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Title: A Concise Chronicle of Events of the Great War
Author: Rowe, R. P. P.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note:

Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

Small capital text has been replaced with all capitals.

Minor typographical and punctuation errors have been corrected
without note. Irregularities and inconsistencies in the text have
been retained as printed.

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and Zeppelins (example: E 3 to E3, U 12 to U12, S 2 to S2, L 19 to
L19).


       *       *       *       *       *



  A CONCISE CHRONICLE OF EVENTS
  OF THE GREAT WAR



[Illustration: title page]



  A CONCISE CHRONICLE
  OF EVENTS OF
  THE GREAT WAR


  BY
  R. P. P. ROWE

  M.A. (OXON), CAPTAIN, LATE OF THE
  ROYAL WEST KENT REGIMENT AND OF THE
  MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DIRECTORATE


  [Illustration: logo]


  LONDON
  PHILIP ALLAN AND CO.
  QUALITY COURT, CHANCERY LANE
  MCMXX



INTRODUCTION


I trust that this chronicle of the chief events of the war will
prove a useful and an interesting record. It has been decided
to omit maps, because their inclusion within bounds less than
cumbersome would prove practically worthless. The number of towns,
as opposed to villages, which were definitely connected with the war
is surprisingly small, and their locality is known to nearly every
one. The great majority of places which the war has brought into
prominence are villages so small that they are marked only in maps
of an exceptionally large scale. What is required, therefore, for
adequate study of the topography of the war, is either a moderate
number of maps of great size or a far larger and confusing number
less bulky but each covering only a small area. As the inclusion of
either would necessitate a detached and cumbrous volume, I have in
its absence taken pains to indicate accurately the position of every
place whose locality might be unfamiliar.

In the following pages the names given to the battles, and the dates
on which they began and ended, are from sources either official or
authoritative. The same may be said of the strategical or tactical
aims or results which I have in some cases noted--particularly in
1918.

As appendices I have chosen the four documents most closely
connected with the outbreak of the war (the Austrian ultimatum
to Serbia, Serbia's reply, and Germany's declarations of war on
Russia and France), President Wilson's 'Fourteen Points,' and the
chief instruments in the restoration of peace, _i.e._ the terms of
Armistice with the Central Powers and the Treaty of Versailles.
The text of this last is so long, and concerned with so many small
matters of detail, that I have thought it best to represent it by
a short summary of its main provisions. An exception has, however,
been made in the case of its very important Military, Naval, and
Aerial Clauses, which are given in the fuller form of the official
précis.

In cross-references, where no year is given the reference is to the
same year as the entry referenced.

I am indebted to Mr. A. D. L. Cary, Librarian of the Royal United
Service Institution, for an introduction to certain valuable records
not readily accessible. I have also to thank the Librarian of the
Admiralty for his assistance in connection with the dates of various
naval incidents.

  R. P. P. ROWE.



A CONCISE CHRONICLE OF EVENTS OF THE GREAT WAR



1914


June 28 (Sun.)

Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of
Austria, at Sarajevo.


July 23 (Thur.)

The Austrian ultimatum to Serbia (see Appendix I.).


July 25 (Sat.)

Serbia replies, yielding on all points except two (see Appendix
II.). The Austrian Minister leaves Belgrade.


July 26 (Sun.)

The Admiralty countermands orders for the dispersal of the British
Fleet.


July 27 (Mon.)

France and Italy accept England's proposal for an international
conference.


July 28 (Tues.)

Germany rejects England's proposal for an international conference.

Austria declares war on Serbia.


July 29 (Wed.)

First shots of the war: Austria bombards Belgrade.

Germany makes proposals to secure England's neutrality.


July 31 (Fri.)

German ultimatums to Russia and France (see Appendices III. and
IV.).

The French Socialist leader, M. Jaurès, is assassinated in Paris.


Aug. 1 (Sat.)

Germany declares war on Russia.


Aug. 2 (Sun.)

The German army enters Luxemburg. German patrols cross the frontiers
of France. Germany invades Poland.

The German ultimatum to Belgium.

A moratorium is proclaimed in England.


Aug. 3 (Mon. Bank Holiday)

Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France.

Grey's speech in the House of Commons.

Italy declares her neutrality.

The mobilisation of the British Navy is announced complete.


Aug. 4 (Tues.)

The British Government[1] delivers an ultimatum to Germany, which is
summarily rejected. Great Britain declares war on Germany as from 11
P.M. on this day.

  [1] At the outbreak of war: Prime Minister and Secretary for War
  (see Aug. 5), Mr. Asquith; Foreign Secretary, Sir E. Grey; First
  Lord of the Admiralty, Mr. Churchill; Chancellor of the Exchequer,
  Mr. Lloyd George; Secretary for India, Marquis of Crewe (see May 26,
  1915).

Sir John Jellicoe assumes command of the British Home Fleets.


Aug. 5 (Wed.)

Liége is bombarded by the Germans.

Austria declares war on Russia.

Montenegro declares war on Austria.

Lord Kitchener is appointed Secretary of State for War in Great
Britain.

The _Königin Luise_, equipped as a German mine-layer, is sunk by the
British Third Destroyer Flotilla (parent ship _Amphion_) off the
Suffolk coast.


Aug. 6 (Thur.)

Fall of three of the forts of Liége.

H.M.S. _Amphion_ (light cruiser) is sunk by a mine in the North Sea.

The _Goeben_ and the _Breslau_ escape at dusk from Messina and run
for the Dardanelles.


Aug. 7 (Fri.)

Fall of Liége; but its northern forts hold out (see Aug. 15).

A French reconnaissance into Alsace: Altkirch is captured.

The Russians invade East Prussia.

H.M.S. _Gloucester_ (light cruiser) attacks and pursues the _Goeben_
and the _Breslau_ in the Mediterranean.


Aug. 8 (Sat.)

The French occupy Mulhausen, in Alsace.

A British and French force enters Togoland (see Aug. 26).


Aug. 9 (Sun.) (Heligoland ceded to Germany in 1890).

British troops land in France (disembarkation completed on August
16th).

German submarines attack a British light cruiser squadron: the U15
is sunk by the _Birmingham_.


Aug. 10 (Mon.)

France declares war on Austria.

The French evacuate Mulhausen, and retire in Alsace, but gain
successes in the Vosges.

Austria invades Russian Poland.

The _Goeben_ and the _Breslau_ reach the Dardanelles.


Aug. 11 (Tues.)

The Belgian army is defeated and falls back before the Germans.

A German reverse at Spincourt, in Lorraine.


Aug. 12 (Wed.)

Great Britain declares war on Austria.

Serbia invades Bosnia.


Aug. 13 (Thur.)

Austria invades Serbia (see Aug. 25).

Dar-es-Salaam (German East Africa) is shelled and raided by the
British cruisers _Astræa_ and _Pegasus_.


Aug. 14 (Fri.)

A Russian proclamation guarantees autonomy to Poland.

The Russians defeat the Austrians at Sokal.


Aug. 15 (Sat.)

Japan delivers an ultimatum to Germany, demanding the evacuation of
Kiao-Chau.

The last Liége forts are reduced.

East Africa:--The Germans occupy Taveta.


Aug. 16 (Sun.)

The disembarkation in France of the original British Expeditionary
Force is completed, with Sir John French in supreme command (see
Dec. 15, 1915), the First Corps being commanded by Sir D. Haig, the
Second Corps by Sir James Grierson (see Aug. 17).

The Austrians capture Shabatz from the Serbians.

The Austrian light cruiser _Zenta_ is sunk during a sweep up the
Adriatic by the Allied Fleets.


Aug. 17 (Mon.)

Death of Lieut.-General Sir James Grierson: he is succeeded in
command of the British Second Corps by Sir H. Smith-Dorrien.

The Germans advance in Belgium: Tirlemont and Louvain are captured.
The Belgian Government moves to Antwerp.

The Serbians attack on the Jardar (the Battle of the Jardar, which
leads to the expulsion of the Austrians from Serbian territory).


Aug. 18 (Tues.) Gravelotte, 1870.

The French advance in Lorraine culminates in the capture of Saarburg
on the Metz-Strasbourg Railway.


Aug. 19 (Wed.)

The Belgians retire on Antwerp.

Alsace:--Mulhausen is again taken by the French (see Aug. 10, 25).

The Battle of the Jardar ends in a complete victory for the Serbians
(see Aug. 17).


Aug. 20 (Thur.)

The Germans enter Brussels. They bombard Namur.

The French retire before a German counter-offensive in Lorraine.

A Russian victory at Gumbinnen (East Prussia), which leads to the
retirement of the Germans on Königsberg, and to the appointment of
Hindenburg to High Command (see Aug. 22).


Aug. 21 (Fri.)

The forts of Namur are silenced.

The Battle of Charleroi (east of Mons) begins (see Aug. 23).

South Africa:--German patrols cross into Union territory near Nakob.


Aug. 22 (Sat.)

The French and Belgians are defeated outside Namur.

The Germans approach Nancy: the Battle of Nancy (see Sept. 11).

General von Hindenburg is appointed to command the German armies in
East Prussia.


Aug. 23 (Sun.)

Japan declares war on Germany.

Namur is captured by the Germans.

The Battle of Mons.

The Battle of Charleroi ends in the defeat of the French (see Aug.
21).

East Prussia:--The Russians are victorious at Frankenau.

Galicia:--The Russians take Brody and Tarnopol (see Sept. 1 and 7,
1915).


Aug. 24 (Mon.)

The retreat of the Allies on the Western Front begins.

The Germans occupy Tournai.

Cattaro, in the Adriatic, is bombarded by the Allied fleets.


Aug. 25 (Tues.)

Louvain is sacked by the Germans.

The British fight severe actions at Landrecies and Maroilles, and
reach the line Cambrai--Le Cateau in 'the Retreat.'

Mulhausen is again captured by the Germans.

In East Prussia the Russians approach Königsberg.

The Austrians defeat the Russians in the First Battle of Krasnik.

The Austrians evacuate Serbia (see Aug. 13).

Invasion of the Cameroons by the French and British (see Feb. 19,
1916).


Aug. 26 (Wed.) (Crécy, 1346).

The First Battle of Le Cateau: further retirement of the Allies in
France. Maubeuge is invested by the Germans (see Sept. 7).

The beginning of the Battle of Tannenberg, which, after four days'
fighting, leads to the crushing defeat of the Russians by Hindenburg.

Togoland surrenders to the Allies (see Aug. 8).

H.M.S. _Highflyer_ (a light cruiser, used before the war as a
training ship for naval cadets) sinks the German auxiliary cruiser
_Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse_ off the West African coast.


Aug. 27 (Thur.)

The Allies fall back behind the Somme. Lille and Mézières are
occupied by the Germans. Ostend is occupied by British marines.

Halicz (Galicia) is captured by the Russians.

The blockade of Tsingtau (Kiao-Chau) begins (see Aug. 15, Nov. 7).

The German cruiser _Magdeburg_ runs ashore in the Gulf of Finland,
and is blown up by her captain.


Aug. 28 (Fri.)

The Battle of the Bight of Heligoland: British destroyers supported
by light cruisers and battle cruisers sink three German cruisers and
two destroyers; no British vessel is lost.

New Zealand troops, supported by an Allied naval force, occupy
German Samoa.


Aug. 29 (Sat.)

The British Army, in touch at last with the French on both flanks,
rests temporarily for the first time in 'the Retreat.' General
Joffre and Sir J. French meet and confer at Compiègne. In the
evening the retreat is resumed in an orderly manner.

The Battle of Tannenberg ends in a complete victory for the Germans
(see Aug. 26).


Aug. 30 (Sun.)

The British reach a line a little north of Compiègne-Soissons. The
Germans occupy La Fère and Laon. The British bases are established
temporarily at St. Nazaire and Nantes instead of at Havre and
Boulogne.


Aug. 31 (Mon.)

The Germans occupy Amiens.

In Galicia the First Battle of Lemberg begins (see Sept. 2).


Sept. 1 (Tues.)

The Germans occupy Soissons. The British fight gallant actions at
Villers-Cotterets and Néry in 'the Retreat.'

East Africa:--The first portion of the Expeditionary Force arrives
at Mombasa.


Sept. 2 (Wed.)

The British reach the north bank of the Marne in 'the Retreat.'

The First Battle of Lemberg ends in a heavy defeat of the Austrians
by the Russians (see Aug. 31).

China:--Japanese troops are landed to attack Tsingtau (Kiao-Chau).


Sept. 3 (Thur.)

The French Government moves to Bordeaux.

The British cross the Marne in 'the Retreat,' and blow up the
bridges.

Lemberg is occupied by the Russians (see June 22, 1915).

H.M.S. _Speedy_, torpedo gunboat, is sunk by a mine off the Humber.


Sept. 4 (Fri.)

The Germans cross the Marne in force.

The Russians advance into the Carpathian passes.


Sept. 5 (Sat.)

The Franco-British retreat ends; Joffre orders a counter-offensive.
The Germans take Rheims and on their right are close to Paris. Heavy
fighting on the Ourcq.

The British light cruiser _Pathfinder_ is sunk, with serious loss
of life, by a German submarine off St. Abb's Head (the first ship to
be sunk by a submarine).


Sept. 6 (Sun.)

The Allied offensive in France begins with the First Battle of the
Marne (see Sept. 10). A decisive day in the Battle of Nancy (see
Aug. 22 and Sept. 11); German attacks are repulsed.

East Prussia:--The Battle of the Masurian Lakes begins (see Sept.
12).

In Galicia, the Battle of Grodek begins (see Sept. 13).


Sept. 7 (Mon.)

Maubeuge surrenders to the Germans (see Aug. 26). The Allies press
forward in France.

The Germans advance into Russia.

Austria begins a second invasion of Serbia (see Sept. 15).

The formation of the British Royal Naval Division is announced.


Sept. 8 (Tues.)

The advance of the Allies in France continues. Von Kluck is now
definitely in retreat.

H.M.S. _Oceanic_ (armed merchant cruiser) is wrecked and lost off
the Shetland Islands.


Sept. 9 (Wed.)

The decisive day of the Battle of the Marne: the British cross the
river and advance north of it; the French carry the Ourcq. Foch
makes a decisive move with the 9th French Army.

General Botha announces the decision of the South African Government
to undertake an expedition against German South-West Africa.


Sept. 10 (Thur.)

The victory of the Marne is complete (see Sept. 6): the Allies
advance rapidly.

Poland:--The Austrians are defeated in the Second Battle of Krasnik.

The Serbians occupy Semlin (Hungary).

The _Emden_ appears in the Bay of Bengal.


Sept. 11 (Fri.)

The French reoccupy Châlons. The British cross the Ourcq. The Battle
of Nancy ends in complete failure by the Germans (see Aug. 22).

Australian military and naval forces occupy the Bismarck Archipelago.


Sept. 12 (Sat.)

The Battle of the Masurian Lakes (see Sept. 6) ends in the defeat
and further retreat of the Russians: East Prussia is cleared of the
invader.


Sept. 13 (Sun.)

The Battle of the Aisne begins (see Sept. 28); the British force
the passage of the river. Soissons and Amiens are reoccupied by the
French.

Galicia:--The Battle of Grodek (see Sept. 6) ends in a complete
Russian victory.

The German light cruiser _Hela_ is sunk off Heligoland by the
British submarine E9 (the first successful submarine attack by the
British).


Sept. 14 (Mon.)

High ground north of the Aisne is captured by the British 1st Corps.
The Germans evacuate Rheims.

In Galicia, the Russians advance across the San.

H.M.S. _Carmania_ (auxiliary cruiser) sinks the German auxiliary
cruiser _Cap Trafalgar_ off Trinidad after a sharp action.


Sept. 15 (Tues.)

The Russians take Czernowitz, in the Bukovina (see Oct. 22).

The Serbians defeat the Austrians on the Drina: this ends the second
Austrian invasion of Serbia (see Sept. 7).

The rebellion in South Africa begins, but the accidental shooting
of De la Rey delays the open outbreak designed and upsets the rebel
plans (see Oct. 9, 22).


Sept. 16 (Wed.)

East Africa:--Longido is occupied by the Germans.


Sept. 17 (Thur.)

The Belgians fall back on Antwerp.

Hungary:--Semlin is evacuated by the Serbians (see Sept. 10).


Sept. 19 (Sat.)

British marines are landed at Dunkirk.

South-West Africa:--Luderitz Bay is occupied by Union troops.


Sept. 20 (Sun.)

The Germans bombard Rheims Cathedral.

H.M.S. _Pegasus_ is sunk by the _Königsberg_ off Zanzibar (95
casualties).


Sept. 21 (Mon.)

The French retake Noyon (see Sept. 25).

The German forces advancing from East Prussia reach the Niemen.


Sept. 22 (Tues.)

The Russians invest Przemysl.

The Serbians invade Bosnia again (see Aug. 12).

South Africa:--General Botha assumes command of the Union forces.

H.M.S. _Cressy_, _Aboukir_, and _Hogue_ (cruisers) are torpedoed by
a German submarine off the Hook of Holland: 1400 lives are lost.

The _Emden_ shells Madras.

A British naval air-raid on Düsseldorf.


Sept. 23 (Wed.)

The Germans capture St. Mihiel.

The Russians take Jaroslav (Galicia).


Sept. 24 (Thur.)

The Germans occupy Péronne.

Australian forces occupy German New Guinea.

China:--A British force is landed to aid the Japanese in their
operations against Tsingtau.


Sept. 25 (Fri.)

Noyon is retaken by the Germans (see Sept. 21). The Battle of Albert
(see Sept. 29) begins, the Germans attacking.


Sept. 26 (Sat.)

The Battle of the Niemen (see Sept. 28) begins, the Russians
standing on the line of the river against the German attack.


Sept. 27 (Sun.)

The Germans fail to cross the Niemen and retire.

The Cameroons:--Duala surrenders to the Allies.


Sept. 28 (Mon.)

The Germans attack Antwerp.

The Battle of the Aisne (see Sept. 13) ends in trench warfare.

The Battle of the Niemen (see Sept. 26) ends in the definite retreat
of the Germans.

The occupation of Galicia is completed by the Russians, who threaten
Cracow and invade Hungary.


Sept. 29 (Tues.)

End of the Battle of Albert (see Sept. 25): the Germans are repulsed.

The Battle of Augustovo (see Oct. 4) begins: the Russians, having
advanced from the Niemen, attack the Germans.


Sept. 30 (Wed.)

The French re-enter Arras and reoccupy Lille.


Oct. 1 (Thur.)

The transfer of the British Army from Champagne to Flanders begins
(see Oct. 19).


Oct. 3 (Sat.)

The Germans attack from Varennes to Verdun.

Before Antwerp the Belgians retire to the line of the Nethe.


Oct. 4 (Sun.)

Lens and Bailleul (see Oct. 14) are occupied by the Germans in their
movement towards the coast.

The end of the Battle of Augustovo (see Sept. 29): the Russians
re-enter East Prussia.


Oct. 5 (Mon.)

The British Naval Division reaches Antwerp.

The first German advance on Warsaw begins.


Oct. 6 (Tues.)

The British 7th Division is disembarked at Ostend.

The British submarine E9 sinks a German destroyer off the mouth of
the Ems.


Oct. 7 (Wed.)

The Belgian Government moves from Antwerp to Ostend.

Japan occupies the Marshall Islands.


Oct. 8 (Thur.)

The city of Antwerp is bombarded; the garrison retires across the
Scheldt. A force of Belgians and 2000 British are driven into Dutch
territory.

A British air-raid on Cologne and Düsseldorf.


Oct. 9 (Fri.)

The end of the second Russian advance into East Prussia.

South Africa:--Maritz openly rebels and joins forces with the
Germans on the border of South-West Africa (see Oct. 22).

A British naval air-raid on Düsseldorf, by which a Zeppelin is
destroyed in its shed.


Oct. 10 (Sat.)

Antwerp is captured by the Germans.


Oct. 11 (Sun.)

The Battle of La Bassée begins (see Oct. 31); the British (2nd
Corps) attack the La Bassée position.

A heavy attack on the British 7th Division at Ghent is repulsed.

The Russian cruiser _Pallada_ is destroyed by German submarines in
the Baltic.


Oct. 13 (Tues.)

The Germans occupy Ghent and reoccupy Lille; the British (3rd Corps)
drive them from Méteren.


Oct. 14 (Wed.)

The British (3rd Corps) recapture Bailleul (see Oct. 4).

Jabussi, in the Cameroons, is occupied by the Allies.


Oct. 15 (Thur.)

The Germans occupy Zeebrugge and Ostend. The British (3rd Corps)
advance towards the Lys.

The First Battle for Warsaw begins (see Oct. 27). The Siege of
Przemysl is raised for three weeks.

South Africa:--Union forces under Colonel Brits attack and defeat
the rebel commando under Maritz at Ratedrai.

H.M.S. _Hawke_ (cruiser) is torpedoed by a German submarine in the
North Sea (500 lives lost).


Oct. 16 (Fri.)

The Battle of the Yser begins (see Oct. 30). The Belgians retire
from the Forest of Houthulst.


Oct. 17 (Sat.)

The British (9th Brigade) recapture Aubers.

H.M.S. _Undaunted_ (cruiser) and four British destroyers sink four
German destroyers off the Dutch coast.


Oct. 18 (Sun.)

British monitors bombard the right flank of the German army in
Belgium.

The British submarine E3 is sunk in the North Sea (the first British
submarine to be lost through enemy action).


Oct. 19 (Mon.)

The transfer of the British to Flanders is completed (see Oct. 1).
The First Battle of Ypres begins (see Nov. 21). The first division
of Indians reaches the Western Front.


Oct. 20 (Tues.)

The German attack on Arras begins.


Oct. 22 (Thur.)

Bukovina:--Czernowitz is reoccupied by the Austrians (see Sept. 15,
Oct. 27).

South Africa:--Beyers, Kemp and De Wet openly rebel (see Sept. 15,
Oct. 9).


Oct. 23 (Fri.)

French troops support the British at Zonnebeke.

South-West Africa:--Angola (Portuguese colony) is entered by the
Germans.


Oct. 24 (Sat.)

The French advance near Zonnebeke. The Germans cross the Yser.

South Africa:--De Wet seizes Heilbron.

H.M.S. _Badger_ rams a German submarine off the Dutch coast.


Oct. 26 (Mon.)

South Africa:--Union troops under Colonel Brits defeat and break up
rebel forces under Maritz at Kakamas.

The Cameroons:--Edea is occupied by the Allies.

The French liner _Amiral Ganteaume_ is sunk by a submarine off Cape
Grisnez.


Oct. 27 (Tues.)

The British line is drawn back at Ypres.

The end of the First Battle for Warsaw (see Oct. 15): the Germans
retreat.

Bukovina:--Czernowitz is reoccupied by the Russians (see Oct. 22,
1914; Feb. 17, 1915).

The Serbians are driven out of Bosnia by the Austrians.

South Africa:--General Botha defeats and disperses Beyers' commando
at Commissie Drift, near Rustenburg; Beyers escapes.

H.M.S. _Audacious_ (dreadnought) is sunk by a mine off Lough Swilly
on the north coast of Ireland.


Oct. 28 (Wed.)

The Belgians flood the land round the Yser.

The _Emden_ sinks the Russian cruiser _Jemchug_ and the French
destroyer _Mousquet_ off Penang.


Oct. 29 (Thurs.)

Lord Fisher succeeds Prince Louis of Battenberg as British First Sea
Lord (see May 28, 1915).

Fierce fighting round Kruseik and Gheluvelt.


Oct. 30 (Fri.)

The Germans are forced back by the floods in the Yser district: the
end of the Battle of the Yser (see Oct. 16). The British are driven
from Zandvoorde but hold at Klein Zillebeke.

South Africa:--Colonel Brits clears the north-west of Cape Province
by defeating the remnant of the rebels left in this locality at
Schuit Drift.

The German cruiser _Königsberg_ is discovered in the Rufiji River
(German East Africa) and shelled by H.M.S. _Chatham_ and other
British warships (see July 11, 1915).


Oct. 31 (Sat.)

The end of the Battle of La Bassée (see Oct. 11).

A critical day in the First Battle of Ypres; the British line is
broken and restored.

Tsingtau is bombarded by the Japanese and British (see Nov. 7).

H.M.S. _Hermes_ (aircraft-carrier) is sunk by a submarine in the
Straits of Dover.


Nov. 1 (Sun.)

The Germans take Messines.

The third Austrian invasion of Serbia begins (see Dec. 15).

The forts of Tsingtau are silenced (see Nov. 7).

A British squadron is defeated off Coronel (Chile) by a German
squadron of superior strength under Admiral von Spee: the _Good
Hope_ and _Monmouth_ are sunk.


Nov. 2 (Mon.)

The Germans capture Neuve Chapelle from the British.


Nov. 3 (Tues.)

The Dardanelles Forts are bombarded by the British and French
Mediterranean fleets.

East Africa:--Tanga is attacked by the British (see Nov. 5).

A German cruiser squadron bombards Yarmouth and escapes.


Nov. 4 (Wed.)

The Austrians are heavily defeated at Jaroslav (Galicia).

East Africa:--A British attack on Longido is repulsed.

The German armoured cruiser _Yorck_ is sunk by a mine at the
entrance to Jahde Bay (west of the mouth of the Weser).


Nov. 5 (Thur.)

Great Britain declares war on Turkey and annexes Cyprus.

The British line at Ypres is readjusted.

East Africa:--The British attack on Tanga is repulsed (see Nov. 3).


Nov. 6 (Fri.)

Carl Lody is shot for espionage in the Tower of London.

The Germans attack at Klein Zillebeke.

Mesopotamia:--Fao, at the mouth of the Shatt-el-Arab, is captured by
the British.


Nov. 7 (Sat.)

Tsingtau is taken by the Japanese and British (see Aug. 27, Oct. 31).


Nov. 9 (Mon.)

H.M.S. _Sydney_ of the Australian navy destroys the _Emden_ off
Cocos Island.


Nov. 10 (Tues.)

The Germans capture Dixmude.

Goldap (East Prussia) is occupied by the Russians.

H.M.S. _Chatham_ and other British warships again shell the
_Königsberg_ in the Rufiji River (German East Africa) (see Oct. 30
and July 11, 1915).


Nov. 11 (Wed.)

A critical day in the First Battle of Ypres: a great attack by the
Prussian Guard is repulsed.

The Russians begin the Second Siege of Przemysl (see March 22, 1915).

The British torpedo-gunboat _Niger_ is sunk by a German submarine
off Deal.


Nov. 12 (Thur.)

A fresh German assault on the Klein Zillebeke position is partially
successful.

South Africa:--Botha completely routs the rebel forces under De Wet
at Mushroom Valley in the Orange Free State.


Nov. 14 (Sat.)

Death of Lord Roberts at British G.H.Q. in France (St. Omer).


Nov. 15 (Sun.)

The Russians advance rapidly in East Prussia.


Nov. 17 (Tues.)

South-West Africa:--The Germans again invade Angola (see Oct. 23).

East Africa:--Longido is occupied by the British.

Libau is shelled by a German squadron.


Nov. 18 (Wed.)

The Second Battle for Warsaw begins (see Dec. 28).

The _Goeben_ and the _Breslau_ are attacked by a Russian squadron in
the Black Sea, the _Goeben_ being damaged.


Nov. 20 (Fri.)

The Germans invade Uganda.


Nov. 21 (Sat.)

The end of the First Battle of Ypres (see Oct. 19).

Basra, at the head of the Persian Gulf, is occupied by British
forces from India.

A British air-raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshafen.


Nov. 23 (Mon.)

The Germans attack the Indians at Festubert; trenches are lost and
recovered.

The Russian front is broken near Lodz.

Zeebrugge is bombarded by two British battleships.

The German submarine U18 is rammed and sunk off the north coast of
Scotland.


Nov. 24 (Tues.)

The Russian line near Lodz is restored.


Nov. 25 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--A naval reconnaissance up the Tigris to Gurneh.


Nov. 26 (Thur.)

H.M.S. _Bulwark_ (battleship) is destroyed by an accidental
explosion off Sheerness with heavy loss of life.


Nov. 27 (Fri.)

The Russians begin to evacuate Lodz.


Dec. 1 (Tues.)

South Africa:--De Wet is captured by Union troops at Waterburg (100
miles west of Mafeking) (see Oct. 22).


Dec. 2 (Wed.)

A French success at Vermelles.

Belgrade is occupied by the Austrians.


Dec. 3 (Thur.)

The Battle of the Ridges, between the Serbians and the Austrians,
begins (see Dec. 6).


Dec. 4 (Fri.)

South Africa:--Part of the rebel forces surrenders near Reitz.


Dec. 6 (Sun.)

The Battle at Lodz (see Nov. 23, 24 and 27) ends in the capture of
the town by the Germans.

The Battle of the Ridges (see Dec. 3) ends in the rout of the
Austrians.


Dec. 7 (Mon.)

The Russians attack the forts of Cracow.

Mesopotamia:--A British success at Mezera.


Dec. 8 (Tues.)

The Battle of the Falkland Islands: a German squadron under Admiral
von Spee is destroyed by a British cruiser force under Admiral Sir
F. Doveton Sturdee; only the _Dresden_ escapes.

South Africa:--General Beyers, after a crushing defeat south of
Bothaville, is drowned in attempting to escape across the Vaal
River. The main rebel force surrenders to General Botha (see Oct.
22).


Dec. 10 (Thur.)

The Cameroons:--Bare is occupied by the British.


Dec. 11 (Fri.)

The _Goeben_ is driven from Batum.


Dec. 12 (Sat.)

The Austrians take the Dukla Pass. The Russians are forced to
retreat from Cracow.


Dec. 13 (Sun.)

The British submarine B11 passes under the Dardanelles mine-fields
and sinks the Turkish battleship _Messudiyeh_.


Dec. 15 (Tues.)

The end of the third Austrian invasion of Serbia: the Serbians
retake Belgrade and again drive the Austrians out of the country
(see Nov. 1).


Dec. 16 (Wed.)

German cruisers bombard Scarborough, Hartlepool, and Whitby.


Dec. 18 (Fri.)

The Khedive of Egypt, Abbas II., is deposed, and Prince Hussein
Kamel Pasha, a son of the ex-Khedive Ismail, is appointed Sultan of
Egypt by Great Britain (see Oct. 9, 1917).


Dec. 19 (Sat.)

An attack by the Indian Corps at Givenchy: ground is gained and lost.


Dec. 20 (Sun.)

The Germans capture Indian positions near Givenchy.

The Russians recapture the Dukla Pass and advance in the Carpathians.

A British air-raid on Brussels airship sheds.


Dec. 22 (Tues.)

The situation near Givenchy is restored by a British counter-attack.


Dec. 24 (Thurs.)

A British air-raid on the German airship sheds near Brussels.


Dec. 25 (Fri.)

German warships are bombed by British seaplanes off Cuxhaven.

South-West Africa:--Walfish Bay is occupied by Union troops.


Dec. 26 (Sat.)

Valona (Albania) is temporarily occupied by the Italians (see May
29, 1915).


Dec. 28 (Mon.)

The Second Battle for Warsaw (see Nov. 18) ends in failure for the
Germans.


Dec. 29 (Tues.)

The Caucasus:--The Battle of Sarykamish begins, between the Russians
and the Turks (see Jan. 2, 1915).


Dec. 30 (Wed.)

A raid by German aeroplanes on Dunkirk.



1915


Jan. 1 (Fri.)

A new British decoration, the 'Military Cross,' is instituted.

The Caucasus:--Ardahan is occupied by the Turks.

H.M.S. _Formidable_ (battleship) is torpedoed in the English Channel
(600 lives lost).


Jan. 2 (Sat.)

The Caucasus:--The end of the Battle of Sarykamish (see Dec. 29,
1914): the Turks are routed.

East Africa:--Jassin is occupied by the British (see Jan. 19).

H.M.S. _Fox_ and H.M.S. _Goliath_ bombard Dar-es-Salaam (German East
Africa).


Jan. 3 (Sun.)

The Caucasus:--Ardahan is reoccupied by the Russians.


Jan. 4 (Mon.)

A Russian advance in the Bukovina begins.


Jan. 7 (Thurs.)

The Cameroons:--A German attack on Edea is repulsed.


Jan. 8 (Fri.)

The Battle of Soissons begins (see Jan. 14): the French advance.

The Caucasus:--The Battle of Kara Urgan begins (see Jan. 13).


Jan. 9 (Sat.)

Northern Persia:--The Turks capture Tabriz from the Russians (see
Jan. 30).


Jan. 11 (Mon.)

A German counter-attack at Soissons is repulsed.


Jan. 12 (Tues.)

East Africa:--The Island of Mafia surrenders to the British.


Jan. 13 (Wed.)

Caucasus:--The Battle of Kara Urgan ends in a Turkish defeat (see
Jan. 8).


Jan. 14 (Thur.)

The French fall back on Soissons: the end of the Battle of Soissons
(see Jan. 8).

South-West Africa:--Swakopmund is occupied by Union forces.


Jan. 19 (Tues.)

The Austrian army enters Galicia.

East Africa:--Jassin is captured by the Germans (see Jan. 2).

A Zeppelin raid on Yarmouth, Cromer and King's Lynn.


Jan. 21 (Thur.)

The Germans capture the Hartmannsweilerkopf (Alsace).


Jan. 22 (Fri.)

A British air-raid on Zeebrugge.


Jan. 24 (Sun.)

South Africa:--The rebels under Maritz and Kemp are repulsed with
heavy loss at Upington.

The Battle of the Dogger Bank: Beatty's squadron destroys the
_Blücher_ and damages other German warships.


Jan. 25 (Mon.)

German attacks are repulsed at Cuinchy and near Givenchy.

The German light cruiser _Gazelle_ is torpedoed in the Baltic.

The Russians destroy a German airship over Libau.


Jan. 26 (Tues.)

The Turks advance on Egypt from Palestine.


Jan. 29 (Fri.)

The Turks occupy Katiyeh, near the Suez Canal.


Jan. 30 (Sat.)

Northern Persia:--The Russians reoccupy Tabriz (see Jan. 9).


Jan. 31 (Sun.)

Farsan Island (Red Sea) is occupied by Arab forces.


Feb. 1 (Mon.)

The British hospital ship _Asturias_ is attacked near Havre by a
German submarine.


Feb. 2 (Tues.)

The first Turkish attack on the Suez Canal.


Feb. 3 (Wed.)

The Turks are repulsed on the Suez Canal.

South Africa:--Kemp, the last rebel leader, surrenders
unconditionally; this ends the rebellion (see Oct. 22, 1914).


Feb. 4 (Thur.)

The British cross the Suez Canal and pursue the Turks.


Feb. 6 (Sat.)

The Russians again advance in East Prussia.


Feb. 7 (Sun.)

The Russians retire before a German advance in East Prussia, and are
driven back by the Austrians in the Bukovina.


Feb. 8 (Mon.)

South-West Africa:--General Botha sails for Walfish Bay (see July 9,
1915).

French airmen bombard Ostend.


Feb. 11 (Thur.)

A British air-raid on Zeebrugge.


Feb. 12 (Fri.)

The Germans invade Russia and take Miriampol.

The Austrians advance in the Carpathians.

Aden Protectorate is invaded by the Turks.


Feb. 14 (Sun.)

The Germans capture Lyck and again clear East Prussia.


Feb. 15 (Mon.)

Mutiny of the 5th Light Infantry at Singapore.


Feb. 16 (Tues.)

The Austrians capture Kolomea (Bukovina).

A British naval air-raid on Zeebrugge.


Feb. 17 (Wed.)

Czernowitz is recaptured by the Austrians (see Oct. 27, 1914).


Feb. 18 (Thur.)

The declaration by Germany of a submarine blockade round the British
Isles comes into force.

The end of the German advance into Russia.


Feb. 19 (Fri.)

The Austrians drive the Russians out of Stanislau (see March 4).

A naval attack on the Dardanelles begins: the outer forts are
bombarded until the 23rd.


Feb. 21 (Sun.)

A Zeppelin raid on Calais.


Feb. 22 (Mon.)

The Germans advance on Przasnysz (the Battle of Przasnysz).

The Turks are driven from Akaba (Red Sea).

South-West Africa:--Garub is occupied by Union troops.


Feb. 24 (Wed.)

The Germans capture Przasnysz (see Feb. 27).


Feb. 25 (Thur.)

The bombardment of the Dardanelles forts is resumed; the _Queen
Elizabeth_ comes into action.


Feb. 26 (Fri.)

The entrance to the Dardanelles is swept clear of mines.


Feb. 27 (Sat.)

Przasnysz is reoccupied by the Russians (see Feb. 24 and July 14).


Feb. 28 (Sun.)

A German retreat from North Poland begins.

A German submarine is rammed by the _Thordis_ off Beachy Head (the
first case of a submarine being rammed by a merchant ship).


Mar. 3 (Wed.)

South-West Africa:--Makob is occupied by Union forces.


Mar. 4 (Thur.)

Stanislau is recaptured by the Russians (see Feb. 19).

The Dardanelles forts are bombarded from inside the Straits.

The German submarine U8 is sunk by British destroyers near Dover.


Mar. 5 (Fri.)

The Allies bombard Smyrna.


Mar. 6 (Sat.)

Another great attack on the Dardanelles forts.


Mar. 7 (Sun.)

Lemnos, in the Ægean Sea, is occupied by the British.


Mar. 8 (Mon.)

The British Government announces that a separate treatment will be
meted out to prisoners captured in German submarines (see April 12
and June 12).

Heavy fighting near Augustovo: the Russians drive the Germans back
to the frontier.

A British air-raid on Ostend.


Mar. 9 (Tues.)

East Africa:--The British defeat the Germans on the Mora River.

The German submarine U12 is rammed and sunk by the British destroyer
_Ariel_ off the Firth of Forth.


Mar. 10 (Wed.)

The Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins: the British advance (see March
13).


Mar. 11 (Thur.)

South-West Africa:--Nabas is occupied by Union forces.

H.M.S. _Bayano_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine off
the Clyde.


Mar. 13 (Sat.)

The Battle of Neuve Chapelle ends: the British gains are
consolidated (see March 10).

The Russians breach the defences of Przemysl.


Mar. 14 (Sun.)

The Germans attack at St. Eloi and take the village.

H.M.S. _Kent_ and _Glasgow_ sink the _Dresden_ off Juan Fernandez
Island.


Mar. 15 (Mon.)

The British retake St. Eloi.

H.M.S. _Amethyst_ makes a raid up the Dardanelles.


Mar. 17 (Wed.)

A further enemy attack at St. Eloi is repulsed.

Sir Ian Hamilton arrives at Tenedos (Ægean Sea).


Mar. 18 (Thur.)

The Battle of the Narrows: an Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles
is repulsed; the French battleship _Bouvet_ and the British
battleships _Irresistible_ and _Ocean_ are sunk.

The Russians again invade East Prussia and temporarily occupy Memel
(see March 21).

A Zeppelin raid on Calais.


Mar. 20 (Sat.)

South-West Africa:--General Botha defeats the Germans at Riet on the
Swakop.


Mar. 21 (Sun.)

The Germans retake Memel (see March 18).


Mar. 22 (Mon.)

Przemysl surrenders to the Russians, who claim 126,000 prisoners
(see Nov. 11, 1914, and June 3, 1915).

A second Turkish attack on the Suez Canal.


Mar. 23 (Tues.)

The Turks are again driven back from the Suez Canal.


Mar. 24 (Wed.)

A British air-raid on German submarine works at Hoboken, near
Antwerp.


Mar. 25 (Thur.)

The French attack the Hartmannsweilerkopf (Alsace).

The Dutch steamship _Medea_ is sunk by a German submarine off Beachy
Head.

The German fleet bombards the coast of Courland.

A French air-raid on Metz.


Mar. 27 (Sat.)

The French capture the Hartmannsweilerkopf (Alsace).


Mar. 28 (Sun.)

The British liner _Falaba_ is sunk by the U28 south of St. George's
Channel.

Libau is bombarded by German warships.

A German air-raid on Calais.


April 1 (Thur.)

South-West Africa:--Union forces seize Hasuur.

A British air-raid on Hoboken and Zeebrugge.


April 4 (Easter Sunday)

South-West Africa:--Warmbad is occupied by Union forces.


April 5 (Mon.)

The French attack at Les Eparges.

Caucasus:--Artvin is occupied by the Russians.


April 6 (Tues.)

A German counter-attack at Les Eparges.


April 8 (Thur.)

The French win the summit of Les Eparges.


April 9 (Fri.)

A final German counter-attack at Les Eparges is repulsed.


April 12 (Mon.)

Germany places 39 British officers in detention barracks as a
reprisal against the treatment of submarine prisoners by Great
Britain (see March 8 and June 12).

Mesopotamia:--The British are attacked at Shaiba.


April 14 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--The Battle at Shaiba ends in the defeat of the Turks.

A Zeppelin raid on the Tyneside.


April 15 (Thur.)

A Zeppelin raid on East Anglia.


April 16 (Fri.)

Northern Persia:--Urmia is occupied by the Turks.


April 17 (Sat.)

The British capture 'Hill 60,' near Ypres.

South West Africa:--Seeheim is occupied by Union forces.


April 18 (Sun.)

The Germans counter-attack on 'Hill 60' and regain part of it.

On the North-West Frontier of India Mohmand Inshkar is defeated by
the British.


April 20 (Tues.)

Fierce fighting on 'Hill 60.' The Germans bombard Ypres.


April 21 (Wed.)

The Germans are driven from 'Hill 60' (see May 5).


April 22 (Thur.)

The Second Battle of Ypres (see May 24) begins; poison gas is used
by the Germans for the first time; the Canadians suffer heavily.


April 24 (Sat.)

A second German gas attack; the Germans storm St. Julien.


April 25 (Sun.)

Alsace:--The French lose ground on the Hartmannsweilerkopf.


April 25-26 (Sun.-Mon.)

The Allies land in Gallipoli (the Battle of Cape Helles).


April 27 (Tues.)

The Baltic Provinces are invaded by the Germans.

The British positions in Gallipoli are consolidated.

The French armoured cruiser _Leon Gambetta_ is torpedoed and sunk at
the entrance of the Straits of Otranto (night of 26-27).

The British submarine E14 enters the Sea of Marmora.


April 28 (Wed.)

The German offensive is held at Ypres.

Alsace:--The French retake the Hartmannsweilerkopf, the summit of
which had been lost on the 25th.

Gallipoli:--The First Battle for Krithia: the Allies are repulsed.

An unsuccessful Turkish attack on the Suez Canal (the third).

South-West Africa:--The Germans are defeated at Gibeon.

French airmen raid Friedrichshafen.


April 29 (Thur.)

A Turkish transport is sunk by the E14 in the Sea of Marmora.


April 30 (Fri.)

A Zeppelin raid on East Anglia.


May 1 (Sat.)

The great Austro-German offensive in Western Galicia begins. In the
Baltic Provinces the Germans occupy Shavli and approach Libau.

The Turks attack in Gallipoli.

The British destroyer _Recruit_[2] is sunk by a submarine off the
Galloper lightship. Two German torpedo boats are sunk by British
destroyers in the North Sea.

  [2] Launched 1896. The new _Recruit_ (launched Dec. 1916) was sunk
  on Aug. 9, 1917.


May 2 (Sun.)

A German gas attack at Ypres is repulsed.

The Austro-Germans cross the Biala; Ciezkowice is taken.

The British counter-attack in Gallipoli.


May 3 (Mon.)

The British line at Ypres is shortened.

The Germans advance on the Eastern Front.


May 4 (Tues.)

Gallipoli:--The British fail in an attack at Gaba Tepe.


May 5 (Wed.)

The Germans recapture 'Hill 60' (see Apr. 21).

South-West Africa:--Union forces occupy Karibib.


May 6 (Thur.)

Gallipoli:--The Second Battle for Krithia begins (see May 8).


May 7 (Fri.)

The _Lusitania_ is torpedoed by a German submarine off the Old Head
of Kinsale; 1198 lives are lost (including 124 Americans).

The British destroyer _Maori_ is sunk by a mine in the North Sea.


May 8 (Sat.)

A fierce German attack at Ypres.

The Russians are defeated in Galicia and in the Baltic Provinces.
Libau is captured by the Germans.

Gallipoli:--The Second Battle for Krithia (see May 6) ends in a
slight Allied advance.


May 9 (Sun.)

The British line is pushed back at Ypres. The British attack and
gain ground (which is subsequently relinquished) near Fromelles.

The Battle of Souchez begins (see July 13).

Gallipoli:--Turkish trenches at Sari Bair are stormed by the
Australians.


May 10 (Mon.)

The Germans retreat in the Baltic Provinces but continue to advance
in Galicia.


May 11 (Tues.)

The Germans evacuate Shavli (Baltic Provinces) (see May 1).

The Cameroons:--Eseka is captured by the Allies.


May 12 (Wed.)

South-West Africa:--Union forces capture Windhoek, the capital of
the Colony.


May 13 (Thur.)

A fierce German attack at Ypres: the British line is restored after
hard fighting.

H.M.S. _Goliath_ (battleship) is torpedoed off Gallipoli, while
inside the Straits protecting the French flank.


May 14 (Fri.)

The Battle of the San: Jaroslav is taken by the Austro-Germans.


May 15 (Sat.)

The Caucasus:--The Russians capture Van.


May 16 (Sun.)

The Battle of Festubert begins: the British advance (see May 25).

The Austrians are defeated in South Poland.

A Zeppelin raid on Calais.


May 17 (Mon.)

The San is crossed by the Austro-Germans.

A Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate.


May 18 (Tues.)

Gallipoli:--The Turks attack the Australians and are repulsed.


May 19 (Wed.)

The Austro-Germans capture Lutkow (Galicia).


May 20 (Thur.)

Admiral von Essen, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Baltic fleet,
dies of pneumonia.


May 23 (Whit Sunday)

Italy declares war on Austria.


May 24 (Mon.)

The end of the Second Battle of Ypres (see April 22).

The Italians cross the frontier into Austria (midnight, 24th-25th).


May 25 (Tues.)

The formation of a new Coalition Ministry is announced in the House
of Commons.

The end of the Battle of Festubert (see May 16); the British gains
are consolidated.

H.M.S. _Triumph_ (battleship) is sunk by a submarine off Gaba Tepe,
Gallipoli.


May 26 (Wed.)

The constitution of the new British Government is announced: Prime
Minister, Mr. Asquith; Foreign Secretary, Sir E. Grey; Secretary for
India, Mr. Chamberlain; Secretary for War, Lord Kitchener; First
Lord of the Admiralty, Mr. Balfour; Minister of Munitions, Mr. Lloyd
George (see Aug. 4, 1914, and Dec. 10, 1916).

The British submarine E11 torpedoes a Turkish transport in
Constantinople harbour.

A Zeppelin raid on Southend.


May 27 (Thur.)

The Italians capture Ala and Grado.

H.M.S. _Majestic_ (battleship) is torpedoed off Cape Helles,
Gallipoli.

A French air-raid on Ludwigshaven.


May 28 (Fri.)

The appointment of Admiral Sir Henry Jackson as First Sea Lord in
succession to Lord Fisher is announced (see Oct. 29, 1914, and Nov.
29, 1916).


May 29 (Sat.)

The French capture Ablain (near Souchez).

The Italians occupy Valona (Albania).


May 30 (Sun.)

The Austro-Germans attack Przemysl.


May 31 (Mon.)

The French capture the sugar factory at Souchez.

A Zeppelin raid on London.


June 1 (Tues.)

The Austro-Germans capture Stryj.


June 2 (Wed.)

A German attack at Hooge is repulsed by the British.


June 3 (Thur.)

The Austro-Germans recapture Przemysl (see March 22).

Mesopotamia:--The British capture Amara.


June 4 (Fri.)

Gallipoli:--A third Allied attack on Krithia and Achi Baba results
in a slight gain of ground at certain points.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England.


June 6 (Sun.)

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England.


June 7 (Mon.)

The Italians begin a general advance on the Isonzo Front.

Sub-Lieut. R. A. J. Warneford destroys a Zeppelin over Belgium. A
Zeppelin in its shed near Brussels is destroyed by British airmen.


June 8 (Tues.)

Stanislau is recaptured by the Austrians (see March 4).


June 9 (Wed.)

The Isonzo front:--Monfalcone is captured by the Italians.


June 10 (Thur.)

The Austro-Germans are defeated near Zurawno, where they had crossed
the Dniester.

The Cameroons:--Garua surrenders to the Allies.


June 12 (Sat.)

The British Government rescinds the order concerning the treatment
of German submarine prisoners (see March 8 and April 12).


June 14 (Mon.)

The Russian retirement on Grodek begins.


June 15 (Tues.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians attack the Podgora position.

A Zeppelin raid on the north-east coast of England.

A French air-raid on Karlsruhe.


June 16 (Wed.)

The British attack and gain ground on the Bellewarde Ridge, east of
Ypres.


June 17 (Thur.)

The Isonzo Front:-The Italians attack at Plava.


June 18 (Fri.)

The Austrians are defeated at Plava, and the town is captured by the
Italians.

Gallipoli:--The Turks attack and are repulsed.

An Austrian squadron raids Fano on the Italian coast.


June 20 (Sun.)

The Germans attack in the Argonne.

The Russians are defeated at Rava Russka; the Grodek position is
turned.


June 21 (Mon.)

Gallipoli:--The Allies attack and gain ground.


June 22 (Tues.)

The Austrians recapture Lemberg (see Sept. 3, 1914).


June 23 (Wed.)

East Africa:--Bukoba on Lake Victoria Nyanza is captured by the
British.


June 25 (Fri.)

The Cameroons:--The Allies capture Lome.


June 27 (Sun.)

The Austro-Germans occupy Halicz.

Gallipoli:--The British attack and gain ground.


June 29 (Tues.)

Gallipoli:--The Turks attack in strength (see July 1).

Cameroons:--The Allies occupy Ngaundere.


June 30 (Wed.)

The Russians retreat before a powerful German offensive between the
Bug and the Vistula.

The British destroyer _Lightning_ is sunk in the North Sea.


July 1 (Thur.)

Gallipoli:--The Turkish offensive fails completely after fierce
fighting (see June 29).


July 2 (Fri.)

An offensive is launched by the Italians on the Isonzo: they advance
on Gorizia (see July 29).

South-West Africa:--Union forces capture Otavifontein.

The German cruiser _Pommern_ is torpedoed by a British submarine in
the Baltic.


July 4 (Sun.)

Gallipoli:--A strong Turkish attack is repulsed.

South-West Africa:--The Germans are defeated at Gaub.


July 5 (Mon.)

The German advance on Warsaw is checked.

In the Aden Protectorate Lahej is taken by the Turks.


July 6 (Tues.)

The British capture trenches near Pilkem.

A German success at St. Mihiel.

The Russians defeat the Austrians near Krasnik.


July 7 (Wed.)

An Italian attack at Gorizia is repulsed.


July 8 (Thur.)

The Italian cruiser _Amalfi_ is sunk by an Austrian submarine in the
Adriatic.


July 9 (Fri.)

The German forces in South-West Africa surrender unconditionally to
General Botha.


July 11 (Sun.)

The _Königsberg_ is finally destroyed in the Rufiji River (East
Africa) by British river monitors (see Oct. 30 and Nov. 10, 1914).


July 13 (Tues.)

The end of the Battle of Souchez (see May 9).


July 14 (Wed.)

The Austro-Germans launch an offensive which covers the whole
Eastern Front; they capture Przasnysz (see Feb. 27).


July 15 (Thur.)

The Germans advance towards Riga.


July 16 (Fri.)

Heavy fighting on the Eastern Front; the Battle of Krasnostav begins.


July 18 (Sun.)

The Russians are defeated at Krasnostav.

Windau (on the coast of Courland) is captured by the Germans.

The Italian cruiser _Giuseppe Garibaldi_ is sunk by an Austrian
submarine.


July 19 (Mon.)

The Third Battle for Warsaw begins (see Aug. 5). The Germans force a
crossing of the Upper Bug.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture Monte San Michele.


July 20 (Tues.)

The Germans advance on Kovno (see Aug. 17).

The Isonzo Front:--An Italian success at Podgora.


July 21 (Wed.)

A British success at Hooge.

The Germans gain a crossing of the Vistula at Nova Alexandria.


July 22 (Thur.)

The Germans invest Ivangorod.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians continue to gain ground.


July 23 (Fri.)

The Germans force a crossing of the Narev.

An Austrian squadron bombards Ortona (on the eastern coast of
Italy).


July 25 (Sun.)

The Italians occupy the island of Pelagosa (Adriatic).

Mesopotamia:--Nasiriyeh is captured by the British.


July 26 (Mon.)

There is heavy fighting before Warsaw.

A British submarine sinks a German destroyer near the German coast.


July 27 (Tues.)

The Germans close in on three sides of Warsaw.


July 28 (Wed.)

The Germans cross the Vistula in force.


July 29 (Thur.)

The Russian line is broken on the Lublin-Cholm railway.

The end of the Italian offensive on the Isonzo (see July 2); it
results in a valuable advance and the capture of many prisoners by
the Italians.


July 30 (Fri.)

A successful German attack with liquid fire (first use of this) at
Hooge; a British counter-attack fails (see Aug. 9).

The Austro-Germans occupy Lublin. The Russians retire rapidly.

A British submarine sinks a German transport in the Baltic.


July 31 (Sat.)

The Austro-Germans occupy Cholm.


Aug. 1 (Sun.)

Mitau is occupied by the Germans (see Aug. 16).

Rhodesia:--The Germans are driven back from Abercorn.


Aug. 3 (Tues.)

The Germans force the line of the Narev.


Aug. 4 (Wed.)

The Russians evacuate the Blonie lines, 15 miles west of Warsaw.


Aug. 5 (Thur.)

Warsaw, Ivangorod, and Vladimir Volynski are captured by the
Austro-Germans (see July 19 and 22). The Russians prepare to
evacuate Riga.


Aug. 6 (Fri.)

Gallipoli:--The Battles of Sari Bair (see Aug. 11) and Suvla (see
Aug. 15) begin: the British effect a surprise landing in Suvla Bay
and launch an offensive against the Turks at other points.


Aug. 7 (Sat.)

The Germans are repulsed near Riga.

Gallipoli:--Slight successes are gained against the Turkish
positions above Suvla Bay.


Aug. 8 (Sun.)

Gallipoli:--The New Zealanders capture Chunuk Bair. This is the
critical day at Suvla (see Aug. 10).

Persian Gulf:--Bushire is occupied by the British.

H.M.S. _India_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine off
the Norwegian coast.


Aug. 9 (Mon.)

A successful British counter-attack at Hooge: the trenches lost on
July 30 are recaptured.

A British submarine sinks a Turkish battleship, the _Kheyr-ed-Din
Barbarossa_.

The British destroyer _Lynx_ is mined off the Moray Firth.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England.

A Zeppelin is destroyed near Ostend.


Aug. 10 (Tues.)

The German advance beyond the Vistula begins.

Gallipoli:--The Turks regain Chunuk Bair.

A German squadron fails to force its way into the Gulf of Riga (see
Aug. 17, 18, and 21).

The German mine-layer and raider _Meteor_ is blown up, to avoid
capture by British cruisers near the German coast.


Aug. 11 (Wed.)

Gallipoli:--The end of the Battle of Sari Bair (see Aug. 6).


Aug. 12 (Thur.)

Syedlets (Poland) is taken by the Germans.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England.


Aug. 14 (Sat.)

A German submarine sinks a British transport, the _Royal Edward_, in
the Ægean (the first British transport to be lost).


Aug. 15 (Sun.)

The Germans take Vlodava (Poland).

Gallipoli:--The end of the Battle of Suvla (see Aug. 6).


Aug. 16 (Mon.)

The Russians retake Mitau (see Aug. 1).


Aug. 17 (Tues.)

The Germans capture Kovno (see July 20).

A German squadron enters the Gulf of Riga (see Aug. 10, 18, and 21).


Aug. 18 (Wed.)

The Germans cut the Brest-Bialystok railway.

A Russian naval success in the Gulf of Riga: the German squadron
which has entered the Gulf suffers severe losses.

A British submarine torpedoes the German battle-cruiser _Moltke_ in
the Baltic.

The British submarine E13 is shelled by German warships when aground
in Danish waters. She is wrecked and interned.


Aug. 19 (Thur.)

A German submarine sinks the White Star liner _Arabic_ south of
Ireland.

Aug. 20 (Fri.)

Italy declares war on Turkey.

Novo-Georgievsk is captured by the Germans; a further Russian
retreat follows.


Aug. 21 (Sat.)

The British and French Governments declare cotton an absolute
contraband of war.

Gallipoli:--A fresh British attack on the Turkish positions at Suvla
fails.

The German naval forces retire from the Gulf of Riga (see Aug. 17
and 18).


Aug. 23 (Mon.)

The Germans take Ossowietz. The Austro-Germans occupy Kovel.

A Franco-British squadron bombards Zeebrugge.


Aug. 25 (Wed.)

Brest-Litovsk is taken by the Germans.


Aug. 26 (Thur.)

The Russians evacuate the fort of Olita on the Niemen.

A British aeroplane bombs and sinks a German submarine near Ostend.


Aug. 27 (Fri.)

Germany notifies the U.S.A. that her submarine commanders are
henceforward forbidden to sink merchantmen without warning.


Aug. 28 (Sat.)

A great German attack on the Dvina line begins.


Aug. 30 (Mon.)

A Russian victory on the Strypa in Southern Galicia.


Sept. 1 (Wed.)

The Germans capture Lutsk (see Sept. 23 and 28) and storm part of
the defences of Grodno. The Austro-Germans capture Brody (Galicia)
(see Aug. 23, 1914).


Sept. 2 (Thur.) Sedan capitulated 1870.

The Germans capture Grodno. The Austro-Germans cross the Styr, the
Sereth, and the Strypa.

The British transport _Sutherland_ is torpedoed in the Ægean (loss
of life small).


Sept. 3 (Fri.)

The Russians re-enter Grodno temporarily, but are forced across the
Dvina at Friedrichstadt.


Sept. 4 (Sat.)

The Germans complete the occupation of Grodno.

A German submarine torpedoes the Allan liner _Hesperian_ off Ireland.


Sept. 5 (Sun.)

The Tzar formally assumes command of the Russian armies; the Grand
Duke Nicholas is appointed Viceroy in the Caucasus.

A British success at Hafiz Kor on the North-West Frontier of India.


Sept. 6 (Mon.)

A French air-raid on Saarbrücken.


Sept. 7 (Tues.)

The Battle of Tarnopol begins (see Aug. 23, 1914).

British and French warships bombard the Belgian coast.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England (17 killed).


Sept. 8 (Wed.)

The Battle of Tarnopol on the Sereth ends in a Russian victory.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England and on London (20
killed).


Sept. 9 (Thur.)

Further Russian successes on the Sereth.


Sept. 12 (Sun.)

The Germans storm Meiszagola and cut the Vilna-Dvinsk railway.


Sept. 16 (Thur.)

The Germans occupy Pinsk.


Sept. 18 (Sat.)

Vilna capitulates to the Germans.

British and French warships bombard the Belgian coast.


Sept. 19 (Sun.)

The British transport _Ramazan_ is torpedoed and sunk in the Ægean
with heavy loss of life in Indian troops.


Sept. 20 (Mon.)

The Russians retake Vidzy.


Sept. 22 (Wed.)

A French air-raid on Stuttgart.


Sept. 23 (Thur.)

The Russians retake Lutsk and Dubno (see Sept. 1 and 28).

Bulgaria mobilises (see Oct. 11).


Sept. 24 (Fri.)

A German attack on Dvinsk fails.


Sept. 25 (Sat.)

The Battle of Loos begins: the British capture Loos and make a
considerable advance in its neighbourhood (see Oct. 15).

The French attack at the Vimy Ridge and in Champagne (the Battle of
Champagne).

Mesopotamia:--General Townshend reaches Kut-el-Amara.


Sept. 26 (Sun.)

Fierce fighting round Loos and Hulluch; the British lose ground.

The French capture Souchez.


Sept. 28 (Tues.)

The Russians abandon Lutsk (see Sept. 1 and 23).

Mesopotamia:--The First Battle of Kut-el-Amara begins.

The Italian battleship _Benedetto Brin_ is destroyed by an
accidental explosion.


Sept. 29 (Wed.)

Heavy fighting for the Hohenzollern Redoubt (near Loos).

Heavy fighting on the French front in Champagne and on the Vimy
Ridge.

Mesopotamia:--The British capture Kut-el-Amara and 2000 prisoners.


Oct. 3 (Sun.)

The Germans counter-attack near Loos and retake most of the
Hohenzollern Redoubt.

A great battle for Dvinsk begins (see Oct. 10).


Oct. 4 (Mon.)

Russian ultimatum to Bulgaria.

The Caucasus:--The Turks are defeated by the Russians near Van.


Oct. 5 (Tues.)

Lord Derby is appointed Director of Recruiting in Great Britain.

M. Venizelos resigns and M. Zaimis becomes Greek Premier (see Nov.
4).

Allied troops land at Salonika.


Oct. 6 (Wed.)

Crossings of the Save and the Danube are forced by the
Austro-Germans; Serbia is thus invaded for the fourth time.


Oct. 8 (Fri.)

German counter-attacks in Champagne and near Loos are repulsed with
heavy loss.

The Austro-Germans capture Belgrade.


Oct. 9 (Sat.)

Austria invades Montenegro.

The Cameroons:--Wum Biagas is captured by the British.


Oct. 10 (Sun.)

The German attack on Dvinsk fails (see Oct. 3).

Semendria is taken by the Austrians.


Oct. 11 (Mon.)

Bulgaria invades Serbia (see Oct. 14). Serbia appeals to Greece for
aid.


Oct. 12 (Tues.)

Edith Cavell is executed at Brussels.

Greece refuses Serbia's appeal.

The Russians attack near Dvinsk.

A Zeppelin raid on London (many casualties).


Oct. 13 (Wed.)

M. Delcassé, the French Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns.

The British attack near Loos with partial success.

A Zeppelin raid on London (59 killed).


Oct. 14 (Thur.)

Bulgaria declares war on Serbia (see Oct. 11).

A Russian success near Dvinsk.


Oct. 15 (Fri.)

Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria.

The end of the Battle of Loos (see Sept. 25).

The Bulgarians take Vranja.


Oct. 16 (Sat.)

France declares war on Bulgaria.

Alsace:--The French recover the Hartmannsweilerkopf (lost after much
previous fighting).

Sir Ian Hamilton is recalled from Gallipoli, Sir Charles Monro being
appointed to succeed him.


Oct. 17 (Sun.)

The Italians capture Pregasina.

A French air-raid on Trèves.


Oct. 18 (Mon.)

Sir Edward Carson resigns his seat in the British Cabinet.

The Germans advance on Riga.


Oct. 19 (Tues.)

Italy declares war on Bulgaria.

A French force drives the Bulgarians from Strumnitza.


Oct. 21 (Thur.) Trafalgar, 1805.

The Bulgarians capture Veles (see Oct. 25 and 29).

An Allied squadron bombards the harbour of Dedeagatch and other
points of military importance on the Bulgarian coast.


Oct. 22 (Fri.)

The 'Group' system of enlistment comes into operation in Great
Britain.

The Bulgarians capture Uskub and Rumanovo.

The Italians advance on the Isonzo front.


Oct. 23 (Sat.)

The Austro-Germans force the passage of the Danube at Orsova.

Mesopotamia:--The British reach Azizie in their advance on Baghdad.

A British submarine sinks the German cruiser _Prinz Adalbert_ in the
Baltic.


Oct. 24 (Sun.)

The Germans are within ten miles of Riga.

The Danube route to Constantinople is opened to the Germans by their
victories in Serbia.


Oct. 25 (Mon.)

The Austro-German and Bulgarian forces effect a junction in the
Kraina district. The Serbians recapture Veles (see Oct. 21 and 29).

The Cameroons:--Sende is occupied by the French.

The British destroyer _Velox_ is mined off the Nab lightship.


Oct. 26 (Tues.)

The British transport _Marquette_ is torpedoed in the Ægean.


Oct. 27 (Wed.)

French troops effect a junction with the Serbians at Veles. The
French and British are in position across the Vardar.

The Russian Black Sea Fleet bombards Varna.


Oct. 28 (Thur.)

The French Ministry resigns: M. Briand becomes Premier (see March
17, 1917).

King George is thrown from his horse and injured in France.

Sir Charles Monro assumes command in Gallipoli.

H.M.S. _Argyll_ (cruiser) is wrecked off the east coast of Scotland
(no lives lost).


Oct. 29 (Fri.)

Veles is retaken by the Bulgarians (see Oct. 21 and 25).

The British mine-sweeper _Hythe_ is sunk off Gallipoli.


Oct. 30 (Sat.)

The Germans capture the Butte of Tahure.

The Serbian arsenal at Kragujevatz is captured by the Austrians.

The Cameroons:--Eseka is captured by the Allies.


Oct. 31 (Sun.)

A Russian counter-offensive near Dvinsk begins.


Nov. 2 (Tues.)

A Russian success on the Strypa: 5000 prisoners are taken.

An Italian success on the Isonzo front.


Nov. 3 (Wed.)

The Russians advance south-east of Dvinsk.

The British transport _Woodfield_ is sunk by a submarine off Morocco
(loss of life small).

The Cameroons:--Tibati is occupied by the Allies.


Nov. 4 (Thur.)

The resignation of M. Zaimis, the Greek Premier, is announced (see
Oct. 5).

Turkish attacks at Anzac are repulsed.


Nov. 5 (Fri.)

The Russians force back the Germans in the Riga district.

Serbia:--Nish is captured by the Bulgarians after three days' fierce
fighting. The main German and Bulgarian forces effect a junction at
Krivivir, north of Nish.


Nov. 6 (Sat.)

M. Skouloudis becomes Greek Premier (see June 22, 1916).

A British success at Bango Mountain in the Cameroons.

The British submarine E20 is lost in the Dardanelles.


Nov. 7 (Sun.)

A Note is received from the U.S.A. protesting against the maritime
policy of Great Britain and France.

The Russians capture Olai (west of Riga).

A German submarine sinks the Italian liner _Ancona_ off Sardinia;
many are drowned, including 25 Americans.

A British submarine sinks the German light cruiser _Undine_ in the
Baltic.


Nov. 9 (Tues.)

A Russian victory near Kolki, on the Styr: 3500 prisoners are taken.


Nov. 10 (Wed.)

Heavy fighting between the Russians and the Germans near Riga.


Nov. 11 (Thur.)

The War Committee of the British Cabinet is appointed. Mr. Churchill
leaves the Government.

A Russian victory at Kemmern near Riga: the Germans are forced to
retreat.


Nov. 12 (Fri.)

The Germans henceforward control the railway from Belgrade to
Constantinople.

Mesopotamia:--The British under General Townshend advance on
Ctesiphon.


Nov. 14 (Sun.)

Fierce fighting for the 'Labyrinth' in Artois.

An Austrian air-raid on Verona.


Nov. 15 (Mon.)

An Austrian success on the Styr.

Gallipoli:--A successful attack is made on Turkish trenches by the
52nd Division.


Nov. 16 (Tues.)

The Bulgarians capture Prilep. The French repulse Bulgarian attacks
between Krivolak and Strumnitza.


Nov. 17 (Wed.)

The British hospital ship _Anglia_ is sunk by a mine in the Channel
(85 lives lost).


Nov. 21 (Sun.)

Serbia:--Fall of Novi Bazar to the Germans.


Nov. 22 (Mon.)

A German success on the Dvina.

Mesopotamia:--The Battle of Ctesiphon begins: the chief Turkish
positions are captured (see Nov. 24).

A revolt, instigated by Germany, breaks out in Persia.


Nov. 23 (Tues.)

The Serbians retreat towards Albania. The Serbian Government leaves
Mitrovitza for Prisrend.

Rovereto is taken by the Italians.


Nov. 24 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--The Battle of Ctesiphon ends in the defeat of the
Turks, but at the price of very heavy British losses (see Nov. 22).


Nov. 25 (Thur.)

Serbia:--The Austrians capture Mitrovitza and Prishtina. The Serbian
seat of Government is moved to Scutari in Albania.

Mesopotamia:--The British retreat from Ctesiphon towards Azizie.


Nov. 28 (Sun.)

The Serbian army retreats into Albania.

A German submarine is sunk off the Belgian coast by a bomb from a
British aeroplane.


Nov. 29 (Mon.)

The Bulgarians occupy Prisrend.


Nov. 30 (Tues.)

Mesopotamia:--The British retreat from Azizie on Kut-el-Amara.


Dec. 3 (Fri.)

Mesopotamia:--The British reach Kut-el-Amara.


Dec. 4 (Sat.)

British reinforcements are landed at Salonika.


Dec. 5 (Sun.)

Serbia:--Monastir is taken by the Bulgarians.


Dec. 6 (Mon.)

The Allied Council meets in Paris (its first meeting).

The Bulgarians attack the British near Lake Doiran.


Dec. 7 (Tues.)

Ipek (Montenegro) is taken by the Austrians; the British are forced
back from Lake Doiran; the Allies begin to retire from Serbia into
Greece.

Mesopotamia:--The siege of Kut-el-Amara begins (see April 29, 1916).


Dec. 8 (Wed.)

Gallipoli:--The evacuation of Suvla and Anzac begins (see Dec. 20,
1915, and Jan. 8, 1916).


Dec. 9 (Thur.)

The Bulgarians occupy Diakhova, Dibra, and Okrida.


Dec. 11 (Sat.)

Macedonia:--The French and British repel Bulgarian attacks with
heavy loss.

Persia:--The Russians occupy Hamadan after defeating the Persian
rebels.


Dec. 12 (Sun.)

Recruiting for the 'Derby' groups is closed in Great Britain.

The Franco-British forces are in position before Salonika.

The Bulgarians capture Doiran and Ghevgeli.

Mesopotamia:--A Turkish attack on Kut-el-Amara is repulsed.


Dec. 13 (Mon.)

Western Egypt:--In an action near Mersa Matruh an attack by Senussi
Arabs is repulsed.


Dec. 14 (Tues.)

It is announced that Sir H. Smith-Dorrien is appointed to Supreme
Command in East Africa (see Feb. 10, 1916).


Dec. 15 (Wed.)

Resignation of Sir John French; Sir Douglas Haig succeeds him as
British Commander-in-Chief in France.


Dec. 17 (Fri.)

The German light cruiser _Bremen_ and a German torpedo boat are sunk
in the Baltic by Allied submarines.

Albania:--Elbasan is taken by the Bulgarians.


Dec. 20 (Mon.)

The first 'Derby' groups are called up for service.

Gallipoli:--The evacuation of Anzac and Suvla is completed (see Dec.
8).

Albania:--Durazzo is occupied by the Italians.

Persia:--The Russians occupy Kum; this marks the end of the Persian
revolt.


Dec. 21 (Tues.)

Sir William Robertson is appointed Chief of the British Imperial
General Staff (see Feb. 16, 1918).

The Cameroons:--Mangeles is occupied by the French.


Dec. 24 (Fri.)

The French liner _Ville de Ciotat_ is torpedoed in the Mediterranean.


Dec. 25 (Sat.)

Western Egypt:--The main Senussi force is attacked and routed near
Mersa Matruh.

Mesopotamia:--Turkish attacks on Kut-el-Amara are repulsed.


Dec. 27 (Mon.)

Heavy fighting between the Russians and the Austrians on the
Bessarabia-Bukovina frontier.


Dec. 28 (Tues.)

The decision of the British Cabinet in favour of Compulsory Service
is announced.

The Indian Corps leaves France.


Dec. 29 (Wed.)

In a sea fight off Cattaro a French submarine and two Austrian
destroyers are sunk.


Dec. 30 (Thur.)

The P. & O. liner _Persia_ is torpedoed in the Mediterranean.


Dec. 31 (Fri.)

H.M.S. _Natal_ (cruiser) is blown up in Cromarty Firth by an
internal explosion.



1916


Jan. 1 (Sat.)

The Russians gain successes on the Styr and the Strypa.

The Cameroons:--The British capture Jaunde (the capital of the
German colony).


Jan. 2 (Sun.)

The Russians approach Czernowitz.

The British passenger steamer _Glengyle_ is sunk by a submarine in
the Mediterranean.


Jan. 4 (Tues.)

Lord Derby's report on the recruiting campaign in Great Britain is
issued.

Mesopotamia:--The Kut relieving force advances from Ali-el-Gharb.


Jan. 5 (Wed.)

The Military Service Bill that inaugurates conscription is
introduced in the British House of Commons.

The Russians advance in the Bukovina.


Jan. 6 (Thur.)

Recruiting for the 'Derby' groups reopens in Great Britain.

Mesopotamia:--The British relieving force defeats the Turks before
Kut, but its further progress is checked by floods.

H.M.S. _King Edward VII._ (battleship) is sunk by a mine off the
north coast of Scotland.


Jan. 8 (Sat.)

The evacuation of Gallipoli is completed (see Dec. 8, 1915).

The Russians capture Chartorysk (50 miles east of Kovel).


Jan. 10 (Mon.)

Montenegro:--The Austrians capture Mount Lovtchen.


Jan. 11 (Tues.)

A French force lands at Corfu to prepare for the transfer thither of
Serbian troops from Albania.

The Caucasus:--The Russians advance on Erzerum.


Jan. 13 (Thur.)

Cettinje, the capital of Montenegro, is occupied by the Austrians.

Mesopotamia:--The Turks are again defeated before Kut.


Jan. 14 (Fri.)

An Austrian cruiser is sunk off Cattaro by a French submarine.


Jan. 15 (Sat.)

The first Serbian troops land at Corfu.

The steamship _Ariadne_ is sunk by the _Möwe_.


Jan. 16 (Sun.)

A Russian success near Pinsk.

General Sarrail assumes command of the Allied forces at Salonika.

A battle begins in the Caucasus (near Erzerum) between the Russians
and the Turks.

The liner _Appam_ is captured by the _Möwe_ off the Canaries (see
Feb. 1 and March 4).


Jan. 17 (Mon.)

A Russian victory in the Caucasus: the Turks retire on Erzerum.

The _Clan MacTavish_ is sunk by the _Möwe_.


Jan. 18 (Tues.)

Allied warships bombard Dedeagatch and Porto Lagos on the Bulgarian
coast.


Jan. 21 (Fri.)

Mesopotamia:--Action of Um-el-Hannah: the Kut relieving force is
repulsed.


Jan. 22 (Sat.)

Montenegro:--Antivari is taken by the Austrians.


Jan. 23 (Sun.)

The Austrians complete their possession of Montenegro by the
occupation of Scutari.

Western Egypt:--A British column disperses the Senussi Arabs and
burns their camp.

A German air-raid on Kent.

A French air-raid on Metz.


Jan. 24 (Mon.)

German attacks near Neuville meet with some success.

A French air-raid on Monastir.


Jan. 27 (Thur.)

The U.S.A. Government publishes a Note of protest against the
British search of mails.

A German attack on the British near Loos is repulsed.


Jan. 29 (Sat.)

A Zeppelin raid on Paris.


Jan. 31 (Mon.)

A Zeppelin raid on the Midlands (67 killed); a Zeppelin, the L19, is
wrecked in the North Sea while returning from the raid.


Feb. 1 (Tues.)

The British liner _Appam_ arrives at Norfolk, Virginia, manned by a
German prize crew.

A German air-raid on Salonika.


Feb. 2 (Wed.)

The Dutch steamer _Artemis_ is torpedoed by a German submarine.


Feb. 3 (Thur.)

Mesopotamia:--Heavy fighting before Kut.


Feb. 4 (Fri.)

Heavy fighting round Dvinsk.


Feb. 8 (Tues.)

The Russians cross the Dniester.

The French cruiser _Amiral Charnier_ is sunk by a mine or submarine
off the Syrian coast.


Feb. 9 (Wed.)

A German air-raid on Ramsgate and Broadstairs. A British air-raid on
Terhand.


Feb. 10 (Thur.)

The Military Service Act (instituting compulsory service for single
men aged 19 to 30) comes into operation in Great Britain.

It is announced that Sir H. Smith-Dorrien resigns command in
East Africa owing to ill-health (see Dec. 14, 1915), and that
Lieut.-General J. Smuts is appointed to succeed him (see Jan. 28,
1917).

The Caucasus:--The Russian attack on Erzerum begins (see Feb. 16).

The reorganised Serbian army (75,000 troops) is successfully
concentrated at Corfu.

British mine-sweepers are attacked off the Dogger Bank; the _Arabis_
is sunk.


Feb. 11 (Fri.)

H.M.S. _Arethusa_ (light cruiser) is sunk by a mine off the East
Coast.


Feb. 12 (Sat.)

The Germans make several attempts to cross the Yser Canal.

German attacks near Vimy are repulsed.


Feb. 13 (Sun.)

The Caucasus:--A Russian success at Erzerum.


Feb. 14 (Mon.)

A German success at 'the Bluff,' near Ypres: the British lose
trenches (see March 2).

An Austrian air-raid on Milan.


Feb. 16 (Wed.)

Verdun is cleared of its civilian population.

The Caucasus:--Erzerum is captured by the Russians (see Feb. 10).


Feb. 19 (Sat.)

German attacks are repulsed south of Arras and north of Ypres.

The Caucasus:--The Russians capture Akhlat and Mush, north-west of
Lake Van (see Aug. 2).

The Cameroons:--The last German post in the Mora Mountains
surrenders; this completes the occupation of the Cameroons by the
Allies (see Aug. 25, 1914).


Feb. 20 (Sun.)

A German air-raid on Walmer and Lowestoft.

A British air-raid on Don, in Flanders.


Feb. 21 (Mon.)

The Battle of Verdun begins (see July 1).

A Zeppelin is destroyed near Revigny.


Feb. 22 (Tues.)

The Germans gain ground before Verdun, capturing Haumont Wood and
the French salient north of Beaumont.


Feb. 23 (Wed.)

Portugal seizes interned German ships (see March 10).

Further German progress and French withdrawals before Verdun.


Feb. 24 (Thur.)

The French resist strongly before Verdun, but the German advance
continues.


Feb. 25 (Fri.)

A critical day in the Battle of Verdun: Fort Douaumont is stormed by
the Germans.


Feb. 26 (Sat.)

German attacks beyond Fort Douaumont are repulsed by the French;
this ends the first stage of the Battle of Verdun.

Western Egypt:--The Senussi Arabs are defeated at Agagia.

The French transport _Provence II._ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean with heavy loss of life.


Feb. 27 (Sun.)

Verdun:--A heavy bombardment by the Germans and some infantry
fighting.

Durazzo is captured by the Austrians.

Persia:--Kermanshah is captured by the Russians (see July 2, 1916).

The P. & O. liner _Maloja_ is sunk by a mine off Dover.


Feb. 29 (Tues.)

An action is fought in the North Sea between H.M.S. _Alcantara_
(armed merchant cruiser) and the German raider _Greif_, in which
both are sunk.


Mar. 1 (Wed.)

H.M.S. _Primula_ (sloop) is sunk by a submarine in the Mediterranean.


Mar. 2 (Thur.)

A British success near Ypres: 'the Bluff' is recaptured (see Feb.
14).

Verdun:--The Germans capture the village of Douaumont.

The Caucasus:--Bitlis (south-west of Lake Van) is captured by the
Russians (see Aug. 2).


Mar. 3 (Fri.)

Verdun:--The French reoccupy Douaumont village; the Germans attack
the village of Vaux.


Mar. 4 (Sat.)

There is fierce fighting for the Hohenzollern Redoubt (near Loos).

Verdun:--The Germans again capture the village of Douaumont.

The German Admiralty announces the safe return of the raider _Möwe_.


Mar. 5 (Sun.)

Persia:--Sinneh is taken by the Russians.

A Zeppelin raid on the north-east coast of England.


Mar. 6 (Mon.)

Verdun:--The Germans advance up the northern slopes of the Côte de
l'Oie.


Mar. 7 (Tues.)

A further German success at Verdun: Hill 265 is carried.

East Africa:--The British advance in the Kilimanjaro district.

The Caucasus:--Rizeh is captured by the Russians.

H.M.S. _Coquette_ (destroyer) and the British torpedo boat No. 11
are sunk by mines off the east coast of England.


Mar. 8 (Wed.)

Heavy fighting at Verdun: the French regain ground.

Mesopotamia:--The second attempt to relieve Kut fails, the British
being repulsed at Es Sinn.

The Caucasus:--The Russians advance towards Trebizond.

A French air-raid on Metz.


Mar. 9 (Thurs.)

Mesopotamia:--The British relieving force falls back from Es Sinn.

H.M.S. _Fauvette_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a mine off the
east coast of England.


Mar. 10 (Fri.)

Germany declares war on Portugal (see Feb. 23).


Mar. 11 (Sat)

East Africa:--Further British successes west of Taveta and near
Kilimanjaro: the Germans retreat.


Mar. 12 (Sun.)

Persia:--Kerind is occupied by the Russians.

East Africa:--Moshi is occupied by the British.


Mar. 14 (Tues.)

The Caucasus:--The Russians occupy Mamakhatun (see May 31).

Egypt:--The British occupy Sollum.


Mar. 16 (Thurs.)

The resignation of Grand Admiral von Tirpitz as Head of the German
Navy is announced. He is succeeded by Admiral von Capelle.

Verdun:--Heavy German attacks are repulsed.

The Dutch liner _Tubantia_ is sunk by a German submarine.


Mar. 17 (Fri.)

A fresh German offensive is launched against Russia.

Egypt:--A motor force under the Duke of Westminster rescues British
prisoners from the Senussi by a successful raid.


Mar. 18 (Sat.)

A German success at the Hohenzollern Redoubt.

The First Battle of Lake Narotch (east of Vilna) begins (see April
14).

The Dutch liner _Palembang_ is sunk by a German submarine.

The French destroyer _Renaudin_ is sunk by an enemy submarine in the
Adriatic.

Allied air-raids on Metz and Zeebrugge.


Mar. 19 (Sun.)

Persia:--Ispahan is captured by the Russians.

An air-raid on Kent by German seaplanes (one destroyed).


Mar. 20 (Mon.)

Verdun:--Renewed German attacks fail.

Heavy fighting near Dvinsk and Riga.

An action is fought between British and German destroyers off the
Belgian coast: the Germans run for Zeebrugge.

A big raid by Allied aeroplanes on Zeebrugge.


Mar. 22 (Wed.)

Verdun:--The Germans carry Avocourt Wood.

A Russian success near Dvinsk.


Mar. 24 (Fri.)

The _Sussex_ (passenger steamer) is torpedoed in the Channel by a
German submarine.


Mar. 25 (Sat.)

The Russians attack the Germans near Vilna.

A raid by British seaplanes, convoyed by light cruisers and
destroyers, on German airship sheds in Schleswig-Holstein: the
British destroyer _Medusa_ is lost by collision, and two German
patrol boats are sunk in the naval action which develops.


Mar. 27 (Mon.)

A Conference of the Allies is held in Paris.

A British success at St. Eloi: German trenches are captured (see
April 7).

The Russians again attack near Vilna.

A German air-raid on Salonika.


Mar. 28 (Tues.)

Verdun:--The German attacks are renewed.


Mar. 30 (Thur.)

Verdun:--There is heavy fighting for Fort Douaumont; the Germans
capture Malancourt.

The Russian hospital ship _Portugal_ is sunk by an enemy submarine
in the Black Sea.


Mar. 31 (Fri.)

The British G.H.Q. are moved from St. Omer to Montreuil.

A Zeppelin raid on England (which is followed by four more within a
week). The Zeppelin L15 is brought down at the mouth of the Thames.


April 1 (Sat.)

Verdun:--The Germans gain ground at Fort Vaux.

A Zeppelin raid on the north-east coast of England.


April 2 (Sun.)

An explosion occurs in a munitions factory at Faversham, Kent (106
killed).

A Zeppelin raid on England and Scotland.


April 3 (Mon.)

A British success at St. Eloi.

A French success at Verdun.

The Caucasus:--A Russian attack on Trebizond begins (see April 18).


April 4 (Tues.)

Verdun:--The Germans attack at Douaumont and are repulsed.

General Brussiloff succeeds General Ivanoff in command of the
Russian armies of the South.

A Zeppelin raid on the Eastern Counties.


April 5 (Wed.)

A Zeppelin raid on the north-east of England.


April 6 (Thur.)

Mesopotamia:--A third attempt is made to relieve Kut: the
Um-el-Hannah and Falahiyah positions are captured.


April 7 (Fri.)

The Germans regain the trenches captured by the British at St. Eloi
on March 27.

The Russians again attack the German lines near Vilna.

Macedonia:--The Allied positions on the Vardar are bombarded.


April 8 (Sat.)

Fierce fighting at Verdun: the French evacuate Bethincourt.


April 9 (Sun.)

The British regain ground at St. Eloi.

Verdun:--A fierce German attack on the Mort Homme.

Mesopotamia:--The first British attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position
is repulsed.


April 10 (Mon.)

A British success at St. Eloi.

A critical day at Verdun: German attacks on the Mort Homme are
repulsed.


April 11 (Tues.)

The Germans attack near Albert and continue their attacks at Verdun.

Italy:--The Alpini gain a success on the Adamello glacier.


April 12 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--The British make a second attack on the Sanna-i-Yat
position: some ground is gained.


April 13 (Thur.)

Egypt:--Australian troops destroy a Turkish camp at Jifjaffa on the
Egyptian frontier.


April 14 (Fri.)

The end of the First Battle of Lake Narotch (see March 18); it leads
to little change of position.

British naval aeroplanes bomb Constantinople and Adrianople.


April 15 (Sat.)

A Russian success in the Caucasus.


April 16 (Sun.)

Verdun:--The French attack at Douaumont and regain ground.


April 17 (Mon.)

Fresh German attacks at Verdun, which gain ground.

The Italians capture the Col di Lana (Trentino).

Mesopotamia:--A Turkish counter-attack on the Tigris is partially
successful.


April 18 (Tues.)

The Caucasus:--Trebizond is captured by the Russians (see April 8).


April 19 (Wed.)

Verdun:--German attacks at Les Eparges are repulsed.

A Note from the U.S.A. is presented to Germany demanding
modification of her submarine policy (see May 4).

The Caucasus:--The Russians carry a strong enemy position west of
Erzerum.


April 20 (Thur.)

The rebellion breaks out in Ireland (see May 1).

Verdun:--The French gain ground near Fort Vaux.

Russian troops reach Marseilles.


April 21 (Good Friday)

Sir Roger Casement is captured on the coast of Kerry, near Tralee
(see June 26, Aug. 3).


April 22 (Sat.)

Mesopotamia:--A third British attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position is
repulsed.

A British success in German East Africa, by which the occupation of
the northern half of the colony is made secure.


April 23 (Easter Sunday)

An engagement at Katia on the Egyptian frontier.


April 24 (Mon.)

Riots in Dublin: the Sinn Feiners occupy the Post Office and St.
Stephen's Green.

Mesopotamia (night of the 24th-25th):--An unsuccessful attempt is
made to run a supply ship into Kut.


April 25 (Tues.)

German battle-cruisers bombard Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth; they
are pursued home but escape in safety.

A Zeppelin raid on the eastern counties of England.


April 26 (Wed.)

Fighting in Dublin.

A Zeppelin raid on Kent.


April 27 (Thur.)

Martial law is proclaimed throughout Ireland.

H.M.S. _Russell_ (battleship) is sunk by a mine off Malta.

H.M.S. _Nasturtium_ (sloop) is sunk by a mine in the Mediterranean.

The German submarine UC5 is captured in the North Sea.


April 28 (Fri.)

The Second Battle of Lake Narotch: a Russian reverse.


April 29 (Sat.)

Italy:--The Austrians are driven from the Adamello glacier by Alpini.

Mesopotamia:--Kut-el-Amara capitulates, after a siege of 144 days,
owing to failure of supplies (see Dec. 7, 1915).


May 1 (Mon.)

The Irish rebellion is crushed (see April 20).

A Zeppelin raid on Scotland and the northeast of England.


May 2 (Tues.)

Resignation of Mr. Birrell, Secretary of State for Ireland.

Verdun:--A French success at the Mort Homme.

A Zeppelin raid on Scotland and England: the Zeppelin L20, returning
from this raid, is wrecked off Norway.


May 3 (Wed.)

Verdun:--Fresh German attacks on the Mort Homme begin.


May 4 (Thur.)

Germany, in a Note to the U.S.A., agrees to sink no ships without
warning (see April 19).

The Zeppelin L 7 is destroyed off Schleswig by the gunfire of
British warships.


May 5 (Fri.)

Verdun:--Fierce fighting for Hill 304.

A Zeppelin is destroyed near Salonika.


May 7 (Sun.)

Verdun:--A great German attack on Hill 304 results in a slight gain
of ground.


May 8 (Mon.)

Verdun:--The Germans lose ground at the Mort Homme and Fort
Douaumont.

The White Star liner _Cymric_ is torpedoed without warning by a
German submarine near the Irish coast.


May 10 (Wed.)

Persia:--Kasr-i-Shirin is occupied by the Russians.


May 11 (Thur.)

A German success near Vermelles: 500 yards of British front-line
trenches are captured.


May 12 (Fri.)

A British counter-attack near Vermelles is partially successful.


May 13 (Sat.)

The Germans attack the British at Ploegsteert Wood and are repulsed.

The Caucasus:--The Russians retire on Erzerum.

The British monitor M30 is sunk in action in the Gulf of Smyrna.


May 14 (Sun.)

Italy:--The Battle of the Trentino begins (see June 4).


May 15 (Mon.)

The British capture a German trench on the Vimy Ridge.

The Austrians advance in the Trentino.


May 16 (Tues.)

A Turkish force is defeated by an Australian detachment in the Sinai
Peninsula.


May 17 (Wed.)

Verdun:--Fresh German attacks on Hill 304 are unsuccessful.

British monitors engage German destroyers off the Belgian coast and
put them to flight.


May 18 (Thur.)

An Air Board is constituted in Great Britain.

The Italians retire in the Trentino.

Sinai Peninsula:--A British raid on El Arish.

Mesopotamia:--Russian cavalry, after a ride of 200 miles from the
Persian frontier, join the British on the Tigris.


May 19 (Fri.)

A British success at Vimy Ridge.

Mesopotamia:--The Turks evacuate the Es Sinn position and withdraw
to Kut.

A German air-raid on Kent.


May 20 (Sat.)

Verdun:--Fierce fighting for the Mort Homme.

A further Italian withdrawal in the Trentino.


May 21 (Sun.)

The Germans win trenches from the British on the Vimy Ridge.

Verdun:--Part of the Mort Homme is captured by the Germans, but the
French advance on the Douaumont Plateau and carry the Haudromont
quarries.

Mesopotamia:--The British advance on the south bank of the Tigris.


May 22 (Mon.)

The Sudan:--The action of Beringia: the Sultan of Darfur is defeated.


May 23 (Tues.) Ramillies, 1706.

The Sudan:--El Fasher, the capital of Darfur, is captured by the
British.


May 24 (Wed.)

Verdun:--Cumières is stormed by the Germans.


May 25 (Thur.)

Compulsory service for married as well as single men between 18 and
41 becomes law in Great Britain, to take effect from June 24.

The Germans win successes at Verdun and Vimy.

Italy:--Bettale is taken by the Austrians.


May 26 (Fri.)

The Bulgarians and Germans advance into Greek Macedonia and capture
Fort Rupel.


May 29 (Mon.)

A great German attack at Verdun: the French line holds.

A renewed British advance in German East Africa: Neu Langenburg is
occupied.


May 30 (Tues.)

Verdun:--The French abandon the Bethincourt-Cumières road.

Italy:--The battle for the Pass of Buola.

East Africa:--A Belgian force invades Ruanda.


May 31 (Wed.) Union Day, South Africa, 1910.

The Battle of Jutland is fought between the main British and German
fleets: the German fleet, with considerable loss, escapes aided by
mist.[3]

  [3] The following were the British vessels lost in this action:--

    Battle Cruisers--
      _Indefatigable_
      _Invincible_
      _Queen Mary_

    Cruisers--
      _Black Prince_
      _Defence_
      _Warrior_

    Flotilla leader--
      _Tipperary_

    Destroyers--
      _Ardent_
      _Fortune_
      _Nestor_
      _Nomad_
      _Shark_
      _Sparrowhawk_
      _Turbulent_

  The larger German vessels known to have been sunk were the
  following:--

  _Lutzow_, _Pommern_, _Frauenlob_, _Wiesbaden_, _Elbing_, _Rostock_.

Italy:--Asiago and Arsiero are captured by the Austrians (see June
25 and 27).

The Caucasus:--Mamakhatun is retaken by the Turks (see March 14 and
July 12).


June 1 (Thur.)

Verdun:--The Germans begin a fresh attack on Fort Vaux.


June 2 (Fri.)

The Germans capture trenches from the Canadians at Ypres (see June
13), and from the French at Verdun.


June 4 (Sun.)

Verdun:--Fort Vaux is isolated.

A great Russian offensive is launched in the Bukovina and the
Ukraine (with the 8th and 9th Armies): rapid progress is made, and
many thousands of prisoners are captured.

The end of the Battle of the Trentino: the Austrian advance is
checked (see May 14).


June 5 (Mon.)

H.M.S. _Hampshire_ is sunk off the Orkneys and Lord Kitchener
drowned.


June 6 (Tues.)

The Germans gain ground from the British at Hooge.

Verdun:--Fierce German attacks on Fort Vaux.

The Russians capture Lutsk from the Austrians.


June 7 (Wed.)

Verdun:--Fort Vaux is captured by the Germans.


June 8 (Thur.)

The Russian 7th Army launches an offensive in Eastern Galicia:
Buczacz is captured.


June 9 (Fri.)

The War Council of the Allies meets in London.

Arabia:--The Emir Hussein, Grand Sherif of Mecca, revolts against
the Turks and gains possession of Mecca.

The Italian transport _Principe Umberto_ is sunk by a submarine in
the Adriatic (many lives lost).


June 10 (Sat.)

A great Russian victory near Czernowitz: 35,000 prisoners are
captured.

East Africa:--Momba is occupied by the British.


June 11 (Whit Sunday)

Verdun:--A German advance near Thiaumont.

Venice is bombed by Austrian seaplanes.


June 12 (Mon.)

The Germans are within four miles of Verdun.

A further Russian advance in the Bukovina.

Southern Persia:--Kerman is occupied by a British force.


June 13 (Tues.)

The Canadians win back the trenches they had lost at Ypres (from
south of Sanctuary Wood to north of Hill 60: see June 2).

The Russian 4th Army advances on Baranovitchi.

In the Baltic, Russian destroyers attack a convoy of German steamers
escorted by warships: they sink the German auxiliary cruiser
_Herrmann_ and two German torpedo boats.


June 14 (Wed.)

The Allied Economic Conference meets in Paris.

The British occupy Wilhelmsthal, the capital of German East Africa.


June 15 (Thur.)

Fresh German attacks at Verdun.

Russian victories on the Strypa and on the frontiers of Galicia.

Mesopotamia:--A British success on the Tigris.


June 16 (Fri.)

Arabia:--The Grand Sherif of Mecca captures Jeddah from the Turks.

H.M.S. _Eden_ (destroyer) is sunk by a collision in the Channel.


June 17 (Sat.)

Czernowitz is again captured by the Russians.


June 18 (Sun.)

Death of von Moltke.

Immelman, the famous German airman, is shot down by a British airman.

Russian progress continues in the Bukovina.


June 19 (Mon.)

Fierce fighting between the Russians and Austrians before Kovel.


June 21 (Wed.)

A Note is presented to the Greek Government by Great Britain,
France, and Russia, demanding complete demobilisation of the Greek
army.


June 22 (Thur.)

M. Skouloudis, the Greek Premier, resigns and is succeeded by M.
Zaimis (see Nov. 4, 1915, and Sept. 11, 1916). Greece accepts the
Allies' demands.

The Germans are within three miles of Verdun.

Further Russian progress in the Bukovina.


June 23 (Fri.)

Fierce German attacks at Verdun: Fort Thiaumont is stormed.

Kimpolung (Southern Bukovina) is captured by the Russians.

The Great Eastern Railway Company's steamer _Brussels_ (master,
Captain Charles Fryatt) is captured by a German torpedo flotilla and
taken to Zeebrugge (see July 27).


June 24 (Sat.)

Verdun:--Fleury is stormed by the Germans; this is the extreme point
of their advance.

The Russians are in possession of almost all the Bukovina.


June 25 (Sun.)

Verdun:--A French success at Fleury.

Asiago is recaptured by the Italians (see May 31); the Austrians are
pressed back along the entire Trentino Front.


June 26 (Mon.)

The trial of Sir Roger Casement for high treason begins (see June
29).


June 27 (Tues.)

Western Front:--Heavy bombardments and many trench raids by the
British.

A Russian reverse near Kovel.

The Italians recapture Arsiero (see May 31) and Posina.


June 28 (Wed.)

It is announced in the House of Commons that the British and French
Governments have abandoned the Declaration of London.


June 29 (Thur.)

Sir Roger Casement is sentenced to death (see April 21, Aug. 3).


June 30 (Fri.)

Verdun:--The French recapture Fort Thiaumont.

Heavy bombardments of the German lines along the Western Front.

The Russians capture Kolomea (Galicia).


July 1 (Sat.) (The Battle of the Boyne, 1690).

The Battle of the Somme begins (see Nov. 17): Montaubon, Mametz,
and other villages are captured by the British; the French capture
Dompierre, Becquincourt, and other villages.

The German offensive at Verdun is virtually at an end (see Feb. 21).


July 2 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The British capture Fricourt; the French capture
Curlu and Frise.

The Battle of Baranovitchi (an important junction on the railway
running south from Vilna) begins (see July 14): the Russians advance.

Persia:--Kermanshah is retaken by the Turks (see Feb. 27, 1916, and
March 13, 1917).


July 3 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--Fighting is in progress for Ovillers,
Contalmaison, and La Boiselle; the British capture Serre; the French
take a number of villages beyond the German second position.


July 4 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--La Boiselle is captured by the British; the French
advance towards Péronne.


July 5 (Wed.)

The Russians advance towards the Stokhod.


July 6 (Thur.)

Mr. Lloyd George is appointed British Secretary of State for War.


July 7 (Fri.)

The Somme Front:--The British line is advanced: Leipsig Redoubt is
carried; Contalmaison is taken and lost.

East Africa:--The British occupy Tanga.


July 8 (Sat.)

The Russians cross the Stokhod.


July 9 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--Heavy fighting on the British Front for Ovillers
and in Trônes Wood; the French approach Péronne and capture
Hardecourt.

The German cargo-carrying submarine _Deutschland_ reaches Norfolk in
Virginia (see Aug. 23).


July 10 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--The British capture Contalmaison.

Mesopotamia:--A Turkish attack on the British position near
Sanna-i-Yat.


July 11 (Tues.) Oudenarde, 1708.

A German submarine bombards Seaham harbour.


July 12 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Mametz Wood.

The Caucasus:--Mamakhatun is retaken by the Russians (see May 31).

East Africa:--The British capture Mwanza.


July 14 (Fri.)

British attacks on the Somme are renewed: Bazentin-le-Petit and the
greater part of Longueval are captured (see July 29); the British
complete the capture of Trônes Wood.

The Battle of Baranovitchi (see July 2) ends in the repulse of
strong German attacks with slight change of position.


July 15 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British abandon High Wood (entered the
previous day), but advance towards Pozières; fierce fighting in
Delville Wood.

The Russian 11th Army launches an offensive towards Brody (Galicia).

The Caucasus:--The Russians capture Baiburt (between Erzerum and
Trebizond).


July 16 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Ovillers;
fierce fighting on the French front near Péronne.

Umlej surrenders to the Sherif of Mecca.


July 18 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--German counter-attacks in Delville Wood and
Longueval are partially successful.

The Caucasus:--The Russians capture Kighi.


July 19 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--A British attack on Guillemont fails, but an
advance is made near Thiepval.


July 20 (Thur.)

The Somme Front:--A British success at High Wood; a French success
near Hardecourt.

The Russians advance across the Styr: 12,000 prisoners are captured.


July 21 (Fri.)

The Somme Front:--The Germans attack the French near Chaulnes and
are repulsed.


July 22 (Sat.)

The Russians occupy Berestetchko, south of the Lipa.

An action is fought between British and German light craft off the
Belgian coast.


July 23 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The British attack towards Pozières and make
progress.

Taif surrenders to the Grand Sherif of Mecca.


July 24 (Mon.)

East Africa:--The action of Malangali.


July 25 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Pozières.

The Russians advance on Brody (Galicia).

The Caucasus:--The Russians complete the conquest of Armenia by the
capture of Erzingan.


July 27 (Thur.)

Captain Fryatt is executed in the Jardin de l'Aurore at Bruges by
order of a German court-martial (see June 23).

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Delville Wood.


July 28 (Fri.)

Brody (Galicia) is captured by the Russians, with 20,000 prisoners
and many guns.


July 29 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Longueval.

A Zeppelin raid on Lincolnshire and Norfolk.


July 30 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--A French success near Hardecourt.

Russian troops land at Salonika.

East Africa:--The British occupy Dodoma.


July 31 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance near Maurepas.

A Zeppelin raid on the east and south-east of England.


Aug. 1 (Tues.)

The Russians attack before Kovel.

The Italians bombard the Austrian positions on the Isonzo.


Aug. 2 (Wed.)

The Caucasus:--Mush and Bitlis are recaptured by the Turks (see Feb.
19, Mar. 2, and Aug. 23 and 24).

The Italian dreadnought _Leonardo da Vinci_ is sunk by an internal
explosion in Taranto harbour.

A Zeppelin raid on the eastern counties of England.


Aug. 3 (Thur.)

Sir Roger Casement is hanged in Pentonville Prison (see June 29).

Fierce fighting on the Stokhod; the Russian advance is checked.

East Africa:--Ujiji is captured by the Belgians.


Aug. 4 (Fri.)

The Somme Front:--The British advance near Pozières.

The Russians attack on the Sereth.

The Turks attack on the Suez Canal (the Battle of Romani).


Aug. 5 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--A further British advance near Pozières.

The Italians attack on the Isonzo (the Battle of Gorizia: see Aug. 8
and 14).

Egypt:--The Turks are routed in the Battle of Romani.


Aug. 6 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--A German counter-attack at Pozières is repulsed.

A Russian success on the Sereth.


Aug. 7 (Mon.)

The Russians attack south of the Dniester: Tysmienica (near
Stanislau) is captured and many prisoners are taken.


Aug. 8 (Tues.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture Gorizia and take 12,000
prisoners (see Oct. 28, 1917).


Aug. 9 (Wed.)

The French advance on a four-mile front north of the Somme.

A Zeppelin raid on England. A British air-raid on the Zeppelin sheds
near Brussels.


Aug. 10 (Thur.)

The Somme Front:--The British and French advance at a number of
points.

Stanislau is captured by the Russians, with a large sector of
the remaining Austrian defences in Eastern Galicia; over 80,000
prisoners and many guns are taken.


Aug. 11 (Fri.)

Macedonia:--Italian troops land at Salonika; a French success near
Doiran.

East Africa:--Mpwapwa is occupied by the British.

British airmen bombard the Zeppelin sheds near Brussels and Namur.


Aug. 12 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance near Hardecourt.

The Italians advance on the Carso.

A German seaplane bombs Dover.


Aug. 13 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The British advance near Pozières; the French
advance near Maurepas.

The British destroyer _Lassoo_ is sunk by a mine off the Dutch coast.


Aug. 14 (Mon.)

The end of the Battle of Gorizia (see Aug. 5), which results in an
important advance and the capture of Gorizia and many prisoners by
the Italians.


Aug. 15 (Tues.)

The Russians occupy Jablonica (Carpathians).


Aug. 16 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The French and British reach the
Guillemont-Maurepas road.


Aug. 17 (Thurs.)

The Bulgarians attack near Salonika.


Aug. 18 (Fri.) Gravelotte, 1870.

The Somme Front:--The British attack along a front of 11 miles
between Thiepval and Guillemont and capture important positions; the
French gain ground near Maurepas.

Macedonia:--The Bulgarians advance towards Kavalla.


Aug. 19 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British capture important positions on the
Thiepval Ridge.

H.M.S. _Nottingham_ and H.M.S. _Falmouth_ (light cruisers) are
torpedoed in the North Sea. The British submarine E23 torpedoes a
German battleship, the _Westfalen_, in the North Sea.


Aug. 20 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The Germans counterattack unsuccessfully near
Thiepval.

Macedonia:--The Bulgarians capture Florina; a general offensive is
launched by the Allies.


Aug. 22 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--The British gain ground before Thiepval and near
Pozières.

Verdun:--The French advance between Fleury and Thiaumont Wood.

The heights of the Jablonica Pass (Carpathians) are carried by the
Russians.

Macedonia:--The Bulgarians are driven back by the British and
Serbians on the Doiran Front.

East Africa:--Kilossa is captured by the British.


Aug. 23 (Wed.)

The Caucasus:--Bitlis is recaptured by the Russians (see Aug 2).

The mercantile submarine _Deutschland_ arrives back in Germany (see
July 9).

A Zeppelin raid on the eastern counties of England.


Aug. 24 (Thur.)

The Caucasus:--Mush is recaptured by the Russians (see Aug. 2, 1916,
and May 3, 1917).

A Zeppelin raid on London and the eastern counties of England.


Aug. 25 (Fri.)

Macedonia:--The forts of Kavala are occupied by the Bulgarians.

A raid by British naval aeroplanes on the Zeppelin sheds near Namur.

H.M.S. _Duke of Albany_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a
submarine in the North Sea.


Aug. 26 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--A strong attack by the Prussian Guard near
Thiepval is repulsed by the British.

East Africa:--Mrogoro, the seat of German Government in the colony,
is captured by the British.


Aug. 27 (Sun.)

Roumania declares war on Austria.


Aug. 28 (Mon.)

Germany declares war on Roumania.

Italy declares war on Germany.

The Roumanians invade Transylvania.

Sir Stanley Maude assumes command of the British forces in
Mesopotamia (see Nov. 18, 1917).

British warships bombard the forts of Kavala.


Aug. 29 (Tues.)

Hindenburg succeeds Falkenhayn as Chief of the German General Staff.

Brasso (Kronstadt) is occupied by the Roumanians (see Oct. 7).

East Africa:--Neu Iringa is occupied by the British.


Aug. 30 (Wed.)

Turkey declares war on Roumania.

The Russians advance in the Carpathians.


Aug. 31 (Thur.)

The Somme Front:--A German attack at High Wood is repulsed by the
British.

The Russians continue to advance in the Carpathians and take many
prisoners.


Sept. 1 (Fri.)

An Allied naval demonstration at Athens.

Bulgaria declares war on Roumania.

Hermanstadt is occupied by the Roumanians.


Sept. 2 (Sat.)

The Russians capture the Ploska Height near the Jablonica Pass
(Carpathians).


Sept. 3 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--Guillemont and part of Ginchy are captured by the
British; the French take Cléry.

German and Bulgarian forces enter the Dobrudja.

A Zeppelin raid on London and the Eastern Counties; a Zeppelin is
brought down in flames at Cuffley by Lieut. W. L. Robinson.


Sept. 4 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--The advance of the French and British continues.

East Africa:--Dar-es-Salaam surrenders to British naval forces.


Sept. 5 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--Leuze Wood is captured by the British; south of
the Somme the French make a notable advance.

A Russian victory near Halicz (4500 prisoners).


Sept. 6 (Wed.)

The French advance at Verdun and make further progress south of the
Somme.

The Russians advance rapidly on Halicz.

The Bulgarians capture Tutrakan (Dobrudja).


Sept. 7 (Thur.)

The Roumanians occupy Orsova (in Hungarian territory on the Danube:
see Nov. 23).


Sept. 9 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Ginchy.

Silistria, the Roumanian fortress on the Danube, is captured by the
Bulgarians.


Sept. 10 (Sun.)

Macedonia:--The British advance across the Struma.


Sept. 11 (Mon.)

Resignation of M. Zaimis, the Greek Premier (see June 22).


Sept. 12 (Tues.)

The French advance north of the Somme and reach the Bapaume-Péronne
road.

The 4th Greek Army Corps at Kavala surrenders to the Germans.


Sept. 13 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance across the Bapaume-Péronne road.


Sept. 14 (Thur.)

The Somme Front:--The British storm 'the Wonderwork' near Thiepval.

A new Italian offensive is launched on the Isonzo front.

The Roumanians advance in Transylvania, but are forced to retire in
the Dobrudja.


Sept. 15 (Fri.)

The Somme Front:--The British attack on a wide front; tanks are used
for the first time; Martinpuich, Flers, and Courcelette are taken
and the capture of High Wood is completed.

The Italians capture San Grado (on the Carso).

Macedonia:--The Allies capture high ground overlooking Florina.


Sept. 16 (Sat.)

A new Greek cabinet is formed under M. Kalogeropoulos.

The Russians and Roumanians are definitely in retreat in the
Dobrudja.


Sept. 17 (Sun.)

The French attack south of the Somme and capture Vermandovillers and
Berny.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture important positions and a
number of prisoners.


Sept. 18 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--'The Quadrilateral' near Morval is stormed by the
British. Deniécourt is captured by the French.

Macedonia:--The Allies capture Florina.

The Russo-Roumanian army in the Dobrudja is forced to retire from
strong positions.


Sept. 20 (Wed.)

Transylvania:--The Austro-Germans gain the summit of the Vulcan Pass.


Sept. 21 (Thur.)

The Great Eastern Railway Company's steamer _Colchester_ is captured
by German small craft and taken to Zeebrugge.


Sept. 23 (Sat.)

A Zeppelin raid on England: two Zeppelins are brought down in Essex,
the L 32 and L 33.


Sept. 25 (Mon.)

Greece:--M. Venizelos leaves the Piræus for Crete, where he
proclaims a Provisional Government four days later.

The Somme Front:--Morval and Les Bœufs are captured by the British;
Rancourt and Fregicourt are taken by the French.

A Zeppelin raid on England.


Sept. 26 (Tues.)

The Somme Front:--Gueudecourt is captured by the British and Combles
by the British and French; the British attack Thiepval; the French
advance east of Combles to St. Pierre Vaast Wood.

The Roumanians regain ground in the Vulcan Pass.


Sept. 27 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The British complete the capture of Thiepval.


Sept. 28 (Thur.)

The Somme Front:--The greater part of Schwaben Redoubt, on the
Thiepval Plateau, is captured by the British.


Sept. 29 (Fri.)

A Greek Provisional Government is formed in Crete by M. Venizelos
(see Sept. 25).


Oct. 1 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--Eaucourt l'Abbaye is captured by the British.

The Bulgarians and Germans are checked in the Dobrudja.

A Zeppelin raid on London: a Zeppelin is brought down near Potter's
Bar by 2nd Lieut. W. J. Tempest.


Oct. 3 (Tues.)

The Greek Cabinet resigns owing to the attitude of the Allies.

The Roumanians counter-attack successfully both in Transylvania and
the Dobrudja and capture many prisoners.

Macedonia:--The Serbians reach Kenali in their advance on Monastir.


Oct. 4 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance east of Morval.

Macedonia:--The British advance east of the Struma and capture a
number of villages.

The Cunard liner _Franconia_ and the French transport _Gallia_ are
sunk by submarines in the Mediterranean.


Oct. 5 (Thur.)

The Roumanians fall back in Transylvania.


Oct. 7 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British capture Le Sars.

Transylvania:--Brasso (Kronstadt) is recaptured by the
Austro-Germans (see Aug. 29).

The British advance in Macedonia.

The German submarine U53 reaches Newport, Rhode Island, after a
voyage of seventeen days.


Oct. 8 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance to the outskirts of
Sailly-Saillisel.

The Germans advance in Transylvania.

Eight ships are torpedoed off the American coast by the U53.


Oct. 9 (Mon.)

A new Greek Cabinet is formed by Professor Lambros.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture important positions and many
prisoners.


Oct. 10 (Tues.)

An Allied ultimatum is presented to Greece demanding the surrender
of the Greek fleet; the Greek Government protests but yields.


Oct. 11 (Wed.)

The Allies take possession of the Greek fleet.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italian advance continues.


Oct. 12 (Thur.)

A Franco-British raid by 40 aeroplanes on the mauser factories at
Oberndorf.


Oct. 13 (Fri.)

The Germans enter Roumania.

Norway prohibits the use of her territorial waters by belligerent
submarines.


Oct. 14 (Sat.)

The Somme Front:--The British advance at Schwaben Redoubt; the
French advance near Bouchavesnes and Ablaincourt.


Oct. 16 (Mon.)

The Germans capture the Gyimes Pass leading into Northern Roumania.


Oct. 17 (Tues.)

The Allies land troops at Athens.


Oct. 18 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The French capture Sailly-Saillisel.


Oct. 19 (Thur.)

A new offensive is launched by the Germans and Bulgarians in the
Dobrudja.

The German cruiser _München_ is sunk by a British submarine in the
North Sea.


Oct. 20 (Fri.)

The Russian dreadnought _Imperatritsa Maria_ is sunk by an internal
explosion.


Oct. 21 (Sat.)

Murder of the Austrian Premier, Count Sturgkh.

The Somme Front:--The British capture strong positions near Thiepval.

The Germans and Bulgarians advance in the Dobrudja and capture Tuzla.


Oct. 22 (Sun.)

The Germans and Bulgarians capture Constanza, the port of the
Dobrudja. The Germans continue to advance through the Transylvanian
passes.

A German seaplane which raids Sheerness is destroyed.


Oct. 23 (Mon.)

The British mine-sweeping sloop _Genista_ is sunk by a submarine in
the Atlantic (many lives lost).


Oct. 24 (Tues.)

The French attack at Verdun: the village and fort of Douaumont and
other important positions are captured with 4500 prisoners (see Nov.
4).

The Dobrudja:--Chernavoda is captured by the Germans and Bulgarians.


Oct. 25 (Wed.)

A further French advance at Verdun.


Oct. 27 (Fri.)

German destroyers make a raid into the Straits of Dover: the empty
British transport _Queen_ and the British destroyer _Flirt_ are
sunk; the British destroyers _Zulu_ and _Nubian_ are severely
damaged (subsequently these last two are made into one ship named
the _Zubian_).


Oct. 28 (Sat.)

The Donaldson liner _Marina_ is sunk by a submarine without warning
off Queenstown.


Oct. 29 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The French capture trenches north of
Sailly-Saillisel.

Captain Boelcke, the famous German airman, is shot down.


Oct. 30 (Mon.)

East Africa:--The Germans are defeated at Lupembe.


Oct. 31 (Tues.)

Macedonia:--The British advance in the Struma Valley.


Nov. 1 (Wed.)

The Somme Front:--The Allies advance near Les Bœufs and Sailly.

The Italians advance on the Isonzo Front in the sector between
Gorizia and the sea: 4700 prisoners are captured.

An action between destroyers in the North Sea.

A raid on Pola by Italian torpedo-boats.


Nov. 2 (Thur.)

Verdun:--The French recapture Fort Vaux.

The Italians continue to advance on the Carso.

Russian warships bombard Constanza.


Nov. 3 (Fri.)

Verdun:--The French make further progress.

Isonzo Front:--The Italians make further progress on the Carso.


Nov. 4 (Sat.)

The recapture by the French of all the main defences of Verdun is
completed by the occupation of the Damloup work (see Oct. 24).


Nov. 5 (Sun.)

Germany and Austria proclaim an 'independent State of Poland' with
an 'hereditary Monarchy and Constitution.'


Nov. 6 (Mon.)

The Somme Front:--The French advance in St. Pierre Vaast Wood.

The Germans advance in Roumania.

The P. & O. liner _Arabia_ is sunk by a submarine without warning in
the Mediterranean.


Nov. 7 (Tues.)

Mr. Wilson is re-elected President of the United States.

The French advance south of the Somme.

The Russians and Roumanians advance in the Dobrudja.


Nov. 8 (Wed.)

A further German advance into Roumania.


Nov. 10 (Fri.)

The Somme Front:--The British make progress north of Thiepval.

The Serbians make progress towards Monastir: Chuke heights and the
village of Polag are captured.

German destroyers shell the Russian coast near Reval.

British naval aeroplanes bombard the harbours and submarine shelters
at Zeebrugge and Ostend.


Nov. 11 (Sat.)

The armed French transport _Magellan_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Nov. 12 (Sun.)

The Somme Front:--The French capture Saillisel.

A further German advance into Roumania.

The Serbians gain ground towards Monastir: 16 guns and 1000
prisoners are captured.


Nov. 13 (Mon.)

The British attack astride the Ancre and capture St. Pierre Divion,
Beaumont Hamel, and 3300 prisoners.

The Germans continue to advance in Roumania.


Nov. 14 (Tues.)

The British capture Beaucourt (on the Ancre Front).

The Allies advance in Macedonia: the Bulgarians fall back on the
Bystritza, five miles south of Monastir.


Nov. 15 (Wed.)

The Germans advance rapidly in Roumania.

British naval aeroplanes bombard the harbours and submarine shelters
at Zeebrugge and Ostend.


Nov. 17 (Fri.)

The end of the Battle of the Somme (see July 1).

British airmen raid Zeebrugge and Ostend.


Nov. 18 (Sat.)

A further British advance astride the Ancre.

An important German victory in Roumania which breaks the Roumanian
resistance.

Macedonian Front:--Monastir is recaptured by the Allies (see Dec. 5,
1915).


Nov. 21 (Tues.)

Death of the Austrian Emperor, Francis Joseph.

Roumania:--Craiova is captured by the Germans.

The British hospital ship _Britannic_ is sunk by a mine or submarine
in the Ægean Sea.


Nov. 23 (Thur.)

Orsova is recaptured by the Austro-Germans (see Sept. 7).


Nov. 24 (Fri.)

The Germans and Bulgarians under Mackensen cross the Danube at
several points from the Dobrudja.

The British hospital ship _Braemar Castle_ is torpedoed in the
Mediterranean; the vessel is subsequently salved and repaired.


Nov. 25 (Sat.)

Roumania:--The armies of Falkenhayn and Mackensen effect a junction
north of the Danube.

The French battleship _Suffren_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Atlantic.


Nov. 26 (Sun.)

The Allies demand of the Greek Government the surrender of ten
mountain batteries.

The Roumanians are in full retreat.

A Serbian success north of Monastir: Hill 105 is captured.

A German naval raid on Lowestoft.


Nov. 27 (Mon.)

The Roumanian retreat continues: the line of the Aluta is abandoned;
Giurgevo, on the Danube, is captured by the enemy.

A Zeppelin raid on England: two Zeppelins are destroyed.


Nov. 28 (Tues.)

A daylight raid on London by one German aeroplane.

A British air-raid on the harbour at Zeebrugge.


Nov. 29 (Wed.)

The appointments of Sir John Jellicoe to the office of First Sea
Lord (see May 28, 1915, and Dec. 26, 1917) and of Sir David Beatty
to the command of the Grand Fleet are announced in Parliament.


Dec. 1 (Fri.)

Mr. Lloyd George makes proposals to Mr. Asquith for the reform of
war administration in Great Britain.

The Allies' demands are rejected by the Greek Government; an Allied
force which is landed at the Piræus is attacked by Greek troops.


Dec. 3 (Sun.)

Roumania:--A German victory in the Arges Valley; the Roumanian
armies are driven back all along the line. The Serbians advance and
carry high ground north-east of Monastir.

A German submarine bombards Funchal (Madeira).


Dec. 4 (Mon.)

The Serbians continue to advance north-east of Monastir; they
capture Stravina.

The British liner _Caledonia_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Dec. 5 (Tues.)

Resignation of Mr. Asquith, British Prime Minister.


Dec. 6 (Wed.)

Roumania:--Bucharest and Ploesti are captured by the Germans.

Greece:--The Royalist party in Athens regains control of the posts
and telegraphs.


Dec. 7 (Thur.)

Mr. Lloyd George becomes British Prime Minister.

Roumania:--The German successes continue; many prisoners are
captured.


Dec. 8 (Fri.)

A blockade of Greece is proclaimed by the Allies, as from this date,
until adequate reparation shall be made for recent outrages.


Dec. 10 (Sun.)

The formation of the new British Cabinet is announced. Mr. Balfour
becomes Foreign Secretary, Lord Derby Secretary for War, Sir E.
Carson First Lord of the Admiralty, Mr. Chamberlain Secretary for
India, Lord Devonport Food Controller; Minister of Munitions, Dr.
Addison; Minister of Blockade, Lord R. Cecil (see May 26, 1915, and
July 17, 1917).


Dec. 11 (Mon.)

An Allied Note is presented to Greece demanding the demobilisation
of the Greek troops.

The Roumanian retreat continues: enemy forces are 20 miles east of
Ploesti.

The Italian battleship _Regina Margherita_ is sunk by a mine in the
Adriatic.

A British air-raid on Zeebrugge.


Dec. 12 (Tues.)

The German Chancellor announces that Germany has made proposals for
peace.

General Nivelle succeeds General Joffre in command of the armies in
the field on the Western Front.

Vice-Admiral Gauchet succeeds Admiral du Fournet in command of the
Allied Fleets in the Mediterranean.


Dec. 13 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--A new offensive against Kut-el-Amara is launched by
the British forces under General Sir Stanley Maude.


Dec. 14 (Thur.)

The Allies present an ultimatum to Greece demanding the withdrawal
of all Greek forces from Thessaly.

The Roumanians evacuate Buzeu.

The empty British transport _Russia_ is sunk by a submarine.


Dec. 15 (Fri.)

The Greek Government accepts the ultimatum of the Allies.

A brilliant French advance at Verdun: important positions and 7500
prisoners are taken.

East Africa:--A British victory near Kibata.


Dec. 16 (Sat.)

The French advance at Verdun continues.


Dec. 18 (Mon.)

Germany's peace proposals are received by the British Foreign Office
(see Dec. 12 and 30).

The end of the French offensive at Verdun (see Dec. 15), over 11,000
prisoners and 115 guns having been captured and much ground gained.

Roumania:--The Germans advancing on Braila, the grain port on the
Danube, are checked by the Russians at Botogu.


Dec. 19 (Tues.)

Mr. Lloyd George announces the attitude of the British Government
and of the Allies towards the German peace proposals: 'restitution,
reparation, and a guarantee against repetition' are declared
essential.


Dec. 20 (Wed.)

A Peace Note from President Wilson is communicated to the
belligerents (see Dec. 25).


Dec. 21 (Thur.)

Sinai Peninsula:--The British occupy El Arish.

The British destroyer _Negro_ is sunk by collision in the North Sea.


Dec. 23 (Sat.)

Sinai Peninsula:--The British capture the strong Turkish position
of Magdhaba, near the Syrian border: 1300 prisoners and 7 guns are
taken.


Dec. 25 (Mon.)

Germany replies to President Wilson's Peace Note, ignoring his
request for the statement of terms but proposing that Peace
Delegates should be summoned immediately.


Dec. 26 (Tues.)

General Joffre is created a Marshal of France.

The British take over more trench-line on the Western Front.

Roumania:--The Germans capture Rimnic-Sarat.


Dec. 27 (Wed.)

The French battleship _Gaulois_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Dec. 28 (Thur.)

Roumania:--Further German successes at Rimnic-Sarat: 10,000
prisoners are taken.


Dec. 29 (Fri.)

Rasputin, the notorious Russian monk, is assassinated.


Dec. 30 (Sat.)

The Allies reply to the German peace proposals, which they describe
as empty and insincere, with a direct negative (see Dec. 12 and 18).



1917


Jan. 1 (Mon.)

Sir Douglas Haig is gazetted a Field Marshal.

East Africa:--The British storm a strong enemy position in the
Mageta Valley and approach Kilambawe.

The British transport _Ivernia_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Jan. 2 (Tues.)

The Roumanian Cabinet is reconstituted with M. Bratiano as Premier.


Jan. 3 (Wed.)

A Russian success in the Southern Bukovina (600 prisoners).


Jan. 4 (Thur.)

East Africa:--The British occupy the German camp on the Tshogowali
River.


Jan. 5 (Fri.)

Roumania:--The Austro-Germans capture Braila.

Mesopotamia:--The Second Battle of Kut-el-Amara begins (see Feb. 24).

East Africa:--The British reach Kilambawe, on the north bank of the
Rufiji River.


Jan. 7 (Sun.)

The Russians make a successful advance near Riga.


Jan. 8 (Mon.)

The Allies present an ultimatum to Greece repeating former demands
(see Jan. 16).

Roumania:--The Austro-Germans capture Focsani and 5500 prisoners;
the Sereth line is thus turned. The Dobrudja is finally evacuated by
the Russians and Roumanians.


Jan. 9 (Tues.)

The Allies reply to President Wilson's Note, stating their terms of
peace.

Resignation of M. Trepoff, the Russian Premier; he is succeeded by
M. Golitzine.

The Russians continue to advance in the Riga district.

Syria:--Australian mounted troops and the Imperial Camel Corps
capture a strong enemy position at Rafa (the Battle of Rafa).


Jan. 11 (Thur.)

The Ancre Front:--The British capture the Beaumont Hamel spur.

Roumania:--Galatz is evacuated by the Russians: the conquest of
Wallachia by the Germans is complete.

H.M.S. _Cornwallis_ (battleship) is sunk by a submarine off Malta.
H.M.S. _Ben-my-Chree_ (aircraft carrier) is sunk in action off Asia
Minor.


Jan. 12 (Fri.)

Germany and Austria-Hungary reply through Neutrals to the Allied
Note which refused to consider the German peace proposals.


Jan. 16 (Tues.)

The Greek Government accepts in their entirety the demands of the
Allies (see Jan. 8).


Jan. 17 (Wed.)

Roumania:--The enemy's advance is checked in the Moldavian Hills.


Jan. 19 (Fri.)

An explosion at a munitions factory at Silvertown, in the East End
of London (69 killed).


Jan. 20 (Sat.)

Roumania:--Fundeni, on the Sereth, is captured by the Germans.


Jan. 23 (Tues.)

The Germans attack in the Riga district and compel the Russians to
withdraw slightly.

Two actions are fought in the North Sea between British and German
light forces: a German destroyer and the British destroyer _Simoon_
are sunk.

The British armed merchant cruiser _Laurentic_ is sunk by a mine off
the Irish coast.


Jan. 24 (Wed.)

East Africa:--A small German force is isolated and compelled to
surrender.


Jan. 25 (Thur.)

The Greek Government offers a formal apology to the Allies for the
events of December 1.

Mesopotamia:--A British attack on Turkish trenches south-west of
Kut is partially successful.

A German vessel shells Southwold at night: there are no casualties.

The French transport _Amiral Magon_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Jan. 26 (Fri.)

To regulate exchange, the British Government by Order in Council
enforces the sale or loan of foreign securities to the Treasury.

Mesopotamia:--The British complete the capture of the Turkish
position attacked on the previous day.


Jan. 27 (Sat.)

A Russian success in the Southern Bukovina: 1200 prisoners are
captured.


Jan. 28 (Sun.)

Lieut.-General Smuts is succeeded by Major-General Hoskins as
British Commander-in-Chief in East Africa (see Feb. 10, 1916, and
May 16, 1917).


Jan. 30 (Tues.)

German attacks between Soissons and Rheims are repulsed.

Riga Front:--The Germans attack in strength: the Russians fall back
slightly.


Jan. 31 (Wed.)

Germany announces 'unrestricted naval warfare' as from February 1.

The German intention to sink hospital ships is announced in a
statement by the British Foreign Office.


Feb. 1 (Thur.)

The Government of the U.S.A. is officially informed that Germany
'must abandon the limitations she has hitherto imposed upon herself
in the employment of her fighting weapons at sea.'

Mesopotamia:--The British capture the last line but one of the
Turkish trenches before Kut east of the Hai-Tigris junction.


Feb. 2 (Fri.)

The Food Controller, Lord Devonport, appeals to the British nation
to economise in food as the only way to avoid compulsory rationing.

A British naval air-raid on Bruges harbour.


Feb. 3 (Sat.)

The Government of the U.S.A. breaks off diplomatic relations with
Germany; Count Bernstorff is handed his passports; Mr. Gerrard is
recalled from Berlin; interned German cruisers and Hamburg-Amerika
liners are seized.

The United States s.s. _Housatonic_ is sunk in daylight off the
Scillies by a German submarine.

Mesopotamia:--The British capture three lines of Turkish trenches
west of the Hai-Tigris junction.


Feb. 4 (Sun.)

The Ancre Front:--The British carry important enemy positions.

President Wilson invites other Neutral Powers to follow the example
of the U.S.A. in the interests of peace and civilisation (_i.e._ to
break off diplomatic relations with Germany).


Feb. 5 (Mon.)

The Swiss Government declines to follow President Wilson's advice to
break off relations with Germany.

Resignation of Said Kalim; a new Turkish Cabinet is formed with
Talaat Bey as Grand Vizier.

Western Egypt:--The action of Siwa: the Senussi are defeated near
the Siwa oasis.


Feb. 6 (Tues.)

The Ancre Front:--The British line is advanced near Grandcourt: 1000
yards of German trenches are taken.


Feb. 7 (Wed.)

The Ancre Front:--The British occupy Grandcourt.

The _California_, of the Anchor Line, is sunk by a German submarine
with serious loss of life.


Feb. 8 (Thur.)

The British advance from Grandcourt on both banks of the Ancre.

The British destroyer _Ghurka_ is sunk by a mine in the English
Channel.

A British naval air-raid on Bruges harbour.


Feb. 9 (Fri.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Austrians attack and gain some ground east of
Gorizia.


Feb. 10 (Sat.)

The Ancre Front:--The British capture a strong German position south
of Serre Hill.

Mesopotamia:--The British storm Turkish trenches west of Kut and
capture the 'Liquorice Factory.'


Feb. 11 (Sun.)

Germany attempts through the Swiss Government to reopen negotiations
with the U.S.A.

The Italian line is re-established east of Gorizia.


Feb. 12 (Mon.)

President Wilson refuses to negotiate with Germany until her
proclamation of unrestricted sea-warfare is withdrawn.

Roumanian Front:--The Germans attack the Russians near Jacobeny with
partial success.


Feb. 13 (Tues.)

Roumanian Front:--The Russians regain ground near Jacobeny, but the
Germans renew their attack, and make further progress.


Feb. 14 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--General Maude clears the Turks from the Dahra bend of
the Tigris.

A British naval air-raid on Bruges harbour.


Feb. 15 (Thur.)

The Germans attack the French between Tahure and Massiges: they gain
ground and capture 800 prisoners.

The Italian transport _Minas_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Feb. 16 (Fri.)

A British naval air-raid on Bruges harbour.


Feb. 17 (Sat.)

The British advance up the valley of the Ancre and capture important
enemy positions.

Mesopotamia:--A British attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position fails.

The French transport _Athos_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Feb. 18 (Sun.)

Italian and French forces effect a junction in Southern Albania,
thereby cutting the communication between Greece and the Central
Powers.


Feb. 20 (Tues.)

Sinai Peninsula:--The British capture two Turkish advanced posts.


Feb. 22 (Thur.)

Mesopotamia:--General Maude again attacks the Sanna-i-Yat position:
two lines of Turkish trenches are captured.

Seven Dutch ships are attacked by a German submarine outside
Falmouth and six of them are sunk.


Feb. 23 (Fri.)

Minimum prices for wheat and oats are guaranteed for five years in
Great Britain.

Mesopotamia:--General Maude's forces cross the Tigris at the Shamrun
bend, threatening the Turkish line of retreat; the third and fourth
Turkish lines are captured at Sanna-i-Yat.


Feb. 24 (Sat.)

On the Ancre the Germans begin to retire from their front-line
positions.

Mesopotamia:--General Maude captures Kut-el-Amara; the Turks
evacuate the Sanna-i-Yat position and retreat towards Baghdad; over
1700 prisoners are taken and much booty; this ends the Second Battle
of Kut-el-Amara (see Jan. 5).


Feb. 25 (Sun.)

On the Ancre, the Germans withdraw before the British: Serre,
Miraumont, Warlencourt, and Pys are captured.

Mesopotamia:--The British advance-guard, in pursuit of the Turks, is
15 miles west of Kut.

The Cunard liner _Laconia_ is sunk without warning in the Atlantic.

German destroyers shell Margate and Broadstairs.


Feb. 26 (Mon.)

The Ancre Front:--The Germans retire before the British on an
eleven-mile front: Le Barque is captured.


Feb. 27 (Tues.)

The British occupy Gommecourt (on the left of the advance).

Mesopotamia:--The Turkish retreat becomes a rout; the British pursue
with cavalry, infantry, and gunboats; the British gunboat _Firefly_,
lost on the fall of Kut, is recaptured.


Feb. 28 (Wed.) (Relief of Ladysmith, 1900).

The British capture Thilloy and advance east of Gommecourt.

The Germans gain ground in the Southern Bukovina near the Dorna
Watra Pass.

The French destroyer _Cassini_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean (many lives lost).


Mar. 1 (Thur.)

Mesopotamia:--The Turks continue their disorderly retreat on Baghdad.

The British destroyer _Pheasant_ is sunk by a floating mine off the
Orkneys.


Mar. 2 (Fri.)

The Somme and Ancre Fronts:--The British continue to advance against
the yielding enemy.

Persia:--Hamadan is captured by the Russians.


Mar. 3 (Sat.)

The Germans retreat to a depth of five miles east of Gommecourt.


Mar. 4 (Sun.)

The British capture German trenches at Bouchavesnes.

Verdun:--The Germans attack and gain ground north of Caurières Wood.


Mar. 5 (Mon.)

The British approach the German main positions on the Bapaume Ridge.

Mesopotamia:--British cavalry reach Lajj, twenty-seven miles from
Baghdad.

Persia:--The Turks retreating from Hamadan are attacked by the
Russians in the Asadabad Pass.


Mar. 6 (Tues.)

Mesopotamia:--General Maude's rapid advance on Baghdad continues.

Persia:--The Russians capture the Asadabad Pass.


Mar. 7 (Wed.)

Mesopotamia:--The Turks stand on the line of the Dialah River.

The Turks continue to retreat before the Russians in Western Persia.


Mar. 8 (Thur.)

Death of Count Zeppelin.

A French advance in Champagne.

Roumania:--The Austro-Germans attack in the Trotus Valley (the
centre of the Moldavian Front) and gain high ground.


Mar. 9 (Fri.)

Serious food riots are reported in Petrograd.

Verdun:--A French success near Caurières Wood.

Mesopotamia:--General Maude forces a crossing of the Dialah River.


Mar. 10 (Sat.) Neuve Chapelle, 1915.

The Ancre Front:--The British capture Irles.

Mesopotamia:--The Turkish resistance before Baghdad is broken; the
British advance upon the city.


Mar. 11 (Sun.)

Mesopotamia:--The British capture Baghdad, and continue to pursue
the Turks.


Mar. 12 (Mon.)

Revolution in Russia: the Duma, which demands representative
Government, is prorogued; a number of regiments join the cause of
the Duma; troops refuse to fire on the rioters; the Cabinet resigns;
the Duma elects a Provisional Government.

Macedonia:--The British advance near Lake Doiran.


Mar. 13 (Tues.)

China breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The Germans abandon the forward slopes of the Bapaume Ridge; the
British capture Loupart Wood and Grévillers.

Mesopotamia:--The British are thirty miles beyond Baghdad.

Persia:--The Russians again capture Kermanshah (see July 2, 1916).


Mar. 14 (Wed.)

The constitution of the Russian Provisional Government is announced:
Prince Lvoff is Premier.


Mar. 15 (Thur.)

The Russian Provisional Government demands the abdication of the
Tsar. The Tsar abdicates for himself and the Tsarevitch, and names
his brother, the Grand Duke Michael, as Regent.

The British destroyer _Foyle_ is sunk by a mine in the Straits of
Dover.


Mar. 16 (Fri.)

The British occupy St. Pierre Vaast Wood.

A Zeppelin raid on Kent: one Zeppelin, returning from the raid, is
brought down in France.


Mar. 17 (Sat.)

Resignation of M. Briand, the French Premier, and his Cabinet (see
Oct. 28, 1915).

The Germans retreat in France on a front of nearly a hundred miles;
Bapaume, Chaulnes, and fourteen villages north and south of the
Somme are occupied by the British; further south the French occupy
Lassigny, Roye, and many villages.

Persia:--The Russians occupy Kerind.

H.M.S. _Mignonette_ (sloop) is sunk by a mine off the south-west
coast of Ireland.


Mar. 18 (Sun.)

The British advance on a front of forty-five miles and occupy
Péronne and Nesle; the French advance on a front of thirty-seven
miles and occupy Noyon and many villages.

The Caucasus:--Van is occupied by the Russians for the third time.

German destroyers shell Ramsgate. Two British destroyers are
torpedoed (one of them, the _Paragon_, is sunk) in the Straits of
Dover.

H.M.S. _Alyssum_ (sloop) is sunk by a mine off the south-west coast
of Ireland.


Mar. 19 (Mon.)

A new French Cabinet is formed with M. Ribot as Premier (see Sept.
7).

The German retreat continues; Ham and Chauny are occupied by the
French.

Mesopotamia:--Feluja, on the Euphrates, is captured by the British.

The French battleship _Danton_ is torpedoed and sunk in the
Mediterranean (many lives lost).


Mar. 20 (Tues.)

The French and British advance on an eighty-mile front, the British
towards Cambrai and St. Quentin, the French towards La Fère and Laon.


Mar. 21 (Wed.)

The British advance towards St. Quentin and occupy forty villages;
the French capture Jussy and force the passage of the Crozat Canal.

The British hospital ship _Asturias_ is sunk without warning by a
German submarine (midnight, 20-21).


Mar. 22 (Thur.)

The French cross the Crozat Canal and the Ailette.


Mar. 23 (Fri.)

The French gain ground against fierce resistance between St. Quentin
and La Fère; the Germans flood the region round La Fère.

The raider _Möwe_ is reported to have returned to Germany for the
second time (see March 4, 1916).

The British destroyer _Laforey_ is sunk by a mine in the English
Channel.


Mar. 24 (Sat.)

The new Russian Government is officially recognised by Great
Britain, France, and the United States.

The British occupy Roisel, seven miles east of Péronne. The French
reach the western bank of the Oise between St. Quentin and La Fère.


Mar. 25 (Sun.)

The French Government addresses to Neutrals a protest against
the devastation and barbarities committed by the Germans in the
evacuated territories.

German torpedo-boats bombard Dunkirk.


Mar. 26 (Mon.)

The British capture Lagnicourt (north-east of Bapaume), the French
Coucy-le-Château and Folembray.

Macedonia:--The French advance west of Monastir: 2000 prisoners are
taken.

The British destroyer _Myrmidon_ is sunk by a mine in the English
Channel.


Mar. 27 (Tues.)

The British occupy Longavines, Lièrmont, Villiers, Equancourt, and
Saulcourt; the French capture the forest of Lower Coucy.

Palestine:--The British forces under Sir A. Murray defeat the Turks
near Gaza (the First Battle of Gaza): 900 prisoners are captured,
including the General of a Division and his Staff.


Mar. 28 (Wed.)

Verdun:--The French recapture Hill 304.


Mar. 29 (Thur.)

The British make progress south-east of Bapaume.


Mar. 30 (Fri.)

The British advance towards Cambrai and capture Sorel, Heudicourt,
Soyécourt, and other places; the French advance north-east of
Soissons.

The British hospital ship _Gloucester Castle_ is torpedoed and sunk
in mid-Channel, but without loss of life.


Mar. 31 (Sat.)

The British advance north-west of St. Quentin and capture Jeancourt,
Hervilly, Herbecourt, and Vendelles.

Mesopotamia:--The British occupy Deli Abbas.


April 1 (Sun.)

The British capture Savy Wood and Savy, near St. Quentin, and Epéhy
and Peizières, on the Bapaume Railway; the French advance towards
Laon on the Margival-Vrégny Front.

The Russians occupy Khanikin (north-east of Baghdad).


April 2 (Mon.)

President Wilson asks Congress for a declaration that 'a state of
war exists.'

The British take Holnon Wood (two miles from St. Quentin) and
Francilly-Selency and Selency; they also advance on a ten-mile front
between Bapaume and Arras and capture Croissilles and Doignies.

The American armed liner _Aztec_ is torpedoed off the French coast.


April 3 (Tues.)

The British gain ground south-east of Arras; the French advance
between St. Quentin and La Fère.

The Germans defeat the Russians on the Stokhod; they win a
bridge-head and take many prisoners.


April 4 (Wed.)

The U.S.A. Senate resolves that a state of war with Germany exists
by a majority of 82 votes to 6.


April 5 (Thur.)

The U.S.A. House of Representatives resolves that a state of war
with Germany exists by a majority of 373 votes to 50. The sanction
of Congress having thus been obtained, President Wilson subsequently
declares the United States of America to be at war with Germany.


April 7 (Sat.)

Cuba declares war against Germany.

Two German destroyers are torpedoed off Zeebrugge, one of them being
sunk.

The British torpedo gunboat _Jason_ is sunk by a mine off the west
coast of Scotland.


April 8 (Easter Sunday)

Austria breaks off diplomatic relations with the United States.

Mesopotamia:--The British capture Belad Station, and occupy the left
bank of the Shatt-el-Adhaim.


April 9 (Mon.)

Brazil breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The First Battle of Arras begins: the British advance on a
fifteen-mile front between Lens and Arras, and capture the Vimy
Ridge with 6000 prisoners (see May 16). On the Bapaume-Cambrai
road they take Deniécourt and Havrincourt Wood, and, north of St.
Quentin, Fresnoy-le-Petit, Pontru, and Le Vergnier.


April 10 (Tues.)

The British continue to advance: they reach the outskirts of
Monchy-le-Preux, and capture Louveval.

The British hospital ship _Salta_ is sunk by a mine in the English
Channel.


April 11 (Wed.)

The British capture Monchy-le-Preux and La Bergère.

The French advance east and north-east of Soissons.

Mesopotamia:--General Maude defeats the Turks with heavy loss near
Deltawa.


April 12 (Thur.)

The British advance on Lens; south of the Scarpe, Wancourt and
Heninel are carried with the aid of tanks; Gouzeaucourt is captured.


April 13 (Fri.)

Bolivia breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

On the fifty-mile front between Loos and west of Cambrai the
British take a number of important villages, including Vimy and
Givenchy-en-Gohelle; south of the Scarpe they capture a portion of
the Hindenburg line. The French attack and gain ground south of St.
Quentin.


April 14 (Sat.)

The British capture Liévin (the western suburb of Lens), Cité St.
Pierre (north-west of Lens), and Gricourt (near St. Quentin).

An Allied air-raid on Freiburg, as a reprisal for the sinking of
hospital ships.


April 15 (Sun.)

German counter-attacks are repulsed by the British.

The British transports _Cameronia_ (140 lives lost) and _Arcadian_
(279 lives lost) are sunk by submarine in the Mediterranean.


April 16 (Mon.)

The Second Battle of the Aisne begins (see May 20): the French
attack on the front Soissons to Rheims; the German first positions
are carried from Soissons to Craonne, the German first and second
positions from Craonne to Juvincourt; 17,000 prisoners and 130 guns
are taken.


April 17 (Tues.)

The French capture Auberive and carry the heights south of
Moronvilliers.

Palestine:--The British attack and carry Turkish first-line
positions on a six-mile front (the Second Battle of Gaza).

Mesopotamia:--General Maude forces the passage of the
Shatt-el-Adhaim below Samarra.

The British hospital ships _Donegal_ and _Lanfranc_ are sunk in
the English Channel without warning; 75 persons (mostly wounded),
including 15 wounded Germans, are drowned.


April 18 (Wed.)

The British capture Villers-Guislan, 12 miles south of Cambrai.

The French continue to advance on the Aisne: Chavonne, Chivy, and
Ostell are captured.

Mesopotamia:--The Turkish 18th Army Corps is annihilated by General
Maude at Istabulat, 12 miles south-east of Samarra.


April 19 (Thur.)

The French capture positions east and west of the Vrégny salient,
and advance east of Rheims.


April 20 (Fri.)

The British capture Gonnelieu, 8 miles south-west of Cambrai.

The Aisne Front:--The French continue to advance on the
Chemin-des-Dames.

Five German destroyers raid Dover; they are engaged by the British
destroyers _Broke_ and _Swift_, and two of them are sunk (the loss
being subsequently admitted by the German Admiralty).

A German destroyer shells Calais.


April 21 (Sat.)

Mesopotamia:--The Turks evacuate Istabulat; the British attack their
new positions between Istabulat and Samarra.


April 22 (Sun.)

The British gain ground east of Havrincourt Wood.


April 23 (Mon.)

The British advance north and south of the Scarpe on a front of
12,000 yards; Gavrelle, Guémappe, and the German positions for 2½
miles further south are captured.

German counter-attacks fail to drive the French from the heights
south of Moronvilliers.

Mesopotamia:--Samarra station is occupied by the British.

Three British aeroplanes attack five German destroyers off the
Belgian coast: a German destroyer is sunk.


April 24 (Tues.)

Mesopotamia:--General Maude attacks on the west bank of the
Shatt-el-Adhaim; the Turks retreat to the Jebel Hamrin range.


April 25 (Wed.)

Macedonia:--The British advance on the Doiran Front.

A German flotilla bombards Dunkirk.


April 26 (Thur.)

A German counter-attack at Gavrelle is repulsed by the British;
German counter-attacks on the Chemin-des-Dames are repulsed by the
French.


April 27 (Fri.)

Guatemala breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The British transport _Ballarat_, carrying Australian troops, is
torpedoed and sunk, but all hands are saved.

Ramsgate is shelled by German destroyers (5 casualties).


April 28 (Sat.)

The United States Congress passes by large majorities a Bill for
raising an American army by compulsory service.

The British advance east of the Vimy Ridge and astride the Scarpe:
Arleux is captured.

The French offensive on the Aisne is checked.


April 29 (Sun.)

The British approach the Oppy line; they capture a mile of German
trenches and 976 prisoners; fierce German counter-attacks are
repulsed.

General Pétain is appointed Chief of the French Staff.


April 30 (Mon.)

Mesopotamia:--General Maude defeats the 13th Turkish Army Corps at
the gorge of the Shatt-el-Adhaim (where the river cuts the Jebel
Hamrin range).

H.M.S. _Tulip_ (sloop--employed as Special Service ship) is sunk by
a submarine in the Atlantic.


May 1 (Tues.)

The French advance east of Rheims.


May 2 (Wed.)

In Great Britain a Royal Proclamation is issued, exhorting the
nation to food economy.

The British destroyer _Derwent_ is sunk by a mine in the English
Channel (52 lives lost).


May 3 (Thur.)

A new Greek Cabinet is formed: Premier, M. Zaimis (see Sept 11,
1916, and June 23, 1917).

The British attack on a sixteen-mile front east of Arras; the
Canadians take Fresnoy, east of Vimy (see May 8); the Hindenburg
'switch' line is broken near Queant, and the Hindenburg line as far
as Oppy is carried; counter-attacks by two divisions of the Prussian
Guard are repulsed; 928 prisoners are captured.

The Caucasus:--Mush is abandoned by the Russians (see Aug. 24, 1916).


May 4 (Fri.)

The British gain ground near St. Quentin and Hargicourt; the French
take Craonne, carry German trenches on a front of 2½ miles, and
capture 1000 prisoners.

The British transport _Transylvania_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean (over 400 lives lost).


May 5 (Sat.)

Russia:--The Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates passes
a vote of confidence in the Provisional Government by a narrow
majority.

The French advance on a front of 20 miles north of the Aisne
and capture important ground towards Laon; they carry the
Chemin-des-Dames and the crest of the Craonne Ridge; over 6000
prisoners are taken.

H.M.S. _Lavender_ (sloop) is sunk by a submarine in the English
Channel.


May 6 (Sun.)

German counter-attacks on the Aisne Front are repulsed, and the
French capture 2000 more prisoners.


May 7 (Mon.)

A German attack on the British near Lens is repulsed.

A German aeroplane raid on north-east London in the early morning (1
killed).


May 8 (Tues.)

Liberia breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The Germans attack in strength and recapture Fresnoy from the
British (see May 3).

The French carry an enemy position beyond Chevreux (north-east of
Craonne).


May 9 (Wed.)

A resolution is passed by the Russian Committee of Workmen's and
Soldiers' Delegates in favour of an International Socialist Peace
Conference to be held at Stockholm (see May 28).

Macedonia:--The British advance near Lake Doiran.


May 10 (Thur.)

A scouting force of light cruisers and destroyers under Commodore
Tyrwhitt engage 11 enemy destroyers off Harwich, and chase them back
to Zeebrugge.


May 12 (Sat.)

Arras Front:--The British capture important enemy positions and the
greater part of Bullecourt (see May 17).

Zeebrugge is bombarded by British naval forces.


May 14 (Mon.)

Great Britain:--Sir Eric Geddes is appointed Controller at the
Admiralty.

The British gain ground north of Gavrelle, and capture Rœux.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians assume the offensive from Gorizia to
Plava.


May 15 (Tues.)

General Pétain succeeds General Nivelle as Commander-in-Chief of the
French army; he is succeeded by General Foch as Chief of Staff.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians advance on the slopes of Monte Santo.

British naval forces destroy the Zeppelin L 22 in the North Sea.

An Austrian naval force sinks 14 British drifters in the Adriatic
and escapes to harbour.


May 16 (Wed.)

It is announced that Major-General J. L. van Deventer is appointed
to supreme command in East Africa, in succession to Major-General
Hoskins (see Jan. 28).

Russia:--M. Miliukoff resigns: a Coalition Government is formed,
with Prince Lvoff as Premier and M. Kerenski as War Minister.

The end of the First Battle of Arras (see April 9).


May 17 (Thur.)

Honduras breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The British complete the capture of Bullecourt on the Siegfried line
(see May 12).

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians win the western slopes of Monte
Santo.

U.S.A. destroyers reach British waters.


May 18 (Fri.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians win the highest peak of Monte Vodice.


May 19 (Sat.)

Nicaragua breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The Russian Coalition Government issues a declaration repudiating a
separate peace.


May 20 (Sun.)

The French advance near Moronvilliers and take 1000 prisoners: the
end of the Second Battle of the Aisne (see April 16).


May 22 (Tues.)

The Hungarian Premier, Count Tisza, resigns.


May 23 (Wed.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians advance on a wide front on the
Southern Carso, and capture important positions and 9000 prisoners.

A Zeppelin raid on East Anglia.


May 24 (Thur.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians make further progress on the
Southern Carso.


May 25 (Fri.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians continue to advance on the Southern
Carso.

A raid by 17 German aeroplanes on Folkestone; three German
aeroplanes are brought down on the return journey by British naval
airmen from Dunkirk.

H.M.S. _Hilary_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine in
the Atlantic.


May 26 (Sat.)

The British hospital ship _Dover Castle_ is sunk by a submarine in
the Mediterranean (6 lives lost).


May 27 (Whit Sunday)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians reach the third Austrian line of
defence; San Giovanni is captured.


May 28 (Mon.)

French Socialists resolve to attend the Stockholm Conference (see
June 1).


May 29 (Tues.)

The French liner _Yarra_ is sunk by a submarine in the Mediterranean.


May 31 (Thur.)

The Austrian Reichsrath is summoned for the first time during the
war; the new Emperor Charles promises a more liberal constitution
after the war.


June 1 (Fri.)

Great Britain:--Lord Devonport resigns the office of Food Controller
(see June 15).

The French Premier, M. Ribot, announces the refusal of his
Government to allow French Socialists to attend the Stockholm
Conference (see May 9 and Aug. 13).

British naval aeroplanes bomb the German bases at Bruges, Ostend,
and Zeebrugge.


June 2 (Sat.)

The British transport _Cameronian_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean (63 lives lost).


June 3 (Sun.)

Great Allied air-raids on the German aerodromes at Zeebrugge, St.
Denis Westrom, and Bruges.

A French air-raid on Trèves, as a reprisal for the bombardment of
Bar-le-Duc.


June 4 (Mon.)

Resignation of General Alexeieff as Russian Commander-in-Chief; he
is succeeded by General Brussiloff (see Aug. 1).


June 5 (Tues.)

An action at long range between British light cruisers and
destroyers, under Commodore Tyrwhitt, and six German destroyers; one
German destroyer, the S20, is sunk by gunfire.

Ostend is bombarded by British naval forces.

A daylight raid by 18 German aeroplanes on the south-eastern
counties of England; two German aeroplanes are destroyed.


June 7 (Thur.)

A British offensive is launched between Ypres and Armentières (the
Battle of Messines; see June 14): an attack in strength on the
Messines-Wytschaete Ridge is preceded by the explosion of 19 mines;
Messines, the Messines Ridge, the village of Oosttaverne, and the
enemy's positions on a front of 9 miles are captured, with 7000
prisoners and many guns.


June 8 (Fri.)

The German proposal of an armistice on the Eastern Front is rejected
by the Russian Government.

General Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of the United States
Expeditionary Force, arrives in London.

German counter-attacks in the Messines area are repulsed.


June 10 (Sun.)

Publication of President Wilson's message to the Russian Government,
defining the war aims of the U.S.A.

The Italian offensive on the Isonzo Front ends, but between the
Brenta and the Adige the Italians attack and capture the Agnello
Pass and the greater part of Monte Ortigara.


June 11 (Mon.)

Greece:--King Constantine abdicates, as demanded by the Allies, in
favour of his second son Alexander.

The British gain ground on the right of their new front south-east
of Ypres.

A British drifter destroys two German seaplanes in the Channel.


June 12 (Tues.)

A British naval force captures the Turkish fortress of Saliff, on
the Arabian shore of the Red Sea.


June 13 (Wed.)

The Trentino Front:--An Austrian attack on Monte Ortigara is
repulsed by the Italians.

A daylight raid by 15 German aeroplanes on London: 157 persons are
killed, 432 injured; one enemy machine is destroyed.


June 14 (Thur.)

The end of the Battle of Messines (see June 7).

The British storm Infantry Hill, east of Monchy.

H.M.S. _Avenger_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine in
the North Atlantic.

The Zeppelin L 43 is destroyed in the North Sea by British naval
forces.


June 15 (Fri.)

Lord Rhondda is appointed Food Controller in Great Britain (see July
3, 1918).

The British capture further portions of the Hindenburg line near
Bullecourt.


June 16 (Sat.)

Macedonia:--The British withdraw to the west of the Struma, owing to
the approach of the malarial season.

Two Zeppelins raid the south-east of England; one is brought down in
flames.


June 17 (Sun.)

The Italians make local progress on the Carso, and repulse Austrian
attacks on the Asiago Plateau.


June 19 (Tues.)

Great Britain:--Enemy titles held by members of the Royal Family are
abolished by the King.


June 20 (Wed.)

H.M.S. _Salvia_ (sloop--employed as Special Service ship) is sunk by
a submarine off the west coast of Ireland.


June 23 (Sat.)

Greece:--M. Zaimis, the Greek Premier, resigns (see May 3).

The P. & O. liner _Mongolia_ is sunk by a mine off Bombay (23 lives
lost).


June 24 (Sun.)

Dr. von Seidler forms a new Austrian Ministry (see Jan. 22, 1918).

The British gain ground south-west of Lens.


June 25 (Mon.)

British and German delegates meet at the Hague to discuss questions
relating to prisoners of war.


June 26 (Tues.)

A new Greek Cabinet is formed with M. Venizelos as Premier.

The first fighting troops of the American army reach France (see
Oct. 27).

The British gain ground south-west of Lens astride the Souchez River.


June 27 (Wed.)

Great Britain:--The report of the Commission on the Mesopotamian
campaign is published.

The British transport _Armadale_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Atlantic (11 lives lost).


June 28 (Thur.)

The British enter Avion (south of Lens), and capture German trenches
near Oppy.


June 29 (Fri.)

It is announced that General Allenby is appointed to succeed General
Murray in command of the British forces in Egypt and Palestine.


June 30 (Sat.)

The British make further progress south-west and south of Lens.

East Africa:--German forces are driven from the border of Nyasaland
to the Rovuma border.

The British destroyer _Cheerful_ is sunk by a mine off the Shetland
Islands.


July 1 (Sun.)

A great Russian offensive is launched in Eastern Galicia: important
enemy positions and over 10,000 prisoners are captured.


July 2 (Mon.)

The Russians make further progress in Galicia.


July 3 (Tues.)

A German attack on the French lines between Jouy and Craonne is
repulsed with heavy loss.


July 4 (Wed.)

The United States Navy Department announces that an attack on
American transports by German submarines was beaten off by American
destroyers, and that at least one of the enemy submarines was sunk.

A German aeroplane raid on Harwich (11 killed): two of the raiders
are destroyed.

H.M.S. _Aster_ (sloop) is sunk by a mine in the Mediterranean.


July 6 (Fri.)

Herr Erzberger's demand in the Reichstag for 'a peace without
annexations or indemnities' provokes a political crisis in Germany.

A Conscription Bill is carried in the Canadian House of Commons.

The Russian advance in Galicia develops in the direction of
Stanislau.

The British destroyer _Itchen_ is sunk by a submarine in the North
Sea (8 lives lost).


July 7 (Sat.)

A daylight raid on London by 22 German aeroplanes: 59 persons are
killed and 193 injured; four of the raiders are destroyed on the
return journey.

French air-raids on Essen and other German towns, as a reprisal for
enemy raids on Nancy and Eperney.


July 8 (Sun.)

Austrian positions near Stanislau are captured by the Russians, with
many prisoners; Russian cavalry pursue the retreating enemy.


July 9 (Mon.)

The Russians advance on Halicz.

H.M.S. _Vanguard_ (battleship) is destroyed by an internal explosion
with heavy loss of life, at Scapa Flow.

British naval airmen bomb the War Office at Constantinople and the
_Goeben_ and other ships in harbour.


July 10 (Tues.)

A fierce German attack on the British positions near the mouth of
the Yser (the Battle of Nieuport): two British battalions are cut
off and overwhelmed; the Germans win the right bank of the river at
the mouth.

The Russians capture Halicz (see July 23).


July 11 (Wed.)

The Russians capture Kalusz (17 miles from Stanislau).

Mesopotamia:--The British defeat a Turkish force on the Euphrates.


July 12 (Thur.)

Great Britain:--Resignation of Mr. Austen Chamberlain, Secretary of
State for India.

The Russians cross the Lomnica (Galicia).


July 13 (Fri.)

The Russians advance south-west of Kalusz (Galicia).


July 14 (Sat.)

The German Imperial Chancellor, von Bethmann-Hollweg, is dismissed
by the Kaiser; Herr Michaelis is appointed to succeed him.

A fierce German attack on the Chemin-des-Dames meets with partial
success; on the Moronvilliers Ridge (east of Rheims) the French
capture an important enemy position.

Palestine:--The British raid the Turkish lines before Gaza.


July 16 (Mon.)

Disorders arise in Petrograd, and among Russian regiments, owing to
Bolshevist intrigues.

The Russians fall back across the Lomnica (Galicia).

British light naval forces intercept and capture four German
steamers off the Dutch coast.


July 17 (Tues.)

Great Britain:--The name of the Royal Family is altered to 'Windsor'
by Royal Proclamation.

Ministerial changes:--Sir E. Carson enters the War Cabinet (see Jan.
21, 1918); Sir Eric Geddes becomes First Lord of the Admiralty; Mr.
Churchill becomes Minister of Munitions; Mr. Montagu succeeds Mr.
Austen Chamberlain as Secretary of State for India (see Dec. 10,
1916).

Mutineers from Kronstadt arrive in Petrograd.

Verdun:--The French win back on Hill 304 all ground lost since June
29 and capture 425 prisoners.


July 18 (Wed.)

The disorders in Petrograd are quelled by troops loyal to the
Provisional Government.


July 19 (Thur.)

Herr Michaelis, the new German Chancellor, declares in the Reichstag
for 'a victor's peace.'

The Germans attack in north-eastern Galicia and pierce the Russian
Front; here and elsewhere mutinous Russian units refuse to fight.

East Africa:--The main German forces are defeated at Norongombe and
driven in retreat to the Mbemkuru Valley.


July 20 (Fri.)

Galicia:--The Germans advance rapidly towards Tarnopol.


July 21 (Sat.)

Galicia:--The Russian retreat develops into a rout.


July 22 (Sun.)

Siam declares war on Germany and Austria.

Resignation of the Russian Premier, Prince Lvoff; he is succeeded by
M. Kerenski.

The French repulse German attacks on the Chemin-des-Dames but lose
ground at some points.

Loyal Russian units make a temporary stand near Krevo, east of Vilna.

A German aeroplane raid on Harwich and Felixstowe (11 killed).


July 23 (Mon.)

The Germans occupy Halicz and cross the Sereth south of Tarnopol;
the Russians also retreat near Dvinsk and Smorgon; there are
wholesale desertions in the Russian Army.

In Moldavia the Russians and Roumanians attack in the Susitza and
Putna Valleys and capture guns and prisoners.

H.M.S. _Otway_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine in
the North Atlantic.


July 24 (Tues.)

The Austro-Germans recapture Stanislau and Tarnopol.


July 25 (Wed.)

The Irish Convention meets in Dublin; Sir Horace Plunkett is
appointed Chairman.

The Russian retreat in Galicia continues.

The Russians and Roumanians gain ground in Moldavia.


July 26 (Thur.)

The Austro-Germans are across the Sereth from Tarnopol to Czortkow;
they occupy Kolomea, south of the Dniester.

H.M.S. _Ariadne_ (mine layer) is sunk by a submarine in the English
Channel (38 lives lost).


July 28 (Sat.)

The Austro-Germans enter south-western Russia on either side of the
frontier town of Husiatyn.

The Roumanians still advance in Moldavia.


July 29 (Sun.)

An increasing artillery bombardment by the British in Flanders.

The Russian retreat continues.


July 30 (Mon.)

The French attack and gain ground south of La Royère, on the Aisne
Front.


July 31 (Tues.)

Great Anglo-French attack in front of Ypres (the Third Battle of
Ypres; see Nov. 6): St. Julien, Pilkem, Frezenberg, and other
villages are captured by the British; the French force the passage
of the Yser Canal and carry Steenstrasse and Bixschoote.


Aug. 1 (Wed.)

The Germans counter-attack and recapture St. Julien (see Aug. 3).

The Russian generals Brussiloff and Dmitrieff resign; General
Korniloff is appointed Russian Commander-in-Chief.


Aug. 2 (Thur.)

The Germans carry British positions on Infantry Hill, east of Monchy.


Aug. 3 (Fri.)

The British recapture St. Julien (Ypres Front) and the positions
lost on Infantry Hill (east of Monchy).

The Austro-Germans recapture Czernowitz.


Aug. 6 (Mon.)

Moldavia:--Roumanian positions are stormed north of Focsani by
Mackensen's forces.


Aug. 7 (Tues.)

Moldavia:--Mackensen advances north of Focsani, and captures 3000
prisoners.


Aug. 8 (Wed.)

Moldavia:--Retirement of the Russians and Roumanians in the Trotus
Valley.


Aug. 9 (Thur.)

Moldavia:--Mackensen continues to advance north of Focsani, and
crosses the Susitza River on a wide front.

The British destroyer _Recruit_ is sunk by a mine in the North Sea
(see footnote, p. 38).


Aug. 10 (Fri.)

The British advance east of Ypres and enter Glencorse Wood; the
French cross the Steenbeek.

A German air-raid on Nancy. A French air-raid on Frankfurt-on-Main.


Aug. 11 (Sat.)

Mackensen advances in Moldavia and captures many prisoners.

The British liner _City of Athens_ is sunk by a mine near Cape Town.


Aug. 12 (Sun.)

A German aeroplane raid on Southend and Margate (32 killed).


Aug. 13 (Mon.)

The refusal of passports for the Stockholm Conference is announced
by the British Government, as a measure agreed between the Allies
(see May 9 and June 1).

H.M.S. _Bergamot_ (sloop--employed as Special Service ship) is sunk
by a submarine in the Atlantic.


Aug. 14 (Tues.)

China declares war on Germany and Austria.

Peace proposals by the Pope are delivered to the belligerent
Governments.


Aug. 15 (Wed.)

The British attack from north of Loos to north of Lens: Hill 70 and
several villages are captured and the defences of Cité St. Auguste
penetrated in the northern sector; German positions are carried near
Lens.


Aug. 16 (Thur.)

The British attack east and north of Ypres, and capture Langemarck.

The French advance near Craonne.

The Germans are checked by the Roumanians in Moldavia.

An action between British and German destroyers in the Bight of
Heligoland.


Aug. 17 (Fri.)

The French gain ground east of Bixschoote.


Aug. 18 (Sat.)

German counter-attacks near Lens are repulsed with heavy loss.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians bombard the Austrian positions from
Monte Nero to the sea.


Aug. 19 (Sun.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians attack on a thirty-mile front, and
capture the Austrian first line from Plava to the sea.


Aug. 20 (Mon.)

The French attack at Verdun on a front of 11 miles; they capture
Avocourt, the Cumières Woods, and other strong positions, with 4000
prisoners.

The Germans advance on the Riga Front with little opposition.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians make rapid progress.


Aug. 21 (Tues.)

The British gain ground north of Lens.

The French make further progress near Verdun.

A Zeppelin raid on the Yorkshire coast. A Zeppelin is brought down
off Jutland by British light naval forces.


Aug. 22 (Wed.)

Lens is invested by the British on three sides.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians continue to advance, 16,000
prisoners being claimed to date.

A German aeroplane raid on Ramsgate, Margate, and Dover; three
raiders are brought down.


Aug. 23 (Thur.)

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians make further progress; they claim
over 20,000 prisoners since the beginning of the offensive.


Aug. 24 (Fri.)

The British are driven back near the Ypres-Menin road.

Verdun Front:--The French capture Hill 304 and reach the southern
bank of the Forges brook.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture Monte Santo, north of
Gorizia.


Aug. 28 (Tues.)

Moldavia:--A Russian division mutinies and leaves the field.


Aug. 31 (Fri.)

The French gain ground on the Chemin-des-Dames.


Sept. 1 (Sat.)

The Germans cross the Dvina at Uexküll, which constitutes a threat
to the Riga-Petrograd Railway.

British light naval forces sink four German mine-sweepers off the
coast of Jutland.


Sept. 2 (Sun.)

East Africa:--A German detachment surrenders at Kakera.

A German aeroplane raid on Dover.

A British naval air-raid on Adrianople.


Sept. 3 (Mon.)

Riga falls to the Germans, who occupy the town unopposed and advance
in pursuit of the retreating and disorganised Russians.

A German aeroplane raid on the south-east of England.

H.M.S. _Dundee_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a submarine in
the entrance of the English Channel.


Sept. 4 (Tues.)

The Germans cross the Aa, 33 miles north-east of Riga.

The Isonzo Front:--The Italians capture enemy positions on Monte St.
Gabriele.

A German submarine shells Scarborough (3 killed).

A night raid by German aeroplanes on London (11 killed).


Sept. 5 (Wed.)

The Russians lose the line of the Dvina as far as Friedrichstadt.


Sept. 7 (Fri.)

Resignation of M. Ribot, the French Premier (see March 19).


Sept. 8 (Sat.)

M. Kerenski dismisses General Korniloff from the post of Russian
Commander-in-Chief; General Korniloff marches on Petrograd.

The United States Government discloses the 'sink without trace'
incident in Germany's dealings in the Argentine through Sweden.

Verdun Front:--The French capture Chaume Wood.


Sept. 11 (Tues.)

Russia:--M. Kerenski assumes the position of Commander-in-Chief.


Sept. 12 (Wed.)

M. Painlevé succeeds M. Ribot as French Premier (see Nov. 13).

The Argentine Government hands Count Luxburg, the German agent in
Buenos Ayres, his passports.

A British naval air-raid on Zeebrugge.


Sept. 13 (Thur.)

Russia:--General Korniloff's revolt fails.

The Allies advance in Southern Albania.


Sept. 14 (Fri.)

Russia:--General Korniloff surrenders to General Alexeieff and the
Provisional Government.


Sept. 15 (Sat.)

Russia:--The Provisional Government proclaims a Republic; a new War
Cabinet is appointed under M. Kerenski, who is virtually Dictator.

A British naval air-raid on enemy shipping between Ostend and
Blankenberghe.


Sept. 16 (Sun.)

Allied air-raids on Stuttgart and Colmar.


Sept. 18 (Tues.)

The British destroyer _Contest_ is sunk by a submarine in the
English Channel.


Sept. 20 (Thur.)

The British attack on an eight-mile front east of Ypres: Inverness
Copse, Glencorse Wood, and other important positions are captured,
with 2000 prisoners.


Sept. 21 (Fri.)

East of Ypres the British repulse counter-attacks and make further
progress.

The Russians evacuate the important bridge-head of Jacobstadt (on
the Dvina, 70 miles south-east of Riga).

East Africa:--The British advancing from the direction of the port
of Kilwa break up an enemy force and drive it in flight towards the
Mbemkuru River.


Sept. 22 (Sat.)

The Germans occupy Jacobstadt (south-east of Riga).

Ostend is shelled by British ships of the Belgian coast patrol.

French air-raids on Stuttgart, Trèves, Coblenz, and Frankfurt.


Sept. 24 (Mon.)

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes (15 killed).


Sept. 25 (Tues.)

A British naval force bombards Ostend.

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes (7 killed); one raider
is destroyed.


Sept. 26 (Wed.)

The British attack on a six-mile front east of Ypres; Polygon Wood
and Zonnebeke are captured.


Sept. 27 (Thur.)

A raid by British naval airmen on the German aerodrome at St. Denis
Westrem (near Ghent).


Sept. 28 (Fri.)

Mesopotamia:--The Turks are crushingly defeated by General Maude at
Ramadieh on the Euphrates (the Battle of Ramadieh).


Sept. 29 (Sat.)

Mesopotamia:--The British victory at Ramadieh ends in the surrender
of the Turkish force; over 3000 unwounded prisoners are captured.

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes (11 killed).


Sept. 30 (Sun.)

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes.


Oct. 1 (Mon.)

East of Ypres strong German counter-attacks are repulsed by the
British.

East Africa:--An enemy detachment of 200 surrenders to the British
north of the Central Railway.

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes (10 killed).


Oct. 2 (Tues.)

H.M.S. _Drake_ (cruiser) is torpedoed off the north coast of
Ireland; she makes harbour and sinks in shallow water (19 lives
lost).


Oct. 4 (Thur.)

The British attack Passchendaele Ridge; positions of great
importance and 4500 prisoners are captured.


Oct. 5 (Fri.)

An explosion occurs in a munitions factory at Chilwell, with heavy
loss of life.


Oct. 6 (Sat.)

Peru and Uruguay break off diplomatic relations with Germany.

German counter-attacks at Passchendaele are repulsed with heavy loss.


Oct. 9 (Tues.)

Death of Hussein Kamel, Sultan of Egypt since 1914 (see Dec. 18,
1914).

The British and French attack between Passchendaele Ridge and
Houthulst Forest; the villages of St. Jean, Mangelaere, Veldhoek,
and Koekuit are taken, and the capture of Poelcappelle is completed.

East Africa:--A Belgian column occupies Mahenge.

A serious mutiny which occurred in the German Navy in August is
announced in the German Reichstag.

H.M.S. _Champagne_ (armed merchant-cruiser) is sunk by a submarine
in the Atlantic (56 lives lost).


Oct. 11 (Thur.)

The British Government stops commercial cable communication with
Holland until the transit of sand and scrap-iron by Dutch waterways
from Germany into Belgium shall be discontinued.


Oct. 12 (Fri.)

The British again attack between Passchendaele and Houthulst Forest;
their progress is checked by the mud.

The Germans attack the island of Oesel in the Gulf of Riga with
naval and military forces; the greater part of the island is
occupied.


Oct. 13 (Sat.)

The Germans capture Arensburg, the capital of Oesel Island.


Oct. 14 (Sun.)

The Gulf of Riga:--An indeterminate action between German and
Russian naval forces is fought in the Sound between Oesel Island and
Dago Island.


Oct. 16 (Tues.)

It is announced in Parliament that a British Air Ministry will be
constituted.

The Germans complete the occupation of Oesel, taking many prisoners.


Oct. 17 (Wed.)

Gulf of Riga:--The Germans force Irben Strait; the Russians are
compelled to sink and abandon their battleship _Slava_ in Moon Sound.

Scandinavian merchantmen, convoyed by two British destroyers,
are attacked by a German naval force in the North Sea: the two
destroyers, the _Mary Rose_ and the _Strongbow_, are sunk after a
gallant fight (135 lives lost); most of the merchantmen are sunk,
but three escape.

The U.S.A. transport _Antilles_ is sunk by a submarine (67 lives
lost).


Oct. 18 (Thur.)

The Gulf of Riga:--The Germans complete the capture of Moon Island.


Oct. 19 (Fri.)

The Gulf of Riga:--The Germans complete the capture of Dago Island.

A Zeppelin raid on the east and north-east of England and on London
(27 killed); five of the raiders are brought down in France on their
return journey.

H.M. armed merchant-cruiser _Orama_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Atlantic.


Oct. 20 (Sat.)

The Gulf of Riga:--The Germans capture Schilden Island.


Oct. 21 (Sun.)

The Gulf of Riga:--The Germans land at Verder, on the mainland of
Esthonia (see Oct. 27).

British naval forces bombard Ostend.


Oct. 22 (Mon.)

The Germans counter-attack and gain ground in Houthulst Forest.

A German withdrawal south of Riga.


Oct. 23 (Tues.)

The French attack on the Aisne Front: the German defences are
deeply penetrated; Malmaison Fort and other important positions are
carried, 8000 prisoners being captured.

The Italian Isonzo and north-eastern fronts are heavily bombarded at
many points by the Austro-Germans, the Austrians in this area having
been strongly reinforced by Germans.


Oct. 24 (Wed.)

The Battle of Caporetto begins (see Nov. 18): the Italians are
strongly attacked in the neighbourhood of Tolmino, on the Upper
Isonzo, by Austro-German forces; the Italian Second Army gives way
on a twenty-mile front.


Oct. 25 (Thur.)

Resignation of Signor Boselli and the Italian Cabinet.

A further French advance on the Aisne Front: many guns are captured.

The Italians retreat rapidly on the whole front between Plezzo and
a point south of Auzza: the Austro-Germans capture Monte Matajur
(south-west of Caporetto); they claim 30,000 prisoners in two days'
fighting.

A British air-raid on the railways and factories at Saarbrücken.


Oct. 26 (Fri.)

The British advance on the Passchendaele Ridge; the French capture
the village of Dvaeibank.

The Italians continue to retreat; their line is pierced on the
Julian Front; 60,000 prisoners and 500 guns are claimed by the enemy
to date.


Oct. 27 (Sat.)

The French and Belgians advance on either side of the Ypres-Dixmude
road: Merckem is captured.

American troops are in action in France for the first time (see June
26).

The Gulf of Riga:--The Germans evacuate the mainland of Esthonia
(see Oct. 21).

Italy:--The Germans capture Cividale and sweep into the Friulian
plain; 80,000 prisoners are claimed to date.

An action between Allied and German destroyers off the Belgian
coast.


Oct. 28 (Sun.)

A new Italian Cabinet is formed under Signor Orlando.

Fall of Gorizia: the Italians retreat towards the line of the
Tagliamento; 100,000 prisoners and 700 guns are claimed by the enemy
to date (see Aug. 8, 1916).


Oct. 29 (Mon.)

Italy:--The Austro-Germans occupy Udine.


Oct. 30 (Tues.)

Resignation of Herr Michaelis, the German Imperial Chancellor (see
July 14).

The British advance on the Passchendaele Ridge and reach the
outskirts of Passchendaele.


Oct. 31 (Wed.)

The remains of the Italian Second and Third Armies are withdrawn
behind the Tagliamento River; 120,000 prisoners and over 1000 guns
are claimed by the enemy to date.

Palestine:--The British, under General Allenby, resume the offensive
on the Gaza Front; Beersheba is captured; 1800 prisoners and 15 guns
are taken.

A night raid on London by German aeroplanes (8 killed).


Nov. 1 (Thur.)

Count Hertling succeeds Herr Michaelis as German Imperial Chancellor
(see Oct 1, 1918).

Palestine:--General Allenby captures an important section of the
defences of Gaza and advances north of Beersheba.


Nov. 2 (Fri.)

The Germans abandon the whole line of the Chemin-des-Dames; they
retire from its northern slopes across the Ailette.

Italy:--The Austro-Germans reach the east bank of the Tagliamento.

A British naval force sinks a German auxiliary cruiser and ten
German patrol craft in the Kattegat.


Nov. 3 (Sat.)

The French reach the Ailette on the whole front between Corbeny and
the Oise-Aisne Canal.

French troops arrive in Italy.


Nov. 4 (Sun.)

British troops arrive in Italy.

The Austro-Germans force the passage of the Tagliamento north of
Pinzano.


Nov. 5 (Mon.)

The Italians retreat from the Tagliamento towards the Piave.

Mesopotamia:--General Maude defeats the Turks before Tekrit (100
miles beyond Baghdad).


Nov. 6 (Tues.)

The British capture Passchendaele (this ends the Third Battle of
Ypres: see July 31).

Palestine:--The British capture important positions eleven miles
north of Beersheba.

Mesopotamia:--The British capture Tekrit.


Nov. 7 (Wed.)

A _coup d'état_ in Petrograd by the Bolshevists under Lenin:
Kerenski and the Provisional Government are overthrown; Lenin and
Trotsky become masters of the situation.

The Italians reach the Livenza, the passage of which is forced by
the Austro-Germans; 250,000 prisoners and 2300 guns are claimed by
the enemy to date.

Palestine:--General Allenby captures Gaza.


Nov. 9 (Fri.)

It is announced that the Allied War Conference at Rapallo has
decided to create a Supreme Council to ensure unity of command.

General Diaz succeeds General Cadorna as Italian Generalissimo.

The Austro-Germans advance in the Trentino and capture Asiago.

Palestine:--The Turks retreat on Hebron and Jerusalem with heavy
loss in guns, prisoners, and other casualties.


Nov. 10 (Sat.)

The arrests of M. Kerenski and General Korniloff are ordered by the
Petrograd Soviet; troops loyal to M. Kerenski occupy Tsarskoe Selo.

Italy:--The Austro-Germans attack on the Upper Piave and capture
Belluno.


Nov. 11 (Sun.)

Italy:--Austro-German attacks in the Trentino (designed to turn the
line of the Piave) are defeated.

The British monitor M 15 and the destroyer _Staunch_ are sunk by
submarine off the coast of Palestine.


Nov. 12 (Mon.)

Mr. Lloyd George makes his 'Paris speech' declaring for an Allied
War Council to ensure unity of command.

The Italians evacuate Fonzano and a part of the Val Sugano.


Nov. 13 (Tues.)

M. Kerenski's forces are defeated by the Bolshevists at Tsarskoe
Selo; flight of M. Kerenski.

M. Painlevé's Government is defeated in the French Chamber (see
Sept. 12).

Italy:--The Austro-Germans force the passage of the Lower Piave at
Zenson.

Palestine:--General Allenby drives the Turks from strong positions
north of Ascalon; the junction of the Beersheba-Damascus railway
with the line from Jerusalem is occupied by the British.


Nov. 14 (Wed.)

Mr. Lloyd George announces to the House of Commons the terms of
agreement between the Western Allies for a Supreme War Council.

Italy:--Austro-German attacks on a twenty-mile front, designed to
turn the line of the Piave from the north, are repulsed.


Nov. 15 (Thur.)

The Italians retreat in the Val Sugano and the Austro-Germans occupy
Cismon.

Palestine:--The British approach Jaffa (Joppa).

East Africa:--British troops occupy Chivata.


Nov. 16 (Fri.)

A new French Ministry is formed with M. Clemenceau as Premier and
War Minister.

The Austro-Germans attack the line of the Piave on a twenty-mile
front; they capture Monte Prasolan, the Italians retiring on Monte
Grappa; the enemy cross the Lower Piave at two more points but are
checked on the western bank.


Nov. 17 (Sat.)

Palestine:--The British enter Jaffa (Joppa).

A cruiser action in the Heligoland Bight: the German naval forces
retire damaged to the protection of Heligoland.


Nov. 18 (Sun.)

Italy:--The end of the Battle of Caporetto (see Oct. 24).

Palestine:--The British approach Jerusalem.

Death of General Sir Stanley Maude in Mesopotamia (see Aug. 28,
1916).

H.M.S. _Candytuft_ (sloop--employed as Special Service ship) is sunk
by a submarine in the Mediterranean.


Nov. 19 (Mon.)

In the British House of Commons Mr. Lloyd George successfully
defends his 'Paris speech' and the policy of a Supreme War Council.


Nov. 20 (Tues.)

A conference opens at Downing Street between the British War Cabinet
and representatives of the U.S.A.

The British Third Army under Sir Julian Byng attacks and carries
the Hindenburg line on a ten-mile front before Cambrai (the Battle
of Cambrai; see Dec. 7): the advance through the German wire is led
by tanks; Bonavis, La Vacquerie, Havrincourt, and other places are
captured; the advance is continued to within five miles of Cambrai.


Nov. 21 (Wed.)

Russia:--The Lenin-Trotsky Government announces its intention to
open negotiations for 'a democratic peace.' Ensign Krilenko is
appointed Russian Commander-in-Chief.

The British continue to advance before Cambrai: Bourlon Wood is
entered; Fontaine Notre Dame (2½ miles from Cambrai) is captured;
Mœuvres is reached. The number of prisoners taken to date exceeds
8000.

Palestine:--General Allenby captures the Nebi Samwil Ridge (Mizpeh),
five miles from Jerusalem.


Nov. 22 (Thur.)

Cambrai Front:--The Germans recapture Fontaine Notre Dame.


Nov. 23 (Fri.)

Cambrai Front:--The British capture Bourlon Wood.


Nov. 24 (Sat.)

Cambrai Front:--Fierce fighting in the northern outskirts of Bourlon
Wood.

General Plumer is appointed to command the British forces in Italy.

Lieut.-General Marshall is appointed to command the British forces
in Mesopotamia.

The German submarine U48 is destroyed by British drifters on the
Goodwin Sands.


Nov. 25 (Sun.)

The French advance north of Verdun.


Nov. 27 (Tues.)

Cambrai Front:--The British gain ground towards Fontaine Notre Dame
and the village of Bourlon.

East Africa:--Near Nevale 3500 German and native troops, under
Colonel Tafel, surrender to the British.


Nov. 28 (Wed.)

The British Admiralty announces the formation of the Women's Royal
Naval Service.

The Elder-Dempster liner _Apapa_ is sunk by a submarine (79 lives
lost).


Nov. 29 (Thur.)

Meetings of the Allied Conference open at Paris.

Count Hertling announces that Germany will treat with the
Bolshevists.

Lord Lansdowne's letter advising a revision of war aims is published
in the _Daily Telegraph_.


Nov. 30 (Fri.)

The Germans counter-attack in strength before Cambrai: they capture
Lateau Wood and penetrate the British positions as far as La
Vacquerie, Gonnelieu, and Gouzeaucourt; La Vacquerie is recovered by
a British counter-attack; the Germans claim 4000 prisoners and 60
guns.


Dec. 1 (Sat.)

Cambrai Front:--The British recapture Gonnelieu.

East Africa:--The British drive the last enemy forces into
Portuguese territory.


Dec. 2 (Sun.)

German and Bolshevist plenipotentiaries meet at Brest-Litovsk to
negotiate an armistice.


Dec. 3 (Mon.)

The Russian General Staff surrenders to Bolshevist troops; General
Dukhonin, the former Commander-in-Chief, is murdered.

Mesopotamia:--The Turks are driven out of the hills north of Deli
Abbas; they retreat towards the Jebel Hamrin range.


Dec. 4 (Tues.)

Italy:--The Austro-Germans attack in the Asiago region and win
Italian hill positions.


Dec. 5 (Wed.)

Cambrai Front:--The British evacuate Bourlon Wood.

Italy:--The Austro-Germans make progress on the Asiago Front: Monte
Zomo and Monte Castelgomberto are carried.


Dec. 6 (Thur.)

An insurrection breaks out in Lisbon against the Government in power
(see Dec. 11).

Roumania agrees to an armistice.

Cambrai Front:--Strong enemy attacks south of Bourlon Wood are
repulsed by the British.

Italy:--The Austro-Germans capture Monte Sisemol.

Palestine:--The British occupy Hebron.

A German aeroplane raid on London in the early morning (7 killed);
two raiders are destroyed.


Dec. 7 (Fri.)

The United States Government declares war on Austria.

The end of the Battle of Cambrai (see Nov. 20), the British gains
having been largely abandoned.


Dec. 8 (Sat.)

Ecuador breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany.

The Russian peoples on the Don and in the Urals revolt against the
Bolshevists.

Palestine:--The British advance isolates Jerusalem.


Dec. 9 (Sun.)

Palestine:--Fall of Jerusalem to General Allenby (see Dec. 11).

The Italians torpedo two Austrian battleships in the port of
Trieste, sinking one of them (the _Wien_).


Dec. 10 (Mon.)

Panama declares war on Austria.


Dec. 11 (Tues.)

The Russian Constituent Assembly meets in Petrograd.

The Revolutionary party establishes itself in Lisbon, and forms a
Government which declares its solidarity with the Allies (see Dec.
6).

Palestine:--General Allenby formally enters Jerusalem accompanied by
the military attachés of France, Italy, and the United States.

A German submarine bombards Funchal, Madeira.

A British air-raid on Germany between Metz and the Rhine.


Dec. 12 (Wed.)

The Germans attack, and gain some ground near Bullecourt.

Palestine:--General Allenby advances north and north-west of
Jerusalem.

A raid by German destroyers in the North Sea: they attack six
merchantmen (five Neutral and one British) escorted by two British
destroyers (the _Partridge_ and the _Pellew_) and four armed
trawlers; the merchantmen and the escort are all sunk with the
exception of the destroyer _Pellew_, which is disabled.


Dec. 13 (Thur.)

The Russian Constituent Assembly is forcibly dispersed by the
Bolshevists.

H.M.S. _Stephen Furness_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a
submarine in the Irish Sea.


Dec. 14 (Fri.)

The French cruiser _Châteaurenault_ is sunk by a submarine (10 lives
lost).


Dec. 15 (Sat.)

An armistice for one month from Dec. 17 is signed at Brest-Litovsk
by representatives of the German Government and of the Russian
Bolshevist Government.

General Guillaumet succeeds General Sarrail in command of the Allied
forces at Salonika.


Dec. 16 (Sun.)

H.M.S. _Arbutus_ (sloop--employed as Special Service ship) is sunk
by a submarine off the Bristol Channel.


Dec. 18 (Tues.)

Italy:--The Austro-Germans attack from Col Caprile to Monte Pertica;
they capture Monte Asolone with 2000 prisoners.

An evening raid by German aeroplanes on Essex, Kent, and London (10
killed); one raider is brought down.


Dec. 19 (Wed.)

The Ukraine Government demands recognition by the Bolshevist
Government.

The Italians recapture part of Monte Asolone.


Dec. 21 (Fri.)

The Italians complete the recapture of Monte Asolone.

Palestine:--General Allenby advances northward.


Dec. 22 (Sat.)

Peace negotiations are opened at Brest-Litovsk between the German
Government and the Russian Bolshevist Government; Herr von Kühlmann
presides.

A German aeroplane raid on the Kentish coast; one machine is forced
to land and its crew is captured.


Dec. 23 (Sun.)

Italy:--The Austro-Germans capture Val Bella and the Col del Rosso
in the Frenzela Valley; they claim 9000 prisoners.

Three British destroyers, the _Surprise_, _Tornado_, and _Torrent_,
are sunk by mines off the Dutch coast with considerable loss of life.


Dec. 24 (Mon.)

A British air-raid on Mannheim.


Dec. 26 (Wed.)

Vice-Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss succeeds Admiral Sir John Jellicoe
as First Sea Lord (see Nov. 29, 1916).


Dec. 27 (Thur.)

Palestine:--Turkish attacks north of Jerusalem are shattered and
a British offensive is launched subsequently against the defeated
enemy.


Dec. 28 (Fri.)

The Labour Memorandum on War Aims is adopted at a special British
Labour Conference.

Palestine:--The British advance on a nine-mile front: they capture
Ramah and Beitunia.


Dec. 29 (Sat.)

Palestine:--The British capture Bireh (on the Shechem road, nine
miles north of Jerusalem).


Dec. 30 (Sun.)

The Germans attack Welsh Ridge on the Cambrai Front, and gain ground.

Palestine:--The British continue to advance; they capture Bethel and
other villages.

The British destroyer _Attack_ is sunk by a mine off Alexandria.



1918


Jan. 1 (Tues.)

Italy:--The Austrians are driven from Zenson, west of the Piave.


Jan. 2 (Wed.)

The German peace conditions are denounced by the Bolshevists as a
policy of annexation.


Jan. 4 (Fri.)

The British hospital ship _Rewa_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Bristol Channel (three lives lost).


Jan. 5 (Sat.)

Mr. Lloyd George makes a declaration of 'War Aims' after
consultation with Mr. Asquith, Lord Grey, and the leaders of the
Labour Party.


Jan. 8 (Tues.)

President Wilson in an address to Congress lays down the 'fourteen
points' on which, in his opinion, peace should be based. (Appendix
V.)


Jan. 9 (Wed.)

H.M.S. _Racoon_ (destroyer) is lost, with all hands, in a storm off
the coast of Ireland.


Jan. 10 (Thur.)

In the peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk the independence of the
Ukraine Republic is accepted both by the Central Powers and the
Bolshevists.


Jan. 12 (Sat.)

Verdun Front:--A German attack at Chaume Wood is repulsed.

British forces are disembarked at Port Amelia in Portuguese East
Africa.

Two British destroyers are wrecked off the coast of Scotland (all
lives lost except one).


Jan. 14 (Mon.)

The Italians attack and gain ground east of the Brenta in the
Asolone district (491 prisoners).

Yarmouth is shelled by German destroyers (four killed).


Jan. 15 (Tues.)

The result of an inquiry into the operations before Cambrai (see
Nov. 20-Dec. 7, 1917) is announced in the British House of Commons:
the Higher Command is exonerated.


Jan. 18 (Fri.)

The Russian Constituent Assembly meets in Petrograd: it refuses to
accept the dictation of the Bolshevist Government.

Palestine:--The British line is advanced north of Jerusalem.


Jan. 19 (Sat.)

The Russian Constituent Assembly is forcibly dissolved by the
Bolshevists.


Jan. 20 (Sun.)

The _Goeben_ and the _Breslau_ make a sortie from the Dardanelles
and are engaged by British naval forces: the _Breslau_ is sunk by a
mine; the _Goeben_ also strikes a mine but escapes into the Straits,
where she runs aground at Nagara Point; here she is attacked by
British aeroplanes; H.M.S. _Raglan_ (monitor) and a smaller British
monitor (M28) are also sunk in the engagement.

The British armed boarding-steamer _Louvain_ is sunk by a submarine
in the Mediterranean (224 lives lost).

Two German destroyers are sunk by mines in the North Sea.


Jan. 21 (Mon.)

Sir Edward Carson resigns from the British War Cabinet (see July 17,
1917).


Jan. 22 (Tues.)

Dr. von Seidler, the Austrian Premier, tenders his resignation,
which is refused (see June 24, 1917, and July 23, 1918).


Jan. 23 (Wed.)

Two meatless days a week are enforced in Great Britain by a Public
Meals Order.


Jan. 26 (Sat.)

It is announced that the British have taken over an additional
sector of the front in France, and that their line now extends
southward beyond St. Quentin.


Jan. 27 (Sun.)

The _Goeben_ is refloated and towed to Constantinople.


Jan. 28 (Mon.)

The Italians attack between Asiago and the Brenta Valley: they
capture the Col del Rosso and 1500 prisoners.

A night raid by German aeroplanes on London (58 killed); one raider
is destroyed over Essex.

The British submarine E14 is sunk by the Turks off Kum Kale
(Dardanelles).


Jan. 29 (Tues.)

The Italians capture Monte di Val Bella.

German aeroplanes reach the outskirts of London.


Jan. 30 (Wed.)

An air-raid on Paris (49 killed); one raider is destroyed.


Jan. 31 (Thurs.)

Austrian counter-attacks on Monte di Val Bella are repulsed by the
Italians.


Feb. 4 (Mon.)

The trial of Bolo Pasha begins in Paris (see Feb. 14).


Feb. 5 (Tues.)

The Anchor liner _Tuscania_, transporting American troops, is sunk
by a submarine off Ireland (166 lives lost).


Feb. 8 (Fri.)

The Germans attack French positions north of the Chemin-des-Dames
and are repulsed.


Feb. 9 (Sat.)

Peace is concluded between the Central Powers and the Ukraine
Republic.


Feb. 10 (Sun.)

It is announced by Trotsky that Russia is out of the war ('while
desisting from signing a formal treaty of peace the state of war
with the enemy Powers is ended') (see March 2).


Feb. 11 (Mon.)

A French air-raid on Metz.


Feb. 13 (Ash Wednesday).

The French, assisted by American troops, capture the German salient
between Tahure and the Butte du Mesnil.

Russia:--General Alexeieff's forces are defeated by the Bolshevists.
General Kaledin commits suicide.


Feb. 14 (Thur.)

Bolo Pasha is condemned to death for high treason (see Feb. 4 and
April 17).

Palestine:--The British advance east of the Jerusalem-Shechem road.


Feb. 15 (Fri.)

German destroyers raid the Straits of Dover and sink a British armed
trawler and seven drifters. Dover is shelled by a German submarine
(one killed, a child).


Feb. 16 (Sat.)

It is announced that Sir William Robertson has resigned his post as
British Chief of Staff and that he is succeeded by Sir Henry Wilson.

A night raid by German aeroplanes on London (11 killed).


Feb. 17 (Sun.)

A night raid by German aeroplanes on London (19 killed).


Feb. 18 (Mon.)

The armistice between Germany and Russia terminates; the Germans
cross the Dvina and occupy Dvinsk and Lutsk; further south, at the
invitation of the Ukraine, they advance towards Kovel.

Armenia is evacuated by the Russians.


Feb. 19 (Tues.)

The German armies continue to advance rapidly into Russia; they
claim to have captured 2500 prisoners and several hundred guns.

Palestine:--General Allenby attacks north-east of Jerusalem and
advances on a front of 15 miles to a depth of 2 miles towards
Jericho.


Feb. 20 (Wed.)

The German advance into Russia, towards Reval, Petrograd, Moscow,
and Kieff, continues.

Palestine:--General Allenby advances to within 4 miles of Jericho.

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall occupies Khan Abu Rayat on the
Euphrates, 14 miles north of Ramadie.


Feb. 21 (Thur.)

The German Government outlines the peace terms which it will grant
to Russia.

Palestine:--General Allenby captures Jericho.


Feb. 22 (Fri.)

Palestine:--The Turks retreat north of Jericho.


Feb. 24 (Sun.)

Germany's peace terms are accepted by the Russian Central Executive
Committee of Soviets.

Caucasus:--Trebizond is reoccupied by the Turks (see April 18, 1916).

The German auxiliary cruiser _Wolf_ returns successfully to port
after raiding commerce for fifteen months consecutively.


Feb. 25 (Mon.)

The first compulsory rationing comes into force in Great Britain (in
London and the Home Counties).

Russia:--The Germans occupy Reval and Pskoff.

Venice is heavily bombarded by Austrian airmen.


Feb. 26 (Tues.)

Palestine:--The British occupy Rujm-el-Bahr (on the north shore of
the Dead Sea) and the Mandesi ford of the Jordan.

The British hospital ship _Glenart Castle_ is sunk by a submarine in
the Bristol Channel (162 lives lost).


Mar. 1 (Fri.)

H.M.S. _Calgarian_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine
off the coast of Ireland (67 lives lost).


Mar. 2 (Sat.)

Peace is signed at Brest-Litovsk between the Central Powers and
Russia.

Roumania announces her submission to an ultimatum from the Central
Powers requiring her to enter into peace negotiations.


Mar. 3 (Sun.)

Kieff is occupied by the Germans; the German military operations in
Russia now cease.

Palestine:--General Allenby advances on a front of 12 miles to a
depth of 3000 yards between Jerusalem and Shechem.


Mar. 5 (Tues.)

The preliminaries of a treaty of peace are signed between the
Central Powers and Roumania.

German forces occupy the Aland Islands at the request of the
Government of Finland.


Mar. 6 (Wed.)

Death of Mr. John Redmond, the leader of the Irish National Party.


Mar. 7 (Thur.)

A treaty of peace is signed between Germany and Finland.

Palestine:--General Allenby advances on a front of 18 miles to a
depth of 3 miles across the Jerusalem-Shechem road.

A raid on a moonless night by German aeroplanes on London (20
killed); one raider is destroyed.


Mar. 8 (Fri.)

A German aeroplane raid on Paris (13 killed): one raider is
destroyed.


Mar. 9 (Sat.)

Palestine:--A further advance by the British, who force the passage
of the River Auja.

Mesopotamia:--Hit, on the Euphrates, is occupied by the British
under General Marshall.


Mar. 10 (Sun.)

The British hospital ship _Guildford Castle_ is torpedoed in the
Bristol Channel but succeeds in making port.


Mar. 11 (Mon.)

The Germans raid the Western Front at a number of points.

Palestine:--A further advance by the British astride the
Jerusalem-Shechem road.

Caucasus:--Erzerum is reoccupied by the Turks (see Feb. 16, 1916.)

Paris is attacked by 60 German aeroplanes; four of the raiders are
destroyed.


Mar. 12 (Tues.)

German forces land at Abo in Finland.

Palestine:--The British advance near the coast.

A Zeppelin raid on the Yorkshire coast (one killed).


Mar. 13 (Wed.)

The Germans occupy Odessa.

A Zeppelin raid on Hartlepool (eight killed).


Mar. 14 (Thur.)

Palestine:--The British gain important positions commanding the
Nablus road.


Mar. 15 (Fri.)

Prince Lichnowsky's memoir, dealing with the causes that led to the
war, is published in Sweden.


Mar. 17 (Sun.)

Nikolaief, the Russian naval yard on the Black Sea, is occupied by
the Germans.


Mar. 18 (Mon.)

The Germans bombard the Belgian Front and make a number of attacks
there which are repulsed.

A British air-raid on Mannheim.


Mar. 19 (Tues.)

Great Britain:--Lord Pirrie is appointed Controller-General of
Merchant Shipbuilding.


Mar. 21 (Thur.)

The great German offensive on the Western Front begins (the second
Battle of the Somme; see April 5): the Germans attack, with immense
weight of troops, the British Third and Fifth Armies on a fifty-mile
front between the Scarpe and the Oise; they carry the British
front-line positions over large sectors and penetrate more deeply at
certain points.

Eighteen German destroyers raid Dunkirk. They are met by an
Anglo-French flotilla consisting of two British destroyers (_Botha_
and _Morris_) and three French destroyers, under the command of
H.M.S. _Botha_. Three German destroyers are sunk and one disabled.

British monitors bombard Ostend.


Mar. 22 (Fri.)

The German offensive continues: the British line is broken west of
St. Quentin but holds further north; the British fall back towards
the line of the Somme; the Germans claim 16,000 prisoners and 200
guns.

Palestine:--General Allenby crosses the Jordan and advances towards
the Hedjaz railway.

The British mine-sweeping sloop _Gaillardia_ is sunk by a mine in
the North Sea (68 lives lost).


Mar. 23 (Sat.)

The peace treaties concluded by the German Government are adopted by
the German Reichstag.

The British fall back on new positions west and south-west of St.
Quentin, 15 miles in rear of those held at the beginning of the
offensive; the French enter the battle at Noyon, on the right of the
British; the Germans claim 25,000 prisoners and 400 guns to date.

Paris is shelled by a long-range gun from a distance of 74 miles.

British air-raids on Bruges docks and Metz.


Mar. 24 (Sun.)

The Germans recapture Bapaume, Péronne, Nesle, Ham, and Chauny; they
claim 30,000 prisoners and 600 guns to date.

A British air-raid on Cologne.


Mar. 25 (Mon.)

The Germans make further progress between Arras and Péronne and at
other points further south; near Maricourt they reach their line of
July 1916; the French evacuate Noyon.

Palestine:--General Allenby captures Es Salt and advances towards
Amman on the Hedjaz railway (see April 1 and 30).


Mar. 26 (Tues.)

General Foch assumes supreme control of the Allied Armies in France.

The British line runs from in front of Arras south-west to Albert
and thence south, behind the defences of 1916, to Bray; south of
the Somme the Germans capture Chaulnes and Roye; the Germans claim
to have taken to date 963 guns and to have destroyed 100 tanks.

Palestine:--British mounted troops approach Amman on the Hedjaz
railway (see April 1).

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall defeats the Turks at Khan Baghdadie
and takes 3000 prisoners.


Mar. 27 (Wed.)

The northern sectors of the British battle-line hold; the Germans
capture Albert and in the valley of the Ancre are within 12 miles of
Amiens; further south they capture Montdidier (between Amiens and
Compiègne); German attacks are repulsed near Lassigny and Noyon.

Palestine:--The British destroy portions of the Hedjaz railway north
and south of Amman.

The British destroyer _Kale_ is sunk by a mine in the North Sea.


Mar. 28 (Thur.)

Strong German attacks on the British positions east and south-east
of Arras are repulsed with heavy loss, but further south the Germans
reach Hamel in their advance on Amiens.

Palestine:--The British attack Amman, but make little progress.

British destroyers capture and sink three German armed trawlers in
the Heligoland Bight. H.M.S. _Tithonus_ (armed boarding-steamer) is
sunk by a submarine in the North Sea.


Mar. 29 (Good Friday)

The Germans make further progress towards Amiens between the Ancre
and the Avre.

During the bombardment of Paris by the German long-range gun, a
church is hit while a Good Friday service is in progress and many
casualties are caused.


Mar. 30 (Sat.)

German attacks on the British Front north of the Somme (in the
Boiry--Boyelles district) are repulsed with heavy loss. The French
recapture Moreuil (south-east of Amiens).

Palestine:--The British attack on Amman is renewed with slight
success.


April 1 (Mon.)

Palestine:--The British retire from before Amman and evacuate Es
Salt (see March 25).


April 2 (Tues.)

The British recapture Ayette (between Arras and Albert).


April 4 (Thur.)

The Germans attack in great strength towards Amiens; they advance
considerably on either side of Moreuil (south-east of Amiens); the
French lose Morisel and Mailly-Raineval. The Germans claim to have
taken 90,000 prisoners and 1300 guns since March 21.


April 5 (Fri.)

The British and French defences hold against strong German attacks;
the Germans make little progress and suffer heavy losses; the French
regain ground between Moreuil and Montdidier; this ends the second
Battle of the Somme (see March 21).

British and Japanese marines under the command of Admiral Kato are
landed at Vladivostok.


April 6 (Sat.)

The British recapture Aveluy Wood, north of Albert; the French yield
ground near Chauny.

The Caucasus:--The Turks reoccupy Ardahan (see Jan. 3, 1915).


April 7 (Sun.)

Syria:--The Arabs capture Kerak, the Turkish headquarters east of
the Dead Sea.


April 8 (Mon.)

The Germans bombard the whole British Front in the battle area and
northwards to Armentières.

The French retire in the Coucy district, south of the Oise.


April 9 (Tues.)

The Germans attack in great strength on a ten-mile front between La
Bassée and Armentières; they penetrate the centre of this sector,
which is held by the Portuguese, and widen the gap made (the Battle
of the Lys: see April 29).


April 10 (Wed.)

The new German offensive extends northwards; the British are forced
back on the Messines Ridge and in front of Ploegsteert Wood; south
of Armentières the Germans cross the Lys.

Palestine:--The Turks attack in the coastal sector; they are
repulsed and the British line is advanced at some points.


April 11 (Thur.)

There is fierce fighting on the Messines Ridge, where the British
9th Division repulses strong enemy attacks; below Armentières the
Germans rapidly deepen and widen the salient they have created; they
capture Armentières and Merville, and force back the British to a
line behind Ploegsteert, Steenwerck, and Estaires; German attacks on
the lines covering Béthune are repulsed with heavy loss; the Germans
claim 20,000 prisoners and over 200 guns in this battle to date.


April 12 (Fri.)

The Germans strike northwards from the salient; they reach Bailleul
and capture Neuve Eglise; the British withdraw from the Messines
Ridge; further south the Germans cross the Lawe and threaten St.
Venant.

A Zeppelin raid on the east coast of England and the Midlands (five
killed).


April 13 (Sat.)

The British repulse German attacks from Météren to Wulverghem and
recapture Neuve Eglise.

The Caucasus:--The Turks capture Batoum and 3000 prisoners.


April 14 (Sun.)

The British withdraw from Neuve Eglise.


April 15 (Mon.)

The resignation is announced of Count Czernin, the Austrian
Foreign Minister, following on the publication by M. Clemenceau
of a letter by Emperor Karl, dealing with the claims of France to
Alsace-Lorraine.

The Germans capture Bailleul and Wulverghem.

A British naval force sinks ten German trawlers in the Kattegat;
their crews are saved.


April 16 (Tues.)

The British withdraw from the Passchendaele Ridge.


April 17 (Wed.)

Bolo Pasha is shot at Vincennes (see Feb. 14).

The Belgians repulse German attacks near Bixschoote and capture 700
prisoners.

The British withdraw from Wytschaete and lose Météren; a German
attack on Kemmel Hill is completely repulsed by the British; French
reinforcements enter the battle along the ridge south-west of Ypres.


April 18 (Thur.)

Lord Milner succeeds Lord Derby as British Secretary of State for
War.

The Germans attack in strength from Givenchy to the Lys and are
repulsed with heavy loss.

The French attack in the Avre Valley, south-east of Amiens, and
advance to the outskirts of Castel.


April 19 (Fri.)

The British gain ground at Givenchy and Festubert.


April 20 (Sat.)

British and German light naval forces are engaged in the Bight of
Heligoland.


April 23 (Tues.) St. George's Day.

Guatemala declares war on Germany.

The Germans attack on the Amiens Front, at the junction of
the French and British armies; they capture the village of
Villers-Bréttoneux from the British but elsewhere are repulsed.

British naval forces (Vice-Admiral Sir Roger Keyes in chief command)
raid Zeebrugge and Ostend in the early morning with a view to
blocking the entrances to the harbours. Storming parties land on the
Mole at Zeebrugge, while three obsolete cruisers, the _Intrepid_,
_Thetis_, and _Iphigenia_, filled with concrete enter the harbour;
these are sunk at the entrance of the Bruges Canal. Two other block
ships, the _Brilliant_ and _Sirius_, are sunk near the entrance
to the harbour at Ostend. In the action at Zeebrugge the British
destroyer _North Star_ is sunk.

The famous German airman, Baron von Richthoven, is shot down in the
Somme Valley.


April 24 (Wed.)

On the Amiens Front the British recapture Villers-Bréttoneux.

Syria:--Arab forces seize 53 miles of the Hedjaz railway south of
Maan.


April 25 (Thur.)

The Germans capture Kemmel Hill.

H.M.S. _Cowslip_ (sloop) is sunk by a submarine off Cape Spartel.


April 26 (Fri.)

German attacks at Locre and Voormezeele are repulsed.


April 27 (Sat.)

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall captures Kifri.


April 29 (Mon.)

The Germans attack in strength the British and French positions on
a ten-mile front between Météren and Voormezeele and are severely
defeated; this ends the Battle of the Lys (see April 9).

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall defeats the Turks at Tuz Khartmatli,
half-way between Baghdad and Mosul, taking 300 prisoners and 6 guns.


April 30 (Tues.)

Palestine:--General Allenby again advances towards the Hedjaz
railway, and recaptures Es Salt (see April 1).

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall reaches the Tank River and captures
12 more guns and many more prisoners.


May 1 (Wed.)

The Germans create a military dictatorship in the Ukraine; Field
Marshal von Eichhorn breaks up the Ukranian Rada and establishes a
German military Government at Kieff.

Palestine:--The British suffer a reverse between Jisr-ed-Damieh and
Es Salt and lose 9 guns.


May 2 (Thur.)

The French make progress on the Avre.

British airmen bomb the lock-gates at Zeebrugge.


May 3 (Fri.)

Palestine:--General Allenby is compelled to withdraw his forces to
the west bank of the Jordan.


May 5 (Sun.)

Lord French is appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland.

The British gain ground in the angle between the Ancre and the Somme.

East Africa:--A British success near Manunga (160 miles south of
Lake Nyassa).

H.M.S. _Rhododendron_ (sloop) is sunk by a submarine in the North
Sea.


May 7 (Tues.)

The Peace of Bucharest is signed between the Central Powers and
Roumania.

Mesopotamia:--General Marshall occupies Kirkuk (110 miles south-east
of Mosul) (see May 24).


May 8 (Wed.)

Nicaragua declares war on Germany.


May 10 (Fri.)

H.M.S. _Vindictive_ (obsolete cruiser), damaged in the raid on
Zeebrugge, is successfully sunk across the entrance to Ostend
harbour.


May 11 (Sat.)

Mesopotamia:--The British, advancing along the Baghdad-Mosul road,
drive the Turks across the Lesser Zab (70 miles from Mosul).

A British submarine destroys a German submarine of the 'cruiser'
type.


May 14 (Tues.)

An Italian motor boat enters the port of Pola and sinks an Austrian
battleship.

The British destroyer _Phœnix_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Adriatic.


May 15 (Wed.)

The French advance their line north of Kemmel Hill.


May 16 (Thur.)

A British air-raid on Saarbrücken.


May 17 (Fri.)

Great Britain:--A number of Sinn Fein leaders are arrested in
connection with the discovery of a German-Irish plot.

Albania:--French and Italian forces advance on a sixteen-mile front.


May 18 (Sat.)

British airmen raid Cologne by daylight.


May 19 (Whit Sunday)

Ville-sur-Ancre is captured by Australian troops.

The Italians capture Austrian positions at Capo Sile (north of the
Venetian lagoons).

A night raid by German aeroplanes on London (44 killed); five of the
raiders are destroyed.

German airmen bomb a group of British hospitals at Etaples and cause
many casualties.


May 20 (Mon.)

The French gain ground near Locre.


May 21 (Tues.)

A German aeroplane raid on Paris (three killed); one raider is
brought down.

A British air-raid on Mannheim.


May 22 (Wed.)

A German aeroplane raid on Paris (one killed).

British airmen raid Zeebrugge and sink a German destroyer.


May 23 (Thur.)

Costa Rica declares war on the Central Powers.

The British armed merchant cruiser _Moldavia_, while transporting
American troops, is sunk by a submarine in the English Channel (56
lives lost).


May 24 (Fri.)

Mesopotamia:--The British withdraw from Kirkuk (see May 7 and Oct.
25).


May 26 (Sun.)

The Italians capture the Monticello Pass (in the Adamello district)
with 870 prisoners and 12 guns.

The British transport _Leasowe Castle_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean (92 lives lost).


May 27 (Mon.)

The Third Battle of the Aisne (see June 2): the Germans launch an
offensive north-west of Rheims; they carry the whole line of the
Chemin-des-Dames and advance rapidly to the Aisne, which they cross
on a front of eighteen miles; on the left of the German attack
British troops hold their ground north of Rheims.

Between Locre and Voormezeele the French repulse a German attack.

The bombardment of Paris by long-range guns is renewed.


May 28 (Tues.)

The Germans advance rapidly south of the Aisne; they force the line
of the Vesle.

American troops capture a German salient at Cantigny, north-west of
Montdidier.


May 29 (Wed.)

The Germans capture the Vrégny Plateau and Soissons (see Aug. 2),
and advance south of the Vesle.


May 30 (Thur.)

The Germans reach Fère-en-Tardenois.

Macedonian Front:--Greek troops make a successful attack at Skra di
Legen (west of the Vardar and near the Serbian border) and capture
1500 prisoners.


May 31, (Fri.)

The Germans reach the Marne from Château-Thierry to Dormans; they
claim to have captured 45,000 prisoners and 400 guns since May 27.

The American transport _President Lincoln_ is sunk by a submarine in
European waters.

The British destroyer _Fairy_ is sunk after ramming and destroying a
submarine in the North Sea.


June 1 (Sat.)

The Germans attack at various points between the Oise and the Marne
and gain ground slightly; down the valley of the Ourcq the Germans
advance to the edge of the Forest of Villers-Cotterets, 40 miles
from Paris.


June 2 (Sun.)

The end of the Third Battle of the Aisne (see May 27): German
attacks near Château-Thierry make little impression on the French
defence; at several points between the Ourcq and the Marne the
French counter-attack and gain ground.


June 3 (Mon.)

The Lys Front:--Mont de Merris (west of Merris village) is captured
by the British.

The Germans attack in considerable strength north of the Aisne,
between Soissons and Noyon, but make slight progress.


June 5 (Wed.)

A German attack at Longpont and an attempt by the Germans to cross
the Oise near Vingres are defeated.

H.M.S. _Snaefell_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a submarine in
the Mediterranean.


June 6 (Thur.)

French, British, and American troops counter-attack and regain
ground at various points.

The Dutch hospital ship _Koningin Regentes_, engaged in carrying
repatriated prisoners between England and Holland, is sunk by a
submarine (four lives lost).


June 7 (Fri.)

French, British, and American troops again counter-attack
successfully; the British regain Bligny, near Rheims; the French and
Americans recapture Vinly and Veuilly-la-Poterie.


June 8 (Sat.)

A Conference of British and German delegates, to deal with questions
relating to prisoners of war, opens at the Hague.

Palestine:--The British capture Turkish positions near the coast.


June 9 (Sun.)

The First Battle of Lassigny (see June 13): a new German offensive
is launched on a front of 22 miles between Noyon and Montdidier.


June 10 (Mon.)

In their new offensive the Germans make progress, at great expense
in casualties, towards Estrées St. Denis (west of Compiègne) and
Ribécourt (south-west of Noyon); they capture Méry, Belloy, and St.
Maur.

The Somme Front:--Australian troops make progress south of
Morlancourt.

Italian torpedo-boats destroy an Austrian battleship, the _Szent
Istvan_, in the Adriatic.


June 11 (Tues.)

The French counter-attack on a seven-mile front from Rubescourt to
St. Maur; they recapture Belloy.


June 12 (Wed.)

The Germans attack between the Aisne and the forest of
Villers-Cotterets towards Compiègne and make some progress.


June 13 (Thur.)

The end of the First Battle of Lassigny (see June 9): the Germans
are held in check on the whole front between Noyon and Montdidier;
they lose part of the ground won by them on the previous day in the
direction of Compiègne.

The Italians defeat the Austrians at the Tonale Pass.

East Africa:--The British occupy Malema.

H.M.S. _Patia_ (armed merchant-cruiser) is sunk by a submarine in
the Bristol Channel.


June 14 (Fri.)

Northern Persia:--Tabriz is reoccupied by the Turks (see Jan. 30,
1915).


June 15 (Sat.)

Italy:--The Austrians launch an offensive on a front of 90 miles,
from the Asiago Plateau to the sea; on the Asiago Plateau the
British maintain their ground, and elsewhere the Austrians are
either repulsed or make only slight progress; they cross the Piave
at two points.

A German aeroplane raid on Paris.


June 16 (Sun.)

Italy:--The Austrians capture Capo Sile (north of the Venetian
lagoons).


June 17 (Mon.)

Italy:--The Austrian offensive, which has met with little success,
is definitely checked and the Allies begin to regain ground.


June 18 (Tues.)

Italy:--Capo Sile is recaptured by the Italians; further Austrian
attempts to cross the Piave, which is in flood, are defeated.


June 19 (Wed.)

Italy:--The Austrians are driven back in the Montello sector.


June 20 (Thur.)

Italy:--The Italians complete the capture of Costalunga Redoubt and
regain ground on the Montello and at other points.


June 21 (Fri.)

The British Government announce the abandonment for the present of
Home Rule and Conscription in their policy towards Ireland.

Italy:--Austrian attacks in the Montello and Grappa areas are
repulsed.


June 22 (Sat.)

Italy:--The Austrians begin to withdraw with difficulty across the
flooded Piave.


June 23 (Sun.)

The British gain ground south of Météren.

Italian troops repulse a German attack on Bligny Crest, near Rheims.

Italy:--The Austrians recross the Piave in disorder pursued by the
Italians; the Allies recover the whole of the right bank of the
Piave except a small portion opposite San Dona di Piave.


June 24 (Mon.)

Italy:--The Italians clear the right bank of the Piave of the enemy
and cross in places to the left bank; they capture many prisoners.


June 25 (Tues.)

American troops attack and defeat the Germans in a sharp engagement
north-west of Château-Thierry; they take over 200 prisoners.

Italy:--The Italians capture the Austrian bridge-head at Capo Sile.

A British air-raid on Karlsruhe.


June 26 (Wed.)

The British capture a German position west of Vieux Berquin.


June 27 (Thur.)

General Franchet D'Esperey succeeds General Guillaumet in command of
the Allied forces at Salonika.

The British hospital ship _Llandovery Castle_ is sunk by a submarine
116 miles south-west of the Fastnet (234 lives lost).

A German aeroplane raid on Paris (11 killed).


June 28 (Fri.)

The British make progress on a front of 6000 yards east of the
forest of Nieppe and capture over 400 prisoners.

The French advance between the Aisne and the forest of
Villers-Cotterets and take over 1000 prisoners.


June 29 (Sat.)

The Italians capture Monte di Val Bella (on the Asiago Plateau) with
800 prisoners.


June 30 (Sun.)

The Italians capture the Col del Rosso (on the Asiago Plateau) with
2000 prisoners.


July 1 (Mon.)

The French capture St. Pierre Aigle; the Americans capture Vaux
(near Château-Thierry) with 450 prisoners.

The American transport _Corrington_ is sunk by a submarine (six
lives lost).

British aeroplanes bomb the Austrian naval base at Cattaro with
great effect.

A British air-raid on Mannheim.


July 2 (Tues.)

Italy:--The Italians advance on the Lower Piave and capture 1900
prisoners; they also make important progress on Monte Grappa.


July 3 (Wed.)

Death of Viscount Rhondda, the British Food Controller (see July 9,
and June 15, 1917).

Death of Mohmed V., the Sultan of Turkey.

The French advance between Autrèches and Moulin-sous-Touvent and
capture over 1000 prisoners.


July 4 (Thur.)

A hundred merchant ships are launched in the U.S.A. to celebrate
Independence Day; the day is celebrated in London and the Dominions,
in Paris, and in Rome.

Australian troops, assisted by Americans, capture Hamel (between
Villers-Brétonneux and the Somme), and the woods south of it, with
over 1500 prisoners.

Italy:--The Italians make further progress on the Lower Piave and on
Mount Grappa.


July 5 (Fri.)

The Australians advance on a front of 2000 yards north-east of
Villers-Brétonneux.

Southern Albania:--An offensive is launched by the French and
Italians.


July 6 (Sat.)

The Silver Wedding day of King George V. and Queen Mary of England.

Count Mirbach, the German Ambassador at Moscow, is assassinated.

Italy:--The Italians clear the Austrians from the Piave delta.

Southern Albania:--The French and Italians make rapid progress
between the coast and the Tomorica Valley.


July 7 (Sun.)

The Australians advance on either side of the Somme on a front of
3000 yards.


July 8 (Mon.)

Southern Albania:--The French and Italians continue to advance,
assisted in the coast sector by British monitors.

Siberia:--Czecho-Slovak forces temporarily occupy Irkutsk (see Aug.
17).


July 9 (Tues.)

Mr. J. R. Clynes succeeds Lord Rhondda as British Food Controller
(see July 3).

The resignation is announced of Herr von Kühlmann, the German
Foreign Minister; he is succeeded by Admiral von Hintze.


July 10 (Wed.)

The French capture Courcy, north of the Ourcq.

Southern Albania:--The Italians capture Berat (see Aug. 26).


July 12 (Fri.)

Albania:--The Austrians retreat before the French and Italians.

The Japanese dreadnought _Kawachi_ is blown up in Tokuyama Bay with
a loss of over 500 lives.


July 14 (Sun.)

Palestine:--The Turks attack the British on the Jordan and north of
Jericho and are repulsed.

The French liner _Djemnah_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean with a loss of 442 lives.


July 15 (Mon.)

The Second Battle of the Marne begins (see Aug. 4): the Germans
launch an offensive on a front of 50 miles, east and west of Rheims;
west of Rheims, between Vrigny and Château-Thierry, they penetrate
the Allied positions to a depth of several miles in places and
capture Chezy and other villages; east of Rheims they carry the
French outpost positions but are held on the main line of defence;
they cross the Marne at Fossoy and other points.


July 16 (Tues.)

French and American troops regain ground south of the Marne and
capture high ground overlooking the Marne Valley.

H.M.S. _Anchusa_ (sloop) is sunk by a submarine off the north coast
of Ireland.


July 17 (Wed.)

The Germans make progress towards Epernay and reach Montroison; east
of Rheims they are defeated and driven back south of Prunay.

In the Somme area the Australians again make progress east of
Villers-Brétonneux (see July 5 and 7).

The Cunard liner _Carpathia_ is sunk by a submarine west of Ireland
(five lives lost).


July 18 (Thur.)

The turning-point which leads to complete victory: the French
counter-attack on a front of 35 miles between Belleau (5 miles
north-west of Château-Thierry) and Vingres (north-west of Soissons);
on the left, under General Mangin, they reach the Mont de Paris,
near Soissons; in the valley of the Crise, they advance to a depth
of 8 miles and capture 5000 prisoners and 30 guns. Further south
they attack in co-operation with American troops, advance to a
depth of 5 miles, and regain more than 20 villages; east of Rheims
the French under General Gouraud recapture Prunay.


July 19 (Fri.)

The Lys Front:--The British recapture Météren (see April 17).

The French and Americans continue to attack between Soissons and
Château-Thierry and approach the Soissons--Château-Thierry road;
south of the Marne the Germans also yield ground.


July 20 (Sat.)

The Germans withdraw across the Marne (on the night of the
19th-20th); the Allied captures since the counter-stroke exceed
20,000 prisoners and 400 guns.

The White Star liner _Justicia_ is sunk by submarines off the north
coast of Ireland after fighting for twenty-four hours (16 lives
lost); one of the submarines is sunk by the British destroyer
_Marne_.


July 21 (Sun.)

The French recapture Château-Thierry; British, French, and Italian
troops advance between the Marne and Rheims down the valley of the
Ardre; they capture Courton Wood.


July 22 (Mon.)

The Allies cross the Marne near Dormans, at Chassins and Passy;
the Germans retreat north and south of Fère-en-Tardenois; German
counter-attacks between the Marne and the Ourcq are repulsed and the
French advance beyond La Croix and Epieds; east of Rheims General
Gouraud recovers all his original positions between the Suippes and
Massiges.


July 23 (Tues.)

Dr. von Seidler, the Austrian Premier, and his Cabinet resign.

The forced retreat of the Germans in the Soissons-Rheims salient
continues; north of the Ourcq they are pressed back to the outskirts
of Taux; south of the Ourcq the French approach Fère-en-Tardenois.

On the Amiens Front the French advance towards the Avre Valley; they
capture Mailly-Raineval and 1850 prisoners.

H.M.S. _Marmora_ (armed merchant cruiser) is sunk by a submarine off
the south coast of Ireland (ten lives lost).


July 24 (Wed.)

Progress is made by the Allies north of Château-Thierry towards
Fère-en-Tardenois and at various other points.


July 25 (Thur.)

The Allies capture the forest of Fère, Oulchy-le-Château and other
important positions on the Marne Front.


July 26 (Fri.)

The German retreat on the Marne Front extends.


July 27 (Sat.)

The German retreat on the Marne Front continues.


July 28 (Sun.)

The Marne Front:--The Allies capture Fère-en-Tardenois and force the
passage of the Ourcq.


July 29 (Mon.)

The Lys Front:--Australian troops capture Merris, near Météren.

The Marne Front:--The French capture positions north-east of
Oulchy-le-Château and Grand Rozoy.


July 30 (Tues.)

The Marne Front:--The German resistance stiffens; the Allies capture
Remigny and St. Gemme.


July 31 (Wed.)

The Marne Front:--The Americans capture Seringes after fierce
fighting.


Aug. 1 (Thur.)

The French and British advance north of the Ourcq and capture
important high ground commanding Soissons.


Aug. 2 (Fri.)

It is announced that Admiral Scheer is appointed Chief of the German
Admiralty Staff.

The Allies recapture Soissons (lost on May 29); the Germans are
again in full retreat in the Soissons-Rheims salient, closely
pressed by the Allies, who advance rapidly.

North Russia:--Allied forces are landed at Archangel; they occupy
the town and the surrounding district.

Two British destroyers, _Vehement_ and _Ariel_, are sunk by enemy
mines in the North Sea (97 lives lost).


Aug. 3 (Sat.)

The Marne Front:--The Allied advance continues; the Germans are
driven across the Vesle.

The Albert Front:--The Germans retire behind the Ancre, evacuating
Hamel, Dernancourt, and other villages.

British troops are landed at Vladivostok.

The British ambulance transport _Warilda_ is sunk by a submarine
(123 lives lost).


Aug. 4 (Sun.)

The Marne Front:--The Americans capture Fismes; the French cross the
Vesle: this ends the Second Battle of the Marne (see July 15).

The Germans retire on a front of ten miles south-east of Amiens.

The Caspian:--A British military mission reaches Baku; it is
subsequently reinforced (see Sept. 14).


Aug. 5 (Mon.)

Five Zeppelins fail in an attempt to cross the east coast of
England; one of them (the L70) is brought down in flames at sea.


Aug. 6 (Tues.)

General Foch is created a Marshal of France.

The Germans attack the British lines south of Morlancourt and gain
ground.

The British destroyer _Comet_ is sunk by a submarine in the
Mediterranean.


Aug. 7 (Wed.)

The British counter-attack and recapture the greater part of the
ground lost near Morlancourt.

The Marne Front:--The French and Americans cross the Vesle between
Braine and Fismes; the French advance north of Rheims.


Aug. 8 (Thur.)

The Battle of Amiens begins (see Aug. 12): the 4th British Army
(Rawlinson) and the 1st French Army (Débeney) attack, aided by
tanks, on a front of twenty miles east of Amiens (both armies under
the command of Sir D. Haig), from the neighbourhood of Morlancourt,
north of the Somme, to Braches, on the Avre; the German lines are
deeply penetrated and 400 guns and over 16,000 prisoners captured.
The advance attains a maximum depth of seven miles.


Aug. 9 (Fri.)

The Franco-British advance proceeds: the British capture Rosières;
the French capture Pierrepont and reach Arvillers; the battle-front
extends southwards, the French attacking below Montdidier with
their 3rd Army (this marks the beginning of the Second Battle of
Lassigny; see Aug. 15).

The Lys Front:--The Germans evacuate a number of positions; the
British advance between Merville and Locon to a depth of over a mile.

The Rheims--Soissons Front:--The Americans capture Fismettes.


Aug. 10 (Sat.)

The Franco-British advance continues on the whole front from the
Ancre to south of Montdidier; the British capture Rainecourt,
Méharicourt, and Bouchoir; the French capture Montdidier.


Aug. 11 (Sun.)

The Allies make fresh progress, particularly between the Avre and
the Oise.

Japanese contingents land at Vladivostok.

An engagement off the Frisian coast between British naval light
forces and aircraft and German aircraft: a German airship is
destroyed.


Aug. 12 (Mon.)

The end of the Battle of Amiens (see Aug. 8): it has disengaged
Amiens, freed the Paris-Amiens railway, and seriously weakened the
enemy's position; captures by the British during the battle amount
to 21,850 prisoners and 400 guns.

British airmen destroy a German airship off the Frisian coast.


Aug. 13 (Tues.)

The Czecho-Slovaks are officially declared to be an Allied nation.

The French approach Lassigny.


Aug. 14 (Wed.)

The Germans extend their withdrawal on the Ancre Front, their whole
line in this area being threatened by the British advance further
south: they evacuate Beaumont Hamel, Serre, Puisieux, and Bucquoy.

The French capture Ribécourt, on the Oise.


Aug. 15 (Thur.)

The British advance across the Ancre.

The French complete the capture of the Lassigny _massif_: this ends
the Second Battle of Lassigny (see Aug. 9).

A German aeroplane raid on Paris.

H.M.S. _Scott_ (flotilla leader) and H.M.S. _Ullswater_ (destroyer)
are sunk by submarine in the North Sea.


Aug. 16 (Fri.)

The French make further progress south of Lassigny.


Aug. 17 (Sat.)

The French (under General Mangin) advance between the Oise and the
Aisne.

Siberia:--The Czecho-Slovaks recapture Irkutsk, having lost it to
the Bolshevists during July (see July 8).


Aug. 18 (Sun.)

The Lys Front:--The British attack on a four-mile front between
Vieux Berquin and Bailleul and capture Oultersteene and over 400
prisoners.

The French offensive between the Oise and Aisne develops.


Aug. 19 (Mon.)

The Lys Front:--The British capture Merville.

The French advance in the Ribécourt sector towards Noyon.


Aug. 20 (Tues.)

The French continue to advance between the Oise and the Aisne and
reach Lombray; they capture over 8000 prisoners.


Aug. 21 (Wed.)

The Battle of Bapaume begins (see Aug. 31): the British 3rd Army
(Byng) attacks on a ten-mile front between Albert and Arras;
Beaucourt, Achiet-le-Petit, Courcelles, and Moyenville are captured.

Between the Oise and the Aisne the French outflank Noyon, reaching
the line Pontoise--Cuts--Camelin.

British air-squadrons bomb Frankfurt, Cologne, Mannheim, and Trèves
(night of Aug. 21-22).


Aug. 22 (Thur.)

The British attack on a six-mile front between Albert and Bray; they
capture Albert and penetrate the German positions to a depth of two
miles.

The French continue to advance south of the Oise and capture St.
Aubin and Pommières.

The Austrians launch a counter-offensive in Albania.

The Bolshevists defeat the Trans-Caspian forces and capture Merv.


Aug. 23 (Fri.)

The British attack and advance on a thirty-mile front from Mercatel
(5 miles south of Arras) to Lihons (8 miles south of the Somme):
they capture Boyelles, Hamelincourt, Ervillers, Gommiécourt, and
Achiet-le-Grand in the northern sector of the attack, and in the
south Chuignolles and Chuignes.


Aug. 24 (Sat.)

The British continue to make rapid progress in the Bapaume area:
they capture Biefvillers and reach the outskirts of Bapaume at
Avesnes; nearer Albert they capture Thiepval and the Thiepval ridge,
Pozières, Courcellette and Martinpuich; further south they capture
Bray.


Aug. 25 (Sun.)

The British advance continues: the whole of the road between Albert
and Bapaume is captured (with Le Sars and Warlencourt), also Le
Barque, Mametz, and other ruined villages; the prisoners captured
since the battle began exceed 17,000.


Aug. 26 (Mon.)

The British offensive develops northwards; this marks the
beginning of the Battle of the Scarpe (see Sept. 3); the British
attack along both banks of the Scarpe and advance to the line
south-of-Gavrelle--Rœux--Wancourt--Monchy.

Albania:--The Austrians recapture Berat and Fieri (see July 10 and
Oct. 1).

The Caspian:--The Turks attack Baku and are repulsed by British and
local troops (see Aug. 4).


Aug. 27 (Tues.)

The British make progress north of the Scarpe and capture Gavrelle;
further south, amongst other places, they capture Beugnatre,
Longueval, Delville Wood, and Maricourt.

The French capture Roye.


Aug. 28 (Wed.)

The Germans retreat at most points on the whole front between the
Scarpe and the Aisne; the British and the French advance; the latter
occupy Chaulnes and Nesle.


Aug. 29 (Thur.)

The British capture Bapaume.

The French capture Noyon, and cross the Ailette.

The British Embassy at Petrograd is attacked by Bolshevist troops,
and the Naval Attaché, Captain Cromie, killed.


Aug. 30 (Fri.)

The British cross the Somme south and west of Péronne.

The Germans begin to withdraw on the Lys Front; the British occupy
Bailleul.

The French cross the Canal du Nord and capture Chevilly.


Aug. 31 (Sat.)

The end of the Battle of Bapaume (see Aug. 21); this battle, by
turning the flank of the German positions on the Somme, compels
the enemy to withdraw from the area protected by the Somme and the
Ancre; his new positions are henceforward in process of being turned
from the north by the Arras offensive, which continues. In the
Battle of Bapaume the British captures amount to 34,250 prisoners
and 270 guns.

The Germans retreat on most sectors of the entire front between
Ypres and Soissons, especially on the Lys Front where they evacuate
Kemmel Hill and Steenwerck.

The Caspian:--The Turks again attack Baku (see Aug. 26) and gain
ground slightly.


Sept. 1 (Sun.)

The enforced retirement of the Germans continues: the British
capture Bullecourt, Heudecourt, Bouchavesnes, Rancourt, Péronne,
and, on the Lys Front, Neuve Eglise.

Macedonian Front:--The British gain ground on the right bank of the
Vardar.


Sept. 2 (Mon.)

Arras Front:--The Canadians with other British troops break through
the Drocourt-Quéant switch line on a front of six miles.

The French capture Neuilly and Terny Sorny.


Sept. 3 (Tues.)

The British widen the breach in the Hindenburg defences, capture
Drocourt, and advance on Inchy and Mœuvres; this marks the end
of the Battle of the Scarpe (see Aug. 26), in which the British
captures amount to 200 guns and over 16,000 prisoners.

The Germans evacuate Lens.

The French cross the Somme at Epanancourt.


Sept. 4 (Wed.)

The British make progress toward Cambrai, exerting pressure on the
retiring enemy; they capture Ecourt and reach the outskirts of
Mœuvres; on the Lys Front they capture Ploegsteert village.


Sept. 5 (Thur.)

The French strike north-east of Noyon towards St. Quentin; on the
Soissons Front they reach the Aisne from Condé to Vieil-Arcy.


Sept. 6 (Fri.)

Between the Somme Canal and the Oise the French capture the
Autrécourt _massif_, Ham, and the railway junction at Chauny.

The Germans retreat rapidly from the line of the Somme south of
Péronne towards the Hindenburg line from which they launched their
offensive on March 21.


Sept. 7 (Sat.)

The German retreat, pressed by the French, towards St. Quentin, La
Fère, and Laon continues.


Sept. 9 (Mon.)

The British reach Gouzeaucourt and Epéhy.

The French cross the Crozat Canal.


Sept. 11 (Wed.)

The British capture Vermand and Vendelles, north-west of St.
Quentin; south-west of La Bassée they capture the 'Railway Triangle.'


Sept. 12 (Thur.)

The Americans, under General Pershing, attack both flanks of the St.
Mihiel salient (the Battle of St. Mihiel): they capture Thiaucourt
and other important positions with 8000 prisoners.

The Battle of Havrincourt and Epéhy begins (see Sept. 18): the
British capture Mœuvres, Havrincourt, Trescault, and Gouzeaucourt
Wood.

West of St. Quentin the British take Holnon Wood and the French
capture Savy.

H.M.S. _Sarnia_ (armed boarding-steamer) is sunk by a submarine in
the Mediterranean.

The Union Castle liner _Galway Castle_ is sunk by a submarine (154
lives lost).


Sept. 13 (Fri.)

The Battle of St. Mihiel ends in the complete capture of the salient
by the Americans, with 15,000 prisoners and 200 guns.


Sept. 14 (Sat.)

The Caspian:--The British evacuate Baku (see Aug. 4).


Sept. 15 (Sun.)

The Austrian Government issues a 'Peace Note'; Germany offers peace
terms to Belgium.

The Germans, after evacuating the St. Mihiel salient, retire on a
front of 33 miles, pressed by the Americans and the French, towards
the Conflans-Metz-Longwy railway.

Macedonian Front:--The Battle of the Vardar begins, an offensive
being launched by the Serbians and the French south-east of Monastir
(see Sept. 30).


Sept. 16 (Mon.)

Macedonian Front:--The Serbians and the French advance on a front
of 16 miles to an average depth of 4½ miles; they capture over 4000
prisoners and 30 guns.

An aeroplane raid on Paris (6 killed): two of the raiders are
brought down.


Sept. 17 (Tues.)

Macedonian Front:--The advance of the Allies continues and develops;
the French and the Serbians reach the Tcherna; the movement extends
to a front of over 20 miles and attains a maximum depth of over 12
miles.


Sept. 18 (Wed.)

The end of the Battle of Havrincourt and Epéhy (see Sept. 12):
strong German counterattacks are repulsed; and Mœuvres, which had
been lost, is retaken by the British. In this battle the British 3rd
and 4th Armies have captured the outer Hindenburg defences, with
nearly 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns.

Macedonian Front:--Serbian cavalry advance rapidly on the Tcherna
Front; British and Greek troops attack east and west of Lake Doiran
and advance against fierce resistance.


Sept. 19 (Thur.)

Macedonian Front:--The Serbians and the French advance rapidly,
at many points in pursuit of a routed enemy; British attacks are
stubbornly resisted.

Palestine:--General Allenby launches an offensive in great strength;
he breaks the Turkish defences near the coast on a front of 16 miles
and his infantry and cavalry advance rapidly through the breach; the
infantry reach Tul Keram, the cavalry strike towards Shechem and
Beisan to cut off the enemy's retreat; nearer the Jordan the British
attack and advance against a stiffer resistance.


Sept. 20 (Fri.)

The French capture Benay, south of St. Quentin.

Palestine:--The battle develops into a decisive victory: British
cavalry enter Beisan and Nazareth.


Sept. 21 (Sat.)

Macedonian Front:--Serbian and French forces reach the Vardar in the
direction of Negotin.

Palestine:--The British infantry reach the line Bir
Asur--Samaria--Beit Dejan; captures to date exceed 18,000 prisoners
and 120 guns.


Sept. 22 (Sun.)

Macedonian Front:--The Bulgarians are in full retreat along the
whole line between Monastir and Lake Doiran; the Allies capture
Ghevgeli.

Palestine:--General Allenby reports the complete destruction of the
Turkish 7th and 8th Armies.


Sept. 23 (Mon.)

Macedonian Front:--The French capture Prilep.

Palestine:--The British capture Acre and Haifa and, east of the
Jordan, Es Salt; Arab forces capture Maan.


Sept. 24 (Tues.)

Macedonian Front:--The Bulgarians retreat in disorder beyond Veles.


Sept. 25 (Wed.)

Macedonian Front:--The Serbians capture Ishtip and Veles; the
British enter Bulgaria near Kosturino; the Bulgarian Government
proposes an Armistice.

Palestine:--The British advance continues with increasing rapidity:
Tiberias, on the Sea of Galilee, and Amman, on the Hedjaz railway,
are occupied; captures to date approximate 45,000 prisoners and 265
guns.


Sept. 26 (Thur.)

The Americans and the French attack in the region of the Argonne on
a front of over 40 miles, from the Meuse to the Suippe: Montfaucon,
Varennes, and many villages are captured; the advance attains an
average depth of several miles.

Macedonian Front:--Strumnitza is occupied by the British.


Sept. 27 (Fri.)

The Battle of Cambrai and the Hindenburg Line begins (see Oct. 5):
the British attack in front of Cambrai, break through the Hindenburg
defences, and capture Beaucamp, Graincourt, Bourlon Wood, and other
important positions, with over 10,000 prisoners and 200 guns.

The Argonne Front:--The Americans and French make further progress;
the number of prisoners to date exceeds 23,000.

Palestine Front:--Arab forces capture Deraa.


Sept. 28 (Sat.)

The Fourth Battle of Ypres: the Belgians attack from Dixmude to
Ypres, the British from Ypres to Ploegsteert; very rapid progress is
made by the Belgians, who capture the whole of Houthulst Forest; the
British advance on their right beyond the furthest points reached
by them in 1917.

The Argonne Front:--The French capture Somme-Py and Maure; the
Americans reach Brieulles and Exermont.


Sept. 29 (Sun.)

The British capture Messines and the Messines Ridge; Dixmude is
occupied by the Belgians; the Allied front is carried to the
neighbourhood of Roulers, Courtrai, and Menin, an important salient
being thus driven into the enemy's northern front which endangers
his positions on the Belgian coast: this ends the Fourth Battle of
Ypres.

Cambrai--St. Quentin Front:--The British, assisted by the 2nd
American Corps, reach the outskirts of Cambrai and carry an
important section of the Hindenburg defences between Cambrai and St.
Quentin.

In the Oise-Aisne area the French reach the line of the Ailette.


Sept. 30 (Mon.)

Serbia:--The Battle of the Vardar (see Sept. 15) ends in complete
victory for the Allies; the French capture Uskub.

An Armistice (signed on the previous day) comes into force between
the Entente Powers and Bulgaria (see Appendix VI. (i)).

Palestine Front:--Damascus is captured by British and Arab forces.


Oct. 1 (Tues.)

The resignation of Count Hertling, the German Imperial Chancellor,
is announced (see Nov. 1, 1917).

The French capture St. Quentin.

The Argonne Front:--The French advance on a front of 14 miles and
capture Vaux, Autry, Condé, and Binarville.

Albania:--The Italians recapture Berat (see Aug. 26).


Oct. 2 (Wed.)

The British capture Ledeghem and cross the Lys between Werwicq and
Comines.

The British break through a further line of the enemy defences
between Cambrai and St. Quentin.

The Germans retreat rapidly between the Vesle and the Aisne, from
Rheims westward.

The Adriatic:--Italian and British naval forces attack Durazzo and
destroy it as a naval base.


Oct. 3 (Thur.)

Prince Max of Baden succeeds Count Hertling as German Imperial
Chancellor (see Nov. 9).

Armentières is occupied by the British.

The British attack on an eight-mile front north of St. Quentin and
make progress.


Oct. 4 (Fri.)

A Note from the German Government to President Wilson proposes that
peace negotiations should be opened on the basis of his 'fourteen
points' (see Appendix V.).

King Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicates in favour of his son Prince
Boris.

The British advance east and south of Armentières.

The Americans renew their offensive between the Meuse and the
Argonne and make progress.

The Japanese liner _Hiramo Maru_ is sunk off the Irish coast with a
loss of 292 lives.


Oct. 5 (Sat.)

The British advance east of the new breach they have made in the
Hindenburg line and capture Montbrehain, Beaurevoir, and high
ground further north: this marks the end of the Battle of Cambrai
and the Hindenburg Line (see Sept. 27), by which victory, the main
Hindenburg defences having been breached, the British directly
threaten the enemy's chief line of communications.

The French advance on a front of 25 miles east of Rheims: they
capture Fort Brimont, Nogent l'Abasse, and the Moronvilliers Ridge;
the German retreat in this sector develops.


Oct. 6 (Sun.)

The British capture Fresnoy (north of the Scarpe, opposite Douai).

H.M.S. _Otranto_ (armed merchant cruiser), carrying United States
troops, is sunk in a collision (431 lives lost).


Oct. 7 (Mon.)

North of the Scarpe the British capture Oppy and Biache St. Vaast.

North-east of St. Quentin the French capture Remancourt.

The French capture Berry-au-Bac (north-west of Rheims).

Palestine Front:--The British occupy Sidon; the French occupy Beirut.

Albania:--The Italians capture Elbasan.


Oct. 8 (Tues.)

The Second Battle of Le Cateau (see Oct. 10): the British 3rd and
4th Armies, with the 30th American Division, attack and make rapid
progress on a front of 17 miles from Sequehart to south of Cambrai.

The French make important progress in Champagne, and the French and
Americans east of the Meuse.


Oct. 9 (Wed.)

The British capture Cambrai and advance upon Le Cateau.

The French advance east of St. Quentin.

In the valley of the Aisne the French capture Grand-Ham and Lançon.


Oct. 10 (Thur.)

The British carry the whole Cambrai--Le Cateau road and enter Le
Cateau; this ends the Second Battle of Le Cateau (see Oct. 8), by
which the enemy is driven to the line of the Selle.

On the front north of Arras the British advance rapidly after the
retiring enemy towards Douai.

The French reach the line of the Oise east of St. Quentin.

Serbia (where the advance of the Allies continues against the
Austro-Germans):--The French occupy Prishtina.

The Irish mail boat _Leinster_ is sunk by a submarine between
Kingstown and Holyhead with a loss of 527 lives.


Oct. 11 (Fri.)

The German retirement develops in the south, forced by the threat of
the Le Cateau salient: the Germans evacuate the Chemin-des-Dames,
and, further east, the line of the Suippe; the French and Americans
advance, pressing the retreat, on a front of 37 miles.

Serbia:--The French capture Prisrend.


Oct. 12 (Sat.)

Serbia:--The Serbians recapture Nish (see Nov. 5, 1915).


Oct. 13 (Sun.)

The British reach the west bank of the Sensée Canal near Douai.

The Germans retire on a front of a hundred miles, from the Oise
opposite St. Quentin to the Argonne; they evacuate St. Gobain Forest
and the bend of the Aisne facing Rethel; the French capture Laon and
La Fère.

Palestine Front:--The British capture Tripoli.


Oct. 14 (Mon.)

The British, French, and Belgians renew the offensive in the north
between Dixmude and the Lys: rapid progress is made; Roulers and
Iseghem are captured.

The French capture Sissomme on the 'Hunding' line.

Serbia:--Ipek and Novi Bazar are occupied by the Allies.

Albania:--The Italians capture Durazzo.


Oct. 15 (Tues.)

President Wilson's reply to Germany's peace overtures is published.

The British capture Menin, in the northern offensive; south-west of
Lille, they cross the Haute Deule Canal.

Palestine Front:--Homs, 80 miles north of Damascus, is occupied by
the British.


Oct. 16 (Wed.)

The Northern Offensive:--The British 2nd Army (Plumer) captures
Werwick, Comines, Halluin, and Wevelghem, and reaches the outskirts
of Courtrai; the French and the Belgians capture Ingelmunster and
Lichtervelde and outflank Thourout.


Oct. 17 (Thur.)

Owing to the threat caused by the Allied advance in Central Belgium,
the Germans begin to retire from the Belgian coast north of the
salient and, below the salient, to the line of the Scheldt; in
consequence, Ostend, Douai, and Lille fall to the Allies (Ostend is
occupied by a British naval detachment under Sir Roger Keyes and by
Belgian troops; Douai by the British 1st Army under General Horne;
Lille is surrounded and captured by the British 5th Army under
General Birdwood). The King and Queen of the Belgians visit Ostend.

Further south, the Battle of the Selle begins (see Oct. 25): the
British 4th Army, with the 2nd American Corps, attacks the line of
the Selle; south of Le Cateau the passage of the river is forced,
and the capture of Le Cateau is completed. The French advance in
cooperation on the right, south of Bohain.


Oct. 18 (Fri.)

On the Belgian coast the Allies occupy Blankenberghe; north-east of
Courtrai the British cross the Sensée; further south the British
occupy Roubaix and Tourcoing.

In the Battle of the Selle, British and American troops make further
progress from Le Cateau southwards to east of Bohain; they capture
Ribeauville and Wassigny. North of the Sensée Canal, Denain is
captured by the British 1st Army.


Oct. 19 (Sat.)

Zeebrugge and Bruges are captured by the Belgians.

The French, operating between the Oise and the Serre, break the
'Hunding' line on a front of three miles.


Oct. 20 (Sun.)

The Belgian coast is completely cleared of the Germans, who retire
at a number of points on the whole front between the Dutch frontier
and Valenciennes.

In Central Belgium, the British 2nd Army approaches the Scheldt.

The Selle Front:--The British attack from Denain to Le Cateau and
carry the line of the river.

Serbian Front:--French and Serbian forces approach the Danube near
the Roumanian border.

The British monitor M 21 is mined off Ostend.


Oct. 21 (Mon.)

The Germans temporarily gain the protection of water (the Scheldt
and its canals and other waterways) from the Dutch frontier to the
neighbourhood of Valenciennes.

The British 5th Army reaches Tournai.


Oct. 22 (Tues.)

The French and Belgians advance upon Ghent; they cross the Lys Canal.

The British 1st Army enters the western outskirts of Valenciennes.

Further south the French advance on the River Serre Front.

Serbian Front:--The French occupy Negotin.


Oct. 23 (Wed.)

The British 3rd and 4th Armies attack on a twenty-mile front
north-east of Le Cateau; they advance to a depth of four miles.
The British 1st Army, advancing between Tournai and Valenciennes,
captures Bruay, Bleharies, and Espain.

Further south the French cross the Souche against strong resistance.

Mesopotamian Front:--The British advance (east of the Tigris) along
the road Kifri--Kirkuk--Alton Keupri.


Oct. 24 (Thur.)

The British 3rd and 4th Armies advance between the Scheldt and the
Sambre; they approach Landrecies and the Forest of Mormal.

Italy:--The Allies launch an offensive on a wide front against the
Austrian positions in the Trentino and on the Middle Piave; the
Italians capture Monte Solarolo, the French Monte Sisemol; the
British attack to force a crossing of the Piave.


Oct. 25 (Fri.)

The British 1st Army advances north of Valenciennes; the British
3rd Army captures eight miles of the Valenciennes-Avesnes railway:
this ends the Battle of the Selle (see Oct. 17), which has forced
the Germans from the line of the river, driven a new salient
into their front, and cut their chief lateral communication, the
Valenciennes-Metz railway. Captures in the battle amount to 21,000
prisoners and over 450 guns.

The French attack and advance on a front of twenty-five miles
between the rivers Oise, Serre, Souche, and Aisne.

Italy:--Lord Cavan, in command of the 10th Army (of British and
Italians), crosses the Piave against fierce resistance.

Mesopotamian Front:--The British capture Kirkuk (see May 24) and
force the passage of the Lesser Zab.


Oct. 26 (Sat.)

General Ludendorff, the German First Quartermaster-General, resigns.

The British make progress south of Valenciennes.

Palestine Front:--British and Arab forces capture Aleppo; by this
the conquest of Syria is completed and the Baghdad railway cut.


Oct. 27 (Sun.)

Austria asks for an Armistice, which is refused.

The Germans retreat before the French between the Oise and the Aisne
towards Hirson.

Italy:--Lord Cavan's army advances several miles east of the Piave.

Albania:--The Italians capture the port of Alessio.


Oct. 28 (Mon.)

An Allied Conference opens at Versailles.

The Italians cross the Piave in the Montello area.

Mesopotamian Front:--General Marshall captures Kalat Shergat on the
Tigris.


Oct. 29 (Tues.)

Italy:--The Allies advance rapidly against the yielding Austrians
from the Brenta Valley to the sea; Lord Cavan's army forces the
passage of the Monticano north of Oderzo; the Allies enter Asiago.

Mesopotamian Front:--General Marshall attacks and routs the Turks
five miles north of Kalat Shergat.


Oct. 30 (Wed.)

A Czecho-Slovak State is proclaimed at Prague.

Mesopotamian Front:--The remaining Turkish forces on the Tigris
surrender to General Marshall; the number of prisoners captured,
including those taken in the last seven days' fighting, exceeds
11,000. This ends the Tigris campaign.


Oct. 31 (Thur.)

An Armistice (signed on the previous day) comes into force between
the Entente Powers and Turkey. (Appendix VI. (ii).)

Count Tisza is assassinated.

The Hungarian National Government at Budapest assumes power and
proclaims Hungary a Republic; this ends the Dual Monarchy.

Italy:--In the plains, the Austrian disorderly retreat becomes a
rout; the Italians approach the Tagliamento in pursuit; in the
Trentino, the Italians also advance rapidly against the disorganised
enemy. The Austrian dreadnought and flagship _Viribus Unitis_ is
sunk at Pola by an Italian naval motor boat.


Nov. 1 (Fri.)

The Battle of the Sambre begins (see Nov. 11); the British attack
south of Valenciennes, force the passage of the Rhonelle, capture
Maresches, Aulnoy, and other villages, and reach the southern
outskirts of Valenciennes.

In Belgium, British, French, and American troops advance and reach
the Scheldt in the neighbourhood of Gavere, ten miles south of Ghent.

Between the Aisne and the Meuse American and French troops attack
and advance.

Italy:--The Austrian rout continues along the whole line from the
Venetian Alps to the sea.

Serbia:--Belgrade is reoccupied by the Serbians.


Nov. 2 (Sat.)

The British complete the capture of Valenciennes.

The French capture Semuy and the south bank of the Canal des
Ardennes from Semuy to Neuville; the Argonne Forest is completely
cleared of the enemy; the Americans advance rapidly in the Meuse
sector.


Nov. 3 (Sun.)

The sailors of the German Fleet at Kiel mutiny.

The Belgians advance south of the Dutch frontier and capture
Baasvelde and Steydinge.

Between the Upper Aisne and the Meuse the Americans and French
advance rapidly on a front of thirty miles.

Italian troops enter Trent and Udine; Italian military and naval
forces occupy Trieste.

Mesopotamian Front:--The British occupy Mosul.


Nov. 4 (Mon.)

An Armistice (signed on the previous day) comes into force between
the Entente Powers and Austria (see Appendix VI. (iii)).

Revolution spreads in Germany.

The British 1st, 3rd, and 4th Armies, in conjunction with General
Débeney's Army on their right, attack on a front of over thirty
miles, from east of Valenciennes to Guise: the British force the
passage of the Sambre-Oise Canal; they capture Landrecies, the
Forest of Mormal, and Le Quesnoy with its garrison; the French make
equally rapid progress.

On the Aisne--Meuse Front the French reach the line of the Ardennes
Canal and capture Le Chesne; the Americans approach Beaumont and
Stenay.

Northern Albania:--The Italians occupy Scutari.


Nov. 5 (Tues.)

The German Government is informed through President Wilson that
application for an Armistice must be made to Marshal Foch in the
usual military form.

The French advance between the Oise and the Aisne towards Hirson.

The Aisne--Meuse Front:--The French cross the Ardennes Canal; the
Americans capture Beaumont.


Nov. 6 (Wed.)

German delegates start for the Western Front to receive the terms of
Armistice from Marshal Foch and Admiral Sir R. Wemyss.

The German retreat becomes general from the Scheldt north of
Valenciennes to the Meuse at Sedan.

The British 1st, 3rd, and 4th Armies pursue the enemy towards Mons,
Maubeuge, and Avesnes.

The French capture Vervins and Rethel.

The Americans enter Sedan.


Nov. 7 (Thur.)

The Bavarian Republic is proclaimed. Kiel and Hamburg fall into the
hands of revolutionaries.

The British 1st Army makes a formal entry into Valenciennes.

The British capture Bavai and reach Haumont (in the valley of the
Sambre).


Nov. 8 (Fri.)

The German delegates receive the terms of Armistice of the Allies.

Prince Max of Baden, the German Imperial Chancellor, resigns.

The revolutionary movement spreads rapidly through Germany.

The British capture Maubeuge, enter Tournai, cross the Scheldt south
of it, capture Condé and Avesnes, and advance on Mons.

The French advance towards Mézières and Charleville.


Nov. 9 (Sat.)

The Kaiser abdicates and flies to Holland.

Herr Ebert succeeds Prince Max as Chancellor (see Oct. 3).

The pursuit of the enemy by the Allies continues.

H.M.S. _Britannia_ (battleship) is sunk by a submarine off Cape
Trafalgar.


Nov. 10 (Sun.)

The French occupy Hirson, surround Mézières, and cross the Meuse.

The Americans advance towards Montmédy and the Briey basin.


Nov. 11 (Mon.)

The Belgians enter Ghent; the British (3rd Canadian Division) enter
Mons at dawn.

The Armistice with Germany (see Appendix VI. (iv)) is signed in the
Forest of Compiègne, near the Chateau Francport (in the train of
Marshal Foch), at 5 A.M. Fighting ceases at 11 A.M.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._--The Battle of the Sambre struck at and broke the enemy's
last important lateral communications, turned his positions on the
Scheldt, and forced him to retreat rapidly from Courtrai. This
victory completed the great strategical aim of the Allies, viz. to
divide the enemy's forces into two parts, one on each side of the
great natural barrier of the Ardennes. The pursuit of the beaten
enemy all along the Allied line was only stopped by the Armistice.



THE CHIEF EVENTS CONNECTED WITH THE WAR, BETWEEN THE SIGNING OF THE
ARMISTICE ON THE 11TH NOVEMBER 1918 AND THE SIGNATURE ON THE 28TH
JUNE 1919 OF THE TREATY OF PEACE WITH GERMANY.



1918


Nov. 12 (Tues.)

The Emperor Karl of Austria abdicates.

The Allied fleets pass through the Dardanelles, British and Indian
troops occupying the forts.


Nov. 13 (Wed.)

The Allied fleets reach Constantinople.


Nov. 14 (Thur.)

East Africa:--The last of the German forces surrender, in compliance
with the terms of the Armistice, on the Chambezi River in Northern
Rhodesia.


Nov. 17 (Sun.)

In accordance with the terms of the Armistice, the advance of the
Allies on the Western Front begins.

The Caspian:--British and Russian troops occupy Baku.


Nov. 18 (Mon.)

Belgian troops enter Brussels.


Nov. 19 (Tues.)

General Pétain, created a Marshal of France on this day, formally
enters Metz at the head of French troops.

Belgian troops enter Antwerp.


Nov. 21 (Thur.)

British troops enter Namur.

The first and main instalment of the German High Sea Fleet (5
battle-cruisers, 9 battleships, 7 light cruisers, and 49 destroyers)
surrenders to Admiral Sir David Beatty off the Firth of Forth.


Nov. 22 (Fri.)

King Albert re-enters Brussels after four years of exile.


Nov. 25 (Mon.)

Marshal Foch makes a ceremonial entry into Strasbourg.


Nov. 27 (Wed.)

The last German troops leave Belgium.


Nov. 28 (Thur.)

The Kaiser formally abdicates the crown of Prussia and the German
Imperial crown.


Dec. 1 (Sun.)

British troops cross the German frontier.


Dec. 2 (Mon.)

Marshal Foch, M. Clemenceau, Signor Orlando, and Baron Sonnino visit
London and receive a public welcome.


Dec. 6 (Fri.)

British troops enter Cologne.


Dec. 12 (Thur.)

British troops cross the Rhine and occupy the Cologne bridge-head.



1919


Jan. 18 (Sat.)

The Peace Conference (the 'Conference of Paris') is opened by M.
Poincaré, President of the French Republic, at the Quai d'Orsay;
M. Clemenceau is unanimously elected Chairman. On the same date,
forty-eight years earlier (Jan. 18, 1871), the German Empire was
proclaimed in the Galerie des Glaces, Versailles.


Feb. 11 (Wed.)

Herr Ebert is elected first President of the German Republic.


Feb. 12 (Thur.)

Herr Scheidemann, the first German Prime Minister, forms a Cabinet.


Mar. 25 (Tues.)

To draw up the Treaties of Peace a Council of Four (President
Wilson, Mr. Lloyd George, M. Clemenceau, Signor Orlando--the 'Big
Four') is substituted for the Council of Ten.


April 23 (Wed.)

President Wilson issues a public statement with regard to Fiume,
which concludes with an appeal to the people of Italy as distinct
from their Government.


April 24 (Thur.)

Signor Orlando leaves Paris for Italy as a protest against President
Wilson's attitude and his published message on the Fiume question.


April 28 (Mon.)

The League of Nations is created by the adoption at the Peace
Conference of the amended League of Nations Covenant (see Appendix
VII., Part I.).

The Peace Conference adopts the 'Labour Charter,' viz. those
sections of the Peace Treaty which create an International
Organisation to deal with the needs and problems of Labour (see
Appendix VII., Part XIII.).


May 7 (Wed.)

The Peace Terms are presented to the German delegates at the Trianon
Palace Hotel, Versailles.


June 2 (Mon.)

The Allied Terms of Peace with Austria, incomplete in certain
respects, are handed to the Austrian delegates at St. Germain.


June 19 (Thur.)

Italy:--Signor Orlando and his Cabinet resign.


June 20 (Fri.)

The German Ministry under Herr Scheidemann resign, having disagreed
as to acceptance of the Peace Terms.


June 21 (Sat.)

The Germans scuttle their fleet interned at Scapa Flow.

A new German Ministry is formed with Herr Bauer as Premier. The
German National Assembly debates the Peace Treaty, and resolves in
favour of signature by 237 votes to 138.

Italy:--Signor Nitti forms a Ministry.


June 23 (Mon.)

The Government of the German Republic declares 'that it is ready to
accept and sign the conditions of peace imposed by the Allied and
Associated Governments.'


June 28 (Sat.)

The Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and the
German Republic is signed in the Galerie des Glaces, Versailles, the
ceremony beginning at 3 P.M. (see Appendix VII.).


Sept. 10 (Wed.)

The Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers
(_except Roumania and Jugo-Slavia_) and Austria is signed in the
Stone Age Hall in the Château de Saint Germain.


Nov. 27 (Thur.)

The Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers
(_except Serbia and Roumania_) and Bulgaria is signed at the Mairie
at Neuilly-sur-Seine.



1920


Jan. 10 (Sat.)

The Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and the
German Republic is formally ratified in the Clock Room in the French
Foreign Office, Paris, the ceremony beginning at 4 P.M.



APPENDIX I

AUSTRIA'S ULTIMATUM TO SERBIA


The Austro-Hungarian Government addressed the following Note to the
Serbian Government on the 23rd July 1914, through the medium of the
Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade:

'On the 31st March 1909 the Serbian Minister in Vienna, on the
instructions of the Serbian Government, made the following
declaration to the Imperial and Royal Government:

'"Serbia recognises that the _fait accompli_ regarding Bosnia has
not affected her rights, and consequently she will conform to the
decisions that the Powers may take in conformity with Article 25
of the Treaty of Berlin. In deference to the advice of the Great
Powers, Serbia undertakes to renounce from now onwards the attitude
of protest and opposition which she has adopted with regard to the
annexation since last autumn. She undertakes, moreover, to modify
the direction of her policy with regard to Austria-Hungary and to
live in future on good neighbourly terms with the latter."

'The history of recent years, and in particular the painful events
of the 28th June last, have shown the existence of a subversive
movement with the object of detaching a part of the territories of
Austria-Hungary from the Monarchy. The movement, which had its birth
under the eye of the Serbian Government, has gone so far as to make
itself manifest on both sides of the Serbian frontier in the shape
of acts of terrorism and a series of outrages and murders.

'Far from carrying out the formal undertakings contained in the
declaration of the 31st March 1909, the Royal Serbian Government
has done nothing to repress these movements. It has permitted the
criminal machinations of various societies and associations directed
against the Monarchy, and has tolerated unrestrained language on
the part of the Press, the glorification of the perpetrators of
outrages, and the participation of officers and functionaries in
subversive agitation. It has permitted an unwholesome propaganda in
public instruction, in short, it has permitted all manifestations of
a nature to incite the Serbian population to hatred of the Monarchy
and contempt of its institutions.

'This culpable tolerance of the Royal Serbian Government had not
ceased at the moment when the events of the 28th June last proved
its fatal consequences to the whole world.

'It results from the depositions and confessions of the criminal
perpetrators of the outrage of the 28th June that the Serajevo
assassinations were planned in Belgrade; that the arms and
explosives with which the murderers were provided had been given to
them by Serbian officers and functionaries belonging to the Narodna
Odbrana; and finally, that the passage into Bosnia of the criminals
and their arms was organised and effected by the chiefs of the
Serbian frontier service.

'The above-mentioned results of the magisterial investigation do
not permit the Austro-Hungarian Government to pursue any longer the
attitude of expectant forbearance which they have maintained for
years in face of the machinations hatched in Belgrade, and thence
propagated in the territories of the Monarchy. The results, on the
contrary, impose on them the duty of putting an end to the intrigues
which form a perpetual menace to the tranquillity of the Monarchy.

'To achieve this end the Imperial and Royal Government see
themselves compelled to demand from the Royal Serbian Government a
formal assurance that they condemn this dangerous propaganda against
the Monarchy; in other words, the whole series of tendencies, the
ultimate aim of which is to detach from the Monarchy territories
belonging to it; and that they undertake to suppress by every means
this criminal and terrorist propaganda.

'In order to give a formal character to this undertaking the
Royal Serbian Government shall publish on the front page of their
"Official Journal" of the 13th (26th) July the following declaration:

'"The Royal Government of Serbia condemn the propaganda directed
against Austria-Hungary, _i.e._ the general tendency of which
the final aim is to detach from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
territories belonging to it, and they sincerely deplore the fatal
consequences of these criminal proceedings.

'"The Royal Government regret that Serbian officers and
functionaries participated in the above-mentioned propaganda and
thus compromised the good neighbourly relations to which the Royal
Government were solemnly pledged by their declaration of the 31st
March 1909.

'"The Royal Government, who disapprove and repudiate all idea of
interfering or attempting to interfere with the destinies of the
inhabitants of any part whatsoever of Austria-Hungary, consider it
their duty formally to warn officers and functionaries, and the
whole population of the kingdom, that henceforward they will proceed
with the utmost rigour against persons who may be guilty of such
machinations, which they will use all their efforts to anticipate
and suppress."

'This declaration shall simultaneously be communicated to the Royal
Army as an order of the day by His Majesty the King and shall be
published in the "Official Bulletin" of the Army.

'The Royal Serbian Government further undertake:

'1. To suppress any publication which incites to hatred and contempt
of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the general tendency of which
is directed against its territorial integrity;

'2. To dissolve immediately the society styled 'Narodna Odbrana,'
to confiscate all its means of propaganda, and to proceed in the
same manner against other societies and their branches in Serbia
which engage in propaganda against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
The Royal Government shall take the necessary measures to prevent
the societies dissolved from continuing their activity under another
name and form;

'3. To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia,
both as regards the teaching body and also as regards the methods of
instruction, everything that serves, or might serve, to foment the
propaganda against Austria-Hungary;

'4. To remove from the military service, and from the administration
in general, all officers and functionaries guilty of propaganda
against the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy whose names and deeds the
Austro-Hungarian Government reserve to themselves the right of
communicating to the Royal Government;

'5. To accept the collaboration in Serbia of representatives of the
Austro-Hungarian Government for the suppression of the subversive
movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy;

'6. To take judicial proceedings against accessories to the plot
of the 28th June who are on Serbian territory; delegates of the
Austro-Hungarian Government will take part in the investigation
relating thereto;

'7. To proceed without delay to the arrest of Major Voija Tankositch
and of the individual named Milan Ciganovitch, a Serbian State
employé, who have been compromised by the results of the magisterial
inquiry at Serajevo;

'8. To prevent by effective measures the co-operation of the Serbian
authorities in the illicit traffic in arms and explosives across
the frontier, to dismiss and punish severely the officials of the
frontier service at Schabatz and Loznica guilty of having assisted
the perpetrators of the Serajevo crime by facilitating their passage
across the frontier;

'9. To furnish the Imperial and Royal Government with explanations
regarding the unjustifiable utterances of high Serbian officials,
both in Serbia and abroad, who, notwithstanding their official
position, have not hesitated since the crime of the 28th June to
express themselves in interviews in terms of hostility to the
Austro-Hungarian Government; and, finally,

'10. To notify the Imperial and Royal Government without delay of
the execution of the measures comprised under the preceding heads.

       *       *       *       *       *

'The Austro-Hungarian Government expect the reply of the Royal
Government at the latest by 6 o'clock[4] on Saturday evening, the
25th July.

  [4] In the copy of this Austro-Hungarian note communicated by Count
  Szecsen, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Paris, to the French Foreign
  Office, the hour named for the reply is 5 o'clock, and the following
  explanation is appended in the French Yellow-book (Y. 24):

  'The Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, in a private letter on the 24th
  July, sent to the Minister for Foreign Affairs the following
  correction:

  '"In the copy of the despatch which I had the honour to send to your
  Excellency this morning, it was said that my Government expected
  an answer from the Cabinet at Belgrade at latest by 5 o'clock on
  the evening of Saturday the 25th of this month. As our Minister at
  Belgrade did not deliver his note yesterday until 6 o'clock in the
  evening, the time allowed for the answer has in consequence been
  prolonged to 6 o'clock to-morrow, Saturday evening.

  '"I consider it my duty to inform your Excellency of this slight
  alteration in the termination of the period fixed for the answer of
  the Serbian Government."'

'A memorandum dealing with the results of the magisterial inquiry at
Serajevo with regard to the officials mentioned under heads (7) and
(8) is attached to this note.'



APPENDIX II

SERBIA'S REPLY TO AUSTRIA


The Royal Serbian Government have received the communication of
the Imperial and Royal Government of the 10th instant,[5] and are
convinced that their reply will remove any misunderstanding which
may threaten to impair the good neighbourly relations between the
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Kingdom of Serbia.

  [5] Old style.

Conscious of the fact that the protests which were made both
from the tribune of the national Skupshtina[6] and in the
declarations and actions of the responsible representatives of the
State--protests which were cut short by the declarations made by the
Serbian Government on the 18th[7] March 1909--have not been renewed
on any occasion as regards the great neighbouring Monarchy, and that
no attempt has been made since that time, either by the successive
Royal Governments or by their organs, to change the political and
legal state of affairs created in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Royal
Government draw attention to the fact that in this connection
the Imperial and Royal Government have made no representation
except one concerning a school book, and that on that occasion the
Imperial and Royal Government received an entirely satisfactory
explanation. Serbia has several times given proofs of her pacific
and moderate policy during the Balkan crisis, and it is thanks to
Serbia and to the sacrifice that she has made in the exclusive
interest of European peace that that peace has been preserved. The
Royal Government cannot be held responsible for manifestations of a
private character, such as articles in the Press and the peaceable
work of societies--manifestations which take place in nearly all
countries in the ordinary course of events, and which, as a general
rule, escape official control. The Royal Government are all the less
responsible, in view of the fact that at the time of the solution of
a series of questions which arose between Serbia and Austria-Hungary
they gave proof of a great readiness to oblige, and thus succeeded
in settling the majority of these questions to the advantage of the
two neighbouring countries.

  [6] The Serbian Parliament.

  [7] New style.

For these reasons the Royal Government have been pained and
surprised at the statements, according to which members of the
Kingdom of Serbia are supposed to have participated in the
preparations for the crime committed at Serajevo; the Royal
Government expected to be invited to collaborate in an investigation
of all that concerns this crime, and they were ready, in order to
prove the entire correctness of their attitude, to take measures
against any persons concerning whom representations were made to
them. Falling in, therefore, with the desire of the Imperial and
Royal Government, they are prepared to hand over for trial any
Serbian subject, without regard to his situation or rank, of whose
complicity in the crime of Serajevo proofs are forthcoming, and more
especially they undertake to cause to be published on the first page
of the 'Journal Officiel,' on the date of the 13th (26th) July, the
following declaration:

'The Royal Government of Serbia condemn all propaganda which may
be directed against Austria-Hungary, that is to say, all such
tendencies as aim at ultimately detaching from the Austro-Hungarian
Monarchy territories which form part thereof, and they sincerely
deplore the baneful consequences of these criminal movements. The
Royal Government regret that, according to the communication from
the Imperial and Royal Government, certain Serbian officers and
officials should have taken part in the above-mentioned propaganda,
and thus compromised the good neighbourly relations to which the
Royal Serbian Government was solemnly engaged by the declaration
of the 31st March 1909,[8] which declaration disapproves and
repudiates all idea or attempt at interference with the destiny of
the inhabitants of any part whatsoever of Austria-Hungary, and they
consider it their duty formally to warn the officers, officials, and
entire population of the Kingdom that henceforth they will take the
most rigorous steps against all such persons as are guilty of such
acts, to prevent and to repress which they will use their utmost
endeavour.'

  [8] New style.

This declaration will be brought to the knowledge of the Royal Army
in an order of the day, in the name of His Majesty the King, by His
Royal Highness the Crown Prince Alexander, and will be published in
the next official Army bulletin.

The Royal Government further undertake:

1. To introduce at the first regular convocation of the
Skupshtina[9] a provision into the Press law providing for the
most severe punishment of incitement to hatred or contempt of
the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and for taking action against any
publication the general tendency of which is directed against the
territorial integrity of Austro-Hungary. The Government engage at
the approaching revision of the Constitution to cause an amendment
to be introduced into Article 22 of the Constitution of such a
nature that such publication may be confiscated, a proceeding at
present impossible under the categorical terms of Article 22 of the
Constitution.

  [9] The Serbian Parliament.

2. The Government possess no proof, nor does the note of the
Imperial and Royal Government furnish them with any, that the
'Narodna Odbrana' and other similar societies have committed up to
the present any criminal act of this nature through the proceedings
of any of their members. Nevertheless, the Royal Government will
accept the demand of the Imperial and Royal Government, and will
dissolve the 'Narodna Odbrana' Society and every other society
which may be directing its efforts against Austria-Hungary.

3. The Royal Serbian Government undertake to remove without delay
from their public educational establishments in Serbia all that
serves or could serve to foment propaganda against Austria-Hungary,
whenever the Imperial and Royal Government furnish them with facts
and proofs of this propaganda.

4. The Royal Government also agree to remove from military service
all such persons as the judicial inquiry may have proved to be
guilty of acts directed against the integrity of the territory of
the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and they expect the Imperial and
Royal Government to communicate to them at a later date the names
and the acts of these officers and officials for the purpose of the
proceedings which are to be taken against them.

5. The Royal Government must confess that they do not clearly
grasp the meaning or the scope of the demand made by the Imperial
and Royal Government that Serbia shall undertake to accept the
collaboration of the organs of the Imperial and Royal Government
upon their territory, but they declare that they will admit such
collaboration as agrees with the principle of international law,
with criminal procedure, and with good neighbourly relations.

6. It goes without saying that the Royal Government consider it
their duty to open an inquiry against all such persons as are, or
eventually may be, implicated in the plot of the 15th June, and
who happen to be within the territory of the Kingdom. As regards
the participation in this inquiry of Austro-Hungarian agents or
authorities appointed for this purpose by the Imperial and Royal
Government, the Royal Government cannot accept such an arrangement,
as it would be a violation of the Constitution and of the law of
criminal procedure; nevertheless, in concrete cases communications
as to the results of the investigation in question might be given
to the Austro-Hungarian agents.

7. The Royal Government proceeded, on the very evening of the
delivery of the note, to arrest Commandant Voislav Tankossitch. As
regards Milan Ziganovitch, who is a subject of the Austro-Hungarian
Monarchy and who up to the 15th[10] June was employed (on probation)
by the directorate of railways, it has not yet been possible to
arrest him.

  [10] Old style.

The Austro-Hungarian Government are requested to be so good as to
supply as soon as possible, in the customary form, the presumptive
evidence of guilt, as well as the eventual proofs of guilt which
have been collected up to the present, at the inquiry at Serajevo
for the purposes of the later inquiry.

8. The Serbian Government will reinforce and extend the measures
which have been taken for preventing the illicit traffic of arms
and explosives across the frontier. It goes without saying that
they will immediately order an inquiry and will severely punish the
frontier officials on the Schabatz-Loznitza line who have failed in
their duty and allowed the authors of the crime of Serajevo to pass.

9. The Royal Government will gladly give explanations of the remarks
made by their officials, whether in Serbia or abroad, in interviews
after the crime which according to the statement of the Imperial and
Royal Government were hostile towards the Monarchy, as soon as the
Imperial and Royal Government have communicated to them the passages
in question in these remarks, and as soon as they have shown that
the remarks were actually made by the said officials, although the
Royal Government will itself take steps to collect evidence and
proofs.

10. The Royal Government will inform the Imperial and Royal
Government of the execution of the measures comprised under the
above heads, in so far as this has not already been done by the
present note, as soon as each measure has been ordered and carried
out.

If the Imperial and Royal Government are not satisfied with this
reply, the Serbian Government, considering that it is not to the
common interest to precipitate the solution of this question,
are ready, as always, to accept a pacific understanding, either
by referring this question to the decision of the International
Tribunal of The Hague, or to the Great Powers which took part in the
drawing up of the declaration made by the Serbian Government on the
18th (31st) March 1909.

  BELGRADE, _July 12_ (25), 1914.



APPENDIX III

GERMANY'S DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST RUSSIA


The Note presented by Count Pourtalès, German Ambassador at St.
Petersburg, on the 1st August 1914, at 7.10 P.M.:

'The Imperial German Government have used every effort since the
beginning of the crisis to bring about a peaceful settlement. In
compliance with a wish expressed to him by His Majesty the Emperor
of Russia, the German Emperor had undertaken, in concert with Great
Britain, the part of mediator between the cabinets of Vienna and St.
Petersburg; but Russia, without waiting for any result, proceeded
to a general mobilisation of her forces both on land and sea. In
consequence of this threatening step, which was not justified by any
military proceedings on the part of Germany, the German Empire was
faced by a grave and imminent danger. If the German Government had
failed to guard against this peril, they would have compromised
the safety and the very existence of Germany. The German Government
were, therefore, obliged to make representations to the Government
of His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias and to insist upon a
cessation of the aforesaid military acts. Russia having refused to
comply with (not having considered it necessary to answer[11]) this
demand, and having shown by this refusal (this attitude[11]) that
her action was directed against Germany, I have the honour, on the
instructions of my Government, to inform your Excellency as follows:

'His Majesty the Emperor, my august Sovereign, in the name of the
German Empire, accepts the challenge, and considers himself at war
with Russia.'

  [11] The words in brackets occur in the original. It must be
  supposed that two variations had been prepared in advance, and that,
  by mistake, they were both inserted in the Note.



APPENDIX IV

GERMANY'S DECLARATION OF WAR AGAINST FRANCE


The following letter was handed by the German Ambassador to M. René
Viviani, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs,
during his farewell audience, August 3, 1914, at 6.45 P.M.

     M. LE PRÉSIDENT,

     The German administrative and military authorities have
     established a certain number of flagrantly hostile acts
     committed on German territory by French military aviators.
     Several of these have openly violated the neutrality of Belgium
     by flying over the territory of that country; one has attempted
     to destroy buildings near Wesel; others have been seen in the
     district of the Eifel; one has thrown bombs on the railway near
     Karlsruhe and Nuremberg.

     I am instructed, and I have the honour to inform your
     Excellency, that in the presence of these acts of aggression the
     German Empire considers itself in a state of war with France in
     consequence of the acts of this latter Power.

     At the same time I have the honour to bring to the knowledge of
     your Excellency that the German authorities will detain French
     mercantile vessels in German ports, but they will release them
     if, within forty-eight hours, they are assured of complete
     reciprocity.

     My diplomatic mission having thus come to an end it only remains
     for me to request your Excellency to be good enough to furnish
     me with my passports, and to take the steps you consider
     suitable to assure my return to Germany, with the staff of the
     Embassy, as well as with the staff of the Bavarian Legation and
     of the German Consulate-General in Paris.

     Be good enough, M. le Président, to receive the assurances of my
     deepest respect.

  (Signed) SCHOEN.



APPENDIX V

PRESIDENT WILSON'S FOURTEEN POINTS


An excerpt from President Wilson's address to Congress on January 8,
1918:

'The programme of the world's peace, therefore, is our programme,
and that programme, the only possible one as we see it, is this:

'1. Open covenants of peace openly arrived at, after which there
shall be no private international understandings of any kind, but
diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

'2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside territorial
waters alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed
in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of
international covenants.

'3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and
the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all
nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its
maintenance.

'4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will
be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.

'5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all
colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle
that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests
of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the
equitable claims of the Government whose title is to be determined.

'6. The evacuation of all Russian territory, and such a settlement
of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest
co-operation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her
an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent
determination of her own political development and national policy,
and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations
under institutions of her own choosing; and more than a welcome
assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself
desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in
the months to come will be the acid test of their goodwill, of
their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own
interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.

'7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and
restored without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she
enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act
will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the
nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined
for the government of their relations with one another. Without this
healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is
for ever impaired.

'8. All French territory should be freed, and the invaded portions
restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the
matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the
world for nearly fifty years, should be righted in order that peace
may once more be made secure in the interest of all.

'9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected
along clearly recognisable lines of nationality.

'10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations
we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the first
opportunity of autonomous development.

'11. Roumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated, occupied
territories restored, Serbia accorded free and secure access to the
sea, and the relations of the several Balkan States to one another
determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines
of allegiance and nationality, and international guarantees of the
political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the
several Balkan States should be entered into.

'12. The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be
assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which
are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security
of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous
development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as
a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under
international guarantees.

'13. An independent Polish State should be erected which
should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish
populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the
sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial
integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.

'14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific
covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of
political and territorial independence for great and small States
alike.'



APPENDIX VI

THE ARMISTICE


(i) THE TERMS OF ARMISTICE WITH BULGARIA

(Signed September 29, 1918)

     MILITARY CONVENTION REGULATING THE CONDITIONS OF THE SUSPENSION
     OF HOSTILITIES BETWEEN THE ALLIED POWERS AND BULGARIA, WHICH
     CAME INTO FORCE AT 12.00 HOURS ON SEPTEMBER 30, 1918.

1. Immediate evacuation, in accordance with a scheme to be evolved,
of all the occupied territories in Greece and Serbia. From this
territory neither cattle, grain, nor supplies of any sort will be
removed. No damage will be caused upon evacuation. The Bulgarian
authorities will continue to administer those parts of Bulgaria
actually in the occupation of the Allies.

2. Immediate demobilisation of the whole Bulgarian Army, except
for a group of all arms which will be maintained in a fit condition
for action, and will comprise three divisions, each of sixteen
battalions, and four cavalry regiments, which will be employed as
follows:

     Two divisions for the defence of the eastern frontier of
     Bulgaria and the Dobrudja, and one division to guard the
     railways.

3. Depôts will be established at points to be indicated by the High
Command of the Armée d'Orient, of arms, munitions, and military
vehicles belonging to the demobilised units, which material will
afterwards be put into store by the Bulgarian authorities under the
supervision of the Allies. The horses will also be handed over to
the Allies.

4. Return to Greece of the material of the IVth Greek Army Corps
taken from the Greek Army on the occupation of Eastern Macedonia in
so far as it has not been sent to Germany.

5. The Bulgarian troops which are now west of the longitude of
Uskub, and belong to the XIth German Army, will lay down their arms
and will be considered until further orders as prisoners of war.
Officers will retain their arms.

6. The employment until the conclusion of peace of Bulgarian
prisoners of war in the East without the reciprocal rights as
regards prisoners of war belonging to the Allied forces. These
latter will be handed over without delay to the Allied authorities
and deported civilians will be absolutely free to return to their
homes.

7. Germany and Austria-Hungary will be given a period of four
weeks in which to withdraw their troops and military authorities
from Bulgaria. Within the same period the diplomatic and consular
representatives of the Central Powers and their nationals will quit
the territory of the Bulgarian kingdom. The orders for the cessation
of hostilities will be given by the signatories of this Convention.


(ii) THE TERMS OF ARMISTICE WITH TURKEY

(Signed October 30, 1918. Came into force October 31, 1918)

Conditions of an armistice agreed to and concluded between--

     Vice-Admiral the Honourable Sir Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe,
     British Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Station, acting
     under authority from the British Government, in agreement with
     their Allies,

     and

     His Excellency Raouff Bey, Turkish Minister of Marine,

     His Excellency Rechad Hikmet Bey, Turkish Under-Secretary for
     Foreign Affairs,

     Lieutenant-Colonel Saadullah Bey, Turkish General Staff, acting
     under authority from the Turkish Government.

1. Opening of Dardanelles and Bosporus and secure access to the
Black Sea. Allied occupation of Dardanelles and Bosporus forts.

2. Positions of all minefields, torpedo-tubes, and other
obstructions in Turkish waters to be indicated, and assistance given
to sweep or remove them as may be required.

3. All available information as to mines in the Black Sea to be
communicated.

4. All Allied prisoners of war and Armenian interned persons
and prisoners to be collected in Constantinople and handed over
unconditionally to the Allies.

5. Immediate demobilisation of the Turkish Army, except for such
troops as are required for surveillance of frontiers and for the
maintenance of internal order. Number of effectives and their
disposition to be determined later by the Allies after consultation
with the Turkish Government.

6. Surrender of all war vessels in Turkish waters, or in waters
occupied by Turkey. These ships to be interned at such Turkish
port or ports as may be directed, except such small vessels as
are required for police or similar purposes in Turkish territorial
waters.

7. The Allies to have the right to occupy any strategic points in
the event of any situation arising which threatens the security of
the Allies.

8. Free use by Allied ships of all ports and anchorages now in
Turkish occupation, and denial of their use by enemy ships. Similar
conditions to apply to Turkish mercantile shipping in Turkish waters
for purposes of trade and demobilisation of the army.

9. Use of all ship repair facilities at all Turkish ports and
arsenals.

10. Allied occupation of the Taurus tunnel system.

11. Immediate withdrawal of Turkish troops from North-west Persia
to behind the pre-war frontier has already been ordered, and will
be carried out. Part of Transcaucasia has already been ordered to
be evacuated by Turkish troops, the remainder to be evacuated if
required by the Allies after they have studied the situation there.

12. Wireless telegraph and cable stations to be controlled by the
Allies, Turkish Government messages excepted.

13. Prohibition to destroy any naval, military, or commercial
material.

14. Facilities to be given for the purchase of coal, oil-fuel, and
naval material from Turkish sources after the requirements of the
country have been met. None of the above material to be exported.

15. Allied Control Officers to be placed on all railways, including
such portions of Transcaucasian railways now under Turkish control,
which must be placed at the free and complete disposal of the
Allied authorities, due consideration being given to the needs of
the population. This clause to include Allied occupation of Batum.
Turkey will raise no objection to the occupation of Baku by the
Allies.

16. The surrender of all garrisons in Hejaz, Assir, Yemen, Syria,
and Mesopotamia to the nearest Allied Commander, and the withdrawal
of troops from Cilicia, except those necessary to maintain order, as
will be determined under Clause 5.

17. Surrender of all Turkish officers in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
to the nearest Italian garrison. Turkey guarantees to stop supplies
and communication with these officers if they do not obey the order
to surrender.

18. Surrender of all ports occupied in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica,
including Misurata, to the nearest Allied garrison.

19. All Germans and Austrians, naval, military, and civilian, to be
evacuated within one month from Turkish dominions. Those in remote
districts as soon after as may be possible.

20. Compliance with such orders as may be conveyed for the disposal
of the equipment, arms, and ammunition, including transport, of that
portion of the Turkish Army which is demobilised under Clause 5.

21. An Allied representative to be attached to the Turkish
Ministry of Supplies in order to safeguard Allied interests. This
representative to be furnished with all information necessary for
this purpose.

22. Turkish prisoners to be kept at the disposal of the Allied
Powers. The release of Turkish civilian prisoners and prisoners over
military age to be considered.

23. Obligation on the part of Turkey to cease all relations with the
Central Powers.

24. In case of disorder in the six Armenian vilayets the Allies
reserve to themselves the right to occupy any part of them.

25. Hostilities between the Allies and Turkey shall cease from noon,
local time, on Thursday, October 31, 1918.

       *       *       *       *       *

Signed in duplicate on board His Britannic Majesty's ship
_Agamemnon_, at Port Mudros, Lemnos, October the 30th, 1918.


(iii) THE TERMS OF ARMISTICE WITH AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

(Signed November 3, 1918. Came into force November 4, 1918)

MILITARY CLAUSES

1. The immediate cessation of hostilities by land, sea, and air.

2. Total demobilisation of the Austro-Hungarian Army and immediate
withdrawal of all Austro-Hungarian forces operating on the front
from the North Sea to Switzerland. Within Austro-Hungarian
territory, limited as in Clause 3 below, there shall only be
maintained as an organised military force a maximum of twenty
divisions, reduced to pre-war peace effectives. Half the Divisional,
Corps, and Army artillery and equipment shall be collected at points
to be indicated by the Allies and United States of America for
delivery to them, beginning with all such material as exists in the
territories to be evacuated by the Austro-Hungarian forces.

3. Evacuation of all territories invaded by Austria-Hungary since
the beginning of war. Withdrawal within such periods as shall be
determined by the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces on each
front of the Austro-Hungarian Armies behind a line fixed as follows:

From Piz Umbrail to the north of the Stelvio it will follow the
crest of the Rhætian Alps up to the sources of the Adige and the
Eisack, passing thence by Mounts Reschen and Brenner and the heights
of Oetz and Ziller; the line thence turns south, crossing Mount
Toblach, and meeting the present frontier of the Carnic Alps. It
follows this frontier up to Mount Tarvis, and after Mount Tarvis the
watershed of the Julian Alps by the Col of Predil, Mount Manhart,
the Tricorno (Terglou), and the watershed of the Cols di Podbordo,
Podlanischam, and Idria. From this line the point turns south-east
towards the Schneeberg, excluding the whole basin of the Save and
its tributaries; from the Schneeberg it goes down towards the coast
in such a way as to include Castua, Mattuglie, and Volosca in the
evacuated territories.

It will also follow the administrative limits of the present
province of Dalmatia, including to the north Lisarica and Tribanj,
and to the south territory limited by a line from the shore of Cape
Planka to the summits of the watershed eastwards, so as to include
in the evacuated area all the valleys and watercourses flowing
towards Sebenico, such as the Cicola, Kerka, Butisnica, and their
tributaries. It will also include all the islands in the north and
west of Dalmatia. From Premuda, Selve, Ulbo, Scherda, Maon, Pago,
and Puntadura in the north up to Meleda in the south, embracing
Sant' Andrea, Busi, Lissa, Lesina, Tercola, Curzola, Cazza, and
Lagosta, as well as the neighbouring rocks and islets and Pelagosa,
only excepting the islands of Great and Small Zirona, Bua, Solta,
and Brazza.

All territories thus evacuated will be occupied by the troops of the
Allies and of the United States of America.

All military and railway equipment of all kinds (including coal),
belonging to or within these territories, to be left _in situ_, and
surrendered to the Allies according to special orders given by the
Commanders-in-Chief of the forces of the Associated Powers on the
different fronts. No new destruction, pillage, or requisition to be
done by enemy troops in the territories to be evacuated by them and
occupied by the forces of the Associated Powers.

4. The Allies shall have the right of free movement over all road
and rail and waterways in Austro-Hungarian territory, and of the use
of the necessary Austrian and Hungarian means of transportation.
The Armies of the Associated Powers shall occupy such strategic
points in Austria-Hungary at such times as they may deem necessary
to enable them to conduct military operations or to maintain order.
They shall have the right of requisition on payment for the troops
of the Associated Powers wherever they may be.

5. Complete evacuation of all German troops within fifteen
days, not only from the Italian and Balkan fronts, but from all
Austro-Hungarian territory. Internment of all German troops which
have not left Austria-Hungary within that date.

6. The administration of the evacuated territories of
Austria-Hungary will be entrusted to the local authorities under the
control of the Allied and Associated Armies of Occupation.

7. The immediate repatriation without reciprocity of all Allied
prisoners of war and interned subjects, and of civil populations
evacuated from their homes, on conditions to be laid down by the
Commanders-in-Chief of the forces of the Associated Powers on the
various fronts.

8. Sick and wounded who cannot be removed from evacuated territory
will be cared for by Austro-Hungarian personnel who will be left on
the spot with the medical material required.

NAVAL CONDITIONS

1. Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea, and definite
information to be given as to the location and movements of all
Austro-Hungarian ships. Notification to be made to neutrals that
freedom of navigation in all territorial waters is given to the
Naval and Mercantile Marines of the Allied and Associated Powers,
all questions of neutrality being waived.

2. Surrender to the Allies and United States of America of
fifteen Austro-Hungarian submarines, completed between the years
1910 and 1918, and of all German submarines which are in or may
hereafter enter Austro-Hungarian territorial waters. All other
Austro-Hungarian submarines to be paid off and completely disarmed,
and to remain under the supervision of the Allies and United States
of America.

3. Surrender to the Allies and United States of America, with their
complete armament and equipment, of three battleships, three light
cruisers, nine destroyers, twelve torpedo boats, one minelayer,
six Danube monitors, to be designated by the Allies and the United
States of America. All other surface warships (including river
craft) are to be concentrated in Austro-Hungarian naval bases to
be designated by the Allies and the United States of America, and
are to be paid off and completely disarmed and placed under the
supervision of the Allies and United States of America.

4. Freedom of navigation to all warships and merchant ships of
the Allied and Associated Powers to be given in the Adriatic and
up the river Danube and its tributaries in the territorial waters
and territory of Austria-Hungary. The Allies and Associated Powers
shall have the right to sweep up all minefields and obstructions,
and the positions of these are to be indicated. In order to ensure
the freedom of navigation on the Danube, the Allies and the United
States of America shall be empowered to occupy or to dismantle all
fortifications or defence works.

5. The existing blockade conditions set up by the Allied and
Associated Powers are to remain unchanged, and all Austro-Hungarian
merchant ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture, save
exceptions which may be made by a Commission nominated by the Allies
and United States of America.

6. All naval aircraft are to be concentrated and immobilised in
Austro-Hungarian bases to be designated by the Allies and United
States of America.

7. Evacuation of all the Italian coasts and of all ports occupied
by Austria-Hungary outside their national territory, and the
abandonment of all floating craft, naval materials, equipment, and
materials for inland navigation of all kinds.

8. Occupation by the Allies and the United States of America of the
land and sea fortifications and the islands which form the defences
and of the dockyards and arsenal at Pola.

9. All merchant vessels held by Austria-Hungary belonging to the
Allies and Associated Powers to be returned.

10. No destruction of ships or of materials to be permitted before
evacuation, surrender, or restoration.

11. All naval and mercantile marine prisoners of war of the Allied
and Associated Powers in Austro-Hungarian hands to be returned
without reciprocity.


(iv) THE CONDITIONS OF THE ARMISTICE CONCLUDED WITH GERMANY

(Signed November 11, 1918)

_A_--CLAUSES RELATING TO THE WESTERN FRONT

1. Cessation of hostilities by land and in the air six hours after
the signing of the Armistice (viz. at 11 A.M., November 11, 1918).

2. Immediate evacuation of the invaded countries--Belgium, France,
Luxemburg, as well as Alsace-Lorraine--so ordered as to be completed
within fifteen days from the signature of the Armistice.

German troops which have not left the above-mentioned territories
within the period fixed will be made prisoners of war.

Occupation by the Allied and United States Forces jointly will keep
pace with the evacuation in these areas.

All movements of evacuation and occupation will be regulated in
accordance with a Note (Annexe 1) determined at the time of the
signing of the Armistice.

3. Repatriation, beginning at once, to be completed within fifteen
days, of all inhabitants of the countries above enumerated
(including hostages, persons under trial, or condemned).

4. Surrender in good condition by the German Armies of the following
equipment:

  5000 guns (2500 heavy, 2500 field).
  25,000 machine guns.
  3000 _Minenwerfer_.
  1700 aeroplanes (fighters, bombers--firstly D 7's--and
      night-bombing machines).

The above to be delivered _in situ_ to the Allied and United States
troops in accordance with the detailed conditions laid down in
the Note (Annexe 1) determined at the time of the signing of the
Armistice.

5. Evacuation by the German Armies of the districts on the left bank
of the Rhine. These districts on the left bank of the Rhine shall
be administered by the local authorities under the control of the
Allied and United States Armies of Occupation.

The occupation of these territories by Allied and United States
troops will be assured by garrisons holding the principal crossings
of the Rhine (Mainz, Coblenz, Cologne), together with bridgeheads
at these points of a thirty-kilometre [about nineteen miles] radius
on the right bank, and by garrisons similarly holding the strategic
points of the area.

A neutral zone shall be reserved on the right bank of the Rhine,
between the river and a line drawn parallel to the bridgeheads and
to the river and ten kilometres [six and a quarter miles] distant
from them, between the Dutch frontier and the Swiss frontier.

The evacuation by the enemy of the Rhine districts (right and left
bank) shall be so ordered as to be completed within a further period
of sixteen days, in all thirty-one days after the signing of the
Armistice.

All movements of evacuation and occupation will be regulated
according to the Note (Annexe 1) determined at the time of the
signing of the Armistice.

6. In all territories evacuated by the enemy, evacuation of the
inhabitants shall be forbidden; no damage or harm shall be done to
the persons or property of the inhabitants.

In the case of inhabitants no person shall be prosecuted for having
taken part in any military measures previous to the signing of the
Armistice.

No destruction of any kind to be committed.

Military establishments of all kinds shall be delivered intact, as
well as military stores of food, munitions, and equipment, which
shall not have been removed during the periods fixed for evacuation.

Stores of food of all kinds for the civil population, cattle, etc.,
shall be left _in situ_.

No measures of a general or official character shall be taken
which would have, as a consequence, the depreciation of industrial
establishments or a reduction of their personnel.

7. Roads and means of communication of every kind, railroads,
waterways, roads, bridges, telegraphs, telephones shall be in no
manner impaired.

All civil and military personnel at present employed on them shall
remain.

5000 locomotives and 150,000 wagons in good working order, with
all necessary spare parts and fittings, shall be delivered to the
Associated Powers within the period fixed in Annexe 2 (not exceeding
thirty-one days in all).

5000 motor lorries are also to be delivered in good condition within
thirty-six days.

The railways of Alsace-Lorraine shall be handed over within
thirty-one days, together with all personnel and material belonging
to the organisation of the system.

Further, working material in the territories on the left bank of the
Rhine shall be left _in situ_.

All stores of coal and material for upkeep of permanent way, signals
and repair shops shall be left _in situ_ and kept in an efficient
state by Germany, so far as the means of communication on the left
bank of the Rhine are concerned.

All lighters taken from the Allies shall be restored to them. The
Note attached as Annexe 2 defines the details of these measures.

8. The German Command shall be responsible for revealing, within
forty-eight hours of the signing of the Armistice, all mines or
delay-action fuses disposed on territories evacuated by the German
troops, and shall assist in their discovery and destruction.

The German Command shall also reveal all destructive measures that
may have been taken (such as poisoning or pollution of wells,
springs, etc.), under penalty of reprisals.

9. The right of requisition shall be exercised by the Allied and
United States Armies in all occupied territories, save for the
settlement of accounts with authorised persons.

The upkeep of the troops of occupation in the Rhine districts
(excluding Alsace-Lorraine) shall be charged to the German
Government.

10. The immediate repatriation, without reciprocity, according to
detailed conditions which shall be fixed, of all Allied and United
States prisoners of war, including those under trial and condemned.
The Allied Powers and the United States of America shall be able to
dispose of these prisoners as they think fit. This condition annuls
all other conventions regarding prisoners of war, including that
of July 1918, now being ratified. However, the return of German
prisoners of war interned in Holland and Switzerland shall continue
as heretofore. The return of German prisoners of war shall be
settled at the conclusion of the peace preliminaries.

11. Sick and wounded, who cannot be removed from territory evacuated
by the German forces, will be cared for by German personnel, who
will be left on the spot with the material required.

_B_--CLAUSES RELATING TO THE EASTERN FRONTIERS OF GERMANY

12. All German troops at present in any territory which before the
war formed part of Austria-Hungary, Roumania, or Turkey, shall
withdraw within the frontiers of Germany as they existed on August
1, 1914, and all German troops at present in territories which
before the war formed part of Russia must likewise return to within
the frontiers of Germany as above defined, as soon as the Allies
shall think the moment suitable, having regard to the internal
situation of these territories.

13. Evacuation by German troops to begin at once, and all German
instructors, prisoners, and civilians, as well as military agents
now on the territory of Russia (frontier as defined on August 1,
1914) to be recalled.

14. German troops to cease at once all requisitions and seizures,
and any other coercive measures with a view to obtaining supplies
intended for Germany in Roumania and Russia (frontier as defined on
August 1, 1914).

15. Annulment of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk and of
the supplementary treaties.

16. The Allies shall have free access to the territories evacuated
by the Germans on their Eastern frontier, either through Danzig or
by the Vistula, in order to convey supplies to the populations of
these territories or for the purpose of maintaining order.

_C_--CLAUSE RELATING TO SOUTH AFRICA

17. Evacuation of all German forces operating in East Africa within
a period specified by the Allies.

_D_--GENERAL CLAUSES

18. Repatriation, without reciprocity, within a maximum period of
one month, in accordance with detailed conditions hereafter to be
fixed, of all interned civilians, including hostages and persons
under trial and condemned, who may be subjects of other Allied or
Associated States than those mentioned in Clause 3.

_Financial Clause_

19. With the reservation that any future concessions and claims
by the Allies and United States of America remain unaffected, the
following financial conditions are imposed:

Reparation for damage done.

While the Armistice lasts, no public securities shall be removed
by the enemy which can serve as a pledge to the Allies to cover
reparation for war losses.

Immediate restitution of the cash deposit in the National Bank
of Belgium and, in general, immediate return of all documents,
specie, stock, shares, paper money, together with plant for the
issue thereof, affecting public or private interests in the invaded
countries.

Restitution of the Russian and Roumanian gold yielded to Germany or
taken by that Power.

This gold to be delivered in trust to the Allies until peace is
concluded.

_E_--NAVAL CONDITIONS

20. Immediate cessation of all hostilities at sea, and definite
information to be given as to the position and movements of all
German ships.

Notification to be given to neutrals that freedom of navigation in
all territorial waters is given to the Navies and Mercantile Marines
of the Allied and Associated Powers, all questions of neutrality
being waived.

21. All Naval and Mercantile Marine prisoners of war of the Allied
and Associated Powers in German hands to be returned, without
reciprocity.

22. To surrender at the ports specified by the Allies and the
United States all submarines at present in existence (including all
submarine cruisers and minelayers), with armament and equipment
complete. Those that cannot put to sea shall be deprived of armament
and equipment, and shall remain under the supervision of the Allies
and the United States. Submarines ready to put to sea shall be
prepared to leave German ports immediately on receipt of wireless
order to sail to the port of surrender, the remainder to follow as
early as possible. The conditions of this Article shall be completed
within fourteen days of the signing of the Armistice.

23. The following German surface warships, which shall be designated
by the Allies and the United States of America, shall forthwith be
disarmed and thereafter interned in neutral ports, or, failing them,
Allied ports, to be designated by the Allies and the United States
of America, and placed under the surveillance of the Allies and the
United States of America, only care and maintenance parties being
left on board, namely:

   6 battle cruisers.
  10 battleships.
   8 light cruisers, including two minelayers.
  50 destroyers of the most modern type.

All other surface warships (including river craft) are to be
concentrated in German naval bases, to be designated by the Allies
and the United States of America, completely disarmed and placed
under the supervision of the Allies and the United States of
America. All vessels of the Auxiliary Fleet are to be disarmed. All
vessels specified for internment shall be ready to leave German
ports seven days after the signing of the Armistice. Directions for
the voyage shall be given by wireless.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Note._--A declaration has been signed by the Allied delegates and
handed to the German delegates to the effect that, in the event
of ships not being handed over owing to the mutinous state of the
Fleet, the Allies reserve the right to occupy Heligoland as an
advanced base to enable them to enforce the terms of the Armistice.
The German delegates have on their part signed a declaration that
they will recommend the Chancellor to accept this.

24. The Allies and the United States of America shall have the
right to sweep up all minefields and destroy all obstructions laid
by Germany outside German territorial waters, and the positions of
these are to be indicated.

25. Freedom of access to and from the Baltic to be given to the
Navies and Mercantile Marines of the Allied and Associated Powers.
This is to be secured by the occupation of all German forts,
fortifications, batteries, and defence works of all kinds in all
the routes from the Cattegat into the Baltic, and by the sweeping
up and destruction of all mines and obstructions within and without
German territorial waters without any questions of neutrality being
raised, and the positions of all such mines and obstructions are to
be indicated by the Germans.

26. The existing blockade conditions set up by the Allied and
Associated Powers are to remain unchanged, and all German merchant
ships found at sea are to remain liable to capture. The Allies and
United States contemplate the provisioning of Germany during the
Armistice as shall be found necessary.

27. All aerial forces are to be concentrated and immobilised in
German bases to be specified by the Allies and the United States of
America.

28. In evacuating the Belgian coasts and ports, Germany shall
abandon, _in situ_ and intact, the port material and material for
inland waterways, also all merchant ships, tugs, and lighters, all
naval aircraft and air materials and stores, all arms and armaments
and all stores and apparatus of all kinds.

29. All Black Sea ports are to be evacuated by Germany; all Russian
warships of all descriptions seized by Germany in the Black Sea
are to be handed over to the Allies and the United States of
America; all neutral merchant ships seized in the Black Sea are to
be released; all warlike and other material of all kinds seized in
those ports are to be returned, and German materials as specified in
Clause 28 are to be abandoned.

30. All merchant ships at present in German hands belonging to the
Allied and Associated Powers are to be restored to ports to be
specified by the Allies and the United States of America without
reciprocity.

31. No destruction of ships or of materials to be permitted before
evacuation, surrender, or restoration.

32. The German Government shall formally notify the neutral
Governments, and particularly the Governments of Norway, Sweden,
Denmark, and Holland, that all restrictions placed in the trading of
their vessels with the Allied and Associated countries, whether by
the German Government or by private German interests, and whether in
return for special concessions, such as the export of shipbuilding
materials or not, are immediately cancelled.

33. No transfers of German merchant shipping of any description
to any neutral flag are to take place after the signature of the
Armistice.

_F_--DURATION OF ARMISTICE

34. The duration of the Armistice is to be thirty-six days, with
option to extend. During this period, on failure of execution of any
of the above clauses, the Armistice may be repudiated by one of the
contracting parties on forty-eight hours' previous notice.

It is understood that failure to execute Articles 3 and 18
completely in the period specified is not to give reason for a
repudiation of the Armistice, save where such failure is due to
malice aforethought.

To ensure the execution of the present convention under the most
favourable conditions, the principle of a permanent International
Armistice Commission is recognised. This Commission will act under
the supreme authority of the High Command, Military and Naval, of
the Allied Armies.

The present Armistice was signed on the 11th day of November 1918,
at five o'clock A.M. (French time).

  (Signed)

  F. FOCH.         ERZBERGER.
  R. E. WEMYSS.    OBERNDORFF.
                   WINTERFELDT.
                   VANSELOW.

_Annexe No. 1._

1. The evacuation of the invaded territories, Belgium, France, and
Luxemburg, and also of Alsace-Lorraine, shall be carried out in
three successive stages according to the following conditions:

     _First Stage._--Evacuation of the territories situated between
     the existing front and line No. 1 on the map to be completed
     within five days after the signing of the Armistice.

     _Second Stage._--Evacuation of territories situated between line
     No. 1 and line No. 2, to be carried out within four further days
     (nine days in all after the signing of the Armistice).

     _Third Stage._--Evacuation of the territories situated between
     line No. 2 and line No. 3 to be completed within six further
     days (fifteen days in all after the signing of the Armistice).

Allied and United States troops shall enter these various
territories on the expiration of the period allowed to the German
troops for the evacuation of each.

In consequence the Allied troops will cross the present German front
as from the sixth day following the signing of the Armistice, line
No. 1 as from the tenth day, and line No. 2 as from the sixteenth
day.

2. _Evacuation of the Rhine District._--This evacuation will also be
carried out in several successive stages:

     (1) Evacuation of territories situated between lines 2 and 3 and
     line 4, to be completed within four further days (nineteen days
     in all after the signing of the Armistice).

     (2) Evacuation of territories situated between lines 4 and 5 to
     be completed within four further days (twenty-three days in all
     after the signing of the Armistice).

     (3) Evacuation of territories situated between lines 5 and 6
     (line of the Rhine) to be completed within four further days
     (twenty-seven days in all after the signing of the Armistice).

     (4) Evacuation of the bridgeheads and of the neutral zone on the
     right bank of the Rhine to be completed within four further days
     (thirty-one days in all after the signing of the Armistice).

The Allied and United States Army of Occupation shall enter these
various territories after the expiration of the period allowed to
the German troops for the evacuation of each, consequently the
Army will cross the line No. 3 twenty days after signing of the
Armistice, it will cross line No. 4 as from the twenty-fourth
day after the signing of the Armistice. Line No. 5 as from the
twenty-eighth day. Line No. 6 (Rhine) the thirty-second day in order
to occupy the bridgeheads.

3. _Surrender by the German Army of War Material specified in the
Armistice._--This war material shall be surrendered according to
the following conditions: The first half before the tenth day, the
second half before the twentieth day. This material will be handed
over to each of the Allied and United States Armies by each tactical
group of the German Armies in the proportions which may be fixed by
the permanent Armistice Commission.

_Annexe No. 2._

Conditions of communications regarding railways, waterways, roads,
river and sea ports, and telegraphic and telephonic communications.

1. All communications as far as the Rhine, inclusive, or comprised,
on the right bank of the river, within the bridgeheads occupied by
the Allied Armies will be placed under the supreme authority of the
Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies, who will have the right to
take any measure he may think necessary to assure their occupation
and use. All documents relative to communications will be held ready
for transmission to him.

2. All the material and all the civil and military personnel at
present employed in the maintenance and working of all lines of
communication are to be maintained in their entirety upon these
lines in all territories evacuated by the German troops.

All supplementary material necessary for the upkeep of these lines
of communication in the districts on the left bank of the Rhine will
be supplied by the German Government throughout the duration of the
Armistice.

3. _Personnel._--The French and Belgian personnel belonging to the
services of the lines of communication, whether interned or not, are
to be returned to the French and Belgian Armies, during the fifteen
days following the signing of the Armistice. The personnel belonging
to the organisation of the Alsace-Lorraine railway system are to be
maintained or reinstated in such a manner as to ensure the working
of the system.

The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies will have the right
to make all changes or substitutions that he may desire in the
personnel of the lines of communication.

4. _Material._ (_a_) _Rolling Stock._--The rolling stock handed over
to the Allied Armies in the zone comprised between the present front
line and line No. 3 (not including Alsace-Lorraine) will amount at
least to 5000 locomotives and 150,000 wagons. This surrender will
be carried out within the period fixed by Clause 7 of the Armistice,
and under conditions, the details of which shall be settled by the
permanent International Armistice Commission.

All this material is to be in good condition and in working order,
with all the ordinary spare parts and fittings. It may be employed
together with the regular personnel or with any other upon any part
of the railway system of the Allied Armies.

The material necessary for the working of the Alsace-Lorraine
railway system is to be maintained or replaced for the use of the
French Army.

The material to be left _in situ_ in the territories on the left
bank of the Rhine, as well as that on the inner side of the
bridgeheads elsewhere, should permit of the normal working of the
railways in these districts.

(_b_) _Permanent Way, Signals, and Workshops._--The material for
signals, machine tools, and tool outfits taken from the workshops
and depôts of the French and Belgian lines will be replaced under
conditions the details of which are to be arranged by the permanent
International Armistice Commission. The Allied Armies are to be
supplied with railroad material, rails, incidental fittings, plant,
bridge-building material, and timber necessary for the repair of the
lines destroyed beyond the present front.

_Fuel and Maintenance Material._--The German Government shall be
responsible throughout the duration of the Armistice for the release
of fuel and maintenance material to the depôts normally allotted to
the railways in the territories on the left bank of the Rhine.

5. _Telegraphic and Telephonic Communications._--All telegraphs,
telephones, and fixed W/T stations are to be handed over to the
Allied Armies, with all the civil and military personnel and all
their material, including all stores on the left bank of the Rhine.

Supplementary stores necessary for the upkeep of the system are to
be supplied throughout the duration of the Armistice by the German
Government according to requirement.

The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies will place this system
under military supervision and will ensure its control, and will
make all changes and substitutions in personnel which he may think
necessary.

He will send back to the German Army all the military personnel who
are not in his judgment necessary for the working and upkeep of the
railway.

All plans of the German telegraphic and telephonic systems shall be
handed over to the Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies.



APPENDIX VII

     AN OUTLINE OF THE CHIEF PROVISIONS OF THE TREATY OF PEACE WITH
     GERMANY, SIGNED IN THE GALERIE DES GLACES, VERSAILLES, ON THE
     28TH JUNE 1919, THE CEREMONY BEGINNING AT 3 P.M.


PART I

_The Covenant of the League of Nations_

The Members of the League to be the signatories named in the annexe
to the Covenant and other States to be subsequently admitted, the
Members named in the annexe being the following:

  The United States of America.
  Belgium.
  Bolivia.
  The British Empire.
      Canada.
      Australia.
      South Africa.
      New Zealand.
      India.
  China.
  Cuba.
  Ecuador.
  France.
  Greece.
  Guatemala.
  Haiti.
  Hedjaz.
  Honduras.
  Italy.
  Japan.
  Siberia.
  Nicaragua.
  Panama.
  Peru.
  Poland.
  Portugal.
  Roumania.
  The Serb-Crote-Slovene State.
  Siam.
  Czecho-Slovakia.
  Uruguay.

The League shall work through the instrumentality of an Assembly and
a Council.

Any State may be admitted to the membership of the League if its
admission be authorised by two-thirds of the Members of the Assembly.

In the Assembly each State which is a Member shall have one vote but
may have three representatives.

The Council (with a permanent Secretariat) shall consist of the five
Great Allied Powers (the U.S.A., Great Britain, France, Italy, and
Japan) and four other Members selected by the Assembly. Until such
election take place the four additional Members of the Council shall
be Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Greece. Each Member of the Council
shall have one vote and one representative.

Except in specified cases the decisions both of the Assembly and of
the Council shall be unanimous to be effective.

The Council will formulate plans for the reduction of armaments
and will largely control the armament strength of the members
of the League. Upon any threat of war it will take all possible
preventitive steps. It will also formulate plans for the
establishment of a Permanent Court of International Justice to
settle international disputes.

The maintenance of peace within the League is facilitated by the
undertakings of its Members. Every Member agrees to arbitrate before
going to war and to accept the authority of the Council in various
ways. Should any Member resort to war it will be deemed to have
committed an act of war against all other Members of the League.

Combined economic pressure is to be the first weapon of the League
against an offending Member.

The League may appoint Mandatories for the government of territories
whose inhabitants are not yet capable of self-government. A State
appointed a Mandatory by the League shall be responsible to the
League for the government of the territory committed to its charge
and must report annually thereon.

The seat of the League is established in the first instance at
Geneva but the Council has power to alter its habitat.

Amendments to the Covenant will take effect when ratified by the
Council and a majority of the Assembly.


PARTS II AND III

_The Boundaries of Germany and Political Clauses for Europe_

The Western Boundary of Germany:--On the Belgian border Germany
admits the full sovereignty of Belgium over the contested territory
of Moresnet and over part of Prussian Moresnet. Germany also
renounces all rights over Eupen and Malmedy. Luxemburg passes from
the sphere of German influence. From Luxemburg southwards, the
boundary of France is her boundary previous to the war of 1870,
Lorraine and Alsace being thus restored to her. With regard to
the Saar Basin, on the north-east frontier of Lorraine, there are
special provisions. As compensation for the destruction of the
coal mines in Northern France, and in part payment of the total
reparation due, Germany cedes to France all the coal mines there
situated, while she hands over the government of the territory to
the League of Nations. After fifteen years the inhabitants of the
territory are to declare by secret vote the sovereignty under which
they desire to be placed, and if, in accordance with their will, the
territory be returned to Germany, the mines must be purchased from
France by Germany at a price to be fixed by a board of experts. As a
guarantee for the execution of the treaty, the German territory west
of the Rhine (_i.e._ north of the point where the French boundary
leaves the Rhine), together with the Rhine bridgeheads, will remain
in the occupation of the Allies, part of it for five years, part of
it for ten years, and the remainder for fifteen years. At the end of
these periods stipulated portions will be evacuated subject to the
faithful performance by Germany of her pledges.

Germany is forbidden fortifications and constructions of military
use within fifty kilometres of the east bank of the Rhine.

The Southern Boundary of Germany:--With Switzerland, the present
frontier. With Austria, the frontier of the 3rd August 1914,
from Switzerland to Czecho-Slovakia. With Czecho-Slovakia, the
Austro-German frontier in this area of the 3rd August 1914, to a
point eight kilometres east of Neustadt.

The Eastern Boundary of Germany:--Almost all of West Prussia and
Posen go to Poland. Danzig with the territory round it becomes a
free city. A portion of East Prussia is left to Germany, but its
northern corner is taken from her and the fate of a southern portion
is left for decision by plebiscite. The fate of a part of Upper
Silesia is also left for decision by plebiscite.

The boundary between Germany and Denmark depends upon the will of
the inhabitants of northern and central Schleswig. The nationality
of the inhabitants of this territory is left for decision by
plebiscite.

Heligoland will be rendered harmless by the destruction of all
fortifications, harbours, etc.

Russia:--Germany abrogates the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and all
agreements with the Maximalist Government of Russia. The Allied
Powers reserve on behalf of Russia her right to obtain from Germany
reparation.


PART IV

_German Rights and Interests outside Germany_

In territory outside her European frontiers, as fixed by the Treaty,
Germany renounces all previous rights and titles.

She hands over her colonies, with all Government or State property
therein, unconditionally to the Allied Powers. She undertakes to pay
reparation for damage suffered by French nationals in the Cameroons
through the acts of Germans between 1st January 1900 and 1st August
1914.

Her possessions and rights in China she restores to China except
in the province of Shantung, in the British concession at Canton,
and in the French concession at Shanghai; China in turn agrees to
open certain restored areas to international residence and trade.
In Shantung Germany hands over the territory of Kiao-Chow and all
her rights and property to Japan; in Canton she renounces her State
property in favour of Great Britain; she hands over the German
school in Shanghai to France and China jointly.

Her rights, property, privileges, etc., in Siam, Siberia, and
Morocco she renounces in favour of Siam, Siberia, and Morocco
respectively.

She recognises the British Protectorate over Egypt declared on
the 18th December 1914, and undertakes not to intervene in any
negotiations in respect of Egypt between Great Britain and other
powers.

She undertakes to recognise and accept all arrangements which the
Allied Powers may make with Turkey and Bulgaria with reference to
German interests.


PART V

_Military, Naval, and Aerial Clauses_

'In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation
of the armaments of all nations, Germany undertakes directly to
observe the military, naval, and air clauses which follow.'

MILITARY

The Military terms provide for the demobilisation of the German
armies and the imposition of other military restrictions, within
two months of the signing of the Treaty (as the first step towards
international disarmament). All compulsory military service is to
be abolished in German territory, and recruiting regulations on a
voluntary basis are to be incorporated into the German military
laws, providing for the enlistment of non-commissioned officers
and men for a period of not less than twelve consecutive years,
and stipulating that officers shall serve for twenty-five years,
and shall not be retired until the age of forty-five. No reserve
of officers with war service will be permitted. The total number
of German effectives is fixed at one hundred thousand, including
not more than four thousand officers, and it is provided that there
shall be no other military forces raised outside this figure.
Increase in the number of customs, forestry officials or police, or
the military training of these services is specially prohibited.

The function of the German Army is to keep internal order and
control of frontiers. The High Command is to confine itself to
administrative duties, and it will not be allowed to retain a
General Staff. Civilian personnel at the Ministry of War and similar
institutions is to be reduced to one-tenth of that in 1913. There
will be not more than seven Infantry and three Cavalry Divisions,
and not more than two Corps Staffs. Surplus war academies, and
schools for officers, cadets, etc., are to be suppressed, and
the number of students admitted to the schools retained for the
recruitment of officers is to be limited to the vacancies occurring
in the establishments provided. The production of armaments,
munitions, and material of war in Germany is limited to a schedule,
based on the amount considered necessary for an army on the scale
decided upon. No reserves may be formed, and all existing armaments,
guns, and stores above the limit fixed must be handed over to the
Allies for disposal. No poisonous gas or liquid fire shall be
manufactured or imported, nor any tanks nor armoured cars. The
Germans are obliged to notify to the Allies for approval the names
and situation of all factories manufacturing munitions, together
with particulars of their output. The German Government arsenals are
to be suppressed and their personnel dismissed. Munitions for use
in fortified works will be limited to 1500 rounds apiece for guns
of 10·5 cm. calibre and under, and 500 rounds for guns of a higher
calibre. Germany is prohibited from manufacturing armaments and
munitions for foreign countries and from importing them from abroad.
Germany must not maintain or construct any fortifications situated
on German territory less than fifty kilometres east of the Rhine,
and in the above area no armed forces either permanent or temporary
may be maintained. The _status quo_ is to be reserved in respect of
the fortifications on the original southern and eastern frontiers
of the German Empire. No military manœuvres may be held nor any
permanent works kept for the purposes of helping mobilisation.
The demobilisation of fortifications must take place within three
months.



APPENDIX VII


NAVAL

The Naval terms provide that within two months the German naval
forces in commission must not exceed six battleships of the
_Deutschland_ or _Lothringen_ type, six light cruisers, twelve
destroyers, and twelve torpedo boats, or an equal number of ships
constructed to replace them. No submarines are to be included,
and all other warships are to be placed in reserve or devoted
to commercial purposes. Germany may keep in commission a fixed
number of mine-sweeping vessels until the mines within certain
specified areas in the North Sea and Baltic have been swept up.
After the expiration of two months the total exclusive personnel
of the Navy must not exceed 15,000, including a maximum of 1500
officers and warrant officers. All German surface warships interned
in Allied or neutral ports are to be finally surrendered. Within
two months certain additional warships enumerated in the Treaty
and now in German ports will be surrendered at Allied ports. The
German Government must undertake the breaking-up of all German
surface warships under construction. Auxiliary cruisers, etc., are
to be disarmed and treated as merchant ships. Within one month
all German submarines, salvage vessels, and docks for submarines
capable of proceeding under their own power or being towed must have
been handed over at Allied ports. The remainder and those under
construction must be broken up by Germany within three months.

Material arising from the breaking-up of German warships may not be
used except for industrial purposes, and may not be sold to foreign
countries. Except under specified conditions for replacement,
Germany is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships, and
the construction or acquisition of any submarines whatever is
prohibited. Vessels of war are only to have a fixed allowance of
arms, munitions, and war material. All excess of arms, munitions and
war material is to be surrendered, and no stocks or reserves are
allowed.

The personnel of the German navy must be recruited entirely
by voluntary engagements for a minimum period of twenty-five
consecutive years for officers and warrant officers, and twelve
consecutive years for petty officers and men, under various
restrictions.

In order to ensure free passage into the Baltic Germany is not
to erect any fortifications in certain specified areas, nor to
install any guns commanding maritime routes between the North Sea
and the Baltic. Existing fortifications within those areas are to
be demolished and guns removed. Other fortified works within fifty
kilometres of the German coast or on German islands are to remain,
as being of a defensive nature, but no new fortifications may be
constructed and the armaments may not be increased. The maximum
stocks of ammunition allowed for such defences are 1500 rounds per
piece for 4·1 inch guns and under, and 500 rounds per piece for guns
exceeding that calibre.

The German wireless stations at Nauen, Hanover, and Berlin are not
to be used for naval, military, or political messages without the
assent of the Allied and Associated Governments during three months,
but only for commercial purposes, under supervision. During the same
period Germany is not to build any more high-power wireless stations.


AERIAL

The Air clauses provide that the armed forces of Germany must not
include any military or naval air forces. Germany is, however, to be
allowed to maintain a maximum of 100 unarmed seaplanes up to the 1st
October 1919, to be exclusively employed in searching for submarine
mines. The entire personnel of the air forces in Germany is to be
demobilised within two months, except for a total of 1000 men,
including officers, which may be retained up to October 1919.

Until the complete evacuation of German territory by the Allies and
Associated troops, the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers
shall enjoy in Germany freedom of passage through the air, freedom
of transit and of landing.

All military and naval aircraft (including dirigibles) and
aeronautical material are to be delivered to the Allied and
Associated Governments within three months, except for the hundred
seaplanes already specified.


PART VI

_Prisoners of War and Graves_

The Allied and Associated Powers agree to repatriate German
prisoners and interned civilians without delay after the coming in
force of the present Treaty; the whole cost of repatriation to be
borne by the German Government.

The Allied Governments and the German Government will cause to be
respected and maintained the graves of the soldiers and sailors
buried in their respective territories.


PART VII

_Penalties_

William II., of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, to be tried
by a special tribunal for a supreme offence against international
morality and the sanctity of treaties. The tribunal to consist of
five judges, one appointed by each of the following powers: the
U.S.A., Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan.

The German Government recognises the right of the Allied Powers to
bring before military tribunals persons accused of having committed
acts in violation of the laws and customs of war and agrees to hand
over such persons.


PART VIII

REPARATION

'The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts
on behalf of herself and her Allies, the responsibility for
causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated
Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence
of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her
Allies.'

The Allied and Associated Governments recognise that the resources
of Germany are insufficient to make complete reparation possible,
but through the instrumentality of an Inter-Allied commission, to
be called the Reparation Commission, her responsibility for the
loss and damage caused by the war is to be assessed and gradually
liquidated as far as possible.

As a first instalment Germany must pay to the Allies, in such form
and by such instalments as the Reparation Commission may determine,
the equivalent of 20,000,000,000 gold marks by the 1st May 1921,
and as a second instalment the equivalent of 40,000,000,000 marks
between 1921 and 1926. The question of further instalments is
reserved.

The Reparation Commission shall have power to examine periodically
Germany's system of taxation with a view to estimating her capacity
to pay, and the sums for reparation shall become a charge upon all
her revenues prior to that for the service or discharge of any
domestic loan.

A special provision is made for the repayment by Germany of all sums
which Belgium has borrowed from the Allies during the War.

_Shipping._--The German Government recognises the right of the
Allies to the replacement, ton for ton and class for class, of all
merchant ships and fishing boats lost or damaged owing to the war,
and agrees to cede to the Allies all German merchant ships of 1600
tons gross and upwards, one-half of her ships between 1600 and 1000
tons gross, and one-quarter of her steam trawlers and other fishing
boats. These ships are to be delivered within two months to the
Reparation Commission together with documents of title evidencing
the transfer of the ships from encumbrance.

'As an additional part of reparation, the German Government further
agrees to build merchant ships for the account of the Allies to the
amount of not exceeding 200,000 tons gross annually during the next
five years.'

Specified submarine cables are renounced by Germany in favour of the
Allies, their value to be estimated and written off the account for
reparation.

Among special provisions is an undertaking by Germany to furnish the
University of Louvain with manuscripts, printed books, and objects
of collection 'corresponding in number and value to those destroyed
in the burning by Germany of the Library of Louvain.'


PART IX

_Financial Clauses_

Any Power to which German territory is ceded will normally assume
in respect thereof a fair portion of the German pre-war debt, the
amount to be fixed in each case in accordance with certain stated
principles by the Reparation Commission. But France shall have no
liability for German debt in respect of Alsace-Lorraine.

The value of German Government property in ceded territory will
normally be credited to Germany on account of reparation; but
no credit will be given for any German Government property in
Alsace-Lorraine; nor will Mandatory Powers either assume any portion
of Germany's pre-war debts or give any credits for German Government
property.

Germany is required to pay the total cost of the Armies of
Occupation from the date of the Armistice for so long as they are
maintained on German territory. This cost is a first charge on her
resources; the next charge is for reparation.


PART X

_Economic Clauses_

These are designed to prevent Germany for a period of years
from discriminating against the trade of Allied and Associated
countries. They also provide for the settlement of pre-war debts,
and other obligations and rules are drawn up for the fulfilment or
non-fulfilment of pre-war contracts.


PART XI

_Aerial Navigation_

The provisions under this heading give to aircraft of the Allied and
Associated countries certain specified rights in German territory
and privileges similar to those enjoyed by German aircraft.


PART XII

_Ports, Waterways, and Railways_

Germany undertakes to grant complete freedom and equality of
transport through her territories for persons and goods passing from
or to the territories of any of the Allied and Associated countries,
such goods in transit to be exempt from all customs and similar
duties.

Similarly she grants to the Allied and Associated Powers equal
freedom of navigation in all her ports and waterways. Free zones in
German ports are to be maintained and adequate facilities are to be
provided for trade requirements without distinction of nationality.

Portions of the Elbe, the Oder, the Niemen, and the Danube are
declared international and placed under the supervision of the
League of Nations and of International Commissions.

Provision is made for a deep draught Rhine-Danube Canal should it be
decided to construct it.

The Rhine and the Moselle form the subject of a special series of
clauses. With regard to the Rhine, France, to whom Germany is to
hand over a portion of her shipping on that river, is given special
rights and privileges.

Provision is made for a Rhine-Meuse Canal, should Belgium desire to
construct it.

Exit to the north is given to the Czecho-Slovak State by the grant
of a special use of the ports of Hamburg and Stettin.

Certain provisions are made with regard to railway service in
Germany and in transferred territory.

The Kiel Canal is to remain free and open to ships of war and
merchant shipping of all nations. If Germany fails to carry out the
stipulations with regard to the Canal, appeal may be made against
her to the jurisdiction of the League of Nations.


PART XIII

_Labour_

It is provided that an International Conference shall meet annually
to propose Labour reforms for adoption by States composing the
League of Nations. The Annual Conference will consist of four
representatives from each State, two for the State and one each
for employers and employed. The Conference has certain powers for
the initiation of legislation to fulfil recommendations or draft
conventions carried by a two-thirds majority of the delegates
representing its Members.


PART XIV

_Guarantees_

These consist chiefly of the measures already outlined for the
occupation by the Allied Powers during a period of years of the
German territories west of the Rhine. If Germany fails to fulfil
her obligations, such occupation may be prolonged or, if the
territories or any part of them have been evacuated, renewed.


PART XV

_Miscellaneous Provisions_

'Germany undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties
of Peace and Additional Conventions which may be concluded by the
Allied and Associated Powers with the Powers who fought on the side
of Germany, and to recognise whatever dispositions may be made
concerning the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy,
of the Kingdom of Bulgaria, and of the Ottoman Empire, and to
recognise the new States within their frontiers as there laid down.'

An agreement about to be made between France and Switzerland and a
recent agreement between France and Monico are formally recognised.

Provision is made for the continuance of the work of German missions
in transferred territories under the control of trustees appointed
by the Allied and Associated Governments.

Another provision ensures the acceptance by Germany of the rulings
of Allied Prize Courts.



INDEX


NOTE:--This Index should not be used by itself: reference should
       always be made to the Chronicle.

  Ap = April
  Au = August
  D = December
  F = February
  Ja = January
  Je = June
  Jl = July
  Mh = March
  My = May
  N = November
  O = October
  S = September

     The number following the month-letter indicates the year, e.g.
     17 S 5 = 17th September 1915.

[_To avoid splitting up the fighting in the Balkans under different
headings, all military operations_ south of Nish _are classed under_
MACEDONIA, _with the exception of Albania_.]

  Abercorn, Germans driven from, 1 Au 5

  Ablain captured by the French, 29 My 5

  Abo, Germans land at, 12 Mh 8

  _Aboukir_, H.M.S., sunk, 22 S 4

  Achiet-le-Grand capt. by British, 23 Au 8

  Achiet-le-Petit capt. by British, 21 Au 8

  Acre captured by British, 23 S 8

  Adamello Glacier, Italian successes on the, 11 Ap 6, 29 Ap 6,
        26 My 8

  Addison, Dr., becomes Minister of Munitions, 10 D 6

  ADEN PROTECTORATE:--invaded by Turks, 12 F 5;
    they capture Lahej, 5 Jl 5

  Adrianople, air-raids on, 14 Ap 6, 2 S 7

  Adriatic, swept by Allied fleets, 16 Au 4

  ----, naval action in the, 15 My 7
    (_see also_ Cattaro, Durazzo, Pola)

  AFRICA: see EAST AFRICA, SOUTH AFRICA, SOUTH-WEST AFRICA, CAMEROONS

  Agagia, a battle at, 26 F 6

  Agnello Pass capt. by Italians, 10 Je 7

  Air Board constituted, 18 My 6

  ---- Ministry announced, 16 O 7

  ---- Raids: _see_ under the towns raided, and under ZEPPELIN RAIDS

  Air-raids on the S.-E. Counties, 5 Je 7, 3 S 7

  Aisne, 1st Battle of the, 13-28 S 4

  ----, 2nd Battle of the, 16 Ap-20 My 7

  ----, 3rd Battle of the, 27 My-2 Je 8

  ----, a French attack on the, 23 O 7

  Akaba, the Turks driven from, 22 F 5

  Akhlat captured by Russians, 19 F 6

  Ala captured by Italians, 27 My 5

  Aland Is. occupied by Germans, 5 Mh 8

  ALBANIA:--the Bulgarians capture Elbasan, 17 D 5;
    the Italians occupy Durazzo, 20 D 5;
    the Austrians retake it, 27 F 6;
    the French and Italians join forces, 18 F 7;
    they advance, 17 My 8;
    they launch an offensive, 5 Jl 8;
    and make rapid progress, 6-8 Jl 8;
    the Italians capture Berat, 10 Jl 8;
    the Austrians retire, 12 Jl 8;
    and launch a counter-offensive, 22 Au 8;
    they recapture Berat and Fieri, 26 Au 8;
    the Italians retake Berat, 1 O 8;
    Elbasan, 7 O 8;
    Durazzo, 14 O 8;
    Alessio, 27 O 8;
    Scutari, 4 N 8

  Albert, the Battle of, 25-29 S 4;
    the Germans attack near, 11 Ap 6;
    captured by Germans, 27 Mh 8;
    retaken by British, 22 Au 8

  _Alcantara_ sunk, 29 F 6

  Aleppo captured by British, 26 O 8

  Alessio captured by Italians, 27 O 8

  Alexeieff, Gen., resigns, 4 Je 7;
    his forces defeated, 13 F 8

  Allenby, Gen., succeeds Gen. Murray, 29 Je 7

  Allied War Council first meets in Paris, 6 D 5;
    in London, 9 Je 6

  Alsace invaded by France, 7 Au 4

  Altkirch captured by the French, 7 Au 4

  _Alyssum_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 Mh 7

  _Amalfi_ sunk, 8 Jl 5

  Amara captured by British, 3 Je 5

  AMERICA: _see_ UNITED STATES

  _Amethyst_, H.M.S., a raid by, 15 Mh 5

  Amiens captured by Germans, 31 Au 4

  ----, the Battle of, 8-12 Au 8

  _Amiral Charnier_ sunk, 8 F 6

  _Amiral Ganteaume_ sunk, 26 O 4

  _Amiral Magon sunk_, 25 Ja 7

  Amman, fighting at, 26-31 Mh 8;
    the British retire from before, 1 Ap 8;
    reoccupied by British, 25 S 8

  _Amphion_, H.M.S., sunk, 6 Au 4

  _Anchusa_, H.M.S., sunk, 16 Jl 8

  Ancre, fighting on the, 13-18 N 6, 6 F-13 Mh 7

  _Anglia_ sunk, 17 N 5

  _Ancona_ sunk, 7 N 5

  ANGOLA, 1st German invasion, 23 O 4

  ----, 2nd German invasion, 17 N 4

  _Antilles_ sunk, 17 O 7

  Antivari captured by Austrians, 22 Ja 6

  Antwerp: the Belgian Govt. moves to, 17 Au 4;
    attacked by Germans, 28 S 4;
    the British Naval Division arrives, 5 O 4;
    the Belgian Govt. evacuates, 7 O 4;
    bombarded by Germans, 8 O 4;
    evacuated by Belgians, 8 O 4;
    captured by Germans, 10 O 4;
    an air-raid on, 24 Mh 5;
    reoccupied by Belgians, 19 N 8

  Anzac, Turkish attacks at, 4 N 5;
    the evacuation of, begins, 8 D 5;
    is completed, 20 D 5

  _Apapa_ sunk, 28 N 7

  _Appam_ captured by the _Möwe_, 16 Ja 6;
    arrives at the U.S., 1 F 6

  _Arabia_ sunk, 6 N 6

  _Arabic_ sunk, 19 Au 5

  _Arabis_ sunk, 10 F 6

  _Arbutus_, H.M.S., sunk, 16 D 7

  _Arcadian_ sunk, 15 Ap 7

  Archangel, Allied forces land at, 2 Au 8

  Archduke Ferdinand assassinated, 28 Je 4

  Ardahan occup. by Turks, 1 Ja 5;
    reoccup. by Russians, 3 Ja 5;
    reoccup. by Turks, 6 Ap 8

  _Arethusa_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 F 6

  ARGENTINA: dismisses Count Luxburg, 12 S 7

  _Argyll_, H.M.S., lost, 28 O 5

  _Ariadne_, H.M.S., sunk, 26 Jl 7

  _Ariadne_ sunk, 15 Ja 6

  _Ariel_, H.M.S., sinks the U12, 9 Mh 5;
    is sunk, 2 Au 8

  Arleux captured by British, 28 Ap 7

  _Armadale_ sunk, 27 Je 7

  Armentières captured by Germans, 11 Ap 8;
    retaken by British 3 O 8

  ARMISTICE: Austria with the Allies, 4 N 8;
    Bulgaria with the Allies, 30 S 8;
    Germany with the Allies, 11 N 8;
    Turkey with the Allies, 31 O 8

  ARMY, THE BRITISH, transferred to Flanders, 1-19 O 4;
    takes over an additional sector of the Front (announced), 26 Ja 8;
    G.H.Q. moved to Montreuil, 31 Mh 6;
    occupies Cologne bridge-head, 12 D 8;
    _see also_ Expeditionary Force

  Arras, reoccup. by the French, 30 S 4;
    attacked by Germans, 20 O 4;
    the 1st Battle of, 9 Ap--16 My 7

  Arsiero captured by Austrians, 31 My 6;
    recaptured by Italians, 27 Je 6

  _Artemis_ sunk, 2 F 6

  Artvin occupied by Russians, 5 Ap 5

  Asadabad Pass, fighting in the, 5-6 Mh 7

  Ascalon, fighting at, 13 N 7

  Asiago captured by Austrians, 31 My 6;
    recaptured by Italians, 25 Je 6;
    by Austrians, 9 N 7;
    retaken by Allies, 29 O 8

  Asquith, Mr., resigns, 5 D 6

  _Aster_, H.M.S., sunk, 4 Jl 7

  _Astræa_, H.M.S., shells Dar-es-Salaam, 13 Au 4

  _Asturias_ attacked, 1 F 5; sunk, 21 Mh 7

  Athens, a naval demonstration at, 1 S 6;
    fighting in, 6 D 6

  _Athos_ sunk, 17 F 7

  _Attack_, H.M.S., sunk, 30 D 7

  Aubers recapt. by British, 17 O 4

  _Audacious_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 O 4

  Augustovo, the Battle of, 29 S--4 O 4;
    fighting near, 8 Mh 5

  Auja River, fighting on the, 9 Mh 8

  AUSTRIA-HUNGARY: sends an ultimatum to Serbia, 23 Jl 4;
    declares war on Serbia, 28 Jl 4;
    declares war on Russia, 5 Au 4;
    invades Poland, 10 Au 4;
    invades Serbia (i), 13 Au 4;
    evacuates Serbia (i), 25 Au 4;
    invades Serbia again (ii), 7 S 4;
    evacuates Serbia (ii), 15 S 4;
    invades Serbia again (iii), 1 N 4;
    evacuates Serbia (iii), 15 D 4;
    is invaded by Italy, 24 My 5;
    invades Montenegro, 9 O 5;
    the Emperor dies, 21 N 6;
    severs relations with the U.S.A., 8 Ap 7;
    Count Tisza resigns, 22 My 7;
    the Reichsrath is summoned, 31 My 7;
    Dr. v. Seidler becomes Premier, 24 Je 7;
    resigns, 22 Ja 8;
    the Govt. issues a 'Peace Note,' 15 S 8;
    asks for an Armistice, 27 O 8;
    signs an Armistice with the Entente Powers, 3 N 8;
    the Emperor Karl abdicates, 12 N 8;
    Peace signed, 10 S 9

  Austria-Hungary, Francis Joseph, Emperor of, dies, 21 N 6

  ---- Karl, Emperor of, abdicates, 12 N 8

  _Avenger_, H.M.S., sunk, 14 Je 7

  Avesnes captured by British, 8 N 8

  Avocourt Wood captured by Germans, 22 Mh 6

  Ayette recaptured by British, 2 Ap 8

  Azizie reached by the British, 23 O 5;
    they retire from, 30 N 5

  _Aztec_ sunk, 2 Ap 7


  B. E. F.: _see_ EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

  _Badger_, H.M.S., rams a submarine, 24 O 4

  Baghdad capt. by British, 11 Mh 7

  Baiburt captured by Russians, 15 Jl 6

  Bailleul occupied by Germans, 4 O 4;
    retaken by British, 14 O 4;
    by Germans, 15 Ap 8;
    by British, 30 Au 8

  Baku occupied by British, 4 Au 8;
    the Turks attack, 26 Au 8;
    again, 31 Au 8;
    the British evacuate, 14 S 8;
    they occupy it, 17 N 8

  Balfour, Mr., becomes First Lord of the Admiralty, 26 My 5;
    Foreign Secretary, 10 D 6

  _Ballarat_ sunk, 27 Ap 7

  Baltic Provinces invaded by Germany, 27 Ap 5

  Bango Mountain, fighting at, 6 N 5

  Bapaume, fighting on the Ridge, 5 Mh 7, 13 Mh 7;
    British capture the village, 17 Mh 7;
    the Germans take it, 24 Mh 8;
    the Battle of, 21-31 Au 8;
    captured by the British, 29 Au 8

  Baranovitchi, the Battle of, 2-14 Jl 6

  Bare occupied by British, 10 D 4

  Basra occupied by British, 21 N 4

  Batoum captured by Turks, 13 Ap 8

  Battenberg, Adm. Prince L. of, succeeded by Adm. Lord Fisher, 29 O 4

  Bauer, Herr, becomes Premier, 21 Je 9

  Bavarian Republic proclaimed, 7 N 8

  _Bayano_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 Mh 5

  Beatty, Adm. Lord, appointed to command of Grand Fleet, 29 N 6

  Beaucamp captured by British, 27 S 8

  Beaucourt captured by British, 14 N 6, 21 Au 8

  Beaumont Hamel captured by British, 13 N 6

  Beersheba captured by British, 31 O 7

  Beirut occupied by French, 7 O 8

  Beitunia captured by British, 28 D 7

  Belad station captured by British, 8 Ap 7

  BELGIUM: invaded by Germany, 3 Au 4;
    the Govt. moves to Antwerp, 17 Au 4;
    to Ostend, 7 O 4;
    the last German troops depart, 27 N 8

  Belgrade bombarded by Austria, 29 Jl 4;
    captured by Austrians, 2 D 4;
    retaken by Serbians, 15 D 4;
    by Austrians, 8 O 5;
    by Serbians, 1 N 8

  Bellewarde Ridge, fighting on the, 16 Je 5

  Belluno captured by Austrians, 10 N 7

  _Ben-my-Chree_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 Ja 7

  _Benedetto Brin_ destroyed, 28 S 5

  Berat captured by Italians, 10 Jl 8;
    recaptured by Austrians, 26 Au 8;
    by Italians, 1 O 8

  Berestetchko occupied by Russians, 22 Jl 6

  _Bergamot_, H.M.S., sunk, 13 Au 7

  Beringia, action at, 22 My 6

  Berry-au-Bac captured by French, 7 O 8

  Bethel captured by British, 30 D 7

  Bethincourt evacuated by French, 8 Ap 6

  Bethmann-Hollweg, von, dismissed, 14 Jl 7

  Beyers: _see under_ SOUTH AFRICA

  Bight of Heligoland: _see_ Heligoland

  ----, Battle of the, 28 Au 4

  Bireh captured by British, 29 D 7

  _Birmingham_, H.M.S., sinks the U15, 9 Au 4

  Birrell, Mr., resigns, 2 My 6

  Bismarck Archipelago occupied by Australia, 11 S 4

  Bitlis captured by Russians, 2 Mh 6;
    recaptured by Turks, 2 Au 6;
    by Russians, 23 Au 6

  Bixschoote, a Belgian success at, 17 Ap 8

  Bligny captured by British, 7 Je 8

  Blockade, Minister of, Ld. R. Cecil becomes the first, 10 D 6

  Blonie lines evacuated by Russians, 4 Au 5

  _Blücher_ sunk, 24 Ja 5

  'Bluff,' the, a German success at, 14 F 6; the British retake it,
        2 Mh 6

  Boelcke, Capt., shot down, 29 O 6

  BOLIVIA severs relations with Germany, 13 Ap 7

  Bolo Pasha, his trial begins, 4 F 8;
    is condemned, 14 F 8;
    is executed, 17 Ap 8

  Bordeaux, French Govt. moved to, 3 S 4

  Boselli, Sig., resigns, 25 O 7

  BOSNIA, 1st invasion by Serbia, 12 Au 4;
    2nd invasion, 22 S--27 O 4

  Botha, Gen., announces decision to invade S.W. Africa, 9 S 4;
    assumes command of Union Forces, 22 S 4;
    crushes rebellion, 8 D 4;
    sails for S.-W. Africa, 8 F 5;
    receives surrender of German forces, 9 Jl 5

  _Botha_, H.M.S., sinks German destroyer, 21 Mh 8

  Botogu, a battle at, 18 D 6

  Bouchavesnes, fighting at, 4 Mh 7;
    captured by British, 1 S 8

  Bourlon Wood, fighting in, 21 N--5 D 7;
    capt. by British, 27 S 8

  _Bouvet_ sunk, 18 Mh 5

  Boyelles captured by British, 23 Au 8

  _Braemar Castle_ sunk, 24 N 6

  Braila captured by Austro-Germans, 5 Ja 7

  Brasso occupied by Roumanians, 29 Au 6;
    retaken by Austro-Germans, 7 O 6

  Bratiano, M., becomes Premier, 2 Ja 7

  Bray captured by British, 24 Au 8

  BRAZIL severs relations with Germany, 9 Ap 7

  _Bremen_ sunk, 17 D 5

  _Breslau_ escapes from Messina, 6 Au 4;
    is attacked by H.M.S. _Gloucester_, 7 Au 4;
    reaches the Dardanelles, 10 Au 4;
    is attacked by a Russian squadron, 18 N 4;
    makes a sortie and is sunk, 20 Ja 8

  Brest-Litovsk captured by Germans, 25 Au 5;
    Armistice negotiations between Germany and Russia begin at, 2 D 7;
    an Armistice is signed at, 15 D 7;
    Peace negotiations between Germany and Russia begin at, 22 D 7;
    the Armistice ends, 18 F 8;
    Peace between Germany and Russia signed at, 2 Mh 8

  Briand, M., becomes Premier, 28 O 5;
    resigns, 17 Mh 7

  _Brilliant_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  _Britannia_, H.M.S., sunk, 9 N 8

  _Britannic_ sunk, 21 N 6

  British Army transferred to Flanders, 1-19 O 4;
    takes over a section of the French front, 26 Ja 8;
    _see also_ EXPEDITIONARY FORCE

  Brits, Col., defeats Maritz at Ratedrai, 15 O 4;
    at Kakamas, 26 O 4;
    defeats rebels at Schuit Drift, 30 O 4

  Broadstairs, an air-raid on, 9 F 6;
    bombarded, 25 F 7

  Brody captured by Russians, 23 Au 4;
    by Austro-Germans, 1 S 5;
    a Russian offensive against, 15 Jl 6;
    captured by Russians, 28 Jl 6

  _Broke_, H.M.S., sinks German destroyers, 20 Ap 7

  Bruges, air-raids on, 2 F 7, 8 F 7, 16 F 7, 1 Je 7, 3 Je 7, 23 Mh 8;
    recaptured by Belgians, 19 O 8

  Brussiloff, Gen., succeeds Gen. Ivanoff, 4 Ap 6;
    succeeds Gen. Alexeieff, 4 Je 7;
    resigns, 1 Au 7

  _Brussels_ captured by Germans, 23 Je 6

  Brussels, the Belgian Govt. evacuates, 17 Au 4;
    occupied by Germans, 20 Au 4;
    air-raids on, 20 D 4, 24 D 4, 9 Au 6, 11 Au 6;
    reoccupied by Belgians, 18 N 8;
    King Albert re-enters it, 22 N 8

  Bucharest capt. by Germans, 6 D 6

  ----, the Peace of, signed, 7 My 8

  Buczacz captured by Russians, 8 Je 6

  Bug, the Germans cross the, 19 Jl 5

  ---- and Vistula, a German offensive between the, 30 Je 5

  Bukoba occupied by British, 23 Je 5

  BUKOVINA: fighting on the frontier of, 27 D 5;
    the Russians invade, 5 Ja 6;
    an offensive in, 4-24 Je 6

  BULGARIA: invades Serbia, 11 O 5;
    declares war on Serbia, 14 O 5;
    declares war on Roumania, 1 S 6;
    is invaded by British, 25 S 8;
    proposes an Armistice, 25 S 8;
    signs an Armistice with the Entente Powers, 29 S 8;
    King Ferdinand abdicates, 4 O 8;
    Peace signed, 27 N 9

  Bullecourt captured by British, 12-17 My 7;
    fighting near, 15 Je 7, 12 D 7

  _Bulwark_, H.M.S., destroyed, 26 N 4

  Buola, the Pass of, battle for, 30 My 6

  Bushire occupied by British, 8 Au 5

  Buzeu evacuated by Roumanians, 14 D 6

  Byng, Sir J., attacks at Cambrai, 20 N 7


  Cabinets, British, 4 Au 4, 26 My 5, 10 D 6, 16 Jl 7;
    appoints a War Committee, 11 N 5

  Cadorna, Gen., superseded, 9 N 7

  Calais, air-raid on, 28 Mh 5;
    bombarded, 20 Ap 7;
    Zeppelin raids on, 21 F 5, 18 Mh 5, 16 My 5

  _Caledonia_ sunk, 4 D 6

  _Calgarian_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 Mh 8

  _California_ sunk, 7 F 7

  Cambrai, the British advance on, 20 Mh 7, 30 Mh 7;
    the Battle of, 20 N-7 D 7;
    the Germans counterattack at, 30 N 7;
    an inquiry announced on, 15 Ja 8;
    captured by the British, 9 O 8

  Cambrai and the Hindenburg Line, the Battle of, 27 S-5 O 8

  _Cameronia_ sunk, 15 Ap 7

  _Cameronian_ sunk, 2 Je 7

  CAMEROONS, THE: the French and British invade, 25 Au 4;
    Duala surrenders to the Allies, 27 S 4;
    Jabussi occupied, 14 O 4;
    Edea occupied, 26 O 4;
    Bare occupied, 10 D 4;
    the Germans attack Edea, 7 Ja 5;
    Eseka captured, 11 My 5;
    Garua surrenders, 10 Je 5;
    Lome captured, 25 Je 5;
    Ngaundere occupied, 29 Je 5;
    Wum Biagas captured, 9 O 5;
    Sende occupied, 25 O 5;
    the Germans are driven from Eseka, 30 O 5;
    Tibati occupied, 3 N 5;
    a British success at Bango Mountain, 6 N 5;
    Mangeles captured, 21 D 5;
    Jaunde occupied, 1 Ja 6;
    last German post in Mora Mountains surrenders, 19 F 6

  CANADA passes a Conscription Bill, 6 Jl 7

  _Candytuft_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 N 7

  Cantigny captured by Americans, 28 My 8

  Cape Helles, the Battle of, 25-26 Ap 5

  Capelle, Adm. von, succeeds von Tirpitz, 16 Mh 6

  Caporetto, the Battle of, 24 O-18 N 7

  _Cap Trafalgar_ sunk, 14 S 4

  _Carmania_, H.M.S., sinks the _Cap Trafalgar_, 14 S 4

  _Carpathia_ sunk, 17 Jl 8

  Carson, Sir E., resigns from the Cabinet, 18 O 5;
    becomes First Lord of the Admiralty, 10 D 6;
    enters the War Cabinet, 17 Jl 7;
    resigns, 21 Ja 8

  Casement, Sir R., captured, 21 Ap 6;
    his trial begins, 26 Je 6;
    is sentenced, 29 Je 6;
    is executed, 3 Au 6

  _Cassini_ sunk, 28 F 7

  Cattaro bombarded, 24 Au 4;
    a sea fight off, 29 D 5;
    an air-raid on, 1 Jl 8

  Caurières Wood, fighting at, 4 Mh 7, 9 Mh 7

  Cavell, Miss E., executed, 12 O 5

  Cecil, Lord R., becomes Minister of Blockade, 10 D 6

  Cettinje occupied by Austrians, 13 Ja 6

  Chalons reocc. by the French, 11 S 4

  Chamberlain, Mr. A., becomes Secretary for India, 26 My 5;
    resigns, 12 Jl 7

  Champagne, the Battle of, 25 S-8 O 5

  _Champagne_, H.M.S., sunk, 9 O 7

  Charleroi, the Battle of, 21-23 Au 4

  _Chateaurenault_ sunk, 14 D 7

  Château-Thierry, the Germans reach, 31 My 8;
    the Americans attack at, 25 Je 8;
    recaptured by French, 21 Jl 8

  Chaulnes occupied by British, 17 Mh 7;
    captured by Germans, 26 Mh 8;
    retaken by French, 28 Au 8

  Chaume Wood, a German attack at, 12 Ja 8

  _Cheerful_, H.M.S., sunk, 30 Je 7

  Chemin-des-Dames, fighting on the, 16-28 Ap 7;
    the French carry the, 5 My 7;
    fighting on the, 14 Jl 7, 22 Jl 7, 31 Au 7;
    the Germans abandon the, 2 N 7;
    the Germans retake it, 27 My 8;
    evacuate it, 11 O 8

  Chernavoda captured by Germans and Bulgars, 24 O 6

  Chilwell, explosion at, 5 O 7

  CHINA severs relations with Germany, 13 Mh 7;
    declares war on the Central Powers, 14 Au 7

  Chivata occupied by British, 15 N 7

  Cholm occupied by Austro-Germans, 31 Jl 5

  Chuignes capt. by British, 23 Au 8

  Chunuk Bair captured by New Zealanders, 8 Au 5;
    retaken by Turks, 10 Au 5

  Churchill, Mr. W., resigns from the Cabinet, 11 N 5;
    succeeded by Mr. Balfour, as First Lord of the Admiralty, 26 My 5;
    appointed Minister of Munitions, 17 Jl 7

  Ciezkowice captured by Austro-Germans, 2 My 5

  Cismon occupied by Austrians, 15 N 7

  _City of Athens_ sunk, 11 Au 7

  Cividale captured by Germans, 27 O 7

  _Clan MacTavish_ sunk, 17 Ja 6

  Clemenceau, M., becomes Premier, 16 N 7;
    visits England, 2 D 8

  Clynes, Mr., succeeds Lord Rhondda as Food Controller, 9 Jl 8

  Coalition Ministry formed, 25 My 5

  Coblenz, air-raid on, 22 S 7

  _Colchester_ captured by Germans, 21 S 6

  Col del Rosso captured by Italians, 23 D 7, 28 Ja 8, 30 Je 8

  Col di Lana captured by Italians, 17 Ap 6

  Colmar, air-raid on, 16 S 7

  Cologne, air-raids on, 8 O 4, 24 Mh 8, 18 My 8, 21 Au 8;
    British troops enter, 6 D 8

  Combles captured by British and French, 26 S 6

  _Comet_, H.M.S., sunk, 6 Au 8

  Compulsory Service: _see_ Conscription

  Conference: _see_ Peace Conference

  ---- at Paris, an Allied, 27 Mh 6, 29 N 7

  ---- at Versailles, 28 O 8

  Conscription announced in Great Britain, 28 D 5;
    Bill introduced, 5 Ja 6;
    comes into operation, 10 F 6;
    for married men, 25 My 6;
    renounced for Ireland, 21 Je 8

  Constantine, King, abdicates, 11 Je 7

  Constantinople, air-raids on, 14 Ap 6, 9 Jl 7;
    the Allied fleets reach, 13 N 8

  Constanza captured by Germans, 22 O 6;
    bombarded by Russians, 2 N 6

  Contalmaison, fighting at, 3-10 Jl 6

  _Contest_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 S 7

  _Coquette_, H.M.S., sunk, 7 Mh 6

  Corfu, a French force lands at, 11 Ja 6;
    the first Serbian troops land, 15 Ja 6;
    landing of the Serbian Army completed, 10 F 6

  Corn, minimum price for, guaranteed by England, 23 F 7

  _Cornwallis_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 Ja 7

  Coronel, the Battle of, 1 N 4

  _Corrington_ sunk, 1 Jl 8

  COSTA RICA declares war on the Central Powers, 23 My 8

  Cotton declared contraband, 21 Au 5

  'Council of Four' formed, 25 Mh 9

  Council, a supreme War, announced by Mr. L. George, 14 N 7

  Courcelette captured by British, 15 S 6;
    again, 24 Au 8

  Courcelles captured by British, 21 Au 8

  Courland coast bombarded, 25 Mh 5

  _Cowslip_, H.M.S., sunk, 25 Ap 8

  Cracow attacked by Russians, 7 D 4

  Craiova captured by Germans, 21 N 6

  Craonne, fighting at, 16 Ap 7, 3 Jl 7, 16 Au 7;
    captured by French, 4 My 7

  _Cressy_, H.M.S., sunk, 22 S 4

  Cromer, air-raid on, 19 Ja 5

  Cromie, Captain, killed, 29 Au 8

  Cross, the Military, instituted, 1 Ja 5

  Crozat Canal crossed by French, 21-22 Mh 7, 9 S 8

  Ctesiphon, the British advance on, 12 N 5;
    the Battle of, 22-24 N 5;
    the British retreat from, 25 N 5

  CUBA declares war on Germany, 7 Ap 7

  Cumières stormed by Germans, 24 My 6

  Cuxhaven, German warships off, bombed, 25 D 4

  _Cymric_ sunk, 8 My 6

  Cyprus annexed by Great Britain, 5 N 4

  Czar: _see_ Tsar

  Czecho-Slovaks declared Allies, 13 Au 8

  Czecho-Slovak State proclaimed, 30 O 8

  Czernin, Count, resigns, 15 Ap 8

  Czernowitz captured by Russians, 15 S 4;
    retaken by Austrians, 22 O 4;
    by Russians, 27 O 4;
    by Austrians, 17 F 5;
    the Russians approach, 2 Ja 6;
    a Russian victory at, 10 Je 6;
    they retake it, 17 Je 6;
    the Austrians retake it, 3 Au 7


  Dago Island captured by Germans, 19 O 7

  Damascus captured by British, 30 S 8

  _Danton_ sunk, 19 Mh 7

  DARDANELLES, THE (_for Military exploits, see_ GALLIPOLI): the
        forts bombarded, 3 N 4;
    a naval attack on, 19-23 F 5;
    the _Queen Elizabeth_ attacks, 25 F 5;
    the entrance swept, 26 F 5;
    bombardment resumed, 4 Mh 5;
    a further attack on, 6 Mh 5;
    Lemnos occupied, 7 Mh 5;
    a raid by the _Amethyst_, 15 Mh 5;
    the Battle of the Narrows, the _Bouvet_, _Irresistible_, and
          _Ocean_ sunk, 18 Mh 5;
    the E14 enters the Sea of Marmora, 27 Ap 5;
    the E14 sinks a Turkish transport, 29 Ap 5;
    the _Goliath_ sunk, 13 My 5;
    the _Triumph_ sunk, 25 My 5;
    the _Majestic_ sunk, 27 My 5;
    the _Kheyr-ed-Din Barbarossa_ sunk, 9 Au 5;
    the _Royal Edward_ sunk, 14 Au 5;
    the _Sutherland_, sunk, 2 S 5;
    the _Ramazan_ sunk, 19 S 5;
    the _Marquette_ sunk, 26 O 5;
    the _Hythe_ sunk, 29 O 5;
    the E20 lost, 6 N 5;
    the Allies' fleets pass through, 12 N 8;
    the forts occupied by the British, 12 N 8

  Dar-es-Salaam shelled by British cruisers, 13 Au 4;
    again, 2 Ja 5;
    surrenders, 4 S 6

  Darfur, the Sultan of, defeated, 22-23 My 6

  Declaration of London abandoned, 28 Je 6

  Dedeagatch bombarded, 21 O 5, 18 Ja 6

  De la Rey shot, 15 S 4

  Delcassé, M., resigns, 13 O 5

  Deli Abbas occupied by British, 31 Mh 7;
    action near, 3 D 7

  Deltawa, Turks defeated at, 11 Ap 7

  Delville Wood, fighting in, 15-27 Jl 6;
    capt. by British, 27 Au 8

  Deraa captured by Arabs, 27 S 8

  Derby, Lord, appointed Director of Recruiting, 5 O 5;
    issues his Report, 4 Ja 6;
    becomes Secretary for War, 10 D 6;
    resigns, 18 Ap 8

  Derby Groups, recruiting for, closed, 12 D 5;
    the first called up, 20 D 5;
    recruiting for opens, 6 Ja 6

  _Derwent_, H.M.S., sunk, 2 My 7

  _Deutschland_ reaches the U.S., 9 Jl 6;
    regains Germany, 23 Au 6

  Devonport, Lord, appointed Food Controller, 10 D 6;
    resigns, 1 Je 7;
    succ. by Lord Rhondda, 15 Je 7

  De Wet: _see under_ SOUTH AFRICA

  Diakhova occupied by Bulgarians,9 D 5

  Dialah River, a Turkish stand on the, 7 Mh 7;
    the British cross, 9 Mh 7

  Diaz, Gen., becomes Generalissimo, 9 N 7

  Dibra occupied by Bulgarians, 9 D 5

  Dixmude captured by Germans, 10 N 4;
    reoccupied by Belgians, 29 S 8

  _Djemnah_ sunk, 14 Jl 8

  DOBRUDJA, THE: is invaded by Germans and Bulgarians, 3 S 6;
    the Bulgarians capture Tutrakan, 6 S 6;
    they are checked, 1 O 6;
    the Roumanians counter-attack, 3 O 6;
    they fall back, 5 O 6;
    the Austro-Germans capture Brasso, 7 O 6;
    they attack again, 19 O 6;
    capture Tuzla, 21 O 6;
    Constanza, 22 O 6;
    Chernavoda, 24 O 6;
    the Russians and Roumanians advance, 7 N 6;
    the Germans advance, 8 N 6;
    are victorious, 18 N 6;
    capture Craiova, 21 N 6;
    Giurgevo, 27 N 6;
    are victorious in the Arges Valley, 3 D 6;
    capture Bucharest and Ploesti, 6 D 6;
    the Roumanians evacuate Buzeu, 14 D 6;
    the Russians are victorious at Botogu, 18 D 6;
    the Germans take Rimnic-Sarat, 26-28 D 6;
    Braila, 5 Ja 7;
    Focsani, 8 Ja 7;
    the Dobrudja is finally evacuated by the Russians and Roumanians,
          8 Ja 7

  Dodoma occupied by British, 30 Jl 6

  Dogger Bank, Battle of the, 24 Ja 5;
    mine-sweepers attacked off the, 10 F 6

  Doiran captured by Bulgarians, 12 D 5;
    fighting near, 6-11 D 5, 12 Mh 7, 25 Ap 7, 9 My 7

  Don, air-raid on, 20 F 6

  _Donegal_ sunk, 17 Ap 7

  Dormans, the Germans reach, 31 My 8

  Dorna Watra Pass, fighting at the, 28 F 7

  Douai reoccupied by the Allies, 17 O 8

  Douaumont Fort stormed by the Germans, 25 F 6;
    they capture the village, 2 Mh 6;
    the French retake it, 3 Mh 6;
    the Germans retake it, 4 Mh 6;
    the Germans repulsed at, 4 Ap 6;
    the French attack at, 16 Ap 6;
    and recapture the village, 24 O 6

  Dover, air-raids on, 12 Au 6, 22 Au 7, 2 S 7;
    bombarded, 15 F 8;
    a naval raid on, 15 F 8;
    a naval action off, 20 Ap 7

  _Dover Castle_ sunk, 26 My 7

  _Drake_, H.M.S., lost, 2 O 7

  _Dresden_ escapes at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, 8 D 4;
    is sunk, 14 Mh 5

  Drina, Battle of the, 15 S 4

  Drocourt-Quéant line breached, 2 S 8

  Duala surrenders to the Allies, 27 S 4

  Dublin, riots in, 24-26 Ap 6

  Dubno retaken by Russians, 23 S 5

  _Duke of Albany_, H.M.S., sunk, 25 Au 6

  Dukhonin, Gen., murdered, 3 D 7

  Dukla Pass captured by Austrians, 12 D 4;
    retaken by Russians, 20 D 4

  _Dundee_, H.M.S., sunk, 3 S 7

  Dunkirk, air-raid on, 30 D 4;
    marines landed at, 19 S 4;
    bombarded from the sea, 25 Mh 7

  Durazzo occupied by Italians, 20 D 5;
    retaken by Austrians, 27 F 6;
    a naval attack on, 2 O 8;
    the Italians reoccupy it, 14 O 8

  Dvina line attacked by Germans, 28 Au 5

  Dvinsk, a German attack on, fails, 24 S 5;
    the Battle of, 3-10 O 5;
    the Russians attack near, 12-14 O 5;
    again, 31 O-3 N 5;
    fighting near, 20-22 Mh 6

  Düsseldorf, air-raids on, 22 S 4, 8 O 4, 9 O 4


  EAST AFRICA: Dar-es-Salaam shelled by British cruisers, 13 Au 4;
    Taveta is occupied by the Germans, 15 Au 4;
    the British Expeditionary Force arrives, 1 S 4;
    the British attack Tanga, 3 N 4; are repulsed, 5 N 4;
    attack Longido, 4 N 4;
    occupy Jassin, 2 Ja 5;
    Mafia Island surrenders, 12 Ja 5;
    the Germans retake Jassin, 19 Ja 5;
    but are defeated on the Mora River, 9 Mh 5;
    the British capture Bukoba, 23 Je 5;
    they advance on Kilimanjaro, 7 Mh 6;
    are successful near Taveta and Kilimanjaro, 11 Mh 6;
    occupy Moshi, 12 Mh 6;
    they secure the N. half of the Colony, 22 Ap 6;
    a Belgian force invades Ruanda, 30 My 6;
    the British occupy Neu Langenburg, 29 My 6;
    Momba, 10 Je 6;
    Wilhelmsthal, 14 Je 6;
    Tanga, 7 Jl 6;
    Mwanza, 12 Jl 6;
    fighting at Malangali, 24 Jl 6;
    the British occupy Dodoma, 30 Jl 6;
    the Belgians capture Ujiji, 3 Au 6;
    the British occupy Mpwapwa, 11 Au 6;
    Kilossa, 22 Au 6;
    Mrogoro, 26 Au 6;
    Neu Iringa, 29 Au 6;
    Dar-es-Salaam surrenders, 4 S 6;
    the Germans defeated at Lupembe, 30 O 6;
    a British victory near Kibata, 15 D 6;
    in the Mageta Valley, 1 Ja 7;
    on the Tshogowali River, 4 Ja 7;
    the British reach Kilambawe, 5 Ja 7;
    surround a German force, 24 Ja 7;
    General Hoskins succeeds General Smuts, 28 Ja 7;
    German forces driven from Nyasaland, 30 Je 7;
    defeated at Norongombe, 19 Jl 7;
    a detachment surrenders at Kakera, 2 S 7;
    the British advance from Kilwa, 21 S 7;
    a German force surrenders, 1 O 7;
    a Belgian column occupies Mahenge, 9 O 7;
    British troops occupy Chivata, 15 N 7;
    a German force surrenders near Nevale, 27 N 7;
    the last German forces driven into Portuguese territory, 1 D 7;
    British forces disembarked at Fort Amelia, 12 Ja 8;
    a British success near Manunga, 5 My 8;
    the British occupy Malema, 13 Je 8;
    von Lettow's forces surrender, 14 N 8

  Eaucourt l'Abbaye, captured by British, 1 O 6

  Ebert, Herr, becomes Chancellor, 9 N 8;
    elected first President, 11 F 9

  E-boats: _see_ SUBMARINES

  Economic Conference meets in Paris, 14 Je 6

  ECUADOR severs relations with Germany, 8 D 7

  Edea occupied by Allies, 26 O 4;
    attacked by Germans, 7 Ja 5

  _Eden_, H.M.S., sunk, 16 Je 6

  EGYPT: the Khedive deposed, 18 D 4;
    the Turks attack the Suez Canal, 2-4 F 5;
    a second attack on the Canal, 22-23 Mh 5;
    a third attack, 28 Ap 5;
    the Senussi Arabs repulsed near Mersa Matruh, 13 D 5;
    routed, 25 D 5;
    again, 23 Ja 6;
    they are defeated at Agagia, 26 F 6;
    the British occupy Sollum, 14 Mh 6;
    a motor force rescues prisoners, 17 Mh 6;
    the Turks again attack the Suez Canal, 4-5 Au 6;
    the Senussi defeated near Siwa, 5 F 7

  ---- Sultan of: _see_ Hussein Kamel

  Eichhorn, F. M. von, establishes a dictatorship in the Ukraine,
        1 My 8

  El Arish, a raid on, 18 My 6;
    captured by British, 21 D 6

  Elbasan captured by Bulgarians, 17 D 5;
    by Italians, 7 O 8

  El Fasher captured by British, 23 My 6

  _Emden_ appears off Bengal, 10 S 4;
    shells Madras, 22 S 4;
    sinks the _Jemchug_ and _Mousquet_, 28 O 4;
    is destroyed, 9 N 4

  ENGLAND: see GREAT BRITAIN

  Epéhy, the Battle of, 12-18 S 8

  Ervillers captured by British, 23 Au 8

  Erzberger, Herr, his 'Peace' speech, 6 Jl 7

  Erzerum, the Russians advance on, 11 Ja 6;
    fighting near, 16-17 Ja 6;
    the Russian attack begins, 10 F 6;
    they capture it, 16 F 6;
    reoccupied by Turks, 11 Mh 8

  Eseka captured by Allies, 30 O 5

  Es Salt captured by British, 25 Mh 8;
    they evacuate it, 1 Ap 8;
    take it again, 30 Ap 8

  Es Sinn, the British defeated at, 8 Mh 6;
    they retire from, 9 Mh 6

  ESTHONIA invaded by Germans, 21 O 7;
    they evacuate it, 27 O 7

  Etaples, an air-raid on, 19 My 8

  Expeditionary Force, the British, lands in France, 9 Au 4;
    embarkation completed, 16 Au 4;
    base established at Nantes, 30 Au 4;
    G.H.Q. moves from St. Omer to Montreuil, 31 Mh 6


  _Fairy_, H.M.S., sunk, 31 My 8

  _Falaba_ sunk, 28 Mh 5

  Falkenhayn, Gen., superseded, 29 Au 6

  Falkland Islands, Battle of the, 8 D 4

  Falmouth, Dutch ships sunk off, 22 F 7

  _Falmouth_, H.M.S., sunk, 19 Au 6

  Fano raided by an Austrian squadron, 18 Je 5

  Fao captured by British, 6 N 4

  Farsan Island occupied by Arabs, 31 Ja 5

  _Fauvette_, H.M.S., sunk, 9 Mh 6

  Felixstowe, an air-raid on, 22 Jl 7

  Faversham munition factory, explosion at, 2 Ap 6

  Feluja captured by British, 19 Mh 7

  Ferdinand, K. of Bulgaria, abdicates, 4 O 8

  Fère-en-Tardenois, the Germans reach, 30 My 8;
    the Allies recapture, 28 Jl 8

  Festubert, Indians attacked at, 23 N 4;
    the Battle of, 16-25 My 5

  FINLAND signs peace with Germany, 7 Mh 8;
    Germany occupies the Aland Islands, 5 Mh 8;
    and Abo, 12 Mh 8

  _Firefly_, H.M.S., recaptured at Kut, 27 F 7

  Fisher, Lord, appointed First Sea Lord, 29 O 4;
    succeeded by Sir H. Jackson, 28 My 5

  Fismes captured by Americans, 4 Au 8

  Fismettes captured by Americans, 9 Au 8

  Flers captured by British, 15 S 6

  Fleury stormed by Germans, 24 Je 6;
    a French success at, 25 Je 6

  _Flirt_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 O 6

  Florina captured by Bulgarians, 20 Au 6;
    retaken by Allies, 18 S 6

  Foch, Marshal, becomes Chief of Staff, 15 My 7;
    assumes control of allied armies, 26 Mh 8;
    created a Marshal, 6 Au 8;
    visits London, 2 D 8

  Focsani captured by Austro-Germans, 8 Ja 7;
    fighting near, 6-9 Au 7

  Folkestone, an air-raid on, 25 My 7

  Fontaine Notre Dame, fighting at, 21-22 N 7, 27 N 7

  _Formidable_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 Ja 5

  Fournet, Adm. du, succeeded by Adm. Gauchet, 12 D 6

  _Foyle_, H.M.S., sunk, 15 Mh 7

  FRANCE: is invaded by Germany, 2 Au 4;
    declares war on Austria, 10 Au 4;
    moves Govt. to Bordeaux, 3 S 4;
    M. Delcassé resigns, 13 O 5;
    declares war on Bulgaria, 16 O 5;
    M. Briand becomes Premier, 28 O 5;
    resigns, 17 Mh 7;
    M. Ribot becomes Premier, 19 Mh 7;
    the Govt. addresses a Protest to Neutrals against German
          barbarities, 25 Mh 7;
    refuses to allow Socialists to attend Stockholm Conference,
          1 Je 7;
    M. Painlevé succeeds M. Ribot, 12 S 7;
    is defeated, 13 N 7;
    M. Clemenceau becomes Premier, 16 N 7

  Franchet d'Esperey, Gen., assumes command at Salonika, 27 Je 8

  _Franconia_ sunk, 4 O 6

  Frankenau, the Battle of, 23 Au 4

  Frankfurt, air-raids on, 10 Au 7, 22 S 7, 21 Au 8

  Freiburg, an air-raid on, 14 Ap 7

  French, Lord, commands B.E.F., 16 Au 4;
    meets General Joffre, 29 Au 4;
    resigns, 15 D 5;
    apptd. Lord.-Lieut. of Ireland, 5 My 8

  Fresnoy captured by Canadians, 3 My 7;
    retaken by Germans, 8 My 7;
    captured by British, 6 O 8

  Friedrichshafen, air-raids on, 21 N 4, 28 Ap 5

  Friedrichstadt, a battle at, 3 S 5

  Fromelles, a British attack at, 9 My 5

  Fryatt, Capt. C., taken prisoner, 23 Je 6;
    is executed, 27 Jl 6

  Funchal bombarded, 3 D 6, 11 D 7

  Fundeni captured by Germans, 20 Ja 7


  G.H.Q. moved to Montreuil, 31 Mh 6

  Gaba Tepe, attack on, 4 My 5

  _Gaillardia_, H.M.S., sunk, 22 Mh 8

  Galatz evacuated by Russians, 11 Ja 7

  _Gallia_ sunk, 4 O 6

  GALLIPOLI (_for Naval exploits, see_ DARDANELLES):
    the Allies land in (battle of Cape Helles), 25-26 Ap 5;
    positions consolidated, 27 Ap 5;
    1st battle for Krithia, 28 Ap 5;
    the Turks attack, 1 My 5;
    the British counter-attack, 2 My 5;
    a British attack at Gaba Tepe, 4 My 5;
    2nd battle for Krithia, 6-8 My 5;
    Sari Bair stormed by Australians, 9 My 5;
    a Turkish attack, 18 My 5;
    3rd battle for Krithia and Achi Baba, 4 Je 5;
    a Turkish attack, 18 Je 5;
    an Allied attack, 21 Je 5;
    a British attack, 27 Je 5;
    a Turkish offensive, 29 Je-1 Jl 5;
    a Turkish attack, 4 Jl 5;
    Battle of Sari Bair, 6-11 Au 5;
    the British land at Suvla Bay, 6 Au 5;
    Battle of Suvla, 6-15 Au 5;
    Chunuk Bair captured by New Zealanders, 8 Au 5;
    Chunuk Bair retaken by Turks, 10 Au 5;
    2nd British attack at Suvla, 21 Au 5;
    Sir Ian Hamilton recalled, 16 O 5;
    Sir C. Monro assumes command, 28 O 5;
    a Turkish attack at Anzac, 4 N 5;
    attack by the 52nd Division, 15 N 5;
    the evacuation of Suvla and Anzac begins, 8 D 5;
    is completed, 20 D 5;
    the evacuation of Gallipoli is completed, 8 Ja 6;
    the British occupy the Dardanelles forts, 12 N 8

  _Galway Castle_ sunk, 12 S 8

  Garua surrenders, 10 Je 5

  Garub occupied by Union troops, 22 F 5

  Gaub, a battle at, 4 Jl 5

  Gauchet, Adm., succeeds Adm. du Fournet, 12 D 6

  _Gaulois_ sunk, 27 D 6

  Gas, poison, first used by Germans, 22 Ap 5;
    a second attack, 24 Ap 5;
    a third attack, 2 My 5

  Gavrelle, fighting at, 23 Ap 7, 26 Ap 7

  Gaza, the 1st Battle of, 27 Mh 7;
    the 2nd Battle of, 17 Ap 7;
    fighting at, 14 Jl 7

  _Gazelle_ sunk, 25 Ja 5

  Geddes, Sir E., apptd. Controller at the Admiralty, 14 My 7;
    First Lord, 17 Jl 7

  _Genista_ sunk, 23 O 6

  George, Mr. Ll., apptd. Minister of Munitions, 26 My 5;
    Secretary for War, 6 Jl 6;
    proposes reforms to Mr. Asquith, 1 D 6;
    becomes Premier, 7 D 6

  GERMANY: sends ultimatums to France and Russia, 31 Jl 4;
    declares war on Russia, 1 Au 4;
    invades France, Poland, and Luxemburg, 2 Au 4;
    declares war on France, 3 Au 4;
    invades Belgium, 3 Au 4;
    invades Russia, 12-18 F 5;
    declares a submarine blockade, 18 F 5;
    institutes reprisals for Great Britain's treatment of submarine
          prisoners, 12 Ap 5;
    first uses poison gas, 22 Ap 5;
    first uses liquid fire, 30 Jl 5;
    declares right to sink merchant ships without warning, 27 Au 5;
    declares war on Portugal, 10 Mh 6;
    agrees with U.S.A. not to sink without warning, 4 My 6;
    declares war on Roumania, 28 Au 6;
    invades Roumania, 13 O 6;
    makes Peace Proposals, 12 D 6;
    which are received by British Foreign Office, 18 D 6;
    replies to Mr. Wilson's Peace Note, 25 D 6;
    the Allies reply to her Peace Proposals, 30 D 6;
    Germany replies, 12 Ja 7;
    announces unrestricted naval warfare, 31 Ja 7;
    her intention to sink hospital ships made public, 31 Ja 7;
    attempts to reopen negotiations with the U.S.A., 11 F 7;
    meets with a refusal, 12 F 7;
    proposes an Armistice with Russia, 8 Je 7;
    her order to 'sink without trace' disclosed, 8 S 7;
    discloses a mutiny in her Navy, 9 O 7;
    captures islands in the Gulf of Riga, 12-20 O 7;
    invades Esthonia, 21 O 7;
    announces that she will treat with Bolshevists, 29 N 7;
    signs an Armistice at Brest-Litovsk, 15 D 7;
    it terminates and she invades Russia, 18 F 8;
    outlines her Peace Terms with Russia, 21 F 8;
    they are accepted, 24 F 8;
    she occupies Reval and Pskoff, 25 F 8;
    signs Peace at Brest-Litovsk, 2 Mh 8;
    occupies Kieff, 3 Mh 8;
    the Aland Islands, 5 Mh 8;
    Odessa, 13 Mh 8;
    Nikolaieff, 17 Mh 8;
    offers Peace Terms to Belgium, 15 S 8;
    sends a Note to Mr. Wilson, 4 O 8;
    revolution breaks out, 4 N 8;
    sends delegates to Foch, 6 N 8;
    the Kaiser abdicates, 9 N 8;
    she signs an Armistice with the Entente Powers, 11 N 8;
    hands over her Navy, 21 N 8;
    Ebert elected first President, 11 F 9;
    Scheidemann becomes Premier, 12 F 9;
    receives the Peace Terms, 7 My 9;
    the Scheidemann Govt. resigns, 20 Je 9;
    scuttles her Fleet, 21 Je 9;
    Bauer becomes Premier, 21 Je 9;
    National Assembly decides for signature of Peace Treaty, 21 Je 9;
    signs it, 28 Je 9

  Ghent, the 7th Division attacked at, 11 O 4;
    occupied by Germans, 13 O 4;
    reoccupied by Belgians, 11 N 8

  Ghevgeli captured by Bulgarians, 12 D 5;
    by Allies, 22 S 8

  _Ghurka_, H.M.S., sunk, 8 F 7

  Gibeon, a battle at, 28 Ap 5

  Ginchy captured by British, 3-9 S 6

  Giurgevo captured by Germans, 27 N 6

  _Giuseppe Garibaldi_ sunk, 18 Jl 5

  Givenchy, an attack by Indians at, 19-22 D 4

  _Glasgow_, H.M.S., sinks the Dresden, 14 Mh 5

  _Glenart Castle_ sunk, 26 F 8

  Glencorse Wood, fighting in, 10 Au 7;
    captured by British, 20 S 7

  _Glengyle_ sunk, 2 Ja 6

  _Gloucester_, H.M.S., attacks the _Goeben_ and _Breslau_, 7 Au 4

  _Gloucester Castle_ sunk, 30 Mh 7

  _Goeben_ escapes from Messina, 6 Au 4;
    is attacked by H.M.S. _Gloucester_, 7 Au 4;
    reaches the Dardanelles, 10 Au 4;
    is attacked by a Russian squadron, 18 N 4;
    is driven from Batoum, 11 D 4;
    is bombed by aircraft, 9 Jl 7;
    makes a sortie and runs aground in the Dardanelles, 20 Ja 8;
    is refloated and towed to Constantinople, 27 Ja 8

  Goldap occupied by Russians, 10 N 4

  _Goliath_, H.M.S., sunk, 13 My 5

  Golitzine, M., becomes Premier, 9 Ja 7

  Gommecourt occupied by British, 27 F 7

  Gommiécourt captured by British, 23 Au 8

  Gonnelieu captured by British, 20 Ap 7;
    by Germans, 30 N 7;
    by British, 1 D 7

  _Good Hope_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 N 4

  Gorizia, the Italians advance on, 2 Jl 5;
    are repulsed, 7 Jl 5;
    the Battle of, 5-14 Au 6;
    captured by Italians, 8 Au 6;
    retaken by Austrians, 28 O 7

  Gouzeaucourt, fighting at, 9-12 S 8

  Governments, British: _see_ Cabinets, British

  Grado captured by Italians, 27 My 5

  Graincourt captured by British, 27 S 8

  Grand Sherif of Mecca (_i.e._ King of the Hedjaz) revolts against
        the Turks, 9 Je 6;
    captures Jeddah, 16 Je 6;
    Taif, 23 Jl 6

  Grandcourt, fighting at, 6-8 F 7

  GREAT BRITAIN: declares war on Germany, 4 Au 4;
    on Austria, 12 Au 4;
    on Turkey, 5 N 4;
    on Bulgaria, 15 O 5;
    announces reprisals for submarine piracy, 8 Mh 5;
    rescinds them, 12 Je 5;
    a new Govt. formed, 26 My 5;
    appoints a War Committee, 11 N 5;
    recruiting for 'Derby' Groups closes, 12 D 5;
    Compulsory Service announced, 28 D 5;
    Military Service Bill introduced, 5 Ja 6;
    a new Govt. formed, 10 D 6;
    receives German Peace Proposals, 18 D 6;
    replies to them, 30 D 6;
    enforces sale of foreign securities, 26 Ja 7;
    guarantees minimum price for corn, 23 F 7;
    exhorts food economy, 2 My 7;
    abolishes enemy titles, 19 Je 7;
    changes ministers, 17 Jl 7;
    closes cable communication with Holland, 11 O 7;
    announces formation of Air Ministry, 16 O 7;
    orders two meatless days a week, 23 Ja 8;
    adopts compulsory rationing, 25 F 8;
    renounces Home Rule and Conscription for Ireland, 21 Je 8

  GREECE:--M. Zaimis becomes Premier, 5 O 5;
    refuses Serbia's appeal for help, 12 O 5;
    M. Zaimis resigns, 4 N 5;
    M. Skouloudis becomes Premier, 6 N 5;
    a Note presented by the Allies, 21 Je 6;
    M. Skouloudis resigns, 22 Je 6;
    an Allied naval demonstration at Athens, 1 S 6;
    M. Zaimis resigns, 11 S 6;
    4th Army Corps surrenders to Germans, 12 S 6;
    M. Kalogeropoulos becomes Premier, 16 S 6;
    M. Venizelos goes to Crete, 25 S 6;
    proclaims a Provisional Government at Crete, 29 S 6;
    the Cabinet resigns, 3 O 6;
    Prof. Lambros becomes Premier, 9 O 6;
    the Govt. yields to the Allies' Ultimatum, 10 O 6;
    the Allies take possession of the Greek fleet, 11 O 6;
    they land troops at Athens, 17 O 6;
    demand surrender of batteries, 26 N 6;
    Greece rejects the demands, 1 D 6;
    Royalist party gains control, 6 D 6;
    a blockade proclaimed by the Allies, 8 D 6;
    they demand demobilisation of Greek troops, 11 D 6;
    and present an Ultimatum, 14 D 6;
    the Govt. accepts, 15 D 6;
    the Allies present another Ultimatum, 8 Ja 7;
    the Govt. accepts, 16 Ja 7;
    apologises, 25 Ja 7;
    a new Govt. formed, 3 My 7;
    King Constantine abdicates, 11 Je 7;
    M. Venizelos becomes Premier, 26 Je 7

  _Greif_ sunk, 29 F 6

  Grévillers captured by British, 13 Mh 7

  Grierson, Sir J., commands 2nd Corps, 16 Au 4;
    dies, 17 Au 4

  Grodek, the Battle of, 6-13 S 4

  Grodno stormed by Germans, 1-4 S 5

  'Group' system applied, 22 O 5

  GUATEMALA severs relations with Germany, 27 Ap 7;
    declares war on Germany, 23 Ap 8

  Gueudecourt captured by British, 26 S 6

  _Guildford Castle_ torpedoed, 10 Mh 8

  Guillaumet, Gen., succeeds Gen. Sarrail, 15 D 7;
    is succeeded by Gen. d'Esperey, 27 Je 8

  Guillemont captured by British, 3 S 6

  Gumbinnen, the Battle of, 20 Au 4

  Gyimes Pass captured by Germans, 16 O 6


  Hafiz Kor, a British success at, 5 S 5

  Hague, The, Conferences at, concerning prisoners, 25 Je 7, 8 Je 8

  Haifa captured by British, 23 S 8

  Haig, Sir D. (Lord Haig), commands the 1st Corps, 16 Au 4;
    succeeds Sir J. French, 15 D 5;
    gazetted a Field-Marshal, 1 Ja 7

  Halicz captured by Russians, 27 Au 4;
    occupied by Austro-Germans, 27 Je 5;
    a battle near, 5 S 6;
    the Russians advance on, 6 S 6;
    again, 9 Jl 7;
    they capture it, 10 Jl 7;
    the Germans occupy it, 23 Jl 7

  Ham captured by Germans, 24 Mh 8;
    by the French, 6 S 8

  Hamadan occupied by Russians, 11 D 5, 2 Mh 7

  Hamburg seized by revolutionaries, 7 N 8

  Hamel captured by American and Australian troops, 4 Jl 8

  Hamelincourt captured by British, 23 Au 8

  Hamilton, Sir I., arrives at Tenedos, 17 Mh 5;
    recalled, 16 O 5

  _Hampshire_, H.M.S., sunk, 5 Je 6

  Hartlepool bombarded, 16 D 4

  Hartmannsweilerkopf captured by Germans, 21 Ja 5;
    a French attack on, 25 Mh 5;
    captured by French, 27 Mh 5;
    recaptured by Germans, 25 Ap 5;
    by French, 28 Ap 5;
    again, 16 O 5

  Harwich, air-raids on, 4 Jl 7, 22 Jl 7;
    a naval action off, 10 My 7

  Hasuur seized by Union troops, 1 Ap 5

  Haudromont quarries carried by the French, 21 My 6

  Haumont Wood captured by Germans, 22 F 6

  Havrincourt, the Battle of, 12-18 S 8

  _Hawke_, H.M.S., sunk, 15 O 4

  Hedjaz, King of the: _see_ Grand Sherif

  ---- railway, a part seized by Arabs, 24 Ap 8 (_see_ PALESTINE,
        SYRIA, Amman).

  _Hela_ sunk, 13 S 4

  Heligoland (ceded to Germany, 9 Au 1890), the Battle of the Bight
        of, 28 Au 4;
    naval actions in the Bight, 16 Au 7, 17 N 7, 28 Mh 8, 20 Ap 8

  Hermanstadt occupied by Roumanians, 1 S 6

  _Hermes_, H.M.S., sunk, 31 O 4

  _Herrmann_ sunk, 13 Je 6

  Hertling, Count, becomes Premier, 1 N 7;
   resigns, 1 O 8

  _Hesperian_ sunk, 4 S 5

  _Highflyer_, H.M.S., sinks the _Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse_, 26 Au 4

  High Wood, fighting at, 31 Au 6, 15 S 6

  _Hilary_, H.M.S., sunk, 25 My 7

  Hill 60, fighting at, 17-21 Ap 5;
    captured by Germans, 5 My 5

  Hill 265 captured by Germans, 7 Mh 6

  ---- 304, fighting at, 5-6 My 6, 17 My 6;
    retaken by French, 28 Mh 7;
    fighting at, 17 Jl 7

  Hindenburg, Gen. von, apptd. to command in East Prussia, 22 Au 4;
    apptd. Chief of General Staff, 29 Au 6

  Hindenburg Line, portions captured, 13 Ap 7, 3 My 7, 15 Je 7

  Hintze, Adm. von, succeeds Von Kühlmann, 9 Jl 8

  _Hiramo Maru_ sunk, 4 O 8

  Hit occupied by British, 9 Mh 8

  Hoboken, air-raids on, 24 Mh 5, 1 Ap 5

  _Hogue_, H.M.S., sunk, 22 S 4

  Hohenzollern Redoubt, fighting at, 29 S 5, 3 O 5, 4 Mh 6, 18 Mh 6

  Homs occupied by British, 15 O 8

  HONDURAS severs relations with Germany, 17 My 7

  Hooge, a German attack at, 2 Je 5, 6 Je 6;
    British successes at, 21 Jl 5, 9 Au 5;
    a liquid-fire attack at, 30 Jl 5

  Hoskins, Gen., succeeds Gen. Smuts, 28 Ja 7;
    is succeeded by Gen. van Deventer, 16 My 7

  HOSPITAL SHIPS ATTACKED:
    the _Asturias_ 1 F 5;
    the _Anglia_ sunk, 17 N 5;
    the _Portugal_ sunk, 30 Mh 6;
    the _Braemar Castle_ torpedoed, 24 N 6;
    the _Britannic_ sunk, 21 N 6;
    the _Asturias_ sunk, 21 Mh 7;
    the _Gloucester Castle_ sunk, 30 Mh 7;
    the _Donegal_ and _Lanfranc_ sunk, 17 Ap 7;
    the _Dover Castle_, 26 My 7;
    the _Rewa_ sunk, 4 Ja 8;
    the _Glenart Castle_ sunk, 26 F 8;
    the _Guildford Castle_ torpedoed, 10 Mh 8;
    the _Koningin Regentes_ sunk, 6 Je 8;
    the _Llandovery Castle_ sunk, 27 Je 8

  _Housatonic_ sunk, 3 F 7

  Houthulst Forest, fighting in, 9 O 7, 12 O 7, 22 O 7

  Hulluch, fighting at, 26 S 5

  'Hunding' line broken by French, 19 O 8

  HUNGARY (_see_ AUSTRIA-HUNGARY):
    invaded by Russia, 28 S 4;
    proclaims a Republic, 31 O 8

  Hussein Kamel, Khedive of Egypt, succeeds Abbas II., 18 D 4;
    dies, 9 O 7

  _Hythe_ sunk, 29 O 5


  Immelman shot down, 18 Je 6

  _Imperatritsa Maria_ sunk, 20 O 6

  _India_, H.M.S., sunk, 8 Au 5

  Indian Corps reaches France, 19 O 4;
    is attacked at Festubert, 23 N 4;
    attacks at Givenchy, 19-22 D 4;
    leaves France, 28 D 5

  Infantry Hill stormed by British, 14 Je 7;
    by Germans, 2 Au 7;
    by British, 3 Au 7

  _Intrepid_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  Inverness Copse captured by British, 20 S 7

  Ipek captured by Austrians, 7 D 5;
    by the Allies, 14 O 8

  _Iphigenia_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  IRELAND:
    a rebellion breaks out in, 20 Ap 6;
    riots in Dublin, 24-26 Ap 6;
    martial law proclaimed, 27 Ap 6;
    the rebellion crushed, 1 My 6;
    the Convention meets, 25 Jl 7;
    Sinn Fein leaders arrested, 17 My 8;
    Home Rule and Conscription renounced by Govt., 21 Je 8
          (_see also_ Casement)

  Irkutsk occupied by Czecho-Slovaks, 8 Jl 8;
    again, 17 Au 8

  Irles captured by British, 10 Mh 7

  _Irresistible_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 Mh 5

  Ishtip captured by Serbians, 25 S 8

  Isonzo, fighting on the, 2-29 Jl 5, 14 Au 6, 14 S 6;
    an Italian offensive on the, 14 My-10 Je 7;
    another, 19 Au 7

  Ispahan captured by Russians, 19 Mh 6

  Istabulat, a British victory at, 18 Ap 7;
    the Turks evacuate, 21 Ap 7

  ITALY: declares her neutrality, 3 Au 4;
    declares war on Austria, 23 My 5;
    invades Austria, 24 My 5;
    declares war on Turkey, 20 Au 5;
      on Bulgaria, 19 O 5;
      on Germany, 28 Au 6;
    Sig. Orlando becomes Premier, 28 O 7;
    French troops arrive, 3 N 7;
    British troops arrive, 4 N 7

  _Itchen_, H.M.S., sunk, 6 Jl 7

  Ivangorod invested by Germans, 22 Jl 5;
    captured by Austro-Germans, 5 Au 5

  Ivanoff, Gen., superseded, 4 Ap 6

  _Ivernia_ sunk, 1 Ja 7


  Jablonica occupied by Russians, 15 Au 6

  ---- Pass carried by Russians, 22 Au 6;
    fighting near, 2 S 6

  Jabussi occupied by British, 14 O 4

  Jackson, Sir H., apptd. First Sea Lord, 28 My 5;
    succeeded by Sir John Jellicoe, 29 N 6

  Jacobeny, fighting at, 13 F 7

  Jacobstadt occupied by Germans, 21-22 S 7

  Jaffa, the British enter, 17 N 7

  JAPAN: sends an Ultimatum to Germany, 15 Au 4;
    declares war on Germany, 23 Au 4;
    lands troops at Tsingtau, 2 S 4;
    occupies Marshall Islands, 7 O 4

  Jardar, the Battle of the, 17-19 Au 4

  Jaroslav captured by Russians, 23 S 4;
    the Battle of, 4 N 4;
    captured by Austro-Germans, 14 My 5

  _Jason_, H.M.S., sunk, 7 Ap 7

  Jassin occupied by British, 2 Ja 5;
    by Germans, 19 Ja 5

  Jaunde captured by British, 1 Ja 6

  Jeddah captured by Grand Sherif, 16 Je 6

  Jellicoe, Sir J., assumes command of British Home Fleets, 4 Au 4;
    apptd. First Sea Lord, 29 N 6;
    succeeded by Sir R. Wemyss, 26 D 7

  Jericho captured by British, 21 F 8

  Jerusalem captured by British, 9 D 7;
    entered formally, 11 D 7

  Jifjaffa, skirmish at, 13 Ap 6

  Jisr-ed-Damieh, a British reverse at, 1 My 8

  Joffre, Marshal, meets Sir J. French in 'the Retreat,' 29 Au 4;
    succeeded by Gen. Nivelle, 12 D 6;
    created a Marshal, 26 D 6

  Jordan crossed by British, 22 Mh 8;
    fighting on the, 14 Jl 8

  _Justicia_ sunk, 20 Jl 8

  Jutland, the Battle of, 31 My 6;
    a naval action off, 1 S 7


  Kaiser, the: _see_ Wilhelm II. of Germany

  _Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse_ sunk, 26 Au 4

  Kakera, action at, 2 S 7

  Kalat Shergat captured by British, 28 O 8

  _Kale_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 Mh 8

  Kaledin, Gen., commits suicide, 13 F 8

  Kalim, Said, resigns, 5 F 7

  Kalogeropoulos, M., becomes Premier, 16 S 6

  Kalusz captured by Russians, 11 Jl 7

  Kara Urgan, the Battle of, 8-13 Ja 5

  Karibib occupied by Union forces, 5 My 5

  Karl, Emperor of Austria, his letter concerning Alsace, 15 Ap 8

  Karlsruhe, air-raids on, 15 Je 5, 25 Je 8

  Kasr-i-Shirin occupied by Russians, 10 My 6

  Katia, fighting at, 23 Ap 6

  Katiyeh occupied by Turks, 29 Ja 5

  Kattegat, naval actions in the, 2 N 7, 15 Ap 8

  Kavala, the forts occupied by Bulgarians, 25 Au 6;
    bombarded by warships, 28 Au 6;
    surrender of the 4th Greek Army Corps at, 12 S 6

  _Kawachi_ lost, 12 Jl 8

  Kemmel Hill, a German attack on, 17 Ap 8;
    captured by Germans, 25 Ap 8

  Kemmern, the Battle of, 11 N 5

  Kemp rebels, 22 O 4;
    surrenders, 3 F 5 (_see under_ SOUTH AFRICA).

  _Kent_, H.M.S., sinks the _Dresden_, 14 Mh 5

  Kerak captured by Arabs, 7 Ap 8

  Kerenski, M., becomes War Minister, 16 My 7;
    Premier, 22 Jl 7;
    Commander-in-Chief, 11 S 7;
    is overthrown, 7 N 7;
    his arrest ordered, 10 N 7;
    occupies Tsarskoe Selo, 10 N 7;
    is defeated and flies, 13 N 7

  Kerind occupied by Russians, 12 Mh 6; 17 Mh 7

  Kerman occupied by British, 12 Je 6

  Kermanshah captured by Russians, 27 F 6;
    again, 13 Mh 7

  Khan Abu Rayat occupied by British, 20 F 8

  ---- Baghdadie, a British victory at, 26 Mh 8

  Khanikin occupied by Russians, 1 Ap 7

  _Kheyr-ed-Din Barbarossa_ sunk, 9 Au 5

  KIAO-CHAU: _see_ TSINGTAU

  Kibata, a British success near, 15 D 6

  Kieff occupied by Germans, 3 Mh 8

  Kiel, a naval mutiny at, 3 N 8;
    seized by revolutionaries, 7 N 8

  Kifri captured by British, 27 Ap 8

  Kighi captured by Russians, 18 Jl 6

  Kilambawe occupied by British, 5 Ja 7

  Kilimanjaro, fighting near, 7 Mh 6, 11 Mh 6

  Kilossa captured by British, 22 Au 6

  Kimpolung captured by Russians, 23 Je 6

  _King Edward VII._, H.M.S., sunk, 6 Ja 6

  King George V. thrown from his horse, 28 O 5

  King's Lynn, air-raid on, 19 Ja 5

  Kirkuk occupied by British, 7 My 8;
    they evacuate it, 24 My 8;
    and occupy it again, 25 O 8

  Kitchener, Lord, apptd. Secretary of State for War, 5 Au 4;
    drowned, 5 Je 6

  Klein Zillebeke, the Germans attack at, 6 N 4, 12 N 4

  Kolki, the Battle of, 9 N 5

  Kolomea captured by Austrians, 16 F 5;
    by Russians, 30 Je 6;
    by Austrians, 26 Jl 7

  _Königin Luise_ sunk, 5 Au 4

  _Königsberg_ discovered in Rufigi River, 30 O 4;
    shelled, 10 N 4;
    destroyed, 11 Jl 5

  _Koningin Regentes_ sunk, 6 Je 8

  Korniloff, Gen., apptd. Commander-in-Chief, 1 Au 7;
    is dismissed by Kerenski, 8 S 7;
    marches on Petrograd, 8 S 7;
    fails, 13 S 7;
    surrenders, 14 S 7;
    his arrest ordered, 10 N 7

  Kovel, captured by Austro-Germans, 23 Au 5;
    fighting before, 19 Je 6;
    a Russian reverse near, 27 Je 6;
    the Russians attack before, 1 Au 6

  Kovno captured by Germans, 17 Au 5

  Kragujevatz captured by Austrians, 30 O 5

  Krasnik, the 1st Battle of, 25 Au 4;
    the 2nd Battle of, 10 S 4;
    the Austrians defeated near, 6 Jl 5

  Krasnostav, the Battle of, 16-18 Jl 5

  Krilenko, ensign, apptd. Commander-in-Chief, 21 N 7

  Krithia, the 1st Battle for, 28 Ap 5;
    2nd Battle for, 6-8 My 5;
    3rd Battle for, 4 Je 5

  Kronstadt (Brasso) occupied by Roumanians, 29 Au 6;
    retaken by Austro-Germans, 7 O 6

  Kühlmann, H. von, resigns, 9 Jl 8

  Kum occupied by Russians, 20 D 5

  KUT-EL-AMARA (_see also_ MESOPOTAMIA):
    the British reach, 25 S 5;
    the 1st Battle of, 28 S 5;
    captured by British, 29 S 5;
    the British retire to, from Azizie, 3 D 5;
    the siege begins, 7 D 5;
    Turkish attacks repelled, 12 D 5, 25 D 5;
    the relieving force advances from Ali-el-Gharb, 4 Ja 6;
    the first relieving force defeats the Turks but is checked by
          floods, 6 Ja 6;
    the Turks again repulsed, 13 Ja 6;
    the action at Um-el-Hannah, 21 Ja 6;
    heavy fighting before Kut, 3 F 6;
    the second attempt to relieve fails at Es Sinn, 8 Mh 6;
    the relieving force falls back from Es Sinn, 9 Mh 6;
    the third attempt to relieve: the Um-el-Hannah and Falahiyeh
          positions captured, 6 Ap 6;
    the first attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position, 9 Ap 6;
    the second ditto, 12 Ap 6; a Turkish counter-attack, 17 Ap 6;
    the third attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position, 22 Ap 6;
    an attempt to run a supply ship into Kut, 24 Ap 6;
    the garrison capitulates, 29 Ap 6 (_now see_ MESOPOTAMIA)


  La Bassée, the Battle of, 11-31 O 4

  La Boiselle, fighting at, 3-4 Jl 6

  'Labyrinth,' the fighting at, 14 N 5

  _Laconia_ sunk, 25 F 7

  La Fère captured by Germans, 30 Au 4;
    retaken by French, 13 O 8

  _Laforey_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Mh 7

  Lahej captured by Turks, 5 Jl 5

  Lajj, British cavalry reach, 5 Mh 7

  Lambros, Prof., becomes Premier, 9 O 6

  Landrecies, action at, 25 Au 4;
    captured by British, 4 N 8

  _Lanfranc_ sunk, 17 Ap 7

  Langenburg, Neu, captured by British, 29 My 6

  Lansdowne, Lord, his letter to the _Daily Telegraph_, 29 N 7

  Laon captured by Germans, 30 Au 4;
    retaken by French, 13 O 8

  Lassigny, the 1st Battle of, 9-13 Je 8;
    the 2nd Battle of, 9-15 Au 8

  _Lassoo_, H.M.S., sunk, 13 Au 6

  _Laurentic_ sunk, 23 Ja 7

  _Lavender_, H.M.S., sunk, 5 My 7

  _Leasowe Castle_ sunk, 26 My 8

  Le Barque capt. by British, 26 F 7

  Le Cateau, the 1st Battle of, 26 Au 4;
    captured by British, 10 O 8;
    the 2nd Battle of, 8-10 O 8

  _Leinster_ sunk, 10 O 8

  Leipsig Redoubt carried, 7 Jl 6

  Lemberg, the 1st Battle of, 31 Au-2 S 4;
    occupied by Russians, 3 S 4;
    retaken by Austrians, 22 Je 5

  Lemnos occupied by British, 7 Mh 5

  Lenin effects a _coup d'état_, 7 N 7;
    announces peace negotiations, 21 N 7

  Lens occupied by Germans, 4 O 4;
    fighting near, 12-15 Ap 7, 15-22 Au 7;
    evacuated by Germans, 3 S 8

  _Leonardo da Vinci_ sunk, 2 Au 6

  _Leon Gambetta_ sunk, 27 Ap 5

  Le Quesnoy capt. by British, 4 N 8

  Le Sars captured by British, 25 Au 8

  Les Eparges, fighting at, 5-9 Ap 5;
    German attacks at, 19 Ap 6

  Leuze Wood captured by British, 5 S 6

  Libau shelled, 17 N 4;
    bombarded, 28 Mh 5;
    captured by Germans, 8 My 5

  Liberia severs relations with Germany, 8 My 7

  Lichnowsky, Prince, his memoir published, 15 Mh 8

  Liége bombarded, 5 Au 4; falls, 7 Au 4;
    the last forts reduced, 15 Au 4

  _Lightning_, H.M.S., sunk, 30 Je 5

  Lille captured by Germans, 27 Au 4;
    reoccupied by French, 30 S 4;
    retaken by Germans, 13 O 4;
    reoccupied by Allies, 17 O 8

  Lisbon, an insurrection at, 6-11 D 7

  Livenza, fighting on the, 7 N 7

  _Llandovery Castle_ sunk, 27 Je 8

  Lloyd George: _see_ George, Mr. Lloyd

  Lody, Carl, shot, 6 N 4

  Lodz, a battle at, 23-24 N 4;
    evacuated by Russians, 27 N 4;
    captured by Germans, 6 D 4

  Lome captured by Allies, 25 Je 5

  Lomnica, the Russians cross the, 12 Jl 7;
    recross the, 16 Jl 7

  LONDON: air-raids on,
    (i) daylight, 28 N 6, 7 My 7, 13 Je 7, 7 Jl 7;
    (ii) night, 4 S 7, 24 S 7, 25 S 7, 29 S 7, 30 S 7, 1 O 7, 31 O 7,
          6 D 7, 18 D 7, 28 Ja 8, 29 Ja 8, 16 F 8, 17 F 8, 7 Mh 8,
          19 My 8;
    (iii) Zeppelin, 31 My 5, 8 S 5, 12 O 5, 13 O 5, 24 Au 6, 3 S 6,
          23 S 6, 25 S 6, 1 O 6, 19 O 7

  ----, munition factory explosion at, 19 Ja 7

  Longido occupied by Germans, 16 S 4;
    attacked by British, 4 N 4;
    occupied by British, 17 N 4

  Longueval, fighting at, 14 Jl 6 and onwards;
    captured, 29 Jl 6, 27 Au 8

  Loos, the Battle of, 25 S-15 O 5;
    a German attack near, 27 Ja 6

  Loupart Wood captured by British, 13 Mh 7

  Louvain captured by Germans, 17 Au 4;
    sacked, 25 Au 4

  _Louvain_ sunk, 20 Ja 8

  Lowestoft, air-raid on, 20 F 6;
    bombarded, 25 Ap 6;
    naval raid on, 26 N 6

  Lublin occupied by Austro-Germans, 30 Jl 5

  Ludendorff, Gen., resigns, 26 O 8

  Luderitz Bay occupied by Union troops, 19 S 4

  Ludwigshaven, air-raid on, 27 My 5

  Lupembe, action at, 30 O 6

  _Lusitania_ sunk, 7 My 5

  Lutkow captured by Austro-Germans, 19 My 5

  Lutsk captured by Germans, 1 S 5;
    retaken by Russians, 23 S 5;
    they abandon it, 28 S 5;
    and retake it, 6 Je 6

  Luxemburg invaded by Germany, 2 Au 4

  Lvoff, Prince, becomes Premier, 14 Mh 7;
    resigns, 22 Jl 7

  Lyck captured by Germans, 14 F 5

  _Lynx_, H.M.S., mined, 9 Au 5

  Lys, the Battle of the, 9-29 Ap 8


  M 15 sunk, 11 N 7

  M 21 sunk, 20 O 8

  M 30 sunk, 13 My 6

  Maan captured by Arabs, 23 S 8

  MACEDONIA[12] (_see also_ Salonika, SERBIA):
    the Bulgarians take Vranja, 15 O 5;
      are driven from Strumnitza, 19 O 5;
      but capture Veles, 21 O 5;
    the Allies bombard Dedeagatch, 21 O 5;
    the Bulgarians take Uskub and Rumanovo, 22 O 5;
    the Serbians retake Veles, 25 O 5;
    French troops join the Serbians, 27 O 5;
    British and French in position across the Vardar, 27 O 5;
    the Bulgarians retake Veles, 29 O 5;
      and capture Nish, 5 N 5;
      Prilep, 16 N 5;
      but are repulsed near Strumnitza, 16 N 5;
    the Germans capture Novi Bazar, 21 N 5;
    the Austrians take Mitrovitza and Prishtina, 25 N 5;
    Bulgarians occupy Prisrend, 29 N 5;
      and Monastir, 5 D 5;
      and attack the British near Doiran, 6 D 5;
    the Allies retire, 7 D 5;
    the Bulgarians occupy Diakhova, Dibra, and Okrida, 9 D 5;
      but their attacks are repelled, 11 D 5;
    the Franco-British forces in position before Salonika, 12 D 5;
    the Bulgarians capture Doiran and Ghevgeli, 12 D 5;
      Elbasan, 17 D 5 (_now see_ ALBANIA);
    the Allies bombard Dedeagatch and Porto Lagos, 18 Ja 6;
      and are bombarded on the Vardar, 7 Ap 6;
    the Bulgarians capture Fort Rupel, 26 My 6;
    a French success near Doiran, 11 Au 6;
    the Bulgarians attack near Salonika, 17 Au 6;
      and advance towards Kavala, 18 Au 6;
      they capture Florina, 20 Au 6;
    the Allies launch an offensive, 20 Au 6;
      and drive back the Bulgarians, 22 Au 6;
    the Bulgarians occupy Kavala forts, 25 Au 6;
      but are bombarded by British warships, 28 Au 6;
    the British cross the Struma, 10 S 6;
    the 4th Greek Army Corps surrenders at Kavala, 12 S 6;
    the Allies successful near Florina, 15 S 6;
      capture it, 18 S 6;
    the Serbians reach Kenali, 3 O 6;
    the British advance, 4 O 6;
      again, 7 O 6;
      ditto, 31 O 6;
    the Serbians capture Polag, 10 N 6;
      and advance, 12 N 6;
    the Allies advance, 14 N 6;
      and retake Monastir, 18 N 6;
    a Serbian success, 26 N 6;
      they advance again, 3 D 6;
      and capture Stravina, 4 D 6;
    the French advance, 26 Mh 7;
    the British advance, 25 Ap 7;
      again, 9 My 7;
    they withdraw, 16 Je 7;
    Greek troops attack at Skra di Legen, 30 My 8 (_now see_ ALBANIA);
    the Battle of the Vardar begins, 15 S 8;
      the British join in, 18 S 8;
    Serbians and French near Negotin, 21 S 8;
      Ghevgeli captured, 22 S 8;
      Prilep, 23 S 8;
      Ishtip and Veles, 25 S 8;
      Strumnitza, 26 S 8;
      Armistice and end of the battle, 30 S 8

    [12] See note at top of p. 307.

  Mafia Island surrenders, 12 Ja 5

  _Magdeburg_ destroyed, 27 Au 4

  Magdhaba captured by British, 23 D 6

  _Magellan_ sunk, 11 N 6

  Mahenge occupied by Belgians, 9 O 7

  _Majestic_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 My 5

  Makob occupied by Union troops, 3 Mh 5

  Malancourt captured by Germans, 30 Mh 6

  Malangali, fighting at, 24 Jl 6

  Malema occupied by British, 13 Je 8

  _Maloja_ sunk, 27 F 6

  Mamakhatun occupied by Russians, 14 Mh 6;
    retaken by Turks, 31 My 6;
    by Russians, 12 Jl 6

  Mametz, fighting at, 1-12 Jl 6;
    captured by British, 25 Au 8

  Mangeles captured by French, 21 D 5

  Mannheim, air-raids on, 24 D 7, 18 Mh 8, 21 My 8, 1 Jl 8, 21 Au 8

  Manunga, a British success near, 5 My 8

  _Maori_, H.M.S., sunk, 7 My 5

  Margate: bombarded, 25 F 7;
    air-raids on, 12 Au 7, 22 Au 7

  _Marina_ sunk, 28 O 6

  Maritz: _see under_ SOUTH AFRICA

  _Marmora_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Jl 8

  Marne, the 1st Battle of the, 6-10 S 4;
    the Germans reach the, 31 My 8;
    the 2nd Battle of the, 15 Jl-4 Au 8

  _Marne_, H.M.S., sinks a submarine, 20 Jl 8

  Maroilles, action at, 25 Au 4

  _Marquette_ sunk, 26 O 5

  Marshall, Lt.-Gen., apptd. to command in Mesopotamia, 24 N 7

  Marshall Islands occupied by Japan, 7 O 4

  Martinpuich captured by British, 15 S 6;
    again, 24 Au 8

  _Mary Rose_, H.M.S., sunk, 17 O 7

  Masurian Lakes, the Battle of the, 6-12 S 4

  Maubeuge invested, 26 Au 4; surrenders, 7 S 4;
    captured by British, 8 N 8

  Maude, Gen., assumes command in Mesopotamia, 28 Au 6;
    dies, 18 N 7

  Max of Baden, Prince, becomes Chancellor, 3 O 8;
    resigns, 8 N 8

  Mecca captured by the Grand Sherif, 9 Je 6

  _Medea_ sunk, 25 Mh 5

  _Medusa_, H.M.S., sunk, 25 Mh 6

  Meiszagola stormed by Germans, 12 S 5

  Memel occupied by Russians, 18 Mh 5;
    retaken by Germans, 21 Mh 5

  Merckem captured by Allies, 27 O 7

  Merris captured by Australian troops, 29 Jl 8;
    the 'Mont' captured by British, 3 Je 8

  Mersa Matruh, fighting at, 13 D 5, 25 D 5

  Merv captured by Bolshevists, 22 Au 8

  Merville captured by British, 19 Au 8

  MESOPOTAMIA (_see also_ KUT-EL-AMARA and PERSIA):
    Basra occupied by British, 21 N 4;
    the Battle of Shaiba, 12-14 Ap 5;
    the British capture Amara, 3 Je 5;
      Nasiriyeh, 25 Jl 5;
    the British occupy Bushire, 8 Au 5;
      they reach Kut-el-Amara, 25 S 5;
    the 1st Battle of Kut, 28 S 5;
      they take Kut, 29 S 5; they
    reach Azizie, 23 O 5;
    they advance on Ctesiphon, 12 N 5;
    the Battle of Ctesiphon, 22-24 N 5;
    the British retreat towards Azizie, 25 N 5;
      they retreat on Kut-el-Amara, 30 N 5;
      they reach Kut-el-Amara, 3 D 5 (_now see_ KUT-EL-AMARA);
    the garrison capitulates, 29 Ap 6;
    Russian cavalry join the British, 18 My 6;
    the Turks evacuate Es Sinn, 19 My 6;
    the British advance on the Tigris, 21 My 6;
      a success on the Tigris, 15 Je 6;
    the Turks attack at Sanna-i-Yat, 10 Jl 6;
    Gen. Maude assumes command, 28 Au 6;
    the British attack Kut-el-Amara, 13 D 6;
    the 2nd Battle of Kut begins, 5 Ja 7;
      a partial success, 25 Ja 7;
      a position captured, 26 Ja 7;
    a success near Hai-Tigris, 1 F 7;
      another, 3 F 7;
    the British capture the Liquorice Factory, 10 F 7;
    a success at the Dahra bend, 14 F 7;
    a failure at Sanna-i-Yat, 17 F 7;
      a success there, 22 F 7;
    the British cross at the Shamrun bend, 23 F 7;
      they capture Kut-el-Amara, 24 F 7;
    the pursuit of the Turks begins, 25 F 7;
    the Firefly is recaptured, 27 F 7;
    British cavalry reach Lajj, 5 Mh 7;
    the Turks stand on the Dialah river, 7 Mh 7;
    the British cross it, 9 Mh 7;
      and advance on Baghdad, 10 Mh 7;
      they capture Baghdad, 11 Mh 7;
    Feluja, 19 Mh 7;
    Deli Abbas, 31 Mh 7;
    Belad Station, 8 Ap 7;
    the Turks defeated at Deltawa, 11 Ap 7;
    the British cross the Shatt-el-Adhaim below Samarra, 17 Ap 7;
    Turks defeated at Istabulat, 18 Ap 7;
    the British attack between Istabulat and Samarra, 21 Ap 7;
    they take Samarra Station, 23 Ap 7;
    the Turks are defeated and retreat, 24 Ap 7;
      again at Jebel Hamrin, 30 Ap 7;
    a British success on the Euphrates, 11 Jl 7;
    the Turks routed at Ramadieh, 28-29 S 7;
      at Tekrit, 5 N 7;
    the British capture Tekrit, 6 N 7;
    Gen. Maude dies, 18 N 7;
    Gen. Marshall succeeds him, 24 N 7;
    the Turks defeated near Deli Abbas, 3 D 7;
    the British take Khan Abu Rayat, 20 F 8;
      Hit, 9 Mh 8;
      they defeat the Turks at Khan Baghdadie, 26 Mh 8;
      capture Kifri, 27 Ap 8;
      defeat Turks at Tuz Khartmatli, 29 Ap 8;
      reach the Tank river, 30 Ap 8;
      occupy Kirkuk, 7 My 8;
      drive the Turks across the Lesser Zab, 11 My 8;
      evacuate Kirkuk, 24 My 8;
      advance east of the Tigris, 23 O 8;
      capture Kirkuk again, 25 O 8;
    Kalat Shergat, 28 O 8;
    the Turks routed, 29 O 8;
    the Turkish forces surrender, 30 O 8;
    the British occupy Mosul, 3 N 8

  Mesopotamia Report published, 27 Je 7

  Messines captured by Germans, 1 N 4;
    the Battle of, 7-14 Je 7;
    fighting on the Ridge, 10-12 Ap 8;
    captured by British, 29 S 8

  _Meteor_ destroyed, 10 Au 5

  Météren, fighting at, 13-17 Ap 8;
    captured by British, 19 Jl 8

  Metz, air-raids on, 25 Mh 5, 23 Ja 6, 8 Mh 6, 18 Mh 6, 11 F 8,
        23 Mh 8;
    French troops enter, 19 N 8

  Mezera, fighting at, 7 D 4

  Mézières captured by Germans, 27 Au 4

  Michaelis, Herr, becomes Chancellor, 14 Jl 7;
    resigns, 30 O 7

  _Mignonette_, H.M.S., sunk, 17 Mh 7

  Milan, an air-raid on, 14 F 6

  Miliukoff, M., resigns, 16 My 7

  Military Service Bill introduced, 5 Ja 6

  ---- ---- Act comes into operation, 10 F 6

  ---- Cross instituted, 1 Ja 5

  Milner, Lord, becomes Secretary for War, 18 Ap 8

  Miraumont captured by British, 25 F 7

  Mirbach, Count, assassinated, 6 Jl 8

  Miriampol captured by Germans, 12 F 5

  Mitau occupied by Germans, 1 Au 5;
    retaken by Russians, 16 Au 5

  Mitrovitza captured by Austrians, 25 N 5

  Mizpeh captured by British, 21 N 7

  Mœuvres reached by British, 21 N 7;
    captured, 12 S 8;
      again, 18 S 8

  Mohmand Inshkar defeated, 18 Ap 5

  Mohmed V. dies, 3 Jl 8

  _Moldavia_ sunk, 23 My 8

  Moldavia, fighting in, 17 Ja 7, 23 Jl--9 Au 7

  _Moltke_ sunk, 18 Au 5

  Moltke, Gen. von, dies, 18 Je 6

  Momba occupied by British, 10 Je 6

  Monastir captured by Bulgarians, 5 D 5;
    an air-raid on, 24 Ja 6;
    recaptured by Allies, 18 N 6;
    a French advance near, 26 Mh 7

  Monfalcone capt. by Italians, 9 Je 5

  _Mongolia_ sunk, 23 Je 7

  Monitors bombard Belgium, 18 O 4;
    engage German destroyers, 17 My 6

  ---- the M 15 sunk, 11 N 7

  ---- the M 21 sunk, 20 O 8

  ---- the M 30 sunk, 13 My 6

  _Monmouth_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 N 4

  Monro, Gen., succeeds Gen. Hamilton, 16 O 5;
    assumes command, 28 O 5

  Mons, the Battle of, 23 Au 4;
    retaken by Canadian troops, 11 N 8

  Montagu, Mr., becomes Secretary for India, 17 Jl 7

  Montdidier captured by Germans, 27 Mh 8;
    retaken by French, 10 Au 8

  Monte Asolone captured by Austrians, 18 D 7;
    retaken by Italians, 19-21 D 7

  Monte di Val Bella captured by Italians, 29 Je 8

  Monte Ortigara, fighting on, 10 Je 7, 13 Je 7

  Monte San Michele captured by Italians, 19 Jl 5

  Monte Santo, fighting on, 15-17 My 7;
    capt. by Italians, 24 Au 7

  Monte Vodice captured by Italians, 18 My 7

  MONTENEGRO: declares war on Austria, 5 Au 4;
    the Austrians capture Mount Lovtchen, 10 Ja 6;
    Cettinje occupied by the Austrians, 13 Ja 6;
    Antivari is captured by the Austrians, 22 Ja 6;
    Scutari captured, and the Austrian occupation complete, 23 Ja 6

  Montfaucon capt. by Allies, 26 S 8

  Monticello Pass captured by Italians, 26 My 8

  Moon Island captured by Germans, 18 O 7

  ---- Sound, fighting in, 17-18 O 7

  Mora River (E. Africa), Battle of the, 9 Mh 5

  ---- Mountains (W. Africa), fighting at, 19 F 6

  Moratorium proclaimed in England, 2 Au 4

  Moreuil retaken by French, 30 Mh 8;
    fighting at, 4-5 Ap 8

  Morlancourt, fighting at, 10 Je 8, 6-8 Au 8

  Mormal, fighting in the Forest of, 4-5 N 8

  Moronvilliers, fighting near, 17 Ap 7, 23 Ap 7, 20 My 7, 14 Jl 7

  _Morris_, H.M.S., sinks German destroyer, 21 Mh 8

  Mort Homme, a German attack on the, 9 Ap 6;
    is repulsed, 10 Ap 6;
    a French success, 2 My 6;
    fresh German attacks, 3 My 6;
    they lose ground, 8 My 6;
    fighting at, 20-21 My 6

  Morval captured by British, 25 S 6

  Moshi occupied by British, 12 Mh 6

  Mosul occupied by British, 3 N 8

  Mount Lovtchen captured by Austrians, 10 Ja 6

  _Möwe_ sinks the _Ariadne_, 15 Ja 6;
    captures the _Appam_, 16 Ja 6;
    sinks the _Clan MacTavish_, 17 Ja 6;
    return to Germany announced, 4 Mh 6;
      again, 23 Mh 7

  Moyenville captured by British, 21 Au 8

  Mpwapwa occupied by British, 11 Au 6

  Mulhausen captured by French, 8 Au 4;
    they evacuate it, 10 Au 4;
    they retake it, 19 Au 4;
    the Germans retake it, 25 Au 4

  _München_ sunk, 19 O 6

  Munitions, Minister of, Mr. Lloyd George becomes the first, 26 My 5;
    Dr. Addison succeeds him, 10 D 6;
      and is succeeded by Mr. Churchill, 17 Jl 7

  Mush captured by Russians, 19 F 6;
    retaken by Turks, 2 Au 6;
    by Russians, 24 Au 6;
    abandoned by Russians, 3 My 7

  Mwanza captured by British, 12 Jl 6

  _Myrmidon_, H.M.S., sunk, 26 Mh 7


  Nabas occupied by Union troops, 11 Mh 5

  Namur bombarded by Germans, 20 Au 4;
    they capture it, 23 Au 4;
    the Battle of, 22 Au 4;
    air-raids on, 11 Au 6, 25 Au 6;
    the British enter, 21 N 8

  Nancy, the Battle of, 22 Au--11 S 4;
    air-raid on, 10 Au 7

  Nantes, British base established at, 30 Au 4

  Narev crossed by the Germans, 23 Jl 5

  Narotch, Lake, the 1st Battle of, 18 Mh--14 Ap 6;
    the 2nd Battle of, 28 Ap 6

  Narrows, Battle of the, 18 Mh 5

  Nasiriyeh captured by British, 25 Jl 5

  _Nasturtium_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 Ap 6

  _Natal_, H.M.S., destroyed, 31 D 5

  Naval Actions: off Belgian coast, 20 Mh 6, 22 Jl 6, 27 O 7;
    in North Sea, 23 Ja 7, 12 D 7, 21 Mh 8, 11 Au 8 (_see also_
          Jutland, Dogger Bank, and Heligoland)

  Naval Division formed, 7 S 4;
    reaches Antwerp, 5 O 4

  Navy, the German, surrenders off the Firth of Forth, 21 N 8;
    scuttled at Scapa, 21 Je 9

  Nazareth, British cavalry enter, 20 S 8

  Negotin occupied by French, 22 O 8

  _Negro_, H.M.S., sunk, 21 D 6

  Nesle occupied by British, 18 Mh 7;
    captured by Germans, 24 Mh 8;
    occupied by French, 28 Au 8

  Neu Iringa occupied by British, 29 Au 6

  Neu Langenburg captured by British, 29 My 6

  Neuve Chapelle captured by Germans, 2 N 4;
    the Battle of, 10-13 Mh 5

  Neuve Eglise, fighting at, 12-14 Ap 8;
    captured by British, 1 S 8

  Neuville, a German attack near, 24 Ja 6

  New Guinea occupied by Australia, 24 S 4

  Ngaundere occupied by Allies, 29 Je 5

  NICARAGUA severs relations with Germany, 19 My 7;
    declares war, 8 My 8

  Nicholas, the Grand Duke, appointed Viceroy in the Caucasus, 5 S 5

  Niemen, Battle of the, 26-28 S 4

  Nieuport, Battle of, 10 Jl 7

  _Niger_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 N 4

  Nikolaieff occupied by Germans, 17 Mh 8

  Nish captured by Bulgarians, 5 N 5;
    recaptured by Serbians, 12 O 8

  Nitti, Sig., becomes Premier, 21 Je 9

  Nivelle, Gen., succeeds Marshal Joffre, 12 D 6;
    is succeeded by Gen. Pétain, 15 My 7

  Norongombe, a British victory at, 19 Jl 7

  North Sea: _see_ Naval Actions, Jutland, Heligoland, Dogger Bank

  _North Star_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  NORWAY forbids the use of territorial waters to submarines, 13 O 6

  _Nottingham_, H.M.S., sunk, 19 Au 6

  Nova Alexandria, the Germans cross the Vistula at, 21 Jl 5

  Novi Bazar captured by Germans, 21 N 5;
    occupied by Allies, 14 O 8

  Novo Georgievsk captured by Germans, 20 Au 5

  Noyon reoccupied by French, 21 S 4;
    retaken by Germans, 25 S 4;
    by the French, 18 Mh 7;
    evacuated by French, 25 Mh 8;
    retaken by French, 29 Au 8

  _Nubian_, H.M.S., damaged, 27 O 6


  Oberndorf, air-raid on, 12 O 6

  _Ocean_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 Mh 5

  _Oceanic_, H.M.S., lost, 8 S 4

  Odessa occupied by Germans, 13 Mh 8

  Oesel Island attacked by Germans, 12 O 7;
    they capture Arensburg, 13 O 7;
    fight a naval action, 14 O 7;
    occupy the island, 16 O 7

  Okrida occupied by Bulgarians, 9 D 5

  Olai captured by Russians, 7 N 5

  Olita fort evacuated by Russians, 26 Au 5

  Oppy captured by British, 7 O 8

  Oppy line, fighting at the, 29 Ap 7, 3 My 7, 28 Je 7

  _Orama_ sunk, 19 O 7

  Orlando, Sig., becomes Premier, 28 O 7;
    resigns, 19 Je 9

  Orsova, passage forced by Austro-Germans at, 23 O 5;
     occupied by Roumanians, 7 S 6;
    retaken by Austro-Germans, 23 N 6

  Ortona bombarded by Austrians, 23 Jl 5

  Ossowietz captured by Germans, 23 Au 5

  Ostend occupied by British, 27 Au 4;
    the 7th Division disembarked at, 6 O 4;
    occupied by Germans, 15 O 4;
    bombarded by British, 5 Je 7, 22 S 7, 25 S 7, 21 O 7, 21 Mh 8;
    a British naval raid on, 23 Ap 8;
    H.M.S. _Vindictive_ sunk off, 10 My 8;
    air-raids on, 8 Mh 5, 10 N 6, 15 N 6, 17 N 6, 1 Je 7, 15 S 7;
    by French airmen, 8 F 5;
    reoccupied by Allies, 17 O 8

  _Otranto_ sunk, 6 O 8

  _Otway_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Jl 7

  Oulchy-le-Château captured by British, 25 Jl 8

  Ourcq, the Battle of the, 9 S 4, 11 S 4

  Ovillers, fighting at, 3-16 Jl 6


  Painlevé, M., becomes Premier, 12 S 7;
    his Govt. defeated, 13 N 7

  _Palembang_ sunk, 18 Mh 6

  PALESTINE (_see also_ SINAI):
    the 1st Battle of Gaza, 27 Mh 7;
    the 2nd ditto, 17 Ap 7;
    Gen. Allenby succeeds Gen. Murray, 29 Je 7;
    fighting at Gaza, 14 Jl 7;
    the British capture Beersheba, 31 O 7;
    and the defences of Gaza, 1 N 7;
    a British success north of Beersheba, 6 N 7;
      they capture Gaza, 7 N 7;
    a further Turkish defeat, 9 N 7;
      another at Ascalon, 13 N 7;
    the British approach Jaffa, 15 N 7;
      capture it, 17 N 7;
      approach Jerusalem, 18 N 7;
      capture Mizpeh, 21 N 7;
      occupy Hebron, 6 D 7;
      capture Jerusalem, 9 D 7;
      formal entry into, 11 D 7;
      they advance again, 12 D 7, 21 D 7;
      and shatter Turkish attacks, 27 D 7;
    capture Ramah and Beitunia, 28 D 7;
      Bireh, 29 D 7;
      Bethel, 30 D 7;
    they advance, 18 Ja 8, 14 F 8;
      and attack, 19 F 8, 20 F 8;
    they capture Jericho, 21 F 8;
      Rujm-el-Bahr, 26 F 8;
      the Mandesi ford, 26 F 8;
      cross the Jordan, 22 Mh 8;
      capture Es Salt, 25 Mh 8;
      destroy the railway near Amman, 27 Mh 8;
      attack Amman, 28 Mh 8;
        again, 30 Mh 8;
    they retire and evacuate Es Salt, 1 Ap 8;
    the Turks attack near Jaffa, 10 Ap 8;
    Arabs seize the Hedjaz railway near Maan, 24 Ap 8;
    the British advance and recapture Es Salt, 30 Ap 8;
      they are defeated near Jisr-ed-Damieh, 1 My 8;
      they withdraw across the Jordan, 3 My 8;
      capture Turkish positions near the coast, 8 Je 8;
    the Turks attack, 14 Jl 8;
    the British attack in force, 19 S 8;
      win a decisive victory, 20 S 8, 21 S 8, 22 S 8;
      they capture Acre and Haifa and Es Salt, 23 S 8;
    Arabs capture Maan, 23 S 8;
    the British occupy Tiberias and Amman, 25 S 8;
    Arab forces capture Deraa, 27 S 8;
    the British take Damascus, 30 S 8;
      Sidon, 7 O 8;
    the French occupy Beirut, 7 O 8;
    the British take Tripoli, 13 O 8;
      Homs, 15 O 8;
    an armistice with Turkey signed, 31 O 8

  _Pallada_ destroyed, 11 O 4

  PANAMA declares war on Austria, 10 D 7

  _Paragon_, H.M.S., sunk, 18 Mh 7

  Paris, the Govt. leaves, 3 S 4;
    a Zeppelin raid on, 29 Ja 6;
    air-raids on, 30 Ja 8, 8 Mh 8, 11 Mh 8, 21 My 8, 22 My 8,
          15 Je 8, 27 Je 8, 15 Au 8, 16 S 8;
    first bombarded by long-range gun, 23 Mh 8;
      again, 29 Mh 8, 27 My 8

  _Partridge_, H.M.S., sunk, 12 D 7

  Passchendaele Ridge, the British attack the, 4-12 O 7, 26 O 7,
        30 O 7;
    they capture it, 6 N 7;
    and evacuate it, 16 Ap 8

  _Pathfinder_, H.M.S., sunk, 5 S 4

  _Patia_, H.M.S., sunk, 13 Je 8

  Peace Conference begins at the Quai d'Orsay, 18 Ja 9;
    a Council of Four formed, 25 Mh 9;
    Mr. Wilson makes a statement concerning Fiume, 23 Ap 9;
    Sig. Orlando leaves Paris, 24 Ap 9;
    League of Nations adopted, 28 Ap 8;
    Labour charter adopted, 28 Ap 8

  ---- Proposals, Germany announces, 12 D 6;
    they are received by England, 18 D 6;
    the Allies' reply, 30 D 6;
    Mr. Wilson's, 20 D 6;
    Germany replies to, 25 D 6

  ---- Terms, presented to Germany, 7 My 9;
    to Austria, 2 Je 9;
    Germany accepts, 23 Je 9;
    signs, 28 Je 9;
    Austria signs, 10 S 9;
    Bulgaria signs, 27 N 9

  _Pegasus_, H.M.S., shells Dar-es-Salaam, 13 Au 4;
    is sunk, 20 S 4

  Pelagosa Island occupied by Italians, 25 Jl 5

  _Pellew_, H.M.S., disabled, 12 D 7

  Péronne captured by Germans, 24 S 4;
    occupied by British, 18 Mh 7;
    taken by Germans, 24 Mh 8;
    by British, 1 S 8

  Pershing, Gen., arrives in London, 8 Je 7

  PERSIA: -- a revolt breaks out in, 22 N 5;
    Russians occupy Hamadan, 11 D 5;
      Kum, 20 D 5;
      Kermanshah, 27 F 6;
      Sinneh, 5 Mh 6;
      Kerind, 12 Mh 6;
      Ispahan, 19 Mh 6;
      Kasr-i-Shirin, 10 My 6;
    Kerman occupied by British, 12 Je 6;
    Turks retake Kermanshah, 2 Jl 6;
    the Russians capture Hamadan, 2 Mh 7;
      attack Turks in Asadabad Pass, 5 Mh 7;
      capture the Pass, 6 Mh 7;
    the Russians recapture Kermanshah, 13 Mh 7;
      occupy Kerind, 17 Mh 7

  _Persia_ sunk, 30 D 5

  PERU severs relations with Germany, 6 O 7

  Pétain, Gen., apptd. Chief of Staff, 29 Ap 7;
    Commander-in-Chief, 15 My 7;
    created a Marshal of France, 19 N 8

  Petrograd, food riots in, 9 Mh 7;
    disorders in, 16-18 Jl 7;
    a _coup d'état_ by Bolshevists, 7 N 7;
    the British Embassy attacked, 29 Au 8

  _Pheasant_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 Mh 7

  _Phœnix_, H.M.S., sunk, 14 My 8

  Piave, Austrian attacks on the, 10-16 N 7;
    fighting on the, 15-25 Je 8, 2-6 Jl 8, 24-28 O 8

  Pilkem, fighting near, 6 Jl 5

  Pinsk occupied by Germans, 16 S 5;
    a Russian success near, 16 Ja 6

  Pirrie, Lord, apptd. Controller of Shipping, 19 Mh 8

  Plava captured by Italians, 17-18 Je 5

  Ploegsteert Wood, the Germans attack, 13 My 6

  Ploesti captured by Germans, 6 D 6

  Ploska Height captured by Russians, 2 S 6

  Plumer, Gen., apptd. to command in Italy, 24 N 7

  Podgora, attacked by Italians, 15 Je 5;
    an Italian success at, 20 Jl 5

  Pola, naval raids on, 1 N 6, 14 My 8, 31 O 8

  Polag captured by Serbians, 10 N 6

  POLAND: invaded by Germany, 2 Au 4;
    by Austria, 10 Au 4;
    Russia guarantees autonomy to, 14 Au 4;
    proclaimed an Independent State by Germany and Austria, 5 N 6

  _Pommern_ sunk, 2 Jl 5

  Pope, the, makes Peace Proposals, 14 Au 7

  Porto Lagos bombarded, 18 Ja 6

  PORTUGAL: seizes German ships, 23 F 6;
    Germany declares war on, 10 Mh 6;
    an insurrection at Lisbon, 6-11 D 7

  _Portugal_ sunk, 30 Mh 6

  Posina captured by Italians, 27 Je 6

  Pozières captured by British, 25 Jl 6;
    the Germans attack, 6 Au 6;
    retaken by British, 24 Au 8

  Pregasina capt. by Italians, 17 O 5

  _President Lincoln_ sunk, 31 My 8

  Prilep captured by Bulgarians, 16 N 5;
    retaken by French, 23 S 8

  _Primula_, H.M.S., sunk, 1 Mh 6

  _Prinz Adalbert_ sunk, 23 O 5

  Prishtina captured by Austrians, 25 N 5;
    occupied by French, 10 O 8

  Prisrend occupied by Bulgarians, 29 N 5;
    retaken by French, 11 O 8

  _Provence II._ sunk, 26 F 6

  Prussia, East: the Russians invade, 7 Au 4;
    evacuate, 12 S 4;
    reinvade, 4 O 4;
    evacuate, 9 O 4;
    reinvade, 18 Mh 5

  Przasnysz, the Battle of, 22 F 5;
    captured by Germans, 24 F 5;
    reoccupied by Russians, 27 F 5;
    retaken by Austro-Germans, 14 Jl 5

  Przemysl invested by Russians, 22 S 4;
    the siege raised for three weeks, 15 O 4;
    again besieged, 11 N 4;
    the defences breached, 13 Mh 5;
    it surrenders, 22 Mh 5;
    attacked by Austro-Germans, 30 My 5;
    they capture it, 3 Je 5

  Pskoff occupied by Germans, 25 F 8

  Pys captured by British, 25 F 7


  'Quadrilateral,' the, stormed by British, 18 S 6

  Quéant, fighting at, 3 My 7

  ---- line captured, 2 S 8

  _Queen_ sunk, 27 O 6

  _Queen Elizabeth_, H.M.S., in action at the Dardanelles, 25 F 5


  _Racoon_, H.M.S., lost, 9 Ja 8

  Rafa, the Battle of, 9 Ja 7

  _Raglan_, H.M.S., sunk, 20 Ja 8

  Ramadieh, the Battle of, 28-29 S 7

  Ramah captured by British, 28 D 7

  _Ramazan_ sunk, 19 S 5

  Ramsgate, a Zeppelin raid on, 17 My 5;
    air-raids on, 9 F 6, 22 Au 7;
    bombarded, 18 Mh 7, 27 Ap 7

  Rasputin assassinated, 29 D 6

  Rava Russka, a battle at, 20 Je 5

  _Recruit_ (i), H.M.S., sunk, 1 My 5

  ---- (ii), H.M.S., sunk, 9 Au 7

  Recruiting for 'Derby' groups closed, 12 D 5

  Redmond, Mr. J., dies, 6 Mh 8

  _Regina Margherita_ sunk, 11 D 6

  _Renaudin_ sunk, 18 Mh 6

  'Retreat,' the, begins 24 Au 4;
    ends, 5 S 4

  Reval occupied by Germans, 25 F 8

  _Rewa_ sunk, 4 Ja 8

  Rheims occupied by Germans, 5 S 4;
    evacuated by them, 14 S 4;
    first bombardment of the Cathedral, 20 S 4

  Rhodesia, the Germans driven from Abercorn, 1 Au 5

  _Rhododendron_, H.M.S., sunk, 5 My 8

  Rhondda, Lord, apptd. Food Controller, 15 Je 7;
    dies 3 Jl 8;
    is succeeded by Mr. Clynes, 9 Jl 8

  Ribot, M., becomes Premier, 19 Mh 7;
    resigns, 7 S 7

  Richthoven, Baron von, shot down, 23 Ap 8

  Ridges, the Battle of, 3-6 D 4

  Riga, the Russians prepare to evacuate, 5 Au 5;
    the Germans repulsed near, 7 Au 5;
    a German squadron invades the Gulf, 10, 17, 18, and 21 Au 5;
    the Germans advance on, 18 O 5;
    fighting near, 10 N 5, 7 Ja 7, 23-30 Ja 7;
    the Germans attack near, 20 Au 7;
    they occupy it, 3 S 7;
    a naval action in the Gulf, 12-21 O 7

  Rimnic-Sarat captured by Germans, 26-28 D 6

  Rizeh captured by Russians, 7 Mh 6

  Roberts, Lord, dies, 14 N 4

  Robertson, Sir W., apptd. Chief of Staff, 21 D 5;
    resigns, 16 F 8

  Robinson, Lt. W. L., brings down a Zeppelin, 3 S 6

  Rœux captured by British, 14 My 7

  Roisel occupied by British, 24 Mh 7

  Romani, the Battle of, 4-5 Au 6

  Roubaix reoccupied by Allies, 18 O 8

  ROUMANIA declares war on Austria, 27 Au 6;
    invades Transylvania, 28 Au 6;
    agrees to an armistice, 6 D 7;
    submits to a German ultimatum, 2 Mh 8;
    signs peace with Central Powers, 7 My 8

  Rovereto captured by Italians, 23 N 5

  _Royal Edward_ sunk, 14 Au 5

  Roye captured by Germans, 26 Mh 8;
    retaken by French, 27 Au 8

  Ruanda invaded by Belgians, 30 My 6

  Rufigi River, fighting on the, 5 Ja 7 (_see also_ Königsberg)

  Rumanovo captured by Bulgarians, 22 O 5

  Rujm-el-Bahr occupied by British, 26 F 8

  _Russell_, H.M.S., sunk, 27 Ap 6

  _Russia_ sunk, 14 D 6

  RUSSIA: invades East Prussia, 7 Au 4;
    guarantees autonomy to Poland, 14 Au 4;
    the Grand Duke Nicholas is sent to the Caucasus, 5 S 5;
    sends an ultimatum to Bulgaria, 4 O 5;
    sends troops to Marseilles, 20 Ap 6;
    food riots in Petrograd, 9 Mh 7;
    the revolution begins, 12 Mh 7;
    the Tsar abdicates, 15 Mh 7;
    new Government recognised by the Allies, 24 Mh 7;
    M. Miliukoff resigns, 16 My 7;
    M. Kerenski becomes War Minister, 16 My 7;
    the Government repudiates a separate Peace, 19 My 7;
    launches a great offensive in E. Galicia, 1 Jl 7;
    proclaims a republic, 15 S 7 (_see_ Kerenski);
    a _coup d'état_ by Bolshevists, 7 N 7 (_see_ Lenin);
    negotiates at Brest-Litovsk, 2 D 7;
    the General Staff surrenders, 3 D 7;
    the Ukrainians revolt, 8 D 7 (_see_ Ukraine);
    the Constituent Assembly meets, 11 D 7;
    is dispersed by Bolshevists, 13 D 7;
    who sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk, 15 D 7;
    and open Peace negotiations, 22 D 7;
    but denounce Germany's conditions, 2 Ja 8;
    the Constituent Assembly meets again, 18 Ja 8;
      is dissolved, 19 Ja 8;
    Trotsky announces that Russia is out of the war, 10 F 8;
    the Bolshevists defeat Gen. Alexeieff, 13 F 8;
    the armistice terminates, 18 F 8;
    Germany's terms are accepted, 24 F 8;
    Peace is signed at Brest-Litovsk, 2 Mh 8;
    the British Embassy is attacked, 29 Au 8


  Saarbrücken, air-raids on, 6 S 5, 25 O 7, 16 My 8

  Saarburg captured by French, 18 Au 4

  Saillisel captured by French, 12 N 6

  Sailly-Saillisel captured by French, 18 O 6

  St. Denis Westrem, air-raids on, 3 Je 7, 27 S 7

  St. Eloi, the Battle of, 14-17 Mh 5;
    British success at, 27 Mh 6, 3 Ap 6;
    a German success at, 7 Ap 6;
    a British success at, 9-10 Ap 6

  St. Julien stormed by Germans, 24 Ap 5;
    captured by British, 31 Jl 7;
    retaken by Germans, 1 Au 7;
      by British, 3 Au 7

  St. Mihiel captured by Germans, 23 S 4;
    a German success at, 6 Jl 5;
    the Battle of, 12-13 S 8

  St. Nazaire, British base established at, 30 Au 4

  St. Pierre Divion captured by British, 13 N 6

  St. Pierre Vaast Wood captured by British, 16 Mh 7

  St. Quentin retaken by French, 1 O 8

  Saliff captured by British, 12 Je 7

  Salonika (_for military operations, see_ MACEDONIA):
    Allied troops land at, 5 O 5;
    British reinforcements arrive, 4 D 5;
    Gen. Sarrail assumes command, 16 Ja 6;
    air-raids on, 1 F 6, 27 Mh 6;
    Russian troops land, 30 Jl 6;
    Italian ditto, 11 Au 6;
    Gen. Guillaumet succeeds Gen. Sarrail, 15 D 7;
    Gen. F. d'Esperey succeeds Gen. Guillaumet, 27 Je 8

  _Salta_ sunk, 10 Ap 7

  _Salvia_, H.M.S., sunk, 20 Je 7

  Samarra, fighting near, 17 Ap 7;
    the British occupy the station, 23 Ap 7

  Sambre, the Battle of the, 1-11 N 8

  Samoa occupied by New Zealand, 28 Au 4

  San crossed by the Russians, 14 S 4;
    the Battle of the, 14-17 My 5

  San Giovanni captured by Italians, 27 My 7

  San Grado captured by Italians, 15 S 6

  San Michele, Monte, captured by Italians, 19 Jl 5

  Sanna-i-Yat: _see_ Kut-el-Amara

  Sarajevo, assassination at, 28 Je 4

  Sari Bair, the Austrians attack at, 9 My 5;
    the Battle of, 6-11 Au 5

  _Sarnia_, H.M.S., sunk, 12 S 8

  Sarrail, Gen., assumes command at Salonika, 16 Ja 6;
    succeeded by Gen. Guillaumet, 15 D 7

  Sarykamish, the Battle of, 29 D 4-2 Ja 5

  Scarborough bombarded, 16 D 4, 4 S 7

  Scarpe, a British attack on the, 23 Ap 7;
    the Battle of the, 26 Au-3 S 8

  Scheer, Admiral, apptd. Chief of Admiralty Staff, 2 Au 8

  Scheidemann, Herr, becomes Prime Minister, 12 F 9;
    resigns, 20 Je 9

  Schilden Island captured by Germans, 20 O 7

  Schleswig-Holstein, air-raid on, 25 Mh 6

  Schwaben Redoubt captured by British, 28 S 6;
    they advance at, 14 O 6

  _Scott_, H.M.S., sunk, 15 Au 8

  Scutari captured by Austrians, 23 Ja 6;
    occupied by Italians, 4 N 8

  Seaham bombarded, 11 Jl 6

  Sedan occupied by Americans, 6 N 8

  Seeheim occupied by Union troops, 17 Ap 5

  Seidler, Dr. von, becomes Austrian Premier, 24 Je 7;
    tenders his resignation, 22 Ja 8;
    resigns, 23 Jl 8

  Selle, Battle of the, 17-25 O 8

  Semendria, taken by Austrians, 10 O 5

  Semlin occupied by Serbians, 10 S 4;
    they evacuate it, 17 S 4

  Sende, fighting at, 25 O 5

  Senussi Arabs repulsed near Mersa Matruh, 13 D 5;
    routed, 25 D 5;
      again, 23 Ja 6;
    defeated at Agagia, 26 F 6;
      again near Siwa, 5 F 7

  SERBIA (_for military operations, see_ MACEDONIA):
    invades Bosnia, 12 Au 4;
    is invaded by Austria, 13 Au 4;
    the Austrians take Shabatz, 16 Au 4;
    the Battle of the Jardar, 17-19 Au 4;
    the Austrians evacuate Serbia, 25 Au 4;
    the Serbians invade Hungary and occupy Semlin, 10 S 4;
    they defeat the Austrians on the Drina, 15 S 4;
    but evacuate Semlin, 17 S 4;
    the Serbians reinvade Bosnia, 22 S 4;
      are driven out, 27 O 4;
    the third Austrian invasion of Serbia begins, 1 N 4;
    the Austrians occupy Belgrade, 2 D 4;
    the Battle of the Ridges, 3-6 D 4;
    the Serbians retake Belgrade and expel the Austrians, 15 D 4;
    the fourth Austrian invasion begins, 6 O 5;
    the Austro-Germans capture Belgrade, 8 O 5;
    Semendria, 10 O 5;
    Bulgaria invades Serbia, 11 O 5;
      captures Vranja, 15 O 5;
      Veles, 21 O 5;
      Uskub and Rumanovo, 22 O 5;
    the Austrians force the Danube at Orsova, 23 O 5;
      and open a route to Constantinople, 24 O 5;
      and join the Bulgarians, 25 O 5;
    the Serbians retake Veles, 25 O 5;
      and join the French, 27 O 5;
    the Bulgarians retake Veles, 29 O 5;
    the Austrians capture Kragujevatz, 30 O 5;
    the Bulgarians take Nish, 5 N 5 (_now see_ MACEDONIA);
    the Serbian Govt. leaves Mitrovitza for Prisrend, 23 N 5;
    the Austrians capture Mitrovitza and Prishtina,
    the Govt. removes to Scutari, 25 N 5;
    the Serbian Army retreats into Albania, 28 N 5;
    Corfu is prepared for Serbian troops, 11 Ja 6;
    the first Serbian troops land at Corfu, 15 Ja 6;
    the reorganised Serbian Army is concentrated there, 10 F 6;
      they advance on Monastir, 3 O 6 (_now see_ MACEDONIA);
      they recapture Nish, 12 O 8;
      Ipek and Novi Bazar, 14 O 8;
      approach the Danube, 20 O 8;
    the French occupy Negotin, 22 O 8;
    the Serbians reoccupy Belgrade, 1 N 8

  Sereth, fighting on the, 2-9 S 5;
    a Russian attack on the, 4 Au 6

  Seringes captured by American troops, 31 Jl 8

  Serre captured by British, 25 F 7

  Shabatz captured by Austrians, 16 Au 4

  Shaiba, the Battle of, 12-14 Ap 5

  Shatt-el-Adhaim, fighting on the, 8, 17, 24, 30 Ap 7

  Shavli occupied by Germans, 1 My 5;
    they evacuate it, 11 My 5

  Sheerness, air-raid on, 22 O 6

  Sherif of Mecca: _see_ Grand Sherif

  SIAM declares war on Germany and Austria, 22 Jl 7

  Sidon occupied by British, 7 O 8

  Silistria captured by Bulgarians, 9 S 6

  Silvertown, explosion at, 19 Ja 7

  _Simoon_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ja 7

  Sinai, an Australian success in, 16 My 6;
    a British raid on El Arish, 18 My 6;
    the British occupy El Arish, 21 D 6;
    and Magdhaba, 23 D 6;
    the Battle of Rafa, 9 Ja 7;
    the British capture Turkish advanced posts, 20 F 7
          (_now see_ PALESTINE)

  Singapore, mutiny at, 15 F 5

  Sinn Fein leaders arrested, 17 My 8

  Sinneh capt. by Russians, 5 Mh 6

  _Sirius_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  Siwa, action at, 5 F 7

  Skouloudis, M., becomes Premier, 6 N 5;
    resigns, 22 Je 6

  Skra di Legen, Greeks attack at, 30 My 8

  Smith-Dorrien, Gen., commands the 2nd Corps, 17 Au 4;
    apptd. to command in East Africa, 14 D 5;
    resigns, 10 F 6

  Smuts, Gen., succeeds Gen. Smith-Dorrien, 10 F 6;
    is succeeded by Gen. Hoskins, 28 Ja 7

  Smyrna bombarded, 5 Mh 5

  _Snaefell_, H.M.S., sunk, 5 Je 8

  Soissons occupied by Germans, 1 S 4;
    reoccupied by French, 13 S 4;
    the Battle of, 8-14 Ja 5;
    captured by Germans, 29 My 8;
    recaptured by Allies, 2 Au 8

  Sokal, the Battle of, 14 Au 4

  Sollum occupied by British, 14 Mh 6

  Somme, the 1st Battle of the, 1 Jl-17 N 6;
    the 2nd ditto, 21 Mh-5 Ap 8

  Sonnino, Baron, visits London, 2 D 8

  Souchez, the Battle of, 9 My-13 Jl 5;
    the French capture the sugar factory, 31 My 5;
    and the village, 26 S 5

  SOUTH AFRICA: German patrols enter near Nakob, 21 Au 4;
    the rebellion begins, De la Rey shot, 15 S 4;
    Maritz rebels, 9 O 4;
      is defeated at Ratedrai, 15 O 4;
    Beyers, Kemp, and De Wet rebel, 22 O 4;
    De Wet seizes Heilbron, 24 O 4;
    Maritz defeated at Kakamas, 26 O 4;
    Beyers defeated at Commissie Drift, 27 O 4;
    rebels defeated at Schuit Drift, 30 O 4;
    De Wet defeated at Mushroom Valley, 12 N 4;
    De Wet captured at Waterburg, 1 D 4;
    some rebels surrender near Reitz, 4 D 4;
    Beyers is defeated near Bothaville, and is drowned crossing the
          Vaal River, 8 D 4;
    the main rebel force surrenders, 8 D 4;
    Maritz and Kemp are defeated at Upington, 24 Ja 5;
    Kemp surrenders, and the rebellion at an end, 3 F 5

  Southend, a Zeppelin raid on, 26 My 5;
    an air-raid on, 12 Au 7

  SOUTH-WEST AFRICA: the South African Govt. decides to invade, 9 S 4;
    Walfish Bay occupied, 25 D 4;
    Swakopmund occupied, 14 Ja 5;
    Botha sails for, 8 F 5;
    Garub occupied, 22 F 5;
    Makob occupied, 3 Mh 5;
    Nabas occupied, 11 Mh 5;
    the Germans defeated at Riet, 20 Mh 5;
    Hasuur occupied, 1 Ap 5;
    Warmbad occupied, 4 Ap 5;
    Seeheim occupied, 17 Ap 5;
    the Germans defeated at Gibeon, 28 Ap 5;
    Karibib occupied, 5 My 5;
    Windhoek captured, 12 My 5;
    Otavifontein captured, 2 Jl 5;
    the Germans defeated at Gaub, 4 Jl 5;
    the German forces surrender, 9 Jl 5

  Southwold bombarded, 25 Ja 7

  _Speedy_, H.M.S., sunk, 3 S 4

  Spincourt, a German reverse at, 11 Au 4

  Stanislau retaken by Austrians, 19 F 5;
    by Russians, 4 Mh 5;
    by Austrians, 8 Je 5;
    by Russians, 10 Au 6;
    the Russians advance on, 6 Jl 7;
    capture Austrian positions near, 8 Jl 7;
    the Austro-Germans retake it, 24 Jl 7

  _Staunch_, H.M.S., sunk, 11 N 7

  _Stephen Furness_, H.M.S., sunk, 13 D 7

  Stockholm, Socialist Conference at:
    Russia declares for, 9 My 7;
    French Socialists to attend, 28 My 7;
    French Govt. refuses permission, 1 Je 7;
    English Govt. refuses, 13 Au 7

  Stokhod, the, crossed by the Russians, 8 Jl 6;
    fighting on the, 3 Au 6;
    Russians defeated on the, 3 Ap 7

  Strasbourg entered by Marshal Foch, 25 N 8

  Stravina capt. by Serbians, 4 D 6

  _Strongbow_, H.M.S., sunk, 17 O 7

  Struma, the, crossed by the British, 10 S 6

  Strumnitza, the Bulgarians driven from, 19 O 5;
    occupied by the British, 26 S 8

  Stryj captured by Austro-Germans, 1 Je 5

  Strypa, Russian successes on the, 30 Au 5, 2 N 5, 1 Ja 6, 15 Je 6

  Sturgkh, Count, assassinated, 21 O 6

  Stuttgart, air-raids on, 22 S 5, 16 S 7, 22 S 7

  Styr, an Austrian victory on the, 15 N 5;
    a Russian victory on the, 1 Ja 6;
    crossed by the Russians, 20 Jl 6

  SUBMARINE (BRITISH) B11 sinks the _Messudiyeh_, 13 D 4;
    E3 sunk, 18 O 4;
    E9 sinks a German destroyer, 6 O 4;
    E11 torpedoes a Turkish transport, 26 My 5;
    E13 is shelled when aground, 18 Au 5;
    E14 enters the Sea of Marmora, 27 Ap 5;
      she sinks a Turkish transport, 29 Ap 5;
      she is sunk, 28 Ja 8;
    E20 lost, 6 N 5;
    E23 sinks the _Westfalen_, 19 Au 6

  ---- (GERMAN) attack on British Light Cruiser Squadron, 9 Au 4;
    one is sunk by a British aeroplane, 26 Au 5;
    the _Deutschland_ reaches the United States, 9 Jl 6;
      regains Germany, 23 Au 6;
    S20 sunk, 5 Je 7;
    U8 sunk, 4 Mh 5;
    U12 sunk, 9 Mh 5;
    U15 sunk, 9 Au 4;
    U18 sunk, 23 N 4;
    U28 sinks the _Falaba_, 28 Mh 5;
    U48 sunk, 24 N 7;
    U53 reaches Newport, 7 O 6;
      and sinks eight ships, 8 O 6;
    UC5 captured, 27 Ap 6

  ---- BLOCKADE declared by Germany, 18 F 5

  SUBMARINE REPRISALS by England announced, 8 Mh 5;
    rescinded, 12 Je 5;
    announced by Germany, 12 Ap 5

  SUDAN, THE: fighting at Beringia, 22 My 6;
    the British capture El Fasher, 23 My 6

  Suez Canal, the 1st attack on the, 2-4 F 5;
      the 2nd ditto, 22-23 Mh 5;
      the 3rd ditto, 28 Ap 5;
      the 4th ditto, 4-5 Au 6

  _Suffren_ sunk, 25 N 6

  Sultan of Egypt dies, 9 O 7

  _Surprise_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 D 7

  _Sussex_ sunk, 24 Mh 6

  _Sutherland_ sunk, 2 S 5

  Suvla Bay, landing at, 6 Au 5;
    the Battle of, 6-15 Au 5;
    the evacuation begins, 8 D 5;
      is completed, 20 D 5

  Swakopmund, occupied by Union troops, 14 Ja 5

  _Swift_, H.M.S. sinks German destroyers, 20 Ap 7

  _Sydney_, H.M.S., destroys the _Emden_, 9 N 4

  Syedlets captured by Germans, 12 Au 5

  SYRIA: _see_ PALESTINE and SINAI

  _Szent Istvan_ sunk, 10 Je 8


  Tabriz captured by Turks, 9 Ja 5;
    reoccupied by Russians, 30 Ja 5;
      by Turks, 14 Je 8

  Tagliamento, fighting on the, 28 O-5 N 7

  Tahure, the Butte of, captured by Germans, 30 O 5;
    fighting at, 13 F 8

  Taif, surrender of, 23 Jl 6

  Talaat Bey becomes Grand Vizier, 5 F 7

  Tanga attacked by British, 3-5 N 4;
    occupied by British, 7 Jl 6

  Tank River, fighting on the, 30 Ap 8

  Tanks first used, 15 S 6

  Tannenberg, the Battle of, 26-29 Au 4

  Tarnopol captured by Russians, 23 Au 4;
    the Battle of, 7-8 S 5;
    the Germans advance on, 20 Jl 7

  Taveta occupied by Germans, 15 Au 4;
    fighting near, 11 Mh 6

  Tekrit, a British victory at, 5 N 7;
    the British occupy it, 6 N 7

  Tempest, Lieut. W. J., destroys a Zeppelin, 1 O 6

  Terhand, air-raid on, 9 F 6

  _Thetis_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 Ap 8

  Thiaumont, the Germans advance near, 11 Je 6;
    they storm the Fort, 23 Je 6;
    the French retake it, 30 Je 6;
    and advance, 22 Au 6

  Thiepval, fighting near, 19 Jl 6, 18-22 Au 6, 26 Au 6, 14 S 6,
        28 S 6, 21 O 6, 10 N 6;
    captured by British, 27 S 6, 24 Au 8

  Thilloy captured by British, 28 F 7

  _Thordis_ rams a submarine, 28 F 5

  Tibati occupied by Allies, 3 N 5

  Tiberias occupied by British, 25 S 8

  Tirlemont capt. by Germans, 17 Au 4

  Tirpitz, Admiral von, resigns, 16 Mh 6

  Tisza, Count, resigns, 22 My 7;
    is assassinated, 31 O 8

  _Tithonus_, H.M.S., sunk, 28 Mh 8

  Togoland invaded by Franco-British forces, 8 Au 4

  _Tornado_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 D 7

  _Torrent_, H.M.S., sunk, 23 D 7

  Tourcoing, reoccupied by Allies, 18 O 8

  Tournai captured by Germans, 24 Au 4;
    the British reach, 21 O 8;
      enter it, 8 N 8

  TRANSYLVANIA invaded by Roumanians, 28 Au 6;
      they occupy Kronstadt, 29 Au 6;
      Hermanstadt, 1 S 6;
      and advance, 14 S 6;
    the Austro-Germans gain the Vulcan Pass, 20 S 6;
    the Roumanians regain ground there, 26 S 6;
      and counter-attack, 3 O 6;
      but retire, 5 O 6;
    the Austro-Germans retake Kronstadt, 7 O 6;
      and advance, 8 O 6;
    the Germans enter Roumania, 13 O 6

  _Transylvania_ sunk, 4 My 7

  Trebizond, the Russians attack, 3 Ap 6;
      they capture it, 18 Ap 6;
    the Turks reoccupy it, 24 F 8

  Trent, the Italians enter, 3 N 8

  Trentino, the Battle of, 14 My-4 Je 6

  Trepoff, M., resigns, 9 Ja 7

  Trèves, air-raids on, 17 O 5, 3 Je 7, 22 S 7, 21 Au 8

  Trieste, a naval action at, 9 D 7;
    occupied by Italians, 3 N 8

  Tripoli captured by British, 13 O 8

  _Triumph_, H.M.S., sunk, 25 My 5

  Trones Wood, fighting at, 9-14 Jl 6

  Trotus Valley, fighting in the, 8 Mh 7, 8 Au 7

  Tsar of Russia assumes command of the Army, 5 S 5;
    abdicates, 15 Mh 7

  TSINGTAU (KIAO-CHAU): evacuation demanded by Japanese, 15 Au 4;
    the blockade begins, 27 Au 4;
    the Japanese attack, 2 S 4;
    a British force landed, 24 S 4;
    bombarded, 31 O 4;
    captured, 7 N 4

  _Tubantia_ sunk, 16 Mh 6

  _Tulip_, H.M.S., sunk, 30 Ap 7

  TURKEY: declares war on Roumania, 30 Au 6;
    the Sultan of, dies, 3 Jl 8;
    signs an Armistice, 30 O 8

  _Tuscania_ sunk, 5 F 8

  Tutrakan captured by Bulgarians, 6 S 6

  Tuz Khartmatli, a British success at, 29 Ap 8

  Tuzla captured by Germans and Bulgarians, 21 O 6

  Tyrwhitt, Commodore, defeats German naval forces, 10 My 7, 5 Je 7

  Tysmienica captured by Russians, 7 Au 6


  U-boats: _see_ SUBMARINES

  Udine captured by Austrians, 29 O 7;
    the Italians reoccupy it, 3 N 8

  Uganda invaded by Germans, 20 N 4

  Ujiji captured by Belgians, 3 Au 6

  UKRAINE: a Russian offensive in the, 4 Je 6;
    the Govt. demands recognition, 19 D 7;
    its independence accepted at Brest-Litovsk, 10 Ja 8;
    the Republic makes peace, 9 F 8;
    the Germans establish a dictatorship, 1 My 8

  _Ullswater_, H.M.S., sunk, 15 Au 8

  Um-el-Hannah, a battle at, 21 Ja 6

  Umlej surrenders, 16 Jl 6

  _Undaunted_, H.M.S., sinks German destroyers, 17 O 4

  _Undine_ sunk, 7 N 5

  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: sends a Note protesting against maritime
        policy of Great Britain and France, 7 N 5;
    publishes a Note protesting against British search of mails,
          27 Ja 6;
    presents a Note to Germany, 19 Ap 6;
    Mr. Wilson is re-elected President, 7 N 6;
      he sends a Peace Note, 20 D 6;
        Germany replies, 25 D 6;
        the Allies reply, 9 Ja 7;
      breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany, 3 F 7;
      invites neutral Powers to sever relations with Germany, 4 F 7;
      refuses to negotiate with Germany, 12 F 7;
      asks Congress to declare a state of war, 2 Ap 7;
      the Senate decides for war, 4 Ap 7;
      the Government ditto, 5 Ap 7;
    adopts conscription, 28 Ap 7;
    publishes Mr. Wilson's message to Russia, 10 Je 7;
    the first troops reach France, 26 Je 7;
    a conference with British War Cabinet in London, 20 N 7;
    declares war on Austria, 7 D 7;
    replies to Germany's Peace overtures, 15 O 8

  Unity of Command announced by the Allies at Rapallo, 9 N 7;
      by Mr. L. George at Paris, 12 N 7

  Urmia occupied by Turks, 16 Ap 5

  URUGUAY severs relations with Germany, 6 O 7

  Uskub captured by Bulgarians, 22 O 5;
    by French, 30 S 8


  Valenciennes reoccupied by the Allies, 2 N 8;
    formal entry by the British, 7 N 8

  Valona occupied by the Italians, 26 D 4, 29 My 5

  Van captured by Russians, 15 My 5;
    the Battle of, 4 O 5;
    reoccupied by Russians, 18 Mh 7

  Van Deventer, Gen., apptd. to command in East Africa, 16 My 7

  _Vanguard_, H.M.S., lost, 9 Jl 7

  Vardar crossed by French and British, 27 O 5;
    the Battle of the, 15-30 S 8

  Varennes captured by Allies, 26 S 8

  Varna bombarded, 27 O 5

  Vaux, Fort, the Germans attack, 3 Mh 6;
    they gain ground at, 1 Ap 6;
    the French gain ground at, 20 Ap 6;
    a fresh German attack, 1 Je 6;
    the fort isolated, 4 Je 6;
    more German attacks, 6 Je 6;
      they capture it, 7 Je 6;
    the French retake it, 2 N 6;
    the Americans retake the village, 1 Jl 8

  _Vehement_, H.M.S., sunk, 2 Au 8

  Veles captured by Bulgarians, 21 O 5;
    retaken by Serbians, 25 O 5;
      by Bulgarians, 29 O 5;
      by Serbians, 25 S 8

  _Velox_, H.M.S., mined, 25 O 5

  Venice, air-raids on, 11 Je 6, 25 F 8

  Venizelos, M., resigns, 5 O 5;
    goes to Crete, 25 S 6;
    forms a Provisional Govt., 29 S 6;
    becomes Premier, 26 Je 7

  Verdun cleared of civilians, 16 F 6;
    the Battle of, 21 F-1 Jl 6;
    the French attack at, 24 O-4 N 6, 15-18 D 6;
    fighting at, 17 Jl 7;
    the French attack again, 20 Au 7, 25 N 7

  Vermelles, a German success near, 11 My 6

  Verona, air-raid on, 14 N 5

  Versailles, an Allied Conference begins at, 28 O 8

  Victoria Nyanza, fighting on, 23 Je 5

  Vidzy retaken by Russians, 20 S 5

  _Ville de Ciotat_ sunk, 24 D 5

  Ville-sur-Ancre captured by Australian troops, 19 My 8

  Villers-Bréttoneux captured by Germans, 23 Ap 8;
    retaken by British, 24 Ap 8

  Villers-Guislan captured by British, 18 Ap 7

  Vilna capitulates, 18 S 5;
    fighting near, 25-27 Mh 6, 7 Ap 6

  Vimy Bridge, the French attack, 25-29 S 5;
    fighting on the, 15 My 6, 19 My 6, 21 My 6, 25 My 6;
    German attacks near, 12 F 6;
    captured by British, 9 Ap 7

  _Vindictive_, H.M.S., raids Zeebrugge, 23 Ap 8;
    is sunk off Ostend, 10 My 8

  _Viribus Unitis_ sunk, 31 O 8

  Vistula crossed by the Germans, 21 Jl 5, 28 Jl 5

  Vladimir Volynski captured by Austro-Germans, 5 Au 5

  Vladivostok, marines landed at, 5 Ap 8;
    British troops landed at, 3 Au 8;
    Japanese troops landed at, 11 Au 8

  Vlodava captured by Germans, 15 Au 5

  Vranja captured by Bulgarians, 15 O 5

  Vulcan Pass carried by Austro-Germans, 20 S 6;
    the Roumanians regain ground at, 26 S 6


  Walfish Bay occupied by Union troops, 25 D 4

  Walmer, air-raid on, 20 F 6

  War Committee apptd. by British Cabinet, 11 N 5

  _Warilda_ sunk, 3 Au 8

  Warlencourt captured by British, 25 F 7, 25 Au 8

  Warmbad captured by Union troops, 4 Ap 5

  Warneford, Lieut., destroys a Zeppelin, 7 Je 5

  Warsaw, the 1st battle for, 15-27 O 4;
    the 2nd ditto, 18 N-28 D 4;
    the 3rd ditto, 19 Jl-5 Au 5;
    captured by Austro-Germans, 5 Au 5

  Welsh Ridge, the Germans attack, 30 D 7

  Wemyss, Adm., succeeds Lord Jellicoe, 26 D 7

  _Westfalen_ torpedoed, 19 Au 6

  Westminster, the Duke of, rescues prisoners from the Senussi,
        17 Mh 6

  Whitby bombarded, 16 D 4

  _Wien_ sunk, 9 D 7

  Wilhelm II. of Germany flies the country, 9 N 8;
    formally abdicates, 28 N 8

  Wilhelmsthal occupied by British, 14 Je 6

  Wilson, Sir H., succeeds Sir W. Robertson, 16 F 8

  ----, Mr. W., re-elected President, 7 N 6;
    states his 'fourteen points,' 8 Ja 8 (for 'Notes,' etc.,
         _see_ UNITED STATES)

  Windau occupied by Germans, 18 Jl 5

  Windhoek captured by Union troops, 12 My 5

  'Windsor' adopted by Royal Family, 17 Jl 7

  _Wolf_ returns to Germany, 24 F 8

  'Wonderwork, the,' stormed by British, 14 S 6

  Women's Royal Naval Service formation announced, 28 N 7

  _Woodfield_ sunk, 3 N 5

  Wulverghem, fighting at, 13-15 Ap 8

  Wum Biagas captured by British, 9 O 5


  Yarmouth bombarded, 3 N 4, 25 Ap 6, 14 Ja 8;
    air-raid on, 19 Ja 5

  _Yarra_ sunk, 29 My 7

  _Yorck_ sunk, 4 N 4

  Ypres, the 1st Battle of, 19 O-21 N 4;
    the 2nd ditto, 22 Ap-24 My 5;
    a German success near, 14 F 6;
    a British ditto, 2 Mh 6;
    fighting at, 2 Je 6, 13 Je 6;
    the 3rd Battle of, 31 Jl-6 N 7;
    the 4th ditto, 28-29 S 8

  Yser, the Battle of the, 16-30 O 4

  ---- Canal, German attempts to cross, 12 F 6


  Zaimis, M., becomes Premier, 5 O 5;
    resigns, 4 N 5;
    becomes Premier again, 22 Je 6;
    resigns again, 11 S 6;
    becomes Premier again, 3 My 7;
    resigns, 23 Je 7

  Zeebrugge occupied by Germans, 15 O 4;
    bombarded by British ships, 23 N 4;
      by Franco-British squadron, 23 Au 5;
    air-raids on, 22 Ja 5, 11 F 5, 16 F 5, 1 Ap 5, 18 Mh 6, 20 Mh 6,
          10 N 6, 15 N 6, 17 N 6, 28 N 6, 11 D 6, 1 Je 7, 3 Je 7, 12
          S 7, 2 My 8, 22 My 8;
    a naval action off, 7 Ap 7;
    bombarded by British ships, 12 My 7;
    a naval raid on (_Vindictive_), 23 Ap 8;
    recaptured by Belgians, 19 O 8

  _Zenta_ sunk, 16 Au 4

  Zeppelin, Count, dies, 8 Mh 7

  ZEPPELINS DESTROYED: in Belgium by Lieut. Warneford, 7 Je 5;
    near Brussels, 7 Je 5;
    near Ostend, 9 Au 5;
    L19 in the North Sea, 31 Ja 6;
    near Revigny, 21 F 6;
    L15 over the Thames, 31 Mh 6;
    L20 off Norway, 2 My 6;
    L7 off Schleswig, 4 My 6;
    near Salonika, 5 My 6;
    at Cuffley by Lieut. Robinson, 3 S 6;
    L32 and L33 in Essex, 23 S 6;
    at Potter's Bar by Lieut. Tempest, 1 O 6;
    two in the Eastern Counties, 27 N 6;
    in France, 16 Mh 7;
    L22 in the North Sea, 15 My 7;
    L43 in the North Sea, 14 Je 7;
    one in the SE. of England, 16 Je 7;
    off Jutland, 21 Au 7;
    five in France, 19 O 7;
    off the East Coast, 5 Au 8;
    in the North Sea, 11 Au 8;
    off the Frisian coast, 12 Au 8

  ZEPPELIN RAIDS: on Yarmouth, Cromer, and King's Lynn, 19 Ja 15;
    on Calais, 21 F 5;
      ditto, 18 Mh 5;
      ditto, 28 Mh 5;
    on the Tyneside, 14 Ap 5;
    on East Anglia, 15 Ap 5;
      ditto, 30 Ap 5;
    on Calais, 16 My 5;
    on Ramsgate, 17 My 5;
    on Southend, 26 My 5;
    on London (the first), 31 My 5;
    on the East Coast, 4 Je 5;
      ditto, 6 Je 5;
    on the North-East Coast, 15 Je 5;
    on the East Coast, 9 Au 5;
      ditto, 12 Au 5;
      ditto, 7 S 5;
      ditto, and on London, 8 S 5;
    on London, 12 O 5;
      ditto, 13 O 5;
    on Paris, 29 Ja 6;
    on the Midlands, 31 J a 5;
    on the North-East Coast, 5 Mh 6;
    on the East Coast, 31 Mh 6;
    on the North-East Coast, 1 Ap 6;
      ditto, and on Scotland, 2 Ap 6;
    on the Eastern Counties, 4 Ap 6;
    on the North-East, 5 Ap 6;
    on the Eastern Counties, 25 Ap 6;
    on Kent, 26 Ap 6;
    on the North-East and Scotland, 1 My 6;
      ditto, 2 My 6;
    on East Anglia, 29 Jl 6;
    on the East and South-East, 31 Jl 6;
    on the Eastern Counties, 2 Au 6;
    on England, 9 Au 6;
    on the Eastern Counties, 23 Au 6;
      ditto, and on London, 24 Au 6;
      ditto, 3 S 6;
      ditto, 23 S 6;
      ditto, 25 S 6;
    on London, 1 O 6;
    on England, 27 N 6;
    on Kent, 16 Mh 7;
    on East Anglia, 23 My 7;
    on the South-East, 16 Je 7;
    on the Yorkshire coast, 21 Au 7;
    on the North-East, East, and London, 19 O 7;
    on the Yorkshire coast, 12 Mh 8;
    on Hartlepool, 13 Mh 8;
    on the East Coast and Midlands, 12 Ap 8

  Zillebeke, Klein, the Germans attack at, 6 N 4, 12 N 4

  Zonnebeke, a battle at, 23 O 4;
    captured by British, 26 S 7

  _Zubian_, H.M.S., 27 O 6

  _Zulu_, H.M.S., damaged, 27 O 6

  Zurawno, a battle at, 10 Je 5

  Printed by T. and A. CONSTABLE, Printers to His Majesty
  at the Edinburgh University Press





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