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Title: English Grammar and Composition for Public Schools
Author: Armstrong, George
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "English Grammar and Composition for Public Schools" ***


Transcriber's note:
      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).
      Text enclosed by equal signs is in bold face (=bold=).

                            ENGLISH GRAMMAR



                         _FOR PUBLIC SCHOOLS._

                     G. H. ARMSTRONG, M.A., B.Pæd.,
                 Principal Borden St. School, Toronto.




    Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada in the year one
    thousand nine hundred and one, by G. H. ARMSTRONG, M.A., B.PÆD.,
    in the office of the Minister of Agriculture.


It is not considered necessary to offer an apology for the publication
of a work on English grammar and composition for the Public Schools of

The plan of the work is inductive and practical, and the author has
endeavored to make the book a useful one for the purposes of teaching.
Every principle is presented through the observation of examples of good

The study of grammar aids the student to master his mother-tongue, but
its chief function is to secure mental discipline. For the development
of the intellectual powers, the capable teacher, well furnished with
rational methods, will find this study superior to all others. It is a
study in recognizing similarities, in distinguishing differences, in
making abstractions, in forming generalizations. The object of Parts
I.-IV. of this book is to contribute something to the science of
elementary English grammar.

Part V. treats of composition. The usual exercises in completing
half-built sentences, in straightening out wrecks of sentences, in
combining simple sentences into complex sentences, in expanding phrases
into clauses, etc., will not be found therein. They have done quite
enough towards fostering stupidity in our schools. The art of expression
is acquired through steady practice, therefore pupils should write
compositions not once a week, but during part of every period, about
things which they understand. They should be taught good form in
expression, and trained to correct their own exercises.

This part of the work, though brief, will be found suggestive. Teachers
and pupils have not been deprived of the pleasure and profit of an
independent examination of the construction of the prose selections.

This little volume owes something to several English grammars, and the
debt is hereby acknowledged.

                                                      G. H. ARMSTRONG.

                           Table of Contents

Part First.   —Sentences & Classes of Words
              Lessons I—XII

Part Second.  —Classes & Inflections of Parts of Speech
              Lessons XIII—LV

Part Third.   —Syntax
              Lessons LVI—LXI

Part Fourth.  —Analysis of Sentences
              Lessons LXII—LXIV

Part Fifth.   —Composition
              Lessons LXV—LXXV



                            ENGLISH GRAMMAR

                              PART FIRST.

                              =LESSON I.=

                             THE SENTENCE.

Is there a complete thought expressed in each of the following groups of

      1. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.
      2. Honor thy father and thy mother.
      3. Who gathered these beautiful flowers?
      4. How sweetly the birds sing in spring!

A group of words that expresses a complete thought is called =a

Which of the foregoing sentences declares something, which expresses a
command, which asks a question, and which expresses a sudden feeling?

A sentence that asserts or declares something is called a =declarative

A sentence that expresses a command or request is called an =imperative

A sentence that asks a question is called an =interrogative sentence=.

A sentence that expresses a sudden or strong feeling is called an
=exclamatory sentence=.

                              EXERCISE I.

State the use or office of each of the following sentences, and tell the
kind of sentence:—

      1. The sun rises in the East.
      2. Every door opens to a smile.
      3. Keep thy heart with all diligence.
      4. Who is the author of that book?
      5. How tenderly a mother cares for her child!
      6. Every morn is the world made new.
      7. Sharpen this pencil for me.
      8. What bright uniforms the soldiers wear!
      9. The plowman homeward plods his weary way.
     10. How many lines have you written?

                              EXERCISE II.

      1. Write four declarative sentences.
      2. Write four imperative sentences.
      3. Write three interrogative sentences.
      4. Write two exclamatory sentences.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON II.=

                     THE SUBJECT AND THE PREDICATE.

Name the thing which is spoken of in each of the following sentences,
and what is said about it:—

      1. Gold is a precious metal.
      2. Flowers grow in the fields.
      3. The sailor’s home is on the sea.
      4. The flag of England floats above the citadel.

The part of a sentence that expresses the thing spoken of is called the

The part of a sentence that expresses what is said about the subject is
called the =predicate=.

The subject of a declarative sentence is generally placed before the
predicate, but it is sometimes placed after the predicate; as,

        Sweet was _the sound of the evening bell_.
        Over the swift rapids went _the boat_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the subject and the predicate of each of the following sentences:—

      1. The city of Ottawa is the capital of Canada.
      2. Three wives sat up in the lighthouse tower.
      3. All the children were gathering flowers.
      4. Our friends have arrived in the city.
      5. Home they brought her warrior dead.
      6. John Cabot discovered Canada in 1497.
      7. All along the banks were the skeletons of canoes.
      8. Through this forest ran a beautiful river.
      9. Colder and louder blew the wind.
     10. Down sunk the bell with a gurgling sound.

The subject of an imperative sentence is _thou_, _ye_ or _you_. It is
seldom expressed; as,

         Listen to the singing of the birds.
         Carry these books for me.
         Praise _ye_ the Lord.

                              EXERCISE II.

Name the subject and the predicate and state the kind of sentence of
each of the following:—

      1. Who hath not lost a friend?
      2. Gather up the fragments.
      3. Here comes the train!
      4. Why did you take away my book?
      5. The shades of night were falling fast.
      6. How lightly she trips along!
      7. In one corner of the room stood my grandfather’s clock.
      8. Send this note to the post.
      9. How strange our old home looks!
     10. At the dawn of day he ascended the hill.

                             EXERCISE III.

1. Write four examples of an assertive sentence and name the subject and
the predicate of each sentence.

2. Write four examples of an imperative sentence and name the subject
and the predicate of each sentence.

3. Write four examples of an interrogative sentence and name the subject
and the predicate of each sentence.

4. Write four examples of an exclamatory sentence and name the subject
and the predicate of each sentence.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON III.=


State the words that are used as _names_ in the following sentences:—

      1. The shoes worn by the soldiers were made in England.
      2. Near this tree is the grave of a pioneer.
      3. Chaucer is the father of English poetry.
      4. Love had he found in huts where poor men lie.

A word used as a name is called a =noun=.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the nouns in the following sentences:—

      1. There are seven provinces in Canada.
      2. Then the fly lit his lamp of fire.
      3. The bloom of that fair face is wasted.
      4. The boy stood on the burning deck.
      5. And then my heart with pleasure fills,
         And dances with the daffodils.
      6. He goes on Sunday to the church
         And sits among his boys.
      7. I hear in the chamber above me
         The patter of little feet,
         The sound of a door that is opened,
         And voices soft and sweet.
      8. A violet by a mossy stone,
         Half hidden from the eye!
         Fair as a star, when only one
         Is shining in the sky.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write sentences containing—

      1. The name of a place.
      2. The name of a person.
      3. The name of a tree.
      4. The name of a metal.
      5. The name of an article of food.
      6. The name of an animal.
      7. The name of a quality.
      8. The name of an action.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON IV.=


Name the nouns for which the words printed in italics are used in the
following sentences:—

      1. The teacher went home when _he_ finished the lesson.
      2. The mother kissed _her_ boy when _she_ received _him_.
      3. A baby was sleeping,
         _Its_ mother was weeping
         For _her_ husband was far on the wild raging sea.

A word used for a noun is called a =pronoun=.

By the use of the pronoun, a person or thing is referred to without
naming it, and the too frequent repetition of the same noun is avoided.

                              EXERCISE I.

Select the pronouns in the following sentences, and state the noun for
which each is used:—

      1. Men find plants where they least expect them.
      2. The parents returned home when they found their child.
      3. The king took the hand of his friend and pressed it to his
      4. A boy who is always grumbling will lose the friends that he
           has, and will not make many new ones.
      5. The ball lies where you left it.
      6. The boy’s father was anxious to send him to college, and
           therefore he studied the Latin grammar till he could bear
           it no longer.
      7. Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot
         O’er the grave where our hero we buried.
      8. As John and Charles were walking by the river, they both
           fell into it.
      9. Tell me what brings you, gentle youth, to Rome;
         To make myself a scholar, sir, I come.
     10. Then the maiden clasped her hands and prayed
         That savèd she might be;
         And she thought of Him who stilled the wave
         On the Lake of Galilee.

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the speaker.

2. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the names of the
speaker and others.

3. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the name of a person
spoken to.

4. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the name of a person
spoken of.

5. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the names of two or
more persons spoken of.

6. Write a sentence containing a pronoun used for the name of a thing
that has been previously spoken of.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON V.=


Select the words in the following sentences that are used to describe or
point out the things named by the nouns:—

      1. A tall man gave me this book.
      2. That little boy has a kind sister.
      3. I bought two sweet oranges.
      4. These grassy fields are owned by a rich man.

The word _tall_ describes this particular man. The word _this_ points
out the particular book that is meant. Such words modify the nouns with
which they are used.

A word used to modify a noun or pronoun is called an =adjective=.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the adjectives in the following sentences, and state the use of

      1. I found a rusty knife with a silver handle.
      2. Wise ministers and brave warriors flourished during
           Elizabeth’s reign.
      3. The sick girl was watched by a skilful nurse.
      4. Otters are much prized for their soft, glossy black fur.
      5. I lingered near the hallowed seat with listening ear.
      6. His withered cheek and tresses gray,
         Seemed to have known a better day.
      7. Her aged hand on his strong young arm
         She placed; and so, without hurt or harm
         He guided the trembling feet along,
         Proud that his own were firm and strong.
      8. His hair is crisp, and black, and long,
         His face is like the tan;
         His brow is wet with honest sweat,
         He earns whate’er he can,
         And looks the whole world in the face,
         For he owes not any man.

=Model.=—The adjectives in the first sentence are _a_, _rusty_, _a_ and
_silver_. _A_ points out or indicates the species of the thing _knife_.
_Rusty_ describes the thing _knife_.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write sentences containing adjectives used to show:—

      1. What quality of thing is spoken of.
      2. How many things are spoken of.
      3. Which thing is referred to.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON VI.=


Select the words in the following sentences that tell or assert
something of the thing spoken of:—

      1. Boys play.
      2. The sun shines.
      3. The snow melts.
      4. Mountains are high.

A word that is used to make an assertion is called a =verb=.

    _Note._—The word _verb_ is derived from the Latin word
    _verbum_, meaning a word, and this part of speech is so called
    because it is _the_ word, the most important word in every
    sentence. There can be no sentence without a verb.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the verbs in the following sentences, and state what each tells or

      1. The girls gathered some water-lilies.
      2. That house was built last century.
      3. He slept for three hours.
      4. The gardener fell from a high tree.
      5. The coachman struck the horse, and it kicked him.
      6. King Edward I. nearly conquered Scotland.
      7. She must weep or she will die.
      8. And still they rowed amidst the roar
         Of waters fast prevailing:
         Lord Ullin reached that fatal shore,
         His wrath was changed to wailing.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write sentences containing each of the following words used as subjects,
and underline the verbs:—

Plants, rivers, paper, gold, pen, fish, birds, stars, flowers, money.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON VII.=


Name the words in the following sentences that modify the verbs, that
show _how_, _when_ or _where_ actions were performed:—

      1. The girls recited well.
      2. The teacher often read a story.
      3. I left my pencil there.

A word that is used to modify the meaning of a verb is called an

An adverb may also modify the meaning of an adjective, as, He is _very_

An adverb may also modify the meaning of another adverb; as, She writes
_more_ rapidly than you.

An =adverb= is a word that is used to modify the meaning of a verb, an
adjective or another adverb.

                              EXERCISE I.

State the adverbs in the following sentences, and name the word which
each modifies:—

      1. Here let us sit and talk of former times.
      2. I never saw so clear a sky.
      3. How proudly they strode along!
      4. Now let me die in peace.
      5. The grass is too damp yet.
      6. The face of the country suddenly changed.
      7. The next night it came again.
      8. The storm came on before its time;
         She wandered up and down,
         And many a hill did Lucy climb,
         But never reached the town.

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write four sentences each containing an adverb modifying a verb.

2. Write two sentences each containing an adverb modifying an adjective.

3. Write two sentences each containing an adverb modifying an adverb.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON VIII.=


Name the words in the following sentences that express the relation of a
noun or pronoun to some other word:—

      1. We withdrew from the room.
      2. The boys ran through the hall.
      3. This box is made of paper.
      4. I went to school with him.

A word that is used to express the relation of a noun or pronoun to some
other word in the sentence is called a =preposition=.

The noun or pronoun which the preposition connects in sense with some
other word in the sentence, is called its =object=; as, The men are in
the _field_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Select the prepositions, and state the words between which each shows a

      1. He threw the ball over the fence.
      2. An old man fell into a pond.
      3. A stranger came within our gates.
      4. From many lands comes the cry for help.
      5. The boat went under the water.
      6. This letter was written by my sister.
      7. At noon I went home.
      8. I chatter over stony ways,
         In little sharps and trebles.
         I bubble into eddying bays,
         I babble on the pebbles.

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write three sentences each containing a preposition expressing a
relation between a noun and a verb. Underline the object.

2. Write three sentences each containing a preposition expressing a
relation between two nouns. Underline the object of the preposition.

3. Write three sentences each containing a preposition expressing a
relation between a noun and an adjective.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON IX.=


Name the words that connect sentences, or words or phrases, used in the
same way in the following sentences:—

      1. The sun shone out brightly and the mist cleared away.
      2. You may go, but I must remain here.
      3. Cold and damp was the maiden’s grave.
      4. The grass grows in the valley and on the mountain side.

    _Note._—A phrase is a group of related words without a verb.

A word that connects sentences, or words, or phrases, used in the same
way in a sentence, is called a =conjunction=.

                              EXERCISE I.

Select the conjunctions in the following sentences, and tell what each

      1. I went to school, but my brother did not.
      2. My books are in my bag, or I have lost them.
      3. The boys ran away because they were afraid.
      4. Though I fail, I shall attempt to do it.
      5. He was a king, yet he was not happy.
      6. The rich and the poor meet together.
      7. Iron is more useful than gold.
      8. They had full warning, so that they are without excuse.
      9. I am sure that he did it.
     10. The morning came, the chaise was brought,
         But yet was not allowed
         To drive up to the door lest all
         Should say that she was proud.

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write a sentence containing a conjunction connecting two sentences.

2. Write a sentence containing a conjunction connecting two phrases.

3. Write a sentence containing a conjunction connecting two adverbs.

4. Write a sentence containing a conjunction connecting two nouns.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON X.=


Name the words in the following sentences that express sudden or strong

      1. Hurrah! the work is done.
      2. Alas! we were too late.
      3. Hush! she is sleeping now.
      4. Bravo! he has reached the boat.

A word used to express some sudden or strong feeling is called an

An interjection is not related to any word in the sentence.

Interjections express a variety of feelings, such as joy, sorrow,
surprise, pain, contempt and strong desire.

                              EXERCISE I.

Select the interjections in the following sentences, and state the
feeling expressed by each:—

      1. Oh! my tooth is aching again.
      2. Alas! he heeded not my warning.
      3. Hark! what means that distant cry?
      4. Pshaw! it is nothing but the wind.
      5. Hurrah! for England’s Queen.
      6. Ho! breakers on the weather bow.
      7. But O! eternity’s too short
         To utter all Thy praise.
      8. Hold! if ’twas wrong, the wrong is mine.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write six sentences, each containing an interjection.

Underline the interjections.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON XI.=

We have now learned all the different classes of words in our language
and the name of each class.

Since each class performs a certain office or _part_ in the sentence,
the different classes are called =parts of speech=.


State the office of each word in the following sentences, and tell what
part of speech it is:—

      1. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
      2. I live for those who love me.
      3. The man walked across the bridge.
      4. The cherries on this tree are ripe.
      5. I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers.
      6. This boy lost his kite in a tree.
      7. The village master taught his little school.
      8. Slowly and sadly we laid him down.
      9. Crash! a terrific cry broke from three hundred hearts.
     10. I never was on the dull, tame shore,
         But I loved the great sea more and more.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XII.=

The part of speech or grammatical value of words is always determined by
their use or function in the sentence.

                              EXERCISE I.

State the use or function of the italicized words in the following
sentences, and tell the part of speech of each word:—

      1. We have a quire of _paper_.
      2. Our friends _paper_ their walls every year.
      3. He put his hat in a _paper_ box.
      4. It is a _fine_ day.
      5. Magistrates _fine_ those who break the laws.
      6. The penalty is a _fine_ of twenty dollars.
      7. I know _that_ story.
      8. He has the book _that_ I require.
      9. We know _that_ he is just.
     10. The word _that_ is sometimes used to connect sentences.
     11. Give him the _iron_ pail.
     12. The girls _iron_ the clothes in the morning.
     13. He has a piece of _iron_.

                              EXERCISE II.

Show that the following words may have different grammatical values:—

               in,        water,     ring,      pin,       cover.
               round,     this,      lock,      cork,      silver.

   =Model=:— Come _in_. An adverb.
             My hat is _in_ the room. A preposition.
             The word _in_ was omitted. A noun.

    _Note._—The foregoing example is printed in italics. Pupils
    will underline their examples.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              PART SECOND.

                              _OF SPEECH._

                             =LESSON XIII.=

                           CLASSES OF NOUNS.

Select in the following sentences the nouns that are names of particular
persons or things, and the nouns that are names of all the members of a
class of persons or things:—

      1. These little girls live with their parents in Toronto.
      2. Mary and Harold are going to visit their friends.
      3. On a little mound, Napoleon
         Stood on our storming day.—_Browning._

A name of a particular or individual person or thing is called a =proper
noun=; as, Mary, Saturday, Lake Ontario.

Proper nouns begin with capital letters.

A name that applies to all the members of a class of persons or things
is called a =common noun=; as, girl, desk, river.


1. Write five sentences, each containing a proper noun, and underline
the example in each sentence.

2. Write five sentences, each containing a common noun, and underline
the example in each sentence.

                       II. CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT.

Select in the following sentences the nouns that are names of objects
which have a real and separate existence outside of the mind, and those
which are names of things that have no real existence and are only
thought of in the mind:—

      1. Contentment is better than gold.
      2. Virtue is its own reward.
      3. Truth crushed to earth, shall rise again,—
         The eternal years of God are hers.—_Bryant._

A noun that is the name of an object which has a real and separate
existence outside of the mind, is called a =concrete noun=; as, gold,

A noun that is the name of something which has not a real and separate
existence outside of the mind, is called an =abstract noun=; as, truth,


1. Write five sentences each containing a concrete noun, and underline
the example in each sentence.

2. Write five sentences each containing an abstract noun, and underline
the example in each sentence.

_Note._—All nouns may be classified into (1) proper and common, (2)
concrete and abstract, hence the two preceding classifications are
perfect. The classifications which follow are imperfect, since they do
not include all nouns.

                         III. COLLECTIVE NOUNS.

Name the nouns in the following sentences that denote a collection of

      1. His family live in England.
      2. The army advanced during the night.
      3. The verdict is given by a jury.
      4. A committee of six was appointed by the members.

A noun of the singular form that stands for a collection or number of
things is called a =collective noun=; as, He owns a _herd_ of cattle.


Write five sentences each containing a collective noun, and underline
the example in each sentence.

                           IV. VERBAL NOUNS.

Select the nouns ending in _ing_ that are derived from verbs and have
lost all verbal function in the following sentences:—

      1. That is good ploughing.
      2. His writing is very legible.
      3. The singing was admired by all.

A noun ending in _ing_ that is derived from a verb and has lost all
verbal function, is called a verbal noun; as, There is good _sleighing_


Write five sentences each containing a verbal noun, and underline the
example in each sentence.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XIV.=

                            V. GENDER-NOUNS.

Which of the following words denote males, and which denote females?

               boy,       man,       uncle,     hero,      emperor,
               girl,      woman,     aunt,      heroine,   empress.

Sex is one of the two divisions of animals, male and female.

The distinction of sex is called =gender=.

A noun that denotes a male is of the masculine gender; as, father.

A noun that denotes a female is of the feminine gender; as, mother.

Some nouns are either masculine or feminine gender; as, friend,

Nouns that denote things neither male nor female, have no gender; as,
book, tree.

Gender is distinguished by different words; as,—

                      =Masculine.= =Feminine.=
                      gentleman,   lady,
                      husband,     wife,
                      king,        queen,
                      monk,        nun,
                      nephew,      niece,
                      sir,         madam,
                      son,         daughter,
                      uncle,       aunt,
                      bachelor,    maid or spinster,
                      drake,       duck,
                      hart,        roe,
                      ram,         ewe,
                      stag,        hind,
                      buck,        doe,
                      earl,        countess,
                      wizard,      witch.

Gender is distinguished by different endings; as,—

                        =Masculine.= =Feminine.=
                        heir,        heiress,
                        baron,       baroness,
                        count,       countess,
                        prince,      princess,
                        negro,       negress,
                        actor,       actress,
                        Jew,         Jewess,
                        lion,        lioness,
                        governor,    governess,
                        abbot,       abbess,
                        victor,      victress,
                        marquis,     marchioness,
                        peer,        peeress,
                        host,        hostess,
                        duke,        duchess,
                        master,      mistress,
                        deacon,      deaconess,
                        poet,        poetess,
                        executor,    executrix,
                        hero,        heroine,
                        czar,        czarina,
                        sultan,      sultana,
                        infante,     infanta,
                        widower,     widow,
                        bridegroom,  bride,
                        fox,         vixen.

Gender is sometimes distinguished by prefixing words; as,—

                       =Masculine.=  =Feminine.=
                       man-servant,  maid-servant,
                       cock-sparrow, hen-sparrow,
                       he-goat,      she-goat.


Select the gender-nouns in the following sentences, and give the gender
of each:—

     1.  Mary and her friend went for a sail on the lake.
     2.  The hero of this story is a young boy.
     3.  Great authors are seldom seen by the people.
     4.  Tell my mother that her other sons shall comfort her old
     5.  He fled with his wife and child.
     6.  My sister went home with her aunt.
     7.  Both a prince and a poet were there.
     8.  Little Effie shall go with me to-morrow to the green,
         And you’ll be there, too, mother, to see me made the Queen:
         For the shepherd lads on every side ’ill come from far away,
         And I’m to be Queen of the May, mother, I’m to be Queen of
           the May.—_Tennyson._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON XV.=


Which form of the following words denotes one thing, and which more than
one thing?—

               pen,       slate,     church,    city,      tooth,
               pens,      slates,    churches,  cities,    teeth.

The form of a word which names one thing is called =singular=, and the
noun is said to be in the _singular number_. The form of a word which
names more than one thing is called =plural=, and the noun is said to be
in the _plural number_.

1. The plural is generally formed by adding _s_ to the singular form; as
_pin_, _pins_; _book_, _books_.

2. Some nouns form the plural by adding _es_ to the singular form; as,
_match_, _matches_; _tax_, _taxes_.

Note the following words:—fox, bush, glass, loss, hero, negro, cargo,
echo, potato, tomato.

3. Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a vowel, form the plural by adding
_s_ to the singular form; as, _day_, _days_; _valley_, _valleys_.

Nouns ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant, form the plural by changing
the _y_ into _i_ and adding _es_; as, _lily_, _lilies_; _copy_,

4. Some nouns ending in _f_ or _fe_ form the plural by changing _f_ or
_fe_ to _v_ and adding _es_; as, _knife_, _knives_.

Note the following:—wife, life, wolf, loaf, half, leaf, thief, shelf,
calf, self.

5. A few nouns form the plural by adding _en_ to the singular form; as,
_ox_, _oxen_; _child_, _children_; _brother_, _brethren_.

6. Some nouns form the plural by changing the vowel of the singular; as,
_man_, _men_; _goose_, _geese_.

7. Most nouns taken from foreign languages retain their foreign plurals:

                            =Singular.= =Plural.=
                            radius,     radii.
                            beau,       beaux.
                            analysis,   analyses.
                            index,      indices.
                            axis,       axes.
                            basis,      bases.
                            seraph,     seraphim.
                            memorandum, memoranda.
                            phenomenon, phenomena.
                            crisis,     crises.
                            erratum,    errata.
                            stratum,    strata.
                            oasis,      oases.
                            cherub,     cherubim.

8. Some compound nouns make the principal word plural, and some make
both words plural; as, _son-in-law_, _sons-in-law_; _man-servant_,


Write the plural of the following nouns:—

      1. desk, woman, calf, foot, mouse, class.
      2. cargo, piano, sky, toy, crisis, potato.
      3. story, church, enemy, spoonful, chimney.
      4. lily, valley, mother-in-law, wolf, pencil.
      5. memorandum, sheaf, child, man-of-war.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XVI.=

Note the following peculiarities:

1. Nouns used only in the plural:—

      aborigines,  antipodes, annals,    banns,     bellows,   breeches,
      matins,      measles,   news,      nuptials,  oats,      pincers,
      scissors,    shears,    tidings,   trousers,  vespers,   victuals.

2. Nouns that have the same form in both numbers:—

             deer,      trout,     sheep,     heathen,   perch,
             grouse,    salmon,    swine,     cannon,    pike.

3. Nouns with _two_ plurals, differing in meaning:—

        =Singular.=        = Plural.=                =Plural.=
        penny,      pennies (a number.)       pence (a sum.)
        pea,        peas (a number.)          pease (a quantity.)
        brother,    brothers (same family.)   brethren (same society.)
        die,        dies (for stamping.)      dice (for gaming.)
        cloth,      cloths (kinds of cloth.)  clothes (garments.)
        index,      indexes (to a book.)      indices (in algebra.)
        genius,     geniuses (men of talent.) genii (spirits.)

4. Nouns with a different meaning in the plural:—

                             compass, compasses,
                             iron,    irons,
                             good,    goods,
                             salt,    salts,
                             corn,    corns.

5. Nouns with _two meanings_ in the plural:—

         =Singular.=       =Plural.=                =Plural.=
         custom,     customs (habits.)      customs (revenue duties.)
         letter,     letters (alphabet.)    letters (literature.)
         number,     numbers (in counting.) numbers (poetry.)
         part,       parts (divisions.)     parts (abilities.)

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XVII.=


Which of the italicized words in the following sentences is used as the
subject of the sentence, which to denote ownership, and on which does
the action expressed by the verb end?

      1. The _boy_ is here.
      2. The _boy’s_ book is on the table.
      3. He sent the _boy_ with it.

The word upon which the action expressed by the verb ends is called the
=object= of the verb.

Point out in the following sentence a noun used as the subject of the
verb, a noun used to denote ownership, a noun used as the object of a
verb, and a noun used as the object of a preposition:—

         That girl’s father shot a bear in the forest.

The relation which a noun or pronoun bears to some other word in the
sentence is called =case=.

A noun used as the subject of a verb is in the =nominative case=; as,
The _slate_ is broken. A noun used to denote ownership or possession is
in the =possessive case=; as, _Mary’s_ book is torn. A noun used as the
object of a verb or a preposition is in the =objective case=; as, He
left his _pencil_ on the _desk_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the case of all the nouns and pronouns in the following sentences,
and state the reason for the case of each:—

      1. I sailed a boat on the lake.
      2. This man’s hat was carried off by the wind.
      3. Eight horses drew the Queen’s carriage.
      4. On the deck stood the captain of the ship.
      5. Oft I had heard of Lucy Gray;
           And, when I crossed the wild,
         I chanced to see at break of day
           The solitary child.—_Wordsworth._

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write four sentences each containing a noun in the nominative case,
and underline examples.

2. Write four sentences each containing a noun in the possessive case,
and underline examples.

3. Write four sentences each containing a noun in the objective case,
and underline examples.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XVIII.=

Point out the nouns in the possessive case in the following sentences,
and state how the possessive is formed:—

      1. This is a girl’s hat.
      2. The girls’ yard is very clean.
      3. He found a woman’s shawl.
      4. The women’s waiting room is a large one.

The possessive case of a singular noun is always formed by adding ’s to
the word.

The possessive case of a plural noun that ends in s is formed by adding
the ’ (apostrophe) only; as _boys_, _boys’_.

The possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in s is formed by
adding the ’s; as _men_, _men’s_.


Form the possessive case, singular and plural, of the following nouns:—

                  hat,       horse,     mother,         lady,
                  knife,     child,     servant,        grocer,
                  friend,    fox,       father-in-law,  country,
                  deer,      artist,    prince,         mouse.

    _Note._—Possession is sometimes expressed by the objective case
    with the preposition _of_; as, The eyes of children are bright,
    for children’s eyes are bright.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XIX.=

State the case of the italicized nouns in the following sentences:—

      1. My _hands_ are cold.
      2. He is a _lawyer_.
      3. Smith, the _grocer_, has moved away.
      4. _John_, shut the door.
      5. The _storm_ having ceased, I went on.

A noun that is used as the subject of a sentence is said to be in the
=subject nominative case=, or briefly in the =nominative case=; as, The
_sun_ shines brightly.

A noun that is used in the predicate with the verb _to be_ to make a
statement, is said to be in the =predicate nominative case= to the verb;
as, This man is a _poet_.

_Note._—The verb _to be_ (am, is, are, was, were, shall be, will be,
have been, had been, etc.,) expresses _being_, never action, and hence
cannot take a grammatical _object_.

A noun that is added to another noun to explain it, is said to be in the
=appositive= (apposition) =nominative case=; as Brown, the _merchant_,
is here.

A noun that is used as the name of a person or thing addressed is said
to be in the =nominative of address=; as I wish you long life, my

A noun that has no relation to any word in the sentence is said to be in
the =nominative absolute=; as, The _game_ being over, I withdrew.


Select all the nominatives in the following sentences, and state the
class to which each belongs:—

      1. Napoleon was a man of determination.
      2. My friend, the captain, is a citizen of Montreal.
      3. Good morning, Mr. Henry, will you come in?
      4. William the Norman, the enemy of Harold, crossed the
      5. The boat having disappeared, I turned my face homewards.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON XX.=

How many grammatical objects has each verb in the following sentences?—

      1. He taught me music.
      2. The tailor made him a coat.
      3. I asked them the way.
      4. He sent his sister a letter.

The object which represents that which is directly affected by the
action of the verb, is called the =direct object=; as, This man taught
me _drawing_.

The object which represents that which is less directly affected by the
action of the verb, and a relation which may be expressed by the
prepositions _to_ or _for_, is called the =indirect object=; as, This
man taught _me_ drawing.


Select all the objects in the following sentences, and classify them
into _direct_ and _indirect_:—

      1. This girl brought me some flowers.
      2. The Queen gave him a present.
      3. I told him that story.
      4. My father bought me a horse.
      5. She sent my uncle a guinea.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXI.=


To parse a noun is to state the class to which it belongs, its gender,
number, case, and its grammatical relation to other words in the

The changes in meaning and use which nouns undergo with or without a
change in form, are called their =inflections=.

The inflections of the noun are number and case.


Parse all the nouns in the following sentences:—

      1. John lost his brother’s book on the street.
      2. The boys have bought a new boat.
      3. This little girl’s doll fell into the water.
      4. His son is an excellent writer.
      5. Mr. Wilson, the tailor, has a fine shop.
      6. James, take this book to your sister.
      7. My father gave that boy a beautiful pony.
      8. Our friends are fond of driving.
      9. Sympathy is the greatest power in the moral world.
     10. But the half of our heavy task was done,
           When the clock struck the hour for retiring;
         And we heard the distant and random gun,
           That the foe was sullenly firing.—_Wolfe._

=Model.=—_John_, a proper, concrete noun; masculine gender; singular
number; nominative case, subject of _lost_.

_Teacher’s_, a common, concrete noun; masculine or feminine gender;
singular number; possessive case, possessing _book_.

_Book_, a common, concrete noun; singular number; objective case, object
of the verb _lost_.

_Street_, a common, concrete noun; singular number; objective case,
object of the preposition _on_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXII.=

                           PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Name the pronouns in the following sentences, and state which denote the
speaker, which the person spoken to, and which the person or thing
spoken of:—

      1. He asked me to go with him.
      2. You will be sorry when you see it.
      3. I asked her to come with us.

A pronoun that shows by its form whether it denotes the speaker, the
person spoken to, or the person spoken of, is called a =personal

A pronoun that denotes the speaker or any company of whom the speaker is
one, is in the =first person=; as, _I_ am here. _We_ are going soon.

A pronoun that denotes a person spoken to, is in the =second person=;
as, _You_ look well.

A pronoun that denotes the person or thing spoken of, is in the =third
person=; as, I found _it_.


                             =First Person.=
                     =Singular.=                  =Plural.=
          Nom.          Poss.       Obj.   Nom.     Poss.        Obj.
           I,        mine, or my,   me.   we,   ours, or our,    us.

                              Second Person.
                   Singular.                          Plural.
       Nom.          Poss.      Obj.     Nom.          Poss.       Obj.
      thou,      thine, or thy, thee. you, or ye, yours, or your,   you.

The second person singular is used now chiefly in prayer and poetry.

The second person plural is used now in common speech in addressing one

                              Third Person.
                       Singular.                       Plural.
                Nom.        Poss.     Obj.  Nom.         Poss.       Obj.
    Masc.        he,        his,      him.  they,  theirs, or their, them.
    Fem.        she,    hers, or her, her.  they,  theirs, or their, them.
    Neut.        it,        its,      it.   they,  theirs, or their, them.


Select the personal pronouns in the following sentences, state the
person of each, and the noun to which each pronoun of the third person

      1. I visited my friend and helped him with his work.
      2. We bought some nuts and gave them to the children.
      3. This woman has lost her purse.
      4. I met two boys and they told me where to find you.
      5. I had a little daughter,
           And she was given to me
         To lead me gently backward
           To the Heavenly Father’s knee.
         That I by the force of nature,
           Might in some dim wise divine
         The depths of His infinite patience
           To this wayward soul of mine.—_Lowell._

    _Note._—The possessive forms _my_, _thy_, _her_, _our_, _your_
    and _their_ are used with nouns, and the forms _mine_, _thine_,
    _hers_, _ours_, _yours_ and _theirs_ are used alone; as, That is
    _my_ hat. That hat is _mine_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXIII.=

                        DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

Name the pronouns in the following sentences that point out or call
attention to anything:—

      1. This is a book, and that is a roll of paper.
      2. These are sheep, and those are goats.

Pronouns which point out or call attention to the objects for which they
stand, are called =demonstrative pronouns=.

The demonstrative pronouns are _this_, and _that_ with their plurals
_these_, and _those_.

_This_ and _these_ are used to refer to something nearer; _that_ and
_those_ to something farther off. _You_ is sometimes a demonstrative
pronoun; as, _You_ are the winner. The personal pronoun of the third
person is sometimes classed as a demonstrative pronoun, because it is
said to point out or call attention to the object for which it stands.

It is sometimes demonstrative, and sometimes personal in its use.

_Compare_: I am sure _he_ did it. I saw your brother and _he_ is going
to come to-morrow.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXIV.=

                      COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS.

Point out the pronouns in the following sentences, that are used to
express _emphasis_, and those that are used as reflexives, that is, as
_objects_ denoting the same person or thing as the _subject_:—

      1. I myself wrote that letter.
      2. He himself gave the cane to me.
      3. We often injure ourselves.
      4. They praised themselves.

Pronouns that are used to express emphasis, and those that are used as
reflexives, are called =compound personal pronouns=.

Compound personal pronouns are formed by adding _self_ to the simple

                             =Singular.=     =Plural.=
           First Person.     myself,         ourselves,

           Second Person.    {thyself,
                             {yourself,      yourselves,

           Third Person.     {herself,       themselves.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXV.=

                           RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

Select the pronouns that relate, or carry the mind back, to a noun going
before, and join to that noun a modifying statement, in the following

      1. My brother found the ball which he lost.
      2. I saw the man who made that wheel.
      3. Mary has the book that I bought.

A sentence that is part of a larger sentence is called a =clause=.

The clause that expresses the principal thought of a sentence is called
the =principal= or =independent clause=; as, _My brother found the ball_
which he lost.

The clause that depends on some other part of the sentence for its
meaning is called a =dependent= or =subordinate clause=; as, My brother
found the ball _which he lost_.

A word that relates to a preceding noun or pronoun, and connects a
dependent clause with that noun or pronoun, is called a =relative

The word to which a pronoun relates is called its =antecedent=.

The relative pronouns are, _who_, _which_, _that_, _what_, _as_, and

1. _Who_ is applied to persons; as, He knew the man _who_ did it.

2. _Which_ is applied to animals and to things without life; as This is
the deer _which_ he shot. I want the pen _which_ you have.

3. _That_ is applied to persons, to animals, and to things; as, This is
the lady _that_ was hurt. Here is the knife _that_ I found.

4. _What_ does not have its antecedent expressed; as, I know _what_
[that which] you require.

5. When _as_ is used as a relative it is generally preceded by _such_;
as, We are such stuff _as_ dreams are made on.

6. When _but_ is used as a relative it has a negative force, equivalent
to _that not_; as,

        There is no fireside, howsoe’er defended,
        _But_ has one vacant chair.

    _Note._—Some relative clauses add another fact to the
    antecedent; as, He owns a farm, _which he was given by his

    Other relative clauses restrict the meaning of the antecedent;
    as, The boy _that works_ succeeds.

_Who_ and _which_ are declined as follows:—

                          SINGULAR OR PLURAL.

                     Nom. Case       who,       which,
                     Poss. Case      whose,     whose,
                     Obj. Case       whom,      which.

                      COMPOUND RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

Pronouns that are formed by adding _so_, _ever_, and _soever_, to the
simple pronouns, are called =compound relative pronouns=; as _whoso_,
_whichever_, _whatsoever_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the relative pronouns, their antecedents, the clauses they connect,
and the case of each:—

      1. I require the pencil that I lent you.
      2. Those who are down need fear no fall.
      3. He gave me what I desired.
      4. The men shot a bear which was roaming about.
      5. The long ranks on which I looked tramped steadily on.
      6.       Let the mighty mounds
         That overlook the rivers, or that rise
         In the dim forest crowded with old oaks, answer.—_Bryant._

                              EXERCISE II.

Classify the relatives in the following sentences into those that add
new facts to their antecedents, and into those that restrict or limit
their meaning:

      1. I live on the street which leads to the park.
      2. Those who live without a plan have never any leisure.
      3. A short distance from the house I discovered a box, which
           was made of iron.
      4. I met a policeman, who told me about the fire.
      5. We were the first that ever burst
         Into that silent sea.—_Coleridge._
      6. There, at the foot of yonder nodding birch,
             That wreaths its old fantastic roots so high,
         His listless length at noontide would he stretch,
             And pore upon the brook that babbles by.—_Gray._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXVI.=

                        INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Point out the pronouns in the following sentences, that are used in
asking questions:—

      1. Who did this?
      2. What are you going to do next?
      3. Which of the boys lost his knife?

A pronoun that is used in asking a question is called an =interrogative
pronoun=; as, _Who_ gave you the orange?

The interrogative pronouns are _who_, _which_, and _what_.

_Who_ and _which_ are declined like the relatives.

_Who_ refers to persons; _which_ refers to persons or to things; _what_
refers to things.

_Note._—_Which_ differs from _who_ in being selective; as, _Which_ of
the books is yours?


Select the interrogative pronouns in the following sentences, and give
the case of each:—

      1. Who received the first prize in your class?
      2. Of what is this article composed?
      3. Which of the girls has the pencil?
      4. What are you going to do next?
      5. Whom did he send with the horse?

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXVII.=

Point out the pronouns in the following sentences that do not stand for
any particular persons or things:—

      1. Many went home before nine o’clock.
      2. Each has his work to do.
      3. All are here now.

Pronouns which do not stand for particular or definite persons or
things, are called =indefinite pronouns=; as, _Few_ believed him.

The principal words used as indefinite pronouns are _all_, _any_,
_other_, _another_, _both_, _some_, _such_, _few_, _many_, _one_,
_none_, _each_, _either_, _neither_, and words made by joining _some_,
_any_, _every_ and _no_ to the words _one_, _thing_ and _body_.


Select the indefinite pronouns in the following sentences, and give the
case of each:—

      1. Some have gone home already.
      2. I knew both of the boys.
      3. He has not any to give to me.
      4. Everybody goes to the wharf in the evening.
      5. I told some one to bring it with him.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXVIII.=


To parse a pronoun is to state the class to which it belongs, its
gender, person, number, case, and its grammatical relation to other
words in the sentence.

Parse all the pronouns in the following sentences:—

      1. I have the knife which you gave me.
      2. He saw the letter that I wrote.
      3. Who told you they did it?
      4. Few shall meet where many part.—_Campbell._
      5. He is the freeman whom the truth makes free.—_Cowper._
      6. There’s a divinity that shapes our ends,
         Rough-hew them as we will.—_Shakespeare._
      7. I have seen him buy such bargains as would amaze
      8. Ye, therefore, who love mercy, teach your sons
         To love it too.—_Cowper._
      9. I dare do all that may become a man,
         Who dares do more is none.—_Shakespeare._
     10. Breathes there a man with soul so dead,
         Who never to himself hath said,
         This is my own, my native land.—_Scott._

=Model:=—I have the knife _which you_ gave _me_.

    _I_, a personal pronoun; masculine or feminine gender; first
    person; singular number; nominative case, subject of _have_.

    _which_, a relative pronoun; third person; singular number;
    objective case, direct object of the verb _gave_.

    _you_, a personal pronoun; masculine or feminine gender; second
    person; singular or plural number; nominative case, subject of
    the verb _gave_.

    _me_, a personal pronoun; masculine or feminine gender; first
    person; singular number; objective case, indirect object of the
    verb _gave_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXIX.=

                        _CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES._

                         ADJECTIVES OF QUALITY.

Point out the adjectives in the following sentences that express
_quality_ or _kind_ in the objects named by the nouns with which they
are used:—

      1. This is a sweet apple.
      2. I bought an oak table and a silver tray.
      3. These girls are happy.

Adjectives that express quality or kind in the objects named by the
nouns with which they are used, are called =qualifying adjectives=; as,
These _kind_ girls took some _fresh_ flowers to a _sick_ woman.

Qualifying adjectives that are formed from proper nouns are called
=proper adjectives=. They begin with capital letters; as, He gave her an
_English_ coin.


Select the qualifying adjectives in the following sentences, and state
the nouns they qualify:—

      1. A wise man considers his words.
      2. Gentle, loving Nell was dead.
      3. Her sleep was beautiful and calm.
      4. Wonderful animals are to be seen in African forests.
      5. With a slow and noiseless footstep
         Comes that messenger divine.—_Longfellow._
      6. Like other dull men, the king was all his life suspicious of
           superior people.—_Thackeray._
      7. O Caledonia! stern and wild,
         Meet nurse for a poetic child!
         Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,
         Land of the mountain and the flood.—_Scott._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXX.=

                        ADJECTIVES OF QUANTITY.

Point out the adjectives in the following sentences, that express the
_quantity_ or _number_ of the objects named by the nouns with which they
are used:—

      1. This man has little strength left.
      2. I wish you much success in your studies.
      3. There are three boys in the yard.

Adjectives that express the quantity or number of the objects named by
the nouns with which they are used, are called =quantifying adjectives=;
as, He won the _second_ prize.


Select the quantifying adjectives in the following sentences, and state
the noun each modifies:—

      1. William has twenty marbles.
      2. Much study is a weariness of the flesh.
      3. My brother has the third place in his class.
      4. This poor man has little coal for the winter.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXXI.=

                         PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES.

Which of the italicized words are used as pronouns and which as

      1. _This_ belongs to my brother.
      2. _This_ book belongs to my brother.
      3. _Which_ is your pen?
      4. _Which_ pencil will you have?
      5. _All_ are lying on the bank.
      6. _All_ men are mortal.
      7. _Mine_ are in the house.
      8. _My_ slate is broken.

Adjectives that are sometimes used as pronouns are called =pronominal
adjectives=; as, _These_ books are mine. _All_ boys can learn.

There are five kinds of =pronominal adjectives=.

1. =Possessive adjectives.= These are the possessive forms of the
personal pronouns used as adjectives. They are given in Lesson XXII.,
and are as follows:—_my_ or _mine_, _thy_ or _thine_, _our_ or _ours_,
_your_ or _yours_, _his_, _her_ or _hers_, _its_, _their_ or _theirs_.

2. =Interrogative adjectives.= These are _which_ and _what_ when used
with a noun to ask a question; as, _Which_ poem will you recite?
  _What_ wrong have you done?

3. =Relative adjectives.= These are the words _which_ and _what_ used
relatively _with a noun_; as, I know _which_ pen you prefer. I see
_what_ course you are taking.

4. =Indefinite adjectives.= These are the words which, when used without
nouns, are indefinite pronouns; as, _Few_ persons believe his story.
[See Lesson XXVII.]

5. =Demonstrative adjectives.= These are _this_, _these_; _that_,
_those_; _yon_, _yonder_, when used with nouns; as, _That_ tree is very
tall. _Yon_ ship is coming nearer.

To the foregoing list of demonstrative adjectives we may add _a_, _an_,
and _the_, since they are _demonstrative in their nature_, that is they
are used _to point out_, but they have _no pronominal use_; as, _The_
man is well again. _An_ apple is on the table.

    _Note._—_An_ is used before a word beginning with a vowel
    sound; as, _An_ orange is yellow. _An_ hour contains sixty

    _A_ is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound; as,
    _A_ pencil is on the desk. Many _a_ one has succeeded. (_One_
    begins with the consonant sound of _w_.)


Select the pronominal adjectives in the following sentences, give the
_kind_ of each and the word it modifies:—

      1. Which way did he go?
      2. That lady explained my lesson.
      3. Any other pen will do.
      4. I do not know what work he did.
      5. Their father bought them some fruit.
      6. Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree’s shade,
           Where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap,
         Each in his narrow cell forever laid,
           The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.—_Gray._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXII.=

                       COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

In the following sentences what degree of quality do the different forms
of the adjective _large_ express?

      1. John has a large ball.
      2. I have a larger ball than John’s.
      3. James has the largest ball in the yard.

In sentence number 2, two balls are _compared_. In sentence number 3,
three or more balls are _compared_. Hence the change of form of
adjectives to express different _degrees_ of quality is called

The form of the adjective, which merely expresses the quality, is called
the =positive degree=; as, I have a _small_ pen.

The form of the adjective that expresses a higher or lower degree of the
quality, is called the =comparative degree=; as, Charles has a _smaller_
pen than mine.

The form of the adjective that expresses the highest or the lowest
degree of the quality, is called the =superlative degree=; as, The
teacher has the _smallest_ pen in the room.

Most adjectives of one syllable form the comparative by adding _er_ to
the simple form, and the superlative by adding _est_ to the same form;

                  =Positive.=   = Comparative.= =Superlative.=
                     tall,          taller,        tallest.
                     fine,          finer,          finest.

    _Note._—If the simple form ends in _e_, one e is omitted in the

Most adjectives of more than one syllable are composed by prefixing
_more_ and _most_, or _less_ and _least_ to the simple form; as,

              =Positive.=      =Comparative.=      =Superlative.=
              beautiful,      more beautiful,     most beautiful,
                worthy,         less worthy,       least worthy.

The following adjectives of two syllables are often compared by adding
_er_ and _est_: _happy_, _pleasant_, _common_, _noble_, _able_,

The following adjectives are compared irregularly:—

         =Positive.=        =Comparative.=  =Superlative.=
         good,              better,         best,
         bad, evil, or ill, worse,          worst,
         little,            less,           least,
         much or many,      more,           most,
         far,               farther,        farthest,
         (forth,)           further,        furthest or furthermost,
         near,              nearer,         nearest or next,
         late,              later,          latest or last,
         fore,              former,         foremost or first,
         old,               older or elder, oldest or eldest.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name each adjective in the following sentences, state its degree, and
give the word it modifies:—

      1. I never saw a brighter sky.
      2. It was a cruel and most unjust sentence.
      3. The shores of this lake are high and rocky.
      4. To-morrow’ll be the happiest time of all the glad New-year;
         Of all the glad New-year, mother, the maddest, merriest
      5. I sat and watched her many a day,
         When her eyes grew dim and her locks were gray.—_Eliza
      6. Small service is true service while it lasts;
         Of friends, however humble, scorn not one.—_Wordsworth._
      7. Look. She is sad to miss,
           Morning and night
         His—her dead father’s—kiss;
           Tries to be bright,
         Good to mamma, and sweet.
           That is all. “Marguerite.”—_Dobson._

                              EXERCISE II.

Compare the following adjectives:—

               near,      bad,       happy,     wise,      plain,
               first,     grateful,  numerous,  brief,     lofty,
               rapid,     fortunate, far,       cloudy,    handsome,
               sincere,   hind,      dreary,    pale,      extraordin

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXIII.=

Parse all the adjectives in the following sentences:

      1. Wisdom is more precious than rubies.
      2. This is a wonderful scene.
      3. Let my little story answer this question.
      4. It was lazy, idle work, lying in the tent all day long.
      5. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
      6. From a shoal of richest rubies
         Breaks the morning clear and cold,
         And the angel on the village spire,
         Frost-touched, is bright as gold.—_Aldrich._
      7. Every hour that fleets so slowly,
         Has its task to do or bear;
         Luminous the crown and holy,
         When each gem is set with care.—_Adelaide Procter._

=Model.= _These kind_ girls brought me _some_ flowers.

_These_, a pronominal adjective; demonstrative; modifying the noun

_kind_, a qualifying adjective; positive degree; (kind, kinder,
kindest), modifying the noun _girls_.

_some_, a pronominal adjective; indefinite; modifying the noun

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXIV.=

                           CLASSES OF VERBS.

Name the verbs in the following sentences that express an action or
feeling that goes out from the agent or doer to something else, and the
verbs that express an action or feeling that does not go out to
anything, but remains with the doer:—

      1. James broke his pencil.
      2. This boy found a knife.
      3. Our girls like literature.
      4. The sun shines brightly.
      5. The birds fly into the trees.
      6. The pupils feel cold.

A verb that expresses an action or feeling that goes out from the agent
or doer to something else, is called a =transitive verb=; as, He _wrote_
a letter. We _love_ our friends.

A verb that expresses being, a state, or an action or feeling that does
not go out to anything, but remains with the doer, is called an
=intransitive verb=; as, He _is_ here. She _sleeps_ now. The wind
_blows_ from the north. This man _feels_ sick.

                              EXERCISE I.

Classify the verbs in the following sentences:—

      1. My brother sold his knife.
      2. The boys play ball in the yard.
      3. He ran across the street.
      4. This little girl cut her hand.
      5. That tree is very tall.
      6. The window was broken by a stone.
      7. Many birds build their nests in trees.
      8. He told them of the river whose mighty current gave
         Its freshness for a hundred leagues to Ocean’s briny
      9. We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone,
         But we left him alone in his glory.—_Charles Wolfe._
     10. I see the wealthy miller yet,
           His double chin, his portly size,
         And who that knew him could forget,
           The busy wrinkles round his eyes?—_Tennyson._

                              EXERCISE II.

_Note._—The same verb may be used either transitively or
intransitively; as, I _see_ the house. I _see_ through this paper.

Some verbs have only an intransitive use because they do not express
action; as, _be_, _seem_, _appear_, _remain_, _become_, etc.

1. Write sentences using the following words as transitive verbs:—

               make,      paper,     water,     sharpen,   ran,
               find,      paint,     reprove,   set,       study.

2. Write sentences using the following words as intransitive verbs:—

               ran,       sit,       was,       walks,     read,
               remain,    fall,      writes,    dreams,    move.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XXXV.=

Point out each verb that is used by itself to make a complete statement,
and each verb that is not used by itself to make a complete statement:—

      1. The boy sleeps.
      2. My task is done.
      3. This rose smells sweet.
      4. The girls are cold.

When a verb by itself makes a complete statement, it is called =a verb
of complete predication=; as, Birds _fly_.

When a verb by itself does not make a complete statement, it is called
=a verb of incomplete predication=; as, This man _is_ a merchant.


Select the verbs of incomplete predication, and state the word or words
that complete the predication:—

      1. This water is warm.
      2. He became a sailor.
      3. My brother studies in the evening.
      4. This man has been sick for a month.
      5. Some murmur when their sky is clear.—_French._
      6. A soft answer turneth away wrath.—_Bible._
      7. An idler is a watch that wants both hands.—_Cowper._
      8. Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening’s close,
         Up yonder hill the village murmur rose.—_Goldsmith._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXVI.=


Is the same idea expressed by the sentences in each group?—

      1. {I cut the paper.
         {The paper was cut by me.

      2. {John broke the window.
         {The window was broken by John.

      3. {He caught a bird.
         {A bird was caught by him.

With a certain form of the verb, its subject names the _actor_; with
another form of the verb, the subject names _the thing acted upon_. This
change in the form of the verb is called =voice=.

A transitive verb that represents the person or thing named by its
subject as acting is said to be in the =active voice=; as, James
_struck_ the horse.

A transitive verb that represents the person or thing named by its
subject as being acted upon is said to be in the =passive voice=; as,
The horse _was struck_ by James.

    _Note_ (a).—The object in the active voice becomes the subject
    in the passive voice, so that only transitive verbs can properly
    be used in the passive voice. There are, however, some
    exceptions to this principle. When an intransitive verb is
    followed by a phrase made up of a preposition and noun, the
    intransitive verb may often be used passively with the
    preposition as an adverbial adjunct; as, I _despair_ of success.
    Success _is despaired of_ by me. He _shot_ at a bird. A bird
    _was shot at_ by him.

    _Note_ (b).—The agent in the passive voice is indicated by the
    preposition _by_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the voice of each verb in the following sentences, and state the
reason in each case:—

      1. He found his knife under the table.
      2. This curious bird was brought from Africa by a traveller.
      3. My friend has written two letters.
      4. This ring was given to me by my mother.
      5. The bird flew away into the bush.
      6. The old man was sick and hungry.
      7. Near the moulded arch he saw low, dark grottos within the
      8.                          These ample fields
         Nourished their harvests, here their herds were fed,
         Where haply by their stalls the bison lowed,
         And bowed his manèd shoulder to the yoke.—_Bryant._

                              EXERCISE II.

Change the voice of each transitive verb in the preceding lesson.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXVII.=


Point out in the following sentences a verb that states something as a
fact, one that is used in asking a question, one that mentions something
merely thought of, and one that expresses a command:—

      1. He knows his lesson to-day.
      2. Are you first in the class?
      3. I hope that he succeed.
      4. Put away your books.

The manner in which the verb presents the idea is called the =mode= of
the verb.

A verb that is used to state something as a fact, to ask a question, or
to express a condition relating to an actual state of things, is in the
=indicative mode=; as, He _reads_ well. _Does_ he _read_ well? If he
_was_ guilty, his punishment _was_ too light.

A verb that is used to express something merely thought of is in the
=subjunctive mode=; as, I wish that he _go_. If he _were_ present I
would speak to him. Thy kingdom _come_.

_Note._—The verb in conditional sentences is in the subjunctive mode
only when it expresses something merely thought of.

A verb that expresses a command or request is in the =imperative mode=;
as, _Come_ into the house. _Open_ your book.

                              EXERCISE I.

Name the mode or mood of each verb, and give the reason in each case:—

      1. Home they brought her warrior dead.—_Tennyson._
      2. What sought they thus afar?—_Hemans._
      3. If my standard-bearer fall, press where ye see my white
      4. Thine own friend, and thy father’s friend, forsake
      5. If fortune serve me I’ll requite this
      6. The meteor flag of England
         Shall yet terrific burn,
         Till danger’s troubled night depart,
         And the star of peace return.—_Campbell._
      7. Backward, flow backward, O tide of the years!
         I am so weary of toil and of tears—
         Toil without recompense—tears all in vain—
         Take them, and give me my childhood again.—_E. A. Allen._

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write three sentences each containing an example of the indicative

2. Write three sentences each containing an example of the subjunctive

3. Write three sentences each containing an example of the imperative

                 *        *        *        *        *

                           =LESSON XXXVIII.=

The preceding lesson treated of verbs that are _limited_ by their
subjects as to number and person; as, I _am_ here. John _is_ here. The
boys _are_ here. Hence these verbs are called =finite= verbs.

This lesson will treat of verbs that are _not so limited_; hence they
are called =infinitive verbs=.

                            THE INFINITIVE.

Select from the following sentences forms of verbs that are used (1) as
a noun, (2) as an adverb, and (3) as an adjective:—

      1. I like to sing.
      2. I came to see the ship.
      3. Have you any water to drink?

The form of the verb that does not make an assertion, and that is not
limited as to person and number is called the =infinitive=.

The infinitive may be used as a noun; as, _To forgive_ is divine.

The infinitive may be used as an adverb; as, I came _to call_ you back.

The infinitive may be used as an adjective; as, He has no pen _to write

The infinitive may be used as the complement of verbs of incomplete
predication; as, He appeared _to hesitate_.

There are two infinitives, the simple infinitive with or without _to_,
and the infinitive in _ing_; as, I like _to row_ a boat. He may _go_.
She is fond of _writing_ letters.

The infinitive in _ing_ is sometimes called a _gerund_.

The infinitive has a variety of uses. Its grammatical value in English
is always determined by its function in the sentence.

Name the infinitives in the following sentences, tell the grammatical
value of each, and state the reason:—

      1. To read well is an accomplishment.
      2. I am glad to hear it.
      3. This man has a house to rent.
      4. There is little hope of finding him.
      5. To hesitate is to fail.
      6. She was about to leave.
      7. Poverty is hard to bear.
      8. When the rain ceased to fall, the wind began to blow.
      9. I prefer to starve first.
     10. There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray,
         To bless the turf that wraps their clay;
         And Freedom shall a while repair,
         To dwell a weeping hermit there.—_Collins._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XXXIX.=

                            THE PARTICIPLE.

Select the words in the following sentences that are used to modify
nouns, and also imply action or being:—

      1. On came the boy running lightly.
      2. Hearing the noise, I went to the door.
      3. I have a book written in Old English.

A word that _participates_ in the nature of the verb and the adjective
is called a _participle_; as, _Leaving_ the room, we walked into the
garden. I found a treasure _hidden_ in the ground.

A participle qualifies a noun or pronoun, like an adjective, and takes
modifiers like a verb. A participle formed from a transitive verb takes
an object.

A participle that is used to denote unfinished action is called a
=present= or =imperfect participle=; as, _Jumping_ the fence, I ran
across the field.

A participle that is used to denote finished action is called a =past=
or =perfect participle=; as, He gave me a pencil _painted_ red.

                              EXERCISE I.

Classify the participles in the following sentences and tell what each

      1. Onward they went, carrying death and ruin before
      2. I heard my own mountain goats bleating aloft.—_Campbell._
      3. The cuirassiers, repulsed, disordered, and broken, had
           retired beneath the protection of the artillery.—_Lever._
      4.               And, his chief beside,
         Smiling, the boy fell dead.—_Browning._
      5. Truth, crushed to earth, shall rise again;
         The eternal years of God are hers.—_Bryant._
      6. Toiling,—rejoicing,—sorrowing,
         Onward, through life he goes.—_Longfellow._
      7.             Poor lone Hannah,
         Sitting at the window binding shoes.
                     Faded, wrinkled,
         Sitting, stitching, in a mournful muse.—_Lucy Larcom._

                              EXERCISE II.

Determine the grammatical value of the italicized words in the following
sentences, according to the use of each:—

      1. _Walking_ is good exercise.
      2. _Seeing_ me _coming_, he came to meet me.
      3. This _building_ cost one hundred thousand dollars.
      4. Every _bleaching_ breeze chastens her purity.
      5. He gave up all hope of _recovering_ his health.
      6. The fields are covered with _growing_ grain.
      7. A miser gives up all the pleasure of _doing_ good.
      8. _Kneeling_ down, I kissed the little flower.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON XL.=


State the time of the action in each of the following sentences, and
point out the different forms of the verb:—

      1. He writes a letter.
      2. He wrote a letter.
      3. He will write a letter.

The change which takes place in the _verb_ to mark this change of time,
is called _tense_.

There are three natural divisions of time—present, past, and future, so
that there are three corresponding tenses—=present=, =past=, and

A verb that denotes an action in the present time is in the =present
tense=; as, I _speak_.

A verb that denotes an action in the past time is in the past tense; as,
I _spoke_.

A verb that denotes an action in the future time is in the future tense;
as, I _shall speak_.

Besides these three simple tenses, there are three perfect tenses, which
denote action as completed.

Point out a verb in the following sentences that denotes an action
completed in present time, one that denotes an action completed in past
time, and one that denotes an action completed in future time:—

      1. He has written a letter.
      2. He had written a letter.
      3. He will have written a letter.

A verb that denotes an action as completed at the present time is in the
=present perfect tense=; as, I _have spoken_.

A verb that denotes an action as having been completed before a certain
past time is in the =past perfect= or =pluperfect tense=; as, I _had
spoken_ before you came.

A verb that denotes an action to be completed before a certain future
time is in the =future perfect tense=; as, I _shall have spoken_ before
he will arrive.

The present and the past tenses are indicated by the form of the verb
itself. The other tenses are formed by the aid of other verbs, called
_auxiliary_ verbs.

                     TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE MODE.

                   Present.             I see.
                   Past.                I saw.
                   Future.              I shall see.
                   Present Perfect.     I have seen.
                   Past Perfect.        I had seen.
                   Future Perfect.      I shall have seen.

    _Note._—_Shall_ is used in the first person, and _will_ in the
    second and third persons to denote future action. _Will_ is used
    in the first person, and _shall_ in the second and third persons
    to denote determination.


Select the verbs, and state the tense of each:—

      1. The sailor twitched his shirt of blue,
         And from within his bosom drew
         The kerchief. She was wild.—_Alice Cary._
      2. The Christian princes felt that the scene which they had
         beheld weighed heavily on their spirits.—_Scott._
      3. The boy stood on the burning deck,
         Whence all but he had fled.—_Hemans._
      4. The nurse sleeps sweetly, hired to watch the sick,
         Whom sleeping, she disturbs.—_Cowper._
      5. When kindness had his wants supplied,
         And the old man was gratified,
         Began to rise his minstrel pride.—_Scott._
      6. He was a man, take him for all in all,
         I shall not look upon his like again.—_Shakespeare._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLI.=

                           PERSON AND NUMBER.

Point out the different forms of the verb that are used with the
different subjects:—

                               =Singular.=        =Plural.=
            First Person.      I write.           We write.
            Second Person.     Thou writest.      You write.
            Third Person.      He writes.         They write.

The different forms that a verb takes to agree with the person and
number of its subject are called =person= and =number= forms.

Observe that there is no change in the action expressed by the verb; it
has merely adapted itself to the person and number of its subject.

The third person singular has, in the present indicative, the ending _s_
or _es_, and the old form _eth_; as, He _walks_; He _goes_; He

The second person singular has the ending _est_ or _st_ in both the
present and the past tenses; as, Thou _lovest_; Thou _lovedst_.

The first person singular and the plural forms for all the persons have
no endings to mark person and number, with but one exception, the verb
_to be_; as, I _am_; We _are_; I _was_; We _were_.


Write out the present tense forms, indicative mode, of the following
verbs, using the personal pronouns for subjects:—

               live,      find,      come,      teach,     talk,
               go,        run,       play,      make,      do.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLII.=

                       CONJUGATIONS OF THE VERB.

Point out how the past tense and perfect participle of the following
verbs are formed:—

                 =Present.=   =Past.=      =Perfect
                 wish,        wished,                  wished.
                 love,        loved,                    loved.
                 take,        took,                     taken.
                 write,       wrote,                   written.

A verb that forms its past tense and perfect participle by adding _ed_
or _d_ to the present tense form, is a verb of the =weak= or =new
conjugation=; as, _look_, _looked_, _looked_.

A verb that forms its past tense by changing the vowel of the present,
and its perfect participle by adding _n_ or _en_ to the present, is a
verb of the =strong= or =old conjugation=; as, _fall_, _fell_, _fallen_.

_Note._—Verbs of the old conjugation are called _strong_ because they
form their past tense within themselves. Verbs of the new conjugation
are called _weak_ because they form their past tense by the aid of an
additional syllable.

Weak verbs are called verbs of the _new_ conjugation because the method
of forming the past tense by the addition of _ed_ or _d_ is of more
recent origin than the method of the strong conjugation.

If we know the present tense form, the past, and the perfect participle
of any verb, we can tell to which conjugation it belongs, and can give
all its inflections of person, number, tense, and mode, therefore the
present tense form, the past and the perfect participle, are called the
_principal parts_ of the verb. When we give all the inflections of a
verb, or indicate them by the principal parts, we _conjugate_ it.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XLIII.=


We have learned that regular verbs of the weak conjugation form their
past tense and perfect participle by adding _ed_ or _d_ to the present
tense form.

Point out how the following verbs form their past tense and perfect

                 =Present.=   =Past.=      =Perfect
                 mean,        meant,                 meant.
                 sleep,       slept,                 slept.
                 say,         said,                  said.
                 cost,        cost,                  cost.

In some verbs the _ed_ or _d_ of the past tense is sounded like _t_, and
in many cases the spelling has changed to _t_. A few verbs shorten the
vowel of the present; as, _feel_, _felt_, _felt_. Other verbs of this
conjugation change the vowel before adding _d_; as, _tell_, _told_,
_told_; and a number that end in _t_ or _d_ make no change; as, _set_,
_set_, _set_.


                  =Present.=       =Past.=     =Perf. Part.=
                  bend,            bent,[1]    bent.
                  bereave,         bereft,[1]  bereft.
                  beseech,         besought,   besought.
                  bleed,           bled,       bled.
                  breed,           bred,       bred.
                  bring,           brought,    brought.
                  build,           built,[1]   built.
                  burn,            burnt,[1]   burnt.
                  burst,           burst,      burst.
                  buy,             bought,     bought.
                  cast,            cast,       cast.
                  catch,           caught,     caught.
                  cleave (adhere), clave,[1]   cleaved.
                  clothe,          clad,[1]    clad.
                  cost,            cost,       cost.
                  creep,           crept,      crept.
                  cut,             cut,        cut.
                  dare,            durst,[1]   dared.
                  deal,            dealt,      dealt.
                  dream,           dreamt,[1]  dreamt.
                  dwell,           dwelt,[1]   dwelt.
                  feed,            fed,        fed.
                  feel,            felt,       felt.
                  flee,            fled,       fled.
                  gild,            gilt,[1]    gilt.
                  gird,            girt,[1]    girt.
                  have,            had,        had.
                  hear,            heard,      heard.
                  hit,             hit,        hit.
                  hurt,            hurt,       hurt.
                  keep,            kept,       kept.
                  kneel,           knelt,      knelt.
                  knit,            knit,[1]    knit.
                  lay,             laid,       laid.
                  lead,            led,        led.
                  lean,            leant,[1]   leant.
                  leap,            leapt,[1]   leapt.
                  learn,           learnt,[1]  learnt.
                  leave,           left,       left.
                  lend,            lent,       lent.
                  let,             let,        let.
                  light,           lit,[1]     lit.
                  lose,            lost,       lost.
                  make,            made,       made.
                  mean,            meant,      meant.
                  meet,            met,        met.
                  pay,             paid,       paid.
                  pen (enclose),   pent,[1]    pent.
                  put,             put,        put.
                  quit,            quit,[1]    quit.
                  read,            read,       read.
                  rend,            rent,       rent.
                  rid,             rid,        rid.
                  say,             said,       said.
                  seek,            sought,     sought.
                  sell,            sold,       sold.
                  send,            sent,       sent.
                  set,             set,        set.
                  shed,            shed,       shed.
                  shoe,            shod,       shod.
                  shoot,           shot,       shot.
                  shut,            shut,       shut.
                  sleep,           slept,      slept.
                  smell,           smelt,[1]   smelt.
                  speed,           sped,       sped.
                  spell,           spelt,[1]   spelt.
                  spend,           spent,      spent.
                  spill,           spilt,[1]   spilt.
                  spit,            spit,       spit.
                  split,           split,      split.
                  spoil,           spoilt,[1]  spoilt.
                  spread,          spread,     spread.
                  sweat,           sweat,      sweat.
                  sweep,           swept,      swept.
                  teach,           taught,     taught.
                  tell,            told,       told.
                  think,           thought,    thought.
                  thrust,          thrust,     thrust.
                  weep,            wept,       wept.
                  wet,             wet,[1]     wet.
                  whet,            whet,[1]    whet.
                  work,            wrought,[1] wrought.


[1] Sometimes conjugated regularly.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLIV.=


We learned in Lesson XLII. that regular verbs of the strong conjugation
form their past tense by changing the vowel of the present, and their
perfect participle by adding _en_ or _n_ to the present.

    _Note._—Sometimes _one_ of these characteristics is wanting;
    as, _chide_, _chid_, _chidden_; _sit_, _sat_, _sat_.

                  =Present.=       =Past.=    =Perf. Part.=
                  write,           wrote,     written.
                  abide,           abode,     abode.
                  am,              was,       been.
                  arise,           arose,     arisen.
                  awake,           awoke,[2]  awaked.
                  bear,            {bore,     {borne.
                                   {bare,     {born.
                  beat,            beat,      beaten.
                  begin,           began,     begun.
                  bid,             bade, bid, bidden.
                  bind,            bound,     bound.
                  bite,            bit,       {bitten,
                  blow,            blew,      blown.
                  break,           broke,     broken.
                  chide,           chid,      chidden.
                  choose,          chose,     chosen.
                  cleave, (split), clove,     cloven.
                  cling,           clung,     clung.
                  come,            came,      come.
                  crow,            crew,[2]   crowed.
                  dig,             dug[2]     dug.
                  do,              did,       done.
                  draw,            drew,      drawn.
                  drive,           drove,     driven.
                  drink,           drank,     drunk.
                  eat,             eat, ate,  eaten.
                  fall,            fell,      fallen.
                  fight,           fought,    fought.
                  find,            found,     found.
                  fling,           flung,     flung.
                  fly,             flew,      flown.
                  forget,          forgot,    {forgotten,
                  forsake,         forsook,   forsaken.
                  freeze,          froze,     frozen.
                  get,             got,       {gotten,
                  give,            gave,      given.
                  go,              went,      gone.
                  grind,           ground,    ground.
                  grow,            grew,      grown.
                  hang,            hung,[2]   hung.[2]
                  hide,            hid,       {hidden,
                  hold,            held,      held.
                  know,            knew,      known.
                  lie,             lay,       lain.
                  mow,             mowed,     mown.
                  ride,            rode,      ridden.
                  ring,            rang,      rung.
                  rise,            rose,      risen.
                  run,             ran,       run.
                  see,             saw,       seen.
                  shake,           shook,     shaken.
                  shear,           sheared,   shorn.[2]
                  shine,           shone,[2]  shone.[2]
                  show,            showed,    shown.[2]
                  shrink,          shrank,    shrunk.
                  sing,            sang,      sung.
                  sink,            sank,      {sunk,
                  sit,             sat,       sat.
                  slay,            slew,      slain.
                  slide,           slid,      slidden.
                  sling,           slung,     slung.
                  slink,           slunk,     slunk.
                  slit,            slit,      slit.
                  smite,           smote,     smitten.
                  sow,             sowed,     sown.[2]
                  speak,           spoke,     spoken.
                  spin,            spun,      spun.
                  spring,          sprang,    sprung.
                  stand,           stood,     stood.
                  steal,           stole,     stolen.
                  stick,           stuck,     stuck.
                  sting,           stung,     stung.
                  stink,           stank,     stunk.
                  strew,           strewed,   {strewn,[2]
                  stride,          strode,    stridden.
                  strike,          struck,    {struck,
                  string,          strung,    strung.
                  strive,          strove,    striven.
                  swear,           swore,     sworn.
                  swim,            swam,      swum.
                  swing,           swung,     swung.
                  take,            took,      taken.
                  tear,            tore,      torn.
                  thrive,          throve,[2] thriven.[2]
                  throw,           threw,     thrown.
                  tread,           trod,      trodden.
                  wax,             waxed,     waxen.[2]
                  wear,            wore,      worn.
                  weave,           wove,      woven.
                  win,             won,       won.
                  wind,            wound,     wound.
                  wring,           wrung,     wrung.
                  write,           wrote,     written.


[2] Also like the weak conjugation.


                       =Present.= =Past.= =Perf. Part.=
                       can,       could,             ——
                       may,       might,             ——
                       shall,     should,            ——
                       will,      would,             ——
                       must,      must,              ——
                       ought,     ought,             ——

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLV.=

                            AUXILIARY VERBS.

We have learned in Lesson XL. that the verb has different forms of
itself to express a difference between present and past time only, and
when we wish to express that an act took place any other time, we use
another verb to aid the principal verb.

State which of the italicized verbs in the following sentences is used
independently, to express its own meaning, and which is used to aid
another verb to express its meaning:—

      1. I _have_ a knife.
      2. I _have_ written the letter.
      3. He _was_ a good student.
      4. He _was_ fined for doing wrong.

A verb that is used to help to conjugate other verbs is called an
=auxiliary verb=; as, We _have_ found your book.

The auxiliary verbs that aid in distinguishing the time of an action are
_have_, _shall_, _will_, _do_ and _be_.

                    THE FORMS OF THE VERB =_HAVE_=.

                     have,           had,           had.

                            INDICATIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I have,                            1. We have,
           2. Thou hast,                         2. You have,
           3. He has.                            3. They have.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I had,                             1. We had,
           2. Thou hadst,                        2. You had,
           3. He had.                            3. They had.

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I have,                       1. (If) we have,
           2. (If) thou have,                    2. (If) you have,
           3. (If) he have.                      3. (If) they have.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I had,                        1. (If) we had,
           2. (If) thou had,                     2. (If) you had,
           3. (If) he had.                       3. (If) they had.

                            IMPERATIVE MODE.

                       =Singular.=     =Plural.=
                       Have (thou).    Have (ye or

                     =Infinitives.=  =Participles.=
                     (To) have,      IMPERFECT—Having,
                     Having.         PERFECT—Had.

_Have_ is used as an auxiliary with the perfect participle of a verb, to
form the perfect tenses; as,

        PRESENT PERFECT—I have written.
        PAST PERFECT—I had written.
        FUTURE PERFECT—I shall have written.
        PERFECT INFINITIVES—(To) have written; having written.
        PERFECT PARTICIPLE—Having written.

When _have_ denotes possession it is an independent verb; as My friends
_have_ a canary.


In which of the following sentences is _have_ an independent verb, and
in which is it an auxiliary:—

      1. The wheelmen have their own road.
      2. I know that he has taken it.
      3. England had won the sources of the Nile!—_Baker._
      4. Have then thy wish; he whistled shrill,
         And he was answered from the hill.—_Scott._
      5. I have obeyed my uncle until now.
         And I have sinned, for it was all through me
         That evil came on William at the first.—_Tennyson._
      6. Have you the heart? When your head did but ache,
         I knit my handkercher about your brows,
         (The best I had, a princess wrought it me,)
         And I did never ask it you again.—_Shakespeare._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLVI.=



                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I shall,                           1. We shall,
           2. Thou shalt,                        2. You shall,
           3. He shall.                          3. They shall.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I should,                          1. We should,
           2. Thou shouldst,                     2. You should,
           3. He should.                         3. They should.


                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I will,                            1. We will,
           2. Thou wilt,                         2. You will,
           3. He will.                           3. They will.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I would,                           1. We would,
           2. Thou wouldst,                      2. You would,
           3. He would.                          3. They would.

The auxiliaries _shall_ and _will_ are used with the infinitive to form
the future tense of a verb. To denote simple futurity _shall_ is used in
the first person, and _will_ in the second and third persons; as, I
_shall go_ to-morrow; You _will go_ again; He _will go_ next year.

To make a promise or to denote determination, _will_ is used in the
first person, and _shall_ in the second and third persons; as, I _will
get_ it for you; You _shall_ not _go_; He _shall do_ that work.

_Should_ and _would_ have the same uses as _shall_ and _will_.


Tell how _shall_ and _will_. are used in the following sentences:—

      1. The expectation of the wicked shall perish.—_Bible._
      2. When ye come where I have stepped,
         Ye will wonder why ye wept.—_E. Arnold._
      3. Well, see to live; I will not touch thine eyes
         For all the treasure that thine uncle owns.—_Shakespeare._
      4. He that covereth his sins shall not prosper.—_Bible._
      5. But in my time a father’s word was law,
         And so it shall be now for me.—_Tennyson_.
      6. If I talk to him, with his innocent prate
         He will awake my mercy, which lies dead:
         Therefore I will be sudden, and despatch.—_Shakespeare_.
      7. The cock’s shrill clarion, or the echoing horn,
         No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.—_Gray_.
      8. “If you are not the heiress born,
         And I,” said he, “the lawful heir,
         We too shall wed to-morrow morn,
         And you shall still be Lady Clare.”—_Tennyson_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XLVII.=

                 THE FORMS OF THE VERBS _DO_ AND _BE_.


                            INDICATIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I do,                              1. We do,
           2. Thou doest                         2. You do,
               or dost,
           3. He does.                           3. They do.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I did,                             1. We did,
           2. Thou didst,                        2. You did,
           3. He did.                            3. They did.

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I do,                         1. (If) we do,
           2. (If) thou do,                      2. (If) you do,
           3. (If) he do.                        3. (If) they do.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I did,                        1. (If) we did,
           2. (If) thou did,                     2. (If) you did,
           3. (If) he did.                       3. (If) they did.

           =Imperative Mode.= =Infinitives.=     =Participles.=
           Do (thou or you).  (To) do.           IMPERFECT—Doing.
                              Doing.             PERFECT—Done.

The present and past tenses of _do_ are used as auxiliaries with the
present infinitive, (1) to express emphasis; as, I _do study_ every
evening. (2) To express a denial; as, I _did not do_ it. (3) To ask
questions; as, _Did_ you _see_ him?

When _do_ means _to perform_, it is an independent verb; as, He _did_
his part.


Name the sentences in which _do_ is used as an independent verb, and
those in which it is used as an auxiliary, and explain the use of each

      1. Do they not err that devise evil?—_Bible._
      2. All their works they do to be seen of men.—_Bible._
      3. Stone walls do not a prison make.—_Lovelace._
      4.             And for that offense
         Immediately we do exile him hence.—_Shakespeare._
      5. And everybody praised the Duke
         Who this great fight did win.—_Southey._
      6. The evil that men do lives after them.—_Shakespeare._
      7. So little they rose, so little they fell,
         They did not move the Inchcape Bell.—_Southey._
      8. If I do so, it will be of more price,
         Being spoke behind your back, than to your


                            INDICATIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I am,                              1. We are,
           2. Thou art,                          2. You are,
           3. He is.                             3. They are.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I was,                             1. We were,
           2. Thou wast,                         2. You were,
           3. He was.                            3. They were.

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I be,                         1. (If) we be,
           2. (If) thou be,                      2. (If) you be,
           3. (If) he be.                        3. (If) they be

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. (If) I were,                       1. (If) we were,
           2. (If) thou wert,                    2. (If) you were,
           3. (If) he were.                      3. (If) they were.

           =Imperative Mode.= =Infinitives.=     =Participles.=
           Be (thou or you).  (To) be.           IMPERFECT—Being.
                              Being.             PERFECT—Been.

1. The verb _to be_ is used as an auxiliary with the perfect participle
of a transitive verb, to form the _passive voice_; as, I _am hurt_.

2. The verb _to be_ is used as an auxiliary with the present participle
of a verb, to form the _progressive form_; as, I _am writing_.

3. The verb _to be_, without the participle of another verb, is used to
express (1) _existence_; as, Whatever _is_, is right. (2) To act as a
_copula_ (connecting word); as, Sugar _is_ sweet. Whatever is, _is_

                              EXERCISE I.

State the use of the verb _be_ in each of the following sentences:—

      1. “Alas,” said I, “man was made in vain!”—_Addison._
      2. Brevity is the soul of wit.—_Shakespeare._
      3. The waves were white, and red the morn,
         In the noisy hour when I was born.—_Procter._
      4. It was a summer evening,
         Old Kaspar’s work was done,
         And he before his cottage door
         Was sitting in the sun.—_Southey._
      5. It is my lady, O, it is my love!
         O, that she knew she were!—_Shakespeare._
      6. When the heart is right there is true
      7. True worth is in being, not seeming.—_A. Cary._
      8.           We are such stuff
         As dreams are made on; and our little life
         Is rounded with a sleep.—_Shakespeare._

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write four examples of the verb _be_ used as an independent verb.

2. Write four examples of the verb _be_ used in making the progressive

3. Write four examples of the verb _be_ used in forming the passive

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON XLVIII.=

                         OTHER AUXILIARY VERBS.

In the last three lessons we have studied the auxiliaries used in
distinguishing the time of an action. We shall now study the auxiliaries
_can_, _may_, _must_, _ought_, _should_ and _would_, which enable us to
express other distinctions.


                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I can,                             1. We can,
           2. Thou canst,                        2. You can,
           3. He can.                            3. They can.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I could,                           1. We could,
           2. Thou couldst,                      2. You could,
           3. He could.                          3. They could.

_Can_ is used to denote power or ability; as, I _can_ sing. He _could_
write very rapidly.


                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I may,                             1. We may,
           2. Thou mayest,                       2. You may,
           3. He may.                            3. They may.

                              =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I might,                           1. We might,
           2. Thou mightest,                     2. You might,
           3. He might.                          3. They might.

_May_ is used to denote permission, possibility, or a wish; as, You
_may_ leave the room. He _might_ succeed again. _May_ you be there too.

_Could_ and _might_ are used sometimes in a conditional sense; as, They
_might_ stay here if we _could_ help them.

The phrases made by the auxiliaries _may_ and _can_ with the infinitive
of a verb are sometimes called _potential verb-phrases_, because they
express that an action is possible from the subject having power to
perform it.

                           =MUST and OUGHT.=

_Must_ has no other form. It is used to denote necessity or obligation;
as, I _must_ remain here.

_Ought_ is the old past of the verb _owe_. It is used to denote duty or
obligation; as, I _ought_ to help him.

The phrases made by the auxiliaries _must_ and _ought_, with the
infinitive of a verb, are sometimes called _obligative verb-phrases_,
because they imply _obligation_.

                          =SHOULD and WOULD.=

_Should_ and _would_ are the past tense forms of the auxiliaries _shall_
and _will_.

_Should_ and _would_ are especially used with the infinitive of a verb
to express a conditional statement; as, _I should do so_ if I had the
opportunity. _He would come_ if I asked him.

Since the phrases formed by _should_ and _would_ with the infinitive of
a verb imply a condition, they are called _conditional verb-phrases_.

1. _Should_ and _would_ are often used in expressing the condition
itself; as, _If he should be here_, they would know it.

2. They have sometimes their more independent meanings of _ought_ and
_be determined_; as, _I should go_, I know. _She would come_, no matter
what happened.

                              EXERCISE I.

State the use of the verbs _may_, _can_, _must_, _ought_, _should_ and
_would_ in the following sentences:—

      1. For I can weather the roughest gale,
         That ever wind did blow.—_Longfellow._
      2. She must weep or she will die.—_Tennyson._
      3. We ought to obey God.—_Bible._
      4. And when he next doth ride abroad
         May I be there to see!—_Cowper._
      5. “Please, Brown,” he whispered, “may I wash my face and
      6. I would not for the wealth of all the town
         Here in my home do him disparagement.—_Shakespeare._
      7. For men may come and men may go,
         But I go on forever.—_Tennyson._
      8. If a storm should come and wake the deep,
         What matter! I shall ride and sleep.—_Procter._
      9. It may be that Death’s bright angel
         Will speak in that chord again,
         It may be that only in Heaven
         I shall hear that grand Amen.—_Procter._

                              EXERCISE II.

Write sentences containing the following verbs used correctly—_can_,
_may_, _must_, _ought_, _should_, _would_. State the use in each case.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON XLIX.=


                    =ACTIVE VOICE.=—INDICATIVE MODE.

                               =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I praise,                          1. We praise,
           2. Thou praisest,                     2. You praise,
           3. He praises.                        3. They praise.

                              =PERFECT TENSE.=
          =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
          1. I have praised,                    1. We have praised,
          2. Thou hast                          2. You have praised,
          3. He has praised.                    3. They have

                                =PAST TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I praised,                         1. We praised,
           2. Thou praisedst,                    2. You praised,
           3. He praised.                        3. They praised.

                                =PAST =
                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
    =Singular.=                               =Plural.=
    1. I had praised,                         1. We had praised,
    2. Thou hadst praised,                    2. You had praised,
    3. He had praised.                        3. They had praised.

                               =FUTURE TENSE.=
                               (Denoting Future
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I shall praise,                    1. We shall
           2. Thou wilt                          2. You will
             praise,                               praise,
           3. He will praise.                    3. They will

                               =FUTURE TENSE.=
                                 (Denoting a
                              or Determination.)
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           1. I will praise,                     1. We will praise,
           2. Thou shalt                         2. You shall
             praise,                               praise,
           3. He shall                           3. They shall
             praise.                               praise.

                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
                            (Denoting Future
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I shall have praised,                     1. We shall have praised,
 2. Thou wilt have                            2. You will have praised,
 3. He will have praised.                     3. They will have praised.

                             =PERFECT TENSE.=
                               (Denoting a
                            or Determination.)
  =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
  1. I will have praised,                      1. We will have praised,
  2. Thou shalt have                           2. You shall have
    praised,                                     praised,
  3. He shall have praised.                    3. They shall have

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

                               =PRESENT TENSE.=
         =Singular.=                             =Plural.=
         1. (If) I praise,                       1. (If) we praise,
         2. (If) thou praise,                    2. (If) you praise,
         3. (If) he praise.                      3. (If) they praise.

                                =PAST TENSE.=
         =Singular.=                             =Plural.=
         1. (If) I praised,                      1. (If) we praised,
         2. (If) thou                            2. (If) you praised,
         3. (If) he praised.                     3. (If) they

                            IMPERATIVE MODE.

                               =PRESENT TENSE.=
           =Singular.=                           =Plural.=
           Praise (thou).                        Praise (ye or

           =Present.=                            =Perfect.=
           (To) praise,                          (To) have praised,
           Praising.                             Having praised.

           =Present or                           =Present Perfect
           Imperfect.=                           or Perfect.=
           Praising.                             Having praised.

                            =PASSIVE VOICE.=

The passive forms of a transitive verb are made by the aid of the
auxiliary _be_.

                            INDICATIVE MODE.

                               =PRESENT TENSE.=
         =Singular.=                             =Plural.=
         1. I am praised,                        1. We are praised,
         2. Thou art praised,                    2. You are praised,
         3. He is praised.                       3. They are praised.

                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I have been praised,                      1. We have been praised,
 2. Thou hast been                            2. You have been praised,
 3. He has been praised.                      3. They have been praised.

                             =PAST TENSE.=
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I was praised,                            1. We were praised,
 2. Thou wast praised,                        2. You were praised,
 3. He was praised.                           3. They were praised.

                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I had been praised,                       1. We had been praised,
 2. Thou hadst been                           2. You had been praised,
 3. He had been praised.                      3. They had been praised.

                            =FUTURE TENSE.=
                            (Denoting Future
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I shall be praised,                       1. We shall be praised,
 2. Thou wilt be praised,                     2. You will be praised,
 3. He will be praised.                       3. They will be praised.

                            =FUTURE TENSE.=
                              (Denoting a
                           or Determination.)
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I will be praised,                        1. We will be praised, etc.

                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
                            (Denoting Future
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I shall have been                         1. We shall have been
   praised,                                     praised,
 etc.                                         etc.

                            =PERFECT TENSE.=
                              (Denoting a
                           or Determination.)
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. I will have been                          1. We will have been
   praised,                                     praised,
 etc.                                         etc.

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

                            =PRESENT TENSE.=
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. (If) I be praised,                        1. (If) we be praised,
 2. (If) thou be praised,                     2. (If) you be praised,
 3. (If) he be praised.                       3. (If) they be praised.

                             =PAST TENSE.=
 =Singular.=                                  =Plural.=
 1. (If) I were praised,                      1. (If) we were praised,
 2. (If) thou were                            2. (If) you were praised,
 3. (If) he were praised.                     3. (If) they were praised.

                            IMPERATIVE MODE.

                              =PRESENT TENSE.=
                              Be (thou) praised.

           =Present.=                      =Perfect.=
           (To) be praised,                (To) have been praised,
           Being praised.                  Having been praised.

    =Present or Imperfect.=                =Perfect or Present Perfect.=
    Being praised.                         Praised or Having been praised.


                            INDICATIVE MODE.

          =Present Tense.=          =Present Perfect Tense.=
          I am praising, etc.       I have been praising, etc.

          =Past Tense.=             =Past Perfect Tense.=
          I was praising, etc.      I had been praising, etc.

          =Future Tense.=           =Future Perfect Tense.=
          I shall be praising, etc. I shall have been praising, etc.

                           SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.

             =Present Tense.=         =Past Tense.=
             (If) I be praising, etc. (If) I were praising, etc.

                            IMPERATIVE MODE.

                             =Present Tense.=
                             Be (thou) praising.


                  =Present.=        =Perfect.=
                  (To) be praising. (To) have been praising,
                                    Having been praising.


          =Present or Imperfect.= =Perfect or Present Perfect.=
          Praising.               Having been praising.

                              EXERCISE I.

Fully conjugate the verb _freeze_ in both voices.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write out the progressive forms of the verb _sing_.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON L.=

                           PARSING OF VERBS.

To parse a verb is to state its _class_, its _conjugation_, its _voice_,
its _mode_, its _tense_, its _person_, and _number_, and its _subject_.

=Model.=—The boys _have broken_ the window.

_Have broken_, a verb, transitive; strong conjugation (break, broke,
broken); active voice; indicative mode; present perfect tense, third
person; plural number, agreeing with its subject _boys_.

=Model.=—If they _help_ my friend I _shall be_ glad.

_Help_, a verb, transitive; weak conjugation (help, helped, helped);
active voice; subjunctive mode; present tense; third person; plural
number, agreeing with its subject _they_.

_Shall be_, a verb, intransitive; strong conjugation (am, was, been);
indicative mode; future tense; first person; singular number, agreeing
with its subject _I_.

=Model.=—_Being provided_ with tools, they _planted_ a row of stakes
within their palisade, _to form_ a double fence.

_Being provided_, a present participle; passive form, modifying _they_.

_Planted_, a verb, transitive; weak conjugation (plant, planted,
planted); active voice; indicative mode; past tense; third person;
plural number, agreeing with its subject _they_.

_To form_, a present infinitive; active voice; used as an adverb to
modify _planted_.


Parse the verbs, the infinitives, and the participles in the following

      1. They are fond of building castles in the air.
      2. On he comes, running lightly, with his hands in his pockets.
      3. Searching the pile of corpses, the victors found four
           Frenchmen still breathing.—_Parkman._
      4. The former target was now removed, and a fresh one of the
           same size placed in its room.—_Scott._
      5. When summoned to surrender, he fired at one of the leading
           assailants, but was instantly overpowered.—_Warburton._
      6. If terror were the object of its creation, nothing could be
           imagined more perfect than the devil-fish.—_Hugo._
      7. Madeleine ordered a cannon to be fired, partly to deter the
           enemy from an assault, and partly to warn some of the
           soldiers, who were hunting at a distance.—_Parkman._
      8. I am told that it is the custom to collect the sap and bring
           it to the house, where are built brick arches, over which
           the sap is evaporated in shallow pans.—_Warner._
      9. Lives of great men all remind us
         We can make our lives sublime,
         And, departing, leave behind us
         Footprints on the sands of time.—_Longfellow._
     10. It was the schooner Hesperus,
         That sailed the wintry sea;
         And the skipper had taken his little daughter,
         To bear him company.—_Longfellow._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON LI.=

                          CLASSES OF ADVERBS.

What does each adverb in the following sentences denote?—

      1. Soon the cavalry arrived.
      2. Our friends live here.
      3. He walked slowly into the house.
      4. We had a very pleasant outing.
      5. Certainly, I believe it.

_Classes of Adverbs according to their_ =meaning=:—

1. Adverbs of =time= and =succession=; as, She _seldom_ fails to call.
We come next.

2. Adverbs of =place= and =motion=; as, John stood _there_ for an hour.
They are going _back_.

    _Note._—The word _there_ is sometimes used merely to introduce
    a sentence, that the subject may follow the verb; as, _There_
    are two boys in the room. When it is used in this manner it is
    called an =expletive=.

3. Adverbs of =manner= and =quality=; as, You did it _well_. That man
acts _foolishly_.

4. Adverbs of =degree= and =measure=; as, He is _quite_ ill. She is a
_very_ industrious woman.

5. _Model_ adverbs—those that express certainty or uncertainty; as, I
shall _surely_ come. You are _probably_ right.


How is each adverb used in the following sentences?—

      1. This river flows rapidly.
      2. I know how he acted.
      3. Where is your father?

_Classes of Adverbs according to their_ =use=:—

1. An adverb that simply modifies another word is called a =simple
adverb=; as, _Slowly_ and _sadly_ we laid him _down_.

2. An adverb that not only modifies a word, but also connects the clause
of which it forms a part with another clause, is called a =conjunctive
adverb=; as, I shall go _when_ he comes.

3. An adverb that is used to ask a question is called an =interrogative
adverb=; as, _Why_ did they take it away?

    _Note._—Some adverbs are compared like adjectives; as, Soon,
    sooner, soonest; swiftly, more swiftly, most swiftly.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LII.=

                          PARSING OF ADVERBS.

To parse an adverb is to state the kind of adverb, its =degree= of
comparison, if it has any, and what it =modifies=.

=Model.=—_Now_ you may read it.

_Now_, an adverb of time, modifying the verb-phrase _may read_.

=Model.=—I know _where_ you put it.

_Where_, a conjunctive adverb, showing place. It modifies _put_ and
connects the clause, [_where_] _you put it_ with the clause, _I know_.


Parse the adverbs in the following sentences:—

      1. He could not ever rue his marrying me.—_Tennyson._
      2. So those four abode within one house together.—_Tennyson._
      3. The boys waited eagerly for further experiments on the
           doctor’s patience.—_Anstey._
      4. Silently down from the mountain’s crown
         The great procession swept.—_Mrs. Alexander._
      5. How closely he twineth, how tight he clings
         To his friend, the huge oak-tree!—_Dickens._
      6. There was manhood’s brow serenely high,
         And the fiery heart of youth.—_Hemans._
      7. Aim straightly, fire steadily! spare me
         A ball in the body which may
         Deliver my heart here, and tear me
         This badge of the Austrian away!—_Mrs. Browning._
      8. Believe not each accusing tongue,
         As most weak people do;
         But still believe that story wrong
         Which ought not to be true.—_Sheridan._
      9. Again I looked at the snow-fall,
         And thought of the leaden sky
         That arched o’er our first great sorrow,
         When that mound was heaped so high.—_Lowell._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LIII.=


What do the prepositions in the following sentences connect, and what
relations do they express?—

      1. I came during the night.
      2. He lives at home.
      3. Our friends came by train.
      4. The oar of the boat was broken.

Prepositions express a great variety of relations. The most common
relations are as follows:—

1. =Time=; as, The scholars go home _after_ school.

2. =Place= or =direction=; as, He sat _upon_ a stone.

3. =Agency= or =means=; as, John cut his finger _with_ a knife.

4. =Possession=; as, The call _of_ the shepherd was heard by his flock.

5. =Separation=; as, James took the book _from_ his brother.

6. =Association=; as, A man _with_ an axe in his hand came in.

7. =Opposition=; as, He is _against_ me.

8. =Object=; as, The love _of_ pleasure destroys many a life.

9. =Cause=; as, They did it _through_ ignorance.

    _Note._—There are many phrases which have the use of
    prepositions and are treated as such; as, We stood _in front of_
    the building. A woman came _out of_ the house. He lived
    _according to_ his light.

                        PARSING OF PREPOSITIONS.

=Model.=—I stood _on_ the bridge _at_ midnight.

_On_, a preposition, connecting the noun _bridge_ with the verb _stood_,
and showing the relation of _place_.

_At_, a preposition, connecting the noun _midnight_ with the verb
_stood_, and showing the relation of _time_.


Parse the prepositions in the following sentences:—

      1. The old man was killed by a falling tree.
      2. The perfume of the rose is sweet.
      3. A child fell into the river.
      4. My brother went instead of me.
      5. Without a moment’s hesitation, he and his men dashed at the
      6. Now see him mount once again
         Upon his nimble steed,
         Full slowly pacing o’er the stones,
         With caution and good heed.—_Cowper._
      7. Richard surveyed the Nubian in silence as he stood before
           him, his looks bent upon the ground, his arms folded on
           his bosom, with the appearance of a black marble statue of
           the most exquisite workmanship, waiting life from the
           touch of a Prometheus.—_Scott._
      8. Beside yon straggling fence that skirts the way,
         With blossomed furze unprofitably gay,
         There, in his noisy mansion, skilled to rule,
         The village master taught his little school.—_Goldsmith._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LIV.=

                        CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS.

Point out in the following examples conjunctions that connect sentences
or parts of a sentence of equal rank, and those that connect sentences
that are not of equal rank:—

      1. Men may come and men may go.
      2. I have a pen and a book.
      3. Henry remained but we went home.
      4. My father knew that I did it.

A conjunction that connects sentences or parts of a sentence of equal
rank, is called a =co-ordinating conjunction=; as, The night is cold
_and_ clear. It was sold, _but_ I did not want it. I know he came home,
_and_ took it away.

A conjunction that connects a dependent or subordinate clause to a
principal clause, is called a =subordinating conjunction=; as, James
said _that_ he was sick. I cannot go _unless_ he come.

    _Note._—Conjunctions used in pairs are called =correlatives=;
    as, _both_—_and_, _either_—_or_, _neither_—_nor_.

                        PARSING OF CONJUNCTIONS.

=Model.=—The teacher gave me a book, _and_ I read it.

_And_, a co-ordinating conjunction, connecting the two principal
clauses, _The teacher gave me a book_, and _I read it_.

=Model.=—The boy is strong _but_ lazy.

_But_, a co-ordinating conjunction, connecting the adjectives _strong_
and _lazy_.

=Model.=—His mother said _that_ he might go.

_That_, a subordinating conjunction, connecting the subordinate clause,
_he might go_, to the principal clause, _his mother said_.

                              EXERCISE I.

Parse the conjunctions in the following sentences:—

      1.                He often looked at them,
         And often thought, “I’ll make them man and
      2. The natives of the island supposed that the ships had sailed
           out of the crystal firmament, or had descended from above
           on their ample wings.—_Irving._
      3. Here lies his head upon the lap of earth,
         A youth to fortune and to fame unknown.—_Gray._
      4. By chance it happened that in Atri dwelt
         A knight, with spur on heel and sword in belt.—_Longfellow._
      5. With a sword or a hatchet in one hand and a knife in the
           other, they threw themselves against the throng of
           enemies, striking and stabbing with the fury of madmen,
           till the Iroquois fired volley after volley, and shot them
      6. Cheerily, then, my little man,
         Live and laugh, as boyhood can!
         Though the flinty slopes be hard,
         Stubble-speared the new-mown sward,
         Every morn shall lead thee through
         Fresh baptisms of the dew.—_Whittier._

                              EXERCISE II.

1. Write three sentences each containing a co-ordinating conjunction.
Underline example.

2. Write three sentences each containing a subordinating conjunction.
Underline example.

3. Write an example of correlative conjunctions. Underline them.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON LV.=


As an interjection bears no grammatical relation to the other words of a
sentence, its parsing consists in naming the parts of speech, and the
feeling expressed.

=Model.=—Hurrah! we have won.

_Hurrah_, an interjection—expresses the feeling of joy.


Parse the interjections in the following sentences:—

      1. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro,
         And gathering tears, and tremblings of distress.—_Byron._
      2. News of battle! News of battle!
         Hark! ’tis ringing down the street.—_Aytoun._
      3. Oh! I’m thankful you are gone, Mary,
         Where grief can’t reach you more!—_Lady Dufferin._
      4. But, hush! hark! a deep sound strikes like a rising
      5. And, lo! from far, as on they pressed, there came a
           glittering band.—_Hemans._
      6. “Alas,” said I, “man was made in vain!”—_Addison._
      7. “Indeed!” said Uncle Tim, “pray, what do you make of the
           abstraction of a red cow?”—_Haliburton._
      8. “Yet give one kiss to your mother dear!
         Alas! my child, I sinned for thee.”
         “O mother, mother, mother,” she said,
         “So strange it seems to me.”—_Tennyson._
      9. Ho! breakers on the weather bow,
         And hissing white the sea;
         Go, loose the topsail, mariner,
         And set the helm a-lee.—_Swain._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              PART THIRD.


Syntax treats of the _relations_ which words bear to one another in
sentences, and of the _order_ in which the words are arranged. The
relation of a word in a sentence is called its _construction_.

    _Note._—Many of the leading principles of syntax have been
    illustrated already. We shall now study them and others in a
    systematic way.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LVI.=

                         RELATIONS OF THE NOUN.

Examine the construction of the italicized nouns in the following

      1. _Trees_ grow.
      2. This man is a _carpenter_.
      3. Mr. Brown, the _merchant_, has retired.
      4. _Boys_, close the doors.
      5. The _wheel_ being broken, I walked home.
      6. John lost his _knife_.
      7. She lives in the _city_.
      8. I bought the _boy_ a hat.
      9. We visited our _mother’s_ grave.
     10. He lived here ten _years_.
     11. I was taught _music_ by my mother.
     12. This boy ran a _race_ yesterday.
     13. I told him to be a good _boy_.
     14. The people chose him _ruler_.

1. =Subject nominative.= The noun may be used as the subject of a verb;
as, _Boys_ play. The subject of a verb is in the _nominative case_.

2. =Predicate nominative.= A noun that is used to form a complete
predicate, and refers to the same person or thing as the subject, is in
the =nominative case= after the verb; as, John became _king_. A noun so
used is called a =predicate noun= or =predicate nominative=. The verbs
_be_, _seem_, _become_, _appear_, _look_ are followed by a =predicate

3. =Apposition.= A noun added to another noun to explain its meaning is
said to be in apposition to the first noun; as,

Mr. Henry, our _principal_, is sick. (Nominative in apposition.)

We like your sister _Mary_. (Objective in apposition.)

4. =Nominative of address.= A noun that is used in addressing a person
or thing, is in the =nominative case of address=; as, _Man_, thy years
are few.

5. =Nominative absolute.= A noun that is not related to any other word
in the sentence is in the =nominative absolute case=; as, The _day_
being bright, I went for a drive.

6. =Object of a verb.= A noun or pronoun on which the action expressed
by a verb ends, is called the grammatical =object= of the verb; as, I
broke my _pen_.

7. =Object of a preposition.= A noun or pronoun which a preposition
connects in sense to some other word in the sentence, is called the
=object= of the preposition; as, He came from the _country_.

8. =Indirect object.= A noun or pronoun that is used to show _to_ or
_for_ whom or what something is done, is called the _indirect_ object;
as, He gave _me_ a watch. The word _watch_ is the _direct_ object of

9. =Possession.= A noun that is used to denote ownership is in the
=possessive= case; as, My _friend’s_ hat is missing.

10. =Adverbial object.= A noun that is used like an adverb to express
_time_, _distance_, _weight_, or _value_, is called an =adverbial
objective=; as, He walked five _miles_. It is worth eight _dollars_.

11. =Retained object.= When an active verb, taking two objects, is
changed into the passive voice, one object becomes the subject of the
passive verb, but the other is _retained as object_; as, He was forgiven
his _offence_.

12. =Cognate object.= When the objective has a similar or cognate
meaning to that of the verb, it is called a =cognate object=; as, She
sung us a _song_.

13. =Predicate objective.= When a noun is in the predicate relation to
an objective subject, it is called a =predicate objective=; as, I know
him to be an honest _man_.

14. =An objective predicate.= A noun that completes the meaning of a
transitive verb and describes its object, is called an =objective
predicate=; as, They elected him _president_. The verbs _call_, _make_,
_appoint_, _choose_, _elect_, and those of like nature, take the
=objective predicate=.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LVII.=

                       RELATIONS OF THE PRONOUN.

What is the gender, person, and number of the italicized pronouns in the
following sentences?—

      1. A little girl gave me _her_ book.
      2. The sword has dropped from _its_ sheath.
      3. I saw the man of _whom_ you speak.
      4. This is the woman _that_ found your purse.

_A pronoun must agree in gender, number, and person with its

    _Note._—1. The relative pronoun is not always expressed; as, I
    know the man (_that_) you admire so much.

    2. The word _it_ has sometimes an indefinite use without an
    antecedent; as, _It_ rains. _It_ will soon be dark. _This is
    called the impersonal use._

    3. The word _it_ is sometimes used as a _representative_ subject
    while the _real_ subject follows the verb; as, _It_ is certain
    _that he did it_. _It_ is right _to defend the truth_.

_The pronoun has the same case-relations as the noun._


Name the case and state the construction of each noun and pronoun in the
following sentences:—

      1. I travelled with Smith, the grocer.
      2. We helped the lady who lost her purse.
      3. It is wrong to deceive.
      4. The wind having fallen, I mounted my wheel again.
      5.                 Mary broke out in praise to God, that helped
         her in her widowhood.—_Tennyson._
      6. Set the table, maiden Mabel,
         And make the cabin warm:
         Your little fisher lover
         Is out there in the storm.—_Aldrich._
      7. My dear one!—when thou wast alive with the rest,
         I held thee the sweetest and loved thee the best.—_E. B.
      8. But the Christian princes felt that the scene which they had
           beheld weighed heavily on their spirits, and although they
           assumed their seats at the banquet, yet it was with the
           silence of doubt and amazement.—_Scott._
      9. By chance it happened that in Atri dwelt
         A knight, with spur on heel and sword on belt,
         Who loved to hunt the wild boar in the woods,
         Who loved his falcons with their crimson hoods.
     10. There is no terror, Cassius, in your threats;
         For I am armed so strong in honesty,
         That they pass by me as the idle wind,
         Which I respect not.—_Shakespeare._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LVIII.=

                        RELATIONS OF ADJECTIVES.

Name the adjectives in the following sentences, that are used to modify
nouns directly, and those that are used to modify nouns as part of the
predication or assertion made about them:—

      1. She is a good girl.
      2. I have a soft pencil.
      3. He was ignorant of this fact.
      4. The water is cold.

1. An adjective that modifies a noun directly is said to be in the
=attributive= relation; as, A _grand_ tree is the _stately_ oak.

2. An adjective that modifies a noun as part of the predication or
assertion made about it, is called a =predicate adjective=; as, This
apple is _sweet_. I am _glad_ you succeeded.

3. An adjective that is joined to a noun in a loose and indirect way is
said to be used in the =appositive= relation; as, All history, _ancient_
or _modern_ contributes towards my theory.


State the relation of each adjective in the following sentences:—

      1. A tremendous storm came on.
      2. My dear friend is ill.
      3. Young, and gay, she heeded not my warning.
      4. Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
         The dark, unfathomed caves of ocean bear.—_Gray._
      5. Along the crowded path they bore her now, pure as the
           newly-fallen snow that covered it.—_Dickens._
      6. Sweet was the sound, when oft, at evening’s close,
         Up yonder hill the village murmur rose.—_Goldsmith._
      7. I met a little cottage girl;
         She was eight years old, she said;
         Her hair was thick with many a curl
         That clustered round her head.—_Wordsworth._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LIX.=

                         RELATIONS OF THE VERB.

What person and number forms are the verbs in the following sentences,
and why?—

      1. The sun shines brightly.
      2. The boys are in the garden.
      3. I know thou lovest me.

_The verb agrees with its subject in person and number_; as, The teacher
_has_ my pen.

    _Note._—In determining the number of the verb we must consider,
    not the _form_, but the _meaning_ of the subject.

1. A collective noun requires a verb in the singular when it means the
collection as a whole, and a verb in the plural when it means the
separate individuals of which it is composed; as, The committee (as a
whole) _has decided_ it. The committee (as individuals) _have decided_

2. Two or more singular nouns connected by _and_ take a verb in the
plural; as, James and Mary _are_ here. Music and drawing _were taught_
during the term.

If two or more singular nouns connected by _and_ are preceded by _each_,
_every_, or _no_, the verb is in the singular, because they refer to
things considered separately; as, Every man and woman _was lost_.

3. When two or more singular subjects are thought of as one thing, the
verb is singular; as, Bread and butter _is_ sufficient.

4. Two singular subjects connected by _either_—_or_, _neither_—_nor_
take a verb in the singular, but if the subjects are plural, the verb is
plural; as, Either a horse or a cow _is_ in the field. Neither the boys
nor the girls _are_ here.


What is the person and number of the verbs in the following sentences,
and give the reason in each case?—

      1. Wellington and Nelson were heroes.
      2. The audience was dismissed.
      3. Her health and strength has failed.
      4. Either a pen or a pencil is required.
      5. The lowing herd wind slowly o’er the lea.
      6. Each boy and girl is to have a medal.
      7. Neither cries nor tears avail anything.
      8. No man and no animal was seen.
      9. The secretary and treasurer is present.
     10. The secretary and the treasurer are present.
     11. The enormous expense of governments has provoked men to
     12.                     From the ground
         Comes up the laugh of children, the soft voice
         Of maidens, and the sweet and solemn hymn
         Of Sabbath worshippers.—_Bryant._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              =LESSON LX.=

                         RELATIONS OF ADVERBS.

Point out the use of the italicized adverbs in the following

      1. She walks _rapidly_.
      2. My brother is _quite_ sick.
      3. He acted _very_ honestly.

_An adverb is used to qualify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb._

An adverb is sometimes used with the value of a predicate adjective; as,
The sun is _up_. We were _there_.

An adverb may even qualify a preposition; as, He went _far_ beyond his
instructions. The thorn ran _deep_ into his foot.


Give the construction of each adverb in the following sentences:—

      1. My sister is too sick to see you.
      2. We were treated very kindly.
      3. They acted more wisely than we.
      4. The moon went down behind the clouds.
      5. He jumped clear over the fence.
      6. I wind about, and in and out,
         With here a blossom sailing,
         And here and there a lusty trout,
         And here and there a grayling.—_Tennyson._
      7. I’ve lived since then, in calm and strife,
         Full fifty summers a sailor’s life,
         With wealth to spend, and power to range,
         But never have sought, nor sighed for change.—_Procter._
      8. Down came the storm, and smote amain
         The vessel in its strength;
         She shuddered and paused, like a frighted steed,
         Then leaped her cable’s length.—_Longfellow._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXI.=

                          THE ORDER OF WORDS.

Observe the order of the words in the following sentence:—

The woods tossed their giant branches against a stormy sky.

The logical order of the parts of a sentence is: 1. The subject (with
its attributes); 2. The verb; 3. The object (with its attributes) or the
complement; 4. The adverbial modifiers.

This order may be changed to secure greater _emphasis_, _clearness_ or

A member of a sentence may be given prominence by taking it out of its
logical position and placing it first. This causes the arrangement of
the other members to be changed and the sentence thus acquires emphasis
by the members being placed out of their ordinary positions.

      1. The verb may be placed first; as,
         _Flashed_ all their sabres bare.
      2. The object may be placed first; as,
         _Knowledge_ I do not slight.
      3. The complement may be placed first; as,
         _Broad_ is the way that leadeth to destruction.
      4. The adverbial modifier may be placed first; as,
         _Still in thy right hand_ carry gentle peace.

The subject of the sentence may follow the verb:—

1. In interrogative sentences; as, Are _you_ there?

2. In expressing a wish; as, May _you_ succeed.

3. In imperative sentences; as, Seek _ye_ not my face again.

4. In poetry; as,

        Then off there flung in smiling joy,
        And held himself erect
        By just his horse’s mane, a boy.—_Browning._

5. In subjunctive clauses without _if_; as, Had _I_ your advantages I
should improve them.

6. In introducing quotations; as, “Pardon!” said the _Emperor_.

7. In inversion for emphasis; as, Flashed all their _sabres_ bare.

8. When the real subject is a clause, and the representative subject is
_it_; as, It is well known _that he received money_.

The object may precede the verb that governs it:—

1. When it is an interrogative or relative pronoun; as, _Whom_ did you
see? I saw the man _whom_ you want.

2. For emphasis; as, _Honor_ and _fame_ I seek not.

Attributes naturally precede the noun, but they may follow:—

1. When they consist of a phrase or clause; as, I love the song _of
birds_. The book _that I found_ is here.

2. When they consist of two or more adjectives; as, And fast through the
midnight _dark_ and _drear_, the vessel swept.

3. In poetry; as,

        See how from far upon the eastern road
        The star-led wizards haste with odors _sweet_!

The adjectives _a_, _an_ and _the_ always precede the noun. When the
noun is qualified by another adjective, these adjectives generally
precede it, but they stand between the following adjectives and the noun
to which they refer:—

      1. Such; as, One cannot admire such _a_ man.
      2. Many; as, Many _a_ poor man’s son would have lain still.
      3. Both; as, Both _the_ boys came home.
      4. All; as, All _the_ girls are in the room.
      5. What; as, What _a_ trial it was.

The =relative= is always the first word in its clause, but when it is
governed by a preposition, the preposition generally precedes it; as, I
found the knife _which_ you lost. I know the person _to whom_ you refer.

The =adverbial modifier=, when a phrase, generally follows the verb, or
the object if the verb be transitive; as, James fell _into the lake_. He
found an apple _on the ground_.

The =adverbial modifier=, when a single word, generally follows an
intransitive verb, and either precedes a transitive verb, or follows its
object; as, This river flows _rapidly_. He did his work _well_.

When there are a number of adverbial modifiers in a sentence, they
should be distributed over the sentence; as, _At the request of my
father_, I _gladly_ left my studies, _to accompany him_.

An adverb may stand in any part of the sentence, but its meaning
generally varies with its position, hence the adverb should be placed as
near as possible to the word or words it modifies.

Observe the following example:—

         He-_only_ lost his book. (No one else lost a book.)
         He _only_-lost his book. (He did nothing else with it.)
         He lost _only_ his book. (He lost nothing else.)
         He lost his _only_ book. (His single book.)

Certain adverbs and conjunctions are correlative (that is, _having a
mutual relation_) to one another. Be careful to use the proper
correlatives; as, He is esteemed _not only_ for his accomplishments,
_but also_ for his piety.

The following is a list of correlatives:—

                       =Adverbs.=      =Conjunctions.=
                       not only,       but also,
                       not,            but, but only,
                       only,           not,
                       so,             that,
                       so,             as,
                       such,           that,
                       both,           and,
                       as, well, soon, as,
                       neither,        nor,
                       either,         or.

The correlatives must be attached to the corresponding words and
phrases; as, They gave me _neither_ money _nor_ shoes. I assisted _only_
in the evening, _not_ in the morning.

The preposition generally stands immediately before the word it governs;
as, We live _in_ Toronto.

1. When the noun has attributive adjectives, the preposition precedes
the adjective; as, I walked _through_ a beautiful park.

2. When the object of the preposition is a relative, the preposition
sometimes stands at the end of the clause; as, My brother owns the
building which he lives _in_, [_in which he lives_ is preferable.]

3. In poetry the preposition often follows its object; as, The heavy
night hung dark the hills and waters _o’er_.

4. When two verbs or adjectives in association are followed by different
prepositions, the prepositions must be repeated after each; as, He found
him a man whom he agreed _with_ on a few subjects, and differed _from_
on many; or, He found him a man _with_ whom he agreed on a few subjects,
_from_ whom he differed on many.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              PART FOURTH.

                        _ANALYSIS OF SENTENCES._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXII.=

                          THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.

=Model I.=—Many brave soldiers lost their lives in that war.

         Kind, a simple declarative sentence.
         Subject, soldiers.
         Adj. modifiers of subj., many, brave.
         Predicate, lost.
         Object, lives.
         Adj. modifier of obj., their.
         Adv. modifier of pred., in that war.

=Model II.=—Still in thy right hand carry gentle peace to silence
envious tongues.

         Kind, a simple imperative sentence.
         Subject, [you.]
         Predicate, carry.
         Object, peace.
         Adj. modifier of obj., gentle.
         Adv. modifiers of pred., still, in thy right hand, to silence
           envious tongues.

=Model III.=—Having crossed the river, he ran into the adjoining wood.

         Kind, a simple declarative sentence.
         Subject, he.
         Participial mod. of subj., having crossed the river.
         Predicate, ran.
         Adv. mod. of pred., into the adjoining wood.

=Model IV.=—My pupils like to write stories.

         Kind, a simple declarative sentence.
         Subject, pupils.
         Adj. mod. of subj., my.
         Predicate, like.
         Object, to write stories.
         Object of _to write_, stories.

=Model V.=—The scholars gave their teacher a beautiful present.

         Kind, a simple declarative sentence.
         Subject, scholars.
         Adj. mod. of subj., the.
         Predicate, gave.
         Direct object, present.
         Adj. modifiers of direct obj., a, beautiful.
         Indirect object, teacher.
         Adj. mod. of indirect obj., their.

=Model VI.=—It is wrong to slight your work.

         Kind, a simple declarative sentence.
         Real subject, to slight your work.
         Representative subject, it.
         Predicate, { Verb of incomplete predication, _is_.
                    { Adj. complement of predicate, _wrong_.

    _Note._—When the predicate is completed by an adjunct
    describing the subject, the completing adjunct is called the

                        EXERCISES FOR ANALYSIS.

      1. My father gave me a fine pony.
      2. At this moment the noise grew louder.
      3. There are eight girls in the class.
      4. Seek the company of the good.
      5. It is a sin to deceive anyone.
      6. How could he mark thee for the silent tomb!
      7. Crossing the field, I found a knife, rusty and broken.
      8. On an eminence above the sea paces a strong, rough
      9. On the eastern side of the Nile lies the temple of Karnak.
     10. For their lean country much disdain,
           We English often show.
     11. Home they brought her warrior dead.—_Tennyson._
     12. Bright-eyed beauty once was she.—_Lucy Larcom._
     13. Do men gather figs from thorns?—_Bible._
     14. The lowing herd winds slowly o’er the lea.—_Gray._
     15. These are the gardens of the desert.—_Bryant._
     16. Soon on the hill’s steep verge he stood.—_Scott._
     17. The Indian knows his place of rest far in the cedar
     18. Through all eternity, to Thee
         A joyful song I’ll raise.—_Addison._
     19. The uncertain vacillating temper common to all Indians now
           began to declare itself.—_Parkman._
     20. The fine English cavalry then advanced to support their
           archers, and to attack the Scottish line.—_Scott._
     21. So saying, from the ruined shrine he stept.—_Tennyson._
     22. Yet Fortune was bending over him, just ready to let fall a
           burden of gold.—_Hawthorne._
     23. On the first day of his fasting,
         Through the leafy woods he wandered.—_Longfellow._
     24. Raising his head, he looked the lustrous stranger in the
     25. At daybreak on the bleak sea-beach,
         A fisherman stood aghast,
         To see the form of a maiden fair
         Lashed close to a drifting mast.—_Longfellow._
     26. Well had the boding tremblers learned to trace
         The day’s disasters in his morning face.—_Goldsmith._
     27. All the livelong day, Oliver paced softly up and down the
           garden, raising his eyes every instant to the sick
           chamber, and shuddering to see the darkened
     28. By Nebo’s lonely mountain,
         On this side Jordan’s wave,
         In a vale in the land of Moab,
         There lies a lonely grave.—_Mrs. Alexander._
     29. Wolfe had discovered a narrow path winding up the side of
           the steep precipice from the river.—_Warburton._
     30. Along the cool sequestered vale of life
         They kept the noiseless tenor of their way.—_Gray._
     31. The silent influence of Shakespeare’s poetry on millions of
           young hearts in England, in Germany, in all the world,
           shows the almost superhuman power of human
     32. Now see him mounted once again
         Upon his nimble steed,
         Full slowly pacing o’er the stones,
         With caution and good heed.—_Cowper._
     33. By comparing the words of these inscriptions with many
           others, the proper method of interpreting this peculiar
           language was ascertained.—_Ontario Reader._
     34. Failing in this, they set themselves, after their custom on
           such occasions, to building a rude fort of their own in
           the neighboring forest.—_Parkman._
     35. I heard a brooklet gushing
         From its rocky fountain near,
         Down into the valley rushing,
         So fresh and wondrous clear.—_Longfellow._
     36. Up from the meadows rich with corn,
         Clear in the cool September morn,
         The clustered spires of Frederick stand
         Green-walled by the hills of Maryland.—_Whittier._
     37. No nightingale did ever chant
         So sweetly to reposing bands
         Of Travellers in some shady haunt
         Among Arabian sands.—_Wordsworth._
     38. The French, blown and exhausted, inferior beside in weight
           both of man and horse, offered but a short
     39. Looking, looking for the mark,
         Down the others came,
         Struggling through the snowdrifts stark,
         Calling out his name.—_Lushington._
     40. A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard
         In spring-time from the Cuckoo bird,
         Breaking the silence of the seas
         Among the farthest Hebrides.—_Wordsworth._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXIII.=


The leading thought of a sentence is called the =principal clause=.

A clause that has the function of a noun, an adjective, or an adverb, is
called a =subordinate clause=.

Select the principal clauses and the subordinate clauses in the
following sentences, and state the function of each subordinate

      1. They knew who did it.
      2. The book which you gave me, is here.
      3. I shall go when he returns.

A clause that has the function of a noun, is called a noun clause; as,
He said _he knew his lesson_. How I shall reach my destination_ is the

A noun clause may be used:—

      1. As the object of a verb; as, He knew _what I did_.
      2. As the subject of a verb; as, _What course he pursued_ is
           seen now.
      3. As the object of a preposition; as, My friend annoyed me by
           _what he said_.
      4. As a predicate nominative; as, The end of it all is (_that_)
           _he receives his choice_.

A clause that has the use or function of an adjective, is called an
=adjective clause=; as, He found the book _which he lost_.

A clause that has the use or function of an adverb, is called an
=adverbial clause=; as, I shall go _where they are_. He will destroy it
_unless we hinder him_.

A sentence that consists of one principal clause, and one or more
subordinate clauses, is called a =complex sentence=; as, I have met the
person of whom you speak.

A sentence that consists of two or more independent clauses, is called a
=compound sentence=; as, James came home, but John remained there.

A compound sentence that is made up of complex sentences, or simple and
complex sentences, is called a =compound-complex sentence=; as, We
entered the building, and a man who was working there, gave us
information about it.


Name the clauses in the following sentences, and state the kind and
relation (if any) of each:—

1. Whilst I was thus musing, I cast my eyes towards the summit of a rock
that was not far from me, where I discovered one in the habit of a
shepherd, with a musical instrument in his hand.—_Addison._


        _Whilst . . . . musing_ is an adv. clause, mod. cast.

        _I cast . . . . a rock_ is a principal clause.

        _That . . . . . me_ is an adj. clause, mod. _summit of a rock_.

        _Where I . . .  hand_ is an adj. clause, mod. _summit of a rock_.

2. King Harold had a rebel brother in Flanders, who was a vassal of
Harold Hardrada, king of Norway.—_Dickens._

3. Those who knew him best affirmed that this Mr. Toil was a very worthy
character, and that he had done more good, both to children and grown
people, than anybody else in the world.—_Hawthorne._

4. Portia, when she returned, was in that happy temper of mind which
never fails to attend the consciousness of having performed a good
action; her cheerful spirits enjoyed everything she saw: the moon never
seemed to shine so brightly before; and when that pleasant moon was hid
behind a cloud, then a light which she saw from her house at Belmont as
well pleased her charmed fancy.—_Lamb._

5. Once upon a time, there lived a very rich man, and a king besides,
whose name was Midas; and he had a little daughter, whom nobody but
himself ever heard of, and whose name I either never knew, or have
entirely forgotten. So, because I love odd names for little girls, I
choose to call her Marygold.—_Hawthorne._

6. I rose and prepared to leave the Abbey. As I descended the flight of
steps which lead into the body of the building, my eye was caught by the
shrine of Edward the Confessor, and I ascended the small staircase that
conducts to it, to take from thence a general survey of this wilderness
of tombs.—_Irving._


    All things that love the sun are out of doors;
    The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth;
    The grass is bright with rain-drops;—on the moors
    The hare is running races in her mirth.—_Wordsworth._


    I thought of a mound in sweet Auburn
    Where a little headstone stood;
    How the flakes were folding it gently,
    As did robins the babes in the wood.—_Lowell._


    Lightly they’ll talk of the spirit that’s gone,
    And o’er his cold ashes upbraid him;
    But little he’ll reck if they let him sleep on
    In the grave where a Briton has laid him.—_Wolfe._


    The humble boon was soon obtained;
    The Aged Minstrel audience gained.
    But, when he reached the room of state,
    Where she, with all her ladies, sate,
    Perchance he wished his boon denied:
    For when to tune his harp he tried,
    His trembling hand had lost the ease
    Which marks security to please.—_Scott._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXIV.=


=Model I.=—Love had he found in huts where poor men lie.

         Kind, a complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, had found.
         Object, love.
         Adv. mod. of predicate, in huts _where poor men lie_.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, an adj. clause, mod. _huts_.
         Subject, men.
         Adj. mod. of subj., poor.
         Predicate, lie.
         Adv. mod. of pred., where.

=Model II.=—Tell me who did it.

         Kind, a complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, [you.]
         Predicate, tell.
         Direct object, _who did it_.
         Indirect object, me.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, a noun clause, direct obj. of _tell_.
         Subject, who.
         Predicate, did.
         Object, it.

=Model III.=—He goes home when I return.

         Kind, a complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, goes.
         Adv. modifiers of pred., home, _when I return_.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, an adv. clause, mod. _goes_.
         Subject, I.
         Predicate, return.
         Adv. mod. of pred., when.

=Model IV.=—It doth appear you are a worthy judge.

         Kind, a complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Real subject, _you are a worthy judge_.
         Representative subject, it.
         Predicate, doth appear.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, a noun clause, real subj. of _doth appear_.
         Subject, you.
         Predicate, { verb incomplete predication, _are_.
                    { complement of predicate, _a worthy judge_.

=Model V.=—The boy does not know this part of the wood, but he runs on.

         Kind, a compound sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, boy.
         Adj. mod. of subj., the.
         Predicate, does know.
         Object, part.
         Adj. modifiers of obj., this, of the wood.
         Adv. mod. of pred., not.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, runs.
         Adv. mod. of pred., on.

=Model VI.=—

   From yonder ivy-mantled tower
   The moping owl does to the moon complain
   Of such as, wandering near her secret bower,
   Molest her ancient, solitary reign.—_Gray._

         Kind, a complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, owl.
         Adj. modifiers of subj., the, moping.
         Predicate, does complain.
         Adv. modifiers of pred.,
                from yonder ivy-mantled
                tower, to the moon,
                of such _as, wandering_ . . . .
                . . . . _reign_.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, an adj. clause, mod. _such_.
         Subject, as.
         Adj. mod. of subj., wandering near her secret bower.
         Predicate, molest.
         Object, reign.
         Adj. modifies of obj., her, ancient, solitary.

=Model VII.=—Train up a child in the way he should go; and when he is
old, he will not depart from it.—_Bible._

         Kind, a compound-complex sentence.

                =Analysis of (A.)=
         Subject, [you.]
         Predicate, train.
         Object, child.
         Adj. mod. of obj., a.
         Adv. modifiers of pred., up, in the way _he should go_.

                =Analysis of (B.)=
         Kind, an adj. clause, mod. _way_.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, the verb-phrase, should go.

                =Analysis of (C.)=
         Kind, an adv. clause, mod. _will depart_.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, { verb of incomplete predication, _is_.
                    { complement of predicate, _old_.
         Adv. of mod. of pred., when.
                =Analysis of (D.)=
         Kind, a principal clause.
         Subject, he.
         Predicate, will depart.
         Adv. modifiers of pred., not, from it, _when he is old_.


1. The evil that men do lives after them.—_Shakespeare._

2. An idler is a watch that wants both hands.—_Cowper._

3. If sinners entice thee, consent thou not.—_Bible._

4. “I have it ready,” said Bassanio; “here it is.”—_Lamb._

5. I think of those upon whose rest he tramples.—_Bryant._

6. It is a great day when the sled is loaded with the buckets, and the
procession starts for the woods.—_Warner._

7. Meantime the French had given way, and were flying in all

8. I believe there is no permanent greatness to a nation except it be
based upon morality.—_Bright._

9. Gilliatt had thrust his arm deep into the opening; the monster had
snapped at it.—_Hugo._

10. The things we have described occupied only a few minutes.—_Hugo._

11. The Turks spread gradually over the battlefield below us,
slaughtering as they advanced.—_Forbes._

12. There were many boys in the room by whom that little scene was taken
to heart before they slept.—_Hughes._

13. General Brock, who had risen as usual before day-break, hearing the
cannonading, galloped from Niagara to the scene of action.—_Miss

14. In walking one day up the mountain behind Montreal, I leaned over a
paling which enclosed the water reservoir of the city.—_Argyle._

15. Then was committed that fearful crime, memorable for its singular
atrocity, memorable for the tremendous retribution which


    She was a phantom of delight
    When first she gleamed upon my sight.—_Wordsworth._


    He that died at Azan gave
    This to those who made his grave.—_Arnold._


     He sendeth the springs into the valleys,
     Which run among the hills.—_Bible._


    Thy dress was like the lilies,
    And thy heart as pure as they.—_Longfellow._


    A pound of that same merchant’s flesh is thine;
    The court awards it, and the law doth give it.—_Shakespeare._

21. Happy is the man whose good intentions have borne fruit in deeds and
whose evil thoughts have perished in the blossom.—_Scott._

22. There was one tall Norman knight who rode before the Norman army on
a prancing horse, throwing up his heavy sword and catching it, and
singing of the bravery of his countrymen.—_Dickens._

23. This dashed the spirits of the Iroquois, and they sent a canoe to
call to their aid five hundred of their warriors, who were mustered near
the mouth of the Richelieu.—_Parkman._

24. The parent who sends his son into the world uneducated, defrauds the
community of a useful citizen and bequeaths to it a
nuisance.—_Chancellor Kent._

25. The smoke which hung upon the field rolled in slow and heavy masses
back upon the French lines, and gradually discovered to our view the
entire of the army.—_Lever._


    As o’er the verdant waste I guide my steed,
    Among the high, rank grass that sweeps his sides,
    The hollow beating of his footsteps seems
    A sacrilegious sound.—_Bryant._


    Scarcely the hot assault was staid,
    The terms of truce were scarcely made,
    When they could spy, from Branksome’s towers,
    The advancing march of martial powers.—_Scott._


    I made a footing in the wall,
    It was not therefrom to escape,
    For I had buried one and all,
    Who loved me in a human shape.—_Byron._


    So the storm subsides to calm;
    They see the green trees wave
    On the heights o’erlooking Grève;
    Hearts that bled are stanched with balm.—_Browning._


    He who from zone to zone
    Guides through the boundless sky thy certain flight
    In the long way that I must tread alone
    Will lead my steps aright.—_Bryant._

31. Columbus tried to pacify them with gentle words and promises of
large rewards; but finding that they only increased in clamor, he
assumed a decided tone.—_Irving._

32. Wolfe and the troops with him leaped on shore; the light infantry,
who found themselves borne by the current a little below the intrenched
path, clambered up the steep hill, staying themselves by the roots and
boughs of the maple and spruce and ash trees that covered the
precipitous declivity.—_Bancroft._

33. The boys, who were twelve and ten years old, aided by the soldiers,
whom her words had inspired with some little courage, began to fire from
the loop-holes upon the Iroquois.—_Parkman._

34. She had told Tom, however, that she would like him to put the worms
on the hook for her, although she accepted his word when he assured her
that worms couldn’t feel.—_George Eliot._

35. The beadle, who performed it, had filled his left hand with yellow
ochre, through which, after every stroke, he drew the lash of his whip,
leaving the appearance of a wound upon the skin, but in reality not
hurting him at all.—_Cowper._


    On a rock whose haughty brow
    Frowns o’er old Conway’s foaming flood,
    Robed in the sable garb of woe,
    With haggard eyes the Poet stood.—_Gray._


    Between the dark and the daylight,
    When the night is beginning to lower,
    Comes a pause in the day’s occupations
    That is known as the Children’s Hour.—_Longfellow._


    The gallant youth, who may have gained,
    Or seeks, a “Winsome Marrow,”
    Was but an infant in the lap
    When first I looked on Yarrow.—_Wordsworth._


    She told me all her friends had said;
    I raged against the public liar;
    She talked as if her love were dead,
    But in my words were seeds of fire.—_Tennyson._


    The dwarf, who feared his master’s eye
    Might his foul treachery espy,
    Now sought the castle buttery,
    Where many a yeoman, bold and free,
    Revelled as merrily and well
    As those that sat in lordly selle.—_Scott._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              PART FIFTH.


                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXV.=

                            CAPITAL LETTERS.

1. The first word of every sentence should begin with a capital letter.

2. The pronoun _I_ and the interjection _O_ should be written in
capitals; as, _O father! I hear the church bells ring_.

3. A proper noun should begin with a capital letter; as, _Toronto is in

4. A proper adjective should begin with a capital letter; as, _We speak
the English language_.

5. The first word of every line of poetry should begin with a capital
letter; as,

            _If thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright,_
            _Go visit it by the pale moonlight._

6. The names of the days of the week and the names of the months of the
year should begin with capital letters; as, _Saturday_, _August_.

7. Titles of individuals, and titles of books and newspapers should
begin with capital letters; as, _Lord Aberdeen_, _Governor-General of
Canada_. _Harper’s Round Table_.

8. All names of the Deity, and words standing for His name, should begin
with capital letters; as, _Creator_, _Supreme Being_.

9. Names of peoples and languages should begin with capital letters; as,
_Italians_, _Greek_.

10. The first word of a direct quotation should begin with a capital
letter; as, _She answered_, “_This shall never be_.”

_In all your reading, note carefully how capital letters are used._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                              LESSON LXVI.


1. A declarative or assertive sentence, and an imperative sentence
should be followed by a period; as, _Your friend gave me a book_. _Open
the door._

2. An interrogative sentence should be followed by the interrogation
mark; as, _When did you come?_

3. An exclamatory word or sentence should be followed by the exclamation
mark; as, _But hush! hark! A deep sound strikes like a rising knell!_

4. Every abbreviated word should be followed by a period; as, _Mr._,

5. The title of a composition, the address and the signature of a
person, should be followed by a period.

6. Words that are in the same grammatical relation should be separated
by commas; as, _He is honest, capable, and sympathetic._

Two words that are in the same grammatical relation and connected by
_and_, _or_, or _nor_, should not be separated by a comma; as, _She is
kind and good_.

7. Words or phrases in apposition should be separated from the rest of
the sentence by commas; as, _Lady Aberdeen, the wife of the Governor of
Canada, has gone on an ocean voyage_.

8. A transposed phrase or clause, not closely united with the sentence,
should be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma; as, _In
their large cities, the Egyptians built massive temples_.

9. Words or phrases placed between closely related parts of a sentence
should be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, _Their
whole army, in fact, did not exceed thirty thousand men_.

10. The name of a person addressed should be separated from the rest of
the sentence by a comma; as, _James, hand me the brush._

11. The clauses of a compound sentence, when short and closely
connected, should be separated by a comma; as, _I finished my work, and
then came home._

12. The clauses of a compound sentence, if they are contracted, or are
long, or are not closely connected, should be separated by a semicolon;
as, _Man counts his life by years; the oak, by centuries. His left hand
only was free; his open knife was in this hand._

13. A direct quotation should be enclosed by quotation marks; as, _He
said, “I shall go.” “He is a tall and stately king,” said Harold; “but
his end is near.”_

14. If a quotation is short, it should be separated from the preceding
part of the sentence by a comma; as, _He replied, “I am a Briton born.”_

15. If a quotation is long, or if it is formally introduced by _as
follows_, _these words_, _etc._, it should be separated from the
preceding part of the sentence by a colon; as, _He replied in these
words: “I am a Briton born, and a Briton I shall die.”_

16. When an unexpected break, pause, or turn occurs in a sentence, it
should be indicated by a dash; as,

        _To-night will be a stormy night_—
        _You to the town must go._

17. Explanatory words which are not necessary to the sense of the
passage, should be enclosed in marks of parenthesis; as,

        _Know, then, this truth (enough for man to know),_
        _Virtue alone is happiness below._

18. The parts of a compound word when they have not become united into
one word, are connected by a hyphen; as, _to-day_, _wind-organ_.

A hyphen is also used at the end of a line when a word is divided into

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXVII.=

                           THE USE OF WORDS.

Every one who desires to become a good speaker or writer must acquire a
knowledge of words; he must possess a large vocabulary, and be master of
the significance and application of the words of which it is composed.

To this end he should read the best authors, converse with the educated,
and use the words he thus acquires in his own conversation. The
dictionary should be in daily use to learn the exact meaning and force
of new words.

                 *        *        *        *        *

1. Select the words that are familiar to the educated, and that are used
by good writers.

2. Employ words in the sense they are used by the best writers and
speakers. This knowledge is obtained from the dictionary and from
observation in reading the best authors.

3. Use the word that expresses the exact meaning intended to be
conveyed. A knowledge of the distinction of synonyms is best acquired by
keeping a list of words of nearly the same meaning, and carefully
studying the sense in which each is used.


Distinguish the meaning of the following words, and write sentences in
which they are accurately used:—

Sit, set; may, can; think, guess; expect, suspect; lie, lay; hanged,
hung; teach, learn; stop, stay; fly, flee; among, between; each other,
one another.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXVIII=.

                             THE SENTENCE.

A complete thought expressed in words is called a sentence. In a single
sentence every part should be subordinate to one principal assertion.

                          KINDS OF SENTENCES.

Sentences are classified into Periodic, Loose, Balanced, Short and Long.

A sentence that is so constructed that the complete meaning is delayed
till the close, is called a =periodic sentence=; as, _From many lands,
comes the cry for help. Even on the driest day this vapor is never
absent from our atmosphere._

A sentence that is so constructed that it may be stopped before the end,
sometimes in several places, and still be complete in sense, is called a
=loose sentence=; as, _Those scenes, rude and humble as they are, have
kindled beautiful emotions in his soul,_ | _noble thoughts, and definite
resolves;_ | _and he speaks forth what is in him, not from any outward
call of vanity or interest, but because his heart is too full to be

A sentence that is so constructed that the different elements are made
to answer to each other and set each other off by similarity of form, is
called a =balanced sentence=; as, _In peace, children bury their
parents; in war, parents bury their children. He defended him when
living, amidst the clamors of his enemies; and praised him when dead,
amidst the silence of his friends._

A short sentence is more easily understood and more animated than a long

A long sentence gives more scope than a short one, for the addition of
particulars, and for the expansion of the main thought.

    _Note._—The loose sentence is adapted to ordinary composition,
    being simple and clear. The periodic sentence is suitable to
    compositions of a forcible nature; the balanced sentence to
    compositions in which characters or subjects are compared.
    Variety is secured by the due alternation of long and short

=Emphatic places of the Sentence.= The natural emphatic places of a
sentence are the beginning and the end. If we wish to give special
distinction to some particular word or phrase, it must occupy one of
these positions. Since the beginning and the end of a sentence are the
natural places for the subject and predicate respectively, the subject
is made emphatic by placing it at the end, and the predicate by placing
it at the beginning of the sentence; as, _Flashed_ all their sabres

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXIX.=

                             THE PARAGRAPH.

A connected series of sentences dealing with a single topic is called =a
paragraph=. It is a whole composition and is complete in itself.

    _Note._—A paragraph begins on a new line and the opening word
    is withdrawn towards the middle of the line.


1. Every paragraph should possess _unity_, that is, it should have a
definite subject or topic to which all parts of the structure are
related, forming elements, in its development.

2. The sentences that compose a paragraph should follow one another in
natural order, showing a logical progress of thought. This principle is
called _continuity_.

3. The connection of each sentence in the paragraph, with the preceding
one, should be made clear, and also the connection between the
paragraphs themselves.

This connection or explicit reference is secured in the following

      1. By conjunctions and adverbs.
      2. By demonstrative words and phrases.
      3. By a clear and unmistakable _connection in sense_.


He kept his course westward taking advantage of the trade wind which
blows steadily from west to east between the tropics. (Topic sentence).
_With this favorable breeze_ (Explicit reference) they were wafted
gently but speedily over a tranquil sea, so that for many days they did
not shift a sail.

Nevertheless the situation of Columbus was daily becoming critical; his
crews began to grow extremely uneasy at the length of the voyage; they
were already beyond the reach of succor, and beheld themselves still
borne onward over the boundless wastes of what appeared to them a mere
watery desert. They were full of vague terrors, and harassed their
commander by incessant murmurs, or fed each other’s discontents,
gathering together in little knots, and stirring up a spirit of mutiny.
There was great danger of their breaking forth into open rebellion, and
compelling Columbus to turn back. In their secret conferences they
exclaimed against him as a mad desperado, and even talked of throwing
him into the sea.—_Irving._

1. What is the topic sentence of the second paragraph?

2. How does the author make connection or attain explicit reference
between the two paragraphs?

3. Show that the sentences of the second paragraph follow one another in
a natural and logical order.

4. In the second paragraph, point out the means by which the author
relates each sentence to the preceding one.

5. Is there any statement in this paragraph that does not bear on the

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXX.=

                          FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.

The two great divisions of composition are prose and poetry. The grand
distinction in form is metre or measure. The chief object of prose is to
instruct, to convince, or to persuade; while the chief object of poetry
is to give pleasure or inspiration. Both kinds of composition employ
figurative or representative language to please, to adorn, to
illustrate, or to explain.

1. An expressed comparison is called a =simile=; as, _He shall be like a
tree planted by the rivers of water. Blue were her eyes as the fairy

2. An implied comparison is called a =metaphor=; as, _She is an angel.
This news was a dagger to his heart._

3. When the name of one object is put for some other, so related that
one naturally suggests the other, the figure is called =metonymy=; as,
_The pen shall supersede the sword. No man reveres the crown more than I

4. When life and mind are attributed to inanimate objects, the figure is
called =personification=; as, _The mountains looked on Marathon, and
Marathon looked on the sea. The smiling spring comes round once more._

5. When two unlike things are contrasted, that each may appear more
striking, the figure is called =antithesis=; as, _Go or stay, whichever
you will. Success wins attention; failure wins neglect._

6. When the mind is aroused by a contradiction between the form of the
language and the meaning really intended, the figure is called an
=epigram=; as, _The favorite has no friend. Genius is an immense
capacity for taking trouble._

7. When something absent is addressed as if present, the figure is
called =apostrophe=; as, _O, death, where is thy sting?_

8. When the language expresses the contrary of what is meant, the figure
is called =irony=; as, _No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom will
die with you._—_Job._


Name the figures in the following passages, and state what is gained by
the use of each:—

      1. Some people are too foolish to commit follies.
      2. Youth and beauty must be laid in the grave.
      3. A true friend, like a mirror, will tell us of our faults.
      4. War flings his blood-stained banner to the breeze.
      5. The light of the Constitution shines in the palace and the
      6. Though gentle, yet not dull;
         Strong, without rage; without o’erflowing, full.—_Denham._
      7. There is a tide in the affairs of men,
         Which, taken at the flood, leads on to
      8. Sweet friends! What the women lave
         For its last bed of the grave,
         Is a hut which I am quitting,
         Is a garment no more fitting.—_Arnold._
      9. Ayr, gurgling, kissed his pebbled shore,
         O’erhung with wild woods, thickening green;
         The fragrant birch and hawthorn hoar
         Twined amorous round the raptured scene.—_Burns._
     10. And, as a bird each fond endearment tries
         To tempt its new-fledged offspring to the skies,
         He tried each art, reproved each dull delay,
         Allured to brighter worlds, and led the way.—_Goldsmith._

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXXI.=


The skilful adaptation of expression to thought is called =style=. The
essential qualities of style in composition are =clearness=, =force=,
and =beauty=.

Some of the means by which =clearness= is secured are:—(1) by
discrimination in the choice of words; (2) by explicit reference; (3) by
contrast; (4) by the orderly arrangement of phrases and sentences.

The quality of =force= is gained by means of—(1) brevity; (2)
suggestive words; (3) illustrations and comparisons; (4) the use of
interrogation and exclamation; (5) the employment of contrast; (6) the
repetition of words; (7) the order of words; (8) the use of the
particular instead of the general term.

The quality of =beauty= is secured by means of—(1) good taste in the
use of words; (2) alliteration; (3) happy phrases; (4) balanced
structure; (5) rhythm. The composition must possess elevation of thought

Other qualities of style sometimes present in good writing
are:—=simplicity=, =pathos=, =picturesqueness=, =humour=, =satire=, and


                           TRAILING ARBUTUS.

. . . The ground was white in spots with half-melted snow. A few whirls
of snow had come down in the night, and the air was too cold to change
to rain. Some green leaves, in sheltered nooks, had accepted the
advances of the sun and were preparing for the summer. But that which I
came to search after was trailing arbutus, one of the most exquisite of
all Nature’s fondlings.

I did not seek in vain. The hills were covered with it. Its gay whorls
of buds peeped forth from ruffles of snow in the most charming beauty.
Many blossoms, too, quite expanded, did I find; some pure white, and a
few more deliciously suffused with pink. For nearly an hour I wandered
up and down, in pleasant fancies, searching, plucking, and arranging
these most beautiful of all early blossoms.

Who would suspect by the leaf what rare delicacy was to be in the
blossom? Like some people of plain and hard exterior, but of sweet
disposition, it was all the more pleasant from the surprise of contrast.
All winter long the little thing must have slumbered with dreams, at
least, of spring. It has waited for no pioneer or guide, but started of
its own self and led the way for all the flowers on the hillside.

Its little viny stem creeps close to the ground, humble, faithful, and
showing how the purest white may lay its cheek in the very dirt without
soil or taint.

The odor of the arbutus is exquisite, and as delicate as the plant is
modest. Some flowers seem determined to make an impression on you. They
stare at you. They dazzle your eyes. If you smell them, they overfill
your sense with their fragrance. They leave nothing for your gentleness
and generosity, but do everything themselves.

But this sweet nestler of the spring hills is so secluded, half-covered
with russet leaves, that you would not suspect its graces, did you not
stoop to uncover the vine, to lift it up, and then you espy its secluded

If you smell it, at first it seems hardly to have an odor. But there
steals out of it at length the finest, rarest scent, that rather cites
desire than satisfies your sense. It is coy, without designing to be so,
and its reserve plays upon the imagination far more than could a more
positive way.

Without doubt there are intrinsic beauties in plants and flowers, and
yet very much of pleasure depends upon their relations to the seasons,
to the places where they grow, and to our own moods. No midsummer flower
can produce the thrill that the earliest blossoms bring, which tell us
that winter is gone, that growing days have come!—_Henry Ward Beecher._


1. Are all the essential or cardinal qualities of style illustrated in
the foregoing extract? By what means does the author secure each of the
qualities found in this composition?

2. What other qualities of style do you find in this selection? Give
examples of each.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXXII.=


The chief varieties of prose composition are Letters, Narrations,
Descriptions, and Expositions.


Letters are of two kinds, =familiar letters= or =letters of friendship=,
and =business letters=.

    _Note._—_In letter-writing of all kinds, the style should be
    simple, and the manner of expression natural. Neatness and
    correctness are essential._

                         THE PARTS OF A LETTER.

The parts of a letter are the _heading_, the _address_, the
_salutation_, the _body_, the _conclusion_, and the _signature_.

The _heading_ should show where and when the letter was written. It
should include the _address of the writer in full_, and the _date_.

Every important part of the _heading_ should begin with a capital
letter. Every abbreviated word should be followed by a period, and the
parts of the heading should be separated by commas. A period should be
placed at the close of the heading.

The _heading_ should be placed about an inch and a half from the top of
the page, and should begin about the middle of the sheet. It may occupy
a part of a line, or of two lines.

The _address_ shows to whom the letter is written and his place of
residence. It may be placed at the beginning or at the close of a
letter. In business letters the best place is at the beginning, and in
familiar letters at the close. The address, when placed at the beginning
of a letter, should begin near the left margin of the sheet and one inch
below the last line of the heading. It should not occupy more than two

The _salutation_ is the greeting with which we begin the letter. There
is a variety of forms in keeping with our different relations. The most
formal salutation is “Sir.” If our relations are somewhat familiar, we
use “Dear Sir,” “My dear Sir,” “Dear Mr. Williams,” etc. In addressing a
business firm the salutation is “Gentlemen.”

The _body_ of a letter begins one space below the salutation, and just
where the salutation closes. A margin of one-half inch, at least, should
be left on the left-hand side of the sheet. Each succeeding paragraph
should begin in line with the first word of the first paragraph.

The _conclusion_ consists of the complimentary close and follows the
body of the letter. It depends upon the relation of the persons. The
closing words in business letters are:—_Yours truly_, _Yours
respectfully_, _Very truly yours_, etc. The closing words in letters of
friendship are:—_Yours sincerely_, _Your loving friend_, _Your
affectionate niece_, etc.

The _signature_ follows the complimentary close, in the next space and
to the right. It should end at the right-hand side of the sheet.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                      A FAMILIAR OR SOCIAL LETTER.


[Illustration: =_Note._=—In social letters the _address_ is omitted.]

Text of illustration FAMILIAR Letter:

14 Grosvenor S^t.,
Toronto, July 26, 1900.

Dear Uncle:—

I received your kind letter on the 20^{th} inst. I thank you very much
for the gold pen you sent me by the same mail. I am writing this letter
with it, and like it well. I shall always think of you when I use it.

I listened to a lecture in Massey Music Hall last night on New Ontario.
This name is now given to Northern Ontario which comprises the districts
of Nipissing, Algoma, Thunder Bay and Rainy River. The lecturer told us
about the fertile soil, valuable forests and great mineral wealth of
that part of our province. He described the large pulp mill at Sault
Ste. Marie, the extensive nickel deposits near Sudbury and the rich gold
mines in the vicinity of Rat Portage. There are millions of acres of
good lands which can be had free.

Let me tell you about a book I have been reading. It is entitled “What
One Boy Did.” When the hero of the story was quite young, his father
died and his mother was not able to keep him at school. The boy was
determined to have an education, and every evening, after his day’s
work, he applied himself to his studies. After a few years he was able
to attend college, and later in life he became a professor in a

We all send our kindest regards to you and Aunt.

Your loving nephew,
Henry M. Turner.

                 *        *        *        *        *


[Illustration: =_Note._=—Invitations are usually written in the third

Text of illustration INVITATION:

Mr. and Mrs. James Smith
request the pleasure of
your company at dinner on
Wednesday evening, June 21^{St.}
at seven o’clock.
       124 Perth St.

                 *        *        *        *        *



Text of illustration ACCEPTANCE:

Mr. H. M. Reid accepts with
pleasure the kind invitation of Mr.
and Mrs. James Smith to dinner at
seven o’clock, Wednesday evening, June 21^{st.}

                 *        *        *        *        *



Text of illustration REGRET:

Miss Mary Brown regrets her
inability, on account of a previous
engagement, to accept the very kind
invitation of Mr. and Mrs. James
Smith for Wednesday evening, June 21^{st.}

                 *        *        *        *        *

                      APPLICATION FOR A SITUATION.



Brampton, July 20, 1900.

Messrs. Brown and Hogan,


In reply to your advertisement in to-day’s “Globe” for an office
assistant, I beg to offer my services.

I was in the employ of the firm of Messrs. Liman, Henry and Co. of this
town until May last, when they sold out. I had the second position in
their office, where I had considerable experience in book-keeping and
correspondence. I enclose a copy of a testimonial from my former
employers, and shall await with interest your reply.

Yours respectfully,
R. W. King.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                         LETTER ORDERING GOODS.


Text of illustration LETTER ORDERING GOODS:

Booksellers and

Ottawa, July 5, 1901.

The Hunter, Rose Co., Ltd.

Dear Sir:—

Please send us by Canadian Express, at earliest possible date the
following books—

      12 High School Reader.
      24 M^{c}Kay’s Euclid Books 1-3.
      30 Swiss Family Robinson.
      12 High School Arithmetic.

We thank you for the promptness with which you filled our former orders.
Enclose bill at your lowest rate.

Yours very truly,
James Hope & Sons.

                 *        *        *        *        *

    _Note._—Fold a _letter-sheet_ from the bottom forward, bringing
    the lower edge to the top, and then break the fold. Next fold
    twice the other way, beginning at the left edge. Measure these
    folds so as to fit the envelope. Fold a _note-sheet_ twice, from
    the bottom forward. If the envelope is nearly square, a single
    fold of the note-sheet is sufficient.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                          ENVELOPE ADDRESSES.


Text of illustration ENVELOPE ADDRESSES:

  |                                    |    |
  |                                    |    |
  |                                         |
  |                                         |
  |    The Hunter, Rose Co., Limited,       |
  |                  Temple Building,       |
  |                          Toronto,       |
  |                              Ont.       |

  |                                    |    |
  |                                    |    |
  |                                         |
  |                                         |
  |             Miss Annie M. Lawson,       |
  |               104 Lansdowne Ave.,       |
  |                         Hamilton,       |
  |                              Ont.       |

    _Note._—In social correspondence, the envelopes and paper
    should be white and plain. Always use black ink.


1. Write a social letter to a friend, describing a holiday that you have

2. You are clerking for a bookseller. Write a letter to a publisher,
ordering a stock of books.

3. Write an invitation to a friend to attend your birthday party.

4. You have been absent from school for some days. Write your teacher a
note of explanation.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXXIII.=


A detailed account of incidents, real or imaginary, is called

Narrations of fact include _history_, _biography_, and _travels_.
Narrations of imaginary incidents are called _fiction_ or _stories_.


1. The order in which the events occurred must be followed.

2. Every event must grow out of a preceding one.

3. When possible, the whole narration should centre in one principal

4. When there is more than one important event, one is brought up to a
certain point, then dropped until the others reach this particular place
in the narrative.

5. The scene and the actors should seldom change, and never without

6. Only the prominent points are related, the reader will infer the


=Personal Incidents.=


The father of James Barry, the Irish painter, was a sailor, who was
disgusted with his idle, dreamy, good-for-nothing son. His mother
perceived his natural ability, but tried to dissuade him from study for
the sake of his health. He had therefore to prosecute his art studies in
the face of the greatest difficulties. At length, while yet a boy, he
ventured to send to a public exhibition in Dublin his first matured
production—“St. Patrick’s Arrival on the Coast of Cashel.”

When the exhibition opened, Barry with beating heart entered it with the
crowd. To his infinite delight, it quickly gathered around his picture,
and murmurs of approval arose on every side. Suddenly the throng made
way for one whose judgment none might dispute—the orator, statesman,
and philosopher, Edmund Burke. Having examined the composition closely,
he praised it warmly, ungrudgingly. “_Who_ is the painter?” he asked;
“_Where_ is he?”

Then the unknown stranger, the ill-dressed, pallid little boy, could
contain his fierce delight no longer. “I am the painter!” he exclaimed
from amid the crowd. “You, a boy; impossible!” was the reply from many
lips. But when Edmund Burke advanced to congratulate him, he was
overpowered. He burst into a sudden gush of tears, covered his face with
his hands, and rushed from the room.—_Royal School Series._


There is a pretty story told of Queen Victoria and Jenny Lind. It
belongs to the year 1848, and shows how the modesty of two women—the
Queen of England, and the Queen of song—made a momentary awkwardness
which the gentle tact of the singer overcame.

It was on a night when Jenny Lind was to sing at her Majesty’s Theatre
that the Queen made her first appearance after the memorable Chartist
day. For the great artist, too, this was a first appearance, for it was
the beginning of her season at a place where the year before she had won
unparalleled fame.

It happened that the Queen entered the royal box at the same moment that
the prima donna stepped upon the stage. Instantly a tumult of
acclamation burst from every corner of the theatre. Jenny Lind modestly
retired to the back of the stage, waiting till the demonstration of
loyalty to the sovereign should subside.

The Queen, refusing to appropriate to herself that which she imagined to
be intended for the artist, made no acknowledgment. The cheering
continued, increased, grew overwhelming, and still there was no
acknowledgment, either from the stage or the royal box.

At length, when the situation became embarrassing, Jenny Lind, with
ready tact, ran forward to the footlights and sang “God Save the Queen,”
which was caught up at the end of the solo by the orchestra, chorus and
audience. The Queen then came to the front of her box and bowed, and the
opera was resumed.—_Youth’s Companion._

                              EXERCISE I.

Examine carefully the construction of the foregoing incidents. How far
do they illustrate the principles of narration?

                              EXERCISE II.

Write a composition of about six paragraphs on one of the following

      1. Our Sunday School Picnic.
      2. A Visit to Niagara Falls.
      3. Learning to Swim.
      4. A Snow-balling Match.
      5. A Drowning Accident.
      6. On the Way Home from School.
      7. A Sail Down the St. Lawrence.
      8. A Scene in School.
      9. A Fishing Excursion.
     10. An Apple-Bee.

    _Note._—Before writing, make an analysis of your subject, and
    draw up a plan showing the chief topics of your composition,
    arranged in natural order.

A plan for the first subject:—


           =Introduction.= {Time and place of picnic.

                           {The journey to the appointed place.
                           {The arrival.
           =The Story.=    {The amusements.
                           {How lunch was served.
                           {The return home.

           =Conclusion.=   {Pleasure derived from the outing.

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Historical Narratives.=


It was on Friday morning, the 12th of October, that Columbus first
beheld the new world. As the day dawned he saw before him a level
island, several leagues in extent, and covered with trees like a
continuous orchard. Though apparently uncultivated, it was populous; for
the inhabitants were seen issuing from all parts of the woods and
running to the shore. As they stood gazing at the ships, they seemed by
their attitudes and gestures to be lost in astonishment. Columbus made
signal for the ships to cast anchor, and the boats to be manned and
armed. He entered his own boat, richly attired in scarlet, and holding
the royal standard; two other boats followed with the captains and other
officers, each with a banner of the enterprise emblazoned with a green
cross, having on either side the letters F. and Y., the initials of the
Castilian monarchs Ferdinand and Ysabel, surmounted by crowns.

As he approached the shore, Columbus, who was disposed for all kinds of
agreeable impressions, was delighted with the purity and suavity of the
atmosphere, the crystal transparency of the sea, and the extraordinary
beauty of the vegetation. He beheld, also, fruits of an unknown kind
upon the trees which overhung the shores. On landing, he threw himself
on his knees, kissed the earth, and returned thanks to God with tears of
joy. His example was followed by the rest, whose hearts, indeed,
over-flowed with the same feelings of gratitude. Columbus then rising,
drew his sword, displayed the royal standard, and assembling around him
the two captains, with the rest who had landed, he took solemn
possession in the name of the Castilian sovereigns, giving the island
the name of San Salvador.—_Washington Irving._


While Robert Bruce was gradually getting possession of the country, and
driving out the English, Edinburgh, the principal town of Scotland,
remained with its strong castle in possession of the invaders. Sir
Thomas Randolph, a nephew of Bruce, and one of his best supporters, was
extremely desirous to obtain this important place; but, as you well
know, the castle is situated on a very steep and lofty rock, so that it
is difficult, or almost impossible, even to get up to the foot of the
walls, much more to climb over them. So, while Randolph was considering
what was to be done, there came to him a Scottish gentleman named
Francis, who had joined Bruce’s standard, and asked to speak with him in
private. He then told Randolph that, in his youth he had lived in the
Castle of Edinburgh, and that his father had then been keeper of the
fortress. It happened at that time that Francis was much in love with a
lady who lived in a part of the town below the castle, which is called
the Grassmarket. Now, as he could not get out of the castle by day to
see the lady, he had practised a way of clambering by night down the
castle crag on the south side, and returning up at his pleasure; when he
came to the foot of the wall he made use of a ladder to get over it, as
it was not very high on that point, those who built it having trusted to
the steepness of the crag. Francis had come and gone so frequently in
this dangerous manner that, though it was now long ago, he told Randolph
that he knew the road so well that he would undertake to guide a small
party of men by night to the bottom of the wall, and as they might bring
ladders with them, there would be no difficulty in scaling it. The great
risk was that of being discovered by the watchmen while in the act of
ascending the cliff, in which case every man of them must have perished.

Nevertheless, Randolph did not hesitate to attempt the adventure. He
took with him only thirty men (you may be sure they were chosen for
activity and courage), and came one dark night to the foot of the crag,
which they began to ascend under the guidance of Francis, who went
before them on his hands and feet, up one cliff, down another, and round
another, where there was scarce room to support themselves. All the
while these thirty men were obliged to follow in a line, one after the
other, by a path that was fitter for a cat than a man. The noise of a
stone falling, or a word spoken from one to another, would have alarmed
the watchman. They were obliged, therefore, to move with the greatest
precaution. When they were far up the crag, and near the foundation of
the wall, they heard the guards going their rounds to see that all was
safe in and about the castle. Randolph and his party had nothing for it
but to lie close and quiet, each man under the crag as he happened to be
placed, and trust that the guards would pass by without noticing them.
And while they were waiting in breathless alarm, they got a new cause of
fright. One of the soldiers of the castle, wishing to startle his
comrade, suddenly threw a stone from the wall and cried out, “Aha, I see
you well!” The stone came thundering down over the heads of Randolph and
his men, who naturally thought themselves discovered. If they had
stirred or made the slightest noise they would have been entirely
destroyed, for the soldiers above might have killed every man of them
merely by rolling down stones. But being courageous and chosen men, they
remained quiet, and the English soldiers, who thought their comrade was
merely playing them a trick (as, indeed, he was), passed on without
further examination.

Then Randolph and his men got up, and came in haste to the foot of the
wall, which was not above twice a man’s height in that place. They
planted the ladders they had brought, and Francis mounted first to show
them the way. Sir Andrew Grey, a brave knight followed him, and Randolph
himself was the third man who got over. Then the rest followed. When
once they were within the walls there was not much to do, for the
garrison were asleep and unarmed, excepting the watch, who were speedily
destroyed. Thus was Edinburgh Castle taken in the year 1313.—_Scott’s
Tales of a Grandfather._

                              EXERCISE I.

Make an analysis of the foregoing extracts. What principles of narration
are illustrated in each?

                              EXERCISE II.

Write a composition of five or six paragraphs on one of the following

      1. The Discovery of America.
      2. The Massacre of Glencoe.
      3. The Death of Sir Isaac Brock.
      4. The Capture of Quebec.
      5. Laura Secord’s Brave Deed.
      6. The Taking of Detroit.
      7. The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers.
      8. The Relief of Ladysmith.
      9. The Canadian Rebellion (1837).
     10. The Invasion of Russia by Napoleon.

A plan for the first subject:—

       =Introduction.= { Columbus and party set sail; time; place.

                       { Incidents of the voyage.
                       { The sighting of land.
       =The Story.=    { The landing.
                       { The natives; appearance and actions.
                       { What the Spaniards saw.

       =Conclusion.=   { How Europe received the news.

                 *        *        *        *        *



It was a bright morning in the old city of Rome many hundred years ago.
In a vine-covered summer-house in a beautiful garden, two boys were
standing. They were looking at their mother and her friend, who were
walking among the flowers and trees.

“Did you ever see so handsome a lady as our mother’s friend?” asked the
younger boy, holding his tall brother’s hand. “She looks like a queen.”

“Yet she is not so beautiful as our mother,” said the elder boy. “She
has a fine dress, it is true; but her face is not noble and kind. It is
our mother who is like a queen.”

“That is true,” said the other. “There is no woman in Rome so much like
a queen as our own dear mother.”

Soon Cornelia, their mother, came down the walk to speak with them. She
was simply dressed in a plain white robe. Her arms and feet were bare,
as was the custom in those days; and no rings nor chains glittered about
her hands and neck. For her only crown, long braids of soft brown hair
were coiled about her head; and a tender smile lit up her noble face as
she looked into her sons’ proud eyes.

“Boys,” she said, “I have something to tell you.”

They bowed before her, as Roman lads were taught to do, and said, “What
is it, mother?”

“You are to dine with us to-day, here in the garden; and then our friend
is going to show us that wonderful casket of jewels of which you have
heard so much.”

The brothers looked slyly at their mother’s friend. Was it possible that
she had still other rings besides those on her fingers? Could she have
other gems besides those which sparkled in the chains about her neck?

When the simple outdoor meal was over a servant brought the casket from
the house. The lady opened it. Ah, how those jewels dazzled the eyes of
the wondering boys! There were ropes of pearls, white as milk, and
smooth as satin; heaps of shining rubies, red as the glowing coals;
sapphires as blue as the sky that summer day; and diamonds that flashed
and sparkled like the sunlight.

The brothers looked long at the gems.

“Ah!” whispered the younger, “if our mother could only have such
beautiful things!”

At last, however, the casket was closed and carried carefully away.

“Is it true, Cornelia, that you have no jewels?” asked her friend. “Is
it true, as I have heard it whispered, that you are poor?”

“No, I am not poor,” answered Cornelia, and as she spoke she drew her
two boys to her side; “for here are my jewels. They are worth more than
all your gems.”

I am sure that the boys never forgot their mother’s pride and love and
care; and in after years, when they had become great men at Rome, they
often thought of this scene in the garden. And the world still likes to
hear the story of Cornelia’s jewels.—_Fifty Famous Stories._


It was New Year’s Eve. An aged man was standing by a window. He raised
his mournful eyes towards the deep blue sky, where the stars were
floating like white lilies on the surface of a clear calm lake. Then he
cast them on the earth where few more hopeless beings than himself now
moved towards their certain goal—the tomb.

Already he had passed sixty of the stages which lead to it, and had
brought from his journey nothing but errors and remorse. His health was
destroyed, his mind vacant, his heart sorrowful, and his old age devoid
of comfort.

The days of his youth rose up in a vision before him, and he recalled
the solemn moment when his father had placed him at the entrance of two
roads—one leading into a peaceful, sunny land, covered with a fertile
harvest, and resounding with soft, sweet songs; _the other_ leading the
wanderer into a deep, dark cave, whence there was no issue, where poison
flowed instead of water, and where serpents hissed and crawled.

He looked toward the sky, and cried out in his agony:—“O youth, return!
O, my father, place me once more at the entrance to life, that I may
choose the better way!” But the days of his youth, and his father, had
both passed away.

He saw wandering lights float away over dark marshes and then disappear.
These were like the days of his wasted life. He saw a star fall from
heaven and vanish in darkness. This was an emblem of himself; and the
sharp arrows of unavailing remorse struck home to his heart. Then he
remembered his early companions who entered on life with him, but who,
having trod the paths of virtue and of labor, were now honored and happy
on this New Year’s Eve.

In the midst of these thoughts, there sounded suddenly from the
church-tower the music of the New Year, like distant holy hymnings. The
tones falling on his ear recalled his parents’ early love for him, their
erring son; the lessons they had taught him; the prayers they had
offered up on his behalf. Over-whelmed with shame and grief he dared no
longer look toward that heaven where his father dwelt; his darkened eyes
dropped tears, and with one despairing effort he cried aloud, “Come
back, my early days, come back!”

And his youth _did_ return, for all this was but a dream which visited
his slumbers on New Year’s Eve. He was still young, his faults alone
were real. He thanked God fervently that time was still his own, that he
had not yet entered the deep, dark cavern, but that he was free to tread
the road leading to the peaceful land where sunny harvests wave.

Ye who still are young, lingering on the threshold of life doubting
which fate to choose, remember that when years are passed and your feet
stumble on the dark mountains, you will cry bitterly, but cry in vain,
“O youth, return! O, give me back my early days!”—_Jean Paul Richter._

                              EXERCISE I.

Make an outline for a story which you have heard and reproduce it.

    _Note._—In connection with this exercise the teacher is advised
    to make use of the following books: Fifty Famous Stories
    (American Book Co.), Hawthorne’s Twice Told Tales, Lamb’s Tales
    from Shakespeare, and Stories from Canadian History by T. G.
    Marquis and Miss Machar.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write a story on one of the following themes:—

      1. The History of a Kite.
      2. The Biography of a Pen.
      3. How Harry Won the Prize.
      4. The Autobiography of a Bicycle.
      5. Lost in the Woods.
      6. The Story of a Newsboy.
      7. How Ben Earned a Jack-knife.
      8. The History of a Cent.

    _Note._—A story may or may not be true, but it must be
    pleasing. All the incidents of the story should lead up to a
    final event.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                            =LESSON LXXIV.=


Composition that presents a picture of an object or a place is called

The three classes of objects that we most frequently desire to describe
are (1) material objects, as buildings, (2) natural scenery, and (3)


1. A general plan of the whole should be included with the enumeration
of the parts. The form and magnitude of objects often furnish this plan.

2. The object or scene should be described from the most favorable point
of view.

3. The most striking and interesting features should be selected and
arranged so that they will easily combine into a whole. _Aim to give the
reader a distinct and vivid picture of the subject._



As soon as you get inside the belt of wood, and begin to go down to the
pond, the damp, and the dusk, and the scent of the dead leaves make you
feel as if you were in a very old church. Plenty of wake-robin also
grows in the wood, with its leaves like spotted spearheads, and its
stumpy red and purple pencils wrapped up in faded green satin (“lords
and ladies,” I think we used to call them when I was a youngster). The
sweet flag grows all about the pond, and in it too. The corn-flag
brightens up its banks with great yellow flowers; and the iris nods its
purple blossoms on them, looking a great deal nicer than it smells. Big
tangled sheaves of bright green forget-me-not, dotted with tiny stars of
blue and gold, bulge over and into, and straggle along, the water. A
great part of the pond is choked and carpeted with crow-silk and
water-flannel, and moor-ball, spangled with glassy air-bubbles and
bright-backed little beetles. White water-lilies, and yellow
water-lilies spread a splendid service of china and gold on glossy green
table-cloths, for the water-fairies to take supper off by moonlight; and
yet, for all that, the great pond is a melancholy place. Big fish mope
motionless in its corners, as if they had something on their minds.
Little fish leap through its duck-weed, almost covered with the green
scum, not as if they did it for the fun of the jump and splash, but to
keep for a moment out of the jaws of the shark-like pike that is waiting
for them. The pond’s great pike—it has only one, according to village
report—is said to have dragged into its waters a dog that came to lap
them. No one ever bathes in the pond. Steel-blue dragon-flies zig-zag
over the water on their gauzy wings, and two or three kingfishers flash
backwards and forwards across it like streaks of variegated


Then we went down to Derwentwater. It was a warm and clear twilight.
Between the dark green lines of the hedges we met maidens in white, with
scarlet opera cloaks, coming home through the narrow lane. Then we got
into the open, and found the shores of the silver lake, and got into a
boat and sailed out upon the still waters, so that we could face the
wonders of a brilliant sunset.

But all that glow of red and yellow in the north-west was as nothing to
the strange gradations of colour that appeared along the splendid range
of mountain-peaks beyond the lake. From the remote north round to the
south-east they stretched like a mighty wall; and whereas, near the gold
and crimson of the sunset they were of a warm, roseate, and
half-transparent purple, as they came along into the darker regions of
the twilight they grew more and more cold in hue and harsh in outline.
Up there in the north they had caught the magic colors, so that they
themselves seemed but light clouds of beautiful vapor; but, as the eye
followed the line of twisted and mighty shapes, the rose color deepened
into purple, the purple grew darker and more dark, and greens and blues
began to appear over the wooded islands and shores of Derwentwater.
Finally, away down there in the south, there was a lowering sky, into
which rose wild masses of slate-colored mountains, and in the
threatening and yet clear darkness that reigned among these solitudes we
could see but one small tuft of white cloud that clung coldly to the
gloomy summit of Glaramara.

That strange darkness in the south boded rain; and, as if in
anticipation of the wet, the fires of the sunset went down, and a gray
twilight fell over the land. As we walked home between the tall hedges,
there was a chill dampness in the air; and we seemed to know that we had
at last bade good-bye to the beautiful weather that had lit up for us
the blue water and green shores of Grasmere.—_William Black._

                              EXERCISE I.

Examine each of these selections for the leading principles of

                              EXERCISE II.

Describe the scene in a picture hanging in your school-room, or an
incident that it suggests.

                             EXERCISE III.

Write a description of one of the following:—

      1. Sunrise at Sea.
      2. Evening.
      3. A Wet Day in the Country.
      4. The Phases of the Sky.
      5. A Waterfall.
      6. A Moonlight Scene.
      7. Night.
      8. A Snowstorm.
      9. A Scene in Autumn.
     10. An Inland Lake.

A plan for the first subject:—

=Introduction.= {The occasion, vessel, party, arrangements the night

                {Coming on deck next morning.
                {Sky and water before dawn.
=Details.=      {Indications that the eye of day is coming.
                {The sun appears.
                {Sky and water afterwards.

=Conclusion.=   {General effect of scene.



Not far from this village, perhaps about two miles, there is a little
valley, or rather lap of land, among high hills, which is one of the
quietest places in the whole world. A small brook glides through it,
with just murmur enough to lull one to repose; and the occasional
whistle of a quail or tapping of a woodpecker is almost the only sound
that ever breaks in upon the uniform tranquillity.

I recollect that, when a stripling, my first exploit in
squirrel-shooting was in a grove of tall walnut-trees that shades one
side of the valley. I had wandered into it at noon-time, when all nature
is peculiarly quiet, and was startled by the roar of my own gun, as it
broke the Sabbath stillness around, and was prolonged and reverberated
by the angry echoes. If ever I should wish for a retreat, whither I
might steal from the world and its distractions, and dream quietly away
the remnant of a troubled life, I know of none more promising than this
little valley.

From the listless repose of the place, and the peculiar character of its
inhabitants, who are descendants from the original Dutch settlers, this
sequestered glen has long been known by the name of Sleepy Hollow; and
its rustic lads are called the Sleepy Hollow boys throughout all the
neighboring country. A drowsy, dreamy influence seems to hang over the
land, and to pervade the very atmosphere.

Certain it is that the place still continues under the sway of some
witching power, that holds a spell over the minds of the good people,
causing them to walk in a continual reverie. They are given to all kinds
of marvellous beliefs; are subject to trances and visions; and
frequently see strange sights, and hear music and voices in the air. The
whole neighborhood abounds with local tales, haunted spots, and twilight
superstitions. Stars shoot and meteors glare oftener across the valley
than in any other part of the country; and the nightmare, with her whole
ninefold, seems to make it the favorite scene of her gambols.

It is remarkable that the visionary propensity I have mentioned is not
confined to the native inhabitants of the valley, but is unconsciously
imbibed by everyone who resides there for a time. However wide awake
they may have been before they entered that sleepy region, they are
sure, in a little time, to inhale the witching influence of the air, and
begin to grow imaginative—to dream dreams, and see
apparitions.—_Washington Irving._


Lisbon, like ancient Rome, is built on at least seven hills. It is
fitted by situation to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
Seated, or rather enthroned, on such a spot, commanding a magnificent
harbor, and overlooking one of the noblest rivers of Europe, it might be
more distinguished for external beauty than Athens in the days of her
freedom. Now, it seems rather to be the theatre in which the two great
powers of deformity and loveliness are perpetually struggling for the
mastery. The highest admiration and the most sickening disgust
alternately prevail in the mind of the beholder. Never was there so
strange an intermixture of the mighty and the mean—of the pride of
wealth and the abjectness of poverty—of the memorials of greatness and
the symbols of low misery—of the filthy and the romantic. I will dwell,
however, on the fair side of the picture; as I envy not those who
delight in exhibiting the frightful or the gloomy in the moral or
natural world. Often after traversing dark and wretched streets, at a
sudden turn, a prospect of inimitable beauty bursts on the eye of the
spectator. He finds himself, perhaps, on the brink of a mighty hollow,
scooped out by nature amidst hills, all covered to the top with
edifices, save where groves of the freshest verdure are interspersed; or
on one side a mountain rises into a cone far above the city, tufted with
woods, and crowned with some castellated pile, the work of other days.
The views fronting the Tagus are still more extensive and grand. On one
of these I stumbled a few evenings after my arrival, which almost
suspended the breath with wonder. I had labored through a steep and
narrow street almost choked with dirt, when a small avenue on one side,
apparently more open, tempted me to step aside to breathe the fresher
air. I found myself on a little plot of ground, hanging apparently in
the air, in the front of one of the churches. I stood against the column
of the portico absorbed in delight and wonder. Before me lay a large
portion of the city—houses descended beneath houses, sinking almost
precipitously to a fearful depth beneath me, whose frameworks, covered
over with vines of delicate green, broke the ascent like prodigious
steps, by which a giant might scale the eminence. The same “wilderness
of buildings” filled up the vast hollow, and rose by a more easy slope
to the top of the opposite hills, which were crowned with turrets,
domes, mansions, and regal pavilions of a dazzling whiteness. Beyond the
Tagus, on the southern shore, the coast rose into wild and barren hills,
wearing an aspect of the roughest sublimity and grandeur, and in the
midst, occupying the bosom of the great vale, between the glorious city
and the unknown wilds, lay the calm and majestic river, from two to
three miles in width, seen with the utmost distinctness to its mouth, on
each of which the two castles which guard it were visible, and spread
over with a thousand ships—onward, yet further, far as the eye could
reach, the living ocean was glistening, and ships, like specks of purest
white, were seen crossing it to and fro, giving to the scene an
imaginary extension, by carrying the mind with them to far distant
shores. It was the time of sunset, and clouds of the richest saffron
rested on the bosom of the air, and were reflected in softer tints in
the waters. Not a whisper reached the ear. “The holy time was quiet as a
nun breathless with adoration.” The scene looked like some vision of
blissful enchantment, and I scarcely dared to stir or breathe lest it
should vanish away.—_Talfourd._


                                                      JUNE 22nd, 1897.

Riding three-and-three, came a kaleidoscope of dazzling horsemen,
equerries, aides-de-camp, attaches, ambassadors and princes, all the
pomp of all the nations of the earth—scarlet and gold, azure and gold,
purple and gold, emerald and gold, white and gold—always a changing
tumult of colors that seemed to live and gleam with a light of their
own. It was enough. No eye could bear more gorgeousness. No more
gorgeousness could there be, unless princes are to clothe themselves in
rainbows and the very sun.

The prelude was played, and now the great moment was at hand. Already
carriages were rolling up full of the Queen’s kindred, full of her
children and children’s children, but we hardly looked at them. Down
there, through an avenue of eager faces, through a storm of white,
waving handkerchiefs, through roaring volleys of cheers, there was
approaching a carriage drawn by eight cream-colored horses. The roar
surged up the street, keeping pace with the eight horses. The carriage
passed the barrier; it entered the churchyard; it wheeled left and then
right. It drove up to the very steps of the Cathedral.

We all leaped up. Cheers broke into screams, and the enthusiasm swelled
to delirium. The sun, watery until now, shone out suddenly, clear and
dry, and there was a little, plain, flushed old lady, all in black, with
a silver streak under her black bonnet, and with a simple white
sunshade, sitting quite still, with the corners of her mouth drawn
tight, as if she was trying not to cry; but that old lady was the Queen
and you knew it. You did not want to look at the glittering uniforms
now, nor yet at the bright gowns and young faces in the carriages, nor
yet at the stately princes, though by now all these were ranged in a
half-circle round her. You could not look at anybody but the Queen, so
very quiet, so very grave, so very punctual, and so unmistakably every
inch a lady and a Queen.

It was almost pathetic, if you will, that small, black figure, in the
middle of these shining cavaliers, this great army, this roaring
multitude, but it was also very glorious. When other kings of the world
drive abroad, an escort rides close at the wheels of their carriages.
The Queen drove through her people quite plain and open, with just one
soldier at the curbstone between her and them. Why not? They are quite
free. They have no cause to fear her. They have much cause to love her.
Was it not all for her; gala trappings of the streets, men, horses, guns
and the living walls of British men and women? for the Queen summed up
all that had gone before—all the soldiers and sailors, the big-limbed
colonials, and the strange men from unheard-of islands over the sea. We
know now what that which had come before all stood for. We know as we
had never known before what the Queen stands for. The Empire had come
together to revere and bless the mother of the Empire; the mother of the
Empire had come to do homage to the one Being more majestic than she.

There were the archbishops, bishops and deans, in gold and crimson caps,
and white, orange and gold embroidered vestments, waiting on the steps.
There, through gaps in the pillars and scaffoldings, you could see all
her Ministers and great men, a strange glimpse of miniature faces, as in
some carefully labored picture, where each face stands for an honored

All stood, and the choir sang the Te Deum. Next rose up a melodious
voice intoning prayers. The Queen bowed her head, and then the whole
choir and the company outside the Cathedral and the whole company in the
stands, at the windows, on the house tops, and away down the street, all
standing, all uncovered, began to sing the One Hundredth Psalm: “Come ye
before Him and rejoice.” The Queen’s lips were tight, and her eyes,
perhaps it was fancy, looked dim; but then, “Three cheers for the
Queen,” and the Dean, pious man, was wildly waving that wonderful
crimson cap, and the pillars and roofs were ringing as if they must come
down. Then “God Save the Queen,” a lusty peal, till you felt drowned in

The Queen looked up and smiled, and the Queen’s smile was the end of it
all—a smile that broke down the sad mouth—a smile that seemed
half-reluctant, so wistful, yet so kind, so sincere, so motherly.—_G.
W. Steevens in London Daily Mail._

                              EXERCISE I.

Examine each of the foregoing passages for principles of description.
Notice the way in which the theme is introduced, the selection and
arrangement of details, and the effective conclusion.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write a description of one of the following:—

      1. A Funeral in the Country.
      2. A Shipwreck.
      3. Trusty—Our Dog.
      4. A Pasture Field.
      5. A Castle in Ruins.
      6. Laying the Foundation-stone of a Church.
      7. A Village Churchyard.
      8. Arbor Day.
      9. An Old Man.
     10. Early Settlement Life in Canada.

A plan for the first subject:—

        =Introduction.= {A brief account of the dead.

                        {The gathering of the people at the house.
                        {Leaving the house.
                        {The procession to the village church.
        =Details.=      {The service in the church.
                        {Scene at the grave.
                        {How the people withdrew.

        =Conclusion.=   {Reflections on life and death.

                 *        *        *        *        *

                             =LESSON LXXV.=


A composition in which the subject is explained, interpreted, discussed,
proved, or illustrated, is called =exposition=.

This division of prose composition includes essays, speeches, sermons,
lectures, and debates.

In _narrative_ and _descriptive_ composition, the materials are obtained
through the senses, but in _exposition_ they are derived from general
and abstract thought. Since the manner in which two minds will approach
the treatment of any subject will be as diverse as the minds themselves,
no definite rules can be laid down for the guidance of the learner, but
the following hints may be given:—

(1) Having selected his subject, the pupil should think over the exact
force and meaning of the terms in which the subject is proposed, so as
to have a clear conception of the ground it covers.

(2) In the next place, he should determine the mode in which he will
treat his subject. He may commence with the general statement and
proceed to prove and illustrate it, or he may commence with the
examination of particulars, and proceed to the general truth.

(3) The pupil’s attention must now be given to the division of his
subject. The logical order of the several parts should be preserved.

(4) Having decided on his plan or frame-work, the pupil has now to
obtain the necessary information under each head. This he may derive
from reflection, from conversation, and from reading. As thoughts are
obtained he should note them down.

(5) After the composition is written out, the pupil should review it
carefully to see if his thoughts have been expressed in the proper
place, and in the most suitable manner. After a careful criticism by
himself, he should write out his composition again.



Experience amply shows that nothing valuable is to be attained without
labor. Exceptional cases apart, the rule of life is that what costs us
nothing is little worth, and that what is esteemed among men is the
prize of effort and self-denial. The rich harvest which rewards the
husbandman is the fitting sequel to a year of watchful and provident
exertion; the successful merchant reaches his envied fortune by the
closest vigilance combined with the most skilful calculation; whilst the
splendid structure of knowledge which the student aspires to rear is
only built up by long years of patient and sustained devotion.

Yet it is possible that labor may end in disappointment. Mere capacity
of working carries with it no guarantee of ultimate success. For one may
be always working, and yet may achieve little. “One thing to-day,
another to-morrow,” indicates a fickleness of temper which has rendered
many an active life well-nigh useless. Labor to be effective must be
steady. Energy must be under the guidance of purpose. It is the resolute
concentration, and not the fitful ebullition of effort, which surmounts
all obstacles. The fabled contest of speed between the hare and the
tortoise expresses in a homely way the truth which is patent to general
observation, that the cause of failure in any pursuit is more commonly
to be found in want of perseverance than in want of ability.

Most readers are familiar with the incident in the life of Robert Bruce,
strongly illustrative of the virtue of perseverance. The King, almost
despairing of success in his efforts to restore freedom to his country,
was lying one day in his little cabin, when his attention was caught by
a spider. The little animal, hanging at the end of a long thread of its
own spinning, was trying to swing itself from one beam in the roof to
another, for the purpose of fixing the line for its web. Not till the
seventh attempt did it succeed; but its success encouraged the King to
make one effort more. His perseverance met with its reward; for, as he
had never before gained a victory, so he never afterwards suffered any
serious defeat.

If, then, perseverance is the secret of success in life, it is surely
worth while for all to cultivate this virtue. The effort may be trying
and painful at first, but repetition gradually makes it easy, and even
pleasant. We should enter on the path of effort betimes, too, before
habits of self-indulgence have been acquired, which renders perseverance
impossible. Nothing is more certain than that this virtue is amongst the
most precious legacies which maturer years can inherit from a laborious
and well-spent youth.—_James Currie._


Advices, I believe, to young men—and to all men—are very seldom much
valued. There is a great deal of advising and very little faithful
performing. And talk that does not end in any kind of action is better
suppressed altogether. I would not therefore go much into advising; but
there is one advice I must give you. It is, in fact, the summary of all
advices, and you have heard it a thousand times, I dare say; but I must,
nevertheless, let you hear it the thousand and first time, for it is
most intensely true, whether you will believe it at present or
not—namely, that above all things the interest of your own life depends
upon being diligent now, while it is called to-day, in this place where
you have come to get education.

Diligent! That includes all virtues in it that a student can have; I
mean to include in it all qualities that lead into the acquirement of
real instruction and improvement in such a place. If you will believe
me, you who are young, yours is the golden season of life. As you have
heard it called, so verily it is the seed-time of life, in which if you
do not sow, or if you sow tares instead of wheat, you cannot expect to
reap well afterwards, and you will arrive at, indeed, little, while in
the course of years, when you come to look back, and if you have not
done what you have heard from your advisers—and among many counsellors
there is wisdom—you will bitterly repent when it is too late.

At the season when you are in young years the whole mind is, as it were,
fluid, and is capable of forming itself into any shape that the owner of
the mind pleases to order it to form itself into. The mind is in a fluid
state, but it hardens up gradually to the consistency of rock or iron,
and you cannot alter the habits of an old man, but as he has begun he
will proceed and go on to the last.

By diligence, I mean among other things—and very chiefly—honesty in
all your inquiries into what you are about. Pursue your studies in the
way your conscience calls honest. More and more endeavor to do that.
Keep, I mean to say, an accurate separation of what you have really come
to know in your own minds, and what is still unknown. Leave all that on
the hypothetical side of the barrier, as things afterwards to be
acquired, if acquired at all; and be careful not to stamp a thing as
known only when it is stamped on your mind, so that you may survey it on
all sides with intelligence.

There is such a thing as a man endeavoring to persuade himself, and
endeavoring to persuade others, that he knows about things when he does
not know more than the outside skin of them, and he goes flourishing
about with them. There is also a process called cramming—that is,
getting up such points of things as the examiner is likely to put
questions about. Avoid all that as entirely unworthy of an honorable

Be modest and humble, and diligent in your attention to what your
teachers tell you, who are profoundly interested in trying to bring you
forward in the right way, as far as they have been able to understand
it. Try all things they set before you, in order, if possible, to
understand them, and to value them in proportion to your fitness for
them. Gradually see what kind of work you can do; for it is the first of
all problems for a man to find out what kind of work he is to do in this
universe. In fact, morality as regards study is, as in all other things,
the primary consideration, and overrides all others. A dishonest man
cannot do anything real; and it would be greatly better if he were tied
up from doing any such thing. He does nothing but darken counsel by the
words he utters. That is a very old doctrine, but a very true one; and
you will find it confirmed by all the thinking men that have ever lived
in this long series of generations of which we are the latest.

One remark about your reading. I do not know whether it has been
sufficiently brought home to you that there are two kinds of books. When
a man is reading on any kind of subject, in most departments of
books—in all books, if you take it in a wide sense—you will find that
there is a division of good books and bad books—there is a good kind of
book and a bad kind of book. I am not to assume that you are all
ill-acquainted with this; but I may remind you that it is a very
important consideration at present. It casts aside altogether the idea
that people have that if they are reading any book—that if an ignorant
man is reading any book, he is doing rather better than nothing at all.
I entirely call that in question. I even venture to deny it. It would be
much safer and better, would he have no concern with books at all than
with some of them. There are a number, an increasing number, of books
that are decidedly to him not useful. But he will learn also that a
certain number of books were written by a supreme, noble kind of
people—not a very great number—but a great number adhere more or less
to that side of things. In short, as I have written it down somewhere
else, I conceive that books are like men’s souls—divided into sheep and
goats. Some of them are calculated to be of very great advantage in
teaching—in forwarding the teaching of all generations. Others are
going down, down, doing more and more, wilder and wilder mischief.

And for the rest, in regard to all your studies here, and whatever you
may learn, you are to remember that the object is not particular
knowledge—that you are going to get higher in technical perfections,
and all that sort of thing. There is a higher aim lies at the rear of
all that, especially among those who are intended for literary, for
speaking pursuits—the sacred profession. You are ever to bear in mind
that there lies behind that, the acquisition, of what may be called
wisdom—namely, sound appreciation and just decision as to all the
objects that come round about you, and the habit of behaving with
justice and wisdom. In short, great is wisdom—great is the value of
wisdom. It cannot be exaggerated. The highest achievement of
man—“Blessed is he that getteth understanding.” And that, I believe,
occasionally may be missed very easily; but never more easily than now,
I think. If that is a failure, all is a failure.—_Carlyle._

                              EXERCISE I.

Examine carefully the foregoing expositions. Notice the definite plan on
which each is constructed.

                              EXERCISE II.

Write an expository composition on one of the following subjects:—

      1. Commerce.
      2. The Pleasures of Conversation.
      3. The Value of Time.
      4. Friendship.
      5. The Power of Conscience.
      6. Peace and War.
      7. Patriotism.
      8. Advantages of Travel.
      9. A Taste for Reading.
     10. Punctuality.

A plan for the first subject:—

         =Introduction=  {Definition of commerce.

                         {Origin of commerce. (Tell who were the
                           first to engage in it and when).
         =Discussion.=   {Its history. (Show the growth in the
                           means of transportation).
                         {Great discoveries of other lands that
                           have extended commerce.

         =Conclusion.=   {Advantages arising from commerce.
                           (Distributes the productions of the
                           earth, helps to educate and to

                 *        *        *        *        *

                         LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.

            =A.B.= or     Bachelor of Arts.
            =Acct.=       Account.
            =A.D.=        In the year of our Lord.
            =Ala.=        Alabama.
            =A.M.=        Before noon (_ante meridian_).
            =A.M.=        or =M.A.=  Master of Arts.
            =Anon.=       Anonymous.
            =Ark.=        Arkansas.
            =Aug.=        August.
            =Ave.=        Avenue.
            =B.C.=        Before Christ.
            =B.C.=        British Columbia.
            =B.C.L.=      Bachelor of Civil Law.
            =B.D.=        Bachelor of Divinity.
            =B. Pæd.=     Bachelor of Pedagogy.
            =Cal.=        California.
            =Capt.=       Captain.
            =Co.=         Company.
            =Co.=         County.
            =C.E.=        Civil Engineer.
            =C.O.D.=      Cash on Delivery.
            =Col.=        Colonel.
            =Col.=        Colorado.
            =Conn.=       Connecticut.
            =Cr.=         Credit.
            =Cr.=         Creditor.
            =D.C.=        District of Columbia.
            =D.C.L.=      Doctor of Civil Law.
            =D.D.=        Doctor of Divinity.
            =Dec.=        December.
            =Del.=        Delaware.
            =do.=         The same (_ditto_).
            =Dr.=         Debtor.
            =Dr.=         Doctor.
            =D. Pæd.=     Doctor of Pedagogy.
            =E.=          East.
            =e.g.=        For example (_exempli gratia_).
            =Esq.=        Esquire.
            =etc.=        And others; and so forth.
            =Feb.=        February.
            =Fla.=        Florida.
            =F.R.S.=      Fellow of the Royal Society.
            =Ga.=         Georgia.
            =Gen.=        General.
            =Gov.=        Governor.
            =Gov.-Gen.=   Governor-General.
            =Hon.=        Honorable.
            =Ill.=        Illinois.
            =Ind.=        Indiana.
            =inst.=       Instant—the present month.
            =Jan.=        January.
            =Jr.= or      Junior.
            =Kan.=        Kansas.
            =Kee.=        Keewatin.
            =Ky.=         Kentucky.
            =La.=         Louisiana.
            =Lab.=        Labrador.
            =L.I.=        Long Island.
            =Lieut.=      Lieutenant.
            =Lieut.-Col.= Lieutenant-Colonel.
            =Lieut.-Gov.= Lieutenant-Governor.
            =LL.B.=       Bachelor of Laws.
            =LL.D.=       Doctor of Laws.
            =Maj.-Gen.=   Major-General.
            =Man.=        Manitoba.
            =Mass.=       Massachusetts.
            =M.B.=        Bachelor of Medicine.
            =M.D.=        Doctor of Medicine.
            =Md.=         Maryland.
            =Me.=         Maine.
            =Messrs.=     Gentlemen (_Messieurs_).
            =Mich.=       Michigan.
            =Minn.=       Minnesota.
            =Miss.=       Mississippi.
            =Mlle.=       Mademoiselle.
            =Mo.=         Missouri.
            =Mon.=        Monday.
            =Mont.=       Montana.
            =M.L.A.=      Member of Legislative Assembly.
            =M.P.=        Member of Parliament.
            =M.P.P.=      Member of Provincial Parliament.
            =Mr.=         Mister.
            =Mrs.=        Mistress.
            =Ms.=         Manuscript.
            =Mss.=        Manuscripts.
            =N.=          North.
            =N.B.=        Note well (_nota bene_).
            =N.B.=        New Brunswick.
            =Neb.=        Nebraska.
            =Nev.=        Nevada.
            =N.C.=        North Carolina.
            =N. Dak.=     North Dakota.
            =Nfld.=       Newfoundland.
            =N.H.=        New Hampshire.
            =N.J.=        New Jersey.
            =No.=         Number.
            =Nov.=        November.
            =N.S.=        Nova Scotia.
            =N.Y.=        New York.
            =O.=          Ohio.
            =Oct.=        October.
            =Ont.=        Ontario.
            =Or.=         Oregon.
            =p.=          Page.
            =Pa.=         Pennsylvania.
            =per cent.=   By the hundred.
            =Ph.B.=       Bachelor of Philosophy.
            =Ph.D.=       Doctor of Philosophy.
            =P.M.=        Afternoon (_post meridian_).
            =P.M.=        Post Master.
            =P.O.=        Post Office.
            =pp.=         Pages.
            =Pres.=       President.
            =Prof.=       Professor.
            =Pro tem.=    For the time being (_pro tempore_).
            =prox.=       Next month (_proximo_).
            =P.S.=        Postscript (_post scriptum_).
            =Que.=        Quebec.
            =Rev.=        Reverend.
            =R.I.=        Rhode Island.
            =R.R.=        Railroad.
            =Rt. Rev.=    Right Reverend.
            =S.=          South.
            =Sask.=       Saskatchewan.
            =Sept.=       September.
            =Sr.= or      Senior.
            =S.C.=        South Carolina.
            =S. Dak.=     South Dakota.
            =Sat.=        Saturday.
            =ss.=         Steamship.
            =St.=         Street.
            =Sun.=        Sunday.
            =Supt.=       Superintendent.
            =Tenn.=       Tennessee.
            =Tex.=        Texas.
            =Thurs.=      Thursday.
            =Tues.=       Tuesday.
            =ult.=        Last month (_ultimo_).
            =U.S.=        United States.
            =U.S.A.=      United States Army.
            =U.S.A.=      United States of America.
            =Va.=         Virginia.
            =Vs.=         Against (_versus_).
            =Vt.=         Vermont.
            =W.=          West.
            =Wed.=        Wednesday.
            =Wis.=        Wisconsin.
            =Wash.=       Washington.

                 *        *        *        *        *


  Abbreviations,  156, 157
  Adjectives,  7
    classes of,  36-38
    clauses,  98
    comparison of,  39
    parsing of,  41, 42
  Adverbs,  9
    classes of,  74
    clauses,  98
    comparison of,  75
    parsing of,  76
  Adverbial objective,  83
  Analysis,  2, 93, 94, 100, 101, 102, 103
    exercises for,  94, 95, 96, 97, 104, 105, 106, 107
  Apposition,  83
  Auxiliary verbs,  58-67

  Capitals,  108
  Case,  23
  Clauses,  97, 98
  Colon,  110
  Composition,  108-155
  Compound sentence,  98
  Complex sentence,  98
  Complement,  94
  Comma,  109, 110
  Conditional verb-phrases,  66
  Conjugations of the verb,  53
    weak or new,  53-56
    strong or old,  53, 56-58
  Conjunctions,  12
    classes of,  78
    parsing of,  79

  Dash,  110
  Defective verbs,  58
  Different values of words,  14, 15
  Different kinds of sentences,  1
  Description,  139
    models of,  139-147
    exercises in,  141, 142, 148

  Emphatic verb-phrases,  63
  Exclamatory sentences,  1, 2
  Exclamation mark,  109
  Exposition,  149
    models of, 150-154
    exercises in,  154-155

  Figurative language,  115

  Gender,  18
  Gender-nouns,  18, 19, 20

  Hyphen,  110

  Imperative mode,  46
  Indicative mode,  46
  Infinitives,  47, 48
  Interjections,  13
    parsing of,  80
  Interrogation mark,  109
  Irregularities of conjugation,  54, 55
  It,  28, 94

  Letters, models,  121-127
  Letter-writing,  119-120
    exercises in,  128

  Mode,  46

  Narration,  128
    models of,  129-138
    exercises in,  130-131, 134-135, 138
  Nominatives, different kinds of,  25
  Nouns,  4-5
    classes of,  16-18
    clauses,  97
    parsing of,  26-27
    predicate,  83
  Number,  20-21

  Object,  23
    direct,  26
    indirect,  26
    of a preposition,  11, 83
    retained,  83
  Objective predicate,  84
  Obligative verb-phrases,  66
  Order of words,  89

  Paragraph,  113
    principles of,  113
  Parts of speech,  4-14
  Participles,  49-50
  Parenthesis,  110
  Period,  109
  Person,  28
  Potential verb-phrases,  66
  Predicate,  2
    complete,  44
    incomplete,  44
  Prepositions,  10, 11
    parsing of,  77
  Progressive verb-phrases,  72
  Pronouns,  5-6
    classes of,  27-34
    parsing of,  34, 35
  Prose, varieties of,  119
  Punctuation,  109

  Quotation marks,  110

  Relations of the noun,  82-84
     “      “  pronoun,  84-85
     “      “  adjective,  86
     “      “  verb,  87
     “      “  adverb,  88
  Representative subject,  94

  Semicolon,  110
  Sentences,  1
    simple,  93-96
    compound,  102-107
    complex,  101-107
    loose,  112
    balanced,  112
    periodic,  112
    short and long,  112
    emphatic places of,  113
  Style,  116-117
  Subjunctive mode,  46
  Syntax,  82-89

  Use of words,  111

  Verbs,  8-9
    classes of,  4-43
    tense of,  50-52
    voice of,  44-45
    mode of,  46-47
    person of,  52
    number of,  52
    conjugation of,  53-58
    of complete predication,  43
    of incomplete predication,  44
    parsing of,  73-74

  Verbal nouns,  18

                 *        *        *        *        *

=Transcriber’s Notes:=

Punctuation has been corrected without note. Other errors have been
corrected as noted below.

Page 30, Added Third Person. to bottom of first column of table.
Page 159, abverb, 88 ==> adverb, 88

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