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Title: The Lake-Dwellings of Europe - Being the Rhind Lectures in Archæology for 1888
Author: Munroe, Robert
Language: English
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                THE LAKE-DWELLINGS OF EUROPE.



                The LAKE-DWELLINGS of EUROPE:

       BEING THE _RHIND LECTURES IN ARCHÆOLOGY for 1888_.

                 BY ROBERT MUNRO, M.A., M.D.,

  SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND; AUTHOR OF
          "ANCIENT SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS OR CRANNOGS."

                   CASSELL & COMPANY, LIMITED:

                _LONDON, PARIS & MELBOURNE_. 1890.

                    [ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]


Transcriber's Notes:
 Underscores "_before_" and after a word or phrase
   indicate _italics_ in the original text.
 Equal signs "=" before and after a word or phrase
   indicate =bold= in the original text.
 The carat sign (^) is used to indicate that the following
   character is superscripted.
 Small capitals have been converted to SOLID capitals.
 Obvious spelling mistakes have been corrected.
 Old or antiquated spellings have been preserved.



PREFACE.


The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in offering me the Rhind
lectureship in Archæology for the year 1888, left me no choice of a
subject, as they had already suggested that the course should be on
the "Lake-dwellings of Europe." Their communication embodying this
proposal came upon me with complete surprise, and, indeed, it was with
considerable misgiving that I pondered over the undertaking, because
at that time I had no special knowledge of lake-dwellings beyond
Scotland. But the kind encouragement of friends and the fact that I
had two years to collect the necessary materials, ultimately overcame
my scruples; and so with the acceptance of this appointment the work
now offered to the public may be said to have been begun. My first
and almost immediate step was a hasty run to the principal centres of
lake-dwelling researches in Europe, so as to get a preliminary idea
of the best and most practical way of carrying out this work. It was
only then that the magnitude of the labours I had undertaken dawned
upon me. The relics from the more important settlements, with few
exceptions, were so widely scattered that, to form an intelligible
notion of the civilisation and culture of their inhabitants from a
study of their industrial remains, scores of museums and private
collections had to be visited. Nor was the condition of the literature
and records of the various discoveries more favourable to my purpose.
The successive investigations by different parties in the more
prolific stations were constantly altering the previous records and,
in some instances, even falsified the earlier deductions founded on
them. Again, descriptive notices were directed more to illustrate
the particular and rarer finds of the investigator than to convey to
general readers a fair estimate of the _tout-ensemble_ of any special
station. Keller's earlier reports were really exhaustive monographs,
but by-and-by the subject became so extensive that to carry out the
work on the same scale would entail the publication of many volumes.
In 1866, when Mr. Lee translated and arranged Keller's first six
reports, his work was fairly representative of the progress then made
in lake-dwelling researches; but to keep pace with this progress
a second edition at the end of the following decade assumed the
magnitude of two large volumes.

Since then, however (1878), the results of lacustrine researches have
been greater and more important than during any previous corresponding
period. The "Correction des Eaux du Jura," together with various
harbour alterations in the lakes of Zürich, Geneva, etc., have
been the means of enormously increasing the lacustrine collections
of Switzerland. In North Italy not only have new and remarkably
interesting lacustrine stations been discovered and exhaustively
investigated, as Lagozza and Polada, but the researches in the
terremare have been such as to entirely alter the previous opinions
held in regard to them. Nor has the progress in this field of research
in many other countries in Europe been scarcely less important, in
proof of which I have only to mention the additions made to the
Scottish and Irish crannogs; the curious fascine structures brought
to light in Holderness, Yorkshire; the novel revelations extracted
from the _terp_ mounds in Holland and other low-lying districts on
the coast of the German Ocean; the greatly extended and more accurate
details of lacustrine structures in North Germany; the discovery in
Hungary of prehistoric mounds analogous to the terramara deposits of
Italy, etc. In short there is hardly any corner of the lake-dwelling
area in Europe which has not yielded new materials, throwing more or
less light on this strange phase of prehistoric life.

In these circumstances I resolved to proceed _de novo_, and to
construct my story of the lake-dwellings from whatever trustworthy
sources I could lay my hands on. In order to carry out this intention
my wife and I perambulated the whole of Central Europe with note and
sketch books in hand, visiting, as far as practicable, the sites
of lake-dwellings, and searching museums and libraries wherever we
thought their relics or records were to be found. The eastern limit
of the region thus visited may be represented by a line drawn from
Königsberg to Trieste, passing through the intermediate towns of
Krakow, Buda-Pesth, and Agram. The materials brought together from
within this area are, to a very considerable extent, absolutely new
to British archæologists. Of course, in a work which aims at putting
into the hands of general readers an epitome of the essential facts
and results of lacustrine researches since these singular remains were
discovered in Europe, I had to take cognisance of some investigations
that have already been fully recorded and illustrated. As it was
impossible to illustrate typical groups of objects from all the
lacustrine stations, I have, as a rule, in selecting the illustrations
for this work, avoided those that have already come within the
reach of English readers through the translation of Keller's works,
except when they belonged to stations that are the best or only
representatives of their kind in their respective localities--as,
for example, the Rosen Insel in the Lake of Starnberg. Acting on
this principle, I have given very few illustrations of objects from
Nidau, Moosseedorf, St. Aubin, Wauwyl; nor, for the same reason, is
a prominent place given to the earlier discoveries at Robenhausen,
Estavayer, Concise, Cortaillod, etc. In this way I have endeavoured to
combine in the work now issued as much novelty as possible, without
detracting from its general and comprehensive scope.

As our peripatetic labours drew to a close, the next point to be
considered was the method of grouping the materials under six
divisions, corresponding with the prescribed number of lectures.
This was by no means an easy task, as neither the geographical
distribution, nor the historical order of the discoveries, could be
exclusively selected as a cementing element in dealing with remains
so diversified in character and of so wide a range in space and
time. The plan which I have here adopted seems to me to combine the
greatest advantages with the fewest drawbacks. Its rationale is as
follows:--After introducing my subject by a short account of the
circumstances that led to the discovery of the _Pfahlbauten_ in
the Lake of Zürich, and glancing at the archæological importance
and surprising results of this discovery in other Swiss lakes, the
historical element is dropped, and I conduct my readers over Western
Switzerland and Savoy, summarising the discoveries in the successive
lakes as we move along. In the second lecture we again start near the
same place and continue our explorations in an easterly direction, and
having examined the Upper Rhine district we cross over to the great
Danubian basin, which we follow downwards as far as the lacustrine
trail carries us, and ultimately finish with Laibach near the source
of the Drave. The third lecture is entirely occupied with the
palafittes and terremare in the Po valley. In these wanderings we have
virtually made a circuit of the great Alpine chain of mountains, and
have seen that the habit of constructing lake-dwellings was prevalent
in the upper reaches of the four principal waterways which diverge
from its flanks, viz. the Rhine, Rhone, Danube, and Po.

The lake-dwelling area thus surveyed comprises all the remains that
can unequivocally be said to belong to the primary development of
these structures in Europe, their period of existence being almost
exclusively confined to the prehistoric ages of Stone and Bronze.
Such being the case, this might be a suitable opportunity for
offering some general remarks on the culture and civilisation of
their inhabitants; but this I defer to the final lecture, thinking
it preferable before doing so to acquaint my readers with various
details of analogous remains brought to light in other districts in
Europe. Accordingly in the fourth lecture we continue our geographical
wanderings. Again starting in Switzerland we discuss the peculiar
remains found in La Tène, almost the only exception to the ordinary
_Pfahlbauten_ of the Stone and Bronze ages encountered in our previous
tour; and thence, moving northwards by the lower Rhine district, we
pass to North Germany, where we meet with settlements apparently
belonging to all ages. The fifth lecture is exclusively devoted to
an exposition of the crannogs and lake-dwellings within the British
Isles. In these five lectures we have thus surveyed the entire area
in Europe in which the remains of ancient lake-dwellings have been
discovered in modern times.

Excepting the well-known reports of Keller and a few monographs
on particular stations or districts, the entire literature of the
subject may be said to lie buried in the Transactions of learned
societies. Having to hunt up and peruse most of these obscure and
almost inaccessible articles--the number and extent of which may
be estimated by a glance at the accompanying bibliography--it
occurred to me that, by tabulating all the works and notices of
these researches in chronological sequence, under the names of their
respective authors and with correct references to their published
sources, I might be conferring some benefit on future investigators,
while supplying myself with a simple and ready means of referring to
authorities, without the necessity of having to repeat over and over
again the voluminous titles of publications. Hence the origin of the
bibliography appended to this work, which, however imperfect, will, I
trust, considerably enhance its value. Its compilation has given me a
great deal of trouble, and the only valuable assistance I derived from
other publications of the kind was from Pigorini's "Bibliography of
Italian Archæology," which, unfortunately, comes down only to 1874.

There remains now only the pleasant duty of thanking those who
have assisted me in bringing the work, so far, to a satisfactory
conclusion. On this score my obligations are very great.

(1) In collecting the materials on the Continent my work was greatly
facilitated by introductory notes from and to eminent archæologists,
and among those who so honoured me I have especially to mention EVANS,
FRANKS, VOSS, TISCHLER, the late KARL DESCHMANN, MAJOR TRÖLTSCH,
PIGORINI, and CASTELFRANCO.

(2) To the custodians of museums and the owners of private collections
I am indebted for permission to have notes and sketches taken of
objects in their possession. The collections which have supplied me
with original illustrations are the following:--


  MUSEUMS.

  Aix-les-Bains: _Musée de la Ville_.
  Annecy: _Musée de la Ville_.
  Avenches: _Museum of Roman Antiquities_.
  Bâle: _The Museum_.
  Belfast: _Antiquarian Museum_.
  Berlin: _Märkisches Museum_.
  Königl. _Museum für Völkerkunde_.
  Berne: _Cantonal Museum. Gross Coll. Federal Hall_.
  Bienne: _Schwab Museum_.
  Boudry: _Museum_.
  Chambéry: _Musée de la Ville_.
  Como: _Museo di Como_.
  Constance: _Rosgarten Museum_.
  Dublin: _Museum of the Royal Irish Academy_.
  Edinburgh: _National Museum of Antiquities_.
  Frauenfeld: _Sammlung der Hist. Gesellschaft im Thurgau_.
  Fribourg: _Musée Cantonal_.
  Friedrichshafen: _Museum des Vereins für die Geschichte
                   des Bodensees_.
  Geneva: _Musée Archéologique_.
  Isola Virginia: _Museo Ponti_.
  Klagenfurt: _Das Historiche Museum des Rudolfinums_.
  Königsberg: _Das Prussia Museum_.
  Laibach: _Landesmuseum_.
  Lausanne: _Musée Cantonal_.
  Leeuwarden: _Museum van het Friesch Genootschap_.
  London: _British Museum_.
  Lucerne: _Historical and Art-Industrial Museum in the Rathhaus_.
  Mayence: _Sammlung des Stadt und Alterthumsvereins_.
  Milan: _Museo Civico_.
  Modena: _Museo Civico_.
  Morat: _A small Collection in the Gymnasium_.
  Munich: K. _Ethnographisches Museum_.
  Neuchâtel: _Musée Archéologique_.
  Parma: _R. Museo d'Antichità di Parma_.
  Posen: _Archæological Museum_.
  Reggio: _Museo Civico di Reggio d'Emilia_.
  Rome: _Museo Preistorico_.
  Schwerin: _Grossherzogl. Alterthümer Sammlung_.
  Sigmaringen: _Fürstl. Hohenzollern'sches Museum_.
  St. Germain (Paris): _Musée National_.
  Stuttgart: _K. Kunst-und Alterthums-Sammlung_,
             and _K. Naturalien-Sammlung_.
  Turin: _Museo Civico_.
  Ueberlingen: _Steinhaus Museum_.
  Varese: _Museo di Varese_.
  Verona: _Museo Civico_.
  Viadana: _Museo Civico_.
  Vienna: _K. K. Naturhist-Hof-Museum_ (_formerly K. K. Munzund
          Antikenkabinet_).
  Yverdon: _Musée de la Ville_. Zürich: _Sammlung der antiquarischen
           Gesellschaft_.


PRIVATE COLLECTIONS.

  Boynton, Thomas, F.S.A.Scot., Bridlington.
  Castelfranco, Professor, Milan.
  Evans, John, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., Hemel Hempstead.
  Frank, Oberförster, Schussenried, Württemberg.
  Grainger, Canon, Broughshane, Ireland.
  Restaurant Lacustre (Port), Aix-les-Bains.
  Le Mire, M. Jules. Collection of Relics from the Palafitte in the Lake
   of Clairvaux, exhibited at the International Exposition, Paris, 1889.
  Ley, Herr, Bodmann, Baden.
  Leiner, Herr, Constance, Baden.
  Lord Talbot de Malahide, Malahide Castle.
  Messikommer, Herr Jacob, Wetzikon, Switzerland.
  Much, Dr., Vienna.
  Quaglia, Sig. Giuseppe, Varese.
  Rabut, M., Chambéry. (This collection is now in the British Museum.)
  Rambotti, Dr., Desenzano, Italy.
  Regazzoni, Professor. (Collection in the _Museo di Como_.)
  Vouga, M. A. (Collection in the Boudry Museum.)
  Vouga, M. E., Marin.

(3) Messrs. Chantre, Gross, A. and E. Vouga, R. Forrer (editor of
_Antiqua_), and others, as well as a large number of the secretaries
of Archæological Societies, have most cordially granted me permission
to take extracts or copy such illustrations from their published works
as I might think necessary. The instances in which I have availed
myself of this privilege are acknowledged in the text and in the
tabulated list of illustrations.

(4) The following Societies have kindly allowed me to use electrotypes
of a number of their woodcuts, all of which are duly specified in the
list of illustrations:--

    Ayr and Galloway Archæological Association.
    Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
    Anthropological Society, London.
    Royal Archæological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Royal Irish Academy.
    Royal Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland.

(5) The bibliography was to a large extent compiled at the British
Museum Library, where I found greater facilities for such work than in
any similar institution on the Continent. In addition to ready access
to public libraries, I have to acknowledge the receipt of a number of
valuable annotations and references in special libraries attached to
museums or belonging to Societies. Among the archæologists who have
thus aided me I have specially to mention MM. PIGORINI, VOSS, and
REINACH (St. Germain). The Hon. H. A. Dillon, Secretary of the Society
of Antiquaries, supplied me with the reference to the capture of an
Irish crannog by the English, quoted at page 482.

My learned friend Joseph Anderson, LL.D., greatly assisted me in
revising the proof sheets.

For all these varied and valuable contributions to this work, as well
as for the many acts of kindness and good wishes received during our
peregrinations, I now express my warmest thanks and gratitude.

_Edinburgh, 15th May, 1890._



                       CONTENTS.

                     First Lecture.
     SETTLEMENTS IN LAKE ZÜRICH, WESTERN  SWITZERLAND,
                      AND FRANCE.                                PAGES
  Introductory--First Discovery of Lake-Dwellings at
     Ober-Meilen Early Investigators--General Scope of
     Lectures--Descriptive Notices of Settlements in the
     Lake of Zürich--Investigations in the Jura Lakes, and
     Archæological Result of the "Correction des Eaux du
     Jura"--Detailed Notices of the Stations in the Lakes of
     Bienne, Neuchâtel, Morat, Inkwyl, Burgäschi, Moosseedorf,
     Sempach, Wauwyl, Zug, Baldegg, Geneva, Luissel, Bourget,
     Annecy, Aiguebellette, and Clairvaux                        1-109

                    Second Lecture.
     SETTLEMENTS IN EASTERN SWITZERLAND, THE DANUBIAN
                 VALLEY, AND CARNIOLA.
  Character of _Pfahlbauten_ in Peat Bogs--Descriptive
     Notices of Stations in Lake Pfäffikon, Egelsee, Greifensee,
     the Peat Moors at Heimenlachen, and in the Lakes of
     Nussbaumen, Constance, Mindli, Bussen, Feder, Olzreuthe,
     Starnberg, Atter, Mond, and Fuschl--Suggestive Remains in
     Neusiedlersee--Pile Structures in Hungary--Early Researches
     in the Lakes of Carinthia and Carniola--Remarkable
     Discoveries in Laibach Moor--Notices of supposed
     Beaver-traps and similar Machines found in North Germany,
     Italy, and Ireland                                        110-185

                     Third Lecture.
       LAKE DWELLINGS AND PILE STRUCTURES IN ITALY.

  First discovered at Mercurago. (_a_) _Western
     Lake-Settlements in the Po Valley_: Notices of Stations
     in Lake Varese and the adjoining Turbaries of Biandrono,
     Cassago-Brabbia, and Pustenga--Researches in the Lakes of
     Monate and Varano; in the Turbaries of Mombello, Valcuvia,
     and Brenno; in the Lakes of Annone and Pusiano, and in the
     Turbaries of Bosisio, Capriano, Maggiolino, Mercurago,
     Borgo-Ticino, and San Martino--Remarkable Station in
     Lagozza. (_b_) _Eastern Lake-Settlements in the Po Valley_:
     Descriptive Notices of the Stations in the Lakes of Garda,
     Fimon, and Arquà-Petrarca, and in the Turbaries of Polada
     and Cascina. (_c_) _Terremare_: Discovery and Significance
     of the Terramara Deposits--Special Investigations at
     Castione--Notices of further Typical Stations at Montale,
     Casale Zaffanella, and Gorzano--General Remarks on
     Terramara Settlements--Their Distribution, Relics, and
     Organic Remains                                           186-276

                     Fourth Lecture.
     SPECIAL CHARACTER OF THE REMAINS FOUND AT LA TÈNE, AND
     IN THE LAKE OF PALADRU: LACUSTRINE AND MARINE DWELLINGS
         IN THE LOWER RHINE DISTRICT AND NORTH GERMANY.

  Descriptive Notice of Antiquities found at La Tène and in
     the Lake of Paladru--Notices of Stations in the Palatinate,
     at Deûle à Houplin, and of one of a remarkable character
     near Maëstricht--Detailed Notices of Stations in (_a_)
     _Mecklenburg_, (_b_) _Pomerania and Central Prussia_,
     (_c_) _Posen and Poland_, and (_d_) _East Prussia and
     Livland_--General Remarks on the Settlements of North
     Germany and their relation to the _Burgwälle_--Ancient
     Marine Dwellings on the Coasts of Holland and Western
     Germany--_Terpen_, _Warfen_, and _Wurthen_                277-348

                     Fifth Lecture.
     THE LAKE DWELLINGS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

  I.--IRISH CRANNOGS: First Discovery of a Crannog at
     Lagore--Subsequent Discoveries, especially during the
     workings of the Commissioners for the arterial drainage of
     Ireland--General Features of Crannogs then observed, with
     Notes of the Relics collected on them--Notices of typical
     Crannogs at Randalstown and Tonymore--Researches of Messrs.
     G. H. Kinahan and W. F. Wakeman--Crannogs in the County of
     Fermanagh--Recent Discoveries at Lisnacroghera and in Lough
     Mourne--List of Irish Crannogs, alphabetically arranged,
     with Notes and References.

  II.--SCOTTISH CRANNOGS: Historical Notice of their
     Discovery--Details of Characteristic Stations at Dowalton,
     Lochlee, Lochspouts, Buston, Airrieoulland, Barhapple,
     White Loch of Ravenstone, and Friar's Carse--Stone
     Lake-Dwellings and other Artificial Islands--List of
     Scottish Crannogs, alphabetically arranged, with Notes and
     References.

  III.--ENGLISH LAKE-DWELLINGS: The _meres_ of Norfolk and
     Suffolk, etc.--Pile Structures in London--Crannog in
     Llangorse Lake, Wales--Suggestive Remains in Berks--Recent
     Lacustrine Discoveries in Holderness.

  IV.--GENERAL REMARKS ON LAKE-DWELLINGS WITHIN THE BRITISH
     ISLES: Their Structure and Modes of Access, Gangways,
     and Canoes--Their Local Distribution and Ethnographical
     Significance--Their Range in Time--Their Relation to
     Analogous Remains in Europe                               349-494

                     Sixth Lecture.
     THE LAKE-DWELLERS OF EUROPE: THEIR CULTURE AND
                      CIVILISATION.

  Founders of the earliest Lake-Dwellings lived in the Stone
     Age, and were acquainted with agriculture, the rearing of
     cattle, and various industries--Art of Boring and Sawing
     Stones--Jade Implements and their significance among
     the Lake-Dwellers--Introduction of Metals--Transition
     Period and Copper Age(?)--Bronze Age and its
     characteristic Arts and Industries--Osteological Remains
     of the Lake-Dwellers--Iron Age--The sudden appearance
     of Implements and Weapons of Iron among the Swiss
     Lake-Dwellers indicates a new Race of People--Who were
     these new comers?--Distribution of La Tène Civilisation in
     Europe--General Conclusions                               495-554

  Bibliography of Lake-Dwelling Researches in Europe           555-583

  Index                                                        585-600



                LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


  FIG.               LAKE ZÜRICH.                                 PAGE
  =1.=--OBER-MEILEN: No. 1, Flint knife--2, Flint saw in
     its wooden handle--3 and 4, Stone axes--5, Bronze axe--6,
     Bear's tooth, perforated--7, Hammer of staghorn--8,
     13, and 17, Perforated stone axes--9, Amber bead--10,
     Bronze armlet--11 and 15, Stone axes or chisels in horn
     handles--12, Polisher of stone, with small perforation
     for string--14, Spindle-whorl of earthenware--16, Flint
     arrow-point                                                     6

     No. 5 in Museum Schwab, and the rest in Antiq.
     Museum at Zürich.

  =2.=--BAUSCHANZE, KLEINER HAFNER, AND GROSSER HAFNER:
     Nos. 1 to 7, Specimens of pottery--8, Spindle-whorl of
     earthenware--9, Bone needle--10, Horn implement--11,
     Flax-heckler of bones--12, Bone dagger--13 and 14, Mortised
     beams--15 and 16, Flint implements--17, Bear's tooth,
     perforated--18 and 28, Ornamental bracelets--19 and 27,
     Pendants--20, Involved rings--21 and 22, Agricultural
     implements of horn--23, Fish-hook of bone--24 to 26, Bronze
     pins--29, Part of a chain--30, Ornamented knife--31,
     Earthenware vase, placed on a clay support ring--32, Bronze
     implement, with handle--33 to 37, Various tools and a
     spiral. (These objects are of bronze when not otherwise
     specified)                                                     11

     Nos. 1 to 17 after Keller (B. 336, Pl. i. and ii.), the rest,
     with the exception of 21 to 23 and 31, from _Antiqua_, 1883.
     Nearly all in Zürich Museum.

  =3.=--WOLLISHOFEN: Nos. 1 and 2, Grip-ends of two
     swords--3, 4, 5, and 14, Various forms of arrow-heads--6,
     8 to 11, 19, and 23 to 26, Specimens of pins--7, Ornamented
     socketed spear-head--12 and 18, Wheel ornaments--13 and
     15, Bracelets--16, Comb--17, Copper flat celt--20, Fibula,
     with small ring on its twisted pin--21 and 27, Button
     and stud--22, Handsome vase--28, Finger-ring--29 to 31,
     Pendants--32, An ornamented wheel of tin--33, A twisted
     ring with eight small rings--34, Fish-hook--35, Axe from
     Letten. (All bronze, with the exception of No. 17)             14

     All in Zürich Museum. One or two of the pins are after
     Heierli (B. 448).

  =4.=--WOLLISHOFEN: Nos. 1 to 7, Chisels, etc.--8 and 18,
     Hammers--9 and 10, Sword-handled implements--11 to 15,
     Various forms of knives--16, 20, and 25, Hatchets--17 and
     22, Fragments of dishes--19, Ring-handle--21, Anvil. (All
     the above objects are of bronze.)--23, Leaden cake with
     bronze loop--24, Another similar object, with two loops
     (from Onens)--26, Bronze needle                                15

     All the objects are in the Zürich Museum. No. 24 after
     Heierli (B. 448).

  =5.=--WOLLISHOFEN: Nos. 1 to 4, 7, 9, 11, and 12, Specimens
     of pottery--5 and 10, Clay bobbins--6, Two views of a
     fragmentary wheel of earthenware--8, Crescent (restored) of
     burnt clay--13 to 20, Various forms of Spindle-whorls of
     earthenware                                                    17

     All in Zürich Museum. Nos. 9, 11, and 12 after Heierli
     (B. 462, Pl. ix.).

                    LAKE OF BIENNE.
  =6.=--MOERINGEN: Nos. 1 and 3, Pendants--2, 14, and 15,
     Vessels--4, 9, and 10, Fibulæ--5, Handle of rapier, 21
     inches long--6, Knife with solid handle (bronze)--7,
     Saw--8, Ornamented bracelet--11 and 16, Razors,--12 and 17,
     Socketed chisel and gouge--13, Hammer, with socket and loop    29

     All bronze, and after Desor (B. 252).

  =7.=--VINELZ: Nos. 1 to 8, Flint arrow-points--9, Flint
     scraper--10 to 12, Flint daggers, one (No. 11) in wooden
     handle, surrounded by a withe--13, Stone axe in V-shaped
     horn-fixer--14, Stone bead--15, 16, and 18, Bone pins--17,
     Copper awl in bone handle--19, Object of superficial plate
     of a boar's tusk, perforated with four holes--20 and 21,
     Horn buttons--22 to 28, 30, and 31, Various tools and
     articles of copper--29, 32, and 33, Specimens of pottery       35

     All the objects in Cantonal Museum at Berne
    (No. 29 after B. 462, Pl. xviii. 10).

                   LAKE OF NEUCHÂTEL.
  =8.=--ST. BLAISE: Nos. 1 to 18, Various implements and
     tools of copper (with exception of No. 4--bronze)--19,
     Stone wrist-bracer--20, Horn implement, polished and
     perforated--21, Horn spear-head--22 to 24, Bone pins--25
     and 26, Stone axes, one partially perforated--27, Fossil
     ammonite, perforated for suspension as an ornament--28,
     Flint dagger in wooden handle                                  41

     Nos. 8, 10 to 19, 21, 25, and 27 after _Antiqua_; No. 2
     in Neuchâtel Museum; No. 28 in E. Vouga's collection;
     the remaining Nos. after _Anzeiger_ (B. 376a).

  =9.=--AUVERNIER: Nos. 1 to 8, Hatchets of various forms--9
     to 11, Knives--12 and 18, Chisel and gouge--13, 19, and 20,
     Hammers--14, Star-like ornament--15 and 16, Sickles--17 and
     24, Pendants--21, A small anvil--22, One valve of mould
     for winged celt. (All the above are of bronze.)--23, A
     trilocular cup of earthenware--25, Bone disc, ornamented
     with concentric circles--26, Bone implement perforated in
     middle--27, Bronze spiral--28, Stone anvil in wooden casing    43

     Nos. 1 to 6 and 13 in Dr. Evans's collection; Nos. 8, 12,
     and 24 after Desor (B. 95, Figs. 36, 46, and 66); and the
     rest in the Gross Collection at Berne.

  =10.=--CORTAILLOD AND BEVAIX(16, 18 and 23 to 26): No. 1,
     Involved pendant of bronze rings--2, Large fish-hook--3,
     Torque--4, Ornamented socketed spear--5, Tip of a sword
     sheath--6, Fibula--7, Earring--10, 12, and 21, Pendants--13
     to 15 and 26, Bracelets--16 and 18, Axes--17, Wheel--19,
     Sword--20, Cup--22, Stud--23 and 24, Pins, one with an
     ornamented flat disc as a head--25, Razor. (All the above
     are of bronze.) No. 8, Horn harpoon--9, A small earthenware
     vase, with four small holes for suspension--11, Pendant,
     the composition of which is unknown                            46

     Nos. 1, 2, 8, 9, and 11 in Museum at Boudry; 3 to 6 and
     13, after Vouga (B. 414a); 10, 12, 18, and 21 in Schwab's
     Museum; 19, in Museum at Bâle; 15, 17, and 22 after Keller
     (B. 61 and 286); 14, 16, and 23 to 26 after Desor
     (B. 95 and 252); 20, after Gross (B. 392, Pl. xxii. 8).

  =11.=--CONCISE AND CORCELETTES: No 1, Bronze necklace--2,
     Bronze pin, with tin head--3, 8, 10, and 11, Bronze
     pins--4 and 5, Tin wheels--6, A hollow bronze ring--7,
     Wooden comb--9, 12, and 13, Bronze pendants--14, Bracelet
     of lignite--15, Spectacle ornament of bronze--16, Bronze
     rod, with terminal rings--17, horn pendant--18, Amber
     bead, attached to a portion of bronze wire--19, Bronze
     knife in horn handle--20, Bronze tube--21 and 22, Vessels
     of pottery--23, Centre portion of a bronze horse-bit--24,
     Handle and tip of bronze sword                                 56

     Nos. 1, 6, and 12 after Vouga (B. 414d); 16 and 21 to 23 in
     Museum at Lausanne; 20 in Museum at Boudry; 24, Dr. Evans'
     Collection; the rest from _Antiqua_ (1886, Pl. x., xi.,
     and xii., and 1888, Pl. viii.)

  =12.=--ESTAVAYER: No. 1, Sickle--2 and 3, Wheel
     ornaments--4, 12, 14, and 26, Various forms of fibulæ--5,
     Comb--6 and 10, Pendants--7, Razor-knife--8, Saw--9,
     Button--11, Double-legged pin--13, Portion of chain
     ornament--15, Amber bead--16, Gold earring--17, 19, and
     23, Bronze axes--18, 22, 24, 30, and 31, Various forms
     of bronze knives--20, Perforated hammer--21, Vessel of
     pottery--25, Flint arrow-point--27, Disc-shaped head of a
     pin--28, Portion of a spiral-headed pin--29, Horn object
     (see page 511). (All of bronze, except when otherwise
     specified)                                                     62

     Nos. 1 to 11, 17, 19, 21, 24, and 25 in Museum of Fribourg;
     12, 13, 18, 20, 23, 30, and 31 in Cantonal Museum, Berne;
     15, 16, 22, and 29 after Keller (B. 336); 14 and 27 after
     _Antiqua_ (B. 449); 26 after Vouga (B. 414c);
     28 in Collection Gross.

  =13.=--CHEVROUX, FOREL, AND PORTALBAN: No. 1, Flint dagger
     in wooden handle--2, Copper chisel--3, Bronze pendant--4
     and 6, Bone pins--5, Flint arrow-point--7, Amber bead--8
     and 14, Vases of coarse pottery--9, Bronze comb--10, Bronze
     fibula--11, Bronze razor with handle--12, Globular head of
     bronze pin with perforations--13, 17, and 18, Pendants of
     Horn--15, Iron Implement--16, Copper dagger--19, Implement
     of jawbone of a deer--20, Horn bracelet--21, Bronze
     bracelet--22, Bronze rings (_portemonnaie_)                    65

     Nos. 1, 3 to 6, 8, and 14 in Museum at Lausanne; 2 and 16
     in Cantonal Museum, Berne; 10, 11, 12, and 17 to 20 after
     Vouga (B. 414b and 414d); 15 after Troyon (B. 31);
     21 in Museum, Fribourg; 22 after _Antiqua_ (B. 449).

                     LAKE OF MORAT.
  =14.=--VALLAMAND AND GRENG-INSEL: No. 1, Iron knife,
     with the tang and portion of back of bronze--2, 4, and
     10, Bronze pendants--3, Fish-hook with portion of wire
     attached (bronze)--5, Bronze rod, with oblong perforations
     and curved ends--6, Ornamented bronze chisel--7, Bronze
     button--8, Bronze razor in wooden case--9, Portion of flint
     dagger, beautifully chipped--11 and 12, Bronze combs--13
     to 16 and 18, Specimens of pottery--17 and 20, Objects of
     horn--19, Bronze dagger (Roman?)--21, Pin, with portion of
     chain attached--longer in the actual specimen (bronze)         72

     Nos. 1 and 3 after Heierli (B. 462); 2, 4 to 7, and 10 to
     13 in Museum at Lausanne; 8, 14, 15 and 18 in Cantonal
     Museum, Berne; 9 and 17 in Museum at Morat; 16 after Keller
     (B. 61); 19 and 20 in Museum at Avenches; 21, Collection Gross.

                     LAKE OF SEMPACH.
  =15.=--Nos. 1 to 7 and 11, Various bronze implements
     and weapons--8, 9, and 10, Stone axes, perforated
     and beautifully polished                                       77

     All in Museum at Lucerne.

              LAKES OF WAUWYL, ZUG, AND BALDEGG.
  =16.=--No. 1, Perforated stone implement--2 and 3, Portions
     of stone axes, one showing commencement of secondary
     perforation--4 and 5, Stone chisels, one in bone handle--6,
     Bone dagger--7, Horn harpoon--8, Polished stone, curiously
     shaped and perforated for suspension--9 to 11, Pottery--12,
     Cup made of staghorn                                           79

     All in Museum at Lucerne, except No 8--Museum, Zürich.

                     LAKE OF GENEVA.
  =17.=--MORGES, THONON, AND ST. PREX.--No. 1, Bit of
     pottery, with herring-bone pattern--2 and 3, _Armillæ
     sacræ_ (see page 531)--4, Bracelet--5, Curious object--6,
     Fish-hook--7, Sword--8, Mould--9, Pendant--10, Anklet--11,
     and 16 to 18, Various forms of knives--12 to 15, Celts or
     axes. (All of bronze)                                          84

     Nos. 1, 14, and 18 in Museum at Annecy; 2 to 6 after Keller
     (B. 286); 7 and 8 after Troyon (B. 31); 9 and 10 after
     Rabut (B. 138); 16, after Perrin (B. 282); 11 to 13, and 17
     in Museum at Lausanne.

  =18.=--GENEVA AND TOUGUES (9, 10, 12, and 13): Nos. 1 to 4,
     and 10, Various forms of bronze celts--5, Bronze knife--6,
     Stone mould--7, Portion of bronze fibula--8, 11, and 14 to
     17, Bronze pendants--9, Bronze sickle with raised knob--12
     and 13, Earthenware dishes ornamented on the inner side--18
     and 19, Bronze razors                                          91

     All in the Museum of Geneva, except 9 and 19 in
     Museum at Annecy.

                     LAKE OF LUISSEL.
   =19.=--Nos. 1 to 3, Handles of three bronze swords,
     with the tips of the first two--4, The bronze tip of a
     scabbard--5, Small bronze ring                                 94

     No. 1 in Museum at Lausanne; 2 and 3 in Cantonal Museum,
     Berne; 4 and 5 after Troyon (B. 31).

                     LAKE OF BOURGET.
  =20.=--Nos. 1 to 4, Socketed spear-heads--5, 12, and 15,
     Daggers--6, 7, 8, 13, and 14, Knives--9 to 11, and 17,
     Hatchets--16, Sword handle--18, Socketed hammer with
     side loop--19, Chisel--20 and 21, Sickles--22 and 23,
     Razors--24, Tweezers--25, Girdle clasp--26, Stone mould.
     (All bronze except No. 26)                                    100

     Nos. 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 20, in Museum of St. Germain:
     2, 11, and 21, in the Collection at Restaurant Lacustre
     (Port); 5, 8, 12, 14 to 16, 25 and 26, in Museum
     at Chambéry; 7, Collection Rabut; 10 in Museum at
     Aix-les-Bains; 13, 17 to 19, 22 and 23, Collection
     Costa de Beauregard (after Perrin, B. 179).

  =21.=--Nos. 1 and 2, Bronze tubes with loose rings--3
     to 6, and 12, Objects of unknown use--7, Spiral finger
     ring--8, 11, and 14, Vessels--9, Needle--10, 18, 19, 21,
     30 and 31, Pins--13, 22 to 26, and 32, Various forms of
     arrow-points--15, Portion of clay ceiling ornamented
     with concentric circles--16, 17, and 29, Ornamented
     bracelets--20, Bronze tip of a sword sheath--27, Amber
     bead--28, Glass bead--33, Bronze button--34 to 37, Pottery,
     portions of dishes and a percolator. (All bronze, except
     when otherwise specified)                                     101

     Nos. 1, 2, 15 and 36, in Museum at Aix-les-Bains; 3, 7, 9
     and 10, in Museum, St. Germain; 4, 6, and 12, in Restaurant
     Lacustre (Port); 5, 8, 11, 23, 24, 26 to 28, 30, 32, and
     33, in Museum at Chambéry; 13, 14, 16, 18 to 22, 25 and 31,
     Collection Costa (after Perrin. B. 179); 17, 29, 34, 35 and
     37, after Rabut (B. 138).

                     LAKE OF ANNECY.
  =22.=--No. 1, Bronze flat celt--2 Bronze pin--3, Copper
     bead--4, Bronze anklet (after Rabut)--5, 6, and 7, Flint
     weapons--8, and 9, Stone axes--10, Arrow-point of clay
     schist                                                        103

     All in Museum at Annecy.

                     LAKE OF CLAIRVAUX.
  =23.=--Nos. 1 to 4, Flint weapons--5, Horn chisel, with
     handle as part of the horn--6 and 8, Stone axes in horn
     settings or handles--7, Horn hammer-axe, with portion of
     the wooden handle still remaining--9, 13, and 14, Bone
     implements--10, A flat object of polished stone with a
     small perforation at one end--11 and 12, Bronze dagger and
     chisel--15, Wooden dish                                       106

     No. 15, After Le Mire (B. 219), the rest from a collection
     exhibited at the Paris International Exposition of 1890.

                    LAKE OF PFÄFFIKON.
  =24.=--ROBENHAUSEN: No. 1, Flint arrow-point--2,
     Bone arrow-point--3, Pendant of red stone--4, Copper
     celt--5 and 6, Small red stones, with a series of round
     perforations--7, Horn cup--8, Stone celt in horn casing
     (Museum of Mayence)--9, Nephrite chisel in horn handle
     (Museum, Munich)--10, Hammer stone--11, Bronze celt--12,
     Horn hammer partially perforated--13, Perforated stone
     disc--14, Fragments of pottery (one from _Antiqua_,
     1885)--15, Wooden knife--16, 17, and 18, Earthenware
     dishes, one resting on a clay ring--19 and 23, Stone
     axes with wooden handles--20 and 21, Clay weights--22,
     Earthenware crucible--24, Implement of wood, supposed to be
     hook for picking up fishing lines (Museum, Berne)--25, Roll
     of yarn (after Keller, B. 126)--26, Wooden club               115

     All, except as above specifed, in the Zürich Museum.

  =25.=--ROBENHAUSEN: Specimens of cloth, fringes, ropes,
     matting of bast, nets, etc.                                   117

     All from _Antiqua_ (1882-3, Pl. vii. and viii.;
     and 1885, Pl. ii.).

                      NIEDERWYL.
  =26.=--No. 1, Flint saw in wooden handle--2, Inverted
     dish of earthenware, showing rudimentary feet and an
     ornamentation of hollow dots in lines--3, Clay weight--4,
     5, and 6, Earthenware vessels--7, Stone hatchet in wooden
     handle--8 and 9, Stone axes--10, Band of birch-bark, neatly
     punctured (B. 336, Pl. vi. 10)                                122

     Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, and 8 after B. 62; 2 after _Antiqua_,
     1884, Pl. 36; the rest in the Zürich Museum.

                    LAKE OF CONSTANCE.
  =27.=--WANGEN: Nos. 1 to 3, Flint arrow-points--4, Flax
     comb of bones--5 and 6, Stone axes in horn handles--7, 8,
     and 9, Perforated stone axes--10, Stone chisel--11 and 16,
     Various forms of fish-hooks of bone--12 and 13, Ornamented
     spindle-whorls of earthenware--14, Stone pendant--15, Flint
     saw in wooden handle--17 to 19, Specimens of earthenware
     dishes--20, Perforated stone disc                             126

     Nos. 5, 7 to 9, and 20 from Museum at Sigmaringen; 14 and
     18, Rosgarten Museum, Constance; the rest in Zürich Museum.

  =28.=--UNTERSEE, MINDLISEE, AND BUSSENSEE (the two latter
     lakes are in the vicinity of Lake Constance): No. 1, Stone
     chisel in horn handle (Markelfingen)--2 and 3, Copper
     pins--4, 5, and 7, Bronze pins (Insel Weerd)--6, Bronze
     knife (Insel Weerd)--8, Amber disc (_Antiqua_, 1884,
     Fig. 60)--9, Amber bead (_Ibid._, 1883, Fig. 20)--10,
     Perforated stone implement--11, Copper dagger--12, Curious
     stone axe--13, Stone celt with small hole for suspension
     (Steckborn)--14 and 15, Bronze implements (imperfect)--16,
     Metal bracelet--17, Tortoise-shell, perforated with two
     holes--18, Bone whistle--19, Horn harpoon (both the latter
     from Steckborn)                                               131

     Nos. 1 and 16 from Museum at Friedrichshafen; 2 to 7, 10 to
     12, 14, and 15 Rosgarten Museum, Constance; 13, 18 and 19
     after _Antiqua_, 1885, and 17 _Ibid._, 1883, Fig. 19.


  =29.=--BAY OF CONSTANCE: No. 1, Bronze object--2 and 3,
     Bronze pins--4 to 6, Fragments of ornamented pottery--7, 9,
     and 10, earthenware dishes--8, Neck of dish with graduated
     holes (see Fig. 11, No. 21, and Fig. 14, No. 16)--11 and
     12, Flint implements--13, Fragment of stone axe partially
     perforated--14 and 15, Broken stone axes                      134

     All from Rosgarten Museum, except Nos. 14 and 15 from
     Friedrichshafen Museum.

  =30.=--BODMANN: Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 14, Bone
     implements--3 and 5, Horn spears--9, Bronze fibula
     (Roman)--11 to 13, Group of 3 bronze celts--15, Stone celt
     in horn handle--16, Bone pointer in horn handle--17, Flint
     saw in handle of horn (reindeer?)--18, Clay spindle-whorl
     (ornamented)--19, Fish-hook of bone--20 and 21,
     Earthenware vessels                                           137

     Nos. 5, 6, 10 and 21 from Friedrichshafen Museum; 11 to
     13 from Mr. Ley's Collection at Bodmann; the rest from
     Rosgarten Museum, Constance.

  =31.=--NUSSDORF, MAURACH, LÜTZELSTETTEN, etc.: Nos. 1 to 5,
     Flint implements and weapons--6 and 7, Bone combs--8, Bone
     chisel--9 to 13, Pendant, needle, and daggers of Bone--14
     and 15, Clay spindle-whorls--16 to 19, Copper celts
     (Maurach)--20, Forepart of stone axe--21, Flat, circular
     pendant of stone--22, Fish-hook of boar's tusk--23,
     Staghorn hammer, with portion of wooden handle--24,
     Nephrite knife in horn handle (Dingelsdorf)--25, Flint
     saw in its handle--26 and 27, Pottery                         140

     Nos. 25 to 27 (Lützelstetten) from Rosgarten Museum,
     Constance, and all the rest from the Antiq. Museum at
     Stuttgart.

  =32.=--UNTER-UHLDINGEN: Nos. 1 to 3, 29 and 30, Bronze
     axes--4 to 8, 14, 24 and 25, Ornamental pins of bronze--9
     and 12, Bronze knives--10 and 13, Bronze chisel and
     awl--11, Iron knife--15, Iron fibula--16, Clay bobbin--17,
     Socketed spear of bronze--18 and 19, Bronze fish-hooks--20,
     Spiral bronze arm-ring--21 and 22, Couple of bronze
     bracelets--23, Bronze sickle--26, Iron spear--27, Fragment
     of pottery--28, Circular die or stamp of earthenware          143

     All from the Museum at Stuttgart, except No. 20--Rosgarten
     Museum, Constance.

     =33.=--HALTNAU (3, 5 and 13) AND HAGNAU: Nos. 1 to 5,
     Various forms of flat bronze celts--6, Bronze bracelet--7,
     8, and 10, bronze pins--11, Curious implement of bronze--9,
     Bronze knife--12 and 13, Bronze ring ornaments--14,
     Iron knife                                                    145

     Nos. 3, 4 and 9 from Museum at Friedrichshafen; the rest in
     Rosgarten Museum at Constance.

                      FEDERSEE.
  =34.=--SCHUSSENRIED: Nos. 1 to 8, Flint arrow-points
     and scrapers--9 to 12, Stone celts--13, Broken stone
     polisher--14, Perforated stone hammer-axe--15 and 16,
     Implements of horn and bone--17, 24 and 25, Fragments of
     ornamented pottery--18, Earthenware spoon--19, Stone chisel
     in horn handle--20, Semilunar flint saw of Scandinavian
     type (Museum of Nat. Hist., Stuttgart)--21 to 23,
     Vessels of earthenware                                        149

     From Mr. Frank's Collection at Schussenried.

  =35.=--SCHUSSENRIED: Nos. 1 to 5, Specimens of earthenware
     dishes--6, Peculiar scoop of horn (similar objects have
     been found on the stations of Robenhausen, Wollishofen,
     and Baldegg)--7, Horn pick, perforated                        150

     From Mr. Frank's Collection.

                     LAKE OF STARNBERG.
  =36.=--Nos. 1, 2, and 7, Knives--3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 28 and
     29, Various forms of pins--5 and 19, Awl and chisel--8,
     Dagger, with three rivets--9, 12, and 20, Three varieties
     of axes--13, Needle--14, Socketed arrow-point of a southern
     type. (The above are of bronze.)--15, Bone ornament or
     counter--16, Earthenware counter--17, Clay bead--18, Bronze
     sickle--21 and 22, Fibulæ of bronze--23, Bead of variegated
     glass--24 and 30, Bone discs (see page 527)--25, Fragment
     of an ornament of bronze plate--26, Neatly-wrought object
     of horn, supposed to be for weaving purposes--27,
     Double fish-hook of bronze                                    154

  =37.=--No. 1, Peculiar iron knife--2 and 3, Cheek-pieces
     of horse-bits of bone--4 to 10, Bronze pins--11 and 13,
     Staghorn hammers (perforated)--12 and 17, Stone celts, one
     in horn holder--14 and 15, Flint saw and arrow-point--16,
     Portion of a dish of dark earthenware                         155

     All the objects represented in Figs. 36 and 37 are in the
     Ethnographical Museum, Munich.

                    MONDSEE AND ATTERSEE.
  =38.=--MONDSEE: Nos. 1 and 6 to 12, Flint arrow-points,
     one (No. 10) with portion of stem attached by asphalt--2
     to 4, Flint saws (Krummesser)--5 and 9, Flint scrapers--13
     to 15, Stone axes--16, 27 and 28, Bone chisels, showing
     marks of usage--17 and 18, Perforated teeth--19, Bone
     ornament--20, and 24 to 26, Bone and horn implements--21
     and 22, Ornaments of white marble--23, Bone arrow-point       158

     All from the Collection of Dr. Much, Vienna.

  =39.=--MONDSEE AND ATTERSEE: Nos. 1, 2 and 5, Copper
     celts--3, 4, 6, and 17 to 19, Copper or bronze daggers--7
     to 12, Bone implements--13, Marble button--14, Copper
     fish-hook--15, Clay figure--16, Necklace of marble beads,
     after Dr. Much (B. 287)--20 and 21, Flint knives--22,
     Fine specimen of perforated stone axe-hammer head             159

     Nos. 17, 18 and 22 from Nat. Hist. Museum, Vienna; 20 and
     21 after Count Wurmbrand (B. 276); the rest from Dr. Much's
     Collection.

  =40.=--MONDSEE: Nos. 1 to 8, Specimens of pottery--9,
     Circular stone, highly polished and perforated                161

     All from Dr. Much's Collection.

                 NEUSIEDLERSEE AND KEUTSCHACHERSEE.
  =41.=--Nos. 1 and 3, Stone hammer-axes--2, Hammer-stone,
     with finger mark--4 and 5, Flint flakes--6, Fragment of
     polished celt--7, Small urn--8 to 10, Specimens of pottery    165

     Nos. 1 to 9 after Count Bela (B. 283); 10 from the
     Rudolfinum Museum at Klagenfurt.

                      LAIBACH MOOR.
  =42.=--Nos. 1 to 5, Flint implements and weapons--6 and
     16, Well-finished hooks of horn--7, Peculiar object of
     bone, supposed to be a bait for catching fish--8, Ornament
     of horn--9, Chisel of greenstone--10, Ornamented dish of
     earthenware--11, Clay figurine like a hedgehog--12, Celt
     of nephrite--13, Horn object, perforated at the one end
     lengthways--14, Piece of horn ornamented with a check
     pattern of incised lines--15, Bone needle--17, Fragment of
     ornamented pottery with transverse perforation--18, Stone
     anvil with traces of copper--19, Object of pottery open
     at both ends--20, Base of a dish marked with a depressed
     cross--21, Object of pottery, conical at both ends--22,
     Mould of earthenware--23 and 24, Portion of a figure of
     earthenware resembling the human form (see Fig. 195)          173

  =43.=--Nos. 1 to 4, and 6 to 9, Specimens of pottery--5,
     Perforated cone of earthenware--10, Stone hammer-axe          175

  =44.=--Various forms of staghorn clubs or hammer-axes            176

  =45.=--Nos. 1, 2 and 7, Bronze daggers--3 and 4, Handles of
     bronze swords--5, Winged celt of bronze--6 and 8, Copper
     implements--9, Copper axe--10 and 11, Copper daggers--12
     and 13, Bronze pins--14, Crucible of earthenware--15,
     Scoop or mould of earthenware                                 178

  =46.=--Beaver-trap of oak, thirty-two inches long                179

     All the objects represented in Figs. 42 to 46 are in the
     Landesmuseum at Laibach, with the exception of Fig. 42, No.
     20, which is in the Natural History Museum, Vienna.

  =47.=--Wooden machine found in the Moor of Samow, North
     Germany, and preserved in the Museum at Rostock. (After
     Professor Merkel in the _Zeit. für Ethn. Verhand._, 1874.)    180

  =47=_a_.--Similar machine from the Valle di Fontega, North
     Italy, showing the two central valves detached, and some
     sticks found along with it. (After Meschinelli, B. 467.)      181

  =47=_b_.--Antique wooden implement from Ireland, showing
     upper and under surfaces. (From _Ulster Journ. Arch._,
     vol. vii.)                                                    183

                     LAKE VARESE.
  =48.=--ISOLA VIRGINIA: Nos. 1 and 2, Flint knife and
     saw--3, Flint scraper in a horn handle--4, Flake-knife of
     obsidian--5, Bronze knife--6, Bronze dagger--7 to 9, Bone
     needles, etc.--10, Conical object of burnt clay, perforated
     like the neck of a bottle--11, Polisher of serpentine,
     in the form of a stone celt (see p. 193)--12, Bronze
     fish-hook--13 to 17, 22 to 24, and 26 to 29, Specimens
     of pottery--18, Flat and circular stone, highly polished
     and perforated in centre--19, Mould of sandstone--20,
     Square piece of wood, supposed to have been used as a
     float for fishing net--21, The half of a spindle-whorl
     of earthenware--25, Bone chisel                               191

     Nos. 25 to 29, after Ranchet and Regazzoni (B. 326), and
     the rest from Sig. Ponti's Museum on the Isola Virginia.


  =49.=--BODIO, CAZZAGO, AND BARDELLO: Nos. 1 to 7, Flint
     implements and weapons--8 to 11, 21 and 40, Bronze
     daggers--12, 22, 23, and 25 to 29, Bronze pins--13, Bronze
     chisel or awl--14 and 39, Fragments of pottery--15, Stone
     celts--16, 32, 33, 35, 36 and 38, Various objects of stone
     perforated with one or more holes, probably used as buttons
     or beads--17 to 19, Bronze fish-hooks--20 and 44, Bronze
     celts--24 and 43, Socketed spear-heads of bronze--30, Stone
     polisher (see p. 193)--31, Stone mould--34, Spindle-whorl
     of earthenware--37, Fragment of a perforated stone axe--41,
     Ornament of thin bronze--42, Chisel of serpentine             196

     Nos. 1, 4 to 7, 10, 11. 30, 32 and 39, from Museo Civico,
     Milan; 2 and 3, from Collection Castelfranco; 8, 9, 12, 13,
     18, 20 to 22, 25 to 29, and 43, from Sig. Ponti's Museum,
     Isola Virginia; 14, 15, 17, 19, 23, 31, 33 to 38, 41 and
     42, after Regazzoni (B. 327); 16, from Collection Quaglia,
     Varese; 24 and 44, from the Museum at Varese.

  =50.=--TORBIERA DI CAZZAGO-BRABBIA: Nos. 1 and 2,
     Flint knives--3 to 6, Flint arrow-points--7 and 8,
     Flint spear-heads--9 to 15, bronze fibulæ (except No.
     12--iron)--16, Portion of bronze fibula--17, Bronze
     ornament--18, Curious object made of bronze rods--19,
     Bronze ring--20, Copper celt--21, Bronze celt--22 to 28,
     Bronze pins--29, Spindle-whorl of earthenware--30, 31, and
     36, Wooden floats--32, Harpoon of horn--33, Stone celt
     (chloromelanite)--34 and 35, Pottery                          199

     Nos. 1 (Torbiera di Mombello) and 11 (labelled "Bodio
     Centrale"?) are from the Museum at Varese; 2 and 4 to 8
     after Quaglia (B. 423); 3, Collection Castelfranco; 9,
     14, 15, 17, 19, 23 to 27, 32 and 33, Collection Quaglia;
     10, Museo Civico, Milan; 12, 13, 16, 20 to 22, 28 and 29,
     Collection Regazzoni, Como; 30, 31, and 34 to 36 after
     Regazzoni (B. 327); 18, after Marinoni (B. 159).

             THE TURBARIES OF BOSISIO, CAPRIANO, ETC.
  =51.=--Nos. 1 to 7, Flint arrow-points--8, Flint
     lance-head--9 and 10, Bronze celts--11, Bronze spoon--12,
     Bronze knife--13, Bronze pin--14 and 18, Bronze fibulæ--15
     and 16, Bronze bracelets--17, Bronze pendant--19, Spiral
     ring of bronze                                                205

     Nos. 1 to 7 Collection Castelfranco; 8, 9 and 12,
     Prehistoric Museum in Rome; 10 and 11, Museo Civico, Como;
     13 and 15 to 19, after Marinoni (_Mem. Soc. It. di Sc.
     Nat._, vol. vi.); 14, Museo Civico, Milan.

           THE TURBARIES OF MERCURAGO, SAN GIOVANNI, ETC.
  =52.=--Section of a portion of the peat, showing
     arrangement of the piles                                      206

  =53.=--Earthenware dish cover                                    206

  =54.=--Flint arrow-heads                                         207

  =55= and =56=.--Earthenware dishes, showing portions of
     string attached to small handles                         207, 208

  =57.=--Portion of a canoe                                        208

  =58= and =59=.--Two wooden wheels                           208, 209

  =60.=--Nos. 1 and 3, Bronze daggers--2, 4 to 6, 10 and
     11, Bronze pins--7 and 8, Flint knives--9, Conical beads
     of vitreous paste--12, 13 and 14, Pottery--15, Bronze
     pendant (Phallic)--16, Spindle-whorl of soapstone--17, A
     canoe and two paddles--18, Clay weight--19 and 20, Stone
     celts--21, Wooden float of fishing-net--22, Spindle-whorl
     of terra-cotta--23, Upper and under sides of an earthenware
     cover of a vessel                                             211

     All after Gastaldi (B. 40, 168, and 294).

                      LAGOZZA.
  =61.=--Nos. 1 to 4, Flint knives--5 and 6, Flint
     arrow-heads--7, Pendant of steatite--8, Stone adze--9,
     Fragment of linen fabric 10, Stone celt--11, Wooden
     comb--12 to 17, Various specimens of flat spindle-whorls
     made of dark earthenware                                      214

     Nos. 1 to 4, 10 and 12 to 17 from Museum Civico, Milan;
     9, Collection Castelfranco; the rest from the Prehistoric
     Museum at Como.

  =62.= Nos. 1, 2, 4 to 6, 8, 9 and 15, Specimens of
     pottery--3, 10 and 13, Fragments of ornamented plates--7,
     A fragment of pottery, showing handle of a dish with
     two transverse holes--11 and 12, Two polished sandstone
     pebbles with scratchings on surface--14, Clay weight,
     kidney-shaped, and perforated at both ends                    215

     Nos. 1, 8 and 14 from Museo Civico, Milan; 11 and 12 after
     Castelfranco (B. 354); 15, Collection Castelfranco;
     the rest from Museum at Como.

                       LAKE GARDA.
  =63.=--PESCHIERA. (Except when otherwise mentioned, all the
     objects represented in this figure are of bronze): Nos.
     1 to 5, Razors--6, A double-stemmed pin--7, A needle--8
     to 18, and 20 to 27, Specimens of ornamental pins--19,
     Neck-ring--28, Comb--29, Comb of bone--30, A small-winged
     celt--31 and 32, Bracelets--33, Sickle--34, A small pendant
     of lead--35, An awl--36, A chisel                             222

  =64.=--PESCHIERA: Nos. 1 to 7, Daggers--8, and 22 to 25,
     Fibulæ--9, Chisel--10, Socketed lance-head--11, Knife--12
     to 16, Pins--17, Object of unknown use--18 and 19,
     Fish-hooks--20, 21, 30 and 31, Fish-spears--26, Small
     cross made of tin--27 to 29, Pendants--32, Winged celt.
     (All bronze with the exception of No. 26.)                    223

  =65.=--PESCHIERA, MINCIO, and IL BOR: Nos. 1 to 9, Various
     implements and weapons of flint--10, and 12 to 14, Bronze
     dagger-knives--11, Bronze celt--15, Bronze chisel--16,
     Arrow-head of bronze--17, Ornamented knife of bronze--18,
     Bronze dagger--19, Portion of a polished implement of
     stone--20, Portion of spiral wire of bronze--21 and 22,
     Bronze pins--23, Bronze stud--24, Wheel-like objects of
     bronze, supposed to be the heads of pins--25, Bronze cap
     for the butt-end of a wooden handle--26 to 30,
     Pottery--31, Wrist bracer of stone                            225

     The objects from Lake Garda, illustrated above,
     are thus located:--

       Rome (Prehistoric Museum), Fig. 63, Nos. 3, 4, 5, 21, 24,
     26, 27, 29 and 31; Fig. 64, Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 13 to 17,
     19, 20, 21, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30 and 32; Fig. 65, Nos. 1 to
     9, 16, 17, 19, 25, 27, 28, 30 and 31.

       Vienna (Natural History Museum), Fig. 63, Nos. 1, 2, 9, 12,
     15, 17, 18, 25, 30, 32, 33, 35 and 36; Fig. 64, Nos. 18 and
     29; Fig. 65, Nos. 10 to 14, and 21.

       Zürich (Antiq. Museum), Fig. 63, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13,
     14, 16, 19 and 20; Fig. 64, Nos. 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 22
     and 31.

       Verona (Museum Civico), Fig. 63, Nos. 22, 23, 28 and 34;
     Fig. 64, Nos. 25 and 26; Fig. 65, Nos. 26 and 29.

       Collection Rambotti, Fig. 65, Nos. 18, 22 and 23.

       After Cavazzocca (B. 355), Fig. 65, Nos. 15, 20 and 24.

              LAKES OF FIMON AND OF ARQUÀ-PETRARCA.
  =66.=--No. 1, Bronze celt--2, Clay ring--3 to 12, Specimens
     of pottery                                                    231


     Nos. 1 to 8, after Lioy (B. 295); 9 to 12,
     after Cordenons (B. 464).

                       POLADA.
  =67.=--No. 1, Bronze dagger with bone handle--2 and
     3, Bronze celts--4 to 11, Specimens of pottery--12, A
     remarkable saw, formed of four flints set in a groove in
     a wooden handle, and retained in position by asphalt--13
     and 14, Handles of earthenware vessels--15 and 16, Stone
     celts--17, Horn club or axe--18, Implement of staghorn--19
     and 20, Clay weights                                          235

  =68.=--Nos. 1 to 20, Flint weapons and implements--21
     and 32, Bone buttons--22 to 24, Ornamented cakes of
     terra-cotta--25 to 27, Objects of bone--28, 29 and 36,
     Spindle-whorls of earthenware--30, Marble button--31, Tooth
     of bear, perforated--33, Ornamented bone ring--34 and 35,
     Wrist bracers of polished stone--37, Large dish, perforated
     with round holes--38, Large vase of elegant form              237

     All the illustrations in Figs. 67 and 68 are from
     Dr. Rambotti's Collection at Desenzano.

                      TERREMARE.
  =68=_a_.--Pottery from Terremare in the vicinity of Parma        241

  =68=_b_.--Anse lunate or cornute, in the vicinity of Parma       242

  =69.=--Bone comb (Vico-Fertile)                                  242

  =70.=--Bone wheel-ornament, supposed to be head of a pin
         (Campeggine)                                              242

  =71= and =72=.--Horn and bone implements (_Ibid._)               243

  =73.=--Portion of a bone handle (Castione)                       243

  =74.=--Fragments of bone implements (Campeggine)                 243

  =75.=--Discoidal stone (_Ibid._)                                 243

  =76.=--Bronze sickle (_Ibid._)                                   244

  =77.=--Bronze spear-head (Bargone di Salso)                      244

  =78.=--Bronze celt (Castellazzo)                                 244

  =79.=--Bronze awl with bone handle (Campeggine)                  244

  =80.=--Various forms of clay spindle-whorls or beads (_Ibid._)   245

  =81.=--Stone mould (Castelnuovo)                                 246

     The illustrations in Figs. 52 to 59, and 68_a_ to 81 are
     those prepared by the Anthropological Society of London for
     Mr. Chambers' translation of Gastaldi's work (B. 91).

  =82.=--Photographs showing arrangement of piles and _contrafforte
         dell' argine_, at Castione, after Pigorini (B. 407)       253

  =83.=--Nos. 1 to 3, Bronze razors--4, Bronze comb--5,
     Horn hatchet or chisel--6, Bronze awl, with ornamented
     bone handle--7 to 11, Bronze pins--12, 13, 24 and 25,
     Bronze hatchets--14 to 17, stone moulds--18 and 19, Bronze
     daggers--20, Bronze arrow-point--21 and 22, Objects of
     clay--23, Ornament of limestone                               255

     All in the Museums of Parma and Reggio, and found on the
     following stations: Monte Venere (1 and 2), Campeggine
     (3 and 7), Quingento (4), Castione (8 to 15, 17, and 21
     to 23), Cassinalbo (16), Scandiano (18, 19, 20, and 25),
     Castellazzo (24).

  =84.=--Nos. 1 to 3, Flint implements--4, Horn
     implements--5, 7 and 15, Objects of bone supposed to be
     arrow-points--6 and 17, Horn objects, supposed to be the
     cheek-pieces of bridle-bits--8 and 18, Horn dishes--9
     and 10, Ornamented buttons of terra-cotta--11, Upper and
     under sides of one of these buttons--12 to 14, Bone combs,
     ornamented--16, Wheel-like object of bone, supposed to be
     the head of a pin--19, Long comb of horn--20, Bone pin--21
     and 22, Handles of earthenware vessels (_anse lunate_)--23
     and 24, Clay figurines--25, Object of horn--26, Bone,
     perforated with round holes, supposed to be a flute--27,
     Bronze comb--28 to 34, Bronze pins                            258

     All these objects are from Montale, and deposited in the
     Museum at Modena, except the bone comb No. 13, which is in
     the Museum at Reggio-Emilia; but there is one very similar
     to it, figured by Boni, from Montale (B. 421).

  =85.=--Nos. 1 to 3, and 12, Bronze weapons--4, 13 and 14,
     Bronze celts--5, Bronze sickle--6, Stone mould for rings--7
     to 9, Bronze pins--10, 11 and 15, Bronze razors--16,
     Ornamented bone comb--17, Spindle-whorl of earthenware--18,
     Bone pin--19 and 23, Bronze objects--20 and 21, Bronze
     pendants--22, head of bronze pin                              259

     These objects are in the Museum at Modena, with the
     exception of Nos. 12 to 14, 17 and 19, after Coppi (B.
     293_a_), and were found in the following stations:--Montale
     (1 to 6), Redù (7, 8, 10, and 15), Gorzano (9, 11 to 14,
     17, and 19 to 23), and St. Ambrogio (16 and 18).

  =86.=--Nos. 1 and 2, Bone combs--3, Portion of horn,
     worked--4, Arrow-point of bone--5, Handle of earthenware
     vessel--6, 8 and 9, Bronze pins--7, Bone pin--10, 13,
     and 19 to 21, Bronze spears and daggers--11, Flint
     spear-head--12, Bronze knife, showing handle and portion
     of the blade--14 to 16, Flint implements--17 and 29,
     Spindle-whorls of earthenware--18, Stone button--22, Bronze
     razor-knife--23; Bronze arrow-point--24, Iron spear-head,
     much corroded--25, A flat ring of wood--26, 27, 30 and 31,
     Fragments of pottery--28, Portion of clay weight              268

     The objects represented by Nos. 1 to 13 and 18 are in the
     Museum at Viadana, and the rest are after Marinoni (B. 265).

                     OPPIDUM LA TÈNE.
  =87.=--Nos. 1 to 5, Ornamented sword-sheaths of iron--6,
     Piece of iron, roughly forged, supposed to be intended
     for a sword--7 and 8, Sword handles--9 to 12, Portions of
     sheaths, showing various kinds of ornamentation--13 and 14,
     Suspension clasps on the under side of the sheaths--15,
     Various incised designs, found on swords, supposed to be
     makers' marks                                                 283

     Nos. 1, 8 and 12 after Vouga (B. 428); 3, 4 and 5 after
     Keller (B. 22 and 126); the rest in the Museums of Bienne
     and Neuchâtel.

  =88.=--Nos. 1 to 6, 11, 12, and 17 to 21, Various forms
     of lance-heads--7, 10, 13 and 14, Conical tips for the
     butt-end of wooden lance handles--8, 9, 15 and 16, Points
     for darts or arrows. (All these objects are of iron)          285

     Nos. 7, 10, 15 and 16, are from Collection Vouga, the rest
     are from the Collections of Schwab, Desor, and Gross.

  =89.=--No. 1, Umbo of a shield (iron)--2, Handle of shield
     (iron)--3 and 4, Bronze ornaments of a shield--5, 7 to
     11, and 21, Bronze ornaments for horse harness--6, Iron
     spur--12, Waggon wheel of wood with iron tire--13, Iron
     implement of unknown use--14 to 18, Bridle-bits of iron
     (No. 17 is veneered with bronze)--19, Linch pin of waggon
     wheel (iron)--20, Ornament of thin bronze, supposed to
     be for a helmet                                               287

     Nos. 1, 13, 15, 16, and 18 to 20, from Collection Vouga; 3
     to 5, and 8 to 11 (Museum of Geneva), after Vouga (B. 428);
     2, Museum of Bienne; 7 and 17 (Collection Dardel), after
     _Antiqua_; 6, 14 and 21, after Gross (B. 446); 12, after
     drawing in _Anzeiger_, 1882, Pl. xxv.

  =90.=--Nos. 1 to 7, Hatchets--8 to 12, and 23, Knives--13
     and 14, Prongs--15 to 17, Shears--18, 27 and 28,
     Razors--19, 20, 21, 35, 36 and 38, Various objects of
     conjectural use--22, Hammer--24, 25 and 29, Hand-saws--26,
     Pointed implement with wide socket--30 to 32, Sickles
     or scythes--33 and 34, Chisels--37, File--39 and 40,
     Fish-hooks (bronze).
     All the objects are of iron except No. 40                     289

     Nos. 3 to 6, 14, 24, 31, 37, 39 and 40, Collection Vouga;
     7, 8, 9, 13, 15, 16, 22 and 29, after illustrations in
     _Antiqua_, 1884; 1, 18 and 25, in Museum at Neuchâtel, and
     the rest in the Collections of Gross and Schwab.

  =91.=--Nos. 1 to 6, Iron fibulæ--7, 21, 22, 24 and 25,
     Glass beads--8 to 10, and 36, Bronze pins--11 to 14,
     Pincers of bronze and iron--15, Blunt needle--16 (gold)
     and 17 (iron), Halves of neck-rings--18 and 26, Bronze
     fibulæ--19, Bronze etui, with iron needle (20) found in
     it--23, Bronze button--27, 28, 30 and 32, Iron buckles and
     clasps--29 and 33, Iron rings--31, A small bronze axe--34,
     Iron bracelet--35, Iron hoop                                  291

     Nos. 7, 17, 31 and 32, in Museum Schwab; 16, Museum at
     Neuchâtel; all the rest after Vouga (B. 428), or in his
     Collection.

  =92.=--No. 1, Iron chain (pot-hanger)--2 and 10, Gold
     coins--3 to 9, and 11, Coins of silver, bronze, and
     _potin_--12 (bronze), 13 and 14 (bone), Dice--15, Iron
     ring attached--16, Bronze figure--17, Small bronze wheel,
     supposed to have been used as money--18, Bronze cup--19,
     Large bronze cauldron, with iron rim and handles--20, Iron
     ladle--21, Bronze object, like a tobacco pipe                 295

     Nos. 1, 10, 15, 17, 19 and 21, after Gross (B. 446); 8,
     after Desor (B. 95); 12 to 14, and 18, from _Antiqua_,
     1886; the rest after Vouga (B. 428).

                    LAKE OF PALADRU.
  =93.=--No. 1, Half of a bracelet made of lead--2, One side
     of an iron shears--3, Iron knife--4, Iron spear-head--5 and
     6, Horse shoes--7 and 8, Iron chains and staple--9, Iron
     key--10, Iron curry-comb--11, Iron axe--12, Iron spur--13
     and 16, Wooden floats--14 and 15, Bone counters--17, Wooden
     mallet--18, and 22 to 24, Pottery--19, Wooden spoon--20,
     Piece of wood like a bobbin--21, Wooden comb                  301

     All after Chantre (B. 193).

                      MAESTRICHT.
  =94.=--Bone and horn weapons after Ubaghs (B. 413)               305

     For sizes, see page 304.

                  WISMAR AND GÄGELOW.
  =95.=--Nos. 1 and 10, Flint daggers--2, Flint chisel or
     hatchet--3 and 6, Polished axes of flint--4, 7, 16 and
     17, Perforated axes of stone--5, A stone pestle--8, Stone
     mortar--9, Fragment of dark coloured pottery--11 and 12,
     Semilunar flint saws or knives--13 to 15, Objects of
     bone and horn--18, Sharpening stone--19, Spindle-whorl
     (clay)--20, Flint arrow-point                                 309

     Nos. 5, 7, 8 and 19, after Lisch (B. 100), and the rest in
     the Museum at Schwerin.

                  PERSANZIG AND FRIESACK.
  =96.=--No. 1, Iron ring--2, Iron hatchet--3 and 4,
     Fragments of pottery--5, Clay ring--6 to 9, Fragments
     of Slavish pottery of the type found in the Burgwälle         318

     Nos. 1 to 5 in the Märkisches Museum, and 6 to 9 in the
     Volkerkünde Museum in Berlin.

                   SPANDAU, NEAR BERLIN.
  =97.=--Nos. 1 to 3, Bronze celts--4 and 17, Bronze
     lance-heads--5, 6, 7, 12 and 13, Bronze daggers--8 to 11,
     Bronze swords--14, A kind of saw of horn--15 and 16, Stone
     balls--18, An ornamented bronze "commandostab"(?)             320

     After Friedel (B. 396). All the objects are in the
     Volkerkünde Museum in Berlin.

               CZESZEWO, OBJEZIERZE, ETC. (POSEN).
  =98.=--Nos. 1 and 2, Perforated stone axes--3 and 8, Clay
     rings--4, Bone pointer--5, Fragment of percolator of
     earthenware--6 and 7, Flint celts--9, Bronze neck-ring--10,
     Silver neck-ring--11, Bronze pin, part of a fibula            322

     Nos. 10 and 11 after Köhler (B. 430), the rest from objects
     in the Archæological Museum, Posen.

                 LAKES OF ARYS AND KOWNATKEN.
  =99.=--Nos. 1 to 7, Bone implements--8, 9 and 13, Flint
     scrapers--12, Stone celt--10, and 11, Earthenware
     vessels--14, Polisher or skate of the metacarpal of a horse   327

     All in the Prussia Museum, Königsberg.

                  TERP-MOUNDS (WEST FRIESLAND).
  =100.=--Nos. 1, 16 to 19, and 30, Bone combs--2, 3, 6 and
     22, Clay spindle-whorls and weights (?)--4, 20 and 23,
     Specimens of earthenware--5 and 15, Bronze dishes--7, Bone
     object--8, Bronze shears--9, Iron hammer--10 and 11, Bone
     handles--12, Bone ring, ornamented with incised circles--13
     and 24, Horn implements--14, Bronze comb--21, Bone
     counter--25, Bone button, ornamented with incised lines--26
     and 28, Bone pins--27, Bone ornament--29, Bone needle         341

     Nos. 25 and 29 are in the National Museum, Edinburgh, and
     all the rest in the Museum, Leeuwarden.

  =101.=--Iron bridle-bit, found in the terp-mound at Achlum
     (now in the National Museum, Edinburgh)                       342

                      IRISH CRANNOGS.
  =102.=--LAGORE: Bone with carved designs (_Cat._, p. 346)        352

  =103.= ---- Various iron objects (B. 10, pp. 104, 105)           353

  =104.= ---- An axe and ladle of iron, and a pot and two
     pins of bronze (_Ibid._, except the ring-headed pin,
     which is from _Cat._, p. 560)                                 354

  =105.= ---- Bone comb, three glass beads, a bronze dagger
     (_Cat._, pp. 163 and 165, 271 and 467), and a fragment
     of bronze interlaced work (B. 10, p. 105)                     355

  =106.= ---- Various implements of iron                           356

     All in Museum of Royal Irish Academy.

  =107.=--LOUGH GUR: Stone mould for bronze spear-heads
     (_Archæological Journal_, vol. xx. p. 170)                    358

  =108.=--BALLINDERRY: Three bone pins, bone comb, and a
     bronze tweezers (_Cat._, pp. 271, 333, 334, 549)              360

  =109.= ---- Ornamented stone amulets (B. 391, p. 197)            360

  =110.=} ---- Bone or horn pins, ornamented with incised
     circles, =111.=} and characters supposed to be Oghams
     (_Ibid._)                                                361, 362

  =112.= ---- AND STROKESTOWN: Ornamented bone objects
     (_Cat._, p. 342)                                              362

  =113.=--LOUGH FAUGHAN: Earthenware jug (_Cat._, p. 158)          363

  =114.=--ARDAKILLEN: Section of crannog at (_Cat._, p. 226)       364

  =115.=--DRUMALEAGUE: Plan of crannog at (_Cat._, p. 228)         364

  =116.=--CLOONFINLOUGH: Bronze dish, decorated inside
     (_Cat._, p. 533)                                              367

  =117.= ---- Nos. 1 to 14, Bronze pins--15, Bone pin--16,
     Bronze object--17, Bronze dagger--18, Iron shears--19, Iron
     knife--20, Bone counter--21, Ring made of the burr end of a
     staghorn--22, Leather shoe                                    368

     All the objects represented in Fig. 117 are in the
     British Museum.

  =118.=--STROKESTOWN: Bone carved with designs, three of
     which are shown full size (_Cat._, p. 345)                    369

  =119.= ---- Bone comb (_Cat._, p. 271)                           369

  =120.=--ARDAKILLEN: Bronze brooch (_Cat._, p. 476)               369

  =121.=--LOUGH SCUR: Stone mould for bronze axes (_Cat._, p. 91)  370

  =122.=--RANDALSTOWN: No. 1, Bronze knife; 2, Bronze
     dish--3, Iron axe--4, Silver brooch--5 and 6, Bronze
     brooches--7, Glass bead--8 to 13, Bronze pins--14,
     Horn vessel                                                   371

     Nos. 3 and 14, in the Museum of Royal Irish Academy; 1,
     2, and 9 to 13, in the Belfast Museum; 4, after Patterson
     (B. 215); 5, 6 and 8, from _Ulster Journal of Archæology_,
     vols. iv. p. 269, and vi. p. 103.

  =123.=--LISNACROGHERA: No. 1, End portions of a bronze
     sword-sheath--2, Rubbing of portion of an ornamented bronze
     sword-sheath--3, End portions of a bronze sword-sheath--4,
     Bronze sword-sheath in two portions                           381

     No. 3, in the British Museum, and the rest in Canon
     Grainger's Collection; No. 4 is after Wakeman (B. 411).

  =124.= ---- Nos. 1 and 2, Iron swords--3, Iron
     spear-head--4 and 5, Axe and adze of iron--6 to 9, and
     17, Bronze rings--10, Bronze dish--11, 12 and 14, Glass
     beads--13, Amber bead--15 and 16, Bronze objects--18, 19,
     20 and 22, Bronze ornaments--21, Top of bronze rivet--23 to
     25, Bronze ferrules--26, Bronze rivet serrated--27, Bronze
     terminal ornament for a handle--28 to 30, Bronze knobs for
     the butt-end of spear handles                                 383

     Nos. 1, 3, 5, 10, and 28 to 30, are in the British Museum,
     the rest in Canon Grainger's Collection.

  =125.=--LOUGH MOURNE: No. 1, Iron axe--2, Clay crucible,
     with projecting portion like a handle--3, Canoe--4, Stern
     half of canoe--5, Seat in No. 4--6, Section of No. 4
     showing projections, left in solid for supporting the seat    387

     No. 1 is in private keeping, the rest in the Belfast Museum.

                      SCOTTISH CRANNOGS.
 N.B.--The illustrations marked thus (*) are from woodcuts in the
       Collections of the Ayr and Galloway Archæological Association.

  =126.=--LOCH DOWALTON: Bronze dish, probably Roman (B. 94)       399

  =127.= ---- Bronze dish of thin sheets; riveted (_Ibid._)        400

  =128.= ---- Bronze dish of beaten bronze (_Ibid._)               400

  =129.= ---- Ring handle and portion of dish of bronze            400

  =130.= ---- Bronze penannular brooch, and a bronze ornament
     with trumpet-shaped spaces, probably for enamel
     (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, vol. iii., N.S., p. 155)          401

  =131.= ---- Three iron hammers or axes                           401

  =132.= ---- Portion of whitish glass armlet*; ditto of
     streaked glass; blue glass bead with bronze core (B. 94);
     4, Beads (two ribbed with greenish glaze, one with red
     spots and the other streaked)                                 402

  =133.= ---- Portion of a leather shoe with stamped pattern
              (B. 94)                                              403

  =134.= ---- Small portion of Samian ware,* and about the
     half of a clay crucible                                       403

  =135.=--LOCHLEE: General view of site of crannog                 404

  =136.*= ---- Mortised beam, with portion of an upright and
               a wooden peg                                        405

  =137.= ---- Sketch showing mortised beams in position            405

  =138.= ---- Grooved and mortised beams lying over the
     log-pavement                                                  406

  =139.= ---- Perpendicular section through the three lowest
     hearths, showing structure of third hearth and stratified
     deposits below it                                             407

  =140.= ---- Hone of sandstone (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._,
     vol. iii., N.S., p. 248)                                      411

  =141.*= ---- Upper quern-stone of granite; portion
     of a cup-marked stone with concentric circles; two
     spindle-whorls; a flint scraper and flake; and a
     polished stone hatchet                                        412

  =142.*= ---- Bone needle, bodkin, hook, socketed dagger,
     and club of staghorn                                          413

  =143.*= ---- Wooden tray                                         413

  =144.*=} ---- Piece of ashwood, with carved design
  =145.*=}      on both sides                                 414, 415

  =146.*=LOCHLEA: Wooden mallet, double paddle, and iron axe       416

  =147.*= ---- Iron 3-pronged implement, iron shears
         (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, vol. iii., N. S., p. 248),
         and a bronze spatula                                      416

  =148.*= ---- Two bronze fibulæ and a bronze pin                  417

  =149.*= ---- Bridle-bit, partly of iron and partly of bronze     417

  =150.*= ---- Fringe made of the stems of moss, and a piece
          of thick leather with copper nails                       418

  =151.*=--LOCHSPOUTS: Segment of stone disc and a flint scraper   423

  =152.*= ---- Bone chisel, showing marks of usage                 423

  =153.= ---- Three bronze ornaments and small key*                424

  =154.*= ---- Portion of a bowl of Samian ware                    424

  =155.*= ---- Fragments of pottery                                424

  =156.= ---- A conical ornament of rock-crystal, a glass
         bead, and a ring and pendant of jet                       425

  =157.*=--BUSTON: General view of crannog, looking
     northwards. The water in foreground marks the position of
     the midden. (From a photograph by Mr. Lawrie)                 427

  =158.*= ---- Portion of north side of crannog, with space
     between inner and second circles of piles dug out, thus
     bringing into view the arrangement of the mortised beams
     forming the stockade, and the structure of the upper part
     of the island. (From a photograph by Mr. Lawrie)              428

  =159.*= ---- View of canoe _in situ_ immediately after
     exposure. (From a drawing by Mrs. Anstruther)                 429

  =160.*= Flint knife and clay crucible                            430

  =161.*= ---- Four bone pins, one ornamented with a check
     pattern, (B. 373, p. 216), and another in an unfinished
     state; a bone needle; and a bronze pin, with a blue bead
     of glass as a top setting                                     430

  =162.*= ---- Bone comb, ornamented with concentric incised
     circles, both sides being alike                               431

  =163.*= ---- Iron axe-head                                       432

  =164.*= ---- Part of an iron padlock (see footnote, page
     431), a bronze brooch, a small iron object, bifurcated at
     one end, and a socketed spear-head                            433

  =165.*= ---- Two gold finger-rings, a gold coin, and a
          variegated glass bead                                    433

  =166.*= ---- Fragment of pottery, showing a short spout          434

  =167.*=--AIRRIEOULLAND: Scarlet beads of vitreous paste          435

  =168.*= ---- Portion of a clay crucible and a bronze button      436

  =169.*=--BARHAPPLE: Piece of jet or cannel coal                  437

  =170.=--FRIAR'S CARSE: Perforated stone axe                      440

  =171.= ---- Fragments of pottery, with bands of small
              impressed spaces                                     441

  =172.=--CARLINGWARK LOCH: Large bronze cauldron
        (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, vol. vii. p. 7, and x. p. 286) 444

  =173.=--LEDAIG: Wooden comb (_Ibid., vol. x. p. 82_)             446

  =174.=--LOCH-INCH-CRYNDIL. Bone comb                             447

  =175.=--BARLOCKHART AND MACHERMORE: Stone ring (_Ibid._,
     vol xv. p. 268) and stone implement with hollowed surface
     on each side (_Ibid._, vol. xiv. p. 127)                      448

  =176.=--Bone combs for comparison with those from the
          lake-dwellings                                           453

                   ENGLISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.
  =176=_a_.--HOLDERNESS: Nos. 1 and 2, Broken portions
     of long bones, perforated for handle, and used as
     implements--3, Flint saw--4, Bronze spear-head                473

     From objects in the possession of T. Boynton, Esq.

         MEDIÆVAL OBJECTS FOUND IN BRITISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.
  =177.=--Forward half of canoe found in Loch Arthur or
     Lotus, Kirkcudbrightshire (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._,
     vol. xi. p. 21)                                               480

  =178.=--Canoe found in Loch Canmor, Aberdeenshire (B. 94)        481

  =179.=--Bronze (brass) vessel found in Loch Canmor (_Ibid._)     483

  =180.=--Bone tableman found in the Loch of Forfar (_Ibid._)      484

  =181.=--Bronze (brass) pots found in Loch of Banchory (_Ibid._)  484

  =182.=--Bronze (brass) pot and jug, found in Loch of Banchory    485

  =183.=--View of surface of the Isle of the Loch of
     Banchory, showing foundation of a stone building (_Ibid._)    485

           MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS ILLUSTRATING CULTURE AND
                  CIVILISATION OF LAKE-DWELLERS.
  =184.=--No. 1, Wooden yoke (Vinelz)--2, Clay moulding of
     cottage walls (Robenhausen)--3, Clay crucible (Mondsee)--4,
     Wooden pile driver (Cortaillod)--5, Fragment of pottery,
     adorned with bits of birch-bark (Moosseedorf)--6, Stone
     hammer-axe, broken before the perforation had been
     completed (Bauschanze)--7, Stone axe with oval perforation
     (_Ibid._)--8, Portion of clay funnel blackened with soot
     (Lake Bourget)                                                499

     Nos. 1 and 2, in Cantonal Museum, Berne; 3, in Dr. Much's
     Collection; 4, after _Anzeiger_, 1881, Pl. x.; 5, after
     Keller (B. 336); 6 and 7, in the Antiq. Museum, Zürich: 8,
     in the Museum at Aix-les-Bains.

  =185.=--Nos. 1, 8, 10, 13 and 14, Handles of wood, showing
     different forms of mounting stone, and the flat types of
     bronze axes--2, 5, 6, 9, 11, 26 and 27, Objects of horn
     and bone--3, 16 and 17, Flint saws in handles--4, Pick of
     staghorn--7, Tine of staghorn, mounted in wooden handle--12
     and 18, Small ornamented boxes of staghorn--15, Perforated
     axe of staghorn--19, Comb, of strips of yew wood--20,
     Perforated roundlet of human skull (_Zeit. für Ethn.
     Verhand._, vol. xviii. p. 368)--21 and 22, Small bones
     perforated--23, Fossil ammonite from the Jura Mountains,
     perforated for suspension--24, Beads of staghorn--25,
     Wooden board pierced by a bolt, and measuring thirteen by
     sixteen inches (B. 336, p. 48)--28, Knife of nephrite--29,
     Chisel of nephrite                                            503

     These objects are from the following stations:--Locras
     (1, 7, 11 and 28), St. Aubin (2, 3, 5, 6 and 9),
     Concise (12 and 20), Castione (13), Mondsee (14, Dr.
     Much's Collection), Wollishofen (15 and 18), Sipplingen
     (16, Museum Friedrichshafen), Vinelz (10, 17 and 19),
     Oefeliplätze (21 to 24, See B. 462), Schaffis (4, 25 and
     29), Gerlafingen (26), Sutz (27).

     Nos. 1, 7, 19, 28 and 29, after Gross (B. 392); 2, 5, 6, 9
     and 15, Museum Zürich; 3, 11 and 12, after Keller (B. 286);
     4, 10, 17, 26 and 27, Cantonal Museum, Berne; 8, Museum at
     Avenches.

  =186.=--Nos. 1 to 5, 7 and 9, Various forms of bronze
     swords--6, Part of sword, with blade of iron and handle
     (imperfect) of bronze, ornamented with inlaid strips of
     iron--8 and 11, Daggers of bronze--10, A remarkable double
     celt of copper, fourteen inches in length, and perforated
     with a small hole                                             517

     The objects were found in the following stations:--Locras
     (1 and 10), Corcelettes (2), Auvernier (3), Moeringen (4,
     5 and 6), Lattringen (7 and 11), Nidau-Steinberg (8), and
     Sutz (9).

     Nos. 1, 3 to 6, and 10, in Collection Gross; 2, in Museum
     at Lausanne; 7 to 9, and 11, in Schwab Museum at Bienne.

  =187.=--Wooden handle and bronze sickle from Moeringen,
     after Gross (B. 392)                                          519

  =188.=--No. 1, Perforated bronze bracelet (from Auvernier
     and after Gross, B. 392)--2, Bronze circular ring
     (Wollishofen)--3, Tin bracelet (Montilier)--4, Bronze
     bracelet (Bieler Insel)--5, Open bracelet with spiral ends
     (Moeringen)--6, Bronze bracelet ornamented with inlaid
     bands of iron (Moeringen)--7, Ornamented bronze bracelet
     (Auvernier)                                                   520

     Nos. 1, 5, 6 and 7, Collection Gross; 2, Museum Zürich; 3,
     Museum Schwab; 4, Cantonal Museum, Berne.

  =189.=--Nos. 1 to 3, Bronze pendants (Onens)--4 and 5,
     Bronze pins (Lake Bourget), after Perrin (B. 282, p.
     187)--6, Double-wheel ornament of tin (Auvernier), from
     _Anzeiger_, 1881--7, Pendant of tin (Auvernier)--8,
     Gold pendant (Moeringen), after Gross (B. 286)--9,
     Bronze tube containing two pins, Nos. 10 and 11 (Lake
     Bourget), after Rabut (B. 138)--12, Bar of tin perforated
     (Corcelettes)--13, Bronze ornament (Hauterive)--14,
     Bronze pendant (Auvernier)--15, Needle-holder of pottery
     (Moeringen)--16, Bronze razor-pendant (Hauterive)--17,
     Bronze pendant, like a small bell (Moeringen), in Zürich
     Museum--18, Bronze object (Auvernier)--19, Part of bronze
     fibula--20, Bronze dish of Scandinavian type. These two
     objects are in the Museum of Lausanne, and are here
     represented after Montelius (B. 348)                          521

     Nos. 1 to 3, 13 and 14, in Museum of Neuchâtel; 7, 8, 12,
     15, 16 and 18, in Collection Gross.

     =190.=--Bronze knife (Dr. Evans' Collection) from Lake
     Bourget 524

  =191.=--No. 1, Complete bridle bit of horn
     (Corcelettes)--2, Side pieces of horn for bridle-bit
     (Montale)--3 and 4, Ditto (Moeringen)--5 and 6, Ditto
     of bronze (Moeringen)--7, Complete horse-bit of bronze
     (Moeringen)--8, Ditto ditto (Corcelettes)--9, Two
     cheek-pieces of bronze for a bridle-bit (Estavayer)--10,
     Portion of the bronze railing of a chariot (Estavayer)--11
     and 12, Bronze discs, supposed to be ornaments for horse
     harness (Auvernier)--13, Portion of disc, slightly curved,
     and perforated in centre                                      525

     No. 1, after Dr. Brière (B. 463a); 2, after Dr. Boni (B.
     421); 3 and 4, in Cantonal Museum, Berne; 5, 6, 7, 9, and
     11 to 13, in Collection Gross; 8, in Museum of Lausanne;
     10, in the Museum of Fribourg.

  =192.=--Bronze mirror from Portalban (B. 420, Pl. xxxix.)        528

  =193.=--No. 1, Quarter of a plate of earthenware
     symmetrically perforated (Lake Bourget)--2, Ditto, with
     ornamentations of tin strips (Cortaillod)--3, Fragment
     of pottery that had been mended with tin strips--6, Vase
     similarly ornamented (Hauterive)--7, 8 and 10, Toy dishes
     (Auvernier)--9, Child's rattle of earthenware (Moeringen)     530

     No. 1, in British Museum; 2, in Museum Schwab; 3 and 4, in
     Museum at Aix-les-Bains; 5, in Museum at Chambéry; 6, in
     Museum at Neuchâtel; 7, 8, and 10, in Collection Gross; 9,
     in Cantonal Museum, Berne.

  =194.=--Discoidal stone, common in Bronze Age                    531

  =195.=--Nos. 1 and 2, Wooden _bâtons de commandement_
     (Castione)--3, Ditto (Moeringen)--4, Bronze tube, with
     attached rings (Bourget)--5 to 8, Earthenware images
     (Laibach)--9 and 10, Clay figures (Lake Bourget)--11, Stamp
     of earthenware with _croix gammée_ or _swastika_--12,
     Pieces of clay-plaster so marked (Lake Bourget)--13,
     Figure like that of a duck, ornamented with tin strips
     (Hauterive)--14, Clay figures like that of a pig
     (Corcelettes)--15 and 16, Bronze figures (Bodmann)--17,
     Crescent (Lake Bourget)--18, Ditto (Moeringen)--19,
     Ditto (Hauterive)                                             532

     Nos. 1 and 2, after Strobel (B. 328e); 3, after Gross (B.
     286); 4, in Restaurant Lacustre, Port (Aix-les-Bains); 5 to
     8, in Museum at Laibach; 9 and 10, after Costa (B. 176); 11
     and 12, after Perrin (B. 282); 13, from _Anzeiger_, 1881;
     14, in Collection Gross; 15 and 16, in Steinhaus Museum,
     Ueberlinger; 17, in British Museum; 18, in Cantonal Museum,
     Berne; 19, in Museum at Geneva.

  =196.=--No. 1, Bronze pin--2, Bronze (copper?) bead--3,
     Bone disc--4 and 5, Bronze bracelets--6, Bronze ring--7,
     Bronze ornament--8 to 11, Bronze bracelets--12 and 13,
     Bronze pins--14, Earthenware vase                             540

     Nos. 1 to 7, after Gross (B. 286); 8 and 9, from _Antiqua_,
     1884; 10 to 14, after Keller (B. 336).

  =197.=--Iron axe, with portion of wooden handle
         (Bieler Insel), in Cantonal Museum, Berne                 544

  =198.=--Iron spear-head, ornamented with bronze or copper
     (Lake Bourget), in Museum, Chambéry                           544

  =199.=--No. 1, Bronze helmet, with "late Celtic"
     ornamentation (Berru)--2, Bronze helmet with fret
     ornamentation--3 and 4, fragments of glass bracelets
     (Hradischt)--5, Bronze fibula (La Tène)--6, Bronze
     fibula (Hradischt)--7, Iron spear-head (Lower Thielle),
     ornamented with a design of frets, spirals, and running
     scrolls on each side (the designs are shown half the
     original size)--8, Iron spear-head--9, Bronze ornament,
     with portions of red enamel--10 and 11, Bronze fibulæ--12,
     Bridle-bit--13, Gold bracelet--14 and 15, Bronze studs for
     horse harness--16, Iron sword--17 and 18, Bone counters
     (Hradischt)                                                   547

     No. 1, after Bertrand (_Arch. Celt. et Gauloise_); 2, and
     8 to 16, after Fourdrignier (_Sépulture Gauloise de la
     Gorge-Meillet_); 3, 4, 6, 17 and 18, after W. Osborne (see
     page 549); 5 and 7, after Vouga (B. 428).


               SKETCH-MAPS, PLANS, SECTIONS, ETC.
     Plan of lake-dwellings in the lakes of Zürich, Pfäffikon,
     Greifen, and Zug                                                9

     Plan of lake-dwellings in the lakes of Bienne, Morat, and
     Neuchâtel; also showing Correction des Eaux du Jura            23

     Distribution of lake-dwellings at Cortaillod                   45

     Sketch-map of the shore of lake Neuchâtel, near Bevaix,
     showing the relative positions of the stations of the
     Stone and Bronze periods                                       50

     Sketch-map, showing stations in Lake of Geneva                 86

     Sketch-map, showing stations in the Lake of Bourget            95

     Plan of lake-dwellings in the Lake of Constance               129

     Sketch of Laibach Moor, showing position of lake-dwellings    171

     Sketch-map, showing lake-dwellings in the Lake of Varese
     and neighbourhood                                             189

     Plan and sections of terramara at Gorzano                     263

     Sketch-map, showing distribution of lake-dwellings and
     terremare in the eastern part of the Po valley                266

     Plan of lake-dwelling in Persanzigsee                         314

     Plan and sections of Crannog at Lochlee                  416, 417



THE LAKE-DWELLINGS OF EUROPE.



First Lecture.


SETTLEMENTS IN LAKE ZÜRICH, WESTERN SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE.


The investigations of geologists in the early part of this century,
culminating in the publication of Sir Charles Lyell's "Principles of
Geology," not only upset current theories regarding the past history
of our globe, but also revolutionised the very formulæ on which
these theories were founded. The influence of this drastic clearance
of antiquated machinery in geology soon extended to the collateral
sciences, and one of the first to benefit from the improved methods
was archæology. The first great application of scientific methods
to prehistoric researches was made in the north of Europe. The
Scandinavian savants, in attempting to pry into the early history of
their people, found so little reliable information in their sagas
and other mythological fables, that they cast them altogether aside
as useless or misleading. Struck with the elegance and beauty of the
stone weapons and implements so profusely scattered over the land,
they seized the idea, occasionally previously mooted by writers in
other countries, but hitherto never seriously considered, that there
was a time when people were entirely ignorant of the use of metals,
and, in the prosecution of their social industries, had to depend
exclusively on such tools as could be manufactured out of stone, horn,
wood, etc. To this idea they soon afterwards linked another, which
experience has also shown to be founded on accurate observation, viz.
that their earliest metal objects were made from a nearly uniform
compound of copper and tin, known as bronze. Iron, it was maintained,
was not known in the country for several centuries afterwards; but, on
the other hand, when it became known, it gradually superseded bronze
in the manufacture of all cutting implements and weapons, on account
of its superior qualities for such purposes.

These simple observations in the hands of the Scandinavian scientists
supplied the essential elements of a new system of classification,
which has since become so familiar all over the world as the three
ages of Stone, Bronze and Iron. Its adoption by Dr. Thomsen, in 1830,
as the basis of arranging the prehistoric materials in the Museum of
Northern Antiquities at Copenhagen, and, a few years later, in the
Museums of Lund and Stockholm, marks the commencement of a new era in
the history of prehistoric archæology. Other nations were not slow
in following in the footsteps of the northern savants, and to such
an extent was this new departure carried that for a time at least,
all antiquarian objects were classified as belonging to one or other
of the so-called ages, on the mere knowledge of their composition.
So fascinating was the spell of this new doctrine, that it was some
time before even experienced archæologists could see the fallacy of
adhering rigidly to such a method of arranging objects; as if, the
instant a bronze or an iron implement became known, the manufacture
of its analogues in the inferior materials there and then ceased for
ever. While, therefore, conceding that the chronological sequence of
the three ages, as determined in Scandinavia, is generally correct,
and holds good also for European countries, I consider it radically
wrong to suppose that the respective epochs indicated by these
successive stages of civilisation, especially in districts widely
separated, are identical in point of time. Many local circumstances
in a country, such as the poverty of the people, their isolation and
distance from commercial highways, etc., have often so contributed to
the persistency of customs and usages, elsewhere become obsolete and
entirely superseded, that a chronological comparison of its progress
in civilisation, as defined by the three ages, becomes perplexing, if
not misleading, when applied to other countries. The question resolves
itself, therefore, into this: that each well-defined archæological
or geographical area must ascertain the chronological sequence and
duration of these ages for itself.

But whatever may be the value of this system when applied to the
elucidation of early European civilisation, one thing is certain--that
it was the means of evoking throughout the entire world an enormous
amount of interest in archæological pursuits. Henceforth primeval
antiquities of every description, the merest "waifs and strays" of
humanity, things which previously were utterly ignored, were now
eagerly collected, described, and catalogued; and in every centre of
intelligence societies and journals were founded with the express
object of following up the new found trail of prehistoric man. Since
then the problem of man's place in nature has come largely to the
front, and now appeals for its solution to all departments of science,
and to all legitimate processes of reasoning. Among those who devoted
their energies to the study and elucidation of the archæological
phase of this problem was the learned Ferdinand Keller, President of
the Antiquarian Association at Zürich, to whom the world is indebted
for one of the most remarkable archæological discoveries of this
century--a discovery which in its consequential results is unique for
the variety and wealth of materials with which it has illustrated
that singular but long unknown and forgotten phase of prehistoric
civilisation in Europe, which found its outcome in the habit of
constructing dwellings in lakes, marshes, etc. This discovery of Dr.
Keller was not of the nature of a lucky find, but was the result of a
purely mental process--a spark of superior intelligence--fostered, I
have no doubt, by his knowledge of these very Scandinavian doctrines
to which I have just referred.

In countries whose lakes and rivers are fed from snow-clad mountains
and glaciers, it is observed that their waters find their greatest
diminution in winter, when a portion of their supply is temporarily
suspended in the form of ice. This phenomenon became unusually
intensified in Switzerland during the winter of 1853-4, so much so,
that the level of its lakes had sunk lower than had ever before been
known. Some of the inhabitants of the village of Ober-Meilen, on
the east shore of Lake Zürich, took advantage of this circumstance
to extend their vineyards, by recovering portions of the exposed
shore, which they enclosed with stone walls, and filled in the space
with mud, so as to bring its surface above the ordinary level of the
lake. In the course of these operations the workmen came upon the
heads of wooden piles around which were portions of stags' horns,
stone hatchets and other implements (=Fig. 1=), which excited some
curiosity among them. The event, however, was not singular in the
district, as objects of a similar character were on several occasions
encountered along the shore of the lake; and even in this same spot,
in 1829, when the little harbour of the village was being deepened,
bits of rotten piles, as well as implements of stone and horn, were
turned up among the dredged stuff. They were not, however, deemed
of sufficient value to be rescued from the mud, so that, along with
it, they were carried away and re-deposited in deep water. Also at
Männedorf, a village a few leagues farther up the lake, during the
winter of 1843-4, while its harbour was being enlarged, similar
discoveries were made. A few of the relics were on this occasion
collected and sent to the Museum at Zürich, where they are still to
be seen. Indeed, these, and other recorded instances of antiquarian
remains being fished up or dredged from the Swiss lakes, are by
no means exceptional events; but, however suggestive they may now
appear, they all failed to excite in the minds of their beholders
that great deduction which will for ever associate the name of Keller
with the lake-dwellings of Europe. On this occasion the schoolmaster
of the village of Ober-Meilen, Mr. Æppli, whose house was close by,
considered the find of sufficient importance to be brought under the
notice of the Antiquarian Association at Zürich, which he accordingly
did in the month of January, 1854. Thus it was that Dr. Keller
appeared on the scene. From the investigations which subsequently
ensued the following general facts were ascertained.

(_a_) _Composition of Lake-bed._--First, or uppermost, there was a
stratum of yellowish mud, from 1 to 2 feet thick, mixed with rounded
pebbles, and in all respects similar to what was being deposited in
the shallow indentations of the lake in the vicinity. Beneath this
was a deposit of blackish mud, mixed with decayed organic matter, and
varying in thickness from 2 to 2½ feet, in which the tops of the
piles appeared and all the relics were found. The third stratum was
in composition somewhat similar to the first, and, like it, with the
exception of the deeply penetrating piles, was devoid of antiquarian
remains.

(_b_) _Disposition of the Piles, etc._--The exact dimensions of the
area occupied by the piles were not determined, but it appeared to be
considerable, and to stretch along the shore within a few fathoms
of the ordinary water-mark. The piles were made of different kinds
of wood--oak, beech, birch, and fir being the most prevalent--and
they varied in thickness from 4 to 6 inches. Sometimes entire stems
were used, but more frequently they were split into halves or
quarters. They were about 1½ foot apart, and had a kind of systematic
arrangement in rows parallel to the beach. Some piles were pulled up,
and their tips were found to have been pointed by blunt tools, the
cuts of which were, in the estimation of experienced carpenters who
had examined them, precisely similar to those which would be made by
those very stone implements collected around them.

(_c_) _Relics._--The relics were of a mixed character, and included
the following:--Stone celts and chisels, some of them being still
fixed in their horn handles and fastenings (=Fig. 1=, Nos. 3, 4, 11,
and 15); perforated hammer-axes (Nos. 8, 13, and 17); mealing-stones
and polishers (No. 12); various implements made of flint, as scrapers,
flakes (No. 1), saws (No. 2), and some rude arrow-points (only one
being neatly finished, No. 16); various objects of horn and bone (Nos.
6 and 7); also some wooden clubs, fragments of pottery, spindle-whorls
(No. 14), shells of hazel-nuts, etc. Among the relics then collected
were a bead of amber (No. 9) and a bronze armilla (No. 10).

After careful consideration of the facts thus brought to light, Dr.
Keller came to the conclusion that the piles had formerly supported
a wooden platform, that on this platform huts had been erected, and
that, after these had been inhabited for a long period, the whole
structure had been destroyed by fire.

A knowledge of these discoveries at Ober-Meilen, and of Dr. Keller's
opinion in regard to them, soon spread among the surrounding
inhabitants, the immediate result of which was a sudden crop of
lacustrine explorers, who carried on a vigorous search for similar
remains in this and the adjacent lakes. For their guidance were
requisitioned all sorts of traditions, stories of submerged cities,
of which many abounded, recollections of the occasional finding of
implements and weapons of unusual types, etc.; but of greatest service
was the local knowledge of fishermen, who, from practical experiences
of disasters to their nets and fishing gear, could at once point out
numberless localities where large fields of submerged piling were
to be found. In the spring of the same year the celebrated station
known as the Steinberg, at Nidau, in Lake Bienne, was discovered, as
well as numerous other stations in the lakes of Bienne, Neuchâtel,
and Geneva; so that before an illustrated account of the Ober-Meilen
discovery could appear in the Transactions of the Antiquarian Society
of Zürich Dr. Keller had important materials of a similar character
from other localities to record. This report, entitled "Die Keltischen
Pfahlbauten in den Schweizerseen," appeared towards the close of
the year 1854, and at once attracted the attention of archæologists
in all countries. Since then lacustrine investigations in search
of lake-dwellings have been incessantly carried on, not only in
Switzerland, but in many other countries in Europe, with the result
that each year has seen an increase in their number, as well as a
corresponding enhancement of the archæological value of the materials
so discovered.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--OBER-MEILEN. All ½ real size.]

Prominent among the early investigators whose names have a claim to
be associated with this great discovery which has so popularised the
name of the Zürich antiquary were Colonel Schwab, of Bienne, whose
splendid collection of lake-dwelling antiquities now adorns his native
town; Professor Desor, author of the admirable little treatise "Les
Palafittes, ou Constructions lacustres du lac de Neuchâtel," and other
works; and Professor Troyon of Lausanne, whose work, "Habitations
lacustres des temps anciens et modernes," is so well known. But
foremost among them all stood Keller himself, who from time to time,
according to the demands of fresh discoveries, issued systematic
reports of the Pfahlbauten, of which no fewer than six had appeared
previous to the year 1866. In that year was published the English
edition of Keller's reports, arranged and translated by Mr. Lee.
It is needless to pursue here any further in historical order the
various means, whether as publications or investigations, by which
Keller's discovery was being pursued, as they come to be dealt with
elsewhere. Suffice it to say that within a few years of its publicity,
the existence of lacustrine villages all over Central Europe in
prehistoric times was fully established.

From these remarks you will have some idea of the work before us in
these lectures. It contemplates a critical and summary review of
the principal results of the investigations of the lake-dwellings
of Europe during the last half-century. This embraces a large
geographical area, extending, roughly, from Ireland to Bulgaria, and
from Venice on the Adriatic to the shores of the Baltic. Of the
very numerous researches to which I shall have to refer, some were
conducted by private individuals, others by public or scientific
bodies, but all presumably more or less qualified to give a correct
report of the facts. The records of successive discoveries have
been generally published in the proceedings of local societies, but
sometimes in separate monographs of extremely limited circulation. As
to the antiquities, some have found their way to dealers, and have
disappeared to foreign lands. A large proportion, however, have been
carefully preserved in the respective districts or countries in which
they were found, and are now located in public museums or private
collections, where, as a rule, they are intelligently arranged and
duly labelled. In conducting you, as it were, over this wide area,
amidst such diversified materials, I shall be guided, to a certain
extent, by geographical convenience, even at the expense of historical
sequence; and in discussing typical finds I shall, as far as this may
be practicable, make use of diagrammatic and pictorial illustrations,
believing that even a poor illustration often conveys more information
than the most accurate description.


LAKE ZÜRICH.

Further discoveries in Lake Zürich were not so speedily effected as
in some of the other Swiss lakes, and for a few years the interest
in this subject was transferred to more distant localities. In the
following year, 1855, Colonel Schwab visited Zürich and made further
researches at Männedorf and Ober-Meilen. From the latter he succeeded
in securing a considerable number of objects, especially stone
hatchets, some of which were made of nephrite, and a bronze celt of
the flat type (=Fig. 1=, No. 5).

In 1858, in the course of some dredging operations for the purpose
of deepening the mouth of the Limmat, fragments of pottery, bits of
piles, and some peculiar beams having one or two square-cut holes
(=Fig. 2=, Nos. 13 and 14) were dredged up. Dr. Keller recognised here
the site of a Pfahlbau which extended both under the little island
called Bauschanze and outwards towards the lake. (B. 22 and 336.)

Two other localities near the outlet known as the "Kleiner Hafner"
and "Grosser Hafner" were also proved to have been stations. The
former was opposite the north end of the Tonhalle, and about 150
yards distant from the original shore. It occupied a circular area of
about 1½ acre in extent and, when the water was low, its surface was
only some 3 feet submerged. The Grosser Hafner was farther off in the
lake, and its area was considerably larger than that of the Kleiner
Hafner. On a clear day in both these localities stones and the tops
of piles could be seen. Another locality known to Dr. Keller at this
early period was about two miles from Zürich, on the west shore of the
lake and just opposite the steamboat pier at Wollishofen. Here the
lake-bed consisted of a deposit of fine mud, and owing to the constant
commotion made by the steamers in passing to and fro the _débris_ of
the lake-dwelling had been greatly covered up. (B. 336.)

[Illustration: Plan of Lake-dwellings in ZURICHSEE, PFAFFIKERSEE,
GREIFENSEE & ZUGERSEE.]

As the Kleiner Hafner lay directly along the course followed by the
steamers, and greatly obstructed their passage, the authorities,
in 1867, resolved to have the obstruction removed altogether. For
this purpose a dredging machine was used, by means of which a
segment several feet thick was removed from its surface. During
this operation the same kind of perforated beams which had already
attracted attention at the Bauschanze were turned up among the stuff,
together with numerous objects of flint, stone, bone, etc., similar to
those at Ober-Meilen (=Fig. 2=, Nos. 9 to 17). In addition to these,
however, there were bronze axes of the winged type, some spoon-shaped
crucibles, large clay rings and fragments of pottery of an unusually
fine kind (=Fig. 2=, Nos. 1 to 8). But, what was considered still more
strange, there were among these relics some iron weapons and Roman
tiles.

Hitherto there was little or nothing done to the Grosser Hafner,
and the "Haumessergrund" at Wollishofen, and so the surmises of
Dr. Keller regarding them might have died with him, had it not
been for the extraordinary exertions of the people of Zürich to
have their beautiful environments made still more attractive by
art. These extensive alterations, begun some six years ago, and
scarcely yet completed, have so entirely changed the aspect of the
shore in the immediate neighbourhood of the outlet, that visitors
whose recollection of the town dates farther back than these
transformations, will hardly recognise the locality. A splendid
bridge now spans the opening of the Limmat, and on both sides of
it are elegant promenades, gardens, and ornamental quays, which
occupy what was formerly part of the lake. The filling up of such a
great area of lake-bottom involved the use of dredgers, which, with
revolving buckets, raised stuff from the most convenient shallows
along the shore, and having dropped it into boats, it was then
transported to its final destination. Among the localities selected
for these operations were the Grosser Hafner and the outskirts of
the Bauschanze. The rich loamy deposits of the Haumessergrund at
Wollishofen were also found suitable for mixing with the gravel and
for forming a good soil for the floral and horticultural gardens which
now form such a conspicuous ornament to the fashionable walks along
the northern shore of the lake.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--BAUSCHANZE (13, 14, and 21 to 23); KLEINER
HAFNER (1 to 12, and 15 to 17), and GROSSER HAFNER. All ⅓ real size
except 13 and 14.]

The Grosser Hafner[1] supplied a wonderful medley of antiquarian
objects, apparently of all ages--stone hatchets (one of which was
10 inches long), horn handles, bone implements, etc. Among bronze
objects were: hatchets of the winged type, chisels, sickles, knives
some ornamented with half-circles, points, and lines (=Fig. 2=, Nos.
30 and 35); pins with large heads, oval or round, and sometimes
perforated and variously ornamented (Nos. 24, 25, and 26); arm-rings,
both closed and open, and ornamented with engraved lines, dots, etc.
(Nos. 18 and 28); a few spirals (No. 34), small rings and pendants
(Nos. 19 and 27); two solid rings attached by a band (No. 29); a group
of four rings--one being larger, on which the other three were hung
(No. 20); a pin-like object, 15½ inches long, with a handle like
that of a sword (No. 32); lance-heads, some of which were ornamented;
a few small beads of amber. Among the fragments of pottery were two
vessels complete with round bases (No. 31), and part of a moon-shaped
crescent, rudely ornamented with depressions like finger-marks.

Here, again, as in the Kleiner Hafner, objects apparently of a later
date were found, among which were Roman tiles, pottery of the kind
known as _terra sigillata_, and an iron spear-head; also upwards of 16
coins of the time of Augustus, Tiberias and Vespasian.

On the other hand, at the Bauschanze, while objects of the stone age
were very numerous, there were scarcely any of bronze. Most of the
objects collected on this station were dispersed; but among the few
that have come to the knowledge of antiquaries are some remarkable
implements of horn, like picks, said to be field-hoes (Nos. 21
and 22). One of these is 14½ inches long, pointed at one end and
chisel-shaped at the other. Another (10½ inches long) is also pointed
at one end, but forked at the other. Both are perforated with an oval
hole for the insertion of a wooden handle.[2]

WOLLISHOFEN.--The greatest of all the finds in Lake Zürich was that
at Wollishofen. (B. 448, 449a, and 462.) Here, again, the dredging
machines brought up a large quantity of wood, among which were some
of those peculiar oak beams with square-cut holes, already noticed
(=Fig. 2=, Nos. 13 and 14). The wood was of various kinds, and so
abundant that the poorer people were in the habit of collecting it for
firewood. Although the antiquities of the stone age were numerous,
the great feature of this station is that it belonged to, or at
least existed during, the most flourishing period of the bronze age.
Notwithstanding pilfering, and the difficulty of detecting the smaller
objects, the collection, as now deposited in the Museum at Zürich,
must be considered one of the most important in the whole series of
lake-dwelling researches. Among the more remarkable objects were the
following:--

_Weapons._--Four bronze swords, one only of which is complete (=Fig.
3=, No. 1); its entire length is 28½ inches, including the handle,
which is also of bronze (barely 4 inches long), and to which the blade
is attached by two rivets; another (No. 2), which is defective both
in the blade and handle, is of a different type, especially in the
formation of the handle, which was intended to have bone or wooden
plates fastened with rivets to the remaining bronze portion; it is
ornamented with a combination of circles or semicircles, in incised
lines or dots. Three daggers, two of which have rivet-holes, and the
third has what appears to be the remains of a tang. Eleven arrow-heads
of bronze, and several of flint and bone. Of the former, two only have
sockets (Nos. 4 and 14), the others being imitations of the ordinary
flint forms (Nos. 3 and 5). Lance-heads were in much larger numbers
than either the swords or daggers; they are mostly socketed, with side
rivet-holes for fixing the handle; they vary in length from 3½ to 8
inches, and are sometimes ornamented, as shown in No. 7, and only two
had tangs. Portions of wood are supposed to be fragments of bows.

_Industrial Implements and Ornaments._--The stone hatchets are
exceedingly well-made, and appear to have been partly sawn from
water-worn boulders of serpentine and hornstone. None were of
_nephrite_ or _jadeite_; a few of horn have been noted (=Fig. 185=,
No. 15). The bronze hatchets (=Fig. 4=, Nos. 16, 20, and 25) were
numerous, the greatest number having four wings and sometimes a loop
at the side; the direction of the cutting edge is generally at right
angles to that of the wings, but in a few instances parallel to it (as
in No. 16); at the top of the hatchet there is a hole or small recess.
Of the flat kind there were a few, one of which is here figured (No.
25). Two small ones are of copper (=Fig. 3=, No. 17). The knives are
mostly ornamented with running patterns or circles or semicircles in
dots or lines, and the blades are all more or less curved (=Fig. 4=,
Nos. 11 to 15); the handles were sometimes solid and of a piece with
the blade, but more frequently they were of horn or wood, and attached
by tangs or rivets. It is rather remarkable that amongst the large
number of knives collected at Wollishofen there is not one of the
socketed kind, which, as we shall afterwards see, are so frequently
met with in Lake Bourget and some stations in western Switzerland.
Some sickles of the usual type, fish-hooks, and a few of the socketed
razor knives. Of bronze hammers there are six, all of which are
socketed and either round or rectangular in shape (=Fig. 4=, Nos. 8
and 18). The round one, No. 8, is ornamented with a series of circular
grooves, and has a socket 1¾ inches deep; it weighs 490 grs.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--WOLLISHOFEN. All ½ real size.]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--WOLLISHOFEN. All ⅓ real size.]

There is a considerable number of chisels and gouges (=Fig. 4=, Nos.
1 to 7), small tubes, broad-headed nails and studs. One bronze punch
is bifurcated (_Antiqua_, 1886, Pl. v. Fig. 8). An elegant vase of
solid bronze (=Fig. 3=, No. 22), and fragments of large situlæ, made
of thin bronze plates riveted (=Fig. 4=, Nos. 17 and 22). One of the
most remarkable objects is that represented on =Fig. 4=, No. 21, which
is supposed to be an anvil. Several long pins with sword-like handles,
similar to one found on the Grosser Hafner (=Fig. 4=, Nos. 9 and 10).
Bronze hair-pins were so numerous that they are to be counted by
hundreds in the Museum (=Fig. 3=, Nos. 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 19 and 23 to
26). One bronze comb and one bronze fibula (=Fig. 3=, Nos. 16 and 20).
Bracelets are well represented, both closed and open; they are either
flat or in solid mass (=Fig. 3=, No. 13), and generally ornamented;
one (No. 15), open at the ends, is made of two stout wires, one of
which is spirally grooved, and the other plain; these wires are united
at the ends by a tin pin, which passes through a loop formed by the
recoil of the ends of the wires. A large hollow ring (three inches
internal, and rather more than four inches external diameter) is
highly ornamented. (See =Fig. 188=, No. 2.) Finger-rings (=Fig. 3=,
No. 28), pendants (Nos. 29, 30, and 31), buttons (No. 21), studs (No.
27), a so-called _portemonnaie_, for ring money (No. 33), portions of
girdles (=Fig. 4=, No. 19). There are also one ringlet of gold and
three beads, one of amber and two of glass. Amongst the nondescript
objects are several small wheels--three of pottery (=Fig. 5=, No. 6),
five of bronze (=Fig. 3=, Nos. 12 and 18), and two of tin (No. 32)--a
leaden weight, which has a high loop of bronze (=Fig. 4=, No. 23). An
object of the same kind (No. 24), with two loops, was found at Onnens.
Besides the two copper celts (=Fig. 3=, No. 17) there were two small
copper awls and several bits of this metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--WOLLISHOFEN. All ⅓ real size.]

_Pottery._--The pottery at Wollishofen shows vessels made of two kinds
of paste, one fine, and the other coarse containing a mixture of rough
sand. The vessels varied much in size, the smallest being only about
one inch in diameter, and the larger ones, judging from the curve of
the fragments, ranged from sixteen to twenty-seven inches in diameter.
They had no glaze, nor can it be said that the wheel was used in
their manufacture, although some are very symmetrically shaped. No
quartz or sand was mixed with the fine paste, of which the more
ornamental vessels were made (=Fig. 5= Nos. 1, 2, 3, 7, 9, 11, and
12). Some had a conical-shaped base, and could only be made to sit in
soft material, such as sand, or by means of a ring, like those figured
from the Kleiner and Grosser Hafner. One small vessel was trilocular,
having its three chambers or bowls attached to one common base. Some
very flat vessels were found, which are supposed to have been lids
(=Fig. 5=, No. 7). Spindle whorls of burnt clay variously ornamented
(=Fig. 5=, Nos. 13 to 20), and some other objects like modern thread
pirns (Nos. 5 and 10) are in abundance. Portions of six crescents are
all differently ornamented. Some now in the Museum have been restored,
so as to show their original form and ornamentation, and it is from
one of these that the illustration here given was taken (=Fig. 5=,
No. 8). Some dishes took the forms of animals, as in No. 4, and were
probably used as lamps.

Among other objects may be mentioned some bits of red stone, supposed
to have been used as paint; foundry materials, as moulds and bronze
dross; portion of a dug-out canoe; various bits of sawn and cut horn;
etc.

_Human Remains._--The only portion of a human skeleton was a skull,
which, according to Dr. Kollmann, is of the mesocephalic type. (B.
420, p. 90.)

_Organic Remains._--Wheat, millet, hazel-nuts, and crab-apples, were
identified.

MÄNNEDORF.--I have already incidentally referred to the discovery
of the site of a lake-dwelling at Männedorf before 1854, when such
antiquities were not understood (page 4). In 1866, however, a portion
of lake-bottom close to where these early discoveries were made,
measuring about eighty feet by thirty, was deepened to facilitate the
passage of steamers, when further evidence as to the nature of this
settlement was disclosed. The piles were so closely set that there
was hardly the breadth of a pile between them. The objects collected
were very similar to those already described from Ober-Meilen, among
which was a spoon-like crucible like those from Robenhausen. (B. 126,
p. 263.) The discovery of a second station near the mouth of the
Surenbach, between Männedorf and Uetikon, was noticed by Dr. Keller in
his second report. (B. 22, p. 121.)

UETIKON.--Remains of another station are to be found close by the
landing stage at Uetikon, from which on several occasions antiquities
of the Stone Age were picked up. More decided indications of the
character of this settlement were, however, revealed in 1886, in
consequence of some dredging operations that were carried on. On this
occasion were found not only piles, bones of various animals, as
stag, ox, and pig, fragments of pottery, stone hatchets, and flint
implements--the usual relics of the Stone Age--but also a few bronze
rings and hair-pins. (B. 462, p. 17.)

In the Zürich Museum may be seen a considerable number of the relics
from this station, among which are twenty-three stone celts (one
being still in its horn fastening), five flint saws or scrapers, four
pointers of horn, and a semi-globular spindle-whorl.

ERLENBACH.--Near Erlenbach were two settlements, one at Winkel, a few
minutes' walk above the village; and the other at Wyden, about an
equal distance below it. In 1886 the usual indications of the Pfahlbau
settlements, such as piles and various industrial relics, were found
in the course of some dredging operations, but the objects were mostly
dispersed. (B. 462, and 420a, p. 73.)

LETTEN.--In 1877, while digging a canal in connection with the
Zürich waterworks, some remarkable antiquities of bronze and iron
were dug up, which Dr. Keller describes in the eighth report of the
lake-dwellings. They were found in a portion of the cutting extending
some eight hundred yards in length at a place called Letten, on the
right bank of the Limmat, nearly opposite to where the Zihl joins it.
The objects lay in a fine mud deposited by the river, and underneath
a bed of gravel of the same origin. Dr. Keller came to the conclusion
that the "Lettenfunde" belonged to a settlement analogous to, and
probably contemporary with, the later Pfahlbauten, with the relics
from which they in many respects agree. A careful inspection of the
Letten relics--which include two swords, one or two spear-heads, a
variety of winged celts, a couple of sickles with raised buttons,
knives, a great number of hair-pins of diversified forms, an involved
ring-ornament, etc., all of bronze--shows that they are of a more
recent period than the lake-dwellings. Among the bronze celts are
forms (as for example that in =Fig. 3=, No. 35) which have never been
found in the true relic bed of a lake-dwelling; and besides there are
other objects, such as a fibula, and a piece of iron partly fashioned,
probably intended for a sword, which are characteristic of the La Tène
period. (See =Fig. 87=, No. 6.) While deepening the bed of the Limmat
similar objects, as well as those of preceding and succeeding ages
(Roman), have been frequently found. The Letten objects correspond
more with the pre-Roman antiquities found in the Nidau-Büren Canal
and in some of the later tumuli, and may therefore be said to link
together the products of two very different civilisations, viz. the
bronze age of the lake-dwellings, and the subsequent iron age, so
characteristic in La Tène.

For the relative positions of these stations see Sketch Map, page 9.


LAKE OF BIENNE.

INVESTIGATIONS IN THE JURA LAKES, AND ARCHÆOLOGICAL RESULT OF THE
"CORRECTION DES EAUX DU JURA."--At a short distance from the eastern
shore of Lake Bienne, near where the Zihl by several mouths found
its former exit, there exists, or rather formerly existed, a stony
elevation, covering an area of some three acres, which rose gradually
from a depth of about 20 feet to within 7 or 8 of the surface. This
curious cairn-like structure, being in marked contrast with the
surrounding lake sediments which here consist chiefly of fine mud, was
well-known to the fishermen as the "Steinberg," _i.e._ stone hillock.
Among these stones were many projecting heads of piles which, to
prevent injury to their nets, the fishermen were in the habit from
time to time of pulling out. Moreover, at various times, on or near
this steinberg, Roman tiles and some fantastically shaped objects
covered with chalky concretions were picked up, which fostered a vague
opinion that it was the foundation of a Roman fortress or lighthouse.

In 1854 Colonel Schwab and Mr. Müller of Nidau made a careful
investigation of the steinberg, the result of which was to leave no
doubt that it was the site of a lake-village which had been erected
over the piles, the stumps of which then only were detected among the
stones. These stones were of a pretty uniform size, not too large
to be transported readily by human hands, and in material they were
exactly similar to those scattered among the glacial _débris_ on the
neighbouring slopes. Interspersed in this cairn were, not only the
upright piles of round or split stems, singly and in groups, but also
transverse beams, which had evidently not fallen at random but had
been intentionally placed and jammed between the uprights to keep them
more firmly in position. The strange-looking objects turned out to be
bronze implements encrusted with such a coating of lime that their
metallic nature had been effectually concealed. The station quickly
proved to be exceedingly rich in antiquities of new and varied forms.
Not only the usual objects of the Stone Age, but even implements of
iron and fragments of pottery of unusual elegance were fished up.

This discovery was greatly talked of in the district, and led to
such a lively search for the sites of lacustrine abodes that before
the end of the year some half-dozen stations were identified in the
Lake of Bienne alone, not to mention a much larger number in the
adjacent lakes. Notwithstanding the difficulties under which these
lacustrine investigations were conducted, as dredging or digging under
several feet of water was both laborious and expensive, the number of
objects collected by the Swiss antiquaries in those early years is
astonishingly great, as evidence of which I have only to point to the
collections of Col. Schwab and Professor Desor.

It is often the case that antiquarian remains owe their discovery to
the mere accident of agricultural operations, peat-cutting, drainage,
etc. Such operations are, however, usually confined to small lakes
and bogs. The idea of partially lowering the surface of the extensive
sheets of water in the Jura valley, comprising the lakes of Bienne,
Neuchâtel, and Morat, was too chimerical to be ever entertained in the
interests of archæology. But what was inconceivable and utterly beyond
hope from this point of view, became, in the interests of agriculture,
not only a practical problem, but is now an accomplished fact. Between
the lakes of Bienne, Neuchâtel, and Morat, there stretches a vast
mossy district known as the "Gross Moos," through which the combined
surplus water of the two latter lakes finds its way to the former.
From the north end of Lake Bienne the surplus water again emerges, and
is conveyed by the Zihl or Lower Thielle in a sluggish channel for
some miles farther down the valley, where, before the Correction des
Eaux du Jura, it united with the Aar. As the surface of these lakes
is nearly on the same level, it is more than probable that in early
prehistoric times their waters formed one united sheet, which in the
course of ages became separated into three lakes by the interposition
of the sedimentary and peaty deposits now forming the Gross Moos.
Their connecting channels, the Broye and the Upper Thielle, owing to
the sluggishness of the flow, became gradually raised by the constant
deposition of mud, thus proportionately raising the level of the
confined waters, and consequently rendering the surrounding lands more
and more liable to submergence. Also, the river Aar, though passing
quite in the vicinity of the lake of Bienne, went a long way beyond it
before joining with the Zihl, and often caused great havoc by flooding
the richly-cultivated lands of the lower grounds.

To remedy these defects the Swiss Government entered on the gigantic
project of rectifying and deepening the entire waterway from the
junction of the Lower Thielle with the Aar to the mouth of the Broye
in Lake Morat. The scheme also included the cutting of a new channel
for the Aar, by means of which it would be entirely diverted from its
old course, and made to debouch into Lake Bienne by a straight and
much shorter route. (See Sketch Map, page 23.)

The hydrographical result of these works (which were begun in 1868,
and only completed a few years ago) was to lower the surface of these
lakes to the extent of six or eight feet. In the winter of 1871-2 the
operations began to tell on Lake Bienne, but it was some years later
before the others became sensibly affected. When, however, the works
were completed, the permanent effect on these lakes, especially on
Lake Neuchâtel, was very marked--harbours, jetties, and extensive
tracts of shore-land being left high and dry by the subsiding waters.
This was the harvest-time of archæology. Many of the lacustrine abodes
became dry land, and were visited by crowds of eager searchers; even
fishermen forsook their normal avocations, finding it more profitable
to fish for prehistoric relics. Government at last interfered with
this indiscriminate "howking," and passed a law restricting the
privilege of excavating to the authorities of the respective Cantons
on whose territories the stations happened to be. Thus the "Correction
des Eaux du Jura," as the undertaking was called, greatly facilitated
the investigations of the Swiss lake-dwellings, and contributed
enormously to the elucidation of the culture and civilisation of their
inhabitants.

[Illustration: Plan of Lake-dwellings in LAC de BIENNE, LAC de MORAT,
LAC de NEUCHATEL, and Correction des Eaux du Jura.]

In the following descriptive notes of the stations in Lake Bienne I
follow simply the order of their distribution along its shore, making,
as it were, a circular tour of the lake, beginning at Nidau, and
passing along its southern shore, then round to the other side, until
we come back to our starting-point.

NIDAU-STEINBERG.--This station was so thoroughly investigated by
Colonel Schwab and his assistants that little remained to be done
after the lowering of the water. The objects collected are both
numerous and varied, and being among the earlier of the kind brought
to light from the lake-dwellings, they have been fully illustrated by
Dr. Keller. (B. 15 and 22.) Among them were some heavy stone weights,
some perforated, and some with an iron hoop; discoidal stones,
with a marginal groove; a variety of corn crushers, polishers, and
hammer-stones, etc.

_Bronze._--Sickles and axes, both socketed and winged, generally with
a side loop, but without a notch at the top. Knives were numerous,
and some were ornamented with flowing lines and semicircles;
they were hafted by tangs or sockets, but in a few instances the
blade and handle were cast in one piece. Several spear-heads,
one of which is richly ornamented with a series of rings and a
serpentine pattern; a few arrow-points with barbs; several socketed
chisels of various sizes; numerous needles, hair-pins, fish-hooks,
curiously-shaped pendants, rings, and bifurcated pincer-like objects;
one hexagonal-shaped hammer with a socket, and another having a
small loop attached to the side like that of a celt. Some remarkably
fine bracelets, open at the ends, and hollow, and having the outside
ornamented with concentric circles, lines, etc.; others are solid,
or made of spirally-grooved wire. A number of so-called razors,
buttons, studs, broad-headed nails, spirals, the central portion of a
horse-bit, etc.

_Gold._--A small spiral of gold wire, and a square piece of thin plate
neatly corrugated.

_Iron._--A few conical javelins with sockets.

_Pottery._--The potter's art seems to have been carried to great
perfection. The vessels were of all sizes, from two to three feet in
diameter down to the most tiny objects. They were generally round at
the base, and required ring supports, of which many were found. Some
shallow plates were ornamented with squares, oblongs, and circles.
Various forms of spindle-whorls, some of which are made of fine paste,
and blackened with charcoal, like the finest pottery. Over twenty
clay crescents, represented by fragments, and one of stone. Some clay
cylinders, weights, and a few rude figures of a four-footed animal.

_Bone, Wood, etc._--A few bone implements, pointers, etc.; the side
piece of a bridle-bit of staghorn, perforated with three holes;
portion of a yoke, clubs, etc.; bits of clay with marks of wattle-work.

GRASEREN.--A small station concealed in rushes, and containing large
piles. The antiquities consist of a few iron objects, one being
a dagger with the handle ornamented with silver wire, and a few
mealing-stones and rubbers, etc. (B. 22.)

SUTZ.--This was a very large settlement, the piles extending over an
area of about 6 acres. It was connected with the shore by a bridge or
gangway, about 100 yards long and 13 wide. Within its area several
steinbergs were interspersed; and the relic-bed, from 4 to 16 inches
thick, was near the surface. The piles were mostly of oak, and
irregularly placed. The antiquities are classified as belonging to
both the Stone Age and the Bronze Age, among which the following are
the more interesting (B. 15 and 286):--

_Stone._--Hatchets of the usual form (a few of nephrite) and others
perforated; beads or spindle-whorls, one of quartz; flint arrow-heads,
flakes, and knives.

_Horn._--Among the horn objects were fixers for axe-heads, many with
a =V=-shaped split at the end, probably for being better fixed in
the wooden handle; perforated portions of staghorns, in the form
of hammers and clubs, three of which, in the Museum at Bern, are
remarkable for their irregular forms.

_Amber._--Two or three well-made beads.

_Bronze._--A sword (=Fig. 186=, No. 9), a fibula, a winged celt
with burnt portion of the wooden handle still remaining between the
flanges, a few hair-pins, and a hook shaped like a Roman key.

_Iron._--Two lance-heads like those from Nidau, and a curious
trident-like object. (B. 31, Pl. xv. 10.)

_Wood._--A bow of yew, quite perfect (length, 5 feet 3 inches),
portion of basket-work, and some wooden dishes with handles.

_Pottery._--The ceramic art is poorly represented here; only fragments
of a coarse quality, and ornamented with finger or string marks, are
recorded. (B. 462, Pl. ix. 4.) Two clay cylinders are in the Museum
at Bern, like those from Wollishofen (=Fig. 5=, Nos. 5 and 10),
together with some perforated clay weights.

In the neighbourhood of this station there are some ruins of Roman
buildings, a fact which is suggestive as an explanation of a quern or
millstone made after the Roman fashion, which is reckoned as a relic
from this lake-dwelling. From systematic investigations carried on
here in 1884, Dr. v. Fellenberg concluded that the station belonged to
the transition period, like Vinelz. (B. 462, p. 34.)

LATTRINGEN.--Dr. Gross describes two stations here, both of which,
from the prevailing character of the antiquities, appear to have
belonged to the Stone Age, although previous to his investigations
some bronze objects were said to have been fished up from one of them
by Colonel Schwab.

The first, or lower station, covered a space of some 5 acres, and
its remains are situated opposite the little port of the village of
Lattringen. It was connected with the shore by four bridges, the
largest of which was 65 yards long and 14 feet wide. The relics
collected by Dr. Gross are of the Stone Age, and among them are
staghorn haftings and a fine harpoon with 11 barbs and a perforation
at its obtuse extremity. According to Fellenberg, this station
belonged to the middle Stone Age period, as it has yielded no copper
implements, nor perforated hammer-axes, but on the other hand most
excellent nephrite implements. (B. 462, p. 35.) The collection of
objects from this station in the Cantonal Museum at Bern contains
among other things:--Daggers; chisels, harpoons, and pointers of
bone and horn; some perforated horn hammers and horn holders for
stone axes (only two of which have the end split); a number of flint
arrow-points, all flat based. A few stone beads and bits of rock
crystal. One small dagger-blade with four rivet-holes is of bronze or
copper.

Previous to Dr. Gross's report, the following objects have been
recorded as coming from this station:--Mealing-stones, fragments of
coarse pottery, a bronze dagger, a shovel-shaped bronze axe, and a
spiral ring, also of bronze. (B. 15, p. 95.) The upper station is 500
or 600 feet from the former, just opposite the erratic block known as
the _Sumpfstein_. It contained a small steinberg, and yielded fine
lance-heads of flint, a stone axe of serpentine sharpened at both ends
and perforated with an oval hole, and one or two horn objects. (See
=Fig. 186=, Nos. 7 and 11.)

MOERINGEN.--Judging from the number and variety of antiquities
collected from Moeringen, it must be ranked as the most important
station in Lake Bienne. The settlement occupied a sheltered bay called
the "Moeringen Ecken," and covered a rectangular area about 550 feet
long and 350 wide. The relic-bed was covered with eight or ten inches
of sand and mud. When discovered, and during the earlier years of its
investigation, piles were seen protruding more or less out of the mud,
and among them could be readily distinguished the ends of several
canoes. Investigations have been made here almost every favourable
season since its discovery by Mr. Müller in 1854, but in the winter
of 1872-3 Government took the matter into their own hands, and
conducted systematic explorations under the care of Messrs. Fellenberg
and Jenner. It then became apparent that there were two stations
in this bay--one belonging to the Stone Age, and another to the
Bronze Age--between which a well-defined distinction could be made,
especially in respect of the piles. The former occupied a position
nearer the shore, and the stumps of its piles were hardly visible;
while the latter was in deeper water, and its piles, less decayed than
the former, projected 1½ to 2 feet above the lake sediment. Both had
bridges extending to the shore, as was indicated in each case by the
remains of a double row of piles. But while the bridge of the Stone
Age settlement was 5 to 8 feet wide, that of the Bronze Age was 10 to
12 feet wide, and moreover it was much longer, being over 200 yards
in length. Dr. v. Fellenberg calculates, from counting the piles in
one or two selected places, that for the entire bronze settlement
somewhere about 10,000 piles must have been used.

The exploration of the settlement at Moeringen undertaken by
Government was continued in 1874, by which time the level of the
lake had fallen to such a degree that most of the bronze station was
laid dry, and many additional relics were added to the already large
collections from this station. Among the more interesting may be
mentioned some burnt boards and posts with square holes, supposed to
indicate the position and remains of huts or workshops. (B. 271.)

The earlier investigators, Col. Schwab and Mr. Müller, collected from
this station a number of objects, now deposited in the Schwab Museum,
among which are the following:--An iron sword of the La Tène type, and
a curious iron fork. Of bronze, there are knives, hair-pins, and a
variety of pendants. Some beads of glass and amber. Novel specimens
of earthenware; charred apples, grains of wheat, and beans; ropes and
cords made of flax and bast; etc.

The smaller station, according to Fellenberg, belonged to the middle
Stone Age period. A number of stone beads, some of white quartz, were
found in a contracted space, which are supposed to have formed a
necklace. (B. 462, p. 36.)

The two best collections from Moeringen are in the Cantonal Museum and
in the Federal Government rooms (Gross collection), both at Bern.

Of the very remarkable antiquities found here, Dr. Gross (B. 286)
gives a full account, classifying the objects under the following
heads:--

    1. _Arms._--Swords (=Fig. 186=, Nos. 4, 5, and 6), daggers,
                            lances, arrows.
    2. _Instruments._--Hatchets, sickles, polishing stones, discoidal
                            stones, anvils, spindle-whorls,
                            and weaving weights.
    3. _Objects of Dress._--Girdles and belt-buckles, hair-pins,
                            fibulæ, bracelets, rings, earrings,
                            beads of amber and glass, etc.
    4. _Objects belonging to Horses' Harness._--Bridle-bits of bronze,
                            iron, and horn; phaleræ.
                            (See =Fig. 191=, Nos. 3 to 7, and 13.)
    5. Pottery, crescents, etc.
    6. Sundry objects.

As specimens of the bronze relics from this station, I give the
illustrations on =Fig. 6=, selected from the beautiful coloured
plates of Desor and Favre. (B. 252.) The purpose of these objects is
sufficiently manifest without entering on a detailed description.

I will only remark that the unique dagger, the handle of which is here
only represented (No. 5), consists of a stout bronze rod twenty-one
inches long, pointed at one end, and becoming quadrangular at the
other, where it enters a socket in the handle. The free end of the
handle terminates in a fixed ring, on which are three movable rings;
and on its body there is a secondary handle, with a curious curved
appendage in front of it.

GERLAFINGEN (GEROFIN).--There were two settlements here also--one of
the Stone Age, covering little more than half an acre; and the other
of the Bronze Age, of much larger dimensions and farther from the
shore than the former. The stations had separate bridges, the remains
of which again suggested that these approaches were larger during the
Bronze Age. The Stone Age station was covered with mud, and the relics
from it consisted of stone celts (one perforated), flint flakes, and
some fragments of coarse pottery.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--MOERINGEN. All bronze and ½ real size.]

The second station (Unter Station oder Oefeliplätze) contains a
steinberg which communicated with an adjacent tongue of land by a
bridge. There was no well-defined relic-bed, but the relics picked up
are of great value, among which are the following[3]:--A number of
nephrite and jadeite hatchets, a nephrite knife in its horn handle,
flint knives, a wooden spoon, a miniature canoe, four copper chisels
(B. 286, Pl. ix. 34 and 35), two flat hatchets of bronze, showing
rudimentary wings, a double-stemmed hair-pin (B. 286, Pl. x. 2), two
daggers of bronze, one triangularly shaped (B. 286, Pl. iii. 17), a
massive bracelet of bronze, some staghorn hammers, a scoop, some large
clay weights, etc. In the Bern Museum are thirteen beads of copper,
graduated so as to form a necklet; some arrow-heads of rock crystal;
an ammonite and another shell (pectunculus), both perforated; also
some perforated small bones, teeth, and beads of horn. (B. 462, p. 64,
and Pl. xiv.) Dr. Gross estimates the number of jade implements from
Oefeli at thirty or forty, the largest being four inches long, and the
smallest one inch (both of nephrite).

Piles were found in various spots in this locality; and associated
with one group were Roman remains, such as fragments of tiles,
pottery, coins, and bits of glass.

HAGNECK.--In this locality, near where the Aar now debouches into the
lake, and about one hundred yards from the shore, were formerly to be
seen some piles, but the relic-bed seemed to have been washed away.
Desor found some stone hatchets and a few other relics. The station
was connected with the shore by a bridge sixty-five yards long and
thirteen feet wide.

ILE DE ST. PIERRE.--On the south side of this island there are remains
of an extensive settlement, the piles of which run parallel to the
bank. A large canoe was observed here, lying in the mud, apparently
having been swamped with a load of stones, with which it still was
filled. It was 50 feet long, and 3½ to 4 feet wide. Near the piles
a bronze pin with an oval head, and ornamented with wavy lines, was
picked up. Another station was on the north-east side of the island,
which is now dry, and on which a large number of bronze objects was
collected; but there was no regular relic-bed, and as the objects
were gathered on the surface, Dr. v. Fellenberg thinks it has been
washed away. (B. 462, p.31.) Among the relics are a bronze knife, a
compound pendant curiously arranged (B. 286, Pl. viii. 3), a pair of
pincers, portion of a chain consisting of rings and bands, and several
fragments of swords, celts, and sickles; also an iron sword with the
handle of bronze.

On the south side of the Ile des Lapins there are some piles, which
point to this being the site of a station, but on the island itself
antiquities of various ages have been collected, such as Roman
roofing tiles and coins, a pretty gold ornament, and many objects of
Gallo-Roman manufacture.

LOCRAS (LÜSCHERZ).--Owing to the depth of water over the ruins of
the settlement opposite this village, the station, although known
to Colonel Schwab, did not assume any importance till the winter of
1871-2, when the waters commenced to fall, and the Bernese Government
undertook a series of investigations. The extent of the settlement was
estimated by Dr. Gross at about four acres, and it had been connected
with the shore by a short bridge. The relic-bed, four to twenty inches
thick, lay under a considerable accumulation of sand and gravel, and
consisted of a blackish stratum of organic _débris_, which appears to
have been peculiarly favourable for the preservation of the usually
perishable objects of human industry. It is therefore singularly rich
in such remains, and has furnished balls of linen thread, fragments of
cloth made of flax, heaps of grain, and various remains of cultivated
plants.

In prosecuting the exploration of the station it was found that
the relic-bed became more deeply buried the farther it was pursued
outwards; so that from 2½ feet, its depth on the shore side, it
gradually increased to 7½ on the opposite side. The piles were of
oak, beech, silver fir, pine, poplar, and birch, mostly in the form
of round stems. All these different kinds of wood appear to have been
used in nearly the same proportion all over the settlement except at
the north-west corner, at a place called the Steinberg, where the
piles were entirely of split oak stems. Another peculiarity was that
the piles were more superficial, and hence it was suggested that
this corner was of later date. Like most of the other lake-dwelling
settlements, the woodwork showed marks of burning. The theory of some
sudden catastrophe, such as a general conflagration, was strengthened
by the number of human remains--no less than three skulls and some
bones of the trunk and extremities--that were found at a depth of 3
feet.

Among the antiquities recorded by Dr. Gross (B. 286) the following may
be mentioned:--

_Stone._--Several hundreds of polished celts, about 30 of which were
jadeite or nephrite; flint implements of black and yellow flint,
and beautifully formed, such as lance-heads, arrow-points, saws,
and flakes; some round pebbles, about the size of a pigeon's egg,
encircled with birch-bark, and arranged in a row, like peas in a pod;
spindle-whorls, corn-crushers, etc.

_Horn and Bone._--A large number of haftings, probably from 600 to
800, many still retaining a stone celt or chisel; about 40 axe-hammer
heads, perforated with a square or round hole; two little combs with
three teeth; chisels, needles, awls, bodkins, arrow-points; a carding
implement made of a number of small ribs pointed at one end and tied
together, etc.

_Pottery._--A large number of entire vessels and fragments show that
two qualities of paste were used, a coarse and a fine kind. Among them
are bowls, plates, jugs--some having the ordinary handle and others
perforated knobs; clay weights, round, cylindrical, or conical.

_Sundry Objects._--Portion of a spindle with the thread wound round
it (carbonised), various wooden handles, dishes, and implements;
fragments of cloth, matting, burnt straw, etc. One small flat dagger
of copper is in the Bern Museum.

The following extract from the Government Report by Mr. Jenner, Dr.
v. Fellenberg's deputy (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 203), gives a good idea
of the comparative numbers of these relics:--"The results of my
excavations, which occupied 27 days, and extended over an area of
20,000 square feet, at a medium depth of 3½ feet, the relic-bed being
from 2 inches to 1½ foot thick, were as follows:--

   1. Stone implements                        600
   2. Staghorn do.                            480
   3. Bone do.                                235
   4. Pieces of cloth                          50
   5. Objects for ornament                     45
   6. Entire vessels of pottery                11
   7. Stone celts and axes in their haftings   23
   8. Flint implements                        121
   9. Unworked pieces of staghorn             430
  10. Wooden implements                        24
  11. Ornamented potsherds                     26
  12. Clay weights                              8
  13. Celts of nephrite and jadeite             8
  14. A number of net-weights in birch-bark.

Contiguous to the station just described, on its north-east side, and
separated from it by a dozen paces or so, there came subsequently
to light another station, described by Dr. Gross as "Une nouvelle
palafitte de l'époque de la pierre à Locras." (B. 336 and 347.) Its
area was only about a fourth of the former, and the relic-bed, being
quite near the surface, was easily worked. Two human skulls were
found here, one of which appears to have been used as a drinking-cup.
From the character of the relics generally, the settlement seems to
have flourished during the transition period. There were perforated
axe-hammer heads, with grooves and raised ridges, like Scandinavian
forms, and a few metal objects. The latter consist of three articles
of copper--a remarkable double celt of large size (=Fig. 186=, No.
10), a dagger, and an awl--and three articles of bronze, viz. a
sword, a dagger-blade, and a hair-pin. The other objects are of the
usual Stone Age type, among which may be noted as of rather uncommon
occurrence an arrow-point of nephrite (B. 347, Pl. ii. 9), and a knife
of the same material with one cutting edge (=Fig. 185=, No. 28).

VINELZ (FENIL).--This station, which is now entirely on dry land, was
accidentally discovered in 1881 by labourers while digging a ditch
to carry off water accumulating on the fields.[4] At a depth of two
or three feet of sand and gravel they came upon a blackish bed of
mud-earth, in which were detected a number of piles, the heads of
which projected upwards into the sand and gravel for about a foot.
Dr. Gross, who was informed of the circumstance, soon visited the
spot, and at once recognised the site of a lake-dwelling. It appears
that the locality is much exposed to the north winds, and that the
settlement had thus become completely covered over with sand and
gravel thrown up on the shore, as was the case with the station of
Wangen in the Untersee. During the spring and summer of 1882 the new
Pfahlbau was investigated by several experts, including Drs. Gross
and v. Fellenberg. The station is remarkable for the number of copper
objects which it has yielded to the systematic explorations ordered by
Fellenberg, and carefully conducted by Ed. Matthys, of Ligerz. From
the results thus obtained, the station at Vinelz is the most typical
yet discovered of the final Stone Age period (_Uebergangszeit_). (B.
462, p. 33.) The following are some of the antiquities collected, most
of which are in the Cantonal Museum of Bern and the Gross collection.

Among nearly 100 copper objects (including 46 beads, =Fig. 7=, No.
31) are several daggers (Nos. 26 and 28), flat axes (No. 27), chisels
(No. 24), rude knives, awls (Nos. 17 and 25), pendants (No. 23), tubes
and spirals (Nos. 22 and 30). No bronze or iron object has yet been
found on this station. Bone and horn handles, polished daggers, large
button-like objects (Nos. 20 and 21), perforated clubs, ornamental
pins (Nos. 15, 16, and 18), etc., are numerous. Perforated stone axes
and the ordinary polished celts are common (about 40 of the former and
100 of the latter being in the Bern Museum). Flint daggers, sometimes
worked at both ends (No. 12), are also very fine; two were found in
their wooden handles (No. 11). For more firmly fixing them a fine
band of reed or withe was neatly rolled round the handle. A variety
of flint arrow-heads, scrapers, etc. (Nos. 1 to 9), clay weights of
different forms, implements of pointed ribs, basket-work, etc. For
bits of well-woven cloth, thread, and fishing-nets, this station vies
with Robenhausen. A portion of a spindle has some thread still round
it. There was an entire fishing-net (carbonised) associated with a
number of stone sinkers.

The pottery (Nos. 29, 32, and 33) was ornamented with dots and
string-marks. One vessel had a horn-shaped handle projecting from the
body of the vessel.

Wooden objects are also well represented in the form of dishes, clubs,
handles, and net-floats. One portion of wood had some pointed flints
stuck in it with resin, which had evidently been used like a saw
(=Fig. 185=, No. 17), finger-marks having been cut out in the wood, by
means of which the instrument could be more readily grasped.

[Illustration: Fig. 7--VINELZ. Nos. 29, 32 and 33 = ¼, the rest =
½ real size.]

SAINT JEAN.--A little less than a mile from the lake, in the marshy
plain, some bronze objects were found, which point to this as the site
of a station. Below Landerdon there are also some piles, the tops of
which are much decayed and deeply buried in mud. Dr. Gross is reported
to have found here a sword of the Middle Ages.

SCHAFFIS (CHAVANNES).--This settlement stretched as a narrow band on
the left bank of the lake, and though known for a considerable time
it remained unexplored till the lowering of the water facilitated its
investigation. This was done by Dr. v. Fellenberg, in 1873, on behalf
of the Government. (B. 271.)

Three steinbergs were found on its site, two of which were close
together. In the vicinity of these steinbergs the piles were placed in
rows running outward into the lake. Elsewhere they were irregularly
but closely placed, seldom more than two feet apart, and penetrated
deeply into the old black lake-sediment. Few timbers were met with,
though twigs, basket-work, and charred food, were common.

The total length of the station was 640 feet, and greatest breadth 167
feet. The largest steinberg measured 217 by 65 feet. Several bridges,
from 30 to 60 feet in length, connected the piled area with the shore.
The station is now completely dry, and overgrown with vegetation.

On the steinbergs the relic-bed was quite superficial, being covered
only with a thin layer of sand and gravel. The organic remains, such
as staghorn haftings and bone implements, were of a blackish colour,
and so much decomposed that few could be preserved from crumbling
into pieces. Stone celts were very numerous, but unusually small, as,
out of several hundred specimens, only a few reached the length of 5
or 6 inches. The majority were only 3 inches long, and although well
polished and sharpened along the cutting edge, they were of inferior
workmanship when compared with those of some other stations, such as
Locras. They were all manufactured of materials readily found in the
surrounding country, with the exception of three jade implements (two
jadeite and one nephrite). Large slabs for grinding and polishing
these tools were remarkably abundant.

On the other hand, the station is prominent for the beauty and
elegance of its flint implements, many of which were, when found,
still in their horn or wooden handles. Along with the horn haftings
may be mentioned perforated hammers, chisels, barbed harpoons, pins,
awls, flax-heckles, amulets, perforated teeth, and boars' tusks of
great size. Among wooden objects the most remarkable are a wooden
door, still retaining portion of a polished oval bolt of yew which
traversed it horizontally (B. 336, p. 48), and a portion of a ladder
(B. 347). The fragments of pottery indicated not only coarse material
but rude workmanship. The clay is badly burnt, and it is uniformly
mixed with pieces of quartz or small pebbles of the size of a pea.
The vessels are roughly cylindrical, and have thick bases, but no
ornamentation, not even the projecting knobs so characteristic of
Locras. Some large clay balls, perforated in the centre, are probably
loom-weights, and among the remains are bits of plaited and woven
flax, which prove that the art of weaving was well known to the
inhabitants. Dr. v. Fellenberg, from whose writings I have taken the
substance of this notice, considers the settlement one of the earliest
among the Swiss lake-dwellings and much inferior to some of the other
Stone Age settlements in Lake Bienne.

A cup made from the upper part of a human skull found here has
attracted much attention. (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 221.)

TWANN (DOUANNE).--It must be remembered that the west side of the
lake does not present the same facilities for pile-dwellings as the
opposite shore, owing to the steepness of the immediate shore-land
and the rapidity with which deep water is met with. Moreover, the
narrow strip of beach available for the purpose has become greatly
covered up with alluvial deposits, as is proved from a discovery made
at Twann. Here, at a depth of 15 or 20 feet, some workmen, while
making excavations in connection with railway works near the quay,
came upon a blackish bed of mould containing piles, pottery, staghorn
implements, etc., which, on being inspected by Dr. Gross who happened
to be passing at the time, was at once recognised as the site of a
lacustrine station. Mr. Irlet, of Twann, has also discovered another
station at Wingreis, in the vicinity of which the canoe, now so well
preserved in the Museum at Neuveville, was found. (See page 481.) The
objects from Wingreis consist of stone hatchets, flints, and horn
handles. (B. 462, p. 32.)

In 1886 another station, called "Bipschal," was announced by Dr. v.
Fellenberg as having been discovered by Ed. Matthys between Ligerz and
Twann. (B. 462, p. 35.)

VINGELZ.--Dr. v. Fellenberg states (B. 462, p. 32) that in 1874, when
the great canoe which for many years was known to be lying in the mud
near Vingelz was raised, a deeply-buried relic-bed was brought to
light.

Nearly 3,000 feet from the shore, and opposite the steinberg of Nidau,
there is what is supposed to have been a small station, on which a
few objects were found, among which is to be noted a great stone
weight with an iron ring round it. A group of piles was observed to
run from it in the direction of the Nidau steinberg, and hence it is
conjectured that a bridge formerly connected the two. (B. 15 and 22.)

Between Vingelz and Bienne there is a small steinberg, on which a few
arrow-heads of iron are said to have been found.

PORT.--During the excavations for the "Correction des Eaux du Jura"
some remarkable discoveries were made, especially along the Lower
Thielle, between Nidau and Meyenried. Immediately below the little
village of Port the remains of a palatitte of the Stone Age were met
with. The station appeared to have been of considerable extent, as
the piles were traced for several hundred yards along the line of the
canal. The relic-bed was 7 feet below the surface, and amongst its
_débris_ were found various implements of stone and horn. Among the
stone celts was one of nephrite, still in its horn fastening, the
handle of which was covered over with a bluish coating of amorphous
vivianite. (B. 446, p. 11.)


LAKE OF NEUCHÂTEL.

The Lake of Neuchâtel, like that of Bienne, was studded with lake
villages, particularly in the more sheltered localities. From data
collected by Col. Schwab a chart was constructed and published in
1863, showing no less than 46 stations in the lake; but many of them
were of little archæological value beyond giving indications of their
existence. Since then some additional sites have been added to this
list, and from the activity with which lacustrine researches have
been conducted, especially after the lowering of the water by the
"Correction des Eaux," many of the supposed less important sites have
turned out extremely rich in antiquities.

PONT DE LA THIELLE.--Leaving the Lake of Bienne, and following the
Upper Thielle, we come to the Pont de la Thielle (Zihlbrücke), which
crosses the river at a short distance below where it emerges from Lake
Neuchâtel. A little above this bridge and on both sides of the river,
Col. Schwab discovered piles, among which he collected some industrial
remains at a depth of 5 feet, from which he concluded that there had
been here an ordinary pile-dwelling, in what was then probably a bay
of the lake. With the exception of one hair-pin of bronze, the objects
collected were of the Stone Age. (B. 32.) In 1870 v. Fellenberg made
some further investigations, which, while justifying the conclusions
previously arrived at, showed that the station had larger dimensions
than were formerly suspected, and that the relic-bed was in some
parts deeply buried. He enumerates the following relics as the
result of his labours:--7 large stone axes and 9 small or imperfect
ones, of serpentine, diorite, etc.; 20 implements of bone--pointers,
daggers, chisels, etc.; a large number of staghorn axe-hammer heads
(perforated); flakes of flint and other flint implements, and one
beautifully-worked arrow-head; a knife of polished nephrite. The
pottery indicated a coarse paste mixed with rough sand, and some of
the vessels were ornamented with knobs. (B. 196, p. 281.)

According to Mr. Dardel-Thorens,[5] a Roman station succeeded the
palafitte, as many objects of pure Roman origin were found amongst
the piles on the right bank. Among these he mentions a lion head of
bronze, portion of a girdle, a silver ring like those from Pompeii,
knives, chisels, axes, etc., and a tile with the legion mark CLXXI;
also a piece of worked horn with figures.

LA TÈNE (STONE AGE STATIONS).--Close to the outlet, on its north side,
is the celebrated station known as La Tène, which, from the remarkable
character and varied assortment of iron implements found on it, has
given a name to a well-defined period of the Early Iron Age. Now that
the lowering of the level of the lake has left its site on dry ground,
and its exploration has become thus greatly facilitated, it would
appear that La Tène was more of a stronghold, commanding a bridge
which crossed the Thielle at its outlet, than a real pile-village.
Its consideration will therefore be deferred till we come to the
description of the lake-dwellings of the Iron Age.

Making a circuit of the lake westwards, we come at once on a series of
four stations, the ruins of which lie scattered on the shore between
La Tène and the promontory of Préfargier. Their _débris_ lay embedded
in a thick bed of ancient mud, which has since become undermined,
and almost entirely washed away by the waves, leaving the heavier
antiquities amongst the rolled pebbles. Some beautiful implements of
nephrite and jadeite, and occasionally copper objects, have been thus
picked up, some of which are still in the possession of Messrs. Vouga,
Dardel-Thorens, and other local collectors.

ST. BLAISE.--This station has only come into prominence since the
operations for the "Correction des Eaux du Jura" took effect on the
lake; and although its investigation has been somewhat desultorily
conducted, the finds from it are extremely interesting, as they
are characteristic of the period of transition. The settlement,
was situated to the west of the town of St. Blaise, and appears to
have occupied a large area, as piles extended more or less all the
way to Hauterive. Its chief explorers and relic-holders are Messrs.
Vouga, Zintgraff, and Dardel-Thorens. In 1878 Dr. Gross published
a description of its relics with two plates of illustrations, and
subsequently a notice of it appeared in the _Anzeiger_ (B. 376a) and
_Das Ausland_ (B. 418, p. 49). Among some thousands of stone axes, of
which about ten per cent are perforated, there are many of nephrite,
jadeite, chloromelanite, and _saussurite_. These latter are generally
small, and set in horn fixers with a split at the end. The perforated
hatchets (one of which is an unfinished specimen, with the core still
in the hole) have often one end formed into a hammer (=Fig. 8=, Nos.
25 and 26). Among the many worked objects of horn and bone, such as
pins (Nos. 22, 23, and 24), perforated clubs (No. 20), and daggers
or spear-heads (No. 21), are some curiously-wrought pieces, which
suggested to Dr. Gross the idea that they were part of a machine for
boring holes in hard substances. The chief interest, however, lies
in the number and variety of copper objects which this station has
yielded. Out of about a dozen articles of metal, only one is said
to be bronze (No. 4)--a dagger with a well-defined mid-rib--while
the rest consist of two flat axes (Nos. 6, a fragment, and 14), six
daggers after the type of the flint weapons (Nos. 1 to 5, 7, and 9),
a knife (No. 8),[6] a bit of a spiral (No. 18), an arrow-point with
some asphalt still adhering to it (No. 16), two small awls (Nos. 15
and 17), two earrings (Nos. 11 and 12), and two beads (Nos. 10 and 13).

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--ST. BLAISE. Nos. 20 and 26 = ¼, the rest =
½ real size.]

One of the copper daggers was mounted in a handle of withes, the
remains of which are still to be seen (No. 2), and strongly reminds
one of the flint daggers when similarly mounted, as seen in No. 28.
As ornaments from this station I have figured a fossil ammonite and a
smooth stone, both perforated (Nos. 27 and 19). Two fossil shells, an
ammonite (=Fig. 185=, No. 23), and pectunculus, are described in the
Ninth Report on the Pfahlbauten (B. 462) as coming from Oefeliplätze.

HAUTERIVE.--Opposite the village there was a very large settlement,
which has yielded a considerable number of antiquities of a mixed
character, chiefly dispersed among the Museums of Neuchâtel, Bern,
Bienne, and Zürich. Col. Schwab found two iron spear-heads and
pottery. After Schwab's investigation, Desor searched the station and
found a steinberg. Among the more interesting objects are:--a small
figure shaped like a duck and ornamented with strips of tin (=Fig.
195=, No. 13); a vase, also ornamented in the same way (=Fig. 193=,
No. 6); a disc of bone ornamented with concentric circles, and some
bronze pendants (=Fig. 189=, Nos. 13, 14, and 16). In Bern there
are four pins with large heads, and several tanged knives, sickles,
bracelets, pendants rings, fish-hooks, etc.; also dishes of fine black
pottery with round bottoms.

Between this and Neuchâtel are three stations, viz. Champréveyres,
Monruz, and Crêt, on which a few objects have been picked up. In 1885
a pot of dark pottery ornamented with circular lines and triangles
("_Wolfszahn-ornamenten_"), measuring 6¼ inches in diameter and 4¾
in height, was fished up in eight feet of water, and was supposed to
be from the bronze station of Champréveyres.[7] The pot contained
sand and the following objects:--two stone celts, a spindle-whorl, a
pierced boars tusk, half of a stone axe-hammer partially bored, two
objects of stone, a bit of red ochre, and a bit of yellow ochre.

AUVERNIER.--In the sheltered bay between Colombier and Auvernier was
one of the largest and most interesting settlements in the lake.
It was discovered early, and notwithstanding that its remains were
covered with ten or twelve feet of water, it was minutely searched.
Professor Desor ascertained that there were two distinct stations
near the same place, one being a bronze station and farther out in
the lake. The Stone Age settlement, which lay just between the latter
and the shore, contained a steinberg of round and angular stones,
and covered nearly two acres. The piles of the bronze station were
inserted in soft mud, and their tops projected from one to two feet
above the lake bottom. In one place a canoe and large masses of
wattle-work were seen by Desor protruding from the mud. Among the
antiquities collected by the earlier explorers are:--Arrow-points of
various shapes with and without barbs, a richly-ornamented socketed
lance-head, a solid ring armilla, a chisel, fish-hook, etc. Also
fragments of variously-ornamented pottery, one of which showed
something like the Greek pattern or meander line. Not less than
twenty of the illustrations of Desor (B. 95) are of objects from this
station.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--AUVERNIER. All ⅓ real size.]

The station was systematically investigated during the year 1873 and
the three following years, and a report of the results was published
by Dr. Gross in 1876. (B. 286.) He describes the antiquities under the
following heads, from which it will be seen that the station ranks
almost on a par with that at Moeringen:--(1) Arms, (2) instruments,
(3) objects of dress, (4) objects belonging to horses' harness, (5)
moulds, (6) pottery. Dr. Gross, at the eighth meeting of the German
Congress of Archæologists at Constance, in September, 1877, gave some
further account of the relics from Auvernier, particularly the swords,
of which six were found. (B. 306.)

The illustrations on =Fig. 9= include a variety of axes (Nos. 1
to 8), knives (Nos. 9 to 11), a socketed chisel (No. 12), a gouge
(No. 18); three hammers, one with a square socket and a side loop
(No. 13), another with a square perforation in the middle (No. 19),
and the third shaped like the upper portion of a winged axe (No.
20); two sickles (Nos. 15 and 16), a star-like ornament (No. 14),
pendants (Nos. 17 and 24), half of a mould for an axe (No. 22), and an
ornamental object (No. 27). All the above are of bronze, and of the
remaining objects, one (No. 23) is a trilocular dish of pottery, two
are of bone (Nos. 25 and 26), and the last (No. 28) is a stone anvil
set in a wooden casing. The handle of one of the swords is illustrated
on =Fig. 186=, No. 3.

CORTAILLOD.--We next come to the neighbourhood of Cortaillod, where
there were several settlements. From Mr. A. Vouga's admirable and
concise notices (B. 393 and 414a) of the more recent discoveries,
it appears that the principal station (Station Principale, marked
a on the accompanying Sketch Map) was nearly opposite the village
of Petit Cortaillod, and consisted of two portions--one, nearest
the shore, furnishing relics of the Stone Age; and the other, those
characteristic of the Bronze Age. A few hundred yards to the north
there was another large Stone Age settlement (Station de la Fabrique,
=b=), also with a Bronze Age portion on its outer or lake side. On
the south side of the principal station there were observed two small
groups of piles probably remains of embryonic stations which were
never completed (_c_ and _d_). On one of these a remarkable wooden
implement, supposed to be a pile-driver, was found, measuring 5 feet 4
inches in length (=Fig. 184=, No. 4).

[Illustration: Lake-dwellings]

The first exploration of the settlement commenced in the spring of
1858, when Mr. Troyon, after examining the stations near Yverdon,
visited the locality and fished up five bracelets of bronze, together
with some hair-pins and a few small rings, which are now in the Museum
of Lausanne. Mr. Burki, of Petit Cortaillod, also found several bronze
objects, some of which he sold to Agassiz.

These respective successes induced Col. Schwab and Prof. Desor to
direct their attention to Cortaillod, who, in the course of a few
years, made a collection of very remarkable objects. Among these
the following are worthy of note:--a bronze wheel, 19¾ inches in
diameter, with four spokes (=Fig. 10=, No. 17); the surplus jet of
a bronze casting, broken off apparently after the operation was
completed; several half-moon and other variously shaped pendants (Nos.
10, 12, and 21); bracelets (No. 14); a massive ring ornamented with
concentric circles (No. 15); some large-headed pins, earrings (No.
7), studs (No. 22), hatchets, sickles, fish-hooks, beads of amber and
glass, a spoon of terra-cotta, etc.; but the most novel were dishes,
particularly a large plate ornamented with tin strips arranged in
various patterns of lines, circles, and the Greek meander (=Fig. 193=,
No. 2).

Of the four brothers Kopp, who worked for these antiquaries, one
afterwards commenced on his own account and sold the finds, and in
this way many of the relics went to other localities. In 1874 a
necklace of bronze was found (=Fig. 10=, No. 3), which Mr. Vouga
states is still in the possession of a gentleman at Auvernier.

[Illustration: =Fig. 10.=--CORTAILLOD AND BEVAIX (16, 18, and 23 to
26). Nos. 8, 16, and 18 to 20 = ¼, 15 = ⅓, all the rest, with the
exception of 17 = ½ real size.]

In 1876 a fisherman found a sword, which he sold to the keeper of the
Museum at Bale (No. 19).

Meantime the Stone Age portion of the principal station was little
examined, as the relics were deeply buried. Here, however, were
formerly found some iron objects of the La Tène type, viz. a sickle
(B. 31, Pl. xiv. 20), and a stone anchor with iron hoops, now in
the Museum Schwab. In 1878, when the Government drainage works
began to tell on the lake, many articles were picked up. Thereupon
Messrs. Vouga and F. Borel commenced systematic diggings, and this
set an example to the authorities of the Museum of Colombier and the
Société du Musée de Boudry, who likewise started operations with a
gang of workmen. Among the objects collected up to 1883 Mr. Vouga
particularises the following:--

_Stone._--A number of sharpening-stones of sandstone; a large hollow
stone for bruising corn, measuring 1 foot 6 inches by 1 foot 9 inches,
and 5½ inches in thickness, having a hollow 2½ inches in depth; some
hundreds of hammer-stones, corn-crushers, etc.; portions of stone
showing marks of having been sawn, and perforated net-weights; also
spindle-whorls, an oval hammer of serpentine ornamented with chevrons;
some perforated stone axes, etc.; about 1,200 plain axes, nearly a
third of which were still in their horn fixtures. Most of these horn
fixtures were inserted in wooden handles, but of course all traces of
the latter were generally gone; only 12 nephrite implements were among
them. About 1,500 chisels or small celts, only a few of which were of
jadeite. One celt was of flint, a very rare thing in this district;
and an arrow-point was of polished serpentine. Many thousands of
implements of various coloured flints--saws, knives, scrapers,
daggers, and arrow and lance-heads. The arrow-points were generally
triangular without wings, and a few were lozenge-shaped. The largest
flint dagger measures 9 inches in length (Museum Colombier); and some
of the saws were still fixed in their handles with asphalt when found.

_Horn._--Some 3,000 fixtures for stone hatchets, of which about
one-third were perfect. These implements are not bifurcated at their
end, as is often the case with those found at Auvernier and elsewhere;
and many are only partially made, so that one would suppose there had
been here a factory for their special manufacture. There were also
perforated hammers, and a great number of chisels, pointers, etc.;
also some large plaques whose use is unknown. Out of twenty barbed
harpoons one, 8½ inches long, has twelve barbs (No. 8), and one
(now in the Museum Boudry) is unfinished. About a similar number of
pendeloques or beads, and a few small objects like arrow-points.

_Bone._--A great number of pointers and chisels, some of which were
inserted into handles; quantities of awls, lance-points, and javelins;
thirty daggers; some twenty perforated teeth of the wolf or dog; fifty
tusks of the wild boar worked, and some set in handles; bundles of
pointed ribs (flax-heckles).

_Wood._--An oval cup of yew, 4 by 2¾ inches; others were found, but
not preserved. A small hammer, and bits of basket-work.

_Metal._--A small round copper armlet, and a flat bronze axe with a
round cutting edge.

_Pottery._--Fragments of a coarse ware, found everywhere and generally
indicating roughly-made vessels; and a few perforated weights,
cylindrical and round.

As the waters became lower, the bronze station became more accessible,
and accordingly its investigation was begun by Messrs. Borel, of
Boudry, and Kaiser, of Estavayer. Among the antiquities collected here
are the following:--

_Bronze._--Several hatchets and knives; four razors, of different
types (one hammered from the fragment of a bracelet); five sickles;
a bracelet ornamented with lines and concentric circles, and another
closed (No. 13), also ornamented; three small bracelets; some buttons,
studs, etc.; the tip of a scabbard (No. 5); several lance-heads,
one ornamented (No. 4); two fibulæ (No. 6); many hair-pins, several
hundreds of fish-hooks; a necklet made of twenty bronze rings,
connected by a chain of copper; and a cup, now in the collection of
Dr. Gross (No. 20).

Among other relics were fragments of cups, vases, and other dishes
of ornamented pottery, some twenty clay supports, and hundreds of
spindle-whorls, etc. No. 11 represents a pendant, the substance of
which no one can determine, as it is neither stone, bone, horn, nor
pottery.

In the autumn of 1884 the water was unusually low, and the piles,
being left high and dry, presented such a singular appearance that
many visitors were attracted to see the novel sight. Many objects were
then picked up. One bracelet, ornamented with concentric circles, was
sold for eighty francs. Among the other objects described by Vouga are
the following: A large fish-hook (No. 2), 4¾ inches long; a piece of
wood surrounded by two bands of copper; a bronze pin with perforated
head, and another with flat head; a small vase with four holes (No.
9), a small lamp with a handle like a spoon, and a bronze pendant
formed of eleven massive rings (No. 1).

BEVAIX.--Several stations were known here at an early period, and
some of the objects from them have been described by Troyon, Keller,
and Desor. They consist of bronze celts (Nos. 16 and 18), sickles,
hair-pins (Nos. 23 and 24), bracelets (No. 26), a razor (No. 25), clay
rings, etc., which are now in the collections of Schwab, Desor, and
others.

Since the lowering of the water in Lake Neuchâtel, the Messrs. Borel
have systematically investigated and reported on the stations in the
Bevaix district. (B. 445.) From La Tuilière to Treytel, a shore-line
of about two miles, they describe seven separate localities containing
stations, chiefly of the Stone Age. An excellent map accompanies their
description; and had they added a few illustrations its value would
have been greatly enhanced.

One of the greatest drawbacks to outsiders who wish to master the
archæological results of the Swiss lacustrine investigations is
the want of a correct map showing the area and distribution of the
respective stations; and if this desideratum is ever to be supplied
for those lakes that have come under the influence of the Correction
des Eaux du Jura, there is no time to lose, as most of the stations
are now on dry land and nearly obliterated by vegetation; and it is a
work that can only be done by local archæologists, like the Messrs.
Borel, who for years have had practical knowledge of the stations in
their neighbourhood.

The accompanying Sketch Map (after that of Messrs. Borel) shows
that, while the foundations of the two Bronze Age stations are still
in the lake, all those of the Stone Age are entirely on dry land.
This distinction was long ago pointed out by Desor and others, but
it was only since the lowering of the lake that such a practical
demonstration became possible.

The Messrs. Borel premise their acquiescence in the proposed
subdivision of the lacustrine Stone Age into three periods, viz. a
first or early period ("période d'établissement et de formation"),
characterised by rudeness and simplicity of industrial remains;
a second ("le bel âge de la pierre"), showing commercial and
agricultural progress, and especially great skill in the manufacture
of all manner of stone celts; and a third ("une période de
transition"), which witnessed the introduction of metals among the
lake-dwellers.

[Illustration: Sketch Map of the shore of Lake Neuchâtel, near Bevaix,
showing the relative positions of the stations of the Stone and Bronze
periods.]

Typical examples of all these periods were found on the Bevaix
district, as will be seen from the following notes, taken chiefly from
the data supplied by the Messrs. Borel:--

(1) _Station de la Tuilière._--This settlement belonged to the
earliest lacustrine period, and, being much exposed to the winds,
appears to have been quickly abandoned. The piles are much decayed
and difficult to find, and the relics are few in number, and of a
primitive type. Only rude stone axes, a few weights, and flints of a
dark colour, are recorded.

(2) _Station des Vaux._--Between La Tuilière to the Station des Vaux
the promontory "Du Grain" intervenes, where, scattered on the shore
on both sides of it, Roman tiles are met with. The remains of this
pile-dwelling are situated near to a small spring of water, and
directly below the rising ground, which is here covered with vines.
The piles are disposed in two groups, and with scarcely an interval
between them; but they represent two different periods of the Stone
Age. The first or more eastern group stretches for 100 yards, with a
breadth of 40 yards, parallel to the lake; and though farther within
the old lake basin, it is considered by Messrs. Borel the older of the
two, being contemporary with La Tuilière and the earliest lacustrine
settlements in the lake. A steinberg of broken stones marks its
centre, but its examination has yielded only a few small stone celts,
arrow and spear-heads of dark flint, and some coarse pottery. Among
the osseous remains are some jaws of the beaver.

The second group occupied a smaller area than the previous one, and
contained no steinberg, but, on the other hand, a well-developed
relic-bed, some 12 to 16 inches thick, which was productive of relics
of a decidedly more advanced character, such as well-made implements
of staghorn, including a variety of handles for stone celts. The most
important discovery here was a human skull of the dolichocephalic
type. (_Antiqua_, 1884, p. 106.) The most inland piles of this group
were only about 30 yards from the vineyards, whereas the corresponding
ones of the first group were 70 yards distant. The anomalous statement
that the second or more advanced Stone Age settlement was situated in
an outer zone from the earliest (a fact which applies to all those
explored on the Bevaix coast), Messrs. Borel explain by supposing that
the lake area was gradually increasing since the earlier settlements
were founded. We shall afterwards see that this supposition is well
founded, on evidence that by careful observation could be greatly
multiplied.

(3) _Station de l'Abbaye._--A little farther on there is the site of
another Stone Age station, presenting the same indications of an older
and younger period, and also having the same relative position to
each other as we have seen in the Stations des Vaux, viz. the older
occupying a situation more advanced into the old lake basin. In front
of these two stations, Des Vaux and De l'Abbaye, lie the remains of a
large settlement of the Bronze Age, the piles of which, even when the
lake is at its lowest, are still in several feet of water; it extends
parallel to the shore, about 200 yards in length, and 160 in breadth.
In addition to the relics found by the earlier explorers (Troyon,
Desor, Vouga, Dr. Clement, etc.), and already noticed, the following
bronze objects are recorded from the station, all of which are either
in the private collection of the Messrs. Borel or in the scholastic
museum at Bevaix:--

Six celts (one of which is socketed), portion of a sword scabbard,
four chisels (some prettily ornamented), five sickles, twenty
fish-hooks, three bracelets, two razors, 105 hair-pins (all sizes and
forms), five pendeloques, two earrings, two buttons, two finger-rings,
twelve large and 195 small rings, etc. Among the other finds are
fragments of ornamented pottery, a clay support-ring, three glass
beads, weights, sharpening stones, etc.

(4) _Station du Chatelard._--This station contained a steinberg
covering an area of 3,000 or 4,000 square yards, and was joined to
the shore by a tongue of land, on which a series of stepping-stones
were placed. The relics discovered on its site include some 200 stone
celts (ten of which are jade), forty staghorn handles and fixers for
celts, chisels, stone hammers, flint implements, etc. The special
characteristic of the station is the appearance of the following
bronze objects among these relics of the Stone Age, viz. a small
perforated plaque, two hair-pins, four small daggers, three flat
celts. Mr. Borel states that other celts of this type were found, one
being to his knowledge in the possession of Mr. Rousselet, and one in
each of the Museums at Neuchâtel, Bern, and Zürich. One here figured
(=Fig. 10=, No. 18) is from the Schwab Museum at Bienne. Hence this
station belongs to the period of transition, and is in many respects
comparable to the Station des Roseaux at Morges.

(5) _Station du Moulin._--Proceeding about 600 yards farther west we
come to an isolated station of the Bronze Age, the piles of which are
still over 50 yards from the present shore; and before the lowering
of the water its site would be covered by about 16 feet of water.
Owing to the scarcity of relics on this station, the duration of the
settlement is supposed to have been short. Desor found here some
ornamented specimens of the large hollow bracelet. Mr. Borel has only
one small specimen and a portion of a large one of this type. The
other objects of bronze are a couple of fish-hooks and a few pins
and earrings. Fragments of pottery are, however, proportionally more
abundant, among them being a vase, of elegant form, and polished
exteriorly by graphite. To the east of this station a fine canoe was
found in 1879, measuring 26 feet in length, now deposited in the
Museum at Chaux de Fonds.[8]

(6) _Station du Port._--The remains of this small station, which
are exclusively of the Stone Age, are distributed on both sides of
a small stream which enters the ancient port of Bevaix. From the
character of the relics the Messrs. Borel think that the portion on
the east side belonged to the first lacustrine period, while that
on the west was later. It would appear that the settlement had been
dwarfed by the adjacent great palafitte at Treytel.

(7) _Station de Treytel._--This station presents a fine example of the
second Stone Age period. Its _débris_ is found on the exposed shore,
extending upwards of 300 yards in length, and covering an area of
some 8,000 to 10,000 square yards. It was first examined in 1857 by
M. Rousselet, who, notwithstanding its being then submerged, made the
fine collection of objects from it now in the Museum at Neuchâtel. The
flint implements are particularly well made, and the raw material,
which shows a fine yellowish and partially transparent flint, is
supposed to have been imported from Gaul. The horn handles and fixers
for the stone celts are of varied forms, and there is also a rich
assortment of other relics.

CHEZ LES MOINES.--Here there is a steinberg, but the antiquities found
are unimportant, only a few staghorn implements and some stone celts.
Fragments of Roman tiles were also found.

ST. AUBIN.--This station was near the shore, and contained a vast
steinberg measuring 300 feet by 200. Its investigation was chiefly
due to Dr. Clement, of St. Aubin, who made a splendid collection
of its antiquities, which show that the settlement belonged almost
exclusively to the Stone Age. Specially noteworthy among them are
flint-saws in yew and staghorn handles; arrow-points, with portion of
the shaft still attached with asphalt; a few beads--one of glass and
two of amber; three small gold ornaments; perforated teeth of the bear
and wolf or dog. Many of the objects from Dr. Clement's collection
are illustrated in the second and third volumes of _Matériaux_, pages
511 and 259 respectively; as well as in Keller's reports. The horn
fastenings are extremely varied, and those for celts, intended to be
used with wooden handles, terminate either in a split or are squarely
cut. The bone implements are particularly well made, and many of
the pointers are fixed into handles. The arrow-points are also well
chipped, and are of a longish or triangular shape. In the Zürich
Museum there is a beautifully chipped dagger of flint, over nine
inches in length, from this station. (See =Fig. 185=, Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6,
and 9.)

CONCISE.--Mr. Rochat, who first examined the remains of this
settlement, describes a semicircular steinberg which occupied part of
the station. (B. 34.) The convex part looked south and towards the
lake. Its length was 459 feet, and breadth 255 feet, and when the lake
was at its lowest (before the Correction des Eaux du Jura) its top
was only a few inches below the surface of the water. The relic-bed
was superficial, but the piles penetrated deeply into the mud. During
the construction of the railway in 1859, which here passed through a
small bit of the lake, a dredging machine was used, when antiquities
of all kinds were collected in hundreds. These were generally sold on
behalf of the workmen, and hence the objects from Concise are widely
distributed, some having gone to America. On and around the steinberg
the antiquities were of the Stone Age. Here the operation of dredging
was carried on for six weeks amidst great archæological excitement,
which led to the production of many falsifications. (B. 28, 31, and
39.) Among the vast quantity of industrial remains brought to light,
there were objects of very diversified kinds, but all in this part
of the station were peculiar to the Stone Age; such as saws, knives,
and arrow-points of flint; hundreds of stone hatchets, mostly of
serpentine, only two or three being of nephrite; perforated stone
sinkers and hammer stones. Of bone and horn, there were chisels,
pointers, daggers, harpoons, cups, etc. Among the pottery were
circular dishes with perforated knobs, small and large vases, plates,
and cups; also some vases with conical bases, with their corresponding
clay rings. Clay balls, of the size of two fists and perforated,
reminded Mr. Troyon of similar objects from Wangen.[9]

Among the animal remains were three fragments of human skulls and two
jaws. Also one tooth of the horse.

During the last few days of these operations the dredging machine was
shifted in a north-eastern direction, and here objects of bronze were
turned up, such as hatchets, hair-pins, knives, buttons, spirals,
beads, rings, etc.

It would thus appear that there were two stations--one of the Stone
Age, and the other of the Bronze Age; or that a portion of the former
survived during the Bronze Age.

It was in the vicinity of this station that Captain Pillichordy in
1832 dredged up a canoe and two beautiful bronze swords, only one of
which is now known to exist in the Museum of Neuchâtel. In September,
1889, Dr. Evans showed me, among many other objects from the Swiss
lacustrine dwellings, a sword from Concise, purchased by him in Paris
in 1887, which at once struck me as being the other weapon which so
mysteriously disappeared in 1832. The handle and the tip of the blade
of this sword are here represented (=Fig. 11=, No. 24), and when
compared with the drawings of its supposed fellow at Neuchâtel (B.
34, Pl. iii. 35; B. 119, 2nd ed., Pl. cii. 17; B. 31, Pl. xi. 11; and
B. 252, Pl. v. 10), their remarkable similarity will be at once seen.
That in Dr. Evans's collection has a total length of 26½ inches. The
blade is of yellow bronze 21 inches long, and terminates in a somewhat
rounded point.

In the months of January and February, 1885, a portion of the
station hitherto unexamined became dry, and a great many objects
were found, including bronze pins (=Fig. 11=, Nos. 2, 3, 8, 10, and
11), hatchets, bracelets, sickles, knives, pendants (Nos. 9 and 13),
tin wheels (No. 4), wooden combs (No. 7), and vases, etc. Among the
more remarkable objects described and figured by Mr. Vouga (B. 414d)
are:--A necklace made of rolled bands of bronze, forming tubes, and
ornamented with hollow lines (No. 1). Some of these tubes are of gold,
and interspersed with them are three buttons of bronze and a number of
small blue beads. Two bracelets or closed rings, ornamented (No. 6); a
ring with a prominence inside; and a curiously-wrought pendeloque (No.
12). These objects are mostly in the possession of private collectors.

[Illustration: =Fig. 11.=--CONCISE AND CORCELETTES (5, and 14 to 23)
Nos. 21 and 22--¼, the rest = ½ real size.]

ONENS.--Two stations are situated near the village of Onens--one
(Stone Age) to the east of the village, and the other (Bronze Age)
to the south. The former, now entirely on dry land, has been little
explored, being for some time covered with vegetation. "Je crois,"
says M. de Meuron, "cependant qu'elle a dû être importante d'après
son étendue et la quantité de cailloux éclatés que recouvrent le sol.
Cette station appartient à moi; mais la végétation y est devenue si
belle que je la laisse pour les générations futures." (B. 462, p. 47.)

On the bronze station several remarkable pendeloques in the form
of thin discs of bronze were found some years ago, which are now
deposited in the Museum at Neuchâtel; and since this discovery it has
been partially explored by M. Morel-Fatio, Dr. Brière, and others.
M. de Meuron states that he is in possession of a few objects from
this station, viz. hatchets, chisels, bracelets, and a magnificent
lance-head 10 inches in length. From Onens comes the leaden cake with
suspension loops similar to those from Wollishofen (=Fig. 4=, No. 24).
Illustrations of some of the bronze discs are given on =Fig. 189=,
Nos. 1 to 3.

CORCELETTES.--Two groups of piles were observed by the early
explorers, one to the east and the other to the west of the village of
Corcelettes, and a number of antiquities both of the Bronze and Iron
Ages were collected. The station, however, was never systematically
examined till the lowering of the waters in 1876, when it was found
to be one of the most prolific and interesting in Lake Neuchâtel. The
portion since then investigated is described by Dr. Gross as lying
immediately before the village, and 2 kilomètres from Grandson. It
extended about 200 mètres in length and 100 in breadth. The relic-bed
was thinly covered with sand, and varied much in thickness, from a
maximum of 3 feet in the centre, to the margin where it thinned out.
The bronze relics collected here are thus estimated by Dr. Gross at
the twelfth meeting of the German Anthropological Society:--[10] 60
hatchets, 4 hammers, 30 sickles, 60 to 70 knives, 10 swords (three
of which are complete), 150 entire armillæ and many fragments, 20
lance-heads, 12 discs (phalères), 300 to 400 hair-pins, 3 vessels,
11 moulds (one of bronze and 10 of sandstone), besides a quantity
of smaller objects, as buttons, pendants, rings, etc. Together with
beads of glass and amber, small tin wheel-shaped objects, there were
some 300 entire vessels of pottery, some ornamented with tin strips,
crescents, etc.

The bronze hatchets were mostly of the usual type, i.e. with four
wings and a side loop; four were socketed, but not one of the flat
type.

Daggers were apparently rare at Corcelettes, as only one example was
found, with rivet-marks and slightly ornamented on one side.

The knives were generally small, but one measured 10½ inches in
length, and a few had solid handles beautifully ornamented. Razors
were numerous; one was made of a broken bracelet, another was
double-bladed and showed a break which had been neatly mended with
bronze wire. Horse-bits were of bronze and horn. The bronze hollow
armlets are beautifully ornamented, and in the interior of some of
them were observed bits of wax, supposed to be the remains of a
central core of this material which had been used in the operation of
casting.

It is singular that among the many ornaments from this station there
is not a fibula, except a portion of one which is claimed as an
importation from Scandinavia (=Fig. 189=, No. 19).

Of wood there were:--A round oak table; a small box, 8 by 2½ inches;
and a portion of an oar.

Of the three bronze dishes, one has a handle attached by rivets; and
of the other two (which are in the Museum at Lausanne), one is of
northern origin (=Fig. 189=, No. 20).

Corcelettes, like most of the other Swiss lake-dwellings, was
destroyed by fire, in proof of which Dr. Gross points to a mass of
bronze objects, in a half-molten condition, consisting of three
hatchets, four bracelets, a lance-head, and a sickle. (Figured in B.
392, Pl. xxii. 12.)

One of the largest collections from Corcelettes is in the Museum at
Lausanne, of which I have made the following jottings:--

_Pottery._--The bottom of a vase marked with the tips of the potters
fingers; some dishes ornamented with herring-bone patterns (=Fig.
11=, No. 22), and others with circular grooves, each having a small
perforation like one at Constance (No. 21); small toy cups, three of
which are bilocular; clay rings, with dishes to fit them; two figures
of animals; bits of clay-walling with marks of round timbers.

_Wood._--Fragments of basket-work, two shaped handles of wood for
sickles, fragments of wooden dishes (one with handle).

_Bronze._--Of about 100 large hollow bracelets more or less perfect,
some 50 are ornamented with transverse lines; the rest have various
designs of lines and circles. A few bracelets are solid, and more or
less penannular, with pointed or expanded tips. Four bracelets are of
double wires, one of which is spirally grooved and ends in a hook and
eye. Of six small socketed hammers, three have side loops, and all are
more or less rectangularly shaped. Among 60 hatchets, only six have
sockets, and nearly all have side loops, but no terminal catch. Two
have the side loop transverse to the cutting edge.

Of 78 knives, nine are socketed, three have solid handles, apparently
as part of the blade, and the rest have tangs (three being bent into a
loop at the top).

Among some hundreds of pins, only seven or eight have perforated heads.

Of three horse-bits, one is entire (=Fig. 191=, No. 8); and of the
others, only the twisted central portion remains (=Fig. 11=, No. 23).
Moreover, there are 14 perforated portions of horn, supposed to have
been parts of bridles.

Among the special objects from this station is a slender bronze rod
terminating at each end with a movable ring, somewhat like the beam
of a balance (No. 16). In the Museum at Boudry there is a curious
ornamental tube of bronze (No. 20).

In 1888 Dr. Brière communicated a short note to _Antiqua_ (B. 463a),
in which he enumerates the following objects as the most interesting
among recent finds:--A bracelet of lignite (No. 14), a tin wheel (No.
5), an amulet of bronze like the casing of a pair of spectacles (No.
15), a large bronze knife with a horn handle (No. 19), an amulet of
staghorn (No. 17), a bead of amber suspended by a twisted bronze wire
(No. 18), and a complete bridle-bit of horn (=Fig. 191=, No. 1).

LES UTTINS (YVERDON).--At the foot of Mount Chamblon, rather more
than a mile from the lake, there are some peat deposits, which the
peasants have been in the habit of utilising as fuel. Here in two
spots, according to Mr. Rochat,[11] the peat-cutters are reported to
have met with piles and transverse beams with mortices. The tops of
the piles were 6 to 10 feet below the surface. A flint arrow-head,
two stone celts of serpentine, and a bronze bracelet, were found in
one of these bogs; and hence Messrs. Troyon and Rochat (B. 31, p. 70)
consider that there was a palafitte here--a supposition which involves
the theory that the lake formerly extended to the locality. Nor is
this theory without some evidence in support of it, as the amount of
_débris_ brought down by the Thielle is very great. On the supposition
that the Roman city of Eburodunum, the ruins of which are now 2,500
feet from the present shore, was built on the lake in the fourth
century, Mr. Troyon calculates that the water of the lake would have
been as far back as the site of the palafitte about fifteen centuries
before the Christian era.

CLENDY, CHESEAUX, AND CHABLE À PERRON.--Along this part of the shore
there were three or four settlements with steinbergs, but the piles
are now destroyed, and the few antiquities collected belong apparently
to the Stone Age. Chable à Perron covers an area of some 3,500 square
yards, but the only antiquities found were serpentine hatchets and
their horn fixings, some flints, pointed bones, and fragments of
coarse pottery. (R. 336.)

Some interesting notes of the early researches and discoveries made
on the various stations in the vicinity of Yverdon are given by Mr.
Rochat in Kellers third report on the Pfahlbauten. (B. 34.)

FONT.--On this station a cup-marked stone was found, and Troyon
records several objects--a curious bronze needle, Roman tiles, and
Imperial Roman money--as coming from the same place. Professor
Grangier, of Fribourg,[12] found here some Roman medals, together
with an iron arrow-head, iron keys, and subsequently an oar.[13] He
states that the whole coast, from Font to Estavayer, was occupied
with piles, and that he attempted to make a plan of the stations,
but gave it up, because the configuration was constantly changing.
The original conditions were also entirely altered by the number
of piles extracted by the fishermen. He knew one family who for two
generations had never used any other firewood but piles extracted from
the lake-dwelling stations. One place, about half-way between Font
and Estavayer, was well known for its antiquities, and went among the
fishermen under the name of "La Pianta." (B. 178, p. 169.) In the
Fribourg Museum there is a considerable number of bronze objects from
Pianta, some of which are here figured (=Fig. 12=, Nos. 1 to 10, and
24). I have also noted three stone moulds (two of wheel pendants), and
an ingot of bronze. Some pins and a knife are in the Bern Museum.

Mr. Forrer gives some notes of the station at Font,[14] and figures
some nephrite implements from "several hundreds" collected here by
Mr. Beck. Along with the usual chisels and hatchets, there are in
Mr. Beck's collection arrow-heads, knives, etc.--objects rather rare
of this material in the Lake of Neuchâtel. Some of the hatchets are
remarkable for their size, one measuring 8½ inches long, and others
show great variety of colours.

ESTAVAYER.--Mr. A. Morlot describes the early investigations of the
settlements at Estavayer and its neighbouring shore in Keller's third
report. (B. 34.) Systematic explorations were conducted by MM. Béat de
Vevey and Henri Rey, who collected a large and varied assortment of
relics, especially of bronze, many of which are illustrated on Pl. v.
Close to Estavayer there were two stations--one of the Stone Age; and
another, farther out in the lake, of the Bronze Age. The former was
parallel to the shore, about 120 yards long and 60 broad. The relics
here found were of the usual Stone Age types--stone and horn hatchets,
flint saws, and arrow-points, etc. One finely-finished hammer-axe
has an oval perforation, an expanded cutting edge, and a raised bead
running along the centre of its anterior surface.

The Bronze Age settlement was some 400 feet distant from the shore, in
water six or seven feet deep. Consequently the station is now, during
low water, mostly on dry land. The area of the station was estimated
at 7,700 square feet. The following is a list of the bronze objects
collected by MM. de Vevey and Rey, chiefly by means of pincers:--128
hair-pins (36 with spherical and ornamental heads), 26 knives, 15
bracelets, 5 sickles, 1 socketed hatchet, 1 chisel, 1 fish-hook, 27
rings of different kinds, 2 buttons, 1 dagger-blade, 1 arrow-head
(socketed), and 6 flattened wires coiled in the form of a spiral.

[Illustration: =Fig. 12.=--ESTAVAYER. All ½ real size.]

In 1869 Dr. Keller (B. 163) gives an account of further discoveries at
Estavayer, in which he mentions a small vessel of fine clay, having a
funnel-like opening and a spout below (=Fig. 12=, No. 21); a hair-pin
5½ inches long, with the stem of bronze, and head of staghorn,
intercepted in the middle with a disc of silver; a bronze spear-head,
with a spur on the stem, supposed to have been used as a spear for
fishing; a bronze bracelet; and two tynes of staghorn--one perforated
as for a bridle-bit, and the other ornamented with concentric
circles. Professor Grangier, writing in 1878 (B. 313), describes
the _tenevière_ of Estavayer as a peninsula, and gives an amusing
description of the searchers for antiquities.

About a couple of kilometres to the north-east of Estavayer, and
near the village of La Corbière, there was a large settlement which
also belonged partly to the Stone Age and partly to the Bronze Age.
The first is a steinberg, and bears the name La Creuse or La Crasaz.
(B. 414c.) On it, in addition to the ordinary Stone Age objects,
were found a Roman waterjug and a fibula of the La Tène type (=Fig.
12=, No. 26). The part that has yielded bronze implements is farther
out in the lake, and from it Colonel Schwab and others collected a
considerable number of objects, among which were:--A bar of tin 6
inches long, a small bronze saw, a socketed arrow-head, a thin armlet
of bronze wire, a bronze nail, a discoidal stone, fragments of pottery
ornamented with strips of tin, etc. Near this in 1875 Professor
Grangier discovered a curious object now supposed to be the handle
portion of an Etruscan chariot. (B. 270 and 336.)

There are thus three well-defined Bronze stations in the vicinity of
Estavayer, besides an equal if not larger number of the Stone Age. The
chief collection of relics from this part of the lake of Neuchâtel
is in the Museum of Fribourg, where I have noted:--A double-legged
pin (No. 11), portion of chariot handle (=Fig. 191=, No. 10), a small
bronze cup, a perforated bronze hammer (=Fig. 12=, No. 20), a couple
of socketed bronze axes (Nos. 17 and 19), and a well-made arrow-point
of flint (No. 25).

There are also many objects from Estavayer in the Cantonal Museum at
Bern, among which may be mentioned:--A bronze fibula (No. 12), part
of an ornamental chain of various sorts of bronze links (No. 13), a
socketed axe (No. 23), and three large knives (Nos. 18, 30, and 31).
The other illustrations are a bronze pin with a spiral head (No.
28), a gold earring (No. 16), an amber bead (No. 15), a bronze knife
(No. 22), a bronze fibula (No. 14), a pin with a flat head (No. 27),
and a curious horn object (No. 29). Implements like the latter are
frequently met with in Swiss lacustrine stations. They vary from a
few inches up to twelve or more in length, and are always curved and
polished. In the Bern Museum there are four from Gerlafingen, five
from Schaffis, and others from Sutz, Locras, etc.

FOREL.--Little was done to this station till 1883, when the Fribourg
Government granted free permission to the searchers for lacustrine
antiquities to collect on their portion of the shore of Lake
Neuchâtel. Since then many curious objects are reported as coming from
this station, but they are mostly held by private collectors. Mr. A.
Vouga gives some notes of these discoveries in the _Anzeiger_. (B.
414.) He states that the relics are found on this station in three
different strata, the most superficial of which is 1 foot 6 inches
deep, and the lowest 4 feet 8 inches.

Among the objects described and figured by Vouga are:--A stone hatchet
in its horn fixture, several hatchets of coloured nephrite and one of
green jade, perforated hammers and a cup of horn; knives, pins, etc.,
of bone; a curved implement made of the jawbone of a stag (=Fig. 13=,
No. 19). Some remarkable objects made of horn or bone and ornamented
with dots, circles, etc., consisting of bracelets (No. 20), and
pendeloques (Nos. 13, 17, and 18), have attracted the attention of
critics, and the general opinion is that they are forgeries.[15]

CHEVROUX.--Troyon describes three large settlements of the Bronze Age
(B. 31, p. 150), near Chevroux, farther from the shore than a Stone
Age settlement, on which were found bracelets, hair-pins, sickles,
knives, two swords of bronze, and a great iron fork (=Fig. 13=, No.
15). In 1866, an object (=Fig. 191=, No. 10), described by Keller as
part of an Etruscan chariot, was found near this. (B. 337.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 13.=--CHEVROUX, FOREL (13, and 17 to 20), and
PORTALBAN (21 and 22). All ½ real size (except No. 15 ¼).]

In the Museum at Lausanne there is a large collection of objects, both
of the Stone and Bronze Age settlements, from Chevroux. Among the
former are:--Two beautiful flint daggers with thin handles of wood
(=Fig. 13=, No. 1), six saws of flint in their handles, part of a
wooden comb, three wooden dishes, the club handle of a stone hatchet
with the implement still in position, bone pins with neatly-fashioned
heads (Nos. 4 and 6), etc. There are over 300 plain stone celts, and
30 perforated tools. About 100 horn fixings, of which one-third have
bifurcated tops. Some celts have been identified as belonging to the
following substances:--chloromelanite five, three of which are in
their horn fixings (two bifurcated); saussurite, 14 to 20, one of
which is in its handle (square); jadeite 22 to 25, five in handles
(two bifurcated); nephrite 23 to 26, two in their fixings. There are
also a few of felsite, amphibolite, etc. About 100 flint arrow-points,
and the same number of beautifully chipped flint arrow-heads (No. 5).
Also of horn there is a large number of chisels, pointers, hammers,
flax-hecklers, and some curiously-shaped perforated clubs of horn.

Among the pottery are some curious dishes, two of which are here
figured (Nos. 8 and 14), the latter being adorned with string
ornamentation.

Among the objects from the Bronze Age stations are:--Many hair-pins,
two phalères, five sickles, a few bracelets, one winged and one flat
hatchet, portion of a flat copper celt, a few knives with tangs, six
small daggers, and two remarkable pendeloques, one of which is here
figured (No. 3).

Mr. Vouga (B. 414d) describes some fine discoveries that were latterly
made on the Bronze stations. Among the objects which have come under
his notice are:--A razor with a curved handle, 4½ inches long (No.
11); a thick crescent, ornamented with half-moons; a fibula (No. 10);
a pin with spiral stem (9½ inches long) and perforated head (1⅛ inch
in diameter). Another has a very large head (2 inches diameter), with
24 holes in it (No. 12). Other objects from this station are a comb
(No. 9), an amber bead (No. 7), a copper dagger (No. 16), and a copper
chisel (No. 2).

GLETTERENS TO LA SAUGE.--Some eight or nine stations have been noted
by the earlier explorers along this part of the coast, many of which
have yielded Roman tiles and pottery. At Port Alban there are the
remains of a station on which bronze (No. 21) and iron objects have
been found. Recently there has been brought into notice a kind of
ornamental metal mirror, said to have been found here (=Fig. 192=).[16]

Another site is farther east, giving indications of an early Stone Age
station, but on which Desor found iron objects. Among recent finds are
some large horn buttons and a so-called "portemonnaie lacustre" (No.
22).[17]

At Champ Martin there is a steinberg, on which spindle-whorls and a
few other things have been found.

At Cudrefin the lake-dwellings are unimportant, but the station is
well known as the site of a canoe, carefully described by Professor
Grangier. It measures 36½ feet long, 2 feet 9 inches broad, and
1 foot 6 inches deep. This dug-out, like so many in Ireland and
Scotland, had for strengthening purposes four transverse beams left in
the solid. The prow had a perforated beak, which might have been used
as a means for fastening a rope. (B. 194.)

At La Sauge fragments of Roman amphoræ and tiles were found associated
with some piles.


LAKE OF MORAT (MURTEN).

Lying directly between the lakes of Neuchâtel and Morat there
stretches a considerable elevation called Mount Vully, which ends
abruptly at its north-west end on the margin of the Gross Moos.
At the base of this declivity lies the Broye, and as the widening
and deepening of its channel was part of the great scheme for the
Correction des Eaux du Jura, a similar effect was produced on Lake
Morat as on the lakes of Bienne and Neuchâtel. Previous to the
lowering of its waters, however, the lake-dwelling stations along
its shores were carefully examined by Colonel Schwab, Baron von
Bonstetten, and the Count de Pourtalès, the proprietor of an estate on
its western shore.

In Keller's 5th report (B. 61) the number of stations in this lake
was given as 16, and since then one or two more have been added to
the list. Many of these were, however, mere indications which, on the
lowering of the level of the water, have turned out to be only stone
cairns supposed to have been landing-places. According to the most
recent researches of Mr. Süsstrunk (B. 336 and 462), the number may be
reduced to 11, the positions of which are sufficiently defined on the
accompanying Sketch Map. They belonged mostly to the Stone Age period,
and only three, viz. Montilier, Greng-Insel, and Vallamand survived
during the most flourishing period of the Bronze Age.

MONTILIER.--The first station of importance, beginning on the east
side of the lake, was situated a little to the north of the present
village of Montilier. It contained a steinberg, and the piles were
stout and firmly fixed. Here Colonel Schwab found not only objects of
the Stone Period, such as flint knives, stone hatchets, etc., but also
an unusually large number of handsome earthenware vessels presenting a
style of ornamentation which at once led him to assign the settlement
to the Bronze Age--a deduction which his subsequent discoveries
completely justified. These vessels were neatly finished, and had
their surface sometimes rubbed over with charcoal or graphite, a
process which gave them a glossy appearance. They were made without
the intervention of the wheel, and from not giving out a ringing
sound when struck with a hard substance, Colonel Schwab concluded
they had been burnt in open fires. The ornamentation consisted of
deeply incised lines, circles, triangles, etc., filled with a white
chalky substance. In some instances strips of tin were plastered
over the surface, which took the place of the linear incisions,
and so presented a pleasing combination of the same principles of
ornamentation. The forms of the vessels are extremely elegant and
varied, and may be classed as _cups_, _bowls_, _plates_, _jars_, and
_jugs_. Some have handles, others spouts springing from the middle
of the bulge, and others a series of symmetrical perforations, but
whether for ornament or use it is difficult to decide. One most
remarkable dish like a saucer has its inner surface ornamented with
linear incisions and a series of thirty symmetrically disposed groups
of perforations. The colour of this pottery was either black, red, or
grey, and sometimes the same dish had a combination of these colours.
Spindle-whorls of diversified forms, and ornamented with dots, oval
depressions, etc., were also abundant, (B. 126, Pl. iv. and v.)

Among the other Bronze Age antiquities collected here were some
stone moulds, hair-pins, hatchets, knives, armlets, rings, sickles,
fish-hooks, beads of glass and amber, a small flat finger-ring of
gold, etc. There was also portion of an armlet of tin. The bronze
knives were not numerous, but one was highly ornamented with a series
of three flowing patterns of semicircles separated by incised lines
which ran along its curved back.

No swords or bronze dishes are recorded from this station; and of
three bronze hatchets in the Murten Museum, of the usual winged type,
one has the loop transverse to the cutting edge, and a portion of its
wooden handle still remains between the wings.

MURTEN.--This station lies a little above the monument of the battle
of Murten. It is of considerable size, and has yielded a large
quantity of Stone Age objects, such as large perforated stone axes,
staghorn hammers, flint arrow-heads, lumps of carbonised wheat and
many other seeds, weaving-weights, and also bits of burnt cloth. The
station is now completely worked out. (B. 61 and 462.)

MEYRIEZ (MERLACH).--This station belongs to the early Stone period,
and no perforated axes are among its relics. Among the few things
collected on its site the following may be mentioned:--Bits of cloth,
burnt corn, stone hatchet in wooden handle, another hatchet of jade,
etc. The woodwork was very rotten, and the piles could hardly be
distinguished. A canoe with ribbed floor (now in the Fribourg Museum)
was found in the vicinity of the station. (B. 462.)

GRENG-INSEL.--This settlement was situated at the end of a low tongue
of land which projected into the lake, and covered an area of 49,000
square feet. Near the shore the relics were entirely of the Stone Age,
but farther out in the lake they became mixed with bronze and even
iron objects. During low water, previous to the Correction des Eaux du
Jura, a considerable portion of this station could be visited on dry
land, but now it is entirely dry. In its vicinity are several stone
cairns which have greatly puzzled antiquaries, as no relics have been
found on them. Piles were observed in two of them--one lying to the
north-east and the other to the south-west of it.

When this station was first investigated (1861-2), it yielded a
number of perforated hammers and hatchets (some showing unfinished
perforations), six flint knives, corn-crushers, a stone mortar, a
bronze ring, a hair-pin, and several implements of iron. (B. 61.)

Subsequently the proprietor, Count de Pourtalès, with the co-operation
of the local archæologists, made further excavations, which proved
that it essentially belonged to the Stone Age. From Dr. Uhlmann's
Report (1865), it appears that the relic-bed was from 1 to 4 feet
below gravel and matted roots. The piles were generally of oak-stems
as thick as a man's arm or leg, and some were as much as 1 foot in
diameter, but when they reached this size they were generally split.
They were irregularly set, and penetrated deeply into the mud below.
They were of a blackish colour, well preserved, and apparently pointed
with stone axes. Among the relics collected were daggers, saws, and
arrow-heads of flint, beautifully made (=Fig. 14=, No. 9); stone
celts, neatly bored; implements of bone, as chisels, pointers, etc.,
and staghorn haftings.

Fragments of pottery showed two qualities--a reddish thick
earthenware, badly burnt, and a finer quality with some linear
ornamentation.

The bones turned up were very numerous; among which Dr. Uhlmann
recognised those of the following animals:--Urus (a large variety of
horned cattle) and the small _marsh cow_. The sheep-bones indicated
a large race with strong horn cores bent backwards and outwards;
but those of the goat belonged to a more slender animal; stag, elk,
and roe-deer. Amongst the carnivora were the great bear, the teeth
of which were perforated for suspension, the dog (larger than at
Moosseedorf), fox, hedgehog, and beaver. Bones of the frog, and the
scales and bones of a fish, probably a species of pike. Also there
were several portions of skulls and other human bones.

Among vegetal remains were hazel and beech nuts, stones of the sloe
and birdcherry; seeds of raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries;
and carbonised masses of wheat. (B. 126.)

When the station became dry in 1874, in consequence of the
drainage-works, it was again investigated by Mr. Süsstrunk, on behalf
of the town of Morat and the Canton of Fribourg. Among the objects
then found were two flat celts, the composition of which, according to
Dr. v. Fellenberg's analysis, was a mixture of carbonate of copper and
sulphur, without any traces of tin. Among other things were buttons
and haftings of staghorn; a conical stone set in a long hafting of
staghorn; some netting-needles of wood, etc. (B. 286.)

Since then a considerable number of the usual class of bronze objects
as hatchets, knives, hair-pins, fish-hooks, rings, etc., have been
found on this station. (B. 462.) Noteworthy is a knife, partly of
bronze and partly of iron (=Fig. 14=, No. 1).

Among the objects in the Museum at Morat are clay weights, dishes of
pottery (Nos. 13 and 15), staghorn haftings (some with a slit at their
handle-end); a curious object of staghorn, like a large earring (No.
17); beautifully worked flint daggers (No. 9), and a large number of
bone chisels, pointers, etc. In the Museum at Bern there is a mould
for a flat celt, with the casting still in its case, like one in the
Museum at Stuttgart from the Ueberlingersee.

GRENG-MÜHLE.--The next station following in the same direction is a
large and prolific station of the Stone Age, with staghorn implements
predominating among its relics. The perforated stone axes are wanting.
(B. 462.)

FAOUG (PFAUEN).--Near the railway station, in the course of digging a
well, the relic-bed of a pile-dwelling belonging to the Stone Age was
encountered, but its contents have not yet been excavated. A little to
the west of this in the lake some bronze objects were found associated
with piles, but these relics are supposed to have come from Vallamand.
(B. 462.)

Near Faoug there was observed a curious wooden structure, which Dr.
Keller suggested might have been a circular lake-dwelling, like the
Irish crannogs. Mr. Süsstrunk wrote a short notice of it (B. 336),
in which he comes to the conclusion that it was more likely to be in
connection with fishing than with the Pfahlbauten. It consisted of
seven concentric circles of slender piles, separated by an interval
of from 2 to 3 feet. The diameter of the largest circle was hardly 14
yards, so that little space was left in the interior for any supposed
dwelling. The outer circle was formed of boards, about 10 inches broad
and 2 inches thick, standing on end, and penetrating the soil to the
depth of 3 feet or so, and so closely set as to be almost touching.
The piles in the other circles were round and small, and their ends
penetrated only 18 inches into the earth.

VALLAMAND.--This station was extremely rich in Bronze Age objects,
and was known to Colonel Schwab, who found many vessels, clay rings,
discoidal stones, a bronze earring, and a bronze shallow plate, about
10 inches in diameter and 1 inch deep. One of the fictile dishes (No.
16) is shaped like a water-bottle, and has its neck perforated with a
number of small holes arranged at uniform distances and so as to be
in perpendicular line. From each hole a circular line runs round the
neck. (B. 61, p. 49.)

The station was finally explored in the interests of the Museum of
Lausanne, where there is now a splendid collection of its relics.
Some things, however, have gone to the Museum at Bern and to that in
the castle ruins at Avenches. One of the most interesting objects
from this station is a razor in its wooden case (No. 8). In the
Lausanne Museum the objects are marked Guévaux, and among them are
the following:--Of bronze--four winged celts with side loops (two of
which have a terminal catch), three large hollow rings with linear
ornamentations, one bracelet, two cups ornamented with small repoussé
prominences, six sickles (two with a back spur and one with an upright
spur), a large cup-shaped head of a pin like the one from Wollishofen
(=Fig. 3=, No. 9) several pendants (=Fig. 14=, No. 10), involved rings
(Nos. 2 and 4), gouges, buttons (No. 7), studs, 1,300 rings found
together, combs (Nos. 11 and 12), and a curious rod hooked at the ends
and perforated (No. 5). A fish-hook with attachments (No. 3), a pin
with attached chain (only a portion of which is here represented, No.
21), and a curious ornamented dagger, are from other collections.

[Illustration: =Fig. 14.=--VALLAMAND AND GRENG-INSEL (1, 9, 13, 15,
and 17). Pottery = ¼, the rest = ½ real size.]


A few specimens of pottery (Nos. 14 and 18) and an ornanamented horn
(No. 20) complete the illustrations from this station.

GUÉVAUX, ETC.--The four stations on this part of the coast--viz.
Guévaux, Mür, Motier, and Sugiez-Zollhaus--have furnished only a
few traces of their existence, from which it would appear that they
belonged to the pure Stone Age.

The group of well-preserved piles at the mouth of the Chandon was
probably a Roman landing-stage, as Roman tiles have been found along
with them.

At Nant were found two kettles, one of bronze and the other of copper
with an iron ring, two daggers, some iron arrow-heads, and a piece of
sculptured marble, evidently of a later period than the lake-dwellings.

Of the remaining eight or nine cairns whose tops were occasionally
above water, none have yielded industrial relics, and there is
consequently no evidence as to their age and use. They are too small
to admit of even a single hut. (B. 462.)


INKWYLERSEE.

The little lake of Inkwyl is surrounded by low pasture-land, and in
the middle of it there is a small circular island thickly wooded,
which in appearance suggests the idea of a Scottish Crannog. Professor
von Morlot first, in 1854, drew attention to the probability of
the island being artificially constructed, and a short notice to
this effect, which appeared in 1857 (B. 19), induced Mr. Amiet, of
Soleure, to make some excavations. In the following year (1858) these
explorations were continued by Mr. Roth, the proprietor of the island.
The result of their operations[18] showed that there was originally
on the site of this island a pile-dwelling, which became subsequently
a solid island, now rising about ten feet above the surface of the
water. The island measured 90 feet by 80 feet, and in the interior
of it, some 6 or 7 feet deep, there was a rough platform of logs
supported on piles. The antiquities, collected immediately on and
underneath the platform, consisted of stone axes of nephrite and
serpentine, along with their staghorn haftings; corn-crushers; flint
arrow-heads; bone implements; perforated tusks; fragments of pottery,
both rough and fine; clay rings and weights; spindle-whorls; broken
bones of various animals, such as stag, roe, marsh pig, wild boar, ox,
beaver, and some birds. (B. 22.)

In the superficial layers were found a bronze spoon, fragments of
Roman pottery and flanged roofing tiles, an iron lance-head, and a
spur, apparently relics of the Middle Ages.


BURGÄSCHISEE.

About half an hour's walk from Inkwyl there is a somewhat extensive
valley, in which lies the small Burgäschisee, whose boggy margins
were for some time surmised to contain the remains of lake-dwellings,
as several objects of stone and a couple of bronze pins were found
by peat-cutters. A few years ago the matter was put beyond doubt by
investigations conducted under the superintendence of Dr. Uhlmann and
Mr. Jenner. A series of pits were dug in the peat along the shore of
the lake, and at a depth of 2 to 4½ feet they came upon very rotten
piles, and a large assortment of the usual industrial remains of the
lake-dwellers of the Stone Age. The relics and osseous remains were
similar to those from Moosseedorfsee; and among the former were stone
axes, flint saws, scrapers and daggers, arrow-points, of flint and
of rock crystal, with traces of asphalt, and mealing-stones. Also
fragments of various vessels, one with a handle; implements of bone
and horn, as chisels, pointers, etc.; a rubbing instrument, made of
the underjaw of a beaver; forked implements of ribs, etc.

Noteworthy is the fact that some stone relics show evidence of having
been sawn. A short notice of these discoveries is inserted in the
eighth report on the Pfahlbauten by Mr. Keiser, of Burgdorf. (B. 336.)


MOOSSEEDORFSEE.

This settlement, known as Moosseedorf, was situated in the marsh
of Münchenbuchsee, about seven miles from Bern. The small lake of
this name is now nothing more than a moorland tarn, surrounded by
meadow-land and peat bogs. It is of an oblong form, having its
greatest axis (east to west) corresponding with that of the valley.
During the winter of 1855-6, in consequence of a canal made for
agricultural purposes, its usual level was lowered some eight feet,
and thus a considerable portion of its peaty bed became exposed, and
for the first time divulged the existence of two prehistoric pile
dwellings, one at each end of the lake. The western, which was more
satisfactorily investigated, owing to its site becoming dry land,
proved to be a small parallelogram 70 by 55 feet. This area was
occupied with piles of entire or split stems of oak and other woods,
and leading from it and running to the shore, there was a kind of
faggot roadway of branches. The relics were found among the piles
and underneath a stratum of mud, containing the roots of reeds and
water-plants. This relic-bed varied in thickness from 5 inches to
2 feet, and contained stones, gravel, bones, charcoal, etc., lying
immediately over the shell-marl. The piles penetrated into this
shell-marl, but no relics were found in it. During the succeeding ten
years after its discovery, these settlements and their industrial
remains were carefully examined by Messrs. Jahn, Morlot, and Dr.
Uhlmann. (B. 19, 22, 34, 40, 126.)

The relics, most of which are deposited in the Bern Museum, include
a large assortment of industrial remains:--40 stone celts (four of
which are of nephrite), a number of stones perforated, and one stone
spindle-whorl; flint saws in handles; arrow-points of bone, flint (one
with barbs), and rock crystal; harpoons; horn fastenings for celts,
some with a bifurcated end; three horn cups, all with a round hole at
the edge; needles, gouges, chisels, and pointers of bone; a comb made
of yew, a fish-hook made of boar's tusk, a skate from the leg-bone of
the horse, pieces of cloth and string, bits of wood perforated as for
net-floats, rolls of birch-bark, etc.

Fragments of pottery had perforated knobs for suspension, and some
of them indicated large vessels--about 16 or 17 inches in diameter.
In 1868 Dr. Uhlmann found a fragment of pottery having a perforated
knob, and alongside of it, evidently for ornamentation, there were
triangular bits of birch-bark plastered over the surface with asphalt.
(B. 336, p. 37.) (=Fig. 184=, No. 5.)

Two portions of stone sawn off show that the art of sawing this
material was then known.

According to Dr. Uhlmann's analysis of its flora and fauna the
following species were identified:--

_Flora._--Barley, wheat (_Trit. vulg._ and _compactum_), pea, poppy,
and flax (_L. angust_.); also the water-chestnut (_Trapa natans_).

_Fauna._--Among domestic animals were the dog, sheep, and various
kinds of ox. A few bones of the horse were also found among the
osseous remains, but as it is not yet certain that the horse was
domesticated in the Stone Age, these might belong to the wild species.

The remains of wild animals showed:--Bear, badger, polecat, marten,
wild cat, otter, fox, hedgehog, beaver, hare, squirrel, fieldmouse,
marsh pig, wild boar, elk, stag, roe, ox (_Bos prim._), bison, several
kinds of falcons, owl, wild pigeon, crow, partridge, heron, stork,
sea-gull, wild duck, and teal; also those of the tortoise, frog, toad,
perch, carp, pike, and salmon. (B. 284.)


SEMPACHERSEE.

In 1806 this lake was lowered to the extent of 6 or 8 feet, and
on the shore thus exposed a number of piles became visible, among
which it was reported that there were Celtic weapons, hair-pins,
and other implements found. "Keltische Waffen, die in vii Bande des
Geschichtsfreundes beschreiben sind, Nadeln und andere Gegenstände."
(B. 15, p. 99.) But these notices and relics of a past civilisation
attracted little attention at the time, and it was only in the light
of Keller's discovery of lake-dwellings that the recollection of the
find at Sempach was revived and properly interpreted. Colonel Schwab
in his lacustrine peregrinations extended his researches also to Lake
Sempach, and identified seven or eight stations along its shores,
most of which were then on dry land. These settlements were situated
near the following places:--Eich, Schenken, Inselchen, Mariazell,
Margarethen, and Nottwyl: and in all of them some antiquities either
of stone or bronze were collected. (B. 61.)

At the north end, near the site of the lake-dwelling at Mariazell,
but about 20 feet from the water and a foot underground, there was
a remarkable bronze hoard found. (B. 126.) At a short distance from
this there was a human skull disinterred, and along with it a hair-pin
and a bronze gouge; but whether or not these objects belonged to the
lake-dwellers it is impossible to say. Most of the lake-dwelling
remains from the Sempachersee are deposited in the Museum of Lucerne,
among which I have noted the following:--One or two discoidal stones;
a few clay cylinders with everted edges; whorls of various forms and
sizes, some ornamented with lines and pitted impressions; pottery
ornamented with lines and triangles, finger-marks, etc.; and four
beautifully-worked stone axes (=Fig. 15=, Nos. 8, 9, and 10). The
bronze find from Maria Zellermoos includes seven winged and two flat
celts, a chisel, two knives, one dagger with six rivets, four sickles
(one with back spur), and 13 flat bracelets. Some Roman keys, buckles,
a few yellow beads of glass (one of amber), etc., are mixed with this
find. Specimens of these bronze implements are given on =Fig. 15=,
Nos. 1 to 7, and 11.

[Illustration: =Fig. 15=,--SEMPACHERSEE. All ½ real size.]


WAUWYLERSEE. (B. 34 and 126.)

To the west of the little Lake of Wauwyl there is an extensive peaty
plain, in which, upon the lowering of the lake for further utilisation
of the peat, the remains of some curiously-constructed lake-dwellings
were discovered. Wooden platforms were met with, resting, not on
piles, but upon a series of successive beds of roughly-cut stems
lying transversely to each other, the lowest of which reposed on
the lake-bottom. Between these layers were branches and brushwood,
mixed with clay, and the whole mass was pierced with vertical piles,
the tops of which were at least a foot above the upper platform.
These layers were as many as five, and the total thickness of the
mass when exposed was about 3 feet, but there can be no doubt that,
originally, it would have been greater, as there had been considerable
condensation of the mass due to decay, especially of the interposing
branches. The uprights were not observed to have been in any way
connected with the platform, and the only peculiarity in the method
of their arrangement was that they were more thickly placed at the
corners, as if to keep the wooden mass in position. These artificial
structures measured only 10 or 12 feet square, but they were very
numerous, and so close that beams from one sometimes reached to the
one next it. They were found in various parts of the moor, but in
one place they were crowded into a rectangle measuring 90 feet by
50, which was surrounded by several rows of upright piles, as if for
common protection. The upright piles were made of oak, alder, or fir,
and they penetrated deeply into the shell marl--the stoutest being of
oak, measuring 5 inches or more in diameter. It is noteworthy that the
lowest horizontal woodwork lay on the shell marl, showing that these
dwellings were constructed before the peat commenced to grow. The peat
is now at least 6 feet thick., _i.e._ 3 feet of peat lying above the
uppermost platforms.

No antiquarian remains were found underneath the wooden structures,
but mostly in the intervals between them, where the objects lay almost
directly over the shell marl. The settlement appears to have come to
an end before the Bronze Age, as no metal object has been met with.
A small glass bead is therefore of interest, as showing that the
colonists must have had commercial relations with distant countries.
Among the other antiquities are the following:--Stone celts (some of
nephrite) hafted in staghorn fixings, and flint implements; chisels,
pointers, flax-hecklers, etc., of bone; a lump of asphalt, harpoons of
staghorn, knives made of yew, and various fragments of pottery with
perforated knobs. In the Museum of Lucerne there are a few things,
among which are one or two objects showing that the art of boring
stone was known (=Fig. 16=, Nos. 1 and 2).

[Illustration: =Fig. 16.=--LAKES OF WAUWYL (1 and 2), ZUG (8), and
BALDEGG. No. 5 = ¼, all the rest = ½ real size.]


LAKE OF ZUG. (B. 61 and 126.)

The site of the first discovered settlement in this lake lay a little
to the north of the town of Zug. A section of some excavations made
for building purposes about 50 feet from the lake showed first a bed
of common mould 2½ feet thick, then a layer of sand and rolled stones
1½ foot thick, after which came the relic-bed--a blackish band of
decayed organic matter, varying in thickness from 8 inches to 1 foot,
and containing the tops of piles and various industrial remains. The
heads of the piles were on a level, and in some places cross-beams
were observed. The relics include some stone hatchets, one fragment
being of nephrite; a few flint objects--lance and arrow-heads, and one
knife. There were also portions of sawn stones, apparently for making
implements. From a small collection of bones Professor Rütimeyer
identified the horse, cow, dog, marsh pig, red deer, roe, and hare.[19]

The surface of the soil where these discoveries were made was about 15
feet above that of the water in the lake, which of course would leave
the relic-bed still on dry land--a peculiarity which is accounted
for by the reported deepening of the outlet in former times. This
explanation is very probable, as the channel of the Lorze, which
carries off the surplus waters of Lake Zug, in passing through the
town of Cham, bears evidence of having been artificially deepened. The
large amount of detritus conveyed annually into this end of the lake
also satisfactorily accounts for the depth at which the relic-bed lies
below the surface.

Farther round the head of the lake, at Koller, near Cham, another site
was discovered, on which some excavations were made, which revealed a
relic-bed 3 feet below the surface. The finds here were broken celts
of serpentine, fragments of pottery indicating large vessels. The
present level of the lake is 3 feet below this relic-bed.

A third station was at St. Andreas, the evidence of which was
the finding of a great number of stone celts, flint knives and
arrow-points, over a certain part of a cultivated field bordering on
the lake. Peculiar among the finds here are some curious oval objects
made of limestone, with a short neck perforated (=Fig. 16=, No. 8).

Traces of three other stations--viz. at Derschbach, Zweieren, and
Badeplatz--have been noted beyond Cham, but they have not been
carefully investigated. Pottery ornamented with triangular lines and
the "meander" pattern would seem to point to a later period. (B. 126,
Pl. iii.)

A few of the objects collected on these stations are in a small museum
in Zug; others are at Zürich; and in Bern there are 12 stone celts
and one of copper, marked as coming from the station at Lorze.


BALDEGGERSEE. (B. 253 and 336.)

In the year 1871 the proprietors of the land around this lake reduced
its level by drainage some 2½ to 3 feet, in consequence of which
indications of lake-dwellings became visible in the vicinity of the
outlet. The piles were irregularly placed along the shore, and spread
over a wide range. In one place the area attained a breadth of 400
or 500 feet, and again it contracted and the piles only appeared in
groups. In making excavations, the tops of piles became more numerous,
and at a depth of 7 feet, beds of charcoal, containing nutshells and
bits of pottery, were encountered.

Professor Amrein, who conducted the investigations, could distinguish
two kinds of piles, some older than others. Horizontal beams were
seldom met with. There was no regular relic-bed, as worked implements
were found at all depths, from 1 to 8 feet. Some beautiful specimens
of bone pointers and serpentine chisels (=Fig. 16=, Nos. 4 and 5) were
turned up from a depth of 8 to 10 feet. Beds of clay were occasionally
met with, and the piles appeared to have been arranged so as to
enclose square huts. In one of the trenches some stone celts were
lying on a bed of clay at a depth of 6 or 7 feet. One of these was
of a grass-green colour with a transparent edge, and so hard that it
could scratch glass. In an adjacent digging, at a depth of 4 feet, a
large flat stone, 2 by 1½ feet, was found resting on the tops of six
or seven piles, which penetrated through the bed of clay to the shell
marl. The space between these supporting piles was filled with clay,
and around the stone itself there were scattered bits of charcoal,
fragments of pottery, hazel-nuts, etc.

Professor Amrein concludes his report by stating his opinion that this
settlement was at its commencement a palatitte, and that subsequently
fascine structures were constructed over its ruins.

The relics collected are partly in the Archæological Museum and partly
in a small curiosity booth in the Gletscher Garten at Lucerne. Among
those in the museum are beautifully-formed daggers and chisels of bone
and horn (No. 6); four large harpoons (No. 7) and a scoop of horn; two
horn hammers (perforated), and three small cups of the same material
(No. 12); horn handles, etc.; rubbers, polishers, and celts of stone
in large numbers; two flat pebbles (perforated); and some fragments
of stone hammer-axes, one showing an effort to re-bore it (No. 3);
several bits of rock crystal and flints worked into saws, scrapers,
and arrow-points; fragments of pottery with knobs, and others
ornamented with groups of triangular lines, dots, etc., the forms of
which are extremely elegant (Nos. 9, 10, 11).


LAKE OF GENEVA.

Leaving the great Jura chain of lakes we come, after a short journey
through an upland glacial valley, to the Rhone basin and the Lake of
Geneva. On the supposition that this was the route followed by the
lake-dwelling founders, the first and most natural position for a
settlement would be the bay of Morges; and it is somewhat singular
that in this very place one of the largest and most instructive
settlements on this lake flourished for successive ages. Here,
within a few hundred yards of each other, three sites have been
discovered, whose respective remains mark the progressive stages of
civilisation evinced in the Stone Age, the transition period, and the
most flourishing period of the Bronze Age. It will be therefore of
importance to examine carefully the facts disclosed by the repeated
examination of these typical stations before referring to the others
in this lake. Nor in selecting it am I deviating from the order of
discovery, as it was the earliest known and first examined in this
part of Switzerland, after Keller's observations and researches at
Ober-Meilen had roused the curiosity of antiquaries in the matter.

The existence of piles in the bay of Morges was known to fishermen
for a long time, but of course their significance was not understood.
However, on the 22nd of May, 1854, Messrs. Morlot and Troyon examined
the locality, and speedily demonstrated, by the finding of actual
industrial remains, that this had been the site of a _habitation
lacustre_. The part of the bay in which these piles were observed was
about 500 feet from the shore, and in a depth of water which varied
from 8 to 10 feet, even when the lake was at its lowest. Under these
circumstances it will be readily seen that it was no easy matter to
make investigations; but, notwithstanding the difficulties involved,
there was no lack of energy among the local archæologists, who for
many years systematically prosecuted the work of fishing up, by
means of hand-dredgers, nippers, etc., the submerged remains of these
lacustrine villages. Foremost among these explorers were the MM.
Forel, of Morges, father and son, whose reports and rich collection of
antiquities have chiefly supplied the facts now communicated.

When Troyon (1860) published his well-known book on the lake-dwellings
(B. 31), considerable progress had been made in the exploration of
the station, and from the richness of the finds it got the name of
"La grande Cité de Morges;" but it had not yet been ascertained that
there were three separate stations, much less that these stations
represented different periods. According to Troyon, most of the piles
were of oak, and some had planchettes to prevent them sinking too far
in the mud. A portion of one of these supports measured 13½ inches
long, 4 inches broad, and 1 inch thick; and contained two square-cut
holes 1½ inch in diameter and 4 inches apart. The relics found up to
this period were of much interest. Among them were bronze hatchets 4
to 7 inches long, mostly of the winged type, only one having a socket.
Of 13 knives, nine had tangs and four had sockets. Two swords, one of
which, with flat handle, was whole; two socketed lance-heads; several
bracelets of different kinds; and a bronze mould for casting celts[20]
(=Fig. 17=, No. 8). Pottery, clay rings for supports, discoidal
stones with marginal grooves, spindle-whorls, a couple of canoes,
etc. Subsequently the MM. Forel began to distinguish the respective
stations, to which they gave the following names:--(1) "La grande
Cité de Morges," (2) "La Station des Roseaux," and (3) "La Station de
l'Église."

[Illustration: =Fig. 17.=--Morges, Thonon (1, 2, 9, 10, and 16 to 18),
and St. Prex (12). Nos. 7 and 8 = ¼, the rest = ½ real size.]

(1) The Grand City was some 500 feet from the shore, and occupied
an area 1,200 feet long by 100 to 150 feet broad. The stumps of its
thickly-studded piles were visible in the water never less than 8 to
10 feet deep, and among them were detected some cross-beams, and a
canoe, 2 feet wide, with its prow sticking out of the mud. A large
and miscellaneous assortment of relics was also collected. Over 450
bronze objects, says Dr. Forel, writing in 1876 (B. 286), were found
on this station, and they all belong to the purest type of what Desor
calls "le bel Age du Bronze," including swords, knives, sickles,
hair-pins, bracelets, etc. One remarkable observation then made was
that among 60 bronze winged celts (Nos. 13 and 14) there was not one
single specimen of the flat kind. In 1866 two large reniform rings,
one ornamented (=Fig. 17=, No. 3) and the other plain, were added to
the list of objects from Morges. Only one object of iron, viz. a
poignard, analogous to one from Lake Bourget, was found. Among the
osseous remains the stag, goat, sheep, horse, and pig, were identified.

The bronze objects from this station up to the present date are thus
enumerated by Dr. Forel (B. 462, p. 55):--

Winged celts, 66; socketed celts, 6; chisels and gouges, 6; swords, 4;
lance-heads, 19; knives, 61; sickles, 23; bracelets, 95; rings, 79;
hair-pins, 256; divers, 23. In this total of 633 objects are included,
probably under the head "épingles," five curious objects of bronze
with handles similar to those from Wollishofen and Grosser Hafner at
Zürich. (B. 280, p. 699.)

(2) About 450 yards from the northern extremity of the Grand City
there was another settlement (Roseaux), of smaller dimensions, which
has yielded objects essentially different from those of the former.
Here, in marked contradistinction to the Grand City celts, there were
18, all of which were of the flat type (No. 15), and not one with
wings or sockets. But, on the other hand, there were a few polished
stone celts and flint objects, three small lances, and one hair-pin of
bronze, and a few iron sickles of modern type. The pottery was also of
a mixed character, showing fragments of dishes of a coarse and fine
kind. The piles showed marks as if produced by metal tools.

(3) The third station (l'Église) lies between the shore and the Grand
City, and is separated from the latter by a sterile band 220 yards
wide. Here there is a decided steinberg, presenting the unusual
feature of having 20 or 30 rectangular or oval spaces measuring 13
to 20 feet in diameter without any stones. The antiquities from this
station were stone celts (of which 86 are recorded by Dr. Forel up to
the present date), stone spindle-whorls, sharpening stones, and some
fragments of coarse pottery; but no objects of metal of any kind.

(4) A fourth station is named by Dr. Forel as lying opposite the
ancient _poudrière_ of Morges, and containing a small steinberg, on
which six stone celts and a few other objects of the Stone Age have
been found.

The search for lacustrine remains in other parts of the lake was
so actively prosecuted that Troyon could enumerate no less than 26
stations discovered during the six years prior to 1860. (B. 31, p.
31.) Since then their number, as recently corrected by Dr. Forel (B.
462), has increased to 44, notwithstanding that eight localities (viz.
Villeneuve, Creux de Plan, Lutry, Pully, St. Sulpice, Yvoire, Amphion,
and Evian) where supposed lake-dwelling remains have been found are
excluded as doubtful or not verified by subsequent investigations.

Though no such fortuitous circumstance as the "Correction des Eaux du
Jura" has come to the assistance of the _lacustreurs_ of Geneva, they
have amassed a very considerable quantity of relics. Only at a few
stations, as Thonon and the Port of Geneva, have they benefited from
dredging operations carried out for public works. From the results
obtained during these favourable conditions, it is quite clear that an
enormous quantity of antiquities, especially of the Bronze Age, still
lies buried in the waters of this lake.

[Illustration: LAKE DWELLINGS in LAKE OF GENEVA]

We shall now make a tour of the lake, jotting the various
characteristics of the lake-dwelling stations as we move along. (See
accompanying Sketch Map.)

Above Morges are four stations, as follows:--

STATION DE CULLY.--Some piles to the east of the town, but in water
from 10 to 13 feet deep. Only a few isolated objects of stone and
bronze have been recorded.

STATION DE LA PIERRE DE COUR.--Near Lausanne, at a large erratic block
known to bathers as Pierre de Cour, there are a few rows of piles in
a depth of 13 feet, and at a distance of nearly 300 yards from the
shore. A hair-pin and two small bits of bronze are the only relics
recorded.

STATION DU FLON (VIDY).--A number of discoidal stones with marginal
grooves, and some stone rubbers and polishers, are recorded from this
station. (B. 22.)

STATION DE LA VENOGE.--To the east of the embouchure of the river,
near St. Sulpice, and greatly covered by detritus.

MORGES.--Four stations, already noticed.

FRAI D'AÏGUE.--In the gulf of Frai d'Aïgue, a little to the north of
St. Prex, are three stations--viz. De Terreneuve, De Monnivert, and
De Frai d'Aïgue--extending over a length of one kilomètre. They all
belonged to the Stone Age, and represent probably parts of one and the
same village. Mr. Colomb has collected more than 200 stone celts in
various grades of manufacture in a space of 150 square mètres. From
the same station there are in the Museum of Lausanne some 40 stone
celts, a few flint flakes and knives, and a spindle-whorl.

ST. PREX.--In the gulf to the south of St. Prex there is a station of
the Bronze Age, the piles of which are to be seen in a depth of 10 or
11 feet of water. The station has yielded a considerable number of
relics, some of which are deposited in the Lausanne Museum, viz. a
flat bronze celt (=Fig. 17=. No. 12), clay support-ring, portions of
clay crescents, seven stone celts, three or four fragments of pottery
ornamented with curved lines and cable pattern (one fragment of black
pottery is ornamented with tin strips), a bronze pin with spherical
head, a large block for sharpening tools. The other bronzes known from
the station are four knives, one bracelet, five rings, and 11 pins.

ROLLE.--Situated opposite this town there appears to have been a
lacustrine village of considerable size, which has yielded objects
characteristic of both the Stone and Bronze Ages. Part of the area
occupied with piles has been covered over by an artificial island,
now bearing a monumental _obélisque_. Fragments of pottery of the
same character as those from Morges, discoidal stones, hammer and
sharpening stones, were among the relics.

Dr. Forel enumerates the bronze relics from this station as
follows:--Two winged hatchets, one chisel, one lance, two knives, one
sickle (now in the Lausanne Museum), one bracelet, 15 rings, and nine
hair-pins. (B. 462.)

To the south of this is the _Station de Beaulieu_, of considerable
extent, but poor in relics, only some 10 bronze objects having been
found on it. (_Ibid._)

STATION DU CHÂTAIGNIER.--A small Stone Age station before the village
of Dully. (_Ibid._)

STATION DU CREUX DE LA DULLIVE.--A great circular station of the
Bronze Age, on which two winged celts, two bracelets, and a few rings
and hair-pins have been collected. (_Ibid._)

NYON.--According to Dr. Forel (B. 286), there are two stations in
the bay of Nyon--one at Promenthoux (Stone Age), to the right of the
embouchure of the river; and the other (Bronze Age) to the north
of the town of Nyon. Mr. A. Revilliod found on the latter station
a remarkable object, consisting of 300 rings of bronze, from 7 to
8 inches in diameter, which became adherent to each other by a
concretionary deposit from the lake. The total number of bronze relics
from Nyon is 62, thus relegated:--Seven winged celts, one chisel, one
lance-head, 10 knives, two sickles, 15 bracelets, 23 hair-pins, and
three undefined objects.

We now enter the lower portion of the lake, where its breadth becomes
suddenly contracted from 8 to 3 miles; and here it would appear that
the lake-dwellers had thickly planted their peculiar villages on both
sides of the lake. Along the shore, from Nyon downwards to where the
Rhone makes its exit, and then up on the other side to the opposite
point of Ivoire, Dr. Forel (B. 462) enumerates no less than 22
stations, in the following order:--

STATION DE CÉLIGNY.--Just before the landing-pier. Bronze Age.

STATION DE COPPET.--Discovered in 1874 by M. Magnin. Bronze Age.

STATION DE MIES.--Discovered in 1877, opposite the Château des
Crenées. Bronze Age.

STATION DE VERSOIX.--A great station near the landing-pier. Bronze
Age. Hatchets and knives of iron are said to have been found on this
station.

STATION DE BELLEVUE.--Discovered in 1880, to the north of
landing-pier. Bronze and Stone Ages.

STATION DES PÂQUIS.--Extends southwards from the jetty of the new
port. Stone Age.

STATION DES EAUX-VIVES.--Outside the port, along the suburb of this
name. Stone Age.

CITÉ DE GENÈVE.--A vast station occupying the present port. Bronze Age.

STATION DE PLONGEON.--At the northern end of the Station des
Eaux-Vives, in a contracted spot, Dr. Gosse has found some 30 objects
of iron, some of which resemble those of La Tène.

The last four are generally known as the Stations of Geneva, so that
the lower extremity of the lake must have been actually studded with
settlements. At the foot of the largest of the two well-known and
superstitiously-revered boulders called Pierres à Niton were found,
about the middle of last century, a knife (=Fig. 18=, No. 5) and a
celt of bronze of the flat type, which are still preserved in the
Museum of the town. Near this was the Bronze Age station called by
Dr. Forel "Cité de Genève," but sometimes described as the Station
des Eaux-Vives. It would appear that there are two stations described
under the latter name--one of the Stone Age, about 100 yards nearer
the shore; and the other of the Bronze Age ("Cité de Genève").

The Cité de Genève is now the richest bronze station hitherto
investigated in the Lake of Geneva. It occupied a horseshoe-shaped
area, filling the entire space presently forming the port, and even
sent a prolongation down to Rousseau's island. Dr. Forel estimates
the number of bronze objects collected here at 1,500, being rather
more than the total number from all the other stations in the Lake of
Geneva.

At its northern extremity, next the Station des Eaux-Vives, Dr. Gosse
came upon what must have been the site of a foundry. Here, in a
confined space not exceeding 100 square yards, he fished up no less
than 50 stone moulds, crucibles, ingots of bronze and tin, scoriæ, and
other materials of the founder's art. (B. 462.)

Most of the objects of general interest from this station have been
deposited in the Archæological Museum. Dr. Forel classifies those
of bronze as follows:--25 winged hatchets, 19 socketed hatchets,
four flat hatchets, seven chisels and gouges, four swords, seven
lance-heads, 72 knives, 22 sickles, 75 bracelets, 230 rings, 1,000
hair-pins, and 60 diverse objects. In looking over this collection I
made the following notes:--The socketed celts have the loop generally
at right angles to the cutting edge. The knives are both socketed and
tanged. Bracelets show a great variety of forms, but the solid ones
predominate. Sickles have more frequently a raised button. The ceramic
art shows the usual Bronze Age decoration of triangles, and the paste
is of two qualities. Clay ring-supports, spindle-whorls, discoidal
stones, etc., are very abundant. Among the odds and ends are to be
noted pins with large perforated heads, fish-hooks, buttons, a large
plaque with repoussé work of slightly-raised bosses, a rude image like
a stag of bronze, a variety of pendants, small tin wheel-like objects
in concentric circles, etc. A few of these objects are represented on
=Fig. 18=, all of which, except Nos. 9, 10, 12, and 13, are from this
station and deposited in the Museum at Geneva.

STATION DE LA BELOTTE.--A large station, rich in Stone Age relics. A
couple of bracelets and a few rings and hair-pins of bronze, in all 21
objects, are among the treasures from this settlement, which comprise
no less than 1,400 stone celts.

STATION DE LA POINTE DE LA BISE.--Immediately to the north of La
Belotte there is another station, said to be one of the transition
period, owing to its having supplied a couple of flat axes. The only
other metal objects are a few rings and hair-pins.

STATION DE BELLERIVE.--A large station yielding objects both of the
Stone and Bronze Ages.

GABIULE.--Before the steamboat landing-stage are two stations--one of
the Stone Age; and another, in deeper water, of the Bronze Age.

STATION D'ANIÈRE (BASSY).--A small Bronze Age station in deep water.

We next come to a group of four stations, all within a compass of two
miles, which are sometimes confounded with one another, and described
as "Les Stations de Tougues." One is near Hermance, and is known as
the Station de la Vie à l'Ane or du Moulin; a second is vis-à-vis de
la Fabrique Canton; a third is opposite the Château Beauregard; and
a fourth, Creux de Tougues, lies before the village of Chens. These
settlements were all parallel to the shore, and their remains are in
deep water. Their relics are of a mixed character, and would indicate
that, while founded in the Stone Age, they subsisted during that of
Bronze.

[Illustration: =Fig. 18.=--GENEVA AND TOUGUES (9, 10, 12, and 13).
Nos. 6, 12, and 13 = ¼, the rest = ½ real size.]

The station at Creux de Tougues is the most important of the group,
and it has furnished a large number of antiquities. It is about 130
yards from the shore, in a depth of water varying from 5 to 10 feet.
Ordinary stone celts, 27 of which have been collected (B. 462), were
found on the part next the shore. The collection of bronze objects
consists of:--Four winged celts (=Fig. 18=, No. 10), one flat celt,
two socketed chisels, one sword, one lance-head, 21 knives, five
sickles (No. 9), 14 bracelets, 120 rings, 170 hair-pins, and six
diverse objects. Pottery from this station (Nos. 12 and 13) comes
largely to the front, and in the Museum of Geneva there are fine
specimens of plates, cups, vases, and other vessels of a fine black
ware which, both in form and ornamentation, resemble those from
the palafittes of Lake Bourget and others of the Bronze Age in
Switzerland. Spindle-whorls, discoidal stones with a marginal groove,
rubbing stones, etc., are also abundant. A peculiarly-shaped stone
object known as "gorge de poulies" comes here to be noted. (B. 31, 281
and 462.)

MESSERY.--Piles are here seen projecting above the mud 2 to 5 feet,
in a depth of about 12 feet of water. One of the piles pulled up by
Troyon showed markings of a metal tool. Numerous fragments of pottery
characteristic of the Bronze Age have been found, but only two objects
of this metal, viz. a winged celt and a sickle.

NERNIER.--Two stations are described in the vicinity of the village
of this name. One, near the shore, and partly covered up with gravel,
belonged to the Stone Age. Here Troyon observed some large piles
in a depth of 6 feet of water, and others he found on the shore
buried in the gravel. Among the objects collected are flint flakes,
spindle-whorls, hatchets of serpentine (a perforated one is in the
Museum of Annecy), some worked bones, etc.

The Bronze Age station is 600 yards to the west of the village, and
150 from the shore. The relics consist of pottery, spindle-whorls,
ring-supports, etc. Among the bronze objects are:--Eight winged celts,
two chisels, one sword, two lance-heads, three knives, three sickles,
five bracelets, three rings, and five hair-pins. Among the rings is
included a pendeloque, in the form of a large hollow ring, attached to
which is a small ring for suspension.

STATIONS D'EXCENEVREZ ET DE COUDRÉ.--In rounding the point of Ivoire
we come to a sheltered bay, into which a couple of streams discharge
their waters, carrying down a considerable amount of _débris_, so
that the lake-dwelling remains are here deeply buried. Traces of two
stations have, however, been observed, one, station De Moulin-Pâquis,
near Excenevrex, and the other, De Coudré, opposite Château
Bartholoni, not far from the village of Sciex. Both appear to belong
to the Stone Age, and in the latter, in 1874, 12 stone hatchets were
found.

THONON.--There were two separate settlements at Thonon. One (Stone
Age), about 20 yards from the shore, was discovered in 1862, when the
new port was being formed. The objects there collected were piles,
flint implements, stone hatchets, spindle-whorls, and some coarse
pottery.

The Bronze Age station was considerably in advance of the former,
and in a depth of 3 to 4 yards. The settlement was extensive, and
ran parallel to the shore, and from its remains a large assortment
of relics has been collected. Being among the earliest discovered in
the Lake of Geneva, it has been industriously searched by a number of
well-known archæologists, as Troyon, Forel, Revon, Monod, Revilliod,
Carrard, etc., and consequently its treasures are widely distributed.
The bronze objects, according to Dr. Forel (B. 462), amount to 48,
viz. 11 winged celts, two lance-heads, six knives, two sickles, 14
bracelets, two rings, five hair-pins, and six diverse objects. One
of the knives, which is finely ornamented and one foot in length,
has the peculiarity that the handle contains less tin than the blade
(=Fig. 17=, No. 16). Another knife was adapted for side-plates to
be riveted on its handle (No. 11); while others were socketed and
tanged (Nos. 17 and 18). Some of the hatchets have a side loop, and
others are devoid of it. Among other things are a large ring, _armilla
sacra_ (Carrard), (No. 2); a pendant of three involved rings, together
with various other pendants (No. 9). Among the pottery are fragments
with perforated knobs, herring-bone pattern (No. 1), etc.; and some
charming vases, clay ring-supports, etc.

There are thus, according to Dr. Forel, 11 stations of the Stone Age;
three of the period of transition (_i.e._ with hatchets of bronze of
the flat type), six with mixed objects, 19 of the Bronze Age, and one
(Station de Plongeon) which furnished objects characteristic of the
early Iron Age.

These notes have been collected from a fragmentary and
widely-scattered literature, including the following original
sources:--B. 22, 31, 34, 40, 121, 126, 138, 152, 280, 282, 286, 315,
377, and 462.


LAKE LUISSEL, CANTON DE VAUD.

In a small valley among the heights above Bex, adjoining the Rhone
valley, there were found, in 1791, while a canal was being dug for
facilitating the cutting of peat, some industrial remains which point
to the existence of a lake-dwelling of the Bronze Age. At the north
of the basin, and at a depth of 6 feet, a quantity of bones (some
human), grains of corn, bronze rings, the tip of a scabbard, and three
remarkable swords (from 23 to 26 inches in length) were encountered
(=Fig. 19=). The swords are still preserved, and indubitably belong
to the most flourishing period of the Bronze Age. In the summer of
1859 Mr. Troyon made excavations in the turf of the former bed of this
lake, but found only a portion of worked wood, which might have been
used as a handle for a stone hatchet. According to an old tradition in
the neighbourhood, a château once existed here which had been engulfed
in the lake. (B. 31.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 19.=--LUISSEL. All ⅓ real size.]


LAKE BOURGET.

As early as 1856, while the Mont Cenis and Culoz railway was being
constructed, some antiquities were dredged up in the bay of Grésine,
in Lake Bourget, which the engineers surmised to be remains of a
lake-dwelling. Though this information was formally communicated to
the Société Savoissienne, it was not till 1862, in consequence of
renewed attention to these discoveries by Baron Despine and M. Desor,
that this society took steps to investigate the matter. A preliminary
investigation conducted by a committee of seven gentlemen was
considered so satisfactory that the committee was renewed, with funds
at its disposal for systematic researches among the palafittes. Since
then several archæologists have conducted independent researches,
among whom may be noted particularly Le Comte Costa de Beauregard, MM.
Rabut, Perrin, Revon, Cazalis de Fondouce, and Chantre. (B. 73, 138,
176, 179, 282.)

[Illustration: Lake-dwellings in LAKE OF BOURGET]

The combined results of these explorers have now established the fact
that there were eight settlements in this lake, all of them belonging
to the Bronze Age. The antiquities fished up have been very numerous,
but unfortunately they are widely distributed, many indeed being in
private collections. The largest proportion is, however, to be found
in the Museums of Chambery, Aix-les-Bains, Annecy, and St. Germain,
and the private collection of Count de Beauregard in his château on
the Lake of Geneva. (For relative position of these stations see
Sketch Map of Lake Bourget.)

CONJUX.--This station is 200 yards from the shore, opposite the
village of the same name. A group of piles only 50 yards from the
shore is supposed to have been the ruins of a Roman pottery business,
on account of the abundance of characteristic ware found among them.
A peculiarity of this station is the number of moulds found on it in
proportion to the other objects, no less than 13 being recorded up to
1875, representing all manner of industrial implements, as knives,
winged and socketed celts, sickles, hammers, pins, rings, and buttons.

CHATILLON.--This settlement occupied a sheltered position about 500
feet from the shore. In one part the piles project out of the mud, and
are all inclined towards the east at an angle of 45°, but in the rest
of the station they are straight. A vessel of earthenware, like the
later productions of the lake-dwellers, was found among these piles
with the name Severinus stamped on it in Roman characters. (B. 176, p.
24.) Here were found some 40 or 50 of these very remarkable vessels of
black earthenware, ornamented with tin strips forming a combination of
pleasing designs (=Fig. 193=, Nos. 4 and 5); also some fragments of
Gallo-Roman pottery, and others of a very early type. Among the relics
are eight moulds (one of which is for a lance-head) and about 320
objects of bronze.

GRESINE.--The bay of Grésine contains the sites of two
settlements--one close to the railway, and the other farther out and
of larger extent. The latter appears to have been connected with the
Pointe de Grésine, as a gravel bank runs from this part of the shore
to the site of the palafitte; and the two stations were connected with
a gangway, the remains of which have been traced. The railway just
touches the site of the inner station, to which accident the discovery
of palafittes in Lake Bourget is due. Although the stations at Grésine
have been more frequently searched than any others, owing to their
proximity to Aix-les-Bains, they have continued for a long time to
be the richest in all kinds of antiquities, carbonised fruits, etc.
Among the moulds is one for the handle of a sword on one side, and a
buckle on the other. (B. 282, Pl. liv. 2.) No less than five bronze
hammers have been found on this station, all of which are socketed and
cylindrical in shape. Last summer some remarkable objects were fished
up, which I saw in the collection of the finder at the Restaurant
Lacustre (Port Puer), some of which are here figured (=Fig. 21=, Nos.
4, 6, and 12).

MEIMART.--The _débris_ of this settlement lies about 100 yards from
the shore, under 16 to 20 feet of water, and hence it has been less
searched, although it is of considerable extent, and has yielded a few
antiquities, notably a bronze sword, moulds, fragments of pottery, and
a Roman vase.

LE SAUT.--This settlement, like the others, was on a slight elevation
some 110 yards from the shore, and at low water its relics have to
be fished from a depth of about 10 feet. The station has been well
explored, and it has been observed that the ceramic remains indicate
greater technical skill the farther out in the lake they are picked
up, and where the piles are seen to project higher above the mud. A
piece of timber 22 feet long, with numerous mortises at each end, and
a bone harpoon with one barb, like those of bronze from Peschiera, are
the only objects which distinguish the antiquities of this station,
which in general are very similar to those from Grésine.

LES FIOLLETS.--A small settlement in 15 to 20 feet of water. The few
bronze objects found here are covered with calcareous matter. Some of
the pins collected on it are of novel forms, but the most interesting
object is a small file, which may be seen in the Museum at Chambery.
Mortised beams were also fished up from this station.

CHARPIGNAT.--Some piles have been observed near the village of
Bourget, but the associated industrial remains, if any, have not yet
been revealed.

In 1875 Mr. Perrin made a series of elaborate statistics, by which he
estimated the entire number of bronze objects from the palafittes in
Lake Bourget at a little over 4,000, and tabulated them in various
categories according to their uses, indicating the stations on which
they were found, and the museums or collections in which they were
then located. (B. 282.) Since then so many additional relics have
been recovered from the palafittes that Mr. Perrin's tables can offer
no approximation to accuracy; but, nevertheless, they have a certain
value in showing the relative frequency of the different objects. I
have, therefore, taken the liberty of reconstructing from Mr. Perrin's
data the following list of the objects found in Lake Bourget, which
gives a better general idea of the culture and civilisation of its
lake-dwellers than pages of descriptive details:--

                        LAKE BOURGET.

  ------------------------------------------+----------+--------------
                                            | Grésine. | All Stations.
  ------------------------------------------+----------+--------------
  Founders'   {Moulds                       |   22     |     49
  Materials   {Ingots and Castings          |   46     |    171
              {Hammers                      |    5     |      7
              {Hatchets                     |   19     |     38
              {Chisels                      |    2     |      4
              {Gouges                       |    1     |      1
              {Sickles                      |    7     |     23
              {Knives                       |   35     |    126
  Utensils    {Paring Knives (Tranchets)    |    4     |     13
  and         {Razors                       |   18     |     32
  Instruments {Stamp                        |   --     |      1
              {Borers, etc.                 |   32     |    164
              {Saws                         |    1     |      2
              {File                         |   --     |      1
              {Rivets and Nails             |  115     |    248
              {Needles                      |   46     |    190
              {Fish-hooks                   |   38     |    144
              {Pincers                      |    5     |      7
                                            |          |
              {Swords                       |    2     |      3
              {Daggers                      |    9     |     12
  Arms        {Lances                       |    5     |     16
              {Arrow-heads                  |   23     |     49
              {Shields                      |    1     |      2
                                            |          |
              {Hair-pins                    |  163     |    798
              {Fibulæ                       |    2     |      2
              {Bracelets                    |   82     |    252
              {Torques                      |    1     |      2
              {Finger-rings                 |   32     |    121
  Objects     {Earrings                     |    4     |     22
  of          {Girdles                      |    1     |      1
  Ornament    {Buckles, Rings, etc.         |  140     |    598
              {Pendants                     |    7     |     16
              {Clasps                       |    7     |     50
              {Buttons                      |   35     |     63
              {Brackets, etc.               |   43     |    185
              {Beads                        |  115     |    488
              {Tubes and Spirals            |    8     |     73
                                            |          |
  Diverse Objects                           |   34     |    108
                                            +----------+--------------
                          Total             | 1,110    |  4,002
  ------------------------------------------+----------+--------------

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE PALAFITTES OF LAKE BOURGET.--Count Costa de
Beauregard, in his excellent article on the "Habitations Lacustres
du Lac du Bourget" (B. 176), states that the stakes on which these
villages were reared were generally of oak, measuring from six to
eight inches in diameter, and that they were placed at a distance of
100 to 200 yards from the shore, in a depth of 4 or 5 yards of water.
Their lower extremities almost always bore cutting marks, which could
only be made by metal tools. The great differences as regards their
state of preservation show that the settlements had been occupied
for a long time, necessitating the renewal of the piles at different
epochs.

The Count also believes that all the palafittes of Lake Bourget
were constructed during the Bronze Age, in regard to which he thus
writes:--"Malgré les quelques instruments de silex et les hachettes
de pierre rencontrés dans nos fouilles, il est peu probable, comme je
l'ai déjà dit, que ces bourgades aient été fondées à l'Epoque de la
Pierre. Tout nous porte à croire, au contraire, qu'elles florissaient
à l'Epoque du Bronze, période qui a dû être de fort longue durée
en Savoie, car il a fallu bien des siècles pour accumuler sur les
différents points que nous avons explorés une pareille quantité
d'objets et de débris de toute sorte." (_Ibid._, p. 23.)

RELICS.--_Weapons._--The swords recovered are few, and of one type
(=Fig. 20=, No. 16). That they are of home manufacture is more than
probable from the finding of portion of a mould of the same class of
weapon, now deposited in the Museum of Chambery. Only a few tips of
scabbards hitherto found (=Fig. 21=, No. 20). The daggers were both
tanged and riveted to their handles. Lance-heads (Nos. 1 to 4) are all
socketed, with only one or two exceptions (Nos. 5 and 12), which might
be daggers. They are generally unornamented. Arrow-points are formed
for the most part of triangular plates of bronze, with two or four
holes for fastening them to the stem; but other forms are met with
(=Fig. 21=, Nos. 13, 22 to 26, and 32).

[Illustration: =Fig. 20.=--LAKE BOURGET. All ⅓ real size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 21.=--LAKE BOURGET. Nos. 34 to 37 = ¼, the rest
= ½ real size.]

_Implements._--Hatchets (=Fig. 20=, Nos. 9, 10, 11, and 17) are both
winged and socketed, and the latter have their sockets round, oval, or
rectangular. The chisels and gouges are all socketed (No. 19). Sickles
(Nos. 20 and 21) have nearly all a raised button for fixing the handle
(in which respect they differ from those of Switzerland), and may
be classified under a variety of groups dependent on the degree of
curvature and the disposition of their raised ribs. The knives are
socketed, tanged, and with a solid handle (Nos. 6, 7, 8, 13, and 14);
the former being most, and the latter less, frequent. Razors are of
two kinds, with or without a handle (Nos. 22 and 23). Needles have the
eye either at the end or middle. Awls and a variety of fish-hooks are
abundant; but spears or harpoons are very rare. Rivets, nails, and
bits of thin bronze plates, are in some places abundantly met with.
Examples of saws and files have been found, but in small numbers.

_Ornaments._--Pins with large round heads are very rare, as are also
those with wheel heads (the various forms are shown in =Fig. 21=, Nos.
10, 18, 19, 21, 30, and 31). Bracelets (Nos. 16, 17, and 29), which
are numerous, and mostly open, are either solid or hollow (one is of
tin); fibulæ and torques rare; finger-rings are of two kinds, plain
and spiral (No. 7); portions of girdles, buckles, pendants (No. 5),
buttons (No. 33), bronze beads, and small spirals, are abundant; a
clasp is like one from Mörigen (=Fig. 20=, No. 25). Tin appears in
ingots, in a bracelet, discs, and thin strips for ornamentation to
dishes; also gold in the form of a few portions of twisted wire or
leaf. Several bronze vessels. One charming little vase (=Fig. 21=,
No. 14) of cast bronze, figured by Count Costa de Beauregard, and now
in his possession, was found at Grésine along with a sword (=Fig.
20=, No. 16), a knife (No. 8), and about 250 nails supposed to have
been used in the manufacture of a shield. Nos. 1 and 2 of =Fig. 21=
represent two remarkable objects from Grésine, now exhibited in the
Museum at Aix-les-Bains. A similar object, but more worn and minus
some of its rings, is in the Museum at Chambery; and a fourth is
in the Museum Lacustre at the Port (=Fig. 195=, No. 4). Crescents,
spindle-whorls, fragments of cloth, bits of plaited rushes and
basket-work, glass in small coloured beads, and amber (=Fig. 21=, Nos.
27 and 28), also in small beads, are all fully represented.

The articles represented by Nos. 4, 6, and 12, may be the brass
ornaments on a set of harness; but as to the two curious vessels of
bronze (Nos. 8 and 11), I am unable to assign any use.

The pottery shows great skill in the ceramic art. It is of a
grey, black, or red colour (Nos. 34, 35, 36, and 37). Vessels
combining the three colours, in various geometrical forms, with
linear ornamentation, have been found among them, and others with
ornamentation reminding one of the impressions of fern-leaves
(_Polypodium vulgare_).

A few iron spear-heads (=Fig. 198=) and knives, as well as Roman tiles
and pottery, have also been collected from these palafittes.

The domestic and wild animals, so far as they have been identified,
are similar to those from the Swiss lake-dwellings.


LAKE ANNECY.

Since 1856 piles have been discovered in several places in Lake
Annecy, but owing to the depth of water and the accumulation of mud,
their associated relic-beds could not be easily examined. Up to the
present time only four stations have been sufficiently investigated
to enable us to form some idea of their chronological position with
respect to the other remains of lake-dwellings. These are Stations du
Port, De Vieugy, Du Chatillon, and Du Roselet.

[Illustration: =Fig. 22.=--LAKE ANNECY. All ½ real size.]

The first-named (Station du Port) came to light only in the beginning
of 1884, when the little harbour at the town of Annecy was being
deepened to facilitate the movements of the pleasure-steamers which
ply on the lake during the season. In the course of these operations
the dredging-machines came into contact with piles, and brought
up various kinds of stone implements, etc., in the mud, which,
unfortunately, were mostly re-deposited in deep water. The spot where
these remains were found lies just at the extremity of the Swan
Island; and after the public works were completed, the dredger was put
at the disposal of the Société Florimontane, who conducted systematic
investigations, both there and at the stations of Roselet and Vieugy.
Previous to this time all the stations examined had yielded more
or fewer bronze objects, and they were therefore considered to be
analogous to those of Lake Bourget, all of which were founded during
the Bronze Age. The explorations conducted at the Station du Port
upset this view, as from the character of the relics found on it there
could be no doubt that its inhabitants lived chiefly during the Stone
Age, but the station survived to the Bronze Age. The objects collected
from it consist of perforated hammer-axes of serpentine (=Fig. 22=,
Nos. 8 and 9), polished hatchets of serpentine, stone spindle-whorls,
beautifully-worked daggers and lance-heads of flint (Nos. 5, 6,
and 7), as well as arrow-heads, (one of shale stone No. 10), saws,
scrapers, etc., of the same material. Only two metal objects, viz. a
bronze hair-pin (No. 2), and a bead (No. 3), probably of copper, like
those from Vinelz are recorded; but these are said to have been on the
surface of the relic-bed.

STATION DU ROSELET was the first discovered in this lake, but it has
yielded only a few relics, among which are fragments of pottery, some
fine spindle-whorls, a hatchet of serpentine, and a bronze bracelet.

CHATILLON was in a depth of 8 to 13 feet, and among its relics are a
socketed knife and a couple of bracelets (No. 4).

The settlement at Vieugy was discovered in 1868, and the most
important objects from it are a bronze hatchet of the flat type (No.
1), some stone moulds, and a few rubbers. (B. 315.)


LAKES OF AIGUEBELLETTE AND THUILLE.

M. Troyon reported the existence of piles at two places in the Lake
Aiguebellette, and one in Lake Thuille; but of these I find no further
records. (B. 31.)


LAKE CLAIRVAUX (FRANCE).

The Lake of Clairvaux is situated on the first rising plateau of the
Jura mountains, not far from the town of Lons-le-Saulnier, and covers
an area of about 200 acres. At its north-west extremity there is a
tongue of land projecting into the lake called La Motte-aux-Magnins,
which is believed to have been an island in former times, but is now
continuous with a tract of marshy ground which extends between the
Motte and the town of Clairvaux.

It has been recorded that at various times prior to 1870 diverse
antiquities were found in the course of drainage operations in this
marshy ground, such as horn implements, stone axes of flint and
jade, boars' tusks, bits of pottery, bronze celts, a fibula, and an
armilla; also Gallo-Roman remains, including a Gaulish gold coin and
Roman coins. In the lake itself there were no discoveries made, with
the exception of a group of five piles known to fishermen. But none
of these discoveries had ever suggested to any one the idea of a
lake-dwelling, the common and accepted opinion being that they were
remains of Druidical times and customs.

On the 27th of June, 1870, when the water was about its lowest, Mr. Le
Mire happened to be walking on the shore and accidentally stumbled on
the top of a black pile of oak. His attention being thus directed to
such a curious object, he looked about and detected many others just
protruding from the lake-bottom. He then determined to investigate the
matter, and at once employed some labourers to make excavations. The
place selected was 100 yards to the west of the Motte-aux-Magnins,
and 25 yards to the east of the canal which forms the outlet of the
lake. Trenches were dug about 1 yard in width and the same in depth (a
greater depth being prevented by the oozing up of water). During these
operations piles were abundantly met with, but no relics were found,
and it was remarked that there was no change in the stuff thrown up
from the trenches, it being the ordinary whitish deposits similar to
what is seen on the present surface of the strand. The piles were of
oak, fir, yew, poplar, willow, and hazel, and measured from 4 to 6
inches in diameter.

Mr. Le Mire then shifted his operations to the south side of the
Motte-aux-Magnins, and after passing through 6 to 8 inches of
the whitish surface deposits he came upon a blackish peaty layer
containing roots of water-plants and other organic _débris_, which
turned out to be the veritable relic-bed of the lake-dwellers.

Here he continued the excavations for about three weeks with a couple
of workmen, and in this way an area of about 120 square yards was
examined, which he thinks was not more than a twentieth part of the
total site of the lake-dwelling. The piles did not reach the surface,
but they were met with abundantly, no less than 150 being counted in
the space examined. The breaking-out of the war put a stop to these
excavations, and the subsequent return of the water to its ordinary
level prevented their renewal.

[Illustration: =Fig. 23.=--CLAIRVAUX. Nos. 5, 7, and 15 = ¼, the
rest = ½ real size.]

Mr. Le Mire has published an illustrated report of his investigations
(B. 219), from which these notes are taken, but the accompanying
illustrations (=Fig. 23=) are from a selection of objects exhibited
in the anthropological section of the Paris International Exposition
of 1889. In this collection I note that there are a few relics, such
as the two bronze objects, to which Mr. Le Mire does not refer in his
report; probably these may have been found since its publication.

Among the relics staghorn implements take a prominent place. Handles
and fixers for stone weapons amounted to 49, and the two here
illustrated (of five exhibited in Paris) still retain their celts
(Nos. 6 and 8). There are several perforated horn hammers, one of
which (No. 7) retained portion of its wooden handle when found;
another is a foot long, and the perforation is nearer the burr of
the horn which forms the hammer-end. A tyne 11 inches long forms the
handle to a small stone chisel. Another object (No. 5) is a _unicum_
of its kind. It is a chisel of horn formed from the tyne, with the
body of the horn forming a neatly-polished handle.

The polished daggers or pointers are also finely made, and almost
remind one of those at Laibach. Twenty-six were exhibited in Paris,
three of which are here represented, including the largest and
smallest (Nos. 9, 13, and 14).

About a dozen triangular or leaf-shaped arrow-points, and one or two
spear-heads of flint. Of the latter, one (No. 2) is remarkable for its
size and elegant workmanship.

Wooden dishes formed out of the solid, all having a round base, were
collected to the number of 15, and some large globular pieces of wood
were supposed to be the primary stage of their manufacture. One dish
figured by Le Mire is here reproduced, and shows a neat handle (No.
15). There were also wooden mallets perforated for a handle. Three
bits of a bow, one showing the tip with a notch for the string. An
axle-tree for a waggon Le Mire considers interesting, as showing a
knowledge and use of traction by wheels.

Besides a few stone celts and chisels, most of which were still in
their horn handles, there were a few flint knives (No. 1), three
sharpening stones, two curious and novel objects of polished stone,
one of which is illustrated (No. 10).

The pottery includes 140 fragments of dishes, showing various forms of
handles and linear ornamentation.

Of bronze there are just two objects, a small awl or chisel and a
much-worn dagger (Nos. 11 and 12).

Animal bones collected to the amount of 150 kilogrammes were not
reported on by a skilled person; but, according to Le Mire, they
belonged chiefly to the ox, stag, boar and pig; among them was a fine
specimen of a bear's skull. Among other organic remains were a few
grains of wheat and acorns.


MARSH DWELLING IN THE TOWN OF BORDEAUX.

In 1867 Mr. Delfortrie (B. 136) published a notice of prehistoric
antiquities of the Neolithic Age found in the course of excavations
for the improvement of the town of Bordeaux, which point to the
existence of some kind of marsh dwelling in the very centre of the
town. Attention was first directed to the matter by the quantity of
bones thrown up from the lower part of the excavations, among which
Delfortrie detected some worked ones, and associated with them were
various stone and flint implements.

In regard to the osseous remains, he observes that the lower jaws of
ruminants, which were relatively in great abundance, had their incisor
teeth purposely removed, but the molars were retained. On the other
hand, the upper jaws were entirely absent or broken, like all other
marrow bones.

At three different points forming an almost equilateral triangle of
200 mètres the side, he procured sections of these street cuttings,
in all of which the succession of strata and relics indicated similar
conditions. At one point he gives the following details of a section:--

                                                        Mètres.
   A. Earth and subsoil }                                 4·
   B. Terramare of Gallo-Roman period }
   C. Marine bed with shells                               ·10
   D. Sandy peat                                           ·50
   E. Bed of ashes with oyster shells, worked bones, etc.  ·50
   F. Lacustrine sand                                      ·45
   G. Black peat with sand and gravel                     1·55
                                                          ----
                                                          7·10

The bones represented the following animals:--Great ox, smaller ox,
stag, pig, wild boar, horse (a small kind), goat, sheep, and dog. Mr.
Delfortrie thinks the bones of the horse show that the animal was
not domesticated. No piles were discovered except in the Gallo-Roman
period. The following shells were found in the marine bed C.:--Ostrea
edulis, Pecten maximus, Mytilus edulis, Venus decussata, Cardium
edule, Mactrea solida, Turbo neritoides, and Trochus cinerarius.

The relics were found chiefly in bed E., among the ashes, a few being
from the sandy peat above it. These consist of pointers, needles,
polishers, spatulæ, arrow-points, and an implement of bone called
a whistle; flint saws, a polished celt also of flint, three small
polished stone celts of serpentine or quartzite, and about a dozen
flint knives.

The opinion of the narrator is that there was here a marsh dwelling
of the nature of the Kökkenmödings of Denmark which in point of time
preceded the Swiss lake-dwellings, but was posterior to the Reindeer
Period of Central France.

In my opinion, the character and finish of the relics furnish no
grounds for supposing that this habitation was prior to the early
Swiss lake-dwellings; nor are we warranted, from such limited
explorations as could be made in the streets of a town, to exclude
the more probable idea that this was an ordinary palafitte,
notwithstanding that piles were not observed.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Corr.-Blatt_, p. 14, 1884. _Antiqua_, 1883, i. pp. 31, 55; and
ii. pp. 47, 54. B. 336 and 462.

[2] _Antiqua_, 1883, p. 61.

[3] _Matériaux_, vol. xvi. p. 257.

[4] Dr. Gross in _Corresp.--Blatt_, 1882, p. 99.

[5] _Antiqua_, 1884, pp. 42 and 85.

[6] _Antiqua_, 1884, p. 59.

[7] _Antiqua_, 1885, p. 165.

[8] _Bul. de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat._, vol. xi.

[9] In 1861 Mr. Troyon carried on researches, under the
superintendence of qualified persons, to prevent falsifications, which
were frequently indulged in by the railway workers. And as the result,
he enumerates the genuine objects collected as follows:--

     A complete hatchet with a wooden handle, horn-holder, and
       serpentine axe; various horn handles, some bifurcated, still
       retaining their axes and chisels; a portion of wood pointed,
       fixed in a hatchet handle instead of the stone.
     2 pointers of wood with horn handles.
     6 hammers of staghorn, with remnants of their wooden handles.
     8 bone arrow-points, with remains of _mastic_.
    40 handles of horn for chisels, minus the tools.
   200 axe-holders.
    20 horn tynes used as chisels.
   121 pointers of bone, from one to four inches in length.
    46 chisels of bone.
     4 boars' tusks, sharpened in form of a knife-blade.
       Some bone pins and various ornaments.
   145 hatchets and chisels of stone.
    20 flint arrow-points and scrapers.
    12 circular stones perforated; some rubbers and polishers.
       Many bones of animals; but no trace of metal. (B. 39_a_.)

[10] _Corr.-Blatt_, 1881.

[11] "Recherches sur les Antiquités d'Yverdon," _Mitt. der Antiq.
Gesel._, Zürich, vol. xiv.

[12] _Anzeiger_, 1871, p. 280.

[13] _Ibid._, 1878, p. 803.

[14] _Antiqua_, 1885, p. 162.

[15] _Antiqua_, 1885, p. 97; and 1887, pp. 35, 51.

[16] _Zeitschrift für Ethn._, vol. xvi., _Verhand._, p. 84; _Antiqua_,
1884, p. 167.

[17] _Antiqua_, 1886, pp. 12 and 21.

[18] _Anzeiger_, 1858, p. 57; "Supplément au Recueil d'Antiquités
Suisses, 1860."

[19] The catastrophe which befell Zug in the summer of 1887, by which
a portion of the town slipped into the lake, has completely carried
away the site of this lake-dwelling station.

[20] This mould is in two parts, and it is remarkable as having been
found at different times. The first half was found by Mr. F. A. Forel
on the 25th of February, 1855, and the second by his son, Dr. Forel,
on the 18th of October, 1859. (B. 31, p. 111.)



Second Lecture.

SETTLEMENTS IN EASTERN SWITZERLAND, THE DANUBIAN VALLEY, AND CARNIOLA.


The remains of lake-dwellings which I have hitherto described were,
with one or two exceptions, situated on the borders of large lakes,
and the industrial remains recovered from them were found more or
less buried in the lake sediment. But these are not the invariable
circumstances in which such antiquities are met with, as has already
been noticed in the case of Wauwyl; but their differentiating points I
did not then discuss, reserving them for this special occasion.

Every careful observer of natural phenomena must have noticed how,
under certain well-defined conditions, the superficial areas of lakes
are becoming gradually encroached upon, not only by the accumulation
of _débris_ carried into them by streams and rain-wash, but by the
growth of peat on their margins. This latter process occurs more
frequently in the smaller lakes--so much so that some of them have now
almost entirely disappeared owing to the complete filling up of their
basins. Though the growth of peat is slow, and almost imperceptible to
individual observers, whose lifetime is generally too short to mark
its progressive character, it has proved a most formidable antagonist
to lake settlements by destroying their lacustrine character, and thus
compelling their inhabitants to abandon them altogether. The peat
has, in some instances, actually engulfed entire villages, with the
accumulated _débris_ of their industrial equipments, thus hermetically
sealing up everything in one of the best antidotes to natural decay.
Cities and mighty empires have risen, flourished, and disappeared,
without transmitting to future ages a single record of their
existence, like flowers born to blush unseen. Such, indeed, might
have been the fate of many of these pile-villages, notwithstanding the
favourable conditions in which their ruins have been sealed up, had it
not been for the mere accident of peat cutting, which has disclosed
so many of their buried treasures. These remarks are peculiarly
applicable to the celebrated settlement at Robenhausen, with which I
begin to-day's lecture.


LAKE OF PFÄFFIKON.

The small lake of Pfäffikon, which lies to the east of Lake Zürich,
contained two settlements, viz. Robenhausen and Irgenhausen.

ROBENHAUSEN.--This well-known station, which has furnished specimens
of lake-dwelling remains to most of the European museums, is situated
near the middle of an extensive tract of pasture-land on the south
side of the lake. Although its site is now several hundred yards from
the lake, there can be no doubt that, originally, it was completely
surrounded by water; the nearest land, that on the west, being some
2,000 yards distant. On the east side the old lake-shore is 3,000
yards distant, and towards this, notwithstanding its greater distance,
there extended a gangway, the remains of which can still be traced.
Underneath the grass there is a thick deposit of peat, which has been
utilised as fuel according to the needs of the surrounding community;
and a mere glance at the locality shows that the whole expanse is
but an encroachment of the peat on what was formerly part of the
lake. The meadow belongs to peasant proprietors, among whom it is
parcelled into small plots. During the winter of 1857-8 Mr. Jacob
Messikommer, the owner of one of these plots, discovered the remains
of a pile-dwelling on his portion, and to its investigation he has
ever since devoted himself. His efforts were greatly encouraged by
Dr. Keller and other members of the Antiquarian Society at Zürich,
to whose museum many of the principal relics have been sent. A few
years after its discovery, the project of deepening and widening the
outlet, which, as it so happened, passed through the lake-dwelling,
afforded a splendid opportunity to archæologists for investigating its
antiquarian remains. Messikommer was appointed superintendent of the
proposed excavations. Since then he has on several occasions when the
waters were low, as in the years 1864, 1865, 1870, 1875, 1882, 1884,
and 1886, made more or less extensive diggings in different parts of
the settlement for the purpose of clearing up obscure or disputed
points. Altogether he has made good use of his advantages, and to his
intelligent and watchful care we are indebted for a careful record of
the relics, as well as a series of shrewd observations bearing on the
character and duration of this settlement, which has made it one of
the most instructive in the whole range of lacustrine research.

The space occupied by the settlement formed an irregular quadrangle,
little short of three acres in extent. The piles were made from
the round or split stems of trees--oak, beech, and pine being the
prevailing kinds. On the supposition that they were placed at uniform
distances throughout, Messikommer calculates from the data supplied by
the Aabach Canal, which involved an area of about 4,000 square feet,
that 100,000 piles were required for the construction of the entire
lake-village.

In order to get at the relics, one has to dig through 5 or 6 feet of
peat, in which no relics are found, with the exception of the piles,
the tops of which nearly reach to the surface. Such pits are soon
filled with water, as all the relic-beds are below the level of the
lake.

As the excavations progressed, Messikommer made the important
observation that the piles could be distinguished into three sets,
corresponding with so many relic-beds.

The first set of piles penetrated into the shell marl some 10 or
11 feet below the present surface; and immediately over this marl
there was a bed of greasy peat only 4 or 5 inches thick containing a
few relics. Then followed a bed of charcoal with carbonised wheat,
barley, cloth, etc., the result, according to our investigator,
of a general conflagration which destroyed the entire settlement.
After this catastrophe a new superstructure was reared, the piles of
which were so closely set that, on an average three or four could
be counted in each square foot. This new village appears to have
flourished for a long time, as its duration is represented by a peaty
deposit nearly 3 feet thick containing a variety of relics, as bones,
pottery, portions of clay flooring, etc. Then followed a second bed
of burnt materials, as corn, fruits, bread, and the usual industrial
implements of stone--all of which point to a second conflagration.
But, apparently undiscouraged, the lake-dwellers again undertook the
task of reconstructing their peculiar dwellings, and Messikommer
distinguishes this third series of piles by their not penetrating so
deeply as those of the previous habitations. While the piles of the
earlier dwellings penetrated into the shell marl, those of the third
structure fell short of the former by 2½ feet and terminated in the
intervening accumulated _débris_. On the other hand, however, their
tops reached higher in the peat, coming nearly to the present surface.
Further, he observed that it was only in the third settlement that
the piles were split, those of the two former being round and much
more decayed. Also, corresponding to its duration, there was a deposit
of peat 3 feet in depth containing various relics, but no evidence
of a conflagration, and above this point the peat was entirely
destitute of the remains of human industry. It would thus appear
that the lake-dwellers voluntarily abandoned their village, either
on account of the accumulation of peat or because, in the exigencies
of civilisation, they found more congenial conditions of habitation
elsewhere.

During the excavations in the Aabach canal the above facts were amply
demonstrated, as, indeed, they can be at the present time by any one
who chooses to make the necessary excavations, permission for which
the proprietor freely gives.

From the peculiar grouping and distribution of the relics over certain
areas Mr. Messikommer came to the conclusion that while each cottage
had its special appliances, as a hearth, a millstone, sharpening
stones, and weaving materials, there were other relics specially
localised. Thus there were large quantities of corn in one place,
dried fruits in another, flax in a third, etc. He also learned to
recognise from the kind of litter used, and the droppings of the
animals, where the stalls for cattle, sheep, and goats were located;
which, according to him, were in the intervals between the cottages.
Bones, scales of fish, dried fruits, water-chestnuts, beech and
hazel-nuts, acorns, and other remains of food, were very abundantly
met with. The following are some of the more interesting relics from
this vast deposit of the industrial remains of many ages:--

_Wooden Objects._--A bow of yew, five feet long, still retaining the
notch at both ends for the string; another specimen measures only 3½
feet in length. A large tub-like dish, nearly 16 inches in diameter,
and a variety of ladles. A yoke for cattle, made of a hazel branch. A
large door of wood, so arranged as to turn on a pivot, and measuring
4 feet 9 inches by 2½ feet wide, and 1½ inch thick; a canoe 12
feet long, 2½ feet wide, and 5 inches deep; a large assortment
of handles, knives (=Fig. 24=, No. 15), clubs (No. 26), dishes,
suspension hooks, etc.

_Horn and Bone._--Haftings for stone axes and chisels (Nos. 8 and 9),
daggers, chisels, perforated axe-hammers (No. 12), arrow-points (No.
2), agricultural implements, small cup (No. 7), etc.

_Stone._--Axes of nephrite are scarce, but they are abundant of the
ordinary materials (No. 23)--some are perforated; flint saws in their
handles, hammer-stones (No. 10), pendants (No. 3), a stone disc
polished and perforated in the centre with a round hole (No. 13),
arrow-points and scrapers of flint (No. 1), two small objects of
redstone perforated with a series of holes (Nos. 5 and 6).

_Pottery._--Earthenware cups, spoons, and various kinds of vessels
(Nos. 14, 16, 17, and 18). Particularly noteworthy is one with a
conical base requiring a ring-support (No. 18). Several coarse
crucibles with handles (No. 22). When the first of these objects
was discovered, it was supposed to be a large spoon, but latterly
traces of copper were found in the pores of one, and thus their true
nature was recognised. These crucibles were found a few years after
the discovery of the lake-dwelling, and although Messikommer was
constantly on the look-out for metal objects it was not till 1882 that
his search was rewarded. This was a small copper celt of the flat type
(No. 4), but as it was in stuff thrown out of the trenches for some
time, it was impossible to say to which settlement it belonged. (B.
383, p. 324.) In 1884 Messikommer announced that a crucible which had
evidently been used was found in the stratum of _débris_ corresponding
with the second settlement at Robenhausen.[21]

On the 4th of October, 1887 (B. 454), Mr. H. Messikommer, while making
excavations in an undisturbed part of this lake-dwelling, found near
the surface of the peat, and on a level with the tops of the piles,
another hatchet of the flat type made of bronze (No. 11). It is clear
from these respective finds that the Robenhausen lake-dwelling came to
an end before bronze came into general use.

[Illustration: =Fig. 24.=--ROBENHAUSEN. Nos. 12 to 14, 16 to 22, and
24 = ¼, 23 = ⅛, 26 = 1/10, and the rest = ½ real size.]

_Weaving Materials._--A great many specimens of flax, yarn ropes,
balls of thread, bits of ribbon, and variously-woven cloths, fishing
and hair nets,[22] plaited borders, fringes, and mats (=Fig. 25=).
Loom-weights (=Fig. 24=, Nos. 20 and 21) and clay pirns were also met
with, but, singularly enough, hardly any spindle-whorls. It is not
very clear in what position these recorded relics have been found;
but in 1882, when the water happened to be very low, the lowest
relic-bed was carefully searched, and similar remains were found in
it. In consequence of these finds, Messikommer announced, in 1882
(B. 383a, p. 379), that he was convinced that all manner of weaving
was thoroughly known at the very commencement of the Robenhausen
lake-dwelling.

The third settlement has yielded very little cloth or thread, probably
owing to the fact that no conflagration took place, by the charring
of which such remains are preserved from decomposition. On the other
hand, jade implements, among which is an arrow-head of nephrite, and
some 60 seeds, and fruits, have been collected. Among the latter the
water-chestnut (_Trapa natans_) may be especially noted, as it no
longer grows in the locality. (B. 462.)

IRGENHAUSEN.--Only one other settlement has been recognised as a
true lake-dwelling in this lake-basin, viz. Irgenhausen, situated
about half an hour's walk to the east of Robenhausen. The station ran
parallel to the shore for a distance of about 300 feet, with a breadth
of only 30 feet. The relics found on it are similar in character to
those from Robenhausen, the most remarkable of which are specimens of
embroidered cloth and checked muslins. (B. 126, Pl. xvi. Fig. 2 and
2a.) Messikommer believes that only one row of cottages occupied this
site. Almost the whole site of this lake-dwelling has disappeared
into the depths since 1881, and can no longer be found.[23] Only a
yawning deep (_eine gähnende Tiefe_) is now to be seen where formerly
stood the remains of the Pfahlbau. This phenomenon is, however, not
singular in the Swiss lakes, as evidence of which we have the recent
catastrophe in Lake Zug, which demolished not only the site of a
prehistoric lake-dwelling, but also a large part of the town of Zug.

[Illustration: =Fig. 25.=--ROBENHAUSEN. All ⅔ real size.]

Close to the water's edge on the south shore, and about ten minutes'
walk directly north of Robenhausen, there is an artificial mound
called Himmereich, which formerly was supposed to be the site of a
pile-dwelling. It is constructed of small and large stones, among
which flint saws, arrow-points, and pottery of the lake-dwelling
type, were found associated with Roman tiles and pottery (_terra
sigillata_). There were, however, no piles or any evidence of
structural dwellings, and the opinion now generally held in regard to
it is that it was a pre-Roman Refugium, which subsequently fell into
the hands of the Romans.[24] Remains of a Roman station are also close
to Irgenhausen, which might have something to do with the Himmereich
mound. (B. 462.)

The records of the numerous discoveries made at Robenhausen from time
to time, according to the favourableness of the weather, are, like
the relics themselves, widely scattered. In addition to the reports
of Keller and J. Messikommer (B. 22, 34, 40, 61, 126, 336, and 462)
in the proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Zürich, we have
a number of further notices in various journals, such as _Anzeiger_,
_Antiqua_, _Das Ausland_, etc. (B. 143a and 143b, 154, 256, 383, 385a
and 385b, 402, 403, 406c and 406d, 434c, 449b, 454b, etc.), from which
more or less important information is to be gleaned.


EGELSEE, NEAR FRAUENFIELD.

NIEDERWYL.--The settlement of Niederwyl was situated in a small basin
covering only about 60 acres, which, though now entirely overgrown
with peat, must have been formerly a lake, as its ancient name
Egelsee implies. Immediately to the south there is an open valley,
from which it is separated by a narrow ridge of land, through which
its proprietors made a deep excavation for its better drainage,
thereby facilitating the removal of the peat. While the peasants
were thus occupied, they came upon a portion of the basin near its
centre, where the peat began to thin out; and as they advanced, it
turned out that there was something like a mound entirely submerged
in the peat, and composed of clay, wooden beams, stones, charcoal,
and all sorts of rubbish. On the centre of this mound the depth of
peat was only 2 or 3 feet, while all around it amounted to 8 or 10
feet. This curious elevation was simply passed over by the workmen
after removing its covering of peat; and so it remained exposed, till
one day the Reverend Mr. Pupikofer happened to pass along the moor,
when he recognised its archæological importance. This was in 1862,
and immediately the Historical Society of Thurgau arranged to have
the matter investigated; and Mr. Jacob Messikommer, whose experience
of the lake-dwelling at Robenhausen had made him an authority on
such matters, was asked to conduct the necessary researches. Upon
making sections through the exposed part of this mound, he found an
artificial sub-structure of faggot-sticks, laid transversely, and
mixed with upright piles which penetrated to the original lake-bottom.
It was fortunate, however, that the whole of the mound had not been
bared of peat, and Messikommer wisely selected an undisturbed portion
for his subsequent excavations. The following quotation from his
report will convey a better idea of these structures than any abstract
I could make:--

"When I began the excavation with a few workmen on the 18th of June,
I was surprised to find, under a pavement of clay and gravel, from 2
to 4 inches thick, and from the top of which 3 feet of peat had been
removed, a structure of faggot-sticks, regularly laid and perfectly
solid; and as the wood was exceedingly soft, we had to use every
care in uncovering as large a portion of it as we could. We first
bared a space, which was in perfect condition, 20 feet long, 6 feet
wide at the ends, and 10 feet wide in the middle. The upper platform
was of split timber or boards of oak, laid down with great care,
and it rested on round timber, or faggot-sticks, from 3 to 4 inches
in diameter, which were surrounded with piles. The back part of the
space was covered with charcoal, and was somewhat charred; there were
also found tolerably large stones (hearth-stones) in their original
position. A most striking fact was that the lowest part of the side
wall was still standing; it consisted of a kind of shutter pushed in
between the upright piles surrounding the space. On this I had other
portions uncovered, and everywhere met with the same construction,
only differing in having the platform or floor made of faggot-sticks
instead of boards. Here and there the floor had sunk considerably,
often one or one inch and a half in six inches.

"This place was then left to be examined by the members of the
associations of Thurgau and Zürich, and excavations were made in
another place to examine the sub-structure. The result proved no
less interesting; for 1 foot deep, under the first platform, we came
upon a second; a foot deeper we found a third; then a fourth, and so
on; so that the arrangement is similar to that of Wauwyl. The huts
were placed on masses of wood, consisting of five or six platforms,
one above the other, the spaces between which were filled in with
brushwood and branches of trees, chiefly alder, rushes, gravel, and
clay. We were surprised to meet with bones, cones of earthenware, and
a great wooden mallet between the platforms; we also found woven cloth
under the fifth platform, and charcoal close to the bed of the lake.
From this I conclude that the platforms were not made at the same
time, but at intervals, one after the other; or that they had been
repaired, a portion at a time, as we found single charred stems under
fresh wood." (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 77.)

In another section Messikommer observed a slight variation in the
fascine structures above described, which he thus explains: "What I
have called the lattice or trellis work consisted of thin stems of
trees, which were not laid close together, but at intervals of from
one to two inches apart; the uppermost stems rested on others lying
under them at right angles, and these again on others parallel with
those on the upper layer. The spaces between the timbers were filled
in with charcoal and burnt clay."

Each structure seemed to have been adapted for one cottage, as between
them there were narrow spaces which had got filled up with _débris_,
and contained relics such as broken stone hatchets, carbonised cloth
and fruits, etc.

"We cannot imagine," continues Messikommer, "that this settlement was
destroyed by fire, for although we occasionally met with burnt beams,
not a single trace of conflagration was to be seen in the upright
piles, which projected as much as 2½ feet above the floor--nay, even
in most of them the bark was still in good preservation.

"The products of the potters art were in general very coarse, and
yet we found a few fragments which had been ornamented, and also
parts of the rims of vessels made with washed or purified clay, and
without quartz grains. Fragments of vessels also were found neatly
polished, blackened, and with handles of a convenient form. No smaller
implements were met with, such as pins, little chisels, etc. It is
very singular that so few bones were found; the cow, stag, and the pig
were the only animals the remains of which were discovered here.

"At the bottom of some broken earthenware vessels there still remained
grains of wheat and barley and hazel-nuts. Doubtless all the food,
whether animal or vegetable, was kept in large or small vessels of
earthenware."

Subsequently, on two occasions, Messikommer was asked by archæological
societies to give a practical exposition of this interesting
_Packwerkbau_ for the edification of their members--once in 1872,
when the meeting of the Swiss Natural History Society was held at
Frauenfield; and again in 1877, when the German Anthropological
Association met at Constance. (B. 406c.)

On all these occasions Messikommer paid particular attention to the
size and kind of cottages the lake-dwellers possessed. In 1862, from
the stumps of piles protruding through a portion of undisturbed
flooring, he estimated the size of the habitable area for each cottage
at 24 feet long by 18 feet broad. On these floorings were seen the
remains of food and industry, just as fresh as if the people had
recently left the place. ("Die Mühle mit Gerste und Weizen daneben,
als wäre sie erst gestern noch bewohnt gewesen.") He believes that
each cottage possessed not only its own domestic utensils but also its
weaving and corn-grinding machines, etc.

The area occupied by the entire settlement was 20,000 square feet, and
the nearest shore, when the basin was a lake, would be 30 or 40 yards
distant.

The industrial remains collected from time to time at Niederwyl
consist of:--Wheat, barley, flax, cakes of bread, wooden implements,
clay weights (=Fig. 26=, No. 3), stone hatchets (Nos. 7 and 8),
flint saws (No. 1) and scrapers; some well-made dishes (Nos. 4, 5
and 6), one a remarkable jug (No. 6) with handle; another, of black
earthenware, had been mended with asphalt. A strip of birch-bark (now
in the Museum at Zürich) had been neatly sewn (No. 10). In the same
Museum there is a stone (perforated) axe-hammer head which vies in
elegance of workmanship with any from Scandinavia (No. 9).

Recently Messikommer has come to the conclusion that the _Packwerkbau_
at Niederwyl existed during the early Bronze Age, as he found a piece
of oak wood having cuts which could not have been made by a stone
implement. From various considerations of the more recent facts
brought to light in the course of his frequent excavations here and at
Robenhausen he enunciates the opinion that wherever split oak beams
or piles are found we may with certainty conclude that the settlement
belongs to the early metal age. ("Man darf mit Bestimmtheit annehmen,
dass alle jene Niederlassungen, in welchen gespaltenes Eichenholz
in grösserer Menge zum Vorschein kommt, auch das Metall in einfacher
[Kupfer] oder zusammengesetzter Form [Bronze] gekannt haben.") (B.
454c, p. 2.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 26.=--NIEDERWYL. Nos. 5 to 7 = ⅙, 10 = ⅔, and
the rest = ⅓ real size.]

_Second Station._--Adjacent to the Egelsee basin, and separated
from it only by about a dozen paces, is another small peat-basin
known as the Riedsee, in which were recently found the remains of a
true pile-dwelling. Here for some time fragments of pottery, stone
hatchets, horns and bones of various animals, were met with in the
peat; but in August, 1884, Messikommer discovered the actual piles
associated with the usual objects of a Stone Age dwelling. The area
of this Pfahlbau was small, measuring only 13 yards by 10. Its site
lay near the margin of the peat, and the antiquities were met with 1
foot under the surface. Among these were a small earthenware dish or
cover ornamented with four prominences and a few rows of punctured
dots (No. 2), several wooden dishes in all stages of manufacture,
entire handles of stone hatchets, worked horn, etc. A crucible similar
to those from Robenhausen was also found near the same place.

Among the osseous remains are portions of a skull of the urus with
both horn-cores attached. The other animals represented are the bison,
stag, ox, pig, goat, etc. (B. 420d.)


GREIFENSEE.

During the winter of 1865-6, when the water was low, Messikommer
recognised the site of a pile-dwelling in the Greifensee, near
Riedikon, but it has proved of little importance, as only a few
objects--some flints and stone celts, fragments of pottery, shells
of hazel-nuts, and some grains of barley--were found. Its site
was covered with broken stones, and being about 100 feet from the
shore, in a depth of 3 or 4 feet even when the water was low, it was
difficult to make a satisfactory examination. (B. 126, p. 308.)

Traces of a second station are said to have been observed between
Riedikon and the village of Greifensee, near where the Aabach enters
the lake. (B. 462.)


HEIMENLACHEN.

Near the village of Heimenlachen, in the Canton of Thurgau, there
is a peat-moor covering about 15 acres, in which the peasants while
cutting peat were occasionally turning up objects of human industry
deeply buried, but they have been either dispersed among the curious
or thrown away. A large skull of an ox, supposed to be that of a urus,
lay for years exposed among a heap of rubbish, but when subsequently
searched for, it could not be found. Among these relics were celts
of nephrite, stone hammers, various articles of bone and horn, and
some fragments of pottery and basket-work. Mr. Burkhard Raeber, of
Weinfelden, drew attention to these current reports, and made some
excavations in the moor, in the course of which he discovered numerous
piles and some transverse beams which he considered to have belonged
to a platform.

Another site in the same moor was discovered in 1875, which yielded
similar evidence of a pile-dwelling. The woodwork was not encountered
till 4 feet of peat had been removed. Mr. Raeber calculates that the
settlement was from 80 to 100 yards in length. (B. 182a, 199, and 336.)


KRÄHENRIED, NEAR KALTENBRUNNEN IN THURGAU.

Mr. Raeber found evidence of the existence of a pile settlement in
a peat bog at Krähenried. Here the relic-bed was 5 or 6 feet deep,
and contained remains of piles, charcoal, hazel-nuts, fragments of
pottery, and a well-made celt of serpentine. The ornamentation on the
pottery consisted in many cases of regular rows of dots impressed on a
fine quality of paste with a smooth surface. The peat-cutters assured
Mr. Raeber that similar objects had been frequently found by them,
but, considering them of no value, they were thrown away. (B. 288.)


LAKE OF NUSSBAUMEN.

In an open valley between Stein and Frauenfield there is a chain of
three small lakes, the upper of which goes by the name of Nussbaumen.
Here there is an artificial island, on which Mr. Morlot had observed
piles and other indications of a lake-dwelling, but the matter has
never been thoroughly investigated. According to Morlot, this island
measures 110 feet by 60 feet, is surrounded by piles, and has a
similar appearance to that in the little lake at Inkwyl. (B. 31, p.
84.)


LAKE OF CONSTANCE.

The district around the Lake of Constance appears to have had
great attractions for the early lake-settlers. This predilection
was no doubt due to the exceptionably favourable conditions which
the lake afforded for the construction of their pile-villages,
viz. a gently-sloping lake-bottom, with a wide tract of grazing or
agricultural land beyond. In every sheltered bay around the Untersee,
Ueberlingersee, and lower parts of the Bodensee, traces of these
settlements have been found; but owing to the difficulties and expense
of investigation they have not yet yielded their due quota of relics.

WANGEN.--The first discovered was that at Wangen. It is recorded
that Mr. Caspar Löhle, after reading Kellers first report of the
Pfahlbauten, recollected having seen on the shore near his own house
similar antiquities to those figured from Ober-Meilen. He then
commenced, in the autumn of 1856, to collect them; and when the
water was low he made excavations, which by degrees rewarded him
with some remarkable remains of human industry. The station was in
a small bay to the east of the village, in front of a considerable
extent of flat land which intervened between it and the sunny slopes
beyond. This bay, owing to its sheltered position, was subject to an
unusual deposition of lake sediment, so that in the course of time the
_débris_ of the settlement became covered over with 3 or 4 feet of mud
and gravel. As this deposition went on, from year to year, the bed
of the lake became gradually raised, and the water was displaced, so
that at certain seasons, when the water in the lake was very low, the
relic-bed of the settlement could be investigated by digging on dry
land.

Mr. Löhle, in the course of his extensive excavations, ascertained
that the settlement extended in the form of a parallelogram some 700
paces in length and 120 in breadth. The piles were made of round or
split stems of various kinds of wood, as oak, beech, elm, birch,
ash, fir, elder, maple, and two species of willow. They were thickly
placed, sometimes three or four together, and Mr. Löhle calculates
that in the entire settlement 40,000 or 50,000 must have been
used. The relics collected were very numerous, but they are widely
dispersed. The best public collections that I have seen are in the
Museums at Zürich, Constance, and Sigmaringen. The following notes and
accompanying illustrations (=Fig. 27=) will give a fair idea of their
character.

_Stone._--Celts, hammer-stones, grain-rubbers, etc., were in hundreds,
and in all stages of manufacture, but the great majority were badly
made. Perforated tools were comparatively rare (Nos. 7, 8, 9, and
20). Flint saws hafted in wood (No. 15), and flint arrow-heads and
lance-heads, were in tolerable abundance (Nos. 1, 2, and 3). The celts
and chisels were made from the ordinary water-worn materials found
in the neighbourhood (Nos. 6 and 10), and only a few small specimens
were of nephrite and jadeite. Very few had horn fasteners, and the
prevalent method of using these implements was to insert the celt into
a cleft in a branch with a long handle and a crook at the other end.
Slabs for grinding and polishing these celts, as well as others with
marks of fire, and supposed to have been used as hearths, were also
frequently met with.

[Illustration: =Fig. 27.=--WANGEN. Nos. 5, and 17 to 19 = ¼, and the
rest = ½ real size.]

_Bone and Horn._--Pointers, daggers, awls, small chisels, and
arrow-points were found in large numbers. Some of the bone arrow-heads
had still the asphalt adhering to them by which they were fastened
to the stems. Also flax-hecklers (No. 4), and a variety of fish-hooks
(Nos. 11 and 16).

_Clay._--The fragments of pottery indicated dishes of a plain shape,
generally cylindrical, and rarely ornamented, but smeared over with a
black sooty substance (Nos. 17, 18, and 19). Spindle-whorls of burnt
clay (Nos. 12 and 13), and large clay balls, perforated, probably
loom-weights.

_Wood._--A plank of oak 7 or 8 feet long and 1½ foot wide is supposed
to have been a working bench. Another board, also of oak, was like a
round table, and measured 2½ feet in diameter and 2½ inches thick.

_Organic Remains._--The most remarkable feature, however, of the
settlement at Wangen was the quantity of charred corn dug up from
its _débris_. Mr. Löhle believes that altogether, and at various
times, he has collected as much as 100 bushels. Sometimes he found
the entire ears, at other times the grain only; but always in a
charred condition. The two-rowed barley and two kinds of wheat could
be readily identified. Cakes of bread showing roughly-crushed grain,
wild apples and pears--all, of course, in a charred condition,
otherwise they would not have been preserved from decomposition. In
some places there were large quantities of the husks of pine-cones,
apple-cores, beech and hazel-nuts, as well as the seeds of raspberries
and brambles. From the quantity of apple-cores found in one place it
has been suggested that the lake-dwellers made some kind of liquor
of fruits. Flax in all stages of manufacture, from the crude bundles
of stems with the seed-vessels still attached, to the yarn, and a
variety of beautifully-woven cloth. Quantities of moss, rushes, bark
of trees, straw, etc., were also collected. These antiquities were not
promiscuously all over the area of the settlement, but each group had
a well-defined area for itself, from which Mr. Löhle inferred that the
different trades were kept apart.

Bones were not numerous, but among them the following animals are
represented:--Urus, aurochs, stag, roe, wild boar, wolf, fox, and dog.

In one part of the settlement Mr. Löhle observed some piles that
had become bent and twisted like the letter =S=, evidently from
superincumbent pressure; and in these places some additional piles had
been inserted by way of support.

No metal objects were found, nor any support-rings of clay, nor
discoidal stones. (B. 22, 34, 35, and 40.)

OBERSTAAD.--Starting from Wangen, we shall now make a circuit of the
Untersee, briefly noting its various stations as we move along. The
number now amounts to upwards of 20, and their respective positions
can be ascertained from the accompanying Sketch Map (page 129). Below
Wangen, the first we come to is in the bay between Oberstaad and
Kattenhorn. From its widely scattered remains this station appears to
have extended over a large area; but its piles are sparingly seen,
and its site has been little investigated. The relics found are a few
stone celts and pottery.

HOF BEI STEIN.--A little below the bridge which crosses the outlet
of the Rhine at Stein there is a shallow part of the river known as
"Auf dem Hof," which on rare occasions, when the water is low, becomes
exposed. This was the case on two occasions within the memory of
persons now living, viz. in 1858 and 1883. On the last of these dates
Mr. B. Schenk, naturalist, of Stein, discovered that it contained
the remains of a pile-dwelling buried in the mud. The piles in this
structure were strong and firmly fixed, and among them were some
transverse beams, and others slantingly placed, as if to protect
the structure against the stream. Notwithstanding the difficulty of
working here, Mr. Schenk collected a large number of the industrial
remains of its inhabitants, such as flint implements, about 150 stone
axes (three of which were of nephrite), and a perforated stone disc
like a large spindle-whorl, measuring 2¾ inches in diameter, and
1½ inches thick. Perforated stone axes were rare, but some of them
are of interest, especially a portion of one made of basalt. There
were also worked objects of horn and bone, remains of linen cloth,
thread, and a woven fabric made of bast. Noteworthy among bone objects
is the scapula of a deer perforated with a round hole, and having
its central ridge rubbed off, so as to make it into a polishing
implement. An urn-shaped vessel 12 inches high is preserved in the
Zürich Museum. A few metal objects are also recorded, viz. a small
copper celt 2¾ inches long, also a bronze ring and a bronze hatchet.
Bones representing the ox, pig, stag, roe, bear, and beaver. (B. 462;
_Antiqua_, 1883, p. 68.)

[Illustration: Plan of Lake Dwellings in BODENSEE]

DAS WEERD.--The existence of the remains of a lake-dwelling at the
east end of the Insel Weerd has been known for a long time. The site
is close to where a Roman bridge extended from Eschenz to Arach;
but the piles are somewhat scattered, and embrace both sides of the
river. In 1882 Mr. Schenk succeeded in finding its relic-bed, which he
describes as composed of two distinct layers--the upper one being of a
dark colour probably the result of the conflagration which destroyed
the settlement; and a lower of a yellowish colour, containing much
organic _débris_. About 4 cubic mètres of this _Kulturgeschicht_ was
examined, and among the relics collected were three human skulls,
one of which is perfect, but the others were in bits; a knife, a
hair-pin, and some rings of bronze; a copper celt (B. 420b, p. 174);
polished stone celts, one of which was made of jadeite. In addition to
these, there were various objects of Roman times collected on or in
the vicinity of this station, including a tile with an inscription,
a bronze statue, Roman coins, etc. In the Rosgarten Museum there is
a bronze sword, said to be from this station; also a quern stone 21
inches in diameter, with a central hole 3 inches in diameter. But it
is not probable that either of these objects really belonged to the
lake-dwellers. The bronze knife, three pins, and some perforated stone
implements (=Fig. 28=, Nos. 4 to 7, and 10), are also in this museum,
and labelled "Insel Weerd." The human skull has been reported on by
Professor Kollmann, who shows it to be dolichocephalic. (_Antiqua_,
1883, p. 69; and 1884, p. 174; _Das Ausland_, 1885, p. 219; B. 462.)

MAMMERN.--In the bay above Mammern, at a place called Neuenburgerhorn,
there is an extensive area containing very decayed piles. It was
investigated by Messikommer in 1861 on behalf of the Historical
Society of Thurgau. (B. 41.) The piles commenced about 160 feet from
the shore, and extended some 400 feet along, covering an area of
40,000 square feet. The antiquities were all found on the surface, and
consisted of hundreds of stone celts, flint implements, pottery, and
bones. No small bone tools, nor any trace of the lighter industrial
remains or food material, were met with, nor was there a relic-bed
underneath. Hence Messikommer concluded that the finer contents of
the relic-bed had been washed away by the current of water, which, it
seems, is pretty strong at this place. (B. 40, p. 26.)

FELDBACH and STECKBORN.--A station called "Pfahlbau Turgi," near
Feldbach, has been long known, and several prehistoric objects have
been found on it from time to time. The water being low in 1882, the
Historical Society of Thurgau undertook some systematic explorations.
From various indications it was inferred that this station was not
among those destroyed by fire. The antiquities collected belonged
to the pure Stone Age, among which are:--Stone celts, bone and horn
objects, specimens of barley and wheat, cloth made of bast, and
fragments of basket-work. From the observations of Mr. Schenk, it
would appear that this pile-dwelling had been protected from the waves
by a kind of wooden bulwark. (B. 383a.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 28.=--UNTERSEE (1, 4 to 7, 13, 16, 18, and 19),
MINDLISEE (2, 3, 11, 12, 14, and 15), and BUSSENSEE. Nos. 10 and 12 =
¼, and the rest = ½ real size.]

Near Steckborn there was another small station, known as "Der Pfahlbau
Schanz," on which some interesting objects--as dishes, harpoons,
etc.--were found. In 1885 it was again searched by Messikommer (B.
434b, p. 33), and among the objects then collected were stone celts
(=Fig. 28=, No. 13), harpoons of horn (No. 19), a flax-heckler, and
an implement called a whistle (No. 18) made of the short foot-bone
of a cow. According to Messikommer, this settlement had been twice
destroyed by fire and the usual carbonised materials--as cloth,
grain, charcoal, etc.--were abundantly found. (B. 462.)

BERLINGEN.--In the bay above this town are piles, but not readily
discernible, and stone celts have been found all along the shore.

ERMATINGEN.--This settlement occupied the bay below the village, and
its site is particularly rich in flint implements and the refuse of
their manufacture. Stone celts are also abundant, and among them
are a few of nephrite. Some fragments of pottery showing a net-like
ornamentation on their inside are noted from this locality. The
station appears to have been voluntarily abandoned, as there are no
carbonised materials among its _débris_. (B. 40 and 462.)

LANGENRAIN.--Below Gottlieben, at the north end of a small island
formed by a divergent branch of the Rhine, Dr. Nägeli, of Ermatingen,
discovered in 1882 the remains of a pile-dwelling of the Bronze Age.
Some of the piles were seen in the water projecting from the mud,
but they are mostly concealed by the deposits imported by a stream
(Wollmatinger-Bach) which here falls into the Rhine. They are partly
round and partly split stems, sharpened by metal tools, and occupy an
area about 100 yards in length and 15 in breadth. The relic-bed was
covered with a layer of mud from 1 to 2½ feet in thickness. Among the
objects recorded from this station are a winged celt, two lance-heads,
and two hair-pins of bronze, fragments of pottery (some of which are
ornamented with the meander pattern), and two bits of clay crescents.
Also various bones of animals and portions of a human skull, the
latter being found in the presence of Mr. Leiner at a depth of 2½
feet from the surface. (B. 462.)

OBERZELL.--The first station on the island of Reichenau, and only
lately discovered, lies to the north of Oberzell. (B. 462.)

HEGNE, ALLENSBACH, and MARKELFINGEN.--Of the settlements along this
part of the shore Mr. Dehoff has given a long account in Keller's
fifth report of the Pfahlbauten. (B. 61.) Since then a new station
has been discovered at Hegne, but otherwise no important discoveries
have been recorded from these stations. They all belong to the Stone
Age. At Markelfingen the piles were observed round a small steinberg
some 30 paces from the shore, which, when the water was low, became a
low island. No piles were seen on this island, but it yielded a large
number of coarsely-made stone celts. From this place I noticed in
the Museum at Friedrichshafen a beautiful polished chisel of stone in
a staghorn handle (=Fig. 28=, No. 1) and a metal (copper or bronze)
bracelet (No. 16).

Near Allensbach piles extended as a broad band for about 1,000 paces
parallel to the shore. In one place rows of piles took the direction
of the shore in such a manner as to suggest a bridge or stage
entrance. The piles were generally round stems, but some of the oak
ones were split, and measured in some instances 14 to 16 inches in
diameter. They projected only a few inches above the mud. In some
places horizontal beams of split oak were found lying buried in the
mud, but in deep water, and measuring 15 feet in length and 4 to 6
inches in diameter.

The antiquities collected were chiefly the heavier implements, as
stone celts, which varied very much both in size and form--being
from less than an inch to 21 inches in length. Only a few fragments
showed perforated axes. Corn-crushers were in great abundance, as well
as flint saws and other objects of this material. Another station
just opposite Allensbach has largely supplied collectors with stone
celts, and a considerable number of perforated hammer-axes. At Hegne
the stone celts show better workmanship, and among the relics are
some beautifully-made saws, daggers, and lance-heads of yellow and
dark flint. Two earthen vessels slightly bulging in the middle, and
having perforations for cords instead of handles, are noted by Dehoff
as containing a black sooty substance, and a third was filled with
hazel-nuts.

The remaining stations in the Untersee are at IZNANG, GUNDOLZEN, (B.
462, p. 12), HORNSTAAD, GAIENHOFEN, and HEMMENHOFEN, but they present
the same features as those already noticed of the Stone Age. (B. 22.)

CONSTANCE.--In the Bay of Constance there were several of these
lake-dwellings, the remains of which have only more recently come to
light. In Keller's eighth report of the Swiss lake-dwellings (B. 336),
Mr. Leiner, keeper of the Rosgarten Museum, gives a short account of
the antiquities found in the harbour (Rauenegg) when it was being
enlarged. Among several rows of ancient piles of oak and cross-beams
running in a southerly direction towards the Kreuzlingen shore there
were found buried in the mud, chiefly lying over the shell marl
(_überkalkter Conchylien_), fragments of ornamented pottery (=Fig.
29=, Nos. 4 to 10), loom-weights, spindle-whorls, portions of clay
plaster for huts, stone celts, and perforated axe-hammers, together
with a variety of flint implements (Nos. 11 and 12). Mr. Leiner
remarks that while the pottery found in many of the neighbouring
stations was rude and entirely hand-made, that from the Rauenegg
station would almost indicate a knowledge of the potter's wheel.
This pottery was burnt into a grey, black, or yellowish colour, and
belonged to the Bronze Age; in proof of which he instances among the
antiquities a few bronze objects (Nos. 1 to 3), a small bit of amber,
and some fragments of a fine green and blue glass. One of the bronze
objects (No. 1) is quite unique, but of its purpose nothing seems to
be known.

[Illustration: =Fig. 29=.--BAY OF CONSTANCE. Nos. 6 to 10 = ¼, and
the rest = ½ real size.]

In 1882 the site of a station was discovered just opposite the
public gardens, which goes under the name FRAUENPFAHL. Its area
was determined to be about 130 yards long and 100 yards wide. The
antiquities from it are hatchets of serpentine and chloromelanite,
fragments of vases, a large bead of blue glass, a bronze hatchet, and
a canoe.

During the same season (the water being then very low) another large
station was discovered, running along the north shore of the bay near
HINTERHAUSEN. It extended in length for about 400 yards, with an
average breadth of 50; and among its piles were found some hundreds of
stone hatchets, worked objects of bone and horn, pottery, and a large
assortment of the bones of various animals. (B. 381, 382, and 462.)

In passing to the _Ueberlingersee_ the first station we come to is
Staad, which lies immediately below Allmannsdorf; and a little farther
on there is another, opposite the village of EGG, both of which are
recent additions to the long list of lake-settlements known in this
branch of the Lake of Constance. Beyond the bridge which joins INSEL
MAINAU to the mainland lies the _débris_ of a very large settlement
which formed at least two villages. That next to LÜTZELSTETTEN is
characterised by its high-class pottery of the Stone Age. Along
the shore stone celts are met with all the way to the village of
DINGELSDORF, immediately opposite to which is a settlement of the
Stone Age.

The next station was near WALLHAUSEN, which, owing to the number of
flint implements collected on it, goes among collectors under the name
of "Flint Island." Among the celts found here are a few of nephrite
and one of polished flint. (B. 462, p. 4.) Large collections have
been made from this station, one of which, according to Mr. Böll, was
lately sold for £60. (B. 378.)

From Wallhausen northwards neither piles nor any industrial remains
are met with till we come to Bodmann. This is, no doubt, owing to the
abrupt nature of the coast which renders the lake-margin unsuitable
for such structures.

BODMANN.--At this town the hills again recede, and leave an open
valley stretching away westwards, through which the stream _Stockach_
flows and empties itself into the head of the lake. Here there were
two settlements which have yielded an enormous amount of industrial
remains. The most recent haul was in 1888, the largest portion of
which went to the Rosgarten Museum. When I last visited Constance
(August, 1888), the stuff was still at Mr. Leiner's private
residence, and it was perfectly appalling to see the number of boxes,
barrels, etc., in which the materials were stowed away. Besides the
Rosgarten Museum, there are good collections from these stations at
Friedrichshafen, the Steinhaus Museum at Ueberlingen, and at Bodmann
itself (formerly in the Schloss, but now at the private residence of
Mr. Ley).

The results of the earlier explorations have been described by MM. Ley
and Dehoff (B. 61 and 126), and some notes of the more recent finds
are given by Leiner and Böll. (B. 378, 381, and 382.)

The first station was close to the present landing-stage, and the
piles have been observed to hug the shore in a narrow band for several
hundred yards. In one spot measuring some 30 yards by 10, flint
implements and refuse, including all manner of chips, were found in
such astonishing quantity as to give rise to the opinion that it was
the site of a flint factory. Mr. Dehoff states that so numerous were
the flints here that, before the introduction of lucifer matches,
and as far as the memory of man goes back, it supplied the whole
neighbourhood with the flints required, and was actually worked as
a business for this purpose. Mr. Ley describes the relic-bed as
consisting of two strata, separated by a thin layer of mud, and
buried beneath a bed of gravel 1¼ to 2 feet thick. The lower stratum
was from half a foot to a foot thick, and lay immediately over the
original lake-sediment. In some parts this layer appeared to be
covered by a thin deposit of carbonised materials.

The second relic-bed was but half the thickness of the former, and,
according to Mr. Ley, it was only in it that perforated axe-heads were
found; and in its other remains, such as pottery, he sees evidence of
progress and improved handicraft.

Among the more noteworthy objects from Bodmann (=Fig. 30=) are
fish-spears of horn, with two and four prongs (Nos. 3 and 5);
fish-hooks and other implements of bone (Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10,
14 and 19); a bow of yew wood; a celt and a sickle of flint; a vessel
containing no less than 600 perforated beads of Jura limestone;
goblet-like dishes of blackish earthenware with conical bases (No.
21); and curiously-ornamented vases (No. 20); a saw in its casing,
supposed to be made of reindeer horn (No. 17); clay spindle-whorls
(No. 18). Nos. 7, 8, 14, 15, 17, and 18, are from the recent find.

[Illustration: =Fig. 30.=--BODMANN. Nos. 20 and 21 = ¼, and the rest
= ½ real size.]

About 500 or 600 yards farther north, and close to the farthest off
point of the Ueberlingersee, Mr. Ley discovered the remains of a
second settlement, which he thinks was constructed in the Bronze Age.
Not only were bronze and iron objects found on it, but the piles are
much less decayed than those of the previously described station;
moreover, there were marks on some he had drawn up from a depth of six
feet which could only have been produced by sharp cutting implements.
It goes under the name of SCHACHEN; but it is difficult to say from
which station the numerous objects exposed in the museums have come,
as they are indiscriminately marked "Bodmann." According to Mr. Ley,
this settlement was of large extent, but the greater part of it is
deeply buried in mud, and not easily explored. The bronze objects
described by Mr. Ley are three celts, two of the flat type (Nos. 12
and 13) and one winged (No. 11), and a pin. Those of iron are a knife,
two arrow-heads, and portion of a fish-hook. A fibula in Rosgarten
Museum marked "Bodmann" is of the Roman period (No. 9), but this is
not surprising, as there are many Roman remains in the neighbourhood.
Split beams of oak, and others with square mortised holes (like
those from Zürich, =Fig. 2=, Nos. 13 and 14) were fished up here,
thus bearing out Keller's idea that such beams were only used where
the mud is soft. Some elegant vases, one ornamented like those from
Schussenried (No. 20), and horn objects, are reported from it. (B.
462.) In the Museum at Ueberlingen there are a few bronze and iron
objects from Pfahlbau Bodmann, as a bracelet of bronze wire, pins,
needles, a ring, a lance-head, and two small figurines (=Fig. 195=,
Nos. 15 and 16).

LUDWIGSHAFEN.--Turning the head of the Ueberlingersee we come to the
village of Ludwigshafen, where recently piles have been detected in
two places, one of which has turned out to be exceedingly rich in
staghorn implements--so much so as to suggest the idea that it was a
special factory for this material. This station was about 30 yards
from the shore, and in the vicinity of its remains it was long known
that Roman tiles lay scattered about. These tiles are of two kinds,
hollow and flat, the latter measuring 12 by 7 inches.

SIPPLINGEN.--There are two stations at Sipplingen--one, at the east
end of the village, covering nearly 30 acres. The second is only
about 4 acres in extent, but it has not been carefully explored. Its
chief interest lies in the statement made by Mr. Böll that a large
quantity of wood was observed lying in the mud, and among the beams an
iron sword, believed to be of Roman origin, was found. Close to this
station was found the wreck of a badly-constructed boat, which had
no nails, but was kept together by copper wire. (B. 378, p. 97.) The
former station is the more interesting, as it has furnished objects
characteristic of the three Ages of Stone, Bronze, and Iron, as well
as of Roman, Allemanish, and Frankish times. According to Dr. Lachmann
(B. 126), the great majority of the relics belong to the Stone Age,
with very few of the Bronze Age. Among the objects of more recent
times were the following of iron:--A lance-point, three arrow-heads,
two sickles, a one-edged sword, and a Roman key. What is still more
puzzling is the finding of glass in considerable quantities here. It
is of two kinds, and one bit was ornamented with gold enamel. Among
the more recent finds are pottery representing large vessels, with
a rim and perforated knobs for suspension, and a large flint celt
weighing three pounds. (B. 378.)

Some goblets with conical bases, supposed to be crucibles, have been
found here, as well as at Bodmann (=Fig. 30=, No. 21), but they appear
to me to indicate the commencement of the Bronze Age when such forms
came into general use.

It may be further noted that among these relics are about 100 examples
of egg-shaped stones which were found in one place, a few hatchets and
chisels of nephrite, and a small copper celt encased, when found, in a
clay coating, probably the mould in which it was cast.

Another small station, the _débris_ of which is deeply buried, was
near St. Catherina, not far from Brünnensbach, which has also yielded
objects of more recent times. (B. 462.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 31.=--NUSSDORF, MAURACH, LÜTZELSTETTEN, ETC. No.
24 = ¼, 26 and 27 = ⅛, and the rest = ½ real size.]

NUSSDORF.--The settlement at Nussdorf covered about three acres in
the form of a parallelogram. The piles are mostly round, generally
about two feet apart, but sometimes in groups. This station was the
first discovered by Mr. Ullersberger, in 1862, and is important for
the number of antiquities it has yielded of the pure Stone Age. Dr.
Lachmann describes the early investigations and discoveries with great
minuteness. (B. 126.) Among the flint objects were about 100 specimens
of arrow-points and lance-heads (=Fig. 31=, Nos. 1 to 5), in all
gradations of sizes, and 80 saws, piercers, and knives. The saws were
in general 3½ inches in length and 2 wide, and eight still retain
their handles. Stone celts, chisels, and hammer-axes (No. 20) numbered
about 1,000, and of these about 50 celts were made of nephrite. Horn
fixings were used for some of the celts; but there were wooden handles
with a cleft, which showed that they were hafted in a variety of ways.
The perforated axes were comparatively rare, only about 50 being in
the collection. The perforations are both circular and oval.

Clay spindle-whorls (Nos. 14 and 15) and loom-weights were well
represented, but pottery was both scarce and of indifferent quality.
Of bone and horn there were several hundred objects, including chisels
(No. 8), awls, daggers (Nos. 11 to 13), various kinds of pins (No.
10), three combs (Nos. 6 and 7), 16 perforated hammers of staghorn
(No. 23), perforated teeth, a fish-hook of boar's tusk (No. 22), etc.

MAURACH.--About half-way between Nussdorf and Unter-Uhldingen lies
the site of the famous station at Maurach. It was discovered during
the winter of 1862-3, and was among those investigated by Mr.
Ullersberger. It appears that in 1839 a dam or dyke was built here,
which covered a portion of the area occupied by the lake-settlement,
so that it could only be partially explored. The piles came close up
to the shore, but stretched out into the lake for about 1,000 feet,
covering some 8 acres. According to Dr. Lachmann, the antiquities,
about 600 of which were collected, were precisely similar to those
from Nussdorf. Stone axes were met with in all stages of manufacture,
but hardly any pottery. A flattened bead of amber and four copper
celts (=Fig. 31=, Nos. 16 to 19) are the only further noteworthy
objects included among those from the earlier investigations. (B. 126.)

It was not till 1880, when the dyke above referred to was being
repaired, that the special feature which now characterises this
settlement became known. Among the stone hatchets then found were
nearly 500 of nephrite, of which two-thirds were tolerably well made.
But more interesting is the fact that nephrite was found in the
crude state, in the form of unworked bits and chips, from the size
of a finger-nail up to 3 inches in length and 2 inches in breadth;
so that there can be no doubt that this material was worked on the
spot. These later finds have gone chiefly to the Rosgarten Museum.
Mr. Leiner, writing in 1882 (B. 381), states that from the various
stations on the Ueberlingersee he received 800 nephrite, 12 jadeite,
11 chloromelanite, and one saussurite, hatchets or chisels.

UNTER-UHLDINGEN.--Dr. Lachmann describes two settlements which have
left their remains near the village of Unter-Uhldingen, about 1,000
feet from the shore and nearly a mile apart, and each covering about
8 to 10 acres. On the other hand, Mr. Böll makes mention of only one
station, which he characterises as the largest in Lake Constance,
covering some 30 acres. Both stations contained several well-defined
steinbergs--three in one and four in the other--in which were
cross-beams binding the piles together, like the steinberg at Nidau.
The relics belong to all ages, and indicate a continued duration from
the Stone Age down to the Roman period, if not even for some centuries
later. The Stone Age relics are similar to those found on the other
stations in the Ueberlingersee. Dr. Lachmann describes among the flint
saws one 9½ inches long. The celts, chisels, and axes numbered about
300, and the spindle-whorls 40. Pottery was more abundantly met with
here, and better made, than in any of the other stations. About 130
fragments and whole dishes indicate a great variety of vessels--cups,
jars, vases, covers, etc. Some had handles, and others were ornamented
in a variety of ways (=Fig. 32=, No. 27); and, besides the Bronze Age
pottery, there were bits of red earthenware, the well-known Samian
ware (_terra sigillata_) of the Romans.

The special feature, however, of this station lies in the number of
bronze objects it has yielded. In the Ullersberger collection Dr.
Lachmann describes six lance-points (No. 17); 16 hatchets with wings
(Nos. 2 and 3), two with sockets (No. 1), and a few of the flat type
(Nos. 29 and 30); 25 knife-blades (Nos. 9 and 12); four armlets, two
ornamented (Nos. 21 and 22); some sickles (No. 23), fish-hooks (Nos.
18 and 19), rings, and more than 100 hair-pins (Nos. 4 to 8, 14, 24,
and 25). Also about 40 objects of iron, including a few lance (No. 26)
and arrow-heads, one axe, several knives, two pruning-hooks (No. 11),
some iron rings, a fibula (No. 15), portion of a two-edged sword, a
short sword with a wooden handle, an implement like a fork, a pair of
pincers, etc. Besides these, there is another collection of similar
implements of bronze and iron in the Museum of Friedrichshafen.
Among the iron objects here are two of the so-called pruning-knives
(Hippen), a hammer-axe, two harpoons, some arrow-heads and rings, a
fibula (La Tène type), six horseshoes, a dagger, and a girdle-hook.

Here, as well as at Sipplingen, a quantity of well-made glass was
found on the site of the settlement, consisting chiefly of the
bottoms of goblets of a greenish colour, which, according to Mr.
Hofrath Klemm, of Dresden, belonged to the sixth or seventh century
after Christ. Very few objects of bone and horn were found at
Unter-Uhldingen.

[Illustration: =Fig. 32.=--UNTER-UHLDINGEN. Nos. 20 and 26 = ¼, and
the rest = ½ real size.]

The collection of antiquities from the north shore of the
Ueberlingersee, including the settlements Nussdorf, Maurach,
Unter-Uhldingen, and Sipplingen, made by Mr. Ullersberger and
Dr. Lachmann, previous to 1865, was purchased by the Wurtemburg
Government, and is now in the Museum at Stuttgart. Since then a
considerable number of objects have been found, which are dispersed
among the local museums and private collections, as may be seen
from an inspection of the Museums at Constance, Ueberlingen,
Friedrichshafen, Bregenz, and Bodmann.

Leaving the northern branch of the Lake of Constance, and still
following the coast, we come, a little beyond Meersburg, to a couple
of stations, Haltnau and Hagnau, both of which subsisted during the
early Bronze Age. From HALTNAU a considerable number of mixed relics,
including a bronze spear-head and hatchet, two large vases, beautiful
stone chisels and perforated axes, implements of nephrite, etc. (B.
378.) In the Rosgarten Museum there are a few things of bronze, as a
knife, a small chisel or awl, like =Fig. 32=, No. 13, a flat hatchet
(=Fig. 33=, No. 3), and a pendant (No. 13). Of late years HAGNAU has
yielded a large number of bronze objects, including knives (No. 9),
sickles, spirals, bracelets (No. 6), flat hatchets (Nos. 1, 2, and 4),
two with wings, also pendants, lance-heads, portion of sword-blade,
and about 200 hair-pins (Nos. 7, 8, and 10). (B. 381 and 462.) The
few illustrations of these objects here given are from the Museums of
Constance and Friedrichshafen. The stations at IMMENSTAAD, FISCHBACH,
and MANZELL are rich in good specimens of jade. From Manzell comes one
of the finest chloromelanite hatchets found in this neighbourhood,
and also a small one of jadeite, both of which are in the Museum at
Friedrichshafen.

Near Lindau, between the Villa Amsee and Aeschbach, there appears
to have been a settlement, from which a few relics have gone to the
Museums at Munich and Bregenz. (B. 462.)

The stations along the southern shore of the Bodensee have not as
yet been so productive in industrial remains as those of the more
sheltered Untersee and Ueberlingersee, but nevertheless there is
sufficient evidence to show that they existed along the coast, as will
be seen from the following list of their sites, which are successively
met with between Rorschach and the town of Constance, viz. ARBON,
ROMANSHORN, KESSWIL, MOOSBURG, and ROTHFARB near Güttingen, ALTNAU,
LANDSCHLACHT, MÜNSTERLINGEN, BOTTIGHOFEN, and KREUZLINGEN. With the
exception of the station at Arbon, the remains of these settlements
consist of more or fewer piles, and a sprinkling of stone and flint
implements. The shore from Kreuzlingen to Constance was found in 1882
to be continuously studded with piles, and among them a large number
of relics was picked up, including several implements of nephrite and
jadeite, an amber bead, and a large flint hatchet. (B. 462.) The two
fragments of stone axes, Nos. 14 and 15, illustrated on =Fig. 29=, are
from this part of the lake.

[Illustration: =Fig. 33.=--HALTNAU (3, 5, and 13), AND HAGNAU. No. 14
= ¼, the rest = ½ real size.]

BLEICHE-ARBON.--In 1885 Messikommer relates that during the very low
state of the lake in 1882 he was requested to visit Arbon, and make
an inquiry regarding the discovery of some prehistoric implements
along the shore, which were supposed to indicate the existence of
a lake-dwelling in the neighbourhood. In the places referred to he
found some flint saws and other implements, but, notwithstanding his
well-known experience in lake-dwelling research, he failed to find
piles; and the only result of his visit was the discovery of the
ruins of a Roman watch-tower near the mouth of the harbour.

On the 19th of September, 1885, Messikommer again received a message
from the authorities of Arbon to repair to their town, as this time
there could be no doubt that the remains of a true Pfahlbau had been
found. The site of this new discovery was not the seashore, but
the flat land stretching between Arbon and Steinach. Here, in the
course of excavations for a water supply to the town, the workmen
came upon piles with cross-timbers, among which were interspersed
various relics of human industry. The place where these discoveries
were made was about a kilomètre from Arbon, and close by the road
to St. Gallen. On a section being exposed, the following layers
were observed:--First half a foot of soil, then a foot of loam, and
under this a stratified deposit of sand and gravel, about 3 feet in
thickness, containing fresh-water shells. The relic-bed was from 1
foot to 1½ foot thick, and in it were found stone hatchets; fragments
of sawn stones, apparently the refuse of manufactured implements;
corn-crushers; four perforated horn hammers, "_Feldhacken_;" several
bone objects--needles, chisels, awls, daggers; a knife-like implement
made of a wild boar's tusk, and another made of yew-wood; an oar;
fragments of ornamented pottery, etc. Also there were barley, numerous
seeds and fruits, shells of hazel-nuts, the skull of a dog, and a
quantity of osseous remains, representing the urus, bison, stag, cow,
pig, bear, etc. (B. 431, 434c, and 462.)


MINDLISEE AND BUSSENSEE.

In the vicinity of Constance are two small lakes or bogs which have
yielded important remains of lake-dwellings. These are the BUSSENSEE
and MINDLISEE, both situated in the tract of country stretching
between the Untersee and the Ueberlingersee. The former is near
Lützelstetten, and in its marginal peat there have been found the
following antiquities:--A wooden dish cut out of an alder-trunk,
measuring 13 inches in diameter; two amber beads--one a perforated
disc 1½ inch in diameter (=Fig. 28=, No. 8), similar to one found
at Ober-Meilen, and said to have been in the possession of the late
Mr. Aepli, and the other a small ordinary bead (No. 9). Also several
articles of stone, horn, copper, and bronze. A curiosity is a portion
of the shell of a tortoise perforated with two holes for suspension
(No. 17). Also a female human skull of the dolichocephalic type.[25]

The Mindlisee is near Möggingen, and its Pfahlbau is more difficult
of investigation, owing to the bogginess of the peat. Some of the
antiquities from this locality, and now in the Museum at Constance,
consist of fragments of pottery, two ornamented pins and a dagger of
copper (Nos. 2, 3 and 11), some bronze objects (Nos. 14 and 15), and
a curiously shaped stone, like a hatchet and handle in one piece (No.
12). (B. 381 and 462.)


FEDERSEE.

The settlement in the Federsee was reported on by Oberförster
Frank, of Schussenried, in 1876, being the result of systematic
investigations conducted by him during the previous year. (B. 285.) It
was situated in the south-east corner of an extensive tract of peat
which now largely occupies the ancient basin of the Federsee, at a
place about three miles distant from the present small lake, and 380
yards from its ancient or glacial margin. Immediately over the glacial
_débris_ in which this basin is formed there lies a layer of whitish
clay, "Weissergrund," about 15 inches thick, and then follows peat for
a thickness of 10 or 12 feet. The lake-dwelling remains are met with
at a depth of 6½ feet, but it is impossible to form a correct idea
of the extent of the entire settlement, as it is only a portion that
has been exposed. At this depth in the peat wooden platforms are met
with, formed of layers of round or split timbers lying transversely
one above the other, and forming a kind of fascine structure. Between
the wooden layers there is always placed a bed of clay, the number of
which varies from three to eight, so that there is no uniformity in
the thickness represented by these structures.

Inserted through these solid masses of clay and wood, at intervals
of about 2¼ feet, were upright beams, only some of which reached
the Weissergrund. These piles were slender, only about 4 inches in
diameter, and showed no evidence of having either mortises or tenons
by which they could be joined with the horizontal beams.

Relics were found not only on the surface of these fascine structures,
but also in the clay between the successive layers or platforms, and
even underneath the lowest, down as far as the Weissergrund, but
never actually in the latter. Between the lowest layers of woodwork
and the Weissergrund there is sometimes a space of 4 or 5 feet in
which horns, broken bones, and other relics are found; but it is
"above and between the horizontal layers of timbers, and chiefly in
the immediate neighbourhood of the upright piles, that implements of
all kinds are met with--of flint, stone, horn, bone, teeth, and wood;
also earthenware vessels and spoons quite perfect."

In June, 1879, Mr. Frank was fortunate in finding the actual
foundation of a hut, showing the flooring and portions of the side
walls, the dimensions and other particulars of which I will afterwards
discuss.[26]

There was no evidence that this settlement, like so many in
Switzerland, came to an end by means of a conflagration; and, indeed,
the freshness of the upper woodwork and the absence of burnt faggots,
etc., negatived the idea of such a catastrophe.

The antiquities found on these remarkable peat dwellings are supposed
to belong exclusively to the Stone Age, as hitherto no objects of
metal have been found among them (=Figs. 34= and =35=).

_Pottery._--A large quantity of whole and broken dishes are in Mr.
Frank's collection. They are sometimes of a greyish colour, and at
other times black, as if polished with soot or graphite. The paste is
either fine and smooth or mixed with coarse sand, and it is of this
latter quality that the larger vessels are made. Of some 140 specimens
in Mr. Frank's collection the largest is 12 inches high. Both handles
and perforated knobs have been in use. A few fragments of a fine
yellowish paste are highly ornamented (=Fig. 34=, Nos. 17, 24, and
25). The fine black pottery consists of pretty jars, bowls, spoons,
etc., which are often ornamented with a combination of lines, points,
checks, knobs, etc. It is curious that there are no spindle-whorls,
and only one object that can be considered to be a loom-weight.

[Illustration: =Fig. 34.=--SCHUSSENRIED. All ½ real size.]

_Stone._--Flint implements to the number of 40, such as saws,
arrow-points, and scrapers, are well made (Nos. 1 to 8). One
semicircular saw is interesting as being a northern type, which,
however, is not in Mr. Frank's collection, but in the Museum of
Natural History at Stuttgart (No. 20). Of several stone hatchets some
are plain and others perforated and beautifully polished, a few of
which are still in their horn or wooden handles (Nos. 9 to 14 and 19).
(No horn holders with square tops for insertion into wooden handles
are in the collection.) The stone implements are generally made of
granite or serpentine, one only being of jadeite (sp. gr. 3·360). A
small bit of red stone is perforated with three holes, precisely like
similar objects from Robenhausen (=Fig. 24=, Nos. 5 and 6).

[Illustration: =Fig. 35.=--SCHUSSENRIED. All ⅓ real size.]

_Horn and Bone, etc._--- Of horn there are two scoops (=Fig. 35=, No.
6), and some perforated hammers (No. 7), one of which has portion
of the wooden handle in it. There are also spoons of horn, as well
as small bone chisels, daggers, pins, knives, haftings, etc. (=Fig.
34=, Nos. 15 and 16), perforated teeth, and some cutting implements
of boars' teeth. Portion of the handle of a stone celt, still in its
socket, is interesting, as showing a wedge which had been inserted so
as to fix it more thoroughly, just as is done at the present day. A
piece of wood, showing clearly the marks of a stone axe, is preserved
by Mr. Frank in a liquid, as well as various wooden dishes.

_Organic and other Remains._--Bits of rope and coarse matting made of
bast, but no cloth, were found. As regards the latter, it was with
special interest that I was shown a large consolidated mass of a black
material, made of grains of wheat, which most distinctly retained the
impression of a finely woven tissue, evidently that of the sack in
which the grain had been kept. Other curious objects are two lumps of
asphalt, one of which weighs three-quarters of a pound, and a dish
filled with birch-bark in little rolls. Dr. Dom, of Tübingen,[27]
believes that this so-called asphalt was a product of birch-bark, used
by the lake-dwellers when mixed with a black powder for smearing over
their dishes.

The eminent Professor Fraas, of Stuttgart, identified the following
animals among the osseous remains submitted to him, viz. stag, roe,
pig, bear, wolf, fox, lynx, hare, and bison (wild); and the dog, ox,
marsh-pig, and sheep (domestic). It is noteworthy that neither the
horse nor goat is here represented. (B. 303.)

Wheat, found plentifully, was determined by Professor Hegelmaier to be
a large-grained variety of the common species (_Triticum vulgare_).
Among other fruits and seeds were linseed, acorns, beech-nuts,
hazel-nuts, etc. Pine was not among the wood.

In a jar was found a greyish-black powder, which on analysis proved
to be carbonate of lime in combination with a bituminous substance.
Another powder was found to be red oxide of iron.

One small bead, of bright red colour, like coral, finds a place in the
Schussenried Collection; but the following objects are wanting, viz.
clay ring supports, leather, cloth, bread, apples and pears, usually
found in lake-dwellings.

From the facts recorded in Mr. Frank's long article, it would appear
that the settlers at Schussenried commenced their residence before the
girdle of peat, which now covers so largely the ancient bed of the
Federsee, extended very far from the shore assigned to it by the
retiring glaciers; and that since they abandoned their dwellings not
less than 6 or 7 feet of peat have grown over them.


OLZREUTHERSEE.

About two kilomètres north-east of Schussenried lies a small
lake--Olzreuthersee--in which Mr. Frank has discovered the remains of
a Pfahlbau of similar character to that just described.

Being informed that flint and staghorn implements were turned up in a
field close to this lake, he at once visited the spot, and recognised
the site of a lake-dwelling, situated in a small peninsula some 800
square yards in extent, and rising 1½ foot above the water, which
enclosed it on three sides. Here woodwork, pottery, and other _débris_
of human occupancy were found embedded in a relic-bed rather less than
a foot in thickness. The pottery was much broken, but it resembled
that from Schussenried, both in quality and style of ornamentation.
As at Schussenried also, neither spindle-whorls nor net-weights were
found. Of 784 bits of flint collected, 178 were worked. They are thus
classified:--47 arrow-points, 57 scrapers, 38 knives, 16 saws, and
20 of an undetermined character. Some of the arrow-points and saws
are particularly well made. Of stone implements there were 11 axes of
local materials (a few of which were perforated), and 3 hatchets and
4 chisels of nephrite. The nephrite hatchets were small, the largest
measuring only 1½ inch by 1¼ inch, and the chisels were 2 inches to
3 inches in length by ¼ inch to 1 inch in breadth. There were besides
several corn-crushers, 28 staghorn implements, some perforated, and
rolls of birch-bark, etc., but no trace of any metal. Also a few
needles, awls, and small chisels.

Mr. Frank draws attention to the remarkable fact, that while here
there were nephrite objects, and no jadeite, the very opposite was the
case at Schussenried. (B. 395.)


DANUBIAN BASIN.

Crossing over to the great Bavarian plateau which commands the sources
of the Danube, there are on the northern flanks of the Alpine chain
of mountains a series of lakes, many of which have been shown to
contain remains of lake-dwellings. Those which have been sufficiently
investigated to claim a notice here are the following:--Würmsee,
Mondsee, Fuschlsee, Attersee, and Neusiedlersee.


LAKE OF STARNBERG (WÜRMSEE).

The Lake of Starnberg lies about 18 miles to the south of Munich,
close to the spurs of the great Alpine chain of mountains. The
coast is an undulating upland, interspersed with woods, villas,
pleasure-grounds, and pretty villages--a passing glimpse of which,
together with a constant view of the snow-clad mountains in the
distance, renders a trip on this lake one of the most enjoyable
attractions to Munich. At its northern end, where its surplus water is
carried off by the Würm, it is only about a mile in breadth, but as
we sail southwards it expands considerably, and ultimately attains a
breadth of three or four miles, with a total length of 12 miles. About
four miles up on its western side there is a low but prettily wooded
island, called Rosen Insel since 1850, because it was then purchased
by the King of Bavaria. Here a royal residence was built on the ruins
of an old ecclesiastical establishment, and when its foundations
were being dug various sepulchral remains of a mixed character were
met with--prehistoric, Roman, and mediæval. Tradition says that the
island was originally the site of a heathen temple and a sacred
burying-place, which was subsequently appropriated by the Christians
and used for similar purposes.

When Professor Desor visited the locality in 1864 in search of
lake-dwelling remains, he found on the western margin of this island
numerous piles, associated with some antiquities of the lacustrine
kind so largely found in the Swiss lakes, from which he concluded that
this was the site of a pile-village, and suggested that the whole
island might be of an artificial nature. During the following year
some further excavations were made, but no important results ensued
beyond corroborating the opinion of Desor.

[Illustration: =Fig. 36.=--STARNBERG. All ½ real size.]

In 1874, however, advantage was taken of the low state of the water,
and extensive excavations were made under the superintendence of Mr.
v. Schab, the Government law-officer at Starnberg. Numerous shafts
were dug on the margin of the island, and in all cases a relic-bed
was encountered containing antiquities, apparently of very different
ages. Not only was there abundance of the usual relics of the Stone
Age, but also some of bronze, iron, glass, amber, etc. The collection
of objects then made is thus summarised in Mr. v. Schab's report (B.
291):--Of staghorn 187, bronze 158, stone 69, bone 48, wood 7, iron 6,
glass 3, and amber 1. The collection is deposited in the Ethnological
Museum of Munich, from which I have had the privilege of taking most
of the accompanying illustrations (=Figs. 36= and =37=). There appear
to be more objects in the case in the Museum from the Starnberg
lake-dwelling than Von Schab describes, as, for example, the bronze
socketed celt (=Fig. 36=, No. 9), but on the other hand it is well
known that some have fallen into private hands.

[Illustration: =Fig. 37.=--STARNBERG. Nos. 1 = ⅙, 13 = ¼, and the
rest = ½ real size.]

_Stone._--The flint from this station is of a bluish-grey colour,
and does not correspond with the French kind. The articles made from
this substance are chips, arrow-points, lance-heads, scrapers, saws,
etc. (=Fig. 37=, Nos. 14 and 15). Of nephrite there are one or two
specimens in the form of small cutting implements; of ordinary stone
celts there are a few more or less perfect (No. 17), and one is in a
horn casing (No. 12); also some polishers, and grindstones.

_Horn, etc._--Various kinds of hafting; about 12 bridle-guiders, a
few of which are whole (Nos. 2 and 3); several perforated hammer-axes
(Nos. 11 and 13); bone daggers, perforated boars' tusks, awls,
etc. The most remarkable objects are two or three large bone discs
ornamented (=Fig. 36=, Nos. 24 and 30).

_Bronze._--Portion of a solid bracelet ornamented with lines and
concentric circles, awls and chisels (Nos. 5 and 19), knives (Nos. 1,
2, and 7), daggers (No. 8), hatchets (Nos. 9, 12, and 20), ornamented
pins (Nos. 3, 4, 6, etc.), fibulæ (Nos. 21 and 22), needles (No. 13),
arrow-points (No. 14), fish-hooks (No. 27), one sickle (No. 18),
portion of an ornamented plate (No. 25).

_Iron._--A large knife (=Fig. 37=, No. 1), a horseshoe, two
spear-heads.

_Pottery._--Fragments of pottery were very numerous, probably
indicating 100 vessels; but no entire dish is among them. The
ornamentation is varied, and consists sometimes of parallel grooves,
like that of the terramara pottery in North Italy (=Fig. 37=, No. 16).
The paste used was also of a varied quality. Spindle-whorls of various
sizes and forms, clay support-rings, and conical and quadrilateral
clay weights; also large beads of burnt clay of an orange colour,
ornamented with concentric circles of blue and white (=Fig. 36=, No.
17).

_Glass, etc._--A few glass beads of variegated colours (No. 23), and
one of amber.

_Wood._--Wooden wedges, spoons, a fragment of basket-work, etc.

_Organic Remains._--Hazel-nuts, burnt corn, and various other seeds.
As to osseous remains, those of the domestic animals were twice as
numerous as those of the wild species. It may be interesting to note
that amongst the latter are included the reindeer (one portion of a
horn), cat (one lower jaw of large size), beaver (four individuals),
and two kinds of dog (_Canis familiaris_ and _matris opt._).


MONDSEE.

A couple of miles to the west of the southern end of the Attersee lies
the Mondsee, followed farther up in the same valley by the small lake
of Fuschl, both of which send their united surplus water into the
former. Just opposite the outlet of the Mondsee, at a place called
See, the site of a very interesting lake-dwelling was discovered,
which since 1872 has been very carefully investigated by Dr. Much, of
Vienna, with the result that this indefatigable explorer is now in
possession of one of the most instructive collections of lake-dwelling
remains in Europe. The SEE station covered an area of some 3,500
square yards. The piles were round, 3½ inches to 8 inches in
diameter, and irregularly placed, and the relic-bed was deeply covered
with mud. The antiquities, many of which are here illustrated (=Figs.
38=, =39=, and =40=), may be thus classified.

_Stone._--Flint arrow-points, in great numbers, are of a triangular
shape and very neatly made. One or two have still traces of asphalt,
by means of which they were attached to the stem (=Fig. 38=, Nos.
10 to 12). Some of them are in an unfinished state, and one is
of transparent rock-crystal. Among the flint saws are several
half-moon-shaped implements similar to those so frequently met with
in the Scandinavian archæological area (Nos. 2 to 4). Some of this
type were made with a projection for a handle like the knives used by
modern leather-cutters. Lance-heads and scrapers are also numerous and
well made. From the presence of a quantity of chips and flint refuse
there can be no doubt that all these implements were manufactured
_in situ_, a remark which equally applies to the knives (Krummesser)
of Danish type, which were made of the same kind of flint, the raw
material for which could be readily found in the gravel of the
neighbouring streams. Among the ordinary stone implements are about
two dozen perforated and highly finished axe-hammer heads (Nos. 13 to
15). The material is often a variegated serpentine. The polished celts
amount to nearly 100 specimens, of which the largest is 6¾ inches
long and the smallest 1¼ inch. One highly polished circular stone
with central perforation might have formed the head of a club (=Fig.
40=, No. 9).

_Horn and Bone._--Of this class of remains, there is a remarkable
assortment of chisels (=Fig. 38=, Nos. 16, 27, and 28), pointers,
etc., and particularly noteworthy are the double-pronged daggers
(=Fig. 39=, Nos. 9 and 12). These are invariably well made and
beautifully polished, and some have a groove as if for attaching a
string. There is only one staghorn hafting for a celt, and it is bored
in the middle for a handle, but the number of perforated hammers of
this material is considerable. One triangular arrow-point is of bone
(=Fig. 38=, No. 23).

[Illustration: =Fig. 38.=--MONDSEE. All ½ real size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 39.=--MONDSEE AND ATTERSEE (17, 18, and 20 to
22). All ½ real size.]

_Metal._--From the commencement of the investigation of this
settlement it was inferred, from the finding of a number of coarse
crucibles with projecting handles, that its inhabitants were
acquainted with the art of smelting. Not only was there a little
copper found in the pores of these utensils, but there were, among
the wooden objects, some crooked clubs with a slit at the end (=Fig.
185=, No. 14), which could only be used as handles for flat celts
such as those generally made of copper. Within the last few years
these surmises have been confirmed by the discovery of several metal
objects, chiefly of copper, among which are:--14 flat celts (some
are in a fragmentary condition) (=Fig. 39=, Nos. 1, 2, and 5), six
daggers (Nos. 3, 4, and 6), three spirals, three awls, one fish-hook
(No. 14), and two small indefinite objects. Of bronze there are only
two articles, viz. a portion of a dagger showing rivet-holes, and a
portion of the stalk of a pin.[28]

_Pottery._--The larger vessels are made of coarse clay mixed with
sand, and are both clumsy and unornamented, with the exception
sometimes of nail marks round the rim. Instead of handles they
have perforated knobs below the rim or on the bulge of the vessel.
In striking contrast to these coarse dishes are richly ornamented
jugs made of a fine paste, and other small dishes with or without
handles. The ornamentation is peculiar, consisting of deep broad
lines, arranged in a variety of patterns, in which a white chalky
substance was inserted, and to retain it better the bottom of the
incised lines was sometimes corrugated (=Fig. 40=, No. 6). The colour
of this pottery is now greyish, but originally it is supposed to
have been black, so that the white ornamentation on a black ground
must have had a striking effect. A few objects of clay, in the form
of rude figurines, which might be conceived to represent some common
quadruped, as a dog, or a pig, or a cow, may also be noted (=Fig. 39=,
No. 15).

_Other Objects._--It is somewhat remarkable that in the whole of
this large collection there are only three small perforated objects
of stone which could be taken for spindle-whorls, and only one clay
weight; nor is there anything else that would indicate the art of
weaving, with the exception of a few knotted strings and a closely
plaited mat made of bast.

[Illustration: =Fig. 40.=--MONDSEE. Nos. 6, 8, and 9 = ¼, and the
rest = ½ real size.]

The personal ornaments are very various. Perforated teeth, imitations
of the claws of birds in white marble (=Fig. 38=, No. 22), and
circular plates of marble in the form of buttons, beads, etc. (=Fig.
39=, Nos. 13 and 16). In one place not less than 48 of the latter were
brought up at one haul of the dredger, which, when restored in order,
reproduce a bracelet (No. 16).

In 1874 Dr. Much discovered a second station at SCHARFLING on the
south shore of the Mondsee, but being in deep water, and subject to
the deposition of much _débris_ brought down by the Kienbach, the
difficulties of a thorough investigation have not yet been overcome.

Of the investigations conducted from time to time in the Mondsee,
and the antiquities collected, Dr. Much has given several accurate
reports. (B. 223, 257, and 287.)


ATTERSEE (UPPER AUSTRIA).

The first notices of investigations of the lake-dwellings in the
Attersee were published in 1871 by Count Wurmbrand and Mr. Simony, and
these were continued by the former during the following five years,
according as fresh discoveries were made. (B. 200, 201a, 202, 229,
and 276.) There were five settlements in the lake--one, SEEWALCHEN,
near the outlet; two, ATTERSEE and AUFHAM, on the west shore; and two,
WEYEREGG and PUSCHACHER, on the east shore.

SEEWALCHEN.--This settlement formed an irregular quadrangle, some
500 by 180 feet, and distant from the nearest shore between 200 and
300 feet. The water here is about 5 feet deep, and though clear,
no relics or piles are visible, as the _débris_ are covered over
with a bed of gravel, which had to be removed by dredging. The
piles were round timbers 6 to 8 inches in diameter, and 3 to 4 feet
apart, which penetrated so deeply into the shell-marl that it was
with difficulty any of them could be pulled up. The relic-bed was a
blackish conglomerate of organic _débris_, about a foot thick, and
greatly compressed by the superincumbent gravel. Count Wurmbrand does
not think this settlement had been destroyed by fire, as the usual
symptoms of such a catastrophe are entirely wanting. The antiquities,
though numbering among them a few metal objects, are essentially of
the Stone Age, among which the following are the most typical.

_Stone._--The arrow-points of flint are all triangularly shaped, no
example with a central stem having been discovered. One remarkable
object is a small knife-flake of obsidian. Stone celts (a few
perforated and mostly broken) were made of diorite, greenstone,
granite, hornblende, etc., but none of nephrite. Grinding and
polishing stones were abundant.

_Horn and Bone._--Of these materials there were pointers (some with
double prongs), chisels, scrapers, but none of the haftings for
celts, such as those so frequently met with on the sites of the Swiss
lake-dwellings; some bone rings, probably intended for beads, and
others of cannel-coal.

_Pottery._--Pottery was not abundant, but judging from its character,
Count Wurmbrand thought that it was smeared over with graphite or some
colouring matter, and burnt in an open fire. The ornamentation was
made with the finger-nail, or with small pointed implements, in the
soft clay. Some fragments showed handles and others perforated knobs.

_Metal._--Two small bronze pins, one with conical head, and perforated
in the stem a little below the head. It is quadrilateral in its lower
two-thirds, and ornamented with dots. The other objects are an awl,
sharpened at both ends, a lump of bronze, and two small fragments of
iron.

The animal remains belonged to the pig, bear, beaver, ox, and stag.

Among the woods used were fir, lime, beech, oak, hazel, birch, and
cornel-cherry.

WEYEREGG.--The station next in importance is Weyeregg, about a third
of the way up the lake. It has yielded well-made bone implements,
worked tines of horns, perforated boars' teeth, and some finely
polished stone hatchets. One is of a sea-green colour like jade,
and another has an elegant form (=Fig. 39=, No. 22). Latterly a few
metal objects have been found on this station, among which are the
two daggers here represented (Nos. 17 and 18). On the remaining
stations only a few objects of stone and pottery have been collected,
sufficient, however, to show that they were similar to those already
described. On PUSCHACHER there were found two half-moon-shaped flint
knives (Krummesser) (Nos. 20 and 21), and a round stone ball of
polished serpentine neatly perforated, supposed to have been a mace.


FUSCHLSEE.

On the south shore of Lake Fuschl there is a small island of
circular form, and about 50 paces in diameter, which, it seems, is
of artificial construction, and strikingly analogous to our Scottish
and Irish crannogs. The island, which is a little raised above the
level of the water, lies close to the shore, being only separated
from it by a narrow ditch or canal, which in the course of time has
got filled up with moss and the _débris_ of marsh plants. On digging
a hole in its interior there was encountered first a thick layer of
moss and heather, and then a mass of decayed wood, chiefly branches of
pine and dwarf birch. This mass was kept together by small piles, but
around the margin there were stronger piles and a quantity of other
beams to be seen. Few antiquities were, however, found on it, and its
investigation from this point of view did not seem very encouraging.
(B. 257.)


NEUSIEDLERSEE.

Over the vast territory drained by the Danube there are some further
lacustrine remains indicative of lake or pile dwellings, but which
are probably only a small fraction of what could be revealed with
careful and systematic research. In 1872 Jeitteles published a notice
of pile structures discovered in the town of Olmütz (B. 221); and
more recently at Nimlau, in the same neighbourhood, similar wooden
structures were detected in a pond. In this case there were five rows
of oak piles associated with cross-beams; each row was five feet
apart, and the whole was covered with mud to the extent of nearly two
feet.[29]

[Illustration: =Fig. 41.=--NEUSIEDLERSEE AND KEUTSCHACHERSEE (10). All
½ real size.]

In 1874 Count Béla Széchenyi (B. 283) made some important discoveries
at the south end of the bed of the Neusiedlersee, which can hardly be
explained on any other hypothesis than that they were the industrial
_débris_ of a lake-dwelling. This is a large lake of brackish water
measuring about 72 miles in circumference, but so shallow that in its
deepest part it attains only a depth of 10 or 12 feet. It terminates
at its south-east side in a swamp called Hanság, ("floating turf"), of
greater extent than the lake itself. It appears to be subject to great
fluctuations in its extent, so much so that in 1854 its area commenced
to decrease till in a few years later its bed became completely dried
up. Cultivation of the land occupied by it was then begun, but the
water has since returned. It was in 1874, on land reclaimed from this
lake in these circumstances, that Count Széchenyi found, scattered
over the surface, bits of pottery, stone celts, flint implements, etc.
On making systematic investigations of these finds, along with some
of his scientific friends, he found that in two spots these relics
were met with in greater profusion, and that, corresponding with these
productive areas, there was a substratum of blackish mould which
became more clearly defined by the rankness of its vegetation. These
were supposed to have been the sites of habitation, and accordingly
excavations were undertaken to clear up the matter, but they revealed
nothing new. Only the same classes of relics were found as on the
surface, with the exception of a few bones very much decayed. No piles
were observed, and after digging to the depth of about three feet
water came into the trenches and so stopped further progress in this
direction. About 100 square yards were explored, during which the
following relics were collected:--31 perforated stone axes or hammers,
of which only two were whole; 96 plain stone axes, of which about
two-thirds were well formed, the rest being more or less fragmentary;
six stone chisels, and 14 worked stones or polishers, corn-grinders,
etc.; a net-sinker and two small beads, together with a few scrapers
and flint-flakes; and pottery to the amount of 200 to 300 fragments,
among which only three vases were still entire. Illustrations of some
of these relics are given on =Fig. 41=, Nos. 1 to 9.

The osseous remains were much decayed, but among them the following
animals were identified, viz. stag, urus, ox, pig, and horse
(represented only by two teeth).

Flints were comparatively rare, but the stone implements were varied
both in form and material, being made of such materials as serpentine,
diorite, basalt and schist.

The pottery, though rude, appeared to have been partly made on the
wheel, but yet had finger-nail marks and other curved impressions as
ornamentation. All sorts of handles were used, from mere perforations
for strings to the most perfectly made handle. The paste was mixed
with coarse materials.

The non-appearance of piles and organic matter may probably be
accounted for by their rapid decomposition from alternate exposure to
air and water.

Further notices of these finds were given by Count Wurmbrand (B. 259),
Dr. Much (B. 318), and Von Luschan (B. 365).


PILE STRUCTURES IN HUNGARY.

On the right bank of the Theiss, a few miles from the railway-station
of Szolnok, and near the village of Tószeg, there is an artificial
mound called "Kuczorgó or Lapos-halom," to which, since the meeting
of the International Congress at Buda-Pesth, in 1876, much importance
is attached on account of the opinion expressed by Pigorini that
it is identical in structure with the terramara mounds of Northern
Italy. The mound, though now considerably undermined by the river
Theiss during the great floods of 1876, is still of considerable
extent, measuring some 360 mètres in length, and 100 in breadth, and
rising to a maximum height of 8 mètres over the surrounding plain.
It is only in times of flood that the waters reach the mound, its
usual bed being about 1½ mile distant. When the artificial nature of
this mound became known by the section exposed by the floods, some
extensive investigations were made to determine its archæological
character. The objects collected in these researches were exhibited
at the Congress as a special find, and among them were the following
(Catalogue, pp. 85-87):--

1. Perforated hammers of staghorn, various pointed implements of horn
and bone, perforated teeth of pigs, and a leg-bone perforated in two
places, probably a skate.

2. Polished stone celts and perforated hammers, four flint flakes, and
one of obsidian, corn-crushers, and various other worked stones.

3. Fragment of a bronze pin, a bronze knife, and a small ingot of
bronze.

4. Pottery, showing a variety of dishes, some with handles, etc.;
various objects of burnt clay, as a whistle, buttons, a spoon, 18
pyramidal clay weights (perforated), etc.

5. A considerable amount of food refuse, as bones, scales of fish,
shells, charred wheat, etc.

When the International Congress was held at Buda-Pesth, Pigorini,
Virchow, and Miss Mestorf visited this mound, and made some further
researches, which not only confirmed Pigorini in his suspicions about
the structure of the mound, but also led his distinguished fellow
investigators to accept the main portion of his theory. Upon their
return home they[30] published separate accounts of this excursion to
Tószeg and the results obtained, from which I must here be content to
notice that the following propositions are admitted facts:--

1. The existence of piles and wooden beams was satisfactorily proved,
and Pigorini asserts that these corresponded with three different
levels, precisely as they occur in the terramara mounds.

2. The materials containing the _débris_ of occupancy were distinctly
stratified, forming parallel or undulating layers, amounting to a
total thickness of 4 mètres.

3. The antiquities collected represented all ages, including stone
celts, bronze and iron implements, and a skate made of the leg-bone of
a horse.

Subsequently Dr. Romer gave an account of the excavations conducted
at Tószeg previous to the meeting of the International Congress, in
an article entitled "Les Terramares en Hongrie," along with which he
describes similar deposits at other places, as Nagy-Rév, Szelevény,
Keménytetö, and Ásott-halom. In regard to the latter station he
remarks that rotten piles were observed in its lowest stratum before
Pigorini called attention to their importance. Some of the objects
from Ásott-halom were exhibited at the Congress (see Cat., p. 44),
and included polished stone axes and hammers, flakes of obsidian,
perforated hammers of staghorn, etc. The author concludes his article
by stating that the terramara deposits are by no means confined to the
valley of the Tisza, as they have already been observed in various
other low-lying districts along the Danube, Garam, etc. (B. 316.)


RESEARCHES IN THE LAKES OF CARINTHIA AND CARNIOLA.

In 1864 Professor Ferdinand v. Hochstetter gave a report of researches
conducted by him, at the request of the Royal Academy of Sciences of
Vienna, in the lakes of Carinthia and Carniola in search of remains
of lake-dwellings. (B. 98.) But the results were, in the main, of a
negative character, as no traces whatever were found in the lakes of
Millstätter, Afritzer, Brenn, and Weissen, in Carinthia; nor in those
of Weldeser, Wocheiner, and Zirknitzer, in Carniola. In the latter
lake it was confidently expected that lake-dwelling remains would be
discovered, as the chronicler Valvasor (1689) relates that in this
lake there was an old bridge, whose piles he himself had seen; but
upon Von Hochstetter and Deschmann visiting the locality nothing
whatever could be seen of this character.[31]

On the other hand, Von Hochstetter believed that he had succeeded in
finding traces of these settlements in no less than five lakes in
Carinthia, viz. _Wörther_, _Keutschacher_, _Rauschelen_, _Ossiacher_,
and _Längsee_. The _Keutschachersee_ is, however, the only one which
has yielded positive remains of a sufficiently varied character to
render the evidence of Pfahlbauten more than problematical. This
small lake, known also as the _Plaschischersee_, which lies to the
south of the Wörthersee, contains near its middle a shallow portion
which can be readily distinguished from the shore by the rushes which
grow over it. The area of the space thus marked out is not great,
measuring only 20 fathoms long (Klafter) by 10 fathoms broad, and it
is covered by water never less than 4 to 6 feet in depth. Here piles
and large beams were seen embedded among stones and mud, but so firmly
that they could not be drawn up. Notwithstanding the difficulty of
examination, some relics of human occupancy were collected. These,
which were subsequently augmented by a further investigation by Mr.
Ullepitsch, of Klagenfurt, are deposited in the museum of that town;
they consist of portions of half-burnt clay with the impression of
wattling, and are supposed to be part of the walls of a cottage. There
are also one or two fragments of black and grey pottery, one of which
is ornamented (=Fig. 41=, No. 10); a sharpening or grinding stone; a
bit of staghorn, together with charcoal; heaps of shells (_Adonta_);
hazel-nuts, and portion of a wooden pile.

Dr. v. Hochstetter draws attention to the extraordinary number
of submerged cairns which he discovered along the shores of the
Wörthersee and Ossiachersee. On the eastern shore of the latter he
counted no less than 29. These cairns are about 6 feet high, with a
diameter of 15 to 20 feet, and their tops are generally covered with
4 to 6 feet of water. It will be remembered that similar cairns were
observed in Lake Morat.

The only other place which suggested the existence of lake-dwellings
was the "Laibacher Morast," in which, a few years previously, a couple
of canoes, and some other industrial relics, were dug out of the peat,
the full significance of which only now became apparent. Since then
the vast morass has yielded a large quantity of the _débris_ of these
settlements, which I shall now proceed to describe.


LAIBACH MOOR (CARNIOLA).

What is known as Laibach Moor is an extensive but irregularly shaped
plain now nearly all well cultivated, which extends southwards from
the town of Laibach to Ober-Laibach, some 12 miles distant. Previous
to a series of drainage schemes, executed at various times during the
last fifty years, the whole of this plain was a morass or peat bog,
and there can be no doubt that in prehistoric times it was a navigable
sheet of water. It covers an area of about 85 English square miles,
and is interspersed here and there with six or seven rocky eminences,
which, when the locality was under water, formed so many islands. It
is also intersected by the rivers Laibach, Isca, and some smaller
streams, which unite before reaching the town of Laibach, and about
half way up it is crossed by the railway to Trieste. Some years ago a
new road was constructed along the valley of the Isca, from Laibach to
Brunndorf, and in 1875, in the course of excavating a ditch alongside
of it, various bone implements and fragments of pottery were turned up
by the workmen. Mr. Martin Peruzzi, the proprietor, recognising the
archæological value of these objects, at once gave information of the
discovery to the authorities of the Landesmuseum at Laibach. This led
to an extensive series of investigations, which were continued during
the following two years under the care of Dr. Karl Deschmann, curator
of this museum. An illustrated report of the first year's operations
was published by the eminent archæologist, Baron von Sacken (B. 290),
while those of the two following years have found an able exponent in
Dr. Deschmann. (B. 302 and 317.)

The first year's working revealed the foundations of a pile-dwelling
close to the road on its west side, where, by the removal of some
3,000 square yards of peat, quite a forest of piles was disclosed.
These were irregularly placed, but on an average they numbered three
or four in a dozen square feet. They were made of aspen, poplar, elm,
and fir, the last, however, being sparingly used. The peat was about
6 feet thick, and below it was the ancient sediment of the lake into
which the piles were driven, their heads now merely entering into the
peaty stratum. Between the peat and lake sediment there was a thin
layer of organic _débris_, 4 or 5 inches thick, in which alone the
relics of the lake-dwellers were found. In the following year some
2,000 square yards were cleared of peat, partly in the same place, and
partly on the other side of the road. In this new locality the piles
were more closely set and the deposit of peat was a little thicker,
but the character of the relics was exactly the same, only a larger
proportion of the fragments of pottery were ornamented.

[Illustration: Plan of Lake-dwellings in LAIBACH MOOR]

During the autumn of 1877 the site of a third pile-dwelling was come
upon, about 300 yards from the last mentioned, and on the other side
of the Isca (see Sketch, p. 171), under precisely similar conditions
as the two former, but owing to want of funds the excavations were
discontinued before the entire area was searched. Dr. Deschmann is of
opinion that these are by no means the only portions of the moor in
which lake-dwellings existed, as indications of them were found in
several other places along the bed of the Isca. In further support
of this opinion I may mention that in 1857, before lake-dwellings
had attracted attention in this quarter, some objects were found at
Moosthal, in quite a different part of the moor, which point to its
being the site of a lake-dwelling. Here the peat was 10 feet deep, and
at this depth, and lying immediately over the lake-silt, were found
three perforated staghorn hammers, two canoes, and some other objects
of human industry, which, however, were dispersed before Dr. Deschmann
became aware of the discovery.

The relics of human industry collected during these systematic
explorations, with the exception of a few in the Museum of Vienna, are
deposited in the handsome new Museum at Laibach, where they form a
remarkably complete and interesting demonstration of the culture and
civilisation of the lake-dwellers. Some of these are illustrated on
=Figs. 42=, =43=, and =44=.

_Pottery._--Vessels for household use are extremely abundant, and
varied in form and ornamentation. They are all hand-made, and the
quality of the paste appears to have been good--that for the larger
dishes was mixed with rough sand. All the pottery has a darkish
appearance, but most of the smaller vessels had been smeared over with
some black composition. Not a few of these dishes were quite whole, so
that their varied forms and uses may be readily distinguished. They
may be classified as jars, vases, cups, plates, jugs, bowls, flasks,
spoons, etc.; and ordinary handles, perforated knobs, tubular borings
(_ansa canalicularis_) appear to have been indiscriminately used.

Some of the smaller dishes have four or five stud-like processes or
rudimentary feet, and others have a pedestal-like base, slightly
expanding at the lowest point, on the underside of which there is
often impressed the shape of a broad cross (=Fig. 42=, No. 20). The
ornamentation, when reduced into its simple elements, may be thus
stated:--

(1) Straight or wavy ridges, sometimes notched across, and running
upwards or across the body of the vessel; (2) finger or nail marks;
(3) checks made with groups of incised lines crossing each other; (4)
lozenge-shaped spaces alternately plain and lined; (5) herring-bone
pattern; (6) triangles, crosses, wheels, rhombs, and other simple
geometrical figures, sometimes with inscribed figures or lines; (7)
impressions of strings, points, etc. The style of the more highly
ornamented vessels is, though complicated, artistic, and when the
incised lines were filled with a white material, as is supposed to
have been the case with some of them, these patterns on a dark or
black ground must have been very effective. Ornamentation is not
always confined to the outside of the vessel, as may be seen from
=Fig. 43=, No. 8. Dr. Deschmann sees a striking resemblance between
the Laibach pottery, both in manufacture and ornamentation, to that
represented in Dr. Schliemann's works on Troy.

[Illustration: =Fig. 42.=--LAIBACH. Nos. 19 to 24 = ¼, and the rest
= ½ real size.]

Besides the ordinary dishes, there fall to be enumerated under
this heading some two or three hundred spindle-whorls, one or two
cylindrical weights, perforated cones (=Fig. 43=, No. 5), a few
crucibles of superior workmanship (=Fig. 45=, No. 14), a mould for an
axe-head (=Fig. 42=, No. 22), and some other small objects, apparently
toys (=Fig. 42=, No. 21). Among the most remarkable and mysterious
objects are some ornamented images, more or less fragmentary, of
animals and human beings with fantastically-formed heads (=Fig. 42=,
Nos. 11, 23, and 24; and =Fig. 195=, Nos. 5 to 8).

_Stone._--The stone implements, with the exception of rubbers,
hammers, and sharpening-stones, are comparatively rare.
The sharpening-stones are well represented by a variety of
implements--from the small portable hone with a string perforation,
to a large hollow block weighing 220 pounds. Of simple stone axes
and chisels there are only about a dozen good examples, but amongst
them are two little gems--one a hatchet of nephrite (=Fig. 42=,
No. 12), and the other a miniature chisel of greenstone (No. 9).
Perforated axe-hammers number about two dozen (=Fig. 43=, No. 10);
they are mostly of serpentine and well shaped, and the boring is
neatly executed. The flint objects, which amount to about four dozen,
consist chiefly of neatly-formed lance-heads; but amongst them are
a few scrapers and flakes, but hardly one that could be called an
arrow-point (=Fig. 42=, Nos. 1 to 5). Almost unique are two conical
anvils, one of which (No. 18) has metallic particles of copper or
bronze on its flat surface. There is also a polished stone disc
showing the commencement of a perforation near its centre with the
core still remaining.

_Bone and Horn._--A characteristic feature of the Laibach settlements
is the abundance of implements of bone and horn which they have
yielded, and which may be thus classified:--

1. Perforated hammer-axes of staghorn, numbering between 300 and
400, in all stages of manufacture. The most typical forms of these
implements are sketched on =Fig. 44=.

2. Polished daggers, pointers, chisels, etc., varying in length from
4 to 10 inches, amount to many hundreds. The smaller pointers, awls,
and pins, were made of bone splinters and ground to fine points. The
finer daggers were invariably made of the leg-bones of a deer or other
animal. It appears that they were manufactured by sawing or cutting
the bone lengthways and slightly diagonally, so as to have two weapons
out of the one bone, leaving each with a joint for its hilt. One or
two bones were found showing this operation in an uncompleted stage.
Some of these daggers had perforations near the extremity of the
handle-end for suspension.

[Illustration: =Fig. 43.=--LAIBACH. All ⅓ real size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 44.=--LAIBACH. All about ¼ real size.]

3. The tynes of deer-horns were converted into coarse needles (=Fig.
42=, No. 13), and used probably in the manufacture of nets. Over a
score of these implements have been collected.

4. A few finely-polished objects like hooks are supposed to have been
used as dress-fasteners or buckles (Nos. 6 and 16).

5. Another set of curious objects (No. 7), of which about a score
have been collected, is supposed by Dr. Deschmann to have been used
as artificial bait to catch large fish, just as we at the present day
use an imitation minnow. They are made of the tynes of deer-horns, and
vary in length from 2 to 5 inches.

6. About a dozen or so of very sharp and finely-polished needles made
from the superficial lamina of a rib. The eye, which is at one end, is
either round or elongated (No. 15.)

7. Several hollow bones (some of the wild swan), open at both ends,
and varying in length from 5 to 10 inches, have marks inside, as if
made by the friction of running threads. They are supposed to have
been used in the preparation of thread, and hence go under the name of
"Zwirndreher."

8. Some flat portions of the horns of the elk and the underjaws of
oxen, minus their teeth, were used as polishers.

_Metal Objects._--(=Fig. 45.=) The total number of metal objects
now in the Museum at Laibach, and tabulated as coming from the
lake-dwellings, is 24. They are all either of bronze or copper, as
hitherto not a trace of iron has anywhere been met with. The following
is a list of them:--

1. Two flat-handled bronze swords 21 and 14½ inches long (Nos. 3 and
4).

2. Three bronze daggers, 11½, 8, and 7½, inches long (Nos. 2, 1, and
7). The larger has four rivets for fastening a handle; the next has
six rivets, and the blade is beautifully ornamented; and the third has
two rivet-holes, arranged differently from those in the other two.

3. A winged bronze celt (No. 5); and one of the flat type (No. 9),
said to be of copper.

4. Portions of three bronze pins (Nos. 12 and 13).

5. Two thin bracelets of bronze, much worn.

6. Five peculiar objects of copper, like awls (Nos. 6 and 8).

7. Seven objects like daggers, lance-heads, or knives, rudely
hammered, are also supposed to be of pure copper (Nos. 10 and 11).

The winged celt and the larger of the two swords are not noticed in
either of the reports of the various investigations, but I am assured
they form part of the same find; and, in corroboration of this, I find
they are included in a photograph issued by the authorities of the
Museum, purporting to be a representation of all the metal objects
from the Pfahlbauten.

[Illustration: Fig. 45.--LAIBACH. Nos. 14 and 15 = ¼, and the rest =
½ real size.]

_Objects of Wood._--A canoe 15½ feet long and 2½ feet wide was
pointed at both ends. Also a toy canoe. Fragments of a few dishes,
such as a large plate, a spoon of yew wood, and some bowls--one of
which is scooped out of a large round natural protuberance of a tree.
A few elongated pebbles rolled in birch bark. Portions of bast ropes,
and some coils of very fine carbonised linen threads.

Two remarkable machines ("Biberfälle") (=Fig. 46=), each constructed
out of one solid piece of wood, and having two movable valves in the
centre worked by projecting pivots resting loosely in corresponding
holes in the machine. These valves are freely movable when pushed
upwards, but this motion is arrested just a little short of the
perpendicular by the slanting shape of their posterior edges, so
that, when left to themselves, they always fall together, and never
backwards. The one here represented is in a very perfect state of
preservation; and the other, though now in a fragmentary condition,
clearly shows that in its structure it was precisely similar to the
former. These peculiar implements, though found at a little distance,
are considered of contemporary date with the lake-dwelling remains,
as they were in the same archæological stratum, and about the same
depth in the peat. The one here figured is made of oak, and measures
32 inches long, 12 inches broad, and 4 inches deep. The aperture, when
the valves are open, measures 9 by 5 inches. The most recent opinion
as to the use of these machines is that they were beaver traps--an
opinion that derives much probability from the extraordinary number
of the skeletons of this animal which have been found among the
food-refuse of the inhabitants of this lake-dwelling.

[Illustration: =Fig. 46.=--LAIBACH. Wooden machine, supposed to be a
Beaver-trap.]

Such machines are not absolutely new to archæology, and the little
that is known about them rather strengthens the opinion above given
as to their use. The first discovered to which attention was directed
in archæological journals was figured and described in 1873[32] by
Dr. Hildebrandt, of Tribsees, Neu-Vorpommern. It measures 29½ inches
long, and 6 inches broad at the ends, and has two movable valves in
the centre. It was found in a peat bog at a depth of 5 to 6 feet
below the surface, and is now preserved in the Museum at Greifswald.
Dr. Hildebrandt conjectured that it was some kind of trap for catching
fish.

In reply to Dr. Hildebrandt's notice of the machine found at Tribsees,
Professor F. Merkel, of Rostock, wrote to say[33] that two similar
ones were found in different parts of North Germany, which he
considered to be otter traps rather than fish traps. One of them was
found in the moor of Samow, near Gnoien, at a depth of 6 or 7 feet,
and is now in the Museum at Rostock.

[Illustration: =Fig. 47.=--Wooden machine, 3 feet long, from North
Germany.]

It is remarkably like the one from Laibach, and differs only in being
4 inches longer, and having three holes in the valves instead of two
(=Fig. 47=). A third[34] was found in a moor at Friedrichsbruch,
near Flatow, in the province of West Preussen, which was sent to
the Märkisches Museum. At no time within historical times were such
machines known to be in use, so that their function still remains
conjectural, unless the circumstantial evidence derived from the
Pfahlbau at Laibach decides them to be "Biberfälle."

While the proofs of the above remarks were still in my hands, I
received from Dr. Luigi Meschinelli, of the Geological Museum of the
Royal University of Naples, a copy of an article by him, entitled
"Studio Sugli Avanzi Preistorici della Valle di Fontega."[35]
The objects described in this memoir were found, in the course of
excavating peat, in a small valley which opens into Lake Fimon in
the vicinity of Vicenza. Among numerous industrial remains of man,
consisting of fragments of pottery, various implements of stone and
flint, a bronze celt, and a Roman coin of the time of the Emperor
Adrian, were three curious and novel objects of wood shaped like
small canoes. One of these machines--the best preserved, though not
the largest--is carefully described and figured by Dr. Meschinelli,
and from his minute description there can be no doubt it is another
example of the same apparatus which I have just described as having
been found in North Germany and Laibach Moor.

[Illustration: =Fig. 47=_a_.--Wooden machine from FONTEGA, 28 inches
long, with detached valves, and some worked sticks found along with
it.]

The body of the Italian machine was constructed out of one piece of
oak, and measured 28 inches long, 6¾ inches broad, and 2¾ inches
thick (=Fig. 47=_a_). The opening in the centre, which was closed by
two valves revolving on projecting pivots, and resting along their
axis in a deep groove cut on each side of the machine, measured 6½
inches by 3½ inches on the under side, so that this would be the
actual size of the aperture when the valves were open. Associated
with the machine, as will be seen from the illustration, were several
worked portions of sticks, evidently the _débris_ of some kind of
mechanism attached to it. Similar sticks were found along with the
Laibach examples. It will be observed that the dimensions of the
Italian one are a little less than those of the previously described
machines, but that in all other respects they are identical. The other
two found at Fontega were, according to Dr. Meschinelli, precisely
similar to the one he describes.

Among the organic remains from these peat excavations I find no
mention made of the osseous remains of the beaver, neither is this
animal included by Lioy among the fauna of the lake-dwellings at
Fimon. So far, therefore, there is no presumptive evidence that the
machines described by Dr. Meschinelli were _beaver-traps_. That,
however, the beaver frequented the Po valley during prehistoric times
we have positive evidence in the discovery of its bones in several
localities--as, for example, the terremare of Castellaccio (B. 457)
and Cogozzo (B. 389a).

Puzzled to account for these curious machines which so fortunately
attracted the attention of Dr. Meschinelli, he concludes his notice of
them thus:--

"A che cosa poteva servire questo oggetto? Era forse un modello per
costruire poi una piroga di dimensioni maggiori per utilità pratica?
Portata a queste dimensioni, serviva essa al trasporto, o meglio
quei congegni erano stati inventati a facilitare la pesca? Volle
invece l'artefice sbizzarrire il suo genio inventivo nel costruire un
trastullo cosi grazioso? E perchè allora costruirne due di eguali?"

It may be interesting to add that in 1859 a wooden machine, which
evidently comes under the same category as the above, was found in
a bog in the townland of Coolnaman, parish of Aghadowey, county
Derry, Ireland. It is figured in _The Ulster Journal of Archæology_
(vol. vii. p. 165), as an "antique wooden implement," which is thus
described by the editor:--

"It was discovered embedded in a solid bank of turf, at a depth of 4
feet from the surface, the bog extending to a great depth underneath.
No other article was found near it. It is entirely of wood, and
measures as follows:--Extreme length, 3 feet 5 inches; breadth across
the centre, 7½ inches; depth, 2½ inches; lid, 14 inches long
and 3½ inches broad; under hole, 12¾ inches long and 3½ inches
broad. The upper edges have evidently been higher on all sides, when
perfect--probably on a level with the lid or small door--or even
extending still higher, so as to form a kind of trough. The lid is
now somewhat narrower than the opening which it is intended to close,
but, no doubt, was made to fit accurately when in use. It moves up and
down on a hinge formed by two projections which lie in corresponding
hollows, and seems to have been opened and shut by means of a handle
inserted into a hole in its centre. These hinges have, no doubt, been
kept in their place by some part of the wood above them which is now
lost. From each end of the lid and on a level with its upper surface
there runs a hollow groove, sloping regularly downwards to the end of
the implement, and terminating in a hole which perforates the bottom,
seemingly for the discharge of a liquid. Towards each end are two
lateral holes placed opposite to each other, one in each lip of the
groove, apparently to receive a rope passed through them to serve as
a handle for removing the article from place to place. The under side
of the implement is flat, having in its centre an oblong hole (the
bottom opening of the cavity covered by the lid), which has all its
four edges sloped or bevelled.... Coolnaman, which gives name to the
townland, is a considerable hill, entirely cultivated, but surrounded
at its base by a bog of unknown depth, which evidently occupies the
site of an ancient lake. On the side of the hill where the implement
was discovered the turf has become quite solidified, and forms a dense
black mass up to the surface."

[Illustration: =Fig. 47=_b_.--Antique wooden implement from Ireland,
showing upper and under surfaces. Length, 3 feet 5 inches.]

In looking at =Fig. 47=_b_, which shows the upper and under sides
of this implement, it will be at once seen that it differs from the
Continental examples only by having one valve or lid closing the
central aperture instead of two. Neither the editor nor any of the
parties who had examined this curious machine at the time had ever
seen anything of the kind before, and no rational explanation of
its use has ever since been offered. One thought it was a fishtrap
intended to be placed in a river; another, that it was a kind of pump;
a third, that it was a machine for making peats; and a fourth, that
it was a cheese-press (_Ibid._, p. 289).

To find so many of these machines, of unknown use and so remarkably
similar in structure, in such widely separate districts as Ireland,
North Germany, Styria, and Italy, must be a matter of interest to
archæologists, and no one can say that the correct explanation of
their use is to be found in any of the suggestions hitherto offered on
this point. I may mention one element which may help in the solution
of this problem, viz. that all the examples from Italy, Laibach, and
Ireland were found in bogs that were formerly lakes. Perhaps this
is true in regard to those from North Germany, but the point is not
referred to in the short notices which have appeared of them. If these
machines are really traps they could only be used in water where the
animal could insert its head from below, and among amphibious animals
the _otter_ and _beaver_ are the only ones to which all the conditions
involved in the trap theory could apply.[36]

_Organic Remains._--In the report of the investigations for the year
1877 Dr. Deschmann gives the following analysis of the osseous remains
collected, which shows the relative frequency of the respective
animals:--

                               Individuals.        Individuals.
   Sheep, a horned variety             147 | Wild Boar       28
   Stag                                131 | Bear            18
   Beaver                               52 | Bison           17
   Domestic Ox, with 48 pieces of horn  35 | Dog             16
   Goat                                 31 | Roe             12
   Badger                               31 | Wolf        2 to 3
   Marsh Pig                            35 | Elk         3 to 4

Some of these bones contained crystals of vivianite, resembling
in this respect the osseous remains found on some of the Scottish
crannogs, especially that at Lochlee. (B. 373, p. 88.)

The _Bos primigenius_ is also represented by a portion of horn 21
inches long. The presence of hazel nuts with gnawed holes also points
to the existence of some small rodents, probably the dormouse. One
or two bones (metacarpal bone of a deer and an ulna of the bear) are
covered all over with groups of peculiarly-striated markings, as if
made with a file; but for what purpose, or whether the work of man or
of some rodent animal, remains a mystery.

There is also a considerable quantity of the bones of birds, the spine
bones of fish, jawbones of large pike, carp, etc., and a portion of
the shell of a tortoise (_Emis lutaria_).

Of human remains there are two skulls of adults, minus the facial
part, another of a child, a lower jaw, and a few bones of the
extremities.

Notwithstanding a minute search, no traces of any kind of corn have
hitherto come to light; but we must not therefore conclude that
the lake-dwellers were ignorant of agriculture and the ordinary
cereals, as grain is so apt to decompose unless it happens to be in
a carbonised state. It is, however, probable that the cultivation
of grain was not the chief industry of the colony, and that the
mealing-stones which were in such abundance must have been used
for grinding some other kind of food as well as grain, such as the
kernels of hazel-nuts and water-chestnuts. The water-chestnut (_Trapa
natans_), according to Deschmann, does not grow at the present time in
Carniola; nor has it ever, since the earliest botanical examination of
the country by Scopoli, been considered a native plant in the _Flora
Carniolica_. In the last century the monks of the Cistercian order,
at Sittich, cultivated it in their ponds. Pliny, however, distinctly
states that in ancient times it was used as a food. "Thraces qui ad
Strymona habitant foliis tribuli equos saginant, ipsi nucleo vivunt,
panem facientes prædulcem, et qui contrabit ventrem." (H. Nat., xxii.
10-12.)

Among the vast quantity of osseous remains there is not a single
fragment of the skeleton of the horse. On the other hand, it
is calculated that the deer is represented by no less than 500
individuals, and the beaver by at least 140. For the latter this is
a colossal figure, seeing that the richest station in beaver remains
among the Swiss lake-dwellings, viz. Moosseedorfsee, numbers only
eight individuals. The animal is now extinct in the country, nor has
it ever been mentioned in any of the historical annals of Carniola.

FOOTNOTES:

[21] _Das Ausland_, 1884, p. 479; _Antiqua_, 1884, p. 70.

[22] _Antiqua_, 1885, p. 1.

[23] _Corr.-Blatt_, vol. xv. p. 55.

[24] _Antiqua_, 1884, p. 140.

[25] _Antiqua_, 1883, p. 14; and _ibid._, 1885, p. 2.

[26] _Matériaux_, vol. xvii. p. 321.

[27] _Vereins für Vater. Naturkunde_, Stuttgart, 1878, p. 95.

[28] "Kupferzeit in Europa," p. 9.

[29] _Mitt. Anth. Ges. Wien_, vol. xv. p. 120.

[30] Pigorini, B. 298_e_; Virchow, B. 293; Mestorf, "Der Intern.
Anthrop. und Arch. Cong. in Buda-Pesth."

[31] _Mitt. des Hist. Vereins für Krain_, October and November, 1864.

[32] _Zeit. für Eth._, vol. v., _Verhand._, p. 119.

[33] _Zeit. für Eth._, vol. vi., _Verhand._, p. 180, 1874.

[34] _Ibid._, vol. ix., _Verhand._, p. 168.

[35] _Atti della Soc. Veneto Trentina di Sc. Nat._, vol. xi., 1889.

[36] Dr. Meschinelli, in reply to my observations on the Laibach
machine, the advanced proofs of which I sent to him, rejects the
_beaver-trap_ theory as a possible explanation of the use of the
Fontega machines, but suggests that they might have been used as traps
for catching wild-fowl. (B. 469.)



Third Lecture.

LAKE-DWELLINGS AND PILE-STRUCTURES IN ITALY.


On the 20th of July, 1860, M. G. de Mortillet wrote a letter to Sig.
Cornalia, president of the Italian Society of the Natural Sciences,
at Milan,[37] in which, while mentioning the discoveries made in
Switzerland, he suggested that similar antiquities might be found in
the lakes of Lombardy. The reading of this letter led to a discussion
which at once elicited one or two statements of archæological
importance. The vice-president, Sig. Antonio Villa, recalled the
fact that a bronze axe-head and some flint arrow-heads were found in
the turf-bog of Bosisio, at a depth of 10 feet, which were described
and figured in a Milan journal, _Il Fotografo_, 2nd August, 1856.
The president also mentioned that he possessed weapons of a similar
character, which were found, along with some human bones, in the
peat-beds of Brenna. Shortly afterwards the celebrated naturalist
Gastaldi, in an article in _Il Nuovo Cimento_, directed attention
to certain antiquities which the turf-cutters were in the habit of
finding in the "torbiera di Mercurago." (B. 37.) Subsequently Gastaldi
visited this locality, and along with Professor Moro, of Arona (who
first recognised the importance of the objects in question), made
further researches in the peat at Mercurago, the result of which was
to leave no doubt that they had here to deal with the remains of a
true palafitte analogous to the pile-dwellings in the Swiss lakes.
During the next two years Gastaldi's report was considerably enlarged
by further finds at Mercurago. (B. 43 and 52.)

About the same time that these discoveries at Mercurago were being
made the existence of a palafitte in Lake Garda was surmised from
the finding, at various times, of bronze implements and weapons in
the harbour at Peschiera; but nothing further of a very definite
character occurred till the summer of 1863, when Professors Desor
and De Mortillet visited Lombardy in search of lake-dwellings. These
eminent archæologists were joined by Professor Stoppani, and the
immediate result of their investigations was the discovery of several
settlements in the Lake of Varese and elsewhere. (B. 67.) Since then
the lacustrine stations south of the Alps have greatly increased
in number, there being now scarcely any of the smaller lakes and
turbaries of North Italy that have not yielded more or fewer remains
of this character.

In addition to these ordinary lake-dwellings, whether in water or in
peat, there are, in the valley of the Po, other ancient remains known
as "Terremare," which are now shown to be so closely analogous to the
former that they fall to be described as land palafittes. They are
found only in the eastern part of the valley, and as some of their
relics, in common with those of the adjacent palafittes, present some
characteristics which are not found in western Lombardy, I fasten on
this distinction as a convenient principle of classifying the lake
and peat dwellings into a western and an eastern group, reserving the
"terremare" for separate treatment. Accordingly we begin with Lake
Varese, whose settlements appear to have been the most important and
the most central in the western group.


LAKE OF VARESE.

Lake Varese is irregularly shaped, about 5½ miles in length, and less
than half that in breadth. It occupies a somewhat shallow basin, its
greatest depth being 85 feet, and, although bounded on the north by
high hills, its banks are generally flat or shelving. Its surface is
770 feet above sea-level, and 134 feet above that of Lake Maggiore, to
which its surplus water is carried by the Bardello, a stream which has
its outlet at the north end of the lake. The district around is rich
and well cultivated, except on the south side, where the lake becomes
contiguous with an extensive peat-bog called "torbiera della Brabbia."
When Stoppani and his illustrious friends, along with Desor's
experienced fisher, Benz, commenced their lacustrine explorations in
Lombardy, they selected Lake Varese to start with, on account of the
suitability of its shores for such structures. On the very first day
(21st April, 1863) their labours were rewarded by the discovery of
the sites of two settlements--one at the south-east side of the little
island then called Isolino, or Isola Camilla, but now I. Virginia,[38]
and the other opposite the village of Bodio.

Professor Stoppani continued his researches after the departure of
his friends, and made further discoveries, not only in Lake Varese,
but in some of the other lakes of Lombardy. In November of the same
year Captain Angelo Angelucci, of Turin, was attracted to the scene
of these discoveries in Lake Varese, and henceforth took an active
part in the investigation of its palafittes. (B. 63.) Nor must I omit
to mention the Abate Ranchet among the list of the early explorers.
He discovered in the same year not only a new station on the south
side of the outlet, but also, in the following year, two others in
the adjoining lake of Monate. (B. 85.) At the end of the first year's
explorations we find, from the reports of Stoppani and Angelucci,
that no less than six stations were determined in Lake Varese, all
situated on its south-western shore. In 1868, when Dr. Camillo
Marinoni published a report on "Le abitazioni lacustri e gli avanzi di
umana industria in Lombardia" (B. 159), the number had increased to
seven. Although no addition has since been made to their number, much
attention has been given, especially in these later years, to their
investigation. The Sketch Map of Lake Varese (page 189) shows the
names and the respective positions of these settlements, which I shall
now shortly describe.

ISOLA VIRGINIA.--This is a small egg-shaped island lying along the
west shore, from which it is distant about 80 yards. It is 240 yards
long, with a maximum breadth of 100 yards, and contains besides some
fine trees, a house with two storeys, the upper of which is converted
into an archæological museum, and at a little distance there is a
café for the convenience of the numerous visitors that frequent the
locality. Its area is nearly 3 acres, and its highest point is barely
8 feet above the average level of the lake.

[Illustration]

Piles were discovered in the lake at the south-east side of the
island, in a space extending along its margin for about 100 yards, and
about half that distance in breadth. Two years ago, when I visited
the locality, the heads of piles were readily seen through the water,
just cropping above the sandy bottom. In some cases it was difficult
to distinguish them from stones; but a poke with the oar or a long
stick at once determined which they were. Professor Stoppani, in his
first report (B. 67), describes this as a steinberg, but the idea of
the whole island being artificial--an idea first suggested by Desor,
who found analogous instances in the Rosen Insel, Lake Starnberg,
in the little island at Inkwyl, and in the Irish Crannogs--gained
strength by the discovery of similar stumps of piles on its north-west
side. Although the local antiquaries--Ranchet, Regazzoni, Quaglia,
Castelfranco, and others--occasionally visited these lacustrine
stations and made considerable investigations, with the result of
adding to their private collections, it was not till 1878 that any
systematic researches were made with the view of testing Desor's
suggestion that the island was a gigantic crannog. This was first
attempted by an Englishman, Mr. W. K. Foster, of London, who happened
to be residing in the neighbourhood. In carrying out the necessary
excavations he had the assistance of Ranchet and Regazzoni, both
experienced investigators of lacustrine antiquities. Five trenches,
covering on the aggregate about 80 square yards, were dug in different
parts of the island, and in all these, piles, fragments of pottery
(one of which had the impression of plaited reed-work), and various
other relics of human industry, were encountered. In the sections
presented by these trenches the following strata were successively
passed through:--

   1. Surface Soil for about                       14 inches.
   2. Vegetable Mould, of a dark colour            10    "
   3. Sand and Gravel                              21    "
   4. Sand and Earth, with much organic _débris_   16    "
   5. Sand and Mud (the original lake-sediment).

The most noteworthy objects collected in these operations were as
follows:--In the first layer a Roman coin of Marcus Aurelius, and a
portion of a mould for a socketed lance-head (=Fig. 48=, No. 19).
In the second, two fragments of bronze. In the third, two polished
stone celts, with a portion of a third, and two clay weights. In the
fourth, a flint saw with a wooden handle, two bone pins, and some
sharpening-stones.

The piles were evidently in their natural position, and the conclusion
that the entire island had been a pile-dwelling was irresistible;
but the questions when and by what means was the transformation
accomplished, were as obscure as before. Mainly for the purpose of
clearing this matter, Sig. Ettore Ponti, in September of the following
year, gave instructions to have further excavations made in different
parts of the island. On this occasion 12 trenches were dug, covering
an area of about 230 square yards with an average depth of 3 to 4 feet.

The stratification and composition of the stuff were very similar
to those experienced in the former excavations. In this space 440
piles were counted, and Regazzoni calculates that at this rate the
original number of piles requisite for the construction of the entire
lake-village would be from 35,000 to 40,000. Some horizontal beams
were also found among the _débris_. Among the relics the following are
noteworthy:--A tyne of deer's horn, with a flint implement inserted
into the end of it (No. 3); a small clay weight shaped like a pear;
several objects of worked bone, as needles (Nos. 7 to 9), pointers,
chisels (No. 25), handles, etc. A knife (No. 5) and a dagger of bronze
(No. 6), and two oblong beads of coloured glass with transverse
grooves, were found in the stratum immediately below the surface soil.

[Illustration: =Fig. 48=--ISOLA VIRGINIA. No. 25 = ¼, and the rest =
½ real size.]

As a rule, the tops of the piles in these trenches were on a level
with the surface of the water, while those in the lake were several
feet lower--more or less, according to the depth of water. The
cause of this was no doubt the protection given to the former by
the accumulation of _débris_ around them. It was observed that the
uppermost layer alone had yielded Roman coins, but along with them
were objects of both the Stone and Bronze Ages--a juxtaposition
which might be accounted for by agricultural and other operations to
which the island has been subjected in historical times. The fourth,
or that which lay immediately over the ancient lake-sediment, was
alone exclusively deposited under water, as it contained some entire
dishes, and the associated _débris_ were just the usual contents of
lake-dwelling relic-beds, viz. the shells of hazel-nuts, acorns,
charred bits of wood, bones of various animals (among others the skull
of an enormous wild boar), as well as implements of bone, horn, and
flint, pottery, etc. The second and third layers were composed of
much the same materials as the fourth, but they appeared to have been
the contents of a previously-deposited relic-bed artificially heaped
up, as they contained portions of wooden beams which had no definite
purpose, but lay in the soil in all directions.

The relics of humanity collected on the Isola Virginia in the course
of these various excavations are so numerous that one of the two rooms
set apart by Sig. Ponti as an archæological museum for the lacustrine
remains of Lake Varese is entirely devoted to their exhibition and
preservation, where they have been carefully and neatly arranged under
the skilful care of Professor Regazzoni.

_Pottery._--As in the other lacustrine stations in this lake, there
are two kinds of pottery--one black, and made of fine paste, of which
most of the smaller vessels were made; the other is of a greyish
colour, but sometimes it has a reddish tinge, and contains a mixture
of fine gravel or coarse sand, which gives it a rough appearance. The
fragments and entire dishes in the Ponti Museum decidedly testify
to considerable skill in the ceramic art. Besides perforated knobs
and tubular borings for the insertion of cords (No. 17), there are
various forms of handles, as in Nos. 14 and 16, the latter of which
is interesting, as it suggests the primary stage of the _ansa lunata_
which is such a prominent characteristic of the pottery in the eastern
portion of the Po valley.

The diversity of ornamentation is also worthy of notice--raised
dots, nail-marks, perforated rims, lines, corrugated grooves, and
cord-markings, forming a variety of combinations (Nos. 13, 15, 22,
23, 26, and 27). One bit shows the impression of plaited reed-work
(No. 29). Another, an entire dish made of fine black paste, is a
curiosity in its way; it consists of three cups united, and having a
communication with each other by a small hole in the dividing septa
(No. 24). The coarse pottery indicates vessels of large dimensions.
There are also loom-weights, spindle-whorls (No. 21), some conical
objects pierced vertically (No. 10), and casts of wicker-work,
supposed to be the remains of the cottage walls.

_Bone and Horn._--Objects of this class are numerous, as polished
daggers, pointers, chisels (No. 25), needles (Nos. 7 to 9); also a few
perforated teeth.

_Stone._--Celts and chisels are fairly abundant, and among them are
one or two of jade. Though I noted only one fragment of a perforated
axe-head, the art of boring stone was known and skilfully practised,
as there are several spindle-whorls and other implements with neat
perforations (No. 18). There are also hammer-stones (some with
finger-marks), corn-grinders, and polishers. Among the latter are
large flat polishing slabs, and a few hand-polishers made like a stone
celt (No. 11), which are peculiar to North Italy, if not, indeed, to
the Varese lake-dwellers, as I have seen only one other out of the
district, viz. at Viadana.

Among the flint objects are knives, scrapers, saws, arrow-points,
chisels (like those in =Fig. 68=, Nos. 8, 14, and 15), cores, and a
large quantity of flakes (Nos. 1 to 3). For small cutting implements
flint was not the only substance used by these lake-dwellers, as there
are 36 fine flakes of obsidian (No. 4), and some arrow-heads of rock
crystal.

_Bronze._--The bronze objects in the museum, including fragments,
amount only to 15, and represent knives, fish-hooks, etc. (Nos. 5, 6,
and 12).

_Amber._--There is also a bit of amber which appears to have been an
ornament.

Small square or oblong pieces of wood perforated (No. 20) are supposed
to have been floats for nets.

The organic remains collected in the fourth stratum, which was
considered to be the true relic-bed of the palafitte, were submitted
to Professor Sordelli, who recognised, among other seeds and fruits,
the following:--Millet (_Panicum miliaceum_), wheat (_Trit. vulgare_),
bramble (_R. fruticosus_), and the vine (_Vitis vinifera_).

Among the bones of animals identified were those of the bear, wolf,
badger, beaver, wild boar, stag, roe, etc. The ordinary domestic
animals were also represented, and in addition to them I have to
mention portions of two human jaws which were found a few inches below
the tops of the piles. (B. 324, 326, 341, 343a, 359, and 437.)

Professor Castelfranco (B. 456), who has carefully studied the
phenomena presented by these repeated excavations, formulates the
following theory as to the succession of events which have brought
about the evolution, so to speak, of the Isola Virginia:--

(1) The original palafitte had been destroyed by a conflagration
towards the close of the Bronze Age or the beginning of the Iron Age.

(2) Its inhabitants were hunters, fishers, rearers of domestic
animals, and agriculturists.

(3) Shortly after the destruction of the pile-village, its subsequent
occupiers converted the larger portion of its site--which had already,
in parts at least, reached the surface by the gradual accumulation of
_débris_--into a veritable island, by heaping over it stuff dug from
the margin and especially from the landward side, where there is now a
channel separating the island from the mainland. Thus the upper layers
contain the _débris_ of the earlier people, mixed with sand, gravel,
and mud. This view is rendered probable by the fact that in one place,
towards the north of the island, the second layer was displaced by an
artificially constructed bed of large pebbles.

(4) The newcomers, to whom Castelfranco assigns the transformation of
the palafitte into an island, were the Ligurians, whose "sépultures à
cineration" are so numerously found in the neighbourhood.

BODIO.--The bay opposite this village contains the remains of three
stations, the most southerly of which is known as "Keller" or "Del
Gaggio," the next as "Bodio Centrale" or "Delle Monete," and the
third as "Desor" or "Del Moresco." All these are comparatively near
the shore, being only about 30 yards distant, and the central one is
about equidistant--some 800 yards--from the other two. (B. 327, p.
47.) The central station appears to have been a true steinberg, as its
area was covered with stones; regarding which Stoppani remarks that
formerly they were more numerous, because within recent times some
were known to have been removed for building purposes. At first more
bronze objects were found on Keller, and more pottery on Desor, while
the Centrale was characterised by the discovery on it of a hoard of
Roman coins. Subsequent investigations have not borne out these early
distinctions based on the character of their relics, and they are now
generally acknowledged to belong to the same age.

The coins found on the Centrale were mostly small silver pieces,
much decomposed, belonging to the last half-century of the Republic.
Stoppani collected about 70, and Angelucci, who explored shortly
after him, no less than 128. One found by Regazzoni in 1876 (B. 327,
p. 52) has on it, along with the head of Mark Antony, the following
legend:--M. ANT. IMP. AUG. III. VIR. R.P.C. M. BARBAT. Q.P., etc.,
which would make the date about 40 B.C. The hoard is supposed to have
been lost or deposited here long after the lake-dwelling ceased to be
inhabited--a supposition that is borne out by the fact that the coins
were confined to one limited spot, only a couple of yards square. In
1876-7 Sig. Ponti made researches on Desor which greatly enriched his
museum both in stone and bronze objects. (B. 327.) A selection of
objects from these stations is given on =Fig. 49=.

CAZZAGO-BRABBIA.--This station is situated opposite the village of
the same name, and at first it gave such poor results that Stoppani
called it a trial station, or an attempt to found a settlement. From
the researches made in 1877 it was found to be rich in remains, and
exactly similar to those at Bodio. It was, however, farther from the
shore, and extended parallel to it for about 150 yards. Its breadth
was somewhat irregular, and, judging from the disposition of its
piles, it would appear to have been two quadrangularly-shaped stations
nearly in contact with each other. Among the bronze objects collected
on this station are four lance-heads, a chisel, an awl, 10 fish-hooks,
four hair-pins, a fibula, etc. (B. 456.) There are also some fine
arrow-points of flint.

[Illustration: =Fig. 49.=--BODIO, CAZZAGO, AND BARDELLO. Nos. 24, 31,
39, 43, and 44 = ¼, and the rest = ½ real size.]

BARDELLO.--Near the mouth of the river are two stations, one on the
left and the other on the right shore. The former, called Ranchet,
after its discoverer, is a small settlement some 200 yards from the
mouth of the river, and 6 or 7 from the shore. It measures about 60
yards long and 50 broad. A large quantity of the bones of domestic
animals was found here, as well as some flint and bone arrow-points,
spindle-whorls, and various fragments of pottery. Ranchet records
also a small lance-head of bronze, a portion of a vase containing
some black stuff adhering to it (supposed to be remains of food), and
portions of another of fine black paste. The station on the north
shore, called after Professor Stoppani, by Regazzoni, is about 100
yards from the mouth of the Bardello, in the direction of Gavirate.
It is in the form of a parallelogram, 65 by 45 yards, and, like the
previous station, has the piles arranged in parallel rows. Among its
relics are:--Bones of the ox, goat, stag, and pig; flint arrow-heads,
scrapers, etc., of the usual kind; some bone implements. Two bronze
pins and a winged celt are sufficient to show that the station was
similar to the others in Lake Varese (Nos. 23 and 44).

Marinoni (B. 159) mentions another station opposite Gavirate, but
neither Regazzoni nor Ranchet could find any traces of it. (B. 327, p.
66.)

TORBIERA DI BIANDRONO.--Lake Biandrono, which formerly occupied a
larger area than at present, has on its north-west side an extensive
peat-bog, in which Dr. B. Quaglia has discovered the remains of a true
palafitte lying under a deposit of about 6 feet of moss. The station
is some 200 yards distant from the lake, and of a quadrangular shape,
with massive piles scattered over its area. It is remarkable as having
supplied objects which might be considered characteristic of all
periods--from the earliest polished Stone Age down to that in which
knives, spears, hooks, and spurs of iron were manufactured. (B. 327,
p. 89.) Other objects recorded from this station are polished stone
hatchets; arrow and lance-heads of yellow and dark flint; fragments
of pottery, some of which were made of fine paste by the aid of the
potter's wheel, and had extremely elegant forms (B. 423, p. 86); two
fish-hooks of bone and two oars now in the Museum at Varese. Four
curious objects similar to one from Torbiera di Cazzago-Brabbia (=Fig.
50,= No. 18) were found here. (B. 327, p. 87.) These relics have been
widely dispersed, some having gone to the Museums of Pavia, Milan,
Varese, and Como. An iron spur figured by Regazzoni is in the Como
Museum.

TORBIERA DELLA BRABBIA.--Some forty years ago the peasants commenced
to cut peats in the extensive turbary which lies on both sides of
the canal Brabbia, and it is recorded that objects of antiquity
were from time to time found, to which, however, little attention
was paid. As early as 1856, Angelo Quaglia directed attention to
worked beams in the peat, and since 1863, when such objects began
to be more inquired after, other piles were detected in one or two
places. The most important of these stations is near the mouth of
the Brabbia, on its east bank. Here, during the last few years, many
interesting relics have been found. While the usual flint and stone
objects (Nos. 2 to 8) are abundant, several others of a more novel
character have to be added to the list. Especially noteworthy are
some peculiarly-shaped fibulæ (Nos. 9 to 15), one being of iron (No.
12); and a curious object made of bronze rings (No. 18), supposed to
be an epaulette, is also from this station. Other objects of bronze
are some hair-pins (Nos. 22 to 28), an ornamental pendant (No. 17),
a winged celt (No. 21), and a ring (No. 19). There is also one flat
celt of copper (No. 20). Among the stone celts and chisels some are
now recognised to be of jade. (B. 423, p. 80.) No. 33 represents a
hatchet of chloromelanite. Quaglia figures a curious flat stone like a
wheel, with a wide circular perforation, and brought to a sharp edge
along its outer margin. There were also spindle-whorls of terra-cotta
(No. 29) and a quantity of pottery (Nos. 34 and 35); also two small
pendants of amber. Of staghorn there are two magnificent harpoons, one
of which is here figured (No. 32). Square bits of wood with central
perforations (No. 36) are supposed to have been used as floats for
fishing-nets. Among the osseous remains is the skull of a deer with
part of the horns attached.

[Illustration: =Fig. 50.=--TORBIERA DI CAZZAGO-BRABBIA (except No. 1).
Nos. 18 and 35 = ⅓, 32 = ¼, and all the rest = ½ real size.]

PUSTENGA.--Between Galliate and Doverio, and not very far from
the south shore of Lake Varese, there exists in the plain called
"Pustenga" a turbary of some 17 acres in extent, which was formerly a
small lake, and in which G. Quaglia (B. 423, p. 90) has detected the
remains of a palafitte. Among the objects recorded from this station
are two arrow-points, a knife and a saw of flint, six stone celts, and
a large jaw of an ox. Of the stone hatchets four are of serpentine,
one of jadeite (?), and one of chloromelanite. The latter is figured
by Quaglia. (B. 423, Pl. iv. 45.)


LAKE MONATE.

In the month of April, 1863, Stoppani, Desor, and De Mortillet
searched this lake unsuccessfully, and consequently came to the
conclusion that it was unsuitable for lake-dwellings ("non potesse
offrire piaggia opportuna per le palafitte"). Notwithstanding
this opinion, the Abate Ranchet, with the assistance of two local
fishermen, succeeded shortly afterwards in discovering the sites of
two settlements on the east shore of the lake, near the village of
Cadrezzate. (B. 159.) The stations were in water from 6 to 9 feet
deep, and about 200 yards apart, and their sites were marked by large
mounds of stones ("enormi cumuli di grossi ciottoli"). Fragments of
pottery were found in abundance, which in quality of paste and form
corresponded with those of the palafittes in Lake Varese. One dish
had also a quantity of black stuff, which was supposed to have been
the remains of some kind of porridge. A saw, two arrow-points, and a
few chips, of flint, and bits of charcoal, were the only objects, in
addition to the pottery, collected.

Little was done by way of exploring these stations till the year
1875, when the brothers Borghi, the proprietors of the lake, became
interested in its submerged antiquities, and proposed to make further
researches. To the experienced archæologist Castelfranco they
entrusted the conduct of these researches, and it is to his report I
am indebted for the following facts. (B. 321.)

SABIONE.--The most northerly and largest of the two stations
at Cadrezzate is about 60 yards from the shore, and occupies a
quadrangular space of about 100 yards in length, and rather more than
the half of this in breadth. This area was overspread with stony
mounds having intervals of from two to four yards between, and for
this reason it was difficult to operate with the drag. Piles were
found in the intervals between, as well as on, these steinbergs; but
Castelfranco thinks the former were the roadways between the huts,
which were built on the piles supported by the stones.

The relics collected were similar to those from Varese, of which the
following are the principal objects:--

A bronze hatchet (_coltello-ascia_) 5 inches long, and 1 to 2¼ inches
broad.

Pottery, including fragments with handles of various forms.

Dishes containing a black crust ("simile al residuo che la polenta
lascia in fondo al painolo dopo la cottura") were frequent. Some of
this stuff was submitted to Professor Sordelli for analysis, and he
thinks, from detecting in it the halves of acorns, that it was a kind
of porridge made from this fruit. One thin spindle-whorl 2 inches
in diameter had a few punctured dots on its surface, intended as an
ornamentation. One flint arrow-point, and a stone hatchet converted
into a polisher, like those already described from Varese. There were
also shells of hazel-nuts, and the kernels of the cornel cherry.

POZZOLO.--This station was similar to the former as regards the stony
mounds, but only about half its size. The principal relics from it
were:--

_Bronze._--A triangularly-shaped spear-head or dagger 3¼ inches long
and an inch broad at its base, where there were two rivet-holes; a
hair-pin 3½ inches long, with a ring head; also a fish-hook.

_Stone._--A few chips, arrow-points, and a chisel of dark flint; a
hammer and polisher of the hatchet-shaped kind.

_Pottery._--Fragments of a coarse and fine kind. Vases containing the
"sostanza terrosa" already noticed. One bone was found, and in one
spot there was a large quantity of cherry-stones.

OCCHIO.--The "Stazione dell' Occhio" is near Monate, and consists of a
mass of stones in water from 10 to 14 feet deep; but, notwithstanding
the difficulty of searching in such a depth, the following industrial
remains were collected:--Chips of flint, charcoal, fragments of
pottery, shells of hazel-nuts, and a bronze hook--sufficient to show
that it belonged to the same period as the others.


LAKE VARANO, TERNATE, OR COMABBIO.

The previous failure of the early explorers and subsequently of the
experienced fisherman known as "Lo Spariss" in their search for
palafittes in Lake Varano did not prevent Castelfranco from trying his
luck in this lake also. In July, 1878, with the assistance of two
fishermen experienced in lake-dwelling researches, he made a tour of
the lake (some 5 miles in circumference), and discovered traces of no
less than eight stations in different localities, chiefly on the east
shore. But the objects, though sufficiently distinctive to show their
origin, are too few and unimportant to require any detailed notice.

Professor Castelfranco comes to the conclusion that in both the lakes
of Monate and Varano the palafittes are coeval with those in Lake
Varese. He is, however, struck with the entire absence of bones from
both of them--a fact which appears to him unaccountable. (B. 321.)


TORBIERA DI MOMBELLO

Between the villages of Mombello and Cerro, on the east shore of Lake
Maggiore, and a few miles south of Laveno, there was a small turbary
in which Dr. Carlo Tinelli discovered the remains of a palafitte. The
peat was being excavated from 1844, but it was 20 years later before
the remains of the palafitte were detected. The further progress
of the peat-cutting was carefully watched by Tinelli and a priest,
Guiseppe Della Chiesa, in the interests of archæology. Some of the
piles were extracted, and were said to show marks of having been
fashioned by stone implements.

The relics collected here are:--Flint objects in considerable
abundance, among which were two saws, a lance-head, and a beautiful
knife-flake (=Fig. 50=, No. 1), now in the Museum at Varese; fragments
of coarsely-made dishes without handles or ornamentation. Three
canoes, roughly made and similar to those from Mercurago, were found
at a depth of 8 feet. One of the canoes, 7 feet long, was presented to
the Museum at Varese. Along with these objects were bones of the stag,
goat, and roe. (B. 171.)


TORBIERA DI VALCUVIA.

In 1870 Professor Leopoldi Maggi described the remains of a palafitte
found in "un bacino torboso" between Santa Maria di Cuveglio and
Cavona. (B. 187.) This basin lies among glacial _débris_, and was
formerly a small lake, but in modern times it became entirely filled
up with peat. On the surface there was a layer of vegetable soil 10
inches thick, then spongy peat to the depth of 3 feet, and then a
layer of more solid peat about 1 foot 8 inches thick. Underneath
these layers was a blackish muddy deposit, extending to an unknown
depth, into which the piles were inserted. These piles were from 5 to
10 feet long, and 8 to 10 inches in diameter. They were closely set,
and along with them were several beams lying horizontally. The relics
consisted of pottery, knives of bronze and iron, charcoal, etc., all
of which were dispersed.


TORBIERA DI BRENNO.

Another locality that has yielded interesting remains, of "stazioni
palustri," is the "torbiera di Brenno-Useria," situated along the road
from Varese to Porto Ceresio, on Lake Lugano. Here, some years ago, a
canoe was dug out by the peat-cutters, and associated with it were a
large number of weapons of bronze and iron, bracelets, fibulæ (=Fig.
51=, No. 14), bones of domestic animals and of man, but no objects of
flint. (B. 327, p. 92.)


LAKE OF LECCO.

As early as 1860 Desor thought he had discovered indications of a
palafitte in Lake Maggiore,[39] but this was subsequently disproved,
and up to the present time no remains of these ancient dwellings have
been found in this lake. The explanation of their absence in the
larger lakes of Italy is to be found in the physical conditions of
these glacial and rock-cut basins, which, owing to the depth of water
and their rapidly-shelving shores, afford no holding for piles.

Stoppani, in his first exploratory tour, turned his attention to Lago
di Lecco as, in his opinion, a suitable locality, and having found
a group of piles half-way between the Bridge of Lecco and Malgrate
stretching towards the western shore, he concluded this was "una bella
palafitta a cui nulla mancherebbe per ritrarre perfettamente quelle
della età del bronzo." The only resemblance of this supposed palafitte
to those of the Bronze Age was the fact that the tops of the piles
projected 1 or 2 feet above the lake mud, as no relics of any kind
were found. Further researches have not confirmed the genuineness
of this palafitte, and Regazzoni throws out the hint that the piles
observed by Stoppani might be the work of modern fishermen, who are in
the habit of inserting stakes for fixing their nets and which, among
themselves, go under the name of _serrade_ or _gueglie_. (B. 67 and
327, p. 70.)


LAKE OF ANNONE.

In the narrow strait which connects the small lake-basins of Sale and
Annone, Stoppani found some piles projecting from a heap of stones in
a depth of 6 or 7 feet of water, which he took to be indications of a
palafitte. In 1877 Castelfranco (B. 307) re-examined the locality, and
came to the conclusion that the submerged piles and stones observed
by Stoppani were merely the remains of a bridge which, at some former
period, connected the peninsula Isella with the southern shore; and so
the matter still rests.


LAKE OF PUSIANO.

More satisfactory discoveries were, however, made by Stoppani in
his preliminary tour in the Lake Pusiano, where, at the north
end of the Isola dei Cipressi, he recognised the existence of a
pile-dwelling. The genuineness of this station has been confirmed
both by Castelfranco and Regazzoni, who had subsequently made some
investigations in the locality. The industrial remains were confined
to a few objects of flint-saws, scrapers, flakes, and arrow-points, a
portion of a terra-cotta whorl, and some bones and teeth of animals.
In 1877 Regazzoni found piles at the other end of the Isola dei
Cipressi buried in a heap of stones. (B. 327, p. 72.)


TORBIERA DI BOSISIO.

To the east of Lake Pusiano lies the torbiera di Bosisio, which came
early under the notice of archæologists by the discovery in it, at a
depth of 10 feet, of a beautiful bronze axe-head (=Fig. 51=, No. 10).
Since then a great many relics have been from time to time found in
this peat, but they have been widely dispersed, and as the deposit
is now nearly exhausted no more finds can be looked for. Sig. G. B.
Villa,[40] in his descriptive notices of this peat moor, speaks of
arrow-points, burnt wood, bits of straw, trunks of trees, etc. Among
other things which have been sent to different museums are a bronze
spoon (No. 11), (probably of much later date than the other objects),
some beautiful arrow-points (Nos. 1 to 7), and a lance-head of flint.
An iron hook of modern shape was found at a depth of 3 feet. (B. 327,
p. 97.)


TORBIERA DI CAPRIANO.

In 1869 Dr. Marinoni described a turbary at Capriano, near Renate (B.
169), in which some remarkable objects of bronze were found at a depth
of about 7 feet. Similar objects are prevalent among the relics from
the Swiss lake-dwellings, and, judging from what we know of the early
Iron Age in Italy, they appear to belong to this period. The find
comprised a hair-pin (=Fig. 51=, No. 13), a fibula (No. 18), three
bracelets (Nos. 15 and 16), a pendant (No. 17), and a spiral ring (No.
19), all of which are here reproduced from Marinoni's work. (_Ibid.,
Mem._, vol. vi. Pl. 1.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 51.=--BOSISIO (1 to 7, 10 and 11), CAPRIANO (13,
and 15 to 19), BRENNO (14), and CASCINA (9 and 12). Nos. 9 to 12 =
¼, and the rest = ½ real size.]


TORBIERA DI MAGGIOLINO.

Sig. G. B. Villa, in his "Notizie sulle Torbe della Brianza" (B. 90),
describes another locality not far from Bosisio, in the territory
of Rogeno, called Maggiolino, in which piles, bones, fragments of
pottery, flint knives, and arrow-points, etc., were found--evidently
the usual _débris_ of a palafitte. (See also B. 327, p. 97.)


TORBIERA DI MERCURAGO.

Since Gastaldi published his first report on the discovery of
palafittes in the bog of Mercurago by Professor Moro, many additional
objects from this locality have come to light, some of which have
been noticed and figured by Gastaldi in his numerous articles on the
antiquities of Lombardy. The peat is now exhausted, but from these
notices, together with an inspection of the relics still preserved in
the Turin Museum, we can have a tolerably correct notion of this the
first discovered lake-dwelling in Italy. (B. 43, 52, 91, 168, and 294.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 52.=--Plan and Section of portion of TORBIERA DI
MERCURAGO, showing distribution of piles.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 53.=--Cover of Earthenware Vessel (⅓).]

The peat basin of Mercurago is of an oblong shape, and the antiquities
and piles were in a circumscribed place at its northern end, about
130 feet from the bank. Here in a space of 30 feet square, cleared
for antiquarian purposes, were counted 22 piles bound together with
cross timbers (=Fig. 52=). The superficial deposit of peat was about 6
feet in thickness, and the tops of the piles reached half-way upwards,
while their lower ends penetrated from 3 to 4 feet into the lake mud
below. Between this mud and the superincumbent peat there was a bed
of fern, and lying immediately over it were three earthen dishes in
good preservation, one of which appears to be a lid or cover for
another dish (=Fig. 53=), together with a large quantity of the broken
fragments of others, a bronze pin (=Fig. 60=, No. 6), a scraper 4¾
inches long (No. 7), several arrow-heads (=Fig. 54=), and quite a
litter of flint flakes, some shells of hazel-nuts, and stones of the
cornel cherry, etc.

[Illustration: =Fig. 54.=--Flint Arrow-heads (⅔).]

The pottery was made of a blackish paste mixed with coarse grains of
sand or quartz, and a few dishes were ornamented with patterns of
zig-zag scratches separated by parallel lines (=Fig. 60=, No. 13).
Some had handles, and others small ears or perforated knobs, two of
which had portions of string still attached to them (=Figs. 55= and
=56=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 55.=--An Earthenware Vessel, with portions of
string attached to handles (½).]

Among other relics from this station were:--Two daggers of bronze,
one still retaining a couple of rivets for fixing the handle (=Fig.
60=, No. 1); two bronze pins (Nos. 2 and 4); a wooden anchor 3¼ feet
long, terminating at one end with two hooks and at the other with
a hole as if for attaching a rope; a canoe 6 feet long, 3¼ feet
wide, and about a foot in depth (=Fig. 57=); near the canoe lay a
bronze drill (=Fig. 60=, No. 5); and a neat spindle-whorl of baked
clay 1½ inch in diameter (No. 22). Among the more recent finds are
numerous flint arrow-heads and scrapers (No. 8); a spindle-whorl of
soapstone, _pietra ollare_ (No. 16); a wooden dish and perforated
floats for nets; earthenware dishes of great variety (No. 12); and 16
conical beads of vitreous paste, which, when strung together, formed a
handsome necklace (No. 9); and a large cake of burnt clay perforated
in the middle (No. 18).

[Illustration: =Fig. 56.=--Earthenware Vessel (½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 57.=--Portion of Canoe.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 58.=--Wooden Wheel.]

But the most remarkable objects were two wooden wheels. One (=Fig.
58=) was made of three boards kept together with two crossbars
dovetailed into the boards, and in the centre was a round hole having
on each side of it a semilunar space. This wheel, which was not quite
circular, had an average diameter of 2 feet. The other wheel (=Fig.
59=) was differently constructed. It had six spokes: two of them were
made of the same piece of wood as the nave, and their extremities
formed part of the rim; the other four, two on each side, connected
the fellies with the central piece. The fellies were neatly mortised
together and the workmanship was very good. These wheels were so far
decayed that they could not be preserved, but casts of them were
taken, which may now be seen in the Museum at Turin.

[Illustration: =Fig. 59.=--Wooden Wheel.]


TORBIERA DI BORGO-TICINO, ETC.

Analogous remains to those in Mercurago have been found in several
other localities, especially in the districts called Pennino near
Borgo-Ticino, and the moor of Gagnano; but the objects were dispersed
or thrown away. A stone celt from this place is figured by Gastaldi
(=Fig. 60=, No. 19).

In the neighbouring moor of Conturabia a group of piles was observed
in the centre of the bog which appears to have belonged to a palafitte
of a later date, as some of the piles were said to have been tipped
with iron. Gastaldi procured one of these piles, and although this
particular one had no iron on it he was convinced that it had been
sharpened by instruments similar to those in use at the present day.
(B. 52.)


TORBIERA DI SAN MARTINO (SAN GIOVANNI DEL BOSCO).

This morainic basin is situated in the vicinity of Ivrea, immediately
to the south of the village of Giovanni, and it also has yielded, from
time to time, antiquities which leave no doubt that it was a home of
the lake-dwellers. The bog is of an oval shape, about 1¼ mile in
length, and half this in breadth, and is beautifully situated amidst
groves of chestnut and walnut trees interspersed through rich meadows
and fields. On its margin are found the trunks of trees, from 1 to 2
feet in diameter, still attached to their roots and lying just as they
had fallen with their points directed to the centre of the bog. These
trees are generally pine, oak, hazel, alder, etc.

Below the ordinary peat there is a layer of blackish mud which, on
being dried, is combustible, and underneath it lie the stratified
layers of ancient lake silt, consisting of a whitish clayey substance.
In the blackish intermediate layer there was found, in September,
1864, a canoe 8 feet 4 inches long, 1 foot 9½ inches broad, and 8
inches deep. (A model of this canoe is now in the Museum at Turin.)
A few years later (1868) another canoe was found in this turbary, of
slightly larger dimensions, having two paddles in it (=Fig. 60=, No.
17). The following objects are, among others, described and figured by
Gastaldi as coming from the same place, viz.:--Specimens of pottery
(Nos. 14 and 23), one of which (No. 23) is a lid of a vessel precisely
similar to the one from Mercurago (=Fig. 53=); flint and stone
implements (=Fig. 60=, No. 20); wooden net-floats (No. 21); two bronze
pins (Nos. 10 and 11); and a remarkable bronze pendant (No. 15),
supposed, however, to be of Etruscan or Roman origin, and of later
date than the other remains. (B. 168 and 294.)

Other turbaries in the western districts of the Po that have yielded
prehistoric remains, but with which there were no piles or other
indications of lake-dwellings, are:--

TORB. DI TORRE BAIRO.--Fragments of vessels made on the wheel. In
another small bog a quern-stone was found which is supposed to be of
Roman times.

TORB. DI MONGENET.--A bronze paalstab. (B. 294, tav. xiii. 4.)

TORB. DI BOLENGO.--A bronze arrow-point. (_Ibid._, tav. xiii. 9.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 60.=--MERCURAGO (1 to 9, 12, 13, 18, and 22),
BORGO-TICINO (19), and SAN MARTINO. Nos. 12, 14, 18, 21, and 23 = ¼,
13 = ⅙, 17 = 1/24 (the paddles 1/20), and the rest = ½ real size.]

TORB. DI TRANA.--A sword of bronze 27 inches long (B. 294, Pl. xi.),
and a celt of the flat type, (B. 168, Pl. viii.)

LAGO DI PIVERONE.--A bronze sword. (B. 168, Pl. viii.)

TORB. DI OLEGGIO-CASTELLO.--A bronze sword and a socketed spear-head.
(_Ibid._)


LAGOZZA.

Lagozza is the name given to a small natural "bacino torbosa" situated
in an undulating plateau of morainic _débris_, about 4 miles from
Gallarate in the province of Milan. It is roughly oval in shape and
covers a superficial area of 10 or 12 acres. Till recently this basin
was a peaty bog, passable in summer, with certain precautions, to
"Cacciatori;" but in former times, as its name implies, it was a
stagnant lake. In 1875 the proprietor, Count Cornaggio, an ardent and
skilful agriculturist, determined to remove the peat altogether, and,
for this purpose, commenced operations by cutting a central canal to
carry off the water. While the workmen were thus engaged they began to
find near the middle of the bog bits of pottery, charcoal, and rotten
piles, which, on skilled attention being directed to them, turned
out to be undoubted indications of a prehistoric lake-dwelling. The
process of clearing out the peat was therefore watched with great
interest by local antiquaries, as the operation would involve a more
thorough investigation of the antiquities imbedded in the peat than
any researches that were likely to be undertaken solely from the
scientific point of view. It was not till the spring of 1880 that
the main portion of the palafitte was reached by the peat-cutters,
and then various antiquarian objects were met with. The turf is now
entirely removed, and the relics collected are deposited partly in the
Museo Civico in Milan, and partly in the Museo Archeologico at Como.

The pile-dwelling occupied a rectangular space, near the centre of
the _bacino_, about 80 yards long from north to south and 30 to 40
yards broad. The turf here varied in thickness from 1 to 2 yards,
according to the state of moisture; below which there was a muddy
stratum containing the roots of water plants (_fango con radice_),
among which the tops of the piles appeared. This layer was 16 inches
thick, and immediately below it was the _strato archeologico_, which
varied in thickness from 2 to 8 inches, and contained the usual
_débris_ of human occupancy embedded in a matrix of black peat mud and
earth. Below this again was a stratum of black earth, mixed with the
whitish clay or marl of the ancient lake bottom, in which the points
of the piles were firmly fixed. The piles were pointed at the base and
irregularly fixed, 4 or 5 to the square yard, and varied in length
from 3½ to 5 feet, with a diameter of 4 to 8 inches. Many prepared
beams either of round or split stems, some over 20 feet in length, lay
buried in the peat, as if they had fallen from a platform. Regazzoni
draws attention to some short beams having a square-cut hole at each
end. One of these beams measured 24½ inches long, 4¾ broad, and 3½
thick, and the holes were 2¾ by 1½ inches. The top of a tree whose
branches were neatly chopped off at the distance of 6 or 7 inches from
the stem was supposed to have been used as a ladder.

Castelfranco thinks the points of the piles were fashioned by some
sharp-cutting instrument of metal, as some of the cuts were 11
inches long, and such as no stone weapon could have produced ("non
credo che una scure di pietra sia mai stata capace di tanto"). This
observation is very significant in face of the fact that there is no
object of metal among the relics from Lagozza, with the exception of a
fibula (=Fig. 61=, No. 18), found in the lower part of the turf and,
therefore, outside the well-defined relic-bed. This fibula belongs
to the early Iron Age, and it is doubtful whether it belonged to the
inhabitants of the palafitte. The same author also states that where
charcoal and partially burnt wood were in greater abundance there
also the relics were more numerous, and hence he concludes that the
settlement came to an end by a conflagration ("il risultato di un
incendio generale o di parecchi parziali").

Among the industrial remains collected from Lagozza pottery takes the
chief place. The quality is of two kinds, coarse and fine, the latter
having a smooth black appearance and without any admixture of coarse
sand. The vessels, of which a considerable number are whole or nearly
so, consist of cups, bowls, plates, vases, spoons, etc. They are
generally without handles, having, instead, perforated knobs, as may
be seen from the accompanying illustrations (=Fig. 62=, Nos. 2, 6, 7,
9, and 15). The plates are sometimes ornamented with panels containing
impressions of circles, dots, and lines (Nos. 3, 10, and 13). Some of
the larger dishes have conical protuberances or finger-marks round the
margin (Nos. 1 and 4).

The spindle-whorls, about 40 of which are in the Museum at Como, are
somewhat peculiar, being flat circular cakes of burnt clay with a hole
in the centre, and often ornamented with lines or rows of elliptical
impressions (=Fig. 61=, Nos. 12 to 17).

There are some clay weights of the usual conical shape, and others
kidney-shaped with a perforation at each end (=Fig. 62=, No. 14). In
some of these weights bits of straw and grains of barley and wheat
have been detected.

There is not a single article made of bone or horn, nor any trace of
fishing or hunting gear, with the exception of one or two arrow-heads
(=Fig. 61=, Nos. 5 and 6).

[Illustration: =Fig. 61.=--LAGOZZA. All ½ real size.]

Stone celts are scarce, only about 30 in all, and none perforated (No.
10). One small implement is in the form of a double-edged axe, and
adapted for cutting at both ends (No. 8).

Flint flakes or knives (Nos. 1 to 4) are numerous, but cores and
chips are less frequent. Arrow-points are extremely few--only three
have I seen in the Museum at Como, but their authenticity seems to
be questioned by Castelfranco, who thinks they were not actually
from the relic-bed in the palafitte. Among the usual stone objects,
such as hammers, rubbers, etc., are to be noticed a number of white
quartz pebbles and eight or nine small polished stones with scratched
markings on them (=Fig. 62=, Nos. 11 and 12).

[Illustration: =Fig. 62.=--LAGOZZA. All ⅓ real size.]

A wooden comb (=Fig. 61=, No. 11), with teeth at one side, is, I
believe, the only specimen from any of the lake-dwellings in Italy.

Ornaments or charms are represented by one small pendant of green
steatite perforated for suspension (No. 7).

As evidence that the inhabitants were in the habit of spinning and
weaving, there are, besides the spindle-whorls and clay weights, bits
of thread and cord, and one small fragment of coarsely-made linen
tissue (No. 9). According to Professor Sordelli, this was made from
wild flax (_Linum angustifolium_), of which he found the seeds and
fibres in abundance, but no trace of the cultivated species. On the
other hand, there were two kinds of wheat and the six-eared barley.
Among the food-remains were the wild apple, acorns, hazel-nuts, stones
of the cornel cherry, poppy-seeds, etc.

But the most remarkable feature of Lagozza is, that no animal bones of
any description were found--not a tooth, or horn, or bone of any kind.
Neither were there any warlike weapons, with the exception of the few
questionable arrow-points. Castelfranco therefore suggests that the
inhabitants of Lagozza might have been vegetarians. (B. 354, 359b,
372d´, 387, 409, 452, 456, and 459c.)


LAKE GARDA.

In 1851, while the harbour of Peschiera was being deepened, numerous
bronze implements, associated with piles deeply buried in the bed
of the lake, were found at a particular spot near the north mole of
the fortress; but no special attention was paid to them. The bronze
objects were laid aside by the workmen, and it is said that a quantity
of them, weighing some 15 or 20 pounds, was sold as old metal. Of this
find a very few were sent to the K. K. Antiken Cabinet in Vienna. In
1860 further deepening of the harbour became necessary, and again
similar objects were found in the dredged-up stuff. These operations
were conducted under the supervision of M. Lorenz and Col. von Silber,
who, in the interests of archæology, collected and preserved the
bronze objects. Subsequently, on its being suggested that this was a
palafitte like those recently discovered in the Swiss lakes, Col. von
Silber forwarded an assortment of the relics to Dr. Keller at Zürich,
with the following explanatory notice of the circumstances in which
they were found:--

"In deepening the entrance of the harbour at Peschiera for the
newly-built gunboat, which was done by means of a mud-machine (called
a 'paternoster') to a depth of 7 or 8 feet below the usual level of
the water, the workmen found amongst the mud and sand brought up by
the machine a great number of bronze implements. These were carefully
preserved, for the sake of archæology, by Mr. Lorenz, the marine
engineer, now residing at Pola, and myself. I was so uninitiated in
this science, that when I found that the greater part of the objects
had been taken up from a space of a very few square fathoms, I had
the notion that a ship, laden with bronze, had been wrecked here, and
it was not till a conversation which I had with Dr. Freudenberg, of
Bonn, that I was led to believe that a lake-dwelling probably existed
on this spot. This idea was corroborated by the fact that just in this
place the working of the mud-machine was very much impeded by a number
of burnt piles which were quite covered with the mud. Unfortunately,
I fancied at first that these piles came from the fishermen's huts,
which abound in this neighbourhood at the present day, so that I paid
no attention to their position or arrangement. The piles which were
drawn up were, on an average, 4 or 5 feet long, quite hidden under the
sand, and burnt to such a degree that it is quite impossible for me to
say with certainty what kinds of wood they were made of. I imagine,
however, that the wood was chiefly that of the stone oak (_Quercus
ilex_). The piles were 4 or 5 inches in diameter.

"Besides the bronze implements one of stone was found, which I believe
to be a sling-stone. Lately, when reading the reports of the Swiss
lake-dwellings, I remember the occurrence of a great number of pieces
of burnt clay found in the mud. These pieces were of a blackish
colour, remarkably thick, and without any definite form. I do not
doubt that they have been fragments of the clay covering the huts of
the lake-dwellings." (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 364.)

These discoveries induced the eminent archæologist, Dr. E. Freiherr
von Sacken, to visit Peschiera for the purpose of investigating into
the reported Pfahlbau. In addition to his own special researches he
had correct details of the results already obtained from Captain von
Kostersitz, who was present, and carefully watched the excavations
during the years 1860-1-2, and from these he drew up an admirable
report, published in 1864 (B. 75), which clearly proved that there was
here a true pile-dwelling of the Bronze Age.

In this report the following sectional description of the sedimentary
strata is given:--

(1) In a depth of about 5 feet of water there was first a sandy layer
from 2½ to 3 feet thick in which no relics were found.

(2) Beneath this layer of sand was the relic-bed, from 2 to 3½ feet
thick, composed of a mossy deposit containing the remains of plants,
organic _débris_, the industrial objects already referred to, and the
tops of numerous piles.

(3) Underlying the relic-bed was a thick bed of stiff loam and sand,
into which the piles deeply penetrated. These piles were generally of
pine and oak, the former predominating in the proportion of two to one.

The dimensions of the lake-dwelling were not accurately ascertained,
but the area covered by the dredging operations exceeded 10,000 square
yards, and in most of this space piles were found. No stone implements
were found, with the exception of the polished discoidal stone sent to
Dr. Keller; but the number of bronze objects amounted to 250, most of
which were sent to Vienna.

Professor Franz Unger made a careful study of the organic remains,
and amongst the various fruits, plants, and wood identified by him
the most interesting are rye (_Secale cereale_) and the vine (_Vitis
vinifera_). The former has not yet been found in any of the terremare
or lake-dwellings of North Italy.

The osseous remains represented the ordinary domestic animals--dog,
sheep, goat, ox, horse, and pig--as well as the stag, roe, wild boar,
etc.

Besides the bronze objects there were fragments of pottery and one or
two Roman coins--one of Trajan and one of Domitian.

Meantime archæologists were on the look out for palafittes in other
parts of the lake. It appears that as early as 1861 Cav. Martinati
detected piles at a place called Rocca di Garda, near Bardolino, on
the eastern shore of the lake, which he considered to be the remains
of a pile-dwelling. Dr. Alberti also discovered similar evidence in
two localities farther south, Il Bor and Porto di Pacengo, which
he described in a letter to Martinati in 1864. (B. 77 and 355.)
This stimulated the Accad. d'Agricoltura, Arti, e Commercio di
Verona to appoint a Commission to investigate the matter; but their
labours were soon afterwards discontinued owing to the political
disturbances of 1866, and it was not till ten years later that these
proposed archæological researches were resumed and the Commission
re-constituted. Although on this occasion no bronze objects were
found, it cannot be said that the explorations were altogether devoid
of interest, as the existence of the reported palafittes was not only
confirmed, but a considerable quantity of the osseous remains of the
ordinary domestic animals, fragments of pottery (including handles
known as _anse lunate_), and a wooden spoon were collected. But the
Commission soon abandoned the work as profitless. Then it was that Mr.
Alberto Cavazzocca, of Verona, commenced to search Il Bor on his own
account, and succeeded in a couple of seasons in securing from it a
small collection of antiquities, including objects of stone and bronze.

On the western and more sheltered shores of Lake Garda Professor
Stoppani, of Milan, found traces of several stations, particularly in
the Gulf San Felice di Scovolo, three of which were situated close
to its northern shore, and two close to the Isola Lecchi on the
landward side of the island. As few relics were found--only a few
flint objects--and as the piles in all these stations were near the
shore and in comparatively shallow water, Stoppani concluded they
belonged to the Stone Age. These explorations were a sequence to the
first researches in Lake Varese, so auspiciously initiated by Desor
and Mortillet, and which Stoppani followed up by making an exploratory
tour of the lakes of North Italy. The observations of Stoppani,
however, have not been confirmed by any subsequent researches,
though this particular locality is pre-eminently the most fitted for
lake-dwellings in the whole of this extensive sheet of water. (B. 87.)

In 1879, under the skilful management of Cav. Stefano de Stefani (R.
Ispettore degli Scavi, Verona), dredging operations were resumed at
the old place in the harbour of Peschiera, which considerably added to
the number of relics from this station.

In the spring of the following year De Stefani transferred his
operations to an entirely new locality in the river Mincio, below the
railway bridge, where the stream divides into a number of separate
channels. Among the islands thus formed he had reason to suspect
the existence of pile-dwellings, and in this expectation he was not
disappointed, as he succeeded in finding not only the submerged piles
and transverse beams, but also a large number of flint, and some
bronze objects, and even a few Roman remains.

As both these investigations were undertaken by orders from the
Minister of Public Instruction and at the expense of Government
the relics were sent to enrich the prehistoric department of the
Kircherian Museum at Rome.

The people of Verona were greatly chagrined to find that these
successive discoveries, which had now attained much celebrity in
archæological circles, were constantly slipping out of their hands,
and that in their own local museum there was scarcely a single article
illustrative of the culture and social condition of these early
lake-dwellers. To rectify this state of matters and make some amends
for their past neglect the Academical Commission was induced to order
a fresh investigation under De Stefani, whose recent success was
characterised as "risultati splendidissimi." Again the excavations of
De Stefani were crowned with great success. In 1881 his attentions
were directed to Peschiera, which yielded him a considerable number
of articles, being the fourth important supply since its discovery
in 1851. In 1883 the station in the Mincio was subjected to further
explorations, and De Stefani's labours were rewarded by a rich
harvest of relics, mostly of the Stone Age, which included many flint
implements, as knives, hatchets, saws, arrow-points, etc.

The relics collected on both these occasions are now deposited in
the Museo Civico at Verona, and at last this town shares with Rome,
Vienna, and Zürich, the honour of possessing a collection of these
remarkable remains. (B. 342, 358, 370, 424, and "Notizie degli Scavi,
1880 and 1884.")

From these general remarks it will be seen that there are only three
lake-dwellings in Lake Garda that have yielded remains sufficiently
comprehensive in quantity and variety to enable us to form some idea
of the period to which they belonged, viz. the station close to the
fortress of Peschiera, that in the Mincio, and that known as Il Bor on
the south-east shore of the lake.

PESCHIERA.--Since the report of Baron v. Sacken the various
researches conducted here have not thrown additional light on the
general condition and distribution of the piles. De Stefani bears
testimony to the accuracy of the facts as to the archæological stratum
in which the relics were found, and observes that the overlying bed of
sand and gravel sometimes attained a depth of over 4 feet. (B. 424,
p. 9.) In it were found decomposed organic matter, bits of charcoal,
fragments of pottery, and bronze objects. In the previous discoveries
only one stone implement was recorded, so that the station was
considered to be exclusively of the Bronze Age. Nor was its character
in this respect much altered by the recent researches, as only a few
implements of stone were found, viz. two knives or scrapers, one
arrow-point and a few chips of flint, a round sling-stone of granite,
and another of an oval form with marks of having been used. Nothing of
importance was added as regards its _flora_ and _fauna_. De Stefani
describes a curious object like a biscuit, picked out of the dredged
stuff, which he considered might have been a cake of bread. It was
made of viscous matter and measured 4 inches in diameter and ¾ of an
inch thick, and contained bruised cereals; but, as he was examining
it, it slipped through his fingers and again fell into the water. (B.
424, p. 10.)

This settlement appears to have flourished exclusively in the Bronze
Age, as may be seen from a glance at the accompanying illustrations
(=Figs. 63=, =64=, and =65=).

_Pottery._--The fragments of earthenware indicate a great variety of
vessels made of two kinds of paste--a coarse and a fine quality. Of
the latter, Nos. 26 to 30, =Fig. 65=, are sufficient to show that the
ceramic art of the lake-dwellers was identical at one period of their
existence with that of the terramaricoli in which the _anse lunate_
(No. 26) are so characteristic.

_Bronze._--Weapons, implements, and ornaments of this material are
extremely numerous, numbering upwards of 300 objects. Among the
weapons we find socketed lance-heads (=Fig. 64=, No. 10), daggers (No.
1 to 7), single-edged knives (No. 11), and a remarkable series of
double-edged dagger-knives with riveted tangs or sword-like handles
(=Fig. 65=, Nos. 10, and 12 to 14).

The implements include three kinds of hatchets (=Fig. 63=, No.
30; =Fig. 64=, No. 32, and =Fig. 65=, No. 11), chisels and gouges
(=Fig. 63=, No. 36), sickles (No. 33), various forms of razors with
handle and double cutting edges (Nos. 1 to 5), needles (No. 7), and
fish-prongs and hooks (=Fig. 64=, Nos. 18 to 21, 30 and 31).

[Illustration: =Fig. 63.=--PESCHIERA. All ½ real size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 64.=--PESCHIERA. No. 32 = ¼, and all the rest =
½ real size.]

The ornamental objects are hair-pins, combs, pendants, bracelets,
fibulæ, and a torque. Hair-pins are in great numbers and of extreme
elegance both in form and ornamentation (profusely illustrated in
=Figs. 63=, =64=, and =65=); among them are some with amber heads
(=Fig. 63=, Nos. 9 and 10); some have flat, others disc-shaped, heads
(Nos. 17, 18, and 25); especially interesting are those with heads
made of various combinations of spirals (Nos. 21 to 27), as being
identical with the hair-pins of the terremare. Combs are of bone (No.
29) as well as of bronze (No. 28). Pendants of curious and varied
forms are also abundant (=Fig. 64=, Nos. 27 to 29), among which one
(=Fig. 63=, No. 34) is of lead. The small ornamental cross represented
by No. 26, =Fig. 64=, is of tin. The fibulæ are also of diversified
forms, as may be seen from the illustrations (=Fig. 64=, Nos. 8, and
22 to 25). The bracelets are of two kinds, made of thin bands (=Fig.
63=, Nos. 31 and 32), one closed with a hook and the other open. Only
one torque (No. 19) has been found at Peschiera, and in form it is
similar to the few recorded from the Swiss lake-dwellings (=Fig. 10=,
No. 3).

Finally there are a few spirals, bits of wire, and one special object
of unknown use (=Fig. 64=, No. 17).

The relationship which these objects have to analogous remains
in foreign countries is most exhaustively and ably dealt with by
Professor Pigorini. (B. 310.)

MINCIO.--As the surplus water of Lake Garda, under the name Mincio,
passes beyond the railway-bridge, it divides into two larger channels
and some smaller ones, forming a series of acutely-pointed islands.
The bed is here irregular, and at various points the tops of piles
were seen in groups projecting from the bed of the river. The first
explorations were in the larger channel to the left. Here De Stefani
found several objects of antiquity, among which the following are the
principal (B. 358):--

_Bronze._--The corroded blade of a knife-dagger (double-edged),
portion of a dagger-blade with a mid-rib, portion of another with deep
longitudinal grooves, portion of a small disc and portion of a spiral.

_Flint._--Two rectangularly-shaped hatchets, a saw (curved), a
javelin, an arrow-point, a lance-head, small knives, and a large
quantity of chips, cores, and crude flints.

_Pottery._--Two spindle-whorls, a quantity of handles and fragments of
dishes.

[Illustration: =Fig. 65.=--PESCHIERA (10 to 14, 21, 26 to 29, and
31.), IL MINCIO (1 to 9, 17 to 19, 22, 23, 25, and 30), and IL BOR
(15, 16, 20, and 24). All ½ real size.]

_Staghorn._--A portion converted into the form of a hatchet, a
hair-pin, and several other worked bits.

_Bones, etc._--A large quantity of teeth and bones of the ordinary
domestic animals.

At another spot, 200 yards lower down in the central canal, amidst a
group of piles he collected:--

_Bronze._--A knife (=Fig. 65=, No. 17), two small dagger-blades with
rivet-holes, the point of a sickle, two bits of the cutting-ends of
axes (paalstabs), two hair-pins 10 inches long and three smaller ones,
a disc-shaped head of a pin, portions of a fibula, together with
fragments of various other undetermined objects. One interesting relic
is supposed to be the knob of a handle (No. 25).

_Stone._--One portion of a polished stone of basalt (No. 19).

_Flint._--The implements of this material were here in great abundance
(Nos. 1 to 9). Eighteen hatchets, mostly of a rectangular form (No.
9); 60 saws (Nos. 5 and 6); 49 arrow-points (Nos. 1 to 4), of which
one (No. 4) has four barbs and another is chisel-shaped (No. 8); 13
lance-heads (No. 7), etc.

_Amber._--Two beads, one reddish and the other yellow.

_Pottery._--Various fragments, especially handles of vessels of
different forms--_cornuta_, _lunata_, _lagotis_, _bitubercolata_,
etc. Some of the dishes were of fine black ware, among which I may
note a spoon (No. 30), but generally the coarser kinds predominated.
Spindle-whorls were also numerous and varied in form, not less than 31
being collected. There were also two large net weights, one round and
the other ring-shaped.

_Staghorn._--Several worked bits: one was a portion of an ornamented
comb and another part of a handle of some sort.

_Money._--Four coins, much corroded, supposed by De Stefani to be of
the second half of the third century.

In 1883 De Stefani resumed his researches in the same place. (B.
424.) On this occasion the bronze objects were limited to one or two
insignificant fragments; but, on the other hand, the flint implements
increased--knives, saws, javelins, lance-heads and arrow-heads being
in abundance. Among the other things I may mention two small stone
discs perforated, probably used as spindle-whorls; a small bit of
green glass, together with portions of worked and unworked horn, bone,
etc.

The ornamental blade (=Fig. 65=, No. 18), a neat spiral-headed pin
(No. 22), and a stud (No. 23), all of bronze, are in the collection of
Dr. Rambotti, and said to be from the station in the Mincio.

IL BOR.--Previous to the investigations of Il Bor by Cavazzocca (B.
355), Dr. Alberti had estimated the number of heads of piles visible
on this station at 500, but this number the former considers rather
high. The station stretched parallel to the shore, from which its site
is now distant about a hundred yards; but it is supposed that the
present level of the water stands higher than it was in the days of
the lake-dwellers. One reason for this opinion is that a triple row of
piles which runs shorewards, and is considered to be the remains of a
gangway, was found to terminate suddenly about half-way. The _strato
archeologico_ lies under a thin covering of sand and gravel, which
Cavazzocca explains to be the débris of the disintegrated morainic
coast carried outwards by the boisterous action of the waves.

The principal relics collected by Cavazzocca are as follows, most of
which are illustrated in his monograph:--

_Bronze._--Four knife daggers similar to those from Peschiera; three
pin-heads, "_capocchie di aghi crinali_" (=Fig. 65=, No. 24), like
those from the terremare; one axe-head with wings, like No. 30,
=Fig. 63=; one conical button; two chisels (=Fig. 65=, No. 15);
four hair-pins; two fragments of spiral tubes (No. 20), and six
undetermined objects.

_Pottery_ showed diverse forms, including _anse lunate_, and fragments
of vessels, spindle-whorls, etc.

_Stone._--Three fragments of stone moulds, several whetstones, and an
arrow, knife, and several chips of flint.

An arrow-point of bronze (No. 16) and a couple of small daggers from
Il Bor are in the Museum of Rome.


LAKE FIMON. (B. 83, 110, 132, and 295.)

About four miles to the south of Vicenza, at the southernmost point
of an irregularly-shaped valley of rich meadow-land, lies the small
lake of Fimon. At the present time it is hardly a couple of miles in
circumference, but before the Debba Canal, which carries its surplus
water to the river Bacchiglione, was cut, it is known to have been
considerably larger, and in prehistoric times it is supposed to have
covered the larger part of the valley. In a meadow called Pascalone,
near its north end, and close to where the Debba Canal begins, Mr.
Lioy detected the tops of piles jutting out of the grass, which he
at once concluded to be the remains of a lake-dwelling--a supposition
which was completely verified by extensive excavations. The surface
of the meadow where these piles were visible was less than 2 feet
above the level of the lake, and on making excavations over a selected
portion the following facts were ascertained:--

_Piles._--The piles were from 8 to 12 inches in diameter, singly
and irregularly placed, but sometimes in groups; some were hard and
black (oak), and others soft, but they bore no traces of any cutting
implements. In some instances they were surrounded with heaps of
stones. They penetrated deeply, and one which was pulled up measured
18 feet in length. No traces of a gangway stretching to the shore
could be discovered.

_Relic-bed._--Below a thin covering of vegetable-mould there was
a peaty bed about 16 inches thick, and underneath this, lake-marl
containing various kinds of fresh-water shells to the extent of 3
feet 4 inches. To this succeeded the _strato archeologico_ with its
various contents--decomposed organic matter, broken bones, fragments
of pottery, flint implements and other worked stones, bits of straw,
reeds, charcoal, clay plaster, burnt faggots, etc. This bed was about
12 inches thick, and its matrix was of a yellowish-black colour,
which, when cut into, had a doughy consistency and emitted a strong
sulphurous smell.

_Relics._--The rough stone implements were made out of the limestone
of the neighbouring hills, very seldom of sandstone, but more
frequently of flint from the spurs of the Alps. These flints were in
considerable numbers in the form of chips, nuclei, and unfinished
implements, very few of which were well formed; a few rudely-formed
arrow-points, lance-heads, knives, and saws or scrapers; pebbles of
limestone, probably hammer-stones; stone discs, 2 to 4 inches in
diameter (only one was perforated); also numerous sling-stones made of
sandstone, basalt, and serpentine; one fragment of granite, flattened
and polished on all the four sides, but only one small polished stone
celt. Many of the bones were worked, and there were tynes of staghorn,
sharpened at the top and perforated at the base; also pointers,
spear-heads, spatulæ, and splinters of all kinds.

The fragments of pottery were so plentiful that a handful of mud could
not be taken up without finding some pieces in it. Amongst some
thousands of fragments about 50 vessels in a more or less perfect
condition were picked out. They are all of a dark colour, with handles
attached, generally below the rim, and flat bases. Some of them have
everted lips, and many are ornamented with knobs, depressions, or
raised ridges (circular, wavy, or confluent). Some of the handles
approach the form known as _anse lunate_, others terminate in a round
button (_ansa mono-appendiculata_). One small bowl had two handles.
The paste was of two qualities: one fine, and the other mixed with
coarse bits of gravel, quartz, and carbonate of lime.

Numerous specimens of spindle-whorls. They are flat circular cakes of
clay, like small wheels, perforated and unornamented.

_Organic Remains._--Fruit of the water-chestnut (_Trapa natans_),
kernels of cherries, hazel-nuts, acorns, bramble seeds, etc.

The bones of the stag and wild boar seem to predominate among those of
the sheep, ox, roe, badger, etc.; also a large quantity of the broken
carapaces of a small fresh-water turtle (_Emys lutaria_).

Some five or six years later (1871) Mr. Lioy made further excavations
near the same place, and came upon a relic-bed 8 inches in thickness
and only 16 inches below the surface, which he considered to be the
remains of a pile-dwelling of a later age. In this relic-bed he found
a bronze celt (=Fig. 66=, No. 1) and some flints of a grey-reddish
or yellowish colour (different from the blue variety in the earlier
dwelling), but no stone implements and no arrow-points. Pottery was
not abundant, but it was made of a finer quality and the ornamentation
shows a higher style of art. Mr. Lioy also observes that the bones of
the domestic animals, such as sheep and oxen, are now in excess of
those of wild animals.

As a final report of the _abitazioni lacustri_ of Lake Fimon (B.
295) Mr. Lioy has published a lengthy monograph with numerous plates
of illustrations. The work, however, deals more with extraneous and
general considerations than specific facts or details bearing on the
remains of the palafittes in this lake. I consider the station at
Polada, with its remarkable relics, far more typical of the Stone Age
lake-dwellings, and I have accordingly selected it as a standard for
such remains in the eastern valley of the Po. Moreover, Mr. Lee (B.
119, 2nd ed.) has already presented to English readers an abridgement
of Mr. Lioy's work, with no less than nine plates of illustrations;
whereas a report of the discoveries at Polada has not yet been
published at all. I have, therefore, restricted my illustrations from
Lake Fimon to the few objects on =Fig. 66=, which include a bronze
flat celt, a large clay ring, and a few specimens of pottery.


ARQUÀ-PETRARCA.

In the neighbourhood of Padua remains of lake-dwellings presenting
in many respects similar characteristics to those in Lake Fimon,
have recently been discovered in the small lake of Arquà-Petrarca
situated in the Euganean hills. It was discovered in the autumn of
1885 by Professor Frederico Cordenons, who, with the aid of funds from
the Museums of Padua and Este, made excavations during this and the
following summer, the result of which he has just published. (B. 464.)
It appears that the lake, though now only covering some dozen acres,
was formerly of much greater extent and occupied the whole of the
present valley. In the slime of this ancient lake-basin, which is now
overlaid with a deposit of peat over 3 feet in thickness, the remains
of two stations were found, one on the eastern and the other on the
western margin of the present lake. These remains, which consist of
piles, portions of transverse beams, and a large assortment of the
industrial _débris_ of the inhabitants, are entirely confined to the
ancient mud deposit, nothing being found in the peat above it. Mr.
Cordenons does not give as minute a description of the relic-bed and
its surroundings as could be desired; but as only a fourth of the area
occupied by the piles has been excavated (1,000 square yards), the
present report may be only a first instalment of the researches.

Among the objects collected, the following will give a general idea
of its chronological position with respect to analogous remains in
the Po valley:--Several perforated stone axes, half of a perforated
hammer-axe of green serpentine beautifully polished, a large
hammer-stone, a beautiful flint saw four inches long ("un bellissimo
coltello-sega"), portion of a finely-worked laurel-leaf-shaped
lance-head of flint, a number of arrow-heads, lance-heads, saws,
knives, etc., of flint.

Objects of staghorn were not numerous, and only some perforated rings
of this material are recorded.

[Illustration: =Fig. 66.=--FIMON (1 to 8), and ARQUÀ-PETRARCA (9 to
12). All ⅓ real size except No. 2 = ⅙.]

The pottery is abundant, and with the description of it much of
Cordenons's monograph is taken up. The paste in the generality of the
vessels is mixed with sand and bits of mica, recognised to be the
_débris_ of the surrounding hills. Only one dish (=Fig. 66=, No. 11)
showed ornamentation of incised lines, but, on the other hand, raised
lines meeting in points, forming triangles, etc., were most common.
The handles were of various shapes and showed a complete series of the
progressive stages, from the single button-shaped top to the almost
perfect _ansa cornuta_.

No metal objects were found, and consequently Mr. Cordenons concludes
that the station belonged to the pure Stone Age, a conclusion which,
however, Pigorini disputes. (B. 466b.)

The pottery is very similar to that from the adjacent lake-dwellings
at Fimon, and by no means dissimilar to that from Polada.


POLADA.

About half-way between Desenzano sul Lago and the village of Lonato,
and a little to the south of the direct railway between Milan and
Venice, there is, in the midst of a series of morainic hillocks, a
small bowl-shaped hollow, scarcely 300 yards in diameter, which at one
time formed a stagnant lake called Polada. It appears that at some
former period, of which there is now no record, this pool had been
partially drained by means of a small tunnel which was pierced through
the morainic lip on its north side, and so carried off the water to a
lower valley. The result of this was to expose a considerable portion
of the lake-bottom, one part of which formed a tongue-like projection
or promontory attached to its eastern margin. This continued to be
the condition of Polada for many ages, and in course of time the
remaining portion of the lake became completely filled up with peat.
Some years ago the proprietors of this bog commenced to utilise its
contents as fuel, and, to facilitate this operation, the margin of the
crater-like cavity was pierced by a second tunnel at a lower level
than the former, so as to get rid of the water. It was then found that
the promontory of land, which since its original exposure had been
cultivated, had been only partially bared by the first drainage, as
on its inner side there was a thin covering of peat, which a little
farther on suddenly sank to a great depth. In the course of removing
this covering of peat from the tip of the promontory, and just on the
margin of the cultivated land, some rotten piles and other indications
of a prehistoric dwelling were discovered. Dr. Giovanni Rambotti,
President of the Liceo Ginnasio at Desenzano, recognised this to be
the remains of a lake-dwelling erected on piles, and so greatly did he
interest himself in the objects recovered and daily turning up that
he arranged with the workmen to preserve all the relics for him.
This discovery was made in 1872, and, as the operation of clearing
out the peat progressed during the following two or three years, the
settlement turned out to be very rich in industrial remains. Now that
the turf is entirely removed and all the relics kept together Dr.
Rambotti finds himself the possessor of one of the most valuable and
instructive collections of lake-dwelling remains in Italy.

From an inspection of the original outlet Dr. Rambotti calculates
that before the first tunnel was executed this tongue of land would
be covered by eight to ten feet of water, and he thinks that in
this depth of water the lake-dwellers must have erected their piles
and platform. That portion of the site might have been exposed and
destroyed when the first drainage was made, is probable; but at any
rate sufficient remained to be able to form some opinion as to its
size. When I visited the locality with Dr. Rambotti he gave me the
following dimensions, which he derived from a careful study of the
locality and disposition of the piles. Its form was that of an oblong
parallelogram, 65 yards long and about one-third of this distance
in breadth. Its longest diameter ran nearly east and west, and the
dwelling thus presented its short side to the nearest shore. Two rows
of piles, about two feet apart, stretched to the shore, a distance
of about 100 yards, and Dr. Rambotti justly concluded this to be the
remains of a gangway. A shallow canoe, 25 feet long and 30 inches
wide, having traces of fixtures for oars at three equidistant spots on
each side, was found near the site of the lake-dwelling. Portions of
a second canoe, apparently of smaller dimensions, were disinterred at
the land end of the gangway.

But the valuable feature of this lake-dwelling is the large and unique
assortment of industrial remains which it has furnished, all of which
are kept together at the private residence of Dr. Rambotti, where they
constitute a respectable museum.

_Pottery._--The larger vessels were made of coarse greyish clay, mixed
with rough sand or pebbles; but the smaller and more ornamental were
composed of a fine black homogeneous paste. Besides a large quantity
of fragments, there are in Rambotti's collection about 150 vessels,
more or less entire, showing a considerable variety of size and form,
according to the uses for which the vessels were intended. Some were
large wide-mouthed jars, with two, or sometimes four, handles. The
largest of this class measured 15 inches across the mouth and 9 inches
in depth. One flat dish was 12 inches in diameter and only 4 deep,
while another was flower-pot-shaped and measured 10 inches across at
the top, 5 ½ at the base, and 12 in depth. Another dish (=Fig. 68=,
No. 37) was perforated all over with small round holes, arranged in
upright and equidistant rows, of which there were in all thirty, each
row having eight holes. The measurements of this curious percolator
are 10½ inches across the mouth, 8 at the base, and 4½ in depth.
Some vessels, especially the larger vases, were ornamented with a line
of perforations or projecting knobs round the rim; others again had a
ridge marked here and there with a knob round its bulging part (=Fig.
67=, No. 6). Few were without handles. In one or two instances there
was a hollow protuberance, instead of a handle, sufficiently prominent
to be grasped, and the hollow part communicated with the interior
of the vessel. The handles were attached generally at the rim, but
often below it, and sometimes half-way down the side of the vessel.
The largest handle I noticed measured 6 inches from its two points of
attachment. Some of the handles were surmounted by a button-shaped
prominence (No. 10); others terminated in a bifurcation like a couple
of horns, which strongly suggests a rudimentary form of the _ansa
lunata_, so characteristic of the terremare (Nos. 13 and 14). Of the
finer kind of pottery there are a great variety of dishes, which may
be classed as cups, bowls, plates, jugs, etc., some of which were
ornamented with simple designs made with dots and lines (Nos. 9, 10,
and 11). One handle had the form of a cross punctured on it, having
one arm prolonged into a long stem running downwards, just like a
modern Christian cross.

About 140 spindle-whorls of terra-cotta, some of which are variously
ornamented (=Fig. 68=, Nos. 28, 29, and 36). A considerable number of
perforated clay weights, of which five are flat, with the hole in the
centre (=Fig. 67=, Nos. 19 and 20). The most novel objects were a few
oblong cakes of terra-cotta ornamented with repeating lines of small
circular depressions (=Fig. 68=, Nos. 22 to 24).

[Illustration: =Fig. 67.=--POLADA. All ⅓ real size.]

_Stone Objects._-A large sandstone polisher, together with a number
of smaller ones. About 40 hammer-stones of quartz, serpentine, etc.,
some having finger-depressions. A few perforated stones, used as
sinkers or hammers. Six round stones about the size of an egg, found
in the canoe. Of polished celts there were only six of the usual type
(=Fig. 67=, Nos. 15 and 16). One of the most remarkable features
of the collection is the number of arrow-points, which exceed 300,
presenting in this respect a remarkable contrast to Lagozza. As will
be seen from the illustrations (=Fig. 68=, Nos. 1 to 19) these arrow
and lance-heads are varied in form and exceedingly well made. Eight
are of a rhomboidal shape, and a similar number have only one barb
(No. 7). Three rectangular plates of polished stone, perforated at the
corners, were probably used to protect the wrist of the archer (Nos.
34 and 35). Flint saws to the extent of nearly 100, of which a few are
unique. One has slanting teeth as shown in No. 20, which represents
both sides of the flint. A few were still in their handles when found.
One is very remarkable (=Fig. 67=, No. 12) as being formed of four
separate flints fixed in a wooden casing by means of a groove and
asphalt. This casing or handle has a grasping portion at each end--in
short, it is a double-handed saw. The illustration represents this
implement lying flat, and the horn-like ending projects upwards at an
angle of about 40°, so that when placed in working position with the
flints downwards, the horn-like projection would be directed to the
left. Hence Dr. Rambotti thought the lake-dwellers were left-handed
men. There were two other wooden casings, precisely similar, but minus
the flints.

_Horn und Bone._--About 40 daggers and pointers of bone, of which 12
are made from split leg-bones and beautifully polished like those from
Laibach and other places. A number of small pointed objects of bone,
chisels, pins, etc. (=Fig. 68=, Nos. 25 to 27). Seven perforated axe
hammer-heads of staghorn (=Fig. 67=, No. 17), also similar to those
from Laibach.

_Bronze._--A bronze dagger (No. 1) with a neatly-worked bone handle
terminating in a button-shaped capsule. The blade was attached to a
semilunar capsule of thin bronze by rivets. Portions of worked bone
similar to the handle of this weapon were supposed to belong to other
analogous weapons. Three flat celts of the terramara type (Nos. 2 and
3).

_Ornaments._--Eight bone rings, one of which is ornamented with
small circles (=Fig. 68=, No. 33). Three perforated buttons or
spindle-whorls of marble (No. 30). Several other forms of buttons in
stone or marble (Nos. 21 and 32). Several perforated teeth of dog,
wolf, bear (No. 31), and wild boar; also one perforated shell.

[Illustration: =Fig. 68.=--POLADA. Nos. 37 and 38 = ⅙ and all the
rest = ½ real size.]

_Wood._--Several articles of wood are preserved, as handles of
implements, a portion of an oar, fragments of the casings for flint
saws. A stool with six legs cut out of the solid. These are now mostly
shrivelled up and scarcely recognisable.

_Osseous Remains._--Upper part of a human skull. Also numerous bones
of the following animals:--the urus and some other breeds of cattle,
horse, sheep, goat, dog, cat (one skull), wild boar, pig, stag, and
roe.

Dr. Rambotti thinks that there was satisfactory evidence to conclude
that the settlement had been destroyed by fire.

No report of this remarkable lake-dwelling has yet been published
in Italy, but the principal objects were exhibited at a Congress of
Art and Archæology held at Brescia in the autumn of 1875. On this
occasion no less than fourteen pages of the published catalogue of the
exhibition are devoted to the enumeration of Dr. Rambotti's collection
from Polada.


CASCINA, ETC.

The Torbiera di Cascina, situated between Castelnuovo and San Georgio,
in Salice, has from time to time yielded objects which, there can be
no doubt, belonged to ancient pile-dwellers. The station was first
recognised by Martinati (_Adige_, 1874, No. 23), who found flint
arrow-points, a laurel-leaf-shaped lance-head, some stone implements,
bits of staghorn, etc. In 1878 Pigorini gives a further account (B.
328d') of some of the objects since discovered, including 18 flint
pieces--arrow-points of various forms, including one of the so-called
rhomboidal type (_selce romboidale_), a magnificent lance-head, a fine
saw, and one small triangular chisel. In the Museo Kircheriano at Rome
there are also preserved a bronze axe of the flat type (=Fig. 51=, No.
9) and a curious knife of bronze (No. 12), similar to those from the
lake-dwelling at Peschiera, which were found in this place.

Martinati (B. 279, p. 179) also describes another small torbiera in
the vicinity of Lazise, in which three rows of piles were encountered,
and associated with them were fragments of black pottery. It was also
reported that in past years entire vessels of the same kind were found
in the locality.


TERREMARE.

Shortly after the middle of last century certain artificial deposits
of an earthy substance found scattered in the shape of large, flattish
mounds, over the provinces of Parma, Reggio, and Modena, became known
to agriculturists as possessing great fertilising power--a property
which they henceforth turned to advantage by using their contents as
manure. To such an extent has this practice been carried that many
of these deposits, notwithstanding their great extent, covering,
in most instances, many acres, have now entirely disappeared. This
substance looks like a mixture of clay, sand, ashes, etc., arranged
in differently-coloured strata--yellowish-brown, green or black--and
goes among the peasants under the name of _marna_ or _mèrne_; but in
scientific circles it is generally called terramara, more especially
since the meeting of the International Congress at Bologna. In the
course of these annual excavations various objects of antiquity were
noticed by the workmen, such as Roman coins and tiles; implements of
bone, horn, bronze, etc.; the bones of domestic and wild animals;
and even human bones, were occasionally turned up. But these popular
observations failed to lead to any scientific investigation, and when
these mysterious mounds happened to be noticed by the early writers
of this century each had a theory of his own to account for them.
Thus the celebrated naturalist Venturi, in his "Storia di Scandiano,"
published in 1822, assigns them partly to the Boii, a Celtic race who
here, according to him, cremated their dead warriors and ceremoniously
threw their weapons and animals taken in war into the burning pile;
and partly to the Romans, who subsequently inhabited the country, and
selected these heaps for their dwellings and burial-places. Others
supposed them to be the sacred or traditional cemeteries of successive
races, and hence their contents are called "terrecime-teriale"; and
it is a curious fact that many of these truncated mounds are to
this day crowned by a modern church or convent, around which the
Christians have been in the habit of burying their dead. Nor did the
opinion of Gastaldi, published in 1861 (B. 43), throw much light
on the matter. Seeing that the terremare were invariably situated
near running streams, he considered them heaps of the remains of
different, ages--Roman graves, cremations, and funeral feasts, which
had been washed down and re-arranged by floods. But these and similar
theories, based on the supposition that they were the abodes of the
dead, were not in harmony with the domestic character of the pottery
and implements turned up. The starting-point of a long series of
researches which have now cleared up the problem was the announcement
by Professor Strobel of Parma, in 1861 (B. 44), that the remains of a
palafitte, analogous to those found in lakes and marshes, were to be
seen below the true terramara deposits at Castione dei Marchesi.

This celebrated and best known of all these settlements is situated
about four miles north-west of Borgo San Donino, in the province of
Parma. It was discovered about seventy years ago, and continued to be
excavated solely for agricultural purposes till 1861, when Gastaldi's
publications directed attention to the prehistoric remains of North
Italy. Till then the numerous objects of human industry disinterred
by the workmen excited little or no curiosity. Things, however, were
very different after the northern wave of archæological inquiry, now
greatly quickened by the discovery of the Swiss lake-dwellings, had
reached the Parmensian antiquaries. Henceforth instructions went
forth from the proprietor, Sig. Ugolotti, that these objects were
to be carefully preserved, and now they constitute a special and
most interesting collection in the Archæological Museum at Parma.
On visiting Castione one sees a slight elevation rising about 10
feet above the plain and surmounted by a church and convent. These
buildings, which are both lofty and extensive, are approached on the
west side by a stone bridge, spanning a canal-like pool of stagnant
water, which lies along the margin of the mound and partly surrounds
it. Elsewhere the slope from this plateau to the level plain is
gradual, except where the more recent excavations have been made,
which present much the same appearance as a roadside sand-pit. Of the
original size and form of the mound it is now difficult to form a
correct estimate, owing to the amount of stuff yearly carted away, but
the portion still undisturbed or covered by buildings may be estimated
at two acres.

A perpendicular section, which can be readily obtained at various
points, presents the following succession of layers from above
downwards:--

1. Ordinary mould or disturbed soil for a depth of 6 feet, said to
contain Roman and more recent remains.

2. The terramara beds proper, arranged in thin, wavy laminations of
variously-coloured earths. Sometimes a thickish bed of clay or a black
band of charcoal catches the eye; in another place an overlapped bed
is seen to shelve out and disappear altogether. But, notwithstanding
a wavy or undulating appearance, the general horizontality of these
layers is maintained. Their average total thickness amounts to 8 feet.

[Illustration: =Fig. 68=_a_--Pottery from the Terremare.]

3. Underneath these beds lies a blackish peaty substance, some 3 feet
thick, in which, as already mentioned, Strobel detected the remains of
a palafitte.

Below this peaty stratum there is a greenish clayey deposit, similar
in composition to that found at some depth in the surrounding plain,
into which the piles were driven.

[Illustration: =Fig. 68=_b_.--Anse Lunate or Cornute from the
Terremare.]

Strobel's discovery caused much speculative interest, especially
when correlated with the researches initiated by Gastaldi regarding
lake-and pile-dwellings, the existence of which in Italy had just been
demonstrated at Mercurago and Lake Garda.

[Illustration: =Fig. 69.=--Bone Comb (½) from VICO-FERTILE.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 70.=--Bone Wheels from CAMPEGGINE.]

Reflecting on these novel revelations and impelled, no doubt, by the
growing interest in such studies, Strobel and Pigorini, both then
residing at Parma, commenced a series of observations and inquiries
regarding the terremare in their vicinity, the outcome of which was a
joint report, first published in 1862 as part of Gastaldi's well-known
article, "Nuovi cenni sugli oggetti di alta antichità trovati nelle
torbiere e nelle mariniere dell' Italia." (B. 52.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 71.=--Horn implement.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 72.=--Bone (½). Both from CAMPEGGINE.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 73.=--Portion of a Bone Handle from CASTIONE
(½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 74.=--Two Bone objects from CAMPEGGINE (1/1).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 75.=--Discoidal Stone from CAMPEGGINE (½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 76.=--Bronze Sickle from CAMPEGGINE (½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 77.=--Bronze Spear-head from BARGONE DI SALSO
(½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 78.=--Bronze Celt from CASTELLAZZO.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 79.=--Bronze Awl with bone handle, from
CAMPEGGINE (½).]

In this report the authors discussed the works of man found in the
marl-beds under the following five heads--viz. habitations, vessels,
utensils, arms, and things of uncertain use. The pottery they
recognised as having degrees of quality according to the uses to
which the vessels were put. The larger vases were roughly kneaded,
the grains of sand were larger and more visible, and the colour of
the paste was ash-black inside and reddish outside. They had no
glaze. The smaller dishes were made of fine homogeneous paste, with
very thin walls, smooth surface, and a blackish surface approaching
to varnish. According to their form they might be divided into a
great many varieties, as plates, cups, basins, bottles, vases, etc.
(=Fig. 68=_a_). In the makers of this pottery the authors recognised
an inclination to vary their handiworks, and this was especially
manifested in the various forms and different embellishments of the
handles, called _appendiculati_, which turned up in large quantities.
These were ordinary handles with an addition on the top, either in
the form of an upright button-like process or transverse bar. To the
latter the greatest interest was attached, as the ends of the bars
were bent in a variety of ways so as to assume the form of ears or
horns as in =Fig. 68=_b_.

Among the utensils they distinguished a variety of industrial objects
such as needles, pins, ornamented combs, small wheels, handles, etc.,
made of bone or horn (=Figs. 69= to =74=). Of stone there were numbers
of rubbers, corn-grinders, and grooved spheroidal stones (=Fig. 75=),
but very few hatchets and chisels.

Of bronze they found sickles (=Fig. 76=), spear-heads (=Fig. 77=),
flat celts (=Fig. 78=), awls (=Fig. 79=), chisels, pins, etc.

Among the objects of uncertain use were classified a series of
spindle-whorls of different forms (=Fig. 80=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 80.=--Various forms of Spindle-whorls or Beads
(½) from CAMPEGGINE.]

From the existence of metal slag and stone moulds (=Fig. 81=) the
authors inferred that the terramaricoli knew the art of founding in
metals.

Professor Strobel gave also a minute description of the bones and
other organic remains, to which I shall afterwards refer when treating
of his subsequent investigations in this wide and important field of
research.

[Illustration: =Fig. 81.=--Stone Mould from CASTELNUOVO.]

In summing up, the authors used the following words:--

"As to the first _origin_ of the _marl-earths_, it is clear that the
banquets, as you assert, are a considerable part; but there seems to
us to appear in the scoriæ, the millstones, the heaps of grain, the
palisades, the potsherds, already cited, together with the arms and
utensils of all sorts which are found in these earths, something more
than a mere meeting-place to banquet. It seems to us, if we do not
err, that there is something of settlement and duration. Man did not
meet there only to arrange and devour the feast, but to employ himself
besides in domestic avocations, in preparing implements and arms, to
sew garments, and make nets--in a word, to inhabit them; besides, to
exercise the practices of their religious worship, and, perhaps, also
to burn their dead, and all these after the fashion of barbarians,
such as the people of the _marl-beds_ must have been. These people,
according to the place and time, were fishermen, hunters, shepherds,
and even agriculturists." (B. 91, p. 83.)

These words contain the most important feature of this report. The
authors, though not absolutely free from the previous notions that
floods and inundations had something to do with the stratification
of the _débris_, distinctly recognise that the terremare must be
considered as the remains of the _habitations of the living_, and not,
as hitherto supposed, the resting-places of the dead.

Interest in the whole subject now rapidly increased, and extended to
agriculturists and local observers. Yearly excavations were carefully
scanned and even special researches were carried on in the interests
of science. Strobel, a professed naturalist with remarkably precise
and accurate habits, devoted his great energies to the elucidation
of the organic remains, especially the rich and varied products of
the peaty bed (_terra uliginosa_) at Castione, in which the piles
were detected. Pigorini, on the other hand, was an archæologist pure
and simple, but endowed with great ability and much fertility in the
correlation and generalisation of facts--qualities which have since
gained him the chair of archæology at Rome, which he now fills with so
much distinction. Thus associated these two men may be said to have
developed a new school of archæology, especially anent the terremare,
having as its primary and indispensable object the collection of
authenticated data, without which, they asserted, no deductions
however brilliant could be scientific.

In the course of researches conducted by Strobel at Castione, during
the years 1862 and 1863, he observed that the piles were placed in
a sort of basin, either natural or artificial; that they supported
transverse beams over which clay floorings had been placed; and that
they were more thickly set towards the margin, and slanting, as if to
strengthen the inner superstructures. Moreover, he proved that the
supposed peaty formation (_terra uliginosa_) had nothing in common
with true peat, but was simply a subaqueous deposit of ordinary
earth, associated with decomposed organic _débris_. Another terramara
in Parma having similar characteristics to that at Castione was
investigated in the following year by Pigorini, and thus the theory of
an occasional palafitte converted into a land-dwelling seemed to them
to be confirmed. Previous to this the stratification of the beds--one
of the most remarkable features of these deposits--had not excited any
unusual surprise, but now it began to be commented upon.

These and some other noteworthy observations here and there coming to
light induced Strobel and Pigorini to issue a second report on the
terremare of Parma. (B. 89.) But in this _brochure_, which appeared
in 1864, there does not appear to be any striking departure from the
views expressed by the authors in their previous report. They asserted
that the people who constructed and inhabited these dwellings were a
nomadic or agricultural race, belonging to the Bronze Age, and were
probably allied to the Swiss lake-dwellers; and that their habitations
varied in structural character according to the exigencies of the
site chosen. No significance was attached to the piles at Castione
and elsewhere, beyond supplying a proof that different methods of
construction had been in use, the adoption of which depended on local
conditions. The composition of the strata as "earthy beds, now ashy,
now yellowish, now reddish or black," and their peculiarly wavy
arrangement, were supposed to mark merely a variety.

The terremare now became a controversial focus between the adherents
of the old and new schools. To the former Cavedoni, Coppi, and
subsequently Crespellani, lent their influence; while the latter were
reinforced by Boni, Canestrini, Calegari, and Chierici. Amongst all
these, during the next few years, Chierici stood pre-eminent. Already
an ardent collector of the antiquities of his native country, he
found in the mysterious terremare a congenial field and a new outlet
for his love of practical research. For minute observation and lucid
exposition of the phenomena observed in explorations, Chierici had
few superiors. To him must undoubtedly be assigned the next great
contributions towards the elucidation of the terremare problem.
Observing in several instances that an earthy dyke of a rectangular
shape, with a ditch outside, surrounded the terramara mound, and
that upright beams, or traces of them, were to be seen in all parts
of the deposits, he suggested that these were normal features in
their structure. Although some of his contemporary explorers had
incidentally noticed piles in a stratum different from that in which
their original discovery was made at Castione, and even recorded
the fact (B. 407, p. 7), it remained to Chierici alone to interpret
the true significance of the discovery. In support of the theory of
universality of the palafitte system, he showed that in many cases
the piles had entirely disappeared by decomposition, and that the
only traces of their existence were the holes they had occupied. Some
of these, indeed, had subsequently become filled up by infiltrated
matter, so that on section they presented the appearance of inverted
cones. On this point he relates that in one space measuring 210 square
metres he counted no less than 124 "buche di pali." (B. 206, p. 9.)

It must be remembered that, previous to this, archæologists had no
clear notion of the order or relative position of the products of
different ages and races, and the same confusion extended to the
terremare. For instance, at Castelnuovo, Chierici seemed puzzled at
finding, underneath a Bronze Age terramara, indications of an older
period. At Campeggine, on the other hand, objects of the early Iron
Age appeared, but chiefly in the upper strata, while Etruscan remains
had been recognised in several instances.

Another point to which Chierici's attention was directed was the
frequency with which rectangular enclosures were disposed so as
to have their four sides facing the cardinal points; and this
orientation within certain limits, varying, it would seem, according
to the direction of the sunrise when the settlement was founded, he
considered also applicable to all the terramara villages. On this
point see also Helbig. (B. 308.)

In his famous theory of the structure of the terramara villages (B.
206) Chierici conceived the idea that they had been constructed over
artificial basins to which a running stream was made to flow so as to
convert the _bacino_ into a pool of water. This pool was surrounded
by an earthen dyke inside of which a wooden platform was erected on
piles and covered with a layer of clay. Huts were then erected over
this platform at regular intervals, and the refuse from them was
thrown, by means of holes here and there, into the space below. The
water entering at one side of the enclosure made its exit at the
opposite side. Thus the space below the platform was more or less
occupied with water, and the _débris_ thrown into it became arranged
into sedimentary strata, and so continued to accumulate until the
entire space was filled up. When the accumulation of _débris_ reached
this extent it became necessary to elevate their floorings, and this
was done by repeating the same process at a higher level; and in this
manner Chierici accounted for the successive platforms and palafittes
which were to be met with in the terramara beds.

Thus in the hands of Chierici almost every feature of the terramara
deposits excited fresh interest and an eagerness for further
inquiries. Piles or their traces were found almost immediately in all
the stations wherever they were carefully looked for. In 1872 Chierici
and Mantovani explored two stations, one at Monte Venere and the
other at Monte, in which were found not only the dyke surrounding
the basin and palafitte, but, in one of them, three series of piles,
one superimposed above the other, thus clearly showing that when the
spaces around the piles and underneath the platform had got filled
up with _débris_, a second palafitte had been resorted to, which in
its turn had been succeeded by a third. (B. 233 and 247.) It was on
all hands acknowledged that in many parts the peculiar stratification
of the layers in certain beds could only be accounted for on the
supposition that water had somehow to do with the sorting of their
ingredients, as floating materials, such as bits of charcoal, were
often eliminated and formed separate layers. So far Chierici's theory
might be taken as offering a complete explanation of the phenomena.
But the deposition of the higher portions of the mound remained to
be accounted for, as it was difficult to conceive of pools of water
at the requisite heights. A still more formidable objection was the
impossibility of transporting water without the intervention of a
system of hydraulics to sites placed on elevations far above the level
of any adjacent streams, and of this class several had been known,
as at Monte Venere, Roteglia, Castellaccio, etc. (B. 407, p. 9);
yet, in most cases, they also contained the palafitte and dyke. This
was the weakest part of the theory and found few supporters, but in
other respects every additional discovery only tended to confirm it.
Strobel, however, declined to believe in the universality of either
dykes or palafittes. Thus, writing in 1874 (B. 267), he says: "At the
conclusion of an article which I wrote in 1872 on shells of _Unio_
found in the marière, etc., I asserted that the terremare, those
prehistoric settlements, were terrestrial; that in some of them man
lived in pile-dwellings on dry ground, in others he dwelt in tents
or huts; and that in some of the terramara beds earthworks can be
seen, which may have been used as dykes or bulwarks, and which in all
probability were fortified with ditches." After showing how impossible
it would be for the terramaricoli of Roteglia and Castellaccio to
have pools of water at such an elevation as they had been, he goes
on to say: "And here I may be permitted to raise my voice against
those who imagine that prehistoric men, and more especially those
of the marière, and of our terremare and pile-dwellings of the
Bronze Age, always and everywhere followed constantly one uniform
and invariable order in arranging their abodes, as if they were
inferior to the animals, nay, even to the invertebrates, who modify
their constructions according to circumstances. But, in fact, there
is much less uniformity in these terremare than is often found in
the dwellings of animals; therefore I maintain logically, that even
prehistoric men changed their mode of living according to place, time,
and circumstances; and that the terramaricoli did not live solely
in pools of water, as some assert, but had settlements both in the
water and on dry land, and that the terramara beds are the results of
the latter. In some of the terrestrial settlements they probably had
pile-dwellings, while in others they lived in huts or tents. Some at
least of the land settlements were defended by dykes and ditches." (B.
119, 2nd ed., p. 402.)

Pigorini, on the other hand, looked favourably on the major portion
of Chierici's generalisations, and in the course of explorations
conducted by him at Casaroldo in 1874 (B. 266 and 297) he found
everything not only in harmony with his views but some additional
facts that seemed to strengthen that portion of his theory in which
he maintained that the palafitte was the normal method adopted in
the structure of the terremare, whatever the nature of the locality
might be in which they were constructed. Thus at Casaroldo, although
there was both a ditch and a dyke surrounding the basin containing the
palafitte, it had no peaty understratum (_terra uliginosa_), as at
Castione, but a substance precisely identical with the superimposed
deposits. Here also there were traces of piles on a higher level.

Almost coincident with the publication of Chierici's theory of the
terremare, in 1871, was the International Congress of Anthropology
and Prehistoric Archæology at Bologna, which gave an immense
impetus to such studies. Indeed, the decade which followed may be
characterised as the Augustan age in the department of prehistoric
archæology in Italy. The remarkable discoveries in the old cemeteries
of Bologna, and in Etruscan tombs elsewhere in the Circumpadana
district, together with the increasing number of prehistoric stations
in lakes, turbaries, caverns, etc., greatly widened the field of
research and added to the difficulty of deciphering, from amidst the
endless overlappings of their remains, the history of the various
civilisations which formerly characterised the country. In order to
facilitate these studies the _Bullettino Paletnologia Italiana_ was
established at the commencement of 1875, under the joint editorship of
Chierici, Pigorini, and Strobel. This periodical has done much good
and is still in a flourishing condition.


SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS AT CASTIONE.

Such was the general tenor of the opinions in regard to the terremare
up to 1877, when, owing to the interest then taken in these singular
remains and with the view of clearing up some of the contested points,
the Minister of Public Instruction ordered a fresh excavation to be
made at Castione under the superintendence of Professor Pigorini.
The portion selected was an oblong space at the north side of
the church, beginning at the margin and stretching inwards for a
considerable distance. The result of this was the disclosure of a
new and remarkable feature in its structural arrangement. At the
inside of the earthen dyke, and intervening between it and a forest
of piles which extended towards the interior, was a series of small
rectangular enclosures constructed of horizontal beams laid one
above the other. These enclosures, which extended side by side like
a string of log-houses, formed an abrupt facing to the dyke. The
beams were roughly hewn, and partially mortised into each other at
the points of crossing, from which their ends projected irregularly,
some even extending from one compartment to the next. Inside these
log-houses there was nothing but rubbish--clay, gravel, bits of wood,
etc.--packed firmly together. But it is needless to enter upon all the
details of this curious structure; suffice it to say that Pigorini
came to the conclusion that their purpose was to support the inside of
the earthen dyke (_contrafforte dell' argine_). The piles were in rows
about two feet apart, and each pile was separated from its neighbour
by an interval of one foot. When the space was cleared there was quite
a forest of these piles, and it is noteworthy that they were all
inclined in one direction, viz. north-east, a fact which is well shown
in the first of the two photographic illustrations here given (=Fig.
82=).

From an examination of the composition of the soil outside the
limits of the station Pigorini ascertained that the bluish clay bed
forming the subsoil of the terramara mound corresponded to what was
the surface of the surrounding plain when the terramaricoli founded
their settlement, and that the thick mass of alluvial yellowish clay
in which the mound is now partially buried has been subsequently
deposited.

[Illustration: =Fig. 82.=--Two Views of the Piles and Woodwork exposed
at CASTIONE during the special excavations conducted by Prof. Pigorini
in 1877.]

Other interesting details are given in Pigorini's exhaustive and
admirable report regarding the structure of the ditch, dyke,
platforms, hearths, etc., and the peculiarity and composition of the
strata. But these the limits at my disposal in this work compel me to
pass over, and I must be content with quoting the following summary of
his conclusions in regard to the origin of the station:--

"The terramaricoli having arrived at the place now called Castione dei
Marchesi did not select for their encampment a low-lying spot subject
to inundations, but the top of a slight elevation of bluish clay not
yet covered with the more recent alluvial deposits. The space measured
out for the station was of a rectangular shape and covered about a
couple of acres. This area they surrounded with a ditch, the excavated
soil being thrown to the inside and so they formed a dyke 6 feet in
height, which consequently enclosed a _bacino_ having its base on the
original soil of the plain. The area thus defined had an orientated
position with a deviation of 30° from east to north.

"Having completed the surrounding ditch and dyke, the next step was to
construct along the inner margin of the dyke a series of log-houses,
bound together and filled with _débris_, over which they finally laid
a gravel pavement. The main object of this elaborate structure was
to support the earthen dyke. Next they planted all over the _bacino_
rows of piles at regular intervals, whose tops reached to the level of
the surface of the _contrafforte_, and over them they laid horizontal
planks of wood which, in certain places, were covered with beds of
clay (_tavole coperte d'argilla_).

"On this platform were constructed the huts of the people. The
exact form of these huts has not been ascertained, but they were
certainly made of wood, straw and clay, no other material having
been used either at Castione or any other terramara. The village was
now complete, and the inhabitants, in the course of their domestic
avocations, threw the refuse of food and other _débris_ into the space
below, probably by means of holes, which gradually accumulated until
the space became completely filled up.

"When this stage was reached the people did not change their chosen
site, but proceeded to erect a new palafitte above the old one. They
elevated the dyke by extending its base, placed new _contrafforte_
along its inner side superimposed on the older ones, and thus
continued to convert the surface of the first platform into the base
of the new _bacino_. Here they repeated the operation of planting it
with piles, and over these a new platform and huts were erected, which
were occupied as before, until the accumulation of _débris_ again
drove the inhabitants to construct a third dwelling-place at a still
higher level." (B. 407, p. 44.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 83.=--CASTIONE and various other Terremare in the
vicinity of PARMA. Nos. 1 to 12 and 18 to 20 = ½, and the rest = ¼
real size.]

Illustrations of some of the industrial remains found at Castione, and
other places in the neighbourhood of Parma, are given on =Fig. 83=.


MONTALE.

Another instructive station, which I visited along with the
distinguished archæologist, Sig. Crespellani, is that at Montale, a
few miles south of Modena. Here the elevation of the mound is more
marked than at Castione, as the entire mass stands clear above the
surrounding plain, and, like it, the central part is occupied by a
church and some other religious buildings. The discovery of this
terramara was not made till 1868, but, its contents being readily
accessible, the progress of its demolition has been rapid. In 1871
it was selected as the most suitable to be visited by the members of
the International Congress, and, for their special benefit, a new
section was then opened up. The annual explorations conducted in this
mound, of course regulated by agricultural demands, are now entirely
in the hands of the authorities of the Museo Civico at Modena, who
appropriate all rare objects for the enhancement of their large and
valuable prehistoric collection. The director of the Museum, Sig.
Boni, publishes, from time to time, a report of the excavations and of
the results obtained. (B. 380 and 421.)

According to Boni, the area of the mound, including the dyke, was
9,000 square mètres (about 2 acres), of which about 4,000 are occupied
by the ecclesiastical buildings already referred to. Of the remaining
space available for explorations about one half has been cleared away.
On the north side of the church, just on the verge of the pit where
the workmen were riddling and preparing the saleable stuff, stood an
enormous chestnut tree, whose roots could be seen below the grassy
surface projecting from the perpendicular face of the section. The
priest, whose house forms part of the ecclesiastical buildings on the
mound, soon joined our party, and expatiated on the fabulous age of
this tree, but which Crespellani reduced to something like 150 or 200
years. The entire height of the section here exposed would be from 15
to 20 feet, the upper five of which consisted of mouldy soil, which
has, of course, to be removed before the commercially valuable stuff
is reached. In the course of the removal of this upper stratum the
following objects were found, viz. an iron hatchet, fragments of a
spur, several keys, and some much corroded coins of the Old Empire.
The remains of fifteen human burials were also encountered, three of
which had the bodies enclosed in cists made of large bricks. Indeed,
some large tiles, apparently part of a sepulchre, were still to be
seen protruding from a part of this layer. Near one of the unenclosed
burials lay a terra-cotta lamp and a bone comb with a double row of
teeth. Sunk into the upper part of the terramara beds was a primitive
lime-kiln, "evidently," says Boni, "introduced into the _cumulo
marnoso_ at a later period than its formation." (B. 386, p. 13.)

The great depth of this upper bed of mould, which exists in all the
terremare, is very remarkable and most puzzling to archæologists. Boni
thinks it was spread over the mound at some posterior time, either for
agricultural purposes, or as hygienic precautions, or perhaps from
motives of respect to the supposed sacred character of its contents.

All the rest of the section was terramara proper, whose contorted and
wave-like beds could readily be distinguished. Sticking in the face of
the section were innumerable fragments of black pottery, broken bones,
and bits of charcoal. All the stuff, before being disposed of, was
passed through riddles, and what remained was thrown aside as useless
rubbish, the heaps of which could only be estimated by cart-loads. The
riddlings consisted almost entirely of broken pottery, among which
were occasional clay weights and more frequently spindle-whorls,
together with the bones and horns of animals, many of which were
converted into implements. Bronze objects were comparatively rare.

Part of a large earthen dyke which is supposed to have surrounded the
entire mound is still left exposed on the north side. It measured from
20 to 30 feet in breadth at the base and 11½ feet in height. Boni,
in his description of this dyke, states that a section which ought
to be conical is not so, but more slanting on the outside; also, at
the inner side, its contents are occasionally seen to overlap the
terramara beds. From this and some other structural details he adduces
evidence to show that the dyke had been subsequently added to by the
terramaricoli during their occupation of the settlement. Bearing in
mind what Pigorini says about Castione, the significance of these
observations will be readily perceived.

[Illustration: =Fig. 84.=--MONTALE. All ½ real size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 85.=--MONTALE and various other Terremare in the
vicinity. All ½ real size.]

For illustrations of relics from Montale see =Fig. 84= and =Fig.
85=, Nos. 1 to 6; and for its literature B. 157, 184, 186, 204, 231,
298b, 367, 386, 421, 422, 425a'. An account of the excursion to
Montale by the members of the International Congress is given in their
Proceedings for 1871 (Bologna).


CASALE ZAFFANELLA.

Another typical example of the terremare, which I wish to describe
shortly, lies 1¼ mile north of the Po, near the town of Viadana. This
station was accidentally discovered a few years ago by the brothers
Pietro and Giacomo Tassoni, the peasant proprietors of a field in
which they were making trenches for planting vines. In the course of
their operations they dug up fragments of pottery, which they brought
to the Arciprete Antonio Parazzi of Viadana (already widely known as
a skilled archæologist and the founder of an excellent museum of the
local antiquities of the district). Some of the fragments of pottery
turned out to be Roman, while others were undoubtedly pre-Roman, and
this led to a preliminary investigation of the locality, in which
the experienced eye of Parazzi soon detected the site of a terramara
dwelling. A full report of the subsequent excavations and results
obtained was published by Parazzi in the _Bullettino_ for 1886 (B.
451)--a monograph which is a perfect model of the descriptive details
of an investigation conducted on scientific methods.

First of all let me emphasise the fact that there was here no mound
at all. The field was quite flat, and to reach the surface of the
terramara beds a stratum of considerable thickness, varying from
1 to 2 feet, of the ordinary alluvial deposits had to be passed
through. The terramara beds then continued for a depth of 8 or 10
feet, underneath which came the subsoil on which the settlement was
originally constructed. It is noteworthy that in one part of the area,
underneath the terramara beds proper, a peaty bed, similar to that at
Castione, was discovered. To make the resemblance still more striking,
this _terra uliginosa_ also contained the remains of a palafitte.
These piles were very well preserved, and some of them may now be seen
in the Museum at Viadana.

It was impossible, without enormous labour, to explore this settlement
to a great extent; but by a few well-directed trenches Parazzi
ascertained that it was of a quadrangular shape, and orientated to
within 11 degrees, and that it was surrounded by a ditch and a dyke.
The enclosure, exclusive of the area of the dyke, had a superficial
area of about one English acre. Its four sides measured, respectively,
208 (N.), 218 (S.), 227 (W.), and 237 (E.) feet. The dyke was 26 feet
broad at its base, and 11 feet 6 inches high, and showed that it had
been added to on three different occasions. Its inner edge appeared
to have been very steep, a fact which suggests that, as at Castione,
there had been some kind of support to prevent the earth from falling
in. The ditch was 34 feet wide, and its maximum depth was 6½ feet.

The underlying peaty stratum, containing the piles, occupied much of
Parazzi's attention, and he goes largely into its minutiæ. One curious
fact which he records is that the dyke passed over its middle, leaving
a considerable portion of the _terra torbosa_ and palafitte outside
the area of the terramara deposits. This undoubtedly suggests the idea
that the palafitte existed prior to the terramara settlement. From the
character of the relics we shall, however, see that both belonged to
the same age and people.

On the surface of the terramara beds Roman remains were largely met
with, and in one place they came upon a rectangular excavation,
measuring 18 square mètres, containing ordinary earth, bricks, tiles,
fragments of jars, and other Roman pottery. When this was cleared out
there was found at the bottom, at a depth of 7 feet 6 inches, a Roman
pavement, and the stratified terramara layers could be distinctly seen
in the perpendicular walls. Clearly this cellar was constructed long
after the deposition of the terramara beds.

Nor is the settlement of Casale Zaffanella a solitary example in the
Viadana district. Already Parazzi has prepared a large map of the
neighbourhood, which finds a suitable position on the wall of his
museum, with no less than 12 terramara stations marked on it. Among
these there is one Cogozzo (B. 372b) situated about one-and-a-quarter
mile from the town and within 200 yards of the Po, which presents
the same features as that at Casale Zaffanella, and also contains
traces of a palafitte. Its area is an orientated quadrangle covering
about an acre, but it is completely buried in mud, its highest point
being 31 inches below the surface. It is surrounded by a ditch and
dyke; and, moreover, the inner edge of the dyke was found to be almost
perpendicular, showing that originally it must have had some kind of
_contrafforte_.

Some of the objects from this group of terramara stations, now
deposited in the Viadana Museum, are represented in =Fig. 86=, Nos. 1
to 13.


GORZANO (MODENA).

The old-school views advocated by Dr. Coppi, viz. that the terremare
were remains of funeral pyres (_roghi_), so much biassed his mind
that for many years he appeared to have paid little attention to the
significance of the strata, and consequently the first two volumes of
his magnificently illustrated monograph on the terramara settlement
at Gorzano (B. 207 and 261) lose much of their value from having
the objects of different ages indiscriminately mixed. This defect
is so far removed in the third volume that he divides the deposits
into upper and lower, corresponding to the historic and prehistoric
periods. But, notwithstanding this defect in Dr. Coppi's earlier
works, his investigations are of considerable scientific value, as his
numerous matter-of-fact observations are strictly to be depended on.

The accompanying plan and sections of Gorzano will convey some idea
of the position of the terramara beds in respect to their immediate
surroundings. The deposits (marked c on section A) extended in
length about 90 to 100 mètres from north to south, and 70 mètres in
breadth, with an average thickness of 3½ mètres. The settlement was
constructed on a natural elevation, rising about 9 mètres above the
rest of the plain and 11 above the bed of the adjacent stream Tiepido.
It was surrounded by a ditch and a dyke, and it also contained the
remains of a palafitte. The existence of piles is clearly proved by
Dr. Coppi himself, who gives a section (C) showing their respective
positions, but at the same time he denies that they indicate the
remains of a palafitte.

Of the comparative frequency of industrial remains in the terramara
deposits, a correct notion will be got from a study of Dr. Coppi's
report of the excavations at Gorzano during the year 1875. In this
year there were 274 cubic mètres excavated, covering an area of 180
square mètres; and from this mass of _débris_ there were collected
3,051 objects, of which 173 belonged to the upper or Romano-mediæval
stratum, which varied from 1 to 1½ mètres in thickness. The rest
of the objects, which came from the under strata, and were reckoned
prehistoric, are thus classified:--852 industrial objects, 1,544
remains of vertebrate animals, 285 remains of molluscs, 153 vegetable
remains.

The 852 industrial remains are again thus assigned:--

_Bronze._--50 objects: viz. eight pins, four axes, 12 daggers, one
chisel, two awls, six discs, one spindle-whorl, two fragments of
sickles, and 14 diverse bits.

_Bone._--80 objects: viz. 38 needles and pins (of which 23 are
entire), nine spatulæ, 17 pointers, three chisels, six teeth, one
lamina, five awls, and one handle.

_Horn._--62 objects: viz. seven small wheels, one cylinder, one comb,
two arrow-points, 17 spatulæ, 12 pointers, two awls, three ornaments,
two picks, four handles, and 17 diverse pieces.

[Illustration: _Distribution of Piles in Gorzano_]

_Stone._--68 objects: viz. two flint knives, two pendants, four
spindle-whorls, two discs, four weights, six grinding-stones, one
polisher, three flint nodules, four flint flakes, and 30 worked stones.

_Terracotta._--585 objects: viz. 494 spindle-whorls (=Fig. 85=,
No. 17), two cylinders, 12 weights, 68 vases, three covers, five
percolators, and one small animal figure.

The bones capable of being determined represented the following
animals:--15 oxen, 25 sheep or goats, seven stags, eight roes, 30
pigs, two wild boars, 14 dogs or wolves, one cat, eight birds, one
tortoise, and 15 toads.

The industrial remains from the upper stratum were as follows:--The
central part of a Byzantine crucifix, one lamp, two fibulæ, three
rings of bronze, 12 spindle-whorls of terra-cotta (of which four were
glazed), one spindle-whorl of amber, one spindle-whorl of glass, two
spindle-whorls of talc; of iron there were 20 darts, two lance-heads,
eight knives, seven keys, one lock, eight buckles, one horseshoe, one
bullock-shoe, and 11 undetermined fragments; five fragments of glass
vessels; one sword-handle of wood with bronze mountings; four bronze
fragments; 25 pieces of pottery (three with potters mark); a small
basin of brick; 52 coins (of which 46 were together); and some slag,
etc.

The objects in the upper stratum were mostly associated with the
Oratorio di S. Alberto, built about the early part of the seventeenth
century, and other mediæval buildings now entirely demolished. It was
found to have been built over a still older church, which dated from
the third century. A few of the coins were Roman of about the same
date, but the largest number dated from the end of the twelfth or
commencement of the thirteenth century, and a few were of still later
date. There was also a Christian cemetery found containing a number of
skeletons.

In 1879 Coppi published (B. 340) an account of further discoveries,
and among other objects he describes several stone moulds (10 for
pins, five for lance-heads, and seven for daggers), a stone weapon of
nephrite, two flint knives, a weight of white marble, etc. Of bronze
there are 12 pins, three needles, 20 dagger-blades, five chisels, nine
awls, and a small wheel ornamented with _graffiti_, besides a quantity
of other objects of horn, bone, pottery, etc.

In 1885 the workmen came upon a grave embedded in the virgin soil
underneath the terramara beds, and supposed to be anterior to their
formation. It was constructed of small unhewn stones, and the space
enclosed measured 5 feet 10½ inches long, 1 foot broad, and 1 foot
deep. This grave contained a human skeleton which lay on the right
side with the head towards the east, and along with it were found a
spatula of staghorn, fragments of fossil shells, and some bits of
carbonised vegetable matter. (Crespellani, "Scavi del Modenese," 1886,
p. 11.)

A few of the bronze objects from Gorzano are illustrated on =Fig. 85=,
Nos. 9, 12 to 14, and 19 to 23.


GENERAL REMARKS ON THE TERRAMARA SETTLEMENTS.

In the above sketch of the progress of scientific research into
the terremare I have selected four typical examples for special
description. We have seen that in one, viz. Montale, accumulated
_débris_ stood as a clear mound on the surface of the surrounding
plain, while that of Gorzano rested on a natural hillock. The Castione
deposits also assumed the same form, but in this case the mound was
only partially above the plain, the rest being buried in it. The tops
of the piles found in its peaty stratum (_terra uliginosa_) were
on an average 3 feet below the level of the present surface of the
surrounding plain, and the lowest portion of this bed was a couple
of feet still lower. In the fourth example, Casale Zaffanella, there
was no mound at all visible, but on examination the remains of the
settlement were found to be precisely similar to those of the others,
only the mound was completely buried, as it were, in a sea of hardened
mud.

The explanation of this will be readily perceived when we remember
that the amount of submergence respectively shown in these instances
is in the inverse ratio to their distance from the lower parts of the
plain and its great water channels. The yearly inundations of the Po
and its tributaries extend far and wide, each time leaving a film of
mud, by the repetition of which, in the course of ages, the surface
of the plain has become considerably elevated. Thus, the increase of
silt since the terramara settlement of Casale Zaffanella was founded,
amounts to 12½ feet--a depth sufficient to cover the highest part of
the mound. It is difficult to say how much this levelling up process
is accountable for the scarcity of these stations in the lower parts
of the Po valley. That they existed, however, in close proximity to
the river is amply proved by those stations at Viadana, as well
as one or two others, for example, at Brescello, in the Parmensian
district, on the south side of the river.

_Distribution._--Formerly the terramara deposits were supposed to be
peculiar to the middle reaches of Parma, Reggio, and Modena; but later
discoveries have upset this generalisation, as they are now shown to
have a much wider distribution, embracing the provinces on both sides
of the Po. (See Sketch Map, page 266.)

[Illustration: _Distribution of_ LAKE DWELLINGS & TERRAMARE _in the_
PO VALLEY]

Dr. Giacometti first (1868) directed attention to the terramara
deposits in the province of Mantua, and showed their similarity to
those of Emilia. A few miles north-east of the town of Mantua there
was found a group of seven or eight stations, regarding one of which,
Bigarello, he stated that it contained the same kind of pottery and
the same forms of stone implements as that at Castelnuovo in Emilia,
the only difference being in the kind of stone used, the one being
taken from the _débris_ of the Alps and the other from the Apennines.
Among the fragments of pottery he drew particular attention to the
variety of handles, which showed all the transitional forms from
knobs up to the most elegant _anse lunate_. "Havvene," says he,
"_di bicornute_, _di lunate_, _di bitubercolate_, _bilanceolate_,
_cincinnate_, _transverse_, _appendiculate_, ecc., quasi tutta in
somma, la famiglia designata dal Mortillet ('Les Terramares du
Reggianais,' 1865), colla speciale caratteristica di anse lunate."

In 1874 Marinoni gave an interesting account of the prehistoric
remains of the district of Seniga in the province of Brescia,
especially those of the terremare at Chiavichetto and Gottolengo. (B.
265.) The former, which is the most interesting of a group of seven
stations, is situated in the angle formed by the junction of the Mella
with the Oglia, nearly 20 miles south of the town of Brescia. In
excavating soil for making a dyke the workmen found objects of human
industry--scrapers and saws of flint, three hatchets of serpentine,
one large stone-adze, various stone rubbers, etc., several fragments
of worked horn, and an extraordinary quantity of broken pottery. The
further objects discovered here were chiefly of stone, rarely of
bronze, and, according to Marinoni, they were very similar to those
from the terramara stations of Bigarello and Pomella to the east of
Mantua.

The station at Gottolengo, discovered in 1871, is situated five miles
to the north of Regona, and on the left bank of the Mella. Before
being disturbed it presented the form of a flattish mound, which on
examination yielded relics similar to those of the other well-known
terremare, of which the following may be mentioned:--

Upwards of 20 arrow-points--pedunculated, triangular, or heart-shaped.
Some fragments of polished hatchets of serpentine; spindle-whorls
of terra-cotta (=Fig. 86=, No. 17):--one very large, 4¾ inches in
diameter (No. 28), was similar to another found at Chiavichetto.
Broken bones, portions of deer-horns, some of which · were made into
daggers and pointers; two bone combs ornamented with triangular lines
and _graffitti_, similar to those from Castione and Noceto. An oval
cake or ring of wood like the supports for vases (No. 25). Of bronze
there were various tools and implements. Spear-heads with a tang
were most common; No. 19 represents one with two rivet-holes, a type
which was also represented at Chiavichetto. A double-edged implement
still held the rivet which had fixed it to a handle (No. 22). One
arrow-point (No. 23) is similar to one found in the terramara station
at Campeggine in the province of Parma. Several fragments of pins,
wires, spirals, and small plates of bronze. Among iron objects, all
of which were much corroded, was a spear-head (No. 24). Portions of
greenish vitreous paste.

[Illustration: =Fig. 86.=--VIADANA and stations on the north side of
the Po. No. 3 = ¼, 28 = ⅓ and the rest = ½ real size.]

The following animals were identified among the osseous
remains:--stag, ox, goat, sheep, horse, and pig.

Not only as regards the relics but also in internal structure the
terramara stations on the north of the Po have been shown to be
identical with those on the south side. This we have already seen
in the description of Casale Zaffanella. But the point was first
established by the indefatigable researches of Chierici, who, in
1881, along with a few other antiquaries, explored the stations at
Bellanda and Villa Cappella in the commune of Gazzoldo, about 10
miles west of Mantua. Here all the characteristic features of the
terremare--the surrounding dyke, palafitte, and orientation--were
clearly established. (B. 372a.)

The best investigated terramara in the Bologna district is that at
Castellaccio, about three-quarters of a mile to the south of Imola.
(B. 457.) The deposits repose on an isolated elevation on the right
bank of the river Santerno, and rising nearly 120 feet above its bed;
but on it there are no remains of ancient stone buildings, as the
name would seem to imply. The hill is of yellowish sand, belonging
to the Upper Pliocene. Scarabelli, who has recently published an
illustrated monograph of its peculiarities and the antiquities found
on it, states that piles were numerous, though many had disappeared by
decomposition, only traces of their holes being then detected. Some of
the piles were large, measuring over a foot in diameter, and they were
placed irregularly. No less than 26 hearths were met with at different
levels, and those on the same level were from 4 to 6½ mètres apart.

The peculiarity of this terramara is that its antiquities would appear
to belong to both the Stone and Bronze Ages. The flint implements
included about 20 roughly-chipped tools like scrapers, some badly-made
arrow-points, and saws resembling those found in the palafittes in the
Mincio. Altogether 216 worked flints and about 600 chips and cores
were collected. Some polished stone axes, together with four portions
of perforated implements.

Among about 120 spindle-whorls of burnt clay there was only one
ornamented. There were various implements of staghorn and bone, a
few of the former being perforated and apparently used as axe and
hammer heads like those from Gorzano. Some perforated shells are also
recorded.

The pottery was precisely similar to that usually found on the
well-known terramara deposits of Emilia, showing various forms of
handles, horn-like projections, perforated knobs, etc.

The total number of bronze articles amounted only to seven pieces,
and included a small sickle, a coltello-ascia like that from Bosisio
(=Fig. 51=, No. 10), and a small dagger with two rivets--the rest
being of an undetermined character. Two objects of _pietra ollare_
(a small spindle-whorl and a dish turned on the wheel) and a bronze
buckle were found among the disturbed beds on the surface.

Beyond the valley of the Po no decided remains of palafittes or
terremare have come to light, and the obscure indications that have
been recorded leave it doubtful whether they are of a prehistoric
character.[41] Of these the only one worthy of detailed notice here
is the dwelling found near Offida, in the Piceno district (Central
Italy), and described by Professor Pigorini. (B. 343b.)

About one and a half miles from Offida, in a small valley surrounded
by hills, there was formerly a small lake, which has become drained by
the erosion of a stream which falls into the Tresino. Here, covered
with 16 feet of sand and _débris_, the Marquis Allevi found a platform
50 yards long, 15 yards wide, and 2 feet thick. Below the platform
there was lake-mud, containing fresh-water shells, to the depth of 9½
feet, in which were charcoal, bones of animals, fragments of pottery,
and other remains of human occupancy. This platform was constructed
of large trunks deprived of their branches and laid horizontally
at intervals of about four feet, above which came smaller beams
irregularly laid without any order and then a layer of clay and moss.
On this platform were found calcined round stones, the bottom of a
dish, and some 12 fragments of other vessels, some of fine and some of
coarse pottery. One bit had a recurved lip, and another was ornamented
with a kind of zig-zag ornamentation in incised lines. There were also
about 20 pieces of copper, some of which looked like crucibles.

_Extent._--As to the actual dimensions of the terramara mounds, it
is difficult to procure accurate measurements, for several reasons.
In many instances they are either built over by modern buildings, or
there is nothing to distinguish their _débris_ from the surrounding
soil without making extensive excavations. Even when the site is a
clearly-defined mound, as at Montale, one estimate may differ from
another according as the area of the surrounding dyke is or is not
included in the measurements. Generally speaking they are rectangular
in form and, according to Chierici, their average superficial area is
about seven acres. (B. 311, p. 105.) But their respective areas vary
very much, as will be seen from the following stations, in addition
to those already given, whose measurements have been accurately
ascertained by competent authorities:--

Casaroldo (Parma), 200 by 160 by 3·70 mètres. (B. 297, p. 360.)

Parma, 300 by 28 mètres. (Strobel e Pigorini, Seconda Relazione, p.
149.)

Castiglione di Marano (Modena), 114 by 64, and 3 mètres thick. (B.
422, p. 19.)

Pragatto (Bologna), 200 by 150, and 3 mètres thick. (B. 372, p. 138.)

In his description of Bellanda (Mantua), Chierici observes that the
bacino was a rectangle 96 mètres across, giving an area of about two
acres, to which he adds "ampiezza ordinaria delle terremare." (B.
372, p. 80.) On the other hand, the two whose measurements have been
accurately given by Parazzi, viz. Cogozzo and Casale Zaffanella,
show a superficial area of only half this size, a fact which induced
Parazzi to observe that the terremare in Viadana seemed to be smaller
than those of Emilia and that at Bellanda. (B. 451, p. 4.)

_Number._--The total number of terramara stations in the Po valley
is over 100, which are thus (approximately) distributed among the
provinces:--Parma, 30; Reggio, 25; Modena, 16; Bologna, 5 or 6;
Mantua, about 20; and Brescia, 8.

_Relics._--More trustworthy knowledge of the social conditions and
general culture of the terramaricoli is to be derived from a study
of the remains of their villages than if they had come within the
scope of the earliest written records. The ordinary _débris_ here
accumulated, such as the more imperishable portions of food refuse,
stray objects, etc., are arranged in chronological sequence like
geological strata, the more recent being on the surface, and the
oldest at the bottom. Wherever an object of human industry happened
to drop there it remained, marking in all time coming its relative
place in the duration of the community. The industrial remains show
that these people founded their dwellings in the early Bronze Age.
The existence of a few flint implements and other objects of the
Stone Age is quite in harmony with the usual overlap of the relics of
dying customs in the transition period. That the weaving of cloth was
largely practised by them is proved by the extraordinary variety and
abundance of spindle-whorls and loom-weights. They made ornamental
buttons of terra-cotta, horn, and bone; as well as pins, combs, and
other objects of the latter materials. Wood was also largely used in
the manufacture of a great variety of things, as handles, dishes,
spoons, floorings, etc. (B. 328e.) That they worked their implements
and ornaments of bronze is proved by the number of foundry objects
collected, as bronze slag, stone moulds, etc. (=Fig. 83=, Nos. 14 to
17).

We have already seen that the terramaricoli had an extensive knowledge
of the ceramic art. The vessels in daily use were no less varied
and elegant in shape than our modern jugs, teapots, cups, bowls,
basins, saucers, flower-vases, etc. Some had everted rims and the
majority flat bases. The ornamentation consisted of parallel and
wavy ridges, knobs (sometimes perforated), triangles, and crosses
of incised grooves, circular or semicircular impressions, etc. But
most characteristic are the appendages attached to the tops of the
handles (=Fig. 84=, Nos. 21 and 22), which were of the most varied
and fanciful forms. These remarkable handles are not found on
pottery beyond the area circumscribed by the terremare. Nor is the
fully-developed _ansa lunata_ found in the lake-dwellings within this
area, with the exception of the stations at Peschiera, Mincio and
Il Bor, in the south-east corner of Lake Garda. Rudimentary forms
of these handles, such as those from the lake-dwellings of Polada
(=Fig. 67=, Nos. 13 and 14), Arquà Petrarca and Fimon (=Fig. 66=), are
also found in the western district of the Po valley (=Fig. 48=, No.
16). The terremare would, therefore, appear to be somewhat posterior
to the earlier lake-dwellings. But, on the other hand, the later
lake-dwellings (Peschiera and Mincio) were posterior to the terremare.
Not only does the pottery of the palafitte at Peschiera include the
characteristic _anse lunate_ (=Fig. 65=, No. 26), but among its bronze
relics are examples of almost every object found in the terremare,
as razors, pins, sickles, knives, etc.--a fact which will be at once
seen from a comparison of their respective objects here illustrated.
(Compare =Figs. 63, 64=, and =65=, with =Figs. 83, 84=, and =85=.)
Moreover, from this comparison a further inference will be drawn, viz.
that the lake-dwelling remains contain various objects which are not
found in the terremare, as fibulæ (=Fig. 64=, Nos. 8 and 22 to 25),
bracelets (=Fig. 63=, Nos. 31 and 32), one-edged knives (=Fig. 64=,
No. 11), torques (=Fig. 63=, Nos. 13, 19), etc., all of which are
indisputably of later date than the relics of the terremare proper.

_Organic Remains_.--The principal food of the terramaricoli consisted
of the produce derived from agricultural and pastoral farming. An
exhaustive analysis of their vegetable remains has not yet been made;
but, from the occasional stores of grain, chiefly in a carbonised
state, and other provisions met with, they are believed to have been
in the habit of eating the following seeds and fruits:--wheat (two
varieties), beans, millet, acorns, beech-nuts, apples, pears, sloes,
cornel-cherries, brambles, pistachio-nuts (_Staphylea pinnata_),
hazel-nuts, and grapes (_Vitis vinifera_). Flax was largely
cultivated, and its seeds were supposed to have been used as food,
while of course its fibres were converted into thread, ropes, and
cloth. Among the vegetal remains from Casale Zaffanella submitted to
Professor Oreste Mattirolo in Turin, wheat and both the seeds and wood
of the vine were recognised.

As regards the domestic and wild animals on which the terramaricoli
subsisted, we are in possession of more definite information, owing to
the persevering watchfulness of Professor Strobel. The following is
his corrected list down to the year 1883 (B. 410c):--

   _Erinaceus europæus_, L. (hedgehog). Gorzano.
   _Ursus arctos_ L. (bear). Castellaccio, Gorzano, Campeggine, etc.
   _Vulpes vulg._, Brisson (fox). Castellaccio, Gorzano, Montecchio,
                   Ronchi di Viadana.
   _Canis familiaris_, S. (domestic dog).
           var. _Spalletti_, Strob. Montecchio, Castione(?),
                Cogozzo(?), Casale Zaffanella.
            "   _palustris_, Rüt. Common.
           sub. var. _matris optimæ_. Gorzano, Montale, Montecchio,
                     Demorta.
   _Lupus vulgaris_ (wolf). Castellaccio, Redù.
   _Meles vulgaris_ (badger). Montale.
   _Martes foina_, L. (polecat). Gorzano.
   _Felis catus_, L. (wild-cat). Gorzano(?), Montale(?).
   _Sus scrofa_ (_ferus_), L. (wild boar). Widely spread,
                                           but not common.
   _Sus palustris_, Rüt. (domestic pig). Common.
   _Asinus africanus_, Sans. (ass). Common.
   _Equus caballus_ (horse). Widely spread and not rare. The remains
                             are of two races, one large and the
                             other small.
   _Capreolus vulgaris_ (roe). Less common on the south side of the Po.
   _Cervus elaphus_, L. (deer). Common.
   _Dama platyceros_, Plinius (fallow deer). Gorzano. Very rare.
   _Cervus tarandus_ (reindeer). Gorzano (Coppi).
   _Hircus ægagrus_, L., _palustris_ (goat). Widely spread and common.
   _Ovis aries_, L. (sheep). Emilia, Mantua, Brescia.
           var. _palustris_, Rüt., _capricornis_, Can. Not rare.
            " _O. musimom._ Castellaccio.
   _Bos primigenius_, Boj., _domesticus_. Emilia, Mantua, and Brescia.
                                          Not common.
   _Bos brachyceros_, Rüt. Very common as domestic cattle.
   _Lepus timidus_ (hare). Gorzano (Coppi).
   _Mus sylvaticus_ (wood-mouse). Castione.
   _Hystrix cristata_, L. (porcupine). Portion of a quill of this
                                       animal was found in the socket
                                       of an arrow-head of bronze from
                                       Campeggine.
   _Castor fiber_, L. (beaver). Castellaccio, Cogozzo.
   _Frugilegus segetem_ (raven). Gorzano (Coppi).
   _Gallus domesticus_, L. (domestic fowl). S. Ambrogio, Gorzano,
                                            Bismantova, Castellazzo di
                                            Fontanellato, Parma,
                                            Bozzoletto.
   _Ciconia alba_, W. (stork). Montale.
   _Ardea cinerea_, L. (heron). S. Ambrogio.
   _Anser segetum_ (wild-goose). S. Ambrogio, Possioncella near
                                              Viadana.
   _Anas boschas_, L. (duck). Montale, Parma, Cogozzo.
   _Emys europæa_, Sch. (tortoise). Gorzano, Montale, S. Ambrogio
                                    (Boni), Campeggine (Chierici),
                                    Casale Zaffanella (Parazzi).
   _Bufo_ (a species of toad).
   _Esox lucius_, L. (pike). Parma, Casale Zaffanella (Parazzi).

As coming under the category of organic remains I may add that a great
variety of shells, both of living and fossil species, are found in the
terramara deposits. Many of them are perforated, especially the more
ornamental fossil varieties, and were undoubtedly used as ornaments.
Some of the flat shells of bivalves give a tingling noise when struck,
and are therefore supposed to have been used to produce some kind
of musical sound. Land and fresh-water species were also, no doubt,
used as food. Coppi in his monograph (vol. ii. p. 100) describes and
illustrates a variety of the more striking forms collected in Gorzano;
and, in summing up his list, he states that 479 were of marine origin
(either recent or fossil), 388 belonged to fresh-water species, and
31 were land shells.

From the existence of the horny cases of various kinds of insects,
some living in air and others in water, and their larvæ in various
stages of evolution, Pigorini adduces an argument against the
supposition that the bacino was kept constantly filled with water.
(Strobel, B. 88, p. 18, and 89, p. 36; Pigorini, B. 407, p. 38;
Parazzi, B. 451, p. 54.)

The protracted discussion as to whether or not amber has been found in
the terremare proper was finally settled by the statement of Pigorini
that, in his recent explorations (1877) at Castione, it was found in
the lowest stratum. "Ora siamo certi che l'ambra si trovò in Castione
sepolta nello strato infimo, e colla certezza che vi fosse penetrata
nei giorni in cui lo strato stesso si formava." (B. 407, p. 51.)

As early as 1863 Strobel and Pigorini announced the discovery at
Castione of a couple of amber beads, but as their position in the
_débris_ had not been determined, no inferences could be drawn from
this discovery. In 1871 Coppi found a large one (_fusaiuola_) at
Gorzano; and later, another of the same kind. One was also found at
Montale, and another at Casinalbo. As these are all the records of
amber up to the decided discovery of Pigorini, it is clear that it was
a very scarce object among the terramaricoli. The number from Montale,
however, now amounts to 16, the largest of which is 1¾ inches in
diameter. (B. 279b, 298b, 311a'.)

_Age._--In the spring of 1865 Pigorini explored and described a
station in the district of Parma called Fontanellato, which, at the
time, he considered to be a terramara containing a fascine structure
belonging to the Iron Age. (B. 112.) In the excavations which were
conducted here the following different strata were exposed from above
downwards:--(1) 2 feet of soil; (2) a bed of alluvial deposits 4
inches thick; (3) a bed of materials similar in colour and composition
to those of the ordinary terramara deposits, 1 foot 10 inches thick;
(4) a mass of mixed materials 2 feet 7 inches thick, containing roots,
branches, leaves, etc., mixed with clay, together with pottery, short
piles, charcoal, bones of animals, shells, fruits, seeds, etc.

The objects of special interest collected were fragments of coarse
pottery, made, however, on the wheel, and particularly some vessels
made of _potstone_; a large stone splinter, showing marks of usage; a
bronze ring, and some iron slag.

In 1883 Pigorini recurs to the remains at Fontanellato (B. 408) and
explains that, owing to the great progress made in the investigations
of the terramara deposits, and the additional light thrown on
the subject, he has come to the conclusion that the station at
Fontanellato was not a direct continuation of the terramara system
which prevailed in the Bronze Age, but a "palafitta barbarica," in
which he sees the practical evidence of the incursions, into the Po
valley many centuries later, of the northern hordes of barbarians
which gave the final _coup_ to the Roman empire. That these people
were conversant with such structures there is ample evidence in
the analogous remains of terpen in Holland, the burgwälle and
lake-dwellings of Germany, the Tószeg and other mounds in Hungary,
etc. (B. 410b.)

Nor does the station at Fontanellato stand as an isolated example
of these later structures. Chierici found one at Marmirolo, in the
district of Reggio.[42] Another is recorded by Cornalia,[43] and
Pigorini thinks that several other stations which have been more or
less described belong to the same class as those in the Thrasimene
district[44] and that at Offida, near Piceno. (B. 343.) With these
exceptions, there are no terramara mounds of the Iron Age, and the
system is supposed to have flourished in the early Bronze Age and to
have fallen completely into desuetude before the commencement of the
Iron Age.

FOOTNOTES:

[37] _Atti della Soc. It. di Sc. Nat._, vol. ii. p. 177.

[38] So called by the Congress of Italian Naturalists who met here in
1878, after Virginia Ponti, wife of the proprietor.

[39] _Atti della Soc. It. di Sc. Nat._, vol. ii.

[40] B. 90, and _Giornale dell' Ing. Arch. ed Agri._, an. xii.

[41] Brizio, "La Grotta del Farnè."

[42] _Bul. Palet. It._, 1883, p. 17.

[43] _Atti della Soc. It. di Sc. Nat._, vol. vii.

[44] Brizio, "La Grotta del Farnè," p. 45.



Fourth Lecture.

SPECIAL CHARACTER OF THE REMAINS FOUND AT LA TÈNE AND IN LAKE PALADRU:
LACUSTRINE AND MARINE DWELLINGS IN THE LOWER RHINE DISTRICT AND NORTH
GERMANY.


LA TÈNE.

The celebrated lacustrine station, La Tène, is situated at the north
end of Lake Neuchâtel, just close to the present artificially formed
outlet where the land end of its mole or dyke begins. Stretching
from this point eastwards there is a gravelly elevation, some 200
yards long by 50 wide, which, before the "Correction des Eaux du
Jura," formed a shallow part of the lake, and for this reason it was
called among the fishermen La Tène (the shallows). As early as 1858,
Col. Schwab discovered this to be the site of a rich repository of
antiquities of a totally different character from those found in any
of the hitherto explored Pfahlbauten. Subsequently Professor Desor
directed his attention to the locality and made a collection of its
antiquities, among which he announced some Gallic coins (=Fig. 92=,
No. 8) and a sword-sheath ornamented with the forms of three fantastic
animals (=Fig. 87=, No. 9). Further discoveries of its remarkable
antiquities were made by M. Dardel-Thorens, who for many years, while
resident superintendent of the Lunatic Asylum of Préfargier, situated
close by, devoted his spare time to the investigation of La Tène. As
the relics were associated with numerous piles there appeared to be
no doubt among these antiquaries that the station was quite analogous
to the ordinary pile-dwellings of the Stone and Bronze Ages, the only
difference being that it represented a later age.

Notwithstanding the facilities for investigation afforded by the
lowering of the waters of the lake in 1876, which had the effect of
making La Tène dry land, nothing further was done till 1880, when M.
E. Vouga, schoolmaster at Marin, interested himself in the matter. One
reason for this neglect was the opinion that the whole area had been
already so thoroughly examined by previous explorers, that nothing
remained to be done. Before, however, describing the discoveries of M.
Vouga, it will be necessary to look more minutely at the situation of
La Tène and the nature of the substratum in which its antiquities were
found.

In making a section through the La Tène elevation there is first
encountered a bed of water-worn gravel and sand, varying in thickness
from three or four feet to as many yards. This gravel had evidently
been thrown up by the action of the waves, and in it there are no
antiquities found, with the exception of occasional fragments of
Roman pottery and tiles. Beneath this superficial gravel there lies
a blackish bed of peat of considerable thickness, below which is the
ancient lake sediment. It is on the surface of this intermediate mossy
bed, and sometimes buried in it, that the objects characteristic of
La Tène are found. From these stratigraphical glimpses of Natures
workings it would appear that during prehistoric times the whole
low-lying district from Préfargier to the lake of Bienne was a
shallow bay, which became ultimately overgrown with marsh plants and
peat to the extent of forming the "Gross Moos." Scattered throughout
the deposits of this quiet bay, and especially along the waterway
to Bienne, are frequently found antiquities belonging to all the
three ages of prehistoric times previous to the occupation of the
locality by the Romans, remains of whom are, of course, also met
with. Professor Desor, and others who have carefully examined the
locality from a geological point of view, account for the subsequent
overspreading of La Tène as the combined result of two natural
causes, viz. first, the elevation of the level of the lake owing to
sedimentary deposits or accidental obstruction in the channels through
which the surplus water found its escape; and, second, the gradual
removal, by the action of the waves, of a protective barrier in the
shape of a projecting moraine of sand and gravel, which stretched
outwards from Préfargier in the direction of La Sauge, and sheltered
La Tène for many ages from the action of the open lake. But whatever
the explanation may be, it is certain that a considerable change has
taken place since these sedimentary deposits of fine silt were formed,
as at the present time the amount of gravel thrown up on the shore
of La Tène is so great as to advance the beach at the annual rate of
two or three yards; and this occurs notwithstanding that the level of
the water, owing to the operations necessitated by the "Correction
des Eaux du Jura," is even lower than it was when the neighbouring
lake-dwellings of the Stone and Bronze Ages flourished.

RECENT EXPLORATIONS.--While M. Vouga was one day making excavations
near a group of piles, which he considered to have been supports
for a bridge, he came upon the foundations of a wooden house, and
in the course of clearing it out he made the important discovery
that it had been situated on the brink of a deep channel, which had
subsequently become filled up with sand and gravel. The most natural
explanation was that this channel was an ancient river-bed which,
when the house was constructed, formed the outlet of the lake. With
this idea paramount in his mind, Vouga determined to trace out its
direction and bearings. About 20 yards farther up--_i.e._ in the
direction of the lake--he came upon the remains of a second wooden
house, with its foundation beams still _in situ_, and two of its
containing walls (which had evidently fallen over) lying one over
the other. Here the bank of the channel formed a steep descent of 10
feet deep. The floor of this structure was formed of two square-cut
beams, each over 16 feet in length and 8 inches in thickness, having
a series of closely-set mortised holes for transverse beams. Its
breadth was 9 feet 2 inches, and it lay 2½ feet below the surface,
and about 7 feet higher than the bottom of the river. The two sides of
the building were formed of three beams corresponding in length with
that of the flooring, and about 2½ feet apart, and having transverse
mountings and a trellis-work of branches. One of these had apparently
fallen into the river, as its end reached nearly to the bottom of
the channel. Pursuing his investigations still in the direction of
the lake, he came upon the remains of a third building, near which
were the piles of a second bridge. The space between the two bridges
was about 100 yards, and, judging from the position of the piles,
this bridge was directed to the same point as the former--probably
La Sauge, at the opposite corner of the lake. These bridges were
supported on a succession of parallel rows of oak piles 4 to 6 inches
in diameter, and placed at intervals of 3 to 20 yards; and each row
contained five or six piles, from half a foot to 3 feet apart. About
50 yards above the second bridge a fourth dwelling was encountered,
but it appeared to have been already pillaged of its contents. Near
this our explorer proceeded to clear a portion of the bed of the
river, and lying in the mud and gravel at a depth of 10 feet from the
original surface he found a large quantity of antiquities--swords,
lances, axes, chains, razors, various wooden implements, fragments
of a large vase, the entire wheel and other parts of a chariot,
together with the bones of men, horses, and oxen. A fifth building was
subsequently discovered between the third and fourth, so that we have
here the evidence of a row of five houses situated along the right
bank of the ancient river, and all within a distance of 200 yards.

On the left bank of this supposed river only one habitation, opposite
No. 1, was discovered, which M. Vouga thought had already been
pillaged. It was reported that near this spot several human skeletons
had been discovered, one of which had a rope round the neck! Below
this the channel becomes deeply buried, and the superficial gravel
attains the depth of some ten feet; but, nevertheless, Vouga succeeded
in making excavations which decided the chronological sequence of
the Roman and Gallic remains. "It was," says he, "in the midst of
these gravels that I found the layer containing Roman remains--tiles
and fragments of pottery, nails, etc.--at a height of two and a half
to three feet above the Gallic objects." (B. 428, p. 13.) These
Gallic objects consisted of the well-known fibulæ and other articles
characteristic of La Tène, so that superposition clearly indicates the
Roman occupation to be posterior to that of its original constructors.

M. Vouga believes that the channel, along the banks of which he found
the remains of so many houses, was the right branch of two outlets
which at that time existed, and which united lower down to form
the Thielle. The left branch was nearer the rising ground towards
Epagnier, but it is now covered over with gravel, and has never yet
been examined. Some 300 or 400 yards lower down there are some gravel
pits, which are occasionally worked for road metal, in which I saw in
the summer of 1886 a great many piles, singly and in groups, cropping
up through a black peaty deposit underneath the gravel. I mentioned
the matter to M. Vouga, and he informed me that the few things found
there indicate a Gallo-Roman period.

According to M. Vouga, the site of La Tène station extended from
the south bank of the outlet to the small island formed by its two
branches before they became united. The upper part of this island, now
denuded of its peaty deposits by the action of the waves, forms part
of the lake. This denuding process is still going on at the margin
of the lake all the way from La Tène to Préfargier. Large masses of
the ancient sedimentary deposits, containing piles and relics of the
lake-dwellers, become undermined and broken up by the waves, leaving
their more solid relics, such as stone hatchets, mixed with the
gravel. These are often thrown up on the beach, and in this way many
beautiful jade hatchets have been picked up from the sites of the four
lake-dwellings now almost entirely disintegrated, which existed along
the north shore from La Tène to Préfargier. It is in the gravel at the
upper end of La Tène that most of the coins have been collected.

The success attending Vouga's excavations induced M. Borel, on behalf
of the Museum of Neuchâtel, to make further excavations along the
banks and bed of the ancient river discovered by the former, but
without much success. Finally, in 1884, the Cantonal Government having
granted to the Historical Society the exclusive right of conducting
explorations at La Tène, this society undertook fresh excavations
under the management of Messrs. Vouga and W. Wavre. During these
researches portions of a gold torque and some gold coins were the
principal finds. These coins are valuable inasmuch as they were found
_in situ_, and not, as most of the others, among the shifting gravel.

From Keller's description (B. 126) of the earlier discoveries on La
Tène it appears that Col. Schwab, on removing some large mortised
beams, found many weapons and other antiquities all huddled together.
In the light of Vouga's researches it is probable that this spot was
a dwelling similar to those I have already described, as we are told
that there were three beams of fir wood, from 15 to 20 feet long,
lying parallel to each other and a few feet apart. These beams rested
on upright piles, and contained a series of triangular holes as if
for the tenons of wooden superstructures.

RELICS.--Like the fate of most lacustrine remains, those from La
Tène have been widely scattered. Many are deposited in the Cantonal
Museums of Bienne, Neuchâtel, and Berne. The Gross collection, being
now public property, finds also a temporary lodgment in a room in
the Federal Hall in the latter town. A few, including some of the
most interesting relics, have been secured for the Museum of Geneva.
The largest of the private collections are those of Messrs. Vouga,
of Marin, and Dardel-Thorens, of St. Blaise. With the exception of
the articles in the possession of the latter gentleman (which are,
however, copiously illustrated in _Antiqua_ and the works of Vouga
and Gross), I have studied more than once all these collections. As
the principal objects have already been more or less described and
illustrated in the excellent works of Keller, Desor, Gross, and Vouga,
I wish here to acknowledge that in the production of the accompanying
illustrations I have made free use of all these publications, either
to rectify my own sketches, or (and this more especially) to give me
the correct size of the objects--a point which is rather troublesome
to attain through a glass case when, as it often happens as regards
the smaller museums, authoritative officials may not be at hand to
give access to the cases.

Owing to the peaty nature of the matrix in which the relics from
La Tène were embedded they are in a remarkably good state of
preservation. They consist chiefly of iron implements and weapons,
presenting a striking difference not only in material but also
in form and style of manufacture from any found in the ordinary
lake-dwellings. Articles of bronze are sparingly met with, and they
are, with one or two exceptions, very dissimilar to those from the
true palafittes of the Bronze Age. In giving a short description of
these relics it will be convenient to group them under the following
heads:--(1) Arms; (2) Implements and Utensils; (3) Articles of
Ornament and Dress; (4) Horse-Trappings and Waggons; (5) Money, and
Objects of Amusement, etc.; (6) Osseous Remains.

[Illustration: =Fig. 87.=--LA TÈNE. Nos. 9 to 12, and 15 = ½, and
the rest = ¼ real size.]

1. ARMS.--_Swords_ (=Fig. 87=).--The swords from La Tène, which now
number considerably over 100, are all made after one characteristic
type. They vary in total length from 30 to 38 inches (or even
more), of which the handles occupy 4 to 6½ inches. The blade is
always double-edged, generally without a defined median ridge, and
scarcely tapers in its whole length till within a few inches of the
extremity, when it gradually forms a round blunt tip. It is devoid of
ornamentation, except in one or two instances where parallel grooves
run along the median line, or the surface becomes thickly dotted
with small impressions. Others again have small incised figures
upon them (No. 15), but these are supposed to be makers' marks--an
interpretation which seems to be corroborated from the fact that those
bearing such marks are of a superior quality. The handle is separated
from the blade by a prominent curved ridge attached to the hilt of the
blade, into the concave side of which the end of the scabbard neatly
fits. Although all the swords hitherto found at La Tène have this
dividing ridge in the form of a graceful curve such as is represented
in the illustrations, I may remark that some of the same type from
other stations are straight. What now remains of the handle is merely
the central tang, over which there was a grip of horn or wood. On this
tang were sometimes small transverse plaques for fastening the handle
(No. 8); and Vouga figures one with two small circles from a grave of
the Iron Age at Bevaix, which I here reproduce (No. 7) on account of
its striking similarity to the sword-handles from Lisnacroghera. (See
=Fig. 124=, Nos. 1 and 2.)

The sheaths are formed of two plates of iron (rarely bronze), one
of which overlaps the other at the margins, where they are riveted
together. Sometimes these plates are strengthened by one or more cross
ridges, and about the lower third a raised bead begins which runs
round the tip. These attachments often assume an ornamental character
(Nos. 3, 4, and 5). The upper surface of the sheath is also generally
ornamented with a variety of curious designs, in which spiral and
recurring scroll patterns play a conspicuous part (Nos. 3, 10, and
11). But perhaps the most remarkable design is that of three fantastic
animals (No. 9), which, from their resemblance to the figures on
Gallic coins, first led Desor to the conclusion that the weapons had a
similar origin. Only three sheaths are known to have been ornamented
along their entire length--viz. Nos. 1, 2, and 12. That on No. 12 was
repeated three times at regular intervals. The underside of the sheath
has always a suspension clasp, which assumes various elegant shapes
(Nos. 4, 13, and 14). In one instance the upper sheath-plate was of
bronze, and another had both plates of iron, but the surrounding bead
was of bronze. No. 6 represents a piece of iron (being one of about a
dozen similar pieces found at La Tène), which is supposed to be the
rudimentary stage of the sword-blade.

[Illustration: =Fig. 88.=--LA TÈNE. Nos. 7, 10, 13, and 14 = ⅓, and
the rest = ¼ real size.]

_Lance and Javelin Heads_ (=Fig. 88=).--These weapons are extremely
varied in shape and size, as may be seen from a glance at the
illustrations. They all have sockets, and the smallness of the
bore at once distinguishes them from Roman weapons of the same
class. Sometimes the socket is short, while the blade is large and
leaf-shaped, and at other times it runs nearly the whole length of
the latter. Two nail holes, and sometimes small prominences, are seen
at the lower end of the socket, by which the wooden handle was more
firmly fastened. In a few instances (No. 12) there is no median ridge,
but generally this is a prominent feature extending the whole length
of the blade, and sometimes it assumes a triangular form, like that in
our modern bayonet (Nos. 3, 4, etc.). Another peculiarity of some of
these weapons is the cutting away of segments and semilunar portions,
either at the edges (Nos. 1, 3, and 17) or in the body of the blade
(Nos. 1 and 2). One fine weapon has an oval blade with a crenated or
wavy edge (No. 5).

The butt end of the wooden handle was protected by an iron knob (Nos.
7, 10, 13, and 14), either simply conical or multilateral, above which
there was a neat ferule (No. 13).

_Arrow-heads._--It is only in the later excavations that a few
arrow-points have come to light. Like the spear-heads, they are all
socketed (Nos. 15 and 16).

_Shields, etc._ (=Fig. 89=).--Several objects have been found at La
Tène which must be considered as shield-mountings. The umbo was of
thin iron, arched in the centre, and attached to the shield by large
studs or sometimes small nails (No. 1). The handle was made of a
curved iron rod riveted to two rectangular plates of iron attached
to the shield (No. 2). Some large handsome plaques of bronze, of a
flamboyant character, are supposed to have been ornaments on the face
of the shield (Nos. 3 and 4), of which about half a dozen altogether
have been found. Besides these there are several discs and other
objects of bronze (Nos. 5, 8, 9 to 11, and 21), many of which were
probably ornaments for horse-harness, and there are some which Dr.
Gross conjectures to have been ornaments for helmets. (B. 446, p.
28.) The curious object of thin bronze represented by No. 20 is also
supposed to be an ornament for a helmet.

2. IMPLEMENTS AND UTENSILS.--_Hatchets_ (=Fig. 90=).--Though
comparatively rare, the hatchets are of various kinds (only about
twenty have been hitherto found). One form (Nos. 1, 2, and 7) reminds
one of the winged celt of the Bronze Age. The former, however, has
only two wings, instead of four as in the latter, and its cutting edge
is more expanded. Others are like our modern axes and adzes (Nos. 4,
5, and 6). One of this type is made of bronze, but of so diminutive
a size as to give rise to the idea that it was a toy (=Fig. 91=, No.
31).

[Illustration: =Fig. 89.=--LA TÈNE. Nos. 8 = ½, 20 = ⅛, 12 = about
1/20, and the rest = ¼ real size.]

_Chisels and Gouges._--These tools differ only from those of the
Bronze Age in being made of iron. They are in considerable numbers
(=Fig. 90=, Nos. 33 and 34).

_Hammers._--Only a very few hammers are recorded; they are small,
and generally hafted by means of a central hole (No. 22). The almost
entire absence of implements from La Tène, required in the forging of
iron, is somewhat remarkable, and in striking contrast with the number
of foundry materials collected from the palafittes of "_le bel âge du
bronze_."

_Saws._--Also sparingly represented. Two found by Vouga had handles,
one of horn (No. 25) and the other of wood (No. 24). Another has a
solid handle of iron, and terminates at the other end in a curious
raised hook (No. 29).

_File._--Only one object of this class (No. 37) is recorded.

_Shears._--Three of these implements are here illustrated (Nos. 15,
16, and 17), from which it will be seen that they are precisely
similar to those still used for sheep-shearing. They are elegant
in shape, and some even still retain their elasticity. The number
collected from La Tène is over a dozen.

_Sickles and Scythes._--The few sickles recorded resemble those of
modern times, and some of them had teeth. Scythes, more numerous than
the sickles, vary in size from 14 to 20 inches in length, and 1½ to
3 inches in breadth. They were hafted by a crooked tang and a ring,
precisely like those still in use (Nos. 30 and 32).

_Knives._--As regards style and ornamentation, the knives of the Iron
Age are greatly inferior to those of the preceding age. Their size and
special characters are sufficiently shown in the illustrations (Nos. 8
to 12). One, like the saw already noticed, has a peculiar hook at the
point (No. 23).

_Razors._--The so-called razors are short, thick, and heavy blades
with a rounded cutting edge, and a small prolongation as a handle
(Nos. 18, 27, and 28). One of these implements was found adhering by
its rust to a pair of shears (Nos. 17 and 18).

[Illustration: =Fig. 90.=--LA TÈNE. All ¼ real size.]

_Pruning Hooks._--Under this category I reckon some large cutting
implements in the form of a bent knife, similar to that in present use
for cutting hedges. The one here figured from La Tène (No. 31) is very
similar to those found on some of the palafittes in Lake Constance.
(See =Fig. 32=, No. 11.)

_Pincers._--Pincers are of bronze and iron, and vary considerably both
in size and form, as may be seen from the illustrations (=Fig. 91=,
No. 11 to 14).

_Pots and Dishes._--Of earthenware only a few fragments have come to
light, and it is said to be of a totally different kind from that of
the true palafittes. It is black and coarse, and shows no evidence
of having been made on the wheel; but as to this there appears to be
difference of opinion. (B. 428, p. 27, and 446, p. 48.) In addition
to this kind, however, there are usually found on the surface of the
peaty bed and in the superimposed gravel beds fragments of tiles,
pottery, etc., the Roman origin of which cannot be mistaken; but such
industrial remains, according to the explorers, are more superficial,
and, consequently, posterior to the Gallic remains. (B. 428, p. 27.)

On the other hand, La Tène has furnished several large pots of beaten
bronze, with rims and ring-handles of iron (=Fig. 92=, No. 19), some
bronze cups (No. 18), a large iron ladle (No. 20), and one or two
chains with large hooks, probably pot-hangers (No. 1). The cup here
represented was found on the shore in the vicinity of La Tène, but it
is supposed to have come from this station.[45]

_Fishing Materials_ (=Fig. 90=).--Among this class of objects are
some large spears with two or three prongs (No. 14), fishing-hooks of
bronze and iron (Nos. 39 and 40), and some implements like the iron
tips of boating gaffs (Nos. 13 and 26).

_Diverse._--Hammer-stones, polishers, and corn-grinders are like those
used in the preceding ages.

3. OBJECTS OF ORNAMENT AND DRESS.--As regards the objects coming under
this category, if we exclude the fibulæ and torques, which we now
know to have been worn by men as well as women, it is noteworthy that
those peculiar to female adornment are extremely rare, if not entirely
awanting--a fact which strongly supports the theory that this station
was a military fort.

_Fibulæ_ (=Fig. 91=).--The number of fibulæ from La Tène now amounts
to several hundreds. They are all made on one principle, viz. that
of our modern safety-pins. This principle is simply an evolutionary
stage of the function of the straight pin, by which the point is bent
round so as to meet the top after having subjected the stem to several
twists so as to give it elasticity. In the part corresponding to the
top of the pin there is a catch for the point when fastened. The
ornamentation on the upper part and the number of spiral twists on
the stem are so varied that each fibula has a distinct individuality
of its own, and no two specimens exactly alike have ever yet been
found. Their average size is from two to six inches in length, but
sometimes they exceed this, as in one here figured (No. 1), which is
10½ inches in length. They are almost exclusively made of iron (Nos.
1 to 6), the exceptions being one or two of bronze (Nos. 18 and 26),
and a small circular-shaped brooch of gold (B. 428, p. 28), which are
somewhat analogous to those of the Hallstadt period.

[Illustration: =Fig. 91.=--LA TÈNE. No. 32 = ⅓, and the rest = ½
real size.]

_Pins, Needles, etc._--The ornamental pins are few in number, and
generally made of bronze. Of four here figured (Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 36)
one has a double stem, and is so similar to some half-dozen found in
the Pfahlbauten of the Bronze Age that it is more likely to be a stray
object from the latter than a relic of La Tène. Nor is this at all
improbable, as we have already seen that there were several of these
stations quite in the vicinity of La Tène, the relic-beds of which
have become almost entirely disintegrated by the waves.

A remarkable object, found by Vouga, consists of an ornamental bronze
tube, closed at one end, and having six movable rings symmetrically
arranged (No. 19). There can be no doubt this was a needle-holder, as
it contained a well-formed needle of iron (No. 20). Another curious
object, having an eye like that of a needle, terminating in an
elongated bulb instead of a sharp point, is represented by No. 15.

_Buckles, Rings, etc._--A large assortment of iron clasps (Nos. 27 and
30), buckles (Nos. 28 and 32), rings (No. 33), etc., is to be found in
all the collections from La Tène. There are also to be met with a few
beads and buttons of bronze (No. 23), and some glass beads of a pretty
blue colour, or variegated with blue, yellow, and white (Nos. 22, 24,
and 25). One has part of a bronze twisted wire passing through it (No.
21).

_Bracelets._--In striking contrast to the fibulæ, bracelets are very
rare. Dr. Gross figures one of bronze wire; another of an iron rod,
with the inside flattened; and a third of iron plate, riveted, forming
a hollow tube, reminding one of the ornamental hollow rings of the
Bronze Age. (B. 446, Pl x. 17, 18, and 27.) Of the two here figured
(Nos. 34 and 35), one is a spiral rod, and the other a flat band, both
of iron. Fragments of glass bracelets, in the form of a flat band,
having the outside ornamented with wavy corrugations, have also been
found. (B. 126, p. 294.)

_Neck-Rings._--Several portions of massive neck rings, precisely
similar to those represented on ancient statuary as peculiar to
distinguished Gallic warriors, as, for example, that on the neck of
the "Dying Gladiator" in Rome, have been found at La Tène. They appear
to have been made of two symmetrical portions, which, when worn, were
united at the back of the neck, and then formed a large penannular
ring, with an expanded bulb at each end (Nos. 16 and 17). They were
sometimes plain rings, but generally they were more or less worked
into some artistic pattern. That represented on the dying gladiator is
distinctly seen to be twisted spirally immediately above the terminal
bulbs. Of the two here represented, one (No. 16) is of gold, and
weighs 72·90 grammes, and the other of bronze (No. 17).

4. HORSE-TRAPPINGS, WAGGONS, ETC.--Among the objects under this
class we have not only bridle-bits (=Fig. 89=, Nos. 14 to 18),
spurs (No. 6), various discs and other objects of bronze, supposed
to have been ornaments on horse-harness (Nos. 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, and
21), but the actual remains of waggons, as wheels (No. 12), part of
the wooden pole, linch-pins (No. 19), and other attachments. The
wheel here figured shows a nave with 10 spokes and fellies, which
are bound together by an iron hoop, precisely similar to the wheels
now in use. "La roue entière," writes its discoverer, "a un mètre de
diamètre; trouvée en compagnie d'épées gauloises, elle avait sur le
moyeu un umbo de bouclier. Le cercle de fer qui l'entoure, d'environ
un centimètre d'épaisseur, a 5 centimètres de largeur, le moyeu a
60 centimètres de longueur, il est formé de deux pièces, reliées de
chaque côté par un ou deux petits cercles. Les rais sont en chêne au
nombre de dix et la jante est, ou plutôt était, d'une seule pièce
courbée et paraît de frêne; elle avait été raccommodée et la pièce
est assujettie au moyen d'un clou et d'une embrasse de fer.

"Elle était encore entière, mais, en la transportant, quelques
rais tombèrent et comme je ne pus pas la mettre immédiatement et
entièrement dans l'eau, la jante se retira en peu de jours, laissant
un espace entre le bois et le fer, de sorte que, quand je voulus
mettre la roue entière dans son bassin de zinc, elle se sépara en
plusieurs morceaux.

"Dans la même couche, mais dans la partie inférieure, puisqu'elle
allait en pente, on trouvait des parties d'autres roues, des rais,
moyeux calcinés, des manches de haches droits ou coudés pour celts,
des parties de bois de lances, des poches en bois avec manches des
fragments de grandes écuelles en bois, etc., de grandes et fortes
poutres avec mortaises." (B. 428, p. 22.)

The fragments of this interesting relic are now carefully preserved in
liquid in a large trough in the Museum at Neuchâtel.

The number of bridle-bits (excluding objects represented by Nos. 15
and 16, which are also supposed to have been used for this purpose)
amounts to about a dozen. They are all made of well-beaten iron, with
the exception of one (No. 17) which has a superficial layer of bronze
over the iron, and have large side-rings, and a central mouthpiece
divided into two symmetrical halves.

5. MONEY, OBJECTS OF AMUSEMENT, ETC.--_Coins._--But perhaps the most
interesting feature of La Tène is the discovery of coins among its
strange assortment of relics. Some of these are Roman, but others are
undoubtedly of Gallic origin, being identical with those otherwise
known to have been current among the various tribes in Gaul, prior to
any intervention in their affairs by the Romans. In most cases they
were picked up on the surface or amongst constantly shifting gravel,
and of course no conclusive inferences could be drawn from them. This
uncertainty is now, however, removed by the discovery of two gold
pieces at a depth of 10 feet below the present surface, and associated
with the usual characteristic objects of La Tène. "En creusant à la
drague," says Vouga, "les pêcheurs de M. Schwab ont découvert une
monnaie d'or et plusieurs monnaies d'argent et de potin ou de bronze.
Plus tard, M. Alexis Dardel et d'autres personnes en ont aussi trouvé
en assez grand nombre, surtout sur la tourbe et sur les bords du lac
où les vagues les entraînaient, et une quantité de monnaies romaines
avec des monnaies de Marseille, de Nîmes, de Lyon, de Vienne. Le
plus grand nombre a dû se trouver sur l'île, entre les deux bras de
la Thielle; mais de là, à mesure que le terrain était enlevé, ces
monnaies étaient balayées et entraînées au bord avec les graviers.

[Illustration: =Fig. 92.=--LA TÈNE. Nos. 1, 15, 19 and 20 = about ⅙,
18 = ⅓ and the rest = ⅔ real size.]

"Comme elles se trouvent toutes pêle-mêle, on ne peut en tirer des
conclusions bien sûres. Il n'en est pas de même de deux monnaies en
or trouvées à trois mètres de profondeur avec les objets mêmes de la
Tène, en février, 1884; ce sont, d'après les descriptions qu'en a
faites M. le Dr. Trachsel, de Lausanne, qui les croit Carnutes, du
pays Chartrain. Une monnaie gauloise, en or pâle, concave, du poids de
7.783 grammes (=Fig. 92=, No. 2): A. Tête à bandeau royal; R. Aurige
conduisant un char attelé de deux chevaux; à l'exergue, inscription
étrusque ou grecque, indistincte." (B. 428, p. 29.) The other coin is
very like the above in every respect, except that it is smaller, being
only about one quarter of its weight.

The gold coins are rare, only seven in all, according to Vouga, being
recorded. One, in the Museum of Bienne, is described by Keller (B.
126, p. 302, and Pl. xv. 34) as a bad imitation of the Macedonian
coins of Philip. Another (described in the _Anzeiger_ for 1883, p.
401) is similar to =Fig. 92=, No. 2. A fifth is a fragment, and the
remaining two consist of small elongated rolls of gold (No. 10).[46]

Besides the gold coins from La Tène, there are about 100 of silver,
and about the same number of bronze or potin (a mixture of copper,
tin, and lead), representing a great variety of coinages, both native
and foreign (Nos. 3 to 9, and 11).

Dr. Gross, having submitted some specimens of these coins, intended
as illustrations for his work on La Tène, to M. A. de Barthelémy,
publishes the following as the opinion of this eminent numismatist as
to their date:--

"En résumé les monnaies dessinées sur la planche XI, à l'exception des
Nos. 23 et 24 [gold coins] qui, à cause de leur métal, ont en un cours
prolongé, sont de la seconde moitié du premier siècle avant l'ère
chrétienne, principalement de la fin." (B. 446, p. 47.)

_Amusements._--Among objects of this nature are several dice, some of
bronze and others of bone (Nos. 12 to 14). Also, about a dozen small
stones of the size of ordinary marbles, and perfectly round, except on
one side, where there is a segment, as it were, cut off, are supposed
to have been used for some kind of game.

_Diverse._--In concluding this summary of the relics from La Tène, I
have merely to mention as unclassified objects a four-footed figurine
and a small wheel, both of bronze, and in the collection of Mr. Dardel
(Nos. 16 and 17). Dr. Gross describes a bronze object resembling a
tobacco-pipe (No. 21) which, he believes, was found on this station.

6. OSSEOUS REMAINS.--To these relics is further to be added a large
quantity of the osseous remains of men and domestic animals. Of the
circumstances in which the earlier finds of this description were made
we have not very definite information. Keller, writing in 1866 (B.
126, p. 295), speaks of a basketful of human bones representing some
eight individuals; and Desor about the same time found a human skull,
which he figures in his work on the palafittes. (B. 95.) M. Vouga,
however, gives precise and most interesting information regarding
the conditions in which he encountered the osseous remains of human
beings, as well as those of the horse, ox, pig, and dog.

We have already seen how M. Vouga came upon the _débris_ of a series
of wooden houses constructed on the banks of an ancient river.
Referring to these establishments he thus writes:--

"Devant le premier établissement je trouvai un crâne entier de femme.
Devant le second, je trouvai pareillement les ossements de trois ou
quatre personnes et trois crânes, dont un portait les traces de coups
d'épée sur le sommet; un second était remarquable par sa déformité
et l'extension de la partie postérieure. Devant le quatrième, deux
mâchoires inférieures et les ossements dune trentaine de personnes,
avec un très grand nombre d'os de chevaux, de boeufs, et de
porcs. Devant le troisième, un crâne de chien grand et entier. Devant
le cinquième, trois squelettes entiers dont un portait une corde au
cou(?).

"Outres ces crânes et ces ossements dont je puis indiquer la
provenance, il a été trouvé un grand nombre d'autres squelettes,
d'ossements divers, de crânes de chevaux appartenant à une petite race.

"Je ne pourrais pas garantir l'âge de tous les squelettes, puisque,
comme je l'ai dit en commençant, deux doivent être bourguignons,
ayant retrouvé l'emplacement de la tombe avec un poignard de cette
époque, et que six autres se sont trouvés à mi-hauteur, non loin d'un
chénau en bois, et que la couche romaine paraissait s'incliner vers ce
côté-là," (B. 428, p. 31.)

CONCLUDING REMARKS ON LA TÈNE.--In face of the above facts, the
opinion of the earlier investigators that La Tène was an ordinary
palafitte of the Iron Age, analogous to the lake-villages of the
preceding ages, can no longer be entertained. Its geographical
position, commanding the great highway between Constance and Geneva,
and the vast preponderance of warlike weapons among its relics,
clearly point to its having been a military station or outlook. Nor
does it require much penetration to learn from its present ruins
something of its final fate. The quantity of human bones representing
some 30 or 40 individuals, some with gashes on the tops of their
skulls; the number of abandoned swords, still in their scabbards;
the incongruous medley of relics found by Vouga at the bottom of
the ancient river-bed--all indicate that its capture by an enemy
was sudden and the struggle fierce. The discovery of Roman remains,
such as coins, tiles, pottery, bricks (one with the mark of the 21st
legion, "Rapax"),[47] on and around La Tène, leave little doubt that
its conquerors were the Romans.

_Literature._--B. 22, 31, 72, 95, 119, 126, 419, 420_a_', 420_b_',
420_c_, 428, 434_a_, 446, 449_a_", and 463_c_. Also Virchow on the
human remains in vols. xv. and xvi., _Zeit. für Ethn. Verhand._


LAKE PALADRU.

From time immemorial a legend prevailed among the inhabitants around
Lake Paladru that a city had been buried in its waters--a catastrophe
brought about by the maledictions of the monks of the neighbouring
Carthusian establishment of Sylve Bénite. On the 24th September, 1864,
M. Vallier, of Grenoble, and some friends arranged a boating excursion
for the purpose of examining the lake as to the reported existence of
piles in it, with the view of accounting for the currency of the above
legend, and found no less than six different sites where piles were
to be seen projecting more or less from the mud. These were supposed
to be the remains of lacustrine villages of which the following
particulars were ascertained:--

1. STATION DES GRANDS ROSEAUX.--This station was situated near the
head of the lake, and about two hundred yards from shore; depth of
water from one to two feet; piles sometimes three feet apart, and
sometimes much less; over 150 were counted.

2. STAT. DE L'ILE DE LOYASSE.--Two hundred and fifty yards from the
former, and about 100 yards from shore. Only about twenty piles were
counted.

3. STAT. DE LA GENEVRIÈRE.--About 600 yards farther on and 70 yards
from shore. About twenty piles counted.

4. STAT. DE LA NEYRE.--About 200 yards from the preceding, and close
to the shore.

5. STAT. DU PLÂTRE.--About thirty piles counted in water from 10 to 13
feet deep.

6. STAT. DU PUITS DES CARPES.--Fifty or sixty piles observed close to
each other and about 20 yards from the shore.

These indications of pile-dwellings, though strengthened by further
observations by M. Vallier in the following year, really contributed
little to the elucidation of the problem as to the period to which
they belonged; so that the work of M. Vallier, "La Légende de la
Ville d'Ars sur les Bords du Lac de Paladru," leaves the question
much in the same position as it was left by Professor Fournet, who
had already suggested, in 1860,[48] that the legend of the buried
city had its origin in the former existence of lake-dwellings. It
remained to M. Ernest Chantre, of Lyons, to make the first practical
investigations to clear up the mystery. To this line of research he
was led by the encouragement and knowledge he had received at the
first meeting of the International Congress of Prehistoric Archæology,
held at Neuchâtel, in 1866, when he had an opportunity of being
initiated by Professor Desor and others in lacustrine research. His
first efforts, an account of which was published in the _Matériaux_
for 1867, showed that two of the stations mentioned by M. Vallier
belonged to the Iron Age. Learning then that engineering works were
in progress for regulating the outflow of the waters of this lake,
which would have the effect of lowering its level, M. Chantre deferred
his proposed excavations till these more favourable conditions should
be accomplished. His subsequent investigations, conducted in the
autumn of 1870, were confined to the first-named station (Grands
Roseaux), which, from his former experience, gave greater promise of
archæological results. From it he had already picked up some bones of
the ox, pig, stag, etc., the kernels of a species of small cherry and
of two kinds of plums, fragments of pottery of a different kind from
any found in the Swiss lake-dwellings, an iron knife, and a wooden
comb. Owing to the lowering of the lake the station was now (1870)
a foot above water, and it could be easily examined by the spade on
_terra firma_. In the excavations which ensued the following strata
were met with:--(1) Eight inches of peaty mud and roots of water
plants; (2) About eighteen inches of peat containing bits of worked
wood and bones; (3) Ten inches of peat containing bones, fragments of
pottery, and a great variety of antiquities; (4) Underneath this peat
was the whitish lake sediment known as shell-marl.

The area occupied by the piles and wooden beams was about 1,600
square yards in extent, and of a somewhat circular shape. The tops
of the piles were water-worn, and projected above the mud from one
foot to one foot and a half. They were made of the stems of trees
from 10 to 16 feet long, and 7½ to 15 inches in diameter, some being
squared and pointed with the hatchet, and most of them penetrated
to the shell-marl. Their distance from each other varied very much.
Many were observed to be in groups of four, rectangularly placed,
with cross timbers stretching between them, thus forming a series
of square or rectangular chambers. The cross-beams overlapped each
other, and each had a cutaway cavity at the point of crossing, which
kept it in position, precisely on the principle on which the Swiss
chalets are constructed at the present day. The walls of the submerged
compartments contained some four or five of these transverses, and the
space enclosed varied from 7 to 30 feet long. In the larger spaces the
uprights were not restricted to the corners, but occupied intermediate
positions inside the enclosed area. Numerous tenons, mortises, pegs,
and other portions of worked timbers, proved that these structures
were erected by the hatchet and chisel alone, as none showed any
evidence of the use of the saw; nor were there any iron nails found.

The woodwork was so abundant, that the removal of it became a regular
employment; and for its discovery the mud was probed with iron rods.

In two places a double row of piles stretched to the shore, one 230
feet and the other 130 feet long, which, there can be little doubt,
were the remains of gangways.

The industrial relics (=Fig. 93=) consisted largely of iron objects,
among which were several knives (No. 3), an axe (No. 11), an · awl,
a gimlet, part of a pair of shears (No. 2), a chisel, part of a lock
(No. 8), chains (No. 7), several keys (No. 9), horseshoes (Nos. 5
and 6), a curry-comb (No. 10), a spur (No. 12), a lance (No. 4), and
portions of a javelin.

[Illustration: =Fig. 93.=--PALADRU. All ⅓ real size.]

Of other materials there were two bone-counters (Nos. 14 and 15), a
sharpening stone, the half of a leaden bracelet (No. 1), and a number
of wooden objects, viz. two combs (No. 21), spoons (No. 19), pestles
(No. 17), a bobbin (No. 20), and some perforated bits, like floats for
nets (Nos. 13 and 16).

Pottery is of a greyish-black colour, well baked, and fashioned on the
wheel, with an ornamentation of a very unusual character (Nos. 18, 22,
23, and 24). The only entire vessel was flask-shaped, having a hole
in the middle of one of its sides (No. 24). Some pieces of cloth like
Roman tissues, and a portion of a Roman vase, were also found.

The animals identified from the bones were the ox, sheep, goat, horse
(a small race), pig, dog, and a large-sized otter. Among the remains
of fruits were two species of cherry, two species of plums, peaches,
walnuts, hazel-nuts, acorns, etc.

Oak was the only wood used in the construction of the submerged
foundations, with the exception of one trunk of a chestnut tree; but
ash, cornel-cherry, and box had been used for making utensils. (B.
193.)

In 1885, owing to the lowness of the water in the lake, further
discoveries were made on this station (Grands Roseaux). Immediately
in front of the lacustrine village, on its lake side, a triple row
of piles was detected, which appeared to have acted as a breakwater;
and on its site, along with some great oak-beams, were found various
relics of a similar character to those already described. Among these
were the following iron objects of the Carlovingian period--viz.
17 knives, 2 keys, a hook, a pair of shears, a stirrup, 2 spurs,
a portion of the umbo of a shield, and some horseshoes of a small
size. The other objects recorded were two portions of wooden spoons,
fragments of a comb made of yew, and a piece of goatskin.[49]


RHINE DISTRICT.

In the two lacustrine stations just described we had to deal with
remains essentially different from any that have hitherto come under
our notice. In La Tène both stone and bronze objects are quite the
exception, while those of iron are not only in great abundance, but,
from their variety and style of art, clearly show that the working
and forging of this metal had reached a great state of perfection. In
short, we have inherent evidence that the civilisation of the Bronze
Age was now superseded by one of a totally different character, and
yet it would seem that this complete change had been accomplished
independent of, and prior to, the advent of the Romans. On the other
hand, the class of antiquities found in Lake Paladru brings us down to
Carlovingian times, probably as late as the ninth or tenth century.
In pursuing our investigations northwards we find records of many
lake-dwellings which, like these, are the products of later ages than
those in which the Swiss Pfahlbauten flourished. But, at the same
time, there is satisfactory evidence as regards others in the same
localities that they belonged to the Prehistoric Ages. Professor
Virchow (B. 165) considers that, with one or two exceptions, all the
lake-dwellings of North Germany were founded during the Iron Age, and,
like our Scottish and Irish crannogs, continued down to the Middle
Ages. As regards many, however, no conclusive inferences can be drawn,
as they are imperfectly or entirely unexplored.


THE PALATINATE.

Mr. C. Mehlis (B. 400) states that in the low-lying land near
Billigheim, on the left bank of the Rhine, evidences of a
pile-dwelling have for many years been observed. In one place piles
were found in their original position. They consisted of square-cut
oak beams, about six feet long, and placed in the form of a rectangle.
Near them were collected in great numbers tiles of a dark-red colour,
fragments of pottery peculiar to the period from the tenth to the
thirteenth century, and bones of the deer. In addition to these
relics, which point to the early Middle Ages, there were others at
a greater depth which no less conclusively point to a much earlier
period. These are described as implements of stone and flint, such as
knives, axes, spear-heads, etc.

Other indications were noticed in the turf-beds at Landstuhl
and Durkheim; and below Mayence, Lindenschmit has shown that a
pile-dwelling existed in Roman times. Other stations are said to be
at Würzburg, Wiesentheid, and Niedissigheim, in which the bones of
various oxen and pigs were found associated with piles. (400a, p. 254.)


DEÛLE-À-HOUPLIN.

In 1876 M. Rigaux announced the existence of a pile-dwelling in the
marsh of Deûle-à-Houplin, in the Département du Nord, in which were
found not only broken bones, flint objects chipped and polished, and
pottery, but also some metal objects.[50]


MAESTRICHT (HOLLAND).

In the valley of the Meuse, near Maestricht, Mr. Ubaghs (B. 413)
describes a sort of artificial island composed of trunks of trees
brushwood, leaves, etc., which came to light in 1883 in the course of
railway excavations. This curious structure lies close to the canal
from Maestricht to Bois-le-Duc; and it appears that when this canal,
many years ago, was being constructed, it is recorded that the workmen
had come upon much wood and bones, which were thrown away as of no
importance. The portion now exposed by the railway excavations was
about 16 feet below the surface and extended parallel to the canal for
about 50 yards, with a breadth of 11 yards, and Mr. Ubaghs estimates
that 4 or 5 yards more were destroyed by the canal operations. The
trunks were from 6 to 13 feet long and, in some instances, 1 foot in
diameter. The larger ones were underneath and reposed on a bed of
gravel, in which they were partially embedded. Above the beams were
decayed branches and leaves, forming a bed of vegetable _débris_
some eight or nine inches in thickness, but no upright piles were
anywhere observed. Mr. Ubaghs considers this was in former times an
island constructed partly, at least, artificially, like the Irish
crannogs or the Pfahlbauten at Schussenried, and that it served as a
dwelling-place for hunters, who left the remains of feasts and broken
weapons behind them.

Among the objects of archæological value collected were the
following:--Portion of a human skull, and various bones of the horse,
urus, ox, stag, goat, dog, pig, beaver, and the humerus of a bird. The
industrial relics consisted of various kinds of implements and weapons
of bone and staghorn, as harpoons, perforated clubs, daggers, etc., of
which a few are here represented (=Fig. 94=). As these illustrations
are merely copied from Ubaghs' work, and are not drawn to scale, I
give the respective lengths of the objects, viz. (1) 15½, (2) 10, (3)
6½, (4) 13½, (5) 4¾, (6) 3, and (7) 3½ inches.

No complete skeleton of any animal was found, because, as Mr. Ubaghs
remarks, these hunters only carried certain portions of the dead
animals to their abodes. It was also observed that the spongy portions
of the bones had been gnawed away, probably by dogs.

To the portion of the human skull (_dolichocephalic_) there is now
more than ordinary interest attached, as it was near the same spot
that Professor Crahay discovered the celebrated human jaw known as the
"Smeermaas mâchoire," and subsequently described by Sir Charles Lyell
in his "Antiquity of Man" as coeval with a mammoth tusk found in the
vicinity. The present skull was found 11 to 13 feet below the surface,
lying upon the gravel bed on which the wooden structures reposed. From
a careful comparison of it with the "Crahay jaw," now in the cabinet
of anatomy in the University of Leyden, Mr. Ubaghs found that the
two relics were identical as to patina, consistency of bone, and the
composition of the material in which they were embedded (traces of
which still adhered to them), and he comes to the prosaic conclusion
that the two belonged to the Maestricht crannog: "Cette mâchoire,
ainsi que les autres ossements de la même provenance, ont appartenu à
notre station lacustre près de Maestricht."

[Illustration: =Fig. 94.=--MAESTRICHT.]

M. Kerkhoffs[51] attacks Sir Charles Lyell for some palpable mistakes
he has made regarding the relative positions of the Crahay jaw and
the mammoth tusk. According to Sir Charles, the tusk was found "six
yards removed from the human jaw, in horizontal distance."[52] M.
Kerkhoffs gives the following quotation from Crahay's original notice
of the discovery:--"Dans une pointe que forme le plateau de Kaberg, en
s'avançant dans la plaine, près de Smeermaas, on a rencontré dans la
terre argileuse à 6m50 au-dessous du sol, la mâchoire inférieure d'un
homme garnie de ses dents, sans être accompagnée d'aucun autre reste;
elle ne semblait pas avoir roulé; les ouvriers assurent que la terre
n'y avait pas été remuée. L'os est très fragile, mais n'a pas été dans
cet état de mollesse des ossements d'éléphants; aussi n'est-ce pas
la même couche de terre; car au-dessous de cette mâchoire s'étendait
une couche irregulière de gravier et de cailloux de 2 à 3 mètres
d'épaisseur, au-dessous de laquelle était placée une nouvelle couche
argileuse dans laquelle on a trouvé des restes d'éléphants à 14 mètres
au-dessous du sol."

From these remarks it would appear that Sir Charles Lyell's account
of the position of the _mâchoire_ is neither a fact nor in accordance
with Professor Crahay's description of the conditions in which it
was found, as the tusk is here described as having been over 24 feet
deeper.[53]


NORTH GERMANY.--(A) MECKLENBURG.

LATTMOOR.--The discovery of lake-dwellings in North Germany dates back
to the summer of 1863, when Dr. Lisch, Curator of the Antiquarian
Museum at Schwerin, accompanied one Sergeant Büsch to inspect a peat
bog at a place called Gägelow, in the vicinity of Wismar, where the
latter reported that some stone implements had been found. Dr. Lisch
recognised in this place the site of a lake-dwelling and looked upon
the discovery as one of great importance. Soon afterwards Büsch, who
was a member of the Antiquarian Society of Schwerin, and took an
active part in collecting objects for the museum, ascertained that
similar remains were often met with in the peat bog known as the
Lattmoor, situated about a mile to the north of the town of Wismar.
On the 4th July, 1864, Büsch so greatly astonished the members of the
society with the number and variety of objects he placed before them
that Dr. Lisch again accompanied him to this new field of discovery,
and again came to the conclusion that it was the site of a true
Pfahlbau. Sergeant Büsch, to whom the credit of these discoveries
was undoubtedly due, became greatly elated over his successes, and
continued to supply Dr. Lisch with the most extraordinary objects from
this lake-dwelling, all of which were accepted without exciting the
slightest suspicion that any of them had been falsified. In 1865 Dr.
Lisch published an illustrated report of the Wismar lake-dwellings
(B. 100), and the subject attracted much attention in archæological
circles on account of their analogy to those in Switzerland. Shortly
after the appearance of Lisch's work Dr. Lindenschmit, of Mayence,
announced that certain objects included in a small collection which
Büsch had sent to him were falsifications, and especially pointed
out a bone comb and some other bone objects which undoubtedly came
under this category. The doubts thus cast on the relics from the
Wismar lake-dwelling became intensified when soon afterwards Büsch
got into trouble in regard to some money matters, which ended in his
being convicted and punished for forgery. Not only was there now
doubt cast upon the genuineness of the entire relics, so much prized
at the Schwerin Museum, but the very existence of the lake-dwelling
was called in question. After this untoward event Dr. Lisch became
more cautious and carefully inspected all the relics that had already
come to the museum, the result of which was that Büsch had not only
fabricated a considerable number, but also included real objects of
antiquity found elsewhere as coming from the lake-dwelling. All the
doubtful specimens were then carefully eliminated from the collection,
and further investigations were undertaken by competent and
trustworthy men, notably Messrs. Fromm and Mann of Wismar. The result
of this inquiry was such as to leave no doubt whatever as to the
genuineness of the Wismar lake-dwelling, as the same class of objects
continued to be found after the disappearance of the unfortunate
Büsch altogether from the scene. A couple of years later Dr. Lisch
published a second report of the Wismar Pfahlbauten (B. 142), in which
he notes those articles he considered to have been forgeries, chiefly
objects of bone and horn, in his previous report, and incorporates the
further discoveries. Since 1867 little peat-cutting has been carried
on in this part of the moor, and the antiquities have correspondingly
decreased. A final report of this lake-dwelling was, however, given
in 1873, by Dr. Lisch, which in every respect confirms its previous
character. (B. 242.) Professor Virchow, who also visited the locality
and, with his usual critical acumen, investigated the whole matter,
came to the conclusion that, notwithstanding Büsch's incomprehensible
mystifications, the lake-dwelling at Wismar was undoubtedly
trustworthy. (B. 165.)

I visited the Museum of Schwerin during the summer of 1888 for
the express purpose of seeing these remains, and after a careful
inspection of them I could not differ from the conclusions arrived at
by Lisch and Virchow. Moreover, I had the assurance of Miss Buchheim,
custodian of the antiquarian department, that there could be no doubt
at all that the entire collection from Wismar now in the museum was as
genuine as anything of the kind in Europe.

The lake-dwelling remains occupy a separate compartment in one of the
wall-cases. Among those from Wismar are 32 flint hatchets and chisels
more or less perfect (=Fig. 95=, No. 6), three perforated stone
axe-heads (Nos. 16 and 17), eight semilunar flint saws (Nos. 11 and
12), one or two arrow-points (No. 20), a flint dagger with handle (No.
10), some flint flakes and a number of polishers (No. 18). Of horn and
bone there are many worked portions, among which are three perforated
implements (No. 14), one perforated bead of amber, portions of piles
and worked wood, and a large heap of bones. But, of course, all the
objects have not come to this museum, as there are some described in
Dr. Lisch's reports which have evidently found a resting-place in
some other collections. Among the relics are not only large hollow
polishing-stones and round rubbers, but also fragments of true querns
or handmills, the presence of which appeared to have astonished Dr.
Lisch, as he considered the latter to be of much later date than any
of the other associated objects.

Of bronze only one socketed celt with side loop and portion of an arm
band are mentioned.

The pottery was of a peculiar character, much broken and difficult to
make out. One portion, which is here represented (No. 9), shows groups
of lines running up and down the bulge of the vessel. A few clay
spindle-whorls were also found.

[Illustration: =Fig. 95.=--WISMAR AND GÄGELOW (1 to 5, 7, 8, and 19).
All ⅓ real size.]

Among the osseous remains Professor Rütimeyer identified the following
animals:--ox (_Bos taurus and primigenius_), sheep, goat, pig (_Sus
scrofa ferus_ and _domesticus_), stag, roe, horse, dog, beaver, rat,
wild duck, seal, tortoise, and pike. A few human bones were also
collected.

The site of this lake-dwelling is in the low ground known as the
Lattmoor, a short distance to the north of the town of Wismar.
Judging from the nature of the locality and its surroundings, all
authorities are agreed that in prehistoric times it was the bed of
an irregularly shaped lake, but of no great depth. The piles were
found by the peat-cutters in a somewhat contracted portion some 260
yards to the south of the Muggenburg tile works. On excavating into
the accumulated deposits of this basin the following layers were
encountered:--(1) ordinary turf, about 5 feet; (2) a layer of alluvial
mould, about 1 foot thick; (3) black muddy stuff, containing the
remains of water plants for a depth of 10 feet. It was in the latter
that rotten piles were detected, which penetrated its whole depth to
the underlying glacial clay. These piles were about 10 feet long and
6 or 7 inches thick; and they were placed about 2 feet apart, with
their present tops at least 6 feet below the surface of the bog. From
the arrangement of the woodwork Dr. Lisch formed the opinion that the
huts erected over them were both round and square, and he thought he
recognised three of the former and two of the latter. The round huts
had a diameter of 14 to 18 feet, and were placed at intervals of 6
to 8 feet. Horizontal beams were found both on the supposed sites of
these huts and in the intervals. Leading from one of the huts to the
shore there was a line of seven or eight large granite stones.

GÄGELOW.--The site of the Gägelow lake-dwelling, the first discovered
in North Germany, is a small hollow near the seashore a few miles to
the west of Wismar. This hollow contained a rich deposit of mould,
which Herr Seidenschnur, the proprietor, was in the habit of utilising
as manure for his fields. It appears that as early as 1861 some horn
objects were found in the stuff taken out of this place, which, on
being presented to the Museum at Schwerin, then led Dr. Lisch to make
the suggestion of a lake-dwelling--a suggestion which was afterwards
confirmed by his visit to the place in May, 1863.

By the removal of the mould from year to year, this hollow had been
partially converted into its pristine aqueous condition, which,
however, could hardly be dignified by the name of a lake, being
nothing more than a pond, some 40 yards long by 30 broad. Here a
semicircular area containing oak piles was detected, which measured
about 22 feet in diameter. The piles were 7 to 10 feet long, and 7
to 8 inches thick, and interspersed among them were some horizontal
beams. Associated with this wooden structure were found various kinds
of antiquities--viz. four polished or chipped axes of flint (=Fig.
95=, Nos. 2 and 3), two perforated axe-hammer heads of diorite (No.
4), a portion of a third (No. 7), and some flint daggers (No. 1) and
flakes. A four-cornered mortar of grey basalt, 3½ inches high by
2½ broad (No. 8); the corners of this vessel are rounded, and its
surface neatly polished. A hand-millstone or quern, 1 foot in diameter
and 2½ inches thick, made of porous basalt: this quern had a hole
in the centre, with two swallow-tail notches on each side for fixing
the handle, and its under surface was worked into a series of narrow
grooves, precisely similar to those of Roman and post-Roman times.
There were also some spindle-whorls (No. 19), a portion of a clay
weight, and fragments of dishes of black and red pottery, some of
which had handles. The bones were all of the ordinary domestic animals.

_Marine Pile-dwellings._--The spirit of antiquarian research aroused
in the neighbourhood by these discoveries, led to the recognition of
the remains of marine pile-dwellings (Meerpfahlbauten) in the bay of
Wismar. Attention was first directed to this subject by Mr. Mann, who
pointed out that for several years past flint hatchets, daggers, and
knives, as well as various objects of horn and bone, and even bronze
implements, were frequently turned up by the dredging machines used
in the harbour. The matter, however, excited no interest among the
workmen, and thus many valuable objects were re-deposited in deep
water along with the dredged mud. It was reported that some bronze
objects had been sold to the smith, Vossech, and melted; while others
of stone and horn had been dispersed. It appears also that at a
particular place called the Baumhaus piles of oak had been observed.
In 1864 the workmen engaged at the dredging machines, having their
attention called to the matter, reported the existence of piles at
various places in the bay, one of which was between the shore and the
little island Wallfisch, and the other close to the island Poel. One
peculiar horn object which had been sent to the museum was supposed
to have been a _Taschenbügel_ or rim for a pouch. (B. 100, p. 101, and
vol. xxix. p. 132.)

BÜTZOW.--There was also, according to Dr. Lisch, a lake-dwelling
in a turf moor called the "Sühring," near the town of Bützow. Here
at a given place near the margin of the moor the peat-cutters were
occasionally finding antiquities associated with piles, which, on
being sent to the Schwerin Museum, led to the recognition of the true
character of the find. Over 60 objects were collected, among which
Dr. Lisch enumerates the following:--two round stone rubbers, three
semilunar flint saws, a flint celt, a perforated axe-head, a bronze
pin three and a half inches long, several objects of horn and bone, a
piece of reindeer horn, and shells of hazel-nuts. (B. 142.)

VIMFOU.--Dr. Weichmann-Kadow (B. 142) describes a lacustrine dwelling
found in a small lake at Vimfou, near Goldberg. The lake was drained
and converted into meadow land in 1865, and in its former bed three
localities containing piles had been observed, only one of which,
however, was subjected to any examination. This was near the middle of
the lake, and the piles, which appeared to have been the foundations
of a burnt-down hut, occupied a circular area about 12 feet in
diameter. Inside the piled area were bits of burnt wood, charcoal, and
some broken pottery and three whole vessels. Some of these vessels
were well made and had handles and a style of ornamentation which
corresponded with the early Iron Age. The only other remains were
a few grinding stones (_Quetschmühle_), some small round pebbles
supposed to have been used as draughtsmen, bits of bone, and the
shells of hazel-nuts.


(B) POMERANIA AND CENTRAL PRUSSIA.

RYCK.--Almost contemporary with Lisch's discoveries in the vicinity
of Wismar were those by Von Hagenow at the mouth of the river Wiek.
(B. 97.) Rumours of the discovery of various ancient objects of flint,
bronze, and iron, while the bed of the river was being deepened,
induced Mr. von Hagenow to investigate the matter. These reported
discoveries extended backwards for upwards of twenty years, embracing
the years 1839-47-59-62 and '64. It was only in the latter year that
it became surmised that the antiquities indicated a lake-dwelling.
There was no doubt of the existence of piles, which Von Hagenow
unhesitatingly concluded had been used for this purpose; but others
thought they were the remains of a bridge. Prof. Virchow, writing in
1869 (B. 165), after examining into all the circumstances, was unable
to form an opinion or to decide whether these remains pointed to a
bridge or to a lake-dwelling.

HEGAR LAKE.--This lake is situated in the district of Dramburg, near
Sabin, and in it were found many iron objects, upwards of 100 arrow
and lance-heads, spurs and horse-bits, associated with the remains of
a small wooden house. No objects characteristic of the Stone or Bronze
Ages were found, so that there can be no doubt that this station was
of a comparatively late age. (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 629.)

WERBELINSEE.--According to Professor Virchow, this lake contains the
remains of a most interesting pile-dwelling. (B. 165.) The lake is
situated not far from Joachimsthal and Angermünde, and on its south
side, near the village of Altenhof, piles were detected which, by a
vague tradition, were supposed to mark the site of a bridge. Professor
Virchow, however, by placing long wooden poles in the water where the
submerged ancient piles were observed, demonstrated the existence of
a vast area which even the sceptical boatmen admitted could only have
been intended for the foundations of a village.

PERSANZIGERSEE.--This lake, according to Kasiski (B. 125 and 362), is
situated four and a half miles to the west of Neustettin, and formerly
covered about 186 acres; but in 1863 it was lowered some 10 feet by
the construction of a drainage canal, thereby reducing its area to
less than as many roods. At the north end of the lake, and 170 yards
from the shore, there appeared a small island, which was found to have
been surrounded by a remarkable structure of piles and cross-beams.
Sixty yards to the north of this island there was a flat prominence,
called the "Werder," which was completely cut off from the mainland,
partly by bogs and partly by an arm of the lake 55 yards wide. (See
accompanying Sketch Map.)

Stretching between the island and the point of the Werder the stumps
of a double row of piles, doubtless the remains of a bridge, were
detected. A similar bridge also extended from the Werder to the shore;
and to the south of this were the remains of a third bridge, which
appears to have never been finished, as it stopped suddenly short
after reaching some 40 yards into the lake in the direction of the
island. Another row of piles, commencing at the outer end of the
bridge which connected the island with the Werder, extended circularly
for a considerable distance in the bed of the lake, as if intended to
protect the island.

[Illustration: A Persanzig See B Plan of Pfahlbauten in Persanzig See]

The chief point of interest, however, lay in the peculiar structures
which surrounded the island. These consisted of a series of
rectangles, some 60 in number, formed of horizontal beams 16 feet long
and 8 to 12 inches in diameter; they overlapped each other near their
extremities, leaving about 18 inches free, and each beam had deep cuts
by which it was kept in position, exactly similar to the plan used in
the construction of a log house. The rectangular spaces measured four
or five square yards, and had 30 or 40 piles placed on both sides of
the chamber-walls, apparently for the purpose of strengthening the
horizontal beams, as shown in the plan. These chambers appear to have
formed a complete girdle to the island, but they were partly destroyed
on the south side. The quantity of wood used was enormous, as the
piles alone numbered about 1800. On the north side the structures were
remarkably well preserved, being protected by a covering of slime and
rushes eight to twelve inches thick. At first Major Kasiski believed
that the rectangles were cottages, but subsequently, after comparison
with similar structures in other lakes in North Germany, he came to
the conclusion that they formed merely the submerged foundations over
which the cottages had been built.

The bridges from the Insel to the Werder, and from the Werder to the
shore, were built on two rows of piles, 8 feet apart, and the piles
in each row were about 7 feet apart. Major Kasiski inferred from the
remains of the unfinished bridge, which showed the use of tenons and
mortises, that it was of later date than the others.

Among the relics collected on the island or amidst its surrounding
structures are two halves of an upper quern, 14½ inches in diameter
and 5 inches thick. The under side is concave, and the centre hole,
which has a diameter of 1¼ inches, widens upwards like a funnel.
Querns have been found in several lake-dwellings in North Germany, as
Gägelow, Wismar, and Cottbus, in Neumark.[54] Other relics consist
of wooden clubs, two portions of leather, a skate made of the
leg-bone of a horse, staghorn hammers, five sharpening-stones, a few
spindle-whorls of stone and clay, a bit of coral, seven portions of
worked wood--a shovel, rudder, etc. Of metal there are a fragment of
bronze and an iron hatchet. The latter implement is small, measuring
only 3½ inches long, and 2½ inches wide at its cutting-edge, and has
a round hole for the handle.

The pottery, of which 45 fragments were collected, was made of fine
clay, by means of the potter's-wheel, and from the variety of its
ornamentation and characteristic wavy lines, there can be no doubt
that it belonged to the type of the Burgwälle--an inference which is
greatly strengthened by its resemblance to that found in the Wallberg
in the Raddatzsee, a noted Burgwall situated in the close vicinity.
Illustrations of a few specimens of this pottery are given on =Fig.
96=, Nos. 6 to 9.

From an examination of the bones collected the following animals were
identified, viz.:--horse, ox, goat, sheep, pig, dog, fox, deer, and
roe.

In the Virchowsee a little to the north of Persanzig there is a huge
Burgwall surrounded by water, in which the remains of piles have been
found. (B. 165.)

STREITZIGSEE.--On the lowering of this lake a very large assortment
of piles became exposed, but although several excavations were made,
both by Professor Virchow and others, no decided results were obtained
bearing on their character and scope. (B. 165.)

LÜBTOWSEE.--Another locality which has furnished remains of
pile-dwellings lies to the right of the Oder, in the vicinity of
Lübtow. (B. 165.) Here the river Plöne traverses a long lake, and
on its being lowered in 1859, an extensive area covered with piles
became visible towards its northern end. It is said that many relics
were found among these piles, some of which were collected by the
proprietor; but the idea of their belonging to lake-dwellings was
not mooted till several years afterwards. Professor Virchow visited
the locality in 1865, and again in 1869, and on the latter occasion
he made extensive excavations, which convinced him that this was a
regular lake-settlement. Later on the foundations of a quadrangular
wooden building came to light, from which, owing to its being 3 feet
under the late lake level, Mr. Kühne inferred that the lake must have
formerly stood at a lower level. That this structure, however, as well
as the piles, belonged to the Iron Age, he says there can be no doubt
whatever, as the antiquities collected in both were precisely similar,
being generally iron objects, such as swords, lance and arrow-heads,
stirrups, spurs, knives, and bricks of the thirteenth or fourteenth
century. In the rectangular building, in addition to such objects,
were found a helmet and greaves. But what was considered still more
singular, there was found among the piles a number of stone chisels
and hammers, together with one bronze celt. (B. 119, 2^o ed., p. 629.)

Adjacent to this lake at Bonin, and deeply buried in the turf,
indications of wooden structures came to light which, in 1872,
attracted the attention of Professor Virchow, who, in company with
the local antiquaries, made excavations which revealed structures
analogous to those in the Persanzigersee. (B. 227.) In excavating they
passed through the following distinct layers:--First, 5 to 8 feet of
peat; second, some thin layers of marl, sand, and mud; and third, a
relic-bed, 2 to 4 feet in thickness. The woodwork appeared to the
investigators to have been cut by sharp metal tools. Among the relics
collected were four sharpening-stones, a few perforated staghorn
hammers, a bone chisel 6½ inches long, some large horn handles, a
small iron knife, bits of leather, fragments of wooden dishes, and
part of a boat. Pottery was also found which belonged to the Burgwälle
type.

SOLDINERSEE.--In 1857 this lake was lowered 7 to 8 feet, when two
islands became visible, one of which turned out to be the site of a
lake-dwelling, and yielded a considerable number of antiquities, among
which was portion of a reindeer horn. (B. 165, p. 407.)

In 1873 Major Kamienski examined it with greater care, and published a
short notice of the results. (B. 241.) The island was 150 yards from
the shore, and measured 85 by 30 yards. It contained many piles, and
showed no evidence of having been destroyed by fire. The relics were
of a mixed character. With flint flakes and broken stone-axes were
various iron objects, as a hook, a spear-head, three knife-blades, and
three halves of horseshoes. There were also arrow-points of bone, two
portions of bows, a clay spindle-whorl, a bone shuttle, beautifully
worked, and a piece of horn with a kind of ornamentation cut on it.
The fragments of pottery also indicated different kinds. Stones, which
looked as if they had been exposed to fire, were supposed to have been
used as hearths. Among the osseous remains were those of the ox, pig,
stag, roe, fox, bear, beaver, wild boar, and a single vertebra of a
fish.

A Burgwall was on the land near the lake-dwelling--a fact which is
somewhat significant, as, according to Virchow, there was often a
close connection between these two classes of remains.

DABERSEE (HINTER POMMERN).--The Pfahlbauten in this lake were shown
by Professor Virchow to be connected with an adjacent Burgwall by a
wooden bridge. (B. 165.) He also found that the piles were associated
with submerged wooden rectangles similar to those already described
in the Persanzigersee. Together with pottery of the Burgwälle type,
he found bone skates, an iron hatchet, and an ornamented comb,
constructed of several pieces of bone banded together with iron
rivets. About this comb he remarks that the teeth were sawn after the
pieces were put together--a peculiarity which I have noted of the bone
combs found on the Ayrshire crannogs.[55]

LÜBBINCHENERSEE (KR. GUBEN).--In 1877 a lake-dwelling of the Slavish
period (_Spätwendischer und darüber Mittelalterlicher Pfahlbau_) was
examined by members of the Märkisches Museum, in Berlin, from which
they collected a large quantity of iron objects, pottery, bones, etc.,
which may now be seen in this museum. The base of this lacustrine
dwelling was constructed precisely similar to that at Persanzig,
and the beams had similar cuts near their extremities, where they
overlapped each other.

ALT FRIESACK (KR. RUPPIN).--A similar Slavish Pfahlbau was found at
Alt Friesack, from which there is now in the Märkisches Museum a large
quantity of _débris_--wooden beams, quern-stones, some perforated clay
sinkers (=Fig. 96=, No. 5), an iron hatchet (No. 2) with traces of
ornamentation on it, an iron oblong ring (No. 1), and pottery with the
characteristic wavy lines (Nos. 3 and 4).

[Illustration: =Fig. 96.=--FRIESACK (1 to 5) AND PERSANZIG. No. 5 =
¼, the rest ½ real size.]

KLOPPSEE (NEUMARK).--A lake-dwelling in the Kloppsee, near Woldenburg,
has yielded a fine black pottery, so well burnt that it gives a
metallic ring when struck. The vessels found here are well shaped, and
the fragments show handles, feet, and well-formed recurved rims. (B.
165.)

SPANDAU.--One of the most remarkable lacustrine discoveries in North
Germany was made a few years ago (1881) at the town of Spandau, near
Berlin. Here, in a flat space called Stresow, close to the river
Havel, in which workmen were excavating the foundations of a military
powder-house, oak piles and bronze weapons were turned up from
considerable depths.

The locality was almost surrounded by the adjacent sluggish waters,
and so wet that two pumps had to be kept going before the men could
carry out the necessary excavations. From the sedimentary character
of the deposit, as well as the abundance of fresh-water shells, there
could be no doubt that formerly the place had been occupied by a
lake. There was, first of all, a bed of peat about five feet thick,
and under this came a deposit of mud and sand. On the south side of
the space being excavated there was observed at a depth of nearly
12 feet a layer of greenish stuff, mixed with bones, impregnated
with vivianite, and through this layer the piles were found to have
penetrated to the sand underneath. It was in the muddy deposit
immediately beneath the peat that the tops of the piles appeared, and
they were arranged sometimes in parallel rows, and sometimes without
any apparent regularity. Some were of oak, and others of soft wood.
There was also much timber lying transversely, and many of the beams
showed signs of charring.

The relics were collected between and around these piles, and
uniformly all over the area. They consisted of a remarkable series
of bronze implements and weapons, together with a few of stone and
horn. There were also found the bones of tame and wild animals, a
human brachycephalic skull and some other human bones, a portion of
a canoe, and a very small quantity of pottery of an indeterminate
character. The bones were very much broken, but, notwithstanding, they
were identified as belonging to the following animals, viz.:--stag,
roe, hare, bear, ox, horse, pig, and dog. It is noteworthy that the
reindeer and elk were both unrepresented.

_Relics._--It is, however, the relics that distinguish this lacustrine
find from others in North Germany, and these I shall now describe
shortly:--three swords with handles (=Fig. 97=, Nos. 8, 9, and
10), one sword-blade attached by rivets (No. 11); an ornamented
_commandostab_ (No. 18), and a small button-like object, ornamented
with a running scroll of double spiral; three daggers have rivet-marks
and one has a tang (Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 12); one dagger, still in its
bronze handle (No. 13), has its butt end ornamented with concentric
circles and spirals characteristic of the Scandinavian archæological
area; two lance-heads with sockets (Nos. 4 and 17), one of which is
ornamented with lines and crossbars (No. 17); one socketed celt (No.
3); five paalstabs (Nos. 1 and 2); and a piece of bronze wire.

[Illustration: =Fig. 97=.--SPANDAU. Nos. 8 to 11 = ⅙, and the rest
⅓ real size (socket of No. 17 = ⅔).]

Of stone objects there were two round grindstones or polishers (No.
15) and some sharpening stones, a polished perforated stone (No. 16),
a portion of a hammer of greenstone, and a round stone ball 4 inches
in diameter, like a cannon-ball.

Five staghorn axe-heads, a disc of horn perforated, a portion of a
horn spear, five bits of rough unornamented pottery, and a large
perforated ball of clay. Fragments of a canoe showing a length of 10
feet. Report goes that an iron implement, and a portion of a dish
like earthenware of the twelfth century, were found; but probably
they had no connection with the bronze objects above described.
It is noteworthy that all the relics are of a military character,
there being among them no spindle-whorls, combs, hair-pins, fibulæ,
bracelets, or any other objects that can be said to belong to domestic
life. For this reason this lacustrine abode is generally supposed to
have been a military fort like La Tène. (B. 384 and 396.)


(C) POSEN AND POLAND.

OBJEZIERZE.--In the province of Posen there are several localities
to be recorded which have yielded unequivocal indications of
lake-dwellings, two of which, viz. Objezierze and Czeszewo, are
supposed by local archæologists to date as far back as the Stone Age.
The former existed in a swamp now filled up with peat, which has thus
preserved and concealed piles and other remains recently brought to
light by peat-cutters. The relics collected from this place are now
deposited in the Posen Archæological Museum, and among them I have
noted the following:--A few remarkably fine knife-flakes of flint,
one of which is 7½ inches long, a perforated bead, four large clay
rings (=Fig. 98=, No. 8), and three flint celts of the Scandinavian
type (No. 7). In the same turf moor and in the vicinity of the
lake-dwelling was found a large bronze torque ornamented as shown in
No. 9.[56]

CZESZEWO (KR. WAGROWICE).--Although for many years the existence
of piles in a particular spot in this lake was known to fishermen,
it was not till 1871 that their true nature was recognised by
Professor Lepkowsky of Krakow. The lake was surrounded by marshy
borders and peat bogs, and at various times its level was lowered,
which thus considerably reduced its area. Firewood being scarce in
the district, the fishermen were in the habit of pulling out the
piles, and in this way the structures were greatly damaged before a
competent archæologist saw them. The site of the Pfahlbau was near
a large tumulus constructed close to the original lake margin. The
area occupied by the piles was in the form of a segment of a circle,
the base of which was 250 paces long and its greatest breadth 75.
Transverse beams from 10 to 12 feet long were found interspersed
among the uprights, which were supposed to have bound the latter
together, though neither wedges nails, nor mortises were detected. It
was observed that the uprights had their tops charred and that the
portions remaining were longer the farther they were placed from the
shore, and hence it was supposed that the dwelling had been destroyed
by a conflagration.

[Illustration: =Fig. 98.=--CZESZEWO (1 to 6), OBJEZIERZE (7 to 9), and
LAGIEWNICKI. All ½ real size.]

The remains of human industry collected from this station are now
deposited partly in the Jagellon Museum at Krakow, and partly in the
Archæological Museum at Posen. Among them are fragments of pottery,
one being part of a dish perforated with small holes (=Fig. 98=, No.
5), perforated stone and horn hammers and axes (Nos. 1 and 2), one or
two plain celts (No. 6), some fragments of clay rings (No. 3), two
fragments of human skulls, and a large quantity of the osseous remains
of different animals. One object of bronze is said to have been found
on this station, and one of the stone implements is only partially
perforated, the operation having been unfinished. The stone objects
are made of dark granite.

Messrs. Kohn and Mehlis have published a small photographic view of
the objects in the Krakow Museum, but the more interesting ones,
though fewer in number, are at Posen, from which the illustrations
here shown are taken. Notices of this lake-dwelling have been
published by Count Przezdiecki (B. 156 and 195), by Kohn and Mehlis
(B. 338), and by Ossowski of Krakow (B. 361)--the last being in Polish
and French.

GROSSESEE.--At Alt-Gortzig, in the Grossesee, there was a small
island which became visible on the lowering of the lake some 10
feet, around which were found piles and the usual _débris_ of a
lacustrine dwelling, among which were pottery with parallel and wavy
lines, charcoal, and an iron axe-head, together with numerous osseous
remains. (B. 228 and 352.)

PAWLOWICE.--Mr. Schwartz, of Posen, describes what he considers to
have been a lake-dwelling near Pawlowice. Here, in a turf-moor which
had formerly been a lake, he found, at a depth of five feet, bits of
clay plaster, hearth-stones, fragments of cooking vessels, etc.[57]
Also at Komorowo, in the Bythinersee, indications of lake-dwellings
have been found.[58]

LAGIEWNICKI.--Another interesting locality, discovered a few years
ago, is at Lagiewnicki (Posen). Here the tops of oak piles were found
at a depth of five feet in the peat, and associated with them were
fragments of two kinds of pottery--one rough, like that used in the
manufacture of urns, and the other of the Burgwälle type. Among the
relics were a wooden mallet, a perforated bone implement, some flint
flakes, the pin of a bronze fibula of La Tène type (=Fig. 98=, No.
11), and a silver necklace (No. 10), terminating at one end in a
raised button which clasped with an eye at the other when fastened.
(B. 430.)

KWACZALA.--At the request of the Academy of Sciences of Krakow,
Mr. Adam Kirkor, curator of the Archæological Museum at Wilna,
investigated, in the summer of 1873, a peat-moor near the village
of Kwaczala, said to contain pile-dwellings. Mr. Kirkor found beams
and piles in several spots pointed out by the proprietor, where
the peat-cutters were said to have formerly encountered woodwork.
Water came upon his trenches at a depth of three feet. Both upright
and transverse beams of oak were found, some being over a yard in
circumference and 8½ yards long. The area containing structural
remains of woodwork was 70 yards long by 40 broad. The foundation was
of horizontal beams, spread out in all directions, which he concluded
to have been arranged after some kind of architectural principle.
There was a large quantity of rude pottery, some showing linear or
punctured ornamentation. Two perforated axe-hammer heads of stone, and
about 300 bits of worked flint were collected among the _débris_, as
well as some bones of the horse. Altogether, this primitive habitation
appears to have been of a peculiar kind. (B. 338.)

BIALKA (LUBLINER KR.).--In the moor of Bialka, formerly covered
with water, there is a small island about 100 paces in diameter, on
which tradition says there was once an enchanted castle. Professor
Joseph Przyborowski, of Warsaw, made some excavations on the island,
and found on the surface some tiles and modern implements, which so
far confirmed the tradition of the ancient castle; but upon digging
he came upon wooden piles at a depth of four feet. His excavations
extended some twenty feet long and nine feet wide, and in the whole
of this area he found numbers of piles, as well as cross-beams.
Associated with these wooden structures there was also a relic-bed,
entirely distinct from the superficial layer, on which he found two
well-formed flint arrow-heads, a portion of a perforated axe of
serpentine, some flint implements, and broken bones of edible animals.
If this site were properly investigated the author prognosticated
results of considerable scientific value. (B. 338.)

Professor Ossowski, in his "Carte Archéologique" (B. 361), gives the
following sites of lake-dwellings, none of which, however, have been
carefully investigated:--(1) _Warlubie_ (Kr. Swieć). This is a
vast peat deposit from which neolithic implements and staghorn hammers
have been extracted from time to time. It was visited by Ossowski in
the year 1878, who found some fragments of pottery and charcoal. But
these merely strengthened the suspicion that the antiquities were due
to Pfahlbauten. (2) Similar indications were found at _Kowalewo_,
in the district of Tornú. (3) At _Wabrzeźno_, in the district of
Chelmno, there is a small lake, in which were found a primitive vase,
a bronze fish-hook, a stone hammer, and an implement of staghorn. (4)
_Lankorsz_, district of Lubawa.


(D) EAST PRUSSIA AND LIVLAND.

In the eastern districts of Prussia lake-dwelling remains have been
discovered in the following places, which have been more or less
investigated and described in various archæological publications,
especially in the _Altpreussiche Monatsschrift_:--

  ARYSSEE (KR. LÖTZEN).--_A. M._, vol. iv. p. 667; xii. p. 89;
                         xiv. p. 181. _Zeit. für Ethn._, vol. xix.,
                         _Verhand._, p. 491.
  CZARNISEE (KR. LÖTZEN).--_A. M._, vol. xiv. p. 181; vol. xv. p. 481.
  KOCKSEE (KR. RÖSSEL).--_A. M._, vol. xxii. p. 169;
                         _Zeit. für Ethn._, vol. xvi.,
                         _Verhand._, p. 560.
  PROBCHENSEE (KR. RÖSSEL).--_A. M._, vol. xxii. p. 169
  QUERTZ (KR. HEILSBERG).--_A. M._, vol. xxii. p. 169.
  BONSLACK (KR. WEHLAU).--_A. M._, vol. xxii. p. 485.
  TULEWOSEE (KR. LYCK).--_A. M._, vol. v. p. 750.
  SZONTAGSEE (KR. LYCK).--_A. M._, vol. xxiv. p. 488.
  KOWNATKENSEE (KR. NIEDENBURG).--_A. M._, vol. xxiv. pp. 168 and 496.
  LONKORRECKERSEE (CULMERLANDE).--_A. M._, vol. x. p. 579.
  GESERICHSEE--_Phy. Ok. Gesel._, 1874, _Verhand._, p. 14.

ARYSSEE.--The existence of the _débris_ of a remarkable lake-dwelling
in the Aryssee became known in 1863, in consequence of the
discontinuance of a mill which had its motive power supplied by
the surplus water from this lake, and the subsequent deepening of
its outlet, which had the effect of lowering its level about seven
feet. Its remains have been investigated and described by various
persons, notably Professor Heydeck, of Königsberg, who has made plans
and models of its peculiar structure. These, as well as a large
collection of relics, are now deposited in the Prussia Museum at
Königsberg. It appears to have been a kind of _Packwerk_. There were,
first of all, two or three layers of round timbers lying transversely
to each other on the bottom of the lake in the form of rectangles,
after which their sides only were continued upwards by single beams,
laid successively on each side, thus leaving empty spaces above.
These horizontal beams were kept in position by numerous uprights,
which here and there flanked them on both sides, as well as by deep
cuts towards their extremities where they overlapped each other,
precisely similar to the plan adopted at Persanzig and elsewhere. This
understructure had a thickness of three to four feet, and over it
was laid a wooden platform, above which the huts of its inhabitants
were constructed. Clay floorings were found over these platforms,
with evidences here and there of fire-places. The relics were found
both on the platform and in the originally empty spaces, which, of
course, were now filled up with _débris_. Upon its first appearance
there was a layer of from 1½ to 2 feet of mud over the woodwork, but
after its exposure for some time the mud dried and became greatly
contracted. The central area of this structure measured 72 by 36
feet, and was surrounded by three rows of piles. A bridge or gangway,
also constructed on a triple row of piles, extended to the shore, a
distance of about fifty yards.

At first, and for several years after its discovery, no metal objects
were found, and hence it was supposed to belong exclusively to
the Stone Age; but this is no longer the case, as latterly it has
furnished both iron and bronze objects.

Among the relics are the following:--fragments of an iron socketed
lance-head 4 inches long, a large bronze button 1¾ inch in
diameter, and a portion of cast bronze. Wooden hooks, like those
from Robenhausen, and perforated square bits, supposed to have been
floats for nets. Fragments of pottery and some whole dishes, the
largest being 18 inches high, showing nail and finger marks (=Fig.
99=, No. 11), perforated rims (No. 10), and sometimes handles. A few
flakes, arrow-points, and scrapers of flint (Nos. 8 and 9). Fragment
of a perforated axe-hammer of diorite and some mealing stones. Six
perforated horn axes, the largest 6½ inches long; pointers, pins, two
needles, and various other objects of bone (Nos. 1 to 7). Arrow-points
of bone are 3 to 4 inches long, and scrapers 1½ to 3½ inches.
Portions of roofing thatch of rushes, clay flooring, etc.

[Illustration: =Fig. 99.=--ARYS AND KOWNATKEN (12 to 14). No. 10 =
⅛, 11 = ¼, and the rest = ½ real size.]

CZARNISEE AND TULEWOSEE.--These two lakes are in the vicinity of the
Aryssee, and each contained a lake-dwelling similar to that in the
latter, both in structure and in the character of its relics. On the
station in the Czarnisee were found a blue glass bead; a partially
perforated stone axe, 3⅛ inches long, with the core still remaining;
and two socketed iron lance-heads.

The KOWNATKEN Pfahlbau was also a Packwerk formed of round and
split stems. It extended along the margin of the lake for about
seventy paces, and had a breadth of twelve at the east end, which
became reduced to seven or eight at the west end. Some of the
pottery from this station, of which fragments of twelve vessels were
found, was ornamented with finger marks as well as string marks
(_Schnurornament_). Among the relics are pointers of bone, one
supposed to be a skate (=Fig. 99=, No. 14); some round sling-stones; a
well-formed stone hatchet (No. 12); worked flint flakes (No. 13); and
sharpening stones. Among the bones were those of the stag, roe, pig,
horse, ox, and portions of reindeer horn.

The lacustrine dwelling in the KOCKSEE was discovered on the lowering
of the lake in the autumn of 1882. When its level had sunk 4½ feet,
the structure appeared above the water. It was 34 yards long by 15
broad, and stretched lengthways along the shore, with which it was
connected by a bridge. The woodwork appeared to have been cut by metal
tools, although none of them have hitherto been discovered in the
_débris_. The relics consisted of fragments of pottery and a few stone
and bone objects.

In the neighbouring PROBCHENSEE a lake-dwelling, in all respects
similar to that in the Kocksee, has recently come to light.

At BONSLACK transverse beams were observed, tied to the uprights by
means of birch thongs (_Birkengeflecht_). From this station, some
pottery, perforated like a sieve, and a mallet of wood, are recorded.

In the SZONTAGSEE there was also a lake-dwelling of the same class
as those above described, the exact details of which have not yet
been published. From it there are several interesting objects in the
Prussia Museum at Königsberg, among which I have noted bone pointers
and spatulæ, a well-formed needle of bone with the eye at one end, and
a large bronze button with a raised eye.

As to the other localities in East Prussia where indications of
lake-dwellings have been observed, the discoveries hitherto made on
their sites are too indefinite to merit a detailed notice here, and
I shall content myself with the references already given as to where
such observations have been recorded.

ARRASCHSEE (LIVLAND).--In 1876 Count Sievers announced the discovery
of a lake-dwelling in the Arraschsee, which was subsequently visited
by the indefatigable Professor Virchow. This was a small circular
island, covered with birch trees and bushes, which, on examination,
turned out to have been an artificially-constructed island, like our
own crannogs. Like them, also, it was surrounded by piles, and its
interior was constructed of layers of wooden beams laid transversely
over each other. Its structure was ascertained by digging two large
square holes in different parts of the island, and in one nine layers
of wood were counted, and in the other six. The chief relics collected
were a bronze ring-pin, seven inches long; a bronze fibula (_eine
lettische Fibel_); portion of a mould; a few clay beads; a pointed
bone implement; bits of string and rolls of birch-bark; also fragments
of grey and black pottery, with rude knobs and finger-marks, and
without handles. From marks on the woodwork it was inferred that iron
tools were used. The osseous remains belonged to the horse, ox, pig,
and beaver. (B. 292.)


General Remarks on the Lake-Dwellings of North Germany.

Professor Virchow, as early as 1869, published an excellent thesis on
the lake-dwellings of North Germany (B. 165), in which he maintained
that all of them, with perhaps one or two exceptions, belonged to a
much more recent period than those of Switzerland and South Germany.
This opinion he founded on the following considerations:--

(1) Though many objects of stone and bronze were found on the former,
yet in almost every case they were associated with others of a more
recent type, including iron implements, etc.

(2) The food refuse contained most commonly the bones of the ordinary
domestic animals, those of wild animals, such as reindeer, wild boar,
stag, wild goat, and beaver, being but rarely met with.

(3) Many of the lake-dwellings were synchronous with the Burgwälle,
a fact which was conclusively proved by their possessing the
characteristic pottery of the latter, as was notably the case in the
Persanzig lake-dwelling. Moreover, Virchow showed that some of the
Burgwälle had direct communication with adjacent lake-dwellings, as in
the Dabersee, Soldinersee, and Kloppsee.

Referring to this subject at a later date (1877), at the eighth
Congress of the German Anthropological Society (B. 306), Virchow,
while reviewing the further discoveries of lake-dwellings in North
Germany, maintained the general correctness of his previous
conclusions. These northern Pfahlbauten, according to him, were due
to the immigration into the country of the Slavish people, and bear
the same relation to the Burgwälle that the pile-dwellings in Italy do
to the terremare. "Ich denke," says he, "wir werden uns entschliessen
müssen, ganz im Gegensatze zu den süddeutschschweizerischen
Pfahlbauten, die Einführung der nördlichen Pfahlbauten an die
Einwanderung des Slavo-lettischen Stammes anzuknüpfen."

Virchow's opinion is not, however, universally accepted, as many of
the local archæologists maintain that there are several lake-dwellings
which have yielded relics that can only be explained on the
supposition that they were founded during the earlier prehistoric
ages. The chief examples relied on in support of their contention are
those at Wismar, Spandau, Czeszewo, Objezierze, and Aryssee.

After carefully examining the relics from all these stations I must
admit that much could be written on both sides of this controversy.
Notwithstanding the number of typical objects of the Stone Age from
Wismar and Gägelow, Dr. Lisch records that along with them were
portions of querns. Now, querns are never found among the remains
of the Swiss lake-dwellings, nor am I aware of their existence in
any prehistoric remains in northern or western Europe prior to Roman
times. The station at Spandau, if it be considered a true Pfahlbau,
was undoubtedly of the Bronze Age. Czeszewo and Objezierze have
yielded a considerable quantity of Stone Age relics, with scarcely
any of the succeeding ages. Only one bronze object is said to have
been found on the former, and from the latter there is in the Museum
of Posen a bronze torque (=Fig. 98=, No. 9), which was found at a
little distance from the lake-dwelling. As regards the Aryssee and
its neighbouring lakes of Czarni and Tulewo, with their respective
lake-dwellings, all of which are of the _Packwerk_ type, Professor
Heydeck relies largely on the presence of pottery with string and
finger ornamentation, as a proof of their antiquity, in addition
to the ordinary stone celts, horn clubs, etc.; but yet along with
them were found iron lance-heads and a blue glass bead (Czarnisee).
Similarly in the _Packwerk_ in the Kownatkensee, polished stone
celts, pottery with finger marks and _Schnurornament_, and portion
of a reindeer horn, were found associated with a bone skate, and the
osseous remains of the domestic animals, as the horse, pig, ox, etc.
In attempting, therefore, to estimate the chronological range of these
lake-dwellings from an examination of their contents, which (being
unnoticed in the early annals of the country) is the only available
means, the mixed character of these relics presents a considerable
difficulty--a difficulty which, as we shall afterwards see, is equally
applicable to the Scottish and Irish crannogs. But, whatever doubts
may be cast on their antiquity and early origin, there can be none as
to the comparatively late occupancy of many of them. A bone skate and
a comb made of square bits bound together by cross pieces, and showing
that the teeth were cut by a saw after the pieces were put together,
precisely as may be seen in the combs from the Scottish crannogs and
the terp-mounds of Holland, were found by Virchow in the Dabersee
Pfahlbau. Iron hatchets (Dabersee, Persanzigsee, and Alt Friesack),
horseshoes, and other iron implements (Soldinersee), pottery of
Slavish type (Bonin, Kloppsee, Persanzig, etc.), leather (Bonin), and
even armour and bricks of the thirteenth century (Lübtowsee), leave no
doubt as to their almost mediæval character.

Reindeer horns were found at Butzow, Soldinersee, and Kownatkensee;
but these objects do not necessarily indicate great antiquity, as this
animal, though not referred to in the early annals of North Germany,
is stated to have been an inhabitant of the country in the time of
Cæsar.

The undoubted contemporaneity of many of these lake-dwellings with
the Burgwälle opens up a field of research of considerable importance
to European archæology; but their exact chronological relationship
still remains an obscure problem, owing chiefly to the mystery which
surrounds the latter.

_Burgwälle_ or _Rundwälle_ is the general name given to the remains
of a remarkable class of prehistoric constructions found scattered
over the larger portion of middle and north-western Europe, embracing
the southern parts of Russia around the shores of the Black Sea,
Roumania, Bulgaria, Transylvania, Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, Poland,
North Germany, France, Great Britain, and the southern parts of
Scandinavia. Their foundations now only remain and these show that the
structures were generally circular or oval, but sometimes square and
semicircular. They may be divided into three kinds, according to the
materials of which their foundations are constructed, viz.:--earth,
stones or stones in vitrified condition (_Erd-, Stein-und
Schlackenwälle_). Their sizes vary from 20 to 100 paces in
diameter, and their height from 10 to 30 feet, and they contained
one, two, or sometimes three walls. Those made of earth were circular
and generally situated in swampy land, or in countries where stones were
not readily accessible. The Steinwälle were in hilly districts and
varied in form according to the nature of the ground. Sometimes they
assumed the irregular outline of a promontory or peninsula in a lake,
at other times, especially when placed on an overhanging cliff, they
were mere semicircles. Those of vitrified materials are of special
interest to Scottish archæologists owing to the number of vitrified
forts in Scotland. They are not very numerous on the Continent, Saxony
and Bohemia containing the largest number. In the former country
eight are known, viz.:--Schafberg by Löbau, Rothstein by Sohland,
Stromberg by Weissenberg, Landeskrone by Görlitz, Brandwall by
Blumberg, Koschütz near Dresden, Burgberg by Lichtenberg, and Vorberg
by Kirchberg. According to Jelinek, Bohemia is rich in Schlackenwälle,
those best known being near Katovic, Bukovec, Litoradic, Hradiste von
Hostem, Hradiste bei Strakonic, Hradec bei Domanic Burgberg, Vladar,
etc. ("Schutz-und Wehrbauten." p. 102). Instances also occur in
Silesia, Thuringian Forest, Rhine district, Brittany, and Normandy.

The Burgwälle, like their analogues in the British Isles, have not
yet been systematically investigated. From the character of the
relics found in those that have been explored in North Germany they
are divided into _Vorslavisch_, _Slavisch_ and _Spätslavisch_, a
distinction which has been suggested by the unique character of
Slavish pottery. These Slavish dishes are always without handles,
but of well-burnt pottery, and when ornamented the ornamentation is
in wavy lines running parallel to the rim forming the characteristic
_Wellenlinie_.

Many of these remains have, of course, now entirely disappeared in the
interests of agriculture, but their number still remaining is very
great. In Eastern Germany Dr. R. Behla describes and tabulates no
fewer than 1,100. They are more numerous in the fertile districts. In
Oberlausitz, in one district measuring 9 miles long by 3 to 16 broad,
they number 100, and in the neighbourhood of Bautzen within a one mile
circle 20 can be counted.[59]

It is probable that the material used in the upper structures of the
Burgwälle was wood, which, of course, has now completely decayed,
except in some special conditions, as in swampy ground where wooden
piles were used in their foundations. This is another point of
contact between these buildings and the lake-dwellings which has not
been overlooked by archæologists. Virchow describes the Burgwall of
Potzlow, and that of Zahsow near Cottbus, as constructed over former
Pfahlbauten;[60] and, indeed, the town of Cottbus seems to have
been altogether built over piles, as, wherever diggings have been
made, piles are met with, and in this way a finely ornamented quern
was found.[61] Wooden substructures, in the form of a platform or
_Packwerkbau_, have also been observed and recorded in many places, as
at Schlieben, Gross Topola (Posen), the Labenzsee, Westpreussen.[62]
Moreover, those in boggy places were approached by means of wooden
gangways, the remains of which have been frequently met with in the
form of a double row of piles.[63]


ANCIENT MARINE DWELLINGS ON THE COASTS OF HOLLAND AND WESTERN GERMANY.

Notwithstanding the striking and singular appearance the Swiss
lake-dwellings must have presented to foreigners and strangers, it
is a remarkable fact that Roman writers are entirely silent about
them. Nor can this silence be accounted for on the supposition that
the lake-dwellings had entirely come to an end prior to Roman times,
as several of them have furnished antiquities whose Roman origin
cannot be mistaken. Some archæologists think they recognise in the
representation of a Dacian village on the Column of Trajan a true
pile-village (B. 164); but this is doubtful, and, even if true, it is
but a very meagre evidence of the custom, and leaves the problem of
the lake-dwellings as mysterious as ever. Such reticence on the part
of classical writers does not, however, extend to the class of ancient
remains I am now about to describe.

Pliny very distinctly states that the Chauci (Frisians and other races
along the coast of the German Ocean) were in the habit of constructing
artificial mounds, on which they built their houses so as to be beyond
the influence of the waves and tides. The following passage from his
"Natural History"[64] will be read with interest in relation to the
recent discoveries that have been made in the localities referred to.

"I have myself personally witnessed the condition of the Chauci, both
the Greater and the Lesser, situate in the regions of the far north.
In these climates a vast tract of land, invaded twice each day and
night by the overflowing waves of the ocean, opens a question that is
eternally proposed to us by Nature, whether these regions are to be
looked upon as belonging to the land, or whether as forming a portion
of the sea?

"Here a wretched race is found, inhabiting either the more elevated
spots of land, or else eminences artificially constructed, and of a
height to which they know by experience that the highest tides will
never reach. Here they pitch their cabins; and when the waves cover
the surrounding country far and wide, like so many mariners on board
ship are they; when, again, the tide recedes, their condition is that
of so many shipwrecked men, and around their cottages they pursue
the fishes as they make their escape with the receding tide. It is
not their lot, like the adjoining nations, to keep any flocks for
sustenance by their milk, nor even to maintain a warfare with wild
beasts, every shrub, even, being banished afar. With the sedge and the
rushes of the marsh they make cords, and with these they weave the
nets employed in the capture of the fish; they fashion the mud, too,
with their hands, and drying it by the help of the winds more than
of the sun, cook their food by its aid, and so warm their entrails,
frozen as they are by the northern blasts; their only drink, too, is
rainwater, which they collect in holes dug at the entrance of their
abodes; and yet these nations, if this very day they were vanquished
by the Roman people, would exclaim against being reduced to slavery!
Be it so, then--Fortune is most kind to many, just when she means to
punish them."

Notwithstanding the preciseness of Pliny's description and the fact
that for several centuries, since the great sea-dykes were erected,
the scattered remains of these mounds have been accessible on dry
land, they have only quite recently attracted the attention of
archæologists. I consider their investigation important, not only for
the large amount of industrial remains they contain, but for supplying
a missing link in the evidence of continuity in the European habit of
constructing pile-dwellings.


TERPEN (WEST FRIESLAND).

Before the construction of the great sea-dykes in Holland nearly the
whole of West Friesland would have been in that hybrid condition
described by Pliny in which it was difficult to say whether it
belonged to sea or land (_dubiumque terræ sit, an pars maris_). At
the present time, however, these lands are richly cultivated and
look as if they were a dead level. It is only on close inspection
that the monotony is relieved by certain elevations of considerable
extent called _Terpen_, whose summits rise to about the level of
the larger dykes. These mounds are situated at more or less regular
intervals, so that if the tides by any calamity had free scope, they
would appear as so many islands scattered over the country. It is on
such elevations that modern churches and villages are generally built,
and, till they accidentally attracted the attention of agriculturists,
nobody seemed to think anything about their origin. A few years ago it
was discovered that their interior was composed of a rich ammoniacal
deposit which agriculturists found valuable as a fertilising agent
when spread over their fields. The excavation of this substance for
manuring purposes now forms an important industry, and any landed
proprietor who happens to own a workable _terp_--_i.e._ one free of
buildings--is on the way to realise a small fortune. When a _terp_
is found suitable for being excavated they generally commence by
digging a canal close up to its base, sufficiently large to admit of
the passage of good-sized boats. The boats are then easily loaded
with the stuff and so it is conveyed to all parts of the country. As
the workings advance the canal is also advanced, so that the boats
are always in close proximity to the diggings. In the course of these
operations, bones and horns of various animals, pottery, and other
relics of human industry, were occasionally turned up.

By degrees these repeated discoveries attracted the attention of
antiquaries, and Dr. Pleyte, of Leyden, is now publishing a large
illustrated work on the antiquities of Holland (B. 301), in which a
conspicuous place is given to the terp-mounds and their contents.
It is, however, to some of the office-bearers of the Museum of the
Friesch Genootschap at Leeuwarden, more especially Mr. Corbelijn
Battaerd, its conservator, that I am indebted for much of my
information on the subject. In this museum are stored up most of
the objects hitherto found in the terp-mounds, and the collection,
already unique of its kind, is daily and rapidly increasing, as orders
have been issued in regard to many of them that no relics are to
be disposed of without being, in the first place, submitted to the
authorities of the museum.

Like most countries, the early traditions of Holland have been
forgotten or ignored, and in its annals little mention is made of the
_terpen_. In explanation of the origin and early use of the word, Dr.
Pleyte quotes from Ocko van Scharl a passage to the effect that one of
the ancient kings of Friesland, named Adgillus, who reigned towards
the end of the sixth century, had caused, on account of the ravages
of an inundation which took place four years prior to his accession,
a large number of elevated places to be formed, so as to give shelter
to man and beast in the event of a recurrence of this danger. These
mounds were then called _Terpen_.

Mr. Dirks, president of the Friesch Genootschap, as early as 1871
characterised these mounds as analogous to the terramara beds of North
Italy ("_ce sont des terramares historiques_");[65] but it remained
to Professor Pigorini of Rome to show that they were identical as
regards internal structure. This he did in 1881 (B. 372c), after
a visit to one at Aalzum which was then being excavated, when he
showed that there was a circumscribing dyke, and, although no actual
piles were then visible, he was informed by the proprietors that
such wooden structures had been occasionally met with. Prior to his
visit, it appears that no special attention was directed to these
structural remains. From all he could learn, however, on this point,
and especially from a consideration of the stratified arrangements
of the _débris_, Pigorini concluded that the deposits were due to
pile-dwellings, and had accumulated under precisely similar conditions
to the terremare, in regard to which he is such a distinguished
authority.

The _terp_ at Aalzum is still being systematically excavated, and,
though only as yet partially cleared off, its results, from an
archæological point of view, are now second to none of the kind in
Holland. Moreover, the excavations are conducted on an extensive
scale, and the locality is readily accessible. I can, therefore,
conceive of no better means of conveying to you some knowledge of the
nature and structural phenomena of these remarkable deposits, than by
detailing the facts which came under my own cognisance during a visit
I made this summer to the same spot under the guidance of my excellent
friend, Mr. Battaerd.

The _terp_ lies about a mile to the north of the town of Dokkum, some
twelve miles from Leeuwarden, and four or five from the seashore.
In approaching the locality from Dokkum there was little to attract
special notice beyond the usual Dutch scenery--canals, rich meadows,
herds of splendid cattle, and here and there some well-cultivated
cornfields. In front of us a slight elevation could be discerned,
crowned by a small church in the midst of a clump of trees, the
surroundings of which were neatly hedged meadows and cornfields. As
we advanced towards this church, and within a few hundred yards of
it, we entered on a sloping road, as if raised on a dyke, but on
each side the land was perfectly flat and bearing a splendid crop:
here a field of magnificent beans, and there an equally promising
one of wheat. These fields, said Mr. Battaerd, were formerly part
of the _terp_-mound from which the fertilising stuff has already
been removed, but this road was left undisturbed, so that we are
now actually walking on a portion of its surface. By-and-by we came
in sight of heaps of clayey stuff, the tops of which sparkled with
reflected light, and in their midst were to be seen the masts and
rigging of three boats. Those whitish clay-like heaps, said Mr.
Battaerd, formed the surface soil, which, being of no commercial
value, had to be wheeled off before the saleable deposits could
be got at. At last the actual workings were reached, and we found
ourselves in front of a perpendicular section some 15 or 18 feet high,
from which men and women were busily engaged in loading the boats.
Uppermost in my thoughts was the paramount question of the existence
of upright piles, which, it will be remembered, Pigorini had not
actually seen. Great was my delight when, at the very first glance,
my eye detected an undoubted pile of oak just in face of the cutting.
Close by it I soon found another and as we moved along numbers were
observed, some soft and yielding, scarcely offering any resistance
to the spade; and others of oak very hard in the centre, but more
decayed and ragged-like than those I have been in the habit of seeing
among the lake-dwelling remains. Those seen in this section differed
considerably in size; and I observed that some penetrated deeper
than others. At a little distance lay a heap of oak beams which had
recently been removed from the trenches--one of which I measured and
found it to be four yards in length, and from six to eight inches
thick. Upon inquiry, I ascertained that these beams lay horizontally,
and about half way down, in the stratified stuff.

Those who, like Professor Pigorini, are acquainted with the structural
features of the terremare of Northern Italy, will not be surprised
at the comparative rarity with which piles are met with in the
_terpen_, because of the rapidity with which timbers, when buried in
dry earth, decay and disappear altogether, leaving in many instances
no traces whatever behind them. This fact was strikingly shown by
Chierici, who produced positive evidence of the former existence of
piles in the upper strata of some of the terremare, by showing that
the holes left by the piles, after the woody fibre had completely
disappeared by decomposition, had become subsequently filled up by
dust and infiltrated material, which ultimately became hardened, and
so retained the actual form of the original piles. (See page 248.)
In short, natural casts of the original piles were accidentally
formed, which thus disclosed a knowledge of their former existence,
which otherwise might never have been suspected. To the soundness
of this deduction I have myself unconsciously contributed by an
observation which I made some years ago, while digging at the crannog
of Lochspouts, and having recorded it I may perhaps be allowed here to
repeat my words. "One day I was greatly puzzled by finding what was
evidently a portion of a birch tree, from 6 to 9 inches in diameter,
quite flat, and with scarcely any wood left inside the thick bark.
In no instance previously had I seen the evidence of pressure on
logs of this size; but after carefully considering the point it was
ascertained that such effects occurred only in the upper portion of
the mound, and above the log pavement, where the wood had been exposed
to atmospheric influences, so that when the woody fibres rotted away
the flattening of the bark was easily produced. All the logs found
buried in water or mud retained their original dimensions and showed
no trace of having yielded to superincumbent pressure."[66]

The absence of piles and wooden structures from many of these
mounds is, therefore, no proof that they have not formerly existed;
and, indeed, it is difficult to account for the horizontality and
regularity of the beds on any other hypothesis.

While I wandered about amidst the various sections presented by the
progressive stages of the excavations, wondering at the distinctness
of the strata, or picking up stray objects from the _débris_, such
as mussel shells, bits of bone, fragments of pottery, etc., which
were to be found here and there sticking in the face of the cuttings,
my friend, Mr. Battaerd, was deeply occupied in examining a heap of
bones, which lay weathering in a sunny corner. Having joined him in
his osteological study, I found that the chief point of attraction
was the head of a urus (_Bos_ _primigenius_) of great size, and with
splendid horn cores--the finest example, according to Mr. Battaerd,
that had yet found its way to the museum.

The land close to the brink of the section, and extending over a
considerable portion of the mound, was occupied by growing corn,
and hence its dimensions can only be approximately stated. The
proprietors, Messrs. W. and J. Bierma, obligingly accompanied us,
and one of them assured me it could not be less than from three to
four hundred yards in diameter. Its greatest height above the water
in the canal was 18 feet, but of course the level of the canal water
is considerably lower than that of high tide in the open sea. The
commercially valuable stuff commenced some 3 or 4 feet below the
surface, and continued without interruption to within a few feet of
the canal water. It was in this intermediate portion that the relics
were found: but their exact position, especially that of the smaller
objects, was seldom determined, as it was generally after the stuff
had become partially broken up during transport that they were found.

The stuff _in situ_ was distinctly stratified, forming layers of
various thicknesses, from a finger breadth up to 3 or 4 inches, or
sometimes more, which in some instances could be continuously traced
for long distances. Sometimes they shelved out altogether, and others
commenced. Here, a bed of fibrinous matter, in which quantities of the
partly decomposed fibres of flax could be readily recognisable; there,
a thickish deposit of a brownish glutinous stuff like peat. Charcoal
and ashes permeated the whole, and showed themselves sometimes as
distinct layers. Clay and sand were also largely mixed with these
deposits, and occasionally assumed the form of distinct and separate
beds.

Having so far satisfied ourselves as to the structural arrangements of
the mound, and the disposition of its contents, we walked up to the
church, which is but a short distance from the workings. This small
edifice is surrounded by a burying ground, and among the gravestones
are some ancient-looking ones. Mr. Battaerd informed me that it dates
as far back as the eleventh century.

It is calculated that there are altogether about 150 of these mounds
in West Friesland alone, and that of these about the half have been
more or less examined, some being now entirely cleared away. They are
also to be found in the province of Gröningen and some other parts of
Holland. Dr. Dirks states that the town of Leeuwarden is built over
two terp-mounds;[67] and Dr. Pleyte informed me that he has reason to
believe that the town of Leyden also reposes on similar deposits.

RELICS (=Fig. 100=).--The relics of human industry collected from
the _terpen_ are very varied and numerous. Of these the following
notes and illustrations, taken chiefly from the large assortment in
the Leeuwarden Museum, will serve to convey some general idea of the
social economy which prevailed among the occupiers of these singular
settlements, as well as of the period in which they flourished.

_Prehistoric._--The prehistoric remains, commonly so-called, such
as cutting implements of stone, are only feebly represented, but
occasionally they do turn up, in which respect the _terpen_ resemble
the Scottish and Irish crannogs.

_Clay Objects._--Perforated loom-weights, both conical and flat;
spindle-whorls in great numbers, and often ornamented with
finger marks or grooved lines (Nos. 2 and 3). Some flat and
triangularly-shaped objects of clay (No. 22) are perforated with
three holes, one at each angle, which are sometimes perpendicular
and sometimes parallel to the surface; in bulk and composition they
correspond with the loom-weights.

_Pottery._--Pottery is, as a rule, coarse but abundant, and represents
vessels of various shapes and sizes, generally with ears, but a few
with handles (Nos. 20 and 23). Samian ware is represented by many
fragments of bowls and dishes. A few vases, apparently home-made,
have some traces of coloured patches; and there are lids with raised
handles and ornamented with hollowed dots.

_Bone and Horn._--Bone and horn implements are very abundant,
consisting of combs (Nos. 1 and 16 to 19) of varied forms, and
constructed of plates riveted together with iron rivets, and
ornamented with consecutive circles, lines, dots, and curvilinear
figures; among them are also a few combs with very long teeth (No.
30).[68] There are also pins (Nos. 26 and 28), needles (No. 29),
buttons (No. 25), dice (No. 21), finger rings (No. 12), knife handles,
pointers, etc. (Nos. 10, 11, 13 and 27). Many so-called skates made
from the long bone of the horse's leg. Two or three short bones
(foot of the ox) are covered with concentric circles, apparently for
ornamentation. A curious bone object (No. 7) is supposed to have been
used in making twine or ropes.

[Illustration: =Fig. 100.=--TERPEN. Nos. 24 = ⅙, 12, 21, 27, and 29
= ⅔, and the rest = ⅓ real size.]

_Glass._--Beads, blue, green and variegated; also glass slag.

_Metal Objects._--A few bronze dishes (No. 5), one a tripod with
projecting handle (No. 15). Figurines of men and animals; the hand of
a Roman statue, apparently a female and about full size; Roman fibulæ;
some three or four double spirals; a small pair of shears (No. 8), and
a few bracelets with clasping-hooks. All these are of bronze. Among
objects of iron are shears, hammers, bridle-bits (=Fig. 101=), slag,
etc. A leaden bar or pig weighing 17 kilogrammes and marked with three
crosses, so, "XXX", was found at Achlum.

_Coins._--Anglo-Saxon coins very abundant: at Hallum 180 _sceattæ_
were found in a jar; Byzantine money in gold; Roman imperial money,
generally in silver, but sometimes in gold; Frankish coins. The
proprietors of Aalzum found a few silver coins in this terp with the
following inscription: "+ HLOTHARIVS. IMP. DORE STATVS MON (_eta_),"
which defines their date to be between 840 and 855 A.D.[69]

[Illustration: =Fig. 101.=--TERPEN. Iron Bridle-bit, ¼ real size.]

_Wooden Objects._--Small spades precisely similar to those used by
children while amusing themselves by digging the sand on the seashore.
Numbers of large casks the staves of which are kept together by three
iron hoops. In diameter these casks are not more than an ordinary
herring barrel, but in length they are from six to seven feet, and
about one-third from the top there is a small square hole 4 or 5
inches in diameter. The ends of the staves at the top rim of some are
much decayed, but the rest is perfectly sound, and for this reason
they are supposed to have stood in water with only the upper parts
exposed. They have been found in almost all the _terpen_ examined,
usually at regular distances, and deeply buried. One, 6 feet high, was
found resting inside a vat 3 feet deep, and its highest point was over
two yards below the surface of the mound. Canoes and small paddles may
also be mentioned as occasional relics.

_Nondescript Objects._--Cock spurs; egg-shells of the domestic fowl
and goose, some of which, singularly enough, were, when found, still
unbroken; shells of various kinds of sea-urchins, star-fishes, and
mussels; amber beads, also this material in the unworked form;
amorphous vivianite; large quantities of the _débris_ of flax; one
curious object is a flute made of the shank bone of a small animal;
one small fictile dish has four feet, and a few others are in the form
of three cups attached. At Aalzum, on the occasion of my visit, among
the articles purchased by Mr. Battaerd were a mitten and some sort of
head-dress like a felt wide-awake. The mitten had only one stall, for
the thumb.

In the _terp_ called Beetgum there was found an urn, like those
from the dolmens of the Drenthe, containing some burnt bones. Human
bones are sometimes found, but they are supposed to have belonged to
secondary burials. At Aalzum a grave was found containing a body and
along with it was a fibula of the Merovingian period, with a flat back
containing a beautiful mosaic pattern of variegated glass and amber.

_Fauna._--Osseous remains representing the following animals:--Horse,
ox (several varieties--_Bos taurus_, _primgenius_, _longifrons_,
_brevicornis_), cat, dog, sheep, wild boar, deer, roe, and fallow
deer. Among the skulls of these animals (of which there are many) are
one or two of the four-horned sheep. It may be of interest to note
that the osseous remains of this animal were among those identified by
Sir W. R. Wilde as coming from the crannog of Lagore (page 351).


WARFEN (EAST FRIESLAND).

In 1879 Dr. Tergast, of Emden, published a short account of the
prehistoric antiquities of East Friesland,[70] in which he takes
notice of the existence of certain mounds, in the low-lying regions,
called "Warfen," which he believes to be the remains of very ancient
settlements constructed for the protection of their inhabitants
against floods and the fluctuations of the surrounding waters. The
author does not give many details about these mounds. It would appear,
however, that they are to be met with in considerable numbers, as he
suggests that it would be of the highest interest to archæological
science to have a map constructed showing their local distribution.
Nor do they appear to have been subjected to much practical
investigation, as only three objects from them are illustrated in
Dr. Tergasts book. These are a bone implement (so-called skate or
cloth-polisher), a necklace of glass and amber beads, and an iron
arrow-point. He also figures a comb (six inches long) similar to
that from the _terpen_ (=Fig. 100=, No. 30), but without specifying
the locality where it was found. All these are precisely similar
to objects found in the terp-mounds of Holland. Every indication,
therefore, points to the conclusion that the _Terpen_ and _Warfen_ are
quite analogous to each other and belong to the same period of time.

WURTHEN (DITHMARSCHEN).

In 1883, Dr. Hartmann, of Marne (B. 397), gave a more detailed account
of similar dwellings in the Holstein fen district, near the embouchure
of the river Elbe. These, in the form of low mounds, are met with,
according to him, in all the marshes along this part of the North
Sea coast. In the Dithmarschen, both north and south, they are very
numerous, and the larger ones, like the terp-mounds of Holland, are
now generally occupied by one or more modern buildings. In extent they
vary from 1¼ to 15 acres, and in height from 13 to 23 feet above
ordinary mean tides. On several occasions in recent times, in the
course of excavating the foundations of new buildings, the digging
of wells, etc., various relics, such as fragments of pottery, clay
weights, iron implements, bits of manipulated staghorns, broken bones,
etc., were turned out, which, however, suggested nothing more than
passing comments. But their real nature is now clearly pourtrayed
by the facts recorded by Dr. Hartmann, the chief of which were
ascertained from excavations conducted by himself in the Fahrstedter
Wurth situated some three miles to the north of the Elbe. This
_Wurth_, some years ago, became the property of a brick manufacturer,
of the name of Huesmann, who was in the habit, from time to time, of
utilising its contents, partly for filling up old clay-pits and partly
for manuring purposes. Such was the condition of the Fahrstedter
Wurth when Dr. Hartmann's attention was directed to it in August,
1881. On his first visit, while poking about the open trenches, he
picked up, at a depth of four feet from the surface, a perforated clay
weight, four inches in diameter, and two and a half inches thick.
After this he continued his visits to the locality regularly, and,
in a short time, collected a number of relics, besides determining
many interesting points in regard to the structure of the mound. The
greatest depth reached by the haphazard excavations of Mr. Huesmann
was nine and a half feet. Along the exposed section down to this point
Dr. Hartmann distinguished the following layers:

  1. Ordinary soil (_Ackererde_)                       about 2 feet.
  2. Greenish sandy earth (_hellgrüne sandige Erde_),
       supposed to be due to sea action, from the
       fact of its containing many of the spicules
       or needles of sponges                                 1   "
  3. A layer of reddish clay (_rother Estrich_)         ½ to 1   "
  4. Remains of wooden structures (_Packwerk_)          2 to 4   "
  5. Earth mixed with clay (_helle Kleierde_)                1½  "

This _Packwerk_ is described as made up of decomposed branches, from
the size of a finger to, occasionally, the thickness of an arm,
arranged horizontally, but sometimes perpendicularly. Its lower
portion was composed of large quantities of the twigs of birch and
oak, the fibres of several marsh plants, broken bones, and other
organic _débris_. In the underlying clay he noticed some holes, which
he concluded to have been due to small piles, the wood of which had
disappeared by decomposition. Scattered through this Packwerk were
found, besides charcoal and ashes, a varied assortment of the relics
of human industry, of which the following may be noted:--Fragments of
pottery, (grey and black), among which were some with perforations
round the rims; sharpening-stones; a perforated clay weight; twelve
portions of quern stones, made of basalt, and having a thickness
of one and a half to two and a half inches--from a fragment, the
entire diameter of one was ascertained to be 17 inches; several iron
knives, a socketed lance-head, and some nails, together with lumps of
both iron and glass slag. A wooden handle, some worked objects of
bone with marks of rivets, bits of birch-bark, etc. A black mass of
asphalt, supposed to be a product of birch-bark, had embedded in it
the shell of a hazel-nut. From this it was inferred that the mass was
originally in a fluid condition.

Among the osseous remains the following animals were identified
by Dr. Pfeffer, of the Natural History Museum at Hamburg, and Dr.
Rautenburg:--dog, ox, pig, sheep, stag, horse, bittern (?), and
sturgeon (recognised by its scales).

In the clay below the Packwerk (_Kleierde_) were found the stumps of
eight piles, five to six feet apart, which Dr. Hartmann concluded had
originally passed upwards through the fascine work, but now only the
portions embedded in the clay remained, the rest having disappeared by
decomposition. Of these piles (four oak, three birch, and one ash),
some were round and some rectangular, and nearly all more or less
pointed at the lower extremity. The exceptions were blunt and rested
on some fragments of granite stones. One of the piles, which measured
six inches broad, and two and three-quarter inches thick, contained
four round holes, in one of which a portion of a spar still remained.

Having satisfied himself as to the condition of this portion of
the mound already exposed, Dr. Hartmann got permission from the
proprietor to sink a shaft into the undisturbed portion underneath.
The superficial area of this shaft was 12 feet long and 9 broad, and
it was excavated until the sea-sand was reached, at a depth of 11½
feet--_i.e._ about 21 feet from the surface of the mound.

Continuing now our inspection of this section (the upper portion of
which I have already detailed) the following layers were successively
passed through:--

   6. Clay earth continued                                   1½ ft.
   7. Packwerk (No. 2)                                        1  "
   8. Blackish clayey stuff (_dunkle Kleierde_)               1  "
   9. Light clay (containing the stumps of a second
        series of piles, four in number, and from three
        to five and a half inches thick)                      1  "
  10. Packwerk (No. 3)                                        3  "
  11. Whitish clay, mixed with twigs, branches, reeds, etc.   2  "
  12. A layer of cowdung (_Grüngelblicher fester Kuhdünger_)  2  "
  13. Sea sand (_Meeressand_)

The two _Packwerke_ here encountered are stated to be similar to the
first, and the relics are also much of the same character. The under
portion of both is described as being made up of twigs of oak, birch,
and hazel, very much birch-bark, worked bits of wood, wooden handles
of tools, burnt faggots, _débris_ of marsh plants (_Schilf_, _Binsen_,
_und Samen von Polygonum_), small bundles of bast and other fibres of
fine roots, shells of hazel-nuts, fragments of pottery (six pounds),
lumps of iron slag (five pounds), broken bones (sixteen pounds),
charcoal, a piece of redstone, and the shells of some edible molluscs
(_Helix fruticum_ and _Strigella_, and _Cardium edule_).

Among the relics to be noted are a spindle-whorl, an iron buckle, and
a bit of leather.

Of special interest is a third series of piles, which he describes as
terminating in the sea-sand underneath all. These piles were five in
number, four oak and one birch, 2 to 5½ inches in thickness, and 18
to 33 inches in length. They were placed in a zig-zag fashion about
1½ foot apart, and traced through the layer of "Kuhdünger" to the
"Packwerk," where they became so rotten as to be no longer recognised.
One of them had also a hole, which still retained portion of a
projecting spar.

Our investigator made observations, but of a much more limited
character, on nine other _Wurthen_, and in all of them he found the
"Packwerk" to be a special feature in their structure.

Such is an epitome of the facts on which Dr. Hartmann bases his
opinion that not only the _Wurthen_, but also the neighbouring
_Warfen_ and _Terpen_, were constructed like the fascine islands of
prehistoric Switzerland, and the Scottish and Irish crannogs. The
idea of pile-buildings can scarcely be entertained by him, and he
stoutly combats Pigorini's opinions in regard to the _Terpen_ of West
Friesland.

The Fahrstedter Wurth, according to Hartmann, consisted of an original
mound some seven feet high, to which on two subsequent occasions
additions were made. The initiatory process of its construction was
to form a basis of _Kuhdünger_ two feet in thickness. Over this clay
and rubbish were placed, to the extent of other two feet; and then
came the fascine structures, which raised the mound other three feet.
To keep the mass together, piles were driven here and there down to
the sandy bottom. But the inhabitants soon found that this was too
low to shelter them from the waves and floods, so they constructed
an addition to their mound, which raised its surface to ten feet. But
this was not enough, and so a third addition was made, which added
six feet more to the mound. At this height its surface would be about
twenty feet above the medium sea level (_Normal Null_), and at this
height Dr. Hartmann concludes that cottages would be quite secure, as
the highest tides on record--viz. 4th February, 1825, reached only 12
feet 4 inches above the medium sea level, a result which would leave
a considerable margin for the Fahrstedter Wurth. Of course, the tides
never reach it now, as it is protected by the sea-dykes, the first of
which was constructed in the middle of the twelfth century.

Very little reflection shows the inherent improbability of Dr.
Hartmann's theory. Where could the primitive builders get such
a quantity of "Kuhdünger" to start with? If the "Packwerk" was
constructed as a solid mass, how could its under portions be so
prolific of such varied relics, and other odds and ends of human
occupancy? Moreover, the disproportion between the original and final
height of the mound is incompatible with the supposition that the
successive increases were merely additions entailed by unforeseen
circumstances, such as an unusual storm. The three platforms with
their corresponding series of upright piles, the stratified assortment
of the structural materials, and the position of the relics and
_débris_ of its inhabitants scattered throughout the entire mound,
are, in my opinion, inexplicable on any other hypothesis than that
we have here the remains of pile-dwellings, successively erected one
above the other, precisely similar to the terremare already described.
The more probable _modus operandi_ was to construct in the first
place a circumscribing dyke of mud, varying in size according to the
number of the tribe or family, behind which the cottages were built
on platforms supported on piles. When the under spaces became filled
up with the accumulated _débris_ of men and cattle, and all the other
odds and ends of continued occupancy, the process was repeated again
and again, until the whole enclosed area, in the course of some
centuries, became a flattish mound or island within the limits of the
tidal shore.

FOOTNOTES:

[45] _Antiqua_, 1886, p. 65.

[46] _Antiqua_, 1884, p. 128; and _Bul. de la Soc. suisse de Num._,
1884, No. 7.

[47] _Rev. archéologique_, 1884. p. 194.

[48] _Acad. de Lyon_, tome xi. p. 229.

[49] _Association Française pour l'avancement des Sciences_, 1885,
vol. i. p. 175.

[50] _Matériaux, etc._, vol. xi. p. 95.

[51] _Bul. Soc. Anth._, 1884. See also "Crannia Ethnica": "Les
Préhistoriques" (Mortillet); _Bul. Soc. Anth._, 1874, 22nd Jan.

[52] "Antiquity of Man," 4th edition, p. 241.

[53] In a footnote on page 241 of his "Antiquity of Man," Sir Charles
states that the Memoir of Professor Crahay was published in 1836, in
the _Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Belgique_, tome iii. p. 43. I
find, however, that in this reference Crahay merely notices in a few
lines the finding of the bones of the elephant in the excavations
above referred to, and makes no mention whatever of the human jaw.

[54] _Das Ausland_, 1877, p. 960.

[55] "Ancient Scottish Lake-Dwellings," p. 219.

[56] _Zeit. für Ethn., Verhand._, p. 39, vol. viii.

[57] _Zeit. für Ethn._, vol. vi., _Verhand._, p. 228.

[58] _Ibid._, vol. x., _Verhand._, p. 52.

[59] "Die vorgeschichtlichen Rundwälle im östlichen Deutschland."
Berlin, 1888.

[60] _Zeit. für Eth._, vol. vi., _Verhand._, p. 115, and vol. vii.,
_Verhand._, p. 127.

[61] _Ibid._, vol. ix., _Verhand._, p. 449.

[62] Behla, "Die vergeschichtlichen Rundwälle," p. 8.

[63] _Ibid._, p. 22.

[64] "Nat. Hist.," lib. xvi. 1.

[65] _Inter. Cong, d'Anthrop. et d'Arch._, Ses. V., p. 212.

[66] "Ancient Scottish Lake-Dwellings," p. 273.

[67] _Cong. Inter. d'Anthrop. et d'Arch._, Ses. V., 1871, p. 212.

[68] A comb precisely similar to the one here figured (No. 30) is
described and figured by Ossowski as coming from the cavern of
Wierzchowska-Górna in Poland. _Antiqua_, 1887, p. 41, and pl. vii.
Fig. 10.

[69] _Handelingen van het Friesch Genootschap_, 1886-7, p. 12.

[70] "Die heidnischen Alterthümer Ostfrieslands." Emden, 1879.



Fifth Lecture.

THE LAKE-DWELLINGS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.


I.--IRISH CRANNOGS.

Public attention was first directed to Irish crannogs by Sir W. Wilde,
in the year 1839. It appears that early in this year Dr. Petrie's
curiosity was roused by the frequency of the visits of a local dealer
offering for sale objects of more or less archæological value, which,
he stated, were found in a peat bog at Dunshaughlin, in the county of
Meath. The articles exhibited were of a miscellaneous character, and
their assortment in such a place seemed so strange that Dr. Petrie
determined to visit the locality. Accordingly he and Surgeon Wilde
(afterwards Sir W. R. Wilde) started for West Meath in search of the
mysterious find, and were conducted to the peat-bog of Lagore, near
the village of Dunshaughlin. Here, within the boundaries of a drained
lake, they found an artificial mound entirely overgrown with peat,
then partially exposed by turf-cutters. On making inquiries as to the
antecedents of this mound they were informed that it had been well
known to bone-collectors for upwards of ten years, and that already
150 cart-loads of bones had been dug out and forwarded to Scotland for
manure. Altogether the find was considered of great importance, and it
was arranged between the two antiquaries that Petrie should write a
description of the antiquities, while Wilde was to confine himself to
an analysis of the animal remains.

According to Mr. W. F. Wakeman,[71] it appears that Dr. Petrie was
a little jealous of Surgeon Wilde's enthusiasm for archæology, and
accordingly wished to limit the scope of his investigations. Wilde's
paper, entitled "On the Animal Remains and Antiquities recently
found at Dunshaughlin," was read at a meeting of the Irish Academy on
the 27th April, 1840, and it is singular, and perhaps confirmatory
of Wakeman's suggestion, that, with the exception of two extracts
bearing on the situation and structure of the mound, it is reported in
the Proceedings only in abstract. I here quote these extracts as the
most authoritative description of this remarkable lake-dwelling now
extant:--


LAGORE OR DUNSHAUGHLIN.

"About a mile to the east of the village of Dunshaughlin, on the
townland of _Lagore_, and near the margin of a 'cutaway' black bog,
is a circular mound, slightly raised above the surrounding plain, its
highest central part being about eight feet above the margin, and the
circumference of the mound measuring 520 feet. A small stream passes
through the circle; and the whole bog in which it is situated occupies
a slight concavity of about a mile and a half in circumference,
bounded by raised tillage and pasture lands. Within the memory of some
of the old inhabitants of the neighbourhood, this bog was covered with
water during the greater part of the year, and it is so invariably
during winter up to the present period. A large pond is still in
existence in one of the fields adjoining the mound. A few years ago
some labourers, while clearing the stream-way, discovered several
bones protruding from its sides; and in May, 1839, the quantity of
bones found in the drain was so great, and their value so well known,
that a further examination was made, when it was discovered that the
greater part of the mound was composed of the remains of animals,
placed there in the following manner:--

"The circumference of the circle was formed by upright posts of black
oak, measuring from 6 to 8 feet in height; these were mortised into
beams of a similar material, laid flat upon the marl and sand beneath
the bog, and nearly 16 feet below the present surface. The upright
posts were held together by connecting cross-beams, and fastened by
large iron nails; parts of a second upper tier of posts were likewise
found, resting on the lower ones. The space thus enclosed was divided
into separate compartments, by septa or divisions that intersected one
another in different directions; these were also formed of oaken beams
in a state of great preservation, but joined together with greater
accuracy than the former, and in some cases having their sides grooved
or rabbited to admit large panels driven down between them. The
interiors of the chambers so formed were filled with bones and black
moory earth, and the heap of bones was raised up in some places within
a foot of the surface. It was generally found that the remains of each
species of animal were placed in separate divisions, with but little
intermixture with any other; and the antiquities, etc., were found
along with them, without any order or regularity, but for the most
part near the bottom." (B. 4, p. 420.)

From the abstract of Wilde's paper I find that among the osseous
remains the following animals were represented:--several varieties
of oxen, the pig (a smaller variety than is now bred in Ireland),
the horse, the ass, the common and fallow deer, the goat, _one skull
of the four-horned sheep_, a large species of the greyhound tribe,
probably the Irish wolf-dog, and the fox. A few bones of birds,
the shells of limpets and buccinums, and a large quantity of the
broken shells of hazel-nuts were also noted. Nearly in the centre
of the heap, and within 2 feet of the surface, were found two human
skeletons lying at length, and without any surrounding wood or stone
coffin. Owing to the prejudices of the peasants these bones had to be
re-interred. The report then goes on to say:--

"The antiquities found in this place may be divided into the warlike,
the culinary, and the ornamental. They consisted of _iron_ swords
of different lengths, with straight edges and angular points, and
bearing a resemblance to the ancient Roman swords. Very many knives
were found, of different shapes and sizes, with iron spear, javelin,
and dagger blades, and part of the boss or central ornament of a
shield; but _no brazen weapons_ of any description. Two querns, or
ancient corn-mills, were found on the marl, at the bottom of the
enclosure; sharpening-stones, iron chains, an iron axe, a brazen pot,
and three small brass bowls of most elegant shape and workmanship;
several articles precisely resembling miniature frying-pans, of about
three inches in diameter (perhaps incense-burners); circular discs of
turned bone, wood, and slate, like those supposed to have been used at
the end of the distaff; small shears, like the modern sheep-shears;
brazen, bone, and iron pins, from 4 to 6 inches in length, the former
of great beauty of construction; brooches, and parts of buckles,
containing pieces of enamel and mosaic work; bracelets; wooden
(yew-tree) combs, toothpicks, etwees, and other articles belonging to
the toilet. Several of these articles show an extraordinary state of
perfection of the arts at the period of their construction.

[Illustration: =Fig. 102.=--LAGORE. Carved Bone, showing some of the
designs real size.]

"A very curious bone was likewise found (=Fig. 102=), and exhibited to
the meeting, with a number of devices carved on it, as if by way of
practice in engraving; these devices consisted of scrolls and marks
precisely similar to those found on ancient Irish crosses, ornaments,
and gravestones. There were no crosses, beads, or _Christian_ sacred
ornaments found in the excavation: but a number of pieces of stags'
horns sawn across, and also pieces of hazel-wood, in great quantity,
as if laid up for firewood, were found in one spot near the bottom.
Some of the articles exhibited now belong to the collection of the
Dean of St. Patrick's: but the greater number were forwarded for the
inspection of the Academy by Mr. Barnwall, of Grennanstown, on whose
ground the discovery was made, and to whom Mr. Wilde was indebted for
the bones, and permission to make any researches he might require."

The late Lord Talbot de Malahide, writing in the _Archæological
Journal_ of June, 1849 (B. 10, p. 101), says, in regard to the Lagore
find:--

"A great portion of these valuable relics became the property of
the late Dr. Dawson, Dean of St. Patrick's; and on his decease were
purchased, with the rest of his Irish antiquities, and presented to
the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. Surgeon Wilde also presented to
the same institution a valuable collection of the bones found in the
same locality. Mr. Barnwall, the owner of the soil, still possesses
some remnant of this treasure, after having been plundered to a
considerable extent by dishonest servants; and those specimens which
I possess, representations of some of which are given in illustration
of this paper, I owe to the liberality and kindness of the same
gentleman."

[Illustration: =Fig. 103.=--LAGORE. Iron Weapons, a peculiar Iron
Pipe, and Ring with portion of Chain attached.]

The following list comprises the various antiquities from Lagore then
in the possession of Lord Talbot, and laid before the members of the
Institute at the monthly meeting on February 2nd:--

[Illustration: =Fig. 104.=--LAGORE. Two Bronze Pins (1/1), a Bronze
Bowl, and a Ladle and an Axe-head of Iron.]

_Objects of Iron._--Two double-edged swords, one measuring 22¼
inches, inclusive of the tang which passed through the hilt; the
blade, 18½ inches long and 1⅜ inch wide, was formed with a wide
shallow groove along its entire length. The other sword-blade measures
15¼ inches and is formed with a central ridge. A blade, curved
towards the point, in some degree resembling certain Oriental weapons;
the curved portion alone has a cutting edge on both sides; length 13¼
inches, and width of curved portion 1 inch. Two spear-heads, in fine
preservation and very sharp; length 10 inches. A peculiar single-edged
weapon, resembling the glaive of simplest form, but of diminutive
size, the blade measuring only 8 inches. An iron axe-head, length 7
inches. A peculiar iron pipe. (See page 431.) An iron ladle. An iron
ring with portion of chain manacle (=Figs. 103= and =104=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 105.=--LAGORE. Ornamented Bone Comb (⅔),
portion of an object of Bronze with Interlacements, a Bronze Dagger
9¾ inches long, and 3 Beads.]

_Bronze._--A small bowl 5¼ inches diameter, height 3 inches. Three
armillæ of rude fashion. Portion of bronze ornament with enamelled
work and exquisite finish. Portion of a ring fibula, with the
extremities, between which the acus passed, dilated and flat. There
are cavities in the metal in which enamel or some other ornament
appears to have been incrusted. Portion of an object with interlaced
ornamentation (=Fig. 105=), of unknown use. Several bronze pins of
various fashion and size, from 3 to 6 inches in length. Four of these
have movable rings appended to one extremity in lieu of a head.
Another pin has a head of very singular fashion, as shown by the
representation here annexed, of the same size as the original (=Fig.
104=).

_Bone._--Two bone needles or bodkins, being perforated at the
extremities, 2½ to 3½ inches long. A double-toothed comb of bone,
rudely ornamented with lines and concentric circles, 3½ by 2¼ inches.

In April, 1887, through the courtesy and assistance of the present
Lord Talbot de Malahide, I had the satisfaction of inspecting most of
the above described objects, which are still in safe keeping among the
art treasures of Malahide Castle. Illustrations of most of them are
given on =Figs. 103= and =104=.

The objects from Lagore which went to the Museum of the Irish Academy,
together with those in the Petrie collection (now belonging to the
Academy), are in such a state of confusion, owing to the absence of
distinguishing labels, and the want of harmony between the numbers on
the objects and those in the official catalogue, that, notwithstanding
several visits to the museum with the express purpose of identifying
and singling out some of the crannog remains, I have been unable to
make much addition to those already illustrated.

[Illustration: =Fig. 106.=--LAGORE. Iron Implements and Weapons. All
⅓ real size.]

By the kind permission of the council of the Royal Irish Academy I
am enabled to make use of the few woodcuts from Wilde's catalogue
illustrative of objects from Lagore. They are as follows:-- The
top of a pin ornamented with three movable rings (=Fig. 104=), an
ornamental bone comb, a bronze dagger, and three beads (=Fig. 105=).
The ribbed bead is opaque, with traces of a light green varnish, and
is almost identical with beads found in the Scottish crannogs. Another
is an inch long and has a raised ornament in white on a deep blue
ground.

The objects represented on =Fig. 106= I have identified, with the
assistance of Mr. Wakeman, as coming from the same remarkable
locality. They are all of iron and represented one-third natural size,
and will be readily recognised as tools and weapons of ordinary use.

In regard to the historic notices of Lagore Sir W. R. Wilde writes as
follows:--

"As the earliest discovered and examined crannoge in modern times has
been that of Lagore, near Dunshaughlin, County of Meath, so, upon
looking into the authorities, we find it the first alluded to. Loch
Gabhair is said to have been one of the nine lakes which burst forth
in Ireland A.M. 3581 ('Annals of the Four Masters'; see also Colgan's
'Acta Sanctorum,' p. 422, n. 14). In A.D. 848, we read that Cinaedh,
son of Conaing, Lord of Cianachta-Breagh, in Meath, went with a strong
force of foreigners, and plundered the Ui-Neill from the Sionainn (the
Shannon) to the sea; 'and he plundered the island of Loch Gabhor, and
afterwards burned it, so that it was level with the ground.' And in
the old translation of the 'Annals of Ulster,' Codex Clarendensis,
the passage is thus rendered:--"And brake down the island of Loch
Gavar to the very bottom.' Again, in A.D. 933, the same authority
informs us that--'The island of Loch-Gavar [was] pulled down by Aulaiv
O'Hivair,' and the cave of Knowth, on the Boyne, plundered during one
of the Scandinavian marauding expeditions with which the kingdom was
then troubled. Thus we have evidence that Lagore crannoge was occupied
upwards of one thousand years ago." (B. 18, p. 229.)


DISCOVERY OF OTHER CRANNOGS.

Sir W. Wilde states that a few months after the discovery of Lagore,
an island "artificially formed of timber and peat" was brought to
light upon lowering the water of Roughan Lake, near Dungannon, on
which "numerous fragments of ancient pottery and bones, a few bronze
spear-heads," and an upper ornamental quern stone, were discovered.
Other discoveries of a similar character are successively noted
as having been made in various other localities. An island became
exposed on the lowering of the waters of Lough Gur, county of
Limerick, from which it is said a vast collection of bones and a
great number of antiquities have from time to time been obtained.
Among the latter is a most interesting stone mould (=Fig. 107=)
for bronze spear-heads.[72] In 1845, Mr. Shirley, in his "account
of the kingdom of Farney" (B. 8, p. 94), describes another crannog
which was brought to light two years previously, as constituting
"The island Ever Mac Cooley's house." "The foundations," writes Mr.
Shirley, "of this ancient residence were discovered in the autumn
of 1843, seven feet below the present surface of the earth, in the
little island at Lisanisk, and two feet below the present water level
of the lake a double row of piles were found sunk in the mud; they
were formed of young trees, from 6 to 12 inches in diameter, with
the bark on. The area enclosed by these piles, from which we may
judge of the size of the house, was 60 feet in length by 42 feet in
breadth." In the following year the same writer describes two other
lake-dwellings in the same district, one in Lake Monalty and the other
in Lough-na-Glack, on and around which the following relics were said
to have been found:--

[Illustration: =Fig. 107.=--LOUGH GUR. Stone Mould, 6½ x 2½ x 1¾
inches.]

"Three bronze celts with loops on the sides, and the remains of the
stick were found in one of them; a very perfect small dagger of
bronze, one foot in length; two bronze arrow-heads, double pointed;
a bronze gouge or chisel, rarely found in Ireland; the head of a
bronze hunting-spear; part of a bronze sword or dagger; a bronze cap,
apparently the end of a wooden hilt of some weapon; the bronze handle
of a javelin or spear, with loop attached; the boss of a shield of
bronze; a bronze knife which appears to have been gilt; a bronze
knife or dagger, measuring 10½ inches in length; a smaller one 7
inches in length; a bronze bolt, with loop, measuring 16½ inches in
length--this was found sticking in the mud, close to the island on
Lough-na-Glack; another, 12 inches in length, has been since found in
the island itself. Of bronze ornaments found on these islands there
are the following: Several bronze rings of different sizes, two of
them with transverse spring openings, others hollow, and probably
parts of armour or horse trappings; two bronze needles, one of them
with the eye entire; a bronze pin, the head hollowed like a cup, and
bearing a striking resemblance to the ends of the golden ornaments
often found in Ireland; several bronze pins like modern shirt pins;
parts of several bronze fibulæ or brooches, with fragments of several
bronze instruments, rivets, etc.; a small circular bronze bell, like
a sheep-bell; three harp keys of bronze of different sizes. Of other
ornaments found on the island on Lough-na-Glack I may particularly
mention several amber and blue glass beads, three bone pins, and
a comb apparently of ivory. Of iron instruments, an iron dagger,
measuring with the hilt 15 inches; several iron coulters of ploughs
of very primitive form, 7 inches in length; parts of iron instruments
the use of which it is impossible to determine; a long gun-barrel, 3
feet 8 inches in length, of that sort, I believe, formerly called a
calliver; part of the lock of a pistol; many large bullets of lead
were also found. I may add to this list a pair of quern stones, found
on the Monalty Island; some burnt corn; remains of coarse broken
earthenware vessels, and bits of thick dark glass; an earthen pot,
shaped like a hat; another of Dutch manufacture, with the figure of
a man's head below the spout, used in Ireland during the seventeenth
century, and called grey-beards; some small Dutch tobacco pipes; cut
oval stones, apparently intended for pounding in mortars; several
circular stones, with holes in the centres, often found with ancient
remains, and considered in Ireland to belong to the ancient spinning
wheels; also several stones, or hones, of different shapes and sizes,
for sharpening weapons and tools; a brass token, nearly defaced,
probably of the reign of Charles II." (B. 9, p. 44.)

In 1845, when the lake of Corcreevy, county of Tyrone, was drained,
its crannog was examined by Mr. Burnside, when the following articles
were recovered from among its remains:--A pair of bronze and iron
manacles, an ornamental comb of bone, parts of a musical instrument,
an arrow-head, a spear-head, and a hammer-stone.[73]

[Illustration: =Fig. 108.=--BALLINDERRY. Bone Comb (⅔), 3 Bone Pins,
length 3⅓, 4½, and 5½ inches, and Bronze Tweezer (½).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 109.=--BALLINDERRY. Stone Amulets.]


BALLINDERRY.

About the same time the crannog in Ballinderry Lough, near Moate,
county of Meath, became known, and appears to have yielded a large
quantity of bones and antiquities, together with one or two canoes.
From the number of objects now in the Museum of the Royal Irish
Academy, and in private collections, said to be found on this crannog,
it must have been an unusually rich repository of lake-dwelling
relics; yet, singular to relate, Sir W. Wilde dismisses the subject by
stating that he was indebted to Mr. Hayes, of Moate, for a description
of the find, together with a plan and map of the locality. On this
crannog Mr. Graves, writing as late as 1883, makes the following
remarks:--

[Illustration: =Fig. 110.=--BALLINDERRY. Inscribed Bone Pins. Real
size.]

"There was a great crannog in this lakelet, surrounded by a stockade
of oak piles. Around this and on the crannog was found an immense
quantity of the antlers of the red deer, and the bones of deer, oxen,
sheep, and other animals, which were sold as manure. A great and
varied mass of objects of an archæological nature were also found
on, in, and around the crannog, some of which found their way to the
hands of various collectors, and some, I believe, are in the Museum
of the Royal Irish Academy (=Figs. 108= and =112=), but unhappily no
record or connected account of that great crannog or its finds has
been preserved. Amongst the articles of wood which Mr. Browne secured
was a portion of an ancient harp. The pins and amulets exhibited on
the occasion referred to have since been engraved, and I now describe
them, beginning with the amulets (=Fig. 109=), which are here engraved
from photographs full size." (B. 391, p. 196.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 111.=--BALLINDERRY. Inscribed Bone Pins. Real
size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 112.=--BALLINDERRY AND STROKESTOWN. Bone objects.
All ⅔ real size.]

It is suggested by Mr. Graves that the curious scorings on these pins
are of the nature of Ogham and Runic writing (=Figs. 110= and =111=),
but special authorities who have examined them do not support this
theory. Moreover, I doubt the genuineness of both the pins and amulets.


LOUGH FAUGHAN.

Rev. Charles Archbold, writing of a crannog in Lough Faughan, county
Down, says:--

"I found that the island was in a great measure, if not altogether,
artificial. There were large stakes driven into the ground, and
completely enclosing the space within, but not rising above the
surface, so as to form a palisade, but evidently for the purpose of
keeping in the soil from the encroachment of the water. The tradition
respecting it is, that there had been a castle on the shore opposite,
the chieftain of which caused this island to be made as a place of
refuge from the sudden onslaughts of the O'Neills; and to render this
retreat more secure he would never allow more than one boat or canoe
on the lake. During the drainage of the lake some years ago, a canoe
formed out of a solid piece of oak was found near the island." A jug
of excellent workmanship was found on this crannog (Fig. 113). (B. 18,
p. 224.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 113.=--LOUGH FAUGHAN. Earthenware Jug, 13 inches
high.]


DISCOVERIES BY BOARD OF WORKS.

But the greatest discoveries were due to the workings of the
Commission for the Arterial Drainage and Inland Navigation of Ireland,
which brought no less than twenty-two additional crannogs to light in
the counties of Roscommon, Leitrim, Cavan, and Monaghan. Reports of
these crannogs by the engineers of the Board of Works, with plans,
maps, and sections of the more important (=Figs. 114= and =115=), as
well as the relics collected on them, were given to the Royal Irish
Academy. Unfortunately these relics are now indiscriminately mixed
with other Irish antiquities, and are virtually beyond identification.

Mr. Mulvany, Commissioner of Public Works, makes the following remarks
on the general features of construction of the crannogs encountered by
them during these drainage operations prior to the year 1852:--

[Illustration: =Fig. 114.=--Section of ARDAKILLEN Crannog, near
Strokestown.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 115.=--Plan of Crannog in DRUMALEAGUE LOUGH.
Outer circle 60 feet in diameter.]

"1. They are surrounded by stakes, driven generally in a circle from
60 to 80 feet in diameter; but in some cases the inclosure is larger,
and of an oval shape, as, for instance, that in Loughtown Lake, which
is 120 feet from east to west and 100 feet from north to south;
and one of those in Lough Mac Hugh, which measures 118 feet in one
direction and 74 feet in another.

"2. These outside stakes are generally of oak from 4 to 9 inches in
diameter; sometimes driven in a single row, sometimes double, and in
some cases, as that of island No. 1 in Drumaleague Lake, the stakes
are found in a single row in parts of the island, and in double or
treble rows, or clusters, in other parts. The island in Loughtown
Lake differs from the others in being surrounded by a mass of stakes
upwards of 15 feet wide, and rather inclined towards the centre of the
island.

"3. The portions of the stakes remaining in the ground are evidently
the lower ends of young trees, or of branches of large trees, which
were stuck down just as they grew in the wood; the thicker end
downwards, and bearing the marks of the hatchet by which they were
felled. A considerable length of these stakes must, therefore, have
projected over the ground; and they may probably have been joined
together by horizontal branches, interlaced so as to form a screen,
well calculated to serve for shelter or defence. All the portions of
the stakes which were above ground have been destroyed by time; but
the portions remaining below ground, particularly where the stratum is
pure peat, are generally very sound at heart, and have become as black
as the oak usually found in bogs.

"4. The surface within the staked inclosure is usually covered over
with a layer or two of round logs, cut into lengths of from 4 to 6
feet, over which are found more or less stones, clay, and gravel. In
some cases where the foundation is very soft, as in island No. 2 of
Drumaleague Lake, the layers of timber are very deep. In other cases,
where the ground is naturally firm, the platform of timber is confined
to a portion of the island.

"5. In almost every case a collection of flat stones has been found
near the centre of the inclosure, having marks of fire on them,
and apparently having served as a hearth. In the island No. 2 of
Drumaleague Lake there were three of these hearths found in different
parts of the enclosure.

"6. Considerable quantities of bones are generally found upon or
around the island, being apparently those of deer, black cattle, and
hogs; the skulls of the cows being long and narrow, with very short
horns.

"7. In almost every case one or more pairs of quern stones have been
found within the enclosure.

"8. In many cases pieces of oak-framing have been found, with mortices
and cheeks cut in them. Some of these, such as what were found on
island No. 2 of Drumaleague, appear to have been portions of an
ordinary door-frame; but others, such as those found on the island of
Lough Scur and in Loughtown Lake, are portions of a heavy frame, the
use of which does not appear so evident." (B. 13, Ap., p. 44.)


STROKESTOWN CRANNOGS.

Adjacent to the ancient palace of the Kings of Connaught are three
lakes, viz. Cloonfree, Cloonfinlough, and Ardakillen, in each of which
one or two crannogs became exposed during the drainage operations of
the Board of Works.

The following antiquities found in the lake of Cloonfree were
presented to the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, by Alonzo Lawder,
Esq. (B. 11_a_, p. 219):--

"A horseshoe, made of iron; a fragment of iron, probably the hilt of
a sword; an iron spike, for butt-end of a spear; a bone spear-head;
a bone pin; two amber beads; a bronze tweezer; ditto, broken, but
of different matter; a bronze pin with ornamented head, having a
cross and arrow-shaped device carved on two sides of it; a very long
bronze pin, with ornamented spike, head, and ring (a peculiarly fine
specimen); a small iron pin, with head bound with bronze wire, and
small circular disc pendant; a boar's tusk; and a buckle."

The crannog of Cloonfinlough was no less than 130 feet in diameter,
and is thus described by Mr. Dennis H. Kelly (B. 11, p. 208):--

"It is constructed on oak piles (many of them showing the action
of fire), driven into the soft marl at regular distances, and tied
together by horizontal stretchers, so as to form a triple stockade
round it, with an interval of about five feet between each stockade.
Outside of this, to the north-westward, are a number of irregularly
placed piles, stretching a short distance from the islet, and it was
adjoining to them the great deposit of bones was found. The centre of
these stockades was laid with trunks of smallish oak trees, placed
flat on the marl, and all pointing to a common centre, thus forming a
platform whereon the island itself was constructed. When it was first
observed, there was, jutting out from the island to the lake, towards
the west, a kind of jetty or pier, formed of a double row of piles and
stretchers running parallel, about 8 feet asunder, and on which logs
of timber were closely laid horizontally.

"Of this gangway, and of the stockades, there are now but very
imperfect remains, so much has been broken up and removed by the
peasantry.

"The deposit of bones, etc., close to this island, consisted of bones
of cattle, deer, horses, swine, sheep, fowl, dogs, deer, both fallow
and red, a few specimens (in general much broken) of the horns of the
Irish elk, and one or two specimens of human remains, and amongst
them a quantity of articles of a most miscellaneous description,
some of apparently very great antiquity, and others of a much more
recent date. Amongst these are spear-heads, bronze pins, some of
exquisite workmanship, and scarcely any two of exactly the same form.
A brass bowl, hammered out of the solid; two brass vessels, made of
small pieces most curiously riveted together; a brooch of handsome
workmanship; a variety of bone pins and implements; deer-horn combs,
of very great artistic merit; horn discs, like backgammon men;
knives, hooks, and hatchets of iron; swords and spear-heads; an iron
implement, like what a baker uses for putting his loaves in the oven,
made of sheet iron, curiously riveted together, and having in the
centre a circular ornament, with a cross in it, that has evidently
once had an arabesque pattern on it; sundry miniature frying-pans, and
a small whetstone; single and double bronze rings; one coin of the
Emperor Hadrian; one bulla, Pope Paul V.; sundry silver coins, most
of them Edwards, and one so late as James, 1690, and one silver coin,
unfigured in any collection that I have seen.

"Between the island and the ruined church were found two canoes,
hollowed out of single oak trees, but neither of them much more than
two feet wide; the stern of one of them was perforated with numerous
auger holes, about one inch each in diameter.

"On examining the structure of the island itself, which was effected
by cutting a trench 20 feet long by 5 wide, as near the centre as
possible, there was found, at about eight inches under the surface,
which was covered with rank grass growing in a rich mould, a very
close-laid pavement of irregular-sized boulder stones. When this
was removed, a stratum of black earth was exposed, with occasional
fragments of bones through it of swine, fowl, sheep, cattle, and
deer; and about six inches beneath this, a considerable layer of
burned earth, with several inches of unburned clay under it. Then came
a second very closely-laid pavement of large-sized, flat-surfaced
stones, beneath which were alternate layers of black earth and burned
clay and marl, reaching down to the log platform, and interspersed,
like the one above it, with occasional bones and fragments of bones;
some few human remains, viz. one skull, and portions of some more were
got on the exterior edge. No coffin-stone, chest, or other sepulchral
remains.

"Amongst these relics are knives, _some of which have failed in the
forging_; combs in an incomplete state of manufacture, deer-horns sawn
in sunder, and shavings as if _left after a turner_. From these I am
led to think that, whatever may have been its original occupants, in
later times the little island resounded to the busy hum of industry,
and that the smith, the brazier, the comb-maker, and the turner,
there drove a brisk trade, and sometimes solaced their leisure in
the construction of pretty toys, like the tiny plate-bucket in the
possession of the post-mistress of Strokestown, and whose neatness of
finish would do no discredit to our best modern cabinet-makers. It is
turned in oak, and hooped with brass, four and a half inches high,
and four inches diameter. There was originally a pair, but one was
unfortunately broken."

[Illustration: =Fig. 116.=--CLOONFINLOUGH. Bronze Dish, 7¾ inches
wide, and decorated inside.]

From Cloonfinlough only the following relics went to the Museum of the
Irish Academy:--

"Small brass bowl (probably =Fig. 116=), iron bill-hook, long iron
spear-head, iron shears, large tooth, portion of a hone stone, bronze
pin with ornamented head and ring, bronze pin with ring, small bronze
pin with perforated head, small bronze pin and piece of thick wire,
bone needle and pin." (_Proc. R. I. A._, vol. v., Ap., p. 61.)

A considerable collection from the same place has, however, found
a safe resting place in the British Museum, of which the more
interesting objects are here illustrated (=Fig. 117=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 117.=--CLOONFINLOUGH. Nos. 17 to 19, 21 and 22 =
⅓, the rest = ⅔ real size. No. 2 is the upper portion of an inlaid
Bronze Pin, enlarged.]

In regard to the Ardakillen crannog Mr. Kelly writes:--"Near this was
found a boat 40 feet in length and 4 feet across the bow, hollowed out
of a single oak; and in which were a skull, a bronze pin, and a spear,
which, by the liberality of Mr. R. Kelly, I am permitted to present
to the Academy. The skull is perforated in the forehead, and has the
mark of no less than twenty sword-cuts on it, showing the murderous
conflict in which its owner must have been engaged; and near to it
were found a neck-piece of iron and 20 feet of rude chain attached,
that would do credit to the dungeons of Naples, and by which its
unhappy victim was made fast." (B. 11, p. 214.)

On this crannog about fifty tons of bones are said to have been
collected by the peasants and sold at two shillings per cwt. Of the
industrial remains of its occupiers the following relics were given to
the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy:--

"Large ornamented bronze pin with ring, bronze pin with solid
ornamented head, five small bronze pins, bronze or brass harp pin,
bronze hook, two bone needles, two bone spears, large tooth, spud of
deer's horn, piece of hone stone, piece of stone ring, small piece
of round stick, small silver ornament, iron hatchet and handle, iron
gouge, iron knife-blade, part of iron hinge and large spike nail,
wooden hoop and scoop, together with a parcel containing portion of
wooden hoop, ashes of different kinds, a fragment of cinerary urns,
bones and teeth of animals, old iron nails, knife-blades, etc."
(_Proc. R.I.A._, vol. v., Ap., p. 61.)


[Illustration: =Fig. 118.=--STROKESTOWN. Carved Bone, 8½ inches long.
Showing 3 of the devices full size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 119.=--STROKESTOWN. Bone Comb, 10 inches long.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 120.=--ARDAKILLEN. Bronze Brooch with late Celtic
ornamentation (1/1).]

Among the relics from these crannogs illustrated in Wilde's catalogue
I find the following in addition to those already given. A bone with
carved devices of interlaced work (=Fig. 118=), somewhat similar to
those on a bone from Lagore already noticed. Portion of a handsome
bone comb, 10 inches in length, with a frame back riveted together
with iron nails. The engraving shows the comb restored (=Fig. 119=).
From Ardakillen there is a beautiful bronze brooch with late Celtic
ornamentation (=Fig. 120=), and from Lough Scur a stone mould for
casting bronze axes (=Fig. 121=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 121.=--LOUGH SCUR. Stone Mould for casting Bronze
Celts, 7½ inches long.]


LOUGH RAVEL NEAR RANDALSTOWN.

In addition to Sir W. R. Wilde's notes on the great crannog
near Randalstown (B. 24), some very interesting observations on
the antiquities found on it are given in the _Ulster Journal of
Archæology_, vol. vii., supplementary to Troyon's account of the Swiss
Lake-dwellings. (B. 27.) The most complete account, however, is that
of the late Mr. Ed. Benn, from which I take the following extract:--

"The island near Randalstown," writes Mr. Benn, "was a very large and
important one, said to have been occupied by a member of the O'Neil
family. The lake on which it stood has been long since drained, and a
peat moss now occupies the place, which has been yielding antiquities
for the last twenty or thirty years, and still produces some annually.
A good idea of the importance of this island may be formed from the
number of tools and appliances for carrying on the ordinary trades
which have been discovered on it, as the tongs and anvil of the
smith, which latter is a rough lump of iron somewhat smoothed on one
side, and weighing fifty or sixty pounds. Its use as an anvil is
only conjecture; but it is thought a highly probable one, and, if
correct, it shows the difficulty of procuring in those rude times a
piece of iron large and heavy enough for such a purpose. Then there
were found also the crucibles of the brass-founder, one unused, and
several greatly worn and burned out. The perfect one is very neat and
good, and about the size of a small hen's egg. Then we have next the
scissors and two needles of the tailor; one of the needles is about
the size of what is called a darning-needle; the other long and strong
resembling a packing-needle, such as is used for sewing sackcloth:
both are made of brass, and well formed. There was also found the awl
of the shoemaker, a very curious article, and apparently older than
the other things; the blade of this awl is of brass, and the handle
of stone. Several axes or hatchets of the carpenter have turned up,
very like those of the present day; also a pair of small shears, such
as are used by weavers. Connected with agriculture were found a
very small sock of a plough, a curious spade, very light, about four
feet long, all of wood, but neatly tipped with iron on the edge; and
a pair of very large shears, for clipping sheep. There was also a
netting-needle of iron; but few warlike weapons of any kind. None of
the latter, indeed, came within my observation but an iron sword and
a very good battle-axe, such as was used by the galloglasses; it is
shaped like the axe used by coopers, and is very interesting from its
rarity." The further objects described by Mr. Benn are pins of brass,
iron, bone, and wood, generally from 3 to 5 inches long; a large glass
bead and a small crescent-shaped piece of glass; a button with two
eyes; a horseshoe; a few fragments of pottery; a wooden scoop; a brass
dish 15 inches across, including the rim, which is an inch and a half
broad: it is rather more than 2 inches deep; some knives; a comb,
neatly made of bone and riveted with iron nails. "Besides the things
here enumerated, the bog around the Randalstown crannog has already
yielded several boats and parts of boats; these were all hollowed out
of large trees and were very well formed. One of large size, and quite
perfect, has been taken out lately from beneath sixteen feet of moss.
It has been stated, when first raised, it retained its original form
entire, but soon became warped and out of shape. In the bottom of this
boat lay a very neatly made oak paddle, about three feet and a half
long, and a wooden bowl capable of holding nearly a quart. It was
very thick and rude-looking, not made by turning, but by hollowing out
of a solid piece, like the boat itself." (B. 29, p. 86.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 122.=--LOUGH RAVEL. No. 2 = ⅙, 3 and 14 = ¼,
and the rest = ½ real size.]

Some of the relics from the Randalstown crannog I have been able to
identify in the Belfast Museum, and a few others from the same place I
found in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin. These,
together with a silver brooch copied from the _Journal of the Royal
Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland_ (B. 215), and
three bronze brooches from the _Ulster Journal of Archæology_, vols.
iv. p. 269, and vi. p. 103, are illustrated on =Fig. 122=.


TONYMORE.

The next important lacustrine discoveries were made in the loch of
Tonymore, county Cavan. It appears that this small lake was celebrated
for its pike-fishing, and contained a dry mound or island about 50
yards in diameter, which was much resorted to by sportsmen. That this
island was a crannog was never suspected till a considerable time
after it had been drained in consequence of the railway having to pass
through it. Though wooden piles and some relics were then found, the
real nature of the discovery was not understood till the publication
of Sir W. R. Wilde's catalogue of the Museum of the Royal Irish
Academy in 1857, which gave an account of several similar stations.
Among the relics then collected at Tonymore were several querns,
sharpening stones, a yew bow, and (in the lake mud) two elks' heads.

In 1862 Lord Farnham caused further examination of the mound to be
made under Dr. Malcomson, of Cavan, from whose report the following
facts are derived (B. 60, p. 274):--

"The piles or stakes were arranged in two circles, one within the
other; the diameter of the greater one being 120 feet, that of the
other about ninety feet. The piles in the outer circle were very
numerous; and, in some instances, driven in close proximity to each
other. A few, having withstood the ravages of time, appeared about
three feet above the surface, and, upon being withdrawn and examined,
were found to have been carefully pointed. The stakes in the inner row
were not so numerous, nor were they altogether composed of oak, some
of them being of sallow or other soft wood.

"Within the stockades were observed two small mounds (upon which
the grass was much more verdant than upon any other part of the
island), one at the north and the other at the south. Corresponding
with the depression between these, and 3 feet under the soil, we
found, during the excavation, a flat stone, about four feet square
and 3 inches thick, resting on a number of upright blocks of decayed
oak. This, no doubt, was a hearthstone. Besides the wooden stakes
entering into the formation of the circles, others appear to have been
laid horizontally, their beam-like ends showing at that part of the
enclosure which was disturbed by the passage of the railway. When the
excavation had been carried to the centre, the cut surface presented,
from above downwards, the following section: 1st, clay; 2nd, black
and grey ashes with small stones and sand; 3rd, bones and ashes, with
lumps of blue and yellow clay; 4th, a quantity of grey ashes; and 5th,
the horizontal sleepers or stretchers, and hazel branches resting on
the peat bottom.

"On the same marsh, and about one hundred yards' distance from the
island, but nearer to Tonymore Castle, are two other stockaded forts,
on a raised plateau. They do not appear to have been islands, as an
elevated causeway leads from them to the mainland; but otherwise they
resemble the crannoge in their stockaded and mound-like appearance."

The antiquities collected on the crannog were presented to the Museum
of the Royal Irish Academy, among which were the following, thus
described by Sir W. R. Wilde:--

"A very perfect quern, 17 inches in diameter, with the upper surface
of the top stone highly decorated; found at the bottom and near the
centre of the crannog. Several pieces of iron slag; a barrel-shaped
piece of wood 3¼ inches long, hollow throughout, and perforated with
six holes; three flat circular stone discs or quoits, averaging 3¼
inches in diameter, and half an inch thick; a most perfect and highly
decorated mortar, 8 inches high by 17½ wide, decorated at the corners
with four grotesque figures; a stone mould; a four-sided whetstone 20
inches by 3, and eleven fragments of smaller sharpening stones, of
which two are perforated.

"A large oval and five globular stones; a flat red touchstone of
jasper and a stone shot 3 inches in diameter; two weapon-sharpeners of
remarkably hard stone.

"Two large bone beads; a variegated enamel bead; a large irregularly
shaped amber bead; a smaller one of enamel paste, showing a mixture of
red, yellow, and blue colours; and also a small blue glass bead.

"Two imperfect bone combs, like those already figured in the catalogue
at p. 272 (=Figs. 105=, =108=, and =119=).

"A bone ferrule 2½ inches long, solid at one end.

"Fourteen portions of pottery, some rudely glazed, others burned, and
some only backed; and consisting of fragments of various vessels used
either in the arts or for domestic and culinary purposes, such as
crucibles, pitchers, and bowls. Among these is a fragment of a bowl or
urn, of unglazed pottery, highly decorated with deeply grooved lines
on the outside, and slight indentations on the everted lip. It is of
great antiquity; composed of very black clay, darkened still more by
the long-continued action of the bog, and mixed with a quantity of
particles of white quartz or feldspar, which was probably added to
give it stability. A similar description of art may be remarked in
some of our oldest mortuary urns. When we consider that, except the
urns which must be referred to the Pagan period, we have scarcely any
examples of ancient Irish pottery, these specimens possess a peculiar
interest for the investigators of fictile ware.

"Fragments of Kimmerage coal rings; probably part of a bracelet, which
seems to have been jointed at one end.

"The bowls of two small pipes, similar to those in the Museum, and
usually but erroneously denominated 'Danish tobacco pipes.'

"An enclosed ring of bronze, 3¼ inches in diameter; a large decorated
bronze pin, 7½ inches long; and a smaller one, 3 inches in length.

"An iron knife-blade, with perforated haft, 8½ inches long: this
article looks as if it had been attached to a long handle; a smaller
blade, with tang for haft, 2¾ inches in length; a globular piece
of iron 2¾ inches in diameter, like a crotal, with an aperture on
one side; the head of a small iron hammer; three portions of rings,
and eleven other iron fragments, the uses of which have not been
determined.

"A small perforated stone, like a whorl or distaff weight." (_Ibid._,
p. 290.)


FURTHER DISCOVERIES.

Mr. G. H. Kinahan's observations on the Irish crannogs, which now
(1863) began to appear, have greatly contributed to the dissemination
of a correct knowledge of their structure and geographical
distribution. His notes on the crannogs of Lough Rea (B. 58),
Ballinlough (B. 70a), Lough Nahinch (B. 70b), and Lough Naneevin
(B. 118), which successively appeared in the Proceedings of the
Royal Irish Academy, were followed in 1872 by an article on "Lake
Stone-dwellings in Connaught" (B. 214), in which he shows that in
some cases dry stones were substituted for the ordinary wooden
structures and rubbish of which the artificial islands were usually
constructed--a fact which finds many parallel illustrations in
Scotland.

Mr. Kinahan says that Reed's Island, Shore Island, Ash Island, and
Island M'Coo, in Loughrea, are crannogs; while Blake's Island may also
be one. From Shore Island 300 tons of bone were procured, among which
was the head of a _Megaceros Hibernicus_ which measured 13 feet from
tip to tip of its horns. Amongst many relics found here made of stone,
horn, and wood were a few metal objects, as iron shears, a brass
pin, a crozier made of brass, a battle-axe, a cast for a coin, and a
hammered iron vessel.

The only other writer on Irish crannogs to whom I find it necessary
to allude in a special manner is Mr. W. F. Wakeman. Personally
acquainted with Petrie and Wilde, and probably deriving inspiration
from their enthusiastic devotion to archæology, and an eye-witness of
the first great crannog find at Dunshaughlin, Mr. Wakeman has ever
since been a careful observer of the antiquities of his country. His
special attention to crannogology dates only from 1870, but since
then scarcely a year has passed without his pen and pencil being in
requisition to record some fresh discovery in this field of research.

In early times no district in Ireland presented more favourable
conditions for aquatic retreats than the county of Fermanagh, with its
countless lakes and bogs, interspersed and embosomed in the primeval
forests which were then extant. These advantages would appear to have
been fully recognised by the crannog-builders, as we find more remains
of these lacustrine abodes here than in any other part of the island.
The number of crannogs now recorded in this county amounts to about
40, but of course this is by no means the full quota that might be
disclosed by the adoption of a general system of exploration. Such
exhaustive methods of research have not as yet, however, taken deep
root in Ireland, so that the few reliable data of this character that
have come to light we cannot afford to pass over, even in this brief
sketch. The following extracts from Mr. Wakeman's reports are selected
for the purpose of illustrating the structure of these remains in this
part of Ireland, and the general character of the relics left on them
by their inhabitants.


BALLYDOOLOUGH.

Ballydoolough ("town of the dark loch") is a small sheet of water some
five miles from Enniskillen, in which there is a small island which,
in 1870, was recognised as a crannog, and subsequently investigated.

"It contained, in wonderful preservation, three-fourths of the
foundation of its original log-house, the beams of which were mortised
together, and further fastened with pegs of oak. The antiquities
here discovered were very interesting, and consisted of stone,
wood, bronze, iron, a mixed metal, probably findruine, and pottery
of which I have given examples in this and former papers. The most
curious relic noticed here was an Ogham stone, which has been
pronounced the most northern monument of its class yet discovered
in Ireland. The pieces of pottery were very numerous, and usually
exhibited ornamentation of an extremely early kind, amongst which
chevron patterns similar to those found upon 'sepulchral urns' were
conspicuous. The bronze articles were a thin plate of genuine antique
bronze, supposed to be part of a vessel; a looped pin about 4¾
inches in length; a thin ribbon, and an article apparently belonging
to horse-furniture. Two iron knives, one of which had traces of
bronze-mounting, were also picked up: these resembled like articles
found in barrows in England. A brooch, partly composed of a white
metal, probably findruine, also occurred, as well as a portion of a
shoe of a small horse or ass. There were quern stones, whetstones, a
crucible, and numerous pieces of iron slag. All the portions of vases
found were composed of earth and sand, fire-hardened. There was no
glazing or trace of the use of the wheel. Many of the specimens were
furnished with handles or ears. A solitary vessel of wood, probably
yew, was discovered entire, but reduced almost to a state of pulp.
Among other relics were so-called sling-stones, immense quantities of
hazel-nuts, three canoes, each formed of a single piece of oak, and a
small oaken vessel formed of staves." (B. 217, p. 314.)


"THE MIRACLES."

At another locality bearing the singular name of "The Miracles,"
situated near Monea, and now a bog, but formerly a lake, a crannog was
revealed by the turf-cutters.

"Amongst the stone articles were the usual class of whetstones, and
two circular grinding-stones, the only specimens of their kind I have
ever heard of as having occurred in a crannog. The larger measures
8 inches across; the smaller is now in the Museum of our (Kilkenny)
Association, it having been presented by Mr. Plunket. The material of
both is close, yellow sandstone. The bones here were numerous, and of
the usual crannog class. Singlepiece canoes had from time to time been
found in the surrounding loch. The remains of pottery found here were
unimportant; but at least one very good crucible, as well as iron slag
and charcoal, were turned up." (B. 217, p. 320.)


LOUGH EYES.

Lough Eyes (anciently _Tobernasoul_, _i.e._ "the Well of the
Eyes"), a small lake only two-thirds of a mile long and a quarter
broad, contained a number of crannogs. The largest is 288 feet in
circumference, and has a maximum height above the lowest summer level
of 10 feet, and is therefore never entirely submerged. "Stockading
still exists in a very interesting state of preservation. To the
west and north-west the stakes are four deep, and are placed so close
together as almost to touch. They are all, or nearly all, of oak,
roughly worked, and sharply pointed by a metal axe or adze."

A large quantity of broken pottery, like that from Ballydoolough,
and some flat pieces, apparently lids, and a club of deer-horn, were
found on it. Iron slag, pottery, bones, etc., were found on all these
crannogs. (B. 191, p. 553.)


DRUMDARRAGH, OR TRILLICK.

This lake is now nearly drained, and its crannog, which measured 130
feet in diameter, has recently been re-investigated by Mr. Wakeman,
who thus describes the result:--

"Upon examination, the work presented the usual layers of bog, earth,
and stones, mixed with small trunks and boughs of ash, alder, beech,
yew, oak, and other trees. Here and there, at different levels, were
masses of ferns and furze. The outer edge was strongly piled with
young trees, of the description above referred to; the great majority,
however, being oak. Owing to the softness of the surroundings it
was impossible to completely trace the piling on the side of the
island which faces the ancient loch bed; but on what may be called
the land side the stakes formed six rows placed somewhat regularly,
with usually a space of about two feet between each set, sometimes,
however, they were close together, nearly touching. The stakes stood
about thirty inches asunder, and such of their numbers as were
disturbed for the purpose of examination presented sharply-pointed
ends, the result evidently of powerful and well-laid strokes of a very
keen metallic hatchet or adze.

"Being anxious to find whether the crannog rested upon a frame
of timber, as a tradition of the place stated, and in order, if
possible, to discover the internal construction of the work, I caused
several trenches to be excavated in various places within the staked
enclosure, and then, with a long crowbar, probed as far as that
instrument would reach. The result was that we struck upon several
large and solid pieces of timber, but in what position they were
laid or whether in any way attached to others it was impossible to
determine, owing to the influx of water, and to the spongy character
of the bog-stuff, branches, etc., through which the iron pierced.
Throughout the island--placed apparently without any attempt at
symmetrical arrangement--were several stakes of the same kind, but
larger than any found in the inclosing lines of piles. These timbers
I believe to have been simply intended to act as stays or binders to
the body of the crannog. They certainly did not indicate partitions.
There was no trace of wattle-work, nor was there any example of timber
presenting mortise-holes observable.

"During the process of excavation it became perfectly manifest that
the mound of the crannog was the work of three several periods.
Within a couple of feet of the present surface, near the centre of
the island, were found several large red sandstone flags, still
exhibiting traces of the action of fire, and surrounded by charcoal,
pieces of charred wood, bones of deer, sheep, pigs, goats, and other
animals, many of them evidently split for the marrow. Here also were
some fragments of pottery which had, no doubt, formed portions of
culinary vessels; part of an iron knife of early type; a second and
much smaller knife of iron, to which a wooden handle had been attached
by rivets; a piece of iron spirally twisted; a nail or pin of the same
metal, and a broken whetstone of the usual crannog class. I should
here observe that for many years past the mound had been subjected to
rude tillage, and consequent denudation, and that quern stones of the
'pot' and more ordinary type, belonging in all probability to this
layer, had been found near the hearth, and but a few inches above it.
These are now preserved in a neighbouring cottage.

"The second hearth was about two and a half feet lower in the soil,
and placed at a distance of a few feet south-east of the former,
from which it scarcely differed, except that its vicinity was
much more prolific in bones, broken pottery, charcoal, and other
'kitchen-midden' waifs.

"The third and lowest hearth, or rather fire-place, for no large
stones appeared, lay about eighteen inches lower than that last
described, and nearly beneath it. In connection with both, and mingled
generally in the soil--above, below, and for a considerable distance
around--were broken animal remains; innumerable teeth of swine, deer,
etc., boar-tusks; charcoal; 'burnt stones;' a bead of jet; a bronze
harp peg; an animal's head in iron, probably the leg of a pot; an
article of iron resembling a small, narrow, double axe-head or pick;
rude, oval-shaped hammer-stones; a well-formed knife of trap; an
admirably-worked 'thumbflint;' a core of flint from which flakes had
been struck; portion of a whetstone, and, finally, fragments of the
sides and bottoms of fictile vessels, together with ears or handles of
the same ware." (B. 441, p. 372.)


COAL-BOG, NEAR BOHO.

Mr. Plunket, who examined the remarkable find which was brought to
light here in 1880, thus describes the wooden structures met with:--

"After a minute inspection, I perceived that we were standing on what
was once an artificial island, oval in shape, slightly elevated in the
centre, and dipping with a gentle slope on all sides, the outlines of
which can still be easily traced. It is 60 yards long, and 14 yards
across at its greatest width. Piles, or stakes, with rudely-sharpened
ends and varying in size, are found at intervals all over this area,
and rough oak planks, about the size of railway sleepers, may be seen
lying in rows here and there, and generally resting on a layer of
branches, the whole being covered over with a stratum of clay and
stones, mingled with charcoal and ashes. It is quite manifest that
this is the site of an ancient crannog, or artificial island. The
surrounding depression, now filled with peat, known as the Coal-Bog,
and covering some scores of acres, once formed a large sheet of
water." (B. 345, p. 66.)

Here perforated posts and frameworks of what were supposed to have
been wooden huts were found. In one place a wooden structure measuring
11 feet 10 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, formed of rude wooden beams,
with roughly-executed mortises, was found no less than 21 feet below
the surface of the peat. Two flint implements, several fragments of
hand-made pottery, devoid of ornamentation, broken hazel-nut shells,
and in the vicinity, at the same depth in the peat, a few wooden
dishes. The stool of a huge _pine tree_, which, "before its decay,
must have measured 14 feet in diameter," was found 2 feet above the
level of the floor of the hut, which sent its roots downwards.

Subsequently Mr. Wakeman states that near this crannog lumps of "bog
butter," rolled up in cow-hides, were found, and that the wood of the
huge root of the tree above referred to turned out on analysis to be
_yew_, and not pine.[74]


LISNACROGHERA.

Amongst the more recently discovered lake-dwellings were one at
Lisnacroghera, near Broughshane, and two in Lough Mourne, both
localities being in county Antrim. The former came into notice some
six years ago in consequence of the discovery in a peat bog of some
remarkable iron swords, with bronze sheaths, together with other
military weapons. The bog in which these objects were found occupies
the site of a former lake, which, till recently, retained so much
water as to prevent the working of the peat for fuel. To remedy this
the outlet was deepened, and so new or undisturbed portions of the
bog were brought within reach of the peat-cutters. The antiquities
were found from time to time in a circumscribed area, within a small
plot belonging to one of the neighbouring farmers. When attention was
first directed to the locality, and the workers questioned as to the
circumstances in which the relics came to light, it appears that
some kind of wooden structure was encountered, which, however, had
been entirely removed before being seen by anyone competent to form
an opinion as to its nature. In August, 1866, I visited the locality,
and closely questioned the farmer about this woodwork, but failed to
elicit any definite information. He was quite clear, however, about
the existence of stakes and irregularly disposed beams and brushwood,
which at the time he thought little about. From his description,
and some remnants of oak beams, some showing the usual mortises,
there can, I think, be little doubt that it was a crannog, but of no
great dimensions. Close to where the peat had been cut there is an
undisturbed structure of stones just cropping through the turf, which
may yet turn out to have some relationship with the crannog. As to
the relics, there is no record of their association with the crannog
beyond the fact of their being found in its vicinity. Canon Grainger,
who has taken much interest in this find, has secured for his private
museum a large number of the relics from Lisnacroghera, but he fears
that, since the crannog has become famous, he has occasionally been
imposed upon by having presented to him, as coming from it, objects
which in reality had been found elsewhere. This, in my opinion,
partly explains the presence of such incongruous objects as are now
to be seen in the Canon's collection. Among these are especially some
arrow-heads and scrapers of flint which cannot be distinguished from
analogous objects picked up on the neighbouring fields. Besides the
weapons with bronze mountings, there is in short an assortment of
remains which might be classed as belonging to all ages--a stone celt,
rubbers, flint arrow-heads and scrapers, down to an iron reaping-hook,
a hedge-cutter's knife, and a portion of an old gunlock.

But the special interest of the Lisnacroghera crannog lies in the
remarkable series of military weapons which it has yielded, consisting
of iron swords and ornamented sheaths of bronze, iron spears with long
wooden handles and bronze mountings, together with a variety of other
bronze objects, probably the mountings of shields. These I shall now
proceed to describe.

[Illustration: =Fig. 123.=--LISNACROGHERA. Sword Sheaths of Bronze.
All ½ real size.]

_Sword-sheaths._--Up to the present time four sheaths (=Fig. 123=,
Nos. 1 to 4) have been recovered, but only one is entire, the rest
being more or less in a fragmentary condition. They are all made of
thin bronze riveted together at the margins, and over this there
is a bead which, towards the lower third, develops into an elegant
ornamentation very similar to that which we have already seen on the
sword-sheaths of La Tène (See =Fig. 87.=) The perfect sheath (No. 1)
is devoid of ornamentation, except that formed by the marginal bead;
but the other three (of which only one side of each remains) are
decorated with highly artistic designs formed by incised lines, the
details of which will be readily seen from the illustrations. No. 1,
which still retains the blade of an iron sword firmly adhered to it,
is 17½ inches long. No. 2 is defective at the tip, besides having
lost its surrounding bead; it measures, in its present condition, 19
inches in length. The illustration here is a reproduction of a rubbing
reduced half size and shows only the upper half. The design which
comes out in white lines is in reality incised lines and corresponds
to the dark lines in the other two. No. 3, the largest of the group,
measures 22 inches in length. Both ends are here represented. No. 4 is
the smallest, being only 16½ inches in length. It is supposed that
the incised lines, which are sharply defined and deeply cut, contained
a black enamel, but no traces of it now remain. The circular cavities
in the surrounding bead at the tips were also intended for the
reception of enamel, probably of some brilliant colour. These designs,
which belong to the so-called "late Celtic" style of ornamentation,
when so treated must have had a striking effect on the bright bronze
surface.

In Nos. 1 and 4 it will be observed that there is a transverse raised
band, the purpose of which was, no doubt, to strengthen the sheath.
Such bands were a feature in the La Tène sheaths, which in some
instances were repeated several times at intervals on the body of the
sheath. In Canon Grainger's collection I saw one or two broad rings
compressed in the middle, which I took to be the cross-bands of other
sheaths.

[Illustration: =Fig. 124.=--LISNACROGHERA. Iron Weapons, etc. Nos. 4,
5, and 10 = ¼, the rest = ½ real size.]

_Swords._--The swords which belonged to these sheaths were all of
iron, a fact which probably accounts for their being in a more
dilapidated condition. Of four recovered up to this date only one
is in a good and perfect condition (=Fig. 124=, No. 1). Its total
length is 19½ inches, of which the handle takes up five inches,
measuring from the extremity of the tang to the nearest part of the
curved ridge which separates it from the blade. The blade has a
sharply defined ridge and tapers gracefully to a point. The other
swords are all fragmentary. One, as already mentioned, is still in
its sheath; another, portion of a blade 14 inches long, has a sharp
central ridge and otherwise corresponds exactly with the entire
weapon. Of the fourth there remains merely the handle (No. 2), the
blade having apparently disappeared by oxidation. So far it also
closely corresponds with the entire weapon. Both handles have bronze
mountings, which, though differing in some details, are so peculiar
in their plan and method of execution, that we have no hesitation
in recognising them as belonging to one and the same group--a group
which, so far as my knowledge goes, finds its parallel only in a
few examples from La Tène. (See =Fig. 87=, Nos. 7 and 8.) As to the
material of which the grip was made there is no evidence. The bronze
circlets and flanges on the tangs, if in their original position,
involve the necessity of having the handles, whether of bone or
horn, divided in several pieces. That these bronze sheaths and iron
swords were counterparts of each other there can be no reasonable
doubt. Their points of agreement, besides general dimensions and
style of manufacture, are too remarkable to be accidental. Thus
the peculiar curve at the opening of the sheaths fits that of the
band of separation between the handle and blade of the swords. Also
the prominent midribs in the two sword-blades have corresponding
prominences in two of the sheaths (Nos. 3 and 4).

_Lances._--Though there is only one spear-head in the Lisnacroghera
collection, there is ample evidence to show that it was not an
isolated example of this kind of weapon. Certain objects, like the
brass knob of a door (Nos. 28, 29, and 30), amounting in all to seven
or eight, are now known to have adorned the butt end of the wooden
handles of so many spears. One of these handles, 8 feet in length,
though now greatly shrunk and contorted, is still preserved by Canon
Grainger and conclusively proved their use as well as that of some
other objects which previously seemed equally mysterious. At the other
end of the spear-shaft, close to where it entered the socket, was a
ferrule of the same style of art as the sword-sheaths (Nos. 23, 24,
and 25). Several of these ferrules have been found which, like the
ornaments on the butt end, differ considerably in regard to size. They
are all ornamented with elegant designs in incised lines which also,
it is supposed, contained enamel. One is here represented with a piece
of the handle and a bronze rivet (No. 23), probably that which fixed
the spear more firmly in its shaft; but of the spear itself nothing
remains. The only spear-head that has been found is of iron. It is a
magnificent blade 16½ inches in length, with a slim socket containing
two rivets (No. 3).

A curious object here represented as No. 27 consists of an oval ring,
"richly decorated with bands, in which are remains of white and red
enamelled designs in a chevron or wavy pattern." On one edge there
are two forms like that of a bird. Mr. Wakeman considers it to be the
terminal ornament or pommel to a sword or dagger. (B. 411, p. 391.)

_Various Bronze Mountings._--Among the other objects which from
their character and style of art belonged to the same group as we
have just described are the following:--(_a_) Two ornaments of thin
bronze in repoussé. One is a disc (No. 22), slightly impaired at the
margin, bearing in the centre a triquetrum of symmetrical spirals,
and surrounded by a slightly raised border. The other (No. 20) is
in a more fragmentary condition, but sufficient remains to show the
design to be a _swastika_ or _croix gammée_, worked after the same
fashion as the former and probably serving as the central ornament of
a disc. (_b_) Three cup-shaped ornaments each having a small aperture
in the centre. One (No. 18) is surrounded by a broad margin like a
wide-awake hat, which is copiously ornamented with incised lines. On
the supposition that this was intended to adorn the face of a wooden
shield the cup must have been embedded in the wood, as it is clear
that its concave side is the front, there being no ornamentation on
the other. Another of the same kind is represented by No. 19, and
differs from the former only by having a smaller and less decorated
border. In a third specimen the ornamented border entirely disappears,
and its place is taken by a marginal bead. (_d_) A variety of annular
and penannular rings, some hollow (Nos. 6 and 7) and others solid
(No. 17). Some, as Nos. 8 and 9, are ornamented with designs (one of
which still retains an enamel of a vermilion tint) and were probably
attached to pins and used as ring-brooches. A curious object like
a doubly coiled bangle with the coils adherent and ornamented with
zig-zag lines is supposed to have been the rim of an oval brooch (No.
15). (_e_) A plain but elegantly shaped drinking-cup of thin bronze
(No. 10) has neither handle nor any marks of rivets. (_f_) Among minor
things are a couple of bronze pins, one with a round top and the other
with a small ring; also a rude finger ring (No. 16), an ornamental
stud (No. 21), and a rivet with one side deeply serrated like a
cog-wheel (No. 26).

In addition to the above list of objects, all of which may be
considered as part of one special and indeed unique group which by
some chance found their way into the Lisnacroghera crannog, there are
others similar to the usual class of crannog relics; and among these I
have noted the following:--

_Iron._--Two large iron cauldrons in a fragmentary state; a large
curved knife, like that of a hedge-cutter, still retaining its wooden
handle; an axe (No. 4), also containing a portion of the handle; an
adze (No. 5); a reaping hook; portion of a gunlock, together with
various bits of an undefined character.

_Beads._--Several coloured and variegated beads (blue, red, and white)
(Nos. 11, 12, and 14). One bead is of stone, another large one is of
jet, and another of amber (No. 13).

_Stone._--One small stone axe of a dark colour and wedge-shaped, some
elongated four-sided hones, hammer-stones, etc.; a few flint flakes,
and rude arrow-points.

_Pottery._--A few fragments of coarse earthenware, indicating large
wide-mouthed vessels.

_Miscellaneous._--A portion of "bog-butter" bearing the impression of
a coarse cloth. Several pieces of wood with round and square-cut holes.


LOUGH MOURNE.

In consequence of the partial drainage of Lough Mourne during the
summer of 1882, while its basin was being converted into a reservoir
for the supply of water to the town of Belfast, two artificial
islands became exposed which were at once recognised to be the
remains of submerged lake-dwellings. Shortly after exposure I visited
them in company with Mr. Robinson, the assistant engineer to the
Belfast waterworks, and subsequently recorded my observations in the
Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (B. 439), of
which the following is a short abstract.

The first, which was easily accessible on foot, was very much
disturbed by the repeated "howkings" of visitors. Its form, as
determined by the area containing the stumps of piles, was irregularly
circular, but nowhere exceeding 60 feet in diameter. Included within
this area were four small separate elevations, composed of a few
stones, clay, and ashes interspersed with burnt twigs and bits of
charcoal. None of these elevations had as large a diameter as 10
feet, and it only required one turn over of the spade to reach the
undisturbed bed of the lake. Digging on these so-called islets,
and in the spaces around them, I found stumps of upright piles and
fragments of burnt faggots, the latter forming a thin layer over
the true lake-sediment. The piles were closely set, about one or
one and a half foot apart, and uniformly occupied the whole area of
the dwelling without any appearance of circular stockades; nor was
there any semblance of a fascine-structure indicating an artificially
constructed island. From the margin or outskirts of the area occupied
by these piles a double row of stumps extended towards the shore,
which, on being traced, were found to have stopped half way to the
ordinary water-level mark. The conclusion which I came to was that
this lacustrine dwelling was a true palafitte, over whose wooden
platform two or three hearths were constructed of incombustible
materials, as stone and clay. Probably these hearths would have been
surrounded by some kind of huts. During the conflagration which had
destroyed the entire wooden structures (of which final catastrophe
there appeared little doubt from the amount of burnt faggots and beams
that lay scattered over the lake bed all over the area containing
piles), the materials of these hearths would ultimately drop down
to the bottom of the lake, still, however, retaining their relative
position, and so present the appearance of low mounds over the bed of
the lake with the stumps of their supporting piles penetrating them.

[Illustration: =Fig. 125.=--LOUGH MOURNE. No. 1 = ¼, and 2 = ½
real size.]

Among the relics recorded from this lake-dwelling are "two small stone
crucibles" (B. 320), an iron hatchet, part of a canoe, a hammer-stone,
a rubbing-stone, two small urns (?), part of a large crucible, charred
bones, teeth, shells of hazel-nuts. (B. 439, p. 324.) Flint flakes,
scrapers, and arrow-points have been found in the vicinity along the
shore, but on the crannog itself only a quantity of fine chips was
discovered. Some of these relics I saw in the possession of a young
man of the name of Macdonald, who lived in the neighbourhood and took
an active part in searching for relics. The iron hatchet turned out to
be of exceptional interest. It is a socketed celt, with a loop at one
side for fixing the handle, part of which was still remaining in the
socket. (=Fig. 125=, No. 1.) Bronze celts of this description are, of
course, very common, but specimens made of iron are extremely rare,
especially in the British Isles, and only exceptionally to be seen in
the museums of Europe. This is the only one hitherto recorded from
a British lake-dwelling, and, moreover, it is, as regards size and
form, quite unique. It measures 6¾ inches long and 3¼ inches broad
immediately above the cutting edge. The longest diameter of the socket
is 2½ inches, and this breadth is continued for about two-thirds of
its length, except where the loophole causes it to bulge outwards.

One of the crucibles, which I believe is now presented to the Belfast
Museum, is rather peculiar in having a short projecting handle (No. 2).

It would thus appear that the inhabitants of this lake-dwelling
practised the art of metallurgy, which would entail at least one
fire-proof furnace, and thus partly account for the existence of so
many hearths on such a small area.

The second dwelling was about 150 yards from the shore, in deep water,
and lying over a great depth of quaking mud. It was a small example of
the ordinary stockaded island, but owing to the softness of the mud
and oozing of water no satisfactory investigation could be undertaken.
Mr. Robinson calculates the extent of its submergence at 15 feet. Its
entire surface was occupied by a heap of stones which gave it the
appearance of a hillside cairn. Digging underneath these stones we
came upon a thick bed of heather and brackens interspersed with beams
and brushwood. Near the margin were to be seen a few piles and beams
rudely mortised, from which one or two long beams radiated towards the
centre like the spokes of a wheel.

In the first described lake-dwelling no submergence could have taken
place, as the lake bottom was composed of compact sand in which the
piles had a firm hold.

In different parts of the lake two single-tree canoes were found
embedded in the mud, both of which are now preserved in the Belfast
Museum. One is a plain trough of a rectangular shape with slightly
sloping sides, measuring 12½ feet long, 2½ wide and 9 inches deep
(No. 3). Its flat base is perforated with six circular holes ¾ inch
in diameter. The other is pointed at both ends, and altogether much
more artistic in its structure. It was originally about 13 feet long
and 3½ feet wide, but the fore-part is considerably damaged. The
stern portion is here figured (No. 4). It had two seats formed of neat
planks of oak, seven inches broad, and supported on projecting ledges
on each side cut out of the solid, as shown in the section No. 6. The
seats (No. 5) were kept in position by two wooden pins at each end
which penetrated into the solid supports. For the oars there were also
two arrangements on each side consisting of perforated projections
left out of the solid as shown on the margin of the portion here
sketched. But the most remarkable feature of this canoe consists of
four prominences with abrupt edges (also left in the solid) for the
feet of the rowers, as seen in the illustration. The distances from
the centre of the seats to their corresponding foot marks were 33 and
34 inches respectively.


      LIST OF IRISH CRANNOGS ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED,
                  WITH NOTES AND REFERENCES.

      Aconnick Lough, co. Cavan. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Acrussel Lough, co. Fermanagh. B. 444, p. 187.
      Allen Lough, co. Leitrim. B. 9, p. 45.
  [75]Aghakilconnel Lough, co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Aghnamullen ("Glebe Island"), co. Monaghan. B. 93b, p. 229.
  [76]Annagh Lough, two crannogs, between King and Queen's County.
        B. 149, p. 154.
      Annagh, parish of Kilbarron, co. Tipperary. B. 444, p. 212.
      Ardakillen, four crannogs. B. 13, p. 208, and Ap. p. 48;
        B. 18, p. 230.
  [77]Ardmore Bay, submarine crannog, co. Waterford. B. 329, p. 61,
        and B. 330, p. 154.
      Arrow Lough, co. Sligo, several stone islands near the
        Abbey of Ballindoon. B. 444, p. 245.
      Aughlish, about five miles from Enniskillen, co. Fermanagh.
        B. 217, pp. 323.
      Ballaghmore, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 322.
      Ballinafad, co. Galway. B. 214, p. 12.
  [78]Ballinahinch, co. Galway. B. 214, p. 12.
      Ballinderry, near Moate, co. Westmeath. B. 391, p. 196.
      Ballinlough, four crannogs, co. Galway. B. 70a.
      Ballydoolough, five miles from Enniskillen, co. Fermanagh.
        B. 191, pp. 360 and 569, and B. 217, p. 314.
      Ballygawley Lake, co. Sligo. B. 444, p. 246.
  [79]Ballyhoe Lough, two crannogs, near Carrickmacross, co.
        Monaghan. B. 13, p. 417, and B. 135, p. 8.
      Ballykinler, co. Down. B. 29, p. 86.
      Ballylough Baile-an-Locha. "Annals of the Four Masters,"
        B. 27, p. 193, and B. 438, p. 168.
      Ballywoolen, co. Down. B. 29, p. 86.
      Bohermeen, co. Meath. B. 444, p. 82.
      Bola Lough, co. Galway, lake stone-dwelling. B. 214, p. 11.
  [80]Breagho, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 322.
      Camlough, co. Armagh. B. 444, p. 178.
  [81]Cargaghoge, Barony of Farney, co. Monaghan. B. 162, p. 269,
        and vol. v., 4th S., p. 330.
      Castleforbes, co. Longford. B. 24, p. 150.
      Castlefore Lough, two crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43;
        B. 438, p. 409.
      Clogherny, co. Tyrone. B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 649.
  [82]Cloncorick Castle L., co. Leitrim. B. 440, p. 408.
      Cloneygonnell L. (Tonymore), three crannogs, co. Cavan. B. 60.
      Cloonbo L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Cloonboniagh L., co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43,
        and B. 438, p. 408.
      Cloonfinnen L., co. Leitrim. _Ibid._, and B. 438, p. 408.
      Cloonfinlough, two crannogs, co. Roscommon. B. 13, p. 208,
        and Ap. p. 40.
      Cloonfree, two crannogs. _Ibid._, p. 219, and Ap. p. 48.
      Cloonturk L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. _Ibid._, Ap. p. 43.
  [83]Cloughwater Bog, near Ballymena, co. Antrim. B. 148, p. 21.
      Coal Bog (Kilnamaddo), near Boho, co. Fermanagh.
         _Jour. Arch. Association_, xxxvi. p. 271; B. 345, p. 66.
      Coolcranoge, co. Limerick. B. 444, p. 28.
      Corcreevy (Loch-Laoghaire) co. Tyrone.
         "Annals of the Four Masters," B. 13, p. 215.
      Corrib L., a few lake stone-dwellings, co. Galway.
        B. 214, p. 11.
  [84]Cornagall L., co. Cavan. B. 191a, p. 461.
  [85]Cornaseer, co. Cavan. B. 438, p. 148.
      Craigywarren, co. Antrim. B. 444, p. 110.
      Crannagh MacKnavin, co. Leitrim. B. 18, p. 233.
      Crannagh Lough, co. Antrim. B. 24, p. 157.
      Crannog-na-n-Duini, co. Donegal. B. 18, p. 233.
      Crannog-boy, parish of Inishkeel, co. Donegal. B. 444, p. 28.
      Crannog Mac Samhradhain, co. Cavan.
         "Annals of the Four Masters.," B. 9, p. 45.
      Creenagh L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 438, p. 408.
      Cullina, near Maryborough, Queen's County. B. 444, p. 210.
  [86]Currygrane L., two crannogs, co. Longford. B. 443, p. 410.
      Derreen L., co. Roscommon. B. 13, Ap. p. 62.
      Derreskit L., co. Cavan. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Drumaleague L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 18;
        B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Drumdarragh or Trillick, co. Fermanagh. B. 441; B. 217, p. 324.
  [87]Drumgay, three crannogs and one stone-island, co. Fermanagh.
        B. 189, p. 232, and B. 217, p. 314.
  [88]Drumkeery L., near Bailieborough, co. Cavan, B. 57, p. 483.
  [89]Drumkelin, parish of Inver, co. Donegal. B. 3, p. 361.
  [90]Drumlane, eight miles from Cavan, two crannogs, co. Cavan.
        B. 438, p. 149.
      Drumskimly, three crannogs, co. Fermanagh. B. 189, p. 583, and
        B. 217, p. 320.
  [91]Drumsloe, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 321.
      Effernan, co. Clare. B. 346, p. 336.
      Eyes Lough, six crannogs, co. Fermanagh. B. 189, p. 553
        and B. 217, p. 317.
      Faughan L., co. Down. B. 24 and 25; B. 18, p. 158.
      Fort L., co. Donegal. B. 444, p. 181.
      Funshinagh L., co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Galbally, co. Tyrone, B. 217, p. 197.
      Glencar L., five crannogs, co. Sligo and Leitrim. B. 444, p. 243.
      Gortalough, co. Fermanagh. B. 346, p. 336.
      Grantstown, co. Queen. B. 93, p. 228.
      Guile L., co. Antrim. B. 148, p. 20.
      Gur L., co. Limerick. Evans' "Ancient Bronze Implements, etc.,"
        p. 436; B. 18, p. 223.
      Hackett Lough (L. Cimbe), co. Galway. "Annals of Lough Cé," 1067;
        B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 654; B. 18, p. 230.
      Hilbert L., Goromna Island, a lake stone-dwelling, co. Galway.
        B. 214.
      Inishrush (Green Lough), co. Derry. B. 25, p. 212.
      Joristown, in the river Deal, co. Westmeath. B. 13, Ap. p. 55,
        and B. 444, p. 205.
      Kilglass L. B. 13, Ap., p. 48.
      Killynure, near Enniskillen, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 323.
      Kilmore L., two crannogs, co. Monaghan. B. 13, Ap. p. 43.
      Kilknock L., co. Antrim. B. 24, p. 153.
      Knockany (Lough Cend), co. Limerick. B. 444, p. 156.
      Lagore, or Dunshaughlin, co. Meath. B. 175, p. 462; B. 14, p. 35;
        B. 18; B. 4, p. 425; B. 10, p. 101.
      Lane L., co. Roscommon. _Cal. State Papers Ireland_, vol. 156,
        p. 374.
      Lankhill, near Enniskillen, co. Fermanagh. B. 441, p. 372.
      Leesborough L., co. Monaghan. B. 13, p. 43.
      Lenaghan, co. Fermanagh. B. 444, p. 188.
      Lisanisk, co. Monaghan. "The island Ever McCooley's house";
        B. 18, p. 231; B. 9, p. 46, and B. 8, p. 94.
      Lisnacrogliera, near Broughshane, co. Antrim. B. 411.
      Lochanacrannog, co. Sligo. B. 444, p. 246.
  [92]Loughran's Island ("Innis-an-Lochan"), in the river Bann,
        near Coleraine, co. Antrim. B. 13, p. 417; B. 27, p. 192.
      Loughannaderriga, Achille Island, co. Mayo. B. 444, p. 230.
      Loughinsholin, co. Derry. B. 18, p. 233; B. 25, p. 157.
      Loughavarra, co. Antrim. _Ulster J. Arch._, vol. vii. p. 192;
        "Annals of the Four Masters," 1544.
      Loughavilly, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 321; B. 346, p. 332.
  [93]Lochlea, three crannogs, co. Roscommon. B. 13, Ap. pp. 48
        and 61; B. 18, p. 29.
      Lough-na-Glack, co. Monaghan. B. 9, p. 46.
      Lough Cam, lake stone-dwelling, co. Galway. B. 214, p. 12.
      Loughmagarry, co. Antrim. B. 24, p. 156.
  [94]Loughtamend ("Louglitoman"), co. Antrim. _Ibid._, p. 155.
      Loughtown, co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. 43.
      Loughrea, four crannogs, co. Galway, B. 58, p. 412.
      Lough Oughter, three or more crannogs, co. Cavan.
        B. 438, p. 151.
      Lynch Lough ("Loch-Leith-innsi"), co. Antrim. B. 27, p. 193.
      Mac Hugh L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 13, Ap. p. 43,
        and B. 440, p. 408.
      Macnean L., three crannogs, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 323.
      Mac Nevin (Mac Cnaimhain) crannog, co. Galway. B. 70, p. 176.
      Manorhamilton, co. Leitrim. B. 25, p. 346, and B. 18, p. 552.
      Marlacoo, co. Armagh. _R. H. A. A._, vol. vi., 4th S., p. 432.
      Mask L., Hag's Castle, lake stone-dwelling. B. 214, p. 11.
      Melvin L. (Melge), between co. Fermanagh and Leitrim.
         "Annals of the Four Masters"; B. 18, p. 231,
          and B. 13, p. 215.
      Moinenoe, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 322.
      Monaincha, co. Tipperary. B. 444, p. 212.
      Monalty, half a mile from Carrickmacross, co. Monaghan.
        B. 8, p. 94, and B. 9, p. 46.
      Monea, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 318.
      Mongavlin, co. Donegal. "Annals of Lough Cé"; B. 444, p. 151.
      Monnachin L., co. Monaghan. _Ibid._, p. 151.
      Mourne L., two crannogs, co. Antrim. B. 390, pp. 194 and 371,
        and B. 439, p. 321.
      Moynagh L., co. Meath. Notes by Col. Wood-Martin.
      Muickeanagh L. (Lough Leisi), co. Roscommon. B. 18, p. 230.
      Mucknoe L., co. Monaghan. B. 444, p. 151.
      Muintir Eolais, co. Leitrim. "Annals of the Four Masters";
        B. 18, p. 231; B. 9, p. 45.
      Nahinch L., Tipperary and King's County. B. 70b;
        Wakefield's "Ireland," vol. i. p. 94.
      Naneevin L., co. Galway. B. 118, p. 31.
      Ooney L. ("Loch-n-Uithne"), co. Monaghan. "Annals of Lough Cé";
        B. 444, p. 156.
      Owel L., co. Westmeath. _Pro. R. I. A._, vol. ix. p. 210.
      Pad or Boat L., near Lough Eyes, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 318.
      Ravel L., "Derryhollow," "Aghaloughan," near Randalstown, co.
        Antrim. B. 24 and 25; B. 148, p. 22; B. 215, pp. 74 and 194;
        _Kilk. A. S._, 2nd S., vols. iii. p. 88, and iv. p. 36.
  [95]Rahan's L., near Carrickmacross, co. Monaghan. _K. A. S._,
         vol. iv., 2nd S., p. 379.
      Ramor L., co. Cavan. B. 438, p. 152.
  [96]Rinn L., three or four crannogs, co. Leitrim. B. 24, p. 147;
        B. 440, p. 408.
      Ross L., near Crossmaglen, co. Armagh. _J. R. H. A. As._,
        vol. vi., 4th S., p. 432.
      Roughan L., near Dungannon, co. Tyrone. B. 438, p. 152.
      Rouskey L., co. Monaghan. B. 444, p. 151.
      Scur L., two crannogs, co. Leitrim. "Annals of Lough Cé," 1345,
        1390, and 1580; B. 13, Ap. p. 43. B. 18, p. 223.
  [97]St. John's Lough, four crannogs, co. Leitrim.
        B. 13, Ap., pp. 43 and 59.
      Talogh L., at Feenagh, several crannogs, co. Leitrim.
        B. 440, p. 408.
      The Miracles, co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 319, and B. 346, p. 331.
      Toome Bar, co. Antrim. B. 92, p. 227.
  [98]Tully L., three crannogs, co. Cavan. B. 438, p. 150.
      Tullyline, co. Cavan. B. 13, p. 215.
      Veagh L., co. Donegal. "Annals," B. 18, p. 231.
      Yoan L., co. Fermanagh. B. 217, p. 324.


II.--SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS OR CRANNOGS.

It was not till after the discoveries on the Continent had attracted
universal attention that archæologists began to look for similar
remains in Britain. It was then found that early historic references
to island forts, and some incidental notices of the exposure of buried
islands artificially constructed of wood and stone, and other remains
of lacustrine abodes, during the drainage of lochs and marshes in the
last and early part of this century, had been entirely overlooked.
The merit of correctly interpreting these remains in Scotland, and
bringing them systematically before antiquaries, belongs to the
late Joseph Robertson, Esq., F.S.A., Scotland, who read a paper on
the subject to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland on the 14th
of December, 1857, entitled, "Notices of the Isle of the Loch of
Banchory, the Isle of Loch Canmor, and other Scottish examples of
the artificial or stockaded islands, called crannogs in Ireland, and
Keltischen Pfahlbauten in Switzerland."

Mr. Robertson's paper, though not published, at once attracted
attention, and stimulated so much further inquiry on the part of
the members, that, at the very next meeting of the Society, another
contribution on the subject was read by Mr. John Mackinlay, F.S.A.,
Scotland (B. 21), from which it appeared that as early as 1812 this
gentleman had observed some remains (now surmised to be a crannog)
in Dhu Loch, in the island of Bute, which were described in a letter
dated the 13th February, 1813. This communication found its way to
George Chalmers, Esq., author of "Caledonia," regarding which, writing
on the 26th of April, 1813, he says:--"It goes directly to illustrate
some of the obscurest antiquities of Scotland. I mean the wooden
castles, which belong to the Scottish period when stone and lime were
not much used in building. I will make proper use of this discovery
of Mr. Mackinlay." In 1863, Dr. John Grigor, of Nairn, described
"two ancient lake-dwellings or crannoges in the Loch of the Clans,
Nairnshire." (B. 55.) The remains, however, were too imperfect to be
of value in illustrating their structure, and the only relics found
were a portion of a small stone cup or lamp, two whetstones, an iron
axe-head, and some charcoal and bits of bone.

A more important discovery, made about the same time, was a group of
artificial islands in Loch Dowalton, Wigtownshire, which were first
described by his Grace the Duke of Northumberland (then Lord Lovaine)
in a paper read at the Newcastle-upon-Tyne meeting of the British
Association in 1863. (B. 56.) About two years later Mr. John Stuart,
Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, visited Dowalton,
and, owing to a greater drainage of the loch having been made in the
interval, was enabled to re-examine the Dowalton islands under more
favourable circumstances. The result of his labours was an elaborate
paper to the Society, in which he gave a detailed account of the
structure and relics of these crannogs, and also took the opportunity
of incorporating into his article all the facts he could glean, so as
to afford a basis for comparing the Scottish examples with those in
other countries. (B. 94.)

Since the publication of Dr. Stuart's paper in 1866, little progress
was made in the investigation of Scottish crannogs, though traces of
them were occasionally noticed in various parts of Scotland, till the
discovery and examination of the Lochlee crannog, Ayrshire, in 1878-9.
The work done at Lochlee was important, not only because of the varied
collection of relics secured, but also on account of the interest it
had excited in archæological research, the fruit of which has already
been reaped by the discovery of no less than five other lake-dwellings
in the south-west of Scotland, all of which have now been carefully
investigated. Full details of these investigations are given in the
Collections of the Ayrshire and Galloway Archæological Association, as
well as in my recent work on the "Scottish Lake-Dwellings." (B. 331,
344, 373, and 426.)

While such general indications of lake-dwellings can hardly be
said to limit their geographical distribution to any given area in
Scotland, it is a singular fact that, so far as the discovery of
actual remains illustrative of the civilisation and social condition
of their occupiers is concerned, we are almost entirely dependent on
the investigations made at Dowalton, Lochlee, Lochspouts, Buston,
Airrieoulland, Barhapple, and Friar's Carse, all of which are situated
within the counties of Ayr, Dumfries, and Wigtown. In instituting
a comparison between the relics of these respective groups their
resemblance is so wonderfully alike that we have no difficulty in
dispensing with the necessity of discussing the merits of each group
separately; so that whatever inferences can be legitimately derived
from a critical examination of any one group may be safely applied to
the whole.

As a preliminary to this inquiry the following details of the
investigation of lake-dwellings in Scotland will, I trust, be
sufficient to give general readers a tolerably correct notion of the
social conditions and environments of the people whose history, solely
from an archæological standpoint, it is our object here to pourtray.


DOWALTON.

The loch of Dowalton was of an irregular form, about 1½ mile long,
and about three-quarters of a mile in greatest breadth, and without
any marked outfall for drainage. Sir William Maxwell effected this
by making a cut, 25 feet deep, through the wall of whinstone and
slate which closed it in at its south-eastern boundary. When the
waters were allowed to run off in the summer of 1863 no less than
five artificially constructed islands became visible. One of these
had a cairn of stones on it which always remained above water, and
was known as the "Miller's Cairn," from the fact of its having been
used, like the Nilometer, to measure the quantity of water in the
lake, and thereby to regulate its supply to neighbouring mills. "On
approaching the cairn," says Dr. Stuart, "the numerous rows of piles
which surrounded it first attracted notice. These piles were formed of
young oak-trees. Lying on the north-east were mortised frames of beams
of oak, like hurdles, and, below these, round trees laid horizontally.
In some cases the vertical piles were mortised into horizontal bars.
Below them were layers of hazel and birch branches, and under these
were masses of ferns, the whole mixed with large boulders, and
penetrated by piles. Above all was a surface of stone and soil, which
was several feet under water till the recent drainage took place. The
hurdle frames were neatly mortised together, and were secured by pegs
in the mortise holes. On one side of the island a round space of a few
feet in size appeared, on which was a layer of white clay, browned
and calcined as from the action of fire, and around it were bones of
animals and ashes of wood.... Lines of piles, apparently to support a
causeway, led from it to the shore." (B. 94.)

The other islands were constructed in a similar manner, and of
like materials. The largest and farthest from the shore measured
twenty-three yards in diameter, and its surface was three feet lower
than that of the others. Several canoes and bronze dishes were found
in the mud in the vicinity of these islands, and in making excavations
on them many relics and broken bones were collected, of which the
following is a list as far as known up to the present time:--


RELICS FROM THE CRANNOGS IN LOCH DOWALTON.

_Metal._--"Pot or patella of yellowish-coloured bronze (=Fig. 126=),
with a handle springing from the upper edge, 7 inches in length, on
which is stamped the letters P. CIPIPOLIBI. At the farther extremity
is a circular opening. The bottom is ornamented with five projecting
rings, and measures in diameter 6 inches; it is 8 inches in diameter
across the mouth; the inside appears to be coated with tin, and has a
series of incised lines at various distances. The vessel is ornamented
on the outside opposite to the handle by a human face in relief,
surrounded by a movable ring, which could be used in lifting the pot."
(B. 94, p. 109.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 126.=--Bronze Dish (height, 5½ inches).]

A bronze basin, measuring 10 inches in diameter and 4 inches in depth,
shows several patches or mendings (=Fig. 127=). It is formed of
several separate pieces of sheet-metal riveted together, and appears
to have had an iron handle.

Two bronze dishes, hammered out of the solid. One measures 12 inches
in diameter and 4 inches in depth. The other has the same diameter as
the former, but is 1 inch less in depth, and has a turned-over rim 1
inch in breadth (=Fig. 128=).

A bronze ring, having attached to it a portion of the vessel of which
it had been a handle (=Fig. 129=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 127.=--Bronze Dish, 10 inches in diameter.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 128.=--Bronze Dish, 12 inches in diameter.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 129.=--Bronze Ring-handle, ½ real size.]

A penannular brooch and a circular ornament, with trumpet-shaped
spaces, probably intended for enamel[99] (=Fig. 130=). Also a small
ring, a fragment of bronze, and iron slag.

Three iron hammers or axe-hammers (=Fig. 131=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 130.=--Bronze Brooch (1/1) and Bronze Ornament (2
inches in diameter).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 131.=--Iron Hammer-Axes (½).]

_Glass._--Two beads of earthenware of a ribbed pattern, showing traces
of a green glaze; one of vitreous paste of a whitish colour, with red
spots; half of another bead of white glass, streaked with blue; and a
large bead, 1¼ inch in diameter, of a somewhat remarkable character.
The latter has in the central perforation a tube of bronze, and the
edge of both sides of the perforation is ornamented by three minute
bands of twisted yellow glass, while the body is of blue glass, of a
ribbed pattern (=Fig. 132=).

[Illustration: Armlet of Whitish Glass streaked with Blue (½).
Portion of Armlet (1/1). Blue Glass Bead, 1 inch long and 1¼ wide.
Beads all real size. =Fig. 132.=--Objects of Glass or Vitreous Paste.]

Several portions of armlets of glass. Half of one is of white glass,
and streaked with blue. Others are of a yellowish or whitish colour
(=Fig. 132=). A small portion of blue glass.

_Leather._--Portion of a leather shoe, 7 inches in length, nearly
covered with ornamental stamped patterns (=Fig. 133=).

_Stone._--A thin flat stone, of a rectangular shape and highly
polished, is supposed to have been used as a mirror; five querns, a
flake of yellow flint, and several whetstones.

[Illustration: =Fig. 133.=--Portion of Leather Shoe (length, 7
inches).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 134.=--Bit of Samian Ware (1/1) and portion of a
Crucible (½).]

_Wood._--Five canoes, measuring from 18 feet to 25 feet in length,
and from 2 feet 7 inches to 4 feet 2 inches in breadth. Dr. Stuart
describes one as being "25 feet in length, and strengthened by a
projecting cross-band towards the centre, left in the solid in
hollowing out the inside." A large wooden vessel, roughly cut out of
the solid, and a portion of a bowl, with circular grooves made by
means of a wood-turner's lathe.

_Pottery._--A small fragment of Samian ware and an earthen crucible
(=Fig. 134=).

_Miscellaneous._--A small shale ring, unfinished, a bead of amber, and
a copper coin.


LOCHLEE.

The site of the Lochlee crannog was a small lake, which formerly
occupied about nineteen acres of what is now, and has been for many
years, arable land, on the farm of Lochlee, near Tarbolton. Before it
was artificially drained, some fifty years ago, no one appears to have
surmised that a small island, which became visible in the summer-time,
and formed a safe habitation for gulls and other sea-birds during
their breeding season, had been formerly the residence of man; nor
does it appear to have attracted the attention of the poet Burns, who
lived on this farm for four years as ploughman to his father, then
tenant of the place. The crannog was near the outlet, of the lake,
and the nearest land, its southern bank, was about seventy-five yards
distant. When the first drainage of the lake was carried out, the
wrought woodwork exposed in the drains running through the island, and
especially the discovery of two canoes buried in the moss, attracted
some attention. It was not, however, till 1878, in consequence of some
discoveries during the re-drainage of the locality, that this most
important crannog was investigated.

[Illustration: =Fig. 135.=--General View of Site of Lochlee Crannog.]

The general appearance which it presented before the excavations were
commenced, as seen in =Fig. 135=, was that of a grassy knoll, drier,
firmer, and slightly more elevated than the surrounding field. Towards
the margin of this mound were seen the tops of a few wooden piles,
barely projecting above the grass, which at once suggested the idea
that they might be portions of a stockaded island.

[Illustration: =Fig. 136.=--Mortised Beam with portion of an Upright
(1/24) and a Wooden Peg (⅛).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 137.=--Sketch showing part of surrounding
Stockade with Mortised Beams.]

The diameter of the island was about one hundred feet; and its
superficies was thus occupied:--In the centre was a flat circular area
about sixty feet in diameter. Then followed a double line of upright
piles from 2 to 3 feet apart. These were bound together by short
transverse beams with a hole, generally square, at each end (=Fig.
136=), into which the tops of the uprights penetrated, while others
stretched along the circumference forming a firm network. The surface
of these horizontal binders was about three feet above the level of
the inner area, and thus the stockade presented the appearance of a
breastwork. At the north-east corner this arrangement was more perfect
than elsewhere (see sketch, =Fig. 137=) and constituted what was
supposed to have been a landing stage, as from it a neatly-constructed
flooring of wood extended for some yards inwards. Outside the stockade
on the north side there was a mass of brushwood and stakes forming a
kind of trellis-work, as if intended for further protection to the
island. In the centre of the inner area there was a square portion,
measuring 39 feet on each side, covered with closely laid beams
of split stems of trees having the appearance and size of railway
sleepers, which appeared to have been the flooring of a wooden
house. This log-pavement (as we called it) had been Surrounded by a
wooden wall, the stumps of which then only remained, and a line of
similar stumps ran across it, from east to west, thus bisecting the
building into two nearly equal compartments. The sides of this wooden
foundation looked towards the four cardinal points, and its corners
just reached to the surrounding stockades. On the surface of the
wooden pavement were found some fragments of curiously worked beams
and some large broad boards. Some were grooved and had also square-cut
holes, in which both transverse and upright beams could be mortised.
(See sketch, =Fig. 138=.) A doorway, the stumps of the sideposts of
which were readily distinguished, opened to the south; and in front,
but more to the left, was an extensive refuse heap, in which many
relics were found. This midden occupied the space between the south
margin of the log-pavement and the surrounding stockades--some 10 or
12 feet in breadth by about double that in length.

[Illustration: =Fig. 138.=--Grooved and Mortised Beams lying over
Log-Pavement.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 139.=--Perpendicular Section through the Three
lowest Hearths.]

About the middle of the northern half of the log-pavement was found
a remarkable series of four hearths, or fire-places, superimposed
one above the other. The lowest was placed a little above the
log-pavement, and had a layer of stones, clay, and earth intervening
between it and the wood. About one and a half foot higher there was a
second hearth; at a similar interval, a third; and at 2½ feet still
higher, a fourth. These hearths were formed of small boulders laid
closely together, like a stone causeway, embedded in, and surrounded
by, a layer of clay (=Fig. 139=). They were oval or circular in shape
and about four feet in diameter. The corresponding layers of clay
extended considerably beyond the limits of the hearths around which
they appeared to form a flooring. The third hearth (counting from
below upwards) had been more elaborately constructed than the others,
and it was surrounded by a number of stumps of stout uprights which
no doubt were the remains of a secondary building, as their lower
ends did not penetrate much beyond the level of the hearth. The space
underneath the clay bed corresponding to this hearth, and extending
downwards to the log-pavement, was, next to the refuse heap, the most
prolific in relics. In it were found, about the level of the second
fire-place, nearly the entire skeletons of two animals like a goat or
sheep, the skulls of which had short horn-cores attached to them.

_Gangway._--Beyond the midden, outside the island, the tops of a few
piles were detected, and upon making exploratory excavations, these
turned out to be the remains of a gangway. As this structure was very
peculiar and somewhat comparable to the wooden structures described
by Virchow and others in the German Pfahlbauten, I will here quote
my original description of it _in extenso_. (See plan and sections,
facing page 416):--

"We commenced this inquiry by excavating a rectangular space, 30 feet
long, 16 feet broad, and 3 to 4 feet deep, in the line of direction
indicated by the piles, and exposed quite a forest of oak stakes.
Other trenches were then made with exactly similar results. The stakes
thus revealed did not at first appear to conform to any systematic
arrangement, but by-and-by we detected, in addition to six single
piles, small groups of three, four, and five, here and there at short
intervals. This observation, however, conveyed little or no meaning,
so that we could form no opinion as to the manner in which they
were used. Up to this point no trace of mortised beams was anywhere
to be seen. In all these trenches the stuff dug up was of the same
character. First or uppermost was a bed of fine clay rather more than
2 feet thick, and then a soft dark substance formed of decomposed
vegetable matter. The source of the latter was evident from the
occurrence in its upper stratum of large quantities of leaves, some
stems, branches, and the roots of stunted trees _in situ_. The tops
of the piles in the trench next the crannog were from 2 to 3 feet
below the surface of the field, but they rose gradually as we receded
from the crannog, and in the trench next the shore one or two were
found on a level with the grass. About 4 feet deep the stuff at the
bottom of the trench was so soft that a man could scarcely stand on it
without sinking ankle-deep. It was not nearly so heavy as the upper
strata, but more adhesive, and of a nutty-brown colour, which, on
exposure, quickly turned dark. Notwithstanding the flabbiness of this
material, the piles felt quite firm, and this fact, together with the
experience derived from our examination of the deeper structures of
the island, led to the supposition that the piles must terminate in
some more solid basis than had yet been made apparent. To remove all
doubts on this point, though a long iron rod could be easily pushed
downwards without meeting any resistance, we ordered a large deep
shaft to be dug in the line of the piles, and the cutting nearest the
crannog was selected for this purpose. This was accomplished with much
difficulty, but we were amply rewarded by coming upon an elaborate
system of woodwork, which I found no less difficult to comprehend than
it now is to describe. The first horizontal beam was reached about 7
feet deep, and for other 3 feet we passed through a complete network
of similar beams, lying in various directions. Below this--_i.e._ 10
feet from the surface--the workmen could find no more beams and the
lake silt became harder and more friable. We then cleared a larger
area, so as, if possible, to exhibit the structural arrangement of the
woodwork. The reason of grouping the piles now became apparent. The
groups were placed in a somewhat zig-zag fashion near the sides of the
gangway, and from each there radiated a series of horizontal beams,
the ends of which crossed each other and were kept in position by the
uprights. One group was carefully inspected. The first or lowest beam
observed was right across, the next lay lengthways and of course at
right angles to the former, then three or four spread out diagonally
like a fan, and terminated in other groups at the opposite side of the
gangway, and lastly, one again lay lengthways. Thus each beam raised
the level of the general structure the exact height of its thickness,
though large lozenge-shaped spaces remained in the middle quite clear
of any beams. The general breadth of the portion of this unique
structure examined was about 10 feet (but an isolated pile was noticed
farther out), and its thickness varied from 3 to 4 feet. A large oak
plank, some 10 feet long, showing the marks of the sharp-cutting
instrument by which it was formed, was found lying on edge at its west
side, and beyond the line of piles, but otherwise no remains of a
platform were seen. All the beams and stakes were made of oak, and so
thoroughly bound together that, though not a single joint, mortise, or
pin was discovered, the whole fabric was as firm as a rock. No relics
were found in any of the excavations along the line of this gangway."
(B. 373, pp. 99-101.)

_Structure of the Island._--Having now collected the chief facts
regarding the log-pavement, its surrounding structures and
superincumbent materials, we determined to sink a shaft about the
centre of the crannog for the purpose of ascertaining, if possible,
the thickness, composition, and mode of structure, of the island
itself. This shaft was rectangular in form, and large enough to
allow three men to work in it together. (See plan and sections, page
416.) After removing the three or four layers of oak planks which
constituted this portion of the log-pavement, we came upon a thin
layer of brushwood, and then large trunks of trees laid in regular
beds or layers, each layer having its logs lying parallel to each
other, but transversely or sometimes obliquely to those of the layer
immediately above or below it. At the west end of the trench, after
removing the first and second layers of the log-pavement, we found
part of a small canoe hollowed out of an oak trunk, evidently part of
an old worn-out one, thus economised and used instead of a prepared
log. Much progress in this kind of excavation was by no means an easy
task, as it was necessary to keep two men constantly pumping the
water which copiously flowed from all directions into the trench, and
even then there always remained some at the bottom. As we advanced
downwards we encountered layer upon layer of the trunks of trees
with the branches closely chopped off, and so soft that the spade
easily cut through them. Birch was the prevailing kind of wood, but,
occasionally, beams of oak were found with holes at their extremities,
through which pegs of oak penetrated into other holes in the logs
beneath. One such peg, some three or four inches in diameter, was
found to pass through no less than four beams in successive layers,
and to terminate ultimately in a round trunk over thirteen inches in
diameter. One of the oak beams was extracted entire, and measured
8 feet 3 inches in length and 10 inches in breadth, and the holes
in it were 5 feet apart. Others had small round projecting bars,
which fitted into mortised holes in adjacent beams. Down to a depth
of about four feet the logs ware rudely split, but below this they
were round rough trunks, with the bark still adhering to them. Their
average diameter would be from six inches to one foot, and amongst
them were some curiously gnarled stems occasionally displaying large
knotty protuberances. Of course, in the act of digging the trench
the wood was cut up into fragments, and, on being uncovered, its
fibres had a natural and even fresh-like appearance, but in a few
minutes after exposure to the air the freshly cut pieces became as
black as ink. Amongst the _débris_ thrown up from a depth of 6 feet
below the log-pavement I picked up the larger portion of a broken
hammer-stone or polisher, which, from the worn appearance presented
by its fractured edges, must have been used subsequently to its
breakage. After considerable labour, when indeed the probability of
total discomfiture in reaching the bottom was freely talked of, our
most energetic foreman at last announced, after cutting through a
large flat trunk 14 inches thick, that underneath this he could find
no trace of further woodwork. The substance removed from below the
lowest logs consisted of a few twigs of hazel brushwood, embedded in
a dark, firm, but friable and somewhat peaty soil, which we concluded
to be the silt of the lake deposited before the foundations of the
crannog were laid. The depth of this solid mass of woodwork, measuring
from the surface of the log-pavement, was 9 feet 10 inches, or about
sixteen feet from the surface of the field. Amongst the very last
spadefuls pitched from this depth was found nearly one half of a
well-formed and polished ring made of shale, the external and internal
diameters of which were 3½ and 2 inches respectively.


RELICS FROM LOCHLEE.

[Illustration: =Fig. 140.=--Hone, 6¼ inches long.]

_Stone._--Several hammer-stones and sling-stones, etc. Five whetstones
or hones of the ordinary form. They are made of hard clay-stone or
sometimes fine sandstone, and vary in length from 5 to 7 inches. One
6¼ inches long has a groove running nearly its whole length (=Fig.
140=). A large oval pebble of white quartz used as an anvil. A flat
circular stone, 3 inches in diameter and 1⅜ inch thick, shaped like a
cheese. One stone celt made of a hard mottled greenstone (=Fig. 141=).
Five upper and some bits of lower millstones or querns, mostly of
granite. The former are all somewhat elongated, with a funnel-shaped
hole in the centre and generally a small round hole near the margin,
as seen in the accompanying illustration. Two cup-marked stones, one
with two concentric circles (=Fig. 141=). One spindle-whorl of stone
and three of clay (=Fig. 141=). Two flint flakes and one scraper
(=Fig. 141=). Several worked portions of stones.

_Bone and Horn._--Two chisels, five pointed objects, a small spoon, a
needle with its eye in the middle, a small ring, and several worked
bits of ribs were of bone. Of horn there were about forty worked
pieces--clubs, hooks, bodkins, handles, etc. (=Fig. 142=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 141.=--Objects of Stone and Clay.]

_Wood._--A neat trough, like a butcher's tray, cut out of the solid
wood (=Fig. 143=). Five dishes turned on the lathe, bowls, plates,
a ladle, etc. A piece of ashwood, 5 inches square, having a curious
design carved on both sides (=Figs. 144= and =145=). Six club-like
implements, a mallet, and a few things apparently intended for
agricultural purposes. Five varieties of pegs from five to fourteen
inches in length, with heads and sometimes perforations. One here
figured is 14 inches long (=Fig. 136=). Stern-piece of a canoe, a
double paddle, portion of a large oar, and three canoes. The paddle
and mallet are here figured (=Fig. 146=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 142.=--Objects of Bone and Horn.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 143.=--Wooden Tray (⅙).]

_Iron._--An axe-head with a piece of the handle still in the socket
(=Fig. 146=); a gouge 8 inches long, and a chisel 10 inches long,
both having tangs on which there is a thick ridge to prevent their
insertion too far into the handle; two knives with tangs; a small
punch, an awl, and other pointed implements; a crosscut saw, in three
fragments, together 38 inches in length; a large iron ring; a pair of
shears; and a large three-pronged implement of a remarkable character.
The last two objects are illustrated on =Fig. 147=. Two spear-heads
with sockets and portions of the wooden handle remaining in each. The
larger, 13 inches long, has a prominent centre ridge. Five daggers,
all with tangs, one of which has a bone handle and a brass ferrule.

[Illustration: =Fig. 144.=--Carved Wood (1/1).]

_Bronze or Brass._--A curious spatula-like object of beaten
bronze (=Fig. 147=). Three fibulæ and a ring pin (=Fig. 148=). The
square-shaped portion at the top of the latter has a _swastika_ or
_croix gammée_ on one side and a cross with four equal arms on the
other. A spiral finger-ring with three twists, two portions of stout
wire, and an object of unknown use.

[Illustration: =Fig. 145.=--Carved--other side of Fig. 144 (1/1).]

A bridle-bit having the centre-piece of iron and the side-pieces
partly of iron and partly of bronze--the rings being iron and the
looped portion bronze (=Fig. 149=).

_Lead._--One round knob like the hilt of a handle.

[Illustration: =Fig. 146.=--Iron Axe (½), Wooden Mallet (⅛), and
Paddle (1/24).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 147.=--Iron Prong (⅕), Iron Shears, (⅔), and
Bronze Spatula (½).]

_Pottery._--Portion of the bottom of a dish like Samian ware, and five
fragments of a whitish unglazed ware with parallel striæ, as if made
on the wheel. Fragment of a small crucible.

[Illustration: =Fig. 148.=--Two Fibulæ (1/1) and a Ring Pin (½).]

_Glass._--Two beads, one of earthenware of ribbed pattern and coated
with green glaze, like those from Dowalton. (See =Fig. 132.=) The
other is of green glass, smooth and shaped like dumb-bells.

[Illustration: =Fig. 149.=--Bridle-bit (½).]

_Leather._--Portion of a shoe and various bits of leather, one being
closely set with copper nails (=Fig. 150=).

_Miscellaneous._--Three portions of plain jet bracelets; another
portion of jet is like part of a button; a boar's tusk worked into
a sharp point; lumps of blue and red pigment, and large quantities
of the horny coverings of insects like beetles, and one or two
brilliant-coloured _elytra_; one solitary shell (_Littorina littorea_).

[Illustration: =Fig. 150.=--Fringe made from Stems of a Moss
(_Polytrichum commune_) (⅓), and piece of Thick Leather with Copper
Nails (1/1).]

An object which has excited considerable curiosity is an apparatus
made like a fringe by plaiting together at one end the long stems of
a kind of moss (=Fig. 150=). Portions of similar articles were found
in three different parts of the crannog and all deeply buried. One
portion of this moss was plaited in four plies and shaped like a cue
or pig-tail. It measured 17 inches long and 2 broad in the middle, and
tapered to a point.


LOCHSPOUTS.

Lochspouts is a small lake basin, about three miles to the south-west
of Maybole, somewhat oval in shape, and ensconced at the base of hilly
ground, which encompasses it, except towards the north, where a narrow
trap-dike runs across and cuts it off from the open valley beyond.
It is thus a natural dam, formed in the face of a declivity, which,
beyond the trap-ridge, still continues to slope rapidly downwards
for a few hundred yards. No outlet could therefore at any time exist,
except along this barrier, and an inspection of its present condition
reveals several deep gashes through which at one time the surplus
water made its escape. Indeed, some of the oldest inhabitants state
that the name "Lochspouts" was given to it because, in former times,
during heavy floods, its waters spouted across this ridge at different
points. Within the recollection of some of them an artificial cutting
was made through the rocky outlet, with the view of utilising its
waters for a "walk-mill," an operation which reduced the level of the
lake about ten feet, and its area to about two acres. A small island
must have then appeared, but, apparently, its nature was unsuspected;
and so it remained till 1879, when Mr. James Macfadzean recognised
it as the site of an ancient lake-dwelling. This singular and, when
surrounded by primeval forests, secluded little lake is now restored
to its pristine dimensions; but its water, instead of acting as a
defence to an island fortress, or propelling a primitive water-wheel,
forms a reservoir for the domestic supply of the town of Maybole. The
necessary alterations entailed by this transformation of the home of
the crannog-builders--one of which was to clear out the accumulated
_débris_ of many a jovial feast in which, judging from the osseous
remnants, pigs, oxen, and sheep were no rarity-came very opportunely,
as it enabled archæologists to complete an investigation which was
in the first instance initiated through the liberality of Sir James
Fergusson, the proprietor.

The remains of the crannog, in the form of a low circular mound
overgrown with coarse grass, lay at the north side of the lake, near
the middle portion of the rocky ridge, and so close to the present
margin that it formed a peninsula easily approached on _terra firma_.

At first the only possible investigation was to remove the _débris_
down to the level of the water, and in the course of this operation
the following facts were ascertained:--

(1) _Composition of the Mound._--The surface of the mound was composed
of coarse grass, having tough matted roots spreading in a thin
layer of soil, which overlay about a foot and a half of stones and
rubbish, in which no relics were found. Below this the materials were
of a very variable character; sometimes vegetable mould, stems of
grasses jointed like straw, and beds of heather and moss, which could
readily be separated into layers; and at other times heaps of ashes
and charcoal mixed with quantities of the shells of whelks, limpets,
and hazel-nuts. Intermingled with this heterogeneous mass were large
and small stones, broken bones, portions of deer-horns, and various
relics. Though several ash-heaps were distinctly discernible in the
vicinity of the hearths, no regular refuse-heap was met with; and the
broken bones and horns seemed to be dispersed over the general area of
the crannog.

(2) _Log-Pavement._--About five feet deep (measuring from the
centre of the mound), and only a few inches above the level of
the surrounding water, there was exposed a rude, imperfect, and
irregularly shaped wooden pavement, formed of flattened oak-beams.
It covered only the central portion of the area contained within
the circle of piles, the rest being laid with branches and stems
of trees. On digging beneath this log-pavement large beams and
brushwood were generally encountered, but the voluminous gushing up
of water prevented reliable observations from being made regarding
these deeper structures. Occasionally ashes and charcoal were turned
up, and in one spot near the centre, and under my own inspection,
the men succeeded in digging downwards more than two feet below the
log-pavement before the water oozed up, in the course of which nothing
was turned out but pure ashes, bits of charcoal, and large quantities
of the shells of limpets and common whelks. At the bottom of this
hole were solid oak-beams, apparently flattened; but no sooner were
their surfaces exposed than the water rushed in and filled the trench.
These observations gave rise to the conjecture that this understratum
represented the accumulated _débris_ of another, and, of course, an
older, period of human occupancy--a conjecture which also derived some
support from the fact that the surface of the log-pavement was on a
higher level than the tops of the encircling piles.

(3) _Hearths._--Over the log-pavement, and a few yards apart from each
other, were three circular hearths, each about five feet in diameter,
formed of flat stones embedded in a bed of yellow clay, and raised on
a sort of pedestal composed of clay and stones, to the extent of one
to one-and-a-half foot. One of them, on being demolished, was found to
have been built directly over a former similarly constructed hearth,
with an interval of about a foot. These hearths were situated near the
centre of the crannog, but on its southern half--i.e. the semicircle
farthest from the shore.

(4) _Gangway._--On making a few trial trenches in the space directly
between the shore and the crannog in search of a gangway, we could
find no indications of woodwork. One day, however, my attention was
directed to a portion of the log-pavement which looked like a wooden
roadway projecting to the margin of the island, and pointing in a
north-western direction, towards a prominence in the trap-ridge.
Observing also, that, before the lake was lowered, this prominence
would be the nearest land to the crannog, it immediately struck me
that, if there was a gangway at all, it would be found along this
line. Hypothesis was right this time. The adhesive nature of the lake
sediment prevented the water from oozing up so quickly as it did on
the crannog, so that we were enabled to expose the woodwork several
feet below the level of the lake. Close to the crannog the upper beams
of the gangway were about three feet below the surface of the grass;
but as we neared the shore with the digging they became less buried,
and some of the uprights were found even projecting above the ground.

The general plan on which this gangway was constructed appeared to
be identical with that adopted by the crannog-builders of Lochlee.
Upright piles, singly and in groups, were placed in a zig-zag fashion,
between, and from which, the horizontal beams stretched, fan-like,
and so formed a sort of latticework, with empty lozenge-shaped spaces
between.

From one of these holes, or meshes, some five feet below the surface
of the ground, a fine granite quern-stone was extracted. The piles
projected some two feet or more above the body of the gangway; but
there was no appearance of a subaqueous or superaqueous platform.
It would thus appear that its upper transverses were originally
under water--a remark equally applicable to the analogous remains at
Lochlee--but to what depth the wooden structures reached could not be
ascertained.

_Further Excavations._--In order to facilitate the projected
operations of clearing out the bed of the lake the Engineers of the
Maybole Waterworks caused the rocky outlet to be cut down to the
extent of 3 feet, which thus enabled them to remove a corresponding
section of the crannog. The result of this was to show, as was
conjectured from the facts ascertained in the previous explorations,
that there was, about 2½ feet underneath the log-pavement and
its hearths already described, another habitable zone with its
log-pavement, mortised beams, etc., together with various relics of
human industry. It would appear that this was the original surface of
the crannog, as it corresponded with the surrounding stockades, some
of which were found in position. Others were seen among a heap of wood
collected from the excavated _débris_, amongst which were a few of the
ordinary transverses containing square-cut holes at their extremities.
One thick beam was deeply grooved and resembled the one found at
Lochlee. (See =Fig. 138.=) A few large flat planks, having a round
handle-like projection some 18 inches long at one end, had only one
square-cut hole, placed sometimes close to this handle, and at other
times at the opposite extremity. Another stout oak beam, 6 feet long,
contained a series of round holes about an inch in diameter, and from
5 to 6 inches apart. The holes, which were on the broad side of the
beam, were about two inches in depth, but only penetrated half through
it, and from one of them a portion of a wooden pin was extracted.
This beam was in a fragmentary condition, being, like many others,
partially charred.


RELICS.

_Stone._--About a barrowful of hammer-stones and round pebbles from
1 to 6 inches in diameter. Polishers and whetstones also, numerous,
the latter sometimes perforated for suspension. Three portions of
sandstone had each a circular perforation funnel-shaped on both sides.
Twelve quern stones, nearly all made of granite, of which nine or ten
are the upper stones. One spindle-whorl 1¾ inch in diameter. Two
polished discs, one being the segment of a circle (=Fig. 151=), are
supposed to have been used as mirrors. An oval implement with two
hollowed surfaces like the one represented on =Fig. 175=; its length
is 3¼ inches, breadth 2⅝, and thickness 1 inch. The cup-shaped
cavities are too large for mere finger-marks. It is made of a hard
grey trap rock and, though well wrought all over, is not polished,
nor does it exhibit any markings such as are seen on the ordinary
hammer-stones. Two flint scrapers, one of which is here figured (=Fig.
151=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 151.=--Stone Disc (½) and Flint Scraper (1/1).]

_Bone and Horn._--A pin, chisel (=Fig. 152=), awl, two pointers, and a
knife-handle are of bone. Of horn there are also only a few objects,
as a pick, club, and some pointed implements of the tines of staghorn.

_Wood._--No specific object, except the stave of a vessel like that of
a milk cog, was found in the earlier explorations; but from the lowest
stratum there were some curious wooden implements. (See B. 373, p.
310.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 152.=--Bone Chisel (⅔).]

_Iron._--Articles of iron were very rare and much corroded--only one
retained its form sufficiently well to be recognised as a small dagger.

_Bronze._--Two curious objects, a key and a spiral of bronze wire,
are shown on =Fig. 153=. A small finger-ring. An armlet is said to
have been also found, but unfortunately could not be procured for
descriptive purposes.

_Lead._--A small bead-shaped portion of lead perforated with a round
hole is supposed to be a spindle-whorl.

[Illustration: =Fig. 153.=--Objects of Bronze (1/1).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 154.=--Fragment of Samian Bowl (1/1).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 155.=--Fragments of Pottery (1/1).]

_Pottery._--Several fragments of Samian ware, one ornamented (=Fig.
154=). Another kind of earthenware was of light colour, and showed
handles and well-formed rims (=Fig. 155=).

_Glass._--Two ribbed beads covered with a greenish glaze like those
from Loch Dowalton (=Fig. 132=), one of an amber tint beautifully
variegated (=Fig. 156=), and another of yellow vitreous paste.

[Illustration: =Fig. 156.=--A Conical Ornament of Rock-crystal, a
Glass Bead, and a Ring and Pendant of Jet (all 1/1).]

_Rock-Crystal._--A conical piece of rock-crystal, polished and
evidently ground to its present form, is here shown in outline (=Fig.
156=).

_Jet or Lignite._--Several bits showing workmanship; a polished
ring 1¼ inch in diameter (=Fig. 156=), and portions of two larger
ones, probably bracelets; and a remarkable pendant in the form of an
encircled cross (=Fig. 156=). The arms of the cross as well as the
surrounding circle are adorned with a succession of incised circles
alternating with short lines which are supposed to have been intended
for the reception of some kind of enamel.


BUSTON.

About half-way between Stewarton and Kilmaurs there is a shallow
basin of meadow-land which formerly, according to Blaeu's Atlas, was
the bed of a lake of considerable size called Loch Buston. Within
the recollection of the present generation this area was a mossy bog
in summer and a sheet of water in winter; and about fifty years ago,
when the present tenant, Mr. Robert Hay, came to reside on the farm,
there was a small mound situated about its centre known as the _Swan
Knowe_, on account of the number of wild swans that formerly used to
frequent it. When subsequently engaged in reclaiming the bog, Mr. Hay
states that as many as thirteen cart-loads of timber were removed from
the "Knowe," and he distinctly remembers that, in consequence of the
difficulty of detaching some of the mortised beams, his father made
the remark, "there maun hae been dwellers here at ae time." He also
states that until the land was thoroughly redrained, a few years ago,
there was still a considerable mound to be seen; but at the beginning
of December, 1880, when I first visited the locality, there was hardly
any elevation to distinguish it from the surrounding field.

Notwithstanding the havoc committed on the woodwork of the crannog
by a long exposure to atmospheric agencies before it finally sank
under the protective influence of the muddy water, and subsequently,
by the ruthless hands of the agriculturist, there still remained
sufficient materials to give one not only a general, but particular
and instructive notion of the mechanical principles on which the
island and its superincumbent structures were constructed. The general
results of the investigation may be categorically summed up as
follows:--

1. The island was composed of a succession of layers of the trunks
and branches of trees, intermingled in some places with stones, turf,
etc.; and the whole mass was firmly knit together by means of upright
piles and horizontal beams arranged in three, and in one part four,
concentric circles.

2. The outer circle was intended more for protection than for giving
stability to the island, and in some parts, as at the east side of the
refuse-heap, the piles were closely set with their tops fixed into a
transverse beam after the manner of a stair-railing; while those of
the inner ones not only penetrated deeply and gave stability to the
island, but also were used as part of the wall of the central building.

3. The area enclosed by the stockades was slightly oval in shape,
measuring 61 feet by 56, and rudely paved with wooden beams, many of
which were firmly fixed to the lower woodwork by stout wooden pegs as
well as to the encircling stockades, thus affording here and there, as
it were, _points d'appui_.

4. While there was one general hearth situated near the centre,
evidence of one or two fire-places elsewhere was quite conclusive. One
of these appeared to have been a smelting-furnace, as it contained
flat stones much stained with fire-marks and several masses of heavy
slag.

[Illustration: =Fig. 157.=--General View of Crannog at Buston, looking
northwards.]

5. The entrance to the central area, which was determined by the
stumps of two massive door-posts, had a south-easterly aspect, and
in front of it there was a well-constructed wooden platform, made of
large oak planks supported on solid layers of wood, to which they were
pinned down.

6. Beyond this platform, and separated from it by a massive wooden
railing which was continuous with the inner circle of stockades, was
the refuse-heap; and to the right a wooden pathway, also protected on
its outer side, led downwards and westwards to the outer circle, where
there appeared to have been a landing-stage. (See =Figs. 157= and
=158=.) About twelve yards in advance of this stage, and 4 feet from
the surface of the field, a canoe was found buried in the ancient mud
of the lake (=Fig. 159=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 158.=--Portion of north side of Buston Crannog,
with the space between Inner and Second Circles of Piles dug out,
showing arrangement of Mortised Beams and structure of Island.]

This canoe was 22 feet long, 3 feet 6 inches broad at the stern,
widening to about four feet in the middle, and 1 foot 10 inches deep.
It is remarkable as showing evidence of having been repaired in two
places by neatly fitting pieces of oak planking, which were kept in
position by transverse ribs and wooden pins. The stern-piece was
movable and fitted into a groove in the sides of the boat. In the mud
removed from its interior were a few stones and portion of the skull
of an ox.

The refuse-heap occupied an oblong position immediately in front of
the southern entrance. It measured some 30 feet long by 15 or 20
broad, and 5 feet deep alongside the above-mentioned railing. Here
nearly all the relics and some massive bones were found. These bones
were abundantly impregnated with the mineral vivianite, both in its
amorphous and crystalline condition, but the specimens of crystals
here were much inferior to those from Lochlee. The position of the
refuse-heap is seen in the immediate foreground of =Fig. 157=, after
the removal of its contents, as a pit partially occupied with water.

[Illustration: =Fig. 159.=--Appearance of Canoe _in situ_ after
exposure.]

The crannog was about one hundred and fifty yards from the nearest
shore, and there was no trace of a gangway observed.


LIST OF RELICS.

_Stone._--Hammer-stones, polishers, and whetstones were comparatively
rare, only some half dozen being found. Among the latter are fragments
of a circular grindstone of fine red sandstone, showing a diameter of
about fifteen inches, and a large oblong smooth stone perforated at
one end.

Two blocks of sandstone with irregularly shaped cavities in each; a
third has a large cup-shaped cavity 5½ inches in diameter and 2½
inches deep, and on it are the marks of sharpening tools; hence the
cup is supposed to have been for holding water for facilitating the
operation of sharpening. Another small fragment has a neatly formed
cup-shaped cavity. Two querns, both upper stones; one is of the
usual form, but the other is flat and more like a modern millstone.
It measures 18 inches across and the central hole is 3 inches in
diameter, but not funnel-shaped. For the insertion of a handle there
is a square-cut hole near the margin.

[Illustration: =Fig. 160.=--Flint Knife and Clay Crucible (1/1).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 161.=--Four Pins and a Needle of Bone, and one
Pin of Bronze. All (1/1).]

Two spindle-whorls, one of which was of cannel coal. Three crucibles,
one having particles of gold in its crevices and another the remains
of a yellowish slag (=Fig. 160=). One flint knife (=Fig. 160=), two
scrapers, two cores, and a few chips.

_Bone._--Twenty pins, of which only one was ornamented with a check
pattern (=Fig. 161=). One darning-needle (=Fig. 161=). Three round
knobs and one curiously worked object. One of the knobs is ornamented
with circular lines. Three nearly perfect toilet combs and fragments
of others (=Fig. 162=).

_Horn._--A polished dagger 7½ inches long, another roughly cut, and a
few handles.

_Wood._--Fragments of a wooden bowl, ornamented with three incised
lines parallel to the rim, which must have been made on a wood-turners
lathe; one small fragment had a clasp of thin brass over it as if it
had been mended. Portions of an oar, a canoe, a board pierced with
holes, and some large pins like those found at Lochlee.

[Illustration: =Fig. 162.=--Bone Comb (1/1).]

_Iron._--Axe-head (=Fig. 163=), a gouge, six knife-blades, all with
tangs, a punch, and three awls. Socketed spear-head, ornamented with
two groups of circular lines on the socket portion (=Fig. 164=). Three
large arrow-points or tips of the crossbow bolt; portion of an ancient
kind of padlock;[100] two spiral objects, and a small instrument
bifurcated at the point (=Fig. 164=).

_Bronze._--A circular brooch (=Fig. 164=), two pins, one with an
ornamented stone and a blue bead setting in the top of the head (=Fig.
161=), and several little bits of brass-foil.

[Illustration: =Fig. 163.=--An Iron Axe (⅔).]

_Gold._--Two spiral finger-rings, and a small coin, doubled up
when found (=Fig. 165=). Regarding this coin, Dr. Evans reports as
follows:--

"The two plates of gold seem originally to have formed the shell of an
early forgery of a coin, the oxidised core of which forms the contents
of the small tube. I thought at first that the substance might be
resinous, but I think it is some salt of copper. Some chemist could
readily try this [this has since been proved to be a salt of copper].
The coin itself belongs to a class of trientes which have been found
almost exclusively in England, and are probably of Saxon origin. See
Smith's "Coll. Ant.," vol. i. Pl. xxii. 9. Others were in the Bagshot
Heath or Crondale find. See _Num. Chron._, vi. These probably belong
to the sixth or seventh century. The find is of value as helping to
assign a date to the crannog." (B. 373, p. 231.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 164.=--Bolt of Padlock (1/1), Spear-head (½),
and a small Tool of Iron (1/1), and a circular Brooch of Bronze (1/1).]

[Illustration: =Fig. 165.=--Two Gold Rings, a Gold Coin, and a Glass
Bead. (All 1/1.)]

_Glass._--A cylindrically-shaped bead, variegated with three different
colours, red and yellow predominating over patches of transparent
glass (=Fig. 165=); a tiny bead of yellow paste; a round object of the
size of a marble, made of variegated paste, but without any aperture;
a flattened drop of a whitish paste about the size of a shilling; one
or two bits of dark slag; three fragments of bright-green glass.

Several strips of leather.

_Jet._--Fragments of three armlets, and a small ornament like the
terminal link of an antique necklace.

[Illustration: =Fig. 166.=--Fragment of Pottery (1/1).]

_Pottery._--Fragment of Samian ware, and fragments of dishes of other
pottery.

One portion is here figured showing a curious aperture like the spout
of a jug and a neatly formed rim (=Fig. 166=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 167.=--Scarlet Beads of Vitreous Paste (1/1).]


AIRRIEOULLAND.

"This crannog," writes Sir H. Maxwell, "is situated in the centre
of a peat moss, formerly a lake, and still in most summers and all
winters a quaking morass. Towards the centre of this moss, which is
about sixty acres in area, there is a circular enclosure 54 feet in
diameter, surrounded by a low wall. This is marked in the Ordnance
Survey maps as a fort; but no fort, in the ordinary acceptation, could
exist in the centre of what had been, at no very great distance of
time, a lake. Although no timbers were visible at the time of our
visit, the whole surface of the enclosure being green with grass,
and the surrounding moss covered with heather and bog plants, its
situation and character indicated its true nature to those experienced
in lake-dwellings, and a very slight excavation at once confirmed this
view. Beginning in the centre, the diggers exposed beneath the shallow
layer of vegetable soil the familiar features of a fascine-dwelling.
The only novel and most interesting feature in this crannog is the
surrounding fence, which, doubtless, was the usual mode of protecting
the huts or wigwams of the interior, but which in most crannogs
hitherto examined has been reduced by the action of the waves to a
shapeless mound or beach of small boulders. Here, however, owing to
flat flags having been used, the structure is perfect, surrounding
the entire islet to a height of about three feet. The depth of the
structure from the surface to the alluvial bed of the lake was 4 feet.
The lake bottom, into which the piles were driven, was soft peat, 7
feet deep. The moss around the island had grown since the structure
was made to the level of the island; but no deductions could be made
from that fact as to the age of the crannog, owing to the varying
rate of the growth of moss, and to the uncertainty as to when the
lake became filled up and moss ceased to grow. In the wonderfully
accurate and laborious map of Timothy Pont, published in 1672, the
present moss appears as a lake. Three days' labour sufficed to clear
out the greater part of the contents of the enclosure. The chief
relics disclosed, besides great quantities of bones of the usual kind,
including those of the goat and the roe-deer, were 17 small beads of
scarlet vitreous slag (=Fig. 167=), forming a portion of a necklace;
a rough shale ring, several excellent hammer and grinding-stones,
many quartz pebbles, which had been brought for some unknown reason
[sling-stones?] from the seashore, distant about a mile; two broken
crucibles (=Fig. 168=), a spinning-whorl of bone or horn. From a
depth of three feet, flint flakes, a small jet ring, a portion of a
perforated jet ornament, and a remarkable button-like object of bronze
(=Fig. 168=)." (B. 426, p. 113.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 168.=--Broken Crucible and a Bronze Button (1/1).]


BARHAPPLE.

Barhapple ("horse hill") Loch is a small lake some 500 yards long
and 300 broad. Here, in 1880, in consequence of drainage operations,
a crannog became visible; but, owing to the sponginess of its
surface, no effective examination could be carried out. The Earl of
Stair, finding that during the summer of 1884 the island had become
much drier and harder, made arrangements to have it thoroughly
investigated. That the increased firmness and consolidation of the
island was due to shrinkage was manifest from the fact that the
upright piles, which, when discovered, barely showed above the mud,
now projected 2 or 3 feet, and presented the appearance of a decayed
forest, with its stunted trunks still standing. It was also observed
that this shrinkage extended to all parts of the mossy lake-bed; and,
as a consequence of this, two double lines of piles became visible
in the long grass, one commencing at the north and the other at the
east shore of the lake. Both lines were directed to the crannog,
but stopped short of it by some 20 or 30 yards. As to the structure
of the crannog, it was remarked that not only the uprights, but the
horizontal beams were more methodically arranged, and of a stronger
character towards the margin. Here the uprights, many of which were
made of young trees of oak and ash, were firmly supported, especially
in the outer circle, by the intertwining among them of horizontal
timbers. On the north side, in a line with the piles of one of the
gangways, a distinct roadway, made of round beams, was traced,
running from the margin of the island to the dwelling-house, which
was situated on the east side, directly facing the other gangway. In
this building two fire-places were recognised, one a little north
of the other, and around them was a layer of charcoal from 5 to 12
inches thick, containing the fag-ends of burnt beams, heather, and
brushwood. From among these embers some large prepared beams, also
partially burnt, were disinterred, two of which terminated in round
tenons, having at a little distance from their extremities a raised
head or flange. From these and other appearances it was inferred that
the crannog had been destroyed by a conflagration during a strong
north-west gale, and as there was no evidence of much accumulated
_débris_, it was supposed that this catastrophe occurred shortly after
its erection. On making a trench through the island it was found that
below the burnt layer there were beds of brushwood, ferns, etc., to
a depth of 2 or 3 feet. Beneath this lay the peaty substance of the
lake-bottom, through which an iron rod could be readily plunged to the
extent of 4 feet, when it struck some hard material, probably rock or
silt of the original glacial bottom.

[Illustration: =Fig. 169.=--A Ring, Cannel Coal (1/1).]

Although this was the largest crannog hitherto found in Scotland,
being 157 yards in circumference, it was extremely poor in relics, a
fact which may be accounted for by the shortness of its duration. The
list of relics includes three shale rings (=Fig. 169=), two of which
were only fragments; half a canoe; a broken paddle, and some worked
pieces of wood.


WHITE LOCH OF RAVENSTONE.

This small loch, which is within a few minutes' walk of Ravenstone
Castle, is surrounded by a broad fringe of marsh and tall reeds.
Within this marshy area, and just skirting the water's edge on its
western side, there is a flat mound, some 80 feet square and 6 or 7
feet high, having on its surface the ruins of dry stone buildings.
These ruins consist of the foundations of walls, a foot or so high,
which clearly define the outline of a superstructure divided into
five rectangular compartments. This building did not occupy the whole
surface of the island, measuring only 55 feet by 47. The mound was
composed of large flags and boulders, on the top of which a few trees
found a suitable habitat, and no less than four of the compartments
were occupied each by the trunk of a venerable looking ash. Upon
investigating the base of the mound, piles and the projecting ends
of transverse beams were discovered in several places, and the
conjectured opinion that the entire mound was built over a substratum
of woodwork was conclusively proved by digging a central pit through
the only vacant compartment in the stone building. The result of this
was to reveal, at a depth of eight feet, a network of beams lying
transversely to each other, but to an undetermined depth.

The north or land side of the island showed signs of having been
roughly built up with large undressed flags, but the rest of its stony
perimeter was quite dilapidated. That the wooden island was inhabited
as a crannog, before its level was raised to its present height by the
addition of the enormous mass of stones and earth underlying its final
buildings, an idea suggested by the discovery of charcoal and the
shells of hazel-nuts over the woodwork, is a hypothesis that requires
further proofs before it can be accepted as well founded in fact. (B.
426, p. 121.)


FRIAR'S CARSE.

The site of the crannog at Friar's Carse was a small pear-shaped
basin situated behind a wooded knoll, close to the Parliamentary road
to Dumfries, and in the midst of a well-cultivated but singularly
undulating district. By deepening the outlet of this lake to the
extent of two feet, a partial drainage was effected, which reduced
its area from 10 to 3 acres. It was only then (1878) that it became
generally known that a small bushy island near the middle of the loch
had been artificially constructed of oak-planks and trunks of trees.
As the weather was dry for some weeks previous to our visit, and the
water particularly low, we readily stepped on to the island, over
what appeared to have been the old bed of the lake, then presenting a
hard, crisp, and dried-up surface of aquatic plants. The island was
nearly circular in shape, measuring 80 by 70 feet, strongly built,
and surrounded by piles, some of which, however, were only visible
through the water. The log-pavement, which by this time had been
completely bared, was composed of parallel beams of oak, arranged in
groups, lying in various directions, and firmly united together by
the overlapping and sometimes mortising of their ends. At the margin
of the island there was a large quantity of stones, especially on its
north side--_i.e._ the side towards the deepest portion of the lake.

Through these stones, which shelved under the water, a few heads of
the surrounding piles projected, some above and some below the water.
Mortised holes were here and there to be seen in the horizontal beams,
but there was no appearance of a breastwork surrounding the wooden
pavement--thus differing from the Lochlee crannog. In the centre were
a few ends of uprights, in rectangular rows, seemingly the remains of
partitions, one of which I traced for 40 feet in a straight line.

Upon inquiring where the rubbish removed from the island was located,
we were informed that it had been wheeled to the west side of the
crannog, and heaped up close to where we had stepped on to the island.
Here it lay for some days; but one morning, to the great astonishment
of the workmen, it was nowhere to be seen. Upon examination, it
turned out that the apparently dry bed of the lake was a matted crust
of mud and the roots of aquatic plants, which, virtually floating
over the water, suddenly gave way under the accumulated weight and
so the entire mass of the crannog rubbish disappeared in the water
beneath. With this singular, but unfortunate, catastrophe terminated
all prospects of finding any more relics. It appears that there was
not a great depth of _débris_ on the island, its maximum thickness
being only 2 to 3 feet in the centre, where it formed a heap of ashes,
charcoal, and some broken bones. Here a few fragments of pottery were
found.

A circular portion of the log-pavement, near its centre, was covered
with small stones, as if to protect it from fire; some remains of
clay-flooring were observed in other parts of the island.

Regarding the deeper structures little can be said. Mr. Nelson
attempted to cut a hole through the timber, and, as far as the water
allowed the men to penetrate, he saw nothing but layer upon layer of
oak-beams lying transversely to each other. Judging, however, from the
solidity and firmness of the island, the great size of some of the
logs, and the depth of the surrounding water (still about twelve feet
a little to the west of the island), the total thickness of this mass
of timber cannot be less than 12 or 16 feet.

In Grose's "Antiquities of Scotland"[101] the following reference to
this island occurs:--

"Here was a cell dependent on the rich abbey of Melrose, which, at
the Reformation, was granted by the Commendator to the Laird of
Elliesland, a cadet of the Kirkpatricks of Closeburne. From whom it
passed to the Maxwells of Tinwald, and from them to the Barncleugh
family, also cadets of the Lords of Maxwell. From whom it went to the
Riddells, of Glenriddell, the present possessors. The old refectory,
or dining-room, had walls 8 feet thick, and the chimney was 12 feet
wide. This old building having become ruinous, was pulled down in
1773, to make way for the present house.

"Near the house was the Lough, which was the fishpond of the friary.
In the middle of which is a very curious artificial island, founded
upon large piles and planks of oak, where the monks lodged their
valuable effects when the English made an inroad into Strathnith."

[Illustration: =Fig. 170.=--Perforated Stone Axe (⅓).]

The relics collected during the operations above recorded are very
few. A canoe 22 feet long, and a ponderous axe-hammer head of
whinstone (=Fig. 170=) were found at some distance from the crannog.
Two handles of jars with traces of a yellowish glaze, some fragments
of pottery ornamented with rows of pitted impressions (=Fig. 171=), a
circular stone polisher, and an oval-shaped mass of vitreous paste,
are all that were found on the crannog itself.

[Illustration: =Fig. 171.=--Fragments of Pottery (⅔).]


STONE LAKE-DWELLINGS AND OTHER ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS.

But besides the wooden islands there are others, still extant in
several of our Scottish lakes, which appear to be composed entirely
of stones and earth irregularly heaped together. In the absence of
any historical knowledge as to their age there is no _prima facie_
reason why some of these should not be contemporary with the former,
as it cannot be assumed that the crannog-builders made wood a _sine
quâ non_ in the structure of islands. There were, no doubt, certain
stagnant marshes and small lochs in which a wooden foundation was
essential for the construction of an island, owing to the softness and
yielding nature of the mud; but, on the other hand, there were others
with compact rocky or gravelly beds, in which any solid materials, as
stones, earth, turf, etc., would be equally applicable. The outlets of
the larger lakes, more especially such as were formed in glacial and
rock-cut basins, were more adapted for the latter, and as far as my
observations have enabled me to form an opinion, these are the very
situations in which the lake stone-dwellings abound. Some of them are
mere shapeless cairns, without any indications of having been formerly
inhabited, while on others some remains of stone buildings are to
be seen. As to wooden huts or houses, had such structures ever been
erected on them, it is not likely that they could, for any length of
time, have resisted the decaying tendencies of atmospheric agencies,
so that all traces of them would have disappeared long ago.

The social or military exigencies that led people to construct
artificial islands would also lead them to take advantage of such
natural ones as would be found most suitable, and we may reasonably
infer that it is in the absence of the latter that the former would
be resorted to. The great and primary object of the island-builder
was the protection afforded by the surrounding lake or morass, the
securing of which has continued to be the ruling principle in the
erection of defensive works down to the Middle Ages, long after the
wooden islands ceased to be constructed. The transition from the
crannog to the massive mediæval castle, with its moat and drawbridge,
is but a stage in the progressive march of civilisation.


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.

To these remarks on the structural details of a few typical crannogs,
as disclosed by systematic research, I subjoin a tabulated list of all
the sites hitherto recognised in Scotland, comprising not only the
artificial islands, whether of wood or other materials, but also some
natural ones known to have been artificially strengthened, as well as
a few examples of castles, etc., now or formerly located in bogs or
drained marshes.


        LIST OF SCOTTISH CRANNOGS ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED,
                   WITH NOTES AND REFERENCES.

  N.B.--An obelisk (†) before a name in this text indicates that the
  island is, in whole or in part, constructed of wood. N.S.A. or O.S.A.
  stand for New or Old Statistical Account of Scotland.

      †Achilty L., co. Ross. N. S. A., vol. xiv. p. 238.
       Achray L., co. Perth. B. 94, pp. 172-7.
      †Airrieoulland, co. Wigtown. B. 426.
       Ard L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. x. p. 130.
 [102]†Arisaig L., co. Inverness. B. 150, p. 576.
      †Banchory (L. of the Leys), co. Aberdeen.
          _Proc. S. A. Scot._, vol. i. p. 26; vol. vi. p. 126.
      †Barean L., co. Kirkcudbright. B. 373, p. 37, and
          _Dumf. and G. N. H. Soc._, 1865.
      †Barhapple L., co. Wigtown. "Ayr and Wig. Col.,"
          vols. iii. and v.; B. 373; B. 192.
 [103]†Barlockhart L., co. Wigtown. _Proc. S. A. Scot._,
          vol. xi. p. 583; vol. xv. p. 267.
      †Barnsallzie L., co. Wigtown. _Ibid._, vol. ix. p. 377.
       Battleknowes, co. Berwick. N. S. A., vol. ii. p. 171.
 [104]†Black Cairn, Beauly Firth, co. Ross. "Hill Forts and
          Stone Circles of Scotland," p. 89; N. S. A.,
          vol. xvii. p. 350.
      †Boghall (Beith), co. Ayr. N. S. A., vol. v. p. 580.
       Borgue, co. Kirkcudbright. N. S. A., vol. iv. p. 54.
       Brora L., co. Sutherland. O. S. A., vol. x. p. 303;
          N. S. A., vol. xv. p. 151.
 [105]†Bruich L. (Beauly), co. Ross. B. 442.
      †Buston, co. Ayr. "Ayr and Wig. Col.," vol. iii.; B. 373.
      †Canmor (Kinord) L., co. Aberdeen. B. 94, pp. 167-71.
 [106]†Carlingwark L., two crannogs, co. Kirkcudbright. O. S. A.,
          vol. viii. p. 304; B. 94, p. 126; _Proc. S. A. Scot._,
          vol. vii. p. 7, and x. p. 286.
      †Castle Loch, co. Wigtown. Rev. G. Wilson's "Notes."
       Castletown, co. Roxburgh. N. S. A., vol. iii. p. 164.

[Illustration: =Fig. 172.=--A large Bronze Cauldron from
Carlingwark Loch.]

       Closeburn, co. Dumfries. _Phil. Trans._, 1756,
          p. 521; Grose, "Ant. of Scot.," vol. i. p. 150.
       Clunie L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. ix. p. 231.
       Collessie, co. Fife. O. S. A., vol. ii. p. 418.
      †Corncockle (Applegarth), co. Dumfries. B. 94, p. 163.
      †Cot L., co. Linlithgow. _Ibid._, p. 159.
 [107]†Croy, co. Inverness. N. S. A., vol. xiv. p. 448.
      †Dhu Loch, co. Bute. B. 21, p. 43.
       Dolay L., co. Sutherland. B. 94, pp. 172-7.
       Doon L., co. Ayr. N. S. A., vol. v. p. 337.
      †Dowalton, five crannogs, co. Wigtown. B. 56, 94, 373, and 426.
       Earn L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. xi. p. 180.
       Eldrig L., three crannogs, co. Wigtown.
          Rev. G. Wilson's "Notes."
 [108]†Eriska, co. Argyll. B. 427, p. 192.
       Fasnacloich (Appin), co. Argyll. B. 94, p. 175.
       Federatt, co. Aberdeen. O. S. A., vol. ix. p. 191.
       Fell L., co. Wigtown. B. 192, vol. ix. p. 378.
  [109]Fergus L., co. Kirkcudbright. O. S. A., vol. xi. p. 25.
      †Flemington, L., co. Nairn. B. 55, p. 118.
       Forfar, Loch of, co. Forfar. B. 1; O. S. A.,
          vol. vi. p. 528; B. 94, p. 125; B. 216, p. 31.
       Freuchie L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 173.
      †Friar's Carse, co. Dumfries. B. 373, p. 152, and B. 374, p. 73.
       Fullah L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 172.
       Glass L., co. Ross. O. S. A., vol. i. p. 282.
       Granech L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 177.
      †Green Knowe, co. Lanark. N. S. A., vol. vi. p. 346;
          _Proc. S. A. S._, vol. vi. p. 160, and vol. viii. p. 19.
       Gynag L., co. Inverness. N. S. A., vol. xiv. p. 65.
       Heron L., two islands, co. Wigtown. B. 192, vol. ix. p. 378.
       Hogsetter L., Shetland. _Proc. S. A. Scot._ vol. xv. p. 303.
 [110]†Kielziebar L., co. Argyll. B. 134, pp. 332 and 516.
      †Kilbirnie L., co. Ayr. B. 268, p. 284.
       Kilchonan, co. Argyll. O. S. A., vol. xi. p. 281.
 [111]†Kinder L., co. Kirkcudbright. _Old. S. A._, vol. ii. p. 139.
      †Kinellan L., co. Ross. N. S. A., vol. xiv. p. 238; B. 94, p. 126.
       Laggan L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. xviii. p. 327.
 [112]†Ledaig, co. Argyll. B. 190.
 [113]†Leven L., co. Kinross. B. 460, p. 118.
      †Loch-of-the-Clans, two crannogs, co. Nairn. B. 55,
          pp. 116 and 332.
      †Loch-in-Dunty, co. Nairn. B. 55, p. 118.
 [114]†Loch-inch-Cryndil, co. Wigtown. B. 212, pp. 381 and 388.

[Illustration: =Fig. 173.=--Wooden Comb from Ledaig (⅔).]

      †Lochindorb, co. Moray. O. S. A., vol. vii. p. 259.
      †Lochlee, co. Ayr. "Ayr and Wig. Col.," vol. ii.; B. 331 and 373.
      †Lochmaben, co. Dumfries. B. 94, p. 160; _Arch. Scot._,
          vol. iii. p. 77.
      †Loch-na-Mial, Island of Mull. B. 172, p. 465.
      †Lochnell, co. Argyll. B. 190, vol. ix. p. 105.
      †Lochore, co. Fife. B. 94, p. 160.
      †Lochrutton, co. Kirkcudbright. O. S. A., vol. ii. p. 37.
      †Lochspouts, co. Ayr. "Ayr and Wig. Col.," vol. iii. p. 18;
          iv. p. 9; B. 373, pp. 158 and 305.
       Lochwood, co. Dumfries. O. S. A., vol. iv. p. 224.
 [115]†Lochy L., co. Inverness. B. 94, p. 160.
 [116]†Lomond L., co. Sterling. _Ibid._, p. 131.
      †Lotus L., co. Kirkcudbright. _Proc. S. A. Scot._,
          vol. xi. p. 21.
 [117] Machermore L., several crannogs, co. Wigtown. B. 192.
      †Merton L., co. Wigtown. B. 94, p. 123.
       Mochrum L., co. Wigtown. B. 192.
       Monivaird L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. viii. p. 570.
       Morall L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 176.

[Illustration: =Fig. 174.=--Bone Comb from Crannog in
Loch-inch-Cryndil (1/1).]

       Morton, co. Dumfries. N. S. A., vol. iv. p. 96.
       Moulin L., drained, co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. v. p. 69.
       Mountblairy, co. Moray. O. S. A., vol. iv. p. 399.
      †Moy L., Ellan-na-Glack, co. Inverness. N. S. A.,
          vol. xiv. p. 100; B. 94, p. 129.
 [118]†Oban (Lochavoullin), co. Argyll.
       Orr L., co. Dumfries. O. S. A., vol. ii. p. 342.
       Peel Bog, co. Aberdeen. N. S. A., vol. xii. p. 1089.
      †Quien Loch, co. Bute. B. 21, p. 45.
      †Rannoch L., co. Perth. N. S. A., vol. x. p. 539; B. 94, p. 129.
      †Ravenstone L., co. Wigtown. B. 426, p. 121.
       Rescobie L., co. Forfar. B. 94, p. 176.
      †Rothiemurchus, Loch-an-Eilan, co. Moray. N. S. A.,
          vol. xiii. p. 137; B. 94, p. 145.

[Illustration: =Fig. 175.=--Stone Ring (1/1) and Stone Implement with
a hollow surface on each side (½).]

 [119]†Sanquhar, Black Loch of, co. Dumfries. _Proc. Dumf. and
          Gal. N. H. Soc._, 1863-4, p. 12, and B. 373, p. 36.
       Shin L., co. Sutherland. B. 94, pp. 172-7.
      †Spinie L., co. Moray. O. S. A., vol. x. p. 625.
       Stravithy, co. Fife. N. S. A., vol. ix. p. 365.
      †Sunonness L., co. Wigtown. B. 192, p. 738.
       Tay L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 173; O. S. A.,
          vol. xvii. p. 465; N. S. A., vol. x. p. 465.
      †Tolsta, Lewis, co. Ross. _Proc. S. A. S._, vol. x. p. 741.
       Torlundie, drained loch at, co. Inverness.
          _Proc. S. A. Scot._, vol. vii. p. 519.
      †Tullah L., co. Perth. B. 94, p. 172.
       Tummell L., co. Perth. O. S. A., vol. ii. p. 475; B. 94, p. 129.
       Urr L., co. Dumfries. B. 94, p. 160.
       Vennachar L., co. Dumfries. B. 94, p. 177.
       Weyoch L., co. Wigtown. B. 192.
       Yetholm L., co. Rosburgh. N. S. A., vol. iii. p. 164.


CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF RELICS.

The great value, however, of the investigations of the lake-dwellings,
especially in the south-west of Scotland, depends on the quantity and
variety of the remains of human industry discovered in and around
their sites. It is from such fragmentary remains as food refuse,
stray ornaments, broken weapons, useless and worn-out implements, and
such-like waifs and strays of human occupancy, that archæologists
attempt to reconstruct the outlines of the social life and
organisation of the prehistoric past. To those who may wish to occupy
themselves with this problem these explorations have furnished, as
we have just seen, a vast collection of objects made of stone, bone,
horn, wood, bronze, iron, and gold.

Among the stone objects are--querns, hammer-stones, whetstones,
so-called sling-stones, a few cup-marked stones (one surrounded by
concentric circles), spindle-whorls, flint flakes, and scrapers, a
polished celt, a perforated axe-hammer head, portions of two polished
circular discs, and some oval implements with a wrought hollowed
surface on each side.

Bones and horns of deer were utilised in various ways and manufactured
into pins, needles, bodkins, awls, picks, toilet-combs, knife-handles,
etc. The combs are neatly formed of three or four flat pieces kept
in position by two transverse slips, one on each side, and riveted
together by iron rivets. They are frequently ornamented by a series of
incised circles, which are sometimes connected by a running scroll, as
in =Fig. 174=.

The wooden articles consist of bowls, ladles, mallets, hoes, clubs,
etc., together with a variety of other objects apparently intended for
agricultural purposes.

Implements and weapons of iron are numerous. Amongst the former are
gouges, chisels, knives, shears, saws, hatchets, awls, hammers, a
bridle-bit, the bolt of a padlock, and other objects of unknown use.
The weapons consist of leaf-shaped spear-heads, both socketed and
tanged, daggers, and arrow-heads resembling those of the crossbow bolt.

The objects made of bronze are mostly of an ornamental character,
comprising:--harp-shaped fibulæ, circular and penannular brooches,
finger-rings, a spiral ornament, ornamented pins, one with a ring top
and another with a glass setting, a small key, and some other articles
of an indeterminate character. From Dowalton there are basins or
cauldrons of beaten bronze, some clouted and riveted; one, presumably
a Roman saucepan, has the name of the maker on the handle.

On the Buston crannog were found two handsome and massive spiral
finger-rings made of gold. One is plain with five and a half twists;
the other, besides an additional twist, has both ends ornamented by
a series of circular grooves. From the same place there is a curious
gold coin, of Saxon origin, and a forgery of the sixth or seventh
century.

Pottery is represented by numerous fragments, some of which are
of so-called Samian ware, but the most of them are of vessels of
a glazed ware, while a few are of an archaic type. Several neatly
formed crucibles, containing traces of gold and slag, are also in the
collection.

Among miscellaneous objects are bracelets and beads made of coloured
and of variegated glass or vitreous paste; also some jet ornaments,
one of which is a handsome pendant in the form of an equal-armed
cross, inscribed in a circle and having one surface ornamented by a
series of incised circles which contained the remains of a yellow
enamel. Dr. Joseph Anderson considers this a Christian relic of a
very early type. A smooth and flat piece of ashwood, with peculiar
spiral carvings on both sides, and a fringe-like apparatus made of the
long stems of a moss, are among the objects which have excited the
greatest curiosity. Regarding a finely polished conical object made of
rock-crystal found at Lochspouts, a reviewer in the _Academy_, October
14th, writes:--"Is it a charm or can it have formed the centre knob or
boss in the binding of some richly decorated breviary or gospel book?
Crystals very similar, but oblong in form--like a Brazil nut--may be
seen in some of the rich covers of books of early date, and a few that
have been detached are preserved in collections. One such object forms
part of a crystal necklace in the Ashmolean Museum, and another in
private hands was employed, not so very many years ago, in the West
Riding of Yorkshire, for the purpose of seeing spirits. If this relic
be, indeed, a book-boss, it makes it probable that the crannog was at
one time inhabited, or at least visited, by Christian missionaries."
Dr. Joseph Anderson has also pointed out that this object is extremely
like a "large circular rock crystal which forms the central ornament
on the inferior surface of the foot of the famous silver chalice, dug
up at the Rath of Reerasta, near Ardagh, county Limerick, Ireland,
in 1868, and now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.
According to the Earl of Dunraven, this most beautiful example of our
ancient art was executed either in the ninth or tenth century." (See
_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, December 4th, 1882.)

From the respective reports of Professors Owen, Rolleston,
and Cleland, on a selection of osseous remains taken from the
lake-dwellings at Dowalton, Lochlee, and Buston, we can form a fair
idea of the food of the occupiers. The Celtic shorthorn ox, the
so-called goat-horned sheep, and a domestic breed of pigs were largely
consumed. The horse was only scantily used. The number of bones and
horns of the red-deer and roebuck showed that venison was by no means
a rare addition to the list of their dietary. Among birds, only the
goose has been identified, but this is no criterion of the extent of
their encroachment on the feathered tribe, as only the larger bones
were collected and reported on. To this bill of fare the occupiers of
Lochspouts crannog, being comparatively near the sea, added several
kinds of shell-fish. In all the lake-dwellings that have come under
my own observation the broken shells of hazel-nuts were in profuse
abundance.

From the number of querns, and the great preponderance of the bones
of domestic over those of wild animals, it may be inferred that, for
subsistence, they depended more on the cultivation of the soil and the
rearing of cattle, sheep, and pigs, than on the ordinary produce of
the chase.

Proofs of a prolonged but occasionally interrupted occupancy are also
manifested by the great accumulation of _débris_ over the wooden
pavements, the size and contents of the kitchen-middens, and the
superimposed hearths.

Let us now look at the remarkable series of implements, weapons,
ornaments, and nondescript objects here presented to us, with the
view of abstracting from them some scraps of information regarding
their original owners. The fragments of Samian ware, bronze dishes,
harp-shaped fibulæ, and the large assortment of beads, bronze and
bone pins, bone combs, jet ornaments, etc., are so similar to the
class of remains found on the excavated sites of Romano-British towns,
that there can hardly be any doubt that Roman civilisation had come
in contact with the lake-dwellers. The Celtic element is, however,
strongly developed, not only in the general character of many of the
industrial implements of stone, bone, and iron, but also in the style
of art manifested in some of the ornamental objects included in the
collection. Thus the piece of ashwood with its carved spiral patterns
(=Figs. 144= and =145=), the combs, especially the one showing a
series of concentric circles connected by a running scroll design
(=Fig. 174=), and some of the bronze brooches and ornaments (=Fig.
130=) present a style of ornamentation which is considered peculiar to
Celtic art. The spiral finger-rings seem also to have been of native
origin, and the probability is that they were manufactured where they
were found, as several crucibles are amongst the relics from the same
lake-dwelling, one of which, from the fact that it still contains
particles of gold, proves that it had been used in melting this metal.
(B. 373, p. 236.)

On the other hand, the forged gold coin is the only relic that can
with certainty be said to have emanated from a Saxon source--at least,
that cannot otherwise be accounted for.

But if from internal evidence a presumptive case is made out in favour
of the Celtic origin and occupation of these lake-dwellings, it is
greatly strengthened when we consider that the neighbouring Celtic
races, especially in Ireland, were in the habit of erecting similar
island abodes, while there is not a particle of evidence in favour of
the idea that such structures originated with the Roman conquerors of
Britain or its Saxon invaders.

[Illustration: Comb from the Roman City of Uriconium (⅔).

Comb from the Knowe of Saverough, Orkney (½).

Two Combs from the Broch of Burrian, Orkney (½).

=Fig. 176.=--Bone Combs, for comparison with those from the
Lake-Dwellings.]

The resemblance between the remains found in the Scottish and
Irish lake-dwellings, as well as other antiquarian finds of Celtic
character, must also not be overlooked. Combs, similar in structure
and ornamentation to those from Buston, have been found in several
of the Irish crannogs, in the brochs and other antiquities of the
north of Scotland, and in many of the ruins of the Romano-British
towns in England. (See =Figs. 105=, =108=, and =176=.) Iron knives
and shears, variegated beads of impure glass with grooves and spiral
marks, ornaments of jet and bronze, implements of stone, bone, and
horn, besides querns, whetstones, etc., are all common to Celtic
antiquities, wherever found.

That many of these relics were the products of a refined civilisation
is not more remarkable than the unexpected and strangely discordant
circumstances in which they have been found. For this reason it might
be supposed that the crannogs were the headquarters of thieves and
robbers, where the proceeds of their marauding excursions among the
surrounding Roman provincials were stored up. The inferences derived
from a careful consideration of all the facts do not appear to me
to support this view, nor do they uphold another view, sometimes
propounded, viz. that they were fortified islands occupied by the
guardian soldiers of the people. Indeed, amongst the relics military
remains are only feebly represented by a few iron daggers and
spear-heads, one or two doubtful arrow-points, and a quantity of round
pebbles and so-called sling-stones. On the other hand, a very large
percentage of the articles consists of querns, implements and tools,
crucibles, various domestic utensils, etc., from which, not to mention
the great variety of ornaments, there can be no ambiguity as to the
testimony they afford of the peaceful prosecution of various arts and
industries by the lake-dwellers.

There is, in my opinion, only one hypothesis that can satisfactorily
account for all the facts and phenomena here adduced, viz. that the
lake-dwellings in the south-west of Scotland were resorted to by the
Celtic inhabitants as a means of protecting their lives and movable
property when, upon the frequent withdrawal of the Roman soldiers from
the district, they were left, single-handed, to contend against the
Angles on the east and the Picts and Scots on the north. It is not
likely that these provincials, so long accustomed to the luxury and
comforts of Roman civilisation, or their descendants in the subsequent
kingdom of Strathclyde, would become the assailants of such fierce
and lawless enemies, from whom, even if conquered, they could derive
no benefit. Hence their military tactics and operations would assume
more the character of defence than aggression, and in order to defeat
the object of the frequent and sudden inroads of the northern tribes,
which was to plunder the inhabitants rather than to conquer the
country, experience taught them the necessity of being prepared for
emergencies by having certain places of more than ordinary security
where they could deposit their wealth, or to which they could retire
as a last resource when hard pressed. These retreats might be caves,
fortified camps, or inaccessible islands, but in localities where no
such natural strongholds existed the military genius of the Celtic
inhabitants, prompted perhaps by inherited notions, led them to
construct these wooden islands. From the final departure of the Romans
to the conquest of the kingdom of Strathclyde by the Northumbrian
Angles, a period of several centuries, this unfortunate people had
few intervals of peace, and with their complete subjugation ended
the special functions of the lake-dwellings as a national system
of protection. No doubt some of them, as well as caves and such
hiding-places, would continue to afford refuge to straggling remnants
of natives, rendered desperate by the relentless persecution of their
enemies; but ultimately all of them would fall into the hands of their
Saxon conquerors, when henceforth they would be allowed to subside
into mud or crumble into decay.


III.--ENGLISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.

The discovery of lacustrine abodes south of the Scottish border,
though the examples are by no means so numerous or so prolific in
industrial remains as those of Scotland and Ireland, is, nevertheless,
of special interest on account of the intermediary position in which
England stands geographically to the areas of their earliest and
latest development in Europe. It will be noticed that some of the
recorded observations here reproduced were actually made before
antiquaries realised the importance of the subject; otherwise it is
impossible to conceive how such highly suggestive facts did not at
once lead to more definite information.


THE MERES OF NORFOLK AND SUFFOLK.

WRETHAM MERE.--Sir Charles F. Bunbury, as early as 1856, noticed some
appearances in a drained _mere_ near Wretham Hall which clearly point
to being the remains of a lake-dwelling. In a communication on the
subject to the Geological Society he says:--

"Wretham Hall, the seat of W. Birch, Esq., is situated about six
miles north of Thetford, in that extensive tract of open sandy
plains which may be called upland in comparison with the fens, but
of very moderate elevation above the sea-level as is shown by the
slow course of the streams flowing from it. About Wretham there
are several _meres_ or small natural sheets of water without any
outlet. The one to which my attention was particularly directed by
Mr. Birch occupied about forty-eight acres, and was situated in a
slight natural depression, the ground sloping gently to it from all
sides. The water has been drawn off by machinery, for the purpose
of making use, as manure, of the black peaty mud which formed the
bottom. This black mud, which is in parts above twenty feet deep, is
nothing else than a soft, rotten, unconsolidated peat; or perhaps
it should be described as vegetable matter in a more complete state
of decomposition than ordinary peat, showing no distinct trace of
vegetable structure. Numerous horns of red deer have been found in
this peaty mud, generally (as I was informed) at 5 or 6 feet below the
surface, seldom deeper; many attached to the skull, others separate,
and with the appearance of having been shed naturally. What is most
remarkable, several of those which were found with the skulls attached
had been _sawn off_ just above the brow antlers--not broken, but cut
off clean and smoothly, evidently by human agency. Some of the horns
are of large size, measuring 9 inches round immediately below the brow
antler....

"Numerous posts of oak-wood, shaped and pointed by human art, were
found standing erect, entirely buried in the peat."

It appears that in 1851 a more remarkable "find" became visible
on draining another _mere_ on this same estate, though the events
remained unrecorded till the years 1858 and 1862. The following
notice is compiled mainly and almost verbatim from Mr. Newton's
observations, which he states were directly obtained from Mr. Birch,
the proprietor:--

In this mere (West Mere) there was ordinarily about four feet of
water, and beneath it, about eight feet of soft black mud, partly
held in suspension and requiring to be removed in scoops. Near the
centre of the _mere_, lying below the black mud, was found a ring or
circular bank of fine white earth, sufficiently solid to allow Mr.
Birch to ride upon it without yielding to the weight of his pony.
Outside this ring the bottom of the _mere_ was so soft and deep as to
be almost impassable until the mud was cleared away. The ring was some
twenty or thirty feet across, a foot wide at the top, and about four
feet in height. Not far from its inner circumference was a circular
hole, about four feet and a half in diameter and some six feet deeper
than the bottom of the _mere_. It was marked out by a circle of stout
stakes or small piles, apparently of alder, and it bore traces of
having been wattled. Between these two circles were the remains of a
wall, about two feet high and consequently lower than the top of the
ring, composed of flints packed together with marl or soft chalk. In
the same place was some earth of a bright blue colour, which, when
dried, crumbled to powder, and was not preserved, though traces were
still to be seen on the bones. In this interspace a still greater
number of bones was found, and also the remains of a much decayed
ladder, the sides and rounds of which were 15 inches apart. The stakes
were about four inches in diameter, very hard, as heavy as stone, and
of a dark grey colour. The fragments of the ladder, on the contrary,
were very rotten and light, but the remains of both, after being kept
some time, exfoliated and crumbled entirely to dust. In and around
this ring there lay a vast number of bones, of which no small portion
were the upper parts of the skulls of _Bos longifrons_, with the horn
cores attached, and many antlers of the red deer, either entire or in
fragments. All the former, excepting one unusually large example, had
a fracture the size of half-a-crown in the forehead (Babington). Of
the deer's antlers, some have certainly been shed in the due course of
nature; but others, on the contrary, have been separated from the head
by sawing. Of the other bones found in West Mere, and I am told there
were hundreds of them, most of the larger ones have been fractured at
one or other extremity, doubtless in order to extract the marrow they
contained. Another bone, and, as far as I can make out, the only one
found which presents this peculiarity, has been polished on one side;
but the reason why is not very obvious, unless it has served, as I
before suggested in the case of a similar specimen, for a skate. I
must add that no weapons or implements of metal which can be referred
to a period at all remote were brought to light in this or any of
the adjoining _meres_, but a great number of flint discs were found,
which, according to the description I have received (for unfortunately
none of them seem to have been preserved), must have closely resembled
those known to the Danish antiquaries as "Sling-Stones," from the
probable use made of them. (B. 46, p. 17.)

BARTON MERE.--In 1869 the Rev. Harry Jones communicated a paper to the
Suffolk Institute of Archæology and Natural History "on the discovery
of some supposed vestiges of a pile-dwelling in Barton Mere, near Bury
St. Edmund's," of which the following is an abstract:--

Barton Mere is situated in a natural depression, about four miles east
of Bury St. Edmund's, and is mainly supplied by springs, but at some
seasons water flows into it from the high land on the south, west,
and north. When full it consists of about ten acres, and averages 7
feet in depth. On the north side of the _mere_ there is a marly chalk,
which, indeed, forms the main bottom of the _mere_, being overlaid
with a dark clay deposit from 1 to 5 feet deep. The bottom layer of
this deposit consists of a peaty coloured clay, so tenacious as to
keep its shape upon the potter's wheel. Most of the bones and some
fragments of pottery were found in this lower layer, which varies in
thickness from a few inches to about a foot and a half. The _mere_ is
subject to occasional droughts. It has been dry at least four times in
the last forty years. About thirty-eight years ago (1830), the _mere_
being then dry, his grandfather, Mr. Quayle, who lived at Barton Mere,
dug out a quantity of stuff for the purpose of laying it on the land.
His digging resulted in a hole, which on two succeeding occasions when
the water was low, saved enough to keep some of the fish alive, and
provide a pond for the cattle. Bones and horns of deer, and several
spear-heads and rings of bronze, were reported to have been found
amidst six or seven stakes of wood _sticking up out of the bottom and
about as thick as the thin part of a man's leg_.

The excavations conducted by Mr. Jones in 1867 were made by digging
several holes about three feet square. In the first two holes nothing
was found, but in the third an ox skull, broken bones, portions of
pointed implements of bone, and a bronze socketed spear-head were
disinterred. The latter, which was only 18 inches below the surface
and above the peaty clay, measured 13 inches long and two inches at
its widest part. The bones were of _Bos longifrons_, stag, pig, sheep
or goat, large dog or wolf, urus (_Bos primigenius_), and hare. These
were all in the peaty stratum. Beside, and along with the bones, were
found two or three flint flakes, cores, and rude flint implements.
There were several pieces of sandstone, burnt, with the mark of fire
plainly upon them, and divers calcined flints. Also a fragment of a
thin hand-made vessel. Besides the bones were several stags' antlers,
one or two of which were gnawed, probably by dogs, and another had
marks of some small-toothed animal, such as a rat. Others were cut by
human hands. One antler had a hole rudely worked in it at its broadest
part. There were also divers horns of the _Bos longifrons_, and,
curiously enough, one of the vertebræ of a Saurian. The latter was a
short distance off from the chief "find," and it was suggested that it
might have been used as a hammer by some of the natives who brought it
to the spot.

The portion of the "find" which caused most conjecture was, however,
a fabric of stake and wattle. "I found one stake 2½ inches thick,
and 2 feet long, lying close over the spot where we found most of the
bones, but the fabric to which I now allude occurred some twenty-eight
inches below the surface of the deepest part of the _mere_. The soil
in the neighbourhood of it had been disturbed, so I took a spud and
trowel and worked the thing out with my own hand. It resulted in an
oval or egg-shaped structure of wattle, 5 feet 7 inches long, and 3
feet 10 inches wide. There were 14 uprights, varying from 2 to 2¾
inches in thickness, at nearly equal distances apart. Twigs and sticks
were worked in these like the side of a very rough basket. At first I
thought it might have been a sunken coracle, but on scooping out the
clay with which it was filled, I found that the wattle ceased about 14
inches down, and that the uprights were merely stakes, from 21 to 27
inches long, driven originally into the chalk marl. The bottom of this
fabric was filled with broken flints which were also found outside
the lower part of the uprights and between them. The flints must have
been put in, the points and edges of the points of the stakes being so
sharp and clean that they could not have been driven through the bed
of flints."

"The top of the wattle was on the level of the chalk marl, on which
most of the bones, fragments of pottery, etc., were strewn, and which
had been covered over to a depth of from 2 to 4½ feet of dark clay.
No more stakes were found, but there occurred divers holes in the
chalk marl, some of them nearly in line, in which we could not help
thinking they might have once stood. Yet we found no remains of wood
in these holes." (B. 161, p. 31.)

Professor Boyd Dawkins, under the heading "Habitations in Britain in
the Bronze Age," writes as follows:--

"Sometimes, for the sake of protection, houses were built upon piles
driven into a morass or bottom of a lake, as for example in Barton
Mere, near Bury St. Edmund's, where bronze spear-heads have been
discovered, one 13 inches long, among piles and large blocks of stone,
as in some of the lakes in Switzerland. Along with them were vast
quantities of the broken bones of the stag, roe, wild boar, and hare,
to which must also be added the urus, an animal proved to be wild by
its large bones, with strongly-marked ridges for the attachment of
muscles. The inhabitants also fed upon domestic animals--the horse,
short-horned ox, and domestic hog, and in all probability the dog,
the bones of the last-named animal being in the same fractured state
as those of the rest. Fragments of pottery were also found. The
accumulation may be inferred to belong to the late, rather than the
early, Bronze Age, from the discovery of a socketed spear-head. This
discovery is of considerable zoological value, since it proves that
the urus was living in Britain in a wild state as late as the Bronze
Age. It must, however, have been very rare, since this is the only
case of its occurrence at this period in Britain with which I am
acquainted." ("Early Man in Britain," p. 352.)


LAKE-DWELLINGS IN THE FENLAND.

The discovery of so many submarine dwellings in Holland and the
adjacent coasts of Germany which I have already described suggests
that similar remains might be found in the Fens and other low-lying
districts in Britain. The only reference, however, to such dwellings
with which I am acquainted is the following short notice by Mr.
Skertchly:--

"I detected the remains of one (lake-dwelling) at Crowland in the
year 1870, during some excavations. The piles were of sallow planted
very closely together, upon these was laid brushwood, and over this
a layer of gravel. Immense quantities of bones, chiefly of the Keltic
shorthorn, were found, together with a few bone implements, and a
curious ornament of jet. Near Ely, stakes have been found in the peat,
but they do not seem to belong to a lake-dwelling." ("The Fenland Past
and Present," by Miller and Skertchly. 1878.)


PILE-STRUCTURES IN LONDON.

On December 18th, 1866, Col. Lane Fox (now General Fox-Pitt-Rivers)
read a paper at the Anthropological Society entitled, "A Description
of certain Piles found near London Wall and Southwark, possibly the
Remains of Pile-Buildings."

The author commenced by observing that his attention was directed to
this locality by a short paragraph in the _Times_ of the 20th October,
stating that upwards of twenty cart-loads of bones had been dug out of
the excavations which were being made for the foundations of a wool
warehouse near London Wall. The excavation commenced at 40 yards south
of the street pavement: therefore, in all probability, at about 70 or
80 yards from the site of the old wall. The area then excavated was of
an irregular oblong form, 61 yards in length, running north and south,
and 23 yards wide.

A section of the soil consisted of--

   "1. Gravel similar to Thames ballast at a depth of 17 feet towards
       the north, inclining to 22 feet towards the south end.
   "2. Above this, peat of unequal thickness, varying from 7 to 9 feet.
   "3. Modern remains of London earth composed of the accumulated
       rubbish of the city."

Between the bottom of the peat and the highest spring tide water-mark,
as at present existing, there is a margin of 5 feet; but, of course,
this might have been different in Roman times.

Regarding the remains of piles in this locality the author makes the
following observations:--

"Upon looking over the ground, my attention was at once attracted
by a number of piles, the decayed tops of which appeared above the
unexcavated portions of the peat, dotted here and there over the whole
of the space cleared. I noted down the positions of all that were
above ground at the time; and as the excavations continued during the
last two months, I have marked from time to time the positions of all
the others as they became exposed to view.

"Commencing on the south, a row of them ran north and south on the
west side, to the right of these a curved row, as if forming part of
a ring. Higher up and running obliquely across the ground was a row
of piles, having a plank about an inch and a half thick and a foot
broad placed along the south face, as if binding the piles together.
To the left of these another row of piles ran east and west; to the
north-east again were several circular clusters of piles; these were
not in rings but grouped in clusters, and the piles were from eight to
sixteen inches apart. To the left of this another row of piles and a
plank two inches thick ran north and south. There were two other rows
north of this and several detached piles, but no doubt several towards
the north end had been removed before I arrived.

"The piles averaged 6 to 8 inches square; others of smaller size
measured 4 inches by 3; and one or two were as much as a foot square.
They appeared to be roughly cut, as if with an axe, and pointed
square; there was no trace of iron-shoeing on any of them, nor was
there any appearance of metal fastenings in its planks; they may
have been tied to the piles, but if so, the binding material had
decayed.[120] The grain of the wood was still visible in some of them,
and they appear to be of oak. The planks averaged from one to two
inches thick. The points of the piles were inserted from one to two
feet in the gravel, and were, for the most part, well preserved, but
all the tops had rotted off at about two feet above the gravel, which
I conclude must have been the surface of the ground, or of the water,
at the time these structures were in existence."

These relics were exclusively found in the peat or middle stratum
(which varied from 7 to 9 feet in thickness), and "interspersed at
different levels from top to bottom throughout it."

"Amongst the articles of human workmanship found in the peat the vast
majority are undoubtedly of the Roman era. Amongst them are quantities
of broken red Samian pottery, mostly plain, but some of it depicting
men and animals in relief; one specimen is stamped with the name of
Macrinus. All this pottery, in the opinion of Mr. Franks, to whom I
showed it, is of foreign manufacture. Other samples are of the kind
supposed to have been manufactured in the Upchurch Marshes in Kent,
and upon the site of St. Paul's Churchyard. Bronze and copper pins,
iron knives, iron and bronze stylus, tweezers, iron shears, a piece of
polished metal mirror so bright that you may see your face in it (this
Dr. Percy has pronounced to be of iron pyrites, white sulphuret of
iron without alloy), an iron double-edged hatchet, an iron implement,
apparently for dressing leather, a piece of bronze vessel, and other
bronze and iron implements, which, thanks to the preserving properties
of the peat, are all in excellent preservation. Amongst these were
also a quantity of leather soles of shoes or sandals, some apparently
much worn, and others, being thickly studded with hob-nails, may be
recognised as the caliga of the Roman legions; also a piece of tile
with the letters P. PR. BR. stamped upon it. Specimens of these are
on the table. The coins found are those of Nerva, Vespasian, Trajan,
Adrian, and Antoninus Pius....

"In addition to the Roman relics above mentioned, others of ruder
construction remain to be described. They consist of what, in the
absence of any evidence respecting their uses, may be called handles
and points of bone. The former are composed of the metacarpal bones
of the red-deer and _Bos longifrons_ cut through in the middle, and
roughly squared at the small end; the others, which are called by the
workmen spear-heads, are pointed at one end and hollowed out at the
other, as if to receive a shaft. Both Professor Owen and Mr. Blake
concur in thinking these implements may possibly have been formed
with flint, but I cannot ascertain that they were found at a lower
level than the Roman remains, nor have any flint implements, to my
knowledge, been found in the place. With them were also found the two
bone skates on the table; they are of the metacarpal bone of a small
horse or ass, one of which has been much used on the ice. Exactly
similar skates also of the metacarpal of the horse or ass have been
found in a tumulus of the Stone Period at Oosterend in Friesland; a
drawing of them is given in Lindenschmit's Catalogue of the Museum
at Mayence, etc. Others have also been found in Zeeland, at Utrecht,
and in Guelderland, and there is a specimen in the Museum at Hanover.
Professor Lindenschmit attributes all these to the Stone Period,
but the specimens on the table are evidently of the Iron Age, the
holes in the back having been formed for the insertion of an iron
staple. Similar skates have been found in the Thames, but they have
not hitherto been considered to date so early in England as in Roman
times."

Throughout the peat were several kitchen-middens. One, deposited a
foot and a half above the gravel, is thus described:--"A layer of
oyster and mussel shells about a foot thick, with a filtration of
carbonate of lime permeating through the moss. In this kitchen-midden,
Roman pottery and a Roman caliga were found. Close by, the point of a
pile, part of which is exhibited, was found upright in the peat; it
had been driven in in such a manner that the point descends to the
level of the kitchen-midden and no farther. Now, as a pile, in order
to obtain a holding, must have been driven at least two feet in the
ground, it is evident the peat must have grown at least one foot above
the summit of the kitchen-midden before this pile was driven in."

A second kitchen-midden is noted at a height of 3½ feet above
the gravel, "composed of oyster, cockle, and mussel shells, and
periwinkles, with Roman pottery and bones of the goat and _Bos
longifrons_, etc., split lengthwise as if to extract the marrow, with
the skulls broken and the horns cut off. It is about a foot and a
half thick in the centre, thinning out towards the ends as a heap of
refuse would naturally do, and from 12 to 14 feet long; above this is
peat for about a foot or a foot and a half, and above the peat another
kitchen-midden of the same kind as the preceding. Lastly, the soles
of shoes and Roman pottery of the same kind as that found lower down
have been taken out at the very top of the peat."

The distinguished investigator, being anxious to obtain further
evidence as to the thickness of the stratum in which the Roman remains
were found, states that he determined to watch the workmen for four
or five hours together during several successive days, while they
dug from top to bottom, commencing with the superficial earth, and
passing through the peat to the gravel below. The result was as
follows:--"Roman red Samian ware is found as high as 13 feet from the
surface, but very rarely, and in small quantities. At 15 feet it is
frequently found, and from that depth it increases in quantity till
the gravel is reached at 18 to 21 feet. The chief region of Roman
remains is within two or three feet of the gravel."

Amongst the animal remains were, according to Professor Owen, those
"of the horse or ass, the red deer, the wild boar, the wild goat
(_bouquetin_), the dog, the _Bos longifrons_, and the roebuck. The
horns of the roebuck, I afterwards ascertained, were all found at
a higher level. These, and also the horse and goat, entered the
superficial earth, in which glazed pottery was also found; but the
remainder, including the red deer, wild boar, and _Bos longifrons_,
appeared, so far as my observations enabled me to judge, to be
confined to the peat."

Subsequently Mr. Carter Blake identified amongst these osseous
remains no less than four different kinds of the genus _Bos_--viz.
_primigenius_, _trochoceros_, _longifrons_, and _frontosus_; as also a
specimen of the ibex of the Pyrenees.

Some human skulls were found in the lowest formation of the peat, or
immediately over the gravel. Along with these skulls only three other
human bones were found; but this, according to the author, might not
be the result of an oversight, as both the Celts and the Romans were
known to have practised decapitation.

The piles at the south end were identified as elm, the remainder were
oak (_Quercus robur_).

From the above carefully observed and recorded facts it will be
observed that in addition to the primary piles which were inserted
into the gravel there were others which did not penetrate so deeply,
one having been carefully noted which terminated in the peat a foot
and a half above the gravel. Facts precisely similar have been
observed in almost all pile-dwellings whether on land or in water,
showing that the elevations on which the platforms and huts were
reared were successively renewed. Another conclusion which we are
entitled to draw from the character of the relics and the conditions
in which they were found is that in the low-lying districts of London
the system of pile-dwellings was known in Britain in post-Roman
times. Nor can it be said that this was a solitary instance, for
similar remains were found in New Southwark Street, in regard to which
the author writes as follows:--

"The piles are of the same scantling, also of oak, but somewhat longer
than those of London Wall; the points are driven into the gravel; the
peat is three to four feet thick; large beams of the same size as the
piles have been laid across them horizontally, and Roman pottery is
found at all depths in the peat. Judging from the extent over which
these piles have been discovered, there can be little doubt that in
digging for the foundations of the many large warehouses and other
buildings that are now being built within this district the remains of
early habitations are constantly turning up and are destroyed without
receiving attention."

As to the relics from these London pile-dwellings let me finally
observe, that, to a certain extent, both in character and surrounding
conditions they correspond with those from the Terp mounds in Holland
and North Germany, from which it is probable the earliest Anglo-Saxon
invaders hailed.


CRANNOG IN LLANGORSE LAKE, NEAR BRECON, SOUTH WALES.

Only one lake-dwelling has hitherto been recorded in Wales, viz. that
of Llangorse. The partial exploration to which it has been subjected
was undertaken by the Rev. Mr. Dumbleton, and the results are recorded
by him in the _Archæologia Cambrensis_ for 1870 and 1872. (B. 173.)
The following extracts from these reports clearly show that the
island was entirely artificial and constructed after the manner of
the Scottish and Irish crannogs. Its structural features were well
seen in the surrounding stockades and log-floorings, while the heaps
of charcoal, remains of food-refuse, and other indications point to
a prolonged period of human occupancy. Mr. Dumbleton states that
until about seven years ago, when the lake was artificially lowered a
foot and a half, this island was not half its present size. He then
advances various evidences to show that formerly the level of the
water was still lower, when, therefore, the island would have been
larger than now. This opinion may be, and probably is, correct; but we
must remember that another factor has to be taken into account when
discussing the invariable submergence of these islands, viz. their own
pressure on a yielding lake sediment, together with the decay of the
brushwood and other organic materials which generally formed their
under strata. It is to be regretted that no relics were found on this
island, and I cannot help thinking that, in the circumstances, a more
careful search would have furnished some scraps of the handiwork of
its occupiers. From the description it is clear that metal tools were
used in manipulating the woodwork, but otherwise, and in the absence
of any historical notice, we have no means of determining either the
age of this singular lacustrine abode or the social condition of its
inhabitants.

"Immediately beneath the southern spurs of the Black Mountains, and
in the hollow of the great geological fracture which parts that chain
from the Brecknockshire Beacons, is situated a sheet of water now
called the Lake of Llangorse. Its name was formerly Llyn Savathan,
or the lake of the sunken land. The area of water was once far more
extensive than it is now; and it has subsequently been, as I think,
considerably less than at present. A circuit of five miles will now
enclose it. The margin is flat and swampy, except on the north-east,
where the mountain descends upon the shore-line somewhat abruptly. The
depth, though by vulgar report vast and fearful, Leland has rather
overstated in assigning to it thirteen fathoms."

"Within a bow-shot of the flat meadows on the north side there is an
island that would appear but little above the water, were it not for
some small trees and brushwood that have fastened upon it.

"Sailing by the island one day in 1867, I observed that the stones
which stand out on the south and east sides were strangely new
looking, and most unlike the water-worn, rounded fragments that on
the main shore have been exposed to the action of the waves; neither
did there seem to be any original rock-basis at all. It was, in fact,
nothing less than a huge heap of stones thrown into water two or three
feet in depth. Was this the key, I thought, to the old tradition of a
city in the lake? In the summer of last year, my brother, then living
in the neighbourhood, first discovered a row of piles or slabs; some
standing a few inches above water, for the lake was very low. We have
together made some investigations during the past month, the results
of which I will detail.

"The island, as now above water, measures 90 yards in circumference,
its form being that of a square with the corners rounded off. The
highest part is nearly in the centre, and is 5 feet above the
water-level. The sides most exposed to weather, where also the water
is deepest, are composed of stones sloping into the water, and
extending to the distance of fifteen yards from the edge. Under the
water, however, they are not nearly so thickly strewn as above. It is
remarkable that on the leeward or northern side, about one quarter
of the island is almost destitute of stone protection with which the
greater part is covered. There is simply a surface of vegetable mould,
inclined towards the water. Neither in the water, which is there very
shallow, are there more than a score of stones to be found on that
side. I must now speak of the piles. These are of two sorts, the most
obvious being either at the margin or within a few feet of it. Like
the stones, they are most numerous where the action of the storm would
be most felt, and upon the shallow side they disappear entirely. They
have been disposed in segments of circles, the stones being heaped
inside them, and thus saved from being torn away by the waves. These
piles (or rather slabs) are of cleft oak, and have been pointed, as it
seems, by cuts from a metal adze. We have counted about sixty. They
have been driven tightly into the shell-marl, to the depth of four
feet. There are also other piles, which are round, generally of soft
wood, and are found outside the present edge of the island. Several
are in water two feet deep, and are driven into the marl only twelve
or eighteen inches. These would have been quite powerless to confine
the stones, and were evidently for another purpose.... Is it not
likely that the island itself was central common ground? and that the
habitations were projected from its edge towards the water and were
supported by these thick round piles? Something like a ring of these
is found near the oak slabs before mentioned; and traces of a second
set are at the distance of twelve or fifteen yards, in water about
two feet deep. Between the two, small wood is found abundantly, a few
inches in the marl. At about ten yards from the shore, and in two feet
of water, there appear to be the actual remains of a sunken platform.
Three trunks of soft wood lie nearly parallel to one another. A 6
feet stem of oak, which I cannot account for, was with them. The top
of this we sawed off, as it exhibits the marks of some heavy cutting
instrument where, in modern days, a saw would have been used.

"I have to add to this subject the discovery of two much more perfect
platforms in a perplexing situation, namely, within the oak slabs.
They were composed of eight straight trunks, about six inches in
diameter, lying side by side. Their direction is from the centre to
the water; their ends, towards the shore, are thrust against the slab
piles; others are closed in one case by a transverse oak beam....

"The examination of the interior would, of course, unfold the process
of the construction. We therefore made several perpendicular openings;
and these invariably led us down to the shell-marl, showing first a
stratum of large, loose stones, with vegetable mould and sand; next
(about eighteen inches above the marl), peat, black and compact; and
beneath this, the remains of reeds and small wood. This faggot-like
wood presented itself abundantly all round the edges of the island,
and in the same relative position, namely, immediately upon the soft
marl; the object of it being, of course, to save the stones from
sinking.

"On digging through the before-mentioned low portion of the crannog a
different order of materials exhibited itself. As I said, the stones
are very few; the depth is 3 feet instead of 5; 18 inches of vegetable
mould; 6 inches of earth mixed thickly with charcoal; and 1 foot of
peat, small wood or reeds. I may here say that this charcoal is found
under water, in very frequent small fragments, on this north-eastern
side; and is covered, not with marl or stones, but with sand. Bones
are found in numbers amongst the stones where the water is quite
shallow; every spadeful of marl, in some parts, would, as the water
dripped off, show one or more small bone fragments or teeth."

The osseous remains were more or less identified by Professors Owen,
Rolleston and Boyd Dawkins as belonging to _Bos longifrons_, horse
(small and large variety), red deer, and wild boar.


LAKE-DWELLINGS IN BERKS, ETC.

In 1878, Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., communicated to _Nature_
a short notice of "English Lake-Dwellings and Pile-Structures," in
which, after drawing attention to the previously published articles of
General Lane Fox and Sir Charles Bunbury, he writes as follows:--

"Since writing the above I have been informed that Mr. W. M. Wylie,
F.S.A., referred to this fact in _Archæologia_, vol. xxxviii., in a
note to his excellent memoir on lake-dwellings. I can add, however,
that remains of _Cervus elaphus_ (red deer), _C. dama_? (fallow deer),
_Ovis_ (sheep), _Bos longifrons_ (small ox), _Sus scrofa_ (hog), and
_Canis_ (dog), were found here, according to information given me by
the late C. B. Rose, F.G.S., of Swaffham, who also stated in a letter
dated August 11th, 1856, that in adjoining meres, or sites of ancient
meres, as at Saham, Towey, Carbrook, Old Buckenham, and Hargham,
cervine remains have been met with; thus at Saham and Towey, _Cervus
elaphus_ (red deer); at Buckenham, _Bos_ (ox) and _Cervus capreolus_
(roebuck); at Hargham, _Cervus tarandus_ (reindeer).

"The occurrence of flint implements and flakes in great numbers on
the site of a drained lake between Sandhurst and Frimley, described
by Captain C. Cooper King in the _Journal of the Anthropological
Institute_, January, 1873, p. 365, etc., points also in all
probability to some kind of lake-dwelling, though timbers were not
discovered.

"Lastly, the late Dr. S. Palmer, F.S.A., of Newbury, reported to the
Wiltshire Archæological Society in 1869 that oaken piles and planks
had been dug out of boggy ground on Cold Ash Common, near Faircross
Pond, not far from Hermitage, Berks." (B. 312, p. 424.)

The following is Dr. Palmer's notice of the pile-structures at Cold
Ash Common above referred to:--

"Recurring to the antiquities of the peat proper, I would refer to the
subject of lake-dwellings. I do not despair of finding them in our
neighbourhood, for I believe traces of them have been found near Cold
Ash, some such structure having been uncovered in digging bog-earth
for horticultural purposes. It was circular, measuring 30 feet across,
and the planks were 16 to 18 feet in length, roughly hewn, and with
beams crossing from side to side, and resting on the piles. There was
also a kind of causeway to it. It was on the borders of a morass, the
resort of wild fowl within the memory of man. The general appearance
of the valley at this place leads me to surmise that it was not long
since covered with water; there is still a pond in the centre. The
bog-earth had been carted away before I heard of the discovery, so
that I had no chance of examining it for animal or other remains."

The editor of the _Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club_
adds the following note to the above extract:--

"Mr. Walter Money, F.S.A., has gathered some information about this
interesting relic of the past. It is situated on a part of what was
Cold Ash Common ... and has long been known as 'Wild Duck Pond;' it
is now an oval piece of water, not much more than 20 feet across,
surrounded by arable land.

"About thirty years ago, before the Common was enclosed, the season
being dry, the 'Wild Duck Pond' was cleared by Mr. Whiting, of
Longlane Gate, who thought the accumulated soil or mud might be useful
on the land. After the removal of the top soil, some rough timber
framing was met with, lying across the centre of the pit, forming, it
would seem, a rude platform. A space was cleared about ten feet deep,
where a heavy log of oak was found lying across from side to side.
This was not removed. The work was then abandoned; the soil taken out
being found to be of no use to the land. About thirteen years ago,
the excavation was repeated by Mr. Lancaster, the then tenant of this
part of Col. Loyd-Lindsay's property; but the investigation was not
pursued far, and the water having flowed into the digging, 'Wild Duck
Pond' was again restored nearly to its former condition." (_Trans. of
Newbury District Field Club_, vol. ii. p. 148.)

Remains suggestive of a pile-structure were also observed by Mr. Dolby
in 1870 in one of the ponds at Fence Wood, near Hermitage. Here in
digging they found "a sort of pyramidal dwelling beneath the ground,
the roof being covered with clay about a foot thick. This roof was
supported by a large piece of timber, some twenty-six feet long,
which they had got out. There were causeways there also at a depth of
fifteen or sixteen feet. The water had long since rushed in and filled
up the excavation, so that nothing further is known of this place."
(_Ibid._, vol. i. p. 123.)


LAKE-DWELLINGS IN HOLDERNESS, COUNTY OF YORK.

The discovery of lake-dwellings in Holderness is due to Mr. Thomas
Boynton, Bridlington (lately of Ulrome Grange), whose attention was
first directed to the subject in the spring of 1880. Previous to the
excavation of a great drainage scheme about the beginning of the
present century this district appears to have been intersected by a
series of sinuous and irregularly shaped lakes, whose surplus waters
partly found an outlet, not in the present artificially constructed
channels which convey them directly into the German Ocean, but in
quite a different direction, along a sluggish watercourse, still
extant, which falls into the Humber near Hull. That this latter was
in former times the natural drainage course of the entire waters of
Holderness is the opinion of Mr. Boynton and other geologists with
whom I had the pleasure of discussing the matter. Mr. G. W. Lamplugh
believes that the Gypsey Race--a stream which now enters the sea
at Bridlington--at some former period continued its course through
this chain of lakes and finally debouched by the same route into the
Humber. The natural causes which have effected this great change in
the hydrographical conditions of Holderness are to be found in the
steadily progressing encroachment of the sea on the land, which here
goes on at a very rapid rate. When the sea lay many miles farther off,
which undoubtedly was the case in former times, it is supposed that
the intervening land stood somewhat higher, and that consequently
Holderness was a complete water-basin, with its outlet towards the
Humber. But as the sea advanced, gradually undermining and washing
away the soft glacial deposits which here form its shores, this
natural basin became, as it were, tapped in the middle and so allowed
the waters of its upper reaches to escape directly into the sea--a
process precisely analogous to that by which its final drainage was
effected by human agencies.

Nor is this opinion based exclusively on geological considerations,
as we have positive historical proofs in the early annals of the
country that formerly towns existed whose sites are now far out in
the sea. Thus Mr. Poulson ("History of Holderness," p. 467) states
that "the writer of the chronicle of the Abbey of Meaux, in lamenting
the losses which the abbey had sustained, observes that they received
nearly £30 from the town of Hythe, in the parish of Skipsea, chiefly
from the tithe of fish; but now, says he, 1396, _the place is
totally destroyed_--a proof that it was gone into the sea before the
commencement of the fifteenth century." The lake of Withou, which is
recorded as having paid tithe for its fish in 1288 (_Ibid._, 468),
is not only at present completely drained, but more than half of its
bed is washed away, and the sea beach, which runs right across it,
presents a most instructive section of its sedimentary deposits and
subsequent growth of peat.

From these remarks it will be seen that, in estimating the precise
physical conditions that prevailed when the lacustrine abodes I am now
about to describe were constructed, we have to deal with problems of
a somewhat discursive character, and which, consequently, lie beyond
the scope of this work. It is clear, however, that, previous to its
artificial drainage, the district was overspread with a succession
of shallow lakes and marshes, pre-eminently well adapted for the
construction of lake-dwellings. The lakes are now gone and instead
of them we have artificial drains winding along the lowest portions
of their former beds. It is along the steep banks of these sluggish
water-channels that Mr. Boynton has detected, in various places, piles
and transverse beams, which he justly considers to be the remains
of ancient lake-dwellings. Up to the present time indications of
five stations have been observed, which for facility of reference
the discoverer names as follows--(1) West Furze, (2) Round Hill, (3)
Barmston, (4) Gransmoor, and (5) Little Kelk.

These are situated at considerable intervals from each other, varying
from half a mile to two or three miles, and as they are deeply buried
their investigation entails a considerable amount of labour and
expense. It is only the stations at West Furze and Round Hill that
have as yet been subjected to anything like a systematic exploration.
A few years ago Mr. Boynton at his own expense carried out a series
of excavations at the former station by which its character has been
satisfactorily determined, and subsequently he has undertaken to
examine the second with a grant from the Society of Antiquaries; but
these works are not yet completed, and at present they are entirely
suspended owing to the volume of water in the drain.

I may state that I have on several occasions visited the locality and
so became practically conversant with the general features of these
discoveries. Moreover, for the special object of this work, Mr.
Boynton has freely placed all the materials in his possession at my
disposal and given me permission to add to my notes the accompanying
illustrations of a few of the more interesting objects.

_West Furze._--This was the first discovered, and the circumstances
that led to the discovery are thus described by Mr. Boynton (B. 373,
p. 300):--

"In the spring of the year 1880 the Commissioners of Beverley and
Barmston Drainage found it necessary to deepen one of these drains
(the branch called the Skipsea drain).

"A short time after this was done I was walking in one of my fields
adjoining, and picked up some perforated bone implements. I shortly
afterwards had the earth, which had been excavated at this place,
turned over, and found more implements of the same class. Also two
made from the antlers of the red-deer, and a small piece of red ochre,
with several stones which bear traces of having been utilised.

"In the month of May, 1881, the water in the drain at that time
being very low, and having obtained the services of half a dozen men
accustomed to similar work, I had the water dammed, and dug through
peat to a bed of gravel, 9 feet 6 inches from the surface.

"We found three more perforated bone implements, all in the side
of the drain, and at the depth of 7 feet, also several stakes and
piles with remains of brushwood. I then determined, when opportunity
offered, to excavate in the field, and proceeded to do so in December
last (1881). We commenced by digging a trench parallel with the drain
and 60 feet in length. This trench and the drain formed two sides of a
square, running north and south."

Subsequently Mr. Boynton cleared out the entire enclosure thus marked
out by these primary trenches and found the whole of it to be occupied
with an artificial structure of wood like the so-called fascines of
Switzerland or the crannogs of Scotland and Ireland. The depth of
decayed brushwood was very considerable, and it was pierced here and
there with upright piles. At the margin these piles were thicker, and
in one place, the south-east corner, he states that they met with
great "numbers of stakes, with some brushwood, the earth being a peaty
marl." Further progress from this point is thus described:--

"When clear of the slope there is a decided layer of brushwood about
two feet thick, also studded with stakes, and along the inner side
of the south trench we found a number of piles from 5 to 7 inches in
diameter, in a line, and mostly upright. One of these we got out quite
perfect. It is of oak wood, 4 feet in length, 6 inches in diameter,
and has a forked top which has apparently been intended for carrying a
horizontal beam or support. The piles are about 4 feet apart. One had
given way and had been replaced.

"As the trench is not exactly in a line with the piles, several are
now left standing and partially exposed. In this portion of the
digging we found several bones of animals, a peculiar grinding-stone
of whinstone or granite, almost semicircular in shape, 12 inches
long by 7 broad, a flint core, a stone with the centre hollowed, a
hammer-stone, and two fragments of rude pottery.

"Hazel-nuts are numerous; several I have picked out appear to have
been opened by squirrels."

The drain appears to have intersected the woodwork, and as the
excavations were confined to one side, the exact dimensions of
the lake-dwelling cannot be stated. Its length was approximately
about 70 feet, and its breadth probably one-third less. On my first
inspection of the locality after these excavations had been completed
I was struck with the narrowness of the lacustrine area in which the
structure was reared. From the nature of the adjacent ground it was
readily seen that the lake widened very considerably both above and
below; but here it was so contracted that the woodwork appeared to
occupy the entire breadth of the waterway--a fact which suggested to
me the idea of its being a bridge or military stronghold. However,
on closer inspection I saw that the accumulation of rain-wash had
considerably encroached on the original bed of the lake, and I am
satisfied that there would be, in former times, sufficient space for
giving to the dwelling a complete insular character.

The following relics, now in the possession of Mr. Boynton, were
collected in the course of the investigations:--

_Horn and Bone._--The perforated bone implements (=Fig. 176=_a_, Nos.
1 and 2), of which not less than eighteen were collected, are the most
remarkable objects. They all consist of the articulate extremities
of the long bones of some large bovine animals, with the exception
of two, one of which was the thick end of a scapula and the other a
cervical vertebra. The latter was not manipulated, and the reason
it is here classified as an implement is that a portion of a wooden
handle, which had been inserted into the spinal aperture, still
remained. In this manner the vertebra became a formidable weapon,
which, when used as a club or skull-cracker, could scarcely be
matched by any work of art. I am of opinion that all these perforated
bone implements were simply warlike weapons. Three handpicks, made
from the horns of the red deer--the brow antler forming the pick and
the body of the horn, stripped of its antlers, the handle. Also a
club, or broken pick, and several portions of worked tines.

[Illustration: =Fig. 176=_a._--HOLDERNESS. All ½ real size.]

_Stone._--Three hammer-stones of natural pebbles; two anvils, one
flat and circular and the other having a slight cavity on one
side; six polishers, or rubbers; two flint cores, and about 50
substantial-looking flakes. One flake was a good example of a knife,
and showed evidence of having been used; three other flakes were
secondarily chipped and converted into neat scrapers and a saw (No. 3).

_Bronze and Jet._--One bronze spear-head (No. 4), and a fragment of a
jet arm-band, like those from the Ayrshire crannogs.

_Pottery._--Fragments of a coarse unornamented pottery were found,
out of which one vessel has been restored, having the following
dimensions:--11 inches wide at mouth; 12 inches in the widest, a
little below the mouth; and 7½ at base. Height, 7½ inches.

About thirty yards distant from the lake-dwelling, in a peaty hollow
in the field, Mr. Boynton found pottery of a similar character. It
was buried about three feet in the peat. The depth of peat over the
lake-dwelling was somewhat more, being nowhere less than 4 feet.

_Fauna._--No expert has as yet made a report on the osseous remains,
but they are believed to represent the following animals:--_Bos
longifrons_ and _primigenius_, horse (a small breed), dog or wolf,
beaver, ox, pig, sheep or goat, deer, otter (?), goose, and some small
birds.

One well-formed human skull, with portion of an upper jaw.

ROUND HILL.--So far as the excavation of this station has been
prosecuted the woodwork appears to have been precisely similar to the
former, but the area occupied is of larger dimensions. Mr. Boynton
thinks that the piles here belong to different periods of time, and
a curious fact which he pointed out to Canon Greenwell and myself
seems to support this view. He showed us the point of one pile which
had penetrated and terminated in the stump of another, from which
he inferred that before the former had been inserted the latter
had already been in a state of decay. The decayed brushwood had
also a greater thickness than at West Furze. The station has not,
however, yielded many relics, the principal objects being a small
stone celt, portion of a perforated stone hammer, and the half of a
jet bracelet. The latter appears to be unique. It is of a flattish
form, and ornamented on its outer side by five prominent ridges,
running circularly. The marginal ridges are separated from the three
central ones by a wider interval, in which runs a smaller ridge or
bead. These ridges were evidently manipulated without the use of a
turning machine, as they are not perfectly uniform, though the artists
intention was to make them so.

In regard to the other three stations there are only indications of
their being of a similar character, such as piles and transverse
woodwork along the bottom and sides of the drain. At Barmston, a stone
axe, a perforated bone implement, like those from West Furze, and bits
of charcoal were found. At Gransmoor a very large quantity of broken
bones lay exposed in the bottom of the drain, amidst a profusion of
oak piles and beams, but among them no implements have been found.


IV.--GENERAL REMARKS ON THE LAKE-DWELLINGS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
IRELAND.

Having placed before you, with a considerable amount of fullness,
certain details of the investigations of ancient lake-dwellings that
have been made within the British Isles during the last half century,
I proceed now to the discussion of some facts bearing on the ultimate
question of their origin and development. As my conclusions are of
a somewhat argumentative character, involving the consideration of
some collateral phenomena as well as a critical analysis of the
special materials derived from archæological research, it will
be advisable, in order to secure, as far as possible, precision,
at least in methods, to concentrate attention on a few definite
problems--convenient foci as it were for grouping my observations.
I propose accordingly to deal successively with their structural
peculiarities; their range in space and time, and how far this range
coincides with ethnography; and, finally, their relation to analogous
remains in Europe.

Except in a very few instances, which will be afterwards more
specially referred to, all the lake-dwellings hitherto examined in
Great Britain and Ireland were constructed on artificial islands made
generally of wood, but sometimes of stones and such other materials as
might be considered suitable. Although no such instructive examples as
those at Lochlee, Buston, etc., have been recorded in Ireland, there
can be no doubt that those of the latter country were built on the
same general principles. Indeed, few of the writers on Irish crannogs
have paid much attention to the structure of the islands, and, beyond
the mere statement that they were stockaded, palisaded, or surrounded
by one or more circles of piles, they have supplied no explanation
of the attachments and proper function of the surrounding piles. But
though the purpose of the mortised beams does not appear to have been
at first well understood in Ireland, it is of importance to observe
that their existence has not been entirely overlooked. Dr. Reeves,
writing of a crannog in the county of Antrim, says: "These piles were
from 17 to 20 feet long, and from 6 to 8 inches thick, driven into the
bed of the lough, and projecting above this bed about 5 or 6 feet.
They were bound together at the top by horizontal oak-beams, into
which they were mortised, and secured in the mortise by stout wooden
pegs." (_Proc. R. I. A._, vol. vii. p. 155.)

Mr. G. H. Kinahan in a paper on the crannogs of Lough Rea thus
incidentally alludes to the subject:--"A little north-west of the
double row, in the old working, there is a part of a circle of piles;
and in another, a row of piles running nearly east and west. Mr.
Hemsworth of Danesfort, who spent many of his younger days boating on
the lake, and knows every part of it, informs me that on the upper end
of some of the upright piles there were the marks of where horizontal
beams were mortised on them. These seemed now to have disappeared, as
I did not remark them." (_Ibid._, vol. viii. p. 417.)

These are by no means isolated observations on this point, and when we
consider how readily the exposed woodwork of an uninhabited crannog
would be destroyed, either by the hand of man or the natural processes
of decay, we need not wonder that it is only the stumps of the piles
and generally submerged portions of these singular structures that
remain to the present day.

The construction of a crannog must have been a gigantic operation in
those days, requiring in many cases the services of the whole clan.
Having fixed on a suitable locality--the topographical requirements
of which seemed to be a small mossy lake, with its margin overgrown
with weeds and grasses, and secluded amidst the thick meshes of the
primæval forests--the next consideration was the selection of the
materials for constructing the island. In a lake containing soft and
yielding sediment of decomposed vegetable matter, it is manifest that
any heavy substances, such as stones and earth, would be totally
inadmissible, owing to their weight, so that solid logs of wood,
provided there was an abundant supply at hand, would be the best and
cheapest material that could be used.

The general plan adopted was to make an island of stems of trees
and brushwood laid transversely, with which stones and earth were
mingled. This mass was pinned together, and surrounded by a series of
stockades, which were firmly united by intertwining branches, or, in
the more artistically constructed crannogs, by horizontal beams with
mortised holes to receive the uprights. These horizontal beams were
arranged in two ways. One set ran along the circumference and bound
together all the uprights in the same circle, while others took a
radial direction and connected each circle together. Sometimes the
latter were long enough to embrace three circles. The external ends
of these radial beams were occasionally observed to be continuous
with additional strengthening materials, such as wooden props and
large stones, which, in some cases, appeared also to have acted as
a breakwater. The mechanical skill displayed in their structure was
specially directed to give stability to the island and to prevent
superincumbent pressure from causing the general mass to bulge
outwards.

South of the Scottish border the remains of lake-dwellings are too
much decayed or imperfectly observed to furnish many reliable data
bearing on this subject. So far, however, as the evidence goes
it would appear that the artificial island in Llangorse and the
lacustrine dwellings in Holderness were true fascines; the former,
indeed, having all the appurtenances of the typical crannog.

The crannogs were made accessible by various means. Some had moles or
stone causeways, the existence of which, in some instances, became
known only upon the drainage of the lake. Hence it is conjectured that
these approaches might have been always submerged, and so supplied, on
emergencies, a secret means of communication with the shore. This idea
was suggested by the tortuous direction which many of them assumed,
as for example the causeway discovered in the Loch of Sanquhar
which had a zig-zag direction and so could only be waded by persons
intimately acquainted with its windings. Others were approached by a
wooden gangway, the evidence of which now consists only of the stumps
of a double row of piles. Others again were completely insulated
and accessible only by boats. One feature regarding some of the
wooden gangways deserves particular attention. Both at Lochlee and
Lochspouts the piles were found to be tightly embraced at their lower
extremities by a curiously constructed network of transverse beams.
As the surface of these elaborate structures was buried from 3 to 7
feet beneath the lake-bed, my first impression was that they might
have been used, like the submerged stone causeways, as a concealed
means of communicating with the shore. To test this suggestion I had
a special excavation made along the line of a gangway at the Miller's
Cairn in Loch Dowalton. (B. 426, p. 102.) After digging through 3 feet
of the consolidated and hardened mud, we came upon a stratum of fine
blue clay, extremely tenacious, and little liable to displacement. The
pointed stakes of the gangway, which penetrated into this clay only a
few inches, here met with a firm resistance. It then occurred to me
that the ingeniously arranged wooden beams at Lochlee and Lochspouts
served merely the same end as the blue clay at the Millers Cairn,
and that they were to be found only in localities where there was
a great depth of mud incapable of affording a sufficient basis of
resistance to the piles. Such difficulties have been encountered by
the constructors of pile-dwellings in all countries; and it is curious
to note the variety of methods by which they were overcome. The Swiss
lake-dwellers sometimes surrounded the piles with heaps of stones
which now go under the name of _steinbergs_; at other times split
planks were laid on the soft mud into which the piles were mortised.
The former plan was adopted on rocky shores too hard for piles to be
driven in, and the latter where there was a great depth of soft mud,
as at Wollishofen and other stations adjacent to the town of Zürich.
In North Germany, as Persanzig, Aryssee, and other localities, the
log-house principle, which greatly economised the materials, was
adopted in the construction of the subaqueous foundations. It appears
to me that this was the principle adopted in the structure of the
great Irish crannog of Lagore, as Sir W. Wilde distinctly states that
it was "divided into separate compartments by septa or divisions that
intersected one another in different directions." It was in these
compartments, which were filled with bones and black mud, that the
antiquities were found; so that the crannog-dwellers must have used
them as kitchen-middens. Originally they contained only water, but
in the course of time they became filled with food refuse and other
_débris_. House-cleaning was thus reduced to a minimum, while the
laws of sanitation were not more violated than in the underground
cess-pools of many of our modern dwellings. A curious statement by
Wilde in regard to the disposal of bones at Lagore is that "the
remains of each species of animal were placed in separate divisions,
with but little intermixture with any others."

It may be also mentioned that the log-house structures described
by Pigorini as lining the inside of the surrounding dyke in the
terramara of Castione were perfectly analogous, only in this case the
compartments were filled with clay and rubbish, so as to act better as
_contraforte_ to the clay wall.

Canoes are so invariably found associated with crannogs that their
discovery in lakes and bogs has been considered by Dr. Stuart as
an indication of the existence of the latter. This may be true in
some cases; but in others, such as Closeburn, Lochwinnoch, and Loch
Doon, three of the examples cited by him, it is more probable that
the canoes were used by the occupiers of the mediæval castles in the
vicinity of which they were found. From these and other instances
that have come under my notice I have come to the conclusion that
dug-out canoes do not indicate such great antiquity as is commonly
attributed to them, nor do they therefore necessarily carry us back to
prehistoric times.

There is no peculiarity in the structure or form of these dug-outs
which distinguishes their age or nationality. There is a good
collection of them in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy. Some have
pointed prows and square-cut sterns; others have both ends pointed;
some have cross bands, like ribs, left in the solid oak at regular
intervals, as if to strengthen the vessel; while others are uniformly
scooped out without any raised ridges. They vary much in size and
shape. The largest is thus referred to in the small handbook to the
Museum:--"Down the centre of the room extends the largest known canoe,
formed of a single tree. The remains measure 42 feet in length, and
the canoe was probably 45 feet long, by 4 to 5 feet wide, in its
original state. It was recovered from the bottom of Loch Owel, in West
Meath, and cut into eight sections for purposes of transport. There
is a curious arrangement of apertures in the bottom, apparently to
receive the ends of uprights supporting an elevating deck."

One of the canoes found at Lochlee, the remains of which are
still preserved in the Burns' Museum at Kilmarnock, measured when
disinterred 10 feet long, 2½ broad, and 1¾ deep. There were nine
apertures in its bottom, arranged in two rows, four on each side,
with the odd one at the apex. These holes were perfectly round, and
exactly one inch in diameter; but when the boat was found they were
quite unobserved, being all tightly plugged up, and it was only long
afterwards that the plugs, upon drying, dropped out and so revealed
their existence.

During the summer of 1874 a canoe (=Fig. 177=) was discovered in Loch
Arthur, or Lotus Loch, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, in the
vicinity of a small artificial island, which is thus described by Rev.
James Gillespie:--

[Illustration: =Fig. 177.=--Forward half of the Canoe found in Loch
Arthur.]

"When fully exposed to view by the trench which was dug around it,
the canoe was seen to be of great size, ornately finished, and in a
fair state of preservation. It had been hollowed out of the trunk of
an oak, which must have been a patriarch of the forest, the extreme
length of the canoe bring 45 feet and the breadth at the stern 5 feet.
The boat gradually tapers from the stern to the prow, which ends in
a remarkable prolongation resembling the outstretched neck and head
of an animal. When excavated this portion of the canoe was entire. At
the neck of the figurehead there is a circular hole, about 5 inches in
diameter, from side to side. At the prow a small flight of steps has
been carved in the solid oak from the top to the bottom of the canoe.
The stern is square, and formed of a separate piece of wood, inserted
in a groove about an inch and a half from the extremity of the canoe.

"Along the starboard side (which when found was in good preservation,
except near the stern) there could be traced seven holes about three
inches in diameter. The three front holes were nearly perfect, but
at the stern the side was so broken that only the lower parts of the
holes could be observed. They are about five feet apart, and the front
hole is about that distance from the prow--the last being about seven
feet from the stern. There are three holes pierced through the bottom
at irregular intervals." (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, vol. xi. p. 21.)

A curious feature presented by some of these canoes was that
accidental defects had been repaired, and the method adopted in its
execution is worth noticing. The canoe found close to the Buston
crannog already described (page 428), showed this peculiarity in a
marked degree. Another from the Loch of Canmor is thus described by
the Rev. James Wattie:--

"On the 16th June, 1859, there was fished up from the bottom of the
loch, near the north shore, opposite to the Prison Island, a canoe
(=Fig. 178=) hollowed out of a single oak-tree, 22½ feet long,
3 feet 2 inches wide over the top at the stern, 2 feet 10 inches
in the middle, and 2 feet 9 inches at 6 feet from the bow, which
ended nearly in a point. The edges are thin and sharp, the depth
irregular--in one place 5 inches, the greatest 9 inches. There are
no seats, nor rollocks or places for oars; but there may have been
seats along the sides, secured by pins through holes still in the
bottom. There are two rents in the bottom, alongside of each other,
about eighteen feet long each; to remedy these, five bars across had
been mortised into the bottom outside, from 22 to 27 inches long
and 3 inches broad, except at the ends, where they were a kind of
dovetailed, and 4 inches broad. One of these bars still remains, and
is of very neat workmanship, and neatly mortised in. The other bars
are lost, but their places are quite distinct. They have been fastened
with pins, for which there are five pairs of holes through the bottom
of the canoe, at the opposite side, at a distance of from 18 to 20
inches, the bottom being flattish. There are also five pairs of larger
holes through the bottom, etc." (B. 94, p. 167.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 178.=--Canoe found in Loch Canmor.]

Exact parallels to all these have been found in the Continental
lake-dwellings. Of two found at Vingelz, Lake of Bienne, the largest
was 43½ feet long, 4 feet 4 inches wide, and had 4 ribs left in the
solid. It had iron cramps also, apparently to strengthen it, and
belonged to the pre-Roman Iron Age. One at Cudrefin had also these
solid cross ribs. One of the best preserved was found a few years
ago at Vingrave (Lake of Bienne) covered with 2½ feet of mud, and
is now deposited in the Museum of Neuveville. It is roughly made,
having thick sides and a square-cut stern, with a groove for a movable
stern-piece. From measurements lately taken by myself I found it to be
30½ feet long, rather less than 3 feet wide, and its greatest depth 1
foot. Its sides had four or five cuts along their margin, apparently
for the use of oars. (B. 392, p. 20.)

That the crannogs in Scotland and Ireland lingered on sufficiently
long to come within the borderland of history requires no great
amplification here. The references to crannogs in the Irish annals are
very numerous, extending over a period from the middle of the ninth to
the seventeenth century.

In 1870 there was published in the _Journal of the Royal Historical
and Archæological Association of Ireland_ (B. 171_a_) an account of an
unsuccessful attack on a crannog near Omagh, in the year 1566, by an
English army under the command of Deputy Lord Sydney. This document,
which was copied by Dr. Caulfield from despatches in the Public Record
Office, London, gives a vivid description of the methods adopted in
the attack and defence. A kind of pontoon was constructed on "floating
barrels," which conveyed the attacking party to the island; but they
found it "so bearded with stakes and other sharp wood, as it was not
without extreme difficulty scaleable, and so ramparted as if the hedge
had been burned--for doing whereof the fireworks failed--without a
long time it was not to be digged down. Yet some scaled to the top,
whereof Edward Vaughan was one, who, being pushed with a pike from
the same, fell between the hedge and the bridge, and being heavily
armed--albeit he could swim perfect well--was drowned, and two others
hurt upon the rampart and drowned," etc.

That these island forts, however impregnable they might be considered
in previous ages, had ultimately to succumb before the more modern
resources of warfare, is shown by the following narrative taken from
the Calendar of State Papers of Ireland, vol. 156, p. 374:--

"There was one Dualtagh O'Conner, a notorious traitor, that of all the
rest continued longest as an outlaw, of power to do mischief. He had
fortified himself very strongly after their manner in an island or
crannoge within Lough Lane, standing within the county of Roscommon
and on the borders of that country called Costelloghe. A few days
ago, as opportunity and time served me, I drew a force on the sudden
one night and laid siege to the island before day, and so continued
seven days, restraining them from sending any forth or receiving any
in, and in the meantime I had caused divers boats from Athlone and a
couple of great iron pieces to be brought against the island, and on
the seventh day we took the island, without hurt to any on our side,
save my brother John, who got a bullet-wound in the back. When our
men entered the island there was found within it 26 persons, whereof
7 were Dualtagh's sons and daughters; but himself and 18 others,
seeking to save themselves by swimming, and in their cot to recover
the wood next the shore, were for the most part drowned. Some report
that Dualtagh was drowned, but the truth is not known. It was scarce
daylight, and the weather was foggy when they betook themselves to
flight. The Irishry held that place as a thing invincible."--Sir R.
Bingham to Burghley, Dec. 16th, 1590.

In addition to the historical evidence we have that of the relics
found on many of these crannogs, which includes iron pots, guns,
leaden bullets, coins, etc. Thus associated with two crannogs in Lough
Annagh were an iron cuirass, matchlock guns, pistols, antique keys,
spurs, various implements of iron, a bronze ladle, bronze spear-head,
etc. (B. 149, p. 156.)

[Illustration: =Fig. 179.=--Brass Vessel found in Loch Canmor. Height,
10½ inches.]

To the literary researches of the late Dr. J. Robertson we are
indebted for equally explicit historical notices regarding the
Scottish crannogs:--"Among the more remarkable of the Scottish
crannogs is that in the Loch of Forfar, which bears the name of St.
Margaret, the Queen of King Malcolm Canmore, who died in 1097. It is
chiefly natural, but has been strengthened by piles and stones, and
the care taken to preserve this artificial barrier is attested by a
record of the year 1508. Another crannoge--that of Lochindorb, in
Moray--was visited by King Edward I. of England in 1303, about which
time it was fortified by a castle of such mark that, in 1336, King
Edward III. of England led an army to its relief through the mountain
passes of Athol and Badenoch. A third crannoge--that of Loch Cannor or
Kinord, in Aberdeenshire--appears in history in 1335, had King James
IV. for its guest in 1506, and continued to be a place of strength
until 1648, when the Estates of Parliament ordered its fortifications
to be destroyed. It has an area of about an acre, and owes little or
nothing to art beyond a rampart of stones and a row of piles. In the
same lake there is another and much smaller crannoge, which is wholly
artificial. Forty years after the dismantling of the crannoge of Loch
Cannor, the crannoge of Loch-an-Eilan, in Strathspey, is spoken of as
'useful to the country in times of troubles or wars, for the people
put in their goods and children here, and it is easily defended.'
Canoes hollowed out of the trunks of oaks have been found, as well
beside the Scotch as beside the Irish crannoges. Bronze (brass)
vessels, apparently for kitchen purposes (=Fig. 179=), are also of
frequent occurrence, but do not seem to be of a very ancient type.
Deers' horns, boars' tusks, and the bones of domestic animals, have
been discovered; and in one instance a stone-hammer, and in another
what seem to be pieces for some such game as draughts or backgammon,
have been dug up" (=Fig. 180=).

[Illustration: =Fig. 180.=--Bone Object found in the Loch of Forfar.
Natural size.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 181.=--Brass Pots found in Loch of Banchory.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 182.=--Brass Pot (height, 11 inches), and Brass
Jug (height, 9 inches), found in the Loch of Banchory.]

[Illustration: =Fig. 183.=--View of Surface of the Isle of the Loch of
Banchory, showing foundations of Stone Buildings.]

"Before the recent drainage of the Loch of Leys--or the Loch of
Banchory, as it was called of old--the loch covered about 140 acres,
but, at some earlier date, had been four or five times as large. It
had one small island, long known to be artificial, oval in shape,
measuring nearly 200 feet in length by about 100 in breadth, elevated
about 10 feet above the bottom of the loch, and distant about 100
yards from the nearest point of the mainland. What was discovered as
to the structure of this islet will be best given in the words of the
gentleman, of whose estate it is a part, Sir James Horn Burnett, of
Crathes. 'Digging at the Loch of Leys renewed. Took out two oak trees
laid along the bottom of the lake, one 5 feet in circumference and 9
feet long; the other shorter. It is plain that the foundation of the
island has been of oak and birch trees laid alternately, and filled
up with earth and stones. The bark was quite fresh on the trees. The
island is surrounded by oak piles which now project 2 or 3 feet above
ground. They have evidently been driven in to protect the island
from the action of water.' Below the surface were found the bones
and antlers of a red deer of great size, kitchen vessels of bronze
(brass) (=Figs. 181= and =182=), a millstone (taking the place of the
quern in the Irish crannogs), a small canoe, and a rude, flat-bottomed
boat about 9 feet long, made, as in Ireland and Switzerland, from one
piece of oak. The surface of the crannog was occupied by a strong
substantial building (=Fig. 183=). This has latterly been known by
the name of the Castle of Leys, and tradition, or conjecture, speaks
of it as a fortalice, from which the Wauchopes were driven during the
Bruces' wars, adding that it was the seat of the Burnetts until the
middle of the sixteenth century, when they built the present castle of
Crathes. A grant of King Robert I. to the ancestors of the Burnetts
includes _lacum de Banchory cum insula ejusdem_. The island again
appears in record in the years 1619 and 1654 and 1664, under the name
of 'The Isle of the Loch of Banchory.'"

That Scottish lake-dwellings were known by the same name, _crannog_,
as the Irish, Dr. Robertson adduces the following extract from the
Register of the Privy Council to show:--

"Instructions to Andro bischop of the Yllis, Andro lord Steuart of
Vchiltrie, and James lord of Bewlie, comptroller, etc.... That the
haill houssis of defence, strongholdis and _cranokis_ in the Yllis
perteining to thame and their foirsaidis sal be delyverit to his
Maiestie and sic as his Heynes sall appoint to ressave the same to
be vsit at his Maiesty's pleasour, etc., 14 Aprilis, 1608."

While the comparative late occupancy of the crannogs in both countries
is, therefore, unquestionable, their early origin is enveloped in the
deepest mystery. Was the system an indigenous invention--the result of
circumscribed local exigencies--or derived from foreign sources? and
when was it founded or introduced? are questions that have elicited
responses of different characters. Sir W. R. Wilde, undoubtedly one of
the foremost authorities on Irish crannogs, assigns them to the Iron
Age. "Certainly," says he, "the evidences derived from the antiquities
found in ours, and which are chiefly of iron, refer them to a much
later period than the Swiss; while we do not find any flint arrows
or stone celts, and but very few bronze weapons, in our crannogs.
Moreover, we have positive documentary evidence of the occupation
of many of these fortresses in the time of Elizabeth, and some even
later." (B. 24, p. 152.) Mr. G. H. Kinahan, on the other hand, thus
formulates his opinion in a short article contributed to Keller's
book (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 654):--"Of the time when the crannogs were
first built there is no known record, but that they must have been
inhabited at an early period is evident, as antiquities belonging to
the Stone Age are found in them. Some were in use up to modern times,
Crannough Macknavin, county Galway, having been destroyed in A.D.
1610, by the English, while Bally-na-huish Castle was inhabited fifty
years ago. Some crannogs seem to have been continuously occupied until
they were finally abandoned, while others were deserted for longer or
shorter periods. In Shore Island, Lough Rea, County Galway, there is
a lacustrine accumulation over 3 feet thick, marking the time that
elapsed between two occupations."

That objects supposed to be typical of the Stone and Bronze Ages
have been found on many of the Irish crannogs there can be no doubt
at all. For example, among the remains described by Mr. Shirley from
the crannogs of MacMahon's country are stone celts, arrow-heads of
flint and bronze, three looped celts of bronze, etc.; but these were
associated with many iron objects of comparatively modern manufacture,
such as a gun-barrel, pistol-lock, ploughshares of iron, parts of
harps, and spinning-wheels, etc., etc.

"The oldest article," writes Mr. Benn, "from the crannog at
Randalstown found, so far as I know, was a stone hatchet, rather
of a small size, but not remarkable or uncommon. The most recent,
and the only piece of coin I ever heard of, discovered in such a
locality, is a base coin of Philip and Mary." (B. 29, p. 88.) In the
crannog of Roughan Lake, the last retreat of Sir Phelim O'Neil, some
bronze spear-heads were found, along with a highly ornamented quern
stone. On the lowering of Lough Gur an island became visible which
is said to have been a crannog, and on it were found, among other
things, a remarkably fine bronze spear-head,[121] having its socket
ornamented with gold, a stone mould for spear-heads (=Fig. 107=),
and some bones of the reindeer; but yet it existed as a stronghold
till 1599, when it was surrendered by the English to the Earl of
Desmond.[122] The sword-blades figured by Wood-Martin (B. 444, pl.
xxxvii.) as coming from crannog sites at Toome Bar are undoubtedly
characteristic specimens of the Bronze Age weapons; but then the
evidence that they are crannog relics at all is so slender that for
determinative purposes they may be considered valueless. Moreover
they were associated with objects equally typical of all ages--from
palæolithic flints to mediæval silver ornaments. "All these flint
flakes are of the earliest type," says Mr. Day, who describes this
locality, "many closely resembling those found in the 'drift' at
Abbeville;" and the relics include flint cores, stone and bronze
objects, a "ring brooch, enamelled bead, and a silver armlet." (B. 92,
p. 227.) Similar remarks are equally applicable to all the Scottish
crannogs on which objects apparently belonging to different ages have
been found. A reviewer of my work on "Ancient Scottish Lake-dwellings"
(B. 373), in which I gave it as my opinion that the Lochlee crannog
must be assigned to post-Roman times, takes exception to this opinion
on the grounds that amongst the relics are a polished stone celt of
neolithic type, flint scrapers, which, he says, "may be of the Bronze
Age, but could hardly be considered as post-Roman," and portions of
the antlers of the reindeer, which, according to him, "can hardly
have ranged as far south at any period later than the neolithic age."
Had my reviewer read the remarks in my book at page 147, regarding
this polished greenstone hatchet, he would hardly have selected it to
prove that this crannog existed during the neolithic age. My words
are: "As many of the relics, if judged independently of the rest and
their surroundings, might be taken as good representatives of the
three so-called Ages of Stone, Bronze, and Iron, it is but natural
for the reader to inquire if superposition has defined them by a
corresponding relationship. On this point I offer no dubious opinion.
The polished stone celt (that referred to by my reviewer) and an iron
knife were found almost in juxtaposition about the level of the lowest
fire-place." The iron implements on this crannog included hatchets,
chisels, gouges, and a crosscut saw, and the very lowest logs bore
unmistakable evidence of having been manipulated with sharp metal
tools. The entire absence of cutting instruments of bronze renders it
more than probable that such tools were made of iron, and were similar
to those found on the crannog. As for the conclusions educed from the
presence of the horns of the reindeer (hesitatingly identified by
the late Professor Rolleston), it is now actually proved that this
animal was not extinct in Scotland before the twelfth century. In the
"Orkneyinga Saga"[123] it is stated that "every summer the Earls were
wont to go over to Caithness, and up into the forests, to hunt the red
deer or the reindeer." The recent discovery of its bones and horns in
refuse heaps in Caithness, and in many of the brochs in the north of
Scotland, amply proves that the reindeer was hunted and eaten by the
Norsemen as late as the above date.

Whatever explanation may be forthcoming as to the prevalence of
prehistoric relics on these crannogs, there is no possibility of
denying that the vast majority of them were not only inhabited,
but constructed during the Iron Age. Mr. Wakeman, in the most
carefully investigated of all the crannogs in Fermanagh, viz. that
at Drumdarragh, describes three periods of occupation; yet among the
relics corresponding to the earliest period were several iron objects,
one being "an animal's head in iron," which he considers might be the
leg of a pot. Nor am I aware that superposition has defined in any
clear instance the heterogeneous mixture of relics that usually turn
up on crannogs.

It must also be noticed that few, if any, of them can be classified as
exclusively belonging to the earlier ages, like those so numerously
recorded in Central Europe. Indeed, there are only two or three
which have any claim to such delimitation, viz. those in Coal-bog
(Kilnamaddo), in Drumkelin bog, county Donegal, and in Holderness. On
the two former sites were found the most perfect examples of log-huts
that have yet come to light, and as they were both deeply buried in
peat, 17 and 25 feet respectively, they undoubtedly point to some
antiquity. But the relics, which include a stone axe and some flint
objects, are too few to justify such a sweeping conclusion as that
these dwellings were constructed at a period when metal implements
were unknown in the country. At any rate, there can be no reasonable
doubt that the period of greatest development of the Scottish and
Irish lake-dwellings was during the Iron Age, and, at least, as far
posterior to Roman civilisation as that of the Swiss Pfahlbauten was
anterior to it.

In instituting an inquiry as to how far the geographical distribution
of crannogs coincides with that of the various nationalities of the
period, we arrive at some striking results. Thus adopting Skene's
division of the four kingdoms into which Scotland was ultimately
divided by the contending nationalities of Picts, Scots, Angles, and
Strathclyde Britons, after the final withdrawal of the Romans, I find
that of the fifty or sixty crannogs proper none are located within the
territories of the Angles; ten and seven are respectively within the
confines of the Picts and Scots; while all the rest are situated in
the Scottish portion of the ancient kingdom of Strathclyde. That they
have not been found in the south-eastern provinces of Scotland may be
due to the rarity of suitable lakes, or the want of proper research
on the part of antiquaries; but, as the matter actually stands, their
absence suggests the theory that these districts had been occupied by
a foreign element before Celtic civilisation gave such a prominence to
the lake-dwellings. It will be thus seen that in the early centuries
of the Christian era the distribution of crannogs in Scotland and
Ireland closely coincides with a well-defined area in which the
Celtic language was spoken. For proof that in those days this was
the language of the south-west of Scotland, I need only point to the
recent work of Sir Herbert Maxwell on the topography of Galloway.

But from an etymological analysis of the earliest topographical
nomenclature of Britain, it is inferred that, during still earlier
times, a much larger portion of Britain, if not the whole of it, was
under the sway of the Celts. Hence it becomes interesting to inquire
if, in these localities, from which Celtic influence was expelled,
there exist traces of lake-dwellings. In localities where the Celtic
races were never supplanted by foreigners, it would be strange indeed,
and altogether at variance with archæological experience, if the habit
of resorting to isolated and inaccessible islands for safety would
be all at once abandoned, whenever the greater security afforded by
stone buildings became known. Hence the persistence with which the
island forts continued in these Celtic regions. But in this wider
Celtic area, on the supposition that the Celts were the introducers
or founders of the system, we ought to find some vestiges of these
dwellings along the regions traversed by them before they became
isolated from their Continental brethren, and cooped up in the western
districts of Britain. This is precisely what the general researches
into British lake-dwellings have shown in the stray remnants of
them that have been found in Llangorse, Holderness, the _meres_ of
Norfolk and Suffolk, Cold Ash Common, etc. All these, with perhaps the
exception of the pile-structures at London Wall, appear to be older
than the majority of the crannogs of Scotland and Ireland.

Taking all these facts into account, together with the distinct
statement made by Cæsar that the Britons were in the habit of making
use of wooden piles and marshes in their mode of entrenchments, I am
inclined to believe that we have here evidence of a widely distributed
custom which underlies the subsequent great development which the
lake-dwellings assumed in Scotland and Ireland. Moreover, I believe
it probable that the early Celts had got this knowledge from contact
with the inhabitants of the pile-villages in Central Europe. On this
hypothesis it would follow that the Celts had migrated into Britain
when these lacustrine abodes were in full vogue in Switzerland, and
that they retained their knowledge of the art long after it had fallen
into desuetude in Europe. Subsequent immigrants into Britain, such as
the Belgæ, Angles, etc., would cultivate new and improved methods of
defensive warfare; whilst the first Celtic invaders, still retaining
their primary ideas of civilisation, when harassed by enemies and
obliged to act on the defensive would have recourse to their inherited
system of protection, with such variations and improvements as better
implements and the topographical requirements of the country suggested
to them. It is as defenders, not as conquerors, that the Celts
constructed their lake-dwellings.

This hypothesis, which was first enunciated in my work on "Ancient
Scottish Lake-dwellings" as a mere conjecture, has elicited a
considerable diversity of opinion on the part of critics. In the
_Times_ of October 4th, 1882, it is thus referred to:--"This is pure
theory, and is quite unnecessary to account for the facts: as well
might one argue a connection between the pile-dwellers of New Guinea
and Central Africa and those of the Swiss lakes." Sir John Lubbock
(_Nature_, December 24th, 1882) confesses that he is disposed to doubt
that there is any connection between the geographical distribution of
the Scottish lake-dwellings at present known and that of the ancient
Celts. On the other hand, another reviewer attempts to defend it on
the ground that "in the Swiss lake-dwellings of the Iron Age there are
indications, especially in the ornamentation of the sword-sheaths and
other articles, of a style of art which closely corresponds to the
style of decoration prevalent in the crannogs of Scotland and Ireland
(_Scotsman_, November 22nd, 1882).

The indications above alluded to in support of this hypothesis as
based on a comparison of the relics, will be more appropriately
discussed in my next lecture, when I come to review the lake-dwellings
of the Iron Age in Central Europe. There are, however, one or two
objections urged on the other side--as, for example, the difference
of structure and late occupancy of the crannogs, as compared with the
Swiss lake-dwellings--that require now to be shortly considered.

As to the supposed difference in structure, I need only refer to the
structural details of various fascine-dwellings, as in the lakes of
Fuschl, Schussenried, Niederwyl, Inkwyl, Wauwyl, etc., as a sufficient
proof of the resemblance between them and the Scottish and Irish
crannogs. It is true that the pile-dwellings were more numerous on
the Continent than the fascine structures, while the reverse is the
case in Scotland and Ireland--if indeed the former can be said to have
existed at all in these countries. That the pile system was, however,
known to the crannog-builders, and occasionally acted upon, we are not
devoid of some positive evidence. Mr. G. H. Kinahan says that a few of
the Irish crannogs were built on piles (B. 119, 2nd ed. p. 654), and
instances an example in Loch Cimbe (now Loch Hackett), county Galway,
which was so frequently blown down that the occupiers were obliged
to convert it into an island, which they did by adding boat-loads
of stones to its site. One of the lake-dwellings in Lough Mourne I
concluded to have been a pile-dwelling (see page 386), and it was
connected to the shore by a wooden gangway. Mr. Burns Begg describes
remains of a pile-dwelling in Loch Leven as an "oblong wooden
platform, raised above the water on piles, twelve feet or upwards in
height." (B. 460.)

Subsequently I had an opportunity of visiting the locality, along with
Mr. Burns Begg, and I am convinced these remains could not have been
an ordinary submerged crannog or artificial island. The lake bottom
is not soft and compressible, but, on the contrary, very compact and
quite incapable of yielding to any great extent. The structures, even
in the present reduced level of the loch, are never less than 1 or
2 feet below the surface; but as formerly there would have been 9
feet more of water over them it is quite improbable that this amount
of submergence could be accounted for by the usual subsidence or
compression of the submerged materials.

Some of the examples of lake-dwellings recorded in England, such as
those described by Sir Charles Bunbury and Dr. Palmer, would appear
also to have been pile-structures.

If, therefore, both principles were known among the crannog-builders
of the British Isles, why, it may be asked, did they give a preference
to the fascine structures? I have already remarked that these
structures on the Continent were confined to small mossy lakes, which,
owing to the yielding nature of their sediments and peaty deposits,
were unsuitable for pile-dwellings. In such conditions, which are
generally prevalent in Scotland and Ireland, the wooden island
supplied more readily, and perhaps with less labour, the requisite
stability for platforms in boggy lakes and marshes intended for huts
and other superstructures, especially when these platforms were small
and the islands sparsely placed.

The wide chronological interval which separates the crannogs from
the lake-dwellings of Central Europe is also supposed to militate
against the supposition of there being any causal connection between
them. But this gap is more apparent than real, as, when carefully
looked into, it will be found to have been bridged over by a closer
series of links than was hitherto imagined. Not only were there some
lake-dwellings in Switzerland during the Iron Age, but in several
instances Roman, Gallo-Roman and even Allemanish remains were found on
their sites, as in the lakes of Starnberg, Ueberlingen, Zürich, etc.
(See page 543.) Among the antiquities collected on the site of the
dwellings in Lake Paladru were horseshoes, curry combs, and a variety
of other antiquities which, in the opinion of M. G. de Mortillet and
other archæologists, could not be accounted for as the products of any
civilisation prior to Carlovingian times. We have also seen that in
North Germany they existed at equally late times, having overlapped
considerably into the Slavish period; while the Terp-mounds in Holland
and other places were only superseded by the construction of the great
sea-dykes. It must also be remembered that the custom of constructing
lake-dwellings was not universally adopted in Europe. Their absence
in Northern Europe, Spain and Portugal, and other places cannot be
accounted for by a deficiency in the topographical and hydrographical
requirements for such structures. They appear to have spread from the
great central area of their first development in Europe in sporadic
fringes, but never extending beyond the limits to which the ordinary
waves of human intercourse and civilisation would likely reach.

Taking all these circumstances into consideration, I repeat that,
while we are justified in ascribing the remains of lake-dwellings,
so far as they are at present known within the British Isles, to a
Celtic source, I see no _prima facie_ improbability, as regards their
structure and distribution in space and time, against the hypothesis
that the Celts derived their knowledge of this custom from the great
system of Central Europe, though founded and developed at a much
earlier period.

The only exception to the general statement that the Celts were the
sole constructors of lake-dwellings in Britain (without taking into
account the earlier vestiges of such structures in England from which,
owing to the scarcity of industrial remains, there is, as yet, no
ethnological evidence either way), is the discovery at London Wall
recorded by General Pitt-Rivers. I have already remarked (page 464),
on the similarity of these remains to those from the Terp-mounds in
Friesland. Especially interesting are the two bone skates, made from
the metacarpals of the horse, recorded from the former, because such
implements are common in the latter. I do not agree with Lindenschmit
(page 462) in assigning all these so-called skates to the Stone
period. On the contrary, they are mostly of post-Roman date. In
lake-dwellings they are very rarely met with, and only one is recorded
as coming from a station of the Stone Age, viz. Moosseedorf (page
75). The other localities from which examples have been recorded are
Persanzig (page 315), Dabersee (page 317), Kownatken (page 328),
Starnberg (B. 119, 2nd ed., p. 593), and a Terramara in Hungary (page
167).

Though the Anglo-Saxons, in coming from the mouth of the Elbe and the
low-lying districts between it and the Rhine, must have been familiar
with marine pile-structures, they do not appear to have cultivated
the system to any great extent after immigrating into Britain. But
this may be accounted for by the fact that very soon they became
the conquerors of the country. It is only for defence that lake and
marsh-dwellings have been resorted to.

FOOTNOTES:

[71] _Journ. R. H. A. A._, vol. v., 4th S., p. 325.

[72] _Archæological Journal_, vol. xx. p. 170.

[73] _Proc. R. I. A._, vol. v. p. 215.

[74] _R. H. Arch. As._, vol. v., 4th S., p. 330.

[75] Three iron pots were found on this crannog, one of them being of
a triangular shape.

[76] Various mediæval objects collected in the mud on and near the
crannog sites: iron cuirass, matchlock guns, pistols, antique keys,
spurs, implements of iron, bronze ladle, bronze spear-head. The swords
and gun-barrels were found sticking up in the mud from the lake-bottom.

[77] A great many piles covering an oval enclosure about 100 feet in
diameter. On submarine crannogs, see Kinahan's "Manual of the Geology
of Ireland," p. 264, and Note 83 (p. 443) of Scottish list of crannogs.

[78] O'Flahertie in his history mentions that the ancient castle of
the O'Flaherties of Bunowen, in Ballinahinch Lake, was built on an
artificial island.

[79] Two crannogs, one large and the other small. The former is only
separated from the mainland by a shallow channel, and is accessible in
summer by a narrow causeway. On it were found "two fine specimens of
bronze pins, besides other articles of less interest in lead and iron,
and a flint spear-head."

[80] A stockaded enclosure, about 35 feet in diameter, lying some 12
or 14 feet below the bog surface. "A magnificent pair of quern stones"
and a large bowl-shaped vessel of oak are known to have been found on
it.

[81] A curious wooden flooring, buried 14 feet in the bog. It rested
on "a thick deposit of hazel and birch branches." Over it was a
"collection of stone slabs, closely fitted together with a substratum
of blue clay, but all laid on planks of timber forming part of the
floor. On this there were quantities of ashes, proving that this was
the fire-place of the ancient dwelling."

[82] "With piles round the margin and amongst the stones on its
surface were found querns, some perfect, some in a broken state." A
canoe became visible at a depth of 2½ to 3 feet when the water of the
lake was unusually low.

[83] A small crannog discovered by turf-cutters, and "interesting
from the fact of instruments made of iron and stone having been
found together." Among other things were a bronze pin, fragments
of crucibles, bits of anthracite coal, a socketed iron implement,
two small flint knives, a stone celt, a round flat stone with an
oblong-worked indentation on each side, and several bits of rude
pottery.

[84] An artificial island, 30 yards in diameter, thickly planted with
timber and surrounded with piles. In 1870 a canoe was found on the
shore of this islet, embedded in the mud and half destroyed by fire.
In the stuff lying on its floor were found some iron tools--an adze,
a hammer (both with handles), a socketed chisel, two whetstones, and
some fragments of iron.

[85] A small lake, scarcely a mile in circumference, and about three
miles from Cavan. About a hundred yards from shore a heap of stones,
surrounded by circles of stockades about fifty feet in diameter. In
the moss near the lake two canoes were found 21 and 18 feet long.

[86] This lake is in the parish of Clonbroney, and contains two
crannogs, called "Round Island" and "Fry's Island." The former is 18½
yards in diameter, and the "wooden piles, though in a pulpy and rotten
state, are still to be seen. In the lake a small canoe, 9½ feet long,
an iron spear, the nether stone of a grain-rubber, and the antlers
(with eighteen points) of a deer were found embedded in the silt."

[87] This is a small lake, three and a half miles north of
Enniskillen, about a mile in length and half a mile in breadth. It
contains three crannogs, the largest of which is 105 feet in diameter.
"Here were found querns, whetstones, worked pieces of deer-horn,
some fragments of iron plated with bronze, many pieces of ornamented
pottery, some of which were furnished with ears or handles; a very
curious stone (apparently a tombstone), sculptured with a cross
and ornamented with four human heads, and scroll work, and a large
boulder, upon which a cross-like figure had been picked or punched
out."

[88] A large crannog, covering about an acre, but only partly
artificial. About thirty thousand piles used in strengthening the
island, which had a jetty, and near this a canoe was found. The
principal relics are--some stone hammers, three pieces of flint
scrapers, a bead of amber and another of glass, a small stone ring the
size of a finger-ring, fragments of pottery, a crucible, some articles
of brass, and portions of bog-ore. The piles were cut by very sharp
metal implements.

[89] In 1833 Captain W. Mudge, R.N., discovered here a wooden hut made
of a framework of large oak beams mortised at the four corners. It
measured 12 feet square and 9 feet high, and about half way up there
was a flooring which divided the space into two storeys. The roof of
this unique hut was buried in the peat 16 feet from the surface, and
its base rested on a substratum of brushwood resembling a crannog.
(See p. 489).

[90] Two crannogs, one large, 100 feet in diameter. An iron cauldron,
found near the shore of lake, made on the same principle as the usual
bronze cauldrons, of beaten iron, and riveted.

[91] Ornamented quern stone found on the crannog.

[92] "Six stone and two bronze celts, an iron spear-head and a
bayonet, three fibulæ, one bridle-bit and two cheek-plates made of
bronze," found on this island.

[93] From this crannog the following objects were presented to the
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy:--"A piece of circular grindstone,
block of flint, old iron key, two portions of blades of iron swords,
and a piece of bone spike."

[94] A well-defined stockade, with horizontal beams. A canoe and the
following objects recorded from this crannog:--"Two iron swords; a
small anvil, very bright and clean; a pair of scales and several
hammers; several gold pins; metal dishes; small axe-heads; an iron
cauldron of a low dilated shape; a stone of yellowish-white colour,
beautifully polished, about twelve inches long, three and a half
broad, and two thick, accurately squared at the sides, having a round
hole about one and a quarter inch deep and half inch in diameter at
each end, the top surface and one of the sides being covered with
carved devices; and a quern."

[95] "In another crannog in Rahan's Lake," says Mr. Morant, "we found
five Queen Mary shillings, fused into a mass; a bronze pin; a flat
spear-head, and a stone celt. We also found the hearth-stones and a
quantity of ashes. The piles around the island are still visible above
the water."

[96] Contained three or four crannogs. "In the one opposite Cloncahir
were found several querns of different sizes and patterns (chiefly
flat-shaped, ornamented with the usual cross design, varied more or
less), and many of these were taken away by Mr. Kane to preserve at
Mohill Castle. When the water was at a low level a slight examination
was made in regard to the construction of the crannog. It was found
that there were two, possibly three, concentric circles of piles of
small size, enclosing an area considerably larger than that of the
present island, and the space so enclosed seemed to have been filled
with rough unhewn logs of wood up to about the present summer level
of the water. Upon this had been deposited a stratum of stones and
gravel, amongst which were found the querns already mentioned. In the
same lake are three other crannogs--Man Island, Crane Island, and
another."

[97] Three silver coins of the reigns of Edward I., II., and III.
found on this crannog.

[98] Three crannogs in this loch, two close to each other, and are
approached by a causeway which terminates about sixteen feet from the
crannogs, both about twenty-five feet in diameter. On the margin of
this crannog, under water, a bronze spear-head was found, 5¾ inches
long, and a looped celt 4 inches long.

[99] _Proc. S. A. Scot._, vol. xv. p. 153.

[100] Among the objects from Lagore mentioned by Lord Talbot (=Fig.
103=) is a peculiar iron pipe, described as of unknown use. It is
rather remarkable that it and this bayonet-like object from Buston
should be the counterparts of a kind of padlock in use in the
earlier Middle Ages, which acted in the following manner:--When a
spring-bolt (like that of the object from Buston) was passed through
the tube upwards, the spike attached to the latter passed through
the perforation in the former. Inside the tube there were two small
prominences, which when the bolt was pushed sufficiently home caught
the tips of its springs and prevented its return. In this state the
padlock was securely locked, and it could only be opened by a key
consisting of another but smaller tube, which, when passed through the
other end of the larger tube and over the springs, pressed the latter
close to the body of the bolt until their tips became clear of the
internal catches, and so allowed the spring-bolt to be extracted.

[101] Vol. i. p. 146.

[102] This crannog is of a rectangular shape, 43 feet by 41 feet, and
formed of layers of large trunks laid transversely.

[103] See Note 3, p. 447.

[104] The question of submarine crannogs is still obscure, and the
few facts that have come to light leave the matter in doubt as to
whether the structures were originally constructed in the water or on
dry land and subsequently submerged, in consequence of changes in the
relative levels of sea and land. The only remains of this character
that I know of in Britain are--(1) a cairn of stones on a substratum
of wood near the island of Eriska, at the mouth of Loch Crerar;
(2) the Black Cairn, in the Beauly Firth; and (3) some stumps of piles
in Ardmore Bay, county Waterford. The mound at Eriska, which was found
on examination to be of circular shape and 60 feet in diameter, was
dry at low water, but submerged at spring-tides to the extent of five
feet. Some ashes and charcoal and the broken bones of sheep and small
oxen were the only relics of human occupancy found. The Black Cairn
is noticed in the Statistical Account of Scotland, and also by Miss
Maclagan. It is about four hundred yards within flood-mark. The top is
only visible