficiency of talcose and
chloritic sandstones among the secondary rocks. We no sooner arrive at
the western margin of the secondary belonging to the Ozark mountains,
than we meet with extensive beds of sandstone, in which the prevalence
of magnesia forms a conspicuous character. The beautiful argillaceous
chlorite sandstone at the rapids of the Canadian, has been already
described, and similar beds are not uncommon in many places in the
vicinity of extensive depositions of coal.

Another peculiar variety of sandstone occurs, in connection with the
sulphuret of lead, at the old mines of St. Michael, and at many places
thereabouts. This bears apparently the same relation to the common
sandstones, as the crystalline limestone above {306} mentioned does to
the earthy varieties, and it alternates with and passes into the common
rock in a similar manner. Its particles are crystalline, and appear
to remain undisturbed in the position in which they were originally
deposited from solution in water. Nevertheless the aggregate is
manifestly secondary, and embraces the relics of many organized beings,
as is common in the other secondary rocks.

There is also about the lead mines a sandstone composed of small
glimmering grains of transparent quartz, and so loosely cemented as to
fall rapidly to pieces, forming a light gray sand. In this variety we
have sometimes observed the lead ore either disseminated, or forming
horizontal veins between the laminæ of sandstone. An examination of
some spots might lead to the conclusion that the soil in which most of
the lead has hitherto been found, has resulted from the disintegration
of a sandstone of this kind.

Sandstone, though often covered at the surface by compact limestone
or some other stratum is probably the rock which occurs in the
greatest quantity throughout every part of this range of mountains.
It is the prevailing stratum in all the country between the Arkansa
and Red rivers, from the confluence of the Mamelle westward; rising
to the height of two or three thousand feet, to form the summits of
the Cavaniol, Sugar Loaf, and Mt. Cerne, and to a less considerable
elevation at the Mamelle, Magasin, Caslete, and Short mountains.

North of the Arkansa it forms the body of the Chattahoocke mountain,
and of many nameless elevations, which diversify the surface from the
sources of the Little Red river to the Mississippi. Beds of coarse
conglomerate or puddingstone, are met with in many places; but these
are particularly frequent in connection with the inclined or transition
sandstones about the Washita.

_Native Argil._--Nine miles west of Bainbridge, on {307} the road to
Jackson, and on the right bank of the Mississippi, near the head of
Tiawapeti bottom, also in various other places in this vicinity, there
are extensive beds of perfectly white native argil, of about the
hardness of common chalk, for which it has often been mistaken.[85]
See Schoolcraft's "Catalogue of Western Minerals," art. 1st.
Notwithstanding Mr. Schoolcraft's confident assertion, it must yet be
considered doubtful whether any chalk has ever been found in the region
under consideration.

Specimens of the substance called chalk by the inhabitants, were
collected at several places between Cape Girardeau and St. Louis.
Also on the north side of the Missouri, on the road from St. Louis
to Franklin. Some of these which were brought to New York, have been
examined by my brother, Dr. J. James, and others, and were found to
consist principally of argil, none of them occasioning the slightest
effervescence with acids.

This substance, whatever it is to be considered, is distributed
extensively throughout the country lying around the confluence of the
Missouri and Mississippi. Some specimens have been sent from Illinois
to the Lyceum of Natural History at Troy, where they are spoken of
as a "littrographic carbonate of lime;" but whether any experiments
have been made to ascertain their real character we have not been able
to learn. We have not, from our own observation, found occasion to
confirm the statement, that nodules of flint are found imbedded in this
substance; but we have commonly found it accompanied by the flint rock
already mentioned, which has in many respects a manifest resemblance to
the flints occurring in chalk formation. We have sought in vain for the
remains of echini and other animals so common in chalk beds.

_Argillite._--Of the older secondary rocks, we have observed in the
Ozark mountains only the inclined {308} sandstones and conglomerates
above mentioned, and a limited formation of argillite, extending a
few miles around the hot springs of Washita, and re-appearing on
the Arkansa at and above the town of Little Rock, being usually
accompanied by vast beds of petrosilex. This latter ought, perhaps, to
be considered a distinct stratum, but south of the Arkansa we have not
been able to trace it uninterrupted for any great distance.

Mr. Nuttall, in his valuable Journal of Travels into the Arkansa
Territory, mentions _grauwacke slate_ as occurring along the Arkansa
river near Little Rock, p. 105. We have observed none here in any
considerable degree similar to the grauwacke slate of the transition
mountains of New York, or even to that of the Alleghanies. We are
aware, however, that some of the aggregates which we call sandstones,
have all the characters attributed to grauwacke slates, "_grauwacke
is a complete sandstone_,"[86] and in a district where both are
so intimately blended as in that we are considering, perhaps it
is unnecessary to attempt any distinction between them; or we may
persevere in the use of the two names at the same time, acknowledging
they are both applied to the same stratum.

The hot springs of the Washita issue from clay-slate, and if we may
judge from the inclination of the strata, and the distance at the
surface from the granite of the cove, we may conclude a very large mass
of clay-slate is interposed between the surface of the granite and the
point at which the springs rise. This however it is not possible to
ascertain. The hottest springs on the globe rise from beneath or within
the granite,[87] and it is not improbable this rock may approach near
the surface at many points {309} in the Ozark mountains, where it has
not yet been uncovered.

The slate rock about the hot springs is highly inclined, often a
good deal flinty in its composition, and as far as we have observed,
contains no organised remains. It is traversed by large upright veins,
filled usually with white quartz, contrasting strongly in colour with
the dark blue of the slate-stone. The elevation of the "Hot Springs
mountain" is estimated by Hunter and Dunbar at three hundred feet
above the surface of the creek at the springs. This point is probably
raised twenty or thirty feet above the Washita at Keisler. North of
the springs the slate-rocks rise to greater elevation; but it is not
probable that at any point where we have seen them, they attain the
height of one thousand feet above the Mississippi.

The high lands between Washita and Red river are occupied principally
by sandstone, the clay-slate appearing to extend from north-east to
south-west, which, as far as we have observed, is the direction of the
strata; these, when they are not perpendicular, usually dipping to the
north-west.

The country about the sources of the Washita is represented as
affording many interesting minerals; among them are enumerated "a
martial pyrites, large bodies of crystallised spar, and hexagonal
prisms, which are known to contain no small portion of the precious
metals."[88] If the clay-slate in any part of this mountainous region
should be found accompanied by its usual attendant, the metalliferous
limestone, we should be more ready to credit the accounts of the
precious metals being found, as at least some of the valuable mines
in America exist in that stratum. But as yet we have no satisfactory
accounts of the occurrence of that limestone, or any of the precious
metals in that part of the United States.

{310} _Granite._--About fifteen miles south-east from the hot springs,
near the Washita, granite is found _in situ_. It forms the basis,
and, as far as we could discover, the whole mass of a small hill, but
little elevated above the level of the river; we found it emerging from
beneath the soil at several parts of an area for two hundred or three
hundred acres; but had not an opportunity to trace it to any great
distance, nor to observe its connection with any other rock. The extent
of surface which it covers, we believe, cannot be very great. This
granite is very soft, and disintegrates rapidly when exposed to the
air. It is compounded of grayish-white quartz, yellowish-white felspar,
and an unusually large proportion of mica, in variously and brilliantly
coloured masses. These large laminæ of mica are white, pearl colour,
yellow, brown, green, and often black, and in some instances are so
large and numerous as to exceed in proportion the other ingredients
of the aggregate. Talc also enters in large proportion into the
composition of this granite. It is indeed sometimes so abundant as
to occasion a doubt whether the whole should not be considered a bed
of talc, rather than granite. This talc is in tabular masses, two or
three inches in diameter, and about half an inch in thickness. Zeolite
is also so abundant as sometimes to seem to take the place of the
other materials of the granite. It is of two varieties, radiated and
mealy. Stilbite (blaettriger zeolith of Werner) occurs in connexion
with zeolith. The bed of one of the small streams which traverses this
formation of granite is paved with small crystals of schorl, that of
another with native magnet. Sulphuret of iron is disseminated in the
granite. Several of the appearances presented by this interesting
mass of granite, would seem to countenance the opinion that it is of
secondary origin, like that mentioned by Saussure, as existing near the
valley of Valorsine, at Semur en Auxois, and at the city of Lyons. In
speaking of the granite {311} at these places, he says, "It could not
be doubted on seeing these heaps of large crystals, that they are the
produce of the rain-waters, which, passing through the granite, have
dissolved and carried down these different elements, and have deposited
them in these wide crevices, where they have formed new rocks of the
same kind. The crystals of these new granites are larger than those of
the ancient, on account of the repose which the waters enjoyed in the
inside of these reservoirs."

The granite of the Washita, if it is to be considered as of secondary
formation, appears to be much more extensive than any of the kind
hitherto known. Many more particulars must, however, be ascertained
before this question can be settled. We are ignorant of the manner of
its connection with any other rock. Nor do we know of any formation of
primitive granite from which it could, by the action of water, have
been derived. One can have no hesitation, however, in considering the
Ozark mountains, as a separate system within themselves, and having
no immediate connection with the Alleghanies or Rocky Mountains. The
sandstones which lie about these mountains, abound much more in mica
than those near the Rocky Mountains, nearly in the same proportion as
the granite of the latter has less than what is met with in the little
we have seen of the former. The Ozark mountains exhibit evidence of
metallic riches far exceeding any thing that appears in the Rocky
Mountains. May not an extensive range of granite and other primitive
rocks have existed at some distant period where the Ozark mountains
now are, containing the vast quantities of the ores of lead, iron,
&c. now found in rocks of recent secondary origin, and even in the
alluvial? and may not the operations of water during many ages, when an
ocean rolled over the summits of these mountains, have worn down those
primitive rocks, their detritus having been deposited horizontally
upon their submarine sides and summits; {312} so that the greater
part of their surfaces are now covered by secondary aggregates? Our
acquaintance with this range is however much too limited to admit of
indulgence in such speculations.

Numerous specimens of minerals brought by Lieutenant Graham and Dr.
Somerville from the Upper Mississippi and the Illinois rivers and
others from that region, now in the possession of Dr. L. C. Beck, of
St. Louis, have a peculiar resemblance to similar minerals met with in
the Ozark mountains, south of the Missouri. From these resemblances,
and the corroborating testimony of all the accounts we have received
concerning that country, rich in mines, which lies along the eastern
side of the Upper Mississippi, we have been induced to believe that a
continuation of the Ozark mountains, or at least, of a region similar
in Mineralogical features, extends from the confluence of the Missouri,
northward to the sources of the Wisconsan, and the Ontonagon river
of Lake Superior, north of the Missouri, the country is very little
elevated; but aside from this it appears to possess all the peculiar
features of the region we have been considering. The sandstones, the
limestones, and other rocks, have a striking resemblance. Both regions
abound in the ores of lead, and both afford copper.[89]

We are aware that the great irregularity in the direction of the ridges
accessory to this range, and of the dip and inclination of the older
secondary rocks belonging to it, may be considered objections to our
idea of the connection and continuity of the different parts and the
general direction of the group. But we are by no means anxious to
maintain the position we have assumed. Our examinations have been
limited, and we shall rejoice in any opportunity of correcting our
errors, and enlarging our acquaintance with this interesting range of
country.

{313} We subjoin in a note some account of a few of the most
interesting minerals hitherto observed in connection with the rocks of
this district.[90]


_Recapitulation_

The Ozark mountains extend from the sources of the Rio Colorado of
Texas on the south-west, to the confluence of the Mississippi and
Missouri on the north-east, and are continued in a low range from this
point towards Lake Superior. They are widest in the south-west, and in
that quarter they mingle with some low tracts of secondary sandstone,
extending from near the Gulf of Mexico to the base of the easternmost
ridge of the Rocky Mountains. Whether there is any similar expansion at
the northern extremity, or whether this range is connected as a spur to
the great primitive chain supposed to exist north of the great lakes,
and is separated by a wide secondary and alluvial valley from the Rocky
Mountains, is yet to be determined. This range consists of low ridges,
irregular in direction, rarely rising to an elevation of more than 1500
or 2000 feet, and consisting principally of secondary rocks.

The strata are--

1st. _Granite_--at the cove of the Washita.

2d. _Argillite_--ranging north-east and south-west from Little Rock
on the Arkansa to the hot springs, and thence to the sources of the
Kiamesha.

3d. _Transition Sandstone_--a narrow margin, following nearly the
same direction on the north-west side of the argillite, and usually
inclining like it to the south or south-east.

4th. _Flint_ (petrosilex)--From the hot springs north-east to the
Mississippi, and usually forming the basis of the pine-lands.

5th. _Limestone_--Compact and sparry; distributed {314} in the same
direction as the last, but more extensive.

6th. _Argillaceous Sandstone_--with extensive beds of coal, and
abounding in mines of lead.

7th. _Alluvial_--There are many extensive tracts of deep argillaceous
or calcareous loam; in other instances, a more meagre soil has
resulted from the disintegration of the sand-rock.

These are the remarks we have been able, from observation, to make
respecting the geology of a part of the United States' territory,
west of the Mississippi. Relating to that part of the interior of
our country which lies north-west of Lake Superior, and north of the
sources of the Missouri, we have little satisfactory information.
From the accurate and intelligent Mackenzie,[91] we are however able
to collect a few important particulars. This enterprising voyager, it
is well known, travelled from Montreal, L. C., in latitude 45° 30´,
longitude 74°, in a north-west direction, to the mouth of Mackenzie's
river, latitude 69°, longitude 135°; and again, at a later period,
leaving his former route at the Lake of the Hills, about midway between
Lake Superior and the mouth of Mackenzie's river, he ascended, in a
south-west direction, the Unjegah, or River of Peace, to the Rocky
Mountains, and crossing them, fell upon the sources of the northern
branch of the Columbia, and from thence arrived at the Pacific, at a
point a little north of the inlet of Queen Charlotte's sound. From him
we learn that the Rocky Mountains continue in an uninterrupted chain,
from the sources of the Missouri in the south, to a point beyond the
sixty-fifth parallel of north latitude, near the mouth of Mackenzie's
river. The River of Peace which he ascended in his journey to the
western ocean, has its source in these mountains in about 55° north,
nearly opposite to those of the great northern branch of the Columbia.
Farther towards the south are the sources of the Saskatchawin, a
large river, discharging itself from the {315} north-west into Lake
Winnipic. The mountains in this part seem to be less elevated than
those more to the south, but in other respects entirely similar.
Their northern termination, according to this traveller, is in about
north latitude 65°, 130° west longitude. Santa Fé in New Mexico is
in latitude 36°, longitude 104° 53´ west.[92] From this it will be
perceived, that the general direction of this great mountain range is
nearly from north-north-east to south-south-west. We have no evidence
to confirm the conjecture, which, nevertheless, is highly probable,
that the principal ridges of this range consist through their whole
extent of granite or other primitive rocks. Considering the stupendous
character, the great elevation and uniformity of the appearance of that
portion of these primitive mountains with which we are acquainted,
we should be led to look for similarity of character, and similar
uniformity throughout. It is commonly believed, as asserted by Maclure,
that "a large mass of primitive occupies all the northern part of this
continent;" and he considers the great Atlantic range of primitive,
the mountains of New England, New York, and the Alleghanies, as a
spur for this formation. We are not acquainted with the grounds on
which this opinion is founded, but we see no reason to consider it an
improbable one. Of the northern boundary of that vast formation of
secondary which certainly occupies a very large portion of the interior
of this continent, we are ignorant. On the south-east, its limit is
the irregular border of the transition of the Alleghanies, commencing
between the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, and running north-west
to Fort Anne, near Lake Champlain. From this point, a narrow and
perhaps interrupted strip of secondary extends through the valley of
Lake Champlain to the upper parts of St. John's river. The island and
mountain of Montreal are of secondary. The country {316} also between
St. John's and La Prairie is most probably secondary, as is much of
that along the St. Lawrence below Montreal. From the termination of
the transition near the confluence of the Alabama and Tombigbee, the
secondary rocks continue on the south-west, sometimes concealed by the
recent alluvial to the Black-lake river, near Natchitoches. Beyond
this, the information we have is not satisfactory. From this point,
turning north-west, we may for the present consider the Red river of
Louisiana as the boundary of the secondary, or rather the limit of our
acquaintance with this formation.

Beyond the Ozark mountains, the district between the Red river and
the Canadian is occupied by the red sandstone of the salt formation,
mentioned when speaking of that region, and is undoubtedly to be
considered secondary. How far it extends to the west beyond the sources
of Red river and the Canadian, we are unable to determine. At the
commencement of the most eastern ridge of the Rocky Mountains, a few
south of the high peak, and at no very great distance north from Santa
Fé, the boundary again becomes determinate. From this point it runs
nearly north one hundred and fifty miles, where it crosses the river
Platte. From the narrative of Lewis and Clarke, we are enabled to
determine with sufficient accuracy, that it crosses the Missouri not
far from the Falls, in longitude 110° west. Beyond this, the little
information we have, we owe to Sir Alexander Mackenzie. He informs
us, that great quantities of pit coal are found about the sources of
the Saskatchawin which lie near the Rocky Mountains, and between 50°
and 55° north latitude. The sources of Saskatchawin are placed by this
traveller near the base of the Rocky Mountains; and the coal formation
which he mentions, lies on the margin of a plain extending far to the
north and east. The Saskatchawin running to the east, traverses 15°
of longitude, and discharges its waters into Lake Winnipic in {317}
latitude 53° north. Lake Winnipic is connected by the Severn and
Port Nelson rivers to Hudson's-bay. There is a water communication,
interrupted by one portage, from the Saskatchawin, north-west, to the
Mississippi or Churchill's river; and from thence, by the Lake of the
Hills, Slave Lake, and Mackenzie's river, to the North Sea. Near the
Lake of the Hills, in latitude 59°, Mackenzie found several brine
springs. This, though not decisive evidence, perhaps justifies the
conclusion, that secondary rocks exist in that neighbourhood. A view of
the character and direction of the several large rivers which traverse
the region about Hudson's Bay, of their numerous inosculations, and
the number and position of the small lakes which abound in every part
of it, afford, at least, presumptive evidence, that it is an extensive
plain little inclined in any direction.

We may, perhaps, venture to conclude, that the secondary formation
extends uninterrupted along the base of the Rocky Mountains, as far
as to the Saskatchawin, where coal was observed by Mackenzie. What
lies beyond is as yet unknown. From this coal formation, our boundary
must for the present run in a direction a little south of east to Lake
Superior, whence it may, with a few inconsiderable interruptions,
follow the territorial boundary of the United States, until it
arrives at 45° parallel of latitude, thence by the St. Lawrence to
Montreal. The slight acquaintance we have with the country north of
this line, is perhaps insufficient to justify the conjecture, that
secondary formations occupy an extensive portion of that country. It
is improbable, that formations of secondary extend along the base of
the Rocky Mountains through their whole course, and from thence spread
themselves to the east, knowing no limits but Atlantic mountains,
the shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the northern ocean. We
know that rocks of this formation exist about the {318} Gulf of St.
Lawrence, whence coal, plaster, and sandstone, are brought to our
markets.[93]

This boundary of the great formation of secondary rocks, which occupies
so large a portion of the interior of our continent, includes a
vast area of surface, extending through 25° of latitude, and 60° of
longitude. I intend to consider that portion of it only of which the
state of facts at present known enables us to speak with some degree
of confidence. This portion may be conceived as occupying the area of
a large triangle, the base of which is a line running from Montreal
in Lower Canada, south-west to a point, near the outlet of the river
Sabine, the western boundary of the state of Louisiana. The summit
would be at the sources of the Saskatchawin, which are west of north
from the mouth of the Sabine, and north of west from Montreal. The
Rocky Mountains on the west, and the Alleghanies on the south-east
mark the limits of the secondary in those directions. Its extent
towards the north and north-east is as yet unknown.

In the wide space included within the lines above mentioned, we know
of but one exception to the remark, that all the rocks found in place
are secondary. This is the instance of the Ozark hills traversing
the horizontal strata from south-west to north-east, somewhat in the
manner of a whindyke. The most striking peculiarity of this range, is
the prevalence among the secondary strata of crystalline substances,
and what are called rocks of chymical deposition, and the alternation
of these with beds and strata whose integrant particles bear evident
marks of having been worn and rounded by mechanical attrition. {319}
Appearances of this kind are observed in all formations of secondary
rocks, but it is believed, are, in few instances, as extensive or
as numerous as in this. It is well known, that the ores of lead, so
abundant in many parts of this range, occur in the uppermost strata
of horizontal sandstone, or in primary soils superimposed upon those
sandstones. It has been suggested, that these ores of lead may have
been brought down in the alluvion of rivers from some more ancient
and elevated region, but any one who shall examine them in connection
with the substances with which they are now found associated, will,
we think, be convinced of their having been of contemporaneous origin
with the sandstone. That the sparry limestones, the crystalline
sandstones, and perhaps the ores of lead, (almost invariably found in
the form of crystals,) have been deposited from solution in water, is
highly probable; and that these depositions must have taken place
in connection with circumstances not unfavourable to animal life is
evident, as all these crystalline rocks abound in organised remains.

In attempting an explanation of these appearances, can any assistance
be derived from recourse to the ingenious suggestion of Bakewell, that
_the matter of these crystalline beds and strata has been ejected from
beneath the crust of the earth in a state of chymical solution_. These
submarine eruptions may have been numerous, and may have happened
at different and remote periods; hence the alternation of rocks,
consisting of particles mechanically aggregated together with those of
chymical deposition. Hence the existence of metallic ores overlaying
recent marine sandstones and compact limestones; for these ores, in a
state of solution, may have been the matter thrown out in some of the
latest eruptions.

This supposition may derive some confirmation from the well known
fact that this region is still in a remarkable degree subject to
subterranean concussions {320} and earthquakes. These concussions
centring apparently in this range of mountains, and felt at times
throughout all the western parts of the United States, are certainly
too considerable in force and extent to be attributed to the operation
of a cause so limited and superficial as the decomposition of beds
of lignite lodged among the alluvion of the Mississippi. We do not
insist upon the accounts that have been so often circulated, of the
blowing, smoking, and burning mountains, said to exist in the country
west of the hot springs of the Washita, because these accounts want
confirmation.

Though this range of mountains has probably a nucleus of primitive
rocks running through its whole extent: yet these appear but rarely at
the surface. We have seen such only in the places already mentioned,
and have been informed of others in Washington county, near the sources
of the St. Francis, and about Lake Superior.[94]

From the information we have been able to collect, we are induced to
believe that secondary rocks occupy the country on both sides of Red
river, from its sources to its confluence with the Mississippi. If this
be the case, the primitive of the Ozark mountains must be considered a
small and insulated mass.

The inequalities of surface in this great secondary formation are
considerable. It has often been called the "basin of the Mississippi,"
but with little propriety, since it might with equal accuracy be
called the basin of the St. Lawrence, the Saskatchawin or Mackenzie's
river. The form of that part of it which contains the Mississippi, is
however similar to that designated by geologists as a _basin-shaped
cavity_. As far as our acquaintance extends, it is bounded on all
sides, except a narrow space at the outlet of the Mississippi, by a
surface of greater elevation than itself. But whether this surface is
not sometimes of secondary {321} formation is doubtful. It is dangerous
to infer the existence at a former period of an insulated inland sea
from any formation of secondary rocks, without being acquainted with
its whole extent, with its elevation at different points, and its
connexion with other rocks. On the south-east, secondary sandstones and
depositions of coal are met with in some of the most elevated parts
of the Alleghany mountains. The positive elevation of the primitive
mountains of New England is, except at a few points, scarce equal to
that of the secondary in the western parts of the state of New York.
From the primitive rocks near Philadelphia, to the secondary of the
Alleghanies, is an almost uninterrupted ascent. The clay-slate and
granite of the Washita, occupy nearly the lowest part of the surface
of the Mississippi valley. We are as yet destitute of barometrical or
other observations, by which we might determine the actual height which
the secondary rocks reach on the sides of the Rocky Mountains. Pike
estimates the elevation of the plain at the foot of the mountains, at
8000 feet above the level of the ocean. This is doubtless overrated. We
have already observed, that secondary rocks are found upon the sides
of the Rocky Mountains, considerably above the level of the plain. It
is probable, that this estimate of Pike's far exceeds the truth, yet
any one who considers the great length and rapidity of the rivers which
flow from that region, the severity of cold in winter, the rapidity
with which evaporation is carried on in summer, the transparency and
peculiar aspect of the sky, will be convinced that those tracts are
highly elevated; and there is unquestionably good reason to believe,
the secondary rocks along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains
have in many points an elevation at least equal to the summits of the
Alleghanies.

This vast formation of secondary, extending as it probably does from
the Gulf of Mexico to the Northern ocean, and from the Bay of St.
Lawrence {322} to the Rocky Mountains, must of necessity occupy in
various parts different and sometimes great elevations: like other
great fields of the same formation, its borders are marked by high and
broken ridges, which become less elevated and less frequent towards
the centre. Sandstone appears to be the basis and predominating rock
occupying the borders contiguous to the primitive and transition, and
passing under the more recent secondary. In this sandstone on the
outskirts of the secondary, have been found most of the extensive coal
beds hitherto known, also gypsum and brine springs.

Horizontally stratified limestone is met with in many parts of this
formation, but is most abundant in the central portions, about the beds
of the great rivers, and in those parts which have the least positive
elevation. Compact limestone is a name sometimes used to designate all
the varieties of that rock occurring in districts of secondary, but is
certainly inapplicable to the limestone about Cape Girardeau and in
many other places, which is notwithstanding manifestly secondary. Some
of the limestone north-west of the primitive on Hudson's river, about
the Coatskill and Hellebergh mountains, is of this crystalline variety,
but abounds in marine exuviæ. That of Lake Champlain, as well as the
greater part of that in the interior and western parts of the state of
New York, is of the compact blue variety. From the falls of the Ohio
at Louisville to Cincinnati, a mixed kind, partaking of the character
of both of the before-mentioned varieties, is found along the river,
and for some distance on each side. From Dr. Drake we learn, that this
limestone is confined to a small district, and is on all sides bounded
by sandstone, which rises from below it, and on which it is supposed
invariably to rest. Whether the red sand-rock which is found on the
south-west branches of the Arkansa, in a horizontal position, and in an
highly inclined one skirts the Rocky Mountains, {323} extends to other
parts of this formation of secondary, we are unable to say.

Throughout the country adjacent to the Ohio river, the prevailing
and basis rock is a gray horizontal sandstone, often approaching in
character those varieties which contain coal. It embraces extensive
beds of coarse conglomerate, and supports or alternates with compact
limestone.


_Of the Alleghany Mountains_

By this name we intend to designate the great range of mountains
extending parallel to the Atlantic coast, from the sources of the St.
John's river in New Brunswick in the north-east, to the confluence of
the Alabama and Tombigbee in the south-west. An outline of this great
chain has already been traced by Maclure, and particular accounts of
portions of it are to be found in the works of Eaton and others; we
shall, therefore, confine our attention to those strata, which, forming
the north-western side of the range, are most intimately connected with
the great secondary formations of the west.

1st. _Granular Limestone_--Appears in every part of the United States,
where it has hitherto been observed to be the uppermost in the series
of primitive rocks. It is true, it is often found to graduate, by
minute and imperceptible shades of difference, into that which is
decidedly secondary. Instances of this have been observed so frequently
that the fact can be no longer questioned. This fact, and others of the
same kind, ought not, perhaps, to be considered as invalidating the
received opinions with regard to the classification of rocks according
to the doctrines of Werner. If a division is to be made of the rocky
strata of the earth into primitive, transition, &c. it is, perhaps,
of little importance whether the boundaries thus instituted shall
traverse beds of the same substance, {324} or separate contiguous
strata composed of different materials.

That series of rocks next in order to the primitive limestone above
mentioned, has been very generally denominated the Transition Class.
It comprehends the following strata: _Metalliferous limestone_,
_Clay-slate_, _Graywacke_, and _Graywacke-slate_, and _Old Red
sandstone_. If we confine our attention to the consideration of these
rocks as they exist in our own country, we shall find them appearing
in their different localities under circumstances of considerable
uniformity.

2d. _Metalliferous Limestone._--The prevailing colour of this rock
is blue, of various shades and intensities, varying into yellow and
gray. It has usually a close texture, an even, large conchoidal, or
somewhat splintery fracture. In many varieties the surface, by long
exposure, becomes coated with an incrustation of a yellowish white
powdery matter, which adheres closely. It is frequently traversed by
small reticulating veins of quartz or calcareous spar, which, during
the gradual decomposition of detached masses, resist the progress of
disintegration, and are left standing out from the surface, giving it
a chequered appearance. It is the lowest and is considered as the most
ancient of the rocks containing organized remains, which are those of
cryptogamous plants, and animals without sight.

_Geographical distribution._--This rock occurs extensively along
all the north-western side of the primitive of the great chain of
the Alleghanies. In lower Canada and Vermont, it is accompanied by
granular limestone and granular quartz, which separate it from the
mica slate and talcose rocks on the east. [See Eaton's Index to the
Geology of the Northern States.] It is there usually inclined towards
the west, at an inconsiderable angle. It is separated from the compact
fletz limestone of the valley of Lake Champlain by a stratum of old
red sandstone, which forms {325} the upper part of a range of hills,
called, in Vermont, the Snake mountain. In Berkshire county, in the
western part of Massachusetts, and along the eastern side of the Hudson
in New York, a stratum of primitive clay-slate intervenes between this
rock and the granular limestone. The New Lebanon mountain, which is of
slate, and divides the primitive limestone of Pittsfield, Richmond,
Stockbridge, &c. from the transition which occurs at New Lebanon
springs, and along the western base of this range, is considered
primitive. (_Dewey in Silliman's Journal._) To the north-east of the
Hudson river, the transition limestone nowhere occupies any great
extent of surface from east to west, but is a narrow strip running
along the margin of the primitive, and in a few miles is succeeded
either by red sandstone, or clay-slate resting upon it. In Vermont, in
the same neighbourhood, it alternates with clay-slate, and supports red
sandstone.

Crossing the Hudson above the highlands, and proceeding south-west,
little of this stratum is seen in the lower part of New York; but
it becomes more abundant in the western parts of New Jersey and
Pennsylvania. If we suppose the whole of the Alleghany mountains of
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the western parts of Virginia, removed
to a level with the surface at base of their eastern declivities,
it is probable their foundation, which would be thus exposed, would
be found through their whole extent to be of transition limestone.
This rock is almost the only one which occurs between the primitive
limestone. About twenty miles west of Philadelphia and Harrisburgh,
Cove Hill, the North and South mountains, and the other eastern ranges
of the Alleghany, are all based upon metalliferous limestone. It is
seen emerging from beneath the sandstone which forms the body of these
mountains at O'Connel's town, and in most of the vallies between the
Alleghanies. We learn from Maclure, that it extends itself to the south
and west, nearly to the termination of this range of mountains at the
{326} confluence of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers in Mississippi.

3d. _Transition Argillite._--This name is intended to comprehend not
only the common varieties of the clay-slate of transition, but also
some varieties of graywacke, and the siliceous slate by some considered
a distinct stratum. It is believed, that throughout the range of
country occupied by the several rocks here mentioned, they will be
found too intimately blended, and too closely entangled with each
other, to allow of their being considered as separate formations.

_Geographical distribution._--The formation including the above
mentioned rocks, may with propriety be denominated clay-slate of
transition. As far as our acquaintance has extended, it occurs in all
its localities associated with metalliferous limestone, or old red
sandstone. It is not to be confounded with the primitive argillite
which occurs below transition limestone, and is met with in the highly
primitive parts of New England, nor with the aluminous schist of the
great secondary formation to the west. It is distinct from either; and
in most instances its character is marked with sufficient distinctness.
It occurs in the central portions of that extensive field of transition
which skirts the western margin of the primitive of New York and
New England, and forms the great body of the Alleghany and Catskill
mountains. It is wider and more extensive in the north, occupying much
of the surface in Vermont, the northern parts of the state of New York
and Canada. In the Alleghany mountains of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and
Virginia, its beds are of great thickness, and form, in some instances,
the prevailing rocks, being, however almost invariably overlaid by
sandstone. It has, in several instances, been observed to contain
impressions of organized remains, but these are usually those of
zoophytic animals, and are exceedingly unlike those found so abundantly
in the schist of coal formations. Its colours are variable, it {327}
is, however, most commonly blueish, black, or dark brown. Between
Albany and Pittsfield, it is met with of a green colour, and a few
miles to the south-east of White-hall, New York, it is bright red.

The _graywacke_, which in this very general and hasty view we have
considered as in part belonging to the clay-slate of transition,
appears to us to form the connecting link between that clay-slate and
the old red sandstone. In attempting to give a more detailed account
of these formations, we might perhaps speak of the graywacke as others
have done, as a distinct stratum. We have, however, usually found it
so intimately blended either with the sandstone or clay-slate, that
in this enlarged view we see no necessity for a separation. We cannot
agree in opinion with some who have considered the graywacke as the
substratum of the great secondary formation of the valley of the
Mississippi. We have found it almost invariably overlaid by an inclined
sandstone, separating it from the secondary rocks towards the west.
This may not be as often the case at the north, as in Pennsylvania,
Maryland, and Virginia. Mr. Eaton is of opinion, that "graywacke
underlays all that district of country in the interior of the state
of New York, which would be bounded on the north by a line drawn from
Albany westward to the Onondaga salt springs; on the west, by a line
running from the salt springs by Bath to the Pennsylvania line; on
the south, by a line running thence to Newbergh on the Hudson, above
the highlands; and from thence to Albany, by a line running parallel
to the river, at a few miles distance." We are informed by Governor
Clinton,[95] that coal strata exist in the western part of the state of
New York, and we are induced from the analogy of the other parts of the
same great secondary formation, to believe that the brine springs of
Onondaga rise not from graywacke, {328} but from the sandstone of that
coal formation. According to Maclure,[96] old red sandstone appears
from under the limestone and other strata at Lewestown, ten miles below
the falls of Niagara, and also near the salines of Onondaga in Genessee
county. "This," says he, "would give some probability to the conjecture
that the old red sandstone is the foundation of all this horizontal
formation, and is perhaps attached to some series of rocks laying on
the primitive north of the Great Lakes."

_Sandstone of Transition. Old Red Sandstone of Werner?_--Throughout
the whole extent of the transition formation before mentioned, a
sandstone occurs, evidently belonging to the oldest depositions of that
rock. It is for the most part distinctly stratified, and in all cases
its stratifications are inclined. It consists of grains of quartz,
united by a scanty cement, and usually more or less rounded, as if by
attrition and the operation of currents of water. Their fragments vary
in magnitude from the finest sand to boulders of several pounds weight.
Among the Alleghany mountains are many extensive beds of puddingstone
or coarse conglomerate, usually coloured by oxide of iron. It is also
to be observed, that this formation of transition sandstone sometimes
embraces extensive beds, whose integrant particles have by no means
the appearance of having been rounded by attrition. As in the case
of almost all the rocks of secondary formation, there appear to have
been periods during the time of its deposition when the waters of the
superincumbent ocean ceased to throw down the mechanical _débris_ of
former rocks, and deposited earthy matter from a state of chymical
solution. It is perhaps one of the most interesting and most difficult
problems which remain unsolved, to account for the alternation through
the whole series of lower secondary and fletz rocks, of {329} beds of
strata of mechanical with those of chymical deposition.

The Alleghany mountains in New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and
Virginia, are made up principally of rocks belonging to the transition
class, and among these sandstone is perhaps of more frequent occurrence
than any other aggregate. We are aware that Maclure has not considered
the sandstones of the Alleghany mountains generally, as belonging to
the old red sandstone formation of Werner; and it must be acknowledged
there is some difference, at least in colour, between the ferruginous
sand-rock, which commences on the shore of Tappan bay near Nyac, and
extends south and west by the way of Newark, Amboy, and Brunswick, in
New Jersey, and that which forms the body of the Cove, Sideling and
Alleghany ridges farther to the west. But we cannot discover so marked
a difference between the sandstone of the localities last mentioned,
and that which occurs about the South mountain in Pennsylvania, that
at Hagerstown in Maryland, and near Harper's ferry, in Virginia, which
Maclure considers as the _old red sandstone_. Indeed, this last appears
to us in almost every respect to resemble the inclined sandstone
which prevails so generally throughout the middle and eastern ridges
of the Alleghany mountains in Pennsylvania and Maryland. We have
already stated the opinion, in part sanctioned by the observations of
Maclure, that the old red sandstone is the great substratum of the
part of the secondary formation south of Lake Ontario. If this be
the case, what stratum, if not the old red sandstone, should be seen
emerging from beneath that secondary along its south-eastern margin?
We will not, however, contend for the name. It is sufficient for our
purpose to state, that the sandstone so abundant in all the principal
ridges accessory to the Alleghany on the east, has the character of
a rock belonging to the transition class of the Wernerians; that is,
its {330} strata have a somewhat regular dip and inclination; it
contains no beds of bituminous coal, though many of anthracite, and few
organised remains. Near the summit of the ridge called particularly
the Alleghany, the change to secondary begins to appear. Without the
interposition of any other stratum, and without any sudden change of
features, the strata of sandstone become nearly horizontal, assuming
gradually all the characters of secondary rocks. About one mile west
of the summit of the Alleghany, on the road from Philadelphia to
Pittsburgh, the first indications of coal are observed. Descending into
the vallies, the transition strata again emerge to the light. The same
thing happens in the case of Coatskill and other mountains west of the
Hudson, their basis being of transition, and their summits crossed with
secondary.

The horizontal sandstones connected with the depositions of coal
occurring along the Ohio from Pittsburgh to the confluence of Green
river, assume various characters,[97] and often support extensive
formations of compact limestone.

FOOTNOTES:

[79] The Report from which these observations are extracted was drawn
up at Smithland, Kentucky, in January, 1820, soon after the return
of the exploring party from the Rocky Mountains. Since that time,
opportunities have been wanting to supply the deficiency of study and
comparison, for which that place, remote from all collections of books
and minerals, did not afford the means. We may be allowed to mention
these circumstances in extenuation of our apparent neglect of many
recent innovations in geology, and of some late works, with which we
had not the opportunity to be acquainted.--JAMES.

[80] Lewis and Clarke's History, vol. i. p. 83. Philadelphia,
1814.--JAMES.

[81] What explanation the advocates for the doctrine of the recent
_emersion_ of our continent will give of the highly and exclusively
primitive character of the Rocky Mountains, we are at a loss to
conjecture. The organized remains hitherto observed in the secondary
aggregates along the base of those mountains, are mostly of animals
supposed to have inhabited the depths of the ocean. But if the granite
of the Rocky Mountains has been _forced up_ at a recent period, where
are the traces of all those older secondary, and fletz rocks, which
should have intervened between it and the horizontal sandstones? If
these mountains had formed the shores of that ocean, in which the
greater part of our continent was so long immersed, after the elevation
of the _old world_, we should have expected to find along their base,
the remains of littoral animals, and not of those which inhabited the
depths of the ocean. It would be proper, however, before we refer to
the character of the Rocky Mountains, as invalidating or confirming any
system of opinions, to ascertain that their eastern and western sides
are in all respects similar.--JAMES.

[82] Personal Narrative, vol. i. p. 87. American edition.--JAMES.

[83] Pinkerton.--JAMES.

[84] The valley of Red river abounds in limestone, often presenting
the shells of oysters and other molluscous animals in a state of
petrifaction, scattered in profusion over the surface of the ground,
and retaining their original form entire, while on the Arkansa, the
rocks are generally sandstone, no limestone being found, except of
the Illinois, Grand, and Canadian rivers. _Major Long's_ MS. Journal.
Several organic relics from the country about the confluence of the
Kiamesha, have been obligingly communicated by Mr. Nuttall: among these
is a shell which approaches nearest to the variety of the gryphœa
dilatata of Sowerby, 149. fig. 2, but the lobe is far less distinct,
and the shell is more narrowed towards the hinge, and is somewhat
less dilated, and much more like an ostrea. It may be thus described:
G. _corrugata_, SAY.--Small valve, flat, and very much wrinkled, and
like the other, narrowed near the hinge. The beak is short, and curved
upwards, and laterally, and the sulcus is very distinct. Length, and
greatest breadth of the small valve nearly equal; from 1½ to 2 inches.
It is in a very perfect state of preservation. Mr. Nuttall brought also
from Red river, a species of ostrea, which to the eye appears hardly
changed. The anterior portion of the specimens are wanting, but the
greatest breadth of the remaining portion of the largest one is nearly
three inches. The hinge fosse in this species is proportionably much
more contracted, and smaller in every respect, than any other species
of the genus we have seen; that of the specimen above mentioned is
less than one-half of an inch. The specimens were evidently those of
old shells, being much thickened. Another species of ostrea, a hinge
fragment of an old and thickened individual, which appears to have
been long, and narrow; the hinge fosse itself is long and wide. Length
of the hinge more than three inches, greatest width more than one
inch.--JAMES.

[85] "A very extensive bed of native argil occurs on the right bank
of the Mississippi, commencing near the head of Tiawapeti Bottom, at
the Little Chain, about forty miles above the junction of the Ohio
and Mississippi, and extending with very little interruption near
six miles above the Grand Tower, a distance of thirty-four miles.
Beyond these limits I have not observed it. Its colour is snow-white;
structure fine, pulverulent; fracture dull earthy. It is amorphous,
and adheres to the tongue. It does not effervesce with acids, even in
the slightest degree. The bed of argil reposes on horizontal strata of
siliceous sandstone, and is overlaid by shell limestone. In the vein
of argil, nodules and veins of flint are arranged so as to make with
the horizon an angle of about fifty degrees. The argil has been taken
to New Orleans, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, &c. in considerable quantities,
supposing it to be chalk, for which substance it has been used." _Mr.
Jessup's_ MS. Report.

"_Flint._--This occurs in nodules and veins in a bed of native argil,
above Tiawapeti Bottom. Its colours are bluish-gray and greenish-black.
It gives fire with steel; fracture is conchoidal, and the edges are
translucent. The veins of flint dip to the south-east." _Ibid._

Imbedded in the chalk of Cape Girardeau, are occasionally found nodules
of flint, which are enveloped by a hard crust of calcareous carbonate,
arranged in concentric layers. Its colour is grayish-black, breaks
with a perfectly conchoidal fracture, is translucent on the edges, and
readily gives fire with the steel. _Schoolcraft's_ View of the Lead
Mines, p. 180.--JAMES.

[86] Jameson in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, Art. Mineralogy.--JAMES.

[87] Humboldt's Personal Narrative, vol. iv. p. 171. 195. vol. v. p.
553.--JAMES.

[88] Stoddart's Louisiana, p. 391.--JAMES.

[89] Copper has been found in Illinois, near the sources of Cache
river.--JAMES.

[90] "_Fluate of Lime._--This mineral occurs in great abundance
seventeen miles south of Shawaneetown, Illinois, on Peter's creek, and
proceeding about thirteen miles in a south-west direction, it again
appears on and near the surface of the ground; at the three forks of
the Grand Pierre creek, maintaining the same course, it breaks out in
several places for near twenty miles. This beautiful and useful species
of lime occurs at Peter's creek, almost invariably in a crystallized
form; the crystals are universally cubes: at the three forks of the
Grand Pierre creek, it occurs in masses of several feet in diameter.
Both the crystallized and massive varieties, possess almost all the
shades of colour and have been observed in the European specimens: viz.
green, violet, blue, red, yellow, white, black, and rose-coloured. This
mineral varies in transparency, some specimens being perfectly limpid,
others opaque. Some of the violet and rose-coloured specimens, when
recently fractured or pulverized, yield a strong bituminous odor; this
character (which has never been observed heretofore as belonging to
this species of lime) is perceptible only in the crystallized specimens.

"The vein of fluate of lime is apparently very extensive; very few
minerals have been found associated with it, at the above localities.
I saw at Peter's creek a few specimens of laminated calcareous spar,
and a few of sulphuret of lead. Excavations have been made by several
gentlemen who reside in that vicinity, for lead, but no veins or beds
of this ore have been found.

"From examination of the situation of those specimens which I found,
and the general appearance of the vein of fluor spar, I do not think
that there is a sufficiency of lead ore, to reimburse the expenses that
would be necessarily incurred in mining. The accompanying rocks of the
vein of spar are compact limestone, sandstone, and oolite." _Jessup's_
MS. Report.

"_Concreted Carbonate of Lime, variety Oolite._--This occurs on Peter's
creek, seventeen miles south of Shawaneetown, Illinois, associated
with compact limestone, and sandstone, in the gangue of the fluate of
lime. It is composed of globular masses, about the size of English
mustard-seed, which are united by a calcareous cement; the nucleus of
the globules are detached, leaving a small cavity in the centre of
each; its colour is yellowish-white; fracture dull." _Ibid._

"_Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas._--This gas is very abundant in the water
of many of the springs and wells in Missouri territory. Its origin is
probably owing to the decomposition of sulphuret of iron. Six miles
west of St. Louis is a large spring of water strongly impregnated
with this gas; its odour is perceptible to the distance of four or
five hundred yards from the spring. It is reported, that the water
has proved beneficial in cases of cutaneous disorders and rheumatic
complaints." _Ibid._

"_Red Oxide of Iron._--This occurs, though not very abundant, in
the hills near Isle a Loutre, on the Missouri river. Its texture is
compact, fracture earthy. Its external colour is brownish red; its
streak and powder is blood red. This variety of ore produces good iron,
and yields from sixty to eighty per cent." _Ibid._

"_Hematitic Brown Oxide of Iron._--This variety of iron ore occurs
in considerable quantity in the vicinity of the vein of fluate of
lime, near Shawaneetown, Illinois. It occurs there under a number of
imitative forms, such as tubular, stalactitical, nodular, botryoidal,
and reniform. Its colour is blackish and yellow brown; it is easily
fused, and will produce near sixty per cent. of good malleable iron."
_Ibid._

"_Argillaceous Oxide of Iron._--This variety of iron ore is abundant
in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and in Kentucky,
where it is almost the only ore of iron that is worked. The principal
furnaces in Pennsylvania, are in Cumberland, Northumberland, and Centre
counties, and on the Juniata river." _Ibid._

"_Columnar Argillaceous Oxide of Iron._--Near the confluence of the
Ohio and Tennessee rivers, is a locality of argillaceous oxide of
iron, of a columnar structure, and so rising from the surface of the
ground as to have some resemblance to cypress trees. This mineral has
by many been thought of volcanic origin; at least, that the cause of
its peculiar form is, in some measure, connected with the operation of
volcanic causes." _Ibid._

"_Sulphuret of Lead, or Galena._--This mineral is abundant in Missouri
territory, about sixty miles south-west of St. Louis; but as I had not
an opportunity of visiting the mines I cannot say any thing respecting
its geological situation or quantity. There are two reservations for
lead in the vicinity of the United States' Saline, Illinois. From
external appearances, I should judge, the ore was abundant; but from
the success of former diggings, and the situation of the ore, which has
not as yet been found there, either in beds or veins, but sparingly
diffused in small masses (attached to the fluate of lime) not exceeding
in weight two or three pounds, I think the quantity inconsiderable.
Every specimen of sulphuret of lead that I saw there, possessed a
crystalline form." _Ibid._

"_Sulphuret of Zinc, or Blende._--Fifteen miles south of Shawaneetown,
Illinois, uniform masses of argillaceous iron ore enclosed in
concentric layers of slate clay, are found in a bed of slate clay. In
the argillaceous iron ore small particles of sulphuret of zinc occur.
This is the only locality west of the Alleghany mountains that I have
seen of this ore." _Ibid._--JAMES.

[91] For sketch of Mackenzie, see Franchère's _Narrative_, in our
volume vi, note 4.--ED.

[92] Lafora, cited in Humboldt's New Spain.--JAMES.

[93] The banks of the river Montmorenci, from the natural steps
downward to the St. Lawrence, are composed of a lime slate placed in
horizontal strata from the depth of five to twenty-four inches, each
connected by fibrous gypsum of a whitish colour. Heriot's Travels, p.
88. The island of Cape Breton abounds in sandstone, coal, and plaster.
_Ibid._ 431.--JAMES.

[94] Schoolcraft.--JAMES.

[95] See his speech at the opening of the session of 1822.--JAMES.

[96] Observations on the Geology of the United States, p. 57.--JAMES.

[97] The following are descriptions of the rocks that alternate
with each other as they occur, in connection with the coal-beds at
Pittsburgh; commencing with the uppermost and proceeding in a regular
gradation to the lowest, that we have had an opportunity of examining.

No. 1. A loose-grained argillaceous sandstone, composed of minute
grains of quartz and decomposed felspar, united by an argillaceous
cement. Its colour is yellowish gray; fracture uneven; stratifications
imperfect. It contains no organic remains; depth of the bed near four
feet.

No. 2. Bituminous shale; natural colour brownish black, that of the
streak dark gray. Before the blow-pipe it decrepitates, burns with a
bright flame, emits a bituminous odour, and soon becomes nearly white.
Its structure is slaty; no animal or vegetable is contained in it,
small veins of clay are dispersed irregularly between the layers. Depth
of the strata ten feet.

No. 3. A bed of bituminous coal; its colour is brownish black, cross
fracture uneven, longitudinal slaty; fragments tabular, right angled;
lustre resinous; is semihard, sectile and very brittle. Vertical and
horizontal beds of indurated clay, containing a small quantity of
bitumen, occur in the coal. Depth of the bed from two to eight feet.

No. 4. Bituminous shale possesses the same character as No. 2. Varies
in depth.

No. 5. Indurated clay; its colour is lead-gray; fracture, in situations
where it has been subjected to the combined actions of moisture and the
atmosphere, irregularly slatose; in others uneven. Depth of this bed
seven feet.

No. 6. Argillaceous chlorite slate, passing by regular gradations into
argillaceous chlorite sandstone. Natural colour, yellowish green, that
of the streak light gray; cross fracture uneven. Its powder is soft and
slightly greasy to the touch; it contains no organic remains. The depth
of this bed varies.

No. 7. Compact limestone, intimately mixed with alumine; it contains
small veins of calcareous spar dispersed throughout the mass. Veins
of angular fragments of carbonate of lime, united by a calcareous and
argillaceous cement, extend irregularly through the rock. The fracture,
in some specimens, is compact and earthy, in others uneven.

No. 8. Argillaceous chlorite sandstone, consisting of minute grains of
quartz, chlorite slate, and talc, united by an argillaceous cement; its
colour is yellowish green; fracture uneven; the powder is soft, and
feels greasy to the touch; it is destitute of organic remains.

No. 9. A loose-grained argillaceous sandstone, thickly interspersed
with thin laminæ of talc; its colour is light gray; fracture uneven;
texture loose; it is liable to disintegration.

No. 10. Argillaceous sandstone, irregularly slatose; its colour is
gray, with a tinge of yellow. Nodules of clay ironstone occur in
considerable quantities through the mass of rock.

No. 11. Fine-grained argillaceous sandstone, composed of quartz and
magnesia united by an argillaceous cement. Its colour is yellowish
gray, which by the action of the blow-pipe passes into reddish brown.
This rock contains great numbers of the impressions of the phytolites.

No. 12. Indurated clay; its colour is bluish gray, structure slatose;
fracture approaching uneven; hardness inconsiderable. Impressions of
small leaves occur in this, but are not numerous; they apparently
consist of one species alone.

No. 13. Compact argillaceous sandstone; composed of quartz, felspar,
and their laminæ of talc, united by an argillaceous cement; its colour
is brownish gray. Nodules of clay ironstone occur in considerable
abundance in this rock; they are formed by concentric layers, around
a nucleus, which is the same in composition as the mass of their bed.
Their size varies from that of a nut to an apple.

                                 From _Mr. Jessup's_ MS. Report.--JAMES.



[PART II][98]

    _Containing the Calculations of Observations made by Major
      Long and Lieutenant Swift, on a tour from the Council Bluffs
      on the Missouri river, westward along the river Platte to
      its head waters in the Rocky Mountains,--thence southwardly
      to the head waters of the Arkansa and Canadian rivers,--and
      down said rivers to Belle Point, performed in 1820, under
      the command of Major S. H. Long, of the United States'
      Topographical Engineers._

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._--The instruments used in making the following astronomical
observations, were a portable sextant of 5 inches radius, graduated by
the assistance of the vernier to 30˝, made by Cary, London, accompanied
by a mercurial artificial horizon with a glass frame, and an excellent
patent-lever watch, by Robert Roskell.

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Camp on the river Platte, at the fording place of the Pawnee
     Indians, twenty-seven miles below the confluence of the North
                     and South, or Padouca Forks._

  June 20, 1820.|Meridian altitude of sun's lower }    | 72° 23´
                |  limb                           }    |
                |Extent of horizon, (a level sheet of }| 700 yards.
                |  water)                             }|
                |Height of observer's eye above }      | 3½ feet.
                |  horizon                      }      |
                +--------------------------------------+-----------
                |Index error--4´ 15˝. Latitude      }  | 40° 59´ 15˝ N.
                |  deduced                          }  |
                +--------------------------------------+-----------

            _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of Watch._

                |Time from Noon,|Time from Noon,| Error of Watch.
                |     A.M.      |     P.M.      |
                |---------------+---------------+----------------
  June 20, 1820.|  2ʰ  32´ 26˝  | 2ʰ  32´ 34˝ } | 1´ 15˝ fast.
                |  2   29  36   | 2   29  46  } | Mean time.
  --------------+---------------+---------------+----------------

 _Camp on the Platte, thirty-two miles below the point where it issues
                       from the Rocky Mountains._

  -------------+--------------------------------------+-----------------
  July 4, 1820.| Meridian double altitude of star }   |   48° 10´ 00˝
               |   Antares, (ᵅ. Scorpii)          }   |
               | Index error--3´ 45˝. Latitude      } |   39° 57´ 40˝ N.
               |   deduced                          } |
  -------------+--------------------------------------+-----------------


{xxxvii} _Observations made on the River Platte, seven minutes of
latitude south of the Camp of July 4th._

       _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at noon._

               |  Time from       |  Time from       |    Error
               |  Noon, A.M.      |  Noon, P.M.      |   of Watch.
  -------------+------------------+------------------+-------------
  July 5, 1820.| 2ʰ  30´   19˝    | 2ʰ  21´   17˝   }| 8´ 41˝ slow.
               | 2   28    57     | 2   19    55    }|   Mean time.
               | 2   27    30     | 2   18    22    }|
               +------------------+------------------+-------------

          _A mean of eight lunar distances from sun and times
     correspondent, to find the longitude. Latitude by account 39°
                50´ 40˝ N. Assumed longitude 7ʰ 01´ W._


               |  Time per Watch, |   Distance of    |
               |      A.M.        |  nearest limbs.  |  Index error.
  -------------+------------------+------------------+--------------
  July 5, 1820.|  7ʰ   33´  07˝   |  56°  09´  26˝   |     --4´
               +------------------+------------------+--------------

Daily variation of watch 1´ 41˝ losing.

Longitude deduced, 7ʰ 01´ 23˝, or 105° 20´ 45˝ W. of Greenwich.

  --------------+------------------------------------+-----------------
              _Camp at the base of the Rocky Mountains._

  July 8, 1820. |Meridian double altitude of Antares |  49° 17´ 30˝
                |                                    +-----------------
                |Index error --3´ 45˝. Latitude     }|  39  23    52 N.
                |  deduced                          }|
                +------------------------------------+-----------------
  July 9, 1820. |Meridian double altitude of Antares |  49  18    15
                |                                    +-----------------
                |Index error -3´ 45˝. Latitude      }|  39  23    29 N.
                |  deduced                          }|
                +------------------------------------+-----------------
                |Mean latitude of the camp           |  39  23    40 N.
  --------------+------------------------------------+-----------------

At our camp on Boiling-spring Creek, at the distance of about 25 miles
from James's Peak, (the same designated by Pike as the highest peak,)
trigonometrical observations were made for determining the height of
the peak above the level of the adjacent country. A base of 1048½
feet was accurately measured, and angles taken at its extremities, to
ascertain another side of the triangle, to serve as a base to determine
the height of the mountain. The angles at the extremities of the
primary base, corrected for the index error of sextant, were 104° 32´
15˝ and 65° 28´ 45˝--and the extent of the secondary base as found by
calculation, 133372.5 feet. The angles taken at the extremities of the
secondary base, included between that line and the lines of vision, to
an object distinctly visible at the summit of the peak, were 96° 21´
15˝ and 81° 17´ 45˝, corrected as above. The angle of elevation of the
top of the peak, observed at the extremity {xxxviii} of the secondary
base, most remote from the peak, was 3° 41´ 15˝, corrected also for
index error of sextant. The final result of these observations, gives
for the height of the peak above the plain in which the observations
were made, 8507½ feet.

In order to ascertain with precision, the angle of elevation of the
summit of the peak, an artificial horizon of water was employed, and
the double angle of elevation observed. The angle of elevation as it
stands corrected for refraction, is 3° 39´ 26˝. The estimate as above
gives the height of the peak above the true level of the place of
observation, no correction having been made for the spherical figure of
the earth.

Allowing the perpendicular fall of the river Platte, from the mountains
to its mouth, to be on an average nineteen inches per mile, (which
appears reasonable from the rapidity of its current compared with
that of the Missouri,) the fall of the Missouri from the place where
it receives the Platte to its mouth, to be 16 inches per mile, which
agrees with the result from _leveling_ at Engineer Cantonment--and that
of the Mississippi from the mouth of the Missouri to the Gulf of Mexico
to be 12 inches per mile, it would give for the height of the Platte at
the base of the mountains, say at the place of the above observations,
3000 feet above the level of the ocean, and consequently the height of
James's Peak would be 11507½ above the same level.

This mountain was clothed in snow for a considerable distance below its
summit, when the exploring party visited it, in the middle of July, and
at the same time they experienced excessive heat at its base.

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Observations made on the Arkansa, at our camp, situated about
     twenty-five miles below the point where the river issues from
                            the mountains._

       _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at noon._

                 | Time from Noon,  |   Time from Noon,  | Error of Watch.
                 |      A.M.        |        P.M.        |
                 +------------------+--------------------+----------------
  July 17, 1820. | 3ʰ  27´   17˝    | 3ʰ  08´ 35˝      } | 15´ 03˝ slow.
                 | 3   25    58     | 3   07    15     } | Mean time.
                 | 3   24    36     | 3   05    54     } |
                 +------------------+--------------------+----------------
  July 17, 1820. | Meridian double altitude of Antares   | 51° 28´
                 | Index error  3´ 22˝. Latitude      }  |
                 |   deduced                          }  | 38  18    19 N.
                 +---------------------------------------+----------------

 _A mean of eight lunar observations. Distance of nearest limbs of sun
                and moon for calculating the longitude._

                 | Time per Watch,  | Distance of Sun  |
                 |     P.M.         |     and Moon.    | Index Error.
                 +------------------+------------------+-------------
  July 17, 1820. |  3ʰ   26´  49˝   |  84°  08´  30˝   | - 3´ 22˝
                 +------------------+------------------+-------------

{xxxix} Assumed longitude 7ʰ 01´ west. Allowance to be made for error
and rate of time-piece, as before.

Longitude of Camp deduced, 7ʰ 02´ 39˝, or 105° 39´ 45˝ W.

 _Camp on the Arkansa, two miles below the river St. Charles, or third
                             fork of Pike._

  July 19, 1820.  | Meridian double altitude of Antares |  51° 36´ 00˝
                  | Index error--3´ 22˝. Latitude     } |
                  |   deduced                         } |  38  14  18 N.
                  +-------------------------------------+---------------

   _Camp on the Arkansa, at the place where the Exploring Party was
                    divided into two detachments._

     _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at midnight._

                 | Time before     |  Time after       |  Error of Watch.
                 |   Midnight      |    Midnight       |
  ---------------+-----------------+-------------------+-----------------
  July 21, 1820. | 8ʰ  39´   58˝   | 8ʰ  17´   50˝    }|  17´ 19˝ slow.
                 | 8   38    38    | 8   16    30     }|    Mean time.
                 | 8   37    18    | 8   15     1     }|
                 +-----------------+-------------------+-----------------

   _A mean of eight lunar distances and times correspondent,--nearest
                limb of moon from star Spicæ Virginis._

                 | Time per Watch  |  Distance of Moon |   Index error.
                 |      P.M.       |       and Star.   |
  ---------------+-----------------+-------------------+---------------
  July 21, 1820. |  9ʰ   40´  54˝  |  51°  45´  47˝    |  - 3´ 30˝
                 +-----------------+-------------------+---------------

Variation of watch 47˝ per 12 hours losing. Error of watch to be
estimated. Longitude by account 6ʰ 58´ W. Lat. determined by subsequent
observations.

Longitude of Camp, 6ʰ 55´ 05˝ or 103° 46´ 15˝ W. of Greenwich.

       _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at noon._

                | Time from Noon,   |  Time from Noon,  |  Error of Watch.
                |       A.M.        |       P.M.        |
                +-------------------+-------------------+-----------------
  July 22, 1820.| 2ʰ   58´   21˝    | 2ʰ  34´   09˝  }  | 18´ 06˝ slow.
                | 2    56    59     | 2   32    47   }  |  Mean time.
                | 2    55    36     | 2   31    23   }  |
                +-------------------+-------------------+-----------------
  July 22, 1820.| Meridian double altitude of Antares   |  51° 40´
                |                                       +-----------------
                |  Index error--3´ 30˝. Latitude      } |
                |  deduced                            } |  38  12 22 N.
  --------------+---------------------------------------+-----------------

           {xl} _Camp on the Canadian River of August 6th._

  Aug. 6, 1820.  | Meridian of altitude sun's lower limb |  71° 52´
                 | Extent of natural horizon, or sheet  }|
                 |   of water                           }|  82 yards.
                 | Height of observer's eye above       }|
                 |   horizon                            }|  38 inches.
                 | Index error of sextant                |  - 3´
                 |                                       +--------------
                 | Latitude deduced                      |35° 16´ 19˝ N.
  ---------------+---------------------------------------+--------------

              _Camp on the Canadian River of August 22d._

  Aug. 22, 1820. |  Meridian double altitude of moon's } |
                 |  lower limb                         } | 72° 18´ 15˝
                 |                                       +----------------
                 |  Index error--4´ 00˝. Latitude      } |
                 |    deduced                          } | 35  26    29 N.
  ---------------+---------------------------------------+----------------

              _Camp on the Canadian River of August 31st._

       _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at noon._

                | Time from Noon, | Time from Noon,  |  Error of Watch.
                |      A.M.       |      P.M.        |
  --------------+-----------------+------------------+-----------------
  Aug. 31, 1820 | 3ʰ  27´   43˝   | 2ʰ  23´   40˝   }| 31´ 52½˝ slow.
                | 3   26    21    | 2   22    18    }| Mean time.
                | 3   24    55    | 2   20    57    }|
                +-----------------+------------------+-----------------

   _Altitudes of Sun and times correspondent, to find the Latitude._

                | Times per Watch, | Double altitudes of |  Index error.
                |      A.M.        |  sun's upper limb.  |
                +------------------+---------------------+----------------
  Aug. 31, 1820.| 10ʰ  29´   20˝   |  121° 18´    00˝    |  - 4´
                | 10   30    24    |  121  32     00     |  Error and
                | 10   32    05    |  121  52     30     |    variation of
                | 10   33    12    |  122  06     30     |    watch to be
                | 10   34    13    |  122  17     30     |    allowed.
                |                  |                     | Lat. by account
                |                  |                     |   34° 57´ N.
                +------------------+---------------------+----------------
             Mean 10ʰ  31´   51˝   |  121° 49´    18˝    |
                -------------------+---------------------+----------------
                Latitude of Camp deduced from the above  | 34° 57´ 35˝
  -------------------------------------------------------+----------------

   _A mean of seven Lunar distances, and times correspondent--nearest
                        limbs of Sun and Moon._

                |  Time per Watch,    |  Distance of Sun  |  Index error.
                |       A.M.          |      and Moon.    |
                +---------------------+-------------------+--------------
  Aug. 31, 1820.|   7ʰ    32´   06˝   |   77°  50´  15˝   |   - 4´
                +---------------------+-------------------+--------------

{xli} Allowance to be made for error and variation of watch. Longitude
by account, 6ʰ 26´ W.

Longitude deduced, 6ʰ 26´ 12˝, or 96° 33´ 00˝ W. of Greenwich.

      _Camp on the Canadian river, fifteen miles above its mouth._

  Sept. 9, 1820.   | Meridian double altitude of sun's }| 120° 13´ 00˝
                   | lower limb                        }|
                   |                                    +----------------
                   | Index error - 4'. Lat. deduced     |  34  50  15  N.
                   +------------------------------------+----------------

  _Observations made on the Arkansa river, at Fort Smith, Belle Point,
     situated at the confluence of the Arkansa and Poteau rivers._

  Sept. 14, 1820. | Meridian double altitude of sun's } | 116° 22´ 00˝
                  | lower limb                        } |
                  |                                     +-----------------
                  | Index error - 4´. Latitude deduced  |  34  51  07   N.
                  +-------------------------------------+-----------------
  Sept. 15, 1820. | Meridian double altitude of sun's } |
                  | lower limb                        } | 115  36  00
                  |                                     +-----------------
                  | Index error - 4´. Latitude deduced  |  34  51  00   N.
                  +-------------------------------------+-----------------
  Sept. 16, 1820. | Meridian double altitude of sun's } |
                  | lower limb                        } | 114  50  30
                  |                                     +-----------------
                  | Index error - 4´. Latitude deduced  |  34  50  35   N.
                  +-------------------------------------+-----------------
                  | Mean latitude of Belle Point        |  34  50  54   N.
                  +-------------------------------------+-----------------

       _Equal altitudes of Sun to find error of watch, at noon._

                  | Time from Noon, |  Time from Noon,  | Error of Watch.
                  |     A.M.        |      P.M.         |
                  +-----------------+-------------------+----------------
  Sept. 15, 1820. | 3ʰ  41´   21˝   | 3ʰ  36´   32˝    }| 2´ 47˝ fast.
                  | 3   38    35    | 3   33    46     }| Mean time.
                  +-----------------+-------------------+----------------

   _A mean of seven lunar distances and times correspondent--nearest
                        limbs of Sun and Moon._

                  | Time per Watch, |  Distance of Sun  | Index error.
                  |    P.M.         |    and Moon.      |
                  +-----------------+-------------------+-------------
  Sept. 15, 1820. |  3ʰ   55´  46˝  |  93°  59´  30˝    |  - 4´
                  +-----------------+-------------------+-------------

Allowance for error of watch as usual. Longitude by account, 6ʰ 18´
west of Greenwich.

Longitude of Belle Point deduced from the foregoing data, 6ʰ 17´ 24˝,
or 94° 21´ 00˝ west of Greenwich.


{xlii} A TABLE OF LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE,

_Embracing the deductions recorded in the foregoing account of Astronomical
                    Observations and Calculations._

  =======================+===============+==============+===============
                         |               | Longitude W. | Longitude W.
  Places of Observation  |    Latitude N |    from      |from Washington
                         |               |   Greenwich  |    City
  -----------------------+---------------+--------------+---------------
  Shippingsport, Ky      | 38° 15´   23˝ |              |
  Camp on Mississippi,   |               |              |
    June 8               | 38  26    09  |              |
  Mouth of Merameg river | 38  23    39  |              |
  St. Louis, Missouri    | 38  36    18  |90° 02´   35˝ |13° 02´   35˝
  Camp on Missouri       |               |              |
    river, June 28       | 38  34    33  |              |
  Franklin, Missouri     | 38  57    09  |92  57    05  |15  57    05
  Fort Osage, Missouri   | 39  09    33  |              |
  Cow Island, Missouri   |               |              |
    river                | 39  25    05  |              |
  Camp on Missouri river,|               |              |
     Aug. 31             | 39  49    01  |              |
  Fort Lisa, Missouri Fur|               |              |
    Co.'s Establishment  | 41  24    13  |              |
  Engineer Cantonment    | 41  25    04  |95  43    53  |18  43    53
  Mouth of river Platte  | 41  03    13  |              |
  Mouth of Elk-horn,     |               |              |
    tributary to Platte  | 41  12    00  |              |
  Boyer river at         |               |              |
    commencement of      |               |              |
    High Lands           | 41  32    15  |              |
  Elk-horn river, near   |               |              |
    Pawnee Trace         | 41  26    07  |              |
  Village of             |               |              |
    Republican Pawnees   | 41  17    03  |              |
  Mouth of Missouri river| 38  51    39  |90  00    40  |13  00    40
  Mouth of De Moyen river| 40  21    48  |              |
  Mouth of Illinois river| 38  58    23  |90  18    00  |13  18    00
  Cape Girardeau,        |               |              |
    Mississippi river    | 37  18    39  |89  17    00  |12  17    00
  Spanish Fort at Natchez| 31  33    45  |              |
  Camp on the Platte,    |               |              |
    July 4               | 39  57    40  |              |
  Do.    do.             |               |              |
    July 5               | 39  50    40  |105  20   45  |28  20    45
  Camp at the base of the|               |              |
    Rocky Mountains,     |               |              |
    July 8               | 39  23    40  |              |
  1st Camp on Arkansa,   |               |              |
    July 17              | 38  18    19  |105  39   45  |28  39    45
  Camp on Arkansa,       |               |              |
    July 19              | 38  14    18  |              |
  Camp where Exploring   |               |              |
    Party separated      | 38  12    22  |103  46   15  |26  46    15
  Camp on Canadian river,|               |              |
    Aug. 6               | 35  16    19  |              |
  Do.    do.   Aug. 22   | 35  26    29  |              |
  Do.    do.   Aug. 31   | 34  57    35  |96   33   00  |19  33    00
  Do.    do.   Sept. 9   | 34  50    15  |              |
  Belle Point,           |               |              |
    Arkansa Territory    | 34  50    54  |94   21   00  |17  21    00
  -----------------------+---------------+--------------+---------------


METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER

                       _Preliminary Explanations_

The observations on the modifications of the clouds were particularly
detailed in the Journal by Mr. Say, who being often remote from the
party on detached expeditions, the phases observed by him cannot always
be considered as precisely corresponding with those that occurred where
the observations noted in the remaining columns of the tables were made
by Lieut. Graham. As they would occupy too much space, if introduced
into the body of this work agreeably to the manuscript notes, it was
judged proper to modify and condense them into the smallest possible
space. With this view, the nomenclature of Messrs. Howard and Forster
has been adopted, and is now inserted in the meteorological tables,
under the indications of the following abbreviations, viz.

  S   -  Stratus.
  C   -  Cirrus.
  Cs  -  Cirrostratus--the addition of a full point, thus Cs. shows
           that this cloud was almost or entirely universal; and a
           comma, thus, Cs, indicates its partial occurrence. The
           same observations also relate to the signs for the following
           clouds.
  Cm  -  Cumulus.
  Cml -  Cirrocumulus.
  Cms -  Cumulostratus.
  Cmc -  Cumulocirrostratus.
  Ns  -  Nimbus.

But as the particular varieties of appearance which these respective
clouds exhibited, could not be indicated in the allotted columns of the
tables, they are altogether omitted. The column headed with the word
_courses_ indicates the points of the heavens from which the clouds
proceed; thus | C. | S.W. | shows the occurrence of the Cirrus form of
clouds proceeding from the south-west.

The letter L. sometimes inserted in the column of remarks on the state
of the weather, indicates _lightning_; T. _thunder_, and R. _rain_.

Observations, by means of the Cyanometer, on the colour of the
atmosphere, were also made, three times each day, by Mr. Graham; but
as the instrument became imperfect in consequence of the fading of its
colours, from the necessary exposure to the action of light, they have
been rejected.

No record was made of the humidity of the atmosphere, as the Hygrometer
provided for the use of the Expedition, proved entirely useless.

Simultaneous meteorological observations were made at Germantown, near
Philadelphia, by Mr. Reuben Haines; from which the average temperature
of that place during several months has been deduced and inserted for
the sake of comparison, in the following tables.

Observations on the state of the weather were regularly made during the
whole term of the expedition, but being too voluminous to be inserted
in the work, it was thought best to select those of an entire year and
reject the remainder.


{xliv} _Meteorological Register_ {xlv} _for the Month of_ JUNE, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 68  |   N.W.    | 76  |  N.N.W.   | 77  |    W.     | 73  |
    2  | 65  |   Calm    | 77  |  W.N.W.   | 75  |   N.W.    | 72  |
    3  | 65  |   Calm    | 82  |  S.E.     | 80  |  S.S.E.   | 75  |
    4  | 72  |   Calm    | 83  |   Sy.     | 81  |    S.     | 78  |
    5  | 73  |    S.     | 85  |  S.E.     | 83  |   Sy.     | 80  |
    6  | 73  |   Calm    | 85  |  S.E.     | 84  |  E.S.E.   | 80  |
    7  | 79  |   S.W.    | 85  |  S.W.     | 84  |   Sy.     | 82  |
    8  | 78  |  S.S.W.   | 83  |  S.S.W.   | 83  |    S.     | 81  |
    9  | 75  |   S.W.    | 85  |   S.W.    | 80  |  W.S.W.   | 80  |
   10  | 68  |   S.E.    | 83  |  E.S.E.   | 75  |   S.E.    | 75  |
   11  | 64  |  S.S.E.   | 76  |  W.N.W.   | 72  |   N.W.    | 70  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   12  | 66  |  N.N.E.   | 73  |  N.N.W.   | 73  |  N.N.W.   | 70  |
   13  | 68  |   Calm    | 78  |  S.S.E.   | 72  |  S.S.W.   | 72  |
   14  | 72  |S.E. by E. | 81  | S. by E.  | 80  |    S.     | 77  |
   15  | 77  | S. by E.  | 84  |    E.     | 75  |    S.     | 80  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   16  | 72  |   S.E.    | 84  |   Calm    | 86  |   Calm    | 77  |
   17  | 80  |   Calm    | 87  |   Calm    | 86  |   Calm    | 84  |
   18  | 80  |   Calm    | 86  |N.W. by N. | 81  |   N.W.    | 82  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   19  | 69  |N.E. by N. | 74  | N. by E.  | 73  | N. by E.  | 72  |
   20  | 66  |  W.S.W.   | 81  |    W.     | 80  |   Calm    | 75  |
   21  | 70  |  S.W.     | 83  |   N.W.    | 83  | N. by W.  | 78  |
   22  | 70  | E. by S.  | 83  |  E.N.E.   | 84  |   Calm    | 79  |
   23  | 72  |  Calm     | 82  |  E.S.E.   | 82  |    S.     | 78  |
   24  | 71  |  Calm     | 84  |   Calm    | 86  |   S.W.    | 80  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   25  | 75  |  Calm     | 85  |   N.E.    | 86  |    N.     | 82  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   26  | 77  |  N.W.     | 84  |    S.     | 87  |  W.N.W.   | 82  |
   27  | 70  |N.W. by N. | 84  |  N.N.E.   | 86  |  N.N.E.   | 80  |
   28  | 75  |  Calm     | 83  | S. by W.  | 86  |    E.     | 81  |
   29  | 71  |  Calm     | 88  |   N.W.    | 89  |N.W. by W. | 82  |
   30  | 74  |  N.W.     | 81  |  W.N.W.   | 78  |S.W. by S. | 77  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  --   |Windy during the day                | 29.40 | 29.26 | 29.32 |
    2  |  --   |                                    | 29.36 | 29.17 | 29.31 |
    3  |  --   |                                    | 29.41 | 29.26 | 29.20 |
    4  |  68   |                                    | 29.32 | 29.16 | 29.17 |
    5  |  --   |                                    | 29.25 | 29.10 | 29.18 |
    6  |  79   |                                    | 29.29 | 29.15 | 29.16 |
    7  |  79   |                                    | 29.24 | 29.19 | 29.19 |
    8  |  --   |                                    | 29.20 | 29.15 | 29.16 |
    9  |  --   |                                    | 29.18 | 29.20 | 29.15 |
   10  |  71   |                                    | 29.28 | 29.21 | 29.20 |
   11  |  69   |Thunder shower before daylight this | 29.15 | 29.16 | 29.18 |
       |       |morning                             |       |       |       |
   12  |  69   |                                    | 29.36 | 29.27 | 29.28 |
   13  |  --   |                                    | 29.40 | 29.26 | 29.20 |
   14  |  65   |                                    | 29.29 | 29.16 | 29.15 |
   15  |  --   |Violent thunder gust commenced at 6 | 29.21 | 29.22 | 29.23 |
       |       | P.M. and continued till 7          |       |       |       |
   16  |  71   |Sultry                              | 29.26 | 29.21 | 29.18 |
   17  |  76   |Sultry                              | 29.22 | 29.17 | 29.14 |
   18  |  79   |Light breezes. Thermometer at 88½   | 29.16 | 29.13 | 29.14 |
       |       |at 11 o'clock, A.M.                 |       |       |       |
   19  |  78   |Light breezes                       | 29.29 | 29.27 | 29.14 |
   20  |  68   |Light breezes                       | 29.35 | 29.22 | 29.20 |
   21  |  71   |Light breezes                       | 29.21 | 29.16 | 29.11 |
   22  |  --   |Light breezes                       | 29.22 | 29.19 | 29.13 |
   23  |  --   |Light breezes                       | 29.20 | 29.17 | 29.09 |
   24  |  70   |Light showers of rain in the        | 29.24 | 29.18 | 29.14 |
       |       |afternoon                           |       |       |       |
   25  |  69   |Thermometer at 88 at 5 P.M. Light   | 29.25 | 29.20 | 29.19 |
       |       |breezes. L. in evening              |       |       |       |
   26  |  68   |Light and variable breezes          | 29.25 | 29.15 | 29.15 |
   27  |  73   |Light breezes                       | 29.29 | 29.09 | 29.10 |
   28  |  76   |Light breezes                       | 29.15 | 29.08 | 29.06 |
   29  |  --   |Strong breezes                      | 29.04 | 28.90 | 28.87 |
   30  |  77   |Strong gales of wind last night and | 29.00 | 28.99 | 29.00 |
       |       |also during this day                |       |       |       |
  -----+-------+-------------------------------------------------------------

  =====+=======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
    1  |   Fair    |    --     | Cs, Cms,  |    --     |    --     |
    2  |           |           |           |           |           |
    3  |           |           |           |           |           |
    4  |           |           |           |           |           |
    5  |           |           |           |           |           |
    6  |           |           |           |           |           |
    7  |           |           |           |           |           |
    8  |           |           |           |           |           |
    9  |           |           |           |           |           |
   10  |           |           |           |           |           |
   11  |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   12  |           |           |           |           |           |
   13  |           |           |           |           |           |
   14  |           |           |           |           |           |
   15  |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   16  |           |           |           |           |           |
   17  |           |           |           |           |           |
   18  |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   19  |           |           |           |           |           |
   20  |           |           |           |           |           |
   21  |           |           |           |           |           |   --
   22  | Cs, Fair  | -- -- --  |  Cs. Cm,  | -- -- --  | Cs. Cms,  |   --
   23  |   Fair    |           | Cms. Ns,  |           |    Ns,    |   --
   24  |           |           |           |           |           |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   25  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cms,    |    --     | Cm, Cml,  |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   26  |  Fair --  | -- -- --  | Cms, Cs.  | -- -- --  |-- -- Fair |   --
   27  | Fair Cs.  |   -- --   |  -- Cml,  |   -- --   | Cml, Cm,  |   --
   28  |   Fair    |           | Fair Cm.  |           |    Cm,    |   --
   29  |           |           |           |           |           |   W.
   30  |           |           |           |           |           |   --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------


{xlvi} Meteorological Register {xlvii} for the Month of JULY, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 69  |   Calm    | 83  |  W.S.W.   | 83  |   Calm    | 78  |
    2  | 71  |   Calm    | 74  | W. by S.  | 80  |N.E. by N. | 75  |
    3  | 67  |   N.N.W.  | 80  |N.W. by N  | 78  |N.E. by E. | 75  |
    4  | 64  |   N.N.W.  | 81  |  E.S.E.   | 77  |  E.S.E.   | 74  |
    5  | 65  |S.E. by E. | 80  | E. by N.  | 79  |  E.N.E.   | 74  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    6  | 76  |   Calm    | 81  |  W.S.W.   | 84  |  E.N.E.   | 80  |
    7  | 72  |   E.N.E.  | 86  |N.W. by W. | 86  |S.E. by E. | 81  |
    8  | 76  |   Calm    | 90  |   S.W.    | 88  |  E.N.E.   | 84  |
    9  | 78  |   E.N.E.  | 83  |S.W. by S. | 85  |  S.W.     | 82  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   10  | 80  |   W.S.W.  | 85  |   N.W.    |     |           |     |
   11  | 71  |   N.E.    | 85  |N.W. by N. | 82  |  S.W.     | 79  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   12  | 76  |   Calm    | 87  |   N.W.    | 81  |N.W. by N. | 81  |
   13  | 79  |     S.    | 85  |    W.     | 86  |   Calm    | 83  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   14  | 77  |   W.S.W.  | 81  |   N.E.    | 82  |   Calm    | 80  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   15  | 75  |   W.S.W.  | 84  |  W.N.W.   | 82  |           | 80  |
   16  | 69  |   W.N.W.  | 77  |   N.W.    | 76  |  N.N.W.   | 74  |
   17  | 54  |   N.N.E.  | 73  |  S.S.E.   | 72  |  N.W.     | 66  |
   18  | 54  |   N.W.    | 73  | E. by N.  | 74  |  N.N.W.   | 67  |
   19  | 54  |   N.N.E.  | 75  |    E.     | 76  |  S.S.E.   | 68  |
   20  | 64  |   S.E.    | 80  |  W.N.W.   | 73  | E. by S.  | 72  |
   21  | 68  |  E. by S. | 75  | E. by S.  | 70  |  S.S.E.   | 71  |
   22  | 70  |     E.    | 80  | S. by W.  | 77  |  S.E.     | 75  |
   23  | 68  |   Calm    | 73  |  S.S.E.   |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   24  | 72  |   Calm    | 83  |   S.E.    | 82  |  N.E.     | 79  |
   25  | 72  |N.W. by N. | 83  |  N.N.E.   | 80  | N. by W.  | 78  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   26  | 65  |   Calm    | 83  |    N.     | 72  |    W.     | 73  |
   27  | 64  |   N.W.    | 84  |  S.S.E.   | 75  |  E.S.E.   | 74  |
   28  | 69  |    E.     | 86  | S. by E.  | 84  |   N.E.    | 79  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   29  | 72  |   E.N.E.  | 88  |S.W. by S. | 80  |    S.     | 80  |
   30  | 74  |   W.S.W.  | 89  |  E.S.E.   | 83  |S.E. by E. | 82  |
   31  | 72  |N.E. by N. | 86  |  N.N.W.   | 82  |  E. by N. | 80  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  --   |Fresh gales in middle of the day    | 29.09 | 29.00 | 29.00 |
    2  |  --   |Fresh gales in middle of the day    | 29.16 | 29.18 | 29.18 |
    3  |  70   |Fresh and variable brs.--night fair | 29.33 | 29.20 | 29.20 |
    4  |  70   |Fresh breezes                       | 29.39 | 29.20 | 29.20 |
    5  |  69   |Light breezes                       | 29.25 | 29.08 | 29.07 |
       |       |                                    |       |       |       |
    6  |  69   |Freq. showers of R. during the day  | 29.07 | 29.05 | 29.06 |
    7  |  65   |Hard shower this forenoon           | 29.12 | 29.00 | 29.02 |
    8  |  67   |Light brs.--mackerel sky in even.   | 29.04 | 28.96 | 28.96 |
    9  |  77   |Hard shower this forenoon. L. in    | 29.04 | 29.00 | 28.98 |
       |       |the evening                         |       |       |       |
   10  |  79   |Rained greater part of forenoon     | 28.99 | 29.05 |       |
   11  |  80   |Fresh breezes this afternoon, N.    | 29.18 | 29.10 | 29.04 |
       |       |N.W. horizon red after twilight.    |       |       |       |
       |       |Lightning. Storm of wind            |       |       |       |
   12  |  79   |Lightning in the evening            | 29.00 | 28.97 | 29.04 |
   13  |  81   |Thunder shower and heavy wind from  | 29.07 | 29.00 | 29.03 |
       |       |from N.W. about 1 o'clock this      |       |       |       |
       |       |morning--rain 1½ inches             |       |       |       |
   14  |  78   |Thunder showers and heavy wind      | 29.03 | 29.13 | 29.13 |
       |       |this morning about 1 o'clk. rain ½  |       |       |       |
       |       |inch--noon L. ¼ inch rain           |       |       |       |
   15  |  81   |Very light breezes                  | 29.22 | 29.21 | 29.23 |
   16  |  78   |Very light breezes                  | 29.27 | 29.27 | 29.25 |
   17  |  73   |Very light breezes. Stratus at night| 29.34 | 29.31 | 29.31 |
   18  |  70   |Pleasant wea. Even. S. in N.E.      | 29.34 | 29.34 | 29.31 |
   19  |  72   |Pleasant weather                    | 29.34 | 29.34 | 29.34 |
   20  |  72   |Light breezes                       | 29.34 | 29.30 | 29.24 |
   21  |  72   |Light breezes                       | 29.21 | 29.15 | 29.15 |
   22  |  75   |Fresh breezes. T. storm in even.    | 29.06 | 28.97 | 28.97 |
   23  |  75   |Several showers of rain to-day. L.  | 29.00 | 29.00 |       |
       |       |incessant in the evening            |       |       |       |
   24  |  75   |Fr. brs. T. storm with R. in even.  | 29.02 | 29.10 | 29.12 |
   25  |  76   |Fresh breezes. Light rain this      | 29.16 | 29.17 | 29.16 |
       |       |morning. L. in the evening          |       |       |       |
   26  |  76   |Fresh breezes                       | 29.20 | 29.20 | 29.13 |
   27  |  76   |Thick fog over the river this morn. | 29.13 | 29.13 | 29.06 |
   28  |  78   |Strong breezes in the afternoon.    | 29.10 | 29.10 | 29.06 |
       |       |Evening L. and shower at night      |       |       |       |
   29  |  77   |Strong breezes                      | 29.12 | 29.06 | 29.03 |
   30  |  82   |Moderate brs. Noon T. Even. L.      | 29.08 | 29.01 | 29.00 |
   31  |  86   |Moderate breezes                    | 29.00 | 28.90 | 28.88 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  Month|  Clouds   | Courses   |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
    1  |   Cms,    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
    2  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
    3  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
    4  |    Cm,    |    S.     | Cm, & C,  |    S.     | C, & Cs,  |  --
    5  |   Cmc.    |    --     | Cm, Cms,  |   S.E.    |    Ns,    |  --
       |           |           |    Cs,    |           |           |
    6  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns,    |    --     |   Cms,    |  --
    7  |Cms, & Cs, |    --     |Cs, & Cms, |    --     | Cm, & Cs, |  --
    8  |    Cs,    |    E.     | Cm. & Cs. |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
    9  |    Cs.    |    --     | Cs. Cms,  |    --     | Ns, Cms,  |  N.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   10  |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cms.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   11  |    Cs.    |   S.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   12  |  Ns, Cs,  |   S.W.    |    Cs.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   N.
   13  |  Cs, Ns,  |  NW., NE. | Cms, Ns.  |   S.W.    |  Ns, Cs,  |   E.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   14  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns,    | N.N.E.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   15  |    S.     |    --     |  Cs, Cm,  |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
   16  |  C, Cs,   |  W.N.W.   |   Cms,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
   17  |   Cms,    |    --     |   Cms.    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
   18  |    S.     |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   19  |   Cmc.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   20  |    Cs.    |    --     |  Cm, Cs,  |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   21  |    Ns.    |    --     |  Ns, Cm,  |   S.W.    |    --     |  --
   22  |    Ns.    |    S.     | Cms, Cml, |    --     |    Ns     | S.W.
   23  |    Ns.    |    --     | Cs, Cml,  |  N.W., S. |  Cm, Ns,  | S.S.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   24  |  Cm, Cs,  |    --     | Cms, Cs,  |  N.N.W.   |    Ns,    |  --
   25  |   Cms,    |  N.N.W.   |    Cm,    |  N.N.W.   |    C,     | N.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   26  |  C, Cml,  |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   27  |    S.     |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   28  |    C,     |    --     |   Cms,    |    --     |   Cms,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   29  |    C,     |    N.     |  Cs, C,   |    --     | Cs, Cms,  |  --
   30  |    Ns.    |    --     | Cms, Cml, |   S.W.    | Cms, Cs,  |  --
   31  |    Ns     |    --     |  Cms. Cs  |N.E. , S.W.|    --     |  --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--On the 7th, 170 miles from mouth of Missouri
river at 9 o'clock, P.M. discovered a comet bearing nearly N.W.
Observed its distance from North Star to be 49° 38´.--8th, 57 minutes
past 8 P.M. observed distance of comet from North Star 48° 46´, bearing
at same time N. 43°, W. Altitude 7°.

17th--Franklin, Missouri--Magnetic intensity 26 oscillations per
minute. 28th--At our Camp--Magnetic intensity 25 oscillations per
minute.


{xlviii} _Meteorological Register_ {xlix} _for the Month of_ AUGUST,
1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 72  |    N.W.   | 85  |     N.    | 82  |    S.E.   | 79  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    2  | 69  |   Calm    | 78  |  E. by S. | 74  |  E. by S. | 73  |
    3  | 68  |           | 82  |    S.W.   | 74  |  W. by S. | 74  |
    4  | 73  |     S.    | 84  |     S.    | 78  |     W.    | 78  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    5  | 68  |   S.S.W.  | 86  |     W.    | 76  |    S.W.   | 76  |
    6  | 71  |     W.    | 88  |     W.    | 80  |     W.    | 79  |
    7  | 71  |    S.W.   | 84  |   W.S.W.  | 81  |   W.S.W.  | 78  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    8  | 71  |   Calm    | 84  |    N.E.   | 80  |S.W. by S. | 78  |
    9  | 70  |   S.S.W.  | 88  |   Calm    | 84  |   Calm    | 80  |
   10  | 70  |   S.S.E.  | 88  |     S.    | 84  |   E.S.E.  | 80  |
   11  | 72  |   E.N.E.  | 90  |   S.S.E.  | 85  |   E.S.E.  | 82  |
   12  | 72  |   Calm    | 92  |     W.    | 85  |   E.N.E.  | 83  |
   13  | 75  |   Calm    | 91  |    S.W.   | 86  |   S.S.E.  | 84  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   14  | 77  |   Calm    | 93  |     S.    | 87  |     S.    | 85  |
   15  | 76  |    S.E.   | 92  |     S.    | 86  |   S.S.W.  | 84  |
   16  | 76  |   Calm    | 90  |   Calm    | 87  |     N.    | 84  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   17  | 74  |   E.N.E.  | 90  |    N.E.   | 86  |   N.N.E.  | 83  |
   18  | 73  |   W.S.W.  | 86  |   Calm    | 81  |   E.N.E.  | 89  |
   19  | 74  |   Calm    | 83  |   E.N.E.  | 80  |   E.N.E.  | 79  |
   20  | 76  |   S.S.E.  | 85  |     E.    | 81  |     E.    | 80  |
   21  | 68  |   Calm    | 84  |   W.N.W.  | 78  |    N.W.   | 76  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   22  | 61  |    N.W.   | 76  |   N.N.E.  | 68  |   N.N.W.  | 68  |
   23  | 50  |     W.    | 72  |   Calm    | 67  |    N.W.   | 63  |
   24  | 54  |   S.S.E.  | 73  |   S.S.E.  | 70  |   S.S.E.  | 65  |
   25  | 60  |    S.E.   | 83  |   S.S.E.  |     |   S.S.E.  |     |
   26  | 68  |     S.    | 86  |   S.S.E.  | 80  |   S.S.E.  | 78  |
   27  | 71  |     E.    | 70  |     N.    | 69  |     N.    | 70  |
   28  | 50  |    N.W.   | 79  |    N.W.   | 66  |   E.N.E.  | 65  |
   29  | 50  |   N.N.E.  | 75  |   E.S.E.  |     |           |     |
   30  | 50  |   E.S.E.  | 84  |   S.S.W.  | 71  |   S.W.    | 68  |
   31  | 62  |     S.    | 93  |   W.S.W.  | 84  |   S.W.    | 79  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  88   |Frequent showers of rain, ⅛ of an   | 28.87 | 28.77 | 28.74 |
       |       |inch rain since yesterday morn.     |       |       |       |
    2  |  86   |                                    | 28.72 | 28.68 | 28.68 |
    3  |  78   |                                    | 28.68 | 28.70 | 28.74 |
    4  |  76   |Frequent showers of rain, ½ an inch | 28.79 | 28.77 | 28.77 |
       |       |of rain since yesterday morning     |       |       |       |
    5  |  75   |Light sprinkles of rain             | 28.83 | 28.80 | 28.80 |
    6  |  75   |Cloudy all day                      | 28.86 |       | 28.85 |
    7  |  79   |Light sprinkles of rain last night  | 28.90 | 28.82 | 28.82 |
       |       |and this afternoon                  |       |       |       |
    8  |  82   |Sprinkles of rain this forenoon     | 28.82 | 28.74 | 28.74 |
    9  |  80   |Sultry                              | 28.75 | 28.74 | 28.74 |
   10  |  82   |Sultry. Light in S.E. this evening  | 28.80 | 28.80 | 28.80 |
   11  |  79   |Pleasant brs. L. in N. this         | 28.86 | 28.86 | 28.78 |
   12  |  81   |Fresh breezes. Lightning in N.W.    | 28.84 | 28.80 | 28.74 |
   13  |  82   |Fresh breezes. Night meteors        | 28.77 | 28.70 | 28.70 |
       |       |shooting to the north               |       |       |       |
   14  |  82   |Fresh breezes. No dew               | 28.70 | 28.63 | 28.62 |
   15  |  79   |Fresh breezes. No dew               | 28.62 | 28.60 | 28.57 |
   16  |  72   |Light breezes. Shower of rain in    | 28.57 | 28.63 | 28.64 |
       |       |the morn. No dew in the even.       |       |       |       |
   17  |  79   |Light breezes                       | 28.66 | 28.66 | 28.66 |
   18  |  72   |Light brs. noon. Rain in the E.     | 28.70 | 28.67 | 28.67 |
   19  |  74   |                                    | 28.74 | 28.74 | 28.74 |
   20  |  76   |                                    | 28.80 | 28.75 | 28.68 |
   21  |  77   |Hard shower of rain from            | 28.68 | 28.63 | 28.66 |
       |       |North--3/16 of an inch of rain      |       |       |       |
   22  |  78   |Windy                               | 28.84 | 28.85 | 28.88 |
   23  |  70   |                                    | 29.18 | 28.85 | 28.85 |
   24  |  66   |Windy                               | 28.85 | 28.77 | 28.77 |
   25  |  62   |Strong gale of wind during the day  | 28.83 | 28.65 | 28.65 |
   26  |       |Strong gale of wind. Evening, rain  | 28.72 | 28.66 | 28.63 |
   27  |  64   |Strong gale of wind. Morn. rain     | 28.63 | 28.75 | 28.75 |
   28  |  65   |Strong gale of wind                 | 28.94 | 28.78 | 28.79 |
   29  |  70   |Fresh breezes                       | 29.00 | 28.84 |       |
   30  |  69   |Fresh breezes                       | 28.97 | 28.67 | 28.54 |
   31  |  71   |Windy                               | 28.57 | 28.44 | 28.45 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   | Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
    1  |    Ns.    |   N.E.    |   Cml.    |   N.E.    |    Cs.    |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    2  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
    3  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
    4  |    Ns.    |    E.     |    Cm,    |           |  C, Cs.   |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    5  |           |           |           |           |           |
    6  |    Cs.    |           |    Cs.    |           |    Cs.    |
    7  |    Ns.    |           |    Cs.    |           |   Cms.    |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    8  |    Ns.    |           |    Cs.    |           |   Cms.    |
    9  | Cs, Cms,  |           |   Fair    |           |    Cm,    |
   10  |   Fair    |           |    Cm.    |  S.S.W.   |   Fair    |
   11  |   Fair    |           |    Cm,    |  S.S.W.   |  C, Cs,   |
   12  |    Cs.    |           | Cs, Cms,  |           |    Cs,    |
   13  |  Cm, Cs,  |           |    Cm,    |           |  Cm, Cs,  |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   14  |           |           |           |           |           |
   15  |           |           |           |           |           |
   16  |    Ns.    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |           |  Ns, Cs,  |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   17  |    Cs,    |           | Cs, Cml,  | S.W., N.E.|           |
   18  |    Cs,    |           |  Cs, Cm,  | S.W., N.E.|    Ns.    |  E.
   19  |    Ns.    |           |   Cms.    |   N.E.    |           |
   20  |   Fair    |           |  Cm, Cs,  |           |    C.     |
   21  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   22  |           |           |           |           |           |
   23  |    Cs.    |           |           |           |           |
   24  |    Cs.    |           |           |           |           |
   25  |    C,     |           |    C,     |    E.     |    C,     |  E.
   26  |    Cs,    |           |  Cs, Cm,  |   S.W.    |    Ns.    |
   27  |    Ns.    |   N.W.    |  Cs, Cm,  | W., N.W.  |           |
   28  |   Fair    |           |    Cs.    |           |           |
   29  |           |           |           |           |           |
   30  |           |           |           |           |           |
   31  |    Cs,    |           |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--On the evening of the 2d, when the moon was
about 8° above the horizon, brilliant rays of light appeared very
distinctly to proceed from a point 5° or 6° to the north of the moon.
Same phenomenon on the evening of the 3d.

Fort Osage, August 4th, magnetic intensity 26½.

Fall of rain on the 26th instant 3-16ths of an inch--27th ½ an inch.


{l} _Meteorological Register_ {li} _for the Month of_ SEPTEMBER, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 75  |   N.W.    | 92  |  S.S.E.   | 88  |   S.W.    | 85  |
    2  | 75  |   N.W.    | 88  |  E.S.E.   | 74  |   Calm    | 79  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    3  | 63  |  S.S.E.   | 90  |   S.W.    | 78  |   S.W.    | 77  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    4  | 76  |   S.W.    | 90  |  S.S.E.   | 82  |  S.S.E.   | 82  |
    5  | 71  |  N.N.W.   | 70  |  N.N.W.   | 71  |  N.N.W.   | 70  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    6  | 66  |   S.E.    | 84  |   N.W.    | 72  |   N.W.    | 74  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    7  | 70  |   N.W.    | 85  |  E.S.E.   | 78  |  N.N.W.   | 77  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    8  | 65  |   N.E.    | 85  |  E.S.E.   | 76  |  E.S.E.   | 75  |
    9  | 65  |  E.S.E.   | 92  |   S.E.    | 75  |   S.E.    | 74  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   10  | 70  |   Calm    | 87  |  S.S.E.   | 80  |   S.E.    | 79  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   11  | 72  |   Calm    | 77  |    S.     | 76  |   S.E.    | 75  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   12  | 74  |  S.S.E.   | 82  |    S.     | 76  |   Calm    | 77  |
   13  | 62  |    N.     | 74  |  N.N.W.   | 67  |  N.N.W.   | 67  |
   14  | 50  |    W.     | 69  |  E.N.E.   | 60  |  E.N.E.   | 59  |
   15  | 50  |   S.W.    | 74  |  S.S.W.   | 68  |  S.S.W.   | 64  |
   16  | 56  |   N.E.    | 78  |    S.     | 71  |    S.     | 68  |
   17  | 55  |    S.     | 85  |  E.N.E.   | 78  |  E.N.E.   | 72  |
   18  | 58  |   Calm    | 90  |   S.E.    | 75  |   S.E.    | 74  |
   19  | 56  |  N.N.W.   | 84  |   S.E.    | 72  |   S.E.    | 70  |
   20  | 58  |   S.E.    | 70  |   S.E.    | 69  |  S.S.W.   | 65  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   21  | 56  |  E.S.E.   | 80  |  E.S.E.   | 74  |   S.E.    | 70  |
   22  | 60  |  E.S.E.   | 76  |   S.E.    | 72  |   Calm    | 69  |
   23  | 54  |    N.     | 64  |  N.N.W.   | 58  |   N.W.    | 58  |
   24  | 41  |    N.     | 64  |    N.     | 55  |   Calm    | 53  |
   25  | 34  |   Calm    | 70  |   Calm    | 59  |   Calm    | 54  |
   26  | 45  |   S.E.    | 82  |   S.E.    | 71  |   S.E.    | 66  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   27  | 54  |   Calm    | 80  |   S.E.    | 67  |   S.E.    | 67  |
   28  | 54  |  E.S.E.   | 77  |   S.E.    | 70  |   S.E.    | 67  |
   29  | 54  |  E.S.E.   | 85  |   S.E.    | 80  |   S.E.    | 73  |
   30  | 62  |   Calm    | 86  |   N.W.    | 73  |   N.W.    | 73  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  75   |Windy                               | 28.45 | 28.40 | 28.40 |
    2  |  78   |Light breezes. Lightning in S.W.    | 28.41 | 29.20 | 29.20 |
       |       |at midnight                         |       |       |       |
    3  |  80   |Hard thunder shower from  W.S.W.    | 28.70 | 28.47 | 28.47 |
       |       |this afternoon, lightning in N.W.   |       |       |       |
       |       |in the evening                      |       |       |       |
    4  |  78   |Some rain last night                | 28.47 | 28.47 | 28.47 |
    5  |  79   |Rain and lightning last night, and  | 28.63 | 28.58 | 28.58 |
       |       |a shower at noon                    |       |       |       |
    6  |  79   |Thunder storm from S.E. last        | 28.58 | 28.50 | 28.50 |
       |       |night, and another from N.W. this   |       |       |       |
       |       |afternoon, and during part of the   |       |       |       |
       |       |night, with rain, and some hail in  |       |       |       |
       |       |the night                           |       |       |       |
    7  |  80   |Violent thunder storm from N.N.W.   | 28.50 | 28.44 | 28.44 |
       |       |with a little hail this afternoon   |       |       |       |
    8  |  80   |                                    | 28.56 | 29.60 | 29.60 |
    9  |  77   |Thunder in the W. and some          | 28.65 | 28.55 | 28.55 |
       |       |appearance of rain this             |       |       |       |
   10  |  70   |afternoon--evening lightning in the | 28.68 | 28.68 | 28.68 |
       |       |N.                                  |       |       |       |
   11  |  65   |Frequent light sprinkles of rain    | 28.66 | 28.66 | 28.63 |
       |       |to-day, rain in the morning         |       |       |       |
   12  |  68   |                                    | 28.63 | 28.64 | 28.64 |
   13  |  62   |Very windy and squally all day      | 28.76 | 28.84 | 28.84 |
   14  |  59   |Cool breezes. S. from river at night| 29.10 | 28.92 | 28.86 |
   15  |  64   |Remarkably clear sky all this day   | 28.92 | 28.70 | 28.68 |
   16  |  65   |Remarkably clear sky all this day   | 28.75 | 28.64 | 28.65 |
   17  |  65   |Remarkably clear sky all this day   | 28.75 | 28.60 | 28.60 |
   18  |  66   |                                    | 28.60 | 28.50 | 28.50 |
   19  |  66   |                                    | 28.70 | 28.68 | 28.68 |
   20  |  60   |Night S. from the river and nimbus  | 28.80 | 28.70 | 28.70 |
       |       |in N.W. horizon                     |       |       |       |
   21  |  56   |Fresh gales of wind                 | 28.70 | 28.54 | 28.54 |
   22  |  62   |Atmosphere thick and smoky          | 28.56 | 28.46 | 28.56 |
   23  |  68   |Windy                               | 28.66 | 28.66 | 28.66 |
   24  |  68   |Windy                               | 28.78 | 28.57 | 28.57 |
   25  |  66   |Frost last night                    | 28.80 | 28.54 | 28.54 |
   26  |  62   |} Atmosphere very smoky, occasioned | 28.50 | 28.37 | 28.37 |
       |       |by the neighbouring prairies being  |       |       |       |
       |       |on fire                             |       |       |       |
   27  |  61   |}                                   | 28.37 | 28.43 | 28.43 |
   28  |  60   |}                                   | 28.70 | 28.64 | 28.64 |
   29  |  60   |}                                   | 28.65 | 28.50 | 28.50 |
   30  |  66   |}                                   | 28.50 | 28.54 | 28.50 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |         Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   | Courses   |   Clouds  |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
    1  |    C,     |    --     |  C, Cm,   |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
    2  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    3  |  C, Cs,   |  S.W., W. |    Cs.    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    | S.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    4  |    C,     |   S.W.    |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    | W.
    5  | Cs. Cml,  |  W., N.W. |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    | S.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    6  | Cs. Cml,  |  N.W., S. |    Cs,    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    7  |    Ns,    |    --     |    Cm.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    8  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
    9  |  C, Cm,   |    --     |  C, Cm,   |    --     |    Ns,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   10  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |  Cm. Cs,  |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   11  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   12  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   13  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   14  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   15  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   16  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   17  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   18  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |  --
   19  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   20  |  S, Ns,   |    --     |  S, Cml,  |    --     |    S.     |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   21  |  S, Cs,   |    --     |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |  --
   22  |   C, C,   |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    | N.W.
   23  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |  --
   24  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    S,     |  --
   25  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   26  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   27  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   28  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   29  |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |  --
   30  |    Cs,    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    | N.W.
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------

_Note._ The Expedition arrived at ENGINEER CANTONMENT, their wintering
post, on the 17th instant.

September 3d, fall of rain 7-8 inch--4th, 1-8 inch--5th, 5-8 inch--7th,
3-8 inch--8th, 5-8 inch.


{lii} _Meteorological Register_ {liii} _for the Month of_ OCTOBER, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 46  |   Calm    | 86  |   N.W.    | 74  |   N.W.    | 68  |
    2  | 50  |   Calm    | 73  |    E.     | 65  |    E.     | 62  |
    3  | 54  |   S.E.    | 75  |   S.E.    | 72  |   Calm    | 67  |
    4  | 64  |  E.S.E.   | 90  |   S.E.    | 86  |   S.E.    | 80  |
    5  | 72  |   S.E.    | 88  |  S.S.E.   | 82  |  S.S.E.   | 80  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    6  | 68  |   S.E.    | 71  |   S.E.    | 47  |   N.W.    | 62  |
    7  | 36  |   N.W.    | 39  |   N.W.    | 38  |   N.W.    | 37  |
    8  | 32  |   N.W.    | 38  |   N.W.    | 36  |   N.W.    | 35  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    9  | 31  |   N.W.    | 48  |   N.W.    | 44  |   N.W.    | 41  |
   10  | 38  |   S.E.    | 68  |  N.N.W.   | 55  |  N.N.W.   | 53  |
   11  | 35  |           | 56  |  E.S.E.   | 52  |  E.S.E.   | 47  |
   12  | 43  |   Calm    | 53  |   N.E.    | 49  |   Calm    | 48  |
   13  | 28  |   Calm    | 57  |   S.E.    | 47  |   Calm    | 44  |
   14  | 42  |   S.E.    | 70  |   S.E.    | 62  |   Calm    | 58  |
   15  | 44  |  N.N.E.   | 58  |  N.N.E.   | 53  |   N.W.    | 51  |
   16  | 30  |   N.W.    | 53  |   N.W.    | 42  |    W.     | 41  |
   17  | 26  |   S.E.    | 59  |  E.S.E.   | 51  |   S.E.    | 45  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   18  | 43  |  N.N.W.   | 57  |  W.N.W.   | 53  |  W.N.W.   | 51  |
   19  | 40  |   N.W.    | 53  |   N.W.    | 45  |   N.W.    | 46  |
   20  | 29  |   Calm    | 53  |   N.W.    | 45  |  W.N.W.   | 42  |
   21  | 28  |   Calm    | 49  |   S.E.    | 46  |   S.E.    | 41  |
   22  | 38  |   Calm    | 74  | Variable  | 65  |   N.W.    | 59  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   23  | 40  |   N.W.    |     |   N.W.    |     |   N.W.    |     |
   24  |     |   N.W.    |     |   N.W.    |     |   N.W.    |     |
   25  |     |  S.S.W.   |     |  S.S.W.   |     |  S.S.W.   |     |
   26  | 29  |   Calm    | 56  |   S.E.    | 54  |   S.E.    | 46  |
   27  | 32  |   Calm    | 59  |   Calm    | 56  |   Calm    | 49  |
   28  | 32  |   Calm    | 68  |  S.S.W.   | 66  |  S.S.W.   | 55  |
   29  | 39  |   Calm    | 61  |    N.     | 57  |    N.     | 51  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   30  | 31  |   Calm    | 52  |   S.E.    | 54  |   S.E.    | 45  |
   31  | 50  |   N.W.    | 77  |   N.W.    | 61  |   N.W.    | 62  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  65   |Atmosphere thick with smoke         | 28.73 | 28.54 | 28.56 |
    2  |  --   |Atmosphere thick with smoke         | 28.74 | 28.62 | 28.62 |
    3  |  --   |Atmosphere thick with smoke         | 28.54 | 28.45 | 28.38 |
    4  |  56   |Atmosphere thick with smoke         | 28.38 | 28.28 | 28.28 |
    5  |  60   |Windy and squally. Atmosphere thick | 28.38 | 28.35 | 28.35 |
       |       |with smoke                          |       |       |       |
    6  |  66   |Light rain this morning             | 28.40 | 28.33 | 28.40 |
    7  |  66   |Windy                               | 28.70 | 28.80 | 28.87 |
    8  |  67   |A little ice and snow last night.   | 28.96 | 28.94 | 28.94 |
       |       |Windy and light snow this even.     |       |       |       |
    9  |  70   |Frost last night--windy to-day      | 28.88 | 28.83 | 28.72 |
   10  |  58   |Windy                               | 28.71 | 28.66 | 28.67 |
   11  |  53   |Light sprinkles of rain to-day      | 28.88 | 28.88 | 28.96 |
   12  |  54   |Fresh breezes of wind all this day  | 29.21 | 29.20 | 29.23 |
   13  |  46   |Frost last night                    | 29.45 | 29.28 | 29.25 |
   14  |  47   |                                    | 29.16 | 28.90 | 28.83 |
   15  |  52   |                                    | 28.69 | 28.64 | 28.65 |
   16  |  57   |Frost last night                    | 28.87 | 28.78 | 28.78 |
   17  |  49   |Frost last night--water also froze  | 28.90 | 28.75 | 28.75 |
       |       |in a vessel left out                |       |       |       |
   18  |  46   |Windy                               | 28.64 | 28.61 | 28.61 |
   19  |  46   |High wind this day                  | 28.76 | 28.76 | 28.76 |
   20  |  47   |Hail last night                     | 28.95 | 28.95 | 29.00 |
   21  |  48   |Heavy frost last night              | 29.16 | 29.00 | 28.88 |
   22  |  42   |High wind this afternoon. Fog on    | 28.66 | 28.35 | 28.45 |
       |       |the river this morning              |       |       |       |
   23  |  46   |High winds                          | 28.78 |       |       |
   24  |  48   |High winds                          |       |       |       |
   25  |  39   |High winds                          |       |       |       |
   26  |  42   |                                    | 28.92 | 28.88 | 28.90 |
   27  |  50   |                                    | 28.94 | 28.88 | 28.88 |
   28  |  53   |                                    | 28.96 | 28.73 | 28.67 |
   29  |  52   |Frost last night, smoky atmosphere  | 28.83 | 28.74 | 28.69 |
       |       |to-day                              |       |       |       |
   30  |  52   |Atmosphere filled with dense smoke  | 28.88 | 28.73 | 28.64 |
   31  |  43   |Atmosphere filled with dense smoke  | 28.48 | 28.48 | 28.48 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   | Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    1  |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
    2  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
    3  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
    4  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |  S.W.
    5  |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |    C,     |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    6  |    Ns.    |   S.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
    7  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
    8  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    9  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   10  |    C,     |    --     |  C, Cml,  |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   11  |   Fair    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  W.N.W.
   12  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |   Cml,    |   --
   13  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   14  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   15  |    C,     |    N.     |   Cml,    |    --     |   Cml,    |   --
   16  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   17  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    W.     |    C,     |  N.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   18  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cm,    |   N.W.    |    Ns,    |  N.W.
   19  |    Cm,    |   N.W.    |    Cm,    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |   --
   20  |    Cm,    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |    Cm.    |   --
   21  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |   --
   22  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   23  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |   --
   24  |    Cs.    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |   --
   25  |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   26  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   27  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |     C     |  N.W.
   28  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   29  |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   30  |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   --
   31  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |  N.W.
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--The Aurora Borealis appeared in N.N.E. at 8
o'clock on the evening of the 12th, near the horizon, and continued but
a short time.

The atmosphere has been very thick with smoke during this month
generally, occasioned by the burning of the _prairies_. This appearance
has generally been near the horizon, but at some times, particularly in
the latter part of the month, the whole of the sky has been obscured by
smoke, bearing much resemblance in the morning, when there was little
wind, to a thick fog.

6th--Fall of rain 3-16ths of an inch.


{liv} _Meteorological Register_ {lv} _for the Month of_ NOVEMBER, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | 52  |   N.W.    | 63  |   N.W.    | 54  |   N.W.    | 56  |
    2  | 33  |   S.E.    | 65  |   Var.    | 60  |   N.W.    | 52  |
    3  | 44  |   N.W.    | 54  |   N.W.    | 53  |   N.W.    | 50  |
    4  | 32  |   Calm    | 64  |   N.W.    | 58  |   N.W.    | 51  |
    5  | 44  |   S.E.    | 54  |   S.E.    | 57  |   S.E.    | 51  |
    6  | 46  |   N.W.    | 50  |   N.W.    | 47  |   N.W.    | 47  |
    7  | 30  |   S.E.    | 54  |   S.E.    | 56  |   S.E.    | 46  |
    8  | 47  |   S.E.    | 68  |   S.E.    | 56  |   S.E.    | 57  |
    9  | 30  |   Calm    | 40  |   N.W.    | 44  |   N.W.    | 38  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   10  | 57  |    S.     | 58  |     S.    | 54  |    S.     | 56  |
   11  | 36  |    Var.   | 53  |     S.    | 52  |    S.     | 47  |
   12  | 38  |   N.W.    | 40  |   N.W.    | 36  |   N.W.    | 38  |
   13  | 38  |   S.E.    | 41  |   S.E.    | 43  |   S.E.    | 40  |
   14  | 38  |   S.E.    | 64  |   Calm    | 48  |   Calm    | 50  |
   15  | 45  |   S.E.    | 56  |   S.E.    | 50  |   N.W.    | 50  |
   16  | 33  |   Calm    | 52  |   N.W.    | 50  |   N.W.    | 45  |
   17  | 34  |   S.E.    | 46  |   S.E.    | 43  |   Calm    | 41  |
   18  | 24  |   Calm    | 42  |    Sy.    | 43  |   S.E.    | 36  |
   19  | 44  |   S.E.    | 61  |    Sy.    | 61  |    Sy.    | 55  |
   20  | 39  |    N.     | 43  |    N.     | 41  |    N.     | 41  |
   21  | 36  |   S.E.    | 38  |   S.E.    | 39  |   S.E.    | 37  |
   22  | 40  |   N.W.    | 42  |   N.W.    | 40  |    N.     | 40  |
   23  | 37  |    E.     | 39  |   S.E.    | 42  |   S.E.    | 39  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   24  | 35  |    W.     | 43  |    W.     | 44  |    W.     | 40  |
   25  | 36  |   S.E.    | 39  |   S.E.    | 43  |   S.E.    | 39  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   26  | 18  |   N.W.    | 22  |   N.W.    | 23  |   N.W.    | 21  |
   27  | 10  |   Calm    | 20  |   S.E.    | 25  |   S.E.    | 18  |
   28  | 20  |   S.E.    | 34  |   S.E.    | 36  |   S.E.    | 30  |
   29  | 29  |   S.E.    | 40  |   S.E.    | 40  |   S.E.    | 36  |
   30  | 30  |   Calm    | 55  |   Calm    | 42  |   Calm    | 42  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  --   |Windy and boisterous                | 28.70 | 28.63 | 28.73 |
    2  |  50   |Strong winds. Gust at 2 P.M.        | 28.75 | 28.45 | 28.50 |
    3  |  49   |Windy                               | 28.65 | 28.67 | 28.66 |
    4  |  47   |Windy                               | 28.53 | 28.49 | 28.49 |
    5  |  44   |Windy. Atmos. dense with smoke      | 28.50 | 28.18 | 28.09 |
    6  |  43   |Very windy and boisterous           | 28.65 | 28.71 | 28.82 |
    7  |  50   |Windy                               | 28.95 | 28.64 | 28.48 |
    8  |  --   |Light wind. Atmos. very smoky       | 28.35 | 28.22 | 28.30 |
    9  |  47   |Light wind. A little rain at        | 28.68 | 28.60 | 28.60 |
       |       |evening, with thunder and lightning |       |       |       |
   10  |  48   |Rainy until noon                    | 28.35 | 28.13 | 28.13 |
   11  |  49   |Light brs. Atmosphere very clear    | 28.53 | 28.53 | 28.47 |
   12  |  56   |A little rain last night            | 28.59 | 28.80 | 28.80 |
   13  |  50   |Fresh breezes                       | 28.89 | 28.70 | 28.56 |
   14  |  41   |Mild weather                        | 28.41 | 28.33 | 28.35 |
   15  |  37   |Mild. At sunset wind N.W.           | 28.10 | 27.90 | 28.10 |
   16  |  50   |Frost last night. Light winds       | 28.44 | 28.43 | 28.47 |
   17  |  59   |Frost last night                    | 28.60 | 28.46 | 28.51 |
   18  |  47   |Heavy frost last night.             | 28.90 | 28.70 | 28.56 |
   19  |  43   |Moderate wind                       | 28.30 | 28.21 | 28.31 |
   20  |  --   |Windy                               | 28.75 | 28.76 | 28.80 |
   21  |  47   |Rain before daylight                | 28.94 | 28.83 | 28.76 |
   22  |  38   |Rain last night                     | 28.83 | 28.92 | 28.97 |
   23  |  46   |Rain last night. Ground covered     | 28.95 | 28.69 | 28.57 |
       |       |with sleet in the morning           |       |       |       |
   24  |  --   |Rainy last night                    | 28.54 | 28.55 | 28.62 |
   25  |  48   |Heavy frost last night. Lit. rn.    | 28.72 | 28.60 | 28.55 |
       |       |even.                               |       |       |       |
   26  |  48   |Snow ⅛ in. Little ice in river      | 29.13 | 29.08 | 29.13 |
   27  |  51   |Much floating ice in river          | 29.43 | 29.25 | 29.21 |
   28  |  39   |Frost last night                    | 29.14 | 29.08 | 28.95 |
   29  |  --   |Floating ice increasing in river    | 29.02 | 28.91 | 28.87 |
   30  |  35   |Floating ice increasing in river    | 28.85 | 28.77 | 28.77 |
       |       |Fair                                |       |       |       |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   | Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    1  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
    2  |    C.     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |  --
    3  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |  N.W.
    4  |   Cms,    |   N.W.    |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
    5  |    C,     |    W.     |    --     |    --     |    --     |  --
    6  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
    7  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    --     |    --     |    --     |  --
    8  |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |  --
    9  |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   10  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  S.S.E.   |   Cml,    | S.S.E.
   11  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   12  |    Ns,    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
   13  |    Ns,    |   S.E.    |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |  --
   14  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |  --
   15  |    Cs,    |  W.N.W.   |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |   W.
   16  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Cms,    |  --
   17  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |  N.W.
   18  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Ns,    |   N.W.    |    Ns,    |  N.W.
   19  |    Cs,    |    W.     |    Cs,    |    W.     |    C,     |  W.N.W.
   20  |    Cs.    |    --     |    C,     |  W.N.W.   |    Cs,    |  --
   21  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
   22  |    Ns,    |   N.W.    |    Ns,    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |  N.W.
   23  |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   24  |    C,     |   S.W.    |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   25  |    Ns.    |   S.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   26  |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Cml,    |  N.W.
   27  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   28  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   29  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |  --
   30  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |  N.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--The atmosphere continued its smoky
appearance until the 11th, appearing to be produced by southerly and
south-easterly winds, and carried off by north and north-westerly ones.

November 10th, fall of rain ½ inch--23d, ¾ inch--24th, ½ inch.


{lvi} _Meteorological Register_ {lvii} _for the Month of_ DECEMBER, 1819

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  |  34 |   Calm    |  51 |   N.W.    |  46 |   N.W.    |  43 |
    2  |  32 |   S.E.    |  41 |   S.E.    |  43 |   S.E.    |  38 |
    3  |  32 |   S.E.    |  53 |   S.E.    |  49 |   S.E.    |  44 |
    4  |  34 |    E.     |  39 |    E.     |  39 |    E.     |  37 |
    5  |  33 |    S.       40  |   Calm    |  43 |   Calm    |  38 |
    6  |  42 |   S.E.    |  45 |    S.     |  42 |    S.     |  43 |
    7  |  36 |   S.E.    |  44 |   Calm    |  43 |   Calm    |  41 |
    8  |  38 |   N.W.    |  42 |   N.W.    |  39 |   N.W.    |  39 |
    9  |  23 |   S.E.    |  32 |   S.E.    |  32 |   S.E.    |  29 |
   10  |  32 |   S.E.    |  34 |   S.E.    |  34 |   S.E.    |  33 |
   11  |  31 |   S.E.    |  36 |   S.E.    |  34 |   S.E.    |  33 |
   12  |  34 |   Calm    |  36 |   Calm    |  36 |   Calm    |  35 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   13  |  28 |   N.W.    |  32 |   N.W.    |  26 |   N.W.    |  28 |
   14  |  20 |   N.W.    |  28 |   N.W.    |  24 |   N.W.    |  24 |
   15  |  15 |   N.W.    |  20 |   N.W.    |  19 |   N.W.    |  18 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   16  |  14 |   S.E.    |  24 |   S.E.    |  21 |   S.E.    |  19 |
   17  |  21 |   S.W.    |  35 |   S.W.    |  37 |   S.W.    |  31 |
   18  |  29 |   N.W.    |  28 |   N.W.    |  27 |   N.W.    |  28 |
   19  |  11 |   N.W.    |  38 |   N.W.    |  24 |   N.W.    |  24 |
   20  |  17 |   S.E.    |  55 |   S.E.    |  42 |   S.E.    |  38 |
   21  |  35 |   S.E.    |  19 |   N.W.    |  17 |   N.W.    |  23 |
   22  |  1  |   N.W.    |  3  |   N.W.    |  1  |   N.W.    |  1  |
   23  | -10 |   N.W.    |  3  |   N.W.    |  1  |   N.W.    | -2  |
   24  | -8  |   S.W.    |  15 |   S.W.    |  19 |   S.W.    |  9  |
   25  |  18 |   Calm    |     |           |     |           |     |
   26  |  20 |   N.W.    |  43 |   N.W.    |  35 |   N.W.    |  32 |
   27  |  9  |   Calm    |     |           |     |           |     |
   28  |  12 |   N.W.    |  21 |   N.W.    |  11 |   N.W.    |  14 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   29  |  4  |   S.E.    |  25 |   Calm    |  16 |   Calm    |  15 |
   30  | -4  |   N.W.    |  2  |   N.W.    | -1  |   N.W.    | -1  |
   31  | -4  |   S.E.    |  15 |   S.E.    |  19 |   N.W.    |  10 |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+====================================+=======================+
       |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |                                    |                       |
   of  |                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |Thawing                             | 28.94 | 28.80 | 28.88 |
    2  |No floating ice in river            | 28.90 | 28.85 | 28.72 |
    3  |Thawing                             | 28.56 | 28.55 | 28.63 |
    4  |Frost last night                    | 28.88 | 28.78 | 28.80 |
    5  |Rain at mid-day                     | 28.85 | 28.61 | 28.61 |
    6  |Drizzling, A.M.                     | 28.74 | 28.63 | 28.70 |
    7  |Frost last night                    | 28.87 | 28.73 | 28.74 |
    8  |Light winds                         | 28.84 | 28.89 | 29.02 |
    9  |Heavy frost last night              | 29.28 | 29.00 | 28.97 |
   10  |Windy                               | 28.77 | 28.60 | 28.58 |
   11  |Windy                               | 28.75 | 28.70 | 28.70 |
   12  |A little snow, hail, and rain last  | 28.57 | 28.44 | 28.44 |
       |night. Float. ice this morn.        |       |       |       |
   13  |Floating ice/river                  | 28.47 | 28.36 | 28.46 |
   14  |Floating ice/river                  | 28.78 | 28.80 | 28.83 |
   15  |Frost last night. Much floating ice | 29.25 | 29.14 | 29.08 |
       |this morn.                          |       |       |       |
   16  |A little snow in flakes at noon     | 29.09 | 29.04 | 28.91 |
   17  |Frost last night                    | 28.72 | 28.62 | 28.50 |
   18  |Very windy                          | 28.49 | 28.54 | 28.50 |
   19  |Snow ¼ inch last night              | 28.72 | 28.60 | 28.60 |
   20  |Thawing                             | 28.56 | 28.50 | 28.40 |
   21  |Very high wind                      | 28.14 | 28.30 | 28.49 |
   22  |Ice made across river last night    | 29.00 | 28.73 | 28.83 |
   23  |A little snow fell yesterday        | 29.32 | 29.02 | 29.00 |
   24  |River entirely closed with ice      | 28.93 | 28.80 | 28.50 |
   25  |Stratus in horizon at midnight      | 28.64 |       |       |
   26  |Frost last night                    | 28.58 | 28.31 | 28.51 |
   27  |Frost last night                    | 28.68 |       |       |
   28  |Windy, slight snow. Icy particles   | 28.80 | 28.57 | 28.84 |
       |in air                              |       |       |       |
   29  |Frost last night                    | 28.84 | 28.80 | 28.66 |
   30  |A little snow last night            | 28.98 | 28.95 | 28.95 |
   31  |Snow ¼ inch to-day                  | 28.83 | 28.50 | 28.54 |
  -----+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    1  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    C,     |    W.     |   Fair    |
    2  |    Cs,    |           |    Cs,    |           |   Fair    |
    3  |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |
    4  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |           |    Cs,    |
    5  |    Ns,    |    S.     |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
    6  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |  N. & S.  |    Ns,    |
    7  |    C,     |  W.N.W.   |    Cs,    |  W.N.W.   |    Cs,    |
    8  |    Ns.    |    W.     |    Ns.    |           |   Cml,    | N.W.
    9  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     | N.W.
   10  |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |           |    Ns,    |
   11  |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    | S.E.
   12  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   13  |   Cml.    |  W.N.W.   |    Ns.    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    | N.W.
   14  |    Ns.    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    | N.W.
   15  |   Fair    |           |   Cml,    |  N.N.W.   |    Ns.    |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   16  |    Ns,    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    | N.W.
   17  |   Fair    |           |  C, Cml,  | NW., SW.  |    C,     | S.W.
   18  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
   19  |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |           |    C,     |
   20  |    C,     |           |    Cs,    |  W.N.W.   |    Ns,    |
   21  |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |    Ns,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    | N.W.
   22  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |
   23  |    Cs,    |   S.W.    |    Cs,    |   S.W.    |    C,     | S.W.
   24  |   Fair    |           |    C,     |           |    Cs,    | N.W.
   25  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |           |    C,     |
   26  |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |
   27  |    C,     |           |    Cs.    |           |    Cs.    |
   28  |    Ns.    |           |   Fair    |           |   Fair    |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   29  |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |  N.
   30  |    Ns,    |    N.     |    Ns,    |    N.     |           |
   31  |    Ns.    |           |    Ns.    |           |   Cml,    | N.W.
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--December 30th. This morning at sunrise there
appeared two images of the sun about 22° or 23° N. and S. of, and in
a horizontal line with the sun; the whole sky being obscured by dense
cloud: neither the images nor the sun appeared very distinct, but
presented the appearance of luminous spots. The appearance continued
until about 11 o'clock.--This evening at half past five o'clock, a
similar phenomenon accompanied the moon.--Around her there was a halo
or luminous circle of about 45° in diameter. In the circumference of
this circle, on each side the moon and in a horizontal line with her,
there appeared an image similar to those described of the sun, though
not quite so distinct. They did not continue long.

December 5th, fall of rain 1-16th of an inch.


{lviii} _Meteorological Register_ {lix} _for the Month of_ JANUARY, 1820

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  |  16 |   N.W.    | 22  |   N.W.    |  20 |   N.W.    |  19 |
    2  |  13 |   N.W.    | 24  |   N.W.    |  18 |   N.W.    |  18 |
    3  |   4 |   S.E.    | 35  |   S.E.    |  28 |   N.W.    |  22 |
    4  |  13 |   N.E.    | 31  |   N.W.    |  21 |   N.W.    |  21 |
    5  |   0 |   S.E.    | 24  |   S.E.    |  19 |   S.E.    |  14 |
    6  |  20 |   S.E.    | 32  |   S.E.    |  28 |   S.E.    |  26 |
    7  |  16 |   N.W.    | 40  |   Calm    |  35 |   N.W.    |  30 |
    8  |  24 |   N.W.    | 32  |  N.N.E.   |  27 |   N.W.    |  27 |
    9  |   7 |  N.N.W.   | 14  |   N.W.    |  14 |   N.W.    |  11 |
   10  |  -8 |   N.W.    |  3  |   N.W.    |  -3 |   N.W.    |  -3 |
   11  | -16 |   N.W.    | -2  |   N.W.    |  -3 |   N.W.    |  -7 |
   12  |   7 |   S.E.    | 32  |   S.E.    |  36 |   N.W.    |  25 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   13  |  10 |   N.W.    | 17  |   N.W.    |  13 |   N.W.    |  13 |
   14  |   2 |   N.W.    | 21  |   N.W.    |  -1 |   N.W.    |   8 |
   15  | -14 |   N.W.    | -5  |    N.     |  -5 |    N.     |  -8 |
   16  |  -9 |   N.W.    |  4  |   N.W.    |   1 |   N.W.    |  -1 |
   17  |  -9 |   S.E.    | 11  |   S.E.    |  11 |    Sy.    |  -4 |
   18  | -13 |   N.W.    |  9  |   N.W.    |   1 |   N.W.    |  -1 |
   19  |   1 |  N.N.E.   |9½   |   N.E.    |   2 |   N.W.    |   4 |
   20  |  -5 |   S.E.    |  9  |   S.E.    |  11 |   S.E.    |  -5 |
   21  |  10 |   N.W.    | 13  |   N.W.    |   1 |   N.W.    |   8 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   22  | -15 |   N.W.    | 11  |   N.W.    |  -8 |   N.W.    |  -4 |
   23  |  -9 |   S.E.    | 11  |   S.E.    |  12 |   S.E.    |   5 |
   24  |  19 |   N.W.    | 34  |   N.W.    |  19 |   N.W.    |  20 |
   25  |  -5 |   S.E.    | 23  |   S.E.    |  23 |   S.E.    |  13 |
   26  |  26 |   N.W.    | 33  |   N.W.    |  21 |   N.W.    |  26 |
   27  |  19 |   N.W.    | 23  |   N.W.    |   4 |   N.W.    |  15 |
   28  | -15 |   S.E.    |  9  |   S.E.    |   5 |   S.E.    |   0 |
   29  |   6 |   S.E.    | 12  |   N.W.    |  -3 |   N.W.    |   5 |
   30  | -26 |   S.E.    | -2  |   S.E.    |   0 |   N.W.    |  -9 |
   31  |  -2 |   N.W.    | -3  |   N.W.    | -11 |   N.W.    |  -5 |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  12   |Little snow fell to-day             | 28.58 | 28.77 | 28.87 |
    2  |  21   |                                    | 29.00 | 28.91 | 29.00 |
    3  |  --   |Mild and fair                       | 28.98 | 28.76 | 28.87 |
    4  |  26   |                                    | 29.04 | 28.97 | 29.03 |
    5  |  25   |Fresh winds                         | 29.19 | 29.02 | 29.04 |
    6  |  18   |A little snow at evening            | 28.88 | 28.74 | 28.66 |
    7  |  23   |Thawing                             | 28.60 | 28.44 | 28.57 |
    8  |  35   |Snow in flakes at evening           | 28.80 | 28.74 | 28.85 |
    9  |  35   |Windy. Snow ½ inch last night       | 29.14 | 29.04 | 29.10 |
   10  |  27   |Windy. Slight snow last night       | 29.15 | 29.12 | 29.21 |
   11  |  29   |Moderate wind                       | 29.48 | 29.27 | 29.21 |
   12  |  22   |Strong wind, A.M.  Little rain and  | 28.63 | 28.58 | 28.62 |
       |       |snow, P.M.                          |       |       |       |
   13  |  17   |Snow, P.M.                          | 28.77 | 28.75 | 28.78 |
   14  |  26   |Fresh wd. Snow 6 inches last night  | 28.97 | 28.97 | 29.13 |
   15  |  31   |Fresh wind                          | 29.40 | 29.40 | 29.40 |
   16  |  25   |                                    | 29.22 | 28.98 | 28.96 |
   17  |  35   |Snow ¼ inch at night                | 28.82 | 28.76 | 28.86 |
   18  |  25   |Light wind                          | 29.06 | 28.93 | 28.90 |
   19  |  27   |Snow 1 inch last night              | 28.83 | 28.83 | 28.86 |
   20  |  22   |Windy. Snow storm from 9 A.M.       | 28.70 | 28.59 | 28.60 |
   21  |  25   |Snow till 3 P.M.  Snow 5 inches on  | 28.85 | 28.99 | 29.15 |
       |       |19th & 20th                         |       |       |       |
   22  |  33   |Light winds                         | 29.33 | 29.27 | 29.26 |
   23  |  29   |Windy. Thermom. at 17°, P.M.        | 29.05 | 28.95 | 28.96 |
   24  |  20   |                                    | 29.19 | 29.15 | 29.19 |
   25  |  30   |Windy                               | 29.08 | 28.95 | 28.84 |
   26  |  23   |Snow last night 4½ inches           | 28.42 | 28.42 | 28.61 |
   27  |  32   |Light breezes. Snow                 | 28.78 | 28.85 | 28.96 |
   28  |  36   |Windy                               | 28.90 | 28.77 | 28.80 |
   29  |  21   |Windy. A lit. snow, A.M.            | 28.75 | 28.71 | 28.95 |
   30  |  32   |                                    | 29.07 | 28.95 | 28.93 |
   31  |  30   |Windy, A.M.                         | 29.30 | 29.38 | 29.41 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    1  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
    2  |    Ns,    |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |   --
    3  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Fair    |   --
    4  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    C,     |   W.
    5  |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
    6  |    Cs.    |    N.     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
    7  |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
    8  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   N.E.    |    Ns.    |   --
    9  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   10  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   11  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   12  |    Ns.    |  W.N.W.   |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   13  |    Ns     |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   14  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    C,     |   --
   15  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   16  |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml.    |    --     |    --     |   --
   17  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   18  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Hazy    |   --
   19  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
   20  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   21  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   22  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   23  |    Cs,    |  W.N.W.   |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cs,    | W.N.W.
   24  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   W.
   25  |    Ns.    |   S.W.    |   Cml,    |  S.S.W.   |   Cml,    | S.S.W.
   26  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
   27  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
   28  |    C,     |   S.W.    |    C,     |   S.W.    |    Cs,    |  --
   29  |   Cml,    |   S.E.    |    Cs,    |    N.     |    Cs,    |  --
   30  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
   31  |    Cs,    |  W.N.W.   |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--January 18th. This morning a parhelion
appeared around the sun as he rose, consisting of a mock sun, or image
of the sun on each side of him in a horizontal line. From the image
northward of the sun there issued a cone of light, the vertex of which
was directed from the sun. There was no halo, and the mock suns were
not well defined by any outline, though the morning was fair, and
the sun shone bright. At eight o'clock the distance of the mock suns
from each other, measured by a sextant, was found to be 44° 40´. At
half past eight they had assumed the appearance of extended planes
perpendicular to the horizon, and about 5° or 6° in length; breadth a
little more than sun's diameter; soon after which they disappeared. N.
B. See _Remarkable Phenomena_ continued, on page lxviii [our page 288],
at the conclusion of the _Meteorological Register_.


{xlviii} _Meteorological Register_ {lxi} _for the Month of_ FEBRUARY,
1820

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
    1  | -12 |   S.E.    | -3  |   S.E.    | -3  |   S.E.    | -6  |
    2  |  0  |   N.W.    |  7  |   N.W.    | -2  |   N.W.    |  2  |
    3  | -5  |   S.E.    | 13  |   S.E.    | 20  |   S.E.    |  9  |
    4  |  4  |   S.E.    | 30  |   S.E.    | 33  |   S.E.    | 22  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    5  | 39  |   S.E.    | 45  |   S.E.    | 19  |   N.W.    | 34  |
    6  |  7  |   S.E.    | 35  |   S.E.    | 29  |   S.E.    | 23  |
    7  |  4  |   S.E.    | 33  |   S.E.    | 34  |   S.E.    | 23  |
    8  | 21  |   N.W.    | 33  |   N.E.    | 31  |   N.W.    | 28  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    9  | 23  |   S.E.    | 41  |   S.E.    | 31  |   S.E.    | 31  |
   10  | 12  |   S.E.    | 31  |   S.E.    | 38  |   S.E.    | 27  |
   11  | 31  |   S.E.    | 44  |  W.N.W.   | 34  |  N.N.W.   | 36  |
   12  | 26  |   N.W.    | 35  |   S.E.    | 31  |   S.E.    | 30  |
   13  | 33  |   S.E.    | 46  |   S.E.    |     |   S.E.    |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   14  | 34  |   N.W.    | 35  |   N.W.    | 37  |   N.W.    | 35  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   15  | 33  |   S.E.    | 39  |   S.E.    | 44  |   S.E.    | 38  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   16  | 32  |   N.W.    | 33  |   N.W.    | 29  |   N.W.    | 34  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   17  | 20  |   N.W.    | 34  |   S.E.    | 31  |   S.E.    | 28  |
   18  | 27  |   S.E.    | 30  |   S.E.    | 30  |   S.E.    | 29  |
   19  | 26  |   N.W.    | 23  |   N.W.    | 25  |   N.W.    | 24  |
   20  | 20  |   N.W.    | 34  |   N.W.    | 30  |   N.W.    | 28  |
   21  | 33  |   S.E.    | 51  |   S.E.    | 47  |   S.E.    | 43  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   22  | 35  |   N.W.    | 45  |   S.E.    | 37  |   S.E.    | 39  |
   23  | 33  |   N.W.    | 47  |   N.W.    | 38  |   N.W.    | 39  |
   24  | 30  |   S.E.    | 54  |   S.E.    | 39  |   N.W.    | 41  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   25  | 33  |   N.W.    | 44  |   N.W.    | 35  |   N.W.    | 37  |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
   26  | 25  |   N.W.    | 39  |   N.W.    | 35  |   N.W.    | 33  |
   27  | 21  |   N.W.    | 44  |   N.W.    | 40  |   N.W.    | 35  |
   28  | 34  |   Calm    | 57  |   S.E.    | 49  |  W.N.W.   | 46  |
   29  | 22  |   N.W.    | 60  |   S.E.    | 55  |  W.N.W.   | 45  |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+=======+====================================+=======================+
       | Mean  |                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       | Temp. |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |  at   |                                    |                       |
   of  |German-|                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  town |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |   8   |A little snow, A.M. and windy       | 29.06 | 28.87 | 28.81 |
    2  |  21   |Fresh winds                         | 28.80 | 28.77 | 28.88 |
    3  |  33   |Windy                               | 28.85 | 28.69 | 28.67 |
    4  |  28   |Windy. Thermom. 34°, P.M. Snow      | 28.84 | 28.65 | 28.60 |
       |       |melting                             |       |       |       |
    5  |  24   |Thawing at noon                     | 28.32 | 28.22 | 28.72 |
    6  |  40   |Fresh wind. Thawing                 | 29.00 | 28.87 | 28.72 |
    7  |  32   |Damp & foggy. Light winds.          | 28.95 | 28.76 | 28.83 |
    8  |  35   |Damp and foggy. Icy particles       | 28.75 | 28.60 | 28.69 |
       |       |falling all day                     |       |       |       |
    9  |  31   |Snow and ice melting                | 28.86 | 28.83 | 28.79 |
   10  |  22   |Snow and ice melting                | 28.84 | 28.58 | 28.66 |
   11  |  31   |Snow and ice melting                | 28.60 | 28.33 | 28.50 |
   12  |  33   |Little rain and snow                | 28.80 | 28.50 | 28.60 |
   13  |  49   |Rain & hail last night. Windy and   | 28.33 | 28.16 |       |
       |       |warm to-day                         |       |       |       |
   14  |  42   |Violent wind all day with a little  | 28.24 | 28.26 | 28.33 |
       |       |snow                                |       |       |       |
   15  |  51   |Snow chiefly melted A little snow   | 28.24 | 28.00 | 27.80 |
       |       |fell                                |       |       |       |
   16  |  41   |Violent wind last night & to-day,   | 27.96 | 28.21 | 28.43 |
       |       |with some snow                      |       |       |       |
   17  |  49   |Moderate winds                      | 28.76 | 28.55 | 28.66 |
   18  |  38   |Windy                               | 28.86 | 28.73 | 28.55 |
   19  |  29   |Violent wind last nt.               | 28.44 | 28.69 | 28.89 |
   20  |  37   |Moderate wind                       | 28.96 | 28.86 | 28.87 |
   21  |  32   |Thermometer at 55° Ice rapidly      | 28.74 | 28.50 | 28.42 |
       |       |melting                             |       |       |       |
   22  |  39   |Fresh brs. Ice melting              | 28.53 | 28.47 | 28.49 |
   23  |  44   |Windy and squally Geese flying north| 28.16 | 28.19 | 28.40 |
   24  |  53   |Light breezes. Geese passing        | 28.30 | 28.07 | 28.08 |
       |       |northwardly                         |       |       |       |
   25  |  45   |Light breezes. Ducks passing down   | 28.11 | 27.96 | 28.05 |
       |       |river                               |       |       |       |
   26  |  48   |Snow last night ⅛th inch            | 28.21 | 28.25 | 28.38 |
   27  |  51   |Frost last night                    | 28.67 | 28.58 | 28.63 |
   28  |  41   |Frost last night                    | 28.87 | 28.73 | 28.73 |
   29  |  32   |Frost abundant. River begins to open| 28.90 | 28.65 | 28.57 |
  -----+-------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+======================================================================
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------
    1  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
    2  |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
    3  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
    4  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |  W.N.W.   |    C,     | W.N.W.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    5  |    Cs,    |    W.     |    Cs,    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
    6  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cml,    | W.S.W.
    7  |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |  --
    8  |  Ns. S.   |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    9  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
   10  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Fair    |  --
   11  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
   12  |    Cs.    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |  --
   13  |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   14  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   15  | Cs, Cml,  |  SSW, SSE |    Ns.    |  S.S.E.   |    Cm,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   16  |    Ns.    |  N.N.W.   |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   17  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
   18  |    Cs.    |  N.N.W.   |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   19  |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |  N.N.W.   |    C,     |  --
   20  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   21  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   22  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     | N.W.
   23  |    Cs,    |    --     |   Cms,    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   24  |    Cs.    |  W.N.W.   |    Cs.    |  W.N.W.   |  C, Cs,   |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   25  |    Cs,    |    --     | Cs, Cml,  | S.W., N.W.|    Ns,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   26  |    Ns,    |   N.W.    | Cs, Cml,  |  W., NNW. |    Cs,    |  --
   27  |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |  --
   28  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |  --
   29  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+----------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--15th, Lightning in N.E. this evening between
7 and 8 o'clock--clear sky--fresh S.E. wind. During the violent wind
to-day the rain gauge was blown from its station and broken.

22d.--Halo around the moon this evening at 40´ past 6--ascertained its
diameter to be 45° 8´. Cirrus cloud all over the sky.

23d.--Halo around the moon this evening also.


{lxii} _Meteorological Register_ {lxiii} _for the Month of_ MARCH, 1820

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+=======+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |       |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |       |
       |                 |                 |                 |     | Mean  |
       |                 |                 |                 |     | Temp. |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |  at   |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |German-+
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|  town |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-------+
    1  |  20 |   N.W.    |  32 |   N.W.    |  21 |   N.W.    |  24 |  40   |
    2  |  16 |   N.W.    |  26 |   S.E.    |  26 |   Calm    |  22 |  24   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
    3  |  21 |   N.W.    |  28 |   N.W.    |  24 |   N.W.    |  24 |  24   |
    4  |  32 |   S.W.    |  50 |   S.E.    |  48 |   N.W.    |  43 |  31   |
    5  |  30 |   N.W.    |  28 |   N.W.    |  25 |   N.W.    |  27 |  41   |
    6  |   5 |   N.W.    |  13 |   N.W.    |   9 |   N.W.    |   9 |  44   |
    7  |   6 |   N.W.    |  15 |   N.W.    |  14 |   N.W.    |  11 |  26   |
    8  |  15 |   N.W.    |  16 |  N.N.E.   |  12 |   N.W.    |  14 |  28   |
    9  |  24 |   N.W.    |  23 |  E.S.E.   |  24 |   S.E.    |  23 |  31   |
   10  |  20 |   Calm    |  35 |   S.E.    |  34 |   S.E.    |  29 |  33   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
   11  |  28 |   S.E.    |  23 |   S.E.    |  25 |   S.E.    |  25 |  27   |
   12  |  31 |   S.E.    |  42 |   S.E.    |  37 |   S.E.    |  36 |  27   |
   13  |  32 |   N.W.    |  46 |   N.W.    |  40 |   N.W.    |  39 |  34   |
   14  |  19 |   N.W.    |  33 |   N.W.    |  32 |   Calm    |  28 |  46   |
   15  |  22 |   N.W.    |  39 |   N.W.    |  34 |   N.W.    |  31 |  36   |
   16  |  21 |   S.E.    |  51 |   N.W.    |  43 |   N.W.    |  38 |  40   |
   17  |  24 |   N.W.    |  45 |   N.W.    |  36 |   Calm    |  35 |  43   |
   18  |  34 |   S.E.    |  61 |   S.E.    |  58 |   S.E.    |  51 |  40   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
   19  |  39 |   N.W.    |  48 |   N.W.    |  41 |   N.W.    |  42 |  39   |
   20  |  25 |   Calm    |  48 |   N.W.    |  41 |   Calm    |  38 |  44   |
   21  |  25 |   Calm    |  58 |   N.W.    |  49 |   N.W.    |  44 |  42   |
   22  |  34 |   Calm    |  67 |   N.W.    |  58 |   N.W.    |  53 |  43   |
   23  |  38 |   S.E.    |  65 |   S.E.    |  68 |   S.E.    |  57 |  48   |
   24  |  55 |   S.E.    |  65 |    S.     |  53 |    S.     |  57 |  54   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
   25  |  38 |   N.W.    |  51 |   N.W.    |  46 |   N.W.    |  45 |  56   |
   26  |  38 |   N.W.    |  40 |   N.W.    |  42 |   N.W.    |  40 |  57   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
   27  |  29 |   Calm    |  56 |   S.E.    |  45 |   S.E.    |  43 |  57   |
   28  |  39 |   S.E.    |  45 |    E.     |  38 |   N.E.    |  40 |  50   |
   29  |  28 |   N.W.    |  34 |    N.     |  32 |   N.E.    |  31 |  51   |
   30  |  28 |   S.E.    |  56 |   S.E.    |  52 |    S.     |  45 |  34   |
   31  |  35 |   Calm    |  57 |   N.E.    |  40 |   N.E.    |  44 |  34   |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-------+

  =====+========+====================================+=======================+
       |Rise or |                                    |                       |
       |fall of |                                    |                       |
       |Missouri|                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       |in last |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |24 hours|                                    |                       |
   of  +--------+                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  Inc.  |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  -12   |Violent winds                       | 29.27 | 29.27 | 29.50 |
    2  |  + 1   |Frost last night. Icy particles     | 29.42 | 29.10 | 29.00 |
       |        |falling in the morning              |       |       |       |
    3  |  + 5½  |Strong wind. A little snow          | 28.90 | 28.90 | 28.94 |
    4  |  + 5   |Frost last night. Fresh wind        | 28.67 | 28.84 | 28.84 |
    5  |  - 2   |Very clear sky all day              | 28.88 | 28.75 | 28.86 |
    6  |  + 2½  |Snow ¾ inch last night              | 29.14 | 29.04 | 29.12 |
    7  |  +27½  |Frost last night                    | 29.16 | 29.10 | 29.16 |
    8  |  +20   |Frost last night                    | 29.32 | 29.18 | 29.20 |
    9  |  + 4   |Frost last night                    | 29.14 | 28.96 | 28.98 |
   10  |  - 5   |Fresh wind. No geese, few ducks     | 29.20 | 29.18 | 29.18 |
       |        |flying                              |       |       |       |
   11  |  - 1½  |Violent winds. Snow ¾ inch          | 29.20 | 29.14 | 29.00 |
   12  |  + 7   |Moderate winds                      | 28.95 | 28.80 | 28.74 |
   13  |  + ½   |Rain last night                     | 28.74 | 28.62 | 28.55 |
   14  |  - 6   |Frost last nt. Riv. break. up       | 28.76 | 28.67 | 28.67 |
   15  |  - 5   |Frost last night                    | 28.89 | 28.81 | 28.84 |
   16  |  - 3   |Do. Moderate winds                  | 28.94 | 28.72 | 28.77 |
   17  |  - 3¼  |Do. Light and var. winds            | 29.05 | 28.90 | 28.90 |
   18  |  -14¼  |River open. Geese, swans, ducks,    | 28.82 | 28.60 | 28.50 |
       |        |&c. flying up                       |       |       |       |
   19  |  - 1½  |A little rain, A.M.                 | 28.75 | 28.75 | 28.88 |
   20  |  - 1½  |A little rain, P.M.                 | 29.10 | 28.90 | 28.83 |
   21  |  + 5   |Frost. Geese, &c. flying Nly.       | 28.88 | 28.74 | 28.48 |
   22  |  +10   |Moderate wind                       | 28.38 | 28.25 | 28.49 |
   23  |  +42   |Violent wind all day                | 28.58 | 28.26 | 28.20 |
   24  |  +40   |High wind, A.M. Showers P.M.  Light | 28.30 | 28.30 | 28.40 |
       |        |in N.E. even.                       |       |       |       |
   25  |  +10   |Drizzly, A.M.                       | 28.62 | 28.52 | 28.50 |
   26  |  -12   |Heavy rain till 7 A.M. Some rain    | 28.31 | 28.37 | 28.60 |
       |        |and snow afterwards                 |       |       |       |
   27  |  +10   |Frost last nt. A lit. rain P.M.     | 28.90 | 28.90 | 28.90 |
   28  |  - 4½  |Rain occas. through the day         | 28.87 | 28.91 | 29.02 |
   29  |  - 6   |Fresh winds                         | 29.27 | 29.30 | 29.28 |
   30  |  - 2   |Heavy frost last night              | 29.03 | 28.89 | 28.72 |
   31  |  + 6   |Windy P.M.  and all night           | 28.53 | 28.60 | 28.34 |
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=====================================================================
       |
       |
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+---------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
    1  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    | --
    2  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     | --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    3  |    Ns,    |  N.N.E.   |   Cml,    |  N.N.E.   |   Cml,    | --
    4  |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    | --
    5  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |   N.W.    |    Cs,    | N.
    6  |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cml,    |   N.E.    |    C,     | --
    7  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
    8  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
    9  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
   10  |    Cs,    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   11  |    Ns     |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
   12  |   Ns. S   |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
   13  |   Ns. S   |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Ns,    |  --
   14  |   Cml,    |  N.N.W.   |   Cml,    |  N.N.W.   |   Cml,    |N.N.W.
   15  |    Cs.    |  W.N.W.   |    Cs.    |  W.N.W.   |    Cs,    |W.N.W.
   16  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
   17  |    Cs     |  N.N.W.   |    Cs,    |  N.N.W.   |    Cs,    |  --
   18  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   19  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    | W.
   20  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml.    |    N.     |   Cml,    | N.
   21  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    C,     |  --
   22  |    C,     |   N.W.    |    C,     |    W.     |   Cml,    |  --
   23  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   S.E.    |    Cs,    | W.
   24  |    Cs,    |   S.W.    |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   25  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    | S.
   26  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   27  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
   28  |   Cml,    |    --     |    Ns,    |    E.     |    Cs.    |  --
   29  |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Cml,    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
   30  |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    | W.
   31  |   Fair    |    --     |   C, Cs,  |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--Halo around the moon on the evening of the
21st.--Continued several hours. Same on the evening of the 23d, from 7
till 11 o'clock.

The ice on the Missouri broke and commenced moving on the 29th
February; but a few days after it blocked up and continued stationary
until the 14th of the present month, when it began to move again; and
on the 18th it was entirely open and clear of ice. In this register an
extra column is added, containing the daily rise or fall of the river.
The sign--denotes the fall of the water during the last twenty-four
hours, and the sign + denotes its rise during the same length of time.
When the register was commenced the river was three feet above the
low-water mark, or its lowest stage in the winter. Therefore on the
25th, when it was highest this month, it was thirteen feet five inches
above its lowest stage in the winter.


{lxiv} _Meteorological Register_ {lxv} _for the Month of_ APRIL, 1820

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+=======+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |       |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |       |
       |                 |                 |                 |     | Mean  |
       |                 |                 |                 |     | Temp. |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |  at   |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean |German-+
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|  town |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-------+
    1  | 29  |  N.N.E.   | 28  |   N.W.    | 20  |   N.W.    | 25  |  52   |
    2  | 15  |  N.N.E.   | 38  |   N.W.    | 27  |   N.W.    | 24  |  32   |
    3  | 14  |   Calm    | 41  |   S.E.    | 46  |    E.     | 33  |  --   |
    4  | 40  |  W.N.W.   | 64  |   N.W.    | 51  |   N.W.    | 51  |  --   |
    5  | 29  |   N.W.    | 59  |   N.W.    | 49  |   Calm    | 45  |  --   |
    6  | 41  |   S.E.    | 65  |   N.W.    | 55  |   N.W.    | 53  |  --   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
    7  | 41  |   N.W.    | 65  |   N.W.    | 52  |   N.W.    |  52 |  44   |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
    8  | 32  |   Calm    | 57  |   N.W.    | 47  |   N.W.    |  45 |  46   |
    9  | 40  |   S.E.    | 76  |   S.E.    | 70  |   S.E.    |  62 |  47   |
   10  | 50  |    S.     | 79  |    S.     | 69  |   N.W.    |  66 |  57   |
   11  | 49  |   N.W.    | 69  |   N.W.    | 59  |   N.W.    |  59 |  --   |
   12  | 35  |   S.E.    | 65  |   S.E.    | 64  |   Calm    |  54 |  56   |
   13  | 48  |   S.E.    | 80  |   S.E.    | 72  |   S.E.    |  66 |  52   |
   14  | 50  |   S.E.    | 68  |   S.E.    | 70  |   Calm    |  62 |  54   |
   15  | 51  |   S.E.    | 71  |   S.E.    | 72  |   S.E.    |  64 |  55   |
   16  | 49  |   S.E.    | 62  |   S.E.    | 64  |   S.E.    |  58 |  49   |
   17  | 50  |   S.E.    | 66  |   S.E.    | 79  |   S.E.    |  65 |       |
   18  | 53  |   S.E.    | 82  |   S.E.    | 82  |    S.     |  72 |       |
   19  | 63  |    S.     | 79  |   S.E.    |     |           |     |       |
   20  | 59  |    S.     | 65  |   S.E.    | 62  |   Calm    |  62 |       |
   21  | 54  |   S.E.    | 71  |   N.W.    | 74  |   N.W.    |  66 |       |
   22  | 55  |   N.W.    | 76  |   S.E.    | 70  |   N.W.    |  67 |       |
   23  | 58  |   S.E.    | 84  |   S.E.    | 83  |   S.E.    |  75 |       |
   24  | 65  |   S.E.    | 79  |   S.E.    | 80  |  E.S.E.   |  74 |       |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |       |
   25  | 50  |   N.W.    | 52  |   N.W.    | 57  |   N.W.    | 53  |       |
   26  | 42  |   N.W.    | 63  |   N.W.    | 67  |   N.W.    | 57  |       |
   27  | 49  |   N.W.    | 67  |  E.N.E.   | 69  |    E.     | 61  |       |
   28  | 53  |   S.E.    | 59  |   S.E.    | 64  |   S.E.    | 58  |       |
   29  | 53  |   S.E.    | 65  |  E.S.E.   | 67  |  E.S.E.   | 61  |       |
   30  | 56  |   S.E.    | 68  |    E.     | 70  |  E.S.E.   | 64  |       |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-------+

  =====+========+====================================+=======================+
       |Rise or |                                    |                       |
       |fall of |                                    |                       |
       |Missouri|                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       |in last |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |24 hours|                                    |                       |
   of  +--------+                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  Inc.  |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
    1  |  + 5   |A light snow fell to-day            | 29.00 | 29.03 | 29.10 |
    2  |  - 7   |Geese, &c. flying S. to-day         | 29.16 | 29.08 | 29.10 |
    3  |  - 3   |Large frost last night              | 29.08 | 28.90 | 28.70 |
    4  |  + 12  |Strong wind                         | 28.30 | 28.38 | 28.56 |
    5  |  + 22  |Strong wind                         | 28.56 | 28.70 | 28.80 |
    6  |  + 5   |Very windy. Large hail fell before  | 28.60 | 28.30 | 28.40 |
       |        |sunrise                             |       |       |       |
    7  |  - 9   |Windy. Light sprinkle of rain this  | 28.45 | 28.56 | 28.73 |
       |        |afternoon                           |       |       |       |
    8  |   0    |Strong wind                         | 28.94 | 28.75 | 28.84 |
    9  |   0    |Windy                               | 28.66 | 28.36 | 28.10 |
   10  |  + 28  |Geese flying N. Strong wind         | 28.00 | 27.44 | 27.50 |
   11  |  + 12  |Strong wind                         | 28.32 | 28.32 | 28.39 |
   12  |  + 14  |Very strong wind                    | 28.48 | 27.94 | 28.35 |
   13  |  - 12  |Lt. in N. and N.W. Windy            | 28.30 | 28.00 | 28.00 |
   14  |  - 16  |Rain and thunder in aftern.         | 28.25 | 28.05 | 27.90 |
   15  |  - 7½  |Fresh wind. Lightn. in N. W         | 28.20 | 28.10 | 28.10 |
   16  |  - 4   |Rainy                               | 28.40 | 28.25 | 28.20 |
   17  |  - 4½  |Lightning last night                | 28.23 | 28.05 | 27.96 |
   18  |  - 5½  |Fresh wind                          | 28.03 | 27.60 | 27.72 |
   19  |  - 3   |Strong wind                         | 27.40 | 27.40 |       |
   20  |  - 2½  |Strong wind                         | 28.30 | 28.30 | 28.33 |
   21  |  - 3   |Fresh breeze                        | 28.40 | 28.20 | 28.10 |
   22  |  - 3   |Wind very strong at mid-day         | 28.40 | 27.94 | 28.08 |
   23  |   0    |Strong wind                         | 28.25 | 27.60 | 27.15 |
   24  |  - 2   |Fresh wind. Violent rain and hail   | 27.97 | 27.76 | 27.77 |
       |        |storm after sunset, ⅓ inch rain in  |       |       |       |
       |        |one hour                            |       |       |       |
   25  |  - ½   |Rain to-day                         | 28.54 | 28.60 | 28.50 |
   26  |  - 3   |Fresh breeze                        | 28.62 | 28.41 | 28.26 |
   27  |  - 2½  |                                    | 28.59 | 28.31 | 28.24 |
   28  |  - 1½  |Fresh wind in morning               | 28.68 | 28.50 | 28.52 |
   29  |  - ½   |                                    | 28.76 | 28.54 | 28.50 |
   30  |  - 8½  |                                    | 28.89 | 28.65 | 28.53 |
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=====================================================================
       |
       |
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+---------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
    1  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
    2  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
    3  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
    4  |    Cs,    |    --     |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |   --
    5  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |    C,     |  N.W.
    6  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    7  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cm,    |   N.W.    |    Ns.    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    8  |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
    9  |    C,     |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   10  |  C, Cm,   |  W.N.W.   |    C,     |   N.W.    |   Cml,    |  N.W.
   11  |    C,     |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  N.W.
   12  |   Cml,    |    --     |   Cml,    |   S.W.    |   Cml,    |  S.W.
   13  |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |    --     |    --     |  Cs, Cm,  |  S.W.
   14  |    Ns,    |    S.     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
   15  |   Cml,    |   S.W.    |   Cml,    |    --     |    Ns.    |   --
   16  |    Ns.    |   N.E.    |    Ns.    |   N.E.    |    Cs.    |   --
   17  |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |   --
   18  |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |  S.W.
   19  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cml,    |   --
   20  |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
   21  |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
   22  |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |   --
   23  |    C,     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   Cml,    |   --
   24  |  Cml, Cs, |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs.    |   --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
       |           |           |           |           |           |
   25  |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |   --
   26  |   Fair    |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   --
   27  |    C,     |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   --
   28  |    Cs.    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   29  |    Cs.    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |   --
   30  |   Cml,    |    --     |    --     |    --     |    --     |   --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------

_Remarkable Phenomena._--20th, Halo and Corona around the moon.

In the hail storm of the 24th, hail stones fell of a very large size.
One of the largest seen here was of the following dimensions, viz.
length 2 inches, breadth 1½ inches, depth 1⅛ inches.

April 16th, fall of rain 3-10 inch.


{lxvi} _Meteorological Register_ {lxvii} _for the Month of_ MAY, 1820

  =====+=================+=================+=================+=====+
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
       |                 |                 |                 |     |
   Day |     MORNING     |     MID-DAY     |     EVENING     |     |
   of  +-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+Mean +
  Month|Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|   Wind    |Temp.|
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+
     1 |  57 |   N.W.    |  74 |   N.W.    |  71 |   N.W.    |  67 |
     2 |  54 |   S.E.    |  76 |   S.E.    |  75 |   S.E.    |  68 |
     3 |  59 |   S.E.    |  71 |   S.E.    |  67 |   S.E.    |  65 |
     4 |  64 |   S.E.    |  64 |   N.W.    |  61 |   N.W.    |  63 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
     5 |  50 |   N.W.    |  69 |   N.W.    |  70 |  S.S.E.   |  64 |
     6 |  54 |   S.E.    |  68 |   S.E.    |  70 |   S.E.    |  64 |
     7 |  40 |   N.W.    |  55 |   N.W.    |  51 |   N.W.    |  48 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
     8 |  45 |   S.E.    |     |   S.E.    |  59 |   S.E.    |     |
     9 |  51 |   S.E.    |  77 |   N.W.    |  65 |   N.W.    |  64 |
    10 |  53 |   S.E.    |  59 |   N.W.    |  52 |   N.W.    |  54 |
    11 |  46 |   N.W.    |  61 |   N.W.    |  63 |   Calm    |  56 |
    12 |  56 |   N.W.    |  70 |   N.W.    |  64 |   N.W.    |  63 |
    13 |  54 |   N.W.    |  67 |   N.W.    |  62 |   N.W.    |  61 |
    14 |  50 |   N.W.    |  69 |   N.W.    |  64 |   N.W.    |  61 |
    15 |  58 |   S.E.    |  67 |   S.E.    |  66 |   S.E.    |  63 |
    16 |  59 |   S.E.    |  65 |   S.E.    |  61 |   S.E.    |  61 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    17 |  61 |   S.E.    |  70 |   S.E.    |  68 |   S.E.    |  66 |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    18 |  59 |   S.E.    |  66 |   S.E.    |  66 |   S.E.    |  63 |
    19 |  56 |   S.E.    |  72 |   S.E.    |  68 |   S.E.    |  65 |
    20 |  54 |   S.E.    |  68 |   S.E.    |  69 |   S.E.    |  63 |
    21 |  56 |   S.E.    |  76 |   S.E.    |  71 |   S.E.    |  67 |
    22 |  60 |   S.E.    |  77 |   S.E.    |  75 |   S.E.    |  70 |
    23 |  60 |   S.E.    |  83 |   S.E.    |  77 |   Calm    |  73 |
    24 |  67 |   S.E.    |  69 |   S.E.    |     |    E.     |     |
       |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    25 |  53 |    E.     |  67 |   N.E.    |     |   N.E.    |  59 |
    26 |  57 |   N.W.    |  68 |   N.W.    |  62 |   N.W.    |  62 |
    27 |  50 |   N.W.    |  76 |   N.W.    |  72 |   N.W.    |  66 |
    28 |  58 |   N.W.    |  79 |   N.W.    |  68 |   N.W.    |  68 |
    29 |     |           |     |           |     |           |     |
    30 |  59 |   S.E.    |  73 |   S.E.    |  71 |   S.E.    |  67 |
    31 |  58 |   S.E.    |  66 |   S.E.    |  63 |   S.E.    |  62 |
  -----+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+-----------+-----+

  =====+========+====================================+=======================+
       |Rise or |                                    |                       |
       |fall of |                                    |                       |
       |Missouri|                                    |      BAROMETER        |
       |in last |                                    +-----------------------+
   Day |24 hours|                                    |                       |
   of  +--------+                                    +-------+-------+-------+
  Month|  Inc.  |    REMARKS                         |Morning| Noon  |Evening|
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+
     1 |  +1    |P.M.  few drops of rain             | 28.80 | 28.46 | 28.44 |
     2 |   0    |                                    | 28.66 | 28.20 | 28.18 |
     3 |  -2½   |Fresh wind                          | 28.41 | 28.07 | 28.07 |
     4 |  +4½   |Violent storm last night with       | 27.70 | 27.74 | 28.03 |
       |        |thunder and lightning               |       |       |       |
     5 |   0    |                                    | 28.03 | 28.38 | 28.33 |
     6 | +19    |                                    | 28.59 | 28.31 | 28.03 |
     7 | +26    |Rain last night, with thunder and   | 28.23 | 28.29 | 28.81 |
       |        |lightning. Strong wind              |       |       |       |
     8 |  -6    |                                    | 28.72 |       | 28.53 |
     9 |  -9    |                                    | 28.60 | 28.08 | 28.37 |
    10 | +19    |                                    | 28.57 | 28.41 | 28.50 |
    11 | +15    |                                    | 28.63 | 28.40 | 28.40 |
    12 |  +8    |                                    | 28.25 | 28.40 | 28.58 |
    13 |  -5    |                                    | 28.26 | 28.70 | 28.75 |
    14 |  -5    |                                    | 28.91 | 28.65 | 28.61 |
    15 |  -7    |                                    | 28.80 | 28.63 | 38.70 |
    16 |  -7    |Storm last night of wind, rain, and | 28.80 | 28.73 | 28.73 |
       |        |hail                                |       |       |       |
    17 |  -6    |Rain last night, with much wind,    | 28.60 | 28.25 | 28.30 |
       |        |thunder and lightning               |       |       |       |
    18 |  -5    |                                    | 28.37 | 28.30 | 28.24 |
    19 |  -7    |                                    | 29.47 | 28.18 | 28.26 |
    20 |  -3    |Rainy                               | 28.47 | 28.33 | 28.27 |
    21 |  -6    |                                    | 28.27 | 28.14 | 28.21 |
    22 |   0    |Light breezes                       | 28.00 | 28.08 | 28.15 |
    23 |  +5½   |                                    | 28.22 | 27.70 | 27.82 |
    24 | +14    |Rain with high wind this evening.   | 28.02 | 28.07 |       |
       |        |Thunder and lightning               |       |       |       |
    25 | -64    |                                    | 28.57 | 28.57 | 28.65 |
    26 | -12    |                                    | 28.55 | 28.68 | 28.60 |
    27 |  +1    |                                    | 28.66 | 28.13 | 28.22 |
    28 | +40    |Light winds                         | 28.48 | 28.00 | 28.29 |
    29 | +30    |Light winds                         |       |       |       |
    30 | +15    |Light winds                         | 28.49 | 28.21 | 28.31 |
    31 | -24    |Light winds                         | 28.76 | 28.47 | 28.66 |
  -----+--------+------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+

  =====+=====================================================================
       |
       |
       |                  MODIFICATIONS AND COURSES OF CLOUDS
       +-----------------------+-----------------------+---------------------
   Day |       Morning         |        Mid-Day        |        Evening
   of  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
  Month|  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses  |  Clouds   |  Courses
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------
     1 |    Cs.    |    --     | Cms. Cs.  |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
     2 |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
     3 |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cms.    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
     4 |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns,    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
     5 |  Cs, C,   |    --     |    Cm.    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
     6 |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
     7 |    Cm,    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
     8 |    Cs,    |    --     |    C,     |  W.N.W.   |    Cs,    |  --
     9 |    Cs,    |    --     |    Cm,    |    --     |   Cml,    |  --
    10 |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
    11 |    Ns     |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cs,    | N.W.
    12 |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |    Cs,    |   N.W.    |   Cml,    | N.W.
    13 |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |  --
    14 |   Fair    |    --     |   Fair    |    --     |    C,     | N.W.
    15 |    Cs.    |    --     |   Cml.    |    --     |    Cs,    | N.W.
    16 |    Ns,    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    | E.S.E.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    17 |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns,    |   S.E.    |   Cml.    | S.E.
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    18 |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml.    |   S.E.    |   Cml.    | S.E.
    19 |    C,     |    --     |    Ns,    |   S.E.    |    C,     |  --
    20 |    Ns.    |   S.E.    |    Ns.    |    --     |    Ns.    |  --
    21 |    C,     |    --     |  C, Cm,   |    S.     |  C, Cm,   |  S.
    22 |   Fair    |    --     |    Cm,    |   S.W.    |    Cm,    |  --
    23 |   Fair    |    --     |    Cm.    |    --     |  Cm, Cs,  |  --
    24 |    C,     |    --     |  C. Cs.   |    --     |    Ns,    |  --
       |           |           |           |           |           |
    25 |    Ns.    |    --     |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
    26 |    Cs,    |    --     |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |   Fair    |  --
    27 |   Fair    |    --     |   Cml,    |   N.W.    |  Cs, Cm,  |  --
    28 |   Cml,    |    --     |    Cm.    |   N.W.    |    Cm,    |  --
    29 |   Fair    |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cm,    |  --
    30 |    C,     |    --     |   Cms,    |    --     |    Cs.    |  --
    31 |    C,     |    --     |    Cs.    |    --     |    Cs,    |  --
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+---------

May 4th, fall of rain, ½ inch--10th, 1 inch--20th, ⅛ inch--24th, ¾
inch.


{lxviii} _Meteorological Register_

    [_Remarkable Phenomena_ continued from page lix [our page 279].]

January 29th. Parhelion around the sun this afternoon, consisting of
a halo circumscribing the sun, in the circumference of which appeared
the mock suns, and in a horizontal line with the sun. The diameter of
the halo was observed to be 45° 20´. To the N.E. of the sun there also
appeared a luminous arch inverted, or having its convex part towards
the sun, and its extremities directed from it. It was about 60° of a
circle of a smaller periphery than the halo, and well defined. The part
nearest the sun was found to be 48° 17´ distant from that luminary, so
that it did not come in contact with the halo, but the points of their
nearest approach were 25° 37´ apart. The halo was indistinct, except
in the vicinity of the mock suns, where it was well defined. Time of
making observations half past three o'clock, P.M. Thermometer at the
same time 5°, Barometer 28.88, atmosphere hazy, thin light clouds about
sun, fresh N.W. wind.

This evening soon after the moon rose, there being a thick haze or
mist in the atmosphere about her, there appeared two luminous cones of
a reddish cast, whose bases coincided with the moon's disc; the one
extending with its vertex above the moon directed towards the zenith,
and the other with its vertex below her approaching the horizon. At six
o'clock the paraselene appeared complete, consisting of the halo of the
same diameter as that around the sun this afternoon, the mock moons
or images, and the inverted arch to the S.W. of the moon, and of the
same size and distance from the moon as that which appeared with the
parhelion above mentioned. From each mock moon there projected a cone
of light, whose vertices were directed from the moon. Soon after these
appeared two more cones issuing from the moon, one on each side of her
in a horizontal direction. The length of the one projecting downwards
was 8° 40´; that of the other three 2° 30´, they being equal in length.
Thermometer when the observations on the moon were made stood at 5°,
Barometer 29.00, fresh N.W. breeze, atmosphere hazy, no clouds visible
about moon.

January 31st. Parhelion around the sun this morning, consisting of the
mock suns only, which appeared soon after sunrise, the distance between
them measured 44° 30´.

On the 12th the ice in the river was found to be 28 inches thick. Very
little current where the measurement was made.

FOOTNOTES:

[98] The matter from this point to the end of the present volume, is
reprinted from vol. ii of the Philadelphia edition (1823), where it
appears as part ii.--ED.



VOCABULARIES

OF

INDIAN LANGUAGES


For the accuracy of the words in the following Vocabularies we have to
rely upon the knowledge of the Indians or interpreters from whom we
received them, having carefully noted them down on the spot, as they
appeared to be pronounced. I have much pleasure in acknowledging the
ready and important aid which I received from Mr. John Dougherty, at
present Deputy Indian Agent for the Missouri; indeed, the Omawhaw,
Shoshone and Upsaroka vocabularies are chiefly set down agreeably to
his pronunciation.

The philologist will observe, that in these vocabularies, the guttural
sound is indicated by a †, a nasal sound by an *, and a ‡ accompanying
the letter j, shows that the French sound of that letter must be given
to it.

                                                                 T. SAY.


{lxx} VOCABULARY OF INDIAN LANGUAGES

  ==========+=======================+===================+=====================
  Head      | Wah-tok-ta-ta, or Oto |  Konza Language   | O-maw-haw Language
            |       Language        |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  ----------+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------
            |na-so                  |ve-ach-re          |pah
  Hair      |na-to                  |pa-heu             |pa-he
  Face      |in-ja                  |in-da              |e-ta
  Fore-head |pa                     |pah                |pa
  Eye       |ish-tah                |ish-tah            |ish-tah
  Nose      |pa-so                  |pah                |(same as _head_)
  Ear       |nan-tois               |nah-tah            |ne-tah
  Lip       |e-ha                   |e-hah              |e-hah} }same
  Mouth     |e                      |yeh or eh          |e-hah}
  Chin      |e-ko                   |egh                |ra-ba-he
  Tooth     |he                     |heh                |ee
  Tongue    |ra-za                  |yaa-sah            |they-se or tha-se
  Beard     |e-he                   |eh-hah-he          |e-he
  Neck      |ta-sha                 |tah-heu            |pa-he (same as
            |                       |                   |_hair_)
  Skin      |ho-ha                  |whugh-hah          |ha
  Arm       |a-grat-che             |ah                 |ah
  Hand      |na-wa                  |sha-geh            |nom-ba
  Fingers   |no name for the fingers|sha-geh-hah        |sha-ga
  Nail      |sha-ga                 |sha-geh-hu-hah     |sha-ga-ha
  {lxxi} Leg|ho                     |sha-gah            |naugh-pa-he
  Thigh     |ra-ga                  |sha-gah-tun-gah    |‡ja-guh
  Foot      |ce                     |seh                |se
  Toes      |no name for the toes   |se-hah             |se-pa
            |collectively           |                   |
  Copulation|wa-to                  |                   |wat-che
  Penis     |ra                     |shang-a            |‡ja
  Vulva     |o-ya                   |                   |e-‡ja
  Meat      |ta-to-ka               |ta-do-kah          |ta-no-ka
  Blood     |wa-pa-ga               |wah-pe             |wa-me
  Heart     |nan-tcha               |na-cha             |naun-da
  Bone      |wa-ho                  |wa-heu             |*y-he
  Horn      |cha-ha                 |hah                |ha
  Magician  |wah-ho-ben-ne          |                   |ne-ka-shing-guh-ho-ba
  Chief     |wang-a-ge-he           |                   |ne-ka-ga-he
  Man       |wah-she-ga             |ne-kos-shing-goh   |no
  Old man   |wa-sha-in-ga           |                   |ish-a-ga
  Soldier   |moi-a-ke-ta            |                   |wa-na-sha
  Woman     |nah-hak-ka             |wa-kooh            |wa-o
  Old woman |na-ak-shin-ya          |                   |wa-o-‡jin-guh
  Boy       |chin-to-ing-ya         |she-do-shing-goh   |no-‡jing-ga
  Friend    |in-tar-ro              |                   |ca-ga
  Girl      |che-me-ing-ya          |she-me-shing-goh   |me-‡jing-ga
  Father    |an-tcha                |e-tah-cheh         |da-da or da-da-ha
  {lxxii}   |e-hong, the mother     |e-nah              |e-hong, the mother
  Mother    |                       |                   |
  Son       |e-ing-ya, the son      |(See Boy)          |e-‡jing-ga, his son
            |                       |                   |
  Daughter  |e-ong-a, the daughter  |(See Girl)         |e-‡jong-ga, the
            |                       |                   |daughter
  Pretty    |o-com-pe               |                   |o-com-pe
  Ugly      |o-com-pish-con-na      |                   |o-com-pe-a-‡ja
  Child     |che-ching-a            |shing-goh-shing-goh|shinga-shinga
            |                       |                   |
  Brother   |e-ena, elder brother   |wes-son-gah        |we-son-gah, younger
            |                       |                   |brother
            |e-song-a, younger      |                   |‡je-na-ha, elder
            |brother                |                   |brother
  Sister    |e-tong-a, younger      |wet-ton-geh        |toing-ga
            |sister                 |                   |
            |e-onuh, elder do       |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  God       |wah-con-dah-- they     |wak-kon-doh        |wah-con-da
            |call the thunder the   |                   |
            |same                   |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  {lxxiii}  |wah-con-dah-pish-co-na,|wok-kon-doh-pe-she,|ish-ten-e-ke, bad
  Devil     |bad god                |bad spirit         |spirit or witch
            |                       |                   |
  Heaven    |wah-noh-a-tche nuh,    |no corresponding   |wa-noch-a-te,
            |town of spirits        |word;              |town of brave and
            |                       |wah-nahk-he-o-     |generous spirits
            |                       |shonge-yah-re      |
            |                       |--road of the dead |
  Hell      |no name for this       |no corresponding   |wa-noch-a-tow-
            |                       |word in this       |woin-pa-‡je, town
            |                       |language;          |of poor or useless
            |                       |o-shon-geh-pe-she--|spirits
            |                       |bad road           |
  Heat      |tah-an-ah              |mos-cheh           |on-a-bre
  Cold      |sne                    |sne-wah-cheh       |sne
  Rain      |ne-yu                  |ne-she-hue-ah      |naun-she
  Snow      |pah                    |pah-hue-ah         |mah
  Ice       |no-ha†                 |nah-heh            |no-ha
  Hail      |pa-so                  |                   |ma-se
            |                       |                   |
            |                       |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  Summer    |to-ka                  |                   |no-gah
  Winter    |pa-ne                  |                   |mah-ra-dong
  Morning   |ha-ro-tach-tche        |                   |cas-aht-te
  Evening   |eh-ta-na               |                   |paz-za
            |                       |                   |
  {lxxiv}   |hang-wa                |                   |om-bah
  Day       |                       |                   |
  Night     |hang-ha                |                   |hon-da
  Sun       |pe                     |                   |me-na-ca-ja
            |                       |                   |
  Moon      |pe-tang-wa, sun that   |                   |me-om-bah
            |gives light            |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  Star      |pe-kah-ha              |                   |me-ca-a
  Earth     |ma-ha                  |                   |mon-e-ka
  Water     |ne                     |                   |ne
            |                       |                   |
            |                       |                   |
  Whiskey   |pa-je-ne               |                   |pa-ge-ne
  Medicine  |man-cong               |                   |uc-cong
  Mysterious|wah-ho-ne-ta           |                   |†ho-ba
  medicine  |                       |                   |
  Fire      |pa-ja                  |                   |pa-da
  Wood      |na                     |                   |‡jan
  Tree      |na-bo-shra-ja,         |                   |†her-a-ba-me
            |standing wood          |                   |
  Bean      |o-ne                   |                   |him-bar-rin-ga
  Leaf      |nah-wa                 |                   |a-ba
  Maize     |wa-to-ja               |                   |wat-tan-ze
  Pumpkin   |wat-twoing             |                   |wat-tang
  {lxxv}    |na-ha                  |                   |‡joh-noh-hah
  Bark      |                       |                   |
  Tobacco   |ra-ne                  |                   |ne-ne
  Hazlenuts |qua-ing-ya             |                   |*a-‡jin-guh
  Hill      |o-ha                   |                   |pa-ha
            |                       |                   |
  Valley    |a-bras-ka              |                   |o-‡je-nosh-ka
            |                       |                   |
  River     |nesh-noug-a, running   |                   |wa-tish-ka
            |water                  |                   |
  Spring    |ne-wa-bru, water       |                   |ne-hun-ga
            |springing up           |                   |
  Gelding   |shong-a?               |                   |shong-ga-son-
            |                       |                   |ga-en-ne
  Horse     |shong-to-ka?           |                   |shon-ga-tun-ga
  Mare      |shong-ming-ya          |                   |shon-ga-min-ga
  Colt      |shong-shing-ya         |                   |shon-to-‡jin-guh
            |                       |                   |
  Dog       |shong-o-ka-ne,         |                   |she-no-ta
            |unmeaninghorse         |                   |
  Wolf      |shong-tung             |                   |shong-tun-guh
  Fox       |mes-ra-ka              |                   |ma-nik-o-shier
  Bird      |wa-ing-ya              |                   |wash-ing-guh
  Turkey    |wa-ek-kung-ja          |                   |ze-ze-kah
  War eagle |he-ra                  |                   |†he-ra-ska
  Buck elk  |                       |                   |om-pa-nu-gah
            |                       |                   |
  Doe       |                       |                   |om-pa-min-gah
  {lxxvi}   |                       |                   |
  Egg       |e-tcha                 |et-tah             |wa-tuh
  Buck deer |                       |                   |toch-ta-nu-gah
  Doe       |                       |                   |toch-ta-min-gah
            |                       |                   |
  Fawn      |                       |                   |toch-ta‡jinguh-
            |                       |                   |hin-gara-‡ja
  Fish      |ho                     |ho                 |ho-ho
  Squirrel  |ah-sin-ya              |                   |sin-guh
  Prairie   |man-ne-ho-ja           |man-ne-†ho-da      |
  dog       |                       |                   |
  Snake     |wa-cong                |vatz-ah            |wais-uh
  Bison     |cha                    |ta                 |
  Otter     |tosh-nong-ya           |                   |nosh-noh
  Black     |ta-sa-wa               |                   |toch-ta-sin-ja-sa-ba
  tailed    |                       |                   |
  deer      |                       |                   |
  Bear      |mon-ja                 |was-sah-ba         |was-sa-ba
  Raccoon   |me-ka                  |                   |me-ca
  Beaver    |ra-way                 |                   |‡ja-ba
  Louse     |ha                     |hah                |ha
  Antelope  |ta-to                  |                   |ta-tshu-guh
  Skunk     |mon-ka                 |                   |mon-guh
  {lxxvii}  |ta-gres-ka, deer that  |no corresponding   |tat-a-guh, fool deer
  Flea      |is going               |word               |
  Muskrat   |o-to-ak-ka             |                   |sin-ja-sna-ja-
            |                       |                   |wa-ge-re
  Rabbit    |mish-tsching-ya        |                   |mas-tschin-ga
  Bow       |man-to                 |shah-me-ja         |man-da-san-ra
  Arrow     |ma                     |mah                |mah
  Knife     |ma-he                  |                   |ma-he
  Pipe      |ra-no-wa               |                   |ne-ne-bah
  Canoe     |pa-ja                  |pah-cheh           |mon-de-ha-shin-ga
  House     |che                    |teh                |te
  Copper    |ma-za-ze               |mahs-es-se-he      |mon-za-‡je-da
            |                       |                   |
  Stone     |eng-ro                 |eh                 |e-eh
  Body      |e-ro                   |                   |
  Iron      |ma-za                  |mahs-suh           |mon-za
  Yes       |Hon-ja                 |hoo-eh             |oh-hoh*
            |                       |                   |
  { No { {  |He-a-ko, by the men    |                   |
            |                       |hank-kash-eh       |auns-kash-a
            |He-a-ka by the squaws  |                   |
  None      |ning-ya                |                   |ning-ga
  White     |ska                    |skoh               |ska
  Red       |shu-ja                 |                   |‡je-da
  Black     |sa-wa                  |sah-beh            |sah-ba
  Blue      |to                     |                   |to
  Yellow    |ze                     |                   |ze
  Light     |ta-kong                |haum-pah           |o-go-om-ba
  Darkness  |o-han-za               |haum-o-pas-se      |o-ga-ha-no-pa-sa
  Me        |me-eh                  |                   |we
  I (_ego_)||                       |be-ah              |
  One       |yon-ka                 |me-akh-che         |me-ach-che
  Two       |no-wa                  |nom-pah            |nom-ba
  Three     |ta-ne                  |yah-be-re          |ra-be-ne
  Four      |to-wa                  |toh-pah            |to-ba
  Five      |sa-ta                  |sah-tah            |sat-ta
  Six       |sha-qua                |shahp-peh          |shap-pa
  Seven     |shah-a-muh             |pa-om-bah          |pa-num-ba
            |                       |                   |
  Eight     |kra-ra-ba-na           |pa-yah-be-re       |pa-ra-be-ne
  Nine      |shan-ka                |shank-kuh          |shon-ka
            |                       |                   |
  Ten       |kra-ba-nuh             |kera-brah, or      |kra-ba-ra
            |                       |ker-a-be-rah       |
  Eleven    |a-gen-ne-yon-ka        |ah-re-me-akh-che   |a-gar-e-me
  Twelve    |a-gen-ne-no-wa         |ah-re-nom-pah      |a-gar-e-num-ba
  ----------+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------

  ==========+=================+================
  Head      | Sioux, (Yancton | Min-ne-ta-re,
            |  band,) Lang.   | or Gros ventre
            |                 |    Language
  ----------+-----------------+----------------
            |pah              |an-too
  Hair      |pa-ha            |ar-ra
  Face      |e-ta             |
  Fore-head |e-ta-ho          |e-re
  Eye       |ish-tah          |ish-tah
  Nose      |pa-so            |a-pah
  Ear       |nong-ko-pa       |la-hoch-e
  Lip       |e-ha             |
  Mouth     |ee               |e-eep-chap-pah
  Chin      |e-ko             |
  Tooth     |he               |ee(teeth)
  Tongue    |cha-dzhe         |neigh-‡je
  Beard     |po-te-he         |a-poo-te
  Neck      |ta-ho            |a-peh
            |                 |
  Skin      |ha               |laugh-pa
  Arm       |is-to            |arrough
  Hand      |na-pa            |shan-te
  Fingers   |nap-cho-pa       |shan-te-ich-po
  Nail      |sha-ka           |ich-po
  {lxxi} Leg|ho               |eh-ta-whir-ta
  Thigh     |cha-cha          |e-re-ke
  Foot      |ce-ha            |it-se
  Toes      |ces-has-ta       |it-se-shan-ke
            |                 |
  Copulation|tow-e-tong       |e-e-pe
  Penis     |cha              |e-re
  Vulva     |so-so            |sher-rah
  Meat      |ta-do            |cu-ruc-tschit-te
  Blood     |oua              |eh-re
  Heart     |shan-ta          |nah-tah
  Bone      |ho, same as leg  |e-rouh
  Horn      |heh or ha        |an-‡je
  Magician  |                 |
  Chief     |                 |
  Man       |we-cha-sha       |mat-tza
  Old man   |we-chach-chah    |e-tan-ca
  Soldier   |                 |
  Woman     |we-ah            |me-ya
  Old woman |wa-konk-ka       |ga-no
  Boy       |ho-ke-she-na     |shi-kan-‡ja
  Friend    |                 |
  Girl      |we-chin-cha-no   |me-ya-kan-‡ja
  Father    |at-cu-cu         |tan-ta
  {lxxii}   |hu-co            |e-ka
  Mother    |                 |
  Son       |che-het-co       |mou-ri-sha
            |                 |
  Daughter  |we-tach-nong     |ma-cath
            |                 |
  Pretty    |o-yuk-co-pe      |e-ta-suk-es
  Ugly      |o-yuk-she-sha    |e-ta-e-she-es
  Child     |ok-che-cho-pa    |man-on-gah,
            |                 |children
  Brother   |ho-cowng-‡je-    |be-a-cah, elder
            |co-che-a, my     |Mat-tso-ga,
            |elder brother    |younger
            |                 |
  Sister    |tow-in-och-te    |mat-to-me-ya
            |                 |elder, mat-tak-
            |                 |ke-e-‡je,
            |                 |younger
  God       |wa-ca-tun-ca,    |man-ho-pa,
            |the Great Spirit |Great Spirit
            |                 |
            |                 |
  {lxxiii}  |wa-con-she-cheh, |no
  Devil     |bad spirit       |corresponding
            |                 |word
  Heaven    |wan-ach-a-te-pa, |a-pah-he, good
            |house of spirits |village
            |                 |
            |                 |
            |                 |
  Hell      |no word for this |no
            |                 |corresponding
            |                 |word
            |                 |
            |                 |
  Heat      |oh-de-de-ta      |ar-rase
  Cold      |sne              |ce-re-a
  Rain      |ma-ha-‡jou       |†har-a
  Snow      |wah              |mah-pa
  Ice       |cha-†hah         |me-†roh-†he
  Hail      |was-so           |mah-pe-ich-te-
            |                 |et-snow large
            |                 |har-a-a-pa rain
            |                 |together
  Summer    |min-to-ca-to     |ma-pus-a-gus
  Winter    |wah-ne-ah-to     |ma-la
  Morning   |he-han-na        |ker-aug-co-tah
  Evening   |eh-ti-a-to       |oh-pah
            |                 |
  {lxxiv}   |aung-pa          |mah-pah, very
  Day       |                 |like snow
  Night     |haha-pe          |oh-se-us
  Sun       |oue              |mah-pe-me-ne,
            |                 |sun of day
  Moon      |ha-ya-to-we      |oh-se-a-me-ne,
            |                 |sun of night
            |                 |
  Star      |weh-chah-pe      |e-kah
  Earth     |mong-ca          |a-mah
  Water     |me-ne            |me-ne
            |                 |
            |                 |
  Whiskey   |                 |
  Medicine  |                 |
  Mysterious|                 |
  medicine  |                 |
  Fire      |pa-ta            |be-ras
  Wood      |cha*             |be-ra
  Tree      |cha-on-ge-na,    |be-ra-ech-te-et
            |one wood alone   |
  Bean      |                 |
  Leaf      |wah†-pa          |a-pa-bat-to-se
  Maize     |                 |
  Pumpkin   |                 |
  {lxxv}    |chang-ha         |es-sche
  Bark      |                 |
  Tobacco   |chan-te          |ow-pa
  Hazlenuts |                 |
  Hill      |†ha-a-ca         |avo-ca-ve-car-
            |                 |ish-ta
  Valley    |se-mong-ca       |a-man-she-e-pe,
            |                 |a bushy ravine
  River     |wa-co-pa         |an-ge
            |                 |
  Spring    |cak-ce-za        |ma-ha
            |                 |
  Gelding   |shon-ko-wa-cong  |it-ze-mat-shu-ga
            |                 |
  Horse     |shong-min-to-ca  |an-‡ju-ca-ba-tu
  Mare      |shong-we-a-nong  |be-ca
  Colt      |shong-che-na     |it-ze-bu-zu-ga-
            |                 |non-ga
  Dog       |shon-ka          |mat-shu-ga
            |                 |
  Wolf      |shunk-to-ka-cheh |sa-‡ja
  Fox       |cha-to-ka-na     |ih-hoc-ca-‡je
  Bird      |ze-ca-no         |sa-can-ga
  Turkey    |                 |
  War eagle |                 |
  Buck elk  |heh-ha-ka        |ma-ron-ga-ca-
            |                 |re-pe
  Doe       |o-pong           |ma-ron-ga-be-ca
  {lxxvi}   |                 |
  Egg       |weet-ca ga       |sa-can-ga-non-ko
  Buck deer |ta-min-do-ca     |se-e-ka-tuc-ke
  Doe       |ta-we-a-nong     |se-e-ka-tuc-ke-
            |                 |be-ca
  Fawn      |ta-che-cha-na    |se-e-ka-tuc-ke-
            |                 |non-ga
  Fish      |ho-hung          |bo-a
  Squirrel  |                 |
  Prairie   |                 |
  dog       |                 |
  Snake     |wam-dosh-ka      |ma-buc-sha
  Bison     |ke-e-ra-pe       |
  Otter     |pet-tong         |me-ra-po-ca
  Black     |                 |
  tailed    |                 |
  deer      |                 |
  Bear      |wa-hunk-ca-ce-cha|lah-pet-ze
  Raccoon   |we-cha           |me-ra-pa
  Beaver    |cha-pa           |
  Louse     |ha-uh            |a-tap-peh
  Antelope  |                 |
  Skunk     |                 |
  {lxxvii}  |ha-nuh           |sa-cas-ke
  Flea      |                 |
  Muskrat   |                 |
            |                 |
  Rabbit    |mash-te-cha-nong |e-ta-ke
  Bow       |e-ta-ze-pah      |be-rah-hah
  Arrow     |wang-hink-a-pa   |e-tah
  Knife     |me-na mat-ze     |
  Pipe      |chan-dow-ho-pa   |eh-ke-pe
  Canoe     |wa-tah           |a-man-ta
  House     |te-pe            |a-te, Ind. lodge
  Copper    |mas-ah-shah, or  |o-was-sa-she-re
            |red iron         |
  Stone     |e-yong           |me-e
  Body      |                 |
  Iron      |ma-ah            |o-was-sa
  Yes       |hah or toch      |i, or
            |                 |ar-roch-o- bah
  { No { {  |                 |
            |he-yah           |na-‡jes
            |                 |
  None      |                 |
  White     |scah             |ho-tech-ke
  Red       |shah             |ish-she
  Black     |sa-pah           |shu-pe-sha
  Blue      |toe              |ta-he
  Yellow    |ze               |she-re
  Light     |oh-‡ja-‡jo       |mah-pa-suh-kas
  Darkness  |oh-yok ka-pa-za  |oh-pa-‡je
  Me        |me-ya            |
  I (_ego_)||                 |me-e
  One       |wan-cha          |le-mois-so
  Two       |no-pa            |no-o-pah
  Three     |ya-me-ne         |na-me
  Four      |to-pah           |to-pah
  Five      |zap-ta           |che-†hoh
  Six       |shak-pa          |a-ca-ma
  Seven     |shak-o-e         |chap-po
            |                 |
  Eight     |shak-un-do-huh   |no-pup-pe
  Nine      |nuh-pet-che-     |no-was-sap-pa
            |wung-kuh         |
  Ten       |wek-chem-in-uh   |pe-ra-gas
            |                 |
  Eleven    |a-ka-ong-‡jin    |a-pe-le-mois-so
  Twelve    |a-ka-no-pa       |a-pe-no-o-pah
  ----------+-----------------+----------------

  ==========+==================+=================
  Head      | Paw-ne Language  |  Chel-a-ke, or
            |                  |Cherokee Language
            |                  |
  ----------+------------------+-----------------
            |pak-shu           |is-ko
  Hair      |o-shu             |ka-tluh
  Face      |                  |
  Fore-head |pak-she re        |a-ga-ta-ga-nuh
  Eye       |ke-re-ko          |a-ka-tuh
  Nose      |tshu-sho          |col-yen-suh
  Ear       |at-ka-ro          |kad-la-nuh
  Lip       |                  |e-a-na-ga-luh
  Mouth     |tska-o            |a-ho-le
  Chin      |ka-ka             |kay-en-uh
  Tooth     |ha-ro             |ky-to-ka
  Tongue    |ha-to             |ka-no-kuh
  Beard     |ra-rosh           |a-ha-no-luh
  Neck      |tshu-she-re       |kit-sane or
            |                  |a-git-a-ga-nuh
  Skin      |ska-ret-ke        |kan-a-guh
  Arm       |pe-e-ru           |kan-o-gan
  Hand      |ik-she-re         |o-woy-an-e
  Fingers   |hash-pet          |ta-ka-ya-sut-enn
  Nail      |hash-pet          |ka-so-kut-un
  {lxxi} Leg|kash-o            |kun-uns-ka-nuh
  Thigh     |pe-ka-ta-ko       |ka-guh-lung
  Foot      |ash-o             |la-sa-ta-nuh
  Toes      |ash-o-hash-pet    |ta-ka-na-sut-uh
            |                  |
  Copulation|                  |
  Penis     |car-e-o           |a-tuh
  Vulva     |                  |
  Meat      |ke-shat-ske       |o-we-duh
  Blood     |ha-to             |ke-kuh
  Heart     |pet-so            |o-noh-hwa
  Bone      |ke-sho            |ko-luh
  Horn      |are-ko            |hu-lon-uh
  Magician  |                  |
  Chief     |                  |
  Man       |tsa-e-ksh         |ski-yuh
  Old man   |                  |
  Soldier   |                  |
  Woman     |tsa-pat           |ka-yuh
  Old woman |                  |
  Boy       |pesh-ke           |at-so-zuh
  Friend    |                  |
  Girl      |tcho-ra-ksh       |a-ga-hew-tzuh
  Father    |a-te-ash          |a-to-tuh
  {lxxii}   |                  |
  Mother    |a-te-rah          |a-tsing
  Son       |pe-rou-ta-ta      |a-quat-se-at-su-
            |                  |tsuh
  Daughter  |tcho-ra-ge-la-ha  |a-quat-se-a-ga-
            |                  |ho-tsuh
  Pretty    |                  |
  Ugly      |                  |
  Child     |pe-rou            |a-kah
            |                  |
  Brother   |e-ra-re           |a-ke-ne-le
            |                  |
            |                  |
            |                  |
  Sister    |e-ta-†he          |ang-ga-tuh
            |                  |
            |                  |
            |                  |
  God       |tlou-wa-hot,      |ka-long-la-te-e-
            |Master of Life    |geth-te-ra, the
            |                  |Great Spirit
            |                  |above
  {lxxiii}  |tsa-he-ksh-ka-    |ske-nuh
  Devil     |ko-hra-wah, bad   |
            |spirit            |
  Heaven    |tska-o, same as   |ka-lang-a-te
            |mouth             |
            |                  |
            |                  |
            |                  |
  Hell      |ka-ko-hre-a-to-ro,|tsens-ske-nuh
            |bad road          |
            |                  |
            |                  |
            |                  |
  Heat      |tou-ets-to        |telh-kuh
  Cold      |ta-pech-e         |uh-lan-nuh
  Rain      |tat-so-ro         |a-ga-skuh
  Snow      |to-sha            |an-tsink
  Ice       |la-she-to         |un-a-ster-lang
  Hail      |                  |the same as ice
            |                  |
            |                  |
            |                  |
  Summer    |le-at             |ko-ke
  Winter    |pitsh-e-kat       |ko-luh
  Morning   |ka-ka-rush-ka     |so-nah-leh
  Evening   |wa-tate-kat-      |son-e-a-leh
            |tate-ke-a         |
  {lxxiv}   |shak-o-ro e-sharet|e-kum
  Day       |                  |
  Night     |e-ra-shu-a-te     |son-o-yeh
  Sun       |sha-ko-ro         |na-toh
            |                  |
  Moon      |pa                |as sun, dist.
            |                  |by adding
            |                  |_night_
  Star      |o-pe-ret          |noh-kos-a
  Earth     |o-ra-ro           |ka-tun
  Water     |ket-so            |a-muh, nearly
            |                  |the same as
            |                  |_salt_
  Whiskey   |                  |
  Medicine  |                  |
  Mysterious|                  |
  medicine  |                  |
  Fire      |la-te-to          |at-se-luh
  Wood      |la-gish, forest   |at-uh
  Tree      |                  |hu-kuh
            |                  |
  Bean      |                  |
  Leaf      |lets-ko-shu       |u-guh-lo-kuh
  Maize     |                  |
  Pumpkin   |                  |
  {lxxv}    |la-vet-ta-te      |u-tha-lu-kuh
  Bark      |                  |
  Tobacco   |                  |
  Hazlenuts |                  |
  Hill      |pa-ho-ke-ve-to    |
            |                  |
  Valley    |la-kat-tosh, a    |oh-tat-luh
            |ravine            |
  River     |kat-tosh          |ak-wo-ne
            |                  |
  Spring    |kets-pa-le,       |a-muk-a-nu-go-guh
            |                  |
  Gelding   |                  |
            |                  |
  Horse     |a-ro-sha          |tsa-wil-e
  Mare      |a-sha-tsa-pat     |
  Colt      |                  |
            |                  |
  Dog       |a-sha-kish        |ke-leh
            |                  |
  Wolf      |                  |
  Fox       |                  |
  Bird      |le-kot-ske        |ses-quah
  Turkey    |                  |
  War eagle |                  |
  Buck elk  |                  |
            |                  |
  Doe       |                  |
  {lxxvi}   |                  |
  Egg       |le-kot-ske-pe-    |o-a-teh
  Buck deer |                  |
  Doe       |                  |
            |                  |
  Fawn      |                  |
            |                  |
  Fish      |kat-tsche-ke      |at-tsa-teh
  Squirrel  |                  |
  Prairie   |                  |
  dog       |                  |
  Snake     |lot-pat-set       |e-nah-tah
  Bison     |                  |
  Otter     |                  |
  Black     |                  |
  tailed    |                  |
  deer      |                  |
  Bear      |ko-roksh          |yoh-nuh
  Raccoon   |                  |
  Beaver    |                  |
  Louse     |pets              |ta-nuh
  Antelope  |                  |
  Skunk     |                  |
  {lxxvii}  |te-ra-guh         |tsu-kuh
  Flea      |                  |
  Muskrat   |                  |
            |                  |
  Rabbit    |                  |
  Bow       |te-ra-gish        |kelk-tsut-e
  Arrow     |lek-sho           |kun-e
  Knife     |                  |
  Pipe      |                  |
  Canoe     |lak-o-ho-ro       |tse-u
  House     |ak-ka-ro          |kat-so-da
  Copper    |kots-ter-ra-ha    |tsal-ya-tal-ou-
            |                  |i-ka, red brass
  Stone     |ka-ret-ke         |ni-yah
  Body      |                  |
  Iron      |pa-bet-de-sho     |u-tal-u-gis-ke
  Yes       |na-wa             |o-wah
            |                  |
  { No { {  |                  |
            |ka-ke             |an-tleh
            |                  |
  None      |                  |
  White     |la-ta-ka          |u-na-kuh
  Red       |                  |
  Black     |ka-tet            |un-nuh-ga
  Blue      |                  |
  Yellow    |                  |
  Light     |shuk-she-gat      |e-ga-hew
  Darkness  |same as night     |ul-se-kuh
  Me        |                  |
  I (_ego_)||ta                |i-yeh
  One       |as-ko             |
  Two       |pet-ko            |
  Three     |tou-wet           |
  Four      |shke-tiksh        |
  Five      |she-oksh          |
  Six       |shek-sha-bish     |
  Seven     |pet-ko-shek-      |
            |sha-bish          |
  Eight     |tou-wet-sha-bish  |
  Nine      |lok-she-re-wa     |
            |                  |
  Ten       |lok-she-re        |
            |                  |
  Eleven    |as-ko-lok-she-re  |
  Twelve    |pet-ko-sho-she-re |
  ----------+------------------+-----------------

    {lxxix} _Having but a small number of words of the two
      following Languages, it is thought proper to insert them
      separately from the above comparative tables, in order that
      the columns may not be too much extended._


Shos-ho-ne Language

    Good, sant

    Bad, kate-sant

    Salmon, au-gi

    Come, ke-ma

    Large, pe-up

    Big river, pau-pe-up

    To eat, bo-re-can

    White people, tab-ba-bo--_people of the sun_

    Go, nu-me-a-ro

    To copulate, yo-co

    To see, ma-bo-ne

    Did not see it, ka-en-ma-bo-na

    To love, kom-muh

    A great many, shant

    Bison, kot-zo

    Antelope, wa-re

    Elk, pa-re

    Awl, we-u

    Beaver, ha-nish

    Friend, hants

    Woman, wipe

    Water, pa

    Horse, bunk-o

    No, ka-he

    Tash-e-pa, pierced nose--_a nation of the Columbia_

    Paw-kees, black feet Indians

    Pun-ash, root eaters--a band of Shoshones who call a horse
    toish, and a squaw mo-co-ne


Up-sa-ro-ka, or Crow Language

    White people, mash-te-se-re--_yellow eyes_

    Pawkees or Black-feet, e-chip-e-ta

    Poor, bats-ish-cat

    Powerful or strong, bats-atsh

    Good, e-tschick

    Bad, kab-beak

    Bison, be-sha

    Bison bull, che-ra-pa

    Beaver, be-rap-pa

    Tobacco, o-pa

    Where, sho

    Far, ham-a-ta

    Mountain, am-a-†ha-ba

    Elk, e-che-re-ca-te--_little horse_

    Finished or completed, kar-a-ko-tuk

    Knife, mit-se

    What, sa-pa

    Near, ash-ka

    Friend, she-ka

    To eat, ba-boush-mek

    Gunpowder, be-rups-spa

    Little, e-ro-ka-ta

    Name which they give to the Sioux nation,
    mar-an-sho-bish-ko--_or the cut throats_

    Young woman, me-ka-ta

    Water, me-ne

    Fire, be-da

    Wood, mon-a

    River, an-sha

    Horse, e-che-ra

    No, bar-a-ta

{lxxx} _The following promiscuous words are added for the further information
                          of the philologist._


Wah-tok-ta-ta, or Oto Language

    White people, maz-onk-ka--_iron makers_

    Americans, ma-he-hun-jeh--_big knife_

    British, ra-gar-rash-ing, probably not an Oto word

    Ioway nation, pa-ho-ja--_gray snow_

    Missouri nation, ne-o-ta-tcha--_those who build a town at the
    mouth of a river_

    Mississippi river, ne-o-hun-je--_the river that enlarges as it
    runs_, or ne-ber-a-‡je, _water of knowledge_

    Missouri river, ne-su-ja--_smoky water_

    Osage river, ne-ska--_white water_

    Grand river, nesh-na-hun-ja--_big water_

    Konzes river, to-pe-o-ka--_good potatoe river_

    Nodowa river, ne-a-ton-wa--_jump over river_, or ne-wa-ton

    Walk, ma-ne

    Distant, har-re

    Deer, tah-che

    Green, toh-tsche

    Platte river, ne-bras-ka--or _flat water_

    Little Platte river, ne-breska-ingya--_little flat water_

    Tarkio river, tar-ke-u

    Nemehaw river, ne-mo-ha-hun-ge

    Little Nemehaw river, ne-mo-haing-ya

    Nishnabatona river, nish-na-bot-ona--_canoe making river_

    Weeping water river, ne-ha-ga--_weeping water_

    Saline creek, nes-co--_salt water_

    Loup fork of the Platte river, Pawneeomawhaw-ne-etow-wa

    Elk-horn creek, wa-ta-tung-ya

    Konza river, Konza-ne-etow-wa--or _the river belonging to the
    Konzas_

    Run, nong-a

    Leap, ta-wa

    Fight, a-ke-ra-ga

    Eat, wa-ro-ja

    Drink, rat-tong

    Steal, mo-no

    Talk, e-cha

    Strength, bre-hra

    Weakness, wa-ha-ha

    Poor, wa-was-tong

    Near, as-ke

    Different, e-tan-tong

    Good, pe-ay

    Bad, pish-co-na

    Mockeson, a-ko-je

    Gunpowder, ak-ho-je

    Ball, ma-za-muh

    Looking-glass, ma-zo-ka-tou-a

    Long, thra-ja

    Short, su-is-cha

    Broad, ar-ru-cha-hun-ja

    Thick, sho-ga

    Thin, bra-ka

    Father, in-ko--used by a person when addressing his father.
    This word is said by Lewis and Clarke, p. 36, to mean _chief_,
    but this seems to be a mistake.

    Twenty, kra-ba-nuh-no-wa

    Twenty-one, krabanuhnowa-agen-ne-yon-ka?

    Thirty, krabanuh-ta-ne

    One hundred, krabanuh-ho-yong

    One hundred and one, krabanuhhoyongagenneyonka

    One thousand, krabanuhhoyonghon-ja--or _big hundred_


{lxxxi} O-maw-haw Language

    White people, wah-ha--_makers_

    Americans, mah-he-tun-guh--_big knife_

    British, suk-an-ash--not a proper Omawhaw word

    Hat, wa-ha-pa-ga-rong

    Hatchet, maz-za-pa-‡jin-ga

    Axe, maz-za-pa-tun-guh

    Prairie dog's burrow, man-ne-†ho-da-te

    Grizzly bear, mon-tschu

    White hare, mas-tschi-ska

    Porcupine, pa-he

    Bald eagle, he-ra-pa-song

    Grey eagle, he-ra-gra ‡je

    Black bear, wa-sa-ba

    Dragon fly, te-ne-nik-a

    Sword, mah-he-tun-guh

    Small knife, mah-he-‡jin-guh

    Canoe, mun-da

    Thunder, †ger-rong

    Breech-cloth, ‡ja-a-de-gar-rong

    Niece, we-te-‡jeh by the men, we-to-‡jon-ga by the squaws

    Brother-in-law, tahong

    Deer skin, ta-ha

    Sweet maize, wat-tan-ze-ske-ra

    Common maize, wat-tan-ze-sar-ra-ga

    An ear of maize, wa-ha-ba

    Abdomen, ta-ze

    Paunch or stomach, ne-ha

    Mammæ, mon-za, same as _iron_

    People, ne-ka-shing-ga, or ne-kuh-shing-guh

    Young warrior, wa-se-se-ga

    Warm, mash-ta

    Nostrils, pah-shu-sha

    Human skin, he-ha

    Deep blue, toh-che

    Dance, wat-che. Sometimes the word ga-ha, _to make_, is
    subjoined to this word in order to distinguish from their term
    for copulation

    His child, e-ne-se

    Me (I) make, pa-†ha, very like the word for _hill_

    My true child, we-se-‡jun-tsche-nu

    It is said there is none, ning-ga-um

    Bad or ugly, pa-‡juh--a word used in anger, principally by the
    squaws

    Poor as a turkey, wah-pa-ne-ze-ze-ka-a-go

    I am as poor as a turkey, a-mah-panezezekaago

    You are as poor as a turkey, war-ichpanezezekaago

    It was red with blood, wa-me-‡je-da-ka

    I will not go, a-bra-muj‡-‡je

    Come here, ge-ga-ha

    Little Platte river, ne-bras-ka-‡jinguh--_Little flat water_

    Konza river, Konza-ne-eta

    Bowyer creek, ne-ha-ba--_shallow water_

    Little Sioux creek, wa-ta

    Run, to-na

    Leap, we-sa

    Fight, ke-ke-na

    Eat, wa-brat-ta

    Drink, brat-tong

    Steal, mo-no

    Talk, e-a, very like _stone_

    Strength, wash-ca-tun-ga

    Weakness, wa-ha-ha

    Poor, wah-pa-ne

    Near, ash-ka

    Good, o-dong

    Bad, o-dong-buj‡-‡je, or o-dan-‡je, or pe-a-‡ja

    Mockeson, *han-pa

    Gunpowder, mah-†ho-da

    Ball, mah-za-muh

    Looking-glass, ne-o-ke-garras-se

    Long, sna-da

    Short, cha-shkah

    Broad, bras-ka

    Thick, sho-guh

    {lxxxii} Thin, bra-ka

    Thirteen, a-gar-e-ra-be-ne

    Twenty, kra-ba-ra-nom-ba

    Twenty-one, krabaranomba-ke-de-me-ach-che

    Thirty, krabara-be-ne

    Thirty-one, krabarabene-ke-de-me-ach-che

    One hundred, krabara-he-me

    One hundred and one, krabarahe-me-ke-de-me-ach-che

    One thousand, krabaraheme-ton-ga

    One thousand and one, krabara-he-metonga-kedemeachche

    Nine thousand, krabarahemeton-ga-shon-ka


O-maw-haw Names of Persons


MEN

    Yellow Belly, ta-ze-ze

    Little God, wah-conda-‡jin-ga

    God, wah-conda

    He that carries his feet, se-ge-e

    He that has four feet, se-to-ba

    Four hands, nom-ba-to-ba

    Two legs, ‡ja-ga-nom-ba

    Four nails, sha-ga-to-ba

    Big hand, nomba-tun-ga

    Big eyes, ish-ta-tun-ga

    He who deliberates, wa-ru-ger-rong

    Buffaloe rib, ta-re-ta

    Buffaloe tail, ta-sin-da

    Buffaloe head, ta-pa

    Buffaloe bull, ta-nu-ga

    Buffaloe calf, ta-‡jin-ga

    Little white bear, mut-chu-‡jinga

    Black white bear, mut-chu-sa-ba

    Black bird, wa-‡jinga-sa-ba

    He that walks on the edge, o-hon-ga-mon-e

    He that makes signs as he walks, wa-bom-en-e

    He that walks behind, a-ga-ha-mo-ne

    He that hunts as he walks, o-na-mun-ne

    The walking cloud, mah-pe-mun-ne

    The strong walker, wash-ka-mun-ne

    He who walks when fruit is ripe, se-da-mun-ne

    He who cries as he walks, ha-ga-mun-ne

    He who walks beyond others, ko-she-ha-mun-ne

    He who arrived in haste, wash-con-he

    He who is not afraid of tracks, se-gra-na-pa-ba

    The white horse, shon-ga-ska

    Seven, pa-num-ba

    Ace of spades, o-ka-de-ga-rong

    Little cook, o-hon-‡jin-ga

    Head wind or North wind, ke-ma-ha

    Big skunk, mon-ga-tun-ga

    Prairie wolf, mon-e-kus-se

    Swan, me-hus-ca-tun-ga

    He who walks double, nom-ba-mon-ne

    Black breast, mon-ga-sab-ba

    No hand, nom-ba-ning-ga

    Brave, wa-shu-sha

    No knife, ma-he-ning-ga

    Two tails, sin-da-num-ba

    The top of the tent-poles which are tied together, te-she-mo-ha

    Big bullet, ma-ze-mat-tunga

    Medicine mouth, e-wa-ho-ba

    He who carries real medicines, mac-ca-n-e

    Wet mockeson, hom-pa-no-ca

    Big leggings, o-tant-tun-ga

    Smoke maker, shu-da-goch-ha

    Two faces, in-da-nom-ba

    The twins, nom-ba-dant

    Yellow knife, ma-he-ze


SQUAWS' NAMES

    The first moon, me-ta-e

    Na-sa-za

    {lxxxiii} Village, towoin

    Me-hun-guh

    First thunder, ti-en-e

    Female sun, me-teh-ha

    Female moon, me-um-bun-ne

    Female axe, mas-up-pa-me

    Female deer that looks, wa-tum-bun-ne

    The first thunder that falls, ta-ingga-ra


O-maw-haw Interjections and Exclamations

    Zt!--This is used by the men when contemplating a fine trinket,
    looking-glass, &c.; they sometimes say zt-o-dah!

    Sheh-zt-zt-zt! or wah-zt-zt-zt! or oah-zt-zt-zt! is used by the
    men for driving dogs out of mischief.

    Eh-zt-zt-zt-zt! by the women on the same occasion.

    Heh! an inspiration--used by the women when a sudden but
    trifling accident occurs--as it is also used by the white
    females.

    Ke-a!--the first syllable nasal--by the women for calling their
    dogs.

    Wo-oh! by the men for calling their dogs or horses. It is a
    sound very similar to that used by the whites to halt horses.

    Wah-man-gar-ing-ga! Be off, or go away--spoken in anger--this
    would be the last word, an attack would succeed if disregarded.

    O-hoh! (drawn out very long) used to one who has been troubling
    them a long time--it would precede the preceding exclamation in
    the gradation of displeasure.

    Ge-ga-ha! wah-ge-ga-ra! o-hoh-ge-gar-a!--the successive
    expressions of impatience in calling a person to come.

    Hi-o! The answer of a squaw to one who calls.

    Ha! The answer of a man to one who calls.

    Da-dansh-ta-a! An exclamation similar in signification to _O,
    alas, me!_


{lxxxiv} Sioux, (Yancton band,) Language

    American, me-na-has-hah--_Long knife_

    British, sa-kin-da-sha. This appears to be an adopted word.

    Physician, wa-pe-a-we-a-cha-sha

    Village, o-tong-y-a

    Eagle, ho-yah

    Green, to-we-toy-ya, or "the blue to dye with"--they have no
    other word for this colour.

    Warm, mach-ta

    Pawnees, pa-dan-o-ta

    Sioux, da-co-ta

    Run, e-ong-ka

    Leap, e-ep-se-sha

    Fight, ke-che-za

    Eat, wo-tah

    Drink, ya-ta-kong

    Talk, e-ah

    Good, wash-ta

    Gunpowder, cha-hun-da

    Thirteen, a-ka-ya-me-ne

    Nineteen, a-ka-nuh-pet-che-wung

    Twenty, wek-chem-in-eh-nom-pa

    Twenty-one, wekcheminehnompah-a-ka-ong-ge

    Thirty, wekcheminuh-ya-me-ne

    Thirty-one, wekcheminuhyamene-a-ka-ong-‡jin

    One hundred, o-pang-ha

    One hundred and one, opangha-aka-ong-‡jin

    One thousand, kok-o-tong-o-pang-ha

    One thousand and one, kokotongopangha-a-ka-ong-‡jin

    Ten thousand, kokotongopanghawekcheminuh

The upper bands of the Sioux in their pronunciation substitute the
letter _l_ for the _d_.


Min-ne-ta-re, or Gros ventre Language

    American, man-ce-ech-te-et--_big knife_

    British, bo-she-it-to-†chre-shu-pe-sha--_the men who bring
    black cloth_

    French, bo-she

    Spaniard, was-she-o-man-ti-qua

    Crow Indians, par-is-ca-oh-panga--_the crow people_

    Crow Indians, another band, ehha-tza--_the people of leaves_

    Snake Indians, ma-buc-sho-roch-pan-ga

    Flat-headed Indians, a-too-ha-pe

    Pierced-nose Indians, a-pa-o-pa

    Black foot Indians, it-ze-su-pe-sha

    Gros ventre of the Fort prairie, a band of Black feet,
    a-re-tear-opan-ga

    Assinniboin Indians, e-tans-kepa-se-ta-qua

    Shienne Indians, a-was-she-tanqua, or it-anse-po-‡je

    Sauteur Indians, ha-hat-tong

    Mandan Indians, a-rach-bo-cu

    Rickaree Indians, a-rick-a-ra-one

    Sioux Indians, it-ans-ke

    Pawnee Loups Indians, sa-‡jer-opan-ga

    Les Noire Indians, at-te-shu-pesha-loh-pan-ga

    The Red Shield Chief, one of the principal chiefs,
    e-tam-ina-gehiss-sha

    The Borgne or One Eye, grand chief, a remarkable man, he was
    killed by the Red Shield, a few years since, ka-ko-a-kis

    {lxxxv} Missouri river, amanti-a-‡je--_the river that carries
    canoes_

    Little Missouri river, a-manti-ca-‡ja--_the river that carries
    little canoes_

    Yellow Stone River, mit-ze-re-a-‡je--_the river of yellow rocks_

    Physician, mat-za-ma-ho-pa

    Village, a-ma-teh

    Prairie, a-mon-su-ket

    Eagle, ich-pro-hich

    Arrow point, e-tah-e

    Tomahawk, weep-sa-lan-ga

    Green, †hau-te-ge

    Emasculation, an-ju-ca-da-‡jus

    Little wolf, bot-sas

    Blanket, wash-a-echre-o-tucke

    Mountain, avo-ca-ve

    Kill, ta-ha

    Die, tas

    Scalp, a-ram-pa-tsak-ke

    He or she, ne

    Bison cow, me-te-ya

    A thick forest of small trees, be-ra-she-e-pe

    Run, te-re-a

    Leap, te-chre

    Fight, re-ke

    Eat, ma-rou-ta

    Drink, be-de-he

    Steal, ma-a-shan-re

    Talk, de-da

    Mockasin, o-pah

    Gunpowder, mer-e-ze-ba

    Nineteen, a-pe-no-was-sap-pa

    Twenty, no-o-pah-pe-ra-gas

    Thirty, na-me-a-pe-ra-gas

    Forty, to-pah-a-pe-ra-gas

    One hundred, pe-ra-gas-ich-te-et

    One thousand, pe-re-gas-ich-te-et-a-cah-co-re


Paw-ne Language

    Grand Pawnees, tcha-we

    Loups or Pawneeomawhaws, ske-re

    Pawnee Republicans, ze-ka-ka or ket-ka-kesh

    Tappage band, pe-tou-we-ra

    Not, buj‡-‡je

    Tool Robe, (the republican grand chief), sha-re-a-deeksh-taw-we

    Thirteen, tou-wet-lok-she-re

    Fourteen, lah-ko-ke-ta

    Fifteen, she-oksh-ta-ro-ke-ta

    Sixteen, shrou-we-o

    Seventeen, tou-wet-ka-ke, (twenty less three)

    Eighteen, pet-ko-ka-ke, (twenty less two)

    Nineteen, as-ko-ka-ke, (twenty less one)

    Twenty, pe-tou-o

    Twenty-one, petouo-as-ko

    Thirty, luk-she-re-we-tou-o

    Thirty-one, luksherewetouo-as-ko

    Forty, pet-ko-sho-o-ra-ro

    Forty-one, petkoshooraro-as-ko

    Fifty, petkoshoorarolokshere

    Sixty, tou-wet-ra-ro

    Seventy, touwetrarolokshere

    Seventy-one, touwetrarolokshere askolokshere

    Eighty, shke-tiksh-ta-ro

    Eighty-one, shketikshtaroasko

    Ninety, shketikshtarolokshere

    Ninety-one, shketikshtaroaskolokshere

    One hundred, she-koksh-ta-ro

    One thousand, petkoshoorarolokshere-tsa-e-ksh

    The name of one individual of the Pawnee Loups is "The maker of
    God."

 {lxxxvi} _The two following Vocabularies were taken down by Major Long
       during his tour on the upper Mississippi in the year 1817_

  =================+=====================+===========================
                   |  Winnebago, Puant,  | Naudowessies of Carver
                   |     or Nippegon     |      and Hennepin
  -----------------|---------------------|---------------------------
  Arm              | ar-dah              | ish-to
  Axe              | mahs                | ontz-pa
  Arrow            | mah                 | wah-hen-te-pa
  American or  }   | mah-ek-ha-te        | is-son-tah-kah
    Long knife }   |                     |
  Brother          | sunk-ha-deh         | me-son-kah
  Beads            | wy-a-per-ris-sipe   | we-o-ke-a-tah
  Bread            | wice-kap            | ah-ho-e-a-pe
  Beaver           | nah-a-pah           | schah-pah
  Bear             | ontsh               | wah-hank-ce-chah
  Brass or copper  | mahn-se             | mahnz-a-ze
  Chief            | ongk-pe             | wich-ash-tah-yah-top-pe--
                   |                     |  _good chief_
  Canoe or boat    | wach                | wah-ta
  Cards, playing   | pek                 | pek
  Child            | no-go-nek           | oke-che-o-pah
  Dead             | ah-no               | kthah
  Deer             | tchah               | tah-ken-shah
  Dog              | shonk               | shonk-ah
  Elk              |                     | o-pangh
  Elbow            | eye-shou-uck        | ish-pah
  Eyes             | shtas-so            | ish-tah
  Ears             | nahnt-shou-ah       | nokh-ra
  Feet             | se                  | se-hah
  Fingers          | na-ap               | no-pa-to-ka-hah
  Fox              | cha-ontz-sin-cer-et | shonk-gre-dah
  Fire             | pyche               | pa-tah
  Father           | cha-che             | ah-ta
  Face             |                     | e-ta
  Good             | a-pe-no             | wash-ta
  Garter           | o-a-kish-ke         | wash-kin-chah-ha
  Gun              | ish-ok              | mahs-ak-khan
  Ground           | mak-kah             | mah-koh-cha
  Green            | mah-nech-o          | tah-ko-te
  Grass            | khah-weh            | pa-zhe
  Hands            | nah-pur             | no-pa
  Head             | nahs-so             | Fak-e
  Heart            | nach-keh            | chan-ta
  House or lodge   | tche                | te-pe
  Horse            | shonk-hat-ta        | shonk-a-wak-kungh
  Island           | wich                | we-tah
  Iron             | mahs-ish-ah         | mahnz-ah
  {lxxxvii} Indian | wank-shich          | ik-e-cha-wich-ash-ta
  Knife            | mah-he              | es-sanh
  Lead             | ish-o-co-mah        | mahnz-as-so
  Legs             | o-rah               | ho
  Louse            | ha-dah              | hah-yur
  Maize            | wa-cho-as           | wah-me-nah-zah
  Man              | wank-she-grah       | wich-ash-tah
  Mother           | nah-ne              | e-nah
  Musket           | shou-uck            | sin-te-pah
  Meat             | tchack              | tun-do
  Meal             | wois-top            | ah-ho-e-ap-pe
  Mockasin         | wa-co-cheh          | ham-pah
  Moon             | hah-heh-we          | we?
  Mouth            | e                   | e?
  Mosquetto        | nah-wonk            | chah-pon-gah
  No, or nothing   | chonch-que-ne-no    | he-yah
  Nose             | pah                 | pagh-ra
  Oar, or paddle   | nash-uck            | wa-me-nah-he-chah
  Old              | ah-chin-shun        | wich-a-hin-chah, _old man_
  Otter            | to-shen-uk          | ptungh
  Owl              | wahk-cheh-he        | e-angh-kah-hah
  Powder           | ok-hun-ne           | chah-hun-de
  Pond or lake     | tah-hat-ta          | min-da, or tong-gah
  Porcupine        | wah-hane            |
  Pipe             | tah-ne-ho           | chan-do-o-pah
  Road             | nak-koh             | chang-ko
  River            | ne-shan-nuk         | wah-te-pah
  Red              | was-seh             | shah
  Sister           | nok-ach-ap-pe-tah   | tunk-she
  Silver           | sho-de-ah           | manz-as-kah
  Squaw            | he-no-ko-tah        | win-o-khe-jah
  Sun              | we-dah              | we?
  Star             | kah-dach-o          | wich-anck-pe
  Thunder          | wah-kon-jah         | wak-ke-ah
  Tree             | nah-nah             | chah
  Town or village  | mah-ket-te-che-nuk  | ah-tong-wa
  Tobacco          | tah-ne-nah          | chan-de
  Teeth            | he                  | e?
  Universe         | han-najh-pe         | ah-was-se
  Wax              | i-sic-we-ke-ne-chah | tok-mah-hah-ses-sen-de
  White            | skah                | skah
  Water            | ne-nah, or neh      | men-neh
  You              | ne-eh               | ne-ya
  {lxxxviii} Yes   | on-chah             | hah
  One              | jhing-ke-de         | wan-chah
  Two              | nope                | nom-pah
  Three            | tah-ne              | yah-men-ne
  Four             | chope               | toh-o-pah
  Five             | sach                | sah-pe-tah
  Six              | kuh-we              | shahk-pe
  Seven            | sha-ko              | shahk-o-win
  Eight            | no-wunk             | shah-hun-da-hah
  Nine             | jhink-ich-os-co-ne  | nop-cheh-wunk-kah
  Ten              | kher-a-pun          | we-ke-cha-me-nah
  Eleven           | jhink-he-ra-sho-ne  | ak-ka-wun-ghe
  Twelve           | nope-ash-o-ne       | ak-ka-nume



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were
    silently corrected.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.





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