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Title: Library Cataloguing
Author: Quinn, J. Henry
Language: English
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                          LIBRARY CATALOGUING



                          Library Cataloguing

                                  BY

                            J. HENRY QUINN

         _Librarian, Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea; Library
                Association Examiner in Cataloguing and
                   Lecturer in Librarianship, London
                      School of Economics (Univ.
                             of London.)_

                                LONDON:

                        TRUSLOVE & HANSON, LTD.

                                 1913.

                                LONDON:
                       TRUSLOVE AND BRAY, LTD.,
                               PRINTERS,
                          WEST NORWOOD, S.E.



PREFACE.


Some years ago I prepared a _Manual of Library Cataloguing_, which met
with more acceptance than was expected, and has been out of print for
some time. Upon considering requests for a new edition, I concluded
that a book upon somewhat different lines would be more likely to meet
the present requirements of librarians and library assistants--this
volume is the result.

No pretence is made that the work is exhaustive or complete, but it is
hoped that it will serve as a practical and useful introduction to the
several codes of cataloguing rules. The statements made in it are not
meant to be dogmatic, but they indicate the lines upon which good and
accurate work is to be accomplished. As the illustrative examples were
chosen from every-day books, and are worked out as simply as possible,
they should be found useful by beginners; especially in preparing for
the examinations of the Library Association in this subject.

I am indebted to my friend Mr. Frank Pacy, City Librarian of
Westminster, for reading my proofs and suggesting many improvements,
although I am sure he would not care to accept responsibility for all
the views expressed or the mode of expressing them.

                                                                 J. H. Q.
  Chelsea,
    London, S.W.
      July, 1913.



CONTENTS.


                                CHAPTER I.

                               Introductory.
                                                                     PAGE

  The Difficulties of Cataloguing a Library--The Qualities Desirable
      in a Cataloguer--The Necessity for Systematic Cataloguing        1

                                CHAPTER II.

                   Short History of Modern Cataloguing.

  The British Museum Rules--Jewett's Rules--Crestadoro's
      Catalogues--Huggins' Liverpool Catalogue--Cutter's Rules--The
      Anglo-American Code--Dziatzko's _Instruction_--Dewey's
      Classification--The British Museum and other Catalogues          7

                               CHAPTER III.

                Dictionary _versus_ Classified Catalogues.

  Form to be fixed--The users of Catalogues--Questions Catalogues are
      expected to answer--The Dictionary Catalogue--The Classified
      Catalogue--The Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue--Definitions       19

                                CHAPTER IV.

                      Single Author Principal-Entry.

  Stationery--The Author-Entry--Full Names--Imprint
      and Collation--Order of Information
      Tabulated--Subject-Entry--Headings--Class-Entry                 32

                                CHAPTER V.

                              Joint-Authors.

  Joint-Authors--Collations--Synonymous
      Subject-Headings--Participants in a
      Correspondence--References--Man and Wife as Joint Authors       48

                                CHAPTER VI.

             Books by more than Two Authors. Composite Books.

  Books by Three Authors--Choice of
      Subject-Headings--Cross-References--Books by a
      Number of Authors--Ecclesiastical and other Titles
      of Honour--The use of Capitals--Editors--Dates of
      Publication--Title-Entries--Punctuation--"Indexing" Contents of
      Composite Books--Separate Works printed together--Volumes of
      Essays by Single Authors                                        58

                               CHAPTER VII.

                         Illustrated Books. Music.

  Authors and Illustrators--Translations of Foreign Titles of
      Books of Illustrations and of Music--The Cataloguing of
      Music--Librettists--"Indexing" Miscellaneous Music--Dates of
      Publication                                                     80

                               CHAPTER VIII.

       Publications of Governments, Societies, and Corporate Bodies.

  Co-operative Indexes--Publications of Societies--Publishing
      Societies--Government Publications--Statutes--Colonial
      and Foreign Government Publications--Local Government
      Publications--Associations and Institutions--Congresses         95

                                CHAPTER IX.

        Compound Names. Names with Prefixes. Greek and Roman Names.

  Rendering of the Names of Foreign Authors--Compound Names--Changed
      Names--Foreign Compound Names--Names with Prefixes--Short
      Entries--Title-Entries--Foreign Names with Prefixes--Greek and
      Latin Authors                                                  110

                                CHAPTER X.

                             First Name Entry.

  Monarchs--Queens--Order of Arrangement--Princes--Popes--Series
      Entries--Saints--Friars--Mediæval Names--Artists, &c.          132

                                CHAPTER XI.

                         Noblemen. Oriental Names.

  Noblemen--Title _v._ Family Name--Double Subject-Entry--Oriental
      Names--Indian Names--Japanese and Chinese Names--Hebrew
      Names--Maori Names                                             148

                               CHAPTER XII.

                        Pseudonyms. Married Women.

  Pseudonyms _v._ Real Names--The Better-known Name--Methods
      of Marking Pseudonyms--Writers who use Two
      Names--Phrase-Pseudonyms--Specific Entry--Repetition
      Dashes--Use of Capitals for Emphasis--Women's Names Changed
      by Marriage--Anonymous Books--The Discovery of Authors of
      Anonymous Books--"By the Author of ----"--Names consisting of
      Initials only                                                  161

                               CHAPTER XIII.

             The Bible and other Sacred Books. Newspapers, &c.

  "Anonyma" continued--The Bible and other Sacred Books--Commentaries
      and Concordances--Newspapers and Periodicals--Directories and
      Annuals                                                        185

                               CHAPTER XIV.

                              Miscellaneous.

  Title-Entries--Classics--Specific Subject--Concentration of
      Subject--Definite Headings--Popular Terms--Historical
      Fiction--Novels in Series--Sequels--Fiction Known by Special
      Titles--Books with Changed Titles--Annotations--Form
      Entries--Summary Hints                                         199

                                CHAPTER XV.

                        The Printing of Catalogues.

  The Preparation of "Copy"--Markings for Type--Styles of Printing in
      Various Catalogues--Table of Types--Tenders for Printing--Model
      Specification--Reading and Correction of Proofs--Type "Kept
      Standing"                                                      217

  APPENDIX A.--The Correction of Printer's Proof                     236

      "    B.--A List of Contractions                                239

      "    C.--A List of Pseudonyms with the Real Names              242

  INDEX                                                              250

                          Library Cataloguing.



CHAPTER I.

Introductory.

    The difficulties of Cataloguing a Library. The qualities
        desirable in a Cataloguer. The necessity for Systematic
        Cataloguing.


Among the varied duties of a librarian that of cataloguing his books
is generally supposed by the uninitiated to be one of the easiest. The
popular idea is that books are sent to libraries--public libraries
at any rate--by grateful publishers, when all the librarian has to
do is "to catalogue them," put them up in rows on shelves, and hand
them out to the first person who asks for them. The cataloguing of a
library is ranked with that of any other inventory, and a catalogue
popularly regarded as a mere list, calling for no particular knowledge,
effort, or care in its production. The late Prof. John Fiske opens an
interesting essay on "A Librarian's Work" in his _Darwinism and other
Essays_ (Macmillan, 1879) in these words, which are equally applicable
to any library of any pretension:--

    I am very frequently asked what in the world a librarian can
    find to do with his time, or am perhaps congratulated on my
    connection with Harvard College Library, on the ground that
    "being virtually a sinecure office (!) it must leave so much
    leisure for private study and work of a literary sort." Those
    who put such questions, or offer such congratulations, are
    naturally astonished when told that the library affords enough
    work to employ all my own time, as well as that of twenty
    assistants; and astonishment is apt to rise to bewilderment
    when it is added that seventeen of these assistants are
    occupied chiefly with "cataloguing;" for, generally, I find,
    a library catalogue is assumed to be a thing that is somehow
    "made" at a single stroke, as Aladdin's palace was built,
    at intervals of ten or a dozen years, or whenever a "new
    catalogue" is thought to be needed. "How often do you make a
    catalogue?" or "When will your catalogue be completed?" are
    questions revealing such transcendent misapprehension of the
    case that little but further mystification can be got from the
    mere answer, "We are _always_ making a catalogue, and it will
    _never_ be finished."

Prof. Fiske then proceeds to describe the difficulties of cataloguing
a library: "just cataloguing a book" not being by any means so
simple a task; and he goes on to demonstrate that the work requires
"considerable judgment and discrimination" besides "a great deal of
slow, plodding research." Perhaps there is no literary labour of the
kind, mere "hewing of wood and drawing of water" though it be, that
so quickly takes the conceit out of those essaying it, they finding
it both "arduous and perplexing." "The peculiarities of titles are,
like the idiosyncrasies of authors, innumerable. Books are in all
languages and treat of subjects as multitudinous as the topics of
human thought." A good cataloguer should be learned in the history
of all literary, scientific, religious, philosophical, economic, and
political movements of all ages and all countries, and especially must
he be abreast of the times in a knowledge of men and things, literary,
scientific, and otherwise. He needs be something of a linguist, should
be exact, orderly, methodical, with fixed ideas and yet an open mind,
painstaking, and persevering. Even with the exercise of all these
attainments and qualities, his work will not be found to be beyond
criticism. No pretence is made to assert that cataloguers as a body
do conform to this ideal; if they did it is probable they would find
more profitable employment. The next best thing to possessing these
qualifications, however, is to have as many as can be attained, and
make up for the rest by knowing where to find information as needed. If
the cataloguer be not "a walking encyclopædia" in himself, he at least
should know how to utilise the printed ones, and all other literature
at his command.

There are many kinds of library catalogues ranging from the mere lists
made by private persons of their own books to the great "Catalogue of
Printed Books in the British Museum," which is so extensive by reason
of the number of books contained in it, that its entries are virtually
limited to a single item for each book. Whether small or great, the
principles governing their compilation are much the same, the following
chapters being principally intended as a guide to the cataloguing of a
public library of average size.

No matter how good a library may be, its collections are practically
lost and useless without an adequate, properly-compiled catalogue. As
Carlyle puts it "A big collection of books without a good catalogue is
a Polyphemus with _no_ eye in his head." Even an indifferent library
can be made to render comparatively good service with a good catalogue.
In order to compile such a catalogue it is essential that certain
particulars be given descriptive of the books, and in so systematic
a way that, while the entries will afford all reasonable information
to the person well-versed in books, they shall, at the same time, be
so clear and simple in character as to be understood without much
effort by anyone of average intelligence. These particulars should be
comprehensive enough to afford some general idea of the nature and
scope of the book described without actually examining it, though in
this respect much depends upon the character and resources of the
library. The full descriptions usual in special bibliographies meant
for experts are not to be expected or required in the catalogue of a
popular general library.

The value of a good catalogue does not depend upon its extent or
size any more than does that of a good book, but rather upon the
exactness of the method by which the information given is digested and
concentrated. There are library catalogues so elaborately compiled and
imposing in appearance that they might be, and often are, considered
to be most excellent productions, whereas those who use them find
them little more than a medley of book-titles--pedantic without
being learned. On the other hand, "infinite riches in a little room"
would often be an appropriate motto for some insignificant-looking
catalogue. Sometimes it happens that quite a small library has a large
catalogue. This does not always arise from a desire to make the most
of the library, but may, likely enough, be owing to the fact that the
compilation was undertaken by some over-zealous committeeman or other
amateur, who, being "fond of books," considered this a sufficient
qualification for cataloguing them without knowing that it is far
easier to over-catalogue a library than to do the work judiciously--the
result being both wasteful and disastrous. The first catalogues of the
smaller public libraries are sometimes of this character, not always
for the reason just stated; probably owing to the desire to save the
salary of the librarian by postponing his appointment to the last
moment. He is then expected to select and purchase the books as well as
produce a printed catalogue of them within a few weeks: the conception
being that a library can be selected, arranged, and listed in bulk as
goods are bought, displayed, and ticketed in a shop, and in as short
a time. The cataloguing, then, has perforce to be delegated to an
assistant, who possibly has no training whatever. For this reason and
others the catalogue of a new public library can seldom be taken as
representing the knowledge or ability of the librarian as a cataloguer.

With the spread and rise in the standard of education, more exact and
better work is now demanded in libraries than was the case during
the early years after the passing of the first Public Libraries
Act. The slipshod, unsystematic cataloguing at one time in vogue is
not acceptable now, and the public demands something more than bald
lists compiled upon no principle in particular, which are often more
bewildering than helpful to an inquiring reader. The student and that
interesting person "the general reader" have a better understanding
than formerly of the uses and peculiarities of books, and look for
precise information concerning them. No better evidence of the general
interest taken in books is needed than that afforded by the large place
occupied by the reviewing of literature of all kinds in the daily
press and popular journals, even in minor periodicals. There must be
a public for such reviews, otherwise editors would not provide them;
and, no doubt, the spread of libraries has something to do with it. The
old dictum that it was not the business of a cataloguer to go behind,
or add to, the information deemed sufficient by an author for the
title-page of his book does not now find acceptance.

Those who are possessed of even a little experience will know that it
is impossible to compile a library catalogue in a haphazard fashion,
and that clear and definite rules for guidance must be laid down before
any part of the work is attempted, otherwise confusion and want of
proportion will result, to say nothing of the likelihood of the loss
of work already done. Happily for a number of years now the rules
governing the proper compilation of catalogues have been codified, and
the following chapters, while based upon no particular code, are meant
to serve as a practical introduction to the best-known of them with
some little modifications that have been found to be convenient in
practice.



CHAPTER II.

Short History of Modern Cataloguing.

    The British Museum Rules. Jewett's Rules. Crestadoro's
        Catalogues. Huggins' Liverpool Catalogue. Cutter's Rules.
        The Anglo-American Code. Dziatzko's _Instruction_. Dewey's
        Classification. The British Museum and other Catalogues.


Before proceeding to consider the practical side of the subject, we
may take a brief glance at the history of _modern_ cataloguing of
public libraries in this country. The earlier catalogues were limited
either to author-entries or were classified according to the whims of
the compiler, sometimes according to the rooms or shelves in which the
books were placed.

The subject of cataloguing received the most serious attention in the
year 1850, and, roundly, we may date its history from then. "The Rules
for the Compilation of the Catalogue of Printed Books in the Library of
the British Museum" had been adopted in 1839, and were printed in 1841.
In a great measure they may be regarded as the basis of all cataloguing
rules since that time, at any rate for author-entry or its equivalent.
In 1850 a Royal Commission on the management of the British Museum
had sat and issued its report, and rate-supported public libraries
were coming into existence. There had been much discussion on the need
for an adequate and promptly-produced catalogue of the books in the
Museum, and many views upon the subject were set forth, especially
by literary experts. Their criticism was in the main directed against
the existing rules known as Panizzi's. Anthony Panizzi, then Principal
Librarian, with others of the Museum staff, including Thomas Watts,
Winter Jones, and Edward Edwards, had each separately prepared a set of
rules according to his own ideas for the compilation of the projected
catalogue, and these were afterwards discussed by the compilers
collectively, and differences of opinion decided by vote.

The Secretary of this Royal Commission was J. Payne Collier, and he was
one of the opposers of Panizzi's rules, especially taking exception
to the fulness of entry because of the delay it entailed. To show
practically how he would catalogue he tried his hand on twenty-five
books in his own library and submitted the results. Mr. Winter
Jones reported upon it, and said it contained almost every possible
error which can be committed in cataloguing books. Payne Collier's
attempt and his justification of it appear in the first part of the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1850, where it will be seen that a German
edition of Shakespeare is entered under the editor alone, and a play
of Aristophanes is also so treated, besides other mistakes of a very
amateurish nature.

In this same year (1850) attention was being directed in America to
library cataloguing. The Smithsonian Institution sent out a circular to
the effect that, being desirous of facilitating research in literature
and science, and of thus aiding in the increase and diffusion of
knowledge, it had resolved to form a general catalogue of the various
libraries in the United States. The librarian of the institution,
Prof. Charles C. Jewett, had prepared plans for the accomplishment of
this object. The first part related to the stereotyping of catalogues
by separate titles in a uniform style. This stereotyping was proposed
to save time, labour, and expense in the preparation of new editions
of such a general catalogue. Only as many copies as were needed for
present use were to be struck off, and then new editions were to be
printed from time to time with later additions also in stereotype. This
idea, though it crops up from time to time, has now no novelty about
it, though recent inventions in type-setting machines have certainly
given cause for its reconsideration. No plan of this kind, particularly
if it were to be co-operative among the libraries, could be of the
least value unless there were uniformity of compilation according to
fixed rules, and so the second part consists of a set of general rules
to be recommended for adoption by the different libraries of the United
States in the preparation of their catalogues. Jewett's code was based
upon Panizzi's "Rules for the British Museum," with modifications
and additions to suit them to general use, and more especially in
connection with his proposed co-operative catalogue. Upon this point
he says, "The rules for cataloguing must be stringent, and should meet
as far as possible all difficulties of detail. Nothing, so far as can
be avoided, should be left to the individual taste or judgment of the
cataloguer. He should be a man of sufficient learning, accuracy, and
fidelity, to apply the rules." In order to emphasise further the need
for uniformity, he proceeds to say that "if the one adopted were
that of the worst of our catalogues, if it were strictly followed in
all alike, their uniformity would render catalogues thus made far
more useful than the present chaos of irregularities." From his point
of view of a national catalogue, he was perfectly right, though for
general cataloguing the argument is not convincing. Probably there is
room for a greater degree of uniformity in the catalogues of public
libraries than exists at present, and a better understanding upon this
point might be of some advantage to readers and workers generally. The
fact that catalogue rules of a standard kind exist does not seem to
have exercised any great influence in this respect.

The full title of Jewett's work is "On the Construction of Catalogues
of Libraries and their Publication by means of separate Stereotyped
Titles, with Rules and Examples, by Chas. C. Jewett, Librarian of the
Smithsonian Institution, Washington." The first edition was issued
in 1852, and another in the following year. The number of rules is
thirty-nine, and they are furnished with a series of examples and a
specimen subject-index. This may be regarded as the first code of rules
which contains subject-entries as well as author-entries.

In 1856, some two years before Jewett put his rules into practice in a
catalogue of the Boston Public Library, Mr. A. Crestadoro published a
pamphlet on "The Art of Making Catalogues of Libraries." The system he
recommended was to compile the catalogue with the titles of the books
given fully, leading off with the author's names, but arranged in no
particular order. These entries were to be consecutively numbered. To
this list of books there was to be an index of authors and subjects
in a brief form with the number referring to the entry in the main
catalogue. The subject-words were to be taken from the titles of the
books themselves and accordingly books with synonymous titles were
entered under those titles with such cross-references as were needed.
This method was put into force by Crestadoro when librarian of the
Manchester Public Library, and the catalogue still remains in use for
the older books in the Reference Library there. The first volume was
published in 1864, the entries being numbered from 1 to 26,534, though
they are arranged more or less alphabetically under authors' names, or
the principal subject-words if anonymous. To this volume is attached a
brief subject-matter index. Two later volumes were published in 1879,
and in these the books are apparently entered very much as they were
received into the Library. A separate volume, however, serves as an
index, both of authors and subjects, to all three volumes, and this
volume is still the real finding catalogue, the volumes with the full
particulars being little used in comparison.

This index-form of brief entries of authors and subjects in one
alphabet was utilised for catalogues of lending libraries in
Manchester; the following example of later date being taken from one of
these:--

  Glacial Period, Man and the. By Wright
  Glaciers of the Alps: a Lecture. By Molloy
  Gladiators. By Melville
  Gladman (F. J.) School Method
  Gladstone (Catherine) Life of. By Pratt
  Gladstone (J. H.) Michael Faraday.
  Gladstone (W. E.) Biography of. By Russell
  -- Biography of. By Smith
  -- Character of.
  -- England under. By McCarthy
  -- Essay on. By Brown
  -- Gladstone's House of Commons. By O'Connor
  -- Gleanings of Past Years
  -- Government. By Kent
  -- Homer
  -- Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture

A similar arrangement was also adopted for the Birmingham Public
Library by the late J. D. Mullins in 1869.

At this time, or a little earlier, Samuel Huggins, a retired architect,
was engaged by the Liverpool Corporation to compile a catalogue of
the Public Reference Library there. He took Jewett's Catalogue of the
Boston Public Library as his model, but with certain modifications. He
says "in the shaping out of all its chief features--Poetry, Painting,
Music, Architecture, the Drama, Novels, and the Bible group, it has
been so treated as to constitute it an original and unique catalogue,
which in regard both to form and detail of these great departments of
the field of knowledge is superior, so far as I know, to any other work
of the kind. The subjects generally are more concentrated, brought
into fewer and larger groups than in the excellent catalogue just
named"--that is Jewett's Boston one. One of the principles that he lays
down is that a book of science or art with a geographical limitation
will be found not under the scientific subject of which it treats,
but under the name of the country or place to which the scientific
research is confined, and so a book on the conchology of France does
not appear under Conchology but under France--subject division "Natural
History." Mr. Huggins apparently was not satisfied that this idea met
all needs as he printed an appendix to his volume "wherein for the
greater convenience of the student, those works in the catalogue which,
by the geographical principle of distribution, are classed under the
places to which their subjects respectively are confined, and so,
wide scattered, are brought together, and grouped according to their
subject." The work was published in 1872, its main principles being
more distinctly those we now understand by the form "a dictionary
catalogue" and it was probably the first of the kind in this country.
Under the older index catalogues a book upon Palestine might be under
such headings as Palestine, Holy Land, Land of Promise, Lands of the
Bible, Bible Lands, or any other title adopted by the authors on their
title-pages, whereas these were all concentrated under a single heading
with such reasonable references and cross-references as were needed
to bind the whole together or "syndetic" as Cutter terms it. This
catalogue is still in use in the Liverpool Reference Library, but has
been improved in detail in the later supplementary volumes, including
the elimination of the form-headings, of which Mr. Huggins made so much.

Other developments in library cataloguing about this period lay more
in the direction of attempts to combine the hitherto almost general
classified catalogues with subject and author catalogues in the
unsatisfactory alphabetico-classed form.

Up to this time, however, there was no adequate code of rules suited to
all requirements. As we have seen, the British Museum rules were for
author-entry, and Jewett's were by no means complete enough for the
purpose. In 1876, Mr. C. A. Cutter published his "Rules for a Printed
Dictionary Catalogue," this work forming the second volume or part of
the "Special Report of the U.S. Bureau of Education on the History,
Condition, and Management of Public Libraries in the United States of
America." These rules numbered 205 as compared with Jewett's 39, and
Mr. Cutter put them into use in, if they were not actually based upon,
his large _Catalogue of the Library of the Boston Athenæum_. A second
edition of these rules, with corrections and additions, was issued as a
separate work in 1889, a third in 1891, and a fourth in 1904. This last
edition contained Mr. Cutter's latest corrections and additions (he
died in September, 1903), the number of rules being increased thereby
to 369. It is at present the standard and most exhaustive work of the
kind, and is unlikely to be soon superseded, though it will be improved
upon from time to time as library practice requires and its essential
principles become embodied in other codes. Librarians of all ranks are
indebted to the American Government for the generosity with which they
distributed it freely to applicants.

Both the American and British Library Associations formulated
rules--the former in 1878 and the latter in 1883--though neither can be
said to have been of much service, the American being a condensation
of Cutter with some unimportant variations, and the British getting
no further than author and title entries. The two Associations have
now combined in a series of rules known as the "Anglo-American
code" and entitled "Cataloguing Rules, Author and Title Entries,
compiled by Committees of the American Library Association and of the
Library Association." This was published in 1908, and the history
of its production forms a preface to the work. A fuller history and
description of it by the Secretary of the British Committee, Mr.
John Minto, is contained in the _Library Association Record_, volume
11, 1909. A noteworthy statement he makes is "I do not think that it
was supposed to be the business of the Committee to provide for the
needs of very small libraries, which, on account of the inadequacy of
their funds, are unable to provide full catalogues, and are obliged
to be content with mere title-a-line lists. The requirements of such
libraries are already well served with existing codes--for example
Cutter's Rules which provide alternative forms, short, medium, and
full, for various grades of libraries." For this very reason the
Anglo-American code will never find much favour for practical use
in this country, though it is at present the basis for the Library
Association examinations in this subject.

In 1886 Prof. Dziatzko published his "Instruction für die Ordnung
der Titel im alphabetischen Zettelkatalog der Königlichen und
Universitäts-Bibliothek zu Breslau" which Mr. K. A. Linderfelt of
Milwaukee translated and adapted in 1890, with the other standard
rules, under the title "Eclectic Card Catalog Rules, Author and Title
Entries, based on Dziatzko's 'Instruction' compared with the Rules of
the British Museum, Cutter, Dewey, Perkins, and other Authorities."
It is so ample in its details that it covers all possible forms of
authors' names and is therefore most valuable for reference or for
compiling any catalogues, though it may contain a great deal that is
rarely required in average library practice. The appendix, containing a
list of oriental titles and occupations with their significance, is a
useful feature of the work.

So many classified catalogues have appeared of late years arranged
according to the Dewey Decimal System that no notes upon the history of
cataloguing would be complete without some reference to that system.
There is no doubt that it is mainly responsible for the revival of this
form of catalogue. The system was planned or invented by Mr. Melvil
Dewey, when librarian of Amherst College, U.S.A., and was in the first
instance intended for cataloguing and indexing purposes, though it is
now more commonly used for classifying and numbering the books upon the
shelves. It was the result of a good deal of careful study of library
needs and, on the face of it, is simple and practical. As to this Dewey
says "in all the work philosophical theory and accuracy have been
made to yield to practical usefulness. The impossibility of making a
satisfactory classification of all knowledge, as preserved in books,
has been appreciated from the first, and nothing of the kind attempted.
Theoretical harmony and exactness have been repeatedly sacrificed to
the practical requirements of the library."

In spite of this statement it is astonishing how few defects it has
as a system of classification, especially when it is remembered
that every class and every subject is divided into ten heads. This
limitation has the tendency to congest some subjects while others do
not admit of the use of so many as ten numbers. Withal it is very
elastic and useful, though, as may be expected, things American get
preferential and fuller treatment. The first edition was published
from Amherst College Library in 1876, the second from Columbia College
Library in 1885, the third in 1888, the fourth from the New York State
Library in 1891; the last ("edition 7") being that of 1911, each being
a revision and enlargement of the earlier edition. The very full index
attached to the scheme makes it comparatively easy to use, but, in the
process of using, it is astonishing how many books have to be specially
considered as to their correct place, a comparison of catalogues
compiled under the system showing that different minds have interpreted
the scheme quite differently.

There are other schemes of classification applicable to cataloguing,
as for instance that known as the "Expansive," the compilation of the
late C. A. Cutter, and the "Adjustable" of Mr. J. D. Brown. This last
is used in several public libraries worked upon what is termed the
"open access" system. The earlier history of classified cataloguing is
treated fully enough for most purposes in Mr. J. D. Brown's books on
library classification.

Even this mere sketch in outline of cataloguing history would be
incomplete without some allusion to the printing of the "British
Museum Catalogue of Printed Books." The printing of the first portion,
containing the books to the end of 1881, was the work of twenty years,
and consists of 393 parts, which superseded more than 2,000 folio
volumes of the manuscript catalogue. The supplement containing the
books added to the Museum during the years 1882-1899 was completed in
1905, and those who have the opportunity of constant reference to the
pages of the complete work know how valuable--even indispensable--it
is, and look forward to the appearance of the next supplement.
Decennial supplements would be none too frequent.

When to-day so many excellent catalogues of libraries are produced
it would be invidious to single out any for special praise, but no
excuse is needed for naming that of the London Library published in
1903 with its subject volume of 1909, both volumes being remarkable
for condensation and accuracy. At this time (1913) a new revised and
enlarged edition is announced for publication.

Mr. H. B. Wheatley's interesting little book, "How to Catalogue a
Library," must not be overlooked in connection with the history of
modern library cataloguing, particularly the chapter on "The Battle of
the Rules."



CHAPTER III.

Dictionary _versus_ Classified Catalogues.

    Form to be fixed. The users of Catalogues. Questions Catalogues
        are expected to answer. The Dictionary Catalogue. The
        Classified Catalogue. The Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue.
        Definitions.


We now proceed to consider the needs of those for whom our catalogues
are prepared.

It may be presumed that most of those who use this book are engaged
in municipal or similar libraries, where the requirements of the many
must be taken into account rather than the special needs of the few.
For those who have yet to acquire experience it is as well to state
that in cataloguing, as in most other departments of library work, a
definite decision as to the form and methods to be adopted must be made
at the outset, as it is impossible to start upon one form and then
change to another without confusion or the sacrifice of work already
done. Then, again, readers as a rule are extremely conservative, and
not only dislike a change but are quick to resent it even when the
advantages are sufficiently obvious to warrant it. Librarians and their
assistants, too, get accustomed to a particular method, and after
several years of working find it difficult to make a change to another
without it affecting their work, often unconsciously.

The spread of education and reading nowadays would lead us to suppose
that most people possess a sufficient amount of general knowledge to
enable them to make an intelligent use of a catalogue, provided it is
compiled upon well-defined and logical principles. Should the compiler
happen to have all the accomplishments named in Chapter I., and yield
to the temptation to air them by the production of a highly scientific
catalogue, he will find that his labours are unappreciated, and that he
must adapt his work to the needs of the average "man in the street."
Mr. H. B. Wheatley says as to this "that some persons seem to think
that everything is to be brought down to the comprehension of the fool;
but if by doing this we make it more difficult for the intelligent
person, the action is surely not politic. The consulter of a catalogue
might at least take the trouble to understand the plan upon which it
is compiled before using it." Mr. Wheatley's experience is not that of
public librarians generally, as not one person in a thousand does take
this trouble.

However this may be, there is no difficulty in attaining the happy
medium whereby the ignorant (speaking, of course, comparatively) finds
his wants met as readily as the most learned, and with simplicity and
thoroughness. It has been put in other words thus: "The right doctrine
for a public library catalogue is that it should be made not from the
scientific cataloguer's point of view, with a minimum of indulgence for
ignoramuses, but from the ignoramus's point of view with a minimum,
of indulgence for the scientific cataloguer. That the person who not
only does not know but does not even know _how to search_ should be
primarily provided for." Therefore this idea of suiting the needs of
the particular public using the library must never be overlooked by the
cataloguer.

Besides considering what are likely to be the needs of the majority of
the readers who will use the library to be catalogued, we must decide
what is the maximum amount of information that the catalogue should
afford them, also which form will give the most of this information
with the least trouble and delay to the inquirer.

What are the questions likely to be asked that a catalogue can be
reasonably expected to answer? These do not exceed a dozen, and are as
follows:--

    1.--Have you a particular book by a given author?

    2.--What books have you by a given author?

    3.--What books in the library has a particular person edited,
          translated, or illustrated?

    4.--What books have you upon a specific subject? say roses.

    5.--What books are there relating to a general subject? say all
          kinds of flowers.

    6.--What books have you in a particular class of literature?
          say biography or theology.

    7.--What books have you in a particular language?

    8.--What books have you in a particular literature? say French.
          (This is a somewhat remote but not unreasonable question.)

    9.--Have you a book (author unnamed) bearing a particular
          title? and, on the same footing with this inquiry, Have
          you any of the series called so and so?

    10.--What books have you in a particular form of literature? as
          poetry.

    11.--Have you a novel or other work by a particular author
          dealing with a particular period? or any similar question
          relating to the inner nature of a book.

    12.--In what volume of an author's works is a particular essay
          contained? (This last question is really the same as the
          first in another form.)

The first and second questions will be answered by a catalogue
consisting of author-entries, that is a dictionary of authors, or
if compiled under the British Museum rules it will answer these
and the third also to a large extent. In addition it should answer
No. 12. Questions 4, 5, 6, and 10 can be answered by means of the
catalogue known as classified--the entries being arranged in general
classes and sub-divided as necessary, but logically, according to the
scientific relations of the subjects of the books. If an author-index
is added other questions also would be answered with a little
trouble. The same questions will be answered by the form known as
alphabetico-classed--that is a catalogue of subject, class, and form
entries arranged alphabetically.

No one style of catalogue, however, will answer all of these questions,
but the one that will answer most of them with the least trouble and
loss of time to the user is that known as the dictionary catalogue.
It consists of an arrangement of author, subject, and (to a limited
extent) title entries in a single alphabetical sequence, and is by far
the most popular form. It is neither economical nor the most logical,
but its convenience for ready reference compensates for these defects.
It ordinarily answers questions 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, and can be made to
answer questions 3, 7, 11, and 12--that is nine questions out of the
twelve.

The two most common forms of catalogues are the dictionary and the
classified. For many years much controversy has arisen respecting
their comparative usefulness, and there is much to be said in favour
of both, each having merits, as already shown, not possessed by
the other. The late C. A. Cutter points out the advantages of the
classified catalogue, thus: "One who is pursuing any general course
of study finds brought together in one part of the catalogue most of
the books he needs. He sees not merely books on the particular topic
in which he is interested, but in immediate neighbourhood works on
related topics, suggesting to him courses of investigation which he
might otherwise overlook. He finds it an assistance to have all these
works spread out before him, so that he can take a general survey of
the ground before he chooses his route; and as he goes back, day after
day, to his particular part of the catalogue he becomes familiar with
it, turns to it at once, and uses it with ease. The same is true of
the numerous class who are not making any investigation or pursuing
any definite course of study, but are merely desultory readers. Their
choice of books is usually made from certain kinds of literature or
classes of subjects. Some like poetry or essays or plays [curiously he
omits novels]; others like religious works, or philosophical works,
or scientific works, not caring about the particular subject of the
book so much as whether it be well-written or interesting. To these
persons it is a convenience that their favourite kind of reading should
all be contained in one or two parts of the catalogue, and freed from
the confusing admixture of titles of a different sort. An alphabetical
list of specific subjects is to them little more suggestive than an
alphabetical list of authors. It is true that by following up all the
references of a dictionary catalogue under Theology, for example, a man
may construct for himself a list of the theological literature in the
library; but to do this requires time and a mental effort, and it is
the characteristic of the desultory reader that he is averse to mental
effort. What is wanted by him and by the busy man when now and then he
has the same object, is to find the titles from which he would select
brought together within the compass of a few pages; few, that is, in
comparison with the whole catalogue. It may be 500 pages, but 500 pages
are better than 10,000. The classed catalogue is better suited also
than any other to exhibit the richness of the library in particular
departments."

Cutter, at the same time, proceeds to name some of the disadvantages
of this style of catalogue. "A large part of the public are not
pursuing general investigations. They want to find a particular book
or a particular subject quickly; and the necessity of mastering a
complex system before using the catalogue is an unwelcome delay or
an absolute bar to its use." Then, again, there is the difficulty of
want of agreement as to classifications. The simple remedy for such
difficulty is an alphabetical index of all the subjects appearing in
the catalogue, whereby an inquirer is directed to the particular part
of the catalogue in which he will find books upon the subject or topic
he wants. There are very few, if any, catalogues of the kind without
indexes now, though in the early days they were seldom provided.

As said already, early catalogues of libraries were mostly either
classified or simply author catalogues. The classification was, often
enough, very poor, the sub-division not being carried very far, and
this led to the invention or evolution of the dictionary catalogue and
brought the classified, such as it was, into disrepute.

The cataloguing of a library is one of the most troublesome and
expensive departments of its administration. The cost of printing is
greater than ordinary printing, and the expense to a library with
its limited income is always serious, because people will not buy a
catalogue even at half the cost price of printing but prefer to make
use of the copies provided at the desks. Moreover, at the end of six or
even fewer months after publication the public usually regard it as out
of date and decides to wait for the _next_ edition. In this respect the
classified catalogue has the advantage, as it costs less to print, and
for this reason, as well as owing to the custom of admitting readers
to the shelves of public libraries, there has been a revival of this
style of catalogue in late years, especially as it serves as a key or
guide to the arrangement of the books upon the shelves of "open access"
libraries. It can moreover be printed and issued in sections without
affecting its completeness in the end.

The dictionary form, as distinguished from a mere alphabetical list of
authors, consists of entries of books under their specific subjects,
instead of their classes. To quote Cutter again: "Thus if a book
treats of Natural History it is put under that heading; if it treats
of Zoology alone that word is the rubric; if it is on Mammals it will
be found under mammals; and, finally, if one is looking for a treatise
on the elephant, he need not know if that animal is a mammal; he need
not even be sure that it is an animal; he has merely to be sufficiently
acquainted with his alphabet to find the word Elephant, under which
will appear all the separate works that the library contains on that
subject. Nothing, one would think, can be more simple, easy to explain,
easy and expeditious to use than this. No matter what he wants he will
find it at once provided that the library has a book on just that
subject and that it has been entered under the very word which he is
thinking of. If these conditions are not fulfilled, however, there
is more trouble. If the library has no book or article sufficiently
important to be catalogued on that topic he must look in some more
comprehensive work in which he will find it treated (as the history
of Assyrian art is related in the histories of Art), in which case he
will get no help whatever from any dictionary catalogue yet made, in
finding the general work, he must trust to his own knowledge of the
subject and of ordinary classification to guide him to the including
class, or there may be something to his purpose in less general works
(as books on Iron bridges or Suspension bridges might be better than
nothing to a man who was studying the larger subject Bridges), but in
this case also he will very seldom get any assistance from dictionary
catalogues, and must rely entirely upon his previous knowledge of
the possible branches of his subject. Even in those catalogues which
relieve him of this trouble by giving cross-references, he must look
twice, first for his own word and then for the word to which he is
referred from that."

A judicial statement of the merits of both these styles of catalogue is
contained in a paper by Mr. F. T. Barrett, of Glasgow, entitled "The
Alphabetical and Classified Forms of Catalogues compared," printed in
the _Transactions of the Second International Library Conference_,
1897. In the _Library Association Record_, 1901 (pt. 1), pp. 514-531,
there is a verbal and friendly duel between Mr. W. E. Doubleday and the
author upon the matter, mainly from the practical point of view.

The Alphabetico-Classed catalogue, as its name denotes, is an attempt
at a classified catalogue in alphabetical order of subjects or
classes, and is a mixture of the two systems already spoken of, and
about as satisfactory as hybrids usually are. The late Prof. Justin
Winsor characterised it as "the mongrel alphabetico-classed system, a
primarily classed system with an alphabetical graft upon it is a case
of confusion worse confounded." The great difficulty both to compiler
and user is to know where the subjects leave off and the classes
begin--in other words, whether a subject or a class entry is likely to
be the one wanted. One of the best examples of this kind of catalogue
is the late Mr. Fortescue's "Subject Index to the British Museum
Catalogue," and he apparently experienced the difficulty of deciding,
as for instance a book on the elephant appears under Elephant, but a
work upon the Elk must be looked for under "Deer." The usefulness of
this particular catalogue cannot be gainsaid as its value is too well
known, mainly because there is no other form of subject-catalogue for
the library of the British Museum. Besides it has such a comprehensive
series of cross-references that difficulty is largely obviated, and
then again it is only meant as a subject supplement to the principal
catalogue. Admirable as it is, we may see how it works out in practice.
Suppose we are interested in Law. Under the heading "Law" we find
a large number of entries divided into particular kinds of law as
"Commercial," "Criminal," "Ecclesiastical," &c., and these are further
sub-divided under the names of countries. One would suppose that the
subject would be here treated in a most exhaustive manner. But that is
not so, as if we require books on the Laws of England we must turn to
the word "England." Thus we have books on English criminal law under
"Law"; a book upon English general law under "England"; and a book say
upon English election law under "Elections, Law of." If it is right to
put books on the law of elections under Elections it might be assumed
that books on criminal law would go under "Criminal law," but there
is not even a reference to say where they are to be found. Admittedly
"Law" is a large and complex subject, and would fill many pages if the
books upon it were brought together. As it is the searcher must take
a long time to ascertain in any exhaustive manner what books upon the
subject are contained in Mr. Fortescue's Indexes. Even if the inquiry
is narrowed down to say Italian law, searches must be made in many
places without touching special Italian law at all. However there is no
system but has its drawbacks, though probably the alphabetico-classed
has the most.

There is such a thing as a dictionary system that combines an unseen
but systematically classified system. Its root method would be to
adopt some thorough scheme of classification permitting of the
finest possible detail in topic and adjust thereto any necessary
cross-references to cover synonymous names and double subjects. The
cataloguer would keep the complete scheme in all its details before him
and, by means of an alphabetical index to every adopted name, he would
have a list of the subject-headings in dictionary order and to these he
would adhere. There would still be specific entry. This is the method
that should be pursued in the compilation of dictionary catalogues.
The classification may exist only in the mind of the cataloguer and
be formulated in no other way unless he relies upon headings already
fixed in his catalogue. By trying to adjust headings in such catalogues
to any logical classification one can soon ascertain whether they are
systematic or haphazard.

The following definitions should be noted before proceeding to the next
chapter:--

_Author-Catalogue_ is one in which the entries are arranged
alphabetically according to the names of the authors (a dictionary of
authors).

_Title-Catalogue_ is one in which the entries are arranged
alphabetically according to some word of the title, especially the
first (a dictionary of titles).

_Subject-Catalogue_ is one in which the entries are arranged according
to the subjects of the books, alphabetically by the words selected
to denote those subjects (dictionary arrangement). If these subject
entries are not arranged alphabetically, but are formed into classes
philosophically according to the scientific relations of the subjects,
then it is a classed or classified catalogue.

_Form-Catalogue_ is one in which the entries are arranged according
to the forms of literature and the languages in which the books are
written, either alphabetically or according to the relations of the
forms to one another.

Apart from these there is a style of catalogue in which the entries are
selected to suit the kind of person for whom the books are designed. A
catalogue of books for children would be of this order. While it would
include books in all classes of literature written to suit juvenile
capacity, yet it may reasonably be regarded as a class in itself, and a
place is usually assigned to it in a classified catalogue.

When a catalogue of a particular class of literature is separately
published it is called a _Class-List_. A catalogue of novels, or of
poetry, or of music would be so termed.

By the term _Dictionary Catalogue_ we understand a combination of the
first three, viz., Author, Title, and Subject catalogues in a single
alphabet.

The last two forms when thrown together, not in alphabetical but in
logical arrangement, make the _Classified Catalogue_.

The same two if arranged alphabetically and not logically form
the _Alphabetico-Classed Catalogue_. With this last form the
author-catalogue could be combined without any disturbance of its
arrangement. It can only be added to the classified as an index or
appendix.



CHAPTER IV.

Single Author Principal-Entry.

    Stationery. The Author-Entry. Full Names. Imprint and
        Collation. Order of Information Tabulated. Subject-Entry.
        Headings. Class-Entry.


To study systematically the various codes of cataloguing rules is of
great value to the beginner in the work of cataloguing a library,
though the apparent variations and contradictions in the codes are
at first somewhat confusing. Their practical application to work in
hand serves better to prove the usefulness and necessity of adopting
some code or a modification of it before much progress is made. Once a
choice is made, it is better to adhere to it uniformly throughout.

The purpose of the catalogue has a bearing upon the nature of the
stationery required. A catalogue cannot be written into a book like
an inventory; each item--even books by the same author or upon the
same subject--must be upon a separate paper slip or card cut uniformly
to any size fixed upon. Paper slips serve quite well for manuscript,
or "copy" as it is termed, for the printer, but tough cards of good
quality are needed for a catalogue on cards to be handled by many
persons. It is a good plan in any case first to prepare the catalogue
upon slips or cards for office use; then, when checked and revised, to
copy from these for public use, either upon the good quality cards as
suggested, or into the book-form of catalogues with separate leaves,
known as "sheaf-catalogues." This last-named form is preferable for
public use, and takes up less room. Any size of slips or cards may
be adopted provided they are exactly cut to a fixed size, 5 inches
by 3 inches being convenient; or the size usually provided with the
index filing outfits, now so generally in commercial use, which were
first used in the cataloguing of libraries, and then applied to other
purposes. If the slips or cards are for handwriting, they should be
ruled "feint" across, and whether so written or typed, are better
with red lines marking margins of about half an inch at each side. If
written by hand, the writing should be round, clear, of fair size, and
above all, free from flourishes, whether written for public use or for
the printer.

Two of the first questions a catalogue will be expected to answer are

  Have you a particular book by a given author?
  What books have you by a named author?

These two questions are not precisely identical, though they are both
answered by the same form of catalogue entry, namely, that under the
surname of the writer of the book, known as the "author-entry." This,
or some substitute therefor, is invariably regarded as the main, or
principal, entry. Though the placing or position of such an entry is
not the same in both the dictionary and classified forms of catalogue,
one falling under the author's name according to its place in the
alphabet, and the other into its position in a class, the form of the
entry itself is the same in both. The particulars for this entry must
always be taken from the full title-page of the book, never from the
binding or from the preliminary or half-title, though at times this
half or "bastard-title" will furnish the name of the series or some
other detail not given elsewhere but wanted for full-entry.

The title-page of the first book we deal with reads:--

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                    |
  |                            IN PORTUGAL                             |
  |                                                                    |
  |                        BY AUBREY F. G. BELL                        |
  |                                                                    |
  |                      Oh quem fôra a Portugal                       |
  |                      Terra que Deus bemdizia!                      |
  |                                          _Romance._                |
  |              (O to go to Portugal, land heaven-blest)              |
  |                                                                    |
  |                LONDON: John Lane, The Bodley Head.                 |
  |                                                                    |
  |                NEW YORK: John Lane Company. MCMXII.                |
  |                                                                    |
  |                                                                    |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  X/

  The surname of the author then is Bell, and we
  either enclose his further names in parentheses, as

  Bell (Aubrey F. G.)

or with a comma and full stop, as

  Bell, Aubrey F. G.

There is no reason for advocating the adoption of one of these
styles more than the other, especially in these days of type-setting
machines. Where hand composition is still in use, and particularly in
small printing offices, the use of a large number of parentheses ()
causes "a run on sorts," that is, the supply wanted is greater than
is ordinarily found with a fount of jobbing type. Nowadays, it being
merely a question of taste, and not one of expediency, it matters
less, and as my personal preference is for the use of the comma and
point, that style is used in the examples given throughout this book.
The form decided upon must be adhered to if only to ensure uniform
appearance--certainly both forms should not be found in one catalogue.
Attention to details of this kind is the essence of good work, and
after a time cataloguers, becoming accustomed to a particular style,
fall, as a matter of course, into its use quite readily.

The surname is followed, as shown, by the Christian or forenames, but
we are often confronted with the necessity for deciding how much of
these forenames shall go in--shall they be given as on the title-page,
or shall we find out the full names covered by the initials, or will
initials alone suffice? In some catalogues the full names are given, in
others only the initials, and in a few rare instances of "index-entry"
catalogues the surname alone. For an average catalogue to give the name
in its fullest possible form is more than is required, and is wasteful
of space, while the bare initials do not enable us to discern whether
the author is a man or a woman. It is more helpful to give the first or
other important forename, and to do so does not lengthen the catalogue
to any appreciable extent. The danger of this omission is exemplified
at the end of this chapter.

In the catalogues of large libraries it is often necessary to take the
trouble to get all names as fully and correctly as possible, otherwise,
owing to the likelihood of numerous entries under persons with the
same surnames, errors may result if the authors are not distinguished
from one another in this way. This does not imply that the cataloguer
of a collection of books up to 100,000 volumes need go to the trouble
of giving every name in full as if he were compiling a biographical
dictionary; nor need he add the dates of the author's birth and
death to the name, as is sometimes done, because the labour will be
unappreciated, and be wasted. Such dates, however, have at times to be
given to distinguish between authors whose names are alike.

It is a wise plan, in any case, to limit the forenames or initials to
those _used_ by an author on his books at any time during his career.
For all reasonable purposes, or any purpose, Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
for example, is sufficient, though his name was properly Gabriel
Charles Dante Rossetti, Charles Dickens, instead of Charles John Huffam
Dickens, will not be mistaken for any other of the name, and Joaquin
Miller will serve better than Cincinnatus Heine Miller.

A few instances taken from recent books by well-known authors will show
how difficulties may arise in this connection. George Bernard Shaw's
"Man and Superman" according to the title-page is "by Bernard Shaw,"
whereas his "The quintessence of Ibsenism" is "by G. Bernard Shaw."
Martin Hume's work on "The love affairs of Mary, Queen of Scots" is
given as "by Martin Hume," but his "Spain: its greatness and decay" is
"by Martin A. S. Hume." There is the "Life of Gladstone" "by Herbert
Woodfield Paul," a book "Men and letters" "by Herbert Paul," and
"Matthew Arnold" (in the "English Men of Letters" series), "by Herbert
W. Paul." Then we have the case of the well-known writer on animal life
who changed his name recently on his books from Ernest Seton Thompson
to Ernest Thompson Seton. This leads the unwary cataloguer into the
mistake of getting books by the same author under different names. It
must be confessed that the risk is not great where such well-known
writers are concerned, but if they should be unknown authors of a
past age or another country, the cataloguer would probably not be so
well-informed, and fall into error. To cite an instance of this, the
French author, Louis Jacques Napoleon Bertrand, we are told, took the
name of Ludovic Bertrand, and later substituted Aloysius for Ludovic,
the wonder being that he did not change the Bertrand also. There is
need to be constantly on the alert for those who have no fixity of
name. The only little satisfaction the cataloguer has if he finds he
has tripped is that few will have sufficient knowledge to discover his
fault.

Besides the catalogues of important libraries, the following may be
named as among the more useful works of reference for working out the
names of authors and other personages:--

  PHILLIPS, Lawrence B. The dictionary of biographical
      reference. 1871 and later reprints.
  STEPHEN, Sir Leslie, and Sir Sidney LEE (_Eds._)
      The dictionary of national biography; with
      the supplements. 1885-1912.
  ALLIBONE, S. A. Critical dictionary of English
      literature and British and American authors;
      with supplement of J. F. Kirk. 1885-91.
  SMITH, B. E. (_Ed._) The Century cyclopedia of
      names. 1894.
  AUGE, Claude (_Ed._) Nouveau Larousse illustré;
      avec supplement.
  Biographie universelle, ancienne et moderne. 1811-28.
  Nouvelle biographie générale. 1852-66.
  Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. 1875-1908.
  Appleton's Cyclopædia of American biography.
      1888-89.

The _New York State University Library Bulletin, Bibliography_, No.
5, issued in 1898 at the price of 3d., consists of "A selection of
Reference Books for the use of Cataloguers in finding Full Names."

To revert to the book we are dealing with. As the author gives his
first Christian name in full and two initials for the others we may
regard it as quite full enough for any style of catalogue, and adding
the title of the book, the entry becomes

  BELL, Aubrey F. G.
      In Portugal.

The quotation on the title-page, with its translation, is ignored
altogether, as would be anything of a similar nature, such as a motto;
these are merely adornments of the title-page, and have no bearing
whatever upon the book from the cataloguer's standpoint. If it were
intended to be very exact the omission could be indicated by three dots
(...) but the need for doing this only applies in the case of rare or
special editions.

We have now got the first two parts of our catalogue entry, and in the
order from which there can be no deviation. Our next step is to decide
how much further information is to be given. A catalogue of a library
has been defined as a list of the titles of books which it contains,
and that it (the catalogue) must not be expected to give any further
description of a book than the author gives, or ought to give, on the
title-page, and the publisher in the imprint, or colophon.

The catalogue can be made to give, besides the titles of books, such
descriptions, more or less extended, drawn from all available sources
of information, as may be necessary to furnish means of identifying
each work, of distinguishing its different editions, of ascertaining
the requisites of a perfect copy, of learning all facts of interest
respecting its authorship, publication, typography, subsequent
causalities, alterations, etc., its market value, and the estimation in
which it is held.

For our entry we shall adopt the happy mean between these two and
add to this entry, because it is the principal one, the information
contained in the "imprint" at the foot of the title-page, giving the
place of publication, the publisher's (or printer's) name, and the
date of publication. In the early days of printing this information
was given at the end of a book, and termed the "colophon." We shall
also give the information spoken of as "the collation," consisting
of a statement of the number of pages in the book, whether it is
illustrated, and how, by maps, portraits, or otherwise, and even if the
illustrations are in colour.

The first-named place of publication on the title-page of the book
is London. In the catalogues of British libraries it is a recognised
custom to omit naming the place of publication when a book is
unmistakably published in London, this being taken as understood, all
other places being given. Except in booksellers' lists and similar
catalogues, the name of the publisher may also be left out, though
it is often given in the full form of library catalogues. In the
case of this book, the name of the second place, New York, is merely
supplemental, the book being printed as well as published in this
country. The date of publication must always be given, and in every
entry (with the single exception of works of fiction, referred to
later), not in Roman numerals, however, but in Arabic.

When books are in a number of volumes, the earliest and latest dates
are given. These dates are not necessarily those of the first and last
volumes, as the volumes may not have appeared in regular sequence, or a
set may be made up from editions of varying dates.

For "the collation" we carefully examine the book and find that
it has eight pages of prefatory matter marked with Roman numerals
(i.--viii.), and the body of the work contains 227, paged in Arabic.
This is shown as pp. viii. + 227, or as pp. viii., 227. The book has
no map or illustrations. The enumeration of the pages in this way, it
may be said, conveys no very exact idea of the extent of the work, as,
of course, large type requires many more pages than small. Even the
thickness of the book is not indicated by stating the number of pages,
as an India-paper edition will contain just the same number of pages as
one on thick paper. For these and other reasons, such information can
be omitted if economy of space is of any consequence. If a book is in
more than one volume it is unusual to give the number of pages, though
it is sometimes done in publishers' lists. A "book" is invariably
understood to mean a complete work, whether in one or many volumes.

The size of the book may also be given, and will occasionally prove
useful, while completing the entry. The book we are dealing with is
octavo in size, coming between the sizes known as "crown" and "demy,"
but as these terms convey no special idea to the uninformed in book
sizes, and, indeed, no very definite idea to those who are, it will
suffice for most purposes to call the book 8º (octavo) unless the
height is given instead in inches or in centimetres, as 8¼in. or 21cm.
For most catalogues it will be found sufficient to give the sizes when
they exceed octavo, it being understood that all books are of that
size, or less, unless the contrary is indicated by the signs 4º(quarto)
or fº (folio).

The entry completed upon these lines becomes

  BELL, Aubrey F. G.
      In Portugal. _London and New York_, John
      Lane, 1912. pp. viii., 227. 8º

The information to be given, when tabulated, falls into this order

  1.--Author's surname.
  2.--The author's forenames.
  3.--The title of the book.
  4.--The name of editor or translator.
  5.--The edition if stated.
  6.--The name of series or publication society (if any).
  7.--Place of publication.
  8.--Publisher's (or printer's) name.
  9.--The date of publication.
  10.--The collation (or the number of volumes if more than one).
  11.--The size.
  12.--The shelf, press, or other finding mark.
  13.--Any descriptive note or contents.

Numbers 4, 5, 6, 12, and 13 are not required or given in the above
entry, but are here inserted to make the table complete. With the
exception of numbers 1 to 4, this order may be varied at will, but only
at the outset, as whatever order is decided upon must afterwards be
adhered to. The following statement of the order given in some of the
rules is of interest in this connection, and will be helpful:--

_British Museum order under its Rules_ (3, 16-22):

    1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Number of parts or volumes
    or numbered pages if a single volume. 5, Place of printing or
    publication and printer's name (if necessary). 6, Date. 7,
    Size. 8, Press mark. 9, Note, if required.

_Cutter's Rules_:

    1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Place of publication. 5,
    Publisher's name. 6, Date. 7, Number of volumes or number of
    pages, illustrations, etc. 8, Size. 9, Notes of contents.

_Library Association and American Library Association Rules_:

    1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Additions to title, if any. 4,
    Edition. 5, Place of publication. 6, Publisher's name. 7,
    Place of printing, if given. 8, Date. 9, Volumes or pages,
    illustrations, etc. 10, Size. 11, Series. 12, Contents and
    notes.

For most libraries the information can be satisfactorily curtailed and
limited to the following:--

    1, Author. 2, Title. 3, Edition. 4, Date. 5, Press mark. 6,
    Contents or annotations. To these may be added, between 3 and
    4, an abbreviation telling if the book is illustrated, as
    "illus.", instead of giving the collation in full.

The reduced entry for our book accordingly becomes

  BELL, Aubrey F. G.
      In Portugal. 1912

Having the author or principal entry complete, we now proceed to
examine the book for subject-entry, and find that it consists of
descriptions of journeys to places off the beaten track in Portugal.
Even with the title of the book so obvious and the subject so clearly
named in it, it is wise not to take it for granted, and examine
the book as it may contain something of value belonging to another
subject--for example, there is a book of travel in the Near East
bearing the title "Pen and pencil in Asia Minor" which contains no less
than thirteen chapters upon silkworms and the silk industry, not only
in the Levant, but in France and elsewhere--quite a respectable book
within a book, but this the title-page fails to reveal. The subject
of our book, however, is open to no doubt, and for the dictionary
catalogue the subject-entry is

  =Portugal=:
      Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 1912

No further entries are called for than these two (author and subject).

In all entries subordinate to the main entry, where the fullest
particulars concerning the book are given, the information is condensed
sufficiently to identify the book upon the supposition that those
who require more details will turn to the main entry for them. The
omissions from the subordinate entries are the full Christian names
of authors (initials alone being given), the names of editors,
translators, or illustrators, the names of series, the collations,
sizes, and places of publication. The entries used throughout this work
demonstrate this. The dates of publications are invariably given in all
entries except where shown.

It has been contended that all details are as much wanted under the
subject as under the author. There is much to be said in favour of
this, but it is impossible to make every entry a main-entry when
expense and the size of the catalogue have to be considered.

When the time comes for preparing the manuscript of the catalogue for
the press, should it happen that there was no other book upon the
subject, then the form of entry can be changed to what may be called a
subject-title-entry, thus

  Portugal, In. Bell, A. F. G. 1912

upon the principle that a "heading" is not required unless there are
two or more books to go under it. By the reverse process, if there
should be two or more title-entries of books unquestionably upon the
same subject then these are converted into entries under a single
subject-heading. If the two entries were

  Portugal, In. Bell, A. F. G. 1912
  Portugal, Sunshine and storm in. Watson, G. 1904

they are changed to

  =Portugal=:
      Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 1912
      Watson, G. Sunshine and storm in Portugal. 1904

It is possible further to economise these entries:

  =Portugal=:
      Bell, A. F. G. In P. 1912
      Watson, G. Sunshine, etc. in P. 1904

This style was adopted in quite good catalogues, and there is no
particular loss of information through it, though the gain of space
hardly compensates for the want of clearness, to say nothing of the
somewhat bald appearance of the entries.

In all the subject-entries above it will be observed that the author's
surname leads, the reason for this being that it serves to guide
to the name under which the main-entry is to be found. The books
are also arranged in alphabetical order by these surnames under the
subject-heading.

If the catalogue we are compiling is not dictionary but classified in
its arrangement, then, as already stated, there is but one entry (other
than the brief index entries), and that the main-entry. Upon this is
marked the numerical symbols of the classification adopted, which we
shall presume throughout is the best-known and most used, Dewey's
_Decimal Classification_. For convenience in sorting, the numbers are
better written on the top right-hand of the slip or card. Our entry is
marked accordingly

                                                            =914.69=
  BELL, Aubrey F. G. In Portugal. _London and
      New York_, John Lane, 1912. pp. viii., 227. 8º

This entry can be curtailed if considered desirable, as shown above for
the dictionary catalogue.

As some persons may not have used the Dewey Classification, it may be
explained that these numerical symbols signify

  900     History (the General Class).
  910     Geography and Travels.
  914     Europe.
  914.6   Spain (the Iberian Peninsula).
  914.69  Portugal.
  X/

  Brief entries are needed for the author and subject-index
  or indexes, which appear at either the end
  or beginning of the catalogue when printed, thus

  Bell, A. F. G. In Portugal. 914.69
  Portugal (Travels). 914.69

In the following pages all the examples given to illustrate the various
points which arise in the cataloguing of books are worked out in full
for both the dictionary and classified catalogues, in order to show the
whole method of treatment, as well as to prevent the misunderstanding
which arose upon explanations given only by way of suggestion, and not
as completed examples, in my former book upon this subject.

To show how difficult it is for experienced cataloguers to avoid
error and the pitfalls in their way, it may be mentioned that several
otherwise good catalogues have these two books

  Here and there in Italy and over the border, by
      Linda Villari. 1893
  Italian life in town and country, by L. Villari. 1902

entered as

  VILLARI, Linda. Here and there in Italy. 1893
  -- Italian life in town and country. 1902

though the latter book is by Luigi Villari. With nothing in either
book to show this, the presumption that both books are by the same
author is excusable, the initials of the authors' names and the subject
being alike, yet it proves that it does not do to jump to conclusions.
Correctly catalogued, the entries are

  VILLARI, Linda. Here and there in Italy and over
      the border. pp. viii., 269. 1893
  VILLARI, Luigi. Italian life in town and country.
      (_Our neighbours._) pp. xii., 261, illus. 1902

and the subject-entries are

  =Italy.=
      Villari, L. Here and there in Italy. 1893
      Villari, L. Italian life in town and country. 1902

Both entries will be marked 914.5 for the classified catalogue
(History--Geography and Travels--Europe--Italy), and the index entries
will be

  Villari, Linda. Here and there in Italy. 914.5
  Villari, Luigi. Italian life. 914.5
  Italy (Travel). 914.5



CHAPTER V.

Joint-Authors.

    Joint-Authors. Collations. Synonymous Subject-Headings.
        Participants in a Correspondence. References. Man and Wife
        as Joint-Authors.


When a book is written by two authors, the entry is given under the
first-named on the title-page. The following is an illustration of the
method of treatment in such a case, and in order to make the matter
clear, the title-page is set out in full as before. The whole title
is printed in capital letters, and has no other punctuation than that
shown.

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                       ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES                        |
  |                            OF ECONOMICS                            |
  |                                                                    |
  |                    TOGETHER WITH A SHORT SKETCH                    |
  |                        OF ECONOMIC HISTORY                         |
  |                                                                    |
  |                                 BY                                 |
  |                   RICHARD T. ELY, Ph. D., LL. D.                   |
  |          PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY          |
  |                            OF WISCONSIN                            |
  |                                AND                                 |
  |                     GEORGE RAY WICKER, Ph. D.                      |
  |       ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS IN DARTMOUTH COLLEGE        |
  |                                                                    |
  |                              NEW YORK                              |
  |                       THE MACMILLAN COMPANY                        |
  |                   LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.                    |
  |                                1910                                |
  |                        ALL RIGHTS RESERVED                         |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  X/

  Upon the lines already laid down, the main-entry
  becomes

  ELY, Richard T., and George Ray WICKER.
      Elementary principles of economics; together
      with a short sketch of economic history. _New
      York_, Macmillan Co., 1910. pp. xii., 388

Frequently the names of the authors are seen rendered in this fashion

  ELY, Richard T., and WICKER, George Ray

While it is essential and unavoidable that the name of the first author
should be turned about to get his surname as the leading word, yet
there is no object in twisting about the second author's name in like
manner, as it is not so required, therefore the ordinary reading of the
name is better and simpler, as given in the first entry.

Unless needed to distinguish between different authors of the same
name, the academical degrees are omitted, as well as any statement
concerning the professorships held by these authors, although the fact
that they hold such offices goes to prove their qualifications for
dealing with this subject. If it were desired to direct attention to
this, it could be done by means of a note or annotation to the entry,
after this manner

    The first author is Prof. of Pol. Econ., Wisconsin Univ., and
    the second Asst. Prof. of Economics, Dartmouth Coll.

The share of the second author in the book needs to be recognised, and
this is accomplished by means of a reference, as

  WICKER, George Ray (_Joint-Author._) _See_ Ely,
      Richard T.

If this writer happens to be the sole author of another work, then the
form of reference is made to read

  WICKER, George Ray.
  -- (_Joint-Author_). _See also_ Ely, Richard T.

To give the reference in this form may seem to be a contradiction of
the previous statement that the second author's name need not be turned
about, but in this case it is necessary to point directly to the name
Ely under which the entry is found.

An alternative style for both the above references so far as the use of
capitals and punctuation is concerned is

  WICKER, Geo. Ray (_joint-author_) _see_ ELY,
      Richard T.

  WICKER, Geo. Ray.
  -- (_joint-author_) _see also_ Ely, Richard T.

It must be borne in mind that whatever style is adopted should be
strictly followed throughout.

An explanation concerning the collation (number of pages) is required.
The book has six prefatory leaves, paged in Roman numerals, i. to xi.,
made up of the half-title and the title (both unpaged), three pages
of preface (the second and third being marked vi., vii.), a blank
page, three pages with a list of contents (the second and third are
marked x., xi.), and a blank page, making twelve pages in all. Doubt
will arise in a case of this kind as to whether the title leaves and
the blank pages should be taken into account, but as the printer has
seen fit to include them all in his pagination, the statement of these
prefatory pages is better given as xii. The rest of the book is
straightforward, being paged from 1 to 388.

A briefer form of author-entry is

  ELY, R. T., and G. R. WICKER. Elementary
      principles of economics; with a short sketch
      of economic history. _N.Y._, 1910

The places of publication may be shortened in this way where the
abbreviation used can be readily recognised--N.Y. for New York.
Examples of other places will readily occur to the cataloguer,
especially if they are in common use, as _Edin._ for Edinburgh, _Dub._
for Dublin, _Oxf._ for Oxford, _Camb._ for Cambridge, _Manc._ for
Manchester, _L'pool_ for Liverpool, and so on. The London Library
Catalogue goes much further than this, and gives _A._ for Amsterdam,
_C._ for Cambridge, _D._ for Dublin, _L._ for Leipzig, and other bare
initials in the same way, though they are not consistently used.
It not only omits London as the place of publication from English
books, as already recommended herein, but carries out the idea to the
exclusion of all capital cities in the cases of native published books,
leaving Paris, Berlin, Madrid, to be taken as understood when these
cities are the places of publication of French, German, and Spanish
books respectively. In many ways the economies effected in the London
Library Catalogue are notable, though so numerous that a considerable
explanatory list has to be given in the preface. The book we are
dealing with would appear in this style in the Author Catalogue

  =Ely (Richard Theodore) & G. R. Wicker.=
      Elem. princ. of economics, w. a short sketch of econ.
          hist. s8º N.Y. 1910

and in the Subject Index would be further condensed. The shortest form
allowable in the catalogue of a popular library, without abbreviating
the words, is

  ELY, R. T., and G. R. WICKER.
      Elementary principles of economics. 1910

In considering the subject-heading for this book, we have the choice
of synonymous terms, viz., Economics and Political Economy. The first
is the more modern term which is gradually supplanting the other in
use, and for that reason it is the better to adopt. Having made the
choice definitely, we at once proceed to write a cross-reference, which
will prevent the placing of any other book upon the same subject under
the discarded heading whatever be the terms on the title-page. The
reader will be thus guided to the heading which has been chosen for the
subject. It is a fundamental principle of the dictionary catalogue,
which cannot be too often impressed upon the cataloguer, that a book is
entered under its specific subject quite irrespective of the terms used
upon the title-page, and that two books upon the same subject ought not
to be in two places. Accordingly the reference to this end will be

  Political Economy. _See_ Economics.

which prevents the placing of any book under Political Economy.

The subject-entry is

  =Economics=:
      Ely, R. T., &c. Elementary principles of
          economics. 1910

Besides the economies in _subordinate entries_ already referred to, it
will be seen that the second author's name has "etc." substituted for
it; as a well-recognised further economy that may be adopted without
hesitation.

No other entries of any kind are needed for the dictionary catalogue,
as the book is adequately catalogued as shown.

For the classified catalogue, the author-entry is marked 330.2 (300
Sociology, 330 Political Economy, 330.2 Compends), and the entries for
the indexes are

  Economics 330
  Political Economy 330
  Ely, R. T., &c. Elem. economics 330.2

The writers of a published correspondence are regarded as joint-authors
in the same way, except that a book like

  The correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph
      Waldo Emerson, 1834-1872. 2 v. ports. 1883

cannot be covered very satisfactorily by an entry under the first-named
and a reference under the second, as in the Ely-Wicker above, such a
book needing two entries. An examination of it shows that the letters
were edited by Charles Eliot Norton, and, though this is not stated
on the title-page, it goes into the principal entry, but between
brackets (not parentheses), which, as Cutter says in his Rules, are
important, "both as a check on indiscriminate addition and as an aid to
identification." The main-entry is

  CARLYLE, Thomas, and Ralph Waldo EMERSON.
      Correspondence, 1834-72; [ed. by Charles
      Eliot Norton.] 2 v. ports. 1883

and the second entry under

  EMERSON, Ralph Waldo, and Thomas CARLYLE.
      Correspondence, 1834-72. 2 v. 1883

A reference is required under the editor's name, thus

  NORTON, Charles E. (_Ed._) _See_ Carlyle, Thomas.

Most catalogues will have a goodly number of entries under Carlyle.
To enlarge the reference sufficiently to describe the particular book
involves a reference as long as an entry. In such case give the entry

  NORTON, Charles E. (_Ed._) Correspondence of
      Thomas Carlyle and Ralph W. Emerson. 2 v.
      1883

or, shorter still,

  NORTON, Chas. E. (_Ed._) Correspondence of Carlyle
      and Emerson. 2 v. 1883

This is better than a reference, as it takes up no more room and saves
the searcher the trouble of turning to another part of the catalogue. A
book of this kind, obviously, has no subject-entry.

In the classified catalogue a dual book like this needs two
entries--one in 816.3 (American Letters) for Emerson, and another in
826.8 (English Letters) for Carlyle, with the index entries

  Carlyle, Thos. Correspondence with Emerson, 826.8
  Emerson, R. W. Correspondence with Carlyle, 816.3

The book itself cannot go under both these numbers on the shelves;
choice of one must be made, preferably the Carlyle number, though this
does not affect the entries in the catalogue except so far as the
necessary clue to the position of the book for finding is concerned.

A somewhat exceptional example of joint-authors, fortunately for the
cataloguer, is that of a man and wife whose names appear on their
books sometimes with the one leading, sometimes the other. This is to
be found in the books by the mountaineers and explorers Mr. and Mrs.
Workman, two of whose books may be taken to illustrate the matter, and
catalogued as they would be under ordinary circumstances, viz.,

  WORKMAN, William Hunter and Fanny Bullock.
      Through town and jungle: fourteen thousand
      miles awheel among the temples and people
      of the Indian Plain. 1904. pp. xxiv., 380,
      map, illus.
  WORKMAN, Fanny Bullock and William Hunter.
      In the ice world of Himálaya: among the
      peaks and passes of Ladakh, Nubra, Suru,
      and Baltistan. 1900. pp. xvi., 204, maps,
      illus.

Owing to the names being reversed, these entries would not come
together in the catalogue, so the cataloguer is quite justified in
stretching the meaning of the rules in order to avoid their separation.
The name that appears first in the majority of the books by the two
authors is adopted for the entry, which in this case is the lady.
Accordingly the first book will be brought under the second form of
the names, and other books they have written conjointly will be so
entered, that all of them may come together. In order to prevent
misunderstanding, and lest the second name be read as Hunter, the names
can be shortened, as

  WORKMAN, Fanny B. and Wm. H. In the ice
      world of Himálaya: among the peaks and
      passes of Ladakh, Nubra, Suru, and Baltistan.
      1900. pp. xvi., 204, maps, illus.
  -- Through town and jungle: 14,000 miles awheel
      among the temples and people of the Indian
      Plain. 1904. pp. xxiv., 380, map, illus.

It is allowable to interpret "fourteen thousand" as 14,000, in the
middle of a title, as above; if the title commenced with it, the words
are better.

Although the separate names of these authors may come together in the
catalogue, it is better not to anticipate that they will, so it is
safer to give the necessary reference--

  WORKMAN, William H. (_joint-author_.) _See_ Workman,
      Fanny B.

At the time of printing this reference may be omitted if it is found
that no other name comes between, though the reference stands if the
rules are literally followed.

For the first of these two books the subject-entry is

  =Himalayas, The=:
      Workman, F. B., &c. In the ice world of
          Himálaya. 1900

and two references will be desirable and necessary,

  =India=:
      _See also_ Himalayas.

  =Mountaineering=:
      _See also_ Himalayas.

The first of these will insure that a person requiring books upon
India in all parts will not overlook those upon the Himalayas, and
the second will show that books upon mountain climbing in particular
regions are entered under the names of those regions.

As the journey chronicled in the second of these books covered the
length and breadth of India, it is entered under the name of the
country accordingly, and placed in that sub-division of the subject
allotted to books of travel.

  =India=:
            _Travels and Description._
      Workman, F. B., &c. Through town and
          jungle. 1904

Any subject-heading comprising a comparatively large number of books is
better sub-divided, as it not only facilitates reference, but in a way
indicates the character of the books.

Here again title-entries under "In" or "Through" would be useless and
wasteful.

For the classified catalogue the first of these books is marked 915.42
(History, Geography and Travels, Asia, India, North-west Provinces,
etc.), and the second 915.4 (Travels in India generally). The
index-entries are

  Workman, F. B., &c. Ice world of Himálaya. 915.42.
  -- Through town and jungle. 915.4
  Himalayas, The 915.42
  India (Travels), 915.4



CHAPTER VI.

Books by more than Two Authors. Composite Books.

    =Books by Three Authors. Choice of Subject-Headings.=
        =Cross-References. Books by a number of Authors.=
        =Ecclesiastical and other Titles of Honour. The use of=
        =Capitals. Editors. Dates of Publication. Title-Entries.=
        =Punctuation. "Indexing" Contents of Composite Books.=
        =Separate Works printed together. Volumes of Essays= =by
        Single Authors.=


A book written by more than two authors or of a composite character
needs careful consideration as to the best method of entry. If the
number of authors does not exceed three, the book can be dealt with on
the lines indicated in the preceding chapter. The principal entry of a
book of this nature is

  CADBURY, Edward, M. Cécile MATHESON, and
      George SHANN. Women's work and wages:
      a phase of life in an industrial city. 1906

The method of giving the imprint and collation having already been
shown, they are omitted as far as they can be from this and all
subsequent entries taken in illustration, upon the understanding
that those who desire to give them in full know how to do so, and
others--the majority--who look upon them as burdening the entry, can
see how far they may be judiciously left out.

The second and third authors of the above book require references from
their names

  MATHESON, M. Cécile (_joint-author_.) _See_ Cadbury,
      Edward.
  SHANN, George (_joint-author_.) _See_ Cadbury,
      Edward.

Where strict economy of entry is of importance, these two references
could be dispensed with, though it is undesirable to omit them if space
can be spared. The economy can, of course, be carried much further by
laying down a rule to the effect that, when a book has more than two
authors, only the first shall be taken into account, in this way

  CADBURY, Edward, and others. Women's work
      and wages. 1906

in which case the references cannot be given, as there is nothing to
refer to, the names of the other authors not appearing in the entry.
Some catalogues economise by leaving out all references from the names
of joint-authors without any serious difficulty arising, though it is
not in accordance with good cataloguing principles.

An alternative method of entry, and one recognised by the rules, though
it is cumbersome, is to take the name of the first-mentioned author as
the "heading," followed by "and others," and bring the names of all
into the entry, after this fashion

  CADBURY, Edward, and others. Women's work
      and wages: a phase of life in an industrial
      city, by Edward Cadbury, M. Cécile Matheson,
      and George Shann. 1906

the references ("added entries") from the two last-named authors being
given as recommended above.

This book requires two subject-entries and a reference, it being upon
women's work and the payment therefor among the poorer class of workers
in Birmingham, and is a contribution to the literature of the labour
question as regards women. Therefore it is entered under the heading
"Labour," with a sub-heading "Women's work."

  =Labour=:
                _Women's work._
      Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work and wages.
          1906

We have the choice of another heading, viz., "Women"; and as there will
certainly be other books in a reasonably sized library upon the labour
and wages aspects of the question, it would be a waste of space to give
double entries (under both headings), therefore we proceed to put the
matter right by a reference--

  =Women=:
      _See also_ Labour (Women's work).

If we consider that the book has some bearing, as this has, upon the
social question in general, sweating, and poverty, we add _See also_
references _under_ any headings adopted for these subjects.

  =Social Question, The=:
      _See also_ Labour.

  =Sweating=:
      _See also_ Labour.

  =Poor=:
      _See also_ Labour.

When the time for printing arrives, if the completed catalogue has no
books entered under any of these headings, the _See also_ reference
must either be withdrawn altogether or converted into a _See_
reference. For example, the reference from "Sweating" might be given as

  Sweating. _See_ Labour.

upon the supposition that books solely upon this aspect of the labour
question might be better placed under the more general heading, though
this is somewhat against the rule for specific entry. The difference
between these two forms of reference may again be emphasised. The
_See_ reference is intended to prevent books being entered under the
subject-heading referred _from_ in order that they be placed under the
heading referred _to_; the _See also_ reference is an appendix to a
subject-heading, under which books relating to the subject in general
are entered, and is meant to direct to lesser or related divisions of
the same subject.

The scope of the inquiry of the book is local and has an important
bearing upon social conditions in Birmingham, which must be taken into
account, therefore an entry is given

  =Birmingham=:
              _Social, &c. Conditions._
      Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work and wages.
          1906

The fact that the book is so entered signifies in itself that it
applies particularly to Birmingham, without any further necessity for
showing the connection.

In the classified catalogue the book is placed at 331.4 (Sociology.
Capital. Labour and Wages. Labour of Women), and the index entries are

  Cadbury, E., &c. Women's work. 331.4
  Labour, 331.4
  Women's work, 331.4
  Birmingham, Women's work, 331.4

The next book we take in hand has the names of no less than
twenty-three contributors on its title-page, and is entitled

  The Church and life of to-day, by the Bishop of
      Bristol, the Dean of Manchester, the Bishop
      of Durham [and twenty other names following.]
      1910

Clearly all the names cannot be reckoned with in this case, and so we
take the first, the Bishop of Bristol. Under no circumstances would
the book be entered by the name of the See or Deanery of any of the
writers, and, if not given in the book, the name of the Bishop or Dean
must be ascertained from a Clergy List or any other available source,
taking care that the name is that of the right person. Accordingly the
entry under the surname of the first-named author becomes

  BROWNE, G. F., _Bp. of Bristol_, and others. The
      Church and life of to-day. 1910

The _Bp. of Bristol_ may be curtailed to simple _Bp._, as bishops
change their sees at times, and it must be a rare occurrence to have
two bishops of the same surname at the same date. It is the rule
to give the highest position attained at the time the catalogue is
prepared, irrespective of the date of publication of the book, even
though it may appear to be an anachronism. This, by the way, applies
not only to ecclesiastical preferment, but to changes in the peerage
or any other accessions in rank. The second essay in this volume
illustrates this point, though not so far as this book is concerned. It
is by "the Rt. Rev. J. E. Welldon, Dean of Manchester, late Bishop of
Calcutta." The cataloguer does not trouble to notice both offices, but
takes the highest which has been held, and enters as

  WELLDON, J. E. C., _Bp._

While the rules recommend reference from the name of the See, it serves
no very useful purpose, and would multiply entries largely if always
given. The form when used would be

  Bristol, Bishop of. _See_ Browne, G. F.

It has already been shown that the offices held by a writer and his
academical or other honours are ignored by the cataloguer unless for
the special purpose of distinguishing between authors of the same name.
If the title is so used, it is given as

  SMITH, _Rev._ John.

if the degree, as

  SMITH, John, M.A.

and not in the form occasionally seen, of

  SMITH, M.A., John.

Anything required to distinguish between authors may be used, even the
name of the place with which a man is identified. A good example of
four authors, sometimes mixed for want of this, is

  TAYLOR, Isaac, _Baptist minister, Calne_.
  TAYLOR, Isaac, _Canon of York_.
  TAYLOR, Isaac, _Indep. minister, Ongar_.
  TAYLOR, Isaac, _of Stanford Stevens_.

As three of these are "Rev.," no purpose is served by affixing that
title to their names, and in cataloguing would generally be no more
useful than to attach "Mr." to others. It is considered to be quite in
order to ignore all ecclesiastical titles below that of a dean, and,
in the democracy of cataloguing, military and civil distinctions share
the same fate. It is a matter of no moment to the cataloguer that the
compiler say of a dictionary of quotations holds the rank of colonel.
Civil distinctions below that of a knight may safely be disregarded,
even "Hon." omitted from the names of younger sons and daughters of
the nobility, though it is customary and better to give the higher
_courtesy titles_ of Lord and Lady. The custom here outlined works
quite satisfactorily in practice, and is economical of space, but any
who wish to be particularly exact and deferential in this respect
cannot do better than follow the British Museum rule (No. 15) in its
entirety and after the manner of the examples attached thereto.

The honours lists of each New Year and King's Birthday must be closely
examined, and the changes in titles noted for alteration in the
catalogue.

Something must be said here as to the use of capital letters in
cataloguing. Until comparatively recent years it was the recognised
custom to give a capital initial to every word that would admit of it,
but this fashion is not now so generally observed. Perhaps our American
cousins are to be blamed (or praised) for this. As has been truly said

    "The reasons for writing and printing all catalogue titles in
    small letters and with only such capitals as cannot be avoided
    is two-fold. First, there can be no standard prescribing what
    words should or should not be capitalised [that is, a rule
    saying what words should have a capital letter under the older
    fashion], and so the cataloguer will be constantly at a loss,
    or will use capitals in the most unprincipled way. He will
    write one day, The Dangers of great Cities, and the next, The
    dangers of Great Cities; with no particular reason for either
    form. Secondly, the appearance--the symmetry--of a title or a
    sentence, whether written or printed, is best attained by the
    exclusion of capitals. Nothing can be more unsightly than the
    constant breaking up of the harmony of a line by the capricious
    use of capitals."

The use of capitals is now mostly limited to proper names and to
adjectives derived from them, besides those customary in ordinary
usage. In foreign names the custom of the language is followed, and,
therefore, speaking generally, there would be more capital letters in
the Teutonic languages, and fewer in the Romance languages. In the
entry of the book under notice it is seen that the word Church has
an initial capital because the Church of England is meant and not
the Christian church in general. There is a recommendation to the
effect that a capital initial should be used to the second word in
the title of a book if the first word is an article, and this, though
not commonly adopted in practice, has the advantage of emphasising
the word whereby the entry is usually alphabetised (as shown later),
as the articles "a," "an," and "the," are invariably ignored for this
purpose when beginning a title, though they are taken into account in
the middle of a title. The use made of capital letters throughout the
illustrative entries in this book is that becoming general, and can
be noted in passing. It is not intended to dogmatise on the use of
capitals, as it resolves itself into a question of taste rather than
one of utility--the rule is, however, "in all doubtful cases avoid the
use of capitals."

The twenty-three essays or articles in the book before us range over
as many topics, opening with one on novels and novelists, and closing
with one on training in patriotism. As there is a more or less single
purpose or idea running through them all, viz., the influence or
bearing of the Church of England on the ethical and social questions of
the day, the whole book is entered under the name of that Church for
subject.

  =Church of England=:
      Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of
          to-day. 1910

As already stated, when the number of entries under such a
subject-heading warrant it, they should be sub-divided to facilitate
reference and indicate as far as possible the nature of the books. As
a rule such divisions suggest themselves by the quantity and nature of
the material in hand when arranging it under the heading, the entries
falling into sections like History, Customs, Ritual, Polity, etc., this
being marked and placed with the sub-division most appropriate.

The book also has a large bearing upon the ethics of these days, and
seems to need an additional entry under "Morals" or "Ethics." If any
doubt exists as to the value of the book as a contribution to the
subject, let the mistake be made on the right side, and give the entry

  =Ethics=:
      Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of
          to-day. 1910

and the reference from the synonym

  Morals. _See_ Ethics.

For the classified catalogue the entry is marked 261.4 (Religion. The
Church. Church and Morals.), and the index entries

  Ethics, Church and, 261.4
  Church of England and Morals, 261.4
  Morals, Church and, 261.4
  Browne, G. F., &c. The Church and life of to-day. 261.4

A book somewhat similar to the last but varying in the method of
treatment is

  The citizen of to-morrow: a handbook on social
      questions edited by Samuel E. Keeble for the
      Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
      London, Charles H. Kelly

Examining the book we find that there are three series, each consisting
of five essays, classified as "Historical and General," "Labour and
Poverty," and "Citizenship and Service." The book, having a general
editor, the main-entry is given under his name, and because of this
is not entered under that of the writer of the first essay, as in the
previous example.

  KEEBLE, Samuel E. (_Ed._) The citizen of to-morrow:
      a handbook on social questions.
      (_Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service._)
      [1906]

The abbreviation _Ed._ may be used either for editor or edited, the
position marking the meaning. The year of publication is not on the
title-page, but is taken from the end of the preface, which is dated
"June 30, 1906"; being, therefore, an addition to the title-page it
is enclosed in brackets. The value of giving the year of publication
wherever possible is unquestionable. When there is no clue to it in the
book itself, all available sources of reference should be searched,
more particularly the _English Catalogue of Books_ and library
catalogues. In the event of the search proving fruitless, the letters
"n.d.", signifying no date, are put in place of the date.

As was the case with the previous book, each essay in the book deals
with a separate subject, yet the whole forms a single subject, and may
be fitly placed under a heading entitled, say,

  =Social Question, The=:
      Keeble, S. E. (_Ed._) The citizen of to-morrow.
          [1906]

Such a heading would be specially reserved for books dealing with the
whole social problem, and no book should find a place under it if upon
a particular phase, such as housing, the land, unemployment, etc.,
as the position for these is under the name of the special subject
they deal with. As recommended already, _See also_ references should
be given from it as books upon the separate subjects come up for
cataloguing.

The book is unlike that upon the Church of England, inasmuch as it
lays no particular stress upon the efforts of the Wesleyan Methodists
towards social reform. At the same time, the work has been prepared
under the auspices of the Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service,
and this must be recognised, in full catalogues at any rate, by the
entry

  Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
      The citizen of to-morrow; ed. by S. E. Keeble.
      [1906]

A book of this varied nature is a little puzzling in regard to its
right place in the classified catalogue, as some parts of it bear
on topics in the class Sociology, though in the aggregate it may be
regarded as belonging to Social Ethics, and so is marked 177.

In the books hitherto taken as examples, no entries have been given
under the first words of the titles, as it is not considered that
they are required. There is the remote possibility in this instance
of the book being remembered by its title, but that does not justify
the entry, as any person interested would remember one of the three
entries already given. When it is thought essential or desirable
to give a title-entry, it will be shown as we proceed. The older
catalogues of popular libraries were largely based upon the principle
of a title-entry for every item; the first or some other striking word
of the title-page being taken; it being considered rank heresy to go
behind the words of the title, as already mentioned. The result was
often confusing, if not actually misleading. A case in point is that of
the first book we took in illustration (page 34). Under the old system
this would have appeared as

  Portugal, In. By A. F. G. Bell.

while Lady Jackson's "Fair Lusitania," though identical in subject,
would be in another part of the catalogue, as

  Lusitania, Fair. By Lady Jackson.

It may be noted in passing that every book taken so far in illustration
is virtually without a punctuation mark of any kind on the title-page.
If the title-pages had been punctuated by the printer, it is probable
that no two of them would have been alike in principle, therefore the
cataloguer must provide the punctuation as he proceeds, certainly it
cannot be left to the printer. The entry above under "Keeble" lends
itself to an explanation of the punctuation used in it. The parentheses
enclosing the (_Ed._) serve to isolate it from the initials of the
author's name, and so prevent misunderstanding in that respect.
Occasionally the form used is

  KEEBLE (Samuel E.) _ed._

A colon is used between the title of the book ("The citizen of
to-morrow") and its explanatory sub-title ("a handbook on social
questions") which makes the distinction clear. If the second title were
an alternative one preceded by "or," the first title is followed by a
semi-colon and the second preceded by a comma, as

  The citizen of to-morrow; or, a handbook on social
      questions.

The printing of the name of the Union of Social Service in italics
enclosed in parentheses emphasises in some measure the fact that it is
published for that body, and indicates the point of view taken. In the
entry under "Wesleyan Methodist Union" the semi-colon before the "ed.
by S. E. Keeble" is a good form, separating the name from the title of
the book without cutting it off altogether as a full stop would do.
On the other hand, if he were the sole author of the book, the "ed.,"
being omitted, the "by" would be preceded by a comma, as

  Wesleyan Methodist Union for Social Service.
      The citizen of to-morrow, by S. E. Keeble.

The next is apparently of the same kind as the two preceding books, yet
it calls for quite different treatment. The title-page reads

  Essays and studies by members of the English
      Association. Collected by A. C. Bradley.
      Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, 1910

Here the English Association in its corporate capacity is regarded as
the author of its own publications, the editor or collector occupying a
subsidiary place, more particularly in this case, as each of the three
volumes of these _Essays and studies_ so far published has a different
editor. Accordingly our entry becomes

  English Association, The. Essays and studies;
      collected by A. C. Bradley. _Oxf._, 1910

with a reference

  BRADLEY, A. C. (_Ed._) _See_ English Association.

The volume contains seven essays, each by a different author upon a
separate subject, and, unlike the other two books, without a general
idea running through the whole. For full, and, indeed, for average
catalogues, each of these essays must be reckoned with, both for
authors and subjects. Where space is not of much consequence, and it
is desired to catalogue the book fully, then the contents are set out
under the principal entry, and each of the essays dealt with as if it
were a distinct work. This is for the dictionary catalogue. To carry it
out adequately fifteen entries are necessary, and are here fully worked
out.

  English Association, The. Essays and studies;
      ed. by A. C. Bradley. _Oxf._, 1910
          English place-names, by H. Bradley. On the
      present state of English pronunciation, by R. Bridges.
      Browning, by W. P. Ker. Blind Harry's _Wallace_, by
      G. Neilson. Shakespeare and the grand style, by G.
      Saintsbury. Some suggestions about bad poetry, by
      E. Sichel. Carlyle and his German masters, by C. E.
      Vaughan.

This is the principal entry for the dictionary catalogue, and the only
one for the classified catalogue, where it is marked 820.6 (English
Literature. Societies.) The extent to which the contents of such a book
would be noticed in the indexes to a classified catalogue is a matter
of discretion, and presumably they would be ignored. Not so, however,
in the good dictionary catalogue; as it is a matter of every-day
experience with librarians to find that essays of the kind often give
the gist of a subject in such a way as to be sufficient for the needs
of most of those interested in it, and, moreover, such an article or
essay may prove to be the only contribution to the subject appearing
in the catalogue, or the only one the library contains. The further
entries then for the dictionary catalogue are these:

  BRADLEY, Henry. English place-names. (English
      Assoc, essays.) 1910

  =Place-Names=:
      Bradley, H. English place-names. (English
          Assoc, essays.) 1910
  Names, Place. _See_ Place-names.

It is essential that the "(English Assoc, essays)" be in every entry as
a guide to the book containing the essay. More correctly it should be
given with more detail, as

  BRIDGES, Robert. On the present state of English
      pronunciation. (English Assoc. Essays and
      studies.) 1910

but the shorter form serves its purpose.

For the subject-entry of this last item we can choose between
"Pronunciation, English," "English Pronunciation," and "Phonetics." An
examination of the essay proves that for several reasons the first is
the best to select, and it becomes

  =Pronunciation, English=:
      Bridges, R. The present state of English
          pronunciation. (English Assoc, essays.)
          1910

The matter can be easily put right, as before, by the serviceable
references

  English pronunciation. _See_ Pronunciation, English.
  Phonetics. _See also_ Pronunciation.

The apparent frequency of such references seems to suggest that the
catalogue would be chiefly composed of references, but as a matter of
actual practice this is not so, as often a single reference serves for
many books.

  KER, W. P. Browning. (English Assoc, essays.)
      1910
  =Browning, Robert.=
      Ker, W. P. Browning. (English Assoc.
          essays.) 1910
  NEILSON, Geo. On Blind Harry's _Wallace_.
      (English Assoc. essays.) 1910
  Harry, Blind. _See_ Henry the Minstrel.
  Henry the Minstrel. Blind Harry's _Wallace_.
      Neilson, G. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910
  SAINTSBURY, Geo. Shakespeare and the grand
      style. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

  =Shakespeare, Wm.=
      Saintsbury, G. Shakespeare and the grand
          style. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

This heading is likely to be so large in quantity of material that it
will need some sub-division of the works _on_ Shakespeare (which will
follow those _by_ him.)

  SICHEL, Edith. Some suggestions about bad
      poetry. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

  =Poetry.=
      Sichel, E. Some suggestions about bad
          poetry. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

A heading of this kind, of course, only includes books _upon_ poetry as
a subject, and not works because they are written in _poetical form_.

  VAUGHAN, C. E. Carlyle and his German masters.
      (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

  =Carlyle, Thomas.=
      Vaughan, C. E. Carlyle and his German
          masters. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

The suggestion made in the Shakespeare entry above also applies to this
Carlyle entry. There is no occasion to repeat the heading of Carlyle
as subject when printing, as this style of type seems to imply, though
it is sometimes done, and there is nothing against it. Books _by_ and
_on_ an author can be distinguished by the use of the dash and indent,
as below, or by printing the books _on_ in smaller type.

  CARLYLE, Thomas. The French Revolution. 3 v.
      [1888]

  -- The life of Friedrich Schiller. 1873

  -- Sartor resartus. 1891
      Arnold, A. S. The story of Carlyle. 1888
      Vaughan, C. E. Carlyle and his German
          masters. (English Assoc. essays.) 1910

If the exigencies of space necessitate making choice between setting
out the contents of a volume of this miscellaneous character, as in the
principal entry above, or index-entries for author and subject in this
way, there can be no question that indexing is the better, because each
of the articles is a contribution to the subject, and if not so indexed
is lost. This loss must perforce be risked when the collections are so
voluminous that they require an enormous number of entries to complete.
Unless space and expense are of no consequence, there is no alternative
but to dispense with the index entries. Sainte Beuve's _Causeries du
lundi_ is a case in point, and the opposite course of setting out the
contents of these volumes under the principal entry must suffice for
most catalogues.

Whatever doubt may arise as to the policy of indexing such a work,
none whatever exists as to the necessity for dealing separately with
the contents of a volume which consists in reality of several works
brought together by an editor or publisher. A good example of this is

  Ideal commonwealths: Plutarch's Lycurgus,
      More's Utopia, Bacon's New Atlantis, Campanella's
      City of the Sun, and a fragment of
      Hall's Mundus alter et idem; with an introduction
      by Henry Morley. 10th edition.
      London: Routledge.

Each of the individual works must be catalogued separately and
completely precisely as if each were a separate publication. The
main-entry may appear under the name of Morley as editor (though his
share in the production seems to consist merely of a preface of four
pages) in this form

  MORLEY, Henry (_Ed._) Ideal commonwealths. n.d.

      Plutarch's Lycurgus. More's Utopia. Bacon's
      New Atlantis. Campanella's City of the Sun. Hall's
      Mundus alter et idem (fragment).

The subordinate or added entries in this case being given under each
author.

  PLUTARCH. Life of Lycurgus. (Morley. Ideal
      commonwealths.) n.d.
  MORE, Sir Thomas. Utopia. (Morley. Ideal
      commonwealths.) n.d.
  BACON, Francis, _Lord_. New Atlantis. (Morley.
      Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
  CAMPANELLA, Tommaso. The City of the Sun.
      (Morley. Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
  HALL, Joseph. Mundus alter et idem; transl. by
      Wm. King. (Morley. Ideal commonwealths.)
      n.d.

In the Campanella item above the Christian name is kept in the
vernacular, as it is a customary rule to so enter all names instead of
anglicizing them, even when the books are translations.

In addition to the foregoing entries, all the works contained in the
book, the Plutarch excepted, will need title-entries in the dictionary
catalogue.

  Utopia. More, Sir T. (Morley. Ideal commonwealths.)
      n.d.

The "(Morley. Ideal commonwealths)" must be inserted in every entry as
a guide to the book containing the works. The form more correctly is
"(Morley, H. (_Ed._) Ideal commonwealths.)", though the shorter form is
sufficiently distinctive. Even this could be left out if it happened
that the entry covered the only edition of any of the books contained
in a library, when the usual shelf-mark attached to the entry might be
regarded as a sufficient guide, and the entry reduced to the simplest
form of

  Utopia. More, Sir T. n.d. 320.1

though this is not recommended.

On the other hand, if a library had a collection of editions of the
_Utopia_, it would be a good and reasonable economy to cover the whole
by a reference to the author's name, where they would be found set out
in detail, as

  Utopia. More, Sir T. _See under_ More, Sir
      Thomas.

The remaining entries, continued on the same lines, are

  New Atlantis. Bacon, Lord. (Morley. Ideal
      commonwealths.) n.d.
  City of the Sun, The. Campanella, T. (Morley.
      Ideal commonwealths.) n.d.
  Mundus alter et idem. Hall, J. (Morley. Ideal
      commonwealths.) n.d.

For the classified catalogue the full entry, as shown under Morley
above, is numbered 320.1 (Political Science. Theory of the State), and
each author must appear in the index.

The foregoing rules and suggestions are also applicable to works of a
varied character when the work of a _single author_--volumes of essays
usually meriting and receiving separate entries under the subjects.
Fletcher's _A. L. A. Index to General Literature, Boston_, 1905, is
a useful work of reference in this connection, though it does not
compensate for the want of the indexing referred to in this chapter.

A volume may consist of a number of essays or articles by an individual
author upon topics so closely related that they are a contribution to a
single subject. Such, for example, is

  PELHAM, Henry F. Essays; collected and ed. by
      F. Haverfield. pp. xxiv., 328, map. la.8º
      _Oxf._, 1911                                                   937

This is lettered on the publisher's cover "Essays on Roman History."
The contents of the volume, which should be set out under the above
entry, are

    Biographical note. The Roman curiæ. Chronology of the
    Jugurthine War. The early Roman emperors (Cæsar-Nero). Problems
    in the constitution of the Principate. The domestic policy of
    Augustus. Notes on the reign of Claudius. Hadrian. The Roman
    frontier system. The Roman frontier system in Southern Germany.
    Arrian as legate of Cappadocia. Discoveries at Rome, 1870-89.
    The imperial domains and the colonate. Pascua. Pagus.

Although so miscellaneous in character, this book requires but one
subject-entry, as it would be a work of supererogation to index each
essay separately.

  =Rome=:
                    _History._
      Pelham, H. F. Essays. 1911                                     937

For the classified catalogue the book is not placed under English
Essays (824), but under Ancient History--Rome (937), the index entries
being

  Pelham, Henry F. Essays. 937
  Rome, Ancient (History). 937



CHAPTER VII.

Illustrated Books. Music.

    =Authors and Illustrators. Translations of Foreign Titles of=
        =Books of Illustrations and of Music. The Cataloguing= =of
        Music. Librettists. "Indexing" Miscellaneous= =Music. Dates
        of Publication.=


In these days of cheap processes of reproduction of illustrations,
particularly in colour, the cataloguer is called upon to decide whether
the author (that is, the writer of the text) or the illustrator is the
more important person in connection with a book.

The real occasion of a book's existence may be that an artist has
produced a series of pictures considered to be worth reproduction, and
the author has been engaged to write appropriate text for them. To put
it another way, the former custom was for the artist to illustrate
an author's text, whereas nowadays an author may write text for
illustrations. This does not by any means imply that the text in itself
is not valuable apart from the illustrations, and therefore most of
such books need double entry, or at least references, as in the case of
joint-authors. The following three books are of this class:

  Hampshire, painted by Wilfrid Ball, R.E., described
      by Rev. Telford Varley, M.A., B.SC. 1909
  Kent, by W. Teignmouth Shore, painted by W.
      Biscombe Gardner. 1907
  The Channel Islands, painted by Henry B. Wimbush,
      described by Edith F. Carey. 1904

In each of these examples the first-named, whether artist or author,
should be taken for the main-entry, but the mode of entry does not
follow that for joint-authors; the share of each in the book must be
shown, as

  BALL, Wilfrid (_Illus._) Hampshire; described by
      Telford Varley. pp. xii., 316, 75 col. illus.,
      map. 1909
  VARLEY, Telford. Hampshire described; [illus.]
      by W. Ball. 1909

  =Hampshire=:
      Ball, W., &c. Hampshire painted and described.
          1909

For short-entry catalogues, or as an economy, the "added entry" for the
second of the persons named may be reduced to the reference, as

  VARLEY, Telford. _See_ Ball, Wilfrid.

Where the artist's name appears in the secondary place, as in the
second book, a reference like this meets all reasonable requirements,
though the same cannot be said when the writer of the text occupies
that place, as in the first instance, and an entry is preferable to the
reference if the trifling additional space can be afforded. In reality
it does not resolve itself into a question of sparing space for the
entry of a particular book, but of finding room for many similar cases.

The second book is

  SHORE, W. Teignmouth. Kent; [illus.] by W.
      Biscombe Gardner. pp. x., 240, 73 col.
      illus., map. 1907
  GARDNER, W. Biscombe (_Illus._) Kent; [described]
      by W. T. Shore. 1907

or alternatively

  GARDNER, W. Biscombe (_Illus._) _See_ Shore, W.
      Teignmouth.

  =Kent=:
      Shore, W. T., &c. Kent. 1907

The abbreviation "illus." is used equally to mean illustrator,
illustrated, and, in the collation, illustrations, without any
likelihood of confusion of idea by a person of ordinary intelligence,
the position and context denoting the meaning. Sometimes this
abbreviation is curtailed to "il.", or "ill.", with a loss of
clearness, and as no real saving of space results, it cannot be
recommended.

The third book is

  WIMBUSH, Henry B. (_Illus._) The Channel
      Islands; described by Edith F. Carey. pp.
      xiv., 294, 76 col. illus., map. 1904
  CAREY, Edith F. The Channel Islands; [illus.]
      by H. B. Wimbush. 1904

  =Channel Islands, The=:
      Wimbush, H. B., &c. The Channel Islands
          painted and described. 1904

As a rule there is no occasion for the cataloguer to notice the
illustrator, except for books of this special character. Where the
artist is famous and his illustrations lend value to a book, or where
books are likely to be required because illustrated by a notable
artist, it is well to mark the fact either by entry or reference. Such
illustrators as Bewick, Beardsley, Blake, Brangwyn, Crane, Cruikshank,
Dulac, "Phiz," Rackham, Rowlandson, Hugh Thomson, Turner, to name a
dozen among the best known, should be noticed, either by entry under
their names, or after the manner shown in the following entries.
Suppose the first book received is

  Tales from Shakespeare, by Charles and Mary
      Lamb, illustrated by Arthur Rackham. 1909

we proceed to write our main-entry, taking care to note that the book
is illustrated by this particular artist,

  LAMB, Charles and Mary. Tales from Shakespeare;
      illus. by Arthur Rackham. 1909.

We then give the reference from the artist

  RACKHAM, Arthur (_Illus._) _See_ Lamb, Charles and
      Mary.

Later we get a book, the title-page of which reads

  The Rhinegold and the Valkyrie, by Richard
      Wagner, with illustrations by Arthur Rackham,
      translated by Margaret Armour. 1910

and on the half-title we find

  The Ring of the Niblung a trilogy with a prelude
      by Richard Wagner translated into English
      by Margaret Armour. I.

so we combine and adapt the two titles, as

  WAGNER, Richard. The Ring of the Niblung;
      transl. by Margt. Armour; illus. by Arthur
      Rackham. I. 1910

          I, The Rhinegold. The Valkyrie.

and give the usual references

  ARMOUR, Margaret (_Transl._) _See_ Wagner,
      Richard.
  RACKHAM, Arthur (_Illus._) _See_ Wagner, Richard.

"Transl." is a perfectly clear abbreviation for either translated or
translator--the shorter form, "tr.", may mean anything, and is to be
avoided.

Later still we get another book, the principal entry for which is

  BARRIE, Jas. M. Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens;
      illus. by Arthur Rackham. 1910

when we make another reference

  RACKHAM, Arthur (_Illus._) _See_ Barrie, Jas. M.

Last of all we receive the second part of "The Ring of the Niblung,"
which we embody in the former entry, converting it into

  WAGNER, Richard. The Ring of the Niblung;
      transl. by Margt. Armour; illus. by Arthur
      Rackham. 2 v. 1910-11

          v. 1. The Rhinegold. The Valkyrie.
          v. 2. Siegfried. The twilight of the gods.

If we have forgotten that the former reference was made, which is
unlikely, we make another, as before

  RACKHAM, Arthur (_Illus._) _See_ Wagner, Richard.

When the time comes for printing the catalogue, if it has not already
been done, these references are all amalgamated into:

  RACKHAM, Arthur (_Illus._) _See_ Barrie, Jas. M.;
      Lamb, Chas. and Mary; Wagner, Richard.

A certain amount of knowledge and discretion is required in cataloguing
the illustrators of books; cheap modern reprints of standard books with
illustrations by Cruikshank or "Phiz" hardly call for notice by the
cataloguer.

Although it is the duty of the cataloguer to adhere to the language
of the title-page in transcribing a title, it is conceivable that the
usefulness of books in foreign languages, when they consist altogether
or mainly of illustrations, may be extended in popular libraries, if a
free explanatory translation of the title or a note is attached to the
entry, after the manner shown in the following three entries:--

  SÉGUY, E. Les fleurs et leurs applications décoratives
      [Flowers and their application in ornament].
      pl. 30. fº _Paris_, [1903]
  RÉMON, Georges. Soixante planches de peintre
      décorative. fº _Dourdan_, n.d.
          Sixty plates in colour for house decoration.
  LEHNER, Jos., und Ed. MADER. Neue Dekorations-Malereien
      im modernen Stil. pl. 60.
      fº _Wien_, [1904]
          Original ornamental designs in colour.

So far as the orthodox rules for cataloguing are concerned, it is
something of a heresy to suggest that, as these books contain no text,
the original titles might be ignored, and a translation alone be given
if space is a consideration, but if so catalogued, they would make a
larger appeal in many libraries, and, after all, books are catalogued
for the purpose of ensuring that they shall be used. The entries might
be

  SÉGUY, E. Flowers and their application in ornament,
      pi. 30. fº [1903]

It must be understood that this translation is not a recommendation,
but is only by way of suggestion, as there are not many books similar
in character. If the suggestion is adopted, it must be carried out
uniformly through all entries.

  RÉMON, Georges. Sixty plates of decorative
      painting [house]. fº n.d.
  LEHNER, J., and E. MADER. New painted decorations
      in the modern style, pl. 60. fº [1904]

The subject entries and references required for these books are

  =Ornament=:
      Séguy, E. Les fleurs et leurs applications
          décoratives. 1903
  Decoration. _See_ Ornament.
  Design, Ornamental. _See_ Ornament.
  Flowers in ornament. _See_ Ornament.

The first two references are for synonymous terms for the subject. The
last is required for two reasons. Firstly, there are sure to be other
books in the catalogue in which floral design will form the principal
feature without any reference to flowers on the title-page; secondly, a
book of the kind is better placed under the subject-word "Ornament" or
whatever term is taken for the decorative arts, rather than "Flowers",
to prevent it being mistaken for a work on botany or gardening.

The next book is on ornament as applied to house decoration only,
and the designs are not meant for other purposes, certainly not for
ornament generally, therefore the entry is

  =House Decoration=:
      Rémon, G. Soixante planches de peintre
          décorative. n.d.

and the supplementary references are

  Decoration, House. _See_ House Decoration.
  Ornament. _See also_ House Decoration.

If the title of this book were printed "60 planches de peintre
décorative", and the title had to be transcribed in full, the language
of the original must be followed, and not a hybrid title given, as
"Sixty planches de peintre décorative".

The third book, being upon ornament in general, receives an entry
accordingly

  =Ornament=:
      Lehner, J., &c. Neue Dekorations-Malereien
          im modernen Stil. [1904]

No further references are needed beyond those already given to the
first of these three books. It would be literally correct but none the
less pedantic to convert the "&c." of the above entry to "u.s.w." (und
so weiter), as

  Lehner, J., u.s.w.

and such a procedure is not recommended.

The entries of the first and third of these books would be marked for
the classified catalogue 745 (Art. Ornamental Design), and the second
729.4 (Art. Architectural Design and Decoration. Painted Decoration),
the index-entries being

  Séguy, E. Les fleurs décoratives, 745
  Ornament, 745
  Floral Ornament, 745
  Decoration, Ornamental, 745
  Rémon, G. Peintre décorative, 729.4
  House Decoration, 729.4
  Decoration, House, 729.4
  Lehner u. Mader. Dekorations-Malereien, 745

The foregoing suggestion for the translation of title-pages, where the
text of the book is nonexistent or immaterial, is also applicable in
the case of music, more especially instrumental music, as many persons
understand music without understanding continental languages, and
therefore to give a translation of the title-pages of musical works
(not works _upon_ music, which is a different matter) in a catalogue
may serve a most useful purpose. Take these as examples:--

  BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van.
      Sämmtliche Sinfonien für das Pianoforte zu
      zwei und vier Händen; arrangirt von F. W.
      Markull. No. 8-9, vierhandig. 4º _Wolfenbüttel_,
      n.d.
  JADASSOHN, S.
      Sechs Clavierstücke. 4º _Leipzig_, n.d.
  LECLAIR, Jean M.
      Le tombeau: sonate à violon avec la basse
      continue; arrangée pour le violon avec accompagnement
      de piano par Gustav Jensen. 4º
      n.d.

There is no great reason why these and similar works should not be
usefully adapted for the catalogues of popular libraries at any rate, as

  BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van.
      Collected pianoforte symphonies; arranged by
      F. W. Markull. Nos. 8-9, Piano duet. 4º
      _Wolfenbüttel_, n.d.
  JADASSOHN, S.
      Six pianoforte pieces. 4º _Leipzig_, n.d.
  LECLAIR, Jean M.
      Le tombeau: sonata, with continued thorough-bass;
      arranged for the violin, with piano
      accompaniment by Gustav Jensen. 4º n.d.

As "Le tombeau" is the distinctive title of this particular piece, it
is as well to give it in the original form, or, if in translation, as
"Le tombeau (The tomb)." It should be unnecessary to add that, where
space is of no consideration, the above titles can be given in the
original with the translation following enclosed within brackets; to do
this would conform with literal accuracy.

As music is introduced here in connection with translated titles, we
may also at this place consider the whole question of cataloguing
it. Usually the catalogue of music is printed apart from the general
catalogue of a library, in the form of a class-list, the entries being
sub-divided into sections and divisions, according to the amount of
material.

Whether in a separate publication or in the general catalogue, the
composer occupies the place held by the authors of other works, and his
surname is taken for the main-entry, as shown in the following examples
of operas. The title-pages read:--

    Maritana. Opera in three acts, the music composed by W. Vincent
        Wallace. The words by Edward Fitzball. Edited by Myles B.
        Foster. Boosey & Co.

    The Bohemians (founded upon "La vie de Bohème" by Henry
        Murger.) An opera in four acts by Giuseppe Giacosa and
        Luigi Illica. Music by Giacomo Puccini. English version
        of Acts I. and II. by William Grist, Acts III. and IV. by
        Percy Pinkerton. Arranged by Carlo Carignani. G. Ricordi &
        Co. Copyright 1897. (Printed in Italy.)

and these we proceed to condense and adapt after this manner:--

  WALLACE, W. Vincent. Maritana: opera; words
      by Edward Fitzball; ed. by Myles B. Foster.
      (_Royal ed._) pp. ii., 284. n.d.
  PUCCINI, Giacomo. The Bohemians: an opera by
      Giuseppe Giacosa and Luigi Illica; English
      version by Wm. Grist and Percy Pinkerton;
      arranged by Carlo Carignani. pp. viii., 204.
      4º 1897

In the first entry the added words denoting the edition are taken from
the printed cover of the book.

The above represent the full form for the dictionary catalogue. Any
additional entries would be in the way of references from the names of
the writers of the libretti, the translators, editors, or arrangers, as

  FITZBALL, Edward. _See_ Wallace, W. Vincent.
  FOSTER, Myles B. _See_ Wallace, W. Vincent.

It may be considered that the writer of the libretto is of equal
importance with the composer in such work, both often being named
together in connection therewith, as "the Gilbert-Sullivan operas."
It must be remembered, however, that in musical works like these the
libretto as given seldom represents the complete work of the author,
the spoken words being omitted; therefore, not only is his place
secondary, but his share in the work is incomplete. For this reason
even the reference can be dispensed with, except in full catalogues,
where every name is taken into account. In the contrary case, where
the words of an opera are published without the music, the reverse
method would be followed, and the name of the composer ignored for
cataloguing, because his work is not included.

Besides references as above, there is the possible usefulness of
title-entries (in the dictionary catalogue only), as

  Maritana: opera. Wallace, W. V. n.d.
  Bohemians, The: opera. Puccini, G. 1897

If the collection of music in a library is not sufficient to warrant
the publication of a separate catalogue, it is desirable to embody
in the dictionary catalogue a class-list of music under the heading
"Music", treated as subject, although this is not strictly in
accordance with the principles governing the compilation of such a
catalogue. The entries under the heading would be sub-divided as
required, in this way

  =Music.=
                              _Operas_.
                (_Vocal scores, with pianof. accom._)
      Puccini, G. The Bohemians. 1897
      Wallace, W. V. Maritana. n.d.

Music and musical works fall logically into place as part of a
classified catalogue, and are as readily dealt with there as in a
separately published Catalogue of music. The two principal entries of
the above operas are marked 782.1 (Music--Dramatic Music--Opera.)

When a library contains an extensive or comparatively large selection
of music, there are sure to be included volumes of "albums," "gems,"
"selections," and other miscellaneous collections, which in the
ordinary way are catalogued after this manner:--

  =Music.=
                           _Pianof. solos._
      Klassiker-Perlen: Gems from the classics.
              (_Conservatoire ed_.) Bk. 1. 4º n.d.
          Bk. 1. Prelude, C major, by Bach. Largo, by
          Handel. Gavotte, by Gluck. Träumerei, Warum?
          and Summerlied, by Schumann. Nocturne, by Field.
          The song of the lark, Chant sans paroles, and
          Bacarolle, by Tschaikowsky. Moment musical and
          Menuett, by Schubert. Melody in F, by Rubinstein.

Unless the contents of such volumes are at least set out as above they
cannot be regarded as properly catalogued. If the library had any one
of these pieces as a separate publication, it would, no doubt, receive
individual treatment, and be dealt with in this way (to take the last
item in the above book):--

  =Music.=
                           _Pianof. solos._
      Rubinstein, Anton. Melody in F. (Op. 3,
          no. 1.) n.d.

For this reason, when the number of books is large, and the separate
catalogue, therefore, of considerable size, such miscellaneous
collections should be dealt with ("indexed") as if each item were a
separate work. If it is essential to index the contents of other books
of a miscellaneous character, it is doubly necessary for miscellaneous
music, more especially as it brings all the works of a composer
together according to the nature of the compositions. If this course is
pursued, then, as a counter-balancing economy, the contents need not
be set forth under the principal entry, the separate "indexing" being
sufficient, as

  =Music.=
                  _Pianof. solos._
      Bach, J. Sebastian. Prelude. (Gems from
          the classics, Bk. 1.) n.d.

This recommendation of separate entry is for a class-list of music
(that is, a separately-published catalogue of music), and only applies
to volumes containing works by several composers. Separate entries
are not required in the case of a collection of pieces by a single
composer. One entry only is needed, as

  =Music.=
                  _Pianof. solos._
      Menynski, M. Esquisses russes pour piano.
          pp. 48. 4º n.d.

This contains six pieces, each with a distinctive title, and these
titles can be set out, if thought well, as contents _under the above
entry_. No further entries should be given, even in the dictionary
catalogue, as title-entries for the items in works of this kind are
superfluous.

There are, also, many collections of miscellaneous music much too
comprehensive to allow of the separate cataloguing of each item, and
these must, of necessity, be simply catalogued, even without the
contents being set out. Examples of collections of this type are:--

  HATTON, J. L. (_Ed._) The songs of England: a
      collection of 200 English melodies, including
      the most popular traditional ditties, &c., of
      the last three centuries. (_Royal ed._) 2 v. n.d.
  PAUER, E. (_Ed._) March-album: a collection of
      the most celebrated Italian, French, and German
      marches. pp. 114. n.d.

In either the music or the classified catalogue, these would be
respectively allotted to the divisions Music--Vocal Music--Ballad and
Song (Dewey 784.3) and Music--Pianoforte Solos--Marches (Dewey 786.44).

In a short-entry catalogue, they can be condensed to

  HATTON, J. L. (_Ed._) The songs of England. 2 v.
      n.d.
  PAUER, E. (_Ed._) March-album: Italian, French,
      and German marches. n.d.

Experience proves that no useful purpose is served by giving the dates
of publication of modern music in an ordinary catalogue; in fact, it
can only be given in exceptional cases, the majority being "n.d.", as
the above examples testify. The works of the classic masters appear in
so many forms and editions that the dates, when ascertained, are of no
particular help.



CHAPTER VIII.

Publications of Governments, Societies, and Corporate Bodies.

    =Co-operative Indexes. Publications of Societies. Publishing=
        =Societies. Government Publications. Statutes. Colonial=
        =and Foreign Government Publications. Local Government=
        =Publications. Associations and Institutions.= =Congresses.=


The extent to which the work of dissecting and "indexing" the contents
of books of a miscellaneous nature is to be carried out in a library
catalogue depends largely on the nature and purpose of the library,
though a limit must be set to it in any case. It would be unusual to
index the proceedings or transactions of a society, or the contents of
reviews, or other periodical publications, however valuable they might
be. For this most libraries must depend upon the co-operative indexes,
such as the _Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers_, the
_International Catalogue of Scientific Literature_, the _International
Institute of Technical Bibliography_, Poole's _Index to Periodical
Literature_, the _Engineering Index_, the _Index to Archæological
Papers_ (unfortunately of little value because it is only an index of
authors instead of subjects), and other works of the kind. The Library
Association publishes a _Class-Catalogue of Current Serial Digests and
Indexes of the Literature of Pure and Applied Science_.

The form of entry for the publications of societies will vary according
to their nature. As already stated, societies or other bodies in
their corporate capacity are regarded as the authors of their memoirs,
transactions, proceedings, journals, etc., and entry is made under
their names accordingly. The question arises, under what part of the
name? and it may be laid down in general terms that if a society be
national or general in its scope and character, and its headquarters
are in London, then the first word of the official name of the society,
other than an article, is the correct entry-word. The following are
illustrative examples of this:--

  Royal Society of London. Catalogue of scientific
      papers, 1800-1900. Subject-index, v. 3,
      Physics, pt. 1. _Camb._, 1913
  Society of Antiquaries of London. Archæologia;
      or, miscellaneous tracts relating to antiquity.
      v. 1-59, with indexes. 4º 1770-1905
  Chemical Society. Abstract of papers. 17 v.
      1896-1912
  Linnean Society. Proceedings, 1838-55. 2 v.
      1849-55
  British Association for the Advancement of
      Science. Reports. 20 v. 1891-1910
  Institution of Civil Engineers. Minutes of proceedings.
      v. 56-142. 1879-1900

On the other hand, if the society be national for Scotland, Wales, or
Ireland, or provincial, colonial, or foreign, the entry-word depends
upon the nature of the society. The publications of the Royal Society
of Edinburgh, for instance, might be better placed under "Edinburgh,
Royal Society" than under "Scotland. Royal Society of Edinburgh,"
notwithstanding that it is a national and not a local body. Against
this, the publications of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland are
better entered under "Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of," although
there is much to be said in favour of treating such important bodies
after the manner shown in the previous entries, as

  Royal Society of Edinburgh.
  Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.

in which case these references are necessary:--

  Scotland, Society of Antiquaries of. _See_ Society
      of Antiquaries of Scotland.
  Edinburgh, Royal Society of. _See_ Royal Society
      of Edinburgh.

The British Museum practice is inconvenient and affords no help in
cataloguing the publications of societies, because all of them are
brought together, irrespective of character, country, or locality,
under the general heading of "Academies," and arranged according to
the names of the places of publication in one general alphabet (not in
national or geographical order), as Abbeville, Aberdeen, Abo, Acireale,
Adelaide, etc. If it is desired to find say the "Proceedings of the
Institution of Mechanical Engineers," it is necessary to turn first to
"Academies," and then to "Birmingham," provided one knows or remembers
that the Institution has its centre there. Publications like those of
the Early English Text Society or the Hakluyt Society must be sought
first under "Academies" and afterwards under "London." This method
of general, then local entry, is not a simple and ready one. Even
local entry is not always satisfactory, as often enough the place of
publication or of the meetings of a society are merely incidental, and,
therefore, the proceedings of a county antiquarian society should be
entered under the name of the county or society, and not the place--the
Kent Archæological Society under Kent and not Maidstone, the Historic
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire under Lancashire ("Lancashire and
Cheshire, Historic Society of"), not under Liverpool, and the Chetham
Society under that distinctive name, not under Manchester. These
societies cause little or no trouble, as their names usually suggest
the best entry-word, even in the case of foreign societies.

It must clearly be understood that when a society is established for
the publication of separate works upon subjects coming within the scope
of the society's purpose, and not for the reading and discussion of
papers, its publications require full cataloguing, as if each work had
been issued independently, in addition to whatever entry is given under
the name of the society. A case in point would be this:--

  Chetham Society. Remains, historical and literary,
      connected with the palatine counties of Lancaster
      and Chester, v. 61, new ser. _M'chester_,
      1907
          v. 6. Materials for the history of Lancaster, by
              Wm. Oliver Roper. Pt. 1.

This is the main-entry in full catalogues. The essential sub-entries are

  ROPER, Wm. O. Materials for the history of
      Lancaster. Pt. 1. (_Chetham Soc._, v. 61, new
      ser.) 1907

  =Lancaster=:
      Roper, W. O. Materials for the history of
          Lancaster. Pt. 1. (_Chetham Soc._, v. 61,
          new ser.) 1907

Whatever economy may be exercised, neither of these two last entries
can be dispensed with, rather let the list of contents and the volumes
under the main-entry be omitted, especially if the list is a long one,
involving a hunt through many items to find a particular book. Under
ordinary circumstances a summary entry for a whole set can be made to
suffice in this fashion:--

  Chetham Society. Remains, historical and literary,
      connected with the palatine counties of Lancaster
      and Chester. 116 v. _M'chester_,
      1844-93
          Includes indexes to v. 1-30 and v. 31-114.

Similar entries for the whole set would be made under "Lancashire" and
"Cheshire." By this arrangement a person requiring a particular work in
the series could find it by reference to the entry under the author's
name, or under the definite subject, if the book does not deal with
either of these counties in general, and one or the other is certain
to be remembered. It may be explained that the summary entry for the
whole series, when given under the names of the two counties, obviates
any necessity for separately entering any particular book under these
counties. For example, the late Chancellor Christie's volume (No. 7 of
the new series) on the old church and school libraries of Lancashire
requires no separate entry under "Lancashire," as it is covered by the
general entry under the name of this county--the separate entries are
given under "Christie" and "Libraries."

The book by Roper, taken in illustration above, which is given as "Pt.
1," does not require a second entry for Pt. 2 when it is received
later. All that is necessary is to adapt the entries in this way

  Chetham Society. Remains (_and the rest of the
      entry as before_).
          v. 61-62. Materials for the history of Lancaster, by
              Wm. Oliver Roper. 2 v.
  ROPER, Wm. O. Materials for the history of
      Lancaster. (_Chetham Soc._, v. 61-62, new
      ser.) 2 v. 1907

  =Lancaster=:
      Roper, W. O. Materials for the history of
          Lancaster. (_Chetham Soc._, v. 61-62,
          new ser.) 2 v. 1907

There are other societies which publish separate and independent books,
lending themselves to this separate treatment, when each work must be
dealt with individually. Among them may be named the Camden, Early
English Text, Folk-Lore, Hakluyt, Harleian, Malone, Navy Records, and
Surtees Societies.

These publications present the same problem for the classified
catalogue as they do for shelf-classification, viz., shall they be kept
together under the name of the Society, or be distributed throughout
the catalogue according to the nature of their contents? If the volumes
of the Camden Society or the Hakluyt Society are so scattered, they
appear in many parts of the catalogue, whereas they are not usefully
entered if grouped together. Some of the other societies do not raise
this difficulty, and the correct solution appears to be, as in the
case of the dictionary catalogue, to give a general entry for the
whole set in its place, and a separate entry for each volume in its
own particular place. It is true there is usually a special place in
the Dewey Classification for such collections (the Hakluyt Society is
910.6), but whether the volumes are all kept together on the shelves
or not, they are virtually lost for usefulness unless, as already
suggested, the entries are distributed according to countries or other
subjects in the catalogue.

The publications of the state, of local government authorities, and
other official bodies are regarded in much the same light for the main
entry as societies. In a British catalogue the publications of the
home government or its departments cannot be usefully or conveniently
grouped together under a general heading of "England" or "Great
Britain," but are better placed under the names of the respective
departments. On the other hand, the publications of any other
government and its departments are brought together under the name
of the state, and those of the governing body of any specified area,
local, home, or colonial, under the name of that area. These points can
be made plainer by examples. To take the home government reports first:

  Local Government Board. Annual report, 1908-9.
      2 v. 1909                                                  352.042
  Board of Trade, Labour Department. Abstract
      of labour statistics of the United Kingdom,
      1908-9. 1911                                                 331.8
  Board of Education. Special reports on educational
      subjects, v. 21. 1907                                      372.942
      v. 21. School excursions and vacation schools.
  Imperial Education Conference, 1911. Report.
      1911                                                         370.6
  Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. Report,
      1911. 1912                                                   352.2

  While these official titles of the respective departments
  are the correct form of entry, there is no
  particular objection to reversing the titles, when
  they admit of it, thus bringing them under the name
  of the public service concerned, as

  Trade, Board of, Labour Department.
  Education, Board of.
  Education Conference, Imperial.
  Police, Commissioner of, of the Metropolis.

Any necessary guiding references must be furnished if required, as

  Board of Trade. _See_ Trade, Board of.
  Board of Education. _See_ Education, Board of.
  Imperial Education Conference. _See_ Education Conference.

If the entries are so reversed, this does not convert them into a
combined form of corporate-author and subject-entries; they will still
need entries under whatever subject to which they appertain, unless a
reference is substituted to meet the case under the subject. Should a
library contain, say, many of the volumes of the special reports of the
Board of Education, or a collection of the various reports on Labour
issued by the Board of Trade, the setting of them out in detail twice
over can be avoided by these two references

  =Education.=
      _See also_ Education, Board of.

  =Labour.=
      _See also_ Trade, Board of (Labour Dept.)

The police report can be entered under "London," though by "Metropolis"
is meant a much larger district than that usually understood as
London, as it includes several outside county and other boroughs while
excluding the City itself. Nominally the report is that of the chief
officer, but there is no occasion to enter it under his name.

Upon the principle already outlined, editions of the statutes would, in
the ordinary course, be entered under "Parliament," but it is better
to take a separate heading, as "Acts of Parliament" or "Statutes,
British," referring from "Parliament." Illustrative examples are

  =Acts of Parliament=:
      Statutes, The. A.D. 1235-1900. 2nd revised
          ed. 20 v. 1888-1909                                      346.2
      Chitty's Statutes of practical utility. 6th
          ed., by W. H. Aggs. v. 1-14. 1911-13                     346.2
  Statutes, British. _See_ Acts of Parliament.
  Parliament. _See also_ Acts of Parliament.
  Law. _See also_ Acts of Parliament.

References should be given from the names of any editors, compilers,
digesters, or annotators, as Chitty and Aggs. A volume of Acts relating
to a specified subject, say, Copyright, Theatres, or Workmen, is not
entered under the general heading, but under the name of the subject
and the compiler. Such works ordinarily contain the law as well as the
statutes, and therefore any references required from the general to
the particular would be given under "Law." Legislative publications of
other countries corresponding to our Acts of Parliament are entered
under the names of those countries.

The manner of stating the number of volumes in the second (Chitty)
of the above examples indicates that the work is still in course of
publication; if it were complete the number of volumes would be given
as in the first entry. This first entry also takes precedence of the
Chitty for order because it is the official "By authority" edition.

As said above, the publications of colonial and foreign governments are
first entered under the names of places, then by departments, as

  United States. Bureau of Education. Circular
      of information No. 1, 1902. Contributions
      to American educational history; ed. by
      Herbert B. Adams. No. 30, History of
      education in West Virginia, by A. R. Whitehill.
      _Washington_, 1902                                         572.973
  Canada. Department of Mines. Summary report
      of the Geological Survey Branch, 1911.
      _Ottawa_, 1912                                               557.1

An item like that of the U.S. Bureau of Education needs entries for
subject and for the author of the particular section. Presuming
that the whole series is covered under the heading "Education" by a
reference to "United States. Bureau of Education," the other entries are

  =Virginia, West=:
      Whitehill, A. R. History of education in
          West Virginia. (U.S. Bureau of Education,
          Circulars of information, No. 1,
          1902.) 1902                                            572.973
  WHITEHILL, A. R. History of education in West
      Virginia. (U.S. Bureau of Education, Circulars
      of information, No. 1, 1902.) 1902                         572.973

The first of these entries raises a question in connection with double
place-names, i.e., should the entry be given as above or under "West"?
Following the recommendation of the Joint-Code rule (No. 130), three
standard gazetteers were consulted; two gave the name under "Virginia"
(as in our entry), and one under "West." Accumulation of headings in
one place is prevented when place-names qualified by the points of the
compass, or in some similar way, are entered under the name following
the prefix. All the same, each name must be considered independently.
To enter New York or New Zealand under "York" and "Zealand" is
incorrect, though the Isle of Man or the Isle of Wight are better under
"Man" and "Wight" respectively. If there is the least doubt give the
reference, which in this case is

  West Virginia. _See_ Virginia, West.

Examples of local government publications would be

  London County Council. Statistical abstract for
      London, 1911-12. v. 14. 1912                                314.21
  -- Education Committee. Report on vacation
      schools and organised vacation play. 1912                 f 371.74

The "f" attached to the classification numbers is meant to mark the
book as a folio, and, while indicating the size, serves also as a guide
to its probable position on the shelves, because folios are not usually
placed with octavos. If the book were a quarto, it would be marked "q",
as "q 371.74".

Another local government publication is

  Hammersmith Borough Council. 12th annual
      report, 1911-12. 1913                                    352.042.1

The libraries of various localities usually make a point of obtaining
all reports and documents bearing upon their particular areas,
and, therefore, need special methods both for classification and
cataloguing, according to the extent of their collections, so we may
consider how the above items may be treated in a typical London public
library. Presuming that all the publications of the London County
Council are received, they would be so numerous that it is not worth
while entering them again under "London" as subject. The entries under
"London County Council" and under "London" would not only be many in
number, but would come together in the catalogue. A better plan is
carefully to enter all under "London County Council", subdividing the
entries according to their nature. Though the Hammersmith report needs
a reference under "London", an entry thereunder could not be justified,
as in the case of the publications of the larger body. The references
would be in this manner

  =London=:
                _Local Government._
      London County Council. Publications. _See_
          London County Council.

This is placed in order exactly as if it were an entry, whereas the
Hammersmith reference comes at the end of the entries in the usual way,
as

  _See also the names of the Metropolitan boroughs_, as
      Hammersmith, Shoreditch, Stepney.

Perhaps the first form of what may be termed an "entry-reference" is
better exemplified by supposing it to be the most suitable style when
under a general heading like "Education", and the entry references are

  =Education=:
      Board of Education. Reports, &c. _See_
          Board of Education.
      London County Council. Education reports.
          _See_ London County Council.
      United States. Board of Education. Publications.
          _See_ United States.

These fall into place under the heading as "Board", "London", "United
States", and not as references at the end. This style is only
recommended where there are many entries under both the heading and the
name referred _to_, the ordinary method being

  =Education=:
      _See also_ Board of Education, London County
          Council, United States (Bureau of Education).

The foregoing principles for the entry of government documents also
apply to the publications of associations and institutions. The
officers making reports in an official capacity are usually disregarded
so far as their personal names are concerned, though at times a special
report or other publication may justify and require an entry under the
name of the writer, but this depends upon its nature. International
and local exhibitions are entered under the names of the places where
held, unless the organisations arranging such exhibitions are, more
or less, permanent bodies having exhibitions at intervals in different
places, when the entries are given, not under the names of places, but
under the official name of the organising body, as Royal Agricultural
Society, National Rose Society, International Horticultural Exhibition.

The same applies more particularly to congresses and conferences
of all kinds regularly held, the places of meeting being merely
incidental. The following is an example of such a congress, which is
held at intervals in different parts of the world, and with a certain
continuity:--

  National Council of Peace Societies. Official report
      of the 17th Universal Congress of Peace,
      held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, London,
      July 27th to August 1st, 1908. 1909                          172.4

The National Council is, apparently, a central body representing
British peace societies, and is responsible for this report only. When
the congress is held in another country, presumably some body in that
country makes itself responsible for the publication of the report, in
which case it is probable the title would be in German or in French,
whichever country issues the report, and this must be remembered. The
title "Universal Congress of Peace", not being the name of a body,
but the purpose of the congress, is met by a subject-entry, the above
serving as a main-entry for this particular report.

  =Peace Question, The=:
      National Council of Peace Societies. Report
          of the Universal Congress of Peace,
          London, 1908. 1909                                       172.4

This is a subject-heading that permits of a concentration of books,
both for and against international peace, and may be made to include
those upon international arbitration, the Hague Conferences, reducing
of armaments, and other phases of the subject, even with the opposite
term of "war" in their titles, provided the books bear upon the
question in the ethical, social, or economic aspect, and are not purely
military in character. The references then would be of this nature:--

  War _versus_ Peace. _See_ Peace Question.
  Arbitration, International. _See_ Peace Question.
  Armaments, Reduction of. _See_ Peace Question.
  Militarism. _See_ Peace Question.

The heading is better sub-divided, the books in favour of international
peace and arbitration leading, and those opposed to it following, under
some suitable sub-headings. Amalgamation of subjects under a single
heading is further referred to in Chapter XIV.



CHAPTER IX.

Compound Names. Names with Prefixes. Greek and Roman Names.

    =Rendering of the Names of Foreign Authors. Compound= =Names.
        Changed Names. Foreign Compound Names.= =Names with
        Prefixes. Short Entries. Title-Entries.= =Foreign Names
        with Prefixes. Greek and Latin= =Authors.=


We shall not have proceeded very far with the work of cataloguing
before problems in connection with the varying forms of personal names
will arise. Translations of works by foreign authors will, at times,
have varieties of renderings of their names, making it necessary to
hunt out and decide which is the vernacular form or transcription of
the name, and, therefore, the right one to adopt. An instance of a
troublesome name of the kind is that of the Russian novelist, rendered
upon title-pages as Turgenev, Turgénieff, Tourguéneff, Turgueniev, and
Tourgénief.

Another source of worry is that of compound names, or their equivalent
hyphenated-surnames, that is to say, names compounded without the
authority of a deed-poll, or even without obligations as beneficiaries
under a will. It is a growing affectation, to which many persons
are partial, especially if their surnames happen to be among those
most common. A person is born, say, Smith, and having the maternal
surname as a second Christian name, he compounds with it, and Thomas
Jackson Smith in time becomes T. Jackson-Smith. Generally speaking,
the simplest and most convenient plan is to enter all such names, if
English, under the last name. When authors have undoubtedly changed or
added to their names, and have written under both forms, this may be a
good reason for entering under the first part of a double name, though
the necessity for it can be obviated by the ever-useful reference.

Whatever method of entry may be adopted, the latest form of the name
must be given, particularly in the case of those who have written under
both forms. The Dean of Gloucester, for example, who has written some
historical works under his name of H. D. M. Spence, has now published a
guide to Gloucester Cathedral, under the name of H. D. M. Spence-Jones.
If the entries are retained under the first form of name, the "Jones"
must be added to all entries--subject as well as author; if the new
name is taken, it should be dealt with after the manner shown in the
next paragraph.

To enter under the last name will not be strictly in accordance with
the orthodox rules, but it will prove by far the most convenient method
for all concerned. Accordingly the undermentioned books are so entered,
and not under the double names of Eardley Wilmot, Betham Edwards, and
Collison Morley, although these writers may at times be spoken of by
their double names.

  WILMOT, Sir S. Eardley. Forest life and sport in
      India, pp. viii., 324, illus. 1910
  EDWARDS, Matilda Betham. Unfrequented France
      by river, and mead, and town. pp. x., 204,
      illus. 1910
  MORLEY, L. Collison-. Modern Italian literature.
      pp. viii., 356. 1911

The hyphen may be put in, as shown in the last entry, but this is not
essential, at any rate in short-entry catalogues. Full catalogues give
the references

  EARDLEY-WILMOT, Sir S. _See_ Wilmot.
  BETHAM-EDWARDS, Matilda. _See_ Edwards.
  COLLISON-MORLEY, L. _See_ Morley.

The cataloguer sometimes comes across a name which he may remember
as a decidedly changed name from his point of view, when there is no
alternative but to adopt the newer form. A writer, for example, who at
one time was known as F. H. Perry Coste, has now become Perrycoste,
and, unless the cataloguer's memory serves him well, this author's
books will be entered under Coste and Perrycoste.

The subject-entries of the foregoing books are as follows:--

  =India=:
              _Travel and Description._
      Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life and sport in
          India. 1910

As this book is for the most part concerned with state forestry in
India, it is likely to be serviceable in connection with forestry as a
subject, though not specifically upon it, the meaning of the rules may
be liberally interpreted to include the entry

  =Forestry=:
      Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life, &c., in India.
          1910.

At the time of publication the author was a C.I.E., but later, becoming
a K.C.I.E., the "Sir" is added to his name.

  =France=:
              _Travel and Description._
      Edwards, M. B. Unfrequented France. 1910

  =Italian Literature=:
      Morley, C. L. Modern Italian literature.
          1911

The last book, not being upon literature in the universal sense or
in the abstract, is entered under its definite subject of Italian
literature as shown. Here the serviceable covering reference again
removes all possible doubt.

  =Literature.=
      _See also the names of national literatures as_
          English, Italian, Spanish.

To enter compound names under the last name, as recommended, does not
by any means imply that the first part of the hyphenated name should
be reduced to initials in the _principal entry_ of even a short-form
catalogue, and, therefore, the briefest style for these names is
Wilmot, Sir S. Eardley; Edwards, M. Betham; Morley, L. Collison.

If the codes of rules which stipulate for entry under the first part of
a compound name are followed, the names are given after this fashion,
to take one of the above books in illustration,

  BETHAM-EDWARDS, Matilda. Unfrequented France
      by river, and mead, and town. pp. x., 204,
      illus. 1910

  =France=:
      Betham-Edwards, M. Unfrequented France.
          1910

The reverse form of reference then becomes necessary, as

  EDWARDS, Matilda Betham. _See_ Betham-Edwards.

The Dewey numbers for the classified catalogue of these three books are
respectively 915.4 (Geography and Travels--India), 914.4 (Geography and
Travels--France), and 850.9 (Literature--Italian Literature--History).
The index entries are

  Wilmot, Sir S. E. Forest life in India, 915.4
  India (Travels) 915-4
  Edwards, M. B. Unfrequented France, 914.4
  France (Travels) 914.4
  Italian Literature (History), 850.9
  Morley, L. C. Mod. Italian literature, 850.9

Compound names are a greater source of worry where foreign authors are
concerned, and, irrespective of the rules, it is an excellent plan
to use a _native_ biographical dictionary to ensure correctness of
entry. A rule of a general character may be laid down to the effect
that foreign names are subject to the opposite method of treatment to
that for English names, and the first part of the name is taken. It is
said, though the statement is not vouched for, that in France, and, no
doubt, elsewhere, such names are obtained in an odd way. A person say
of the name of Saluste lives in a small town and on the left bank of
the river running through it. In order that he may not be confused with
another person of the same name living in another part, he is spoken of
as Saluste of the Left Bank, and in course of time this distinguishing
name is absorbed by his family, its patronymic eventually becoming
Saluste de la Rive Gauche.

However this may be, the following represent the correct forms for such
names:--

  BARBEY D'AUREVILLY, Jules. Ce qui ne meurt pas.
      2 v. _Paris_, n.d.
  LEROY-BEAULIEU, Pierre. La rénovation de l'Asie:
      Sibérie, Chine, Japon. pp. xx., 482. _Paris_,
      1900
  CANTACUZÈNE-ALTIERI, Princesse Olga. Responsable.
      2me éd. pp. 349. _Paris_, 1897

Foreign names of this kind rarely require references from the latter or
other part of the name, but they may be given in very doubtful cases.

The first and third of these books being works of fiction, require no
subject-entries. Works of this class receive instead an entry under
the first word of the title, other than an article (a "title-entry"),
because people often remember and ask for such works by their titles
without knowing the author's names. These will be

  Ce qui ne meurt pas. Barbey d'Aurevilly, J.
      2 v. n.d.
  Responsable. Cantacuzène-Altieri, Princesse.
      1897

While it is altogether against the principle of the dictionary
catalogue to gather novels together under a heading "Fiction" or
"Novels" in any part of it, yet there can be no objection to furnishing
a guide to the authors of fiction in a particular foreign language
contained in the catalogue after this style

  French Fiction. _See the names of the following
      authors_: Barbey d'Aurevilly, Cantacuzène-Altieri.

The second of the above books needs not only a subject-entry under
Asia, but also one under the names of the three countries dealt with in
it, as

  =Asia, Eastern=:
      Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.
          1900

  =Siberia=:
      Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.
          1900

with similar entries under "China" and "Japan," and references, binding
the whole together, in this way

  East, The Far. _See_ Asia, Eastern.

  =Asia, Eastern.=
      _See also_ China. Japan. Siberia.

It is hardly necessary to say that the translation of works by
a foreign author in no way alters the form of name. Because M.
Leroy-Beaulieu's name is attached to a book in English, it does not
bring him under the rules for English compound names, any more than it
makes an Englishman of him. This last book in translation, therefore,
appears as

  LEROY-BEAULIEU, Pierre. The awakening of the
      East: Siberia, Japan, China; transl. by
      Richard Davey, with a preface by [Sir] Henry
      Norman. pp. xxviii., 299. 1900

The fullest form of catalogue will have references under the translator
and the writer of the preface, thus

  DAVEY, Richard (_Transl._) _See_ Leroy-Beaulieu,
      Pierre.
  NORMAN, Sir Henry. _See also_ Leroy-Beaulieu,
      Pierre.

The average catalogue will not only dispense with these references,
but may make them impossible by omitting to mention the names in the
main-entry.

It may be said in passing that it is customary to give works in the
original precedence over translations in the order of arrangement and
altogether irrespective of the alphabetical order of the titles. The
subject-entries for this work, being the same as before, need not be
repeated except to give both books under one of them to show this order

  =Asia, Eastern=:
      Leroy-Beaulieu, P. La rénovation de l'Asie.
          1900
      -- The awakening of the East. 1900

The classified catalogue entry for the book will be marked 950
(History--Asia), although each of the countries named has a separate
number. The novels will fall into 843.89 (Literature--French
Fiction--Later 19th Century). Though this sub-division may be of
service on the shelves, it is more convenient in the catalogue to
arrange French fiction, or any other fiction, under a general number
(in this case 843), and place the entries in one alphabetical sequence
by authors' names without regard to their period. As a rule, however,
both on the shelves and in the catalogues fiction receives special
treatment.

Names with prefixes are also troublesome, and call for variation in
treatment according to nationality. In all British names the entry is
made under the prefix and not under the name following. Accordingly the
Fitzes, the Macs, the Aps, and the O's attached to names are regarded
as being embodied in them, as FitzHerbert, McColl, Ap John, O'Brien,
and all with similar prefixes are brought together. This statement also
applies to those surnames preceded by "St." The following are examples
of all these:--

  FITZ-GERALD, S. J. Adair. Stories of famous
      songs. pp. xviii., 426. 1898

The style in which the author prints his name in the book should be
adhered to by the cataloguer, though whether printed as Fitz-Gerald,
Fitz Gerald, or Fitzgerald, all are regarded as alike, and arranged
together for alphabetical position in the catalogue.

  MCCABE, Joseph. The Iron Cardinal: the
      romance of Richelieu. pp. xii., 389, ports.
      1909

Here also the alphabetical order remains the same whether the prefix
is spelled Mac, Mc, or M', this name being arranged as if Maccabe. As
the illustrations to the book consist exclusively of portraits, this
is stated by "ports." instead of "illus." given with the collation. If
the illustrations consist of portraits, pictures, and maps, they are
separately named, as shown in the "St. John" entry below.

  AP JOHN, Lewis. William Ewart Gladstone: his
      life and times. pp. 329, port. 1887

The preliminary pages in this book are marked i. to xvi., and the
succeeding pages 17 to 329, and these are given as above instead of as
pp. xvi., 313.

  O'GRADY, Standish. The story of Ireland.
      pp. viii., 214. 1894
  ST. JOHN, Charles. Short sketches of the wild
      sports and natural history of the Highlands.
      New ed., with ... memoir by M. G.
      Watkins. pp. xxiv., 319, port., illus., map.
      1893

The author's name in this entry is according to the title-page, but a
full catalogue will either give it in full--Charles William George St.
John--or with initials, as Charles W. G. St. John.

In the sorting of this and similar entries for alphabetical order,
the procedure of taking the prefix as part of, and one with, the name
following does not apply. The others were regarded as Fitzg, Macc,
Apj, and Obr respectively, but in this case the "St.," besides being
taken as "Saint" in full, stands isolated from the rest of the name,
when it falls into place among all names with a similar prefix and then
in the alphabetical order of the main name. Accordingly St. John, or
Saint-Simon, or Saint-Yves come _before_ Sainta or Sainte-Beuve.

Before proceeding further, these books may be completed for the
dictionary catalogue and assigned their places in the classified.

  =Songs=:
      Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A. Stories of famous
          songs. 1898

If but a single book appears on the subject a title-entry suffices

  Songs, Famous, Stories of. Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A.
      1898

This is better and less clumsy than

  Songs, Stories of famous. Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A.
      1898
  =Richelieu, Cardinal=:
      McCabe, J. The Iron Cardinal. 1909

In full form catalogues the heading can be given at length

  =Richelieu, Armand-Jean Du Plessis=, _Cardinal_
      (1585-1642).

The title "The Iron Cardinal" must be so given, and not as "The iron
cardinal," although it may be a fanciful title made use of by this
author alone.

  =Gladstone, William Ewart=:
      Ap John, L. Gladstone: his life and times.
          1887

In arranging the order it is the correct and better plan to put the
books _by_ a person before those _upon_ him, and it is an advantage to
print the latter in smaller type. The books in the extract from the
Manchester catalogue given on pages 11 and 12 would be better arranged
in this order:--

  GLADSTONE (W. E.) Gleanings of past years.
  -- Homer.
  -- Impregnable Rock of Holy Scripture.

      Biography of, by Russell.
      Biography of, by Smith.
      Character of.
      Essay on, by Brown.

This meagre, telegraphese style of catalogue can never be satisfactory,
so it is not surprising to learn that Mr. C. W. Sutton, the Manchester
Librarian, has superseded it by the classified form.

  =Ireland=:
                    _History._
      O'Grady, S. The story of Ireland. 1894

  =Scotland=:
                _Natural History, &c._
      St. John, C. Wild sports and natural history
          of the Highlands. 1893

  Highlands, Scottish. _See_ Scotland.

There is no occasion to give a title-entry for any of these books as
they are adequately catalogued as shown. It may be assumed that any
person who wants them will remember either the authors' names or the
subjects. To give entries under "Stories," "Iron Cardinal," "Story of
Ireland," "Short sketches," would be both futile and wasteful.

In the classified catalogue the main-entries given above would
be numbered and arranged, the book on songs, 821.04 (English
Literature--Poetry--Lyric, Ballads), Richelieu as 923.2 (Biography
of Sociology--Statesmen)--rather than 922.2 (Biography of
Religion--Cardinals)--and the Gladstone would be the same number,
923.2. It is a convenience in the case of biographies in a classified
catalogue to lead off with, and arrange by, the name of the subject of
the biography, in which case the entries are changed to this form:--

  =923.2 Biography of Sociology--Statesmen.=
      Gladstone, William Ewart: his life and times,
          by Lewis Ap John. pp. 329, port. 1887
      Richelieu, Cardinal. The Iron Cardinal, by
          Joseph McCabe. pp. xii., 389, ports.
          1909

It is still more convenient to throw all the works of biography into a
single alphabet of the names of the subjects without any sub-division.
This enables the consulter of the catalogue to find a biography
without having to stop and consider whether the person was a cardinal
or a statesman.

The story of Ireland is 941.5 (History--Ireland), it being a
general history, and not one upon a particular period. The book
on the Highlands deals with the fish, birds, and animals, and is
therefore allocated to 591.941 (Science--Zoology--Geographical
Distribution--Scotland).

The index entries are

  Fitz-Gerald, S. J. A. Famous songs. 821.04
  Songs and Ballads (Literature) 821.04
  McCabe, J. Iron Cardinal (Richelieu) 923.2
  Richelieu, Cardinal, 923.2
  Ap John, L. Gladstone, 923.2
  Gladstone, William E. (biographies) 923.2
  O'Grady, S. Story of Ireland, 941.5
  Ireland (History), 941.5
  St. John, C. Wild sports of the Highlands, 591.941
  Scotland (Zoology), 591.941
  Highlands, Scottish (Zoology), 591.941

Other prefixes, mostly of foreign origin, as De, De la, Le, Van, become
the entry-word when attached to British surnames, as in the following
examples:--

  DE MORGAN, William. Alice-for-Short.
  DE LA WARR, Constance, Countess. A twice
      crowned queen: Anne of Brittany. 1906
  LE FEUVRE, Amy. A bit of rough road.
  VAN DYKE, Henry. The blue flower.

All these are alphabetized as if the prefixes were part of the names
following, as Demor, Delawa, Lefeu, Vandyke.

The illustrative entries worked out from this point onwards will be
curtailed to the limits of an average or short-entry catalogue, upon
the supposition that most of those who use this book will require
compressed entries, the style for full-entry catalogues having been
already sufficiently indicated. It is easier to give entries in full
than to condense them without the loss of any information of moment.
In the following pages an endeavour will be made to show reasonable
condensation of entries or other economies that may be effected and
adopted. Putting this into practice, it will be observed that the
collation has been left out of these entries, and that the dates of
publication are not given in three of them. This latter omission
is because they are works of fiction, and books in this class of
literature are frequently worn out in popular libraries. The editions
replacing them are seldom of the same date, therefore it serves no
particular purpose to give the dates; the great majority of persons
wanting such books are not in the least concerned as to when the book
was published, unless it be that it is the "latest out."

The title-entries for these same three books are

  Alice-for-Short. De Morgan, W.
  Bit of rough road, A. Le Feuvre, A.
  Blue flower, The. Van Dyke, W.

It is often a puzzle where properly to introduce the articles a, an,
and the, in titles turned about to bring the word following into place;
under no circumstances should entries be given under the articles.
Generally they fall into place to read easily and correctly if brought
in before the possessive or at the end. Guidance must be largely a
matter of sight or sound, as no definite rule can be laid down. It is
incorrect to omit them altogether, because the sense of the title
is often changed or spoiled. Under the author-entry the articles
should be left in their place, as shown, and not twisted about, as is
occasionally seen, after this fashion.

  DEEPING, Warwick. Bertrand of Brittany.
  -- Lame Englishman, The.
  -- Red Saint, The.
  -- Woman's war, A.

Under the author-entry the books are placed in alphabetical order by
the word following the article. Some rules recommend that this be
emphasised by the use of a capital initial to it, in this way

  DEEPING, Warwick. Bertrand of Brittany.
  -- The Lame Englishman.
  -- The Red saint.
  -- A Woman's war.

This point is further referred to and illustrated in Chapter XII.

Every article when part of a title (apart from the initial one) is
taken into account for alphabetising purposes, as

  Story of a play.
  Story of Aline.
  Story of an African farm.
  Story of Leah.
  Story of the Gadsbys.

The historical biography yet remains for attention and requires a
title-as-subject entry.

  Anne of Brittany. A twice crowned queen. De
      la Warr, Countess. 1906

A title-entry may be given if desired, but it cannot be said to be of
much use.

  Twice crowned queen, A: Anne of Brittany. De
      la Warr, Countess. 1906

For the classified catalogue the works of fiction, in a "free library"
at any rate, will hardly be marked 823 (Literature--English Fiction),
but will be treated as a class apart; all the entries being arranged
alphabetically by author's names, not by the periods in which the books
were written, or the nationalities of the authors. It is true there are
other possibilities in arranging works of fiction in the classified
catalogue, though they introduce an element of obscurity and hinder
ready reference. Historical fiction can be kept apart and arranged
under the countries and periods, or the idea can be carried further and
the books sub-divided under such headings as Human Careers, Adventures
Abroad, America, English Life, Irish Life, Scottish Life, Short Stories
and Sketches, Detectives and Crime. It is conceivable that there are
people who would appreciate a division of this kind, though it would
not suit the general convenience. To bring all the works of fiction
together under a heading "Novels" in the dictionary catalogue, as said
previously, is foreign to its nature, and should not be attempted.

The foregoing illustrations were examples of Anglicized foreign
prefixes. When the prefixes are to genuine foreign names they require
careful consideration and varying treatment according to their
character. If "De" is part of a name undoubtedly French, it is not
the entry word, but the name which follows or precedes it. If a
prefix embodies the definite article in it, as "Du," then that is the
entry-word, whether the name be English or French, so also is the
definite article of "de la", as shown in the de la Brète item below.
The above points are all illustrated in the following examples:--

  HARCOURT, Louis d'. Le sabre du notaire.
  MAUPASSANT, Guy de. Fort comme la mort.
  DU BOISGOBEY, Fortuné. La loge sanglante.
  LA BRÈTE, Jean de. Mon oncle et mon curé.
  LE ROUX, Hugues. Le fils à papa.

When the prefix is embodied as part of the surname, then the whole name
is regarded as a single one, and comes under the ordinary rule. It is
as well to give examples of these also.

  DECOURCELLE, A. Un homme d'argent.
  DELABORDE, Vicomte Henri. La gravure: précis
      élémentaire. [1882]

All the above are works of fiction, the last excepted, and therefore
receive the usual first-word title-entries in the dictionary catalogue,
the rules governing the use of the article remaining the same for
foreign fiction. To prevent misunderstanding, the correct form for such
entries is here shown

  Sabre, Le, du notaire. Harcourt, L. d'.
  Fort comme la mort. Maupassant, G. de.
  Loge sanglante, La. Du Boisgobey, F.
  Mon oncle et mon curé. La Brète, J. de.
  Fils à papa, Le. Le Roux, H.
  Homme d'argent, Un. Decourcelle, A.

Whatever economy may be effected by leaving out the articles in
English titles, it is better and more correct not to attempt it in
French. The last of the books is on engraving, which word becomes the
subject-heading, as under no circumstances should the name of any
subject be given in any form but English in the catalogue unless, as
happens in remote cases, there is no equivalent in English for the
subject. Accordingly the entry is

  =Engraving=:
      Delaborde, Vicomte H. La gravure. [1882]

The instruction that when the definite article is a prefix, or part
of a prefix, to a name it becomes the entry word must not be blindly
followed in all cases, as there are exceptions. If it were the
middle part (conjunction) of a double name, for example, it is not
the entry-word. To name some instances of this Viollet-le-Duc is so
entered, and not as Le Duc; Verdy du Vernois, and not Du Vernois;
Leconte de Lisle, and not Lisle or De Lisle; and Puvis de Chavannes,
not Chavannes or De Chavannes. Such names require to be treated with
knowledge and discretion.

The inexperienced and the young cataloguer, they are not necessarily
the same, need to exercise due care lest they blunder stupidly if
unwittingly. Perhaps they have a book by, say, J.-H. Rosny le Jeune one
day, and on another one by J.-H. Rosny Ainé, when it need hardly be
said the entry-names are not Le Jeune or Ainé, or even Rosny le Jeune
or Rosny Ainé, but

  ROSNY, J.-H., _ainé_.
  ROSNY, J.-H., _le jeune_.

and in this order. This note of warning is not unnecessary, as might be
supposed.

Much the same principles govern Italian and Spanish names with
prefixes. In German and Dutch "von" and "van" are not the entry-words,
except in Anglicized names as already shown, or if clearly embodied in
the surname. This latter remark applies to "van," as "von" is seldom,
if ever, so found.

It is customary in entering books by the Greek and Latin classical
authors to adopt the name contained in some modern standard dictionary,
such as Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography." This is
usually the Latin form, as Virgilius, Homerus, and while it is wise in
the case of a college or other library to follow this, it is better for
a public library to adopt the English style, as Homer, Horace, Ovid,
Pliny, Virgil; at the same time taking care to adhere to the English
forms throughout and to see that all the books are entered under that
adopted, no matter what may be the languages of the various editions.
The author's name as the entry-word must, of course, be turned into
the nominative, and not left in the case in which it appears on the
title-page, though this difficulty does not arise when the English
renderings of the names are chosen.

The following examples are given to elucidate the matter as well as
emphasise it. The title-pages of the four books selected for the
purpose read:--

  Q. Horati Flacci Opera Edited by T. E. Page,
      M.A. London Macmillan & Co. 1895
  Sophoclis Tragoediae Edited by Robert Yelverton
      Tyrell. London Macmillan & Co. 1897
  P. Vergili Maronis Bucolica Georgica Aeneis
      Edited by T. E. Page, M.A. London Macmillan
      & Co. 1895
  M. Tullii Ciceronis De Finibus Bonorum et
      Malorum Libri Quinque With Introduction
      and Commentary by W. M. L. Hutchinson.
      London Edward Arnold 1909

The first three books have on the preliminary title-pages "The
Parnassus Library of Greek and Latin Texts." To revert to the style of
the full form of entry, these would appear as

  HORATIUS FLACCUS, Quintus. Opera; ed. by T. E.
      Page. (_Parnassus lib. of Greek and Latin
      texts._) pp. xxii., 252. 1895

  SOPHOCLES. Tragoediae; ed. by Robert Y. Tyrrell.
      (_Parnassus lib. of Greek and Latin texts._)
      pp. xxvi., 272. 1897

  VIRGILUS MARO, Publius. Bucolica, Georgica,
      Aeneis; ed. by T. E. Page. (_Parnassus lib. of
      Greek and Latin texts._) pp. xxii., 376. 1895

  CICERO, Marcus Tullius. De finibus bonorum et
      malorum; with intro. and commentary by
      W. M. L. Hutchinson, pp. xxxii., 238. 1909

It should be noted that the form of words of the _titles_ of the books
is not altered or amended, the dipthongs in "Tragœdiæ" and "Æneis"
being taken from the books, as it is the rule to follow the wording of
a title-page literally, even to the extent of copying obvious mistakes.

References are required from the names of the various editors

  PAGE, T. E. (_Ed._) _See_ Horatius. Virgilius.
  TYRRELL, Robert Y. (_Ed._) _See_ Sophocles.
  HUTCHINSON, W. M. L. (_Ed._) _See_ Cicero.

For "an average catalogue"--by which is meant one that is intended for
the use of all classes, learned or unlearned--the popular form of names
is not only more suitable but is more convenient The entries, then,
would be

  HORACE. Opera; ed. by T. E. Page. (_Parnassus
      lib._) 1895

  SOPHOCLES. Tragoediae; ed. by R. Y. Tyrrell.
      (_Parnassus lib._) 1887

  VIRGIL. Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneis; ed. by T. E.
      Page. (_Parnassus lib._) 1895

  CICERO. De finibus bonorum et malorum; ed. by
      W. M. L. Hutchinson. 1909

The fact that the titles of the books are given in Latin would in
itself be a sufficient indication to the observant that the works are
in the original and not translations.

Apart from the references from editor's names, the above would be the
sole entries in any style of catalogue, as most classical authors,
certainly the Greek and Latin, do not have subject-entries, or anything
corresponding thereto, probably upon the supposition that the contents
of their works are so well known by those who read them that further
entries are uncalled for.

In the classified catalogue most of the classic authors have a specific
place, those above being respectively 874.5 (Literature--Latin Lyric
Poetry--Horace), 882.2 (Literature--Greek Dramatic Poetry--Sophocles),
873.1 (Literature--Latin Epic Poetry--Virgil), and 875.4
(Literature--Latin Oratory--Cicero--Philosophical Works.)

In all subsequent illustrations the position in the Dewey
Classification will be shown by the number attached to each principal
entry, as if it were the shelf ("finding" or "location") number in
the dictionary catalogue, and this will obviate the necessity for any
separate statement relating to the classified catalogue unless it seems
to be required.



CHAPTER X.

First Name Entry.

    Monarchs. Queens. Order of Arrangement. Princes. Popes. Series
        Entries. Saints. Friars. Mediæval Names. Artists, &c.


Among other names rather puzzling to the cataloguer are those of
persons who have no surnames in the ordinary accepted sense, and
who are known and entered by their Christian or forenames, such as
potentates, popes, saints, and mediæval writers. Their names will arise
more frequently for subject-entry than as authors, but the style of
entry remains the same in either case.

To take the names of royal personages first, the book chosen is
catalogued as

  VICTORIA, _Queen_. Letters: a selection, 1837-61;
      ed. by Arthur C. Benson and Viscount Esher.
      3 v. ports. 1907                                           942.081

This would be a sufficiently full entry for most catalogues, yet the
title-page of the first volume reads

    The Letters of / Queen Victoria / a Selection from Her
    Majesty's / Correspondence between the / Years 1837 and 1861 /
    Published by Authority of / His Majesty the King / Edited by
    Arthur Christopher Benson, M.A. / and Viscount Esher, G.C.V.O.,
    K.C.B. / In three volumes / Vol. I / 1837-1843 / London / John
    Murray, Albemarle Street, W. / 1907

The markings in this title denote the division into lines of the
title-page, and are introduced merely to illustrate and explain such
markings when seen in catalogues. They are only used in the case of
rare editions and bibliographical curiosities, or where a very exact
description is wanted.

This book is not allotted to the biography of sociology in the
classified catalogue, but to English History--Queen Victoria, where
it rightly belongs. The biographies of monarchs are rarely separable
from the histories of their reigns, and these letters are regarded
accordingly.

The usual references are required from the names of the editors
individually, as

  BENSON, Arthur C. (_Ed_.) _See_ Victoria, Queen.
  ESHER, _Viscount_ (_Ed_.) _See_ Victoria, Queen.

The next work is one of a purely literary character by the queen of a
reigning monarch, viz.,

  ELISABETH, _Queen of Roumania_ ("Carmen
      Sylva.") Pilgrim sorrow: a cycle of tales;
      transl. by Helen Zimmern. 1884                              833.89

A title-entry is required for the book

  Pilgrim sorrow: tales. Elisabeth, _Queen of
      Roumania_. 1884                                             833.89

This book is not placed with Roumanian literature in the classified
catalogue, but with German fiction of the later 19th century, as the
Queen writes in her native German.

In the remaining illustrations the royal personages come as subjects,
not as authors. The principal entries are--

  BAIRD, Henry M. The Huguenots and Henry of
      Navarre. 2 v. 1886                                           272.4
  BEAZLEY, C. Raymond. Prince Henry the Navigator,
      the hero of Portugal and of modern
      discovery, 1394-1460. (_Heroes of the
      nations_.) illus. 1895                                       923.9
  BIGELOW, Poultney. The German Emperor and
      his Eastern neighbours, port. 1892                         943.084
  CAPEFIGUE, J. B. Gabrielle d'Estrées et la politique
      de Henri IV. 1859                                          944.031
  YOUNGHUSBAND, Lady Helen A. Marie-Antoinette:
      her early youth, 1770-74. ports., illus.
      1912                                                         923.1

The first and fourth of these books come together under the same
heading--

  =Henry IV.=, _of France_:
      Baird, H. M. The Huguenots and Henry of
          Navarre. 2 v. 1886                                       272.4
      Capefigue, J. B. Gabrielle d'Estrées et la
          politique de Henri IV. 1859                            944.031

A reference is desirable

  Henry of Navarre. _See_ Henry IV., of France.

These books need further entries for subject, the first under the
heading "Huguenots, The," and the other a title-entry

  Estrées, Gabrielle d', et la politique de Henri IV.
      Capefigue, J. B. 1859                                      944.031

Presuming that the catalogue will contain no other book than that above
on Prince Henry, we write a title-entry

  Henry, Prince, the Navigator. Beazley, C. R.
      1895                                                         923.9

The next book becomes

  =William II.=, _Emperor of Germany_:
      Bigelow, P. The German Emperor and his
          Eastern neighbours. 1892                               943.084

Whenever a number is used in the titles of monarchs either in the
heading or in transcribing the title of a book, it is given in Roman
numerals, as shown above, and not as "Henry 4th," or even as "William
the Second." The last book requires a further entry under "Russia,"
the "Eastern neighbours" of the title, as the book bears upon German
relations with Russia. It does not need an entry under "Germany," as
all books dealing with a particular monarch or his reign are entered
under his name, as in this instance, and covered by a reference from
the name of the country, as

  =Germany.=
      _See also_ William II.

or more comprehensively

  =Germany.=
      _For the lives of monarchs and the histories of
          their reigns see their names as_ William II.

This example affords an opportunity for explaining that in the
catalogues of popular libraries the names of foreign monarchs are
Anglicized, where they admit of it, as shown (William instead of
Wilhelm); that all English monarchs _of the same name_ take precedence
in the order of arrangement; and that the sovereigns with the same
name of a particular country are kept together, and then arranged in
chronological order. The following list demonstrates this point--

  William I., _the Conqueror_.
  William II. (1087-1100).
  William III.
  William IV.
  William I., _Emperor of Germany_ (1861-88).
  William II., _Emperor of Germany_.

If considered desirable, the dates of the reigns can be added, as
shown in the second and fifth of these names. This adds a certain
clearness to the entry, though the catalogue is not meant to serve as
an historical dictionary.

The last of the above selection of books is entered

  =Marie-Antoinette=, _Queen_:
      Younghusband, Lady. Marie-Antoinette:
          her early youth. 1912

In assigning a place in the classified catalogue for this and similar
books we are faced with the necessity for deciding whether they shall
go in 923.1 (Biography of Sociology--Chief Rulers, Kings, Queens,
etc.). By the Queen Victoria book it was shown that her letters were
inseparable from the history of her reign, and the same view is taken
of the biographical and other books above, as indicated by the numbers
attached to the entries. If this is considered to be the better and
more useful placing for a book dealing with a monarch, it is a moot
point whether the lives of their consorts are not also to a large
extent contributions to the histories of their periods, and warrant
similar treatment, when this book would be numbered with others on the
reign of Louis XVI. (944.035). A confirmation of this view is found in
the _Subject-Index of the London Library_, where no references whatever
to books on Marie-Antoinette are to be found under her name, as they
are under Louis XVI., though this is no criterion for so dealing with
books catalogued according to the principles laid down in these pages.
In the classified catalogue the books can be entered at 944.035, and a
reference given to it at 923.1.

Following out the contrary idea, the book upon Prince Henry the
Navigator is not put with the Biography of Princes, but with the
Biography of Travellers, Discovery.

We may take two books upon Popes at this point, though the method of
treatment is virtually the same,

  MCCARTHY, Justin. Pope Leo XIII. (_Public men
      of to-day_.) 1896                                           922.21
  STEPHENS, W. R. W., _Dean_. Hildebrand and his
      times. (_Epochs of church hist._) map. 1888                 922.21

Contrary also to the views expressed above, but with as good reason,
these two books are not classified with Religion--History of the
Roman Catholic Church, but with the Biography of Religion--Popes. The
subject-entries for the dictionary catalogue are

  =Leo XIII.=, _Pope_:
      McCarthy, J. Pope Leo XIII. 1896                            922.21

  =Gregory VII.=, _Pope_:
      Stephens, W. R. W. Hildebrand and his
          times. 1888                                             922.21

This last calls for the reference

  Hildebrand. _See_ Gregory VII., Pope.

The lives of popes, or any other works dealing with them as
individuals, do not need references from their family names, because
these names are merged when the bearers are raised to the pontificate,
and it is unlikely that anyone will look under Pecci for Leo XIII. Two
useful general references can be added

  =Roman Catholic Church.=
      _See also_ Popes.

  =Popes.=
      _See also the names of Popes as_ Gregory VII.,
          Leo XIII.

These references assume that there are books in the catalogue upon the
popes generally.

It will have been observed in passing that both these books, and that
upon Prince Henry the Navigator, in the previous examples, belong to
series, the titles of which are contained in the entries. They are
usually noticed for headings in the dictionary catalogue, as it can
be made to furnish a list of the volumes in a library, belonging to a
series, under the name of the series. As such a list is not intended to
serve as a makeshift form of subject-entry, the first word (articles
excepted) of the title of the series is taken for the entry-word of
the heading, as Heroes of the Nations, Public Men of To-day, Epochs of
Church History, capitals being used to denote that these are special
names. There are three ways of entering under a series heading, viz.,
(1) by the authors' names arranged in alphabetical order, as

  Heroes of the Nations; ed. by Evelyn Abbott:
      Beazley, C. R. Prince Henry the Navigator, 1895              923.9

(2) by the subject, especially in a series of a biographical or
personal nature, as

  Public Men of To-day:
      Leo XIII., by J. McCarthy. 1896                             922.21

and (3) by the number if the volumes in the series bear a consecutive
number, as

  International Scientific Series:
      v. 74. Stebbing, T. R. R. History of crustacea.
          1898                                                     595.3

Though allowed for by some of the codes of rules, this latter is a form
not to be commended, as it often involves a search through a long list
to find a particular book. The only possible advantage it has is that
the latest published volumes are to be found at the end of the list,
though this would not apply to new and revised editions if they had the
old volume numbers. When economy of space is of some moment, as it too
often is in the printed catalogues, there being a certain element of
doubt as to the utility of these series entries, they can be dispensed
with, upon the presumption that a person requiring a book will know
either the name of the author or its subject, and the author-entry
reveals if it is one of a series. Whatever likelihood there may be of
a person wishing to read all the books in the Heroes of the Nations
or English Men of Letters Series, it is improbable that anyone will
want to read systematically from volume 1 to 74 of the International
Scientific Series owing to the variety of subjects. The name of the
series should be given in the author-entry even in the brief form
of catalogue. A certain amount of discretion has to be exercised in
giving lists of series, as many publishers' series, like the Pitt Press
Series, Bohn's Libraries, Clarendon Press Series, Everyman's Library,
pass unnoticed. If space can be afforded, it serves some little purpose
towards indicating the character and scope of books to give the
names of such series in the principal entry. There is no place in the
classified catalogue for separate lists of series.

The saints and similar personages next claim our attention. The entries
will be under their names, and not under "Saint." Examples of the
correct form are

  AUGUSTINE, _St._, _Bp. of Hippo_.
      Confessions; with an Eng. transl. by Wm.
          Watts, 1631. (_Loeb classical lib._) 2 v.
          1912                                                     922.1

  =Augustine=, _St._, _of Canterbury_:
      Cutts, E. L. Augustine of Canterbury. 1895                   922.1

  =Francis=, _St._, _of Assis_i:
      Little, W. J. K. St. Francis of Assisi. 1897                 922.2
  FRANCIS, _St._, _de Sales_.
      Spiritual letters: a selection, transl. 1880                   242

  =Francis Xavier=, _St._:
      Venn, H. Missionary life and labours of
          Francis Xavier. 1862                                     922.2

Only the first and fourth of these are main-entries, and neither of
them really needs a subject-entry. The main-entries for the rest are

  CUTTS, Edward L. Augustine of Canterbury.
      (_Leaders of religion._) 1895                                922.1
  LITTLE, W. J. Knox. St. Francis of Assisi: his
      times, life, and work. port. 1897                            922.2
  VENN, Henry. The missionary life and labours of
      Francis Xavier. 1862                                         922.2

The process of canonization does not affect cataloguing so materially
that all persons canonized must be entered under their Christian names,
indeed, the Francis Xavier at least needs the reference

  Xavier, St. Francis. _See_ Francis Xavier.

Comparatively modern instances, as Sir Thomas More or Bishop John
Fisher--now the Blessed Thomas More and Blessed John Fisher--continue
to receive the usual entries under More and Fisher, though they will
not be found under those names in the recently-published _Catholic
Encyclopedia_, but under Thomas and John respectively. Whatever form of
name may be adopted for the heading, it does not affect the title of
the book, which must be retained as given by the writer, thus

  =More, Sir Thomas=:
      Bridgett, T. E. Wit and wisdom of Blessed
          Thomas More. 1892

Friars or other ecclesiastics who drop their surnames and adopt a
religious name happily are not often found among the writers of books
in an average library, though the cataloguer of a theological library
will have to reckon with them. One example will suffice

  HYACINTHE, _Père_ (Chas. J. M. Loyson). Catholic
      reform and the Anglican Church: correspondence;
      transl. by Lady Durand. 1879                                   282

A reference from Loyson to Hyacinthe is necessary; indeed, in this case
the British Museum Catalogue enters under Loyson with the reference the
reverse way.

In the event of a friar leaving his order, and resuming his "worldly"
name, entry is by that name. A modern instance of this would be

  MCCABE, Joseph. Life in a modern monastery.
      1898                                                           271

the author having been Father Antony of the Franciscans. No reference
is needed here, and it would only be required in the event of his
having published books under his monastic name.

The first book takes two subject-entries, one under "Roman Catholic
Church" (or "Roman Catholicism"), and the other under "Church of
England," as

  =Roman Catholic Church=:
      Hyacinthe, _Père_. Catholic reform and the
          Anglican Church. 1879                                      282

The subject-entry for the other book is

  =Monasticism=:
      McCabe, J. Life in a modern monastery.
          1898                                                       271

There are yet others who are entered by their Christian names, for
lack of another; mostly mediæval writers, who are, however, usually
distinguished by means of their place, or office, or occupation. It
will suffice to name a few as examples of the type without adding
book-titles to them, viz., Mathew of Paris (Parisiensis); Mathew of
Westminster; Paulus Diaconus; Reginald, Monk of Durham; Thomas à
Kempis; Walter of Henley; William of Malmesbury.

Among the books set for cataloguing by library assistants and students
at a recent examination was one, the title-page of which read

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                  WILLELMI MALMESBIRIENSIS MONACHI                  |
  |                      DE GESTIS REGUM ANGLORUM                      |
  |                           LIBRI QUINQUE;                           |
  |                                                                    |
  |                          HISTORIÆ NOVELLÆ                          |
  |                            LIBRI TRES.                             |
  |                                                                    |
  |                      Edited from Manuscripts                       |
  |                                 By                                 |
  |                        WILLIAM STUBBS, D.D.                        |
  |     Bishop of Chester, and Honorary Student of Christ Church,      |
  |                              Oxford.                               |
  |                                                                    |
  |                              VOL. I.                               |
  |                                                                    |
  | _Published by The Authority of the Lords Commissioners of Her      |
  | Majesty's Treasury, under the Direction of the Master of the       |
  | Rolls._                                                            |
  |                                                                    |
  |                              LONDON:                               |
  |            Printed for Her Majesty's Stationery Office,            |
  |                     By Eyre and Spottiswoode,                      |
  |          Printers to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.           |
  |                                                                    |
  |                                1887                                |
  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+

  X/

  The results, as worked out, were surprising, and
  proved the great difficulty experienced by most in
  interpreting a title-page. Among the renderings
  were these, with others equally incorrect:--

  Stubbs, William, _editor_. Historiæ novellæ libri
      tres. Vol. 1. Lond. 1887

This had a further entry under "Historiæ Novellæ," William of
Malmesbury being ignored altogether. The punctuation and markings for
the printer are copied as given, and are here printed accordingly.

  Willelmi Malmesbiriensis, Monachi de Gestis
      Regum Anglorum Libri Quinque Historiæ
      Nouvellæ Libri Tres. ed. by William Stubbs,
      (Bp.) vol. 1. 1887

with a further entry in all particulars the same under

  "Stubbs, William (Bp. Ed.)."
      Stubbs, William (Bp. of Chester afterwards
          Truro) (ed.) Willelmi Malmesbiriensis
          Monachi De Gestis Regum Anglorum
          Libri Quinque; Historiæ Novellæ Libri
          Tres. v. 1. London, H.M. Stationery
          Office, 1887

with references from Chester and Truro in this manner

  Truro, William, _Bp. of_. _See_ Stubbs, William.

As the students were not permitted to use books of reference, the
mistake of placing Bishop Stubbs at Truro instead of Oxford was
pardonable, if not commendable, because it proved that the student had
the knowledge that Chester was not the last bishopric held by Stubbs,
and that, under ordinary circumstances, the correct see would have been
named.

  Malmsbury (William) _Duke_. Historiæ novellæ
      libri tres; ed. from manuscripts by William
      Stubbs. vol. 1.

with a reference equal to the full entry, in this manner

  Stubbs (William) _ed. See also_ Malmsbury
      (William) _Duke_. Historiæ novellæ libri tres.
      vol. 1.

One gave the main-entry under "Malmesbirienses," with references from
"Stubbs" and "Malmesbury, William," and apparently tripping over the
word "libri" added a subject-entry under "Libraries, Monastic." Another
translated the title and marked it for printing in this style

  William (of Malmesbury). Story of the reigns of
      the Kings of England. _Ed._ by William
      Stubbs (_Bishop of Chester_) vol 1 8vo
      London 1887.

This punctuation, or want of it, as well as the indifferent use of a
parenthesis and bracket, are characteristic of the work of many young
cataloguers. If the "copy" were sent to press without revision and
followed by the printer, the result would be peculiar, to say the least.

The correct form of entry upon the lines so far laid down is

  WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY. De gestis regum
      anglorum. Historiæ novellæ; ed. by Wm.
      Stubbs. (_Chronicles and memorials._) v. 1.
      1887                                                        942.01

The requisite additional entries being

  STUBBS, Wm., _Bp._ (_Ed._) _See_ William of Malmesbury.

  =Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain,=
          =&c. ("Rolls Series").=
      William of Malmesbury. De gestis regum
          anglorum. v. 1. 1887                                    942.01

  =English History.=
      _See also_ Chronicles and Memorials.

  Rolls series. _See_ Chronicles and Memorials.

If it is considered desirable, fuller references may be given

  Stubbs, William, _Bp. of Oxford_ (_Ed._) _See_
      William of Malmesbury.

  =England.=
                              _History.
      See also_ Chronicles and Memorials.

provided this style is generally adopted throughout the catalogue. As
an allowance for all possible needs, a reference can be added

  History of England. _See_ England (History).

In arranging the order of names of the description shown in this
chapter it is customary to place them (a) apostles, (b) saints, (c)
monarchs, (d) mediæval names, (e) friars, (f) surnames as usual. To put
this into concrete form it becomes

  James, _St._, _the Apostle_.
  James, _St._
  James I., _King_.
  James Edward, _Prince_.
  James, _Archbp. of Bulgaria_.
  James of Huntingdon.
  James, _Brother_.
  James, Abraham.
  James, G. P. R.

There are other personages who have first-name entries for whom no
definite rule can be laid down other than that which common knowledge
or custom dictates. Certain of the great artists are so entered,
Michael Angelo (sometimes given as Michel Angelo and Michelangelo)
as Michael, and not Buonarotti, Raphael not Santi, Rembrandt not
Rhijn. Others are known and always referred to by a sobriquet, or
nickname, which may be the best name for entry, but reference to a good
dictionary of artists, like Bryan's, settles any doubt that may arise.

There are also mediæval writers of the later period who have what may
be termed special names, by which they are more generally known, but
these names are, as a rule, in such common use that they are unlikely
to present any special difficulty. Erasmus, Grotius, Melancthon are
examples of this class.



CHAPTER XI.

Noblemen. Oriental Names.

    Noblemen. Title _v._ Family Name. Double Subject-Entry.
        Oriental Names. Indian Names. Japanese and Chinese Names.
        Hebrew Names. Maori Names.


Whether noblemen are to be entered in the catalogue as authors or
subjects, the question of entry by title or family name requires
careful consideration. Difference of opinion exists on this point. This
difference is carried into the codes of rules, the Library Association
of this country, curiously enough, advocating entry by the family name,
whereas the American Association, ignoring the republican tradition,
recommends entry under the latest title. This latter recommendation
is certainly far more convenient, because, as a rule, the title is
better remembered, even in cases of recent "creations." Those who
make any large use of the _Dictionary of National Biography_ know how
troublesome it is in this respect, invariably entailing two references.
For the catalogues of popular libraries, entry under the latest and
highest title is by far the most convenient and satisfactory, while no
possibility of mistake can arise if references are given in doubtful
cases from the family name to the title, or from an earlier and lower
to a later and higher title.

Some illustrations of such names are the following:--

  ROSEBERY, Earl of. Napoleon: the last phase.
      1904                                                        944.05

Under the rule in the English Code (Joint-Code) this would be given as

  PRIMROSE, Archibald P., _Earl of Rosebery_. Napoleon:
      the last phase. 1904                                        944.05

For the former entry no reference is needed from Primrose to
Rosebery, but in the latter the reference from Primrose is absolutely
indispensable.

The indexer of a lately-published book on dress gets over the
difficulty in a very easy if unsophisticated way by entering under
"Lord," after this manner

  Lord Beaconsfield, how dressed, 235
   "   Brougham, his check trousers, 104

It is of importance to have the books entered under the highest title
attained at the time the catalogue is published. The two undermentioned
books illustrate this point. The first is described as by "the late
Alexander, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres, Lord Lindsay, Etc.," and the
second as by "Lord Balcarres." We distinguish between them and enter in
this way

  CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, Alexander, 25th Earl
      of. The Earldom of Mar in sunshine and
      shade during 500 years. 2 v. _Edin._, 1882                   923.2
  CRAWFORD AND BALCARRES, David, 27th Earl of.
      The evolution of Italian sculpture, illus. 4º
      1909                                                           784

This latter work being published while the author was Lord Balcarres
necessitates the reference

  BALCARRES, Lord. _See_ Crawford and Balcarres,
      Earl of.

which will fit any Earl of Crawford who might have published a book
while using the courtesy title of Lord Balcarres. It may be admitted
that entry by the family name would bring all books together by members
of this particular family, irrespective of the titles under which they
may have written, whether Lord Balcarres, Lord Lindsay, or Earl of
Crawford, but such cases are few.

When the title of a nobleman is adopted for the entry in cases where he
has written books before being raised to the peerage, it is essential
that the reference from his former name be given, particularly if it
differs from the title he has assumed, as

  LUBBOCK, Sir John. _See_ Avebury, Lord.
  MITFORD, A. B. Freeman. _See_ Redesdale, Lord.

If the family name and the title are alike, or almost so, the reference
is seldom necessary, as the two names come near together. Examples
are:--

  COURTNEY OF PENWITH, Lord (Leonard H. Courtney).
  MORLEY OF BLACKBURN, Lord (John Morley).

In the event of there being many entries under the names of Courtney
and Morley, the references are required. In arranging these names for
order they would, of course, precede those of commoners, irrespective
of the alphabetical order of the secondary parts, that is to say
"Courtney of Penwith, Lord," comes before, say, "Courtney, Abram."

As "exceptions which prove the rule," there are a few noblemen who
are decidedly better known and are always referred to by their family
names, of which two outstanding instances are Francis Bacon (Viscount
St. Albans) and Horace Walpole (Earl of Orford).

The subject-entries for the three books given above are

  =Napoleon I.=, _Emperor_:
      Rosebery, Earl of. Napoleon: the last phase.
          1904                                                    944.05
  Mar, The Earldom of. Crawford, Earl of. 2 v.
      1882                                                         923.2

  =Sculpture=:
      Crawford, Earl of. The evolution of Italian
          sculpture. 1909                                            784

There is no occasion to distinguish between the Earls of Crawford in
the sub-entries except in the very remote possibility of two of them
having written on the same subject.

The book on Italian sculpture raises a very troublesome question in
connection with subject-entries for the dictionary catalogue, namely,
whether double entry is required or not. The youthful beginner may be
told here, as a kind of aside, that there is no _third_ subject to this
book, it has nothing to do with "Evolution" as such. The book is not
upon sculpture as a whole, but upon that subject with a geographical
(or national) limitation, yet the prominence of Italian sculpture in
that art calls for an entry under "Sculpture," as shown above. The
book, moreover, is not specifically upon Italian art, but only upon a
phase of it, yet those who want to study Italian art in all its aspects
must have their attention directed to it. Accordingly we either need an
entry, as

  =Italy=:
                        _Art._
      Crawford, Earl of. The evolution of Italian
          sculpture. 1909                                            784

or the more economical reference:--

  =Italy=:
                              _Art.
      See also_ Sculpture.

When space is a consideration, then the reference will suffice, but
where it can be afforded, double entry is advised. If there are
many entries under such a heading it can be sub-divided to simplify
reference--divisions as "General," "Greek and Roman," "Italian,"
"British," suggest themselves, though the amount of sub-division
usually depends upon the material to be arranged. The heading need not
necessarily be the geographical one (Italy), as here shown; a term more
direct, say "Italian Art," might be chosen.

In any case a book of this definite character would not be entered
under "Art" in the dictionary catalogue, sculpture being but a branch
of the Fine Arts, as also are painting and architecture. The heading
"Art" then would be reserved for books dealing with art generally,
including all the arts, or, at least, the two principal, painting and
sculpture, which people mostly mean when speaking of art, though in no
case must the valuable guiding reference be omitted

  =Art=:
      _See also_ Sculpture.

Furthermore, there is no reason why this heading should not be reserved
for books upon art generally without a qualification, and the books
upon national art be placed under the names of the country concerned,
with a further reference of a comprehensive nature, to this effect

  =Art=:
      _See also_ Architecture. Painting. Sculpture.
          _For the art of particular countries see
          their names as_ Greece, Italy, Japan.

Though not quite in the same category, by far the most troublesome
names the cataloguer has to contend with are the Oriental, both of the
far and near East. They are increasingly coming under notice, not only
attached to translations, but to books written in English, and have
to be reckoned with for the catalogues of even comparatively small
libraries. If the cataloguer should stumble in his selection of the
name under which he makes the entry, he has the satisfaction of knowing
that he errs in good company, with the further consolation of believing
that there will be few who know enough to discover his mistake, though
these facts will be no justification, and should only serve to put him
on his guard. In Abdullah Yusuf-Ali's _Life and labour of the people of
India_ (1907) we read:--

    "If Miss Toru Dutt were to come to life again, and had nothing
    better to do than go to the British Museum, she would never
    be able to trace her own book from the Catalogue. Her name
    is to be found neither under Dutt nor under Toru, but as
    Tarulata Datta. Mrs. Naidu's name appears under S. as Sarojini
    Nayadu. Perhaps some sympathy might be extended to the
    Frenchman who never could understand why names were treated
    so badly in England; there was one he knew which they wrote
    as Marjoribanks and pronounced as _Chumley!_ To be consistent
    the British Museum Catalogue ought (especially after the
    recent spelling crusade) to spell the names of the President
    of the United States "Rôs-felt" and classify it under T as
    Theodoros--Theodore being only a modern corruption of a good
    Greek name."

This is quoted for what it is worth, though coming as it does from
a native source and from one who can also write in English, it is
entitled to great respect. The following paragraph taken from _The
Westminster Gazette_ is helpful in this connection:--

    "The usually full telegrams from India during the past week
    have furnished several examples of that perpetual puzzle the
    proper use of Indian names. Both the home and the Anglo-Indian
    Press are apt to stumble, and to an Indian reader their
    mistakes must be as amusing as the 'Lord Balfour' and 'Sir
    Morley' of certain French newspapers are to us. As a rule, the
    blunders occur in reference to Parsee or Bengali names. Roughly
    speaking, every Bengali man has three names. The first is his
    given name, the second is conventional or honorific, the third
    is the patronymic, analogous to an Irish or Scottish clan-name.
    For example, Dr. Rash Behari Ghose (who should have been
    president of this year's National Congress), Mr. Romesh Chandra
    Dutt (the historian and ex-Civil servant), Bepin Chandra Pal
    (the well-known agitator). In each case the important names
    are the first and third; the second cannot be used without the
    first, though in certain forms of address the third is omitted.
    Thus, while it is permissible to speak of Dr. Rash Behari,
    Reuter is quite wrong with his 'Dr. Behari Ghose.' Similarly,
    the _Times_ should not speak of 'Mr. Chandra Pal,' nor the
    _Morning Post_ of 'Babu Banerjea.' We may say 'Bepin Babu' or
    'Mr. Pal,' 'Surendra Babu,' or Mr. Banerjea; but it is safer
    to give the full names. Parsee names are another matter, and a
    more intricate one."

We may take a book by way of illustration, and examine it for
cataloguing. The title-page of that chosen reads

    The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar, Dughlát. A
    history of the Moghuls of Central Asia. An English version
    edited, with commentary, notes, and map by N. Elias. The
    translation of E. Denison Ross. London, Sampson Low, &c. 1895

Upon somewhat general principles--too general to be always
reliable--the entry in such names is usually made under the first
name, which in this instance is Mirza, the author being referred to
throughout the preface as Mirza Haidar, though it appears that other
European writers have called him Haidar Mirza. In some parts of Asia
the reversal of the name in this way makes considerable difference;
when "Mirza" leads it means simply "Mr." or "Esq.," but at the end of
the name it is equivalent to "Prince," and is so used only by persons
who belong to a reigning family. As the writer was a prince, his name
could properly be given either way. Mirza being a title and not a name,
cannot be the entry-name, yet it is so entered, with other Mirzas, in
the Catalogue of the London Library. The British Museum enters the name
as "Muhammad Haidar, _Dughlát_." For most libraries an entry to the
following effect will prove sufficient

  MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, _Mirza_. The Tarikh-i-Rashidi:
      a history of the Moghuls of Central Asia;
      ed. by N. Elias. 1895                                          950

The book from which the paragraph criticising the British Museum
Catalogue was taken will serve as a further example, though it is a
very simple one; the author, apparently appreciating the difficulty
his name presents to Westerns, has given it at the end of the preface
and on the binding as "A. Yusuf-Ali," though it is in full, Abdullah
Yusuf-Ali, on the title-page. This enables us to see that it is correct
to treat the name as if it were an occidental one, and the entry is

  YUSUF-ALI, Abdullah. Life and labour of the
      people of India, illus. 1907

For ascertaining the meaning of terms attached to Oriental names, the
"List of Oriental titles and occupations with their signification,"
given in Linderfelt's _Eclectic Card Catalog Rules_ already named
is useful. For Indian names such works of reference as Whitworth's
_Anglo-Indian Dictionary_, Beale and Keene's _Oriental Biographical
Dictionary_, and Lethbridge's _Golden Book of India_ are serviceable.

Japanese and Chinese names present the same difficulty, though
the books themselves often indicate the correct name for entry,
especially in translations. Works in the original will necessitate
obtaining the aid of an expert, not only for giving the name of the
author and stating the subject with which he deals, but for making
a transliteration or some rendering suitable for a catalogue entry.
On the rare occasions when this is required, there is seldom any
difficulty in obtaining reliable voluntary help. Quite recently the
Chelsea Library obtained the loan of a Japanese manuscript from the
Swedish Royal Library, and a Frenchman translated it into English.

For the present Japanese names are oftener met with than Chinese, not
only attached to translations, but to books written in English and
continental languages, and first name entry is not always the correct
form. To take two examples in illustration

  The ideals of the East, with special reference to
      the art of Japan, by Kakasu Okakura. 1903
  A Japanese artist in London, written and illustrated
      by Yoshio Markino. 1910

In the prefaces of these books the writers are referred to as Mr.
Okakura and Mr. Markino respectively, therefore, these names may be
looked upon as corresponding to, although not actually the same as, the
family name in European usage, and the entries are given accordingly

  OKAKURA, Kakasu. The ideals of the East, with
      special reference to the art of Japan. 1903                 709.52
  MARKINO, Yoshio. A Japanese artist in London,
      illus. 1910                                                 914.21

There is every probability that had these books been published in Japan
the names of the authors would have been reversed upon the title-pages,
as "Okakura Kakasu" and "Markino Yoshio," but that fact does not
involve any necessity for references in an English catalogue.

Chinese names may need quite different treatment, and, failing any clue
as to the correct name for entry, the first given should be taken. The
following will not only illustrate this point, but serve to demonstrate
the method of condensing a title which in full is

    The Light of China. The Tâo Teh King of Lâo Tsze, 604-504
    B.C. An accurate metrical rendering, translated directly from
    the Chinese text, and critically compared with the standard
    translations, the ancient and modern Chinese commentaries, and
    all accessible authorities. With preface, analytical index, and
    full list of important words, and their radical significations.
    By I. W. Heysinger, M.A., M.D., Author of "Solar Energy, its
    Source and Mode Throughout the Universe," Etc., Etc. Research
    Publishing Co., Philadelphia, MDCCCCIII.

This is more advertisement than title-page, and the cataloguer renders
it all as simply as possible in this way:--

  LÂO TSZE. The Light of China: the Tâo Teh
      King; metrical transl., ed. by I. W. Heysinger.
      _Philad._, 1903                                              299.5

Before proceeding further, these books by Orientals must have
subject-entries to complete them. The first is a history of the
Mongols, and not of the Mohammedan Empire in India as the title might
seem to imply, therefore the entry is

  =Mongols, The=:
      Muhammed Haidar. Tarikh-i-Rashidi: history
          of the Moghuls. 1895                                       950

The author's name here cannot be curtailed to "Muhammed H." Two
references are needed, none being required from Moghuls to Mongols,

  =Asia, Central=:
      _See also_ Mongols.
  ELIAS, N. (_Ed._) _See_ Muhammed Haidar.

  =India=:
                    _Social life._
  Yusuf-Ali, A. Life and labour of the people of
      India. 1907                                                  915.4

  =Japan=:
      Okakura, Kakasu. The ideals of the East.
          1903                                                    709.52

  =London=:
      Markino, Yoshio. A Japanese artist in
          London. 1910                                            914.21

Where names have become so much adapted to the Western style, as the
above two, it might be possible to reduce them to "Okakura, K." and
"Markino, Y.", though the full form is preferable, even in sub-entries.

The Chinese work being by the founder of the religion known as
"Taoism," receives an entry accordingly

  =Taoism=:
      Lâo Tsze. The Light of China: the Tâo Teh
          King. 1903                                               299.5

The necessary reference is

  =China=:
                            _Religions.
      See also_ Taoism.

Hebrew names, those of Jewish rabbis especially, come up occasionally
for entry, but a general recommendation to consult the _Jewish
Encyclopedia_ (12 v. 1901-6) will suffice.

There are many other forms of foreign names, but the foregoing
remarks and illustrations will enable the cataloguer to see that no
definite rule governing all forms of names, even those of a particular
nationality, can be laid down. For instance, to go further afield
in the world, no code gives any guidance for Maori names, yet it
is conceivable that people of this race may yet figure as authors
of English books, even if only sermons, as a number of them are
clergymen of the Church of England. So far as Crockford's _Clerical
Directory_ serves as a guide, their names appear mostly under "Te," as
Te Awekotuku, Te Hana, Te Ngara, Te Raro, but there are no names of
the kind in the British Museum Catalogue under "Te," and, therefore,
the careful cataloguer will take heed, when the occasion arises, to
ascertain exactly the really important and distinguishing part of the
name, and enter accordingly.



CHAPTER XII.

Pseudonyms. Married Women.

    Pseudonyms _v._ Real Names. The Better-known Name. Methods
        of Marking Pseudonyms. Writers who use Two Names.
        Phrase-Pseudonyms. Specific Entry. Repetition Dashes.
        Use of Capitals for Emphasis. Women's Names Changed by
        Marriage. Anonymous Books. The Discovery of Authors of
        Anonymous Books. "By the Author of----." Names consisting
        of Initials only.


The cataloguer's troubles do not end when the, to him, vexatious
styles of names referred to in the previous pages are settled. He has
to decide for himself the somewhat difficult question of entry under
pseudonyms or real names when known, or under married or maiden names
when both have been used by women authors.

These classes come into the same division as changed names, though the
standard codes of rules make different recommendations, some to enter
by the real name, others by the pseudonym, but most are in favour of
the latter.

The A.L.A. and L.A. Joint-Code rule is to "enter under the pseudonym
of a writer when the real name is not known," which is another way of
saying "enter under the real name when known."

A great deal of attention has from time to time been paid to this
subject by librarians. Some years ago the whole tendency was to hunt
in all places, likely or unlikely, in the hope of discovering the
real name of an author who used a pseudonym, and, when the search
was successful, of getting it into print as soon as possible. A
librarian thereby may have scored by being ahead of his fellows with
the information, and the user of the catalogue may have acquired
knowledge, though possibly he did not want it, especially if it
involved looking up two references instead of one. The tendency is
now somewhat in the other direction, and it may safely be said that,
except for some excellent reason, the entries should be given under
the pseudonym, rules or no rules. It may reasonably be contended that
the better-known, whether it be the pseudonym or the real name, is the
right one for the entry, as being the more reasonable and satisfactory.
Should there be any doubt which is the better known, then it is "a
mistake on the right side" to enter under the real name of the author.

There is a little variation in the styles of printing such entries in a
catalogue. Some give them after this manner

  ANNUNZIO, Gabriele d', _pseud._ (i.e. Gaetano Rampagnetto).
      The triumph of death.

Others print the assumed name in italics, as

  _Dale, Darley_, pseud. (Francesca M. Steele).
      Seven sons; or, the story of Malcolm and
      his brothers.

while others put it shorter still, without any loss of clearness as to
meaning

  "FRANCE, Anatole" (A. François Thibault.) Le
      livre de mon ami.

In none of these cases is it deemed necessary, at least in an average
catalogue, to refer from the real name to the pseudonym, for the reason
that not one person in a thousand would think of looking under the
real names of these authors. In the catalogues of large and important
libraries, particularly reference libraries, these references can be
given, as a matter of course, according to the rules, otherwise there
is the risk of the same author appearing in two places under different
names. It is well, on principle, to take a rooted objection to this,
though under special circumstances it is conceivable that it might be
no great disadvantage. Take a modern instance

  DANBY, Frank. Pigs in clover.

which is by Julia Frankau, the author of two important books--one
on colour prints and the other on the mezzotinto engraver, J. R.
Smith--both published under her real name. These books are so far
apart in character from her novels that both names might very well be
used in the catalogue. In the classified catalogue the use of the two
names would not matter, but in the dictionary catalogue it requires
consideration. Again, there is little likelihood of these books all
appearing in the same catalogue; the lending library would not have the
books on prints, and the reference or other special library which might
contain them would hardly have the novels. This illustration is named
simply to show the consideration that can be given to a case of the
kind. It does not really end here, because there is always the chance
of the author writing more fiction under her real name. Remembering
this, and the fact that she has already published books under her
proper name, the reference becomes necessary for safety in the future.
That is to say, for the novel the reference is given from Frankau to
the pseudonym until the time comes to reverse the process.

There are several similar instances where the books, though widely
differing in character, are none the less likely to appear in the same
catalogue. The writings of the late Rev. John M. Watson may be cited
as a case in point, those on religious subjects being published under
his real name, and his stories under the pseudonym of "Ian Maclaren." A
present-day example of the same thing is the book

  HANNAY, James O. The spirit and origin of
      Christian monasticism. 1903                                    271

which is by the same author who writes novels under the pseudonym of
"George A. Birmingham." In the case of a library publishing a separate
catalogue of fiction there can be no objection to following the course
already recommended, by entering under the pseudonym

  "BIRMINGHAM, George A." (Jas. O. Hannay).
      The red hand of Ulster.

If there is no separate catalogue of fiction, the author's books must
all be brought together, when it is inevitable that the real name,
rather than the fictitious, be taken for all entries. Here arises the
problem whether the pseudonym is to be attached to the entry for the
book on monasticism or limited to the books written under the assumed
name. It is helpful to mark the distinction in this way

  HANNAY, Jas. O. The spirit and origin of
      Christian monasticism. 1903                                    271
  -- ("Geo. A. Birmingham"). The red hand of
      Ulster.

not overlooking the essential reference

  "BIRMINGHAM, George A." _See_ Hannay, Jas. O.

There is at least one example of an author publishing works of fiction
under both his real name and a pseudonym, viz., J. E. Preston Muddock,
who writes some stories under his true name, and his detective stories
under that of "Dick Donovan." The right course to pursue in this case
is to enter all under Muddock. Unless there is strong objection to
placing books by one writer in two places, there is no reason why the
separate entries should not appear under both names. While introduced
here to show a possible method of treatment, it must not be taken as
recommended.

  MUDDOCK, J. E. P. The dead man's secret.
  -- The lost laird.
      _See also_ Donovan, Dick.
  "DONOVAN, Dick" (J. E. P. Muddock). Tales of
      terror.
  -- The sin of Preaching Jim.
      _See also_ Muddock, J. E. P.

When the name of an author is known to be, or, from its nature, is
obviously a pseudonym, it is better given in inverted commas, or
whatever other style is adopted to mark a pseudonym, whether the
real name be known or not. Such names are "Skelton Kuppord," "Walker
Miles," "Home Counties," "Daniel Chaucer." A pseudonym which consists
of a phrase can rarely be regarded as a name, and it is wiser to treat
the book as if it were anonymous, after the manner referred to later,
bringing the phrase-pseudonym into the title-entry in this way

  Kruger's secret service, by One who was in it.
      1900                                                           968

To enter under "One who was in it" would be useless as well as
wasteful. A similar example is

  The life of a prig, by One. 1886

when the entry under "One" would be equally futile and absurd. So also
would be

  The danger of spiritualism, by a Member of the
      Society for Psychical Research. 1901

if entered under "Member." The first of these two receives a
title-entry, which is a recognition of the pseudonym, as

  Prig, The life of a, by One. 1886

In these examples the non-recognition of the pseudonym is due to the
fact that its application is confined to a particular instance or a
particular book. This recommendation for treating phrase-pseudonyms
must be carefully considered in relation to the books produced by the
users. Those who write regularly and publish several works under such
pseudonyms must be recognised--as witness the case of "A Son of the
Marshes."

At this point the arrangement of working out the foregoing entries in
full may be continued. The first is

  =Monasticism=:
      Hannay, J. O. The spirit, &c., of Christian
          monasticism. 1903                                          271

or, in the event of there being but a single work on the subject

  Monasticism, Christian, The spirit, &c., of.
      Hannay, J. O. 1903                                             271

If there is a separate fiction catalogue or class-list, the entry for
the novel by the same author is

  Red hand of Ulster, The. Birmingham, G. A.

When the entries are embodied in the dictionary catalogue, and the real
name of the author is taken for the main-entry, the title-entry becomes

  Red hand of Ulster, The. Hannay, J. O.

It must be admitted that this might puzzle a person who remembers the
title of the book and could recognise it by the name of the author, but
would fail to identify Hannay with Birmingham. The entry must, all the
same, be given in this form to guide to the name of "Hannay," where
the principal entry is to be found. The same remark equally applies to
the title-entries requisite for Mr. Muddock's books, if they are all
entered under "Muddock" in orthodox fashion and not divided. If divided
the entries would be

  Dead man's secret, The. Muddock, J. E. P.
  Lost laird, The. Muddock, J. E. P.
  Tales of terror. Donovan, D.
  Sin, The, of Preaching Jim. Donovan, D.

The "Kruger" book comes under some such heading as

  =Boers, The, and Boer Wars=:
      Kruger's secret service, by One who was in it.
          1900                                                       968

with references thereto from "Africa, South," "Transvaal, The," and
"Orange Free State."

At the risk of labouring the point--an important one which will bear
emphasis--the last book affords an opportunity for again demonstrating
the handling of a book for specific subject-entry in the dictionary
catalogue. This form of entry requires that books bearing upon the
Boer Wars, the French Revolution, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny,
the Gunpowder Plot, the American Revolution, or any other historical
happening to which a definite name is attached, shall be entered under
such specific name, not under the name of the country or countries
concerned. It might be possible to evade this by giving a reference
from the name of the event to the name of the country, but it is
against the principles of the dictionary catalogue. The matter has
to be reasoned out like this: a history of the last Boer War is not
a history of South Africa, is not even a history of the Transvaal or
of the Orange Free State, although it terminated the existence of the
republics of those states. Similarly a history of the Crimean War is
not a history of Russia, and has as much to do with Turkey, to say
nothing of this country or of France; a history of the Franco-German
War is neither a history of France nor of Germany, but merely a
detached epoch in the history of both countries, however much it had
to do with the founding of the present German Empire and the fall of
the French Empire. Therefore, literal exactness requires, as already
stated, that entry be made under the names whereby such events are
known with _See also_ references thereto from the names of the
countries involved. It is also required that the term chosen for the
heading shall be definite and not general. If the heading, say, of
"Civil War" were taken in a British catalogue for books upon the great
Civil War of the 17th century, it would be incorrect, because too
inclusive, as books upon civil war in the abstract or on civil wars
generally or in any country, as the Civil War between North and South
in America, could all be grouped under it, therefore the heading must
be "earmarked" in some way to show what particular civil war is meant,
say, "Civil War, The Great," or "Civil War and Commonwealth," or even
"Civil War, The." The addition of the definite article to the last
heading serves to show that the Puritan revolution is meant, though it
would not give the same meaning in an American catalogue. In this way
headings to be adopted are reasoned out before being decided upon.

The "Life of a prig" is already sufficiently disposed of, though it is
not a story, but is more or less in the nature of a satire recounting
the troubles of an Oxford man, uncertain as to whether he should belong
to the Anglican or Roman Church. It is marked for the classified
catalogue as a satire of the late Victorian period. This is a type of
book that is the bane of the cataloguer's life, and he is not to be
blamed if he summarily disposes of it under any heading or title that
does not altogether relegate it to obscurity. The last is

  =Spiritualism=:
      Dangers, The, of spiritualism, by a Member
          of the Society for Psychical Research.
          1901                                                     133.9

and is the sole entry for this book.

Attention may here be directed to two points arising in connection
with some of the above entries. It will be noticed that in the Hannay
entry a "repetition dash" (--) has been given in lieu of the name for
the second entry, as it would be for all subsequent entries under the
same name. To make use of this dash for any other purpose is dangerous,
and should be avoided. The old-fashioned custom of using it to save
repeating words in the title-entries, led to the well-known catalogue
jokes:--

  Mill on Liberty.
  -- -- the Floss.
  Lead, kindly Light.
  -- Silver and.

and others equally ridiculous. Every word omitted was indicated by a
separate dash, after this manner

  Three Men in a Boat.
  -- -- on the Bummel.
  Toilers of the Field.
  -- -- -- Sea.
  Told by the Colonel.
  -- -- -- Death's Head.

It is hardly necessary to say that in all the above cases no dashes
were required; every word should have been given, both for the sake of
understanding and appearance.

The second point relates to the recommendation, already referred to,
that the word following the article in titles whereby the entries are
alphabetized should have a capital letter, and also that one should be
given to the first word of an alternative title. Nothing can be said
against these proposals unless it is that they give certain words an
undue prominence. The books of J. E. P. Muddock serve admirably as
illustrations:--

  MUDDOCK, J. E. P. The Dead man's secret; or,
      The valley of gold.
  -- The Great white hand; or, The Tiger of
      Cawnpore.
  -- The Lost laird.
  -- The Man from Manchester.

This, however, resolves itself more into a question of taste than of
expediency.

In the same category as pseudonyms come the women who, in changing
their names by marriage, perhaps more than once, have written under all
forms of their names--"aggravating ladies" as they have been called.
At times they are better known by the names of their husbands, as
Mrs. Mark Pattison, Mrs. Humphry Ward, Mrs. Sidney Webb. It would be
injudicious to adopt a fixed rule to cover all cases of this kind. The
best-known name recommendation again applies, although the rule usually
laid down is to enter a married woman under whatever name she first
used as an author, with references thereto from her later names. In
some cases this is quite a safe and convenient rule, while in others it
involves looking in two places. To state a case, people are now more
familiar with the works of Mrs. Sidney Webb under that name than under
her maiden name of Beatrice Potter. If entry were made under Potter it
would in any case necessitate a reference to Webb for those books which
she had written jointly with her husband. Therefore, it being admitted
that the better-known name, also the more correct, is that of Webb, the
entries are so given, with the reference from Potter, i.e.,

  WEBB, Beatrice (Potter). The co-operative movement
      in Great Britain. 1891                                         334
  -- (_joint-author._) _See also_ Webb, Sidney.
  POTTER, Beatrice. _See_ Webb, Beatrice.
  Webb, Sidney. Socialism in England. 3rd ed.
      1901                                                         335.1
  -- and Beatrice. The history of trade unionism.
      1894                                                        331.88

For order of arrangement it will be noticed that books written by
Sidney Webb alone precede those written by him as a joint-author,
with his name in the leading place. If the last-named book had been
published as "by Beatrice and Sidney Webb" the entry would, as a matter
of course, be under Mrs. Webb's name, her book on co-operation coming
before it. The Workman illustration given in Chapter V. should be
considered in this connection. Another, and rather different difficulty
of the kind, is when a man and his wife have collaborated and published
with the wife's maiden name in the leading place. If the lady has
written other books before marriage and continues to use her maiden
name on books written by herself, it settles the matter sufficiently to
warrant entry under the maiden name, as

  FOWLER, Ellen Thornycroft (Mrs. Felkin). Concerning
      Isabel Carnaby.
  -- In subjection.
  -- and Alfred L. FELKIN. Kate of Kate Hall.

with the usual references

  FELKIN, Alfred L. (_joint-author_). _See_ Fowler,
      Ellen T.
  FELKIN, Ellen T. _See_ Fowler, Ellen T.

and the customary title-entries under "Concerning," "In," and "Kate."

The subject-entries for the foregoing books are

  =Co-operation=:
      Webb, B. The co-operative movement in
          Great Britain. 1891                                        334

It would be incorrect, for the sake of economy, to omit the definite
article in this, as it somewhat alters the sense. At times it can be
left out without any risk of changing the meaning, as in the book on
trades unions below. Some cataloguers make a feature of giving the
Christian name in full in subordinate entries if the author is a woman.

  =Socialism=:
      Webb, S. Socialism in England. 1901 335.1

  =Trades Unions=:
      Webb, S., &c. History of trade unionism.
          1894                                                    331.88

A reference is needed to assist towards that coordination between the
subject-entries of a catalogue serving to bring its related parts
together, and is helpful by way of suggestion to the inquirer when
using it.

  =Labour=:
      _See also_ Trades Unions.

There can be no objection in the above instance, or in those of Mrs.
Humphry Ward and other ladies _well known_ and commonly spoken of by
their husband's names, to giving, if desired, the entries under those
names, provided the usual references are furnished.

  WEBB, Beatrice. _See_ Webb, Mrs. Sidney.
  WARD, Mary A. _See_ Ward, Mrs. Humphry.

It would, however, be possible to dispense with the references
altogether, if only a comparatively small number of entries under Webb
or Ward appear in the catalogue.

To show the difficulty experienced by cataloguers in keeping pace with
ladies who change their names by marriage, it may be mentioned that
even a well-known author like the late Lady Dilke, who was Mrs. Mark
Pattison, can be found in good catalogues placed accidentally under
both names. On the other hand it is as well to be quite sure when
following up the changed names of women authors. The London Library
and some lesser catalogues have confused Anne Manning and Mrs. A. M.
Rathbone, with the result that books are amalgamated erroneously under
one name though written by different persons. In other catalogues of
minor importance "George Eliot" has figured as Mrs. G. H. Lewes and
Marie Corelli as Marion Mackay.

Although recommended by some rules, there is no real necessity for
giving references from the married names of writers of the importance
of "George Eliot" or Charlotte Brontë, as it is improbable that anyone
would refer to "Cross" or "Nicholls" for these authors.

This treatment of women authors may be summed up by repeating the
recommendation "use the best-known name in all cases"--if the lady
writes under her maiden name and is mostly known thereby, that is the
name to use; if by her married name, then use that.

If she has been married more than once and written under all forms of
her name (of which examples are A. Mary F. Robinson, who was Madame
Duclaux and then Madame Darmesteter, and Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond, née
Whitshed, formerly Mrs. Fred. Burnaby and Mrs. Main) then, again, the
best-known (in these cases Robinson and Le Blond) are the right ones
to use, not neglecting the references from the others. If a writer has
consistently used a pseudonym, that, again, is the best to adopt for
the entry. For example, there is a Spanish novelist, known as "Fernan
Caballero," who, surviving three husbands, resumed her maiden name. In
her case it is not worth while searching for or discussing which of her
names should be chosen, that by which she is universally known being
undoubtedly the best.

Books published anonymously--that is where the authors' names are
not upon the title-pages, and no clue to them is to be found in the
books--are more annoying to the cataloguer than pseudonymous works. At
times a preface or a dedication in a book may bear the author's name or
initials, or there may be something serving to reveal his identity in
the text, and such evidence must be searched for. In the event of the
book itself yielding no help, then the customary sources of information
are turned to, the best for British cataloguers being Halkett and
Laing's _Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of
Great Britain_ (though this is not absolutely reliable). The British
Museum, London Library, or other important catalogues at command should
be consulted, particularly the catalogues of the place from which the
book comes, as the wanted information may be known locally. For French
books Barbier's _Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes_ is useful.

The method of cataloguing an anonymous book may be shown here. The
title-page of that chosen reads

    The failure of Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism": an open
    letter to the Earl of Rosebery, by "Twenty-eight years in
    India." 1903

The preface opens with a statement that the writer has adopted
anonymity though quite aware that it is the thinnest of screens if
there is any wish to pierce behind it, and he goes on to say that
a twenty-eight years' acquaintance with India, etc., suggests some
knowledge of the matter he discusses, thus showing that "Twenty-eight
years in India" is not the title of another book, but a species of
pseudonym. If this "thinnest of screens" cannot be penetrated, and the
mere suggestion that it can should serve to put the cataloguer on his
mettle, then there are two ways of entering the book regarding it as
strictly anonymous. One is to enter uniformly by the first word of the
title not an article as

  Failure, The, of Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism,"
      by "Twenty-eight years in
      India." 1903

The better way to enter anonymous books when concerned with particular
persons or places is under the names of such persons or places,
provided they are named on the title-pages, as

  Curzon of Kedleston, Lord. The failure of
      Lord Curzon: a study in "imperialism," by
      "Twenty-eight years in India." 1903

This is a sufficient entry, as any person wanting the book could not
fail to remember that it related to Lord Curzon unless he thought
of Indian administration, which would be the subject-entry for it.
Another method, much the same in principle, is to enter under the first
substantive in the title.

If the name of the author is ascertained later and with certainty, as
this was, the entry must be altered accordingly

  O'DONNELL, C. J. The failure of Lord Curzon:
      a study in "imperialism," by "Twenty-eight
      years in India." 1903 354.54

When literal exactness is the custom of the library the author's name
as above would be enclosed in brackets to show that it is an addition
made by the cataloguer under the rule previously alluded to. If that is
the method decided upon for entering anonymous books, the first-word
entry is still retained, with the author's name added.

  Failure, The, of Lord Curzon: a study in
      "imperialism," by "Twenty-eight years in
      India" [C. J. O'Donnell.] 1903 354.54

With the author's name revealed the entry under Lord Curzon becomes a
subject-entry

  =Curzon of Kedleston=, _Lord_:
      O'Donnell, C. J. The failure of Lord Curzon.
          1903                                                    354.54

The author's name was obtained from a newspaper paragraph some months
after the publication of the book, and verified before use. If the
paragraph had been of the speculative nature of the following, it
would have been wiser to ignore it, and wait for something more definite

    "The mention of Mr. Jack London suggests an interesting
    question of authorship. There has been some discussion about
    the anonymous author of the lately published 'Kempton Wace
    Letters.' Now, in that book we find the superscription, 'The
    Ridge, Berkeley, California'; and we can think of only three
    writers who talk about California--'Gertrude Atherton,' Miss
    Beatrice Harraden, and Mr. Jack London. The style of the
    'Kempton Wace Letters' is so remote from that of the two
    first-named, and on the other hand is so much like that of the
    young Californian, that we venture to suggest Mr. London as the
    author."

Paragraphs of this kind always appeal to the careful cataloguer, and
keep his mind on the alert until the point is settled one way or other.
One so obviously inspired as the following is authoritative enough for
use

    "Sir Charles Eliot, whose authorship of the important work on
    the Near East, 'Turkey in Europe,' by 'Odysseus,' is now an
    open secret, has produced in 'The East Africa Protectorate,' to
    be published by Mr. Edward Arnold on March 8th, an account of
    the country of which he recently resigned the Commissionership."

There is another method of cataloguing anonymous books sometimes
seen, viz., bringing them all together under a heading "Anon." It
has nothing to commend it unless it be the apparent advantage of
having all anonymous books in one place. This is somewhat akin to the
practice of grouping all thin books under the comprehensive heading
"Pamphlets"--comprehensive because if the idea is carried out logically
only two headings are required, "Pamphlets" and "Books."

Another class of anonymous books is that in which they are stated to
be "By the Author of" some other book which is named. These are dealt
with in the same way as any other anonymous books, except that it is
convenient to furnish a list of the books that a library possesses
written by such an author, this list being given under the title of the
best-known book, if such can be distinguished--if not, the one most
frequently named on the title-pages of the rest of the books is taken,
when references can be given from the others. Examples are

  Laddie.
  -- Miss Toosey's mission.
  -- Tip cat.
  Miss Toosey's mission, by the Author of
      "Laddie."
      _See also_ Laddie.

If italics are preferred to quotation marks, the style will be instead

  Tip cat, by the Author of _Laddie_.
      _See also_ Laddie.

Instead of grouping the books under "Laddie," a covering note can be
appended to each book by the author as

  Laddie.
          Other books by the same author are _Lil_, _Miss
      Toosey's mission_, _Tip cat_.

or the style, if preferred, may be

  Miss Toosey's mission.
          _Other books by the same author are_ Laddie,
      Lil, Tip cat.

It is all the more necessary to follow out this method of entry in the
case of sequels to such books. For example there is a book

  Lady of the decoration, The.

and its sequel

  Lady married, The, by the Author of "The lady
      of the decoration."

when the books can be entered together and in order of reading as

  Lady of the decoration, The.
  -- Lady married, The, by the [same author.]

Other and better-known instances are the books "by the Author of
'Elizabeth and her German Garden.'" Here, however, the identity of the
author has been ascertained, and the books are all brought together in
the ordinary way under her name (Countess von Arnim), and are not put
under "Elizabeth and her German Garden," the entry for which book would
disclose the name of the author and direct to the main-entry (Arnim),
where all her books are to be found.

Further troublesome books are those in which the authors' names are
veiled by initials which may be given on the title-pages or at the
end of the prefaces. The method of entry is much the same as that for
books altogether anonymous, except that either an entry or a reference
is given from the _last_ initial (from the first also if thought to be
required) to the entry word adopted. The full title of the book taken
in illustration reads:

    The makers of Hellas: a critical inquiry into the philosophy
    and religion of Ancient Greece, by E.E.G.; with an
    introduction, notes, and conclusion by Frank B. Jevons, M.A.,
    Litt.D. 1903

The editor tells us that the author died before the work was in print,
and the author requested him to publish it without revealing the
authorship. Even if the author had lived the book would have appeared
anonymously or under a pseudonym. We may presume that the initials are
those of the author's name, when we have choice of entry as if the
initials were not given, as

  Makers of Hellas, The: the philosophy and
      religion of Ancient Greece, by E.E.G.; ed.
      by Frank B. Jevons. 1903                                       180

with references from the initials and the Editor as

  G., E. E. _See_ Makers of Hellas.
  Jevons, Frank B. (_Ed._) _See_ Makers of Hellas.

or, more conveniently and just as usefully, with an entry instead of a
reference under the initials

  G., E. E. The makers of Hellas: the philosophy
      and religion of Ancient Greece; ed. by Frank
      B. Jevons. 1903                                                180

the reference from the Editor then being changed to

  JEVONS, Frank B. (Ed.) _See_ G., E. E.

or, under the circumstances, an entry might be given

  JEVONS, Frank B. (_Ed._) The makers of Hellas,
      by E. E. G. 1903                                               180

when the first entry that under "Makers" can be dispensed with. The
subject-entry is

  =Greece, Ancient=:
              _Philosophy and Religion._
      G., E. E. The makers of Hellas. 1903                           180

and a reference, hardly wanted, but better given

  Hellas. _See_ Greece, Ancient.

An entry of the above character with a bare initial takes precedence
of all the G's in the alphabetical arrangement, and therefore is not
placed as Gee but before Gaa, because the letters following the initial
are an unknown quantity (G----).

In the event, likely enough, of the name covered by the initials being
ascertained, the entry should then be given under the name. Instances
of these are

    On the banks of the Seine, by A.M.F., Authoress of "Foreign
    courts and foreign homes." 1900

    Days and hours in a garden, by "E.V.B." 1884

when the authors being known the entries are

  FALLS, Alice M. On the banks of the Seine. 1900

or more particularly exact

  F[ALLS], A[lice] M. On the banks of the Seine.
      1900
  B[OYLE], E. V. Days and hours in a garden.
      1884

with the essential references in such cases

  F., A.M. _See_ Falls, Alice M.
  B., E.V. _See_ Boyle, E. V.

These books may serve to illustrate more than the one point. The first
does not need a title-entry under "On," and certainly none under
"Banks" or "Seine," as the title is a fanciful one, which is hardly
likely to be remembered in any connection apart from its author and
subject. If a contrary view were taken, the most that could be given
would be this entry:

  Seine, On the banks of the. Falls, A. M. 1900

which is altogether misleading, as the book has nothing to do with
the river, but is a series of sketches of French historical events
occurring in Paris. The correct entry therefore is

  =France=:
                    _History._
      Falls, A. M. On the banks of the Seine.
          1900                                                       944

In contradistinction the second book is most likely to be remembered by
its title as

  Days and hours in a garden. Boyle, E. V. 1884

This is one of the forerunners of a long series of books of garden
diaries or essays, containing notes upon flowers, birds, and other
things connected with gardens, and the thoughts they suggest upon a
variety of subjects, and is, by no means, a practical book for the
working gardener. Such books, while inevitably coming under a heading
"Gardens and Gardening," need to be grouped together apart from the
practical books under a sub-division, "Literary Miscellany," or some
other suitable term.

There are books, too, with initials in the place of the authors' names
which obviously do not stand for a name as

  The Athanasian Creed, by LL.D. 1861

or the last initial is clearly not part of the name, as

  A sermon preached at the funeral of Lady Mary
      Armyne, by J. D., M.A. 1676

The first book is better regarded as entirely anonymous, which it
virtually is, as

  Athanasian Creed, The, by LL.D. 1861                             238.1

and the second upon the lines previously indicated as

  D., J., M.A. A sermon preached at the funeral
      of Lady Mary Armyne. 1676                                    252.9

or, even better still, as

  Armyne, Lady Mary, Sermon preached at the
      funeral of, by J. D., M.A. 1676                              252.9

with the reference, if considered necessary,

  D., J., M.A. _See_ Armyne, Lady Mary.

The initials may at times cover a pseudonym when, if this happens to
be unknown, the method of entry would as a matter of course be similar
to that outlined above. If it is known that the initials represent a
pseudonym or phrase-pseudonym, of which A.L.O.E., meaning "A Lady of
England," is a well-known example, then the entry is given under the
first letter and not the last, thus

  "A.L.O.E." (Charlotte M. Tucker). House
      Beautiful; or, the Bible museum. 1868

and following the customary procedure for pseudonym the reference is
given from the real name

  Tucker, Charlotte M. _See_ A.L.O.E.

Here again it is recommended to alphabetize as if the first initial
(A) stood alone, and at the beginning of the alphabet rather than as
Aloe. This may not be a matter of much moment, but it is one of those
apparently trivial details which in the aggregate make the catalogue
more accurate, more convenient, and more useful.



CHAPTER XIII.

The Bible and other Sacred Books. Newspapers, &c.

    "Anonyma" continued. The Bible and other Sacred Books.
        Commentaries and Concordances. Newspapers and Periodicals.
        Directories and Annuals.


There are various books which, while not strictly anonymous, are
regarded for cataloguing as if they were. Some of these have already
been referred to under Societies, but there remain a few others to
consider. Among them are the Bible and other sacred books, the Koran,
the Talmud, the Vedas, etc.

The Bible calls more frequently for attention than any of the others.
All editions of the text or portions of it are entered under the
heading "Bible," and, if they are numerous, the entries are sub-divided
and arranged in this or some similar order:--

  a. The whole Bible (whether including the
      apocryphal books or not).
          1. Original language. Polyglots.

          2. Greek and Latin.

          3. English.

          4. All other languages alphabetically by
              the names of the languages.

          5. Selections from the Old and New
              Testaments in the order of the
              Books ("Authorised Version").
  b. The Old Testament.
          1. Hebrew.
          2. English.
          3. Other languages (as before).
          4. Selections from the Old Testament.
  c. The New Testament.
          1. Greek.
          2. English.
          3. Other languages.
          4. Selections from the New Testament.

If there were a number of entries under any one of these sub-divisions,
they would be placed in chronological order by editions. The
selections, if many, would be arranged first by the names of the books,
then by languages, and lastly by editions as before.

A few illustrations typical of the form of entry will be useful.

  =Bible, The=:
                    _Old and New Testaments.
      Greek._ British Museum. Facsimile of the
          Codex Alexandrinus. 4 v. 4º 1879-83                     220.48
      _English._ The Holy Bible. 4º _Oxford Univ.
          Press_, 1857                                            220.52
      -- Authorised version, in the easy reporting
          style of Pitman's shorthand. 20th cent.
          ed. n.d.                                                220.52
      _French_. La sainte Bible; traduction d' Ostervald.
          _Paris_, 1899                                           220.54
      _Italian_. La sacra Bibbia; tradotta da Diodati.
          _Roma_, 1880                                            220.55

                               _Old Testament.
      Irish_; transl. by Wm. Bedel. 4º 1685                      221.562

                      _Parts of Old Testament._
      Genesis; ed. by G. W. Wade. 1896                            222.11
      -- and part of Exodus: a revised version,
          with marginal references, &c., by Henry
          Alford. 1872                                            222.11
      Psalms. _Greek_. The Psalms according to
          the Septuagint; ed. by H. B. Swete.
          _Camb._, 1896                                            223.2
      Daniel and Ezra. _Hebrew and English_.
          John Leusden's translation of all the
          Syriac verses into pure Biblical Hebrew,
          with the parallel text in English. 1900                  224.5

The New Testament wholly or in parts would be similarly arranged.

All the foregoing remarks apply only to _editions of the text_ as
far as the dictionary catalogue is concerned. Commentaries on the
whole Bible, or on the separate books, follow the customary rules
for main entry, and only come under the general heading of "Bible"
as subject when they deal with the Bible as a whole. Commentaries
upon the Old Testament or the New Testament _separately_ are entered
under "Old Testament" and "New Testament" respectively--not under
"Bible"; and isolated commentaries upon a particular book under the
name of that book. These points are more clearly shown by examples.
When a commentary covers the whole Bible, or is meant to do so, as
The Speaker's Commentary, The Expositor's Bible, The International
Critical Commentary, The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges, and
others, there would be a main-entry under the general editor's name,
and subordinate entries or references (entries are better) under the
writers or editors of the separate volumes. The contents of the volumes
must either be set out under the main-entry or under the heading
"Bible."

  DRIVER, Samuel R., and others (_Eds._) The
      international critical commentary on the Holy
      Scriptures. 24 v. 1909-13                                    220.7
          In course of publication. For the contents of
          the volumes _see_ Bible (Commentaries).

  =Bible, The=:
                    _Commentaries._
      Driver, S. R. &c. (_Eds._) International critical
          commentary. 24 v. 1909-13                                220.7
              Genesis, by John Skinner; Exodus, by
              A. R. S. Kennedy (following on through the
              rest of the books in the Bible order).

It is literally more correct to set out the contents of these different
volumes under the main-entry (Driver), but it is far more convenient to
give them under "Bible," as above. If given under "Driver," then the
note should be attached to the entry under "Bible."

The different volumes, as said before, are catalogued under the names
of the individual authors, but not under the names of the separate
books when they are part of a general commentary, as

  SKINNER, John. A critical and exegetical commentary
      on Genesis. (_International critical
      commentary._) 1910                                           220.7

An alternative and briefer form is

  BROOKE, A. E. International critical commentary:
      The Johannine Epistles. 1912                                 220.7

When a writer has contributed more than one volume to the work the
entries can be amalgamated in this fashion

  SANDAY, Wm. International critical commentary:
      Synopsis of the four Gospels. The Epistle to
      the Romans. 2 v. 1907-13                                     220.7

In the event of it being decided to give references instead of entries
under the names of the authors of the separate volumes, such references
must direct to the entry where the contents of the volumes are set out,
otherwise the connection will not be apparent. The contents being under
"Bible" in the above instance, the reference should read

  SKINNER, John. _See_ Bible (Commentaries):
      Driver. International critical commentary.

Without the latter part this reference would be too indefinite to be
useful. The entry itself, first shown under Skinner, takes hardly less
space, and is preferable.

When a book is what may be called a monograph-commentary, i.e., a book
standing alone upon a single book or two or three books of the Bible,
it receives the same treatment as would any other work, irrespective of
its connection with the Bible. For example

  THOLUCK, A. Commentary on the Gospel of St.
      John. 1860                                                   226.5

is placed with any other books upon the Fourth Gospel, as

  =John, St., Gospel of=:
      Tholuck, A. Commentary on the Gospel of
          St. John. 1860                                           226.5

Monographs of this character are not lost to the inquirer who only
consults the heading "Bible," if the guiding references are provided.

  =Bible, The=:
                          _Commentaries.
      See also_ Old Testament; New Testament;
          _and the names of the separate Books as_
          Genesis, Job, John, St.

  =Old Testament=:
      _See also the names of the separate Books._

  =New Testament=:
      _See also the names of the separate Books._

There is a gain in economy by entering books upon any or all of St.
Paul's Epistles under his name, instead of distributing them under the
names of the churches to which they were addressed. Books to illustrate
this are

  LIGHTFOOT, J. B., _Bp._ St. Paul's Epistle to the
      Philippians: a revised text; with intro., notes,
      and dissertations. 1900                                      227.6
  -- St. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and to
      Philemon: a revised text; with intros., notes,
      and dissertations. 7th ed. 1884                              227.7
  -- St. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians: a revised
      text; with intro., notes, and dissertations.
      1902                                                         227.4
  PRIDHAM, Arthur. Notes and reflections on the
      Epistle to the Philippians. [1879]                           227.6

Although the Lightfoot volumes contain the original text of the
Epistles, their value may be said to lie in the notes and dissertations
which bring them under the monograph-commentary arrangement. They may,
further, be regarded as a single work in three volumes--as in reality
they are, though it is not so stated on the title-pages. The entries
for subject are

  =Paul, St.=:
      Lightfoot, J. B. St. Paul's Epistles. 3 v.
          1884-1902
              1. Galatians                                         227.4
              2. Philippians                                       227.6
              3. Colossians and Philemon                           227.7
      Pridham, A. Notes, &c. on the Epistle to the
          Philippians. [1879]                                      227.6

References can be given from the names of the several Epistles, always
provided there are books upon them under the heading, as

  Galatians, Epistle to the. _See_ Paul, St.

Those who have but limited space at their disposal may consider that
the principal entries above given under Lightfoot are too full, and
should be reduced. In their case the style given under "Paul, St."
may, with a little amplification, be taken to afford more definite
information, as

  LIGHTFOOT, J. B., _Bp._ St. Paul's Epistles; with
      intros., notes, &c. 3 v.
          1. Galatians. 1902                                       227.4
          2. Philippians. 1900                                     227.6
          3. Colossians and Philemon. 1884                         227.7

The cataloguing of the Bible or its parts, and books upon it, presents
little or no trouble in the classified catalogue, as the systems of
classification are very fully and carefully worked out under this
division, as in Dewey's 220 to 229.

The editions of the sacred books of other religions will not be so many
in most libraries, and consequently need no special consideration. The
following two books upon the Koran will suggest the method of entry for
others:

  Koran, The; transl. from the Arabic by J. M.
      Rodwell. (_Everyman's lib_.) [1909]                            297
          Wherry, E. M. Commentary on the Qurán, comprising
              Sale's translation. 4 v. 1896                          297

References are necessary from the names of the religions concerned.

  =Mohammedanism=:
      _See also_ Koran.

Varieties of the name, as Qurán and Coran, hardly need notice for
reference purposes, as presumably a searcher would not fail to look
under Koran. The same remark applies to Mahomet and Muhammed, though a
reference from Islam to Mohammedanism is desirable. A reference from
Christianity to the Bible would be superfluous.

It will be noticed that the main-entry for the Wherry book is not given
under "Koran." The reason for this is the same as that for the books by
Bishop Lightfoot, viz., that the commentary, and not the text, is the
essential part of the work. Therefore the principal entry is

  WHERRY, E. M. A comprehensive commentary
      on the Qurán, comprising Sale's translation
      and preliminary discourse. (_Trübner's
      Oriental ser._) 4 v. 1896                                      297

References from the translators named in both the books are essential,
especially as Sale's is the better known, though the reference is more
usefully given to the Koran, as

  Sale, George (_transl._) _See_ Koran, The.
  Rodwell, J. M. (_transl._) _See_ Koran, The.

Though both of these books belong to series, neither series is of
the character that calls for an entry under its name, unless it be
the "Trübner's Oriental Series." The "Everyman's Library" is too
comprehensive, and both are sufficiently noticed by naming the series
in the main-entries, as shown.

The instructions laid down in some of the codes of rules would seem to
imply that the writers of commentaries should be left in obscurity.
This is not so: they stand upon the same footing as other authors, and
are entitled to the same consideration; their names being adopted for
the main-entry, as shown in the Lightfoot and Wherry examples given
above; unless the commentaries are of so slight a character, being
mere notes, or otherwise occupy so small a place as to be nothing more
than an editing of the text. An instance of this latter type is a book
bearing the title

    Sartor resartus: a fully annotated edition with an introductory
    essay on Thomas Carlyle, by Rev. James Wood. 1902

Carlyle's name does not appear upon the title-page as the author,
probably because it was deemed unnecessary to give it, but it is
rendered simply as

  CARLYLE, Thomas. Sartor resartus; annotated,
      with an intro. essay on Carlyle, by James
      Wood. 1902                                                  824.82

with the usual reference from the editor

  WOOD, Jas. (_Ed._) _See_ Carlyle, Thos.

or more definitely

  WOOD, James (_Ed._) _See_ Carlyle, Thomas (Sartor
      resartus.)

The first of these references contains abbreviated forms of Christian
names, which, as economies, are quite allowable, because they are well
recognised and convey the same meaning as if given in full. Other names
of the kind are Alex., Alf. or Alfd., Chas., Edwd., Eliz., Fredk.,
Geo., Margt., Robt., Saml., Wm., though it is inadvisable to use them
in the transcriptions of book titles; "The marriage of Wm. Ashe," "Sir
Geo. Tressady," "Geo.'s mother," must be avoided.

In the same category as commentaries come concordances, with some
differences of opinion as to the necessity for giving the main-entry
under the compiler's name or the author concordanced. The compiler
is entitled to an acknowledgment of his work, although it is of the
"scissors and paste" order of literature; it is, however, not a matter
of great moment, as under any circumstances both entries are given. The
following are illustrations:

  ELLIS, F. S. A lexical concordance to the poetical
      works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. 1892                         821.77
  HUSBAND, M. F. A. A dictionary of the characters
      in the Waverley Novels of Sir Walter Scott.
      1910                                                        823.73

  =Shelley, Percy B.=:
      Ellis, F. S. Concordance to the poetical
          works of Shelley. 1892                                  821.77

  =Scott, Sir Walter=:
      Husband, M. F. A. Dictionary of the
          characters in the Waverley Novels. 1910                 823.73

Newspapers, magazines, periodicals, reviews, directories, annuals,
almanacks, and publications of like kind are also regarded as
anonymous, and are given a first-word title-entry.

Newspapers of a general character published in London would be entered
in British catalogues without any regard to the place of publication, as

  Times, The.
  Daily Telegraph, The.
  Westminster Gazette, The.
  Illustrated London News, The.

and not as London Times, London Daily Telegraph, London Westminster
Gazette, London News, Illustrated. Local papers, on the other hand, are
entered under the name of the place, whether the name appears in their
titles or not, as

  Chelsea. West London Press.
  Manchester Guardian, The.
  Liverpool. Porcupine, The.
  Leeds Mercury, The.

The number of volumes and period covered should be given as well as
any change of names the papers have undergone. The editors, even
when known, pass unnoticed, and no general heading of "Newspapers"
(or any other entry) is required except in the classified catalogue,
where all newspapers fall into place under the heading--in the Dewey
classification 072 (Newspapers--English).

Magazines and periodicals receive similar treatment, being entered
under the first word of their distinctive titles, as

  Athenæum, The.
  Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.
  Dublin Review, The.
  Nature.
  Review of Reviews, The.
  Spectator, The.

When newspapers, periodicals, or magazines change their titles without
breaking the continuity of publication, retaining some connection
between their old and new titles, the entries are given under the
latest titles, with references from the earlier if required, as

  Nineteenth Century, The,--and after.
  Nation, The (formerly The Speaker).
  Speaker, The. _See_ Nation, The.

The alternative and better form, especially where the periodical has a
separate volume number sequence under each of the titles, is to enter
both as if quite distinct publications, but with notes attached marking
the connection, as

  Speaker, The. 10 v. 1890-1900                                      052
      _See under_ Nation, The, _for continuation_.
  Nation, The. v. 1-12. 1900-12                                      052
      _And continuation. Formerly_ The Speaker. _See
      under_ Speaker.

Weekly and monthly periodicals are sometimes the official organs of
learned or scientific societies, in which case the name of the society
becomes the entry word, as

  Society of Arts, Journal of the.
  Royal Geographical Society, Journal of the.
  Society of Chemical Industry, Journal of the.

References are given, where deemed necessary, from the first word of
the title to the name of the society

  Journal of the Society of Arts. _See_ Society of
      Arts.

Publications such as these, and other technical or scientific
periodicals, deserve, and should receive, additional entries under the
names of the subjects with which they are mainly concerned, even if
the subjects are not indicated by their titles. The building papers,
for example, are as much devoted to architecture as to building, and
need subject-entries as well as main-entries, thus:--

  =Architecture=:
                    _Periodicals._
      Architect, The.
      Architectural Review, The.
      British Architect, The.
      Builder, The.
      Building News, The.

So far as the nature of the contents of all these papers goes, they may
fitly be entered in the same manner under "Building"--_The Architect_
and _The British Architect_, having as much to do with building as
_The Builder_ and _The Building News_. To prevent misunderstanding,
it may be explained that the mere titles above are given to show the
method of entry; the number of volumes, dates of publication, or other
particulars must be added in the ordinary way.

Directories, annuals, and other "books which are not books," receive
first-word entry as already stated, but a few examples may be cited.

  Medical directory, The. 1912                                     926.1
  Law list, The. 1913                                              923.4
  Crockford's Clerical directory. 1913                               922
  Kelly's Handbook to the titled, landed, and
  official classes. 1912                                             923
  Statesman's year-book, The; ed. by J. Scott Keltie. 1912           310
  WHITAKER, Joseph. Almanack. 1913                                   310

Of these, the first two hardly need further entries, unless they
be under "Doctors" and "Lawyers," the third must be entered under
"Clergy," the fourth, though merely a directory of selected names,
receives a title-entry, as

  Titled, landed, &c. classes, Kelly's Handbook.
      1912                                                           923

The last two might very well be entered under a heading of
"Statistics"; although not on statistics, they contain much statistical
information. General directories are not entered under a heading
"Directories," but under the names of the places or classes with which
they are concerned.



CHAPTER XIV.

Miscellaneous.

    Title-Entries. Classics. Specific Subject. Concentration of
        Subject. Definite Headings. Popular Terms. Historical
        Fiction. Novels in Series. Sequels. Fiction Known by
        Special Titles. Books with Changed Titles. Annotations.
        Form Entries. Summary Hints.


Without dwelling too much on the various points that seem to need
emphasis, some may be recapitulated with advantage.

There is a great tendency among cataloguers to overdo the title-entries
in a dictionary catalogue, thereby adding to its bulk and cost without
gaining any compensating advantage. One of the chief objections to
the dictionary catalogue is superfluous first-word title-entries. To
give a title-entry is an easy method of disposing of a book when its
precise subject is not readily discerned. To enter books with titles
like _Factors in modern history_ under "Factors," _The Winter Queen_
under "Winter," _Romance of the renaissance chateaux_ under "Romance,"
_Wanderings by Southern waters_ under "Wanderings," _England's case
against Home Rule_ under "England's," serves no practical purpose; in
fact often leads to "hotch-potch" like the following:

  Dutch at Home. By Esquiros
  -- Dialogues. By Harlen
  -- Dictionary
  -- Figure Painters. By Gower
  -- Guiana. By Palgrave
  -- Painters. By Stanley
  -- Pictures. By Sala
  -- Republic: Address on. By Harrison
  -- -- Rise of the. By Motley
  -- School of Painting. By Havard

The second of these alone needed a title-entry, the others should
have been allocated to their proper subjects. Title-entries of this
type are seldom necessary outside works of fiction, volumes of essays
or of poems with specific titles, and a few books that are specially
known by their titles, of which _Eothen_, _Sesame and lilies_, _Sartor
resartus_, are types. Title-entries should be the exception, not the
rule. In the case of classics--that is "classics" in a wide sense, not
merely the Greek and Latin--there is rarely any occasion to give more
than the principal entries, the authors being so thoroughly well known
that title-entries or references are redundant. None of Shakespeare's
plays requires a title-entry; no entries are needed under "Iliad"
or "Odyssey," or under "Inferno," or "Divine Comedy," or even under
"Paradise Lost" or "Faust" (for Goethe's).

It is a useful axiom for the cataloguer that he must ascertain clearly
what is the definite subject of a book before he decides upon the
proper subject-heading for it in the dictionary catalogue, as he is
compelled to do before he can assign the exact place for a book in
the classified catalogue. Further, he should not attach too much
importance to the terms of the title-page in the process, else he will
stumble on "pitfalls" in the shape of titles that may mislead, and
so be induced to place a book on artificial lighting with the title
"The art of illumination" under the wrong kind of "Illuminating," an
"Essay on Irish bulls" under "Cattle," "The psychology of socialism"
under "Mind," and "The Fine Art of Jujutsu" under "Art," even misread
"Jujutsu" as the name of an artist.

As already stated, it is well to avoid scattering books upon a single
subject, even if viewed from varying standpoints, under several
headings throughout the catalogue, if they can be reasonably brought
together, and the fact that the books are in different languages must
not be allowed to affect the matter. As a case in point, we may take
such a subject of the day as "Tariff Reform." It is both possible and
desirable to concentrate under some appropriate and inclusive heading,
say "Free Trade Question" or "Tariffs," the books for and against free
trade; embodying under it those dealing with special aspects of the
question, instead of scattering them, on account of the terms used
on their title-pages, under "Protection," "Food Taxes," "Imperial
Preference," "Tariffs," "Fiscal Question," "Tariff Reform," "Fair
Trade," "Reciprocity," etc. When these terms occur in the titles, a
reference from them to the heading can easily be given if thought
desirable. Omitting the principal entries, this may be illustrated by
showing several books of apparently very different views that really
bear upon this question, and justify inclusion under it.

  =Free Trade Question=:
      Ashley, P. Modern tariff history. 1904
      Aubry, P. Etude critique de la politique
          commerciale de l'Angleterre.
          1904
      Avebury, Lord. Free trade. 1904
      Taussig, F. W. The tariff history of
          the United States. 1901
      Unwin, Mrs. C. (_Ed._) The hungry
          forties. 1904
      Williams, E. E. The case for protection.
          1899
      -- "Made in Germany." 1896
      Williamson, A. British industries
          and foreign competition. 1894

This also serves to show the convenience of fixing upon some term of
a permanent character for a subject-heading, and so "ear-marking" it
by means of cross-references that synonymous headings cannot occur. It
may be argued that these terms are not strictly synonymous, indeed, are
mostly opposites, Free Trade not being Tariff Reform or Protection.
It must be remembered that every book upon such a subject contains
something on the other side of the question, therefore bringing books
together in this fashion certainly gives a whole view of the subject.
Were the entries numerous under the heading, they could be divided to
show the books advocating free trade and those against. There are other
subjects that lend themselves to similar treatment, as for example that
shown on page 109. Where the terms used are undoubtedly synonymous,
definite choice of one has to be made, and the cross-reference given
from the other; Ethics or Moral Philosophy, Political Economy or
Economics, Physics or Natural Philosophy, and so on; the more modern or
commonly used terms being preferable, as Ethics, Economics, Physics.

Popular, rather than scientific or technical, names should be chosen
for subject-headings, especially for the catalogues of libraries used
by all classes of the community--Spiders not Arachnida, Worms not
Annelida, Fishes not Ichthyology, Crime (Punishment, etc., of) not
Penology, Stamp-Collecting not Philately, Consumption not Phthisis.
Care must be taken that the popular term means the same thing--thus a
book upon algæ cannot be entered under "Sea-weeds" if it includes the
freshwater species.

It is also customary to avoid the use of foreign terms if there are
English equivalents, but this is not always the case--"jiu-jitsu" (or
"jujutsu"), for example, has no word in English meaning the same thing.

It is trite and commonplace to say that there is much reliable history
written in the form of fiction, and a great deal of fiction in the
guise of serious books: this being so, the cataloguer is well advised
to reckon with it. Whether we shall notice all novels "with a purpose"
opens too wide a question, but many are not only true to life but are
real history, and meant to be so. For example, a recently published book

  DIVER, Maud. The hero of Herat.

while ostensibly a novel, is a biography, which may be read as such,
of Major Eldred Pottinger, who devoted his life to furthering British
interests on the Indian frontier. Another book of the kind, nominally
fiction yet virtually a life of Hamilton, the American statesman, is

  ATHERTON, Gertrude F. The Conqueror.

On the other hand, works of historical romance are got up in size and
appearance, including the provision of portraits as illustrations, to
range with histories and biographies, and thus they deceive the unwary,
who are apt to regard them as authoritative and genuine, although
perhaps it is not the intention of the author that they should be so
regarded. Such a book is

  "HARE, Christopher" (Mrs. Andrews.) Isabella
      of Milan, Princess d'Aragona, and wife of
      Duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza: the intimate
      story of her life in Milan. 1911

While written in the form of letters, it is pure romance, with an
historical basis.

In the ordinary way these books would receive quite different
treatment, even for the classified catalogue. For the dictionary
catalogue the books palpably novels would have title-entries given
them, as

  Hero of Herat, The. Diver, M.
  Conqueror, The. Atherton, G. F.

whereas the larger-sized book receives a subject-entry as a serious
book,

  Isabella of Milan, Princess d'Aragona, &c.
      Hare, C. 1911

and would be placed with historical biography in the classified
catalogue.

This raises the important question whether the cataloguer is ever
justified in giving subject-entries for works of fiction, especially
historical romances. Much depends upon the nature and quality of the
book. When it can be read as a contribution to the subject or period
with which it deals, without being to any extent misleading, then it
may fairly and usefully receive a subject-entry. Where so entered, it
will prevent misunderstanding if a note (annotation) is appended to
the entry, stating that the work is in fiction form. A schoolmaster,
who was versed in the life of Sir Thomas More, read Anne Manning's
"The household of Sir Thomas More" more than once, and could hardly be
convinced that it was a work of fiction.

Catalogued according to the suggestions here outlined, the entries for
the works of fiction would be

  DIVER, Maud. The Hero of Herat: a frontier
      biography in romantic form.
          Though in fiction form the book is a biography
          of Major Eldred Pottinger, who devoted his life
          to furthering British interests on the frontier of
          India.
  Pottinger, Major Eldred, The Hero of Herat.
      Diver, M.
          A novel embodying Pottinger's life.
  ATHERTON, Gertrude F. The Conqueror: being
      the true and romantic story of Alexander
      Hamilton.
          Life of Hamilton, the American statesman, in
          fiction form.

  =Hamilton, Alexander=:
      Atherton, G. F. The Conqueror.
          Fiction, incorporating Hamilton's life.
  MANNING, Anne. The household of Sir Thomas
      More.
          A story based on More's life.

  =More, Sir Thomas=:
      Manning, A. The household of Sir Thomas
          More.
              A story founded on fact.

The foregoing remarks not only relate to historical fiction, but also
to other works that are undoubtedly contributions to their subjects
apart from the form in which they are written. A book just published is

  RICHARDSON, Leslie. Vagabond days in Brittany.
      illus. 1913                                                  944.1

The preface opens with a statement to the effect that "although the
book is cast in the form of a story, all the facts about Brittany and
her people are true, and may be relied upon by those who care to use
the work as a guide-book." This warrants an entry under the subject
"Brittany," and justifies the Dewey number given to it.

If the proportion of fiction outweighs the fact so largely that the
book is valueless except as romance, it is wiser to limit the entries
to author and title. It is possible (but undesirable) to enter all the
works of fiction dealing with a particular person, or epoch, or event,
under the subjects, but they should be kept apart from serious works,
under a sub-heading marking them distinctly as fiction. Valuable helps
in this connection are Dr. E. A. Baker's _Guide to the Best Fiction_
and _Historical Fiction_.

When novels belong to a connected series, and are meant to be read in
a particular order, it is helpful to indicate the order of reading.
French fiction is noteworthy in this respect, Balzac's _Scènes de
la vie_, Zola's _Les Rongon-Macquart_, Ohnet's _Les batailles de la
vie_, and Rolland's _Jean-Cristophe_, may be named as examples. In
English fiction we have Trollope's _Chronicles of Barsetshire_ and Mrs.
Oliphant's _Chronicles of Carlingford_. A recent example is that of Mr.
Hugh Walpole, whose novels are arranged in order of sequence in this way

  WALPOLE, Hugh. Studies in place:
      The wooden horse.
      Maradick at forty.
      Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill.
  -- Prologues to "The rising city":
      The prelude to adventure.
      Fortitude.
  -- The rising city.

They can be given in this order in the catalogue, instead of
alphabetically, for the reason that a general title is accorded to
the series. Title-entries are required in the customary manner under
"Wooden," "Maradick," "Mr.," "Prelude," "Fortitude," "Rising," but not
under "Studies in place" or "Prologues."

The order of reading of sequels is indicated by means of notes to the
entries, as

  WOOD, Mrs. Henry. The Channings.
  -- Roland Yorke.
      Sequel to the above.
  DUMAS, Alexandre. Chicot the jester.
      Sequel to _Marguerite de Valois_.
  -- Forty-five guardsmen.
      Sequel to _Marguerite de Valois_ and _Chicot the
          jester_.
  -- Marguerite de Valois.
      The sequels are _Chicot the Jester_ and _Forty-five
          guardsmen_.

Sometimes the books are placed in the order they are intended to be
read, and numbered accordingly. The first comes into place in its
alphabetical order of title, and the rest follow irrespective of the
alphabetical order, after this manner

  DUMAS, Alexandre. The Chevalier d'Harmental
  -- 1. The companions of Jehu
  -- 2. The first republic
  -- 1. The conspirators
  -- 2. The Regent's daughter
  -- The Count of Monte-Cristo
  -- The last Vendée; or, the she-wolves of Machecoul
  -- 1. Marguerite de Valois
  -- 2. Chicot the jester
  -- 3. Forty-five guardsmen

This is not so desirable a form as the notes appended to the entries,
because it is less clear in meaning. It also needs an explanatory note
that the books are numbered in the order of sequence, otherwise it will
not be understood that each series of numbers stands apart from the
rest.

At this point it may be mentioned that well-known works of fiction are
often more familiarly known by short titles than by what may be called
their official titles, especially if those titles include proper names.
This has to be taken into account for title-entries, if not in the main
entries. Accordingly "The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe" is
entered as "Robinson Crusoe," "The posthumous papers of the Pickwick
Club" as "Pickwick Papers," and "The personal history and experience of
David Copperfield the Younger" as "David Copperfield."

Books with changed titles are among the "pitfalls" that beset the
path of the librarian, and call for special alertness on the part of
the cataloguer. Three such books came under notice on a single day
recently, and are here named, as they show the difficulty of preventing
the acquisition of duplicates and of the consequent addition of
superfluous entries to the catalogue. An American edition of a novel by
Agnes and Egerton Castle, entitled _The heart of Lady Anne_, was duly
catalogued by that title until found to be the same book as _French
Nan_ (American editions are troublesome in this respect); Anderson's
_The a b c of artistic photography in theory and practice_ (1913) was
found to be identical with his _The artistic side of photography_
(1908); and Norton's _Bible student's handbook of Assyriology_ (1913)
to be merely a new edition of his _Popular handbook of useful and
interesting information for beginners in the elementary study of
Assyriology_ (1908).

A most commendable feature of modern cataloguing is the explanatory
notes and other annotations appended to catalogue entries. These are
for the most part to be found in the lists of additions to libraries
published monthly, quarterly, or annually; such publications lending
themselves readily to this descriptive form of cataloguing. The
classified catalogue has also the advantage over the dictionary form
for this purpose, because, rarely having more than a single entry for
each book, the question as to where the note is to go does not arise.
The dictionary catalogue having two or more entries, the addition of
annotations enlarges it materially, besides presenting the difficulty
of deciding to which of the entries the note is to be attached,
if not to all. Some notes are better under the author-entry, and
others are more appropriate to the subject. Nevertheless, some fully
annotated dictionary catalogues have been issued, notably Mr. C. W. F.
Goss's catalogues of the Bishopsgate Institute Library and Mr. W. E.
Doubleday's Hampstead Public Library catalogues.

When annotations are given, they should be pithy, to the point, and,
as far as possible, free from criticism. A bookseller may have some
strong religious leanings or political opinions which he can afford
to publish by means of notes in his catalogues without anybody being
more than amused thereby, but the wise public official, as the servant
of all creeds and parties, will respect all alike, and take care, if
only for his own sake, that he does not hurt the susceptibilities of
any. He will keep his personal opinions to himself in a "water-tight"
compartment, where they cannot affect or influence his public work,
whether it be in cataloguing or in book-selection. It is greatly to
the credit of public librarians that they pursue this policy as a mere
matter of course, their training enabling them to view all literature
broadly, without prejudice or any reference to the bias of the contents
of books. To say this, does not mean that a cataloguer may not attach a
note to a controversial book of any kind indicating the point of view
taken by the author, but he should do so without expressing his own
opinion.

Some annotations are nothing more than a repetition or paraphrase of
the title-page, and so add nothing to the information contained in the
catalogue entry. They appear to be given upon the supposition that
every book in an annotated catalogue must have an annotation, but this
is a mistake, as the majority of title-pages admirably summarize the
contents of books, for which purpose they exist. It is when they fail
to do this, or do it indefinitely, or when the book has some especial
feature not noticed in the title to which it is worth while directing
attention, that the annotation is required and proves of value.

Other features enter into the composition of an annotation. Brevity is
not only the soul of it, but is absolutely essential if a catalogue
is to be kept within bounds. A note based upon a review should
avoid any appearance of partiality, as reviewers are not invariably
impartial. It is helpful to readers to get some rough idea of the
amount of knowledge needed to understand a book--for example, a book
dealing with astronomy mathematically would be above the heads of most
people, and when a work is of this nature it should be so stated.
The qualifications of an author for writing upon a subject are often
noted--he may be a professor of the subject at a university, or have
some other position or some experience that marks him as an authority.
This, perhaps, is not of first-rate importance, as it may be presumed
that no one would write a book upon a subject of which he knows
nothing, or who is not qualified in some way to deal with it; a kindly,
if not always correct, view to take. Summed up, the whole object of
an annotation is to assist in the choice of a book, and to elucidate
the treatment of its subject, though it may be said that the purpose
is defeated in these days when so many opportunities for examining the
book itself exist. The subject is exhaustively dealt with in Mr. E. A.
Savage's _Manual of Descriptive Annotations for Library Catalogues_.
The following are typical examples of annotations selected from various
sources:--

  =McCarthy=, Justin. Story of Gladstone's life.
  N.Y. and London _Macmillan_ 1897. 12+436 p. illus.
      portraits, plates, O.

    A Home-ruler's memoir of Gladstone; _based_ upon personal
    acquaintance; of permanent _value_ as a memoir; written
    in an entertaining style and well illustrated, but
    partisan-eulogistic, gossipy and inaccurate. See for best
    biography G. B. Smith, for best short one G. W. E. Russell.
    Careful Gladstone bibliography, _Notes and queries_, Dec. 10,
    24, 1892; Jan. 7, 21, 1893.

    Ath. 1898. 1:182; Sat. R. 85:178; Spec. 80:342; Acad. 53:199.

This is taken from a catalogue of American origin, and appeared before
the publication of Morley's authoritative _Life of Gladstone_. The
note is a somewhat elaborate one, valuable in its references to other
books, but questionable in its criticism. The entry was meant for a
card-catalogue, and not prepared for any particular library.

  STREET, G. S. Trials of the Bantocks.
          A satire. The trials of the Bantocks come in
          their endeavour to be fashionable.

  RICHTER, Eugene. Pictures of the socialistic
      future; freely adapted from Bebel. 1907
          A satire against socialism. It tells the experiences
          of an ardent socialist workman and his
          family in Berlin and the dire results of the
          "coming revolution."

  UNWIN, P. W. Practical solid geometry. (_Camb.
      mathematical ser._) 1909
          An elementary course, complete in itself, covering
          Stage 1 of the Board of Education examination.

  JACOBY, Geo. W. Suggestion and psychotherapy.
      1912
          The influence of the mind in the causation and
          in the cure of disease.

  RUFFINI, Francesco. Religious liberty; with a
      preface by J. B. Bury. (_Theol. transl. lib._)
      1912
          The author is Prof. of Ecclesiastical Law at
          Turin. The history of religious liberty and toleration
          in a wide sense.

Whether a catalogue makes any pretence of being annotated or not, every
library contains books with some features that render them unique or
almost so, when it is worth while showing this by means of a note
attached to the entries as a matter of course. The books may be in
manuscript, be works of the early printers, be extra illustrated, or
be first editions of some value, and these facts are usually stated.
The two following are taken from a catalogue containing no annotations
except such as may be characterised as inevitable:--

  CAMDEN, William. Britannia; transl. and enlarged
      by Richard Gough. 4 v. in 23. fº 1806
          Interleaved copy, illustrated with engraved maps,
          views, portraits, &c., and original drawings and
          sketches, &c.

  =Bible=:
      -- English. The Second Folio, Bishops'
          Version. 707 leaves. fº _London, Richard
          Jugge_, 1572
              _Note._--The Book of Psalms is printed in
              parallel columns of black letter and Roman
              type, the black letter from the Great Bible,
              and the Roman, a new version.
      ---- The Holy B.; containing the Old Testament
          and the New. fº _London,
          Robert Barker_, 1611
              _Note._--This is the 2nd Issue of the 1st ed. of
              the Authorised Version of King James'
              Bible, and is commonly called the Great
              She Bible from Ruth iii. 15.

Other forms of notes that are unavoidable have already been indicated,
as for example, those denoting the order of reading for sequels, and
the amount of reliable history in works of fiction.

In the previous pages it has been more or less hinted that form
entries--that is, entries for books written in a particular literary
form, as poetry, drama, essays, fiction--are out of place in a
dictionary catalogue, and to introduce them is to drag in sections from
the classified catalogue which do not suitably fit. While it is an
exaggeration to say that if books in poetical form are to be entered
under the heading "Poetry," then it logically follows that prosy books
require a heading "Prose," or if novels and romances are to be entered
under "Fiction," then serious books should be placed under "Fact";
there is, all the same, a certain amount of truth behind it. If a
poetical work has a general title, as "Poems" or "Poetical Works," then
there is no need to do more than enter it under the author's name; if
it has a distinctive title, a title-entry is given in addition. This
also applies to dramas and dramatic works, and to volumes of sermons,
letters, or essays. The method of dealing with volumes of essays has
been more definitely shown in Chapter VI., and with works of fiction in
other chapters. Volumes of letters or sermons bearing upon a definite
subject are entered for subject as any other books, the form not
signifying.

Beginners in cataloguing may find the following direct and simple hints
or rules useful for treating subjects in a dictionary catalogue:--

    1.--Clearly ascertain what is the definite subject of a book
          before cataloguing it.

    2.--Do not rely entirely upon the wording of the title-page.

    3.--Fix permanently the name adopted for a subject and in such
          a way that synonymous headings cannot occur.

    4.--Bring together all books upon the same subject irrespective
          of the language in which they are written.

    5.--Adopt popular terms in preference to scientific for
          subject-headings, if the Library is intended to be used
          by all classes of the community.

    6.--Make sure that the popular term has the same meaning as the
          scientific, and is as comprehensive.

    7.--Avoid scattering books upon a single subject, though viewed
          from different standpoints, under several headings, if
          they can be concentrated under one heading.

    8.--Avoid entries under first or other word of the title as far
          as possible, where a subject-entry is all that is needed.
          Title-entries should be the exception not the rule.

    9.--Make a subject-heading when there are two or more books
          upon the same subject; when only one gives a subject
          title-entry.

    10.--Series entries are to be given as such and not as a
          makeshift form of subject-entry.

    11.--Form entries, generally speaking, are out of place in the
          dictionary catalogue. If given they are better relegated
          to an appendix.

    12.--References and cross-references should be always
          subordinate and connected.

    13.--References are rarely given from lesser to greater
          subjects, but should not be overlooked from greater to
          lesser.

    14.--In no case should references be given from author to
          subject or vice versa, or in any form not distinctly
          relative, otherwise they are apt to be incongruous.

    15.--Volumes of a collective or miscellaneous character require
          that each item be considered and catalogued as if a
          separate work.

    16.--Works of a marked classical character are not considered
          to require title entries, and seldom need subject-entries.

    17.--Works of fiction with proper names in their titles call
          for consideration as to the best form of title-entry.

    18.--When a book deals with a subject with a geographical
          limitation, choice between subject and geographical
          heading is sometimes necessary for the sake of economy.
          When in doubt give both entries.

    19.--The above rule can be departed from in the case of the
          home country.

    20.--The judicious abbreviation of entries is not so simple as
          it appears on the surface and requires care.

    21.--Alphabetical arrangement is _not_ by any means as simple
          as a b c.

    22.--The use of repetition dashes should be strictly limited,
          and never exceed two under any circumstances.



CHAPTER XV.

The Printing of Catalogues.

    The Preparation of "Copy." Markings for Type. Styles of
        Printing in Various Catalogues. Table of Types. Tenders for
        Printing. Model Specification. Reading and Correction of
        Proofs. Type "Kept Standing."


The preparation of the manuscript of the catalogue for the press, and
the reading and correction of proofs, call for great care on the part
of the cataloguer, if the results of his labours are to be entirely
satisfactory when in print.

The slips being all sorted into exact order, it is well to paste them
down on sheets of paper, to make the "copy" for the printer. Any kind
of paper serves the purpose, provided it is strong and the sheets
are uniform in size; back numbers of periodicals, if on good paper,
do quite well. When the entries in the dictionary catalogue under
a subject-heading are fairly numerous, they are sub-divided before
they are pasted down; the entries themselves usually suggesting the
appropriate sub-headings--or "arrangement according to material." Some
sub-divisions have been added to the illustrative entries in these
pages to show this. The headings of the second and subsequent entries
under an author's name, and under a subject, are cut away before the
slips are pasted down, or they must be scored through afterwards;
watchful care has to be exercised lest too much be cut off the slips
at this time. If the catalogue is classified the numerical symbols are
interpreted, and such class-headings, divisions, and sub-divisions
written as are required to be printed. The sheets of paper should be
pasted and the slips laid on them and rubbed down, instead of pasting
each slip separately.

Should the catalogue entries be written or typed on good cards,
inconvenient to paste down, or which it is desired to preserve, they
can be numbered consecutively and strung together for the printer;
anything upon them not meant to be printed being marked out, including
in this case also the headings of second and subsequent entries under a
single heading and an author's name.

Whether sent on separate cards or as pasted sheets, each entry must
be marked for the sizes and styles of type the printer is to use. The
following is a convenient and recognised method of doing this:--

    For CAPITALS underline three times in black ink.

    For SMALL CAPITALS underline twice in black ink.

    For _Italics_ underline once in black ink.

    For =Clarendon=, =Antique=, or other heavy type underline as
        before but in red.

    For smaller type than the body of the catalogue mark the
        portions down the margin with a vertical line.

Various considerations enter into the question of the style or
"get-up" (i.e., size, types, paper, binding) of the catalogue. In all
rate-supported libraries the foremost of these is the expense involved.
Owing to the disconnected nature of catalogue entries the setting is
somewhat troublesome work for the compositor, and, taking longer time
than straightforward work, costs more, though the modern type-setting
machines, Linotype and Monotype, have facilitated the work. It is a
well-known fact in connection with public libraries that the public
will not pay more than a merely nominal sum for a catalogue, and
certainly nothing approaching the cost of printing--to be compelled to
sell a catalogue for 6d. which cost 1s. 6d. or 2s. per copy to produce
is a common experience. Sometimes the difference in cost is made good
by advertisements, though this is an unreliable source of revenue.
Advertisers do not regard a catalogue as a good medium for this purpose
owing to the small number in an edition; the fact that it is in
constant use does not weigh much with them. If advertisements can be
dispensed with so much the better, as they detract from the appearance
of a catalogue even if they do not actually disfigure it. The extent
of the library catalogued also enters into the matter. A small one not
requiring a large catalogue can use larger type in printing, though a
small library and a small income often go together, when strict economy
has to be exercised. Again there is the question of including the books
of the reference department in the catalogue, making it a general one,
which adds to its bulk and cost. The reference books having to be used
upon the premises are quite sufficiently brought under notice by means
of the card or sheaf form of catalogues, typewritten or in manuscript,
now in general use, though it may be desirable for a newly-established
library to have a complete catalogue of all departments. Those
persons who understand a "reference department" to consist of a
few directories, dictionaries, and almanacks, may thus learn that
it comprises much more. The extent of the collection also affects
this, as it is desirable, if not actually necessary, that the printed
catalogue shall be kept within such limits as to be portable, and in
a single volume, because some people prefer to have their own copies
rather than make use of those provided in the library, and others make
their choice of books solely at home. All this applies more especially
to the catalogues of lending libraries, as, generally speaking, printed
catalogues of reference libraries are seldom seen nowadays--they are
more of a luxury than a necessity.

The illustrative examples throughout this work give an idea of the
styles of types recommended, though the choice is more one of usage
or personal preference. The following examples, taken from various
catalogues, are selected as representing the styles of printing usually
met with in catalogues.

A common and very economical form is set in 8-point (or brevier)
old-style type, with authors' names, when leading, in small capitals,
the subject-headings in antique, with the entries under them in 6-point
(or nonpareil) as well as all contents and annotations. It is printed
in double columns with a double rule dividing the columns, and on a
royal octavo page:--

  HAYNE, M. H. E., and H. W. TAYLOR.
      The pioneers of the Klondyke. 1897        I 4126
  HAYNES, E. S. P. Religious persecution:
      a study in political psychology. 1904        B 1530
  Hayti:--
      Pritchard, H. Where black rules white. 1900       I 4986
      St. John, Sir S. Hayti; or, the Black Republic.
          1889      I 4378
      Texier, C. Au pays des généraux: Haiti. 1891      I 1145
  Heber. Reginald, _Bp._ Poetical works. '75      H 90
      Robinson, T. The last days of Bishop
          Heber. 1831      I 2348

A variation has the authors' names, wherever they occur, printed in
clarendon (heavy type) and the subject-headings in capitals and small
capitals after this fashion:--

  =Cellini, Benvenuto.= Life of, [by himself]; transl.,
      [with an introduction,] by John A. Symonds.
      Illus.                                   2 v. roy. 8º. 1888 E 7032
  -- =Birrell, A.= A rogue's memoirs. (_In his_ Obiter
      dicta, ser. I.)                                         1884 H 3462
  -- =Goethe, J. W. von.= Benvenuto Cellini. (_In
      his_ Sämtliche Werke, v. 29.)                      [1885] H 3131
  =Celsus, Aurelius C.= De medicina; ad fidem optimorum
      librorum denuo recensuit adnotatione
      critica indicibusque instruxit C. Daremberg.
      (_Bibl. script Graec. et Roman. Teubneriana._)
      pp. xlviii, 407                 sm. 8º. _Lipsiae_, 1859 O 430
  -- =Froude, J. A.= Origen and Celsus. (_In his_
      Short studies, ser. 4.)                                 1883 E 2926

  CELTS.
  -- =Guest, E.= Origines Celticae                   2 v. 1833 E 5178
  -- =Lemière, P. L.= Etude sur les Celtes et les
      Gaulois                                                 1881 E 3848
  -- Revue celtique. Tomes 4-11                        8 v. 1881-91 H 1857
  -- =Rhys, J.= Origin and growth of religion as
      illustrated by Celtic heathendom                        1888 A 3481
  -- =Warren, F. E.= The liturgy and ritual of the
      Celtic church                                           1881 A 3595
  -- _see also Ireland_ (_Language and literature._)

The disadvantage of this style is the over-emphasis of authors' names
at the cost of subject-headings, which are somewhat obscured instead
of being made prominent. The general appearance is not good, the page
having a "spotty" look.

The next example is much the same in character as the first, except
that it is set in modern-faced type, the shelf numbers are given in
heavy type, and the gauge is different. On the whole it presents a
pleasing appearance, though the punctuation is unusual:--

  =Glaciers.= Green (W. S.) Among the Selkirk
          glaciers. 1890. _ill. maps._       =C 2376=
      Helmholtz (H.) Ice and glaciers: _in his_
          Popular lectures, v. 1. 1884.      =E 4726=
      Molloy (G.) The glaciers of the Alps: _in his_
          Gleanings in science. 1888.      =E 4926=
      Rendu (  ) Theory of the glaciers of Savoy.
          1874. _map._      =E 4623=
      _in_ Tyndall (J.) The forms of water. 1885.
          _ill._       =E 4179=
  Gladiators; by G. J. W. Melville. v. d.       =F 6041,=
                                                               =F 6042=
  GLADSTONE (J. H.) The life of Faraday: in
      Science lectures, Manchester, v. 2. 1885.      =E 3841=
  GLADSTONE (WILLIAM E.) Gleanings of past
      years. 1879-97. 8v. 12º      =H 8114-21=
          =1.= The Throne and the Prince Consort; The
          Cabinet and constitution. =2.= Personal and
          literary. =3.= Historical and speculative. =4.= Foreign.
          =5-6.= Ecclesiastical =7.= Miscellaneous. =8.= Theological
          and Ecclesiastical.
      Homer. 1878. 12º      =G 7233=

"Old-style" in type does not mean old-fashioned, but the more artistic
and readable type modelled on the lettering of the early printers,
principally those of the Italian presses, and is that most preferred
at present. If anything, modern-faced type is the older fashioned.
Fantastic or decorated types, even for initial capitals at the
commencement of a division of the catalogue, are better avoided. The
following is an example somewhat after the style of the second given
above, but applied to a classified catalogue:--

                            =944 French History.=
  =Coignet= (Clarisse) Francis I. [of France] and his
      times. [Translated] from the French by Fanny
      Twemlow. Lond. 1888. 8vo. pp. iv. 371.        =944.028 C 1=

  =Beauchamp= (Comte de) Louis XIII. d'après sa
      correspondance avec le Cardinal de Richelieu.
      Paris, 1902. fol. pp. [iv]. 460. _Ports., map and
      illus._       =F 944.032 B 1=

  =Furse= (George Armand) 1800. Marengo and
      Hohenlinden. Lond. 1903. 8vo. pp. xii. 478.
      _Port., illus. and maps._         =944.046 F 2=

  =Bowles= (Thomas Gibson) The defence of Paris,
      [1870-71] narrated as it was seen. Lond. 1871.
      8vo. pp. x. 405. _Map and illus._     =944.08 B 4=

When varying sizes of type are used for distinctive purposes, the
contrast is better brought about by using for the smaller type one
which is two sizes under that of the body of the catalogue. Thus if
10-point (or long primer) is used, then 8-point (or brevier) is taken
for the small type rather than 9-point (or bourgeois), which would not
be sufficiently distinctive. All the above examples are in 8-point (or
brevier) with 6-point (or nonpareil) for the small size. The following
table of types and the space they occupy is useful for reference:--

                               SIZES OF TYPES.

  This is old-style 12-point            (Pica)
  This is old-style 11-point      (Small Pica)
  This is old-style 10-point     (Long Primer)
  This is old-style 9-point        (Bourgeois)
  This is old-style 8-point          (Brevier)
  This is old-style 7-point           (Minion)
  This is old-style 6-point        (Nonpareil)

  This is modern-faced 12-point         (Pica)
  This is modern-faced 11-point   (Small Pica)
  This is modern-faced 10-point  (Long Primer)
  This is modern faced 9-point     (Bourgeois)
  This is modern-faced 8-point       (Brevier)
  This is modern faced 7-point        (Minion)
  This is modern-faced 6-point     (Nonpareil)
  X/

  Where cost has not to be considered, a better
  effect is obtained by printing a catalogue across the
  page instead of in double columns. This takes up
  nearly twice as much space, given the same size of
  type, and is usually printed in demy octavo size
  (8½ inches by 5½). If the number of entries is large
  the catalogue makes a thick volume, though this
  depends largely upon the size of type used. The
  following example is taken from a class-list printed
  in 8-point (or brevier) with notes and contents in
  6-point (or nonpareil) as in the double-columned
  catalogues shown above:--

  POOLE, G. AYLIFFE. History of ecclesiastical architecture in
      England, pp. xiv, 415, port                 8º. 1848
  -- and OTHERS. Architectural notices of the churches of the
      archdeaconry of Northampton: deaneries of Higham
      Ferrers and Haddon. pp. xii. 288, illus.     roy. 8º. 1849
  POTTER, JOSEPH. Remains of ancient monastic architecture in
      England                                 roy. fº. [1845-7]
          _Contents_--Buildwas Abbey church, pl. 33.--Wenlock Priory
          church. pl. 30.--Tintern Abbey church. pl. 49.
  -- Specimens of antient English architecture: ... plans, elevations,
      sections, and details.--Ecclesiastical. pp. 31, pl. 42.
                                                        roy. 4º. 1848
  PRICKETT, MARMADUKE. Historical and architectural description
      of the Priory church of Bridlington. pp. xxviii, 130, pl. 17.
                                                   8º. _Cambridge_, 1831
  PRIOUX, STANISLAS. Monographie de l'ancienne abbaye royale
      Saint-Yved de Braine; [avec plans, élévations, &c.] pp. iii,
      104, pl. 26.                             fº. _Paris_, 1859

It is with the object of using larger-sized types that catalogues are
printed across the page, as the double-columned catalogue does not
admit of the use of large type without adopting a wide page, which is
somewhat inconvenient. The next three examples are of the larger-type
character:-- The following is set in 9-point (bourgeois) with the
contents and notes in 5-point (or pearl). The setting of works of
fiction in double columns is an economical feature, as the short titles
of this class of literature permit a saving. The catalogue from which
it is taken, including preface and key to the indicator of 50 pages,
contains 760 pages for a lending library of just under 20,000 volumes:--

   REEVEs, Wm. P. The Long White Cloud--Ao Tea Roa. [New
          Zealand]. 1898                                         3026 H
      State Experiments in Australia and New Zealand. 2 vols.
      1902                                                        610 C
  Reflection, Aids to, by S. T. Coleridge. 1873                    19 B
  Reflets sur la sombre route, par 'Pierre Loti.' 1899           1809 G
  Reform Bill. Epoch of Reform, 1830-50, by J. McCarthy. 1882    1018 H

  =Reformation, The=:--
      Beard, C. The Reformation of the 16th century. Hibbert
          Lect. 1897                                             839 B
      Beckett, W. H. The English Reformation of the 16th
          century. 1890                                           694 B
      Bettany, G. T. Popular history of the Reformation and
          Modern Protestantism. 1895                             1808 H
  REICH, Emil. Foundations of modern Europe. 1904                4331 H
          The War of American Independence, 1763-83. The
              French Revolution. Napoleon. The Re-action. The
              Revolutions. The Unity of Italy. The Unity of
              Germany. The Franco-German War.
  REID, Capt. Mayne. Odd People; singular races of
          man. 1885                                    543 D and 1598 K
      Tales;--
          Afloat in the Forest                        2608 I and 1174 K
          Boy Hunters                                 2609 I and 1175 K
          Boy Slaves                                  2610 I and 1176 K
          Boy Tar                                     2611 I and 1177 K
          Bruin                                       2612 I and 1178 K
          Bush Boys                                   2613 I and 1179 K
          Chase of the Leviathan                      2614 I and 1180 K
          Child Wife                                  2615 I and 1181 K
          Cliff Climbers                              2616 I and 1182 K
                      Sequel to 'Plant Hunters.
          Death-Shot                                  2617 I and 1183 K

The type here is 11-point (or small pica) with contents and notes in
6-point (nonpareil). This catalogue runs to 790 pages (for 32,000
volumes) without advertisements, and a bound copy weighs 2¾ lbs.:--

  Burlesque plays and poems                                     F =1511=
        Chaucer's 'Rime of Thopas.' Beaumont and Fletcher's
        'Knight of the burning pestle.' Villier's 'Rehearsal.'
        Phillips's 'Splendid shilling.' Fielding's 'Tom
        Thumb the Great.' Carey's 'Namby Pamby and
        Chrononhotonthologos.' Canning's 'Rovers.' Rhode's
        'Bombastes Furioso.' Smith's 'Rejected addresses.'
        Hood's 'Odes to great people.'
  BURLS, Robert. Plan and Operations of the Essex
        Congregational Union. 1848                             Ref. 3346

  =Burmah=: CLIFFORD, H. Further India. 1904                    G=16522=
      CUMING, E. D. In the shadow of the pagoda. 1893           G =7042=
      HALL, H. F. Soul of a people. 1902                        G=15227=
      -- A people at school. 1906                               G=16750=
      MURRAY's Handbook for India, Burmah & Ceylon. '07        Ref. 3446
      NISBET, J. Burma under British rule and before. 2 v.   G=15413-14=
                 _Refer also to_ Manipur, Shan States.
  BURN, R. S., _Ed._ Ornamental draughtsman and designer.
      1892                                                      E =7277=
  BURNABY, E. Ride from Land's End to John o' Groats.
      1893                                                          4661
  BURNABY, Fred. Ride to Khiva. 1877                     G =176=, =1581=
  BURNAND, Sir F. C. Happy thoughts. 1874                           5609

In this the type of the body of the catalogue is the same in size as
the previous example (11-point), the contents under subject-heading
being in 8-point (brevier) take up less room. The catalogue contains
500 pages for 15,000 volumes.

  WILSON (John) [_Christopher North_] Noctes ambrosianæ.
          4 v.
      _See also_ De Quincey (T.) Works. v. 16
      -- Hall (S. C.) Book of memories. [1876]
  WILSON (J. P.) Scriptural proofs. 1887
  WILSON (R.) Steam boilers. 1879
  WILSON (W.) Swimming instructor, _il._ 1883
  =Wiltshire.=
      Murray's Handbook for Wiltshire, _etc. map._ 1882
      Worth (R. N.) Guide to Wiltshire, _map_. 1887
  _Willert_ (P. F.) Henry of Navarre and the
          Huguenots in France. _il._ 1893
  WILLIAM I. Freeman (E. A.) William the Conqueror.
          1888
      Planche (J. R.) The Conqueror and his companions.
          2 v.
  WILLIAM II. Freeman (E. A.) Reign of William
          Rufus. 2 v.
  WILLIAM III. Traill (H. D.) William III. 1888
  WILLIAM IV. Fitzgerald (P.) Life and times of
          William IV. 2 v. 1884
      Greville (C. C. F.) Journals. v. 2-3. 1888
      Huish (R.) Life and reign of William IV. _il._
  WILLIAM _of Malmesbury_. Chronicle of the kings of
          England. [449-1142.] 1847
  WILLIAMS (E. E.) "Made in Germany." 1896

There are other sizes of catalogues from a quarto to a duodecimo, so
far as the size of the pages is concerned, but the above examples
include all sizes of type that it is advisable to use; anything larger
than 11-point (small pica) being too large, and anything smaller than
6-point (nonpareil) is hardly readable. Brevier, or the nearest to
it, 8-point, is a useful and economical size, as examination of the
foregoing examples proves, and while it is comparatively small it must
be remembered that catalogues are merely looked at and not read through
in the ordinary meaning of the term.

The styles of types having been settled, it is customary to invite
tenders for the work from printing firms selected because of their
repute, experience, and ability to carry out such work. The possibility
of securing a satisfactory or economical piece of work is very remote
if it is open to all who choose to tender, even within a local area.
The cheapest tender obtained in this way frequently proves the dearest
in the end, to say nothing of the worry and vexation caused to the
librarian by people undertaking work they have not the material or
competence to execute properly. All firms must tender upon the same
basis, and therefore it is essential that a specification be prepared
for the purpose. The following is prepared for the style of printing
first mentioned (page 220), though it can be easily altered in this
and other respects to suit requirements. It is fairer to all concerned
if a specimen page is set up embodying the cataloguer's intentions and
all the styles of type it is proposed to use as nearly as possible in
the right proportions, though this is not of first-rate importance
if the various sizes to be used are separately priced and measured
up for payment at the completion of the work. It must be remembered
that though smaller type occupies less space it costs more to compose
than the larger. It is also an advantage to have some portion of the
manuscript ("copy") ready in order that a printer tendering may examine
it and judge of its nature if he so desires.


                    [_Specification for Printing._]

                    COUNTY BOROUGH OF BIBLIOVILLE.

         Specification for Printing a Catalogue of the Public
                               Library.

The Committee of the Public Library invite tenders for printing a
catalogue of their Lending Library upon the following conditions:

    _Edition and Size._--The edition to consist of three thousand
        copies, royal octavo in size (not less than 9¼ by 6 when
        bound).

    NOTE.--The number of the edition depends entirely upon local
    circumstances and probable sales. A library of 5,000 borrowers
    will take about seven years to sell 3,500 copies of a catalogue
    at 6d. per copy.

    _Paper._--To be at least 32lbs. royal to the ream, of good
        finish, white, uniform in tint throughout.

    _Type and Setting._--8-point Old-style, with occasional small
        capitals, italics, and Clarendon or antique, with 6-point
        for subjects,[1] notes, and contents, and the proper
        accented letters in foreign languages. To be set solid, two
        columns to the page, seventy lines 8-point to the column
        (apart from page-heading, which is to contain a title and
        catch-word syllables), each fifteen ems wide, with double
        division rules between. Turnover lines to be indented one
        em, the repeat dash to be a one em rule, the class-letter
        and number to stand clear four ems, the 6-point indent to
        be two ems. Spaces between the end of the book-entry and
        the class-letter to be filled with leaders. The type must
        not be worn or broken, and must be free from wrong-founts.
        The "copy" must be closely followed for the punctuation and
        use of capitals.

    [1] If the entries under subject-headings are to be in smaller type.

    _Machining._--The sheets to be well worked in perfect register,
        with good ink and uniform impression, afterwards rolling or
        pressing if needed.

    NOTE.--Good printers do not now need to hot press or roll the
    sheets.

    _Time._--From the first receipt of copy, the work to be
        proceeded with at a rate of not less than two sheets of
        sixteen pages each per week until completed [or in default
        thereof the printer to pay a sum of two pounds per week as
        damages.]

    NOTE.--A penalty clause is optional; much depends upon the
    printer, who may be very dilatory and use the work to fill up
    with when not otherwise busy.

    _Proofs._--Two copies of proof in galley and two copies of a
        revise in page to be furnished for reading and correction.
        The Librarian to have the right to demand a revise in
        galley and such revises in page as he shall deem necessary.
        No sheet to be sent to press until ordered by the
        endorsement of the Librarian thereon.

    _Additions and corrections._--The Librarian to have the right
        to insert additional matter in galley but not in page
        except as an author's correction. No extra charge to be
        allowed for author's corrections unless pointed out and
        priced at the time they are made.

    _Number of pages._[2]--The number of pages is estimated to
        be 250 more or less, but this is not guaranteed, and no
        allowance will be made for any miscalculation in this
        respect.

    [2] An estimate made from the "copy" is liable to turn out wrong
when the work is in type, the tendency being to overstate the number
of pages, when the printer is within his rights, according to trade
usages, in claiming for profit upon the full number of pages upon which
his estimate is based; therefore it is wise to leave the matter open in
this way.

    _Covers._--Three thousand covers to be printed upon coloured
        paper of an approved tint, not less than 34lbs. to the ream
        (royal). The front of this cover to be printed with the
        title of the catalogue.

    NOTE.--If the catalogue is not to be bound in boards, but is to
    have paper covers only, the weight of the paper should be at
    least 70lbs.

    _Binding._--The whole edition is to be bound in good
        strawboards of suitable thickness, with cloth strip backs,
        and strongly sewn with thread, the covers being pasted on
        the front and back and the whole cut flush. Fourteen days
        will be allowed for binding after the last sheet has been
        returned for the press.

    _Delivery._--The catalogues when completed are to be securely
        tied up in brown paper parcels of fifty each and delivered
        to the Librarian at the Public Library.

    _Tender._--The tender is to state the price per page for
        8-point and for 6-point type respectively, this price to
        be inclusive of all charges for press corrections, covers,
        binding, and delivery as aforesaid. When completed the
        work is to be measured up, and charges will be allowed
        according to the quantity used of each of the above types.
        Payment will be made within three months afterwards.

    _Other conditions._--The work is to be executed to the entire
        satisfaction of the Librarian, and if he is dissatisfied
        with it in any respect he is authorised to stop the work
        and refer the matter to the Library Committee for their
        decision, which shall be final and binding.

    _Contract._--The Committee may require the firm whose tender is
        accepted to enter into a contract with the Borough Council
        to carry out the work in accordance with this specification
        and its conditions, and to give an undertaking that the
        rate of wages paid and hours of labour observed are those
        that are generally accepted as fair by the printing trades.

The Committee do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or any tender.

Specimens of the kind of work required can be inspected at the
Librarian's office, where also the "copy" can be seen as far as ready.

Tenders, with samples of the papers proposed to be used, are to be sent
in sealed envelopes, endorsed "Catalogue," to reach the undersigned not
later than noon on the 5th day of November, 1913.

                                                            JOHN SMITH,
                                                        _Librarian_.

  Public Library,
      The Broadway,
          Biblioville,
              _20th October, 1913_.

The preliminaries having been settled, the work of printing is put in
hand by furnishing the printer with a supply of "copy," of say 100
sheets, duly marked for varieties of type and other details. In due
course the printer will send two or three copies of proofs printed in
single column on long strips of paper known as "galleys," with ample
margins on which to mark the corrections. The corrections are not
marked on the printed matter alone, but the nature of the correction
required is also marked in the margin. An assistant, possessing some
knowledge of the subject, should read out the "copy" slowly and
distinctly to the cataloguer, at the same time directing attention to
any peculiarities of spelling, punctuation, accented letters, and the
like. It is a very difficult task to correct the proofs by reference to
the "copy" without having it read aloud. Each galley having been once
read through should have the shelf numbers called again, as mistakes
in these cause most trouble. After this the cataloguer will be well
advised to read the galleys through carefully once more, apart from the
"copy," provided he can spare the time, and is not overwhelmed with
proofs by the printer. He should also mark the places for the insertion
of any additions, which are either written on the margins or, if large
in number, made into a new sheet of "copy," with a separate numbering
for each item, this numbering being used for marking the exact place
where it is to be inserted.

When the corrections are many, as they often are in the early stages
of the work before the compositor has got into the right way, it is
advisable to have "a revise" in galley--that is, an additional "pull"
after the corrections are made. Should the corrections be comparatively
few, the printer may safely be trusted to put them right, and a revise
in page form will suffice. This revise in page needs careful reading
for catch-letters and other page headings, and for the repetition of
authors' names and subject-headings when they are divided at the tops
of columns (or pages). This reading is done without the "copy," which,
once being read, is not needed again, except for reference.

Most catalogues are now set up on the Linotype or Monotype machines,
when it is as well to ascertain which of these machines is in use. By
the Linotype a single addition of a word or correction of a letter
involves the resetting of the whole line, possibly two, and the lines
must be re-read. Corrections on the Monotype are made by single pieces
in the ordinary way. It is essential in hand-setting to look out for
wrong founts, that is pieces of another size or style of type which
have been accidentally mixed up with that being used, and if printed
will mar the appearance. Broken and worn letters also should be marked
to be changed. Work on the type-setting machines is not so much subject
to these faults, though they are possible. The method of correcting a
proof and the signs used in the process are shown in Appendix A.

With the object of saving expense in the printing of new editions of
catalogues, some librarians are trying the experiment of keeping the
type standing and paying a small rental. The edition printed is then
not so large as usual, and when a new edition is required the type is
again used and the new additions inserted. An arrangement of this kind
requires that the original estimate shall include a price per page for
reprints with additions and for re-imposition. This attempt at economy
has not yet got beyond the experimental stage.

The storage of type until wanted for reprinting does not enter
into consideration where the Monotype setting machine is used, the
perforated paper rolls being easily filed away until required again;
though this is rather the concern of the printer than of the librarian.

We may conclude with the following quotation taken from the preface of
a library catalogue:--

    "In the former catalogue it was said that 'It would seem to be
    impossible to produce a catalogue absolutely free from errors
    of compilation or the press, and some are already noted for
    correction when the next edition is called for.' This statement
    still holds good."



APPENDIX A1.

Specimen Page showing Marked Proof.


[Illustration:

          LOISY, Alfred. The gospel and th|ə| church.                       ~@~
            1903                                               =B 1517=
  ~é|~    LOLIÉE, Fr|e|déric. A short |H|istory of                       ~l.c.~
            comp+¬a¬+rative literature. 1906                   =H 2485=  ~w.f.~
          Lollards, The, of the Chiltern Hills.
            Summers, W. H. 1906                                =B 1652=
  ~s.c.~  L+ollis+, Cesare de. Vita di Cristoforo⏌                          ~⏌~
            Colombo. 1895                                      =I 5608=
  ~cap.~  Lombard +s+treet. Bagehot^ W. 1892                   =C  401=    ~,/~
          Lombock. With the Dutch in |in| the East.                         ~₰~
            Cool, W. 1897                                      =I 3978=
          LOMÉNIE, Louis de. Beaumarchais and
  ~⊙~       his times. 4 v^ 1856                            =I 5563-66=
          LOMMEL, E. The nature of light. (+Int.+                       ~ital.~
            _scien. ser._) 1885                                =E  108=
  ~trs.~  LONDON, Jack. The call[\the/of\]wild                 =K 2155=
   ~┣┫~   ^ A daughter of the |ṣṇọẉṣ|                          =K 5590= ~stet~
          -- The people of the abyss. 1903                     =C 1441=
  ~X~            The liv|e|s of^poor in London.                          ~the/~

  ~═══~   Lon+¬don¬+:--
                     _History and Descripti|e|n._                          ~o/~
  ~l.c.~    Allbut, R. London |R|ambles with Cha|s|les                     ~r/~
              Dickens, n.d.                                  |I| =4157=     ~║~
            Apperson, G. L. By⁐gone London life. 1903        |I| =4732=    ~⁐║~
            Arundell, T. Historical reminiscences of the
              City and its livery companies. 1869              =I 1404=
 +boroughs+ _See also the names of |parishes| as_ Chelsea, Kensing^        ~-/~
              ton, _of buildings as the_ Tower, Westminster
              Abbey, |et|c.; _and of places as_ Charing +_Cross_+,     ~&/rom.~
  ~#~         Hyde|Park, Ludgate Hill. &c.
                          _Social, &c. life._
            "Dogberry^(Ed). Humours and oddities of the                    ~"/~
  ~□~       ^London police courts. 1894                        =C  883=
            Wynter, A. Curiosities of civilization, n.d.       =H 2172=
          LONG, A. L. Memoirs of \(General]                                ~[/~
  ~︶̍~      Robert E.+:+ Lee. 1886                              =I 2259=
          Long exile, The. Tolsto|y|, Count                    =J 1875=    ~ï/~]

[Illustration:

  ~s.c.~         Small capitals.

  ~cap~          Capital.

  ~⊙~            Full stop to be inserted.

  ~trs.~         Transpose.

  ~|--|~         Insert a dash.

  ~X~            Broken or worn letter.

  ~═══~          Alignment to be straightened.

  ~l.c.~         Change capital to lower case (i.e. small letter).

  ~#~            Space to be inserted.

  ~□~            Indent (one em).

  ~︶̍~           Push down space showing.

  ~@~            A turned letter.

  ~w.f.~         Wrong fount (the letter is of the wrong type).

  ~⏌~            Space out to gauge.

  ~,/~           Insert a comma.

  ~₰~            Delete; remove letters or words.

  ~ital.~        Italic to be used.

  ~stet~         Word not to be altered.

  ~║~            Straighten perpendicularly.

  ~⁐~            Join letters to make one word.

  ~-/~           A hyphen to be inserted.

  ~rom.~         Change from italic to roman.

  ~"/~           Insert quotation mark.

  ~[/~           Substitute a bracket.

  ~N.P.~         Commence new paragraph.]


  APPENDIX A3.                                                 =B 1517=
  Specimen Page Corrected.
  LOISY, Alfred. The gospel and the church.
      1903
  LOLIÉE, Frédéric. A short history of
      comparative literature. 1906                             =H 2485=
  Lollards, The, of the Chiltern Hills.
      Summers, W. H. 1906                                      =B 1652=
  LOLLIS, Cesare de. Vita di Cristoforo
      Colombo. 1895                                            =I 5608=
  Lombard Street. Bagehot, W. 1892                             =C 401=
  Lombock. With the Dutch in the East.
      Cool, W. 1897                                            =I 3978=
  LOMÉNIE, Louis de. Beaumarchais and
      his times. 4 v. 1856                                     =I 5563-66=
  LOMMEL, E. The nature of light. (_Int.
      scien. ser._) 1885                                       =E 108=
  LONDON, Jack. The call of the wild                           =K 2155=
  -- A daughter of the snows                                   =K 5590=
  -- The people of the abyss. 1903                             =C 1441=
            The lives of the poor in London.
  =London=:--
                    _History and Description._
      Allbut, R. London rambles with Charles
          Dickens, n.d.                                        =I 4157=
      Apperson, G. L. Bygone London life. 1903                 =I 4732=
      Arundell, T. Historical reminiscences of the
          City and its livery companies. 1869                  =I 1404=
      _See also the names of boroughs as_ Chelsea,
          Kensington, _of buildings as the_ Tower, Westminster
          Abbey, &c., _and of places as_ Charing Cross, Hyde
          Park, Ludgate Hill, &c.

      "Dogberry" (_Ed._). Humours and oddities of the
          London police courts. 1894                           =C 883=
      Wynter, A. Curiosities of civilization, n.d.             =H 2172=
  LONG, A. L. Memoirs of [General]
      Robert E. Lee. 1886                                      =I 2259=
  Long exile, The. Tolstoï, Count                              =J 1875=


APPENDIX B.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.


The following are some of the words most frequently used in connection
with books and in cataloguing, with suitable abbreviations. All
abbreviations must be used guardedly and with discretion, so that they
cannot be confused with other words, and are self-explanatory with the
context. For a full list see a useful book, "Author and Printer," by F.
Howard Collins (Frowde).

  About (_circa_)                   _c._ (with a date following)
  Account                           acct.
  Advertisements                    advts.
  Ancient                           anc.
  Anonym, Anonymous                 anon.
  Archbishop                        Archbp., Abp.
  Atlas                             atl.
  Ausgabe                           Ausg.
  Band (_German for volume_)        Bd.
  Bibliography, Bibliographical     bibliog.
  Biography, biographical           biog.
  Bishop                            Bp.
  Book, Books                       bk., bks.
  Born                              b.
  Calf (_in binding_)               cf.
  Cardinal                          Card.
  Century                           cent.
  Chapter, Chapters                 chap., chaps.
  Cloth                             cl.
  Colonel                           Col.
  Coloured                          col.
  Company                           co.
  Compiled, Compiler                comp.
  Complete                          compl.
  Continued                         contd.
  County                            co.
  Crown (_in book sizes_)           cr.
  Demy                              dy.
  Dictionary                        dict.
  Died                              d.
  Duodecimo                         12º, 12mo., duo.
  East                              E.
  Economy                           econ.
  Edited, Editor, Edition           ed.
  Editors, Editions                 eds.
  England, English                  Eng.
  Enlarged                          enl.
  Explanation, Explanatory          explan.
  Facsimile                         facs.
  Folio                             fº
  Folios                            ff.
  Frontispiece                      frontis. _or_ front.
  Gilt edges                        g.e.
  Great Britain                     Gt. Brit.
  Half (_in binding_)               hf. (_as_ hf. cf.)
  Handbook                          hdbk.
  Herausgegeben                     hrsg. _or_ herausg.
  Historical, History               hist.
  Illustrator, Illustrated,         illus.
    Illustrations
  Imperial (_in book sizes_)        imp.
  Including, Inclusive              incl.
  International                     internat.
  Introduction, Introductory        intro.
  Large                             la.
  Large paper                       l.p.
  Leaves                            ll.
  Lectures                          lecs.
  Library                           lib.
  Literary, Literature              lit.
  Manuscript                        MS.
  Manuscripts                       MSS.
  Modern                            mod.
  Morocco (_in binding_)            mor.
  New edition                       n.e. _or_ new ed.
  New series                        n.s. _or_ new ser.
  New Testament                     N.T.
  No date                           n.d., N.D., _or_ s.a. (sine anno)
  No place (of publication)         n.pl.
  No date or place                  s.a. et l.
  No title-page                     n.t.-p.
  North                             N.
  Number, Numbers                   no., nos.
  Oblong                            obl.
  Octavo                            8º, 8vo, O.
  Old Testament                     O.T.
  Original                          orig.
  Out of print                      o.p.
  Pages                             pp.
  Pamphlet, Pamphlets               pamph. _or_ phlt., phlts.
  Parliamentary                     parly. (_as_ parly. paper)
  Part, Parts                       pt., pts.
  Plate, Plates                     pl., pls.
  Portrait, Portraits               port., ports.
  Preface, prefatory                pref.
  Preliminary                       prelim.
  Printed, Printer                  pr.
  Privately printed                 priv. pr.
  Proceedings                       proc.
  Professor                         Prof.
  Pseudonym, Pseudonymous           pseud. _or_ ps.
  Published                         pubd.
  Quarto                            4º, 4to, Q.
  Re-edited                         re-ed.
  Reference                         ref.
  Reprint, Reprinted                repr.
  Reproduction, Reproduced          reprod.
  Reverend                          Rev.
  Revised                           rev.
  Royal (_in book sizes_)           roy.
  Saint                             St.
  Sequel                            seq.
  Series                            ser.
  Sextodecimo                       16º, 16mo.
  Small (_in book sizes_)           sm.
  Society                           soc. (_names of Societies as_
                                         Royal Soc.)
  South                             S.
  Super (_in book sizes_)           sup.
  Supplement                        suppl.
  Thus                              (_sic_) _inserted to mark mistakes
                                        or peculiarities_.
  Title-page wanting                t.-p.w.
  Traduit, Tradotto                 trad.
  Translator, Translated            transl. _or_ tr.
  United Kingdom                    U.K.
  United States                     U.S.A.
  University                        Univ.
  Various dates                     v.d.
  Vocabulary                        vocab.
  Volume, Volumes                   v. _or_ vol.
  Von, Van                          v.
  With                              w. _as_ w. col. illus. (with
                                        coloured illustrations).
  X/

  Places of publication (specimen abbreviations):--

  Birmingham                        B'ham.
  Cambridge                         Camb.
  Dublin                            Dub.
  Edinburgh                         Edin.
  Glasgow                           Glasg.
  Liverpool                         L'pool.
  Manchester                        M'chester.
  New York                          N.Y.
  Oxford                            Oxf.
  Philadelphia                      Philad.
  X/



  APPENDIX C.


  A short list of pseudonyms with the real names,
  including women authors whose names are changed
  by marriage:--

      PSEUDONYM.                  REAL NAME.
  A.L.O.E.                    Charlotte M. Tucker
  Acheta Domestica            L. M. Budgen
  Ackworth, John              F. R. Smith
  Adams, Mrs. Leith           Mrs. R. S. de Courcy Laffan
  Adeler, Max                 Charles H. Clark
  Agnus, Orme                 John C. Higginbotham
  Aimard, Gustave             Olivier Gloux
  Ainslie, Noel               Edith Lister
  Alexander, Mrs.             Annie F. Hector
  Alien                       Mrs. L. A. Baker
  Allen, F. M.                Edmund Downey
  Amateur Angler, The         Edward Marston
  Amyand, Arthur              Andrew Haggard
  Andom, R.                   Alfred W. Barrett
  Angell, Norman              R. Norman A. Lane
  Annunzio, Gabriele d'       Gaetano Rapagnetto
  Anstey, F.                  Thos. Anstey Guthrie
  Argles, Mrs.                Mrs. Hungerford
  Aubrey, Frank               Francis H. Atkinson
  Audley, John                Mrs. E. M. Davy
  Aunt Judy                   Mrs. Margaret Gatty
  Aunt Naomi                  Gertrude A. Landa
  Ayscough, John              F. D. Bickerstaffe Drew
  B., A. K. H.                A. K. H. Boyd
  B., E. V.                   Eleanor V. Boyle
  Barker, Lady                Lady Broome
  Basil                       Richard Ashe King
  Bede, Cuthbert              Edward Bradley
  Belgian Hare, The           Lord Alfred Douglas
  Bell, Nancy                 Mrs. Arthur Bell
  Belloc, Marie A.            Mrs. Belloc Lowndes
  Bentzon, Th.                Thérèse Blanc
  Bickerdyke, John            C. H. Cook
  Billings, Josh              Henry W. Shaw
  Bird, Isabella L.           Mrs. I. L. Bishop
  Birmingham, George A.       James O. Hannay
  Blackburne, E. Owens        Elizabeth Casey
  Boldrewood, Rolf            Thos. A. Browne
  Bovet, M. A. de             Marquise de Bois Hébert
  Bowen, Marjorie             Gabrielle V. M. Campbell
  Brada                       Comtesse Puliga
  Braddon, M. E.              Mrs. Maxwell
  Breitmann, Hans             Charles G. Leland
  Brenda                      Mrs. Castle Smith
  Buckley, Arabella B.        Mrs. Fisher
  Burnett, Frances Hodgson    Mrs. H. Townesend
  Caballero, Fernan           Cecilia Boehl de Faber
  Cambridge, Ada              Mrs. G. F. Cross
  Carmen, Sylva               Elisabeth, _Queen of Roumania_
  Carroll, Lewis              Charles L. Dodgson
  Cassidy, James              Mrs. E. M. Story
  Cavendish                   Henry Jones
  Cellarius                   Thos. W. Fowle
  Champfleury                 Jules F. F. Husson-Fleury
  Chester, Norley             Emily Underdown
  Christian, Sydney           M. L. Lord
  Clare, Austin               W. M. James
  Cleeve, Lucas               Mrs. H. Kingscote
  Cobbleigh, Tom              Walker Raymond
  Collingwood, Harry          Wm. J. C. Lancaster
  Colmore, George             Mrs. Baillie Weaver
  Connor, Marie               Marie C. Leighton
  Connor, Ralph               Charles W. Gordon
  Conrad, Joseph              Joseph C. Korzeniowski
  Conway, Derwent             Henry D. Inglis
  Conway, Hugh                F. J. Fargus
  Conway, James               Jas. Conway Walter
  Coo-ee                      Wm. S. Walker
  Coolidge, Susan             Sarah C. Woolsey
  Cooper, Rev. Wm. M.         James G. Bertram
  Corthis, André              _Mdlle._ Husson
  Craddock, C. E.             Mary N. Murfree
  Crawley, Captain            G. F. Pardon
  Cromarty, Deas              Mrs. R. A. Watson
  Coulevain, Pierre de        _Mdlle._ F. de Coulevain
  Counties, Home              J. W. K. Scott
  Dale, Darley                Francesca M. Steele
  Dall, Guillaume             Madame Jules Lebaudy
  Danby, Frank                Julia Frankau
  D'Anvers, N.                Mrs. Arthur Bell
  Dean, Mrs. Andrew           Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick
  Dehan, Richard              Clotilde Graves
  Donovan, Dick               J. E. Preston Muddock
  Douglas, George             Geo. D. Brown
  Douglas, O.                 Miss Buchan
  Douglas, Theo               Mrs. H. D. Everett
  Dowie, Ménie M.             Mrs. E. A. Fitzgerald
  Duncan, Sara J.             Mrs. Everard Cotes
  Ecilaw, Ary                 Comtesse Czapska
  Egerton, George             Mrs. R. Golding Bright
  Eha                         Edward H. Aitken
  Eliot, George               Mary Anne Evans (afterwards Mrs. Cross)
  Elbon, Barbara              Leonora B. Halsted
  Elizabeth, Charlotte        Charlotte E. Tonna
  Ellis, Luke                 J. Page Hopps
  Fairless, Michael           Margaret Fairless Barber
  Falconer, Lanoe             Mary E. Hawker
  Fane, Violet                Lady Philip Currie
  Farningham, Marianne        Mary A. Hearne
  Ferval, Claude              Baronne de Pierrebourg
  Field, Michael              Misses Bradley and Cooper
  Fin Bec                     W. B. Jerrold
  Fleming, George             Julia C. Fletcher
  Flynt, Josiah               Frank Willard
  Foreman Pattern-Maker, A    J. G. Horner
  Forester, George            George Greenwood
  Fowler, Edith A.            Mrs. R. Hamilton
  Fowler, Ellen Thornycroft   Mrs. A. L. Felkin
  France, Anatole             Anatole François Thibault
  Francis, M. E.              Mrs. M. Blundell
  Francis, R. E.              Frances Poynter
  Free Lance, A.              F. H. Perrycoste
  Freer, Martha W.            Mrs. M. W. Robinson
  Frost, George               Mrs. S. Eddison
  G. G.                       -- Harper
  Garrett, Edward             Isabella F. Mayo
  Gaunt, Mary                 Mrs. Lindsay Miller
  Gerard, Dorothea            Mdme. Longard de Longgarde
  Gerard, Emily               Mdme. de Laszowska
  Gerard, Morice              J. Jessop Teague
  Gerrare, Wirt               W. O. Greener
  Gift, Theo.                 Dorothy H. Boulger
  Grand, Sarah                Mrs. M'Fall
  Gray, Maxwell               M. G. Tuttiett
  Green, Anna K.              Mrs. C. Rohlfs
  Grey, Rowland               Lilian R. Brown
  Grier, Sydney C.            Hilda Gregg
  Gréville, Henry             Alice M. C. Durand
  Grove, Lilly                Mrs. J. G. Frazer
  Gubbins, Nathaniel          Edward Spencer
  Gyp                         Comtesse de Martel de Janville
  Haliburton, Hugh            J. L. Robertson
  Hall, Eliza Calvert         Lina C. Obenchain
  Hamel, Frank                Miss F. Hamel
  Hamst, Olphar               Ralph Thomas
  Hay, Ian                    J. A. Beith
  Hay, Marie                  Baroness von Hindenburg
  Hare, Christopher           Mrs. Andrews
  Hayes, Henry                Mrs. E. O. Kirk
  Heddle, Ethel F.            Mrs. W. Marshall
  Hegan, Alice C.             Mrs. A. C. Rice
  Henry, O.                   Sydney Porter
  Hertz-Garten, Theodor       Mrs. de Mattos
  Hickson, Mrs. Murray        Mrs. S. Kitcat
  Hieover, Harry              Charles Bindley
  Hill, Headon                F. Grainger
  Hilliers, Ashton            H. M. Wallis
  Hobbes, John Oliver         Mrs. Pearl M. T. Craigie
  Hoffmann, Professor         A. J. Lewis
  Holcombe, Arnold            Arnold Golsworthy
  Holdsworth, Annie           Mrs. E. Lee Hamilton
  Holland, Clive              C. J. Hankinson
  Hope, Andrée                Mrs. Harvey
  Hope, Anthony               Anthony H. Hawkins
  Hope, Ascott R.             Robt. H. Moncreiff
  Hope, Graham                Jessie Hope
  Hope, Laurence              Violet Nicholson
  Hopper, Nora                Mrs. Chesson
  Houville, Gérard d'         Mde. H. de Regnier
  Howard, Keble               Keble Bell
  Hume, Martin A. S.          Martin A. Sharp
  Ingoldsby, Thomas           Richard H. Barham
  Intelligence Officer        Lionel James
  Iota                        Kathleen Caffyn
  Iron, Ralph                 Mrs. O. Cronwright-Schreiner
  Ironside, John              E. M. Tait
  Jacberns, Raymond           Georgina M. I. Ash
  Jacomb, A. E.               A. E. Jacomb Hood
  James, Croake               James Paterson
  Janus                       Johann J. I. von Döllinger
  Joubert, Carl               Adolphus W. C. Grottey
  K., O.                      Mdme. Olga Novikoff (née Kireff)
  Keith, Leslie               Mrs. G. L. Keith Johnston
  King, K. Douglas            Mrs. Godfrey Burr
  Kipling, Alice              Mrs. Fleming
  L., L. E.                   Letitia E. MacLean (née Landon)
  La Pasture, Mrs. H. de      Lady Hugh Clifford
  Laffan, May                 Mrs. W. N. Hartley
  Larwood, Jacob              L. R. Sadler
  Laurence, A. St.            Alfred L. Felkin
  Law, John                   Miss M. E. Harkness
  Layland, F.                 Mrs. Francis Barratt
  Leander, Richard            R. Volkmann
  Lee, Holme                  Harriet Parr
  Lee, Vernon                 Violet Paget
  Legrand, Martin             James Rice
  Lennox                      Lennox Pierson
  Lenotre, G.                 Théodore Gosselin
  Lesueur, Daniel             Jeanne Loiseau
  Lévi, Eliphas               Alphonse L. Constant
  Lindsay, Harry              H. Lindsay Hudson
  London, John o'             Wilfred Whitten
  Loti, Pierre                Louis M. J. Viaud
  Lucka, Sydney               Henry Harland
  Lyall, Edna                 Ada E. Bayly
  Lys, Christian              Percy J. Brebner
  Maartens, Maarten           J. M. W. van der Poorten Schwartz
  McAulay, Allan              Charlotte Stewart
  Maclaren, Ian               John M. Watson
  Macleod, Fiona              William Sharp
  Main, Mrs.                  Mrs. Aubrey Le Blond
  Malet, Lucas                Mrs. M. St. L. Harrison (née Kingsley)
  Mansergh, Jessie            Mrs. G. de H. Vaizey
  Marchant, Bessie            Mrs. J. A. Comfort
  Markham, Mrs.               Mrs. Eliz. Penrose
  Marlitt, E.                 Henriette F. C. E. John
  Marlowe, Charles            Harriet Jay
  Marryat, Florence           Mrs. F. Lean
  Marvell, Ik.                Donald G. Mitchell
  Mathers, Helen              Mrs. H. Reeve
  Meade, L. T.                Mrs. Toulmin Smith
  Melville, Lewis             Lewis S. Benjamin
  Meredith, Isabel            Olivia F. M. Rossetti
  Meredith, Owen              Earl Lytton
  Merriman, Henry Seton       H. S. Scott
  Miles, Amber                Mrs. Cobden Sickert
  Miles, Walker               E. S. Taylor
  Miller, Joaquin             C. H. Miller
  Mimosa                      Mrs. M. Chan Toon
  Montbard, G.                Charles A. Loyes
  Montgomery, K. L.           Kathleen and Letitia Montgomery
  Morris, May                 Mrs. Sparling
  Mulholland, Rosa            Lady Gilbert
  Nesbit, E.                  Edith Bland (Mrs. Hubert Bland)
  Nimrod                      C. J. Apperley
  Nordau, Max                 M. S. Südfeld
  North, Christopher          Prof. John Wilson
  North, Laurence             J. D. Symon
  North, Pleydell             Mrs. Egerton Eastwick
  Novalis                     Friedrich von Hardenburg
  Nye, Bill                   E. W. Nye
  Old Boomerang               J. R. Houlding
  Oldcastle, John             Wilfred Meynell
  Oliver, Pen                 Sir Henry Thompson
  Optic, Oliver               Wm. T. Adams
  Orczy, Baroness             Mrs. Montagu Barstow
  O'Rell, Max                 Paul Blouët
  Otis, James                 J. O. Kaler
  Ouida                       Louise de la Ramée
  Owen, J. A.                 Mrs. Owen Visger
  Oxenham, John               W. A. Dunkerley
  Page, H. A.                 Alex H. Japp
  Palmer, Wm. Scott           Mrs. M. E. Dowson
  Pansy                       Isabella M. Alden
  Parallax                    Samuel B. Robotham
  Parley, Peter               Wm. Martin
  Paston, George              Miss E. M. Symonds
  Pattison, Mrs. Mark         Lady E. F. S. Dilke
  Paull, M. A.                Mrs. John Ripley
  Percy, Sholto and Reuben    Joseph C. Robertson and Thomas Byerley
  Phelps, Eliz. S.            Mrs. H. D. Ward
  Pilgrim                     Mrs. W. P. Browne
  Plain Woman, A.             Miss Ingham
  Prescott, E. Livingston     Edith K. Spicer-Jay
  Prevost, Francis            H. F. P. Battersby
  Pritchard, Martin J.        Justina Moore
  Prout, Father               F. Mahony
  Q.                          Sir A. T. Quiller Couch
  Raimond, C. E.              Elisabeth Robins
  Raine, Allen                Mrs. P. Puddicombe
  Rapier                      A. E. T. Watson
  Rayner, Olive Pratt         Grant Allen
  Reed, Myrtle                Mrs. McCullough
  Rhoscomyl, Owen             Owen Vaughan
  Ridley, Mrs. Edward         Lady Alice Ridley
  Rita                        Mrs. W. Desmond Humphreys
  Rives, Amélie               Princess Troubetzky
  Robert ("A City Waiter")    John T. Bedford
  Robins, G. M.               Mrs. L. Baillie Reynolds
  Robinson, A. Mary F.        Mde. A. M. F. Darmesteter
  Rogers, Halliday            Miss Reid
  Rosny, J. H.                Les frères Boex
  Ross, Adrian                Arthur R. Ropes
  Ross, Martin                Violet Martin
  Roy, Gordon                 Helen Wallace
  Rutherford, Mark            W. Hale White
  Ruthven, E. C.              Miss Coleman
  Ryce, John                  Alice M. Browne
  St. Aubyn, Alan             Frances Marshall
  Saint-Patrice               James H. Hickey
  Saintine, X. B. de          Joseph N. Boniface
  Saki                        H. H. Munro
  Sand, George                A. L. Dudevant
  Scalpel, Æsculapius         Edward Berdoe
  Scott, Leader               Lucy E. Baxter
  Seafield, Frank             Alex. H. Grant
  Sedgwick, Anne D.           Mrs. B. de Sélincourt
  Séguin, L. G.               L. G. Strahan
  Serao, Matilde              Mde. E. Scarfoglio
  Setoun, Gabriel             Thos. N. Hepburn
  Sharp, Luke                 Robert Barr
  Shaw, Flora L.              Lady Lugard
  Shirley                     Sir John Skelton
  Sigerson, Dora              Mrs. Clement Shorter
  Sinjohn, John               John Galsworthy
  Sketchley, Arthur           Geo. Rose
  Slick, Sam                  T. C. Haliburton
  Son of the Marshes, A       Denham Jordan
  Son of the Soil, A          J. S. Fletcher
  Spinner, Alice              Mrs. A. Z. Fraser
  Stendhal, M. de             Marie Henri Beyle
  Stepniak, S.                S. M. Kravchinsky
  Stonehenge                  John H. Walsh
  Strathesk, John             John Tod
  Stretton, Hesba             Hannah Smith
  Stuart, Esmé                Miss Leroy
  Swan, Annie S.              Mrs. Burnett Smith
  Swift, Benjamin             Wm. R. Paterson
  Tallentyre, S. G.           Beatrice Hall
  Tasma                       Madame J. Couvreur
  Thackeray, Anne I.          Lady A. I. Ritchie
  Thanet, Octave              Alice French
  Thirlmere, Rowland          John Walker
  Thomas, Annie               Mrs. Pender Cudlip
  Thorne, Guy                 C. Ranger Gull
  Thorne, Whyte               Richard Whiteing
  Tomson, Graham R.           Rosamund M. Watson
  Travers, Graham             Margt. G. Todd
  Turner, Ethel               Mrs. H. R. Curlewis
  Turner, Lilian              Mrs. F. L. Thompson
  Twain, Mark                 Samuel L. Clemens
  Tynan, Katharine            Mrs. H. A. Hinkson
  Tytler, Sarah               Henrietta Keddie
  Uncle Remus                 Joel C. Harris
  Vados                       Agnes Farley
  Vernon, K. Dorothea         K. D. Ewart
  Vivaria, Kassandra          Mrs. M. Heinemann
  Wakeman, Annie              Mrs. Annie Lathrop
  Walker, Patricius           Wm. Allingham
  Wallis, A. S. C.            Miss Opzoomer
  Wanderer                    E. H. d'Avigdor
  Warborough, Martin L.       Grant Allen
  Ward, Artemus               Chas. F. Browne
  Warden, Florence            Mrs. Florence James
  Wardle, Jane                Oliver M. Hueffer
  Waters                      Wm. Russell
  Weale, B. L. Putnam         Bertram L. Simpson
  Webb, Mrs.                  Mrs. Webb Peploe
  Wells, Charles J.           H. L. Howard
  Wentworth, Patricia         Mrs. G. F. Dillon
  Werner, E.                  Elisabeth Bürstenbinder
  Weston, James               Edward Step
  Wetherell, Eliz.            Susan Warner
  Wharton, Grace and Philip   John C. and Katharine Thomson
  Whitby, Beatrice            Mrs. Philip Hicks
  Wiggin, Kate D.             Mrs. J. C. Rigg
  Wilcox, E. G.               Mrs. Egerton Allen
  Wilkins, Louisa             Louisa Jebb
  Wilkins, Mary E.            Mrs. M. E. Freeman
  Williams, F. Harold         F. W. O. Warde
  Winchester, M. E.           M. E. Whatham
  Winter, John Strange        Mrs. H. E. V. Stannard
  Woodroffe, Daniel           Mrs. J. C. Woods
  Worboise, Emma J.           Mrs. E. Guyton
  York, Curtis                Mrs. S. Richmond Lee
  Z. Z.                       Louis Zangwill
  Zack.                       Gwendoline Keats
  X/



  INDEX.


  Abbreviations, 68, 82, 84, 87;
    list of, 239-241

  Academical degrees, 49, 63

  Academies, 97

  Acts of Parliament, 103

  Additions to entries not on title-pages, 53

  Alignment of title-pages marking, 132

  Alphabetical order. _See_ Order of arrangement.

  Alphabetico-classed catalogues, 13;
    questions answered by, 22;
    its defects, 27;
    defined, 31

  America, Library cataloguing in, 8

  American Library Association Rules, 14

  Annotated editions, 193

  Annotations, qualifications of authors, 49;
    explanatory of foreign book titles, 85;
    to works of fiction, 204;
    to mark sequels, 207;
    in quarterly, &c., guides, 209;
    advantage of classified catalogue for, 209;
    dictionary catalogues, 209;
    general considerations, 209-211;
    examples, 211-212;
    bibliographical, 213

  Annuals, 197

  Anonymous books, 175;
    to discover author's name, 175;
    method of entry, 176;
    if author revealed, 177;
    heading of "Anon," 178;
    "By the author of --", 179;
    initials, 180-184

  Arabic figures, 40

  Articles, The, in titles of books, 65, 123, 124;
    omission of, in title-entries, 123, 173, 178;
    in French title-entries, 126

  Artists considered jointly with authors, 80;
    names, 146

  Associations, 107

  Author catalogues, Questions answered by, 22;
    defined, 29

  Author-entry, 33;
    turning about of authors' names, 49, 50;
    authors with similar names, 63;
    books _by_ and _on_, 74, 75, 120;
    authors of anonymous books, 177, 178.
    _See also_ Names, Personal. Joint-authors.


  Barrett, Mr. F. T., 27

  Bengali names, 154

  Bible, The, 185-187;
    commentaries, 187-191;
    classified catalogue, 191

  Bibliographical details, 39

  Biographical dictionaries, 37-38

  Biographical works in  the classified catalogue, 121

  Birmingham Public Library, 12

  Bishops, 62

  Bishopsgate Institute catalogues, 209

  "Book," Meaning of, 41

  Books with changed titles, 208

  Boston Athenæum Library catalogue, 14

  Boston Public Library, 10

  Brackets, Use of, 53, 177, 182

  British Museum catalogue, 3;
    British Museum rules, 7;
    Royal Commission of 1850, 7;
    Catalogue of Printed Books, 17;
    Fortescue's Subject-index, 27-29;
    order of information in entries tabulated, 42;
    rule for social titles, 64;
    method of cataloguing publications of societies, 97;
    and Oriental names, 153

  Brown, Mr. James D., on classifications, 17

  "By the author of --," 179-180

  Canonized persons, 140-141

  Capital letters, Use of, 64-66, 120;
    for emphasis in titles, 170

  Card catalogues, 33

  Carlyle, Thomas, on catalogues, 4

  Cataloguer, The qualifications of a, 3

  Catalogues, Kinds of, 3;
    the need for, 4;
    value of, not according to size, 4;
    of new libraries, 5;
    necessity for good catalogues, 5;
    cannot be haphazard, 6;
    the needs of those for whom prepared, 19;
    form to be fixed, 19;
    difficulty of changing, 19;
    to suit the public catered for, 20;
    information catalogues should give, 21;
    dictionary _v._ classified, 23;
    various forms defined, 29-31;
    details in catalogue entries, 39;
    order of details tabulated, 41-43;
    condensed entries, 43;
    omissions in sub-entries, 44;
    cost of printing, 219.
    _See also_ Alphabetico-classed. Classified. Dictionary.

  Cataloguing, Mistaken ideas about, 1;
    Prof. Fiske on, 2;
    difficulties of, 2;
    over-cataloguing, 5;
    history of modern, 7 _et seq._;
    troublesome and expensive, 25;
    stationery required, 32

  Cataloguing rules, 6;
    the study of, 32;
    need for, 6, 9, 32;
    Panizzi's British Museum rules, 8-9;
    Jewett's rules, 10;
    Crestadoro's plan, 10;
    index-form, 11;
    Cutter's rules, 14;
    Joint-code of L.A. and A.L.A., 14;
    Dziatzko's _Instruction_, 15;
    Linderfelt's Eclectic rules, 15;
    some simple, direct rules, 214-216

  Changed names, 37, 111, 112

  Chelsea Public Library, 157

  Chinese names, 157

  Christian or forenames, 35, 36;
    confusion arising from same initials, 46;
    to be kept in the vernacular, 76;
    persons entered by, 132-147;
    of monarchs, 135;
    of women authors, 173;
    contractions, 194

  Civil distinctions, 64

  Class lists defined, 30

  Classical authors, 128-130

  Classics, Title-entries for, 200

  Classification, Dewey's Decimal, 16;
    Brown's Adjustable, 17;
    Cutter's Expansive, 17

  Classified catalogues, Dewey classification and, 16;
    questions answered by, 22;
    Cutter on its advantages, 23;
    and disadvantages, 24;
    its cost, 25;
    indexes to, 25;
    early catalogues, 25;
    and "open access," 25;
    defined, 30;
    marking the entry, 45;
    curtailed entry, 46;
    index entries, 46 _et seq._;
    "contents" in index entries, 72;
    society publications, 100;
    biographies, 121;
    works of fiction, 125;
    monarchs, 133, 136;
    popes, 137;
    annotations in, 209

  Collations, 39, 40;
    explanations of, 50, 118;
    omitted as an economy, 123

  Collected works, Cataloguing of, 76

  Collier, J. Payne, 8

  Colophon, 39

  "Colour" books, 80

  Commentaries, 193

  Compilers, 194

  Composers, Music, 89

  Composite books, 58, 62

  Compound personal names, 110-117, 127

  Compound place-names, 105

  Concordances, 194

  Condensation of entries, 44, 45, 123, 158

  Congresses and conferences, 108

  Contents of miscellaneous works, Setting-out of, 72, 75;
    of music, 92

  Co-operative cataloguing, 9

  Corporate publications, 71

  Correspondence, Writers in, 53

  Cost of catalogues, 25, 219

  County antiquarian societies, 98

  Courtesy titles, 149

  Crestadoro, A., 10

  Cutter, C. A., Rules for a dictionary catalogue, 14;
    order of information in entries, 42;
    on the advantages and disadvantages of the classified catalogue, 23-24;
    and of the dictionary catalogue, 25-27


  Dashes, Repetition, 170

  Dates of author's birth and death, 36;
    dates of reigns, 136

  Dates of publication, 39, 40, 44;
    added, 68;
    to music, 94;
    to works of fiction, 123

  "De," "de la," "du" in British names, 122;
    in French names, 125-127

  Definitions of styles of catalogues, 29

  Dewey's, Mr. M., Decimal classification, 16;
    applied, 45 _et seq._

  Dictionary catalogue, Early forms, 11-13;
    questions it will answer, 22;
    advantages and disadvantages, 25-27;
    systematic, 29;
    defined, 30;
    annotations, 209

  Directories, 197-198

  Distinctions, Social, 64

  Double entry for subjects, 151

  Doubleday, Mr. W. E., 27, 209

  Dramatic works, 214

  Dziatzko, Prof., 15


  Ecclesiastical titles, 62, 64

  Economies in entries, 53, 59, 75, 77, 81, 123, 139

  Editions, Collections of, 77

  Editors' references, 54, 193;
    essays under editor's name, 67

  Edwards, Edward, 8

  "Entry-reference," 107

  Essays, Volumes of, by various authors, 66 _et seq._;
    by one author, 78;
    form-entry, 214

  Exhibitions, Publications of, 107


  Family names of noblemen, 148-150

  Fiction, Works of, Title-entries, 115;
    in the classified catalogue, 117, 125;
    in the dictionary catalogue, 115, 125;
    dates of publication, 123;
    fact in, 203;
    in guise of serious literature, 203;
    subject-entries for, 204-206;
    cataloguing of, 206;
    in series, 206-208;
    with familiar titles, 208

  Figures (numerals) in dates, 40;
    in titles of books, 56, 87;
    in titles of monarchs, 135

  First-name entries, 132-147

  First-word entry for anonymous books, 176, 177

  Fiske, Prof. John, on cataloguing, 1

  Foreign names, varieties of, 110

  Foreign terms for subject-headings, 203

  Form headings, 74, 213;
    fiction, 115

  Fortescue's, G. K., _Subject Index to the British Museum
      Catalogue_, 27-29

  French fiction in series, 206

  French names, compound, 114, 127;
    with prefixes, 125

  Friars, 141


  Garden books, 183

  Geographical headings, 105

  Goss, Mr. C. W. F., 209

  Government publications, 101-107

  Greek and Latin authors, 128-130

  Handwriting, 33

  "Heading," 44. _See also_ Subject-headings.

  Hebrew names, 159

  History in fiction, 203

  Honours lists, 64

  Hyphens in compound names, 112


  Illustrated books, 80

  Illustrations (in collations), 39, 118

  Impartiality, 209-210

  Imprint, 39

  Index-entry catalogues, 11, 35

  Index entries to classified catalogue, 46 _et seq._

  Indexing contents of miscellaneous volumes, 71-79;
    of music, 92-93;
    co-operative indexes, 95

  Indian names, 153

  Initials of authors' names, Confusion arising from, demonstrated, 46;
    covering name of author (anonymous books), 180-185;
    covering titles or degrees, 183;
    covering a pseudonym, 184

  Institutions, Publications of, 107


  Japanese names, 156, 159

  Jewett, Prof. Charles C., 9

  Jewish rabbis, 159

  Joint-authors, Method of treatment, 48 _et seq._;
    writers in correspondence, 53;
    husband and wife, 55, 172;
    three and more, 58;
    authors and illustrators, 80

  Joint-code (L.A. and A.L.A.), 15;
    order of information tabulated, 42;
    and noblemen, 148;
    and pseudonyms, 161

  Jones, John Winter, 8


  Koran, The, 192


  Legal publications, 103

  Library Association rules, 14;
    and A.L.A. rules (Joint-code), 15;
    order of information in entries, 42;
    and noblemen, 148;
    and pseudonyms, 161

  Library useless without good catalogue, 4

  Libretti, Writers of, 90

  Linderfelt's _Eclectic Card Catalog Rules_, 15;
    and Oriental titles, 156

  Linotype, Printing by, 219, 234

  Liverpool Public Library, 12

  Local Government publications, 105

  London as place of publication, 39

  London Library catalogues, 18;
    contractions, 51;
    names of queens, 136;
    Oriental names, 155;
    women's names, 174;
    for anonymous books, 175


  Magazines, 195

  Main entry. _See_ Principal entry.

  Manchester Public Libraries, 11, 120

  Maori names, 160

  Married women. _See_ Women.

  Mediæval writers, 142, 147

  Military, &c., distinctions, 64

  Minto, Mr. John, 15

  Monarchs, 132

  Monotype, Printing by, 219, 234, 235

  Mottoes of title-pages, 38

  Mullins, J. D., 12

  Music, Translation of title-pages, 88;
    the cataloguing of, 89-94


  Names, Personal, Surnames, 34;
    full names, 35, 36, 119;
    initials, 35;
    varieties used by a single writer, 36;
    works of reference for full names, 37;
    in sub-entries, 44, 45;
    confusion owing to use of initials alone, 46;
    to be kept in the vernacular, 76, 111;
    English compound names, 110-114;
    foreign compound names, 114-116, 127;
    changed names, 37, 111, 112;
    names with prefixes, 117-128;
    monarchs and princes, 132-136;
    popes, 137;
    saints, 140;
    friars, 141;
    mediæval writers, 142, 147;
    artists, 146;
    noblemen, 148;
    Orientals, 153;
    pseudonyms, 161;
    married women, 171;
    husband and wife, 172.
    _See also_ Christian names.

  Newspapers, 195

  Noblemen, 148-151

  Notes, Descriptive, in catalogues. _See_ Annotations.

  Novels. _See_ Fiction.

  Numbers, Transcription of, 40, 56, 87, 135


  Official publications, 101 _et seq._

  Omissions indicated, 38

  "Open access" system, 17;
    classified catalogues and, 25

  Order of arrangement of entries, official publications, 104;
    works in original and translations, 117;
    names with prefixes, 118, 119, 122;
    books _by_ and _on_, 74, 120;
    the articles in, 124;
    of monarchs, 135;
    apostles, saints, &c., 146;
    joint-authors, 172;
    initials for authors' names, 182, 184;
    Bible, 185-186;
    fiction in series, 206-207

  Order of information in entries tabulated, 41-43

  Oriental names, 16, 153-159


  Pages, Number of, &c. ("collation"), 39, 40

  Panizzi, Sir Anthony, 8

  Parentheses, Names in, 34

  Parliament, Acts of, 103

  Parsee names, 154

  Peerage, 63, 64

  Periodicals, 195; indexes to, 95

  Places of publication, 39, 40;
    abbreviations, 51

  Places with compound names, 105

  Poetical works, 74, 214

  Popes, 137

  Popular terms for subject-headings, 202

  Potentates, 132

  Prefaces, Writers of, 116

  Prefixes, Names with, 117-128

  Principal entry, 33 _et seq._

  Printer's name (imprint), 39

  Printing of catalogues:
    preparation of the manuscript, 217;
    marking for type, 218;
    "get-up" and cost, 25, 218-20;
    illustrative examples of styles of type, 220-227;
    table of types, 223;
    tenders, 228;
    specification, 229-232;
    reading of proofs, 233-234;
    type "kept standing," 234;
    markings in proof correcting illustrated, 236-238

  Professorships, 49

  Pseudonyms _v._ real names, 161;
    method of distinguishing pseudonyms, 162;
    references, 163;
    both names, 163-165;
    obvious pseudonyms, 165;
    phrase-pseudonyms, 165;
    covered by initials, 184;
    list of pseudonyms with real names, 242-249

  Publisher's name (imprint), 39, 40

  Publisher's series, 139, 193

  Publishing societies, 98-100

  Punctuation, 70-71, 145

  Punctuation of title-pages, 48


  Qualifications of authors (annotations), 211

  Queens, 136

  Questions catalogues should answer tabulated, 21

  Quotations on title-pages, 38


  References, Joint-authors, 49, 59, 81;
    cross-references for synonymous terms, 52, 67, 202;
    editors, 54, 129;
    omissions of, 59;
    _See_ and _See also_ references, 61;
    use of subject references demonstrated, 56, 60, 61, 67, 73, 77, 86,
        87, 102, 103, 107, 109, 134, 138, 146, 149, 152, 172, 173, 190,
        192;
    translators and illustrators, 83, 90;
    writers of libretti, 90;
    compound names, 112;
    married names, 174

  Repetition dashes, 170

  "Rev." in titles, 64

  Reviewing of books by newspapers, &c., 6;
    in annotations, 210

  Roman numerals, 40;
    in titles of monarchs, 135

  Royal personages, 132


  Sacred books, 191-192

  "Saint" in names, 118, 119

  Saints, 140

  Sermons, 214

  Sequels in fiction, 206

  Series, Entry of, 138-139, 193;
    fiction, 206

  "Sheaf-catalogues," 33

  Sizes of books, 41, 105

  Size of catalogues (extent), 4;
    in printing, 227

  Smithsonian Institution, 8

  Society publications, 71;
    "indexing" contents, 95;
    indexes, 95;
    methods of cataloguing, 95 _et seq._;
    in the classified catalogue, 100;
    periodicals, 196

  Specific entry, 61, 68, 152, 168, 200

  Statutes, 103

  Stereotyping catalogues, 9

  Subject-catalogue defined, 30

  Subject-entry, 43;
    subjects not named on title-pages, 43;
    subject-title-entry, 44;
    subject-heading, 44;
    author's surname in, 45;
    not specific, 112;
    not required for classical authors, 130;
    question of double entry, 151;
    for periodicals, 197;
    definite subject to be ascertained, 200;
    for fiction, 204;
    simple rules for, 214-216.
    _See also_ Specific entry.

  Subject headings, sub-division of, 57, 66, 74, 109, 152, 183, 217;
    concentration of subjects, 109, 201;
    terms to be fixed, 202;
    popular terms, 202;
    foreign terms, 127, 203;
    references, 56;
    demonstrated, 60, 66, 79, 112, 113, 151 _et seq.
    See also_ Specific entry. Synonymous headings.

  Surnames. _See_ Names, Personal.

  Sutton, Mr. C. W., 120

  Sweden, Royal Library, 157

  Synonymous headings, 52, 67, 202.
    _See also_ References.


  Technical journals, 196-197

  Title-as-subject entry, 44, 124

  Title-catalogue defined, 29

  Title-entries for works of fiction, 115;
    title-entry demonstrated, 119; 123 _et seq._;
    music, 91;
    where required, 200;
    superfluous, 57, 69, 121, 125, 182, 199

  Title-page, Entry to be taken from the, 33;
    and without alteration, 129;
    treatment of title-pages demonstrated, 34, 48;
    alignment of, marked, 132

  Titles of books, Turning about of, 119, 123;
    not to be altered, 129;
    condensed, 158;
    misleading, 200; of popular novels, 208;
    changed titles, 208

  Titles of rank, 63;
    of noblemen, 148-151

  Translations of title-pages, 85, 88

  Translations, Order of arrangement of, 117

  Translators, 83

  Translators, Voluntary, 156

  Type-setting machines, 34, 234, 235

  Types in printed catalogues, Examples of, 220-227;
    table of types, 223


  Uniformity in cataloguing, Prof. Jewett on, 9


  "Van" and "von," 128

  Volume, Works in more than one, 40, 41

  Volumes of works in progress, 104


  Watts, Thomas, 8

  Wheatley's, H. B., _How to catalogue a library_, 18;
    on adapting catalogues to the comprehension of the fool, 20

  Winsor, Prof. Justin, 27

  Women, Married, as joint-authors, 55-57, 171, 172;
    known by name of husband, 173;
    changed names, 174-175

  Works in progress, 104



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
    errors.

    Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

    Enclosed italics markup in _underscores_.

    Enclosed bold markup in =equals=.

    Enclosed script markup in ~tildes~.

    Enclosed insert/underline markup in +plus signs+.

    Enclosed overline markup in ¬not signs¬.

    Enclosed delete markup in |broken bars|.





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