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Title: Views of St. Paul's Cathedral, London
Author: Sparrow-Simpson, W. J.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Views of St. Paul's Cathedral, London" ***

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  VIEWS OF
  ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL
  London

  WITH NOTES BY
  THE REV. SPARROW SIMPSON, D.D.
  PHOTOGRAPHED & PUBLISHED
  BY FREEMAN DOVASTON
  EALING, LONDON
  W.



THE WESTERN FAÇADE.


The first stone of S. Paul's Cathedral was laid by Sir Christopher Wren
and his Master-mason on June 21, 1675; the last stone of the lantern
above the Dome was laid in 1710, by Mr. Christopher Wren (who was born
a year before the laying of the first stone), in the presence of Sir
Christopher (his father), Mr. Strong (the Master-builder), and other
Free and Accepted Masons.

The dimensions of the Cathedral, as given in the Rev. Lewis
Gilbertson's excellent Official Guide, are as follows:--

The exterior length, exclusive of the projection of the steps, 515
feet; the interior, 479 feet; the width across the Transepts, from door
to door, 250 feet; width across Nave and Aisles, 102 feet; and between
the stone piers, 41 feet; the Western front, 180 feet; the diameter of
the octagonal area at the crossing of Nave and Transept, 107 feet; the
diameter of the drum beneath the Dome, 112 feet; of the Dome itself,
102 feet. The height of the Central Aisle, 89 feet. The total height
from the pavement of the Churchyard to the top of the Cross, 365 feet;
the height of the Western Towers, 221 feet. The entire cost seems to
have been about a million pounds.

The exquisite Dome has been justly called "the very crown of England's
architectural glory." As Mr. Fergusson has said, "its dimensions,
the beauty of its details, the happy outline of the campaniles, the
proportion of these to the façade, and of all the parts one to another,
make up the most pleasing design of its class that has yet been
executed." Strype says, "This Cathedral is undoubtedly one of the most
magnificent modern buildings in Europe."

[Illustration: THE WESTERN FAÇADE.]



S. PAUL'S FROM THE SOUTH WEST.


This fine view was taken from the top of the buildings of the Post
Office Savings Bank in Queen Victoria Street: taken, fortunately,
before the erection of the large block of warehouses at the south west
of the Churchyard. Since these buildings have been completed the lower
part of the Cathedral can no longer be seen from the position just
indicated. The exquisite proportions of the Dome are here displayed to
the fullest advantage.

[Illustration: S. PAUL'S FROM THE SOUTH WEST.]



S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, WEST FRONT, N.W. ANGLE.


Here is seen a part of the Western Façade, with the noble flight
of steps, the North Portico, and the North Eastern portion of the
Churchyard. The columns with their capitals and the carving over the
window in the lower part of the North Tower, are well displayed. In
ancient times the Palace of the Bishops of London adjoined this tower.

[Illustration: S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, WEST FRONT, N.W. ANGLE.]



THE SOUTH TRANSEPT.


The beauty of the South West Campanile is well displayed in the present
view. To the east of the small entrance door, which gives access to
the geometrical staircase, is the Chapel of the Order of St. Michael
and St. George, at one time used as the Consistory Court, in which
ecclesiastical cases relating to the diocese were heard. Above the
Chapel are seen the three windows of the Library.

The Transept itself with its graceful pillars, its lofty pediment
surmounted by colossal figures of the Apostles, is a very pleasing
composition. Perhaps this particular campanile is seen to the best
advantage as it is approached from Cannon Street on a summer's evening.
The effect of the light of the westering sun is singularly charming.

It should have been mentioned in the previous note, had space
permitted, that the Choir was opened for Divine Service on December
2, 1697, on the Thanksgiving Day for the Peace after the Treaty of
Ryswick; the Morning Prayer Chapel being opened a little later.

[Illustration: THE SOUTH TRANSEPT.]



THE WESTERN END OF THE NAVE.


This portion of the Cathedral is of especial dignity. The great height
of the entrance arch, the massive doors, the noble space, the fine view
north and south of the lateral Chapels, with their carved oak screens,
the broad span of the side arches, the height of the vaulting and its
careful decoration, combine to make this entrance of the Cathedral very
imposing. If the visitor enters by the great western doors, he cannot
fail to be impressed by the grand view which presents itself, the
fine Nave, the broad Transepts, the lofty Reredos, more than 400 feet
distant; and, as he paces eastward, at every step some fresh beauty
reveals itself. Most impressive of all it is to see, on the occasion of
some great festival, the vast spaces of Choir, Transepts, Dome area,
and Nave crowded with worshippers, every seat occupied, and hundreds
of people filling such standing room as remains. In one of the Annual
Musical Services a short pause is made for silent prayer, and the
stillness of the great multitude, after the strains of Bach's immortal
_Passion Music_, is wonderfully solemn.

[Illustration: THE WESTERN END OF THE NAVE.]



THE NORTH-WEST CHAPEL.


At the western end of the North Aisle of the Nave is a spacious Chapel,
used every day for the celebration of the Holy Communion at eight
o'clock in the morning, for a short service at mid-day (at 1.15), and
for an evening service at eight o'clock. The oak panelling is that
originally introduced by Sir Christopher Wren; the mosaic at the west
end commemorates Archdeacon Hale, who died in 1870; the large window
on the north is a memorial to Dean Mansel, Dean of the Cathedral from
1868 to 1871; the beautiful mosaic in the eastern apse is a more recent
addition.

The Chapel was at first called the Morning Prayer Chapel, and was
opened for use on February 1st, 1699, though the Cathedral itself was
still far from completion. Here, for many years, Morning Prayers were
said at an early hour: in 1699, at 6 o'clock in summer, and 7 o'clock
in winter; at the present time prayers are said at 8 o'clock in the
Crypt Chapel.

[Illustration: THE NORTH-WEST CHAPEL.]



THE TOMB OF GENERAL GORDON


Has almost become a place of pilgrimage. His heroic character, his
tragic end, have deeply touched the hearts of his countrymen, and,
indeed, of countless strangers also. The Tomb is a finely conceived
work of Sir Edgar Boehm.

On the left is the Wellington Monument; on the right are seen the
colours of the 57th and 77th Regiments borne by them in the Crimea.

[Illustration: THE TOMB OF GENERAL GORDON.]



THE WELLINGTON MONUMENT


Is thus described by the Rev. Lewis Gilbertson in his _Authorized
Guide to S. Paul's Cathedral_: "This is the most important work of
Alfred Stevens; by far the finest monument in S. Paul's, and by many
considered to be the best work of its kind done in England in the last
three hundred years. It was originally designed to fill the eastern
arch of the Nave on the north side, and was intended to be surmounted
by an equestrian statue of the Duke; but the horse was vetoed, and the
monument erected in the old Consistory Court. It has now been removed
to the middle arch on the north side of the Nave, where possibly it may
eventually be finished according to the artist's design. The bronze
groups at the base of the pediment are especially fine. The subjects
are: Virtue keeping Vice beneath its feet, and Truth pulling out the
tongue of Falsehood."

The actual tomb of the great Duke is in the Crypt of the Cathedral,
a massive sarcophagus wrought from a boulder of porphyry found in
Cornwall, resting upon a granite base. The simple grandeur of the
monument is admirably in keeping with the character of the man whom
it commemorates. The mortal remains of England's greatest General lie
close to those of England's greatest Admiral.

[Illustration: THE WELLINGTON MONUMENT.]



ACROSS THE DOME TO THE NORTH TRANSEPT.


Immediately facing the spectator is a screen which formerly supported
the Organ, bearing a copy of the famous inscription to Wren, which is
also found above his tomb. To the right and left are dimly seen the
statues of Dr. Johnson and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The broad area of the
Dome, seen to the best advantage when crowded with worshippers (as it
is three times every Sunday, and on many other occasions also) is very
impressive.

[Illustration: ACROSS THE DOME TO THE NORTH TRANSEPT.]



INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL FROM THE WEST.


This view exhibits the entire length of the choir, including the lofty
Reredos. On the right and left are seen the Choir Stalls, Grinling
Gibbons' famous work, and the two fine Organ cases. The fine Organ,
originally the work of Father Smith, is a masterpiece of Mr. Willis,
whose consummate skill, aided no doubt by the magnificent building in
which the instrument stands, has found no higher expression than in
this finished work. The Choir Aisles are entered through iron gates,
of great delicacy and beauty, the work of M. Tijou. The marble Pulpit,
from the design of Mr. F. C. Penrose, is a memorial to Captain Robert
Fitzgerald.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL FROM THE WEST.]



THE MONUMENT TO LORD NELSON.


"The funeral of Nelson was a signal day in the annals of S. Paul's. The
Cathedral opened wide her doors to receive the remains of the great
Admiral, followed, it might almost be said, by the whole nation as
mourners. The death of Nelson in the hour of victory, of Nelson whose
victories at Aboukir and Copenhagen had raised his name above any other
in our naval history, had stirred the English heart to its depths,
its depths of pride and sorrow. The manifest result of that splendid
victory at Trafalgar was the annihilation of the fleets of France and
Spain, and, it might seem, the absolute conquest of the ocean, held
for many years as a subject province of Great Britain. The procession,
first by water, then by land, was of course magnificent, at least as
far as prodigal cost could command magnificence. The body was preceded
to S. Paul's by all that was noble and distinguished in the land, more
immediately by all the Princes of the blood and the Prince of Wales."

This account is taken from Dean Milman's _Annals of S. Paul's_. The
Dean, then a youth, was present at the funeral, and could remember the
solemn effect of the sinking of the coffin to its resting place, and
the low wail of the sailors who bore and encircled the remains of their
admiral.

The monument, by Flaxman, originally stood at the entrance to the
Choir. When the Choir was extended westward in 1870, it was removed to
its present much more favourable position in the South Transept.

[Illustration: THE MONUMENT TO LORD NELSON.]



THE NAVE SEEN FROM THE WESTERN END OF THE CHOIR.


In this view the two portions of the organ are seen. These grand cases
formed the eastern and western fronts of the instrument when it stood
over the Choir Screen; they exhibit some of Grinling Gibbons' finest
work. The projecting portion on the north side formerly contained the
Choir Organ; the corresponding projection on the south is a copy of the
original work.

Looking westward the Great Entrance Doors are seen, and above them a
large window of Munich glass, a memorial to Mr. Thomas Brown, a member
of the great publishing firm of Messrs. Longman. The main subjects of
the window are the conversion of S. Paul on the Damascus Road, and the
restoration of sight to the Apostle by Ananias; right and left of the
lower subject are kneeling figures of the donor and his wife.

Two of the Mosaics in the pendentives of the Dome are faintly
indicated. The eight pendentives exhibit the four greater Prophets,
Isaiah, Ezekiel, Jeremiah, Daniel; and the four Evangelists. The work
was executed by Dr. Salviati of Venice. Above the Whispering Gallery,
beyond the range of the picture, are carved stone figures of the four
great Doctors of the Western and of the Eastern Church; for the Western
Church, SS. Augustine, Jerome, Gregory the Great, Ambrose; for the
Eastern, SS. Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Athanasius.

[Illustration: THE NAVE SEEN FROM THE WESTERN END OF THE CHOIR.]



THE CHOIR, LOOKING EAST.


The most prominent object in this view is the stately Reredos, the work
of Messrs. Bodley & Garner. The following description of it was read by
Mr. Garner before the S. Paul's Ecclesiological Society.

"The design consists of a basement, against which the altar stands,
with small doorways to give access to the apse behind. Over these
doors which are of pierced brass, are angels supporting the crossed
swords and keys, the arms of the diocese, and emblems of S. Paul and
S. Peter, and they are flanked by sculptured festoons of fruit and
flowers separated by marble panels. Above this is a range of sculptured
panels, with coloured marble backgrounds supporting an open colonnade
of semi-circular plan. A large group of sculpture, a sort of carved
picture in bold relief, occupies the centre, flanked on each side by
twisted columns of rich Brescia marble, wreathed with foliage in gilded
bronze. These support an entablature and rich pediment. The frieze is
of Rosso Antico, bearing the inscription _Sic Deus dilexit mundum_, 'So
God loved the World,' in bronze letters. The whole is crowned with a
central niche and surrounding statues, at a height of between sixty and
seventy feet from the ground.

"The general idea of the sculptured subjects is to express the
Incarnation and Life of our Lord, beginning with the two figures at
the extremities of the colonnade, which are those of the Angel Gabriel
and S. Mary, and represent the Annunciation. The panel on the north
side is the Nativity, the large subject in the centre the Crucifixion,
with the Entombment beneath it; and the group on the south side the
Resurrection. The panels of the pedestals are filled with Angels
bearing instruments of the Passion. The niche above the pediment is
occupied by the figure of S. Mary with the Divine Child in her arms;
the statues of S. Paul and S. Peter on either hand. The figure on the
summit of the niche is an ideal one of the Risen Saviour.

"The entire Altar Screen is executed in white Parian marble, with bands
and panels of Rosso Antico, Verdi di Prato, and Brescia marble. The
enrichments are generally gilt, the steps in front of the Altar are of
white marble, and the pavement of Rosso Antico, Brescia, and Verdi di
Prato." See Rev. L. Gilbertson's _Guide_.

[Illustration: THE CHOIR, LOOKING EAST.]



THE BISHOP'S THRONE.


Is placed on the south side of the Choir at the extreme east, and
is occupied by the Bishop of London on great occasions. On ordinary
days he sits in the central stall on the same side of the Choir. The
Throne, like the stalls, is the work of Grinling Gibbons. Thirty of
the stalls are set apart for the Prebendaries of the Cathedral, and on
each is the name of the Prebend from which the income of each occupant
was anciently derived, together with the opening words of the Psalm
commencing the portion of the Psalter which each Prebendary was bound
to recite daily; the Psalms being divided into thirty parts, and the
whole Psalter being thus said every day.

To the left, or east, of the Throne, is seen the extremely beautiful
Grille or Screen of wrought iron enriched by gilded bronze. The greater
part of the ironwork once formed the gates at the western entrance of
the Choir.

In the foreground appears a grand bronze Candelabrum, an exact copy
of that in the Cathedral of S. Bavon, Ghent. There are four of these
Candelabra at Ghent, which are said to have been removed from S. Paul's
Cathedral. Copies of two of these now adorn the Sanctuary; one only is
seen in the illustration.

[Illustration: THE BISHOP'S THRONE.]



THE NORTH AISLE OF THE CHOIR, LOOKING WEST.


Over the back of the Choir Stalls, which are seen on the left of the
picture, rise a few of the pedal pipes of the Organ, the largest of
which is thirty-two feet in length. Through the openwork of Tijou's
beautiful iron gates, the view extends across the Dome to the extreme
west of the Cathedral. At the end of the North Aisle of the Nave a
glimpse is obtained of a window (presented by Mr. H. F. Vernon in 1861)
containing a full length figure of S. Paul.

[Illustration: THE NORTH AISLE OF THE CHOIR, LOOKING WEST.]



THE CRYPT CHAPEL.


In this Chapel Matins are said at eight o'clock in the morning on all
week days throughout the year. In the foreground is the burial place of
Dean Milman, marked by a slab with a cross wrought upon its surface. To
the west of this, not shown, however, in the view, is the grave of Dr.
Liddon. In the Aisles to the right and left are seen a few fragments of
monuments from the old Cathedral, scanty relics, spared by the great
fire of 1666 and by the ruthless hand of the destroyer.

[Illustration: THE CRYPT CHAPEL.]



THE CRYPT: NELSON'S TOMB.


The present view represents one of the most picturesque scenes in
the Crypt. Here, surrounded by an arcade, in the very heart of the
Cathedral, immediately beneath the centre of the Dome, stands the tomb
of England's greatest naval hero.

The Sarcophagus itself has a strange history. It is usually said to
have been designed by Torregiano as a portion of the memorial of
Wolsey. "It lay for centuries neglected in Wolsey's Chapel at Windsor.
Just at the time of Nelson's death, George III. was preparing to
make that chapel a cemetery for his family. It was suggested as fit
to encase the coffin of Nelson. It is a fine work marred in its bold
simplicity by a tawdry coronet, but the master Italian hand is at once
recognised by the instructed eye." So Dean Milman writes.

Recent researches have shown that the Sarcophagus, which is of white
and black marble, is the work of Benedetto da Rovezzano, by whom it was
commenced in 1524 as part of a stately monument intended by Cardinal
Wolsey as a magnificent memorial of himself. It appears that Henry
VIII. took possession of the materials prepared for Wolsey's monument,
and that Benedetto was commissioned to transform it into a memorial for
the king. The sculptor spent upon it eleven years of labour, but the
costly work was never completed. The body of Nelson rests, not in the
Sarcophagus, but beneath it.

[Illustration: THE CRYPT: NELSON'S TOMB.]



THE CRYPT: WITH THE TOMB OF SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN.


Near the eastern end of the South Aisle of the Crypt, under a very
simple tomb, lie the mortal remains of the great Architect of the
Cathedral. On a black marble slab, part of which is seen in the
picture, are the following words:--_Here lieth Sir Christopher
Wren, Kt., the builder of this Cathedral Church of S. Paul, &c.,
who dyed in the year of our Lord MDCCXXIII, and of his age XCI_. A
singularly modest epitaph for so great a man, and that, too, at a
period when fulsome phrases abounded. A little westward of the tomb,
on a tablet affixed to the wall, are the memorable words, admirable
in their brevity and point:--_Lector, si monumentum requiris,
circumspice_. The tomb itself, including the black marble slab, is
only sixteen-and-a-half inches in height. Closely adjoining the tomb,
on its northern side, are buried two eminent presidents of the Royal
Academy, Sir Frederick Leighton and Sir John Millais; at the extreme
distance are seen, on the left side the bust of Sir John Alexander
Macdonald, late Premier of the Dominion of Canada; and on the right
side, that of Sir Henry Smith Park, Minister Plenipotentiary in
Japan and China. Nearer to the spectator, on the right, is the
memorial to Archdeacon Claughton, Bishop of Colombo, whilst on the
left, is dimly seen a monumental brass, commemorating the Special
Correspondents who fell in the Campaign in the Soudan; opposite to
which, on the right, is the bust of the painter, James Barry.

[Illustration: THE CRYPT: WITH THE TOMB OF SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN.]



THE LIBRARY.


This noble room, situated at the west end of the Cathedral, immediately
above the Chapel of the Order of S. Michael and S. George, contains an
interesting and important collection of books; comprising a number of
early English Bibles, a few ritual books, a large and valuable series
of Sermons preached at Paul's Cross or in the Cathedral; a few plays
acted by the "Children of Paul's," some royal and other important
autographs, and over ten thousand printed books, besides as many
separate pamphlets.

In the view is seen a model of part of the Western Front of
the Cathedral, once in the possession of Richard Jennings, the
Master-builder of S. Paul's. In the case on which it stands is the
superb large paper copy of Walton's Polyglot Bible (large paper copies
are of great rarity); an exceedingly fine copy of the Prayer Book
of 1662, and of the Bible of 1640, both of which belonged to Bishop
Compton, the founder of the Library, whose portrait hangs upon its
eastern wall. Just to the right of this case, is a cast of an important
Danish Monumental Stone, found in 1852, in S. Paul's Churchyard: it
bears a Runic inscription.

In the glass case in the middle of the room are exposed to view a
considerable number of interesting objects: copies of episcopal seals,
a facsimile of the tonsure plate once used at S. Paul's, a chain with
which a book was fastened to the Library shelves; some medals connected
with the history of the Cathedral; and some curious books. The finely
carved brackets which support the gallery, long ascribed to Grinling
Gibbons, have been ascertained to be the work of Jonathan Maine,
carver, in 1708.

[Illustration: THE LIBRARY.]



_Of the same Series, and Uniform with this Book:_

  ST. BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT, SMITHFIELD.
  WESTMINSTER ABBEY.
  SOUTHWARK CATHEDRAL.
  CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (THE BLUE COAT SCHOOL, since demolished).
  LONDON. FAMOUS BUILDINGS AND STREET VIEWS.

  _Price 6d. each, post free 7d., from the Publisher,_
  FREEMAN DOVASTON, EALING, LONDON, W.



Transcriber's note:

Minor typographical errors in the original have been silently corrected.





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