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Title: Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte — Volume 05
Author: Bourrienne, Louis Antoine Fauvelet de
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte — Volume 05" ***

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His Private Secretary

Edited by R. W. Phipps
Colonel, Late Royal Artillery


CHAPTER I.  to  CHAPTER VIII., 1800-1803



     Bonaparte's confidence in the army--'Ma belle' France--The convent
     of Bernadins--Passage of Mont St. Bernard--Arrival at the convent--
     Refreshments distributed to the soldiers--Mont Albaredo--Artillery
     dismounted--The fort of Bard--Fortunate temerity--Bonaparte and
     Melas--The spy--Bonaparte's opinion of M. Necker--Capitulation of
     Genoa--Intercepted despatch--Lannes at Montebello--Boudet succeeded
     by Desaix--Coolness of the First Consul to M. Collot--Conversation
     and recollections--The battle of Marengo--General Kellerman--Supper
     sent from the Convent del Bosco--Particulars respecting the death of
     Desaix--The Prince of Lichtenstein--Return to Milan--Savary and

It cannot be denied that if, from the 18th Brumaire to the epoch when
Bonaparte began the campaign, innumerable improvements had been made in
the internal affairs of France, foreign affairs could not be seen with
the same satisfaction.  Italy had been lost, and from the frontiers of
Provence the Austrian camp fires were seen.  Bonaparte was not ignorant
of the difficulties of his position, and it was even on account of these
very difficulties that, whatever might be the result of his hardy
enterprise, he wished to escape from it as quickly as possible.  He
cherished no illusions, and often said all must be staked to gain all.

The army which the First Consul was preparing to attack was numerous,
well disciplined, and victorious.

His, with the exception of a very small number of troops, was composed of
conscripts; but these conscripts were commanded by officers whose ardour
was unparalleled.  Bonaparte's fortune was now to depend on the winning
or losing of a battle.  A battle lost would have dispelled all the dreams
of his imagination, and with them would have vanished all his immense
schemes for the future of France.  He saw the danger, but was not
intimidated by it; and trusting to his accustomed good fortune, and to
the courage and fidelity of his troops, he said, "I have, it is true,
many conscripts in my army, but they are Frenchmen.  Four years ago did I
not with a feeble army drive before me hordes of Sardinians and
Austrians, and scour the face of Italy?  We shall do so again.  The sun
which now shines on us is the same that shone at Arcola and Lodi.  I rely
on Massena.  I hope he will hold out in Genoa.  But should famine oblige
him to surrender, I will retake Genoa in the plains of the Scrivia.  With
what pleasure shall I then return to my dear France!  Ma belle France."

At this moment, when a possible, nay, a probable chance, might for ever
have blasted his ambitious hopes, he for the first time spoke of France
as his.  Considering the circumstances in which we then stood, this use
of the possessive pronoun "my" describes more forcibly than anything that
can be said the flashes of divination which crossed Bonaparte's brain
when he was wrapped up in his chimerical ideas of glory and fortune.

In this favourable disposition of mind the First Consul arrived at
Martigny on the 20th of May.  Martigny is a convent of Bernardins,
situated in a valley where the rays of the sun scarcely ever penetrate.
The army was in full march to the Great St. Bernard.  In this gloomy
solitude did Bonaparte wait three days, expecting the fort of Bard,
situated beyond the mountain and covering the road to Yvree, to
surrender.  The town was carried on the 21st of May, and on the third day
he learned that the fort still held out, and that there were no
indications of its surrender.  He launched into complaints against the
commander of the siege, and said, "I am weary of staying in this convent;
those fools will never take Bard; I must go myself and see what can be
done.  They cannot even settle so contemptible an affair without me!"
He immediately gave orders for our departure.

The grand idea of the invasion of Italy by crossing  Mont St. Bernard
emanated exclusively from the First Consul.  This miraculous achievement
justly excited the admiration of the world.  The incredible difficulties
it presented did not daunt the courage of Bonaparte's troops.  His
generals, accustomed as they had been to brave fatigue and danger,
regarded without concern the gigantic enterprise of the modern Hannibal.

A convent or hospice, which had been established on the mountain for the
purpose of affording assistance to solitary travellers, sufficiently
bespeaks the dangers of these stormy regions.  But the St. Bernard was
now to be crossed, not by solitary travellers, but by an army.  Cavalry,
baggage, limbers, and artillery were now to wend their way along those
narrow paths where the goat-herd cautiously picks his footsteps.  On the
one hand masses of snow, suspended above our heads, every moment
threatened to break in avalanches, and sweep us away in their descent.
On the other, a false step was death.  We all passed, men and horse, one
by one, along the goat paths.  The artillery was dismounted, and the
guns, put into excavated trunks of trees, were drawn by ropes.

I have already mentioned that the First Consul had transmitted funds to
the hospice of the Great St. Bernard.  The good fathers had procured from
the two valleys a considerable supply of cheese, bread, and wine.  Tables
were laid out in front of the hospice, and each soldier as he defiled
past took a glass of wine and a piece of bread and cheese, and then
resigned his place to the next.  The fathers served, and renewed the
portions with admirable order and activity.

The First Consul ascended the St. Bernard with that calm self-possession
and that air of indifference for which he was always remarkable when he
felt the necessity of setting an example and exposing himself to danger.
He asked his guide many questions about the two valleys, inquired what
were the resources of the inhabitants, and whether accidents were as
frequent as they were said to be.  The guide informed him that the
experience of ages enabled the inhabitants to foresee good or bad
weather, and that they were seldom deceived.

Bonaparte, who wore his gray greatcoat, and had his whip in his hand,
appeared somewhat disappointed at not seeing any one come from the valley
of Aorta to inform him of the taking of the fort of Bard.  I never left
him for a moment during the ascent.  We encountered no personal danger,
and escaped with no other inconvenience than excessive fatigue.

On his arrival at the convent the First Consul visited the chapel and the
three little libraries.  He had time to read a few pages of an old book,
of which I have forgotten the title.

Our breakfast-dinner was very frugal.  The little garden was still
covered with snow, and I said to one of the fathers, "You can have but
few vegetables here."--"We get our vegetables from the valleys," he
replied; "but in the month of August, in warm seasons, we have a few
lettuces of our own growing."

When we reached the summit of the mountain we seated ourselves on the
snow and slid down.  Those who went first smoothed the way for those who
came behind them.  This rapid descent greatly amused us, and we were only
stopped by the mud which succeeded the snow at the distance of five or
six hundred toises down the declivity.

We crossed, or rather climbed up, Mont Albaredo to avoid passing under
the fort of Bard, which closes the valley of Aorta.  As it was impossible
to get the artillery up this mountain it was resolved to convey it
through the town of Bard, which was not fortified.  For this operation we
made choice of night, and the wheels of the cannon and caissons, and even
the horses' feet, being wrapped in straw, the whole passed quietly
through the little town.  They were, indeed, under the fire of the fort;
however, it did not so completely command the street but that the houses
would have protected them against any very fatal consequences.  A great
part of the army had passed before the surrender of the fort, which so
completely commands the narrow valley leading to Aorta that it is
difficult to comprehend the negligence of the Austrians in not throwing
up more efficient works; by very simple precautions they might have
rendered the passage of St. Bernard unavailing.

On the 23d we came within sight of the fort of Bard, which commands the
road bounded by the Doria Baltea on the right and Mont Albaredo on the
left.  The Doria Baltea is a small torrent which separates the town of
Bard from the fort.  Bonaparte, whose retinue was not very numerous,
crossed the torrent.  On arriving within gunshot of the fort he ordered
us to quicken our pace to gain a little bridle-path on the left, leading
to the summit of Mont Albaredo, and turning the town and fort of Bard.

We ascended this path on foot with some difficulty.  On reaching the
summit of the mountain, which commands the fort, Bonaparte levelled his
telescope on the grass, and stationing himself behind some bushes, which
served at once to shelter and conceal him, he attentively reconnoitered
the fort.  After addressing several questions to the persons who had come
to give him information, he mentioned, in a tone of dissatisfaction, the
faults that had been committed, and ordered the erection of a new battery
to attack a point which he marked out, and from whence, he guaranteed,
the firing of a few shots would oblige the fort to surrender.  Having
given these orders he descended the mountain and went to sleep that night
at Yvree.  On the 3d of June he learned that the fort had surrendered the
day before.

The passage of Mont St. Bernard must occupy a great place in the annals
of successful temerity.  The boldness of the First Consul seemed, as it
were, to have fascinated the enemy, and his enterprise was so unexpected
that not a single Austrian corps defended the approaches of the fort of
Bard.  The country was entirely exposed, and we only encountered here and
there a few feeble parties, who were incapable of checking our march upon
Milan.  Bonaparte's advance astonished and confounded the enemy, who
thought of nothing but marching back the way he came, and renouncing the
invasion of France.  The bold genius which actuated Bonaparte did not
inspire General Melas, the commander-in-chief of the Austrian forces.
If Melas had had the firmness which ought to belong to the leader of an
army--if he had compared the respective positions of the two parties--if
he had considered that there was no longer time to regain his line of
operations and recover his communication with the Hereditary States, that
he was master of all the strong places in Italy, that he had nothing to
fear from Massena, that Suchet could not resist him:--if, then, following
Bonaparte's' example, he had marched upon Lyons, what would have become
of the First Consul?  Melas would have found few obstacles, and almost
everywhere open towns, while the French army would have been exhausted
without having an enemy to fight.  This is, doubtless, what Bonaparte
would have done had he been Melas; but, fortunately for us, Melas was not

We arrived at Milan on the 2d of June, the day on which the First Consul
heard that the fort of Bard was taken.  But little resistance was opposed
to our entrance to the capital of Lombardy, and the term "engagements"
can scarcely be applied to a few affairs of advance posts, in which
success could not be for a moment doubtful; the fort of Milan was
immediately blockaded.  Murat was sent to Piacenza, of which he took
possession without difficulty, and Lannes beat General Ott at Montebello.
He was far from imagining that by that exploit he conquered for himself a
future duchy!

The First Consul passed six days at Milan.  On the day after our arrival
there a spy who had served us very well in the first campaign in Italy
was announced.  The First Consul recollected him, and ordered him to be
shown into his cabinet. --"What, are you here?" he exclaimed; "so you are
not shot yet!"--" General," replied the spy, "when the war recommenced I
determined to serve the Austrians because you were far from Europe.
I always follow the fortunate; but the truth is, I am tired of the trade.
I wish to have done with it, and to get enough to enable me to retire.
I have been sent to your lines by General Melas, and I can render you an
important service.  I will give an exact account of the force and the
position of all the enemy's corps, and the names of their commanders.
I can tell you the situation in which Alessandria now is.  You know me
I will not deceive you; but, I must carry back some report to my general.
You need not care for giving me some true particulars which I can
communicate to him."--"Oh!  as to that," resumed the First Consul, "the
enemy is welcome to know my forces and my positions, provided I know his,
and he be ignorant of my plans.  You shall be satisfied; but do not
deceive me: you ask for 1000 Louis, you shall have them if you serve me
well."  I then wrote down from the dictation of the spy, the and the
names of the corps, their amount, their positions, names of the generals
commanding them.  The Consul stuck pins in the map to mark his plans on
places respecting which he received information from the spy.  We also
learned that Alexandria was without provisions, that Melas was far from
expecting a siege, that many of his troops were sick, and that be wanted
medicines.  Berthier was ordered to draw up for the spy a nearly accurate
statement of our positions.

The information given by this man proved so accurate and useful that on
his return from Marengo Bonaparte ordered me to pay him the 1000 Louis.
The spy afterwards informed him that Melas was delighted with the way in
which he had served him in this affair, and had rewarded him handsomely.
He assured us that he had bidden farewell to his odious profession.  The
First Consul regarded this little event as one of the favours of fortune.

In passing through Geneva the First Consul had an interview with M.

     --[Madame de Stael briefly mention this interview in her
     'Considerations sur la Revolution Francaise' "M. Necker," she says,
     "had an interview with Bonaparte, when he was on his way to Italy by
     the passage of Mont. St. Bernard, a few days before the battle of
     Marengo, During this conversation, which lasted two hours, the First
     Consul made a very favourable impression on my father by the
     confident way he spoke of his future projects."--Bourrienne.]--

I know not how it happened, but at the time he did not speak to me of
this interview.  However, I was curious to know what be thought of a man
who had acquired much celebrity in France.  One evening, when we were
talking of one thing and another, I managed to turn the conversation on
that subject.  M. Necker," said he, "appears to me very far below his
reputation.  He did not equal the idea I had formed of him.  I tried all
I could to get him to talk; but he said nothing remarkable.  He is an

     --[This was a constant term of reproach with Bonaparte.  He set all
     the metaphysicians of the Continent against him by exclaiming, "Je
     ne veux point d'ideologues."]--

a banker.  It is impossible that such a man can have any but narrow
views; and, besides, most celebrated people lose on a close view."--
"Not always, General," observed I--"Ah!" said he, smiling, "that is not
bad, Bourrienne.  You are improving.  I see I shall make something of you
in time!"

The day was approaching when all was to be lost or won.  The First Consul
made all his arrangements, and sent off the different corps to occupy the
points be had marked out.  I have already mentioned that Murat's task was
the occupation of Piacenza.  As soon as he was in possession of that town
he intercepted a courier of General Melas.  The despatch, which was
addressed to the Aulic Council of Vienna, was delivered to us on the
night of the 8th of June.  It announced the capitulation of Genoa, which
took place on the 4th, after the long and memorable defence which
reflected so much honour on Massena.  Melas in his despatch spoke of what
he called our pretended army of reserve with inconceivable contempt, and
alluded to the presence of Bonaparte in Italy as a mere fabrication.  He
declared he was still in Paris.  It was past three in the morning when
Murat's courier arrived.  I immediately translated the despatch, which
was in German.  About four o'clock I entered the chamber of the First
Consul, whom I was obliged to shake by the arm in order to wake him.  He
had desired me; as I have already mentioned, never to respect his repose
an the arrival of bad news; but on the receipt of good news to let him
sleep.  I read to him the despatch, and so much was he confounded by this
unexpected event that his first exclamation was, "Bah! you do not
understand German."  But hardly had be uttered these words when he arose,
and by eight o'clock in the morning orders were despatched for repairing
the possible consequences of this disaster, and countermanding the march
of the troops on the Scrivia.  He himself proceeded the same day to

I have seen it mentioned in some accounts that the First Consul in person
gained the battle of Montebello.  This is a mistake.  He did not leave
Milan until the 9th of June, and that very day Lannes was engaged with
the enemy.  The conflict was so terrible that Lannes, a few days after,
describing it in my presence to M. Collot, used these remarkable words,
which I well remember: "Bones were cracking in my division like a shower
of hail falling on a skylight."

By a singular chance Desaix, who was to contribute to the victory and
stop the rout of Marengo, arrived from Egypt at Toulon, on the very day
on which we departed from Paris.  He was enabled to leave Egypt in
consequence of the capitulation of El-Arish, which happened on the 4th of
January 1800.  He wrote me a letter, dated 16th Floreal, year VIII. (6th
of May 1800), announcing his arrival.  This letter I did not receive
until we reached Martigny.  I showed it to the First Consul.  "Ah!"
exclaimed he, "Desaix in Paris!" and he immediately despatched an order
for him to repair to the headquarters of the army of Italy wherever they
might be.  Desaix arrived at Stradella on the morning of the 11th of
June.  The First Consul received him with the warmest cordiality, as a
man for whom he had a high esteem, and whose talents and character
afforded the fairest promise of what might one day be expected of him.
Bonaparte was jealous of some generals, the rivalry of whose ambition he
feared; but on this subject Desaix gave him no uneasiness; equally
remarkable for his unassuming disposition, his talent, and information,
he proved by his conduct that he loved glory for her own sake, and that
every wish for the possession of political power was foreign to his mind.
Bonaparte's friendship for him was enthusiastic.  At this interview at
Stradella, Desaix was closeted with the First Consul for upwards of three
hours.  On the day after his arrival an order of the day communicated to
the army that Desaix was appointed to the command of Boudet's division.

     --[Boudet was on terms of great intimacy with Bonaparte, who, no
     doubt, was much affected at his death.  However, the only remark he
     made on receiving the intelligence, was "Who the devil shall I get
     to supply Boudet's place?"--Bourrienne.

     The command given to Desaix was a corps especially formed of the two
     divisions of Boudet and Monnier (Savary, tome i.  p.  262).  Boudet
     was not killed at Marengo, still less before (see Erreurs, tome i.
     p. 14).]--

I expressed to Bonaparte my surprise at his long interview with Desaix.
"Yes," replied he, "he has been a long time with me; but you know what a
favourite he is.  As soon as I return to Paris I will make him War
Minister.  I would make him a prince if I could.  He is quite an antique
character."  Desaix died two days after he had completed his thirty-third
year, and in less than a week after the above observations.

About this time M. Collot came to Italy and saw Bonaparte at Milan.  The
latter received him coldly, though he had not yet gained the battle of
Marengo.  M. Collot hed been on the most intimate footing with Bonaparte,
and had rendered him many valuable services.  These circumstances
sufficiently accounted for Bonaparte's coolness, for he would never
acknowledge himself under obligations to any one, and he did not like
those who were initiated into certain family secrets which he had
resolved to conceal.

     --[The day after the interview I had a long conversation with M.
     Collot while Bonaparte was gone to review some corps stationed at
     Milan.  M. Collot perfectly understood the cause of the unkind
     treatment he had experienced, and of which he gave me the following

     Some days before the Consulate--that is to say, two or three days
     after our return from Egypt,--Bonaparte, during his jealous fit,
     spoke to M. Collot about his wife, her levities, and their
     publicity.  "Henceforth," said Bonaparte, "I will have nothing to do
     with her."--"What, would you part from her?"--"Does not her conduct
     justify me in so doing?"--"I do not know; but is this the time to
     think of such a thing, when the eyes of all France are fixed upon
     you?  These domestic squabbles will degrade you in the eyes of the
     people, who expect you to be wholly devoted to their interests; and
     you will be laughed at, like one of Moliere's husbands, if you are
     displeased with your wife's conduct you can call her to account when
     you have nothing better to do.  Begin by raising up the state.
     After that you may find a thousand reasons for your resentment when
     now you would not find one.  You know the French people well enough
     to see how important it is that you should not commence with this

     By these and other similar remarks M. Collot thought he had produced
     some impression, when Bonaparte suddenly exclaimed: "No, my
     determination is fixed; she shall never again enter my house.  I
     care not what people say.  They will gossip about the affair for two
     days, and on the third it will be forgotten.  She shall go to
     Malmaison, and I will live here.  The public know enough, not to be
     mistaken as to the reasons of her removal."

     M. Collot vainly endeavoured to calm his irritation.  Bonaparte
     vented a torrent of reproaches upon Josephine.  "All this violence,"
     observed M. Collot, "proves that you still love her.  Do but see
     her, she will explain the business to your satisfaction and you will
     forgive her.--"I forgive her!  Never!  Collot, you know me.  If I
     were not sure of my own resolution, I would tear out this heart, and
     cast it into the fire."  Here anger almost choked his utterance, and
     he made a motion with his hand as if tearing his breast.

     When this violent paroxysm had somewhat subsided M. Collot withdrew;
     but before he went away Bonaparte invited him to breakfast on the
     following morning.

     At ten o'clock M. Collot was there, and as he was passing through
     the courtyard he was informed that Madame Bonaparte, who, as I have
     already mentioned, had gone to Lyons without meeting the General,
     had returned during the night.  On M. Collot's entrance Bonaparte
     appeared considerably embarrassed.  He led him into a side room, not
     wishing to bring him into the room where I was writing.  "Well,"
     said Bonaparte to M. Collot, "she is here."--"I rejoice to hear it.
     You have done well for yourself as well as for us."--" But do not
     imagine I have forgiven her.  As long as I live I shall suspect.
     The fact is, that on her arrival I desired her to be gone; but that
     fool Joseph was there.  What could I do, Collot?  I saw her descend
     the staircase followed by Eugine and Hortense.  They were all
     weeping; and I have not a heart to resist tears Eugene was with me
     in Egypt.  I have been accustomed to look upon him as my adopted
     son.  He is a fine brave lad.  Hortense is just about to be
     introduced into society, and she is admired by all who know her.
     I confess, Collot, I was deeply moved; I could not endure the
     distress of the two poor children.  'Should they,' thought I,
     'suffer for their mother's faults?'  I called back Eugene and
     Hortense, and their mother followed them.  What could I say, what
     could I do?  I should not be a man without some weakness.'--
     "Be assured they will reward you for this."-- "They ought, Collot
     they ought; for it has cost me a hard struggle."  After this
     dialogue Bonaparte and M. Collot entered the breakfast-parlour,
     where I was then sitting.  Eugene breakfasted with us, but neither
     Josephine nor Hortense.  I have already related how I acted the part
     of mediator in this affair.  Next day nothing was wanting to
     complete the reconciliation between the Conqueror of Egypt and the
     charming woman who conquered Bonaparte.--  Bourrienne.]--

On the 13th the First Consul slept at Torre di Galifolo.  During the
evening he ordered a staff-officer to ascertain whether the Austrians had
a bridge across the Bormida.  A report arrived very late that there was
none.  This information set Bonaparte's mind at rest, and he went to bed
very well satisfied; but early next morning, when a firing was heard, and
he learned that the Austrians had debouched on the plain, where the
troops were engaged, he flew into a furious passion, called the staff-
officer a coward, and said he had not advanced far enough.  He even spoke
of bringing the matter to an investigation.

From motives of delicacy I refrain from mentioning the dame of the
officer here alluded to.

Bonaparte mounted his horse and proceeded immediately to the scene of
action.  I did not see him again until six in tine evening.  In obedience
to his instructions; I repaired to San Giuliano, which is not above two
leagues from the place where the engagement commenced. In the course of
the afternoon I saw a great many wounded passing through the village, and
shortly afterwards a multitude of fugitives.  At San Giuliano nothing was
talked of but a retreat, which, it was said, Bonaparte alone firmly
opposed.  I was then advised to leave San Giuliano, where I had just
received a courier for the General-in-Chief.  On the morning of the 14th
General Desaix was sent towards Novi to observe the road to Genoa, which
city had fallen several days before, in spite of the efforts of its
illustrious defender, Massena.  I returned with this division to San
Giuliano.  I was struck with the numerical weakness of the corps which
was marching to aid an army already much reduced and dispersed.  The
battle was looked upon as lost, and so indeed it was.  The First Consul
having asked Desaix what he thought of it, that brave General bluntly
replied, "The battle is completely lost; but it is only two o'clock, we
have time to gain another to-day."  I heard this from Bonaparte himself
the same evening.  Who could have imagined that Desaix's little corps,
together with the few heavy cavalry commanded by General Kellerman,
would, about five o'clock, have changed the fortune of the day?  It
cannot be denied that it was the instantaneous inspiration of Kellerman
that converted a defeat into a victory, and decided the battle of

That memorable battle, of which the results were incalculable, has been
described in various ways.  Bonaparte had an account of it commenced no
less than three times; and I must confess that none of the narratives are
more correct than that contained in the 'Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo'.
The Emperor Napoleon became dissatisfied with what had been said by the
First Consul Bonaparte.  For my part, not having had the honour to bear a
sword, I cannot say that I saw any particular movement executed this or
that way; but I may mention here what I heard on the evening of the
battle of Marengo respecting the probable chances of that event.  As to
the part which the First Consul took in it, the reader, perhaps, is
sufficiently acquainted with his character to account for it.  He did not
choose that a result so decisive should be attributed to any other cause
than the combinations of his genius, and if I had not known his
insatiable thirst for glory I should have been surprised at the sort of
half satisfaction evinced at the cause of the success amidst the joy
manifested for the success itself.  It must be confessed that in this he
was very unlike Jourdan, Hoche, Kleber, and Moreau, who were ever ready
to acknowledge the services of those who had fought under their orders.

Within two hours of the time when the divisions commanded by Desaix left
San Giuliano I was joyfully surprised by the triumphant return of the
army, whose fate, since the morning, had caused me so much anxiety.
Never did fortune within so short a time show herself under two such
various faces.  At two o'clock all denoted the desolation of a defeat,
with all its fatal consequences; at five victory was again faithful to
the flag of Arcola.  Italy was reconquered by a single blow, and the
crown of France appeared in the perspective.

At seven in the evening, when I returned with the First Consul to
headquarters, he expressed to me his sincere regret for the loss of
Desaix, and then he added, "Little Kellerman made a lucky charge.  He did
it at just the right moment.  We are much indebted to him.  You see what
trifling circumstances decide these affairs."

These few words show that Bonaparte sufficiently appreciated the services
of Kellerman.  However, when that officer approached the table at which
were seated the First Consul and a number of his generals, Bonaparte
merely said, "You made a pretty good charge."  By way of counter-
balancing this cool compliment he turned towards Bessieres, who commanded
the horse grenadiers of the Guard, and said, "Bessieres, the Guard has
covered itself with glory."  Yet the fact is, that the Guard took no part
in the charge of Kellerman, who could assemble only 500 heavy cavalry;
and with this handful of brave men he cut in two the Austrian column,
which had overwhelmed Desaix's division, and had made 6000 prisoners.
The Guard did not charge at Marengo until nightfall.

Next day it was reported that Kellerman, in his first feeling of
dissatisfaction at the dry congratulation he had received, said to the
First Consul, "I have just placed the crown on your head!"  I did not
hear this, and I cannot vouch for the truth of its having been said.  I
could only have ascertained that fart through Bonaparte, and of
course I could not, with propriety, remind him of a thing which must have
been very offensive to him.  However, whether true or not, the
observation was circulated about, verbally and in writing, and Bonaparte
knew it.  Hence the small degree of favour shown to Kellerman, who was
not made a general of division on the field of battle as a reward for his
charge at Marengo.

     --[If Savary's story be correct, and he was then aide de camp to
     Desaix, and Bourrienne acknowledges his account to be the best, the
     inspiration of the charge did not come from the young Kellerman.
     Savary says that Desaix sent him to tell Napoleon that he could not
     delay his attack, and that he must be supported by some cavalry.

     Savary was then sent by Napoleon to a spot where he was told he
     would find Kellerman, to order him to charge in support of Desaix.
     Desaix and Kellerman were so placed as to be out of sight of each
     other (Savary, tome i. pp. 279-279).  Thiers (tome i, p. 445)
     follows Savary.

     It may here be mentioned that Savary, in his account of the battle,
     expressly states that he carried the order from Bonaparte to
     Kellerman to make this charge.  He also makes the following
     observations on the subject:--

     After the fall of the Imperial Government some pretended friends of
     General Kellerman have presumed to claim for him the merit of
     originating the charge of cavalry.  That general, whose share of
     glory is sufficiently brilliant to gratify his most sanguine wishes,
     can have no knowledge of so presumptuous a pretension.  I the more
     readily acquit him from the circumstance that, as we were conversing
     one day respecting that battle, I called to his mind my having
     brought, to him the First Consul's orders, and he appeared not to
     have forgotten that fact.  I am far from suspecting his friends of
     the design of lessening the glory of either General Bonaparte or
     General Desaix; they know as well as myself that theirs are names so
     respected that they can never be affected by such detractions, and
     that it would be as vain to dispute the praise due to the Chief who
     planned the battle was to attempt to depreciate the brilliant share
     which General Kellerman had in its successful result.  I will add to
     the above a few observations.

     "From the position which he occupied General Desaix could not see
     General Kellerman; he had even desired me to request the First
     Consul to afford him the support of some cavalry.  Neither could
     General Kellerman, from the point where he was stationed, perceive
     General Desaix's division; it is even probable that he was not aware
     of the arrival of that General, who had only joined the army two
     days before.  Both were ignorant of each other's position, which the
     First Consul was alone acquainted with; he alone could introduce
     harmony into their movements; he alone could make their efforts
     respectively conduce to the same object.

     "The fate of the battle was decided by Kellerman's bold charge; had
     it, however, been made previously to General Desaix's attack, in all
     probability it would have had a quite different result.  Kellerman
     appears to have been convinced of it, since he allowed the Austrian
     column to cross our field of battle and extend its front beyond that
     of the troops we had still in line without making the least attempt
     to impede its progress.  The reason of Kellerman's not charging it
     sooner was that it was too serious a movement, and the consequences
     of failure would have been irretrievable: that charge, therefore,
     could only enter into a general combination of plans, to which he
     was necessarily a stranger" (Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo, tome i.
     pp.  218-280).]--

M. Delaforet, the Postmaster-general, sometimes transacted business with
the First Consul.  The nature of this secret business may easily be
guessed at.

     --[When.  M. Delaforet was replaced soon after this by Lavalette,
     Napoleon ordered the discontinuance of the practice followed until
     then of allowing letters to be opened by subordinate officials.
     This right was restricted, as in England, to the Minister.  However
     bad this practice, it was limited, not extended, in his reign.  See
     Mineval, tome iii.  pp. 60-62, and Lavalette, tome ii.  p.  10.]--

On the occasion of one of their interviews the First Consul saw a letter
from Kellerman to Lasalle, which contained the following passage: "Would
you believe, my friend, that Bonaparte has not made me a general of
division though I have just placed the crown on his head?"  The letter
was sealed again and sent to its address; but Bonaparte never forgot its

Whether Kellerman did or did not give the crown of France to the First
Consul, it is very certain that on the evening of the battle of Marengo
he gave him a supper, of which his famishing staff and the rest of us
partook.  This was no inconsiderable service in the destitute condition
in which we were.  We thought ourselves exceeding fortunate in profiting
by the precaution of Kellerman, who had procured provisions from one of
those pious retreats which are always well supplied, and which soldiers
are very glad to fall in with when campaigning.  It was the convent del
Bosco which on this occasion was laid under contribution; and in return
for the abundance of good provisions and wine with which they supplied
the commander of the heavy cavalry the holy fathers were allowed a guard
to protect them against pillage and the other disastrous concomitants of

After supper was over the First Consul dictated to me the bulletin of the
battle.  When we were alone I said to him, "General, here is a fine
victory!  You recollect what you said the other day about the pleasure
with which you would return to France after striking a grand blow in
Italy; surely you must be satisfied now?"--"Yes, Bourrienne, I am
satisfied. --But Desaix!  .  .  .  Ah, what a triumph would this have
been if I could have embraced him to-night on the field of battle!"
As he uttered these words I saw that Bonaparte was on the point of
shedding tears, so sincere and profound was his grief for the death of
Desaix.  He certainly never loved, esteemed, or regretted any man so

The death of Desaix has been variously related, and I need not now state
that the words attributed to him in the bulletin were imaginary.  Neither
did he die in the arms of his aide de camp, Lebrun, as I wrote from the
dictation of the First Consul.  The following facts are more correct, or
at all events more probable:--the death of Desaix was not perceived at
the moment it took place.  He fell without saying a word, at a little
distance from Lefebre-Desnouettes.  A sergeant of battalion of the 9th
brigade light infantry, commanded by Barrois, seeing him extended on the
ground, asked permission to pick up his cloak.  It was found to be
perforated behind; and this circumstance leaves it doubtful whether
Desaix was killed by some unlucky inadvertency, while advancing at the
head of his troops, or by the enemy when turning towards his men to
encourage them.  However, the event was so instantaneous, the disorder so
complete, and the change of fortune so sudden, that it is not surprising
there should be no positive account of the circumstances which attended
his death.

Early next morning the Prince of Liechtenstein came from General Melas
with negotiations to the First Consul.  The propositions of the General
did not suit Bonaparte, and he declared to the Prince that the army shut
up in Alessandria should evacuate freely, and with the honours of war;
but on those conditions, which are well known, and by which Italy was to
be fully restored to the French domination.  That day were repaired the
faults of Scherer, whose inertness and imbecility had paralysed
everything, and who had fled, and been constantly beaten, from the
Adriatic to Mont Cenis.  The Prince of Liechtenstein begged to return to
render an account of his mission to General Melas.  He came back in the
evening, and made many observations on the hard nature of the conditions.
"Sir," replied the First Consul, in a tone of marked impatience, "carry
my final determination to your General, and return quickly.  It is
irrevocable!  Know that I am as well acquainted with your position as you
are yourselves.  I did not begin to learn the art of war yesterday.  You
are blocked up in Alessandria; you have many sick and wounded; you are in
want of provisions and medicines.  I occupy the whole of your rear.  Your
finest troops are among the killed and wounded.  I might insist on harder
conditions; my position would warrant me in so doing; but I moderate my
demands in consideration of the gray hairs of your General, whom I

This reply was delivered with considerable dignity and energy.  I showed
the Prince out, and he said to me, "These conditions are very hard,
especially that of giving up Genoa, which surrendered to us only a
fortnight ago, after so long a siege."  It is a curious fact that the
Emperor of Austria received intelligence of the capitulation and
restitution of Genoa at the same time.

When the First Consul returned to Milan he made Savary and Rapp his aides
de camp.  They had previously served in the same rank under Desaix.  The
First Consul was at first not much disposed to take them, alleging that
he had aides de camp enough.  But his respect for the choice of Desaix,
added to a little solicitation on my part, soon removed every obstacle.
These two officers served him to the last hour of his political career
with unfailing zeal and fidelity.

I have seen nothing in the Memoirs of the Due de Rovigo (Savary) about my
having had anything to do with his admission to the honour.  I can
probably tell the reason why one of the two aides de camp has risen
higher than the other.  Rapp had an Alsatian frankness which always
injured him.



     Suspension of hostilities--Letter to the Consuls--Second Occupation
     of Milan--Bonaparte and Massena--Public acclamations and the voice
     of Josephine--Stray recollections--Organization of Piedmont--Sabres
     of honour--Rewards to the army of the Rhine--Pretended army of
     reserve--General Zach--Anniversary of the 14th of July--Monument to
     Desaix--Desaix and Foy--Bonaparte's speech in the Temple of Mars--
     Arrival of the Consular Guard--The bones of marshal Turenne--
     Lucien's successful speech--Letter from Lucien to Joseph Bonaparte--
     The First Consul's return to Paris--Accidents on the road--
     Difficulty of gaining lasting fame--Assassination of Kleber--
     Situation of the terrace on which Kleber was stabbed--Odious rumours
     --Arrival of a courier--A night scene--Bonaparte's distress on
     perusing the despatches from Egypt.

What little time, and how few events sometimes suffice to change the
destiny of nations!  We left Milan on the 13th of June, Marengo on the
14th, and on the 15th Italy was ours!  A suspension of hostilities
between the French and Austrian armies was the immediate result of a
single battle; and by virtue of a convention, concluded between Berthier
and Melas, we resumed possession of all the fortified places of any
importance, with the exception of Mantua.  As soon as this convention was
signed Bonaparte dictated to me at Torre di Galifolo the following letter
to his colleagues:

     The day after the battle of Marengo, CITIZENS CONSULS, General Melas
     transmitted a message to our advance posts requesting permission to
     send General Skal to me.  During the day the convention, of which I
     send you a copy, was drawn up, and at night it was signed by
     Generals Berthier and Melas.  I hope the French people will be
     satisfied with the conduct, of their army.
                                             (Signed)  Bonaparte

The only thing worthy of remark in this letter would be the concluding
sentence, in which the First Consul still affected to acknowledge the
sovereignty of the people, were it not that the words "Citizens Consuls"
were evidently foisted in with a particular design.  The battle was
gained; and even in a trifling matter like this it was necessary that the
two, other Consuls should feel that they were not so much the colleagues
as the subordinates of the First Consul.

We returned to Milan, and our second occupation of that, city was marked
by continued acclamations wherever the First Consul showed himself.
At Milan the First Consul now saw Massena for the first time since our
departure for Egypt.  Bonaparte lavished upon, him the highest praises,
but not higher than he deserved, for his admirable, defence of Genoa.
He named him his successor in the command of the army of Italy.  Moreau
was on the Rhine, and therefore none but the conqueror of Zurich could
properly have succeeded the First Consul in that command.  The great blow
was struck; but there might still occur an emergency requiring the
presence of a skillful experienced general, well acquainted with the
country.  And besides, we could not be perfectly at ease, until it was
ascertained what conditions would be adhered to by the Cabinet of Vienna,
which was then entirely under the influence of the Cabinet of London.
After our return from the battle the popular joy was general and
heartfelt not only among the higher and middle ranks of society, but in
all classes; and the affection evinced from all quarters to the First
Consul was unfeigned.  In what a tone of sincerity did he say to me one
day, when returning from the parade, "Bourrienne, do you hear the
acclamations still resounding?  That noise is as sweet to me as the sound
of Josephine's voice.  How happy and proud I am to be loved by such a

During our stay at Milan Bonaparte had arranged a new government for
Piedmont; he had ever since cherished the wish to unite that rich and
fertile country to the French territory because some Piedmontese
provinces had been possessed by Louis XIV.  That monarch was the only
king whom the First Consul really admired.  "If," said he one day, "Louis
XIV. had not been born a king, he would have been a great man.  But he
did not know mankind; he could not know them, for he never knew
misfortune."  He admired the resolution of the old King, who would rather
bury himself under the ruins of the monarchy than submit to degrading
conditions, after having commanded the sovereigns of Europe.  I recollect
that Bonaparte was extremely pleased to see in the reports which he
ordered to be made that in Casal, and in the valleys of Pignerol, Latour,
and Luzerne, there still existed many traces of the period when those
countries belonged to France; and that the French language was yet
preserved there.  He already began to identify himself with the past; and
abusing the old kings of France was not the way to conciliate his favour.

The First Consul appointed for the government of Piedmont a Council
which, as may naturally be imagined; he composed of those Piedmontese who
were the declared partisans of France.  He stated as the grounds of this
arrangement that it was to give to Piedmont a new proof of the affection
and attachment of the French people.  He afterwards appointed General.
Dupont President of the Council, with the title of Minister-Extraordinary
of the French government.  I will here mention a secret step taken by
Bonaparte towards the overthrowing of the Republic.  In making the first
draught of General Dupont's appointment I had mechanically written,
"Minister-Extraordinary of the French Republic."--"No! no!" said
Bonaparte, "not of the Republic; say of the Government."

On his return to Paris the First Consul gave almost incredible proofs of
his activity.  The day after his arrival he promulgated a great number of
decrees, and afterwards allotted the rewards to his soldiers.  He
appointed Kellerman General of division which, on every principle of
justice, he ought to have done on the field of battle.  He distributed
sabres of honour, with the following inscription, highly complimentary to

     "Battle of Maringo,--[spelt for some time, I do not know why, as,
     Maringo--Bourrienne]-- commanded in person by the First Consul.
     --Given by the Government of the Republic to General Lannes."

Similar sabres where presented to Generals Victor, Watrin, Gardanne, and
Murat; and sabres of less value to other officers: and also muskets and
drumsticks of honour to the soldiers and drummers who had distinguished
themselves at Marengo, or in the army of the Rhine; for Bonaparte took
care that the officers and men who had fought under Moreau should be
included among those to whom the national rewards were presented.  He
even had a medal struck to perpetuate the memory of the entry of the
French army into Munich.  It is worthy of remark that while official
fabrications and exaggerated details of facts were published respecting
Marengo and the short campaign of Italy, by a feigned modesty the
victorious army of Marengo received the unambitious title of 'Army of
Reserve'.  By this artifice the honour of the Constitution was saved.
The First Consul had not violated it.  If he had marched to the field,
and staked everything on a chance it was merely accidentally, for he
commanded only an "Army of Reserve," which nevertheless he had greeted
with the title of Grand Army before he entered upon the campaign.  It is
scarcely conceivable that Bonaparte, possessing as he did an
extraordinary mind, should have descended to such pitiful artifices.

     --[ Thiers (tome. vi., p. 70) says the title Grande Armee was first
     given by Napoleon to the force prepared in 1805 for the campaign
     against Austria.  The Constitution forbad the First Consul to
     command the armies in person.  Hence the title, "Army of Reserve,"
     gives to the force which fought Marengo.]--

Even foreigners and prisoners were objects of Bonaparte's designing
intentions.  I recollect one evening his saying to me; "Bourrienne, write
to the Minister of War, and tell him to select a fine brace of pistols,
of the Versailles manufacture, and send them, in my name, to General
Zach.  He dined with me to-day, and highly praised our manufacture of
arms.  I should like to give him a token of remembrance; besides,--the,
matter will be talked of at Vienna, and may perhaps do good!"

As soon as the news of the battle of Marengo reached Paris Lucien
Bonaparte, Minister of the Interior, ordered preparations for the
festival, fixed for the 14th of July, in commemoration of the first
Federation.  This festival and that of the 1st Vendemiaire were the only
ones preserved by the Consular Government.  Indeed, in those memorable
days, when the Revolution appeared in its fairest point of view, France
had never known such joy as that to which the battle of Marengo gave
rise.  Still, amidst all this popular transport there was a feeling of
regret.  The fame of Desaix, his heroic character, his death, the words
attributed to him and believed to be true, caused mourning to be mingled
with joy.  It was agreed to open a subscription for erecting a national
monument to his memory.  A reflection naturally arises here upon the
difference between the period referred to and the present time.  France
has endowed with nearly a million the children of one of her greatest
orators and most eloquent defenders of public liberty, yet, for the
monument to the memory of Desaix scarcely 20,000 francs were subscribed.
Does not this form a singular contrast with the patriotic munificence
displayed at the death of General Foy?  The pitiful monument to Desaix,
on the Place Dauphins, sufficiently attests the want of spirit on the
part of the subscribers.  Bonaparte, who was much dissatisfied with it,
gave the name of Desaix to a new quay, the first stone of which was laid
with great solemnity on the 14th of July.

On that day the crowd was immense in the Champ-de-Mars and in the Temple
of Mars, the name which at that the Church of the Invalides still
preserved.  Lucien delivered a speech on the encouraging prospects of
France, and Lannes made an appropriate address on presenting to the
Government the flags taken at Marengo.  Two more followed; one from an
aide de cramp of Massena, and the other from an aide de camp of Lecourbe;
and after the distribution of some medals the First Consul then delivered
the following address:--

     CITIZENS! SOLDIERS!--The flags presented to the Government, in the
     presence of the people of this immense capital, attest at once the
     genius of the Commanders-in-Chief Moreau, Massena, and Berthier; the
     military talents of the generals, their lieutenants; and bravery of
     the French soldiers.

     On your return to the camp tell your comrades that for the 1st
     Vendemiaire, when we shall celebrate the anniversary of the
     Republic, the French people expect either peace or, if the enemy
     obstinately refuse it, other flags, the fruit of fresh victories.

After this harangue of the First Consul, in which he addressed to the
military in the name of the people, and ascribed to Berthier the glory of
Marengo, a hymn was chanted, the words of which were written by M. de
Fontanes and the music composed by Mehul.  But what was most remarkable
in this fete was neither the poetry, music, nor even the panegyrical
eloquence of Lucien, -- it was the arrival at the Champ-de-Mars, after
the ceremony at the Invalides, of the Consular Guard returning from
Marengo.  I was at a window of the Ecole-Militaire, and I can never
forget the commotion, almost electrical, which made the air resound with
cries of enthusiasm at their appearance.  These soldiers did not defile
before the First Consul in fine uniforms as at a review.  Leaving the
field of battle when the firing ceased, they had crossed Lombardy,
Piedmont, Mont Cenis, Savoy, and France in the space of twenty-nine days.
They appeared worn by the fatigue of a long journey, with faces browned
by the summer sun of Italy, and with their arms and clothing showing the
effects of desperate struggles.  Do you wish to have an idea of their
appearance?  You will find a perfect type in the first grenadier put by
Gerard at one side of his picture of the battle of Austerlitz.

At the time of this fete, that is to say, in the middle of the month of
July, the First Consul could not have imagined that the moderate
conditions he had proposed after the victory would not be accepted by
Austria.  In the hope, therefore, of a peace which could not but be
considered probable, he, for the first time since the establishment of
the Consular Government, convoked the deputies of the departments, and
appointed their time of assembling in Paris for the 1st Vendemiaire, a
day which formed the close of one remarkable century and marked the
commencement of another.

The remains of Marshal Turenne; to which Louis XIV. had awarded the
honours of annihilation by giving them a place among the royal tombs in
the vaults of St. Denis, had been torn from their grave at the time of
the sacrilegious violation of the tombs.  His bones, mingled
indiscriminately with others, had long lain in obscurity in a garret of
the College of Medicine when M. Lenoir collected and restored them to the
ancient tomb of Turenne in the Mussee des Petits Augustins.  Bonaparte-
resolved to enshrine these relics in that sculptured marble with which
the glory of Turenne could so well dispense.  This was however, intended
as a connecting link between the past days of France and the future to
which he looked forward.  He thought that the sentiments inspired by the
solemn honours rendered to the memory of Turenne would dispose the
deputies of the departments to receive with greater enthusiasm the
pacific communications he hoped to be able to make.

However, the negotiations did not take the favourable turn which the
First Consul had expected; and, notwithstanding all the address of
Lucien, the communication was not heard without much uneasiness.  But
Lucien had prepared a speech quite to the taste of the First Consul.
After dilating for some time on the efforts of the Government to obtain
peace he deplored the tergiversations of Austria, accused the fatal
influence of England, and added in a more elevated and solemn tone,
"At the very moment when, the Consuls were leaving the Palace of the
Government a courier arrived bearing despatches which the First Consul
has directed me to communicate to you."  He then read a note declaring
that the Austrian Government consented to surrender to France the three
fortresses of Ulm, Philipsburg, and Ingolstadt.  This was considered as a
security for the preliminaries of peace being speedily signed.  The news
was received with enthusiasm, and that anxious day closed in a way highly
gratifying to the First Consul.

Whilst victory confirmed in Italy the destinies of the First Consul, his
brothers were more concerned about their own interests than the affairs
of France.  They loved money as much as Bonaparte loved glory.  A letter
from Lucien to his brother Joseph, which I shall subjoin, shows how ready
they always were to turn to their own advantage the glory and fortune of
him to whom they were indebted for all their importance.  I found this
letter among my papers, but I cannot tell why and how I preserved it.
It is interesting, inasmuch as it shows, the opinion that family of
future kings entertained of their own situation, and of what their fate
would have been had Bonaparte, like Desaix, fallen on the field of
Marengo.  It is, besides, curious to observe the, philosopher Lucien
causing Te Deum, to be chanted with the view of influencing the public
funds.  At all events I copy Lucien's letter as he wrote it, giving the
words marked in italics [CAPS] and the numerous notes of exclamation
which distinguish the original.

     MY BROTHER--I send you a courier; I particularly wish that the First
     Consul would give me notice of his arrival twenty-four hours
     beforehand, and that he would inform ME ALONE of the barrier by
     which he will enter. The city wishes to prepare triumphal arches for
     him, and it deserves not to be disappointed.

     AT MY REQUEST a Te Deum was chanted yesterday.  There were 60,000
     persons present.

     The intrigues of Auteuil continue.

     --[This intrigue, so called from Talleyrand one of its heads, living
     in the suburb of Auteuil, arose from the wish of many of the most
     influential men to be prepared in case of the death of Napoleon in
     any action in Italy: It was simply a continuation of the same
     combinations which had been attempted or planned in 1799, till the
     arrival of Bonaparte from Egypt made the party choose him as the
     instrument for the overthrow of the Directors.  There was little
     secrecy about their plans; see Miot de Melito (tome i  p. 276),
     where Joseph Bonaparte tells his friends all that was being proposed
     in case his brother fell.  Carnot seems to have been the most
     probable choice as leader and replacer of  Bonaparte.  In the above
     letter "C----," stands for Carrot, "La F----" for La Fayette, the
     "High Priest" is Sieyes, and the "friend of Auteuil" is Talleyrand;
     see Iung's Lucien, tome i. p. 411.  The postscript seems to refer to
     a wretched scandal about Caroline, and Lucien; see Iung's Lucien,
     tome i. pp.  411, 432-433.  The reader should remark the retention
     of this and other documents by Bourrienne, which forms one of the
     charges brought against him farther on.

--It has been found difficult to decide between C---- and La F----.
The latter has proposed his daughter in marriage to me.  Intrigue has
been carried to the last extreme.  I do not know yet whether the High
Priest has decided for one party or the other.  I believe that he would
cheat them both for an Orleans, and your friend of Auteuil was at the
bottom of all.  The news of the battle of Marengo petrified them, and yet
next day the High Priest certainly spent three hours with your friend of
Auteuil.  As to us, had the victory of Marengo closed the First Consul's
career we should now have bean Proscribed.

Your letters say nothing of what I expected to hear.  I hope at least to
be informed of the answer from Vienna before any one.  I am sorry you
have not paid me back for the battle of Marengo.

The festival of the 14th of July will be very gratifying.  We expect
peace as a certainty, and the triumphant return of the First Consul.
The family is all well.  Your wife and all her family are at
Mortfontaine.  Ney is at Paris.  Why do you return with the First Consul?
Peace!  and Italy!  Think of our last interview.  I embrace you.
                                             (Signed)  LUCIEN.
On the margin is written--

P.S.-- Read the letter addressed to the Consul, and give it to him AFTER

Forward the enclosed.  Madame Murat never lodged in my house.  Her
husband is a fool, whom his wife ought to punish by not writing to him
for a month.
                         (Signed)  LUCIEN BONAPARTE

Bonaparte, confirmed in his power by the victory of Marengo, remained
some days longer at Milan to settle the affairs of Italy.  He directed
one to furnish Madame Grassini with money to pay her expenses to Paris.
We departed amidst the acclamations of the inhabitants, and took the road
to Turin.  The First Consul stopped at Turin for some hours, and
inspected the citadel, which had bean surrendered to us in pursuance of
the capitulation of Alessandria.  In passing over Mont Cenis we observed
the carriage of Madame Kellerman, who was going to meet her husband.
Bonaparte on recognizing the lady stopped his carriage and congratulated
her on the gallant conduct of her husband at the battle of Marengo.

On our arrival at Lyons we alighted at the Hotel des Celestins, and the
loud acclamations of a numerous multitude assembled round the hotel
obliged Bonaparte to show himself on the balcony.  Next day he proceeded
to the Square of Bellecour, where, amidst the plaudits of the people, he
laid the first stone of some new buildings destined to efface one of the
disasters of the Revolution.

We left Lyons that evening and continued our journey by way of Dijon.
On our arrival in that town the joy of the inhabitants was very great.
I never saw a more graceful and captivating sight than that which was
presented by a group of beautiful young females, crowned with flowers,
who accompanied Bonaparte's carriage, and which at that period, when the
Revolution had renewed all the republican recollections of Greece and
Rome, looked like the chorus of females dancing around the victor at the
Olympic games.

But all our journey was not so agreeable.  Some accidents awaited us.
The First Consul's carriage broke down between Villeneuve-le-Roi and
Sens.  He sent a courier to inform my mother that he would stop at her
house till his carriage was repaired.  He dined there, and we started
again at seven in the evening.

But we had other disasters to encounter.  One of our off-wheels came off,
and as we were driving at a very rapid pace the carriage was overturned
on the bridge at a short distance from Montreau-Faut-Yonne.  The First
Consul, who sat on my left, fell upon me, and sustained no injury.  My
head was slightly hurt by striking against some things which were in the
pocket of the carriage; but this accident was not worth stopping for, and
we arrived at Paris on the same night, the 2d of July.  Duroc, who was
the third in the carriage, was not hurt.

I have already mentioned that Bonaparte was rather talkative when
travelling; and as we were passing through Burgundy, on our return to
Paris from Marengo, he said exultingly, "Well, a few more events like
this campaign, and I may go down to posterity."--"I think," replied I,
that you have already done enough to secure great and lasting fame."--
"Yes," resumed he, "I have done enough, it is true.  In less than two
years I have won Cairo, Paris, and Milan; but for all that, my dear
fellow, were I to die to-morrow I should not at the end of ten centuries
occupy half a page of general history!"

On the very day when Desaix fell on the field of Marengo Kleber was
assassinated by a fanatical Mussulman, named Soleiman Haleby, who stabbed
him with a dagger, and by that blow decided the fate of Egypt.

     --["This fellah was, at most, eighteen or twenty years of age: he
     was a native of Damascus, and declared that he had quitted his
     native city by command of the grand vizier, who had entrusted him
     with the commission of repairing to Egypt and killing the grand
     sultan of the French [Bonaparte being probably intended].  That for
     this purpose alone he had left his family, and performed the whole
     journey on foot and had received from the grand vizier no other
     money than what was absolutely requisite for the exigencies of the
     journey.  On arriving at Cairo he had gone forthwith to perform his
     devotions in the great mosque, and it was only on the eve of
     executing his project that he confided it to one of the scherifs of
     the mosque" (Duc de Rovigo's Memoirs, tome 1. p. 367)]--

Thus was France, on the same day, and almost at the same hour, deprived
of two of her most distinguished generals.  Menou, as senior in command,
succeeded Kleber, and the First Consul confirmed the appointment.  From
that moment the loss of Egypt was inevitable.

I have a few details to give respecting the tragical death of Kleber.
The house of Elfy Bey, which Bonaparte occupied at Cairo, and in which
Kleber lived after his departure; had a terrace leading from a salon to
an old ruined cistern, from which, down a few steps, there was an
entrance into the garden.  The terrace commanded a view of the grand
square of El Beguyeh, which was to the right on coming out of the salon,
while the garden was on the left.  This terrace was Bonaparte's favourite
promenade, especially in the evenings, when he used to walk up and down
and converse with the persons about him, I often advised him to fill up
the reservoir, and to make it level with the terrace.  I even showed him,
by concealing myself in it, and coming suddenly behind him, how easy it
would be for any person to attempt his life and then escape, either by
jumping into the square, or passing through the garden.  He told me I was
a coward, and was always in fear of death; and he determined not to make
the alteration I suggested, which, however, he acknowledged to be
advisable.  Kleber's assassin availed himself of the facility which I so
often apprehended might be fatal to Bonaparte.

I shall not atop to refute all the infamous rumours which were circulated
respecting Kleber's death.  When the First Consul received the unexpected
intelligence he could scarcely believe it.  He was deeply affected; and
on reading the particulars of the assassination he instantly called to
mind how often he had been in the same situation as that in which Kleber
was killed, and all I had said respecting the danger of the reservoir--
a danger from which it is inconceivable he should have escaped,
especially after his Syrian expedition had excited the fury of the
natives.  Bonaparte's knowledge of Kleber's talents--the fact of his
having confided to him the command of the army, and the aid which he
constantly endeavoured to transmit to him, repelled at once the horrible
suspicion of his having had the least participation in the crime, and the
thought that he was gratified to hear of it.

It is very certain that Bonaparte's dislike of Kleber was as decided as
the friendship he cherished for Desaix.  Kleber's fame annoyed him, for
he was weak enough to be annoyed at it.  He knew the manner in which
Kleber spoke of him, which was certainly not the most respectful.  During
the long and sanguinary siege of St. Jean d'Acre Kleber said to me, "That
little scoundrel Bonaparte, who is no higher than my boot, will enslave
France.  See what a villainous expedition he has succeeded in involving
us in."  Kleber often made the same remark to others as well as to me.
I am not certain that it was ever reported to Bonaparte; but there is
reason to believe that those who found it their interest to accuse others
did not spare Kleber.

Kleber, who was a sincere republican, saw and dreaded for his country's
sake the secret views and inordinate ambition of Bonaparte.  He was a
grumbler by nature; yet he never evinced discontent in the discharge of
his duties as a soldier.  He swore and stormed, but marched bravely to
the cannon's mouth: he was indeed courage personified.  One day when he
was in the trench at St. Jean d'Acre, standing up, and by his tall
stature exposed to every shot, Bonaparte called to him, "Stoop down,
Kleber, stoop down!"-- "Why;" replied he, "your confounded trench does
not reach to my knees."  He never regarded the Egyptian expedition with a
favourable eye.  He thought it too expensive, and utterly useless to
France.  He was convinced that in the situation in which we stood,
without a navy or a powerful Government, it would have been better to
have confined our attention to Europe than to have wasted French blood
and money on the banks of the Nile, and among the ruined cities of Syria.
Kleber, who was a cool, reflecting man, judged Bonaparte without
enthusiasm, a thing somewhat rare at that time, and he was not blind to
any of his faults.

Bonaparte alleged that Kleber said to him, "General, you are as great as
the world!"  Such a remark is in direct opposition to Kleber's character.
He was too sincere to say anything against his conviction.  Bonaparte,
always anxious to keep Egypt, of which the preservation alone could
justify the conquest, allowed Kleber to speak because he acted at the
same time.  He knew that Kleber's sense of military duty would always
triumph over any opposition he might cherish to his views and plans.
Thus the death of his lieutenant, far from causing Bonaparte any feeling
of satisfaction, afflicted him the more, because it almost totally
deprived him if the hope of preserving a conquest which had cost France
so dear, and which was his work.

The news of the death of Kleber arrived shortly after our return to
Paris.  Bonaparte was anxiously expecting accounts from Egypt, none
having been received for a considerable time.  The arrival of the courier
who brought the fatal intelligence gave rise to a scene which I may
relate here.  It was two o'clock in the morning when the courier arrived
at the Tuileries.  In his hurry the First Consul could not wait to rouse
any one to call me up.  I had informed him some days before that if he
should want me during the night he should send for me to the corridor, as
I had changed my bedchamber on account of my wife's accouchement.  He
came up himself and instead of knocking at my door knocked at that of my
secretary.  The latter immediately rose, and opening the door to his
surprise saw the First Consul with a candle in his hand, a Madras
handkerchief on his head, and having on his gray greatcoat.  Bonaparte,
not knowing of the little step down into the room, slipped and nearly
fell, "Where is Bourrienne?"  asked he.  The surprise of my secretary at
the apparition of the First Consul can be imagined.  "What; General, is
it you?"--" Where is Bourrienne?" Then my secretary, in his shirt, showed
the First Consul my door.  After having told him that he was sorry at
having called him up, Napoleon came to me. I dressed in a hurry, and we
went downstairs to my usual room.  We rang several times before they
opened the door for us.  The guards were not asleep, but having heard so
much running to and fro feared we were thieves.  At last they opened the
door, and the First Consul threw on the table the immense packet of
despatches which he had just received.  They had been fumigated and
steeped in vinegar.  When he read the announcement of the death of Kleber
the expression of his countenance sufficiently denoted the painful
feelings which arose in his mind.  I read in his face; EGYPT IS LOST!


     Bonaparte's wish to negotiate with England and Austria--
     An emigrant's letter--Domestic details--The bell--Conspiracy of
     Ceracchi, Arena, Harrel, and others--Bonaparte's visit to the opera
     --Arrests--Rariel appointed commandant of Vincennes--The Duc
     d'Enghien's foster-sister--The 3d Nivoise--First performance of
     Haydn's "Creation"--The infernal machine--Congratulatory addresses--
     Arbitrary condemnations--M. Tissot erased from the list of the
     banished--M. Truguet--Bonapartes' hatred of the Jacobins explained--
     The real criminals discovered--Justification of Fouche--Execution of
     St. Regent and Carbon--Caesar, Cromwell, and Bonaparte--Conversation
     between Bonaparte and Fouche--Pretended anger--Fouche's
     dissimulation--Lucien's resignation--His embassy to Spain--War
     between Spain and Portugal--Dinner at Fouche's--Treachery of Joseph
     Bonaparte--A trick upon the First Consul--A three days' coolness--

The happy events of the campaign of Italy had been crowned by the
armistice, concluded on the 6th of July.  This armistice was broken on
the 1st of September, and renewed after the battle of Hohenlinden.  On
his return from Marengo Bonaparte was received with more enthusiasm than
ever.  The rapidity with which, in a campaign of less than two months, he
had restored the triumph of the French standard, excited universal
astonishment.  He then actively endeavoured to open negotiations with
England and Austria; but difficulties opposed him in every direction.  He
frequently visited the theatre, where his presence attracted prodigious
throngs of persons, all eager to see and applaud him.

The immense number of letters which were at this time addressed to the
First Consul is scarcely conceivable.  They contained requests for
places, protestations of fidelity, and, in short, they were those
petitionary circulars that are addressed to all persons in power.  These
letters were often exceedingly curious, and I have preserved many of
them; among the rest was one from Durosel Beaumanoir, an emigrant who had
fled to Jersey.  This letter contains some interesting particulars
relative to Bonaparte's family.  It is dated Jersey, 12th July 1800, and
the following are the moat remarkable passages it contains:

     I trust; General, that I may, without indiscretion, intrude upon
     your notice, to remind you of what, I flatter myself, you have not
     totally forgotten, after having lived eighteen or nineteen years at
     Ajaccio.  But you will, perhaps, be surprised that so trifling an
     item should be the subject of the letter which I have the honour to
     address to you.  You cannot have forgotten, General, that when your
     late father was obliged to take your brothers from the college of
     Autun, from whence he went to see you at Brienne, he was unprovided
     with mousy, and he asked me for twenty-five louis, which I lent him
     with pleasure.  After his return he had no opportunity of paying me,
     and when I left Ajaccio your mother offered to dispose of some plate
     in order to pay the debt.  To this I objected, and told her that I
     would wait until she could pay me at her convenience, and previous
     to the breaking out of the revolution I believe it was not in her
     power to fulfil her wish of discharging the debt.

     I am sorry, General, to be obliged to trouble yon about such a
     trifle.  But such is my unfortunate situation that even this trifle
     is of some importance to me.  Driven from my country, and obliged to
     take refuge in this island, where everything is exceedingly
     expensive, the little sum I have mentioned, which was formerly a
     matter of indifference, would now be of great service to me.

     You will understand, General, that at the age of eighty-six, after
     serving served my country well for sixty years, without the least
     interruption, not counting the time of emigration, chased from every
     place, I have been obliged to take refuge here, to subsist on the
     scanty succour given by the English Government to the French
     emigrant.  I say emigrant because I have been forced to be one.
     I had no intention of being one, but a horde of brigands, who came
     from Caen to my house to assassinate me, considered I had committed
     the great crime in being the senior general of the canton and in
     having the Grand Cross of St. Louis: this was too much for them; if
     it had not been for the cries of my neighbours, my door would have
     been broken open, and I should have been assassinated; and I had but
     time to fly by a door at the back, only carrying away what I had on
     me.  At first I retired to Paris, but there they told me that I
     could do nothing but go into a foreign country, so great was the
     hate entertained for me by my fellow-citizens, although I lived in
     retirement, never having any discussion with any one.  Thus,
     General; I have abandoned all I possessed, money and goods, leaving
     them at the mercy of what they call the nation, which has profited a
     good deal by this, as I have nothing left in the world, not even a
     spot to put my foot on.  If even a horse had been reserved for me,
     General, I could ask for what depends on you, for I have heard it
     said that some emigrants have been allowed to return home.  I do not
     even ask this favour, not having a place to rest my foot.  And,
     besides, I have with me here an exiled brother, older than I am,
     very ill and in perfect second childhood, whom I could not abandon.
     I am resigned to my own unhappy fate, but my sole and great grief is
     that not only I myself have been ill-treated, but that my fate has,
     contrary to the law, injured relations whom I love and respect.  I
     have a mother-in-law, eighty years old, who has been refused the
     dower I had given her from my property, and this will make me die a
     bankrupt if nothing is changed, which makes me miserable.

     I acknowledge, General, that I know little of the new style, but,
     according to the old form, I am your humble servant,

                                             DUROSEL BEAUMANOIR.

I read this letter to the First Consul, who immediately said,
"Bourrienne, this is sacred!  Do not lose a minute.  Send the old man ten
times the sum.  Write to General Durosel that he shall be immediately
erased from the list of emigrants.  What mischief those brigands of the
Convention have done!  I can never repair it all."  Bonaparte uttered
these words with a degree of emotion which I rarely saw him evince.  In
the evening he asked me whether I had executed his orders, which I had
done without losing a moment.  The death of M. Froth had given me a
lesson as to the value of time!

Availing myself of the privilege I have already frequently taken of
making abrupt transitions from one subject to another, according as the
recollection of past circumstances occurs to my mind, I shall here note
down a few details, which may not improperly be called domestic, and
afterwards describe a conspiracy which was protected by the very man
against whom it was hatched.

At the Tuileries, where the First Consul always resided during the winter
and sometimes a part of the summer, the grand salon was situated between
his cabinet and the Room in which he received the persons with whom he
had appointed audiences.  When in this audience-chamber, if he wanted
anything or had occasion to speak to anybody, he pulled a bell which was
answered by a confidential servant named Landoire, who was the messenger
of the First Consul's cabinet.  When Bonaparte's bell rung it was usually
for the purpose of making some inquiry of me respecting a paper, a name,
a date, or some matter of that sort; and then Landoire had to pass
through the cabinet and salon to answer the bell and afterwards to return
and to tell me I was wanted.  Impatient at the delay occasioned by this
running about, Bonaparte, without saying anything to me, ordered the bell
to be altered so that it should ring within the cabinet; and exactly
above my table.  Next morning when I entered the cabinet I saw a man
mounted-upon a ladder.  "What are you doing here?" said I.  "I am hanging
a bell, sir."  I called Landoire and asked him who had given the order.
"The First Consul," he replied.  I immediately ordered the man to come
down and remove the ladder, which he accordingly did.  When I went,
according to custom, to awaken the First Consul and read the newspapers
to him I said, "General, I found a man this morning hanging a bell in
your cabinet.  I was told it was by your orders; but being convinced
there must be some mistake I sent him away.  Surely the bell was not
intended for you, and I cannot imagine it was intended for me: who then
could it be for?--"What a stupid fellow that Landoire is!" said
Bonaparte.  "Yesterday, when Cambaceres was with me, I wanted you.
Landoire did not come when I touched the bell.  I thought it was broken,
and ordered him to get it repaired.  I suppose the bell-hanger was doing
it when you saw him, for you know the wire passes through the cabinet."
I was satisfied with this explanation, though I was not deceived, by it.
For the sake of appearance he reproved Landoire, who, however, had done
nothing more than execute the order he had received.  How could he
imagine I would submit to such treatment, considering that we had been
friends since our boyhood, and that I was now living on full terms of
confidence and familiarity with him?

Before I speak of the conspiracy of Ceracchi, Arena, Topino-Lebrun, and
others, I must notice a remark made by Napoleon at St. Helena.  He said,
or is alleged to have said, "The two attempts which placed me in the
greatest danger were those of the sculptor Ceracchi and of the fanatic of
Schoenbrun."  I was not at Schoenbrun at the time; but I am convinced
that Bonaparte was in the most imminent danger.  I have been informed on
unquestionable authority that Staps set out from Erfurth with the
intention of assassinating the Emperor; but he wanted the necessary
courage for executing the design.  He was armed with a large dagger, and
was twice sufficiently near Napoleon to have struck him.  I heard this
from Rapp, who seized Stags, and felt the hilt of the dagger under his
coat.  On that occasion Bonaparte owed his life only to the irresolution
of the young 'illuminato' who wished to sacrifice him to his fanatical
fury.  It is equally certain that on another occasion, respecting which
the author of the St. Helena narrative observes complete silence, another
fanatic--more dangerous than Steps attempted the life of Napoleon.

     --[At the time of  this attempt I was not with Napoleon; but he
     directed me to see the madmen who had formed the design of
     assassinating him.  It will be seen in the coarse of these Memoirs
     what were has plans, and what was the result of them--Bourrienne]--

The following is a correct statement of the facts relative to Ceracchi's
conspiracy.  The plot itself was a mere shadow; but it was deemed
advisable to give it substance, to exaggerate, at least in appearance,
the danger to which the First Consul had been exposed:--

There was at that time in Paris an idle fellow called Harrel; he had been
a 'chef de battalion', but he had been dismissed the service, and was
consequently dissatisfied.  He became connected with Cerracchi, Arena,
Topino-Lebrun, and Demerville.  From different motives all these
individuals were violently hostile to the First Consul, who on his part,
was no friend to Cerracchi and Arena, but scarcely knew the two others.
These four individuals formed, in conjunction with Harrel, the design of
assassinating the First Consul, and the time fixed for the perpetration
of the deed was one evening when Bonaparte intended to visit the opera.

On the 20th of September 1804 Harrel came to me at the Tuileries.  He
revealed to me the plot in which he was engaged, and promised that his
accomplices should be apprehended in the very act if I would supply him
with money to bring the plot to maturity.  I knew not how to act upon
this disclosure, which I, however, could not reject without incurring too
great a responsibility.  I immediately communicated the business to the
First Consul, who ordered me to supply Harrel with money; but not to
mention the affair to Fouche, to whom he wished to prove that he knew
better how to manage the police than he did.

Harrel came nearly every evening at eleven o'clock to inform me of the
progress of the conspiracy, which I immediately communicated to the First
Consul, who was not sorry to find Arena and Ceracchi deeply committed.
But the time passed on, and nothing was done.  The First Consul began to
grow impatient.  At length Harrel came to say that they had no money to
purchase arms.  Money was given him.  He, however, returned next day to
say that the gunsmith refused to sell them arms without authority.  It
was now found necessary to communicate the business to Fouche in order
that he might grant the necessary permission to the gunsmith, which I was
not empowered to do.

On the 10th of October the Consuls, after the breaking up of the Council,
assembled in the cabinet of their colleague.  Bonaparte asked them in my
presence whether they thought he ought to go to the opera.  They observed
that as every precaution was taken no danger could be apprehended, and
that it was desirable to show the futility of attempts against the First
Consul's life.  After dinner Bonaparte put on a greatcoat over his green
uniform and got into his carriage accompanied by me and Duroc.  He seated
himself in front of his box, which at that time was on the left of the
theatre between the two columns which separated the front and side boxes.
When we had been in the theatre about half an hour the First Consul
directed me to go and see what was doing in the corridor.  Scarcely had I
left the box than I heard a great uproar, and soon discovered that a
number of persons, whose names I could not learn, had been arrested.  I
informed the First Consul of what I had heard, and we immediately
returned to the Tuileries.

It is certain that the object of the conspiracy was to take the First
Consul's life, and that the conspirators neglected nothing which could
further the accomplishment of their atrocious design.  The plot, however,
was known through the disclosures of Harrel; and it would have been easy
to avert instead of conjuring up the storm.  Such was, and such still is,
my opinion.  Harrel's name was again restored to the army list, and he
was appointed commandant of Vincennes.  This post he held at the time of
the Duc d'Enghien's assassination.  I was afterwards told that his wife
was foster-sister to the unfortunate prince, and that she recognised him
when he entered the prison which in a few short hours was to prove his

Carbonneau, one of the individuals condemned, candidly confessed the part
he had taken in the plot, which he said was brought to maturity solely by
the agents of the police, who were always eager to prove their zeal to
their employers by some new discovery.

Although three months intervened between the machinations of Ceracchi and
Arena and the horrible attempt of the 3d Nivose, I shall relate these two
events in immediate succession; for if they had no other points of
resemblance they were at least alike in their object.  The conspirators
in the first affair were of the revolutionary faction.  They sought
Bonaparte's life as if with the view of rendering his resemblance to
Caesar so complete that not even a Brutus should be wanting.  The latter,
it must with regret be confessed, were of the Royalist party, and in
their wish to destroy the First Consul they were not deterred by the fear
of sacrificing a great number of citizens.

The police knew nothing of the plot of the 3d Nivose for two reasons;
first, because they were no parties to it, and secondly, because two
conspirators do not betray and sell each other when they are resolute in
their purpose.  In such cases the giving of information can arise only
from two causes, the one excusable, the other infamous, viz. the dread of
punishment, and the hope of reward.  But neither of these causes
influenced the conspirators of the 3d Nivose, the inventors and
constructors of that machine which has so justly been denominated

On the 3d Nivose (24th December 1800) the first performance of Haydn's
magnificent oratorio of the "Creation" took place at the opera, and the
First Consul had expressed his intention of being present.  I did not
dine with him that day, but as he left me he said, "Bourrienne, you know
I am going to the opera to-night, and you may go too; but I cannot take
you in the carriage, as Lannes, Berthier, and Lauriston are going with
me."  I was very glad of this, for I much wished to hear one of the
masterpieces of the German school of composition.  I got to the opera
before Bonaparte, who on his entrance seated himself, according to
custom, in front of the box.  The eye's of all present were fixed upon
him, and he appeared to be perfectly calm and self-possessed.  Lauriston,
as soon as he saw me, came to my box, and told me that the First Consul,
on his way to the opera, had narrowly escaped being assassinated in the
Rue St. Nicaise by the explosion of a barrel of gunpowder, the concussion
of which had shattered the windows of his carriage.  "Within ten seconds
after our escape," added Lauriston, "the coachman having turned the
corner of the Rue St Honore, stopped to take the First Consul's orders;
and he coolly said, 'To the opera.'"

     --[The following particulars respecting the affair of the infernal
     machine are related by Rapp, who attended Madame Bonaparte to the
     opera.  He differs from Bourrienne as to the total ignorance of the

     "The affair of the infernal machine has never been property
     understood by the public.  The police had intimated to Napoleon that
     an attempt would be made against his life and cautioned him not to
     go out.  Madame Bonaparte, Mademoiselle Beauharnais, Madame Murat,
     Lannes, Bessieres, the aide de camp on duty, Lieutenant Lebrun, now
     duke of Placenza were all assembled in the salon, while the First
     Consul was writing in his cabinet.  Haydn's oratorio was to be
     performed that evening; the ladies were anxious to hear the music,
     and we also expressed a wish to that effect.  The escort piquet was
     ordered out; and Lannes requested that Napoleon would join the
     party.  He consented; his carriage was ready, and he took along with
     him Bessieres and the aide de camp on duty.  I was directed to
     attend the ladies.  Josephine had received a magnificent shawl from
     Constantinople and she that evening wore it for the first time.
     'Permit me to observe,' said I, 'that your shawl is not thrown on
     with your usual elegance.'  She good-humouredly begged that I would
     fold it after the fashion of the Egyptian ladies.  While I was
     engaged in this operation we heard Napoleon depart.  'Come sister,'
     said Madame Murat, who was impatient to get to the theatre:
     'Bonaparte is going:' We stopped into the carriage: the First
     Consul's equipage had already reached the middle of the Place du
     Carrousel.  We drove after it, but we had scarcely entered the place
     when the machine exploded.  Napoleon escaped by a singular chance,
     St. Regent, or his servant Francois, had stationed himself in the
     middle of tho Rue Nicaise.  A grenadier of the escort, supposing he
     was really what he appeared to be, a water-carrier, gave him a few
     blows with the flat of his sabre and drove him off.  The cart was
     turned round, and the machine exploded between the carriages of
     Napoleon and Josephine.  The ladies shrieked on hearing the report;
     the carriage windows were broken, and Mademoiselle Beauharnais
     received a slight hurt on her hand.  I alighted and crossed the Rue
     Nicaise which was strewed with the bodies of those who had been
     thrown down, and the fragments of the walls that had been shattered
     with the explosion.  Neither the consul nor any individual of his,
     suite sustained any serious injury.  When I entered the theatre
     Napoleon was seated in his box; calm and composed, and looking at
     the audience through his opera-glass.  Fouche was beside him.
     'Josephine' said he as soon as he observed me.  She entered at that
     instant and he did not finish his question 'The rascals' said he
     very cooly, wanted to blow me up: Bring me a book of the oratorio'"
     (Memoirs of General Count Rape.  P. 19)]--

On hearing this I left the theatre and returned to the Palace, under the
expectation that I should speedily be wanted.  Bonaparte soon returned
home; and as intelligence of the affair had spread through Paris the
grand salon on the ground-floor was filled with a crowd of functionaries,
eager to read in the eye of their master what they were to think and say
on the occasion.  He did not keep them long in suspense.  "This,"
exclaimed he vehemently, "is the work of the Jacobins: they have
attempted my life.... There are neither nobles, priests, nor Chouans in
this affair!....  I know what I am about, and they need not think to
impose on me.  These are the Septembrizers who have been in open revolt
and conspiracy, and arrayed against every succeeding Government.  It is
scarce three months since my life was attempted by Uracchi, Arena;
Topino-Lebrun, and Demerville.  They all belong to one gang!  The
cutthroats of September, the assassins of Versailles, the brigands of the
81st of May, the conspirators of Prairial are the authors of all the
crimes committed against established Governments!  If they cannot be
checked they must be crashed!  France must be purged of these ruffians!"
It is impossible to form any idea of the bitterness with which Bonaparte,
pronounced these words.  In vain did some of the Councillors of State,
and Fouche in particular, endeavour to point out to him that there was no
evidence against any one, and that before he pronounced people to be
guilty it would be right to ascertain the fact.  Bonaparte repeated with
increased  violence what he had before said of the Jacobins; thus adding;
not without some ground of suspicion, one crime more to, the long
catalogue for which they had already to answer.

Fouche had many enemies, and I was not, therefore, surprised to find some
of the Ministers endeavouring to take advantage of the difference between
his opinion and that of the First Consul; and it must be owned that the
utter ignorance of the police respecting this event was a circumstance
not very favourable to Fouche.  He, however, was like the reed in the
fable--he bent with the wind, but was soon erect again.  The most skilful
actor could scarcely imitate the inflexible calmness he maintained during
Bonaparte's paroxysm of rage, and the patience with which he allowed
himself to be accused.

Fouche, when afterwards conversing with me, gave me clearly to understand
that he did not think the Jacobins guilty.  I mentioned this to the First
Consul, but nothing could make him retract his opinion.  "Fouche," said
he, "has good reason for his silence.  He is serving his own party.  It
is very natural that he should seek to screen a set of men who are
polluted with blood and crimes!  He was one of their leaders.  Do not I
know what he did at Lyons and the Loire?  That explains Fouche's conduct

This is the exact truth; and now let me contradict one of the thousand
fictions about this event.  It has been said and printed that "the
dignitaries and the Ministers were assembled at the Tuileries.  'Well,'
said the First Consul, advancing angrily towards Fouche, 'will you still
say that this is the Royalist party?'  Fouche, better informed than was
believed, answered coolly, 'Yes, certainly, I shall say so; and, what is
more, I shall prove it.'  This speech caused general astonishment, but
was afterwards fully borne out."  This is pure invention.  The First
Consul only said to Fouche; "I do not trust to your police; I guard
myself, and I watch till two in the morning."  This however, was very
rarely the case.

On the day after the explosion of the infernal machine a considerable
concourse assembled at the Tuileries.  There was absolutely a torrent of
congratulations.  The prefect of the Seine convoked the twelve mayors of
Paris and came at their head to wait on the First Consul.  In his reply
to their address Bonaparte said, "As long as this gang of assassins
confined their attacks to me personally I left the law to take its
course; but since, by an unparalleled crime, they have endangered the
lives of a portion of the population of Paris, their punishment must be
as prompt as exemplary.  A hundred of these wretches who have libeled
liberty by perpetrating crimes in her name must be effectually prevented
from renewing their atrocities."  He then conversed with the Ministers,
the Councillors of State, etc., on the event of the preceding day; and as
all knew the First Consul's opinion of the authors of the crime each was
eager to confirm it.  The Council was several times assembled when the
Senate was consulted, and the adroit Fouche, whose conscience yielded to
the delicacy of his situation, addressed to the First Consul a report
worthy of a Mazarin.  At the same time the journals were filled with
recollections of the Revolution, raked up for the purpose of connecting
with past crimes the individuals on whom it was now wished to cast odium.
It was decreed that a hundred persons should be banished; and the senate
established its character for complaisance by passing a 'Senatus-
consulte' conformable to the wishes of the First Consul.

A list was drawn up of the persons styled Jacobins, who were condemned to
transportation.  I was fortunate enough to obtain the erasure of the
names of several whose opinions had perhaps been violent, but whose
education and private character presented claims to recommendation. Some
of my readers may probably recollect them without my naming them, and I
shall only mention M. Tissot, for the purpose of recording, not the
service I rendered him, but an instance of grateful acknowledgment.

When in 1815 Napoleon was on the point of entering Paris M. Tissot came
to the prefecture of police, where I then was, and offered me his house
as a safe asylum; assuring me I should there run no risk of being
discovered.  Though I did not accept the offer yet I gladly seize on this
opportunity of making it known.  It is gratifying to find that difference
of political opinion does not always exclude sentiments of generosity and
honour!  I shall never forget the way in which the author of the essays
on Virgil uttered the words 'Domus mea'.

But to return to the fatal list.  Even while I write this I shudder to
think of the way in which men utterly innocent were accused of a
revolting crime without even the shadow of a proof.  The name of an
individual, his opinions, perhaps only assumed, were sufficient grounds
for his banishment.  A decree of the Consuls, dated 4th of January 1801,
confirmed by a 'Senates-consulte' on the next day, banished from the
territory of the Republic, and placed under special inspectors, 130
individuals, nine of whom were merely designated in the report as

The exiles, who in the reports and in the public acts were so unjustly
accused of being the authors of the infernal machine, were received at
Nantes, with so much indignation that the military were compelled to
interfere to save them from being massacred.

In the discussions which preceded the decree of the Consuls few persons
had the courage to express a doubt respecting the guilt of the accused.
Truguet was the first to mount the breach.  He observed that without
denying the Government the extraordinary means for ,getting rid of its
enemies he could not but acknowledge that the emigrants threatened the
purchasers of national domains, that the public mind was corrupted by
pamphlets, and that-- Here the First Consul, interrupting him, exclaimed,
"To what pamphlets do you allude?"--  "To pamphlets which are publicly
circulated."--"Name them!"--"You know them as well as I do."

     --[The Parallel between Caesar, Cromwell, and Bonaparte, of which I
     shall speak a little farther on, is here alluded to.--Bourrienne.]--

After a long and angry ebullition the First Consul abruptly dismissed the
Council.  He observed that he would not be duped; that the villains were
known; that they were Septembrizers, the hatchers of every mischief.  He
had said at a sitting three days before, "If proof should fail, we must
take advantage of the public excitement.  The event is to me merely the
opportunity.  They shall be banished for the 2d September, for the 31st
May, for Baboeuf's conspiracy--or anything else."

On leaving one of the sittings of the Council, at which the question of a
special tribunal had been discussed, he told me that he had been a little
ruffled; that he had said a violent blow must be struck; that blood must
be spilt; and that as many of the guilty should be shot as there had been
victims of the explosion (from fifteen to twenty); that 200 should be
banished, and the Republic purged of these scoundrels.

The arbitrariness and illegality of the proceeding were so evident that
the 'Senatus-consulte' contained no mention of the transactions of the 3d
Nivose, which was very remarkable.  It was, however, declared that the
measure of the previous day had been adopted with a view to the
preservation of the Constitution.  This was promising.

The First Consul manifested the most violent hatred of the Jacobins;
for this he could not have been blamed if under the title of Jacobins he
had not comprised every devoted advocate of public liberty.  Their
opposition annoyed him and he could never pardon them for having presumed
to condemn his tyrannical acts, and to resist the destruction of the
freedom which he had himself sworn to defend, but which he was
incessantly labouring to overturn.  These were the true motives of his
conduct; and, conscious of his own faults, he regarded with dislike those
who saw and disapproved of them.  For this reason he was more afraid of
those whom he called Jacobins than of the Royalists.

I am here recording the faults of Bonaparte, but I excuse him; situated
as he was, any other person would have acted in the same way.  Truth now
reached him with difficulty, and when it was not agreeable he had no
disposition to hear it.  He was surrounded by flatterers; and, the
greater number of those who approached him, far from telling him what
they really thought; only repeated what he had himself been thinking.
Hence he admired the wisdom of his Counsellors.  Thus Fouche, to maintain
himself in favour, was obliged to deliver up to his master 130 names
chosen from among his own most intimate friends as objects of

Meanwhile Fouche, still believing that he was not deceived as to the real
authors of the attempt of the 3d Nivose, set in motion with his usual
dexterity all the springs of the police.  His efforts, however, were for
sometime unsuccessful; but at length on Saturday, the 31st January 1801,
about two hours after our arrival at Malmaison, Fouche presented himself
and produced authentic proofs of the accuracy of his conjectures.  There
was no longer any doubt on the subject; and Bonaparte saw clearly that
the attempt of the 3d Nivose was the result of a plot hatched by the
partisans of royalty.  But as the act of proscription against those who
were jumbled together under the title of the Jacobins had been executed,
it was not to be revoked.

Thus the consequence of the 3d Nivose was that both the innocent and
guilty were punished; with this difference, however, that the guilty at
least had the benefit of a trial.

When the Jacobins, as they were called, were accused with such
precipitation, Fouche had no positive proofs of their, innocence; and
therefore their illegal condemnation ought not to be attributed to him.
Sufficient odium is attached to his memory without his being charged with
a crime he never committed.  Still, I must say that had he boldly opposed
the opinion of Bonaparte in the first burst of his fury he might have
averted the blow.  Every time he came to the Tuileries, even before he
had acquired any traces of the truth, Fouche always declared to me his
conviction of the innocence of the persons first accused.  But he was
afraid to make the same observation to Bonaparte.  I often mentioned to
him the opinion of the Minister of Police; but as proof was wanting he
replied to me with a triumphant air, "Bah!  bah!  This is always the way
with Fouche.  Besides, it is of little consequence.  At any rate we shall
get rid of them.  Should the guilty be discovered among the Royalists
they also shall be punished."

"The real criminals being at length discovered through the researches of
Fouche, St. Regent and Carbon expiated their crimes by the forfeit of
their heads.  Thus the First Consul gained his point, and justice gained

     --[It was St. Regent, or St. Rejeant, who fired the infernal
     machine.  The violence of the shock flung him against a post and
     part of his breast bone was driven in.  He was obliged to resort to
     a surgeon, and it would seem that this man denounced him. (Memoirs
     of Miot de Melito, tome i.  p. 264).

     The discussions which took place in the Council of State on this
     affair are remarkable, both for the violence of Napoleon and for the
     resistance made in the Council, to a great extent successfully, to
     his views as to the, plot being one of the Jacobin party.]--

I have often had occasion to notice the multifarious means employed by
Bonaparte to arrive at the possession of supreme power, and to prepare
men's minds for so great change.  Those who have observed his life must
have so remarked how entirely he was convinced of the truth that public
opinion wastes itself on the rumour of a project and possesses no energy
at the moment of its execution.  In order, therefore, to direct public
attention to the question of hereditary power a pamphlet was circulated
about Paris, and the following is the history of it:--

In the month of December 1800, while Fouche was searching after the real
authors of the attempt of the 3d Nivose, a small pamphlet, entitled
"Parallel between Caesar, Cromwell, anal Bonaparte," was sent to the
First Consul.  He was absent when it came.  I read it, and perceived that
it openly advocated hereditary monarchy.  I then knew nothing about the
origin of this pamphlet, but I soon learned that it issued from the
office of the Minister of the Interior [Lucien Bonaparte], and that it
had been largely circulated.  After reading it I laid it on the table.
In a few minutes Bonaparte entered, and taking up the pamphlet pretended
to look through it: "Have you read this?" said he.--"Yes, General."--
"Well!  what is your opinion of it?"--"I think it is calculated to
produce an unfavourable effect on the public mind: it is ill-timed, for
it prematurely reveals your views."  The First Consul took the pamphlet
and threw it on the ground, as he did all the stupid publications of the
day after having slightly glanced over them.  I was not singular in my
opinion of the pamphlet, for next day the prefects in the immediate
neighbourhood of Paris sent a copy of it to the First Consul, complaining
of its mischievous effect; and I recollect that in one of their letters
it was stated that such a work was calculated to direct against him the
poniards of new assassins.  After reading this correspondence he said to
me, "Bourrienne, sent for Fouche; he must come directly, and give an
account of this matter."  In half an hour Fouche was in the First
Consul's cabinet.  No sooner had he entered than the following dialogue
took place, in which the impetuous warmth of the one party was strangely
contrasted with the phlegmatic and rather sardonic composure of the

"What pamphlet is this?  What is said about it in Paris?"--"General,
there is but one opinion of its dangerous tendency."--"Well, then, why
did you allow it to appear?"--"General, I was obliged to show some
consideration for the author!"--"Consideration for the author!  What do
you mean?  You should have sent him to the temple."--"But, General, your
brother Lucien patronises this pamphlet.  It has been printed and
published by his order.  In short, it comes from the office of the
Minister of the Interior."--"No matter for that!  Your duty as Minister
of Police was to have arrested Lucien, and sent him to the Temple.  The
fool does nothing but contrive how he can commit me!"

With these words the First Consul left the cabinet, shutting the door
violently behind him.  Being now alone with Fouche, I was eager to get an
explanation of the suppressed smile which had more than once curled his
lips during Bonaparte's angry expostulation.  I easily perceived that
there was something in reserve.  "Send the author to the Temple!" said
Fouche; "that would be no easy matter!  Alarmed at the effect which this
parallel between Caesar, Cromwell, and Bonaparte was likely to produce,
I went to Lucien to point out to him his imprudence.  He made me no
answer, but went and got a manuscript, which he showed me, and which
contained corrections and annotations in the First Consul's handwriting."

When Lucien heard how Bonaparte had expressed his displeasure at the
pamphlet, he also came to the Tuileries to reproach his brother with
having thrust him forward and then abandoned him. "'Tis your own fault,"
said the First Consul.  "You have allowed yourself to be caught!  So much
the worse for you!  Fouche is too cunning for you!  You are a mere fool
compared with him!"  Lucien tendered his resignation, which was accepted,
and he departed for Spain.  This diplomatic mission turned to his
advantage.  It was necessary that one should veil the Machiavellian
invention of the 'Parallel.'

     --[The 'Parallel' has been attributed to different writers; some
     phrases seemed the work of Lucien, but, says Thiers (tome ii  p.
     210), its rare elegance of language and its classical knowledge of
     history should attribute it to its real anchor, Fontanel, Joseph
     Bonaparte (Erreurs tome i.  p. 270) says that Fontanel wrote it, and
     Lucien Bonaparte corrected it.  See Meneval, tome iii. p. 105.
     Whoever wrote it Napoleon certainly planned its issue.  " It was,"
     said he to Roederer,  a work of which he himself had given the idea,
     but the last pages were by a fool" (Miot, tome i, p. 318).  See also
     Lanfrey, tome ii.  p.  208; and compare the story in Iung's Lucien,
     tome ii.  p.  490.  Miot, then in the confidence of Joseph, says,
     that Lucien's removal from, office was the result of an angry
     quarrel between him and Fouche in the presence of Napoleon, when
     Fouche attacked Lucien, not only for the pamphlet, but also for the
     disorder of his public and his private life; but Miot (tome i, p,
     319) places the date of this as the 3d November, while Bourrienne
     dates the disapproval of the pamphlet in December.]--

Lucien, among other instructions, was directed to use all his endeavours
to induce Spain to declare against Portugal in order to compel that power
to separate herself from England.

The First Consul had always regarded Portugal as an English colony, and
he conceived that to attack it was to assail England.  He wished that
Portugal should no longer favour England in her commercial relations,
but that, like Spain, she should become dependent on him.  Lucien was
therefore sent as ambassador to Madrid, to second the Ministers of
Charles IV. in prevailing on the King to invade Portugal.  The King
declared war, but it was not of long duration, and terminated almost
without a blow being struck, by the taking of Olivenza.  On the 6th of
June 1801 Portugal signed the treaty of Badajoz, by which she promised to
cede Olivenza, Almeida, and some other fortresses to Spain, and to close
her ports against England.  The First Consul, who was dissatisfied with
the treaty, at first refused to ratify it.  He still kept his army in
Spain, and this proceeding determined Portugal to accede to some slight
alterations in the first treaty.  This business proved very advantageous
to Lucien and Godoy.

The cabinet of the Tuileries was not the only place in which the question
of hereditary succession was discussed.  It was the constant subject of
conversation in the salons of Paris, where a new dynasty was already
spoken of.  This was by no means displeasing to the First Consul; but he
saw clearly that he had committed a mistake in agitating the question
prematurely; for this reason he waged war against the Parallel, as he
would not be suspected of having had any share in a design that had
failed.  One day he said to me, "I believe I have been a little too
precipitate.  The pear is not quite ripe!"  The Consulate for life was
accordingly postponed till 1802, and the hereditary empire till 1804.

After the failure of the artful publication of the pamphlet Fouche
invited me to dine with him.  As the First Consul wished me to dine out
as seldom as possible, I informed him of the invitation I had received.
He was, however, aware of it before, and he very readily gave me leave to
go.  At dinner Joseph  was placed on the right of Fouche, and I next to
Joseph, who talked of nothing but his brother, his designs, the pamphlet,
and the bad effect produced by it.  In all that fell from him there was a
tone of blame and disapproval I told him my opinion, but with greater
reserve than I had used towards his brother.  He seemed to approve of
what I said; his confidence encouraged me, and I saw with pleasure that
he entertained sentiments entirely similar to my own.  His unreserved
manner so imposed upon me that, notwithstanding the experience I had
acquired, I was far from suspecting myself to be in the company of a spy.
Next day the First Consul said to me very coldly, "Leave my letters in
the basket, I will open them myself."  This unexpected direction
surprised me exceedingly, and I determined to play him a trick in revenge
for his unfounded distrust.  For three mornings I laid at the bottom of
the basket all the letters which I knew came from the Ministers, and all
the reports which were addressed to me for the First Consul.  I then
covered them over with those which; judging from their envelopes and
seals, appeared to be of that trifling kind with which the First Consul
was daily overwhelmed: these usually consisted of requests that he would
name the number of a lottery ticket, so, that the writer might have the
benefit of his good luck--solicitations that he would stand godfather to
a child--petitions for places--announcements of marriages and births--
absurd eulogies, etc.  Unaccustomed to open the letters, he became
impatient at their number, and he opened very few.  Often on the same
day, but always on the morrow, came a fresh letter from a Minister, who
asked for an answer to his former one, and who complained of not having
received one.  The First Consul unsealed some twenty letters and left the

The opening of all these letters, which he was not at other times in the
habit of looking at, annoyed him extremely; but as I neither wished to
carry the joke too far, nor to remain in the disagreeable position in
which Joseph's treachery had placed me, I determined to bring the matter
to a conclusion.  After the third day, when the business of the night,
which had been interrupted by little fits of ill-humour, was concluded,
Bonaparte retired to bed.  Half an hour after I went to his chamber, to
which I was admitted at all hours.  I had a candle in my hand, and,
taking a chair, I sat down on the right side of the bed, and placed the
candle on the table.  Both he and Josephine awoke.  "What is the matter?"
he asked with surprise.  "General, I have come to tell you that I can no
longer remain here, since I have lost your confidence.  You know how
sincerely I am devoted to you; if you have, then, anything to reproach me
with, let me at least know it, for my situation during the last three
days lies been very painful."--"What has Bourrienne done?"  inquired
Josephine earnestly. --"That does not concern you," he replied.  Then
turning to me he said, "Tis true, I have cause to complain of you.  I
have been informed that you have spoken of important affairs in a very
indiscreet manner."--"I can assure you that I spoke to none but your
brother.  It was he who led me into the conversation, and he was too well
versed in the business for me to tell him any secret.  He may have
reported to you what he pleased, but could not I do the same by him?
I could accuse and betray him as he has accused and betrayed me.  When I
spoke in confidence to your brother, could I regard him as an
inquisitor?"--"I must confess," replied Bonaparte, "that after what I
heard from Joseph I thought it right to put my confidence in
quarantine."--"The quarantine has lasted three days, General; surely that
is long enough."--"Well, Bourrienne, let us say no more about it.  Open
my letters as usual; you will find the answers a good deal in arrear,
which has much vexed me; and besides, I was always stumbling on some
stupid nonsense or other!"

I fancy I still see and hear the amiable Josephine sitting up in bed and
saying, in her gentle way, "What!  Bonaparte, is it possible you could
suspect Bourrienne, who is so attached to you, and who is your only
friend?  How could you suffer such a snare to be laid for him?  What!
a dinner got up on purpose!  How I hate these odious police manoeuvres!"
--"Go to sleep," said Bonaparte; let women mind their gewgaws, and not
interfere with politics."  It was near two in the morning before I

When, after a few hours' sleep, I again saw the First Consul, he was more
kind to me than ever, and I perceived that for the present every cloud
had dispersed.'

     --[Joseph Bonaparte (Erreurs, tome i.  p.  273) says what he
     reported to his brother was Bourrienne's conversation to him in the
     First Consul's cabinet during Napoleon's absence.  It is curious
     that at the only time when Napoleon became dissatisfied with Meneval
     (Bourrienne's successor), and ordered him not to open the letters,
     he used the same expression when returning to the usual order of
     business, which in this case was to a few hours.  "My dear Meneval,"
     said he, "there are circumstances in which I am forced to put my
     confidence in quarantine " (Meneval, tome i.  p.  123).  For any one
     who has had to manage an office it is pleasant to find that even
     Napoleon was much dependent on a good secretary.  In an illness of
     his secretary he said, showing the encumbrance of  his desk, "with
     Meneval I should soon clear off all that."(Meneval, tome i. p. 151.]



     Austria bribed by England--M. de St. Julien in Paris--Duroc's
     mission--Rupture of the armistice--Surrender of three garrisons--
     M. Otto in London--Battle of Hohenlinden--Madame Moreau and Madame
     Hulot--Bonaparte's ill-treatment of the latter--Congress of
     Luneville--General Clarke--M. Maret--Peace between France and
     Austria--Joseph Bonaparte's speculations in the funds--
     M. de Talleyrand's advice--Post-office regulation--Cambaceres--
     Importance of good dinners in the affairs of Government--Steamboats
     and intriguers--Death of Paul I.--New thoughts of the
     reestablishment of Poland--Duroc at St. Petersburg--Bribe rejected--
     Death of Abercromby.

Mm armistice concluded after the battle of Marengo, which had been first
broken and then resumed, continued to be observed for some time between
the armies of the Rhine and Italy and the Imperial armies.  But Austria,
bribed by a subsidy of 2,000,000 sterling, would not treat for peace
without the participation of England.  She did not despair of
recommencing the war successfully.

M. de St. Julien had signed preliminaries at Paris; but the Court of
Vienna disavowed them, and Duroc, whom Bonaparte sent to convey the
preliminaries to Vienna for the Imperial ratification, was not permitted
to pass the Austrian advance poets.  This unexpected proceeding, the
result of the all-powerful influence of England, justly incensed the
First Consul, who had given decided proofs of moderation and a wish for
peace.  "I want peace," said he to me, "to enable me to organise the
interior; the people also want it.  You see the conditions I offer.
Austria, though beaten, obtains all she got at Campo-Formio.  What can
she want more?  I could make further exactions; but, without fearing the
reverses of 1799, I must think of the future.  Besides, I want
tranquillity, to enable me to settle the affairs of the interior, and to
send aid to Malta and Egypt.  But I will not be trifled with.  I will
force an immediate decision!"

In his irritation the First Consul despatched orders to Moreau, directing
him to break the armistice and resume hostilities unless he regained
possession of the bridges of the Rhine and the Danube by the surrender of
Philipsburg, Ulm, and Ingolstadt.  The Austrians then offered to treat
with France on new bases.  England wished to take part in the Congress,
but to this the First Consul would not consent until she should sign a
separate armistice and cease to make common cause with Austria.

The First Consul received intelligence of the occupation of the three
garrisons on the 23d of September, the day he had fixed in his ultimatum
to England for the renewal of hostilities.  But for the meanwhile he was
satisfied with the concessions of Austria: that power, in the expectation
of being supported by England, asked her on what terms she was to treat.

During these communications with Austria M. Otto was in London
negotiating for the exchange of prisoners.  England would not hear of an
armistice by sea like that which France had concluded with Austria by
land.  She alleged that, in case of a rupture, France would derive from
that armistice greater advantage than Austria would gain by that already
concluded.  The difficulty and delay attending the necessary
communications rendered these reasons plausible.  The First Consul
consented to accept other propositions from England, and to allow her to
take part in the discussions of Luneville, but on condition that she
should sign a treaty with him without the intervention of Austria.  This
England refused to do.  Weary of this uncertainty, and the tergiversation
of Austria, which was still under the influence of England, and feeling
that the prolongation of such a state of things could only turn to his
disadvantage, Bonaparte broke the armistice.  He had already consented to
sacrifices which his successes in Italy did not justify.  The hope of an
immediate peace had alone made him lose sight of the immense advantages
which victory had given him.

Far from appearing sensible to the many proofs of moderation which the
First Consul evinced, the combined insolence of England and Austria
seemed only to increase.  Orders were immediately given for resuming the
offensive in Germany and Italy, and hostilities then recommenced.

The chances of fortune were long doubtful.  After a reverse Austria made
promises, and after an advantage she evaded them; but finally, fortune
proved favourable to France.  The French armies in Italy and Germany
crossed the Mincio and the Danube, and the celebrated battle of
Hohenlinden brought the French advanced posts within ten leagues of
Vienna.  This victory secured peace; for, profiting by past experience,
the First Consul would not hear of any suspension of arms until Austria
should consent to a separate treaty.  Driven into her last intrenchments,
Austria was obliged to yield.  She abandoned England; and the English
Cabinet, in spite of the subsidy of 2,000,000 sterling, consented to the
separation.  Great Britain was forced to come to this arrangement in
consequence of the situation to which the successes of the army of Moreau
had reduced Austria, which it was certain would be ruined by longer

England wished to enter into negotiations at Luneville.  To this the
First Consul acceded; but, as he saw that England was seeking to deceive
him, he required that she should suspend hostilities with France, as
Austria had done.  Bonaparte very reasonably alleged that an indefinite
armistice on the Continent would be more to the disadvantage of France
than a long armistice by sea would be unfavourable to England.  All this
adjourned the preliminaries to 1801 and the peace to 1802.

The impatience and indignation of the First Consul had been highly
excited by the evasions of Austria and the plots of England, for he knew
all the intrigues that were carrying on for the restoration of the
Bourbons.  His joy may be therefore conceived when the battle of
Hohenlinden balanced the scale of fortune in his favour.  On the 3d of
December 1800 Moreau gained that memorable victory which at length put an
end to the hesitations of the Cabinet of Vienna.

     --[On the eve of the battle of Hohenlinden Moreau was at supper with
     his aides de camp and several general officers, when a despatch was
     delivered to him.  After he had read it be said to his guests,
     though he was far from being in the habit of boasting, "I am here
     made acquainted with Baron Kray's movements.  They are all I could
     wish.  To-morrow we will take from him 10,000 prisoners."  Moreau
     took 40,000, besides a great many flags.-- Bourrienne.]--

On the 6th of December the First Consul received intelligence of the
battle of Hohenlinden.  It was on a Saturday, and he had just returned
from the theatre when I delivered the despatches to him.  He literally
danced for joy.  I must say that he did not expect so important a result
from the movements of the army of the Rhine.  This victory gave a new
face to his negotiations for peace, and determined the opening of the
Congress of Luneville, which took place on the 1st of January following.

On receiving information of the battle of Hohenlinden, Madame Moreau came
to the Tuileries to call on the First Consul and Madame Bonaparte.  She
did not see them, and repeated her calls several times with no better
success.  The last time she came she was accompanied by her mother,
Madame Hulot.  She waited for a considerable time in vain, and when she
was going away her mother, who could no longer restrain her feelings,
said aloud, before me and several persons of the household, that "it ill
became the wife of the conqueror of Hohenlinden to dance attendance in
this way."  This remark reached the ears of those to whom it was
directed.  Madame Moreau shortly after rejoined her husband in Germany;
and some time after her departure Madame Hulot came to Malmaison to
solicit promotion for her eldest son, who was in the navy.  Josephine
received Madame Hulot very kindly, and requested her to stay to dinner.
She accepted the invitation.  The First Consul, who did not see her until
the hour of dinner, treated her very coolly: he said little to her, and
retired as soon as dinner was over.  His rudeness was so marked and
offensive that Josephine, who was always kind and amiable, thought it
necessary to apologise, by observing that his mind was disturbed by the
non-arrival of a courier whom he expected.

Bonaparte entertained no dislike of Moreau, because he did not fear him;
and after the battle of Hohenlinden he spoke of him in the highest terms,
and frankly acknowledged the services he had rendered on that important
occasion; but he could not endure his wife's family, who, he said, were a
set of intriguers.

     --[Napoleon had good reason for his opinion.  "Moreau had a mother-
     in-law and a wife lively and given to intrigue.  Bonaparte could not
     bear intriguing women.  Besides, on one occasion Madame Moreau's
     mother, when at Malmaison, had indulged in sharp remarks on a
     suspected scandalous intimacy between Bonaparte and his young sister
     Caroline, then just married.  The Consul had not forgiven such
     conversation" (Remusat tome i.  P. 192).  see also Meneval, tome
     iii.  p.  57, as to the mischief done by Madame Hulot.]--

Luneville having been fixed upon for the Congress, the First Consul sent
his brother Joseph to treat with Count Louis de Cobentzel.  On his way
Joseph met M. de Cobentzel, who had passed Luneville, and was coming to
Paris to sound the sentiments of the French Government.  Joseph returned
to Paris with him.  After some conversation with the First Consul they
set out next day for Luneville, of which place Bonaparte appointed
General Clarke governor.  This appeared to satisfy Clarke, who was very
anxious to be something, and had long been importuning Bonaparte for an

A day or two after the news of the battle of Hohenlinden M. Maret came to
present for Bonaparte's signature some, decrees made in Council.  While
affixing the signatures, and without looking up, the First Consul said to
M. Maret, who was a favourite with him, and who was standing at his right
hand, "Are you rich, Maret?"--"No, General."--" So much the worse: a man
should be independent."--"General, I will never be dependent on any one
but you."  The First Consul then raised his eyes to Maret and said,
"Hem! that is not bad!" and when the secretary-general was gone he said
to me, "Maret is not deficient in cleverness: he made me a very good

On the 9th of February 1801, six weeks after the opening of the Congress
of Luneville, peace was signed between Austria and France.  This peace--
the fruit of Marengo and Hohenlinden--restored France to that honourable
position which had been put in jeopardy by the feeble and incapable
government of the pentarchy and the reverses of 1799.  This peace, which
in the treaty, according to custom, was called perpetual, lasted four

Joseph Bonaparte, while treating for France at Luneville, was speculating
on the rise of the funds which he thought the peace would produce.
Persons more wise, who were like him in the secret, sold out their stock
at the moment when the certainty of the peace became known.  But Joseph
purchased to a great extent, in the hope of selling to advantage on the
signature of peace.  However, the news had been discounted, and a fall
took place.  Joseph's loss was considerable, and he could not satisfy the
engagements in which his greedy and silly speculations had involved him.
He applied to his brother, who neither wished nor was able to advance him
the necessary sum.  Bonaparte was, however, exceedingly sorry to see his
elder brother in this embarrassment.  He asked me what was to be done.
I told him I did not know; but I advised him to consult M. de Talleyrand,
from whom he had often received good advice.  He did so, and M. de
Talleyrand replied, with that air of coolness which is so peculiar to
him, "What! is that all?  Oh!  that is nothing.  It is easily settled.
You have only to raise the price of the funds."--"But the money?"--
"Oh, the money may be easily obtained.  Make some deposits in the Mont-
de-Piste, or the sinking fund.  That will give you the necessary money to
raise the funds; and then Joseph may sell out, and recover his losses."
M. de Talleyrand's advice was adopted, and all succeeded as he had
foretold.  None but those who have heard M. de Talleyrand converse can
form an accurate idea of his easy manner of expressing himself, his
imperturbable coolness, the fixed unvarying expression of his
countenance, and his vast fund of wit.

     --[Talleyrand had a large experience in all sorts of speculation.
     When old he gave this counsel to one of his proteges: "Do not
     speculate.  I have always speculated on assured information, and
     that has cost me so many millions;" and he named his losses.  We may
     believe that in this reckoning he rather forgot the amount of his
     gains (Sainte-Beuve, Talleyrand, 93).]--

During the sitting of the Congress the First Consul learnt that the
Government couriers conveyed to favoured individuals in Paris various
things, but especially the delicacies of the table, and he ordered that
this practice should be discontinued.  On the very evening on which this
order was issued Cambaceres entered the salon, where I was alone with the
First Consul, who had already been laughing at the mortification which he
knew this regulation would occasion to his colleague: "Well, Cambaceres,
what brings you here at this time of night?"--"I come to solicit an
exception to the order which you have just given to the Director of the
Posts.  How do you think a man can make friends unless he keeps a good
table?  You know very well how much good dinners assist the business of
Government."  The First Consul laughed, called him a gourmand, and,
patting him on the shoulder, said, "Do not distress yourself, my dear
Cambaceres; the couriers shall continue to bring you your 'dindes aux
truffes', your Strasburg 'pates', your Mayence hams, and your other

Those who recollect the magnificent dinners given by Cambaceres and
others, which were a general topic of conversation at the time, and who
knew the ingenious calculation which was observed in the invitation of
the guests, must be convinced of the vast influence of a good dinner in
political affairs.  As to Cambaceres, he did not believe that a good
government could exist without good dinners; and his glory (for every man
has his own particular glory) was to know that the luxuries of his table
were the subject of eulogy throughout Paris, and even Europe.  A banquet
which commanded general suffrage was to him a Marengo or a Friedland.

     --[Bourrienne does not exaggerate this excellent quality of the
     worthy Cambaceres.  When Beugnot was sent to administer the Grand
     Duchy of Berg, Cambaceres said to him, "My dear Beugnot, the Emperor
     arranges crowns as he chooses; here is the Grand Duke of Berg
     (Murat) going to Naples; he is welcome, I have no objection, but
     every year the Grand Duke sent me a couple of dozen hams from his
     Grand Duchy, and I warn you I do not intend to lose them, so you
     must make your preparations .  .  .  .  I never once omitted to
     acquit myself of the obligation, and if there were any delay, .  .
     his Highness never failed to cause one of his secretaries to write a
     good scolding to my house steward; but when the hams arrived
     exactly, his highness never failed to write to my wife himself to
     thank her.

     This was not all; the hams were to come carriage free.  This petty
     jobbery occasioned discontent, .  .  .  and it would not have cost
     me more to pay the carriage.  The Prince would not allow it.  There
     was an agreement between him and Lavalette (the head of the Posts),
     .  .  .  And my Lord appeared to lay as much stress on the
     performance of this treaty as on the procuring of the ham, (Beugnot,
     tome i.  p.  262).

     Cambaceres never suffered the cares of Government to distract his
     attention from the great object of life.  On one occasion, for
     example, being detained in consultation with Napoleon beyond the
     appointed hour of dinner--it is said that the fate of the Duc
     d'Enghien was the topic under discussion--he was observed, when the
     hour became very late, to show great symptoms of impatience sod
     restlessness.  He at last wrote a note which he called a gentleman
     usher in waiting to carry.  Napoleon, suspecting the contents,
     nodded to an aide de camp to intercept the despatch.  As he took it
     into his hands Cambaceres begged earnestly that he would not read a
     trifling note upon domestic matters.  Napoleon persisted, and found
     it to be a note to the cook containing only the following words,
     "Gardez les entremetes--les rotis sont perdue."  When Napoleon was
     in good humor at the result of a diplomatic conference he was
     accustomed to take leave of the plenipotentiaries with, "Go and dine
     "Cambaceres."  His table was in fact an important state engine, as
     appears from the anecdote of the trout sent to him by the
     municipality of Geneva, and charged 300 francs in their accounts.
     The Imperial 'Cour des Comptes' having disallowed the item, was
     interdicted from meddling with similar municipal affairs in future
     (Hayward's Art of Dining, p.  20).]

At the commencement of 1801 Fulton presented to Bonaparte his memorial on
steamboats.  I urged a serious examination of the subject.  "Bah!" said
he, "these projectors are all either intriguers or visionaries.  Don't
trouble me about the business."  I observed that the man whom he called
an intriguer was only reviving an invention already known, and that it
was wrong to reject the scheme without examination.  He would not listen
to me; and thus was adjourned, for some time, the practical application
of a discovery which has given such an important impulse to trade and

Paul I. fell by the hands of assassins on the night of the 24th of March
1801.  The First Consul was much shocked on receiving the intelligence.
In the excitement caused by this unexpected event, which had so important
an influence on his policy, he directed me to send the following note to
the Moniteur:--

     Paul I. died on the night of the 24th of March, and the English
     squadron passed the Sound on the 30th.  History will reveal the
     connection which probably exists between these two events.

Thus were announced the crime of the 24th of March and the not ill-
founded suspicions of its authors.

     --[We do not attempt to rescue the fair name of out country.  This
     is one among many instances in which Bourrienne was misled.--Editor
     of 1886 edition.]--

The amicable relations of Paul and Bonaparte had been daily strengthened.
"In concert with the Czar," said Bonaparte, "I was sure of striking a
mortal blow at the English power in India.  A palace revolution has
overthrown all my projects."  This resolution, and the admiration of the
Autocrat of Russia for the head of the French Republic, may certainly be
numbered among the causes of Paul's death.  The individuals generally
accused at the time were those who were violently and perseveringly
threatened, and who had the strongest interest in the succession of a new
Emperor.  I have seen a letter from a northern sovereign which in my mind
leaves no doubt on this subject, and which specified the reward of the
crime, and the part to be performed by each actor.  But it must also be
confessed that the conduct and character of Paul I., his tyrannical acts,
his violent caprices, and his frequent excesses of despotism, had
rendered him the object of accumulated hatred, for patience has its
limit.  These circumstances did not probably create the conspiracy, but
they considerably facilitated the execution of the plot which deprived
the Czar of his throne and his life.

As soon as Alexander ascended the throne the ideas of the First Consul
respecting the dismemberment of Poland were revived, and almost wholly
engrossed his mind.  During his first campaign in Italy, and several
times when in Egypt, he told Sulkowsky that it was his ardent wish to
reestablish Poland, to avenge the iniquity of her dismemberment, and by
that grand repertory act to restore the former equilibrium of Europe.  He
often dictated to me for the 'Moniteur' articles tending to prove, by
various arguments, that Europe would never enjoy repose until those great
spoilations were avenged and repaired; but he frequently destroyed these
articles instead of sending them to press.  His system of policy towards
Russia changed shortly after the death of Paul.  The thought of a war
against that empire unceasingly occupied his mind, and gave birth to the
idea of that fatal campaign which took place eleven years afterwards, and
which had other causes than the re-establishment of Poland.  That object
was merely set forward as a pretext.

Duroc was sent to St. Petersburg to congratulate the Emperor Alexander on
his accession to the throne.  He arrived in the Russian capital on the
24th of May.  Duroc, ,who was at this time very young, was a great
favourite of the First Consul.  He never importuned Bonaparte by his
solicitations, and was never troublesome in recommending any one or
busying himself as an agent for favour; yet he warmly advocated the cause
of those whom he thought injured, and honestly repelled accusations which
he knew to be false.  These moral qualities; joined to an agreeable
person and elegant manners, rendered him a very superior man.

The year 1801 was, moreover, marked by the fatal creation of special
tribunals, which were in no way justified by the urgency of
circumstances.  This year also saw the re-establishment of the African
Company, the treaty of Luneville (which augmented the advantages France
had obtained by the treaty of Campo-Formio),and the peace concluded
between Spain and Portugal by means of Lucien.  On the subject of this
peace I may mention that.  Portugal, to obtain the cession of Olivenza,
secretly offered Bonaparte, through me, 8,000,000 of francs if he would
contribute his influence towards the acquisition of that town by
Portugal.  He, rejected this offer indignantly, declaring that he would
never sell honour for money.  He has been accused of having listened to a
similar proposition at Passeriano, though in fact no such proposition was
ever made to him.  Those who bring forward such accusations little know
the inflexibility of his principles on this point.

One evening in April 1801 an English paper--the London Gazette--arrived
at Malmaison.  It announced the landing in Egypt of the army commanded by
Abercromby, the battle given by the English, and the death of their
General.  I immediately translated the article, and presented it to the
First Consul, with the conviction that the news would be very painful to
him.  He doubted its truth, or at least pretended to do so.  Several
officers and aides de camp who were in the salon coincided in his
opinion, especially Lannes, Bessieres, and Duroc.  They thought by so
doing to please the First Consul, who then said to me, in a jeering tone,
"Bah! you do not understand English.  This is the way with you: you are
always inclined to believe bad news rather than good!"  These words, and
the approving smiles of the gentlemen present, ruffled me, and I said
with some warmth, "How, General, can you believe that the English
Government would publish officially so important an event if it were not
true?  Do you think that a Government that has any self-respect would, in
the face of Europe, state a falsehood respecting an affair the truth of
which cannot long remain unknown?  Did you ever know an instance of so
important an announcement proving untrue after it had been published in
the London Gazette?  I believe it to be true, and the smiles of these
gentlemen will not alter my opinion."  On these observations the First
Consul rose and said, "Come, Bourrienne, I want you in the library."
After we had left the salon he added, "This is always the way with you.
Why are you vexed at such trifles?  I assure you I believe the news but
too confidently, and I feared it before it came.  But they think they
please me by thus appearing to doubt it.  Never mind them."--"I ask your
pardon," said I, "but I conceive the best way of proving my attachment to
you is to tell you what I believe to be true.  You desire me not to delay
a moment in announcing bad news to you.  It would be far worse to
disguise than to conceal it."



     An experiment of royalty--Louis de Bourbon and Maria Louisa, of
     Spain--Creation of the kingdom of Etruria--The Count of Leghorn in
     Paris--Entertainments given him--Bonaparte's opinion of the King of
     Etruria--His departure for Florence, and bad reception there--
     Negotiations with the Pope--Bonaparte's opinion on religion--Te Deum
     at Notre Dame--Behaviour of the people in the church--Irreligion of
     the Consular Court--Augerean's remark on the Te Deum--First Mass at
     St. Cloud-Mass in Bonaparte's apartments--Talleyrand relieved from
     his clerical vows--My appointment to the Council of State.

Before he placed two crowns on his own head Bonaparte thought it would
promote the interests of his policy to place one on the head of a prince,
and even a prince of the House of Bourbon.  He wished to accustom the
French to the sight of a king.  It will hereafter be seen that he gave
sceptres, like his confidence, conditionally, and that he was always
ready to undo his own work when it became an obstacle to his ambitious

In May 1801 the Infanta of Spain, Maria Louisa, third daughter of Charles
IV., visited Paris.  The Infante Louis de Bourbon, eldest son of the Duke
of Parma, had gone to Madrid in 1798 to contract a marriage with Maria
Amelia, the sister of Maria Louisa; but he fell in love with the latter.
Godoy favoured the attachment, and employed all his influence to bring
about the marriage.  The son who, six years later, was born of this
union, was named Charles Louis, after the King of Spain.  France occupied
the Duchy of Parma, which, in fulfilment of the conventions signed by
Lucien Bonaparte, was to belong to her after the death of the reigning
Duke.  On the other hand, France was to cede the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
to the son of the Duke of Parma; and Spain paid to France, according to
stipulation, a considerable sum of money.  Soon after the treaty was
communicated to Don Louis and his wife they left Madrid and travelled
through France.  The prince took the title of Count of Leghorn.  All
accounts are unanimous as to the attentions which the Prince and Princess
received on their journey.  Among the, fetes in honour of the illustrious
couple that given by M. de Talleyrand at Neuilly was remarkable for

When the Count of Leghorn was coming to pay his first visit to Malmaison
Bonaparte went into the drawing-room to see that everything was suitably
prepared for his reception.  In a few minutes he returned to his cabinet
and said to me, somewhat out of humour, "Bourrienne, only think of their
stupidity; they had not taken down the picture representing me on the
summit of the Alps pointing to Lombardy and commanding the conquest of
it.  I have ordered its removal How mortifying it would have been if the
Prince had seen it!"

Another picture in the drawing-room at Malmaison represented the First
Consul sleeping on the snow on the summit of the Alps before the battle
of Marengo.

The Count of Leghorn's visit to Paris imparted brilliancy to the first
years of the reign of Bonaparte, of whom it was at that time said, "He
made kings, but would not be one!"

At the representation of AEdipus, the following expression of Philactetes
was received with transport:--

          "J'ai fait des Souverains, et n'ai pas voulu l'etre."

          ["Monarchs I've made, but one I would not be."]

The First Consul, on leaving the theatre, did not conceal his
satisfaction.  He judged, from the applause with which that verse had
been received, that his pamphlet was forgotten.  The manner, moreover, in
which a king, crowned by his hands, had been received by the public, was
no indifferent matter to him, as he expected that the people would thus
again become familiar with what had been so long proscribed.

This King, who, though well received and well entertained, was in all
respects a very ordinary man, departed for Italy.  I say very ordinary,
not that I had an opportunity of judging of his character myself, but the
First Consul told me that his capabilities were extremely limited; that
he even felt repugnance to take a pen in his hand; that he never cast a
thought on anything but his pleasures: in a word, that he was a fool.

One day, after the First Consul had spent several hours in company with
him and his consort, he said to me, "I am quite tired.  He is a mere
automaton.  I put a number of questions to him, but he can answer none.
He is obliged to consult his wife, who makes him understand as well as
she is able what he ought to say."  The First Consul added, " The poor
Prince will set off to-morrow, without knowing what he is going to do."
I observed that it was a pity to see the happiness of the people of
Tuscany entrusted to such a prince.  Bonaparte replied, "Policy requires
it.  Besides, the young man is not worse than the usual run of kings."
The Prince fully justified in Tuscany the opinion which the First Consul
formed of him.

     --[This unfortunate Prince was very ill-calculated to recommend, by
     his personal character, the institutions to which the nobility clung
     with so much fondness.  Nature had endowed him with an excellent
     heart, but with very limited talents; and his mind had imbibed the
     false impress consequent upon his monastic education.  He resided at
     Malmaison nearly the whole time of his visit to Paris.  Madame
     Bonaparte used to lead the Queen to her own apartments; and as the
     First Consul never left his closet except to sit down to meals, the
     aides de camp were under the necessity of keeping the King company,
     and of endeavoring to entertain him, so wholly was he devoid of
     intellectual resources.  It required, indeed, a great share of
     patience to listen to the frivolities which engrossed his attention.
     His turn of mind being thus laid open to view, care was taken to
     supply him with the playthings usually placed in the hands of
     children; he was, therefore, never at a loss for occupation.  His
     nonentity was a source of regret to us: we lamented to see s tall
     handsome youth, destined to rule over his fellow-men, trembling at
     the eight of a horse, and wasting his time in the game of hide-and-
     seek, or at leap-frog and whose whole information consisted in
     knowing his prayers, and in saying grace before and after meals.
     Such, nevertheless, was the man to whom the destinies of a nation
     were about to be committed!  When he left France to repair to his
     kingdom, "Rome need not be uneasy," said the First Consul to us
     after the farewell audience, "there is no danger of his crossing the
     Rubicon" (Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo, vol.  i.  p.  363).

In order to show still further attention to the King of Etruria, after
his three weeks' visit to Paris, the First Consul directed him to be
escorted to Italy by a French guard, and selected his brother-in-law
Murat for that purpose.

The new King of a new kingdom entered Florence on the 12th of April 1801;
but the reception given him by the Tuscans was not at all similar to what
he had experienced at Paris.  The people received the royal pair as
sovereigns imposed on them by France.  The ephemeral kingdom of Etruria
lasted scarcely six years.  The King died in 1803, in the flower of his
age, and in 1807 the Queen was expelled from her throne by him who had
constructed it for her.

At this period a powerful party urged Bonaparte to break with the Pope,
and to establish a Gallican Church, the head of which should reside in
France.  They thought to flatter his ambition by indicating to him a new
source of power which might establish a point of comparison between him
and the first Roman emperors.  But his ideas did not coincide with theirs
on this subject.  "I am convinced," said he, "that a part of France would
become Protestant, especially if I were to favour that disposition.
I am also certain that the much greater portion would remain Catholic,
and would oppose, with the greatest zeal and fervour, the schism of a
part of their fellow-citizens.  I dread the religious quarrels, the
family dissensions, and the public distractions, which such a state of
things would inevitably occasion.  In, reviving a religion which has
always prevailed in the country, and which still prevails in the hearts
of the people, and in giving the liberty of exercising their worship to
the minority, I shall satisfy every one."

The First Consul, taking a superior view of the state of France,
considered that the re-establishment of religious worship would prove a
powerful support to his Government: and he had been occupied ever since
the commencement of 1801 in preparing a Concordat with the Pope.  It was
signed in the month of July in the same year.  It required some time to
enable the parties to come to an understanding on the subject.

Cardinal Consalvi arrived, in the month of June 1801, at Paris, to
arrange matters on the part of the Pope.  Cardinal Caprara and M. de
Spina also formed part of the embassy sent by the Holy Father.  There
were, besides, several able theologians, among whom Doctor C---- was

     --[The "Doctor C----"was Caselti, later Archbishop of Parma.  Bonier
     was green the Bishopric of Orleans, not Versailles; see Erreurs,
     tome i, p.  276.  The details of the surprise attempted at the last
     moment by putting before Cardinal Consalvi for his signature an
     altered copy of the Concordat should be read in his Memoirs (tome i.
     p. 355), or in Lanfrey (tome ii.  p.  267).  As for Napoleon's
     belief that part of the nation might become Protestant, Narbonne
     probably put the matter truly when he said there was not religion
     enough in France to stand a division.  It should be noted that the
     Concordat did not so much restore the Catholic Church as destroy the
     old Gallican Church, with all its liberties, which might annoy
     either Pope or Emperor.  But on this point see The Gallican Church
     and the Revolution, by Jervis: London, Began Paul, Trench and Co.,
     1882.  The clergy may, it is true, have shown wisdom in acceding to
     any terms of restoration.

He was a member of the Pope's chancery; his knowledge gave him so much
influence over his colleagues that affairs advanced only as much as he
pleased.  However, he was gained over by honours conferred on him, and
promises of money.  Business then went on a little quicker.  The
Concordat was signed on the 15th of July 1801, and made a law of the
State in the following April.  The plenipotentiaries on the part of
Bonaparte were Joseph Bonaparte, Cretet, and the Abby Bernier, afterwards
Bishop of Versailles. --[Orleans not Versailles. D.W.]

A solemn Te Deum was chanted at the cathedral of Notre Dame on Sunday,
the 11th of April.  The crowd was immense, and the greater part of those
present stood during the ceremony, which was splendid in the extreme;
but who would presume to say that the general feeling was in harmony with
all this pomp?  Was, then, the time for this innovation not yet arrived?
Was it too abrupt a transition from the habits of the twelve preceding
years?  It is unquestionably true that a great number of the persons
present at the ceremony expressed, in their countenances and gestures,
rather a feeling of impatience and displeasure than of satisfaction or of
reverence for the place in which they were.  Here and there murmurs arose
expressive of discontent.  The whispering, which I might more properly
call open conversation, often interrupted the divine service, and
sometimes observations were made which were far from being moderate.
Some would turn their heads aside on purpose to take a bit of chocolate-
cake, and biscuits were openly eaten by many who seemed to pay no
attention to what was passing.

The Consular Court was in general extremely irreligious; nor could it be
expected to be otherwise, being composed chiefly of those who had
assisted in the annihilation of all religious worship in France, and of
men who, having passed their lives in camps, had oftener entered a church
in Italy to carry off a painting than to hear the Mass.  Those who,
without being imbued with any religious ideas, possessed that good sense
which induces men to pay respect to the belief of others, though it be
one in which they do not participate, did not blame the First Consul for
his conduct, and conducted themselves with some regard to decency.  But
on the road from the Tuileries to Notre Dame, Lannes and Augereau wanted
to alight from the carriage as soon as they saw that they ware being
driven to Mass, and it required an order from the First Consul to prevent
their doing so.  They went therefore to Notre Dame, and the next day
Bonaparte asked Augereau what he thought of the ceremony.  "Oh! it was
all very fine," replied the General; "there was nothing wanting, except
the million of men who have perished in the pulling down of what you are
setting up."  Bonaparte was much displeased at this remark.

     --[This remark has been attributed elsewhere to General Delmas.

     According to a gentleman who played a part in this empty pageantry,
     Lannes at one moment did get out of the carriage, and Augerean kept
     swearing in no low whisper during the whole of the chanted Mass.
     Most of the military chiefs who sprang out of the Revolution had no
     religion at all, but there were some who were Protestants, and who
     were irritated by the restoration of Catholicism as the national
     faith.--Editor of 1896 edition.]--

During the negotiations with the Holy Father Bonaparte one day said to
me, "In every country religion is useful to the Government, and those who
govern ought to avail themselves of it to influence mankind.  I was a
Mahometan in Egypt; I am a Catholic in France.  With relation to the
police of the religion of a state, it should be entirely in the hands of
the sovereign.  Many persons have urged me to found a Gallican Church,
and make myself its head; but they do not know France.  If they did, they
would know that the majority of the people would not like a rupture with
Rome.  Before I can resolve on such a measure the Pope must push matters
to an extremity; but I believe he will not do so."--"You are right,
General, and you recall to my memory what Cardinal Consalvi said:
'The Pope will do all the First Consul desires.'"--"That is the best
course for him.  Let him not suppose that he has to do with an idiot.
What do you think is the point his negotiations put most forward?  The
salvation of my soul!  But with me immortality is the recollection one
leaves in the memory of man.  That idea prompts to great actions.  It
would be better for a man never to have lived than to leave behind him no
traces of his existence."

Many endeavours were made to persuade the First Consul to perform in
public the duties imposed by the Catholic religion.  An influential
example, it was urged, was required.  He told me once that he had put an
end to that request by the following declaration: "Enough of this.
Ask me no more.  You will not obtain your object.  You shall never make a
hypocrite of me.  Let us remain where we are."

I have read in a work remarkable on many accounts that it was on the
occasion of the Concordat of the 15th July 1801 that the First Consul
abolished the republican calendar and reestablished the Gregorian.  This
is an error.  He did not make the calendar a religious affair.  The
'Senatus-consulte', which restored the use of the Gregorian calendar, to
commence in the French Empire from the 11th Nivose, year XIV.  (1st
January 1806), was adopted on the 22d Fructidor, year XIII.  (9th
September 1805), more than four years after the Concordat.  The re-
establishment of the ancient calendar had no other object than to bring
us into harmony with the rest of Europe on a point so closely connected
with daily transactions, which were much embarrassed by the decadary

Bonaparte at length, however, consented to hear Mass, and St. Cloud was
the place where this ancient usage was first re-established.  He directed
the ceremony to commence sooner than the hour announced in order that
those who would only make a scoff at it might not arrive until the
service was ended.

Whenever the First Consul determined to hear Mass publicly on Sundays in
the chapel of the Palace a small altar was prepared in a room near his
cabinet of business.  This room had been Anne of Austria's oratory.
A small portable altar, placed on a platform one step high, restored it
to its original destination.  During the rest of the week this chapel was
used as a bathing-room.  On Sunday the door of communication was opened,
and we heard Mass sitting in our cabinet of business.  The number of
persons there never exceeded three or four, and the First Consul seldom
failed to transact some business during the ceremony, which never lasted
longer than twelve minutes.  Next day all the papers had the news that
the First Consul had heard Mass in his apartments.  In the same way Louis
XVIII. has often heard it in his!

On the 19th of July 1801 a papal bull absolved Talleyrand from his vows.
He immediately married Madame Grandt, and the affair obtained little
notice at the time.  This statement sufficiently proves how report has
perverted the fact.  It has been said that Bonaparte on becoming Emperor
wished to restore that decorum which the Revolution had destroyed, and
therefore resolved to put an end to the improper intimacy which subsisted
between Talleyrand and Madame Grandt.  It is alleged that the Minister at
first refused to marry the lady, but that he at last found it necessary
to obey the peremptory order of his master.  This pretended resurrection
of morality by Bonaparte is excessively ridiculous.  The bull was not
registered in the Council of State until the 19th of August 1802.

     --[The First Consul had on several occasions urged M. de Talleyrand
     to return to holy orders.  He pointed out to him that that course
     world be most becoming his age and high birth, and premised that he
     should be made a cardinal, thus raising him to a par with Richelieu,
     and giving additional lustre to his administration (Memoirs of the
     Duke of Rovigo, vol. i. p. 426).

     But M. de Talleyrand vindicated his choice, saying, "A clever wife
     often compromises her husband; a stupid one only compromises
     herself" (Historical Characters, p.122, Bulwer, Lord Dulling).]--

I will end this chapter by a story somewhat foreign to the preceding
transactions, but which personally concerns myself.  On the 20th of July
1801 the First Consul, 'ex proprio motu', named me a Councillor of State
extraordinary.  Madame Bonaparte kindly condescended to have an elegant
but somewhat ideal costume made for me.  It pleased the First Consul,
however, and he had a similar one made for himself.  He wore it a short
time and then left it off.  Never had Bonaparte since his elevation shown
himself so amiable as on this occasion.



     Last chapter on Egypt--Admiral Gantheaume--Way to please Bonaparte--
     General Menou's flattery and his reward--Davoust--Bonaparte regrets
     giving the command to Menou, who is defeated by Abercromby--Otto's
     negotiation in London--Preliminaries of peace.

For the last time in these Memoirs I shall return to the affairs of
Egypt--to that episode which embraces so short a space of time and holds
so high a place in the life of Bonaparte.  Of all his conquests he set
the highest value on Egypt, because it spread the glory of his name
throughout the East.  Accordingly he left nothing unattempted for the
preservation of that colony.  In a letter to General Kleber he said,
"You are as able as I am to understand how important is the possession of
Egypt to France.  The Turkish Empire, in which the symptoms of decay are
everywhere discernible, is at present falling to pieces, and the evil of
the evacuation of Egypt by France would now be the greater, as we should
soon see that fine province pass into the possession of some other
European power."  The selection of Gantheaume, however, to carry
assistance to Kleber was not judicious.  Gantheaume had brought the First
Consul back from Egypt, and though the success of the passage could only
be attributed to Bonaparte's own plan, his determined character, and
superior judgment, yet he preserved towards Gantheaume that favourable
disposition which is naturally felt for one who has shared a great danger
with us, and upon whom the responsibility may be said to have been

This confidence in mediocrity, dictated by an honourable feeling, did not
obtain a suitable return.  Gantheaume, by his indecision and creeping
about in the Mediterranean, had already failed to execute a commission
entrusted to him.  The First Consul, upon finding he did not leave Brest
after he had been ordered to the Mediterranean, repeatedly said to me,
"What the devil is Gantheaume about?"  With one of the daily reports sent
to the First Consul he received the following quatrain, which made him
laugh heartily:

                   "Vaisseaux lestes, tete sans lest,
                    Ainsi part l'Amiral Gantheaume;
                    Il s'en va de Brest a Bertheaume,
                    Et revient de Bertheaume a Brest!"

              "With ballast on board, but none in his brain,
               Away went our gallant Gantheaume,
               On a voyage from Brest to Bertheaume,
               And then from Bertheaume--to Brest back again!"

Gantheaume's hesitation, his frequent tergiversations, his arrival at
Toulon, his tardy departure, and his return to that port on the 19th of
February 1801, only ten days prior to Admiral Keith's appearance with Sir
Ralph Abercromby off Alexandria, completely foiled all the plans which
Bonaparte had conceived of conveying succour and reinforcements to a
colony on the brink of destruction.

Bonaparte was then dreaming that many French families would carry back
civilisation, science, and art to that country which was their cradle.
But it could not be concealed that his departure from Egypt in 1799 had
prepared the way for the loss of that country, which was hastened by
Kleber's death and the choice of Menou as his successor.

A sure way of paying court to the First Consul and gaining his favour was
to eulogise his views about Egypt, and to appear zealous for maintaining
the possession of that country.  By these means it was that Menou gained
his confidence.  In the first year of the occupation of that country he
laid before him his dreams respecting Africa.  He spoke of the negroes
of Senegal, Mozambique, Mehedie, Marabout, and other barbarous countries
which were all at once to assume a new aspect, and become civilised,
in consequence of the French possession of Egypt.  To Menou's adulation
is to be attributed the favourable reception given him by the First
Consul, even after his return from Egypt, of which his foolish conduct
had allowed the English to get possession.  The First Consul appointed
him Governor of Piedmont, and at my request gave my elder brother the
situation of Commissary-General of Police in that country; but I am in
candour obliged to confess that the First Consul was obliged to retract
this mark of his favour in consequence of my brother's making an abuse of

It was also by flattering the First Consul on the question of the East
that Davoust, on his return from Egypt in 1800 in consequence of the
Convention of El-Ariah, insinuated himself into Bonaparte's good graces
and, if he did not deserve, obtained his favour.  At that time Davoust
certainly had no title whatever to the good fortune which he suddenly
experienced.  He obtained, without first serving in a subordinate rank,
the command-in-chief of the grenadiers of the Consular Guard; and from
that time commenced the deadly hatred which Davoust bore towards me.
Astonished at the great length of time that Bonaparte had been one day
conversing with him I said, as soon as he was gone, "How could you talk
so long with a man whom you have always called a stupid fellow?"--"Ah!
but I did not know him well enough before.  He is a better man, I assure
you, than he is thought; and you will come over to my opinion."--"I hope
so."  The First Consul, who was often extremely indiscreet, told Davoust
my opinion of him, and his hostility against me ceased but with his life.

The First Consul could not forget his cherished conquest in the East.
It was constantly the object of his thoughts.  He endeavoured to send
reinforcements to his army from Brest and Toulon, but without success.
He soon had cause to repent having entrusted to the hands of Menou the
command-in-chief, to which he became entitled only by seniority, after
the assassination of Kleber by Soleiman Heleby.  But Bonaparte's
indignation was excited when he became acquainted with Menou's neglect
and mismanagement, when he saw him giving reins to his passion for
reform, altering and destroying everything, creating nothing good in its
stead, and dreaming about forming a land communication with the
Hottentots and Congo instead of studying how to preserve the country.
His pitiful plans of defence, which were useless from their want of
combination, appeared to the First Consul the height of ignorance.
Forgetful of all the principles of strategy, of which Bonaparte's conduct
afforded so many examples, he opposed to the landing of Abercromby a few
isolated corps, which were unable to withstand the enemy's attack, while
the English army might have been entirely annihilated had all the
disposable troops been sent against it.

The great admiration which Menou expressed at the expedition to Egypt;
his excessive fondness for that country, the religion of which he had
ridiculously enough embraced under the name of Abdallah; the efforts he
made, in his sphere, to preserve the colony; his enthusiasm and blind
attachment to Bonaparte; the flattering and encouraging accounts he gave
of the situation of the army, at first had the effect of entirely
covering Menou's incapacity.

     --[For a ludicrous description of Menou see the Memoirs of Marmont:-
     "Clever and gay, ho was an agreeable talker, but a great liar.  He
     was not destitute of some education.  His character, one of the
     oddest in the world, came very near to lunacy: Constantly writing,
     always in motion in his room, riding for exercise every day, he was
     never able to start on any necessary of useful journey .  .  .  .
     When, later, Bonaparte, then First Consul, gave him by special
     favour the administration of Piedmont, he put off his departure from
     day to day for six months; and then he only did start because his
     friend Maret himself put him into his carriage, with post-horses
     already harnessed to it .  .  .  .  When he left this post they
     found in his cabinet 900 letters which he had not opened.  He was an
     eccentric lunatic, amusing enough sometimes, but a curse to
     everything which depended on him " (Memoirs of the Duc de Raguse,
     tome i. p. 410).]--

This alone can account for the First Consul's preference of him.  But I
am far from concurring in what has been asserted by many persons, that
France lost Egypt at the very moment when it seemed most easy of
preservation.  Egypt was conquered by a genius of vast intelligence,
great capacity, and profound military science.  Fatuity, stupidity, and
incapacity lost it.  What was the result of that memorable expedition?
The destruction of one of our finest armies; the loss of some of our best
generals; the annihilation of our navy; the surrender of Malta; and the
sovereignty of England in the Mediterranean.  What is the result at
present?  A scientific work.  The gossiping stories and mystifications of
Herodotus, and the reveries of the good Rollin, are worth as much, and
have not cost so dear.

The First Consul had long been apprehensive that the evacuation of Egypt
was unavoidable.  The last news he had received from that country was not
very encouraging, and created a presentiment of the approach of the
dreaded catastrophe.  He, however, published the contrary; but it was
then of great importance that, an account of the evacuation should not
reach England until the preliminaries of peace were signed, for which
purpose M. Otto was exerting all his industry and talent.  We made a
great merit of abandoning our conquests in Egypt; but the sacrifice would
not have been considered great if the events which took place at the end
of August had been known in London before the signing of the
preliminaries on the 1st of October.  The First Consul himself answered
M. Otto's last despatch, containing a copy of the preliminaries ready to
be adopted by the English Ministry.  Neither this despatch nor the answer
was communicated to M. de Talleyrand, then Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The First Consul, who highly appreciated the great talents and knowledge
of that Minister, never closed any diplomatic arrangement without first
consulting him; and he was right in so doing.  On this occasion, however,
I told him that as M. de Talleyrand was, for his health, taking the
waters of Bourbon-l'Archambault, four days must elapse before his reply
could be received, and that the delay might cause the face of affairs to
change.  I reminded him that Egypt was on the point of yielding.  He took
my advice, and it was well for him that he did, for the news of the
compulsory evacuation of Egypt arrived in London the day after the
signing of the preliminaries.  M. Otto informed the First Consul by
letter that Lord Hawkesbury, ill communicating to him the news of the
evacuation, told him he was very glad everything was settled, for it
would have been impossible for him to have treated on the same basis
after the arrival of such news.  In reality we consented at Paris to the
voluntary evacuation of Egypt, and that was something for England, while
Egypt was at that very time evacuated by a convention made on the spot.
The definitive evacuation of Egypt took place on the 30th of August 1801;
and thus the conquest of that country, which had cost so dear, was
rendered useless, or rather injurious.



     The most glorious epoch for France--The First Consul's desire of
     peace--Malta ceded and kept--Bonaparte and the English journals--
     Mr. Addington's letter to the First Consul--Bonaparte prosecutes
     Peltier--Leclerc's expedition to St. Domingo--Toussaint Louverture--
     Death of Leclerc--Rochambeau, his successor, abandons St. Domingo--
     First symptoms of Bonaparte's malady--Josephine's intrigues for the
     marriage of Hortense--Falsehood contradicted.

The epoch of the peace of Amiens must be considered as the most glorious
in the history of France, not excepting the splendid period of Louis
XIV.'s victories and the more brilliant era of the Empire.  The Consular
glory was then pure, and the opening prospect was full of flattering
hope; whereas those who were but little accustomed to look closely into
things could discern mighty disasters lurking under the laurels of the

The proposals which the First Consul made in order to obtain peace
sufficiently prove his sincere desire for it.  He felt that if in the
commencement of his administration he could couple his name with so hoped
for an act he should ever experience the affection and gratitude of the
French.  I want no other proof of his sentiments than the offer he made
to give up Egypt to the Grand Seignior, and to restore all the ports of
the Gulf of Venice and of the Mediterranean to the States to which they
had previously belonged; to surrender Malta to the order of the Knights
of St. John, and even to raze its fortifications if England should think
such a measure necessary for her interests.  In the Indies, Ceylon was to
be left to him,

     --[Ceylon belonged to Holland, but was retained by England under the
     treaty of Amiens.]--

and he required the surrender of the Cape of Good Hope and all the places
taken by the English in the West Indies.

England had firmly resolved to keep Malta, the Gibraltar of the
Mediterranean, and the Cape of Good Hope, the caravanserai of the Indies.
She was therefore unwilling to close with the proposition respecting
Malta; and she said that an arrangement might be made by which it would
be rendered independent both of Great Britain and France.  We clearly saw
that this was only a lure, and that, whatever arrangements might be
entered into, England would keep Malta, because it was not to be expected
that the maritime power would willingly surrender an island which
commands the Mediterranean.  I do not notice the discussions respecting
the American islands, for they were, in my opinion, of little consequence
to us.

     --[It is strange that Bourrienne does not allude to one of the first
     arbitrary acts of Napoleon, the discussions on which formed part of
     those conversations between Napoleon and his brother Lucien of which
     Bourrienne complained to Josephine he knew nothing.  In 1763 France
     had ceded to England the part of Louisiana on the east of the
     Mississippi, and the part on the west of that river, with New
     Orleans, to Spain.  By the treaty negotiated with Spain by Lucien
     Bonaparte in 1800 her share was given back to France.  On the 80th
     April 1803 Napoleon sold the whole to the United States for
     80,000,000 francs (L 3,260,000), to the intense anger of his
     brothers Joseph and Lucien.  Lucien was especially proud of having
     obtained the cession for which Napoleon was, at that time, very
     anxious; but both brothers were horrified when Napoleon disclosed
     how little he cared for constitutional forms by telling them that if
     the Legislature, as his brothers threatened, would not ratify the
     treaty, he would do without the ratification; see Iung's Letter,
     tome ii. p. 128.

     Napoleon's most obvious motives were want of money and the certainty
     of the seizure of the province by England, as the rupture with her
     was now certain.  But there was perhaps another cause.  The States
     had already been on the point of seizing the province from Spain,
     which had interfered with their trade (Hinton's United States, p.
     435, and Thiers tome iv, p. 320).

     Of the sum to be paid, 20,000,000 were to go to the States, to cover
     the illegal seizures of American ships by the French navy, a matter
     which was not settled for many years later.  The remaining
     80,000,000 were employed in the preparations for the invasion of
     England; see Thiers, tome iv. pp. 320 and 326, and Lanfrey, tome
     iii. p. 48.  The transaction is a remarkable one, as forming the
     final withdrawal of France from North America (with the exception of
     some islands on the Newfoundland coast), where she had once held
     such a proud position.  It also eventually made an addition to the
     number of slave States.

They cost more than they produce; and they will escape from us, some time
or other, as all colonies ultimately do from the parent country.  Our
whole colonial system is absurd; it forces us to pay for colonial produce
at a rate nearly double that for which it may be purchased from our

When Lord Hawkesbury consented to evacuate Malta, on condition that it
should be independent of France and Great Britain, he must have been
aware that such a condition would never be fulfilled.  He cared little
for the order of St. John, and he should have put, by way of postscript,
at the bottom of his note, "We will keep Malta in spite of you."
I always told the First Consul that if he were in the situation of the
English he would act the same part; and it did not require much sagacity
to foretell that Malta would be the principal cause of the rupture of
peace.  He was of my opinion; but at that moment he thought everything
depended on concluding the negotiations, and I entirely agreed with him.
It happened, as was foreseen, that Malta caused the renewal of war.  The
English, on being called upon to surrender the island, eluded the demand,
shifted about, and at last ended by demanding that Malta should be placed
under the protection of the King of Naples,--that is to say, under the
protection of a power entirely at their command, and to which they might
dictate what they pleased.  This was really too cool a piece of irony!

I will here notice the quarrel between the First Consul and the English
newspapers, and give a new proof of his views concerning the freedom of
the press.  However, liberty of the press did once contribute to give him
infinite gratification, namely, when all the London journals mentioned
the transports of joy manifested in London on the arrival of General
Lauriston, the bearer of the ratification of the preliminaries of peace.

The First Consul was at all times the declared enemy of the liberty of
the press, and therefore he ruled the journals with a hand of iron.

     --[An incident, illustrative of the great irritation which Bonaparte
     felt at the plain speaking of the English press, also shows the
     important character of Coleridge's writings in the 'Morning Post'.
     In the course of a debate in the House of Commons Fox asserted that
     the rupture of the trace of Amiens had its origin in certain essays
     which had appeared in the Morning POST, and which were known to have
     proceeded from the pen of Coleridge.  But Fox added an ungenerous
     and malicious hint that the writer was at Rome, within the reach of
     Bonaparte.  The information reached the ears for which it was
     uttered, and an order was sent from Paris to compass the arrest of
     Coleridge.  It was in the year 1806, when the poet was making a tour
     in Italy.  The news reached him at Naples, through a brother of the
     illustrious Humboldt, as Mr. Gillman says--or in a friendly warning
     from Prince Jerome Bonaparte, as we have it on the authority of Mr.
     Cottle--and the Pope appears to have been reluctant to have a hand
     in the business, and, in fact, to have furnished him with a
     passport, if not with a carriage for flight, Coleridge eventually
     got to Leghorn, where he got a passage by an American ship bound for
     England; but his escape coming to the ears of Bonaparte, a look-out
     was kept for the ship, and she was chased by a French cruiser, which
     threw the captain into such a state of terror that he made Coleridge
     throw all his journals and papers overboard (Andrews' History of
     Journalism, vol. ii. p. 28).]--

I have often heard him say, "Were I to slacken the reins, I should not
continue three months in power."  He unfortunately held the same opinion
respecting every other prerogative of public freedom.  The silence he had
imposed in France he wished, if he could, to impose in England.  He was
irritated by the calumnies and libels so liberally cast upon him by the
English journals, and especially by one written in French, called
'L'Ambigu', conducted by Peltier, who had been the editor of the 'Actes
des Apotres' in Paris.  The 'Ambigu' was constantly teeming with the moat
violent attacks on the First Consul and the French nation.  Bonaparte
could never, like the English, bring himself to despise newspaper libels,
and he revenged himself by violent articles which he caused to be
inserted in the 'Moniteur'.  He directed M. Otto to remonstrate, in an
official note, against a system of calumny which he believed to be
authorised by the English Government.  Besides this official proceeding
he applied personally to Mr. Addington, the Chancellor of the Exchequer,
requesting him to procure the adoption of legislative measures against
the licentious writings complained of; and, to take the earliest
opportunity of satisfying his hatred against the liberty of the press,
the First Consul seized the moment of signing the preliminaries to make
this request.

Mr. Addington wrote a long answer to the First Consul, which I translated
for him.  The English Minister refuted, with great force, all the
arguments which Bonaparte had employed against the press.  He also
informed the First Consul that, though a foreigner, it was competent in
him to institute a complaint in the courts of law; but that in such case
he must be content to see all the scandalous statements of which he
complained republished in the report of the trial.  He advised him to
treat the libels with profound contempt, and do as he and others did, who
attached not the slightest importance to them.  I congratulate myself on
having in some degree prevented a trial taking place at that time.

Things remained in this state for the moment; but after the peace of
Amiens the First Consul prosecuted Pettier, whose journal was always full
of violence and bitterness against him.  Pettier was defended by the
celebrated Mackintosh, who, according to the accounts of the time,
displayed great eloquence on this occasion, yet, in spite of the ability
of his counsel, he was convicted.  The verdict, which public opinion
considered in the light of a triumph for the defendant, was not followed
up by any judgment, in consequence of the rupture of the peace occurring
soon after.  It is melancholy to reflect that this nervous susceptibility
to the libels of the English papers contributed certainly as much as, and
perhaps more than, the consideration of great political interests to the
renewal of hostilities.  The public would be astonished at a great many
things if they could only look under the cards.

I have anticipated the rupture of the treaty of Amiens that I might not
interrupt what I had to mention respecting Bonaparte's hatred of the
liberty of the press.  I now return to the end of the year 1801, the
period of the expedition against St. Domingo.

The First Consul, after dictating to me during nearly: the whole of one
night instructions for that expedition, sent for General Leclerc, and
said to him in my presence, "Here, take your instructions; you have a
fine opportunity for filling your purse.  Go, and no longer tease me with
your eternal requests for money."  The friendship which Bonaparte felt
for his sister Pauline had a good deal of influence in inducing him to
take this liberal way of enriching her husband.

The expedition left the ports of France on the 14th of December 1801, and
arrived off Cape St. Domingo on the 1st of February 1802.  The fatal
result of the enterprise is well known, but we are never to be cured of
the folly of such absurd expeditions.  In the instructions given to
Leclerc everything was foreseen; but it was painful to know that the
choice of one of the youngest and least capable of all the generals of
the army left no hope of a successful result.  The expedition to St.
Domingo was one of Bonaparte's great errors.  Almost every person whom he
consulted endeavoured to dissuade him from it.  He attempted a
justification through the medium of his historians of St. Helena; but
does he succeed when he says, "that he was obliged to yield to the advice
of his Council of State?"  He, truly, was a likely man to submit a
question of war to the discussion of the Council of State, or to be
guided in such an affair by any Council!  We must believe that no other
motive influenced the First Consul but the wish, by giving him the means
of enriching himself, to get rid of a brother-in-law who had the gift of
specially annoying him.  The First Consul, who did not really much like
this expedition, should have perhaps reflected longer on the difficulties
of attempting to subdue the colony by force.  He was shaken by this
argument, which I often repeated to him, and he agreed with it, but the
inconceivable influence which the members of his family exercised on him
always overcame him.

Bonaparte dictated to me a letter for Toussaint, full of sounding words
and fine promises, informing him that his two children, who had been
educated in Paris, were sent back to him, offering him the title of vice-
governor, and stating that he ought readily to assist in an arrangement
which would contribute to reconnect the colony with the mother-country.
Toussaint, who had at first shown a disposition to close with the
bargain, yet feeling afraid of being deceived by the French, and probably
induced by ambitious motives, resolved on war.  He displayed a great deal
of talent; but, being attacked before the climate had thinned the French
ranks, he was unable to oppose a fresh army, numerous and inured to war.
He capitulated, and retired to a plantation, which he was not to leave
without Leclerc's permission.  A feigned conspiracy on the part of the
blacks formed a pretence for accusing Toussaint, and he was seized and
sent to France.

Toussaint was brought to Pains in the beginning of August.  He was sent,
in the first instance, to the Temple, whence he was removed to the
Chateau de Joux.  His imprisonment was rigorous; few comforts were
allowed him.  This treatment, his recollection of the past, his
separation from the world, and the effects of a strange climate,
accelerated his death, which took place a few months after his arrival in
France.  The reports which spread concerning his death, the assertion
that it was not a natural one, and that it had been caused by poison,
obtained no credit.  I should add that Toussaint wrote a letter to
Bonaparte; but I never saw in it the expression attributed to him, "The
first man of the blacks to the first man of the whites" Bonaparte
acknowledged that the black leader possessed energy, courage, and great
skill.  I am sure that he would have rejoiced if the result of his
relations with St. Domingo had been something else than the kidnaping and
transportation of Toussaint.

Leclerc, after fruitless efforts to conquer the colony, was himself
carried off by the yellow fever.  Rochambeau succeeded him by right of
seniority, and was as unsuccessful as Menou had been in Egypt.  The
submission of the blacks, which could only have been obtained by
conciliation, he endeavoured to compel by violence.  At last, in December
1803, he surrendered to an English squadron, and abandoned the island to

Bonaparte often experienced severe bodily pain, and I have now little
doubt, from the nature of his sufferings, that they were occasioned by
the commencement of that malady which terminated his life at St. Helena.
These pains, of which he frequently complained, affected him most acutely
on the night when he dictated to me the instructions for General Leclerc.
It was very late when I conducted him to his apartment.  We had just been
taking a cup of chocolate, a beverage of which we always partook when our
business lasted longer than one o'clock in the morning.  He never took a
light with him when he went up to his bedroom.  I gave him my arm, and we
had scarcely got beyond the little staircase which leads to the corridor,
when he was rudely run against by a man who was endeavouring to escape as
quickly as possible by the staircase.  The First Consul did not fall
because I supported him.  We soon gained his chamber, where we, found
Josephine, who, having heard the noise, awoke greatly alarmed.  From the
investigations which were immediately made it appeared that the uproar
was occasioned by a fellow who had been keeping an assignation and had
exceeded the usual hour for his departure.

On the 7th of January 1802 Mademoiselle Hortense was married to Louis
Bonaparte.  As the custom was not yet resumed of adding the religious
ceremony to the civil contract, the nuptial benediction was on this
occasion privately given by a priest at the house Rue de la Victoire.
Bonaparte also caused the marriage of his sister Caroline,--[The wife of
Murat, and the cleverest of Bonaparte's sisters.]-- which had taken place
two years earlier before a mayor, to be consecrated in the same manner;
but he and his wife did not follow the example.  Had he already, then, an
idea of separating from Josephine, and therefore an unwillingness to
render a divorce more difficult by giving his marriage a religious
sanction?  I am rather inclined to think, from what he said to me, that
his neglecting to take a part in the religious ceremony arose from

Bonaparte said at St. Helena, speaking of Louis and Hortense, that "they
loved each other when they married: they desired to be united.  The
marriage was also the result of Josephine's intrigues, who found her
account in it."  I will state the real facts.  Louis and Hortense did not
love one another at all.  That is certain.  The First Consul knew it,
just as he well knew that Hortense had a great inclination for Duroc, who
did not fully return it.  The First Consul agreed to their union, but
Josephine was troubled by such a marriage, and did all she could to
prevent it.  She often spoke to me about it, but rather late in the day.
She told me that her brothers-in law were her declared enemies, that I
well knew their intrigues, and that I well knew there was no end to the
annoyances they made her undergo.  In fact, I did know all this
perfectly.  She kept on repeating to me that with this projected marriage
she would not have any support; that Duroc was nothing except by the
favour of Bonaparte; that he had neither fortune, fame, nor reputation,
and that he could be no help to her against the well-known ill-will of
the brothers of Bonaparte.  She wanted some assurance for the future.
She added that her husband was very fond of Louis, and that if she had
the good fortune to unite him to her daughter this would be a
counterpoise to the calumnies and persecutions of her other brothers-in-
law.  I answered her that she had concealed her intentions too long from
me, and that I had promised my services to the young people, and the more
willingly as I knew the favourable opinion of the First Consul, who had
often said to me, "My wife has done well; they suit one another, they
shall marry one another.  I like Duroc; he is of good family.  I have
rightly given Caroline to Murat, and Pauline to Leclerc, and I can well
give Hortense to Duroc, who is a fine fellow.  He is worth more than the
others.  He is now general of a division there is nothing against this
marriage.  Besides, I have other plans for Louis."  In speaking to Madame
Bonaparte I added that her daughter burst into tears when spoken to about
her marriage with Louis.

The First Consul had sent a brevet of general of division to Duroc by a
special courier, who went to Holland, through which the newly-made
general had to pass on his return from St. Petersburg, where, as I have
already said, he had been sent to compliment the Emperor Alexander on his
accession to the throne.  The First Consul probably paid this compliment
to Duroc in the belief that the marriage would take place.

During Duroc's absence the correspondence of the lovers passed, by their
consent, through my hands.  Every night I used to make one in a party at
billiards, at which Hortense played very well.  When I told her, in a
whisper, that I had got a letter for her, she would immediately leave off
playing and run to her chamber, where I followed and gave her Duroc's
epistle.  When she opened it her eyes would fill with tears, and it was
some time before she could return to the salon.  All was useless for her.
Josephine required a support in the family against the family.  Seeing
her firm resolution, I promised to no longer oppose her wishes, which I
could not disapprove, but I told her I could only maintain silence and
neutrality in these little debates, and she seemed satisfied.

When we were at Malmaison those intrigues continued.  At the Tuileries
the same conduct was pursued, but then the probability of success was on
Duroc's side; I even congratulated him on his prospects, but he received
my compliments in a very cold manner.  In a few days after Josephine
succeeded in changing the whole face of affairs.  Her heart was entirely
set on the marriage of Louis with her daughter; and prayers, entreaties,
caresses, and all those little arts which she so well knew how to use,
were employed to win the First Consul to her purpose.

On the 4th of January the First Consul, after dinner, entered our
cabinet, where I was employed.  "Where is Duroc?" he inquired.--"He has
gone to the opera, I believe."--"Tell him, as soon as he returns, that I
have promised Hortense to him, and he shall have her.  But I wish the
marriage to take place in two days at the latest.  I will give him
500,000 francs, and name him commandant of the eighth military division;
but he must set out the day after his marriage with his wife for Toulon.
We must live apart; I want no son-in-law at home.  As I wish to come to
some conclusion, let me know to-night whether this plan will satisfy
him."--"I think it will not."--"Very well! then she shall marry Louis."
--"Will she like that?"--"She must like it."  Bonaparte gave me these
directions in a very abrupt manner, which made me think that some little
domestic warfare had been raging, and that to put an end to it he had
come to propose his ultimatum.  At half-past ten in the evening Duroc
returned; I reported to him, word for word, the proposition of the First
Consul.  "Since it has come to that, my good friend," said he, "tell him
he may keep his daughter for me.  I am going to see the -----," and, with
an indifference for which I cannot account, he took his hat and went off.

     --[Duroc eventually married a Mademoiselle Hervae d'Almenara, the
     daughter of a Spanish banker, who was later Minister of Joseph, and
     was created Marquis of Abruenara.  The lady was neither handsome nor
     amiable, but she possessed a vast fortune, and Bonaparte himself
     solicited her hand for his aide de camp.  After the death of Duroc
     his widow married a M. Fabvier, and Napoleon gave his Duchy of
     Frioul to his daughter.]--

The, First Consul, before going to bed, was informed of Duroc's reply,
and Josephine received from him the promise that Louis and Hortense
should be married.  The marriage took place a few days after, to the
great regret of Hortense, and probably to the satisfaction of Duroc.
Louis submitted to have forced on him as a wife a woman who had hitherto
avoided him as much as possible.  She always manifested as much
indifference for him as he displayed repugnance for her, and those
sentiments have not been effaced.

     --[The marriage of Louis Bonaparte took place on the 7th January.
     The bride and bridegroom were exceedingly dull, and Mademoiselle
     Hortense wept daring the whole of the ceremony.  Josephine, knowing
     that this union, which commenced so inauspiciously, was her own
     work, anxiously endeavoured to establish a more cordial feeling
     between her daughter and son-in-law.  But all her efforts were vain,
     and the marriage proved a very unhappy one (Memoirs de Constant).

     Napoleon III.  was the son of the Queen of Holland (Hortense

Napoleon said at St. Helena that he wished to unite Louis with a niece of
Talleyrand.  I can only say that I never heard a word of this niece,
either from himself, his wife, or his daughter; and I rather think that
at that time the First Consul was looking after a royal alliance for
Louis.  He often expressed regret at the precipitate marriages of his
sisters.  It should be recollected that we were now in the year which saw
the Consulship for life established, and which, consequently, gave
presage of the Empire.  Napoleon said truly to the companions of his
exile that "Louis' marriage was the result of Josephine's intrigues," but
I cannot understand how he never mentioned the intention he once had of
uniting Hortense to Duroc.  It has been erroneously stated that the First
Consul believed that he reconciled the happiness of his daughter with his
policy.  Hortense did not love Louis, and dreaded this marriage.  There
was no hope of happiness for her, and the event has proved this.  As for
the policy of the First Consul, it is not easy to see how it was
concerned with the marriage of Louis to Hortense, and in any case the
grand policy which professed so loudly to be free from all feminine
influences would have been powerless against the intrigues of Josephine,
for at this time at the Tuileries the boudoir was often stronger than the
cabinet.  Here I am happy to have it in my power to contradict most
formally and most positively certain infamous insinuations which have
prevailed respecting Bonaparte and Hortense.  Those who have asserted
that Bonaparte ever entertained towards Hortense any other sentiments
than those of a father-in-law for a daughter-in-law have, as the ancient
knights used to say, "lied in their throats."  We shall see farther on
what he said to me on this subject, but it is never too soon to destroy
such a base calumny.  Authors unworthy of belief have stated, without any
proof, that not only was there this criminal liaison, but they have gone
so far as to say that Bonaparte was the father of the eldest son of
Hortense.  It is a lie, a vile lie.  And yet the rumour has spread
through all France and all Europe.  Alas!  has calumny such powerful
charms that, once they are submitted to, their yoke cannot be broken?

     --[Bourrienne's account of this marriage, and his denial of the vile
     calumny about Napoleon, is corroborated by Madame Remusat.  After
     saying that Hortense had refused to marry the son of Rewbell and
     also the Comte de Nun, she goes on: "A short time afterwards Duroc,
     then aide de camp to the Consul, and already noted by him, fell in
     love with Hortense.  She returned the feeling, and believed she had
     found that other half of herself which she sought.  Bonaparte looked
     favourably on their union, but Madame Bonaparte in her turn was
     inflexible.  'My daughter,' said she, 'must marry s gentleman or a
     Bonaparte.'  Louis was then thought of.  He had no fancy for
     Hortense; defeated the Beauharnais family, and had a supreme
     contempt for his sister-in-law.  But as he was silent, he was
     believed to be gentle; and as he was severe by character, he was
     believed to be upright.  Madame Louis told me afterwards that at the
     news of this arrangement she experienced violent grief.  Not only
     was she forbidden to think of the man she loved, but she was about
     to be given to another of whom she had a secret distrust" (Remusat,
     tome i. p. l56).  For the cruel treatment of Hortense by Louis see
     the succeeding pages of Remusat.  As for the vile scandal about
     Hortense and Napoleon, there is little doubt that it was spread by
     the Bonapartist family for interested motives.  Madame Louis became
     enceinte soon after her marriage.  The Bonapartists, and especially
     Madame Murat (Caroline); had disliked this marriage because Joseph
     having only daughters, it was forseen that the first son of Louis
     and the grandson of Madame Bonaparte would be the object of great
     interest.  They therefore spread the revolting story that this was
     the result of a connection of the First Consul with his daughter-in-
     law, encouraged by the mother herself.  'The public willingly
     believed this suspicion.'  Madame Murat told Louis," etc.  (Remusat,
     tome i, p. 169).  This last sentence is corroborated by Miot de
     Melito (tome ii. p. 170), who, speaking of the later proposal of
     Napoleon to adopt this child, says that Louis "remembered the
     damaging stories which ill-will had tried to spread among the public
     concerning Hortense Beauharnais before be married her, and although
     a comparison of the date of his marriage with that of the birth of
     his son must have shown him that these tales were unfounded, he felt
     that they world be revived by the adoption of this child by the
     First Consul."  Thus this wretched story did harm in every way.
     The conduct of Josephine mast be judged with leniency, engaged as
     she was in a desperate straggle to maintain her own marriage,--a
     struggle she kept up with great skill; see Metternich, tome ii. p.
     296.  "she baffled all the calculations, all the manoeuvres of her
     adversaries."  But she was foolish enough to talk in her anger as if
     she believed some of the disgraceful rumours of Napoleon.  "Had he
     not seduced his sisters, one after the other?" (Remusat, tome i. p.
     204).  As to how far this scandal was really believed by the
     brothers of Napoleon, see Iung's Lucien (tome ii. pp. 268-269),
     where Lucien describes Louis as coming three times to him for advice
     as to his marriage with Hortense, both brothers referring to this
     rumour.  The third time Louis announces he is in love with Hortense.
     "You are in love?  Why the devil, then, do you come to me for
     advice?  If so, forget what has been rumoured, and what I have
     advised you.  Marry, and may God bless you."

     Thiers (tome iii. p. 308) follows Bourrienne's account.  Josephine,
     alluding to Louis Bonaparte, said, "His family have maliciously
     informed him of the disgraceful stories which have been spread on
     the conduct of my daughter and on the birth of her son.  Hate
     assigns this child to Napoleon." (Remusat, tome i, p. 206).  The
     child in question was Napoleon Charles (1802-1807).



     Bonaparte President of the Cisalpine Republic--Meeting of the
     deputation at Lyons--Malta and the English--My immortality--Fete
     given by Madame Murat--Erasures from the emigrant list--Restitution
     of property--General Sebastiani--Lord Whitworth--Napoleon's first
     symptoms of disease--Corvisart--Influence of physical suffering on
     Napoleon's temper--Articles for the Moniteur--General Andreossi--
     M. Talleyrand's pun--Jerome Bonaparte- Extravagance of Bonaparte's
     brothers--M. Collot and the navy contract.

Bonaparte was anxious to place the Cisalpine Republic on a footing of
harmony with the Government of France.  It was necessary to select a
President who should perfectly agree with Bonaparte's views; and in this
respect no one could be so suitable as Bonaparte himself.  The two
Presidencies united would serve as a transition to the throne.  Not
wishing to be long absent from Paris, and anxious to avoid the trouble of
the journey to Milan, he arranged to meet the deputation half-way at
Lyons.  Before our departure I said to him, "Is it possible that you do
not wish to revisit Italy, the first scene of your glory, and the
beautiful capital of Lombardy, where you were the object of so much
homage?"--"I certainly should," replied the First Consul, "but the
journey to Milan would occupy too much precious time.  I prefer that the
meeting should take place in France.  My influence over the deputies will
be more prompt and certain at Lyons than at Milan; and then I should be
glad to see the noble wreck of the army of Egypt, which is collected at

On the 8th of January 1802 we set out.  Bonaparte who was now ready to
ascend the throne of France, wished to prepare the Italians for one day
crowning him King of Italy, in imitation of Charlemagne, of whom in
anticipation he considered himself the successor.  He saw that the title
of President of the Cisalpine Republic was a great advance towards the
sovereignty of Lombardy, as he afterwards found that the Consulate for
life was a decisive step towards the throne of France.  He obtained the
title of President without much difficulty on the 36th of January 1802.
The journey to Lyons and the conferences were only matters of form; but
high sounding words and solemn proceedings were required for the public

The attempts which had been made on the life of the First Consul gave
rise to a report that be took extraordinary precautions for his safety
during this journey to Lyons.  I never saw those precautions, and
Bonaparte was at all times averse to adopt any.  He often repeated "That
whoever would risk his own life might take his."  It is not true that
guards preceded his carriage and watched the roads.  The Consul travelled
like a private person, and very rarely had arms in his carriage.

     --[Bonaparte may have been careless of his own safety, but that he
     took great pains in regard to his brother's may be inferred from the
     following letter, written a few years later:

     "Take care that your valets de chambre, your cooks, the guards that
     sleep in your apartments, and those who come during the night to
     awaken you with despatches, are all Frenchmen.  No one should enter
     your room during the night except your aides de camp, who should
     sleep in the chamber that precedes your bedroom.  Your door should
     be fastened inside, and you ought not to open it, even to your aide
     de camp, until you have recognised his voice; he himself should not
     knock at your door until he has locked that of the room which he is
     in, to make sure of being alone, and of being followed by no one.
     These precautions are important; they give no trouble, and they
     inspire confidence--besides, they may really save your life.  You
     should establish these habits immediately end permanently; You ought
     not to be obliged to have resource to them on some emergency, which
     would hurt the feelings of those around you.  Do not trust only to
     your own experience.  The Neapolitan character has been violent in
     every age, and you have to do with a woman [Queen of Naples] who is
     the impersonation of crime" (Napoleon to Joseph, May 31, 1806.--Du
     Casse, tome ii.  p.  260).]--

At this time, when the ambition of Bonaparte every day took a farther
flight, General Clarke took it into his head to go into the box of the
First Consul at the "Francais," and to place himself in the front seat.
By chance the First Consul came to the theatre, but Clarke, hardly
rising, did not give up his place.  The First Consul only stayed a short
time, and when he came back he showed great discontent at this
affectation of pride and of vanity.  Wishing to get rid of a man whom he
looked on as a blundering flatterer and a clumsy critic, he sent him away
as charge d'affaires to the young extemporized King of Etruria, where
Clarke expiated his folly in a sort of exile.  This is all the "great
disfavour" which has been so much spoken about, In the end General Clarke
returned to favour.  Berlin knows and regrets it.

On the 25th of March of the same year England signed, at Amiens, a
suspension of arms for fourteen months, which was called a treaty of
peace.  The clauses of this treaty were not calculated to inspire the
hope of a very long peace.  It was evident, as I have already said, that
England would not evacuate Malta; and that island ultimately proved the
chief cause of the rupture of the treaty of Amiens.  But England,
heretofore so haughty in her bearing to the First Consul, had at length
treated with him as the Head of the French Government.  This, as
Bonaparte was aware, boded well for the consolidation of his power.

At that time, when he saw his glory and power augmenting, he said to me
in one of our walks at Malmaison, in a moment of hilarity, and clapping
me on the shoulder, "Well, Bourrienne, you also will be immortal!"--
"why, General?"--"Are you not my secretary?"--"Tell me the name of
Alexander's," said I.

     --[Bonaparte did not know the name of Alexander's secretary, and I
     forgot at the moment to tell him it was Clallisthenes.  He wrote
     Alexander's Memoirs, as I am writing Bonaparte's; but,
     notwithstanding this coincidence, I neither expect nor desire the
     immortality of my name.--Bourrienne.]--

Bonaparte then turned to me and laughing, said, "Hem! that is not bad."
There was, to be sure, a little flattery conveyed in my question, but
that never displeased him, and I certainly did not in that instance
deserve the censure he often bestowed on me for not being enough of a
courtier and flatterer.

Madame Murat gave a grand fete in honour of Bonaparte at her residence at
Neuilly.  At dinner Bonaparte sat opposite Madame Murat at the principal
table, which was appropriated to the ladies.  He ate fast, and talked but
little.  However, when the dessert was served, he put a question to each
lady.  This question was to inquire their respective ages.  When Madame
Bourrienne's turn came he said to her, "Oh!  I know yours."  This was a
great deal for his gallantry, and the other ladies were far from being
pleased at it.

Next day, while walking with me in his favourite alley at Malmaison, he
received one of those stupid reports of the police which were so
frequently addressed to him.  It mentioned the observations which had
been made in Paris about a green livery he had lately adopted.  Some said
that green had been chosen because it was the colour of the House of
Artois.  On reading that a slight sneer was observable in his
countenance, and he said, "What are these idiots dreaming of?  They must
be joking, surely.  Am I no better than M. d'Artois?  They shall soon see
the difference."

Until the middle of the year 1801 the erasures from the emigrant list had
always been proposed by the Minister of Police.  The First Consul having
been informed that intrigue and even bribery had been employed to obtain
them, determined that in future erasures should be part of the business
of his cabinet.  But other affairs took up his attention, and a dozen or
fifteen erasures a week were the most that were made.  After Te Deum had
been chanted at Malmaison for the Concordat and the peace, I took
advantage of that moment of general joy to propose to Bonaparte the
return of the whole body of emigrants.  "You have," said I in a half-
joking way, "reconciled Frenchmen to God--now reconcile them to each
other.  There have never been any real emigrants, only absentees; and the
proof of this is, that erasures from the list have always been, and will
always be, made daily."  He immediately seized the idea.  "We shall see,"
said he; "but I must except a thousand persons belonging to high
families, especially those who are or have been connected with royalty or
the Court."

I said in the Chamber of Deputies, and I feel pleasure in repeating here,
that the plan of the 'Senatus-consults', which Bonaparte dictated to me,
excepted from restitution only such mansions as were used for public
establishments.  These he would neither surrender nor pay rent for.  With
those exceptions he was willing to restore almost all that was possessed
by the State and had not been sold.

The First Consul, as soon as he had finished this plan of a decree,
convoked a Grand Council to submit it to their consideration.  I was in
an adjoining room to that in which they met, and as the deliberations
were carried on with great warmth, the members talking very loudly,
sometimes even vociferating, I heard all that passed.  The revolutionary
party rejected all propositions of restitution.  They were willing to
call back their victims, but they would not part with the spoil.

When the First Consul returned to his cabinet, dissatisfied with the ill
success of his project, I took the liberty of saying to him, "you cannot
but perceive, General, that your object has been defeated, and your
project unsuccessful.  The refusal to restore to the emigrants all that
the State possesses takes from the recall all its generosity and dignity
of character.  I wonder how you could yield to such an unreasonable and
selfish opposition."--"The revolutionary party," replied he, "had the
majority in the Council.  What could I do?  Am I strong enough to
overcome all those obstacles?"--" General, you can revive the question
again, and oppose the party you speak of."--"That would be difficult," he
said; " they still have a high hand in these matters.  Time is required.
However, nothing is definitively arranged.  We shall see what can be
done."  The 'Senatus-consulte', published on the 6th Floreal, year X.
(26th of April 1802), a fortnight after the above conversation took
place, is well known.  Bonaparte was then obliged to yield to the
revolutionary party, or he would have adhered to his first proposition.

     --[The Senatus-consulte retained the woods and forests of the
     emigrants, and made their recall an "amnesty."  In the end this
     retention of the forests was used by Napoleon with great dexterity
     as a means of placing them under personal obligation to him for
     restoring this species of property.  See Thiers tome iii, p. 458,
     livre xiv.]--

Napoleon referred to this matter at St. Helena.  He himself says that he
"would have been able " (he should have said that he wished) to grant
everything, that for a moment he thought of doing so, and that it was a
mistake not to do so.  "This limitation on my part," he adds, "destroyed
all the good effect of the return of the emigrants.  The mistake was the
greater since I thought of doing it, but I was alone, surrounded by
oppositions and by spies: all were against your party, you cannot easily
picture the matter to yourself, but important affairs hurried me, time
pressed, and I was obliged to act differently."  Afterwards he speaks of
a syndicate he wished to form, but I have never heard a word of that.  I
have said how things really happened, and what has been just read
confirms this.

     --[This was by no means the only time that Napoleon's wishes were
     opposed successfully in his Council of State.  On such occasions he
     used to describe himself as "repulsed with losses."  See the
     interesting work of St. Hilaire, Napoleon au Conseil d'Etat.]--

The Royalists, dissatisfied with the state of political affairs, were not
better pleased with the illiberal conditions of the recall of the
emigrants.  The friends of public liberty, on the other hand, were far
from being satisfied with the other acts of the First Consul, or with the
conduct of the different public authorities, who were always ready to
make concessions to him.  Thus all parties were dissatisfied.

Bonaparte was much pleased with General Sebastiani's conduct when he was
sent to Constantinople, after the peace of Amiens, to induce the Grand
Seignior to renew amicable relations with France.

At the period here alluded to, namely, before the news of the evacuation
of Egypt, that country greatly occupied Bonaparte's attention.  He
thought that to send a man like Sebastiani travelling through Northern
Africa, Egypt, and Syria might inspire the sovereigns of those countries
with a more favourable idea of France than they now entertained, and
might remove the ill impressions which England was endeavouring to
produce.  On this mission Sebastiani was accordingly despatched.  He
visited all the Barbary States, Egypt, Palestine, and the Ionian Isles.
Everywhere he drew a highly-coloured picture of the power of Bonaparte,
and depreciated the glory of England.

     --[This General, or Count Sebastian, was afterwards ambassador for
     Louis Philippe at our Court.]--

He strengthened old connections, and contracted new ones with the chiefs
of each country.  He declared to the authorities of the Ionian Isles that
they might rely on the powerful protection of France.  Bonaparte, in my
opinion, expected too much from the labours of a single individual
furnished with but vague instructions.  Still Sebastiani did all that
could be done.  The interesting details of his proceedings were published
in the 'Moniteur'.  The secret information respecting the means of
successfully attacking the English establishments in India was very
curious, though not affording the hope of speedy success.

The published abstract of General Sebastiani's report was full of
expressions hostile to England.  Among other things it was stated that
Egypt might be conquered with 6000 men, and that the Ionian Isles where
disposed to throw off the yoke.  There can be little doubt that this
publication hastened the rupture of the treaty of Amiens.

England suspended all discussions respecting Malta, and declared that she
would not resume them till the King of Great Britain should receive
satisfaction for what was called an act of hostility.  This was always
put forward as a justification, good or bad, for breaking the treaty of
Amiens, which England had never shown herself very ready to execute.

Bonaparte, waiving the usual forma of etiquette, expressed his wish to
have a private conference with Lord Whitworth, the ambassador from London
to Paris, and who had been the English ambassador at St. Petersburg
previous to the rupture which preceded the death of Paul I.  Bonaparte
counted much on the effect he might produce by that captivating manner
which he so well knew how to assume in conversation; but all was in vain.
In signing the treaty of Amiens the British Minister was well aware that
he would be the first to break it.

About the commencement of the year 1802 Napoleon began to feel acute
pains in his right side.  I have often seen him at Malmaison, when
sitting up at night, lean against the right arm of his chair, and
unbuttoning his coat and waistcoat exclaim,--What pain I feel!"  I would
then accompany him to his bedchamber, and have often been obliged to
support him on the little staircase which led from his cabinet to the
corridor.  He frequently used to say at this time, "I fear that when I am
forty I shall become a great eater: I have a foreboding that I shall grow
very corpulent."  This fear of obesity, though it annoyed him very much,
did not appear to have the least foundation, judging from his habitual
temperance and spare habit of body.  He asked me who was my physician.
I told him M. Corvisart, whom his brother Louis had recommended to me.
A few days after he called in Corvisart, who three years later was
appointed first physician to the Emperor.  He appeared to derive much
benefit from the prescriptions of Corvisart, whose open and good-humoured
countenance at once made a favourable impression on him.

The pain which the First Consul felt at this time increased his
irritability.  Perhaps many of the sets of this epoch of his life should
be attributed to this illness.  At the time in question his ideas were
not the same in the evening as they had been in the morning; and often in
the morning he would tear up, even without the least remark, notes he had
dictated to me at night and which he had considered excellent.  At other
times I took on myself not to send to the Moniteur, as he wished me to
do, notes which, dictated by annoyance and irascibility, might have
produced a bad effect in Europe.  When the next day he did not see the
article, I attributed this to the note being too late, or to the late
arrival of the courier.  But I told him it was no loss, for it would be
inserted the next day.  He did not answer at once, but a quarter of an
hour afterwards he said to me, "Do not send my note to the 'Moniteur'
without showing it to me."  He took it and reread it.  Sometimes he was
astonished at what he had dictated to me, and amused himself by saying
that I had not understood him properly.  "That is not much good, is it?
"--"`Pon my word, I don't quite know."--"Oh no, it is worthless; what say
you?"  Then he bowed his head a little, and tore up the paper.  Once when
we were at the Tuileries he sent me at two o'clock in the morning a small
note in his own writing, in which was, "To Bourrienne.  Write to Maret to
make him erase from the note which Fleurieu has read to the Tribunate the
phrase (spelt frase) concerning Costaz, and to soften as much as possible
what concerns the reporter of the Tribunate."

This change, after time for reflection, arose, as often happened with
him, from observations I had made to him, and which he had at first
angrily repulsed.

After the peace of Amiens the First Consul, wishing to send an ambassador
to England, cast his eyes--for what reason I know not--on General
Andreossi.  I took the liberty of making some observation on a choice
which did not appear to me to correspond with the importance of the
mission.  Bonaparte replied, "I have not determined on it; I will talk to
Talleyrand on the subject."  When we were at Malmaison in the evening
M. de Talleyrand came to transact business with the First Consul.  The
proposed appointment of an ambassador to England was mentioned.  After
several persons had been named the First Consul said, "I believe I must
send Andreossi."  M. de Talleyrand, who was not much pleased with the
choice, observed in a dry sarcastic tone, "You must send Andre 'aussi', I
Pray, who is this Andre?"--"I did not mention any Andre; I said
Andreossi.  You know Andreossi, the general of artillery?"--"Ah!  true;
Andreossi: I did not think of him: I was thinking only of the diplomatic
men, and did not recollect any of that name.  Yes, yes; Andreossi is in
the artillery!"  The general was appointed ambassador, and went to London
after the treaty of Amiens; but he returned again in a few months.  He
had nothing of consequence to do, which was very lucky for him.

In 1802 Jerome was at Brest in the rank of 'enseigne de vaisseau'--[A
rank in the navy equivalent to that of our lieutenant.]-- He launched
into expenses far beyond what his fortune or his pay could maintain.  He
often drew upon me for sums of money which the First Consul paid with
much unwillingness.  One of his letters in particular excited Napoleon's
anger.  The epistle was filled with accounts of the entertainments Jerome
was giving and receiving, and ended by stating that he should draw on me
for 17,000 francs.  To this Bonaparte wrote the following reply:--

     I have read your letter, Monsieur l'Enseigne de Vaisseau; and I am
     waiting to hear that you are studying on board your corvette a
     profession which you ought to consider as your road to glory.  Die
     young, and I shall have some consolatory reflection; but if you live
     to sixty without having served your country, and without leaving
     behind you any honourable recollections, you had better not have
     lived at all.

Jerome never fulfilled the wishes of his brother, who always called him a
little profligate.  From his earliest years his conduct was often a
source of vexation to his brother and his family.  Westphalia will not
soon forget that he was her King; and his subjects did not without reason
surname him "Heliogabalus in miniature."

The First Consul was harassed by the continual demands for money made on
him by his brothers.  To get rid of Joseph, who expended large sums at
Mortfontaine, as Lucien did at Neuilly, he gave M. Collot the contract
for victualling the navy, on the condition of his paying Joseph 1,600,000
francs a year out of his profits.  I believe this arrangement answered
Joseph's purpose very well; but it was anything but advantageous to M.
Collot.  I think a whole year elapsed without his pocketing a single
farthing.  He obtained an audience of the First Consul, to whom he stated
his grievances.  His outlays he showed were enormous, and he could get no
payment from the navy office.  Upon which the Consul angrily interrupted
him, saying, "Do you think I am a mere capuchin?  Decres must have
100,000 crowns, Duroc 100,000, Bourrienne 100,000; you must make the
payments, and don't come here troubling me with your long stories.  It is
the business of my Ministers to give me accounts of such matters; I will
hear Decres, and that's enough.  Let me be teased no longer with these
complaints; I cannot attend to them."  Bonaparte then very
unceremoniously dismissed M. Collot.  I learned afterwards that he did
not get a settlement of the business until after a great deal of trouble.
M. Collot once said to me, "If he had asked me for as much money as would
have built a frigate he should have had it.  All I want now is to be
paid, and to get rid of the business."  M. Collot had reason and honour
on his side; but there was nothing but shuffling on the other.


Calumny such powerful charms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Die young, and I shall have some consolatory reflection. . . . . . . .
Immortality is the recollection one leaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Most celebrated people lose on a close view. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Religion is useful to the Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The boudoir was often stronger than the cabinet. . . . . . . . . . . .
To leave behind him no traces of his existence . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treaty, according to custom, was called perpetual. . . . . . . . . . .

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