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Title: The Brothers Danziel - A Record of Fifty Years Work in Conjunction with many of - the Most Distinguished Artists of the Period 1840-1890
Author: Danziel, Edward, Danziel, George
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Brothers Danziel - A Record of Fifty Years Work in Conjunction with many of - the Most Distinguished Artists of the Period 1840-1890" ***

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                         THE BROTHERS DALZIEL

                     A RECORD OF FIFTY YEARS' WORK


                           BROTHERS DALZIEL

                               A RECORD


                         ARTISTS OF THE PERIOD



                        LORD LEIGHTON, P.R.A.,
     SIR J. E. MILLAIS, Bart., P.R.A., SIR E. J. POYNTER, P.R.A.,
                SIR E. BURNE-JONES, Bart., JOHN RUSKIN,

                           AND MANY OTHERS.

                            METHUEN AND CO.
                         36 ESSEX STREET W.C.

                   PRINTED BY DALZIEL AND CO., LTD.


Thomas Bewick, who revived the art of wood engraving in England, was
apprenticed to Ralph Beilby, as a copperplate engraver, in 1767. About
1770 he began to engrave on wood. The work at first was rough, and
chiefly for newspaper advertisements; but he soon saw the capabilities
of the material, and he rapidly developed into the great master of
his art. The excellence of his wood engraving may be said to have
culminated in his "Book of British Birds," the first volume of which
was published in 1797. For a century from that date the art of wood
engraving has been the most popular as well as the best method for the
reproduction of all classes of drawings, and during that hundred years
much beautiful work has been done.

Bewick's pupils were all artists in the fullest meaning of the
word--John Bewick (his brother), Robert Johnson, Luke Clenell, Charlton
Nesbit, Isaac Nicholson, and William Harvey. What a grand start the
first half of the century of wood engraving had with such great men!

In the second half--in which we claim to have had our share--were such
brilliant contemporaries as John Jackson, John Thomson, the Williams',
J. W. Whymper, Orrin Smith, Mason Jackson, W. L. Thomas, W. J. Linton,
J. D. Cooper, C. Roberts, Biscombe Gardner, Joseph Swain, and J. W.
Palmer--all true artists, draughtsmen, and painters, as well as wood

Touching the old cry of defective reproduction, we say that at times
there could not fail to be some amount of depreciation, but never such
as justified the senseless and vulgar remarks made by certain critics,
which can only be passed over in consideration of their total want of
technical knowledge of the art, and of the conditions under which much
of the work was produced. Coarse epithets have been used towards men
who were devoting, with all possible earnestness, their skill to an
art for the reproduction of work for popular issues. Wood engraving,
being no exception to other arts, demands conditions necessary for the
production of perfect work. First, the man who makes the drawing ought
to know the capabilities of the material and should work accordingly;
second, the engraver should have all the true instincts of an artist;
and, third, he must have the full interval of time to perform his work
with proper care.

A large amount of wood engraving being done on the rush, it was a
common thing to "burn the midnight oil" and the engraver's eyes at the
same time, and it is a marvel that so much beautiful artistic work was
done under such conditions.

We have printed in this book many letters from distinguished artists
expressing their satisfaction with our rendering of their drawings,
with one object--to place beyond all doubt that if wood engravings were
produced under the conditions named, the results would always prove

We have a letter before us from Sir Edward Burne-Jones, in which he
says: "I was quite unprepared for such fidelity."

By the introduction of the various "processes" by which artists'
drawings are nowadays made applicable for reproduction, the days of
wood engraving are practically over, and we have to bow to the new
light which we had long felt would come; and we need hardly say that,
for the reproduction of good pen work, with the new process by line
etching, the results are perfect.

Also, when we look at the reproductions of tint drawings by such
men as William Small, De Haenen, the Pagets, Caton Woodville, W. L.
and C. Wyllie, Edgar Bundy, Jacomb Hood, and many other artists of
distinction, by the half-tone process, and when we think (beyond all
this fine artistic work) of the vast mass of wonderful illustration
given to the public, week by week, of every conceivable class of
subject, direct from the camera, in which the draughtsman has no part
at all, and this work is generally of singular beauty and truth--we
feel that our occupation is gone. In saying this we wish to add that
we hail with satisfaction the marvellous results from these many
ingenious adaptations of photography, and the consequent wide spread of
the art of illustration, which has ever been our greatest delight.

In preparing the contents of this book it would have been impossible
to give the many specimens of our work but for the kind and liberal
spirit with which our requests were responded to by the various
publishers who had entrusted us with their commissions from our very
earliest days. Our best thanks are due, in the first instance, to
Messrs. Adam & Charles Black, for the loan of two engravings for
the "Abbotsford Edition of Scott's Novels," which were amongst our
first important works; the Art Union of London, for a specimen of
Kenny Meadows'; Messrs. Macmillan, for specimens from "The Ingoldsby
Legends," "Tennyson's Poems," and "Alice in Wonderland"; Messrs.
Bradbury & Agnew, for selections from Richard Doyle's work; Messrs.
George Routledge & Sons, for specimens from "Gilbert's Shakespeare" and
various "Fine Art Books"; Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., for several
from Millais' "The Parables of Our Lord" and "Dalziel's Bible Gallery";
Messrs. Blackwood & Son, for "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers," by Sir
J. Noel Paton; Messrs. James Nisbet & Co., for "Lays of the Holy Land;"
Messrs. Longman & Co., for Tenniel's "Lalla Rookh"; Messrs. Smith,
Elder & Co., for "Framley Parsonage" and the _Cornhill Magazine_; Mr.
James Hogg, for "London Society"; Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., for "Poems
by W. Cullen Bryant"; Mr. John Hogg, for "Poems by Robert Buchanan";
Messrs. Chapman & Hall, for many illustrations to the works of Charles
Dickens; the Proprietors of the _Graphic_, for "The Sisters," by G. J.
Pinwell; and to Messrs. Ward and Lock, for "Dalziel's Arabian Nights"
and "Dalziel's Goldsmith."

Mr. Alexander Strahan has our warmest thanks for much help which he
kindly gave us in procuring many valuable representative specimens of
our work from his various publications.

And yet other thanks are due. Before publishing the letters to be found
in the following pages, it was necessary to seek the permission of
the writer of each, or the executors of those no longer with us. In
every case the response has been so kind and so reminiscent, that the
interest and pleasure derived from their receipt will remain till the
end with

                                                George and Edward Dalziel



   SUBJECT.                                                         PAGE

  OUR FATHER.  GEORGE DALZIEL.    From a Bust by his Son, Robert       3

  OUR MOTHER.                     From an Oil Painting by her
                                  Son, Robert Dalziel                  5

  PORTRAIT OF                     From an Oil Painting by his          7
                                  Brother Robert

       "       EDWARD DALZIEL.    From an Oil Painting by his          9
                                  Brother Robert

       "       JOHN DALZIEL.      From a Photograph                   11

       "       THOMAS DALZIEL.    From a Photograph                   13

       "       WILLIAM HARVEY.    From a Wood Engraving               15

       "       MARGARET DALZIEL.  From a Photograph                   20

                                       ILLUSTRATED BY
  THE EARL OF LEICESTER'S LEVEE.       William Harvey                 21
  From the Abbotsford Edition of

  MACKAY, AS THE BAILIE NICOL          Sir William Allan, R.A.,
  JARVIE. From the Abbotsford          P.R.S.A.                       25
  Edition of "Rob Roy"

  CHILDREN IN THE WOOD.                John Franklin                  27

  SLEEPING CHILD AND LAMB.             William Mulready, R.A.         29

  "EVANGELINE." From the Poetical      Sir John Gilbert, R.A.,
  Works of Longfellow                  P.R.W.S.                       33

  "L'ALLEGRO."                         Kenny Meadows                  39

  A BALL-ROOM.                         Frederick Walker, A.R.A.,
                                       R.W.S.                         43

  "A LAY OF ST. DUNSTAN." From the
  "Ingoldsby Legends"                  George Cruikshank              45

  "THE LORD OF TOULOUSE." " "          Sir John Tenniel               47

  "THE WEDDING DAY." "             "   George Cruikshank              49

  THE ADORATION OF THE MAJI.           F. R. Pickersgill, R.A.        53

  FAIRY DANCE.                         W. E. Frost, R.A.              55

  "ORIANA." Tennyson                   F. R. Pickersgill, R.A.        57

  SCOTLAND. From "An Overland
  Journey to the Great Exhibition of   Richard Doyle                  60

  JACK AND THE GIANTS.                             "                  63

  THE GIANTS.                                      "                  64

  THE ARRIVAL AT COLOGNE.                          "                  65

  EVENING ON THE LAGO-MAGGIORE.                    "                  67

  "THE SALAMANDRINE." Dr. Charles      Sir John Gilbert, R.A.,
  Mackay                               P.R.W.S.                       69

  LUCY GRAY. W. Wordsworth                         "                  71

  KING LEAR.                                       "                  73

  KING LEAR AND FOOL IN A STORM.                   "                  75

  LEAR FANTASTICALLY DRESSED WITH                  "                  79

  "THE LORD OF BURLEIGH." Tennyson     Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.      83

  "THE TALKING OAK."             "                 "                  87

  "ORIANA."             "              Holman Hunt                    90

  "ST. CECILLIA."             "        Dante G. Rossetti              91

  HALLELUJAH.                          Arthur Hughes                  93

  THE PEARL OF GREAT PRICE.            Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.      95

  THE UNJUST JUDGE.                                "                  99

  THE LEAVEN.                          Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.     103

  "EDINBURGH, AFTER FLODDEN." Aytoun   Sir J. Noel Paton, P.R.S.A.

  "THE EXECUTION OF MONTROSE." "                   "                 109

  "THE SONG OF BETHLEHEM." Campbell    J. R. Clayton                 113

  THE FINDING OF MOSES BY PHARAOH'S    Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.     115

  "THERE'S NAE LUCK ABOUT THE HOUSE."              "                 117

  "THRENODY." Ralph Waldo Emerson      Edward Dalziel                121

  From "Lalla Rookh"                   Sir John Tenniel              123

  "Lalla Rookh"                                    "                 125

  ALICE IN WONDERLAND.                             "                 127

  From "Dalziel's Arabian Nights"                  "                 129

  THE CRAWLEY FAMILY.                  Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.     131

  LADY LUFTON AND THE DUKE OF OMNEUM.              "                 133

  TEMPTATION.--Horace Saltoun                      "                 135

  LADY WITH HOUNDS.                                "                 137

  "COME AWA, COME AWA." Thomas         Birket Foster, R.W.S.         141

  "THE GRAVES OF THE HOUSEHOLD."                   "                 145
  Mrs. Hemans

  "LINES WRITTEN ON EARLY SPRING."                 "                 147

  From "Intimations of                             "                 151

  GRANDFATHER NURSING A SICK BOY.      John Pettie, R.A.             155

  COACH AND HORSES.                    A. Boyd Houghton, R.W.S.      157

  KISS ME.                                         "                 159

  SIGURD.                              Sir E. Burne-Jones, Bart.     161

  SUMMER SNOW.                                     "                 163

  WORLDLY WISEMAN.                     J. D. Watson, R.W.S.          165

  CRUSOE VISITS THE OLD CAPTAIN.                   "                 167

  ABJECT PRAYER.                                   "                 169

  "LIFE'S JOURNEY." George Wither      Frederick Sandys              171

  "THE LITTLE MOURNER." Dean Alford                "                 173

  CLEOPATRA.                                       "                 175

  "THE LENT JEWELS." Richard           Holman Hunt                   177
  Chevening Trench

  "A NORTHERN LEGEND." W. Cullen       Edward Dalziel                179

  "THE BATTLE-FIELD."             "                "                 181

  "THE MAIDEN'S SORROW."             " Harrison Weir                 183

  "THE LADY OF CASTLE WINDECK." "      Edward Dalziel                185

  "THE EXILES OF OONA." Robert         Thomas Dalziel                187

  "THE DESERTED COTTAGE." Wordsworth   Joseph Wolf                   189

  "AN EVENING WALK."             "                 "                 191

  "THE LONG VOYAGE." Charles Dickens   Frederick Walker, A.R.A.,
                                       R.W.S.                        195

  "THE SCHOOLBOY'S STORY." "                       "                 197

  A WOMAN IN THE SNOW.                             "                 199

  TWO FANCY SKETCHES.                              "                 200

  "TRAMPS." Charles Dickens            G. J. Pinwell, R.W.S          208

  "CITY CHURCHYARDS." Charles Dickens              "                 209

  THE SISTERS.                                     "                 211

  "AN ENGLISH ECLOGUE." Robert         G. J. Pinwell, R.W.S.         213

  "THE BALLAD MAKER."             "                "                 215

  From "The Vicar of Wakefield"                    "                 217

  PEASANTS. From "The Vicar of                     "                 219

  "MEG BLANE." Robert Buchanan         A. Boyd Houghton, R.W.S.      220

  "THE SAINT'S STORY."             "               "                 221

  THREE BLIND MEN. From "Dalziel's
  Arabian Nights"                                  "                 223

  QUEEN-MOTHER TO THE VAULTS. From     Edward Dalziel                225
  "Dalziel's Arabian Nights"

  CORD. From "Dalziel's Arabian        Thomas Dalziel                227

  "MEG BLANE." Robert Buchanan                     "                 228

  "CELTIC MYTHS."             "                    "                 229

  "THE EXILES OF GLEN OONA." Robert    William Small                 231

  "HAHON."             "               Edward Dalziel                233

  MUSIC.--A MAN AT THE SPINET.         J. M. Lawless                 235

  CAIN AND ABEL. From "Dalziel's       Lord Leighton, P.R.A.         239
  Bible Gallery"

  From "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"                   "                 243

  "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"            G. F. Watts, R.A.             245

  PHARAOH. From "Dalziel's Bible       Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.     247

  MIRIAM. From "Dalziel's Bible                    "                 249

  From "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"       Holman Hunt                   251

  "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"            Ford Madox Brown              253

  "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"            Thomas Dalziel                255

  From "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"                   "                 257

  HOSANNAH. From "Dalziel's Bible      Simeon Solomon                259

  DANIEL'S PRAYER.             "       Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.     261

  OF DIFFICULTY. From "Bunyan's        E. G. Dalziel                 263
  Pilgrim's Progress"

  OLD HONEST. From "Bunyan's           Sir James D. Linton, P.R.I.
  Pilgrim's Progress"                                                265

  THE ATHEIST. "             "         Frederick Barnard             267

  MONKEYS. From "Wood's Natural        Joseph Wolf                   269

  THE OLD YEAR AND THE NEW. Cartoon    Paul Gray                     273
  from "_Fun_"

  "FUN."                               J. F. Sullivan                274

  THE CHOSEN CHAMPION. Cartoon from    Frederick Barnard             275

  OLD FATHER TIME.             "       Gordon Thomson                279

  AN URBAN DELUSION. From "_Fun_"      J. F. Sullivan               280,

  THAT OR NOTHING.             "       G. J. Pinwell, R.W.S.         283

  TO EVEN MONEY!             "         E. G. Dalziel                 285

  CLOUD. From "_Fun_"                              "                 287

  PARK LANE.             "             E. F. Brewtnall               289

  A DRAP O' THE BEST. From "_Fun_"     William Small                 291

  MISTRESS AND MAID.             "     A. Boyd Houghton, R.W.S.      295

  THE THEATRE OF NATURE.             " Ernest Griset                300,

  AN ILLOGICAL DE-DUCK-TION. "         E. G. Dalziel                 305

  GOING HOME TO LOVE IN A COTTAGE. "   F. A. Fraser                  309

  ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM.             " J. Mahoney                    311

  OYSTERS.             "               Ernest Griset                 313

  ÀPROPOS TO A PROPOSAL.             " Hal Ludlow                    315

  MADAME. From "Behind a Brass
  Knocker" ("_Judy_")                  Frederick Barnard             319

  MISTER MITE. "             "                     "                 321

  LORE. From "_Judy_"                  E. G. Dalziel                 323

  ON LOVE AS A PASSION.             "              "                 325

  CHURCHYARD. From "The Old            Charles Green, R.I.           327
  Curiosity Shop"--Charles Dickens

  From "The Old Curiosity                          "                 329
  Shop"--Charles Dickens

  Uncommercial Traveller"--Charles     E. G. Dalziel                 331

  "AM I RED TO-NIGHT?" From "The
  Uncommercial Traveller"--Charles                 "                 333

  THE CROWD. From "A Tale of Two       Frederick Barnard             335
  Cities"--Charles Dickens

  WITH MR. BRAY. From "Nicholas                    "                 337
  Nickleby"--Charles Dickens

  PORTRAIT OF GEORGE DALZIEL. From a                                 340

     "        EDWARD DALZIEL. From a                                 341

     "        THOMAS DALZIEL. From a                                 342


                          IN KIND REMEMBRANCE

                                OF THE


                             OF THIS BOOK.

                         THE BROTHERS DALZIEL.



We were members of a family of twelve children, and, with one
exception, we were born at Wooler, Northumberland, the youngest
having been born at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Our father spent a great part
of his time in horticultural pursuits, and in middle life took up
art as a profession. He also held a commission in the Northumberland
Militia. His sons, eight in number, inherited strong artistic tastes,
which they all carried out professionally, except the youngest,
Davison, who applied himself very successfully to commerce. The
eldest, William, whose art work was chiefly devoted to heraldic and
occasional ornamental decoration for MSS. books, also painted a little
in still-life subjects with remarkable fidelity; while the second
son, Robert, devoted himself to art, and obtained a fair reputation
as a portrait painter. He also studied landscape painting for some
time under Thompson, of Duddingston, and having practiced his art
successfully both in Glasgow and Edinburgh, he came ultimately to
London, where he died, having attained only his thirty-second year. The
next brother, Alexander, was a youth of rare artistic promise, and, had
he lived, must of necessity have made a great name for himself as a
designer and draughtsman in black and white; but early in life, while
living in London, he caught a chill, which terminated in consumption.
He, having returned to his mothers house in Newcastle-on-Tyne, died
before completing his twenty-third year.

The next brother, George, early in 1835,[1] being then nineteen,
came to London as a pupil to the late Charles Gray, an engraver on
wood, with whom he remained four years, and on the completion of
his engagement, he commenced operations on his own account, though
continuing on the most friendly terms with Gray. A few weeks later he
was joined by his brother Edward, and from that day we two have, for a
period of over fifty-five years, worked hand in hand together, as "The
Brothers Dalziel."



BORN, MAY 22, 1781; DIED, JUNE 30, 1832.


"_Alexander Dalziel, born at Wooler, in the County of Northumberland,
on the 22nd May, 1781; married at Lamberton, North Britain, on the 4th
day of January, 1805, to Elizabeth Hills, born at Mornington, North
Britain, on the 11th May, 1783._"

                                          --EXTRACT FROM FAMILY BIBLE.]

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1852 our brother John became associated with us. He was a skilful
and highly accomplished engraver; but his health, unfortunately, gave
way, and early in 1868 he was compelled to give up all artistic work
and went to reside at Drig, a delightfully picturesque locality,
surrounded on the one side by the Cumberland Lakes and hills, and on
the other by the broad sea, hoping that the fine bracing air of the
North would restore him to health, but unhappily the change came too
late, and he died in the summer of 1869.

In 1860 our brother Thomas, who had been educated as a copperplate
engraver, joined the "Brotherhood," and from that time devoted himself
entirely to painting and drawing on wood, contributing much excellent
work to the various books we produced. Among them may be mentioned
"Dalziel's Arabian Nights," "Dalziel's Bible Gallery"--of which we will
have much to say further on, and a beautiful edition of "The Pilgrim's
Progress," as well as many very charming drawings for nearly all the
Fine Art Books created by ourselves, or produced under our entire



BORN, MAY 11, 1783; DIED, FEBRUARY 4, 1853.


_She was one of the brightest, the best, and kindest of women--a true
embodiment of all that is good and just._]

In the early part of our career, that is to say during the Forties,
we George and Edward, worked very much in association with Ebenezer
Landells, one of the original projectors and proprietors of _Punch_,
and from whom (the other original proprietors having resigned their
shares in a then unprofitable speculation) Messrs. Bradbury and Evans,
the printers, acquired a two-thirds share. Subsequently the entire
property passed into their hands. We may here state that while in
association with Landells, we engraved the picture, "Foreign Affairs,"
which was the first drawing contributed to _Punch_ by John Leech.

Landells was a man to whom illustrated literature, journalism in
particular, owes much. It is an old story, well known at the time, how
he parted with his interest in _Punch_, and how he lost the proceeds
in the _Illuminated Magazine_, which was edited by Douglas Jerrold.
Among his thousand and one journalistic ventures, he was the first to
project and produce the _Lady's Newspaper_, but in this, as in other
things, he was before his time and failed. He it was who suggested to
Herbert Ingram that an artist should be sent to follow the progress of
Queen Victoria on her first journey to Scotland; Landells undertook
the commission, and it was the success of, and great interest taken
in these pictures that had much to do with making the _Illustrated
London News_. The Queen was so much pleased, that she bought all
Landells' original drawings. He worked very much with Herbert Ingram,
and it was through him that we were engaged upon the second number of
the _Illustrated London News_. It was for him that we engraved the
prospectus block for _Punch_, also the covers for that journal drawn
by "Archie" Henning, William Harvey, and John Gilbert, as well as the
"H. K. B." drawings every week for "Master Humphrey's Clock." In fact
we were largely indebted to him for much sincere help at a time when
such help was invaluable, and at his house we had the advantage of
forming the friendship of Douglas Jerrold, the Brothers Mayhew, Mark
Lemon, and others connected with the foundation of _Punch_.

[Illustration: GEORGE DALZIEL.



DATE ABOUT 1841 OR '42.]

Landells was a man brimful of ideas and full of energy. One hardly ever
met him but that he had some new project which was "certain to be a
fortune"--a fortune that never came to him.

His connection with the _Illustrated London News_ continued until
Herbert Ingram's departure for America, from which place he never
returned, having been drowned on Lake Michigan. It is a curious fact
that, when Ingram's body was brought home for interment, on the same
day that his funeral took place at Boston the remains of Landells
were interred at Highgate Cemetery. We were at the ceremonies. Edward
attended the one, while George was present at the other.

An interesting anecdote is told of Thomas Bewick in reference to
Ebenezer Landells. When it was proposed to place him as a pupil with
that eminent wood engraver, the father of the lad said, "Well, Mr.
Bewick, I hope you will make my son a clever fellow." "Mr. Landells,"
replied the veteran, "I'll do my best to teach him what I know, but if
God Almighty hasn't put brains into your son's head, it's impossible
for me to put them there!"

[Illustration: EDWARD DALZIEL.



DATE ABOUT 1841 OR '42.]

This anecdote was told us by Landells himself, in illustration of a
principle he was discussing, that unless a lad has a real, genuine
love for the art he is studying, no teaching in the world will ever
make him a skilful worker. His father not being able to arrange terms
with Bewick, Landells did not remain long with him, but served his
apprenticeship with Isaac Nicholson (an old pupil of Bewick's, who had
opened an office on the opposite side of the way to his old master, in
St. Nicholas' Churchyard, Newcastle-on-Tyne), with whom Charles Gray
was also a pupil. And it was through those two young men coming to our
Father to "learn to draw" that our brother Alexander became a pupil
of Nicholson's, with whom he served a seven years' apprenticeship,
and proved himself a very skilful draughtsman and engraver. Hence our
somewhat close connection with the school of Thomas Bewick.

Landells was a man of slightly excitable temperament, and, as a rule,
very demonstrative. One morning he called upon his old pupil, Edmund
Evans, who was then commencing colour printing works in Racquet Court,
saying "he was off to the Derby, and, as the morning looked rather
doubtful, would he lend him an umbrella?" This Evans most willingly
did, giving the best he had, almost a new one. Landells faithfully
returned it the next morning, but the ferrule had disappeared, and the
stick was battered down close to the silk. Landells had evidently been
through some exciting scenes, and in expressing his high appreciation
of the events Evans' umbrella had come sadly to grief.

When Landells got a little vexed or worried by anyone, which in his
very much varied life he not unfrequently did, his invariable remark
was, "Well, stop till I see him again and I'll give him a piece of my

[Illustration: JOHN DALZIEL.

BORN, JANUARY 1, 1822; DIED, MAY 21, 1869.


During the time that "ructions" were on with his co-partners in
_Punch_, he met Douglas Jerrold in Fleet Street and complained
bitterly, winding up with, "There, I've just been to see them and have
given them a bit of my mind," "Ah," said Jerrold, "I'm afraid they
would not gain much by that, Landells."

His eldest son, Robert Landells, also an artist of considerable ability
in black and white work, acted for many years as Art War Correspondent
to the _Illustrated London News_, and, in that capacity, went through a
great part of the Franco-Prussian Campaign.

The years of our boyhood having been spent in Newcastle-on-Tyne, we
have constantly been identified as being natives of the Tyneside,
and so became much associated with several artists of ability who
hailed from that part of the kingdom. Among the foremost of those we
would mention William Harvey, the justly celebrated artist and book
illustrator, who was himself a favourite pupil of Thomas Bewick,
and during his apprenticeship designed and engraved several of the
smaller tailpieces to the "Fables," "Natural History," and other works
published by his famous master.

William Harvey was born at Newcastle-on-Tyne, July 13th, 1796, and died
at Richmond, Surrey, January 18th, 1866. He was apprenticed to Thomas
Bewick, 1810, and the high esteem in which he was held by his master is
shown in the letter here quoted.

                                       "GATESHEAD, _January 1st, 1815_.

    "DEAR WILLIAM,--I sent you last night, 'The History of British
    Birds,' which I beg your acceptance of as a New Year's gift and
    also as a token of my respect. Don't trouble yourself about
    thanking me for them; but, instead of doing so, let those books put
    you in mind of the duties you have to perform through life. Look
    at them (as long as they last) on every New Year's day, and at the
    same time resolve, with the help of the All-wise but unknowable
    God, to conduct yourself on every occasion as becomes a good man.
    Be a good son, a good brother, and (when the time comes) a good
    husband, a good father, and a good member of Society. Peace of mind
    will then follow you like a shadow; and when your mind grows rich
    in integrity, you will fear the frowns of no man, and only smile
    at the plots and conspiracies which it is probable will be laid
    against you by envy, hatred, and malice.

                                                        "THOMAS BEWICK.

  "To William Harvey, Junr.,

[Illustration: THOMAS DALZIEL.

BORN, MAY 9, 1823.


Two years later, 1817, when he had completed his apprenticeship, he
went to London, where he studied drawing and painting under Benjamin
Haydon, and anatomy with Sir Charles Bell, where he had, as fellow
students, amongst others, Charles Lock Eastlake, the P.R.A., George
Lance, the fruit painter, and Sir Edwin Landseer. He soon became a
most distinguished draughtsman and illustrator of books, his fame
rising rapidly. For many years he stood prominently in the front of
all others. Amongst his earliest works were "Henderson's Book on
Wines," for which he not only made the drawings but engraved them
all himself. It is further interesting as being the first work that
bore his name. His great ability both as draughtsman and engraver is
shown in the reproduction of an elaborate work from Benjamin Haydon's
picture of "Dentatus"--which even in these advanced days must be held
as a remarkable example of wood engraving, being, strictly speaking, a
marvellous imitation of a copperplate, done in the grand line manner.
Haydon no doubt induced Harvey to undertake this work to satisfy his
own vanity, for he was not a man "who cared for others."

About this time he gave up engraving altogether and devoted himself
entirely to drawing on wood.

William Harvey was a great and highly-gifted artist, a true man, a
friend and counsellor to us from the time of our earliest efforts to
the day of his death. He was a fine conversationalist, brimful of
anecdotes, chiefly concerning a notable group of artists, authors, and
men of law, many of whom had gone, and others who were then passing
away. As an illustrator he held the town for many years, and in
connection with Charles Knight did much to popularise black and white
work; but even in his own time what changes took place! He said that
in his early days if merely a frontispiece were wanted for a book,
John Murray would invite him and John Thomson, the engraver, to dinner
at Albemarle Street, that they might discuss the subject fully before
beginning the work.

[Illustration: always yours truly

                                                        William Harvey]

In his more important works Harvey always tried to push forward one or
more young and unknown engravers of promise--in fact he was the young
man's friend.

Of course he had many imitators; coming men begin by imitating the
manner of the successful men who have gone before. He used to say, "The
young man jumps on the shoulders of the old man, looks over his head,
and consequently sees much farther along the road." Strong examples of
this are shown in the early works of Sir John Gilbert, which alternated
in likeness to William Harvey, Kenny Meadows, and George Cruikshank;
but in a later stage took on much from the great German artist, Menzel.

The following are a few instances in illustration of young men building
up their style by studying the old professors in their art, which we
call to mind as occurring in our own experience:

William Harvey felt complimented by John Gilbert gleaning from his
works; while George Cruikshank was highly indignant with Gilbert for
what he called "cribbing his brains," and threatened to go down to
Blackheath and "thrash the fellow." Gilbert, on being told this, only
laughed, and said, "I don't think he knows what sort of man I am."

J. Prior, the father of Melton Prior, assisted William Harvey very
frequently; and after acquiring a fair style of imitation, did a good
deal of work on his own account, which sometimes bore too strong a
resemblance to the master. He would say to Harvey, "I know you don't
mind." He was right; good-natured Harvey did not mind if Prior got any
advantage by it. But, like other men, Prior ultimately acquired a
style of his own, and did much good service in the early days of the
_Illustrated London News_, to which journal his son Melton has long
been a valuable power as War Correspondent.

The early drawings of that great art genius, Fred Walker, A.R.A.,
R.W.S., have a strong family resemblance to those of Sir John Gilbert.
J.W. North's early drawings reminded one vividly of Birket Foster,
while Birket Foster's style was undoubtedly built upon Thomas Creswick,
R.A.--and so on, and so on.

Our connection with Harvey was so close, not only as regards work, but
socially, that we can say he was in every sense one of "Nature's best";
lovable to a degree,--and would far more than stand the test of the
guiding-lines laid down by his master in the letter printed on page 12.

Among William Harvey's chief works mention must be made of the
charmingly fanciful designs for Lane's "Arabian Nights," "Northcoat's
Fables," "The Tower Menagerie," several of the books in "The Abbotsford
Edition" of Sir Walter Scott's novels, and many smaller books, notably
"The Children in the Wood," and "The Blind Beggar's Daughter of Bethnal
Green"; also an extremely beautiful frontispiece, as well as other
illustrations, to each of the plays in Charles Knight's Edition of
Shakespeare's Works. Subsequently he illustrated for us an edition of
"The Pilgrim's Progress," in which he displayed all his tasteful fancy
in decorating its pages. This book was published by David Bogue. From
1839 to the time of his death, William Harvey entrusted many of his
drawings to our care, as well as in later years constantly working for
the various books produced under our superintendence.

On the death of William Harvey, it was proposed that a monument
should be erected over his grave in Richmond cemetery, and in seeking
subscriptions for that purpose, among others, Samuel Lover, the famous
Irish song-writer, composer and artist, was asked to assist and
co-operate with a few friends in carrying out the object, when in reply
he wrote:

    "I wish instead of a few friends that many were engaged for what
    is proposed, for then this monument might be much more worthy the
    memory of so good an artist and so good a man. As to the extent,
    you may rely on me for help ... In sincere esteem for my much
    esteemed friend, I think few can exceed me, but my exchequer is
    rather limited. Could I convert my heart into a bank, and make its
    wishes into bank notes, I would build a monument out of my own
    purse to one so worthy of esteem and every kind remembrance.

                                                        "SAMUEL LOVER."

Is not this just the letter we might expect from the warm-hearted
Irishman and true poet who could write the following beautiful lines?

    "I'll seek a four-leaved shamrock in all the fairy dells,
    And if I find the charmed leaves, oh, how I'll weave my spells!
    I would not waste my magic might on diamond, pearl or gold,
    For treasure tires the weary sense--such triumph is but cold.
    But I would play the enchanter's part in casting bliss around,
    And not a tear or aching heart should in the world be found."

The monument was erected, as suggested, in the cemetery at Richmond,
Surrey, as well as a brass tablet in St. Nicholas' Cathedral,
Newcastle-on-Tyne, both from designs by John R. Clayton.

Having furnished several illustrations to a book of Irish songs edited
by Samuel Lover, and published by John Maxwell, husband of Miss
Braddon, we received several kind letters of commendation and thanks
for the care bestowed in getting up the work. Among others we may quote
the following:

                                                "_November 13th, 1857._

    "I hope you will excuse me for not having sooner acknowledged your
    enclosure of your engraving of Gratton's Head, which is quite
    admirable, and for which I truly thank you."

Again, in writing of a drawing to illustrate the "Four-leaved
Shamrock," which we had submitted for his approval, he says:

    "I think your quadruple design most excellent. If that be carried
    out (as I have no doubt it will) with the care and spirit of the
    drawing on the wood, it will make a charming illustration.... I
    suggest that you place the initial letter 'I' encircled with the
    charmed leaves in the corner, to commence the first line of the
    song. I am glad for your own sake, as well as for the credit of the
    book, you have made the second illustration, as I am convinced it
    will do you much credit. For myself, pray accept my many thanks.

                            "My dear Sirs,
                          "Yours very truly,
                                                        "SAMUEL LOVER."

[Illustration: MARGARET DALZIEL.

BORN, NOVEMBER 3, 1819; DIED, JULY 12, 1894.


_She was the essence of kindness and generosity, a sister-mother to us
all, and "Aunt Meg" to everybody._]

During all our operations from the year 1851, we were fortunate
enough to have the loyal and skilful help of our sister Margaret, who
warmly entered into all our plans and worked very constantly upon the
most highly finished engravings we produced. As much of the work we
were engaged upon was intended for periodical publications, it may
readily be supposed that there was, at times, great pressure to meet
the requirements of the printer; on such occasions we could always
be certain of her ever ready help, grudging neither time nor labour
to render every assistance in her power. In all respects she was one
of the most devoted, kind-hearted and sympathetic women that ever
lived, and her great excellence of character, we have every reason to
believe, was fully appreciated by all those who had the privilege of
her acquaintance or friendship.




_By permission of Messrs. Adam & Charles Black._]


[1] With very trifling exceptions there was no railway traveling in
England at that time, and only one steam vessel, the _Hylton Jolliffe_,
sailed between Newcastle and the Metropolis, so that George Dalziel
made the journey in a small trading vessel of some three or four
hundred tons burden. The weather being calm and warm for the season,
the little ship went pleasantly along until it had performed about half
the journey, when, through negligence on the part of the chief mate,
who was in charge at the time, the vessel was allowed to run aground
upon a sand bank when nearly opposite Yarmouth. It was a beautiful
sunny morning, and the ship was quickly surrounded by a great many
fishing boats offering their services to take out part of the cargo,
and so lighten it sufficiently that it might float again when the tide
rose. This was done, and having gone a little further out to sea, the
cargo was again put on board and the ship sailed away to London, where
she finally cast anchor in the Thames nearly opposite the Tower, on a
bright, fresh, Sunday morning, having occupied nearly a whole week in
the journey.



Very early in our career we were, through our friend William Harvey,
introduced to Charles Knight, the eminent publisher who did so much as
a pioneer in introducing cheap and good literature to the people, as
his "Penny Magazine," "Penny Cyclopædia," "Charles Knight's History
of England," and many other kindred works bear ample evidence. And
not only in literature but in art as well he took a bold and leading
part: see his elaborately illustrated edition of Shakespeare's
Works, the Bible, "The Land we Live in," and many highly interesting
and instructive books. Perhaps the most beautiful of all was the
illustrated edition of Lane's "Arabian Nights' Entertainments," a book
which must always hold a foremost place among the most tastefully
decorated volumes this country has produced.

It was only in association with Landells and Charles Gray that we were
at all connected with this work, not having, at that time, any personal
transaction with Mr. Knight, though we subsequently did a great deal of
work for him, notably in his "Shakespeare" and "The Land we Live in."

Mr. Ramsay, Mr. Knight's sub-editor and literary manager, used to
tell a curious story about one of the literary contributors to these
volumes, whose name, for obvious reasons, we will withhold.

In this gentleman's early connection with Mr. Knight, he called and
had a serious conversation with Ramsay, confessing his uncontrollable
weakness for strong drink, and that his only safeguard was an empty
pocket. He therefore begged of Ramsay never, under any circumstances,
to advance him one penny upon his work, no matter how hard he might
plead, or what story he might tell in urging the necessity for an
advance of cash. Ramsay was to be firm and refuse to listen to him, and
on no account to let him have money, and that all payment for work was
to be forwarded to his wife. Ramsay promised faithful observance, and
so matters went smoothly on for a considerable time. But one day M. N.
came with a sad, doleful face, begging for an advance of ten pounds.
Ramsay positively declined, reminding him of their compact.

"Yes, yes, that's all right, old fellow," he answered; "but this
business is quite away from everything else. I don't forget the
injunction I laid upon you, but this is altogether different; it is a
case of the most urgent necessity." Then he went on and told a sad,
touching tale of his boy having died suddenly, and the shock having
brought on a serious illness with his wife, while, unfortunately, he
was totally without funds to meet the unexpected demands upon his
purse, or procure a nurse to attend upon her, as well as the comforts
that were absolutely necessary under the circumstances.

For a time Ramsay stood firmly out, always reminding M. N. of his own
proposition, but the man was so impressively urgent, appealing again
and again on the score of his wife's critical condition, that at last
Ramsay's scruples gave way, and M. N., lavish in his thanks, left the
office with the ten pounds in his pocket.

It is, perhaps, needless to say that M. N. was not seen in Fleet Street
for many days, and when he did turn up, shaky and dilapidated in
appearance, it was only to load Ramsay with the most crushing abuse for
having broken faith with him, and when Ramsay tried to shelter himself
under the pathetic tale he had told about his sick wife and dead son,
he only replied:

"D---- the sick wife and dead son! Why didn't you stick to your
promise? I told you distinctly that it was possible I might come with
some trumped-up story of urgent necessity, and a lot of such rubbish,
and now see what a hole you have let me into. My son is perfectly
well, and as healthy a lad as ever lived, and as for my wife, well,
she was never better in her life, and is only suffering from the
misery brought about by your unaccountably bad behaviour to me. I tell
you, Ramsay, you are a traitor and a false friend, who has used me

With these words M. N. left the office, but returned within half an
hour seeking condonation, begging that Ramsay would overlook the
foolish words he had used in a moment of unjustifiable irritation,
and further show his good feeling by advancing him a trifle--say, a
sovereign? No? Well, then, let it be five shillings? Still no! Ramsay
was obdurate, and M. N., muttering, "Cruel man! Cruel, cruel man!" went




_By permission of Messrs. Adam & Charles Black._]

In the year 1842 or 1843, through the kindness of the late Clarkson
Stanfield, R.A., we were introduced to Mr. William Dicks, who
officiated as art agent for Mr. Cadell, the Edinburgh publisher, then
issuing a very elaborately illustrated edition of the Waverley Novels,
which he named "The Abbotsford Edition," and employing on the work many
of the very first artists of the day, both English and Scotch. We were
entrusted to engrave a large number of the drawings. Among the first
of these was a wonderfully life-like portrait of the Scotch actor,
Mackay, in the character of "Bailie Nicol Jarvie," painted by Sir
William Allan, R.A. and P.R.S.A.[2] The engraving of this portrait gave
such entire satisfaction both to Mr. Cadell and Mr. Dicks that we were
constantly employed upon the undertaking until its completion.

Among the artists whose drawings we had to engrave during the progress
of this edition of the great "Wizard of the North's" novels, we may
especially mention William Harvey, Clarkston Stanfield, R.A., Sir J.
Noel Paton, P.R.S.A., John Franklin, Edward H. Corbould, Sir David
Wilkie, R.A., Alexander Christie, and Robert McIan.



Through the friendship that sprung up with several of these gentlemen,
and our connection with the Institute of the Fine Arts,[3] we became
acquainted with many of the young artists who were introducing a new
and more realistic feeling into the black and white work of the day.
Among them were John Tenniel, at that time just returned from his
studies in Germany, and strongly impressed with German Art, and what
was termed "The Shaded Outline School"; Alfred Elmore, R.A.; Fred
Pickersgill, R.A.; F. W. Topham; Edward Duncan; George Dodgson; John
Absolon; all, except the Royal Academicians, members of the Old Water
Colour Society, and the New--now called the Royal Institute of Water
Colour Painters--besides many others who have since risen to great
eminence in their profession.

John Absolon being then engaged on a set of illustrations to Collins'
Poetical Works, to be published by David Bogue, he placed many of the
drawings in our hands to engrave, which was the commencement of a
long and intimate friendship--not only with the artist, for it also
opened up a connection with Bogue which enabled us to produce some very
creditable works together.

Early in 1851 John Franklin, many of whose illustrations to "The
Abbotsford Scott" and the "British Ballads" we had engraved, placed in
our hands some drawings he was making to illustrate a series of Fairy
Tales, edited by Sir Henry Cole, then known to the literary world as
"Felix Summerly," to be published by Mr. Joseph Cundall of Bond Street,
who was an enlightened publisher with strong artistic taste, his great
idea being a desire to raise the character of children's picture
books. This was about the time that Van Voorst published "The Vicar of
Wakefield," with Mulready's illustrations; one of the first high-class
books of the period, which was so highly thought of that Mulready said
he had commissions offered to him for pictures from these designs
sufficient to keep him at work for the remainder of his life. It was at
this time that Cundall induced Mulready to make a set of drawings for a
child's primer: and very beautiful they are.

This series of Fairy Tales was continued, with pictures by Frederick
Taylor, P.R.W.S., H. C. Horsley, R.A., and other artists of high repute.



Our connection with these two London publishing houses, added to the
work we were doing for Mr. Cadell of Edinburgh, tended considerably
to increase our responsibilities. And this may be the most convenient
place to state that it was at Mr. Cundall's we were first introduced to
Mr. George Routledge, who had called for the express purpose of asking
Mr. Cundall to recommend a "good man" to engrave a small drawing on
wood, a portrait of Sir Robert Peel, which he then had in his pocket.
The commission was entrusted to us, and thus commenced a connection and
a friendship which continued with unabated confidence and harmony for a
period extending over forty years.

George Routledge, a strong-minded, clear-headed man of business, in his
early days used to go personally to the larger north country towns, and
get orders from the booksellers. His capacity in this branch was said
to be something marvellous. An old Quaker bookseller, of Darlington,
told us that Routledge never said, "Will thee buy this book?" but that
it always was with him, "Thee must take it"; and as his wares were
always good, the results were said to be many times beyond those of any
other man "on the road." In the publishing business, he, in combination
with his partners, William and Frederick Warne--both clever, energetic
men,--made a force which developed their vast business so rapidly
that Henry G. Bohn, the big publisher of that day, felt so jealous of
their great success, that he used to say, "Well, it has taken three
strong men to do it." After having produced sets of pictures by various
artists, to many sorts of books, the most important of which was a
small octavo of Longfellow's Poems, with illustrations by John Gilbert,
they invited our co-operation, assistance, and direction in such
matters, and it was then determined to do another edition of the same
poems, more extensively illustrated by the same artist. They agreed
to give us one thousand pounds for the pictures, which was to include
Gilbert's charges as well as our own. The book proved a great success
from every point of view, and to this day holds its own as one of the
most beautiful examples of Sir John Gilbert's work as an illustrator.
After the first edition many other poems were added, including "Miles
Standish," all having Gilbert's illustrations to them.[4]

The book when first completed created a sensation. We remember asking
Routledge what he thought of it. He was a pure business man. His reply

"We will wait and see what the trade has to say about it first--see
whether they will subscribe largely, and then I will tell you what I
think about it."

Edmondson, the binder, was so in love with his part of the work that,
holding the volume in his hands, he said, "It is a beautiful book! a
very beautiful book!" then added, in a slightly condescending tone,
"And a good book inside, too."

William Warne dying rather early in life, Frederick Warne, his younger
brother, separated from the Routledges, after the sons of George
entered the firm, and built up a large publishing house of his own. We
were on the very best of terms with all of them, and continued to work
for both houses for many, many years.

[Illustration: EVANGELINE.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Frederick Warne, a really clever, many-sided man, has now retired, but
his three sons--all men worthy of their father--continue to conduct
their large business on the old lines.

Of the many illustrated books which it has been our lot to superintend
and issue to the world, there are two for which we are to a great
extent exclusively responsible: these are "The Spirit of Praise," a
collection of hymns, and "Golden Thoughts from Golden Fountains," a
collection of such literary extracts from favourite authors as the
title of the book will fully explain--one of us having spent much of
his leisure hours in collecting and arranging their contents. The
first of these volumes was originally published in the usual quarto
form, with decorative borders and initial letters, printed in gold and
colours, and subsequently much enlarged by the addition of many hymns
as an octavo volume. The other, "Golden Thoughts," was in its main
lines uniform with the first edition of "The Spirit of Praise." In
both of these books are many of our own contributions, both in pen and
pencil, in addition to several very fine examples of A. B. Houghton.

"The Abbotsford Edition" of the Waverley Novels did not prove a marked
financial success, and when the property was acquired by Messrs. Adam
and Charles Black, Edward H. Corbould, R.I., was commissioned to do a
large number of illustrations for their new edition of these books,
nearly all of which were entrusted to us to engrave.

In the early part of Queen Victoria's reign Corbould held a high
position as a painter in water colour, and was one of the original
members of the "Royal Institute of Water Colour Painters"--then called
the "New Water Colour Society"--and so highly was his artistic ability
appreciated by the Prince Consort that he was selected as art tutor
to the Royal children. Perhaps no better selection could at that time
have been made; for, though somewhat severe in style, he was a good
draughtsman, painstaking, and of a kindly, genial disposition. He was
ever full of amusing anecdotes of the sayings and doings of the Queen,
Prince Albert, and his pupils.

Corbould did not appear to think it possible for any of those young
people to commit a fault. In his eyes they were all sweetness and
the perfection of goodness, "being," as he said, "without the least
appearance of affectation." When asked if any of the young Princes or
Princesses were clever, he invariably evaded a direct answer by saying:

"Er--well, you see, the Princess Royal makes up for the shortcomings of
all the others, she is so very clever. Er--er--they are all clever and
very nice."

During Corbould's connection with the Royal Family, on one occasion he
wrote to us saying the Prince of Wales had got a scrapbook, and he was
commissioned by the Prince to say how pleased he would be if we would
give him some proofs of our engravings to put into it. We sent a large
parcel, and in return Corbould wrote that the Prince was delighted with
our contribution and wished him to express his "Warmest thanks to
Messrs. Dalziel for their great kindness and liberality."

                                                      "_26 July, 1863_,
                                                      "21 RUTLAND GATE,
                                                            "HYDE PARK.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I have received the impression, as well as my own,
    as also the proof for the Prince of Wales. I shall be at Osborne
    either on Thursday or Friday next, and I will give it to him. That
    which you engraved for the 'Keepsake, 1854,' is very beautiful,
    and so I shall keep the proof. Mr. Heath will be quite content and
    so shall I. You can tell him that I require nothing done to it. I
    thank you for the proof, but where are those from Spencer?[5]

                          "Yours very truly,
                                               "EDWARD HENRY CORBOULD."

During the early part of our career we became associated with Mr.
Samuel Carter Hall, who was originator, editor and at that time
proprietor of the _Art Journal_, and in a somewhat desultory fashion
did a considerable amount of work together. Among other matters, we
engraved many of the illustrations for "A Book of British Ballads,"
which was edited by Hall and published by Messrs. How and Parsons
of Fleet Street. The drawings by Sir J. Noel Paton, P.R.S.A., John
Franklin, W. B. Scott, E. H. Corbould, Henry Warren, and other artists,
passed through our hands. When the great International Exhibition
of 1851 was in preparation, and during the time it was open to the
public, Hall published a series of profusely illustrated supplements to
the _Art Journal_, showing the various classes of objects exhibited.
On this work we were very liberally employed. These supplements
were subsequently put together and published in one large, handsome
quarto volume as an Illustrated Catalogue of that great and important

Many other catalogues, official and non-official, were published
of the Exhibition, which contained a marvellous amount of every
conceivable class of handicraft and ingenious device, but certainly,
for comprehensive completeness, none of them at all approached the very
beautiful volume which Mr. Hall gave to the world.

When we had finished our portion of the engravings, he was so grateful
for the help we had given that he volunteered the promise that no other
wood engravers should ever be employed upon his works. But perhaps it
is only characteristic of the man to say that this promise was never
carried out.

As already stated, we engraved a very large number of drawings for
Mr. Hall with undeviating approval, and we were much gratified by the
following passage in a letter addressed to him by E. M. Ward, the Royal
Academician, on our submitting a proof of an engraving we had executed:

    "The cut is admirable in every way. I have nearly finished
    the drawing of 'The Royal Family of France,' and will send it
    immediately it is done. I hope you will have the 'Royal Family'
    done by Dalziels', as you said it should be; they would manage the
    faces much better than----

                          "Yours ever truly,
                                                          "E. M. WARD."

Almost as a matter of course we became associated with Kenny Meadows,
a clever, erratic genius, and an artist of great ability. He had a
wonderful and strangely fanciful imagination, and perhaps will be
best known in time to come by his "Illustrated Shakespeare" and his
"Heads of the People"; there is one other work which is not likely
to be forgotten, "A Head of 'Old Father Christmas,'" which did good
service for a Christmas number of the _Illustrated London News_. He
was intimately connected with Orrin Smith, the distinguished wood
engraver; their earliest work being character sketches and heads of the
people done for _Bell's Life in London_, which was somewhat a pioneer
in illustrated journalism. Meadows at that time was generally known as
"Iron Jack," from the fact of his robust health, which he attributed
entirely to a simple style of living in his early life, much of which
was spent in a lighthouse, where, he declared, they never had enough to
eat. He said, "I used to devour my food like a ravening wolf."

No amount of alcohol ever appeared to hurt him, and to those who
suffered from excess of indulgence he attributed it entirely to
over-eating in their early days, before the constitution was fairly and
properly formed.


    "_Or sweetest Shakespeare, Fancy's child,
    Warble his native wood-notes wild._"

                               "L'Allegro" and "Il Penseroso."--MILTON.


_By permission of the Council of the Art Union of London._]

We were so closely connected with him that when he was first asked to
work for _Punch_, he stipulated that we should have all his drawings
to engrave. This arrangement did not last long, for he was of a very
uncertain nature, and changeable in his moods. His friendship was not
of the kind that would stand much, if any, strain, and after he had
"imbibed" a little, he not infrequently became "nasty." Once at a
public dinner, on the name of _Punch_ being mentioned, he started from
his chair, saying, "Gentlemen, I am _Punch_!" which really was more
than insulting to several _Punch_ men who were present.

At one of the early _Illustrated News_ dinners, Herbert Ingram,
speaking of the great success of the journal, said, "And, gentlemen,
we all share in the credit of producing this wonderful paper." Meadows
was immediately on his legs, saying, "Yes, but have we all shared and
shared alike in the recompense?" "Yes, Mr. Meadows," said Ingram, "we
have all shared alike, according to what we put into the venture."

While Meadows worked for the _Illustrated London News_ we engraved
many of his drawings and saw much of Herbert Ingram and his partners,
Nathaniel Cook and William Little. Ingram was the founder and principal
proprietor of the paper; a man of strong character, self-willed,
but both generous and just. We were in the habit of suggesting and
procuring subjects for them.

We had induced Richard Doyle to make twelve drawings of the months for
the _Illustrated London Almanack_. Nathaniel Cook disputed our charge,
but we stood out. Ingram sat quiet whilst the talk went on. At last
he said, "Have Messrs. Dalziel done the work well?" "Oh! there is no
dispute about that; the work is well done." "Then," said Ingram, "pay
the money and let there be no dispute about it."

That is a single, but a true, illustration of the sort of man Herbert
Ingram was.

Meadows used to say that Nature put him out, and so it did. Looking at
his raised hand with pointed finger, he would say, "I cannot see a hand
as I would draw it."

The first time Meadows met John Leech after he began to draw on
_Punch_, he raved about the drawings, said Leech was the greatest man
who had ever drawn on wood, that he, Meadows, ought to retire from art
altogether and seek some other occupation, that his light was out,
and much more to the same purpose. But as the bottle went round, the
feeling gradually changed, and it ended in Meadows praising his own
work and telling Leech that he must alter his style altogether if he
ever hoped to take a position as an artist--that his work was mere
commonplace drivel, and that he must put imagination into his work
"such as I do in mine, sir."

But judged by his time, Meadows was a very clever man with much
quaint fancy. Many of his initials are singularly pretty, and his
"Shakespeare" will always have a place in the history of black and
white work.

In Kenny Meadows' days, the artist in black and white had not thought
of the advantages of drawing from the living model; neither William
Harvey nor Sir John Gilbert ever drew from Nature, and George Thomas
was one of the first, if not indeed the very first, to draw on wood
direct from life. This was about the early part of the Crimean War,
and his subjects were chiefly of sailors and their doings, and very
clever they were. It created something of a sensation at the time, for
the idea of an illustration being drawn from the life had not before
been heard of except in special cases. No doubt Mulready had life
models for his "Vicar of Wakefield" drawings, and later on Millais
never drew without the life, nor did any of the pre-Raphaelite School,
but this was the gradual and natural development of a new method, and
innumerable drawings by the younger artists which passed through our
hands were all drawn direct on wood from the life.

After spending much time and labour in experimenting, as well as
spoiling a great many blocks, we succeeded in getting fairly good
photographs for the engraver's purpose on other pieces of wood, and
so the valuable original drawings were preserved. This success was
obtained about the beginning, though not at the very beginning, of our
operation on the Bible illustrations. Then followed, as a matter of
course, the constant practice of making drawings upon paper which were
photographed on wood. By this means nearly all the exquisite drawings
in black and white made by Leighton, Poynter, Houghton, and many other
of the artists who worked in association with us have been preserved,
and now adorn some of the public permanent galleries.

       *       *       *       *       *



_By permission of Mr. James Hogg._]

Among the early drawings by John Leech that passed through our hands
were those he made for Thackeray's "Irish Sketch Book," which were
probably copied from Thackeray's own pencil work, for he was not above
having help on his drawings, the result not always being such as he
expected. One day he said to Joseph Swain, "Why don't you engrave
my drawings to come out like John Gilbert's--his work always looks
so strong and mine so weak and scratchy?" Swain tried other helping
hands, but seldom with satisfactory results. It was in this way that
Fred Walker's connection with Thackeray began, Swain having induced
him to work on the author's drawings, which he did on one or two, but
very soon declined to go on with them. Walker asked that he might
make original drawings direct from the story in his own manner, to
which Thackeray agreed; and the result was a fine set of drawings for
"Philip" and for other stories, as well as a close friendship between
author and artist, only broken by the death of the great novelist.

We engraved many of Leech's drawings, notably the first he did for
_Punch_--"Foreign Affairs" (as before mentioned). It was a full page,
and had to be worked at from the moment it came into our hands till it
was given to the printer.

John Leech, speaking of Frith's picture of "The Derby Day," could
not understand how it was that Frith, in this carefully thought out
and elaborate work, had missed one of the most notable facts at such
places--inasmuch as he had not depicted anyone of the crowd smoking a
pipe or cigar.



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

The vain, versatile George Cruikshank believed himself another
"Admirable Crichton." He really thought he could do anything, and that
most of his time having been spent as an illustrator was the result of
circumstance and not of choice. He was impressionable in the highest
degree, and depending on the subject under notice, immediately realised
and expressed his ideas of what "should be done, and what he would
have done if things had favoured him for a career in that direction."
Once, the question being of a naval character, he said, "It was by the
merest chance that I did not go into the Navy; and with my knowledge of
such matters, no doubt I would have been a Rear-Admiral." He was great,
also, on the Army, and no doubt felt that had circumstances drifted him
in that direction, he would have become another Duke of Wellington. No
man ever had greater faith in self than the clever, excitable George

On the occasion of his exhibiting a small oil picture at the British
Institution, called "The Dropped Penny," the fact that it was purchased
by Prince Albert no doubt called extra special attention to it, to the
extent that it might have been sold many times over. One gentleman was
most anxious to have it; or, if this was impossible, would he make a
replica? This George declined to do, but undertook a commission, only
on the understanding that choice of subject and of size were to be left
to him. This was readily agreed to. "The Dropped Penny" was a little
thing about 18 by 24 inches. It was a comic picture--two urchins in
church, one of whom having dropped a penny on the stone floor is about
to pick it up, but they are observed by the Beadle.

When the new work was completed, the gentleman was invited to see it.
He found, to his amazement, a picture 16 feet by 20 feet; subject, "The
Raising of Lazarus."



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

George always thought his true forte was the Grand Historical, and with
much cause, when we think of his wonderful illustrations to Harrison
Ainsworth's "Tower of London," "Windsor Castle," and other romantic

In the illustrated edition of the "Ingoldsby Legends," published by
Messrs. R. Bentley & Son, we had the good fortune to engrave nearly
all the drawings contributed by John Tenniel and George Cruikshank.
During the progress of the work we saw much of the latter gentleman,
who was an exceedingly entertaining companion, being always ready with
some anecdotes or reminiscences of his experience. Amongst his many
grievances (and George Cruikshank's stock was an assorted one) he
complained bitterly of the treatment he had received at the hands of
Charles Dickens, with reference to the authorship of "Oliver Twist."
Cruikshank maintained "that he had not only suggested the subject to
Dickens, but that he had also given him the entire plot, sketched the
characters, arranged all the incidents, and, in fact, constructed the
entire story; so much so, indeed, that the book was, to all intents
and purposes, HIS; for all that Dickens had to do with it was TO WRITE
IT OUT, and any man who could hold a pen might have done it better";
concluding with, "I am only sorry now I didn't do it myself." Those
were the old man's identical words, as spoken to us.

On one of his visits he related the following interesting circumstances
in connection with his famous publication of "The Bottle."[6] This
was a series of pictures, the first showing a young, well-conditioned
mechanic, sitting in his small, comfortably furnished room surrounded
by his wife and three or four children; then followed in order how, in
consequence of a constantly increasing habit of intemperance, they sink
gradually down in the scale of life, until they go entirely to ruin;
his sons to penal servitude, and his daughter to degradation, while
both his wife and himself die in the greatest misery and want.



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

When on the eve of publication, Cruikshank obtained permission to
submit the etchings to Dr. Blomfield, the then Bishop of London. The
Bishop took great interest in looking at the pictures, and asked
many questions as the series was turned over, expressing his great
admiration in the warmest terms. Then turning and looking Cruikshank
full in the face, he said:

"And am I right in coming to the conclusion, Mr. Cruikshank, that you
are a staunch total abstainer?"

Cruikshank, in relating this incident to us, said he never in all his
life felt himself in such an awkward position, for he was obliged to
confess that he did indulge in a little alcohol--occasionally--and that
in great moderation.

"You astonish me, Mr. Cruikshank!--you very greatly astonish me!" said
the Bishop. "For how a man who is able to depict so forcibly all the
misery, the horrors and degradation arising from the indulgence in
strong drink as you have done, and himself indulge, even in a moderate
degree, is a mystery which I cannot understand."

"On my way home," continued Cruikshank, "I felt so inexpressibly
ashamed of myself, and how true the Bishop's remarks were, that I
resolved at once to begin the change which I had long contemplated, and
I subsequently succeeded in bringing about the desired effect.

"It so happened that a few days after my interview with the Bishop,
I received an invitation to dine with a gentleman who was famous in
Society for the _recherché_ character of his frequent dinner parties,
where the wines were of the choicest brands and most tempting quality,
and everything was served in the most dainty and perfect fashion.

"Now is the time, I said to myself, to prove my strength of purpose. I
was successful in resisting all temptation, and left the house after
spending a delightful evening without having tasted a single drop of
any other liquid than water.

"The next morning when I went into my study," continued Cruikshank,
"I patted my head and said, 'George, old boy, you have done well! You
have succeeded, George. You have gained a gigantic triumph, and now
you must go on, unflinchingly, and conquer!'--and I did. From that day
no alcohol of any description ever crossed my lips, and never shall!
NEVER! I'd rather die first!"--here the gallant old fellow posed
himself in a dramatic attitude, and throwing out his left arm, and
striking his right hand sharply upon his breast, cried in his ringing
voice, "FIRE!"

During the latter half of his active life he gave much of his time to
the cause of temperance, and no doubt his influence had very great
effect. At one of his lectures on the subject at Exeter Hall he held up
a brand new "pot" hat of shiniest kind and said, "Ladies and gentlemen,
this hat as you see it represents George Cruikshank, the temperance
advocate, as he now is." Then throwing the hat to the ground, the brim
being undermost, he jumped on the crown, crushing it flat, then holding
it up to the audience, shouted, "And this represents George Cruikshank,
the drunkard, as he was!"

The old man stuck to his resolution for the remainder of his life,
and even on his death-bed, when his medical attendant, the late Sir
W. B. Richardson, himself a staunch total abstainer, prescribed that
small quantities of brandy should be taken--of course medicinally--he
persistently refused to drink it, and so died at an advanced age, firm
in the determination which he had formed many years before that not a
drop of alcohol of any description should ever pass his lips again.

The first drawings by F. R. Pickersgill that came into our hands to
engrave were for "Poems and Pictures," an early "fine art" book,
published by J. Burns, of Orchard Street, which contained designs by
many of the leading artists of the time, including several by W. Dice,
R.A., Cope, R.A., Creswick, R.A., and others. Our connection with
Pickersgill--one of the kindest and best of men--soon ripened into a
close friendship, and it was to him that we gave the first commission
at our own cost for a set of drawings to illustrate "The Life of
Christ," desiring to follow the example of Rethel's "Dance of Death,"
which had just been published in Germany at a very small price.

Our first Part contained six large pictures, printed with a flat tint,
the price being one shilling. The second Part, "The Miracles of our
Lord," contained the same number of pictures, and at the same price.
Our attempt to produce high class art at what was then thought to be
a nominal price was not responded to. Other interests were too strong
for us; and although we tried the aid of some first-class publishers
the scheme would not take. We well remember calling on a well-known
publisher of Scripture work, who, admitting the excellence as well as
the cheapness of the publication, summed up his refusal to purchase
copies with the remark, "I really cannot afford to set your cask of
wine alongside my barrel of beer."



_Published for the Brothers Dalziel by Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

Pickersgill made drawings for many of the fine art books produced under
our care. He also made a series of large drawings on the subject of
"The Lord's Prayer," the text of which was paraphrased in verse by
Dean Alford; the book being published by Messrs. Longman & Co. He also
contributed many beautiful drawings for our Bible Series.

A friend of Pickersgill, the Rev. T. J. Judkin, an eloquent preacher
and clever amateur artist, and a pupil of Constable's, produced a
Volume of Poems to which many of his artist friends contributed
drawings, amongst whom were F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., W. Mulready, R.A.,
Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., E. M. Ward, R.A., and W. E. Frost, R.A., all
of which we engraved for him.

F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., J. C. Hook, R.A., and W. E. Frost, R.A.,
formed a trio in their student days, working much together, and all
illustrating the same subjects--chiefly passages from Spencer's "Fairy
Queen," and Italian or Venetian History, basing their style very much
upon the Early Italian School. Later in life a closer tie existed
between two of these artists, Pickersgill marrying Hook's eldest sister.

Pickersgill told us a somewhat comical experience Hook had with the
Council of "The Art Union of London," who were then procuring a set of
drawings on wood by various artists. One subject having been entrusted
to Hook, he sent his drawing in, and was asked to call at a stated
time, which he did. He saw at once there was something wrong, as the
gentlemen sat looking at each other. At last one mustered courage to
speak, saying:

[Illustration: FAIRY DANCE. BY W. E. FROST, R.A.


"We like your drawing very much, Mr. Hook, but--er--doesn't it want
colour?--er--where--er--where is your bit of black?"

"I don't want a bit of black," said Hook.

"Oh, but we must have a bit of black. There's Mr. B----, now, he always
gives a bit of black."

Hook, feeling fearfully annoyed, took up the drawing, and dipping his
finger in a glass of water, smeared it over, saying:

"There, gentlemen, there is your 'bit of black,'" and throwing down the
drawing, left the room.

The following short letter from Mr. Hook, which bears upon this
subject, will be of interest:

                                                "TOR VILLA, KENSINGTON,
                                                          "_8th April_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I do not manage wood-drawing well at all--not well
    enough even to do _me_ credit, or I would have done you a drawing
    with pleasure. I failed some time back in doing one for the Art
    Union, and recollecting that the blocks they sent me had your name
    on them, I return them also.

                        "Believe me, dear Sirs,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                           "J. C. HOOK.


In a conversation with Richard Doyle he told us that his father (who
was the celebrated "H.B.," a political caricaturist during the thirties
and forties) always urged his sons to practise drawing from memory,
taking all sorts of subjects; that in their walks they should always
try to remember one or more figures they had seen, and immediately
on their return home, make the best drawing they could in pen and
ink; also to frequent the National Gallery or other important picture
exhibitions, remaining in front of any one picture that might attract
their attention until they had fairly mastered the subject, and then
to make the best recollection of it in pencil or colour as they felt
inclined. He highly approved of this method, and felt he had derived
great benefit from the process himself.


    "_O breaking heart that will not break,
    O  pale, pale face so sweet and meek,
    Thou smilest but thou dost not speak,
    And then the tears run down my cheek,



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Doyle had a facile pencil when once fairly at work, but he was
singularly deficient as to the value of time, which appears strange in
one who produced so many elaborate drawings; but little reliance could
be placed upon him even when working for periodical publications. On
one occasion when illustrating a story by Thackeray, the number had
to be issued short of certain pictures that had been arranged for.
Thackeray was a good deal annoyed and asked Doyle if he could give
any reason why he had not done the drawings. He replied in his cool,
deliberate manner: "Eh--er--the fact is, I had not got any pencils."

The matter of pencils was always one of some trouble and difficulty
with Doyle. The following letter is a fair example of what was a not
infrequent occurrence:

                                      "17 CAMBRIDGE TERRACE, HYDE PARK.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--For the reason that _if_ I see my way in anything
    about the realities of the Exhibition, I feel bound to do it for
    you and Chapman, I must decline Mr. Bogue's proposal.

    "I intended to have spoken to you the first time I saw you about
    pencils for drawing upon wood; do you know a good maker? It is
    impossible to get anything of the kind at this end of town. If it
    would not be troubling you too much I would be very much obliged to
    your getting me half a dozen of the _hardest_, and sending them the
    next time your messenger comes to me?

    "You probably know the best makers, which I do not, having always
    got my pencils through the _Punch_ engravers.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "RICHARD DOYLE."


  My dear Sir

    I send two large drawings for Jack, and on Tuesday I expect two
    more, which will make seven.

    On Thursday I leave town for 12 or 14 days, and when I return I
    hope it will not be too late to send the remainder.

    Ten, I think was the original number of large drawings we agreed
    upon, but you said you would rather have less of them and more
    small ones, and consequently I determined on having eight large
    and twenty or thirty small. I shall not however, be strict as to
    number, but will do as many as you can give me time to do.

    As I may safely say that more than half are now done it would be
    agreeable to me if you will let me have half of the L.S.D. at your
    earliest convenience.

                               I remain
                           Very Truly Yours
                                                          Richard Doyle

    As I have worked two of the blocks, I have got into a mess with
    rubbing out. I shall be glad if you will send one me or two more.]

We gave Doyle a commission to do a Panorama of an Overland Journey to
the Great Exhibition of 1851, which it was intended should be published
before, or immediately after, the opening day. We need hardly say the
drawings were not done to time; in fact, the last of them was not
finished until just on the closing of the Exhibition, consequently the
publication was a dead failure.

[Illustration: "SCOTLAND."



_Published for the Brothers Dalziel by Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

It is greatly to be regretted that Doyle did not see his way
to complete this work at the date agreed upon, and while the
great excitement about the Exhibition was at fever heat, for the
characteristic humour which is so peculiarly his own, and so cleverly
depicted in the various Nationalities forming the Panorama, must have
secured for the work a very extensive circulation, and thereby have
added greatly to his reputation.

    "DEAR SIR,--With regard to the Exhibition procession, I would like
    to have your opinion as to whether, now the 'Glass House' being
    open and the public so much seriously occupied with the Exhibition,
    my drawings will be relished. I don't express any decided opinion
    now myself, but I put it to you and would like you to ask Mr.
    Chapman his opinion. I saw the 'procession' that came out a long
    time ago for the first time the other day to look over, and I
    really did not know before that the idea was so much the same as
    mine, and I greatly fear that mine will be thought stale, however
    original I can make it. It is, in fact, next to impossible to
    represent any of the countries by other types than those already
    done in publications already out.

    "As far as I myself am concerned--much time as I have lost over
    this, to me, unfortunate subject--I would rather sacrifice it as
    lost time than bring out a failure. I cannot expect you, who have
    also spent some time upon the work, to feel the same.

    "What occurred to me, however, was that perhaps the drawings of
    the 'procession' might be engrafted upon something else, of which
    it might form a part. I don't see my way, but I throw it out, and
    would like to have your notion on the subject.

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                       "RICHARD DOYLE."

When Doyle retired from contributing to _Punch_, we gave him a
commission to illustrate all the popular Children's Nursery Tales. He
expressed himself delighted to undertake the work, and "Jack the Giant
Killer" was to be the first. This was done, and published by Cundall
and Addy of Bond Street. "The Sleeping Beauty" was the second, but the
drawings for this book came so lingeringly to hand that the idea of
a series was abandoned, and the blocks were put aside for some time.
Those we had, however, were considered so beautiful, and so full
of quaint fancy that we decided to enlist the co-operation of J. R.
Planche to set new words to them, which he did very charmingly, and
the book was published for us by Messrs. G. Routledge and Sons, under
the title of "An Old Fairy Tale Told Anew." Those two stories were
all Doyle ever did for the series; and their production extended over
several years instead of a few months, as would have been the case in
the hands of a more business-like artist.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--I send the drawing, which has occupied me almost
    all the week, and you will see that there is plenty of work in
    it. The subject is taken from these words in Jack's history: 'He
    delighted in reading stories about wizards, giants and fairies,
    and listened eagerly when anybody related the brave deeds of the
    Knights of the Round Table.'

    "It is intended to be the first page of the book (not the title
    page), and type is to go into the space left in the centre.

    "I feel a little anxious about the engraving of the upper half of
    this drawing, which represents the legend told by the old woman,
    as I have never yet had that etching style of drawing engraved
    perfectly to my satisfaction; perhaps that is impossible, but, at
    all events, as there is plenty of time I shall expect this to be a
    _chef d'ouvre_ of wood engraving, as I certainly look for more than
    ordinary care in this drawing.

    "I have begun another large drawing, which I expect will be ready
    for you on Monday at six o'clock.

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                       "RICHARD DOYLE."

We cannot help feeling that much excellent work has been lost by Doyle
not carrying out this scheme, and fancy what exquisite things he would
have made of "Cinderella," "Jack and the Bean Stalk," etc., etc.



_Published for the Brothers Dalziel by Cundall and Addy._]

                                      "17 CAMBRIDGE TERRACE, HYDE PARK.

    "MY DEAR SIR,--I hear from my brother that you called some days ago
    wishing to see me. I have settled in town again, after an absence
    of near three months, and shall be happy to see you at any time.
    You probably wished to see how the 'Sleeping Beauty' was going on,
    and I have to relate a misfortune connected therewith; I am sorry
    to say, several drawings which I had packed in my portmanteau got
    so rubbed during my journey, that while some were only injured,
    some were quite spoiled. I have doctored two or three of these,
    which will be ready for your messenger whenever you will be good
    enough to send. I shall certainly let you have all the drawings in
    time to be out for Easter.

    "If you could let me have the half of the sum agreed upon for the
    illustrations, thirty pounds, as early as convenient to you, I
    should feel much obliged. I think something was said about paying
    half when half the drawings were done, and therefore I am not
    strictly entitled to it yet, but forestall the time as it will be a
    convenience to me to have the money now.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "RICHARD DOYLE."


Notwithstanding his tardiness, so long as Doyle continued to draw
upon wood we were in constant communication with him, engraving his



_By permission of Messrs. Bradbury & Agnew._] Among these may be
mentioned many of the illustrations he did for Charles Dickens'
Christmas Stories, as well as those he made for Ruskin's charming fairy
tale, "The King of the Golden River," Leigh Hunt's "A Jar of Honey from
Mount Hylba," and the entire set for "Bird's-Eye Views of Society,"
published in the _Cornhill Magazine_. We also engraved a large number
of his "Brown, Jones and Robinson" pictures. He proposed to us a
scheme for doing a companion volume: "Brown, Jones and Robinson in
the Highlands of Scotland," but through his dilatory disposition, and
the many and varied engagements we had at that time on our hands, the
project was not carried out.

       *       *       *       *       *

Although we had been accustomed for several years, through our
connection with Ebenezer Landells and the _Illustrated London News_,
to work upon Sir John Gilbert's drawings--perhaps among the very first
was a small drawing of "Cupid Delivering a Love Letter," published in
an early number of _Punch_--it was not until 1851 that we came into
active communication with him. Our first personal interview was to ask
him to make two drawings, a title page and frontispiece to "Praise and
Principle." He took a small foot rule out of his pocket, measured the
size of the two wood blocks, and said, "The price will be thirty-five
shillings each, but I could not possibly give them to you tomorrow; but
the next morning you may rely on having them." The drawings were duly
sent, and with them an account for the sum named; also a letter to say
he had made a mistake in the price, and that all future drawings of the
same size and character would be two guineas each. This promptitude,
it is worthy of remark, was a striking characteristic of the man, for
during the many years that we were in constant intercourse with him,
and engraved many hundreds of his drawings, we have no remembrance of
him ever being a day behind the time he promised to send in his work.



_By permission of Messrs. Bradbury & Agnew._]

The drawings for "Praise and Principle" were followed by many sets
of illustrations, generally eight in number, for books issued by the
Messrs. Routledge.

As an example of his peculiar method of book keeping in those early
days the following letter will be interesting:

                                                        "VANBURGH PARK,
                                               "BLACKHEATH, _June 2nd_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I am now going out to send the drawings by the Parcels
    Delivery Company. Will you kindly let me know that you have
    received them safely?

    "My charge for the four is twelve guineas. As I have no account
    with any one now, and therefore no book wherein to enter such a
    transaction, only a pencil mem. stuck into a frame on the wall, I
    will ask you at your convenience to let me have a cheque for the

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                         "JOHN GILBERT.



    "_His mother she prepared a feast--
    Great stores of venison and wine._"

                               "The Salamandrine."--DR. CHARLES MACKAY.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Early in 1852 we were commissioned by Messrs. Ingram and Cook, who had
then added a book publishing business to their other operations, to
engrave the pictures for an édition de luxe of Dr. Charles Mackay's
beautiful and fantastical poem "The Salamandrine," which Sir John
Gilbert had undertaken to illustrate; and it may be confidently said
that of the thousands of drawings which he afterwards made he never
surpassed the charm and grace of his manipulative skill as shown in
this exquisitely decorated volume. The book was very beautifully got up
and most perfectly printed. Of our labour and part in the production,
perhaps it may be sufficient to quote a short note Dr. Mackay wrote to
us on the subject:

                                                "_December 27th, 1852._

    "MY DEAR SIR,--I cannot but express to you and your brother how
    gratified and obliged I feel for the care you have bestowed
    upon the illustrations for 'The Salamandrine.' I think they are
    triumphs of the art of wood engraving, and I sincerely hope that
    your efforts will be amply rewarded not only in present and future
    reputation but in pecuniary advantages.

    "The _Morning Chronicle_ of Saturday contains a fitting tribute to
    your exertions, and it is likely, I think, that other papers will
    follow in the same strain.

                             "Believe me,
                          "Ever yours truly,
                                                       "CHARLES MACKAY.


Following "The Salamandrine," began the most important works of our
lives, and it was through the enterprise of Messrs. Routledge and
Warne that we were enabled to produce so long a list of "Fine Art
Books," some of them on commission, and many others entirely on our own
responsibility. These also brought us many important commissions from
such houses as Messrs. Longman & Co., W. Blackwood & Son, Smith, Elder
& Co., J. Nisbet & Co., Appleton & Co., New York, Roberts Brothers,
Boston, and several other publishers of high standing both in England
and America.

[Illustration: LUCY GRAY, OR SOLITUDE.

    "_To-night will be a stormy night,
      You to the town must go,
    And take the lantern, child, to light
      Your mother through the snow._"

                                                   --WILLIAM WORDSWORTH.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

An important feature in Sir John Gilbert's practice in this branch of
his art was his marvellous power of design, and wonderful dexterity in
execution. On one occasion during the progress of his work he spoke of
a drawing that had given him some trouble. He said, "Would you believe
it, sir, I was so dissatisfied with it that I absolutely rubbed it
out." He was asked one day whether he ever made an alteration on any
other drawing for "The Salamandrine." He replied, "Was there ever any
evidence of such a thing?"

But the greatest work of his that passed through our hands was
Staunton's "Shakespeare," also published by Messrs. Routledge, the
publication extending over four years. Vast as it was, he never
disappointed us as to time, and when we take into consideration the
number and elaborate character of the drawings, his regularity in
sending them in was really surprising. The system adopted was to leave
the tailpieces at the end of each Act to be drawn according to the
size of the spaces left on the pages, and it was our custom to send
a set of sheets of a Play down to him by special messenger with the
understanding that he was to bring the drawings, four or five, as the
case might be, back with him the same evening, which he always did:
many of them being so elaborately and so carefully finished as to prove
that Gilbert literally had the subjects at "his fingers' ends."

The following letters are of interest as expressing Gilbert's opinion
and impression on seeing the first number of this important work:

[Illustration: KING LEAR.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

                                                  "_Wednesday Evening_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I have looked at, examined, and criticised the first
    number of 'Shakespeare' to that extent that positively I hardly
    know what opinion to express of the first fruits of our labours.

    "The Frontispieces will be an immense addition; without them it
    seems that there are not enough pictures for the money--and yet,
    eighteen cuts such as these are is surely a good shilling's worth.
    It appears to me--_mind_, I don't feel quite convinced of it, for,
    as I said before, I've so over and over considered it that I get
    quite confused--that large cuts are wanted, _fewer_ and _larger_.
    What do you think of two cuts to each act, and those, ten in all,
    larger, keeping the little ones for tailpieces, where necessary to
    have a tailpiece?

    "Turn this over in your mind, and if you think it desirable,
    consult Messrs. Routledge. I cannot help thinking ten cuts, about
    two-thirds the size of the space occupied by the type, would have
    a greater effect, and I should say cost no more than the sum laid

       *       *       *       *       *

    "You desired to have my opinion of the number, but I fear you will
    say, 'Here is no opinion at all.'

                     "Believe me to be, dear Sirs,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                        "JOHN GILBERT."

On the completion of the first volume, he says:

    "Mr. Routledge and Mr. Warne both wrote to me expressing their
    great satisfaction with the last number, and I suppose it must be
    considered a good shilling's worth. You know how I appreciate your
    labours; there are cuts in the last number that cannot be exceeded,
    and looking at the volume, I think, for general even goodness of
    style in engraving, it has never been excelled."

That the printing of some of our books was not at all times faultless,
the following note from Sir John Gilbert will testify. In acknowledging
a volume of India proofs, he says:


    LEAR. "_Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow!
    You cataracts, and hurricanoes, spout
    Till you have drench'd our steeples_."



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

    "I write to acknowledge a volume of proofs. Its size and thickness
    impressed me, and I don't well know how sufficiently to thank you
    for having had the proofs bound up with such care and taste. I can
    only say that I thank you very much for it, and that it will be
    highly valued by me. I had no idea of the magnificent style you had
    intended to get it up. Comparing these proofs with the impressions
    in the volume of poems, I am more than ever impressed that the
    printer has not done his part properly: the difference is immense.

                       "Believe me, very truly,
                                                        "JOHN GILBERT."

About this time W. Harrison Ainsworth was editing "Bentley's
Miscellany," and published some of his own works through that journal,
Sir John Gilbert making the illustrations to "The Lancaster Witches,"
which were entrusted to us for engraving and printing. In sending a
cheque, Ainsworth wrote:

    "I have much pleasure in sending you a cheque in payment of your
    account for the engraving and printing of the designs, all of which
    have my entire satisfaction."

Again, in another letter accompanying a set of drawings by Gilbert,
illustrating "The Constable of the Tower," he says:

    "I have always thought Mr. Gilbert's illustrations to 'Lancaster
    Witches' as in every way charmingly engraved, and I have no doubt
    the present cuts will equal them, if not surpass them, in beauty.

                          "Ever yours truly,
                                               "W. HARRISON AINSWORTH."

While the illustrations to "Shakespeare" were in progress we had two
sets of engraver's burnished India proofs taken by skilled hands, under
our own special care, before the wood blocks were delivered to the
printer. One set, we are pleased to say, is now the property of the
British Museum, where they will remain in all their original beauty.


                                                       Thursday Evening

  Dear Sirs,

    I have just had a glance over the number of our Shakespeare's just
    issued, and cannot resist writing to you at once to express the
    very great gratification it has given me. You have indeed done
    your part of the work nobly, it does you the greatest credit and
    confirms me in the belief I always have had that no one can engrave
    my drawings like you can. I have written to George Routledge to the
    same effect.

                        Believe me yours truly
                                                          John Gilbert]

Sir John Gilbert died at his house, Vanburgh Park Road, Blackheath, on
October 5th, 1897, in his 81st year.

His brother, Mr. Frederick Gilbert, writing on his death, says, "My
brother, Sir John, had a long and distressing illness, but we are
thankful to think not a very painful one--he died very peacefully."

A friend of Sir John's called upon him a few months before his death
and found him hard at work, and making a favourable remark about the
picture he was engaged upon, the veteran replied, quite seriously,
"Well, yes! I think I'm improving."

"And I am told, Sir John," continued the friend, "that you have never
painted from the living model."

Sir John turned his head, with an amused look about the eyes, saying,
"Well, to tell you the truth, I cannot remember the time when I did so."

The writer of a highly appreciative article in the _Magazine of Art_,
says, "Though Sir John Gilbert painted art in every branch, it is
only in one, and that not in the public estimation the one by which
he defies the rivalry of all comers, that he showed himself head and
shoulders above the draughtsmen of his time.... Distinguished as he was
as a painter, it is in virtue of his achievements in black and white
that he takes his place among the few masters, not of his age and
country only, but of all time, who through the medium of the hand and
printing press have ranged themselves among the highest.... He may be
voted old-fashioned for the moment, but real art rises superior to mode
or vogue in taste: it has time upon its side.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

"Added to innumerable illustrations made for the _London Journal_, it
is estimated that Sir John Gilbert made at least 30,000 drawings for
the _Illustrated London News_.[7] He sent 50 pictures to the Royal
Academy, 20 to the British Artists, 40 to the Royal Water Colour
Society, 40 to the British Institute, and produced about 270 works
which have never been exhibited. Added to this stupendous list of works
he contributed 110 drawings to the Illustrated Edition of 'Longfellow's
Poems,' 50 to Dr. Charles Mackay's 'Salamandrine,' 832 to Staunton's
'Shakespeare,' several to 'Lays of the Holy Land,' 'The Book of Job,'
and 'Wordsworth's Poems,' as well as a liberal contribution to the long
series of books known as 'Dalziel's Fine Art Books.'"

In referring to Gilbert's book illustrations a recent writer says,
"There is no sign of haste, though many are sketchy; still, there is
nothing which suggests that greater excellence would have attended
greater elaboration."


[2] It is stated that Sir Walter Scott was so delightfully charmed with
Mackay's acting in this character that he declared "until he saw him
act he had no idea of the extraordinary character he had drawn."

[3] An Institution long since defunct.

[4] The following lines, which were largely quoted by the American
Press, were written on the occasion of Canon Prothero unveiling a bust
of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, in Westminster Abbey, March 1st, 1884:

    There is no place in all the great wide world,
      Where Anglo-Saxon is the spoken tongue,
    Or where the British flag streams out unfurled,
      Where patriotic song or ballad's sung,--
    But there is heard in kindly company
      With Burns and Hood, with Dibdin, Goldsmith, Moore,
    The name of him from far across the sea
      Who sang the noble song, Excelsior.

    He touched the heart with sweet and silvery rhyme,--
      He thrilled us with the pathos of his song,--
    He showed us wild men in the olden time,
      And painted suff'ring under cruel wrong.
    Yet ever in the light of truest love
      He swept with tender touch the sacred lyre;
    And as he sang he caught, as from above,
      A blaze of holy, pure, poetic fire.

    He sang of changing seasons warm and bright,
      He sang of times that were all cold and grey;
    He sang of Flowers and of the darkening night,
      Of Angel footsteps, and of Rainy day;--
    Of Blacksmith as he by the anvil stood,
      The Skipper and his daughter drowned at sea,
    The Maiden stepping into womanhood,
      And then God's Acre, with its mystery.

    E'en as he sang, so lived he in his day,
      Aye striving for some good deed to be done,--
    To show some thing of beauty by the way,
      And tell how fame and honour might be won.
    "His life was beautiful,"[8] so sang his friend,
      With constant charity of heart and hand;
    This one more chaplet with his name we blend,--
      "He was an honour to his native land."[8]

    To-day we lay a humble tribute bare,
      'Tis but a block of marble, in the place,
    On which a human hand, with cunning rare,
      Has deftly carved the sweetness of his face.
    There in the Abbey, where our poets lie,
      Where many a noble pageant we have seen,
    Stands now this bust--where all the world may hie--
      Of him who told us of Evangeline.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.

[5] Corbould had made a set of eight illustrations to Spencer's "Fairy
Queen" for us.

[6] "The Bottle" was published in 1847.

[7] Here we think the writer of the article has over estimated the
number, as Sir John had for many years before his death entirely
severed his connection with the _Illustrated London News_, as well as
all other journalistic work.

[8] These words were used by the American Ambassador, who was present
and spoke on the occasion.



Much has been written about "The Golden Period of Illustration" as
it existed in the early Sixties, represented by wood engraving and
the admirable drawings done for that process by such artists as Sir
John Millais, Fred Walker, A. Boyd Houghton, Dante G. Rossetti, G.
J. Pinwell, Sir E. J. Poynter, Lord Leighton, Sir E. Burne-Jones, F.
Sandys, and other notable artists.

Our opportunities were favourable. We were equally fortunate in being
so intimately connected with men possessing such exceptional talent,
and it must ever be a great satisfaction to us that we were in a
position to avail ourselves of their brilliant ability.

Our co-operation with Sir John Millais began about midway in the
fifties, when, at his request, Moxon, the publisher, brought one
of the Tennyson drawings for us to engrave, and continued for many
years, during which time a large majority of the drawings he made for
wood engraving were entrusted to us. These included his work for the
_Cornhill Magazine_, _Good Words_, and the majority of those he did
for other serial publications, including the illustrations to Anthony
Trollope's "Orley Farm," "The Small House at Allington," and "Framley
Parsonage." This artistic association only ceased when he discontinued
doing this class of work. During the entire time we gave the most
perfect satisfaction to Millais, who frequently expressed himself in
the warmest, and to us extremely flattering, terms of appreciation.

We subsequently discovered that it was to Richard Doyle we were
indebted for our introduction to Millais, who was then living at
Bowerswell. Perth, where Doyle was on a visit, and noticing the
delicate character of a drawing he was at work upon said he believed
the Dalziels were the only engravers who could do justice to such
elaborate manipulation. Upon this Millais requested Moxon to place
the drawings in our hands, and so satisfied was he with our first
performance, that all the remaining drawings he made for this edition
of "Tennyson's Poems" were given to us.

Previous to Mr. Moxon entrusting Millais' drawings to us, he had placed
all the subjects with the different artists, but found great difficulty
in getting the work from them. He gave us a list of those waited for,
and placed the completion of the engravings in our hands, asking us to
look up the artists, which brought us in close communication with those
engaged upon the work.

He also asked us to superintend the printing of the book, which was
being done by Messrs. Bradbury and Evans, who certainly bestowed the
greatest care upon its production, but no sheet was sent to Press until
we had signed it as "approved." The number printed was 10,000 copies,
which were done at the old hand press, for at that time cylinder
machine work was not considered good enough: but all that has long
been changed--the finest and most elaborate work being now produced in
this way.

[Illustration: THE LORD OF BURLEIGH.



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

This edition will always be known as "Moxon's Tennyson," and will
stand out as a landmark in the history of book illustration. In the
work of the younger men engaged on it, beyond the extreme beauty of
their designs, there was an evidence of earnestness to search after
truth that went so deep into nature as to give the work a stamp of
superiority: and this advance in art--for it was an advance--we
endeavoured to follow and to promote to the best of our power.



                          Locksley Hall proof

    The outline of the daughters head is too thick from this'
    in....ssion I cannot see her mouth but will wait for the next,
    the nostril is too large, and the mother's face is too full of
    little fine lines, take away the fuzzy lines indicating the upper
    lip--Clear the eye enlarging the upper lid by making this line of
    the eye less thick bad right There are some little scratches on
    his fingers holding the envelope thus which may be taken out, In
    the shading of the daughters hands on her side, there are some
    black veins which may also be eradicated--There are other little
    corrections if you compare these touched proofs, with others as the
    blocks are--I rush now I am very hard at work painting but will
    attend to the Coleridge & Byron designs at my first liaison--Hoping
    to hear from you soon believe me yours very truly

  Dalziel Brothers. John Everett Millais]

The volume was published by Mr. Moxon at _£_1 11_s._ 6_d._, but the
public did not respond as had been expected, consequently a large stock
was left on hand. These were sold to Messrs. Routledge and Co., and,
with the stock, the entire set of the wood blocks went also. The price
of the volume was reduced to _£_1 1_s._, and it sold out immediately.
On this success Messrs. Routledge wished to produce a new edition,
but Tennyson's terms were too high to leave any margin of profit to
the publisher. This doubtless was the cause of the book being so long
out of print; but the property having since passed into the hands of
Messrs. Macmillan they have reproduced this very interesting book.

On November 23rd, 1856, Mr. Holman Hunt, on receiving the proof of a
drawing he had made for Moxon's edition, writes:

    "I find the proof of the last design for 'Oriana' very
    satisfactory, giving the character of the drawing with great truth."

[Illustration: FROM "THE TALKING OAK."



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

Although we were in communication with Dante Gabriel Rossetti at
an earlier date, when we engraved a small drawing[9] which he made
in illustration to a poem, "The Maids of Elfin-Mere," by William
Allingham, published by Bell and Daldy, in a volume entitled, "Day
and Night Songs"--Rossetti's artist co-workers in this book were J.
E. Millais and Arthur Hughes, all the drawings being engraved by
ourselves--we did not come in contact with him again until we received
the following letter:

                                                "17 ORANGE GROVE, BATH.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--I have just had a note from Mr. Moxon sent to me
    here, by which I learn that you are cutting a drawing of mine, and
    that it will soon be finished. Will you kindly send me the proof
    _here_ (to the above address) and I will at once retouch it and
    send it back to London. I have been lately admiring your work in
    the 'Poets of the 19th Century,' and can only hope for a rendering
    equal to what Millais has there had at your hands.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                      "D. G. ROSSETTI."

The Millais drawings here alluded to are those made to illustrate
passages from Byron and Coleridge, mentioned later on. His own was the
St. Cecillia which Rossetti did for the "Illustrated Tennyson."[10]

It would be obviously out of place for us to comment upon the
difference in treatment which we gave, and that of other engravers who
were entrusted to operate upon some of the drawings he made for this
book, or to remark upon the comparisons of certain critics writing upon
the subject; we can only affirm that Mr. Rossetti expressed himself
both verbally and by letter as being well pleased with our work.
Writing on the receipt of two finished proofs, he says:


                                                                1 April
                                                       14 Chatham Place

  Dear Sir

    Many thanks for the two proofs kindly sent--both of them now highly
    satisfactory & well repaying all your pains.

                           Yours faithfully
                                                           DS Rossetti]

That Rossetti was a man difficult to please in his literary work as
well as in his art, the following is an apt illustration:

In one of the "Allingham letters," he says:

    "I lately heard from Aubrey de Vere with a request to my sister and
    self to contribute something to a verse collection. We looked up
    scraps and expected proofs, but these come not, and I imagine that
    the result, when in type, will be the usual incentive to Blasphemy."

[Illustration: THE BALLAD OF ORIANA.



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

Mr. W. M. Rossetti, writing of his brother's social peculiarities, says:

    "He assumed the easy attitude of one born to dominate--to know his
    own place and to set others in theirs. He was a genial despot, good
    natured, hearty and unassuming in manner, and only tenacious upon
    the question at issue."

[Illustration: ST. CECILLIA.




_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

Though we never had any personal interview with Rossetti's sister, Miss
Christina Rossetti, we had considerable correspondence with this gifted
lady, extending over several years, she having written some short poems
which helped to adorn the pages of one or more of our Fine Art Books.
We also published her charming little Nursery Rhyme Book, "Sing Song,"
which was very tastefully illustrated by Arthur Hughes. The manuscript
of this book was somewhat of a curiosity in its way. On each page,
above the verse, was a slight pen sketch, drawn by Miss Rossetti,
suggesting the subject to illustrate, but of these Mr. Hughes made very
little use, and only in two instances actually followed the sketch.
The book was published on our behalf by Messrs. George Routledge & Co.

On one occasion when Mr. Arthur Hughes sent in some of the drawings
which he had made, one of the pages of manuscript was missing, and on
this being pointed out to him he sent the following note:

                                                       "_July 31, '71._

    "DEAR MESSRS. DALZIEL,--I am sure that I put in the rhyme of
    'Dancing on the hill tops.' I am very careful with them--going two
    or three times through them before packing up. I don't remember
    which was 45, but the four figures representing the Seasons is to
    the poem of the Months, beginning 'January, cold, desolate'; and as
    well as I can remember the poem for the drawing of a man with fagot
    and basket meeting his child--it goes thus:


    'Dancing on the hill tops,
    Singing in the valleys,
    Laughing with the echoes,
      Merry little Alice.
    If her father's cottage
    Turned into a palace,
    And he owned the hill tops
    And the flowering valleys,
    She'd be none the happier--
      Happy little Alice.'

    --and had a pencil sketch at top of a child on a pointed hill.

    "I am just about finishing a batch of these--belonging to last
    week, alas!--but I am also finishing the frontispiece of the
    Carols. These shall come very soon.

                             "Believe me,
                          "Faithfully yours,
                                                       "ARTHUR HUGHES."

[Illustration: HALLELUJAH.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

We had for a long time cherished the idea of doing an important
series of illustrations to "The Parables of Our Lord." This occupied
much anxious thought and careful consideration, for we felt it would
be useless attempting the subject unless the drawings were made by
an artist of acknowledged high-class ability. We found our chief
difficulty in fixing upon one capable of treating the subject with
sufficient dignity, and at the same time likely to avoid the old
conventional style in which at that time Biblical art was treated. As
many of Sir John Millais' charming drawings had been passing through
our hands--among others we would mention some exceptionally beautiful
work illustrating selected passages from poems by Byron and Coleridge,
as well as his exquisite drawing of "The Finding of Moses"--it seemed
to us that he would be a safe man to consult on the subject, and likely
to give us something more original in treatment than any other artist
who was doing this class of work.

Millais entered warmly into the subject and very readily undertook the
commission, as the accompanying letter will show:

                                                    "BOWERSWELL, PERTH,
                                                     "_13 August, '57_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I shall be very glad to accept your offer, but you
    must give me time. One great inducement for me to undertake
    these illustrations is the fact that the book will be entirely
    illustrated by me alone. The subject is quite to my liking; you
    could not have chosen anything more congenial to my desire. I would
    set about them immediately if you will send me some blocks. Will
    you send me a list of the Parables, or leave it to me? I would
    prefer the former. There is so much labour in these drawings that I
    trust you will give me my own time, otherwise I could not undertake
    the commission. I should make it a labour of love like yourselves.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                "JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS."




_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]


                                                       Monday  Bowerswell

  Dear Dalziel,

    At last I have finished "The Pearl of great price"--you will at
    once see there is a tremendous lot of work in it., & I have put a
    little more white in parts than perhaps is good,--but I could not
    help it, as I require to alter a good deal. I know very well you
    will give it all your attention & after all that you have done
    I feel sure it will be rendered a facsimile = the head of Lucy
    Roberts is just what I wanted which is very fortunate as I could
    not suggest alterations--

                           Yours sincerely,
                                                         John E Millais

  Messrs. Dalziel brothers]

Millais produced several of the drawings very promptly, but, as time
went on and he became more popular--the demand for his pictures daily
increasing--longer intervals gradually took place between the delivery
of the drawings, and it was not until the end of 1864 that the last
was sent in. Even then he had only made twenty drawings out of thirty,
which he at first undertook to do. At the same time he requested us to
release him from the remainder of the agreement, and to this we had no
choice but to comply, though we did so very reluctantly, feeling that
the world of art would be so much the poorer.

In 1862 we accepted an offer from Mr. Alexander Strahan, and twelve of
these pictures were published in _Good Words Magazine_. Later, in 1864,
the entire series was published for us in book form by George Routledge
& Sons. But we are sorry to say they did not receive that liberal
recognition from either the public or the critics which their undoubted
excellence ought to have commanded.

When we conceived the idea of doing an Illustrated Bible, of which we
will have much to say further on, Millais was one of the first artists
we consulted on the subject. He warmly approved of the project, and
promised his most hearty and liberal co-operation; but like many
other equally hearty promises from artists of note, they were never
fulfilled, not, we are sure, from any want of sympathy with the
subject, but owing entirely to the pressure of other engagements. At
last his undertaking on this work simmered down to a positive promise
of one drawing, and that to be "Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden,"
but though he was often solicited, and always promised to set about it
immediately, he never made the drawing, nor do we know that he went so
far as to make even the slightest rough sketch of a design for it. To
us this was an inexpressible disappointment, as without that picture it
was obviously impossible to commence the publication.

[Illustration: THE UNJUST JUDGE.[11]



_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]


                                                      Bowerswell Perth.
                                                           14 Jany. 59.

  Dear Sir,

    Nothing can be more exquisitely rendered than the "Importunate
    Widow". There are two or three little trifles wh. I will tell you
    when I come up. It appears to have been better cut than any other I
    have ever seen, you have only to show it to any artist, & he will
    at once see how it is executed--The two I am about are the "Ten
    Virgins". I will try & send you one next week. I am only sorry
    that I cannot turn them out faster. I am charmed with yr. work.

                            Faithfully yʳˢ,
                                                  John Everett Millais]

This, with many other similar disappointments of help which we had
confidently relied upon, caused the project to hang fire, until at
last, in 1880, we resolved to abandon the idea of an Illustrated Bible,
and publish some of the engravings we had made in a folio under the
title of "Dalziel's Bible Gallery."

That our difficulties in carrying out the elaborate project we had
formed began at an early date, the following extract from a letter by
Sir John Millais, dated February 8th, 1863, will show:

    "There is a decided move in the matter of 'The Bible.' Hunt, Watts,
    and Leighton will not, I expect, work for you, as they say they
    are, with me, in honour bound to work for the publisher who first
    made the proposal. There can be no doubt but that we should, in
    such a case, work together.

                        "Yours very faithfully,
                                                "JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS."

The "publisher who first made the proposal" here referred to was Mr.
Joseph Cundall, who was not at that time in business as a publisher,
but had formed a project of publishing an "Illustrated Bible." His
progress in the matter merely consisted in his having commissioned the
several artists named by Millais, with two or three others, while his
actual purchase was three small drawings of minor importance. These,
with his "priority of claim," we subsequently purchased from him. We
never used the drawings, however, not considering them favourable

In a letter, which is without date, showing how earnestly Millais
laboured and how anxious he was to give his most perfect work in
producing the charming series of illustrations to "The Parables of Our
Lord," he says:

    "I send off by post the Parable of 'The Leaven which the woman hid
    in the three measures of meal'; she is mixing the leaven in the
    last of the three. The girl at the back I have made near the oven
    with one of the loaves, and the other rests against the wall of the

[Illustration: THE LEAVEN.



_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

Further on in the same letter he writes:

    "It is almost unnecessary for me to say that I cannot produce these
    quickly even if supposing I give _all my_ time to them. They are
    separate pictures, and so I exert myself to the utmost to make them
    as complete as possible. I can do ordinary illustrations as quickly
    as most men, but these designs can scarcely be regarded in the same
    light--each Parable I illustrate perhaps a dozen times before I
    fix, and the 'Hidden Treasures' I have altered on the wood at least
    six times. The manipulation of the drawings takes much less time
    than the arrangement, although you cannot but see how carefully
    they are executed. Believe me, I will not again halt in the work,
    but will supply you regularly, although I may occasionally delay in
    the production. I know you will take every care in the cutting, so
    I will not say anything about that. I enclose with the block a few

                          "Ever yours truly,
                                                 "JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS.

    "I suppose you have nearly completed the 'Five Foolish Virgins.' I
    am always anxious to get the proofs."

Sir John was at all times ready to help a brother or sister artist, and
avoid as far as possible running in competition, as the following few
lines will show.

In a letter dated February 8th, 1863, he writes:

    "I forgot to ask you not to publish the 'Lost Sheep' amongst
    the Parables in _Good Words_, as I have had a letter from Mrs.
    Blackburn stating that she had a drawing for the paper of the
    same subject, and wishing me to keep back that illustration if it
    did not interfere with the arrangement. I suppose it will make no
    difference to you, so please withhold it from the set devoted to
    _Good Words_."

In reference to the engraving of "The Lord of Burleigh" he says:

                                                   "_December 10, '56_.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--I received the proofs this afternoon and am quite
    satisfied with the cutting, which is perfect. I mention a few
    corrections, or rather additions, which I think will improve them.
    As I have omitted to add my monogram to the other drawings I should
    like it cut out of the snow in the illustration to the 'Old Year.'
    The only improvement I see is a want of softness in some of the
    outlines, which may be reduced or made to look more tender. I have
    written in pencil such faults as strike me may be easily remedied.

    "The more I have looked into the cutting of both these (but
    especially the 'Burleigh') the more delighted I am with the
    rendering. I wish you would send me a good proof of each of them,
    as I have all the others.

    "Again thanking you for the evident care you have taken in
    rendering my drawings,

                             "Believe me,
                          "Ever yours truly,
                                                "JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS."

Millais, on returning proofs which we had submitted for his touching or
approval, invariably made such favourable remarks on our portion of the
work as the following:

"_November 6, '63._

    "The proofs you sent me are perfectly satisfactory. 'The Good
    Shepherd' doesn't require anything, and the other only wants a
    touch on the face. Next to the King is a little coarse in the
    shadow: make it a little less scratchy."

In reply to a letter of ours asking for a further supply of "Parable"
drawings, Mrs. Millais writes:

                                                         "_August 9th_.

    "DEAR SIR,--I am very sorry to write to you instead of packing up
    for you some wood drawings. Mr. Millais has begged me to write to
    you, as he says he is ashamed of himself, but he has felt such a
    disinclination to turn to that kind of drawing at present, when he
    is painting out of doors, that he must beg you to have patience
    with him. Several times as he has got designs and drawings ready,
    I have got him to sit down to them, but he rose up disgusted and
    feeling incapable. He goes to London next week but returns in a few
    days. He declares he will then set to work, so we must hope the fit
    will have come on for work of the kind in which you are interested.
    In the meantime he has nothing nearly ready, if he would only
    begin again, but he is at work all day, and in the evening too
    tired. Next week the young ladies he is painting from leave, and he
    will be free to turn to something else.

                          "With best regards,
                       "Believe me, yours truly,
                                                       "EFFIE MILLAIS."

Mrs. Millais, writing on another occasion to account for the
non-delivery of drawings, says:

                                                    "BOWERSWELL, PERTH,
                                                      "_November 26th_.

    "He is very sorry not to answer your letter about the Parables. He
    says, at this season, that he is always occupied on his pictures,
    and that although he can occasionally do drawings on the wood at
    odd times, that he cannot attempt to do the Parables, which are,
    as you know, much finer work. He is anxious to make that work as
    perfect as possible, and when he does one or more he puts his
    painting aside for the time. He cannot do that during the winter
    and spring, and therefore begs you to have patience with him, as he
    will work at them whenever he has sufficient leisure. He is well
    aware how anxious you are to have the work finished. I am sure he
    is also. But he often makes designs, and continues to improve them
    until he is quite satisfied that it is as good as he can make it,
    and this takes a long time.

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                       "EFFIE MILLAIS."

On our sending Millais complete copies of "The Parables" he wrote the
following letter:

                                                     "7 CROMWELL PLACE,
                                                     "SOUTH KENSINGTON,
                                                     "_5th Dec., 1863_.

    "DEAR DALZIEL,--I am quite _delighted_ with the Book, and I think
    you will find the public will slowly and surely appreciate it. Six
    copies will not quite do for the friends I have promised it to,
    but will be enough for the present. I desired to send copies to
    men who will very much forward the sale--such as Tennyson, Layard,
    Thackeray, Leech, etc. If you could send me another six I think
    that would do amply. I will not forget 'The Arabian Nights.' The
    only fault, I think, in the Book is that in the middle there are
    too many blank pages, but I suppose that could not be helped.

                           "Sincerely yours,
                                                "JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS."


    "_Now, Randolph, tell thy tidings,
    However sharp they be._"

                                   "Edinburgh, after Flodden."--AYTOUN.



_By permission of Messrs. William Blackwood & Sons._]

The following is an extract from the Preface to the first edition of
the book:

    "Mr. Millais made his first drawing to illustrate the Parables
    in August, 1857, and the last in October, 1863. Thus he has been
    able to give that care and consideration to his subjects which the
    beauty as well as the importance of 'The Parables' demanded, for
    the work has extended over a period of six years."

During the years from 1858 to 1863 we engraved several grand drawings
by Sir J. Noel Paton in illustration to a fine art edition of Professor
Aytoun's "Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers," published by Messrs.
Blackwood of Edinburgh. In a letter, dated October 8th, 1858, he says:

                                          "33 GEORGE STREET, EDINBURGH.

    "DEAR SIRS,--Judging from your work in the 'Tennyson,' and from
    proofs now before me, I can with perfect security and confidence
    recommend the Messrs. Blackwood to entrust you with as many of my
    drawings as you care to undertake. Indeed I did so in those very
    words when, a few months ago, we were discussing this question of
    engraving, and I am quite ready to repeat my recommendation, though
    having, by my own desire, left the choice of engravers entirely in
    the hands of Messrs. Blackwood.

                         "I remain, Gentlemen,
                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "J. NOEL PATON."


    "_Yet a black and murky battlement
    Lay resting on the hill._"

                                  "The Execution of Montrose."--AYTOUN.



_By permission of Messrs. William Blackwood & Sons._]

On returning parcels of touched proofs, he wrote the following letters:

                                          "33 GEORGE STREET, EDINBURGH,
                                                     _August 22, 1862_.

    "GENTLEMEN,--I herewith return the three printed proofs touched
    upon, and by that you will kindly do your best to carry out the
    alterations indicated.

    "The last proofs sent (eight in number) will be forwarded to Mr.
    Simpson to-day. They are, upon the whole, very satisfactory, though
    all, more or less, requiring _careful overhauling_, though through
    no shortcoming of yours, as the drawings have been wonderfully
    rendered. I would more especially mention as worthy of all praise,
    as specimens of engraving, 'The Melrose,' and the interior with
    figures, and the suit of armour. The latter is certainly very

    "Your kind offer of a proof of Mr. Houghton's beautiful design, and
    your beautiful Engraving of the long-haired Lady with Children, I
    cannot refuse; though in what I said in my last, I merely meant
    to indicate the desire, which so many must feel, that high class
    things of that sort could be got by _themselves_ and printed
    in a manner worthy of their excellence--they are generally so
    indifferently printed in the Periodicals in which they appear and

                              "In haste.
                        "Very faithfully yours,
                                                       "J. NOEL PATON."


    "Absence from Town, and other causes, has prevented me from
    acknowledging more promptly 15 proofs of your engravings for the
    'Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers,' which, I am happy to say, are all
    very satisfactory indeed.

                           "I am, Gentlemen,
                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "J. NOEL PATON."


                                                      37 Drummond Place
                                                        April 27. 1859.


    I am sorry to find myself again convicted of culpable
    negligence, in having left your last beautiful proofs to lay
    unacknowledged.--As before, excessive occupation, tempered with
    indisposition is my excuse. The blocks may now be considered quite
    satisfactory--and I sincerely wish there were a dozen more of my
    drawings in your hands.

                            In much haste--
                           Very truly yours,
                                                          J. Noel Paton

  Messrs. Dalziel]


    "_On wheels of light, on wings of flame,
    The glorious hosts of Zion came._"

                                    "The Song of Bethlehem."--CAMPBELL.



_By permission of Messrs. James Nisbet & Co._]

"The Lays of the Holy Land" was projected by Mr. Watson, then the head
of James Nisbet and Co., who, mainly under our guidance, made a very
wise selection for the figure subjects. Tenniel's are exceptionally
fine, "The Destruction of Sennacherib" being perhaps the most
important. The "Song of the Jewish Maiden," by F. R. Pickersgill, R.A.,
is one of his best, and there is a lovely drawing, "Ruth and Naomi,"
by J. H. Powell, but the one picture that stands alone is "The Finding
of Moses by Pharaoh's Daughter," by Millais. The strength and power as
well as the treatment are so original as to give it even in this fine
collection a marked degree of undoubted prominence. Wolf has several
exquisite examples, so has Birket Foster. Of our own drawings we will
only mention "Tears for Jerusalem" and "The Raising of Lazarus." There
is also a very beautiful drawing, "The Song of Bethlehem," in a fine
decorative manner, by J. R. Clayton.

Clayton has been our friend and comrade for over fifty years. We met
as fellow students at the Life School at Clipstone Street, when Edward
Duncan was President and Treasurer, and Charles Keene, John Tenniel,
George Boyce, H. T. Wells, and Arthur Lewis were amongst the regular




_By permission of Messrs. James Nisbet & Co._]

This much-gifted, many-sided man began his artistic work as a sculptor
with Sir Charles Barry, and under the influence of Sir Gilbert Scott,
attaining much knowledge in architecture and ecclesiastical matters,
he soon developed a decided taste for decorative work. During this
period, however, his wonderful facility for design found an easy
outlet in drawing on wood. Our early connection with him began on
the _Illustrated London News_, for which he did much beautiful work,
notably some illustrations to "New Songs Written to Old Tunes," by Dr.
Charles Mackay. He also illustrated an edition of "Krumacher's Fables,"
translated by Dr. Hy. W. Dulcken, a dear old friend, who was then one
of the managers of Ingram and Cook's book branch of the _Illustrated
London News_. Clayton also did a set of illustrations to "Bunyan's
Pilgrim's Progress." We had the benefit of his work in many of the
"Fine Art Books" on which we were from time to time engaged. He did the
figure subjects for "Herbert's Poetical Works," and, in companionship
with Sir John Tenniel, made most of the figure subjects for "Pollock's
Course of Time."

Clayton's taste for decorative work gradually took the form of stained
glass, and his success in that way became so extensive that the art of
Book Illustration sank into the background. Although not really one of
the P.R.B., he was of them, and with them in all their ways and works.
If the Royal Academy had a more extensive scale of fitness for the
honour, there is no man to our knowledge whose great ability as a true
artist better deserves the distinction of R.A.




_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]


                                                       Bowerswell Perth
                                                         August 16. 57.

  Dear Sir,

    Both the illustrations are so perfectly cut that I have nothing
    to say, and therefore will keep both the proofs, as I should like
    to have them--Perhaps you may just fine down one or two lines in
    the "There's nae luck" the upper line of the womans hand Run the
    shading of the mans shoulder more into the outline also the little
    girls left leg should the mans shoe and run a little more decided
    light down the dogs nose Beyond these trivial corrections I see
    nothing. I shall be glad to see how the "Moses" drawings cut, these
    two are most satisfactory

                           Yours very truly,
                                                   John Everett Millais

  Wᵐ Dalziel brothers]

Edward Duncan, George Dodgson and F. W. Topham, with a few other
members of the "Old Society of Painters in Water Colours," formed a
club for outdoor sketching, the rule being that at a selected spot all
should sit down as close to each other as possible, taking various
points of view according to individual taste. One day whilst at work
in a field on the banks of the Upper Thames, they saw a sturdy farmer
coming towards them looking very fierce and angry. When he got near the
party he said:

"What be you lot o' lazy devils a-doing in my field?"

"Sketching, sir, sketching!"

"Is that fit work for men? When the young ladies from Miss Gray's
boarding school come down to 'sketch' I say let 'em; if it pleases
them, it don't hurt me, an' there be no harm; but when I see a lot of
great hulking men like you fellows about such nonsense it makes me fair
angry! Why, domn it, you might be doing a lot o' good work o' some
sort! I would rather break stones by the roadside for a shilling a day
than fool away my time like you be doing. You ought to be ashamed o'
yourselves, you ought!"

They tried to explain to him that they made their living by painting
pictures. After some strong expressions of doubt the farmer sobered
down a little and asked Dodgson how much he would get for the one he
was "doing." Dodgson, knowing the sort of man he had to deal with, said:

"Perhaps as much as ten shillings, or maybe twenty if I can find a
friend who fancies it."

The answer came, "Thee be a domned liar as well as a lazy lout!" Then
with a look of contempt the tiller of the soil stumped away.


    "_From the window I look out,
    To mark thy beautiful parade;
    Stately marching in cap and coat,
    To some tune by fairies played._"

                                      "Threnody."--RALPH WALDO EMERSON.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

"The Poets of the Nineteenth Century," in addition to the two fine
drawings by Millais already named, has many other good pictures; one
of the most remarkable, perhaps, is the "Prisoner of Chillon," by
Ford Madox Brown. Sir John Tenniel is well represented, the "Death of
Marmion" being one of his best. Sir John Gilbert, too, has several:
"The Vicar," "To my Mother's Picture," and "Hohenlinden." So pleased
were we with the latter design that we offered him a commission for a
water colour drawing of the subject. His reply was, "Yes, and it shall
be one of my best." And it certainly was one of his most successful
as a highly-finished work and will always hold its own. There are
also several interesting drawings by William Harvey, J. D. Harding,
Edward Duncan, and G. Dodgson; a large number of exquisite examples
of Birket Foster, and several figure subjects by J. R. Clayton, F.
R. Pickersgill, R.A., Edward Corbould, and Harrison Weir. Of our own
many drawings in this book we will mention a small roadside landscape,
"Taste," and a single figure, "The History of a Life."

On February 6th, 1856, Mr. Ford Madox Brown, in returning a volume of
the Illustrated Edition of "Longfellow's Poems," wrote:

    "The bearer will return the volume of 'Longfellow,' which I have
    looked through with great delight; and I think it bears honourable
    testimony to the high excellence which wood engraving has attained
    in this country."

Subsequently, on seeing the volume, "The Poets of the Nineteenth
Century," he wrote:

    "Let me take this opportunity of expressing my admiration of the
    work you last brought out, and the drawings by Dalziel[12] in
    particular, which are most poetic and took us by surprise, although
    whether yours or your brother's I, as yet, know not. The Millais'
    are admirable, both as regards him and the engraver."


    "_There, ye wise Saints, behold your Light, your Star--
    Ye would be dupes and victims, and ye are._"




_By permission of Messrs. Longman & Co._]

In "Home Affections with the Poets," Millais again stands pre-eminent
in his two contributions. "There's Nae Luck About the House," when
compared with his drawing of the "Finding of Moses," is an apt
illustration of his wonderful versatility, and a proof that in art all
subjects were equally within his power.

F. R. Pickersgill has some fine pictures in this book, his "Oriana"
being full of tender feeling. Sir John Tenniel, too, is very strong,
his "Fair Inez" being the best. Sir John Gilbert and Birket Foster are
both very powerful; the former in "When I Come Home," "The Two Angels,"
and "The Wee Thing"; the latter in his "True Love," "Come Awa', Come
Awa'," "My Sister Ellen," and "The Graves of the Household." There
is a very clever drawing, "The Sailors Journal," by George Thomas,
and a grand picture, "The Shipwreck," by Edward Duncan. Among our
own drawings in the collection are, "To Mary in Heaven," Emerson's
"Threnody," and "My Mother Dear."

Among the first works of importance by Sir John Tenniel that came into
our hands to engrave were several drawings for an illustrated edition
of Tupper's "Proverbial Philosophy," as well as his contributions to
the illustrated publications issued by the Art Union of London. He also
made a great many important drawings for the numerous "Fine Art Books"
which we produced; among them we would particularly mention "Dramatic
Poems," by Barry Cornwall, and "Pollock's Course of Time"; likewise
several exceptionally clever drawings for "The Ingoldsby Legends,"
published by Richard Bentley.

[Illustration: _"Poor maiden!" thought the youth, "if thou wert sent."_




_By permission of Messrs. Longman & Co._]

One of his most elaborate works was the set of illustrations to "Lalla
Rookh." The drawings were all made on the wood with lead pencil,
and were fine examples of his varied powers of design and delicate
manipulation--such as gave us great pleasure in the rendering. The book
was published by Messrs. Longman & Co. If Tenniel had never done any
other work than "Lalla Rookh," and those two remarkable books "Alice in
Wonderland" and "Through the Looking Glass," they alone would have been
sufficient to immortalise him. What a piece of work the frontispiece to
the former is! What dignity and rare grotesque humour are shown in both
these books! What beautiful pictures "Advice from Caterpillar" and "The
Father William" make!--and how perfectly they are all drawn! "Pig and
Pepper," "The Kitchen Scene," and "Alice and the Duchess" are among the

As a matter of fact, Tenniel did not wish to do the second book, so
Mr. Dodgson ("Lewis Carrol"), the author, asked various other artists
to undertake the task, amongst them Sir J. Noel Paton, who, being out
of health at the time, at once declined, saying, "_No_, Tenniel is
the man." And most fortunately, both for author and artist, he was,
the drawings being most grotesque, and the delightful fooling and
outrageous fancy beyond description: for instance, "Looking-Glass
House," "Tweedle-dum-tweedle-dee-dee," "Humpty-Dumpty," "The Lion and
Unicorn," and last of all "Queen Alice." Such pictures were half the
battle in the success of these two delightful little volumes.

During the process of completing the illustrations a great deal of
correspondence, always of the most agreeable nature, took place with
the Rev. Mr. Dodgson, as to their execution and finish. It is well
known that he was more than usually critical, both with the drawings
and with the engravings. Mr. Dodgson also entrusted us later with the
drawings made by Mr. A. B. Frost--a very clever and highly esteemed
American artist, who fully entered into the quaint humour of the
text--for "Rhyme and Reason" and "A Tangled Tale."

So much was Tenniel engaged at this time that we always regarded his
undertaking the pictures, seven in number, for our "Arabian Nights," as
an act of kindness to ourselves.



_By permission of Messrs. Macmillan & Co._]

Outside his _Punch_ work, we believe nearly all Tenniel's work for wood
engraving was executed by us.


                                                      10 Portsdown Road
                                                        Janʸ. 11. 1870.

  [Sidenote: All good wishes for the New Year!!!]

  Dear Dalziel,

    Are you disposed to undertake the engraving of another little book
    for Mr. Dodgson?--It is a continuation of "Alice's Adventures," and
    I am going to work upon it at once.

    One line please to say "Yes"--and I'll let you know the size of
    blocks &c.

                             In much haste
                           Yours very truly
                                                            J Tenniel.]




_By permission of Messrs. Ward, Lock & Co._]

Messrs. Bradbury and Evans had at one time the idea of publishing an
"Illustrated Shakespeare," and Tenniel was to do all the drawings, but
beyond two very characteristic subjects which we engraved the project
was abandoned. Doubtless he found the undertaking more than he could
carry out when added to his weekly work for _Punch_ and his other

No matter what other work he had in hand, he always contributed his
weekly cartoon to _Punch_. The moral teaching of these drawings is
beyond measure. Whether it be in caustic satire or exquisite pathos,
he held the town for over fifty years, proving himself to be not only
a great artist, but one who will rank amongst the highest of Britain's

Sir John Tenniel was never very effusive in his observations, though
his remarks were invariably complimentary. The following are two of his
letters received on submitting proofs for his correction:

                                                     "3 PORTSDOWN ROAD,

    "DEAR SIRS,--The 'Falcon' proofs are everything I could wish. The
    third proof requires just a touch.

    "I wish you would find me two subjects instead of those which I
    return herewith--something with more action or incident in them. I
    am quite tired of _love subjects_, they admit of so little variety
    of treatment.

    "Before you send the wood for the 'Pollock'[13] drawings, I think
    it would be well for me to give you a notion of the size I shall
    require--whether half page, and so on--and this I will do when I
    have the book back again.

                         "I am, my dear Sirs,
                             "Very truly,
                                                        "JOHN TENNIEL."

[Illustration: THE CRAWLEY FAMILY.



_By permission of Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co._]

                                                     "3 PORTSDOWN ROAD,

    "DEAR SIRS,--I like the proofs you sent very much, but they require
    just a little alteration, the 'Rokby'[14] especially. I will touch
    upon them and return them to you.

    "I have such an accumulation of work on hand just now that I do not
    feel justified in undertaking the two new subjects you have sent,
    as I do not know when I shall be able to let you have the drawings.
    I am doing some work for the Queen, and as it is wanted as soon
    as possible, all things else must wait till it is finished. But
    apart from this, the 'Coronation' subject, although a good one, is
    _very_ painful. I should not like doing it on that account. And the
    other, although certainly very beautiful, I do not care much about
    illustrating just now--it requires too much thought to be disposed
    of hurriedly. I will, however, do my best to let you have the
    'Barry Cornwall'[15] soon.

                         "Yours, my dear Sirs,
                             "Very truly,
                                                        "JOHN TENNIEL."

When the _Cornhill Magazine_, in 1859, was first advertised for
publication at the price of one shilling, with Thackeray as editor,
the announcement fell like a bomb in the midst of the magazine
publishers--Blackwood, Frazer, Colburn, Bentley and others--for nothing
of this description had even been so much as dreamt of before at a
less price than the orthodox half-crown. The heavy government duty on
paper, then only recently removed, may have been some apology for the
high price hitherto charged for this class of literature, which at the
present day is so far surpassed, if not always in quality certainly
in quantity, at less than half the price of the great "Cornhill




_By permission of Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co._]

In 1847 or '48 we were introduced to Mr. George Smith, of Smith, Elder
and Co., and for several years executed a fair share of the engravings
they required. Amongst the earlier of these works we contributed to
"The Jar of Honey, from Mount Hybla," by Leigh Hunt, and "The Dwarf
of the Golden River," by John Ruskin. During this period we were not
infrequently brought into correspondence with Mr. Williams, literary
adviser of the firm. He was a grand old gentleman, with a kind,
sympathetic manner, which won for him the sincere regard of all with
whom he became associated.

When the _Cornhill Magazine_ was started we were asked by Mr. George
Smith (whose courtesy and kindness were at all times most marked during
the many years of our connection) to undertake the engravings, as he
purposed issuing one or two full page plates with each monthly number.
This we did for several years, producing during the time, among the
more important works, charming illustrations by Millais, Richard Doyle,
Lord Leighton, P.R.A., F. Sandys, and other artists, all of whom, as
time rolled on, acquired a prominent position in their art.

Artists not being proverbial for the just appreciation of punctuality,
many of these engravings were produced under great pressure, as the
following letter from Mr. George Smith will show:

    "DEAR SIRS,--I am delighted with Mr. Millais' drawing, and I am
    obliged to you for having engraved it so well considering the
    pressure of time. There will be another illustration for the June
    number and another for August; Mr. Millais already has the proofs
    of the chapters of 'Framley Parsonage' for June and August.

                             "Believe me,
                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                             "G. SMITH.





_By permission of Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co._]

Richard Doyle's "Bird's-eye Views of Society," which first appeared in
the _Cornhill_, were afterwards published in book form, and had a very
considerable sale.

It was also through our connection with the _Cornhill Magazine_ that
we were introduced to George Augustus Sala, who was at that time
contributing a series of papers and illustrating the articles himself.
On our submitting proofs for his correction or approval, he wrote:


    "GENTLEMEN,--I have received proofs of engravings. You will permit
    me to thank you for the exquisitely artistic manner in which my
    rude scratchings on Wood have been rendered by your graver. 'The
    Group of Beggars,' 'The View of Genoa,' and the background under
    the Arcade are, to me, marvellous. My chief defect appears to be
    heaviness and blackness of touch, caused by painfully defective
    sight. I will, however, endeavour to remedy this by using a harder
    point, and trusting more to your tasteful interpretation, without
    overloading my shadows with cross-hatching. There are a dozen more
    drawings to come, but I wanted to see the proofs of the first
    instalment before commencing the second batch.

                          "Believe me to be,
                      "Your very obliged Servant,
                                                   "GEORGE AUGT. SALA."

[Illustration: LADY WITH HOUNDS.



_By permission of Mr. James Hogg._]


[9] This drawing was a remarkable example of the artist being
altogether unacquainted with the necessary requirements in making a
drawing on wood for the engraver's purposes. In this Rossetti made
use of wash, pencil, coloured chalk, and pen and ink, producing a
very nice effect, but the engraved reproduction of this many tinted
drawing, reduced to the stern realities of black and white by printers'
ink, failed to satisfy him. Indeed, Rossetti appears to have made up
his mind that it would be a failure, for in writing to his friend
Allingham, after explaining the difficulty he had experienced in making
the drawing, he says: "As to the engraving, I suppose it is hardly
possible that I can be satisfied."

It is further interesting to note in Mr. Malcolm Bell's work of "Sir
E. Burne-Jones: A Record and Review," that on seeing the engraving,
"Elfin-Mere," it revealed to him for the first time the "World of
radiant, many-coloured lights; of dim, mysterious shadows, of harmonies
of form of line; that far-off World of Art into which he has made his
way and brought back visions of delight to show his fellow man."

[10] Of this drawing, the St. Cecillia, his brother, Mr. W. M.
Rossetti, writes: "It must be said that himself only and not Tennyson
was his guide. He drew just what he chose, taking from the author's
text nothing more than a hint and an opportunity. The illustration to
St. Cecillia puzzled Tennyson not a little, and he had to give up the
problem of what it had to do with his verses."

[11] Sir John Millais, in his letter on page 100, calls this the
"Importunate Widow."

[12] The drawings here alluded to are by Thomas Dalziel, he having
contributed about a dozen illustrations to the book.

[13] This refers to some drawings he had undertaken to do illustrating
"Pollock's Course of Time," to be published by Messrs. Blackwood and
Sons, Edinburgh.

[14] An illustration to Sir Walter Scott's poem of "Rokby" to be
published in "The Poets of the Nineteenth Century."

[15] Referring to drawings he was doing for an illustrated edition of
"Poems by Barry Cornwall," published by Chapman and Hall.



Birket Foster was a genuine man; kind and generous to a degree in all
the ways of life. He stands as one of England's most popular landscape
draughtsmen, and as a painter in water colour of great distinction.

We first knew him as a little boy with round jacket and turn-down
collar. Later he came to be apprenticed to Ebenezer Landells to learn
the art of wood engraving; but in this he made literally no progress,
and Landells considering that as a landscape draughtsman he might
be more likely to take a foremost position, the youth's attention
was turned to this branch of art with the most satisfactory results.
His improvement was very rapid, and all that could be desired by his

Shortly before the termination of his engagement with Landells he went
for a holiday to Scotland, where, unfortunately, he had a very bad
accident, breaking an arm and receiving other serious injuries, which
for a long time quite incapacitated him for work. It was during his
illness that the period of his indentures expired, but as soon as he
was well enough to resume work he insisted on returning to his duties
that he might make up the time that had been lost; and this he did
without any request on Landells' part. On his return we well remember
seeing him at work in a little top room in Birch Court, E.C. He was
making small drawings of pots and pans, teapots, gridirons, and other
such articles for an ironmongers catalogue, and said, in the most
cheerful manner, "It is right that I should return here and do this
work; it is good practice, and will enable me to draw all these sorts
of things with some practical knowledge."

Our first personal business connection with Birket Foster was in
1851, when we commissioned him to make a set of eight illustrations
to "Kirk White's Poetical Works" for Messrs. George Routledge and Co.
After this he illustrated several small books in a similar manner for
us, as well as becoming a constant and very liberal contributor to
many of the "Fine Art Books" which we produced. Amongst these we may
mention "Wordsworth's Poems," where his many tastefully selected views
of the Cumberland and Westmoreland Lake scenery give such a charm to
the book; also "Odes and Sonnets," illustrated by a series of very
beautiful landscapes which were printed in tints; "Summer Time in the
Country," etc. After hundreds of his drawings had passed through our
hands we asked him to make a series of larger pictures, which were to
be the best and most perfect work he could do, and they were, as far as
possible, to be thoroughly representative subjects of rustic English

Foster most readily undertook the commission, and was very anxious to
commence working upon it, as the following letter shows:

    "DEAR SIRS,--I shall be most glad to do the 50 drawings for
    _£_300, and the vignettes at your own price; I will do them for
    _£_50 if nothing is said about it. You must give me this week, as
    I've a good deal to get done, but next week you shall have some

                             "Yours truly,
                                                       "BIRKET FOSTER."

Notwithstanding this, having regard to his other engagements and the
elaborate nature of the drawings, he made but slow progress, and
fully four years elapsed from the commencement to the completion of
the work. During this time he had been elected a member of the Royal
Society of Painters in Water Colours, and from the day he exhibited his
first picture there, there was an ever-increasing demand for examples
from his brush, and a corresponding delay in his completing this
commission. It is somewhat interesting to state that the last drawing
of this series was the very last he made in black and white for the
wood-engraver's purpose.

Instead of the fifty principal subjects and the fifty small vignettes
contracted for, at his earnest request we consented to reduce the
fifty large pictures to thirty, and forgo altogether the fifty small


    "_Come awa, come awa,
      An' o'er the march wi' me, lassie:
    Leave your Southron wooers a',
      My winsome bride to be, lassie.
    Lands nor gear I proffer you,
      Nor gauds to busk ye fine, lassie,
    But I've a heart that's leal an' true,
      And a' that heart is thine, lassie._"

                                 "Come Awa, Come Awa."--THOMAS PRINGLE.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

When the thirty drawings were completed we asked him to reproduce the
entire series as water colour drawings, of such varied dimensions as
he himself might decide, for which we offered to pay him the sum of
_£_3000; but after giving the matter very careful consideration, he
said, in consequence of his other engagements, he felt reluctantly
compelled to decline the commission.

There is no need for us to dilate on the earnest manner in which Foster
carried out these thirty subjects. He gave us such beautiful drawings,
so exquisitely manipulated, that we naturally bestowed infinite care
in their reproduction, and it was throughout a labour of pleasure
and delight to us. We published the work through Messrs. Routledge
and Co. as "Birket Foster's Pictures of English Landscape," and it
is a satisfaction to us to be able to record that the book was fully
appreciated by the British Public.

An important part of our scheme in preparing this book was to have a
page of verse, either descriptive of or in sympathy with each picture,
so that it might possess literary as well as pictorial interest. When
our work was drawing to a completion, we submitted some of the proofs
to Sir John Millais; and it is, perhaps, hardly necessary to say that
he was charmed with the pictures, and warmly entered into the idea of
having poetic descriptions to them. When asked his opinion whether he
thought Lord, then Mr., Tennyson would be likely to co-operate with us,
he immediately, in the most generous manner, offered to write to him on
the subject, saying:

    "I wish I could give sufficient time to the subject, for to
    tell the truth there's nothing I should enjoy more than to do
    the verses myself. But, of course, my pictures place that idea
    entirely out of the question. But I'll tell you what I'll do," he
    continued, "I'll write to Tennyson and ask him to take the matter
    up--he's rather particular, you know, and perhaps he might the more
    readily consent to do it for me, than if you wrote to him."

The following letter from Lady Tennyson to Millais will show how the
proposition was received:

                                                       "_June 7, 1861_.

    "DEAR MR. MILLAIS,--Alfred was in the New Forest when your kind
    letter came, or it would have been answered yesterday, though I am
    sorry to have to answer the thing is impossible. Poems do not come
    to him so, and if they did not _come_, you are, I flatter myself,
    too much his friend to wish to find them there or anywhere.

    "May I ask you to do him the favour to decline the offer as you
    will best know how to do with all courtesy.

    "Accept Alfred's thanks for your kind invitation and for what you
    say about the portrait.

                             "Believe me,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                      "EMILY TENNYSON."

This letter was accompanied by the following note from Millais:

    "MY DEAR DALZIEL,--I enclose Mrs. Tennyson's answer to my note. I
    said that not to bother him, if he couldn't say 'Yes,' to write
    himself. It is just what I expected; however, we have lost nothing
    by the attempt. I should have thought it easy enough to write a
    few lines to each, as I should find it easy enough to illustrate
    anything. I am sorry to have kept you so long for the two fellows
    seated on the gate.[17] Cut it with all your might.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "J. E. MILLAIS."

Ultimately the matter was placed in the hands of Tom Taylor, the
dramatic author, who was at that time art critic to the _Times_,
as well as a liberal contributor to _Punch_, of which journal he
subsequently became editor. He wrote:

                                                   "8 RICHMOND TERRACE,
                                                       "WHITEHALL, S.W.
                                                             "_June 5_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I have just received the proofs. I have thought much
    over the subject of poems to Birket Foster's drawings, and I think
    that I would do what you wish on certain conditions.

    "1st.--That I might call in aid my wife's verses, it being
    understood that she will do one here and there. I may say that
    she is homely born and bred, and that her verses would be above
    the mark of my own, as far as I can judge. She has written much,
    both words for music and music, before her marriage, as Miss Laura
    Barker, and her music is of a very high order. I merely write this
    that you may understand I am not forcing a novice on you. I wish
    her to be associated with me in the work, from a belief that the
    union of her with me will increase its value to the public.

    "2nd.--The price I would suggest for thirty poems is _£_100. This
    is putting the work at 'Once A Week' terms, and is the lowest price
    at which I could write and do justice to both you and myself. If
    these terms suit you, I believe I could have the thirty by the end
    of July, or if your arrangement is to publish in parts, at the rate
    of four a week, the mode of payment to depend on that of delivery,
    _i.e._, according as it is of the whole at once or of the poems
    in fours. I will retain the whole set of proofs till I have your

                         "And I am, dear Sirs,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                           "TOM TAYLOR.


    "P.S.--I send you two samples of the kind of illustration I should
    supply to the drawings.

    P.S.--If my terms or my verses do not suit you, I should suggest
    your application to the Rev. J. W. Barnes, of Dorchester, author
    of two very remarkable volumes of poems in the Dorset dialect. Our
    respective contributions to be distinguished by initials of the

Taylor, in undertaking the commission, said:


                "... _Who played
    Beneath the same green tree,
    Whose voices mingled as they prayed
    Around one parent knee!_"

                           "The Graves of the Household."--MRS. HEMANS.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

    "I accept this with great pleasure, for independent of the beauty
    of the work, Foster and I are both 'Tyne-siders,' and that will
    give an additional pleasure to me."

In August, 1881, we published an Édition de Luxe of the book, a large,
handsome volume, the pictures all printed on India paper. On sending
copies to Foster we received the following reply:

                                                             "THE HILL,
                                                       "WITLEY, SURREY,
                                                     "_31 Augt., 1881_.

    "MY DEAR DALZIEL,--Accept my best thanks for the three copies of
    the 'English Landscapes.' It is really a splendid volume, admirably
    printed, and the get-up is altogether charming.

    "I sincerely hope it may prove a success.

                          "With kind regards,
                             "Believe me,
                        "Very sincerely yours,
                                                       "BIRKET FOSTER."

Wishing to present a copy of the book to the Emperor of the French, we
wrote to his Secretary, and the following letter came as his reply:


                                                 "PALAIS DES TUILERIES,
                                                "_Le 19 Juillet, 1863_.

    "MESSIEURS,--L'exemplaire des paysages anglais de Mr. Birket Foster
    que vous avez exprimé le désir de faire agréer à l'Empereur, est
    parvenu à sa haute destination. Mais Sa Majesté, presque toujours
    en voyage depuis, n'a pu encore examiner cet album qui, d'après ses
    ordres, doit être remis sous les yeux à son retour à Paris.

        "Recevez, Messieurs, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.
        "Pour le Sénateur, Secrétaire de l'Empereur,
        "Chef du Cabinet, et par autorisation,
                             "Le Sous-Chef



    "_I heard a thousand blended notes,
      While in a grove I sat reclin'd,
    In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts
      Bring sad thoughts to the mind._"

                          "Lines Written on Early Spring."--WORDSWORTH.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

To which we replied expressing our wish that it should be a
presentation work, when again the secretary wrote:


                                                 "PALAIS DES TUILERIES,
                                                 "_Le 6 Janvier, 1864_.

    "MESSIEURS,--Avant de prendre une décision relativement à l'Album
    de gravures sur cois, d'après les paysages de Mr. Birket Foster que
    vous avez adressé à l'Empereur, Sa Majesté a exprimé le désir d'en
    connaître le prix. Veuillez bien faire parvenir ce renseignement au

        "Recevez, Messieurs, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.
        "Pour le Sénateur, Secrétaire de l'Empereur,
        "Chef du Cabinet, et par autorisation,
                             "Le Sous-Chef



                                                 "PALAIS DES TUILERIES,
                                               "_Le 1ᵉʳ Février, 1864_.

    "MESSIEURS,--L'Empereur a bien voulu accepter l'Album de gravures,
    d'après les dessins de Birket Foster, dont vous lui avez offert
    l'hommage. Sa Majesté a examiné ces planches avec intérêt, en a
    apprécié l'exécution et elle m'a chargé d'avoir l'honneur de vous
    adresser ses remericments sincères.

        "Recevez, Messieurs, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.
        "Pour le Sénateur, Secrétaire de l'Empereur.
        "Chef du Cabinet, et par autorisation.
                            "Le Sous-Chef.


The book was sent to St. Cloud, and doubtless perished in the flames
when that picturesque Palace was burnt down during the Siege of Paris
in 1871.

Lord Leighton in acknowledging the receipt of a copy of this book says:

    "DEAR SIR,--When your messenger came yesterday I was unable to
    write and thank you and your brother, as I do now, for the very
    handsome present you have made me, of the extent of which I own
    I had not the slightest notion when I accepted it with so much
    alacrity the other day. I have looked through the volume with great
    interest, and am much struck with the great talent displayed in
    very many of the designs--some, I think, quite excellent--and with
    the great spirit and brilliancy of your rendering of them.

                      "Once more my best thanks.
                        "Yours ever faithfully,
                                                      "FRED. LEIGHTON."

Birket Foster was a constant visitor at our office in High Street,
Camden Town, generally bringing a parcel of drawings with him. On one
of these occasions the conversation turned upon water colour painting
and the great demand there was for that class of art, when, having seen
some of his slight sketches in colour, we expressed a little surprise
that he did not "go in" for it. He replied that his wife had suggested
the same thing, but--and he shrugged his broad shoulders, saying,
"Um--I don't know--but we shall see--we shall see." He did "see," and
all the art loving world knows with what result.

Foster's success as a water colour painter was quite phenomenal. There
was a mad rush for his work by collectors, and the prices went up as a
natural consequence. Down at Witley in Surrey, where he subsequently
built a most charming residence, he said to us, "When I sit down in
that chair after breakfast it means at least twenty guineas before I
get up again."

It was about this time that two celebrated picture dealers met at the
Charing Cross Railway Station: they had taken tickets for Witley, and
both knowing they had the same object in view, travelled down together.
On arriving at their destination they found only one fly at the
station. A. made a rush for it, when B. stopped him, saying, "No, sir;
this is my fly. I telegraphed for it from London, but I will be most
happy to give you a lift to Fosters; only remember I am first." And he
was "first," for he cleared out every scrap Foster had to dispose of,
and A. had to go away empty handed.

On Fosters first visit to the Galleries after he had been elected
a member of the "Old Water Colour," as it was then called, he was
received in a most patronising manner by J. D. Harding, the then
President of the Society, who complimented him, and dilated on the
great advantage it would be to him being a member of the Society. He
also begged him to appreciate this by a close study of nature, adding:

"If you do as I suggest, I have no doubt you will one day take a good
place amongst the best of us."

It was Foster's invariable custom to make small water colour sketches
for his more important black and white work; sometimes they were partly
pencil, or pen and ink tinted. Some little time before he seriously
took to water colour painting, a West End publisher frequently asked
him for some of these sketches; so he gave his friend a "bundle" of
original drawings, for which the publisher thanked him, saying that one
day, when he could afford to do so, he would have them bound in a nice
book. It was after Foster won distinction as a painter that he said to
us, "Those drawings would now represent a money value of some hundreds
of pounds." His mother, a dear old Quaker Lady, who was present, said,
"Thee mustn't mind that, Birket. Thee gave him the drawings and they
are his, no matter what the value of them may be now."


    "_The Earth herself is adorning
    This sweet May morning;
    And the children are pulling on every side,
    In a thousand valleys far and wide,
            Fresh flowers._"

                             "Intimations of Immortality."--WORDSWORTH.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Birket Foster naturally spent much of his time in the country, often
locating himself at farm houses, and being of a genial nature always
became very friendly with the people. On one occasion an old farmer
took the greatest interest in the work as it went on, in fact to
the extent that the old boy seemed to feel that he had a sort of
partnership in the production of the picture. Some time after this a
friend of Foster's, who stayed at the same farm, found the old man most
anxious to know all about Foster, but particularly as to how much money
he had got for the picture "that we done down here." The friend said,
"A hundred pounds at least." The old man was incredulous, in fact he
would _not_ believe it. When assured that such an amount was small for
a picture by so clever and popular a man, he seemed unable to grasp it,
saying, "Why, it would be like pickin' up sovereigns as if they was
turnips or eggs; and if it was so, all I can say is, he must ha' sold
it to a friend."

After the success of our volume Messrs. Routledge made a collection
of engravings from Foster's drawings in their various books, for

Here is an amusing letter from Foster on seeing this new work announced:

                         ~The Hill, Witley.

                                                         30th June 1873

  Dear Dalziel

    I have just returned from Italy, and write at once to say that I
    see no objection to Messrs. Routledge sending me a cheque for 50
    guineas on to the first title Beauties of English Landscapes, by BF
    on second thought's I don't like Beauties--Try some other word.

                              Yours truly
                                                          Birket Foster
  Messrs. Dalziel]

When our book appeared the Press was unanimous in its praise.
The _Times_ said: "It would be difficult to do justice to these
delineations of rural life and scenery without seeming to fall into
extravagant praise"; the _Academy_ spoke of "the inherent beauty of
the designs"; the _Art Journal_ of "the grace of composition and
idyllic beauty"; the _Saturday Review_ of the "subtile feeling for
rustic character, and his sympathy for the poor; his curious love for
unsophisticated company in sequestered places."

The public responded well, but not in large numbers--the days of large
numbers had not then come.

But of all that was said about these pictures we most treasured
a letter written to us by John Ruskin, which we regard as "an
appreciation" from one of the best and most original writers on art
matters of his period.

                                             "GENEVA, _August 12, '62_.

    "GENTLEMEN,--I am much obliged by your having sent me those
    beautiful Proofs. They are superb specimens of the kind of
    Landscape which you have rendered deservedly popular, and very
    charming in every respect. I wish, however, you would devote some
    of your wonderful powers of execution to engraving Landscape,
    which should be better than 'charming,' and which would educate
    the public taste as well as meet it. These pieces, however,
    are peculiarly good of their class--rich, gracefully composed,
    exquisite book illustrations, and very precious as examples of wood

                     "Believe me, sincerely yours,
                                                            "J. RUSKIN.





_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

As the work progressed we sent proofs to Foster for approval or
correction, and according to his custom he wrote all his remarks on the
margin of the India paper. These proofs were all preserved, and they
show how completely he was satisfied with the care we had bestowed on
the reproduction of his beautiful drawings.

It is a great pleasure to us to be able to state that these touched
proofs are now the property of the Trustees of the British Museum,
where doubtless they can be seen with John Ruskin's letter and some
of Foster's own on application at the Print Room of that institute in

Birket Foster spent his latter years at Weybridge, where he died.
Surrounded by many old and sorrowing friends, he was laid to his rest
at Witley, his beautiful Surrey home.

       *       *       *       *       *

Having already engraved several drawings for _Good Words_, we were,
early in the year 1862, asked by Mr. Alexander Strahan to undertake the
engraving and entire control of the illustrations for this journal,
which was being edited by Dr. Norman Macleod, a Scottish minister of
great repute and a Chaplain to the Queen. The offices were subsequently
removed from Edinburgh to London, and shortly after the house added to
its publications the _Sunday Magazine_, a journal devoted to "Sunday
reading." This was edited by another celebrated Scottish divine, Dr.
Thomas Guthrie, author of "The City: Its Sins and Sorrows," and other
works of a kindred description. A great many of the illustrations for
this periodical we also engraved.

This connection naturally enabled us to introduce works by the then
most promising artists in black and white, and by many other men who
have since taken a high position in art.

[Illustration: COACH AND HORSES.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

Alexander Strahan was the originator of the sixpenny illustrated
magazine. His _Good Words_, considering the period of its advent,
was equal to anything that has yet been done at that price, and, if
measured by the distinguished artists and brilliant writers of whose
work it was composed, it is a question whether any of the more recent
magazines would equal it in actual merit.

Strahan is a man of great taste, both in literature and in art. We were
indebted to him for introductions to a number of highly-gifted young
Scotch artists. Amongst them were Orchardson, J. Pettie, MacWhirter,
and Tom Graham, all of whom soon became famous and won honours of
distinction. Pettie made several fine drawings for _Good Words_, and he
and MacWhirter illustrated a beautiful little edition of Wordsworth's
"Poems for Children," for which, by the way, Millais made a charming
vignette. Strahan also introduced us to Robert Buchanan, who kindly
helped us in some of our "Fine Art Books," concerning which we will
speak later.

While engaged upon these publications it often happened that the
drawings came into our hands so late that insufficient time was left
for engraving. It might be that drawings came to us on a Saturday
evening, and we were compelled to deliver the engraved blocks to the
printers on the Monday morning. This could only be done by taking
each wood-block into two, three, or four pieces, and by two, three,
or four engravers working all the night through upon them; for while
any strain might be put upon the engraver, no excuse was permissible
for keeping the printing machine waiting for a single hour. But under
the circumstances, and by the best available means, we did our utmost
with the drawings that were placed in our care for engraving purposes,
though we are free to admit not at all times with that success we ever
had so much at heart.

[Illustration: KISS ME.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

As examples of the many complimentary letters we received from artists
whose drawings we engraved about this period, we may quote the

                                                            "NEW PLACE,
                                                   "WOODCHURCH ROAD, W.

    "DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--I consider the cutting of my drawing quite a
    masterpiece, and in every respect up to my expectation. There is
    nothing I can suggest that would improve it.

                          "With kind regards,
                          "Very truly yours,
                                                       "SEYMOUR LUCAS."

                                                          "GROVE LODGE,
                                             "PALACE GARDEN TERRACE, W.


    "GENTLEMEN,--I am _entirely_ delighted with your rendering of my
    drawing; it could not be better done as far as work is concerned.

                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                    "GEO. H. BOUGHTON."

    "DEAR SIRS,--There are parts of it I like very much indeed; indeed
    I like it all, but some parts of it I think are perfectly beautiful.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                     "RICHARD ANSDELL."

[Illustration: SIGURD.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

Our early friend, the late F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., frequently wrote
in high appreciation of the careful manner in which we had reproduced
his drawings, but in deference to the wishes expressed by his family we
refrain from publishing any of the letters.

When Mr. Alexander Strahan proposed that we should take the entire
control of the art part of _Good Words_, we asked all our most
distinguished artist friends to make drawings for the journal. Amongst
others was Holman Hunt, who readily offered his co-operation, and also
favoured us with the letter here given, which certainly foreshadowed
the coming eminence of one who has made a lasting mark on the history
of English art.

                                                "_November 21st, 1861._

    "MY DEAR SIR,--I have looked over _Good Words_, and carefully read
    Miss Mulock's poem of 'Go and Come.' The poem I esteem very highly,
    and shall be pleased to do an illustration of some kind, although I
    cannot hope to do it justice in the little leisure I have between
    this and the time you mention as the date when the drawing ought to
    be ready.

    "In addition to the desire to satisfy your anxiety with respect
    to the illustration to Miss Mulock's poem, I write to speak of a
    friend of mine who I feel very strongly might be of great value to
    you in the illustrating of _Good Words_. He is perhaps the most
    remarkable of all the younger men of the profession for talent, and
    will, undeniably, in a few years fill the high position in general
    public favour which at present he holds in the professional world.
    He has yet, I think, made but few if any drawings on wood, but he
    has had much practice in working with the point both with pencil
    and pen and ink on paper, and so would have no difficulty with the
    material. I have not seen him lately, but remember that he has
    sometimes said that he should like to try his hand at drawing on
    wood, so without further ceremony I will enclose a letter to him
    which you may use at your own discretion. His name, as you will see
    by the enclosed, is Edward Jones.

                        "Yours ever sincerely,
                                                      "W. HOLMAN HUNT."

[Illustration: SUMMER SNOW.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

Hunt's letter of introduction was followed by a visit to Edward
Jones (afterwards Sir Edward Burne-Jones, Bart.,) at his studio in
Bloomsbury. The room was crowded with works of varied kinds, in
every sort of method, all showing wonderful power of design, vivid
imagination, and richness of colour. We were so fascinated with the man
and his art that we at once asked him to paint a water colour drawing,
size and subject to be left to him. About that time he had painted a
picture, "A Harmony in Blue," for John Ruskin, and it was suggested
that ours should be "A Harmony in Red." After some months the result
was a most highly elaborated water colour, "The Annunciation." This, of
course, was in his early manner, and of great beauty. Later on he made
for us a Triptych illustrating the Birth of Christ, the first subject
being the "Shepherds Guided by the Star," the centre the "Manger," and
the third the "Wise Men from the East." The work was fine in conception
and rich in colour. He also made a set of small water colour drawings
of the "Seven Days," which were intended for reproduction in our
contemplated Illustrated Bible, for which he also made a few drawings
on the wood. His contributions to _Good Words_ were very limited. At
our request, however, he made slight water colour sketches from some of
the few subjects he did do.

The two following letters show that at this time he was quite unknown
to the general public, although he was appreciated in the highest
degree by those who knew him and his work:

[Illustration: WORLDLY WISEMAN.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

                                                   "62 GT. RUSSELL ST.,
                                                   "_August 1st, 1863_.

    "DEAR SIR,--Understanding that you are going abroad for a short
    time, I write to say that if agreeable to you I should like to keep
    'The Annunciation' in my studio until you return; for, as I do not
    exhibit, that is my only way of letting people see what I have
    been doing. Pray do not take the trouble to answer if this will be
    convenient to you.

                      "And believe me, dear Sir,
                        "Very faithfully yours,
                                                      "E. BURNE-JONES."

                                                   "62 GT. RUSSELL ST.,
                                                      "_Oct. 17, 1863_.

    "DEAR SIR,--Your messenger arrived an hour after I posted to you.
    I send the Triptych. You will have 'The Annunciation' next week;
    but until it is quite finished, I am unwilling to send it out of my
    studio. The little drawing of 'The Days' is at this moment gone to
    have a new glass put before it, but will be ready on Monday. I am
    sorry that it will not be before. In haste.

                        "Yours very faithfully,
                                                      "E. BURNE-JONES."

The following letter alludes to his election into the Royal Society
of Painters in Water Colours, one of the three pictures necessary to
be sent in being "The Annunciation." This gave him a place for public

                                                   "62 GT. RUSSELL ST.,
                                                      "_Feb. 10, 1864_.

    "DEAR SIR,--You may know by now that I was elected on Monday. The
    picture is in my studio again now; but if you will leave it with me
    for a week or two, I think I may find time before leaving town to
    do one or two things at it which I notice.

                             "Believe me,
                        "Very sincerely yours,
                                                      "E. BURNE-JONES."




_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

His connection with the Society was of short duration, owing to an
unfortunate incident connected with an early exhibit of his. If we
remember rightly, the picture was of a classic, semi-nude character,
at which some "great lady" had felt very much shocked; in fact, to
such an extent that she said it ought to be taken off the walls, as it
was quite indecent. This the committee foolishly did, with the result
that Burne-Jones at once resigned his membership--a course followed by
his friend Sir F. W. Burton, at that time one of their most prominent
members. It is only just to state that many years after, both men were
urgently invited to return to the Society, and did so. But Burne-Jones
never sent much of his work there, for fresh and larger fields had
opened up to him at "The Grosvenor Gallery," followed by "The New,"
at both of which he was a great power. His work was always grand in
subject, with the highest aim and noblest purpose. He was elected into
the Royal Academy, but these other connections held him so close that
he resigned his Associateship to make room for others to whom the
honour would be of more importance.

The death of this highly gifted artist, who in himself combined all
that is good, kindly, and generous, was universally regarded as a sad
loss to the world of art.

       *       *       *       *       *

Early in the Sixties we had been commissioned by Messrs. Routledge,
Warne and Routledge to find an artist--"A new man, sir," as Mr. George
Routledge expressed it, who could illustrate Bunyan's "Pilgrims
Progress" with a fair amount of originality, and give something better
than had ever been done in this way before. This, we naturally felt,
was a very difficult task, and fully realised the responsibility that
would rest upon us for the success or failure of the work--the number
of artists of great ability working in black and white at that time was
very different to what it is now.

[Illustration: ABJECT PRAYER. BY J. D. WATSON, R.W.S.

_By permission of Mr. James Hogg._ FROM "LONDON SOCIETY."]

We had had many conversations on the subject as to the most fitting man
for the work, when early in the year 1865 Mr. Alexander Strahan sent us
two drawings to engrave for a short fairy tale he was about to publish
in _Good Words_. There was novelty and freshness of style, as well as a
purity of drawing, in the designs which attracted our attention, and at
once suggested the idea that the artist might be competent to undertake
the pictures for the "Bunyan." On enquiry we found he was John Dawson
Watson, a young man living in Edinburgh, who subsequently became
eminent as a black and white artist, as well as a painter in oil and
water colours, and a prominent member of the Old Water Colour Society.
We at once wrote to him about the "Pilgrim's Progress," asking if he
would send us two drawings as examples of the manner in which he would
propose to treat the subject. His reply came by return of post, not
accompanied by drawings, but saying he was coming to London at once,
and would call upon us on his arrival. This he did, and a very pleasant
interview terminated by our placing in his hands the commission to do
one hundred drawings for this work.


    "_To seek the wanderer, forth himself doth come
    And take him in his arms, and bear him home.
    So in this life, this grove of Ignorance,
    As to my homeward I myself advance,
    Sometimes aright, and sometimes wrong I go,
    Sometimes my pace is speedy, sometimes slow._"

                                      "Life's Journey."--GEORGE WITHER.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

It is perhaps hardly necessary here to state how perfectly our
confidence in J. D. Watson's ability was indorsed, not only by the
publishers, but by the public voice and the pen of the critics; this
edition of Bunyan's immortal work being, in a pecuniary sense, among
the most successful of the many Fine Art Books issued by the Messrs.
Routledge. Immediately on the publication and instant success of this
book, we were instructed to secure Watson's services in illustrating De
Foe's "Robinson Crusoe" with a like number of pictures. This he readily
undertook to do, and, as a series of drawings in black and white,
they will certainly compare favourably with any work of the kind this
country has produced.

After the "Pilgrim's Progress" and "Robinson Crusoe" perhaps there
is no other work where the versatility of his power is so strongly
shown as in "English Sacred Poetry," to which book he was a very large
contributor, having no less than ten drawings to "Gray's Elegy in a
Churchyard," and twenty or more to other poems--"Time and the Year,"
and "Scene in a Scottish Cottage" being among the best.

On one occasion Watson happened to be at our offices when Birket Foster
came in. They had never met before, and on being introduced, seemed
mutually pleased to make each other's acquaintance, and left together.
This acquaintance ripened into a life-long friendship, Birket Foster
marrying Watson's sister.


    "'_My father and my mother
    And my sisters four--
    Their beds are made in swelling turf,
    Fronting the western door._'

    "'_Child, if thou speak to them,
    They will not answer thee;
    They are deep down in the earth--
    Thy face they cannot see._'"

                                    "The Little Mourner."--DEAN ALFORD.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Watson was a kind-hearted, liberal-minded man, and gifted in many ways
outside his art. In the early days of our connection with him he often
spoke of what he called his "fatal facility," and no doubt that gift
told to his detriment. His art was no trouble to him; and this was
the root of a certain indolence shown in his later productions which,
generally speaking, were far inferior to what might have been expected
from his natural powers--though his work was at all times full of
tender refinement, beauty and sympathetic feeling.

He did many very clever drawings for the periodicals. One of his
finest, perhaps, was for _London Society_, the subject being the figure
of a man on his knees in the attitude of "Abject Prayer."

During the sudden rage that sprung up for water colour drawings his
work was much sought after by the dealers. We remember him on one
occasion speaking of this eagerness for his pictures, and saying:

"I believe if I were to spit upon a piece of paper and smear it over
with my hand they would declare it beautiful, and have a scramble who
was to buy it."

On Watson coming to London our connection developed into close social
friendship. We had a great liking for his work outside his black and
white. The first picture we bought from him was off the walls of the
Royal Academy, "A Pet Goat," a small but most highly finished work. He
did several water colour portraits of members of our family, and some
fine heads, by point work, in sepia-coloured inks. We also purchased
several small water colour drawings from him which he made to be
reproduced in colour.

[Illustration: CLEOPATRA.



_By permission of Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co._]

Watson had great dramatic taste; his connection with Birket Foster,
and the frequent visits to his big house, "The Hill," at Witley, in
association with Fred Walker and two or three other kindred spirits,
gave him plenty of opportunity for exercising his favourite hobby.
In the plays they got up he was everything, leading business, scene
painter, costumier, stage and general manager. He had a perfect
knowledge of costume--used to cut out the dresses, and, with the
assistance of his wife and sister, did all the "tailoring." These plays
were delightful and a joy to all who had the good fortune to witness

       *       *       *       *       *

"English Sacred Poetry" gave an opportunity for beautiful pictures,
and in the work of the various artists engaged on it there seems to
be a greater unity of feeling than is generally the case where the
art is mixed. At the same time, perhaps there is no stronger contrast
in method than that which exists between the works of Holman Hunt and
Frederick Sandys: for instance, Holman Hunt's beautiful illustration
to Dean Trench's pathetic verses, "The Lent Jewels" (which we made
the frontispiece to the volume), and the two very powerful drawings,
"Life's Journey" and "The Little Mourner," by Frederick Sandys.

Of the many high class drawings which appeared in the _Cornhill
Magazine_, there is no one work more remarkable than that of
"Cleopatra," by Frederick Sandys, which for dignity and grandeur of
design must always be regarded as a fine specimen of that artist's work.


    _"What question can be here? Your own true heart
    Must needs advise you of the only part;
    That may be claimed again which was but lent,
    And should be yielded with no discontent;
    Nor surely can we find herein a wrong,
    That it was left us to enjoy so long._"

                          "The Lent Jewels."--RICHARD CHEVENING TRENCH.



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

Stacy Marks also gave us some of the best drawings he ever made for
the wood engraver--notably "A Quiet Mind," "The Ring," and "The Two
Weavers." From Harrison Weir we had a set of four drawings, "The Only
One." Sir John Gilbert's "Landing of the Primrose" is a fine example,
but not so good as his set of illustrations to "A Hymn." There is a
grand picture of a storm at sea, "The Watching of Providence," by G. H.
Andrews, and Charles Keene's illustration to "Contentment" is a very
strong bit of work.

We engraved many of Keene's early drawings and were close friends,
working together constantly at the Life Schools in Clipstone Street,
next door to which he had his queer little box of a room, where for
a long time he did all his work. It was a strange mass of scraps,
sketches, studies; bits of costumes, armour, and "all sorts" of
oddments in the way of properties. It was his custom to make several
studies for each figure he drew, and many of them were pinned to
the dilapidated paper on the walls, helping to make up the somewhat
picturesque appearance of the place. We were very anxious to produce
some large and important work with him, and offered him a commission
to do an elaborately illustrated edition of "Don Quixote," one of
the conditions being that he should visit Spain, with the view of
collecting new material for the purpose. He liked the subject, and
would have undertaken it, but mainly on the ground that he could not
bind himself to do any important work within a fixed time, he finally
declined our offer. He felt that his best efforts were due to _Punch_,
but even with the proprietors of that journal he objected to be put on
any fixed agreement, like Tenniel, Leech, Du Maurier, and others; for,
he said, it would make him feel that he must produce a given amount of
work in a given time. "No," he said, "I prefer to send in my drawings
as I finish them, whatever they may be, and be paid for the work I have


    "_There sits a lovely maiden,
      The ocean murmuring nigh,
    She throws the hook and watches;
      The fishes pass it by._

    "_A ring with a red jewel
      Is sparkling on her hand;
    Upon the hook she binds it,
      And flings it from the land._"

                                "A Northern Legend."--W. CULLEN BRYANT.


_Published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., New York._]

We need hardly say it was a disappointment to us. This was before the
"Don Quixote" of Gustave Doré had been given to the world; and we fancy
that Art is the poorer by Charles Keene not considering himself free to
accept our commission.

       *       *       *       *       *

Messrs. D. Appleton, of New York, requested us to provide a set of
illustrations to the Poetical Works of William Cullen Bryant. They
wished for a large number by Birket Foster, who at that time was at
the very height of his popularity for black and white work. Out of
something like one hundred pictures he gave us thirty-six, all of
which are beautiful examples; many of them exquisite little vignettes.
William Harvey supplied some graceful pictures; Sir John Tenniel, J.
R. Clayton, and F. R. Pickersgill were responsible for several of the
figure subjects; while Edward Duncan drew some very delicate little sea


    "_Once this soft turf, this rivulet sands,
      Were trampled by a hurrying crowd,
    And fiery hearts, and armed hands,
      Encountered in the battle cloud._
           *       *       *       *       *
    "_Now all is calm, and fresh and still,
      Alone the chirp of flitting bird,
    And talk of children on the hill,
      And bell of wandering kine are heard._"

                                 "The Battle-field."--W. CULLEN BRYANT.


_Published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., New York._]

There are many of our own drawings in this book, of which we make
mention--"The Battle-field"; "An Indian Girl's Lament"; "Life"; "A
Northern Legend"; "The Lady of Castle Windeck"; and "An Evening

Harrison Weir sent us some good pictures of animals, notably "The
Maiden's Sorrow." Weir, one of our earliest connections, is a gifted
and brilliant conversationalist, brimful of anecdote--humorous and
otherwise, a genial companion and an old friend.

He is a man of many parts: poet, painter, draughtsman, and naturalist;
and how much that word "naturalist" means in the knowledge that fitted
him for the varied branches of art which he encompassed in his numerous
works! Not the least amongst them being the many children's books he

       *       *       *       *       *

One of the most beautiful books ever entrusted to our care, in which
the pictures were to be by various artists, was the "Poems of William
Wordsworth." We feel, when looking at the book now, after a lapse of
forty years, how happy we were in having the co-operation of such very
suitable artists as Birket Foster, Sir John Gilbert, and Joseph Wolf.


    "_There, I think, on that lonely grave
      Violets spring, in the soft May shower,
    There, in the Summer breezes, wave
      Crimson phlox and narcissus flower._

    "_There the turtles alight, and there
      Feeds with her fawn the timid doe;
    There, when the Winter woods are bare,
      Walks the wolf on the crackling snow._"

                              "The Maiden's Sorrow."--W. CULLEN BRYANT.


_Published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., New York._]

Wolf came of a family of agriculturists. Bred amid field, woodland and
hedgerow, he gathered his love of all things beautiful, animate and
inanimate, direct from Nature. From his earliest boyhood he had an
intense love of birds, and so strong was his feeling in that direction
that he never lost a chance of dissecting and thoroughly making himself
master of the anatomy of the specimen under his immediate observation.
In maturer life it was not enough for him to give a surface resemblance
to a bird; he was one of the earnest men who must go deep down to the
very root of his subject. Whatever eminence he gained as an all-round
naturalist, it is by his bird pictures that he will always stand out
the more prominent.

As a book illustrator he became so popular that no collection of varied
art seemed complete without one or more of his exquisitely graceful

He was a great lover of music, and would often dream away the idle
hours, as he called them, on his favourite instrument, the zither; and
_a propos_, surely there was much sweet and even grand music in his
groups of birds, such as "The rooks sat high" and "The mother kite
watching and guarding her nest."

       *       *       *       *       *

In our long connection with the firm of Thomas Nelson & Sons, of
Edinburgh, we made a large number of drawings and did much engraving
for their books. The work was mostly of an instructive and amusing
kind for young people. Among the various artists employed upon their
publications, Keeley Halswell, who at that time resided in Edinburgh,
did a great many drawings. The Messrs. Nelson had an art department in
connection with their vast establishment. In this branch William Small
was a pupil; and there he illustrated many of their story books before
he came to London to take a first place amongst the most distinguished
artists in black and white. Small became an important contributor to
the _Graphic_ in its early days, and made many drawings for _Good
Words_ and other magazines of Strahan's. He also made a few clever
drawings for Buchanan's "North Coast Poems."


    "_The careless words had scarcely
      Time from his lips to fall,
    When the Lady of Castle Windeck
      Came round the ivy wall._

    "_He saw the glorious maiden
      In her snow-white drapery stand,
    A bunch of keys at her girdle,
      The beaker high in her hand._"

                       "The Lady of Castle Windeck."--W. CULLEN BRYANT.


_Published by Messrs. D. Appleton & Co., New York._]

We saw much of Mr. William Nelson, the eldest brother, during his
visits to London, which were by no means infrequent. He was a man with
a large, warm heart, and kindly, genial disposition, and though holding
broad views in most matters, he (like the majority of his countrymen in
the last generation) looked for many years with the greatest aversion
on all things theatrical, and from his early training considered "the
door of the theatre as the gate to destruction." At one of his quiet
dinner parties Madame Antoinette Stirling and her husband were present,
and the talk naturally turned on music and the drama, when he related
the following as his first introduction to theatrical entertainments:

"On one occasion I was, very reluctantly, prevailed upon to go to the
theatre to see the comic opera, _Les Cloches de Corneville_. At first
I was indifferent to what was going on, but as the play progressed my
interest increased so much that at the end I came away delighted at
what I had seen, and the next morning, turning the matter over, I found
myself none the worse, either bodily or mentally, for having been at
the play. Indeed, the performance gave me so much pleasure, that I
resolved to repeat the indulgence on every possible opportunity; but
that, of course, could not be done in Edinburgh. Feeling that I have
lost a great deal of intellectual enjoyment, I make a point of going to
a theatre on every disengaged evening I have when in London."


    "_In the mid-water, moving very slowly,
    With measured stroke of dripping oars, a boat
    Appeared out of the fading mist of the morning._"

                                "The Exiles of Oona."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

       *       *       *       *       *

When James Hogg and Sons removed their publishing house from Edinburgh
to London we became intimately connected with them. James, the father,
was associated with many of Scotland's best and noblest writers: De
Quincey was a friend and companion, also Professor Wilson (Christopher
North), and Dr. Brown, the distinguished author of "Rab and his

The two clever sons, James and John, were both most resourceful men,
full of energy and enterprise. James was one of the first to follow the
example of the _Cornhill_ by starting a Shilling Illustrated Magazine,
_London Society_, which he successfully conducted for many years. He
gave examples of Sir John Millais, P.R.A.; Fred Walker, A.R.A.; John
Pettie, R.A.; Tom Graham; Gordon Thomson, and J. D. Watson. Amongst
the lady artists were Florence and Adelaide Claxton, whose style of
work well suited the nature of the publication. The Christmas Number of
_London Society_ held a prominent position for many years.


    "_To seek their bread from public charity,
    They and their wives and children--happier far
    Could they have lived as do the little birds
    That peck along the hedges, or the kite
    That makes its dwelling on the mountain rocks!_"

                                   "The Deserted Cottage."--WORDSWORTH.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

John Hogg, the younger brother, while publishing many books of a useful
and instructive high-class character, also conducted the _Churchman's
Family Magazine_; and when amongst the artists we find the names of
Frederick Sandys, G. J. Pinwell, and others, evidence of his capability
for the position is afforded. John Hogg is an earnest Freemason, and
closely identified with the publications of the craft.

       *       *       *       *       *

Nursery Rhymes! what delightful subjects they give for pictures, and
how often we have had the pleasure of working on them. The first
collection we made is very fully illustrated by William McConnell, "a
comic artist" of some repute in his day. He was the close friend of the
Brothers Brough and of George Augustus Sala, for whom he made a set of
elaborate drawings to illustrate "Twice Round the Clock." McConnell was
a most prolific artist.

Our next essay on the same subject was a commission from the
Routledges, and was issued as "Our Favourite Nursery Rhymes." This was
altogether much more important from an art point, many of the best
draughtsmen of the time being engaged upon it. J. B. Zwecker made a
capital set of drawings illustrating "Old Mother Hubbard"; while J.
A. Pasquier, a very clever artist in black and white, and a skilful
painter in water colours, contributed several appropriate designs.

We well remember presenting a copy of this volume to Professor Sir
Richard Owen, the great naturalist. He said what enjoyment it had given
to him: it was like meeting the friends of his childhood. The grand old
man's face really beamed with delight as he, in his sweet, quiet voice,
said, "They have not only pleased me, but I will have the further
pleasure of showing all my young friends these dear old Nursery Rhymes
and Jingles."


    "_He swells his lifted chest and backward flings
    His bridling neck beneath his towering wings;
    The female with a meeker charm succeeds,
    And her brown little ones around her leads,
    Nibbling the water-lilies as they pass._"

                                        "An Evening Walk."--WORDSWORTH.


_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

In conjunction with Messrs. Novello, Ewer & Co. we produced "Our
National Nursery Rhymes." The rhymes were set to music by J. W. Elliot,
and the pictures were of an important character, A. B. Houghton, G. J.
Pinwell, Stacy Marks and others employed thereon being all at their
best. As well as many of our own drawings, there were several landscape
and rustic pictures by E. G. Dalziel in the collection.

We produced the pictures for two other books for the same firm: "The
Sunlight of Song," being a charming collection of sweet songs set
to music, and "Christmas Carols." Both were fully illustrated by
popular artists. Amongst those for the "Carols" were many most refined
and appropriate drawings by Arthur Hughes, who was one of the most
earnest of the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and who, independent of his
painting, did a large amount of black and white work. We are doubtful
whether he made any drawings for "The Germ." Our first connection with
him was for "The Music Master, and other Poems," by William Allingham,
for which he did two drawings; one, a fairy moonlight subject, being
exquisitely beautiful. He did much fine work for _Good Words_, and
many fanciful fairy subjects for Dr. George Macdonald's stories, which
appeared in _Good Words for the Young_, amongst which were "On the Back
of the North Wind" and "Chamber Dramas."


[16] This alludes to some drawings he was making for an illustrated
edition of "Beatie's Minstrel."

[17] This refers to a drawing for the _Cornhill Magazine_.



Fred Walker often said that he wanted to come to us as a pupil, but
that we would not have him. When he left the North London Collegiate
School, where he was educated, he came to ask our advice as to the
method of drawing on wood, and as to the chances of earning money as
an illustrator. We advised him to begin by copying, in pen and ink,
pictures from the _Illustrated London News_ and other illustrated
periodicals, specially recommending the works of John Gilbert and
Birket Foster as the best models for style and manner.

He then went to J. W. Whymper, who at that time took pupils to learn
the art of drawing on wood. There he studied and copied the works we
had recommended, and so quickly acquired the manner of John Gilbert
that when he made designs, so close was his imitation that his drawings
might easily have been taken for Gilbert's own work. But his own
individuality soon began to assert itself, and he quickly developed
into the great master he was. During this period he occasionally came
to us for advice on various subjects, and we gave him commissions on
some boys' books for Routledge and other publishers, including "Hard
Times" and "Reprinted Pieces," by Charles Dickens.

On sending Dickens a set of finished proofs of the latter, we received
the following letter in reply:

                                       "FRIDAY, _Fourth October, 1861_.

    "GENTLEMEN,--I beg to acknowledge the receipt of the India proofs
    you have had the kindness to send me, of the illustrations
    to 'Reprinted Pieces.' Both in conception and execution the
    illustrations are very satisfactory indeed.

                          "Faithfully yours,
                                                     "CHARLES DICKENS."

Walker made many drawings for _Good Words_. One struck us as being
so exceedingly beautiful that we asked him to make us a water colour
drawing from it, which he did; and, apart from its being rather crude
in colour, it is a charming work, called "A Dinner in the Fields"--a
group of rustic children. This, we believe, was his first commission
for a picture. His early paintings were not fine in colour. He did
not evince much capacity in this direction until he went down to West
Somerset, and worked side by side with his friend, J. W. North, whose
influence, aided by the lovely colour of the district, brought about a
marvellous improvement in both his tone and mode.

Walker was of a very excitable nature, and with his rapidly growing
power and popularity, soon got a high sense of his own importance. One
day he came to us in an angry, irritated state, saying he had just
finished a large water colour drawing that a well-known dealer had
promised to come and see, but had failed to do so. "I want, when he
comes to-day, to be able to say, 'That picture is sold.' Can you help
me in this humiliating position?" After a few words of consultation,
we said, "Yes, we will give you a hundred guineas for it." The picture
was not a good example either in subject or treatment. It was a social
scene, called "Strange Faces," but had a special interest in the fact
that William Harvey, whom we had introduced to Walker, stood as model
for the principal figure.

[Illustration: "_God knows all he does for the poor baby; how
cheerfully he carries him in his arms when he himself is weak and ill;
how he feeds him when he himself is griped with want; how he folds
his ragged jacket round him, lays his little worn face with a woman's
tenderness upon his sun-burnt breast._"

                                   "The Long Voyage."--CHARLES DICKENS.



_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

His first picture in oil, exhibited in the Royal Academy, was done from
his drawing, "A Woman in the Snow," published in _Good Words_, and
engraved by us.

About this time we commissioned him to make thirty drawings on wood the
same size as those of Birket Foster's "Pictures of English Landscape."
These he willingly undertook, and worked at earnestly; but the great
demand for his pictures increased so rapidly that the drawings came
less and less frequently, and at last the scheme fell through, after
his having given us some eight or ten. All of these were perfect
works of their class, and it would have made a grand book had it been
completed. Later, we published the engravings with those of other
artists, mostly by G. J. Pinwell and J. W. North, first in "A Round of
Days" and "Home Affections," and afterwards in an India paper edition,
as "Pictures of English Rustic Life," by Frederick Walker, A.R.A., and
G. J. Pinwell, R.W.S. One of the designs we had a small water colour
drawing of, "Come in out of the Rain"; also one of "Strange Faces,"
which, being in his later manner, was far better than the original

[Illustration: "_In the midsummer holidays some of our fellows, who
lived within walking distance, used to come back and climb the trees
outside the playground wall on purpose to look at Old Cheeseman reading
there by himself. He was always as mild as the tea--and that's pretty
mild, I should hope! So when they whistled to him, he looked up and
nodded; and when they said, 'Hello, Old Cheeseman! what have you had
for dinner?' he said 'Boiled mutton.'_"

                             "The Schoolboy's Story."--CHARLES DICKENS.



_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

Of these rustic drawings, fortunately, through the aid of photography,
several of the originals were saved, some of which are at Kensington
Museum, where the beautiful manipulation of the work may be
studied--the material and method; the mixture of pencil, point work,
in some instances ink, and wash; the delicate colour of the wood, and
the skilful use of body colour (Chinese white), all combining to bring
about a most beautiful result.

Walker had a fine sense of humour, which was shown in the few drawings
he did for _Punch_.

At a social gathering the commencement of a new story by Miss Muloch
was humorously discussed. The opening chapter dwelt much on early
childhood. The term, "Sacred Blue Pinafore," being used frequently
so tickled Walker's fancy that he there and then made a rough sketch
in blue chalk, which we here reproduce. The same evening he made the
portrait sketch of his friend, W. P. Burton, a clever but eccentric
character, who was present at the time.

Fred Walker's art culminated in the production of his "Harbour of
Refuge," one of the greatest English pictures for beauty, pathos, and
grandeur ever painted. He said one day to a friend, "look at that
little old man sitting against the distant tree: that is a portrait of
myself when I get to be as old as he."

We considered ourselves fortunate in securing a few of his water colour
paintings. Independent of those already referred to, we may mention
"Philip in Church," which was the first picture that brought him
into prominent notice, and has always been considered a thoroughly
representative work. It certainly helped to secure his election into
the Old Water Colour Society.

[Illustration: A WOMAN IN THE SNOW.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

[Illustration: "O SACRED BLUE PINAFORE."





                        ~3. St. Petersburgh Place

                                                           Dec 22. 1863

  Dear Mr Dalziel

    Accept my apologies for not having before answered your reply.

    The picture shall be yours & I am going at it hard as
    possible--Millais has just left me much comforted both as to that
    & the photos of your blocks, he made some suggestions however for
    Philip which will be an improvement--

    You will I dare say be glad to hear (in confidence) that I intend
    becoming a candidate for the Old Water Color Socʸ.--chiefly on the
    _advice_ of certain of its members, and should like Philip as
    _the_ specimen.

    This I particularly wish kept _snug_ at present. Millais's advice
    is strongly in its favor.

    I shall be glad to hear from you. I perhaps need not say that
    something toward the plum-pudding will gladden the heart of

                         Yours very sincerely
                                                         _Fred. Walker_

  _E. Dalziel Esq._]

Years after, Professor von Herkomer produced a very charming etching of
this picture, the same size as the original.

Gilbert Dalziel, son of Edward Dalziel, sat to Walker for the boy in
"Philip in Church." Walker took a great fancy to him, and they had many
games together. The following is a letter from him to his youthful
model, which will give an idea of the nature of their friendship:


                                                           7 Charles St
                                                      Manchester Square
                                                           Feb. 11 1862

  My dear Sir

    I begg to enklose the Top as i prom-missed and 1 or too Jew-Jabes
    which You will kindley giv to youre sister Miss Grace (with mi
    best compleymints) only on the conditchion that She dont gitt rid
    of em in less then 5 minites Hopping you are wel as it leves me at

                           I remain Dear Sur
                                Your es
                                                        _Fredᵏ. Walker_

  G. Dalziel Esquire]

For the first two years after the picture was finished it was seldom in
our possession for more than a week or two at any one time, it being in
frequent request, either for exhibition in the provinces or abroad; and
not infrequently in Walker's own studio, when he wished to show it to
his friends.

                                                      "_Feby. 21, '66._

    "MY DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--I have just received a letter from Miss
    Minnie Thackeray to say her sister, who comes to town to-day, is
    so unwell as to be unable to visit us to-day. Will you have the
    kindness to let the picture, which has just arrived, remain here
    for a day or two? and with many thanks,

                             "Believe me,
                           "Sincerely yours,
                                                            "F. WALKER.


With reference to the following letter from Mr. Allen E. Everet,
containing an application from the Birmingham Society of Artists
that the picture might be exhibited at their rooms, we were given to
understand that the Society awarded Walker their gold medal for the
best water colour picture of the year. A like honour was bestowed by
the Council of the Paris International Exhibition of 1865; in Dublin
also, where it was on view, it was awarded a prize.[18]

                                                      "SOCIETY OF ARTS,
                                                       "_2 July, 1864_.

    "DEAR SIR,--I just take the liberty of writing a line to ask if you
    have been able to obtain for us the loan of your fine drawing of
    'Philip,' for our ensuing Exhibition, as all the members of this
    Society will feel most anxious to see this most interesting work on
    our walls this autumn? Hoping, therefore, that you will be able to
    oblige us,

                         "I remain, dear Sir,
                         "Respectfully yours,
                                                      "ALLEN E. EVERET,
                                                     "_Hon. Secretary_.


Perhaps it is hardly necessary to say here that, with the exception
of the first two, Walker made the entire series of illustrations to
Thackeray's novel of "Philip; his way through the World," or that this
picture is an elaborately finished painting from one of these designs.
Walker held this gifted author in very high esteem.

In a note addressed to us, dated December 28th, 1863, we find the
following passage:

    "I have not been very well, and should have passed a happier
    Christmas but for this sad news of poor Thackeray. I have lost a
    good friend."

       *       *       *       *       *

Our first knowledge of Professor Hubert von Herkomer, R.A., came to
us in the form of a parcel, containing two or three drawings, through
the post from Southampton. They were not very remarkable, but had
sufficient skill to justify us in using his work. His development was
wonderful, showing a facility of design and artistic taste far above
the average. But in spite of his all-round cleverness he had severe
struggles in the early days. He always had dramatic taste, and he told
us that it was a chance whether he persisted in his painting or went
on the stage. He is a well-trained musician--a composer as well as an
executant; and one time thought of joining a Christy's Minstrel troupe.
In fact, he offered himself as "bones," but there was "no vacancy," so
he continued drawing and painting, getting decorative work to do at
South Kensington Museum, where he did some stencilling on a ceiling,
under conditions explained in the following letter:

                                             "32 SMITH STREET, CHELSEA,
                                                     "_Monday Morning_.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--Would you kindly send me the proof of my two
    drawings this week? I am working at Kensington Museum, doing some
    decorative work, which will at least keep the wolf from the door
    and still give, or rather leave, me plenty of time for other work.

    "When I have some more things done I will take the liberty to show
    them to you.

                        "Yours very faithfully,
                                                      "HUBERT HERKOMER.

    "P.S.--The zither still continues to be my dearest companion."

All this while he was gaining power, and whenever he had the good
fortune to sell a picture he immediately "speculated" to the extent of
going abroad for fresh study and experience.

The first picture of any importance that he exhibited in London was
a large water colour--"Harvesters"--at the Dudley Gallery. It was a
very clever work and fresh in style. We advised Mr. Strahan to buy it,
which he did for forty pounds. Herkomer also made a full page drawing
on wood from this picture for _Good Words_. On this success he went
to Treport. It was at the time of the Franco-Prussian War; and here
he painted a market scene called "Reading the News," which news was
evidently adverse to the French. The groups of angry women and gloomy
men tell the tale very clearly. When the people got to know he was of
German origin, so great was their anger and hatred towards him that he
was obliged to beat a speedy retreat for England; but not before he
had finished a very clever and characteristic picture, which, with the
exception of the colour, holds its own with much of his later work.
Upon this he was invited to join the Royal Institute, from which he
retired, and later in life became a member of the Royal Water Colour

We were fortunate enough to become the owners of the picture
immediately on his return.

It was after one of his successful visits to Bavaria that he built a
small wooden studio in the back garden of his house in Smith Street,
Chelsea, and there painted, in 1875, his large oil picture, "The Last
Muster," a production that will always rank as one of the finest
English works. Soon after this he was elected an Associate, and in due
course a full Member of the Royal Academy of Arts, as well as receiving
several Continental decorations. Subsequently he succeeded John Ruskin
as Professor of Painting at Christ College, Oxford. But all this is
too well known to be dwelt upon here. Our own personal experience
of Herkomer is that he is as good and generous as he is clever, and
that whatever service we were able to render him in the past has been
recognised by him over and over again.


"_This is a sweet place, ain't it? a lovely spot? and I wonder if
they'd give two poor, foot-sore travellers, like me and you, a drop of
fresh water out of such a pretty, genteel crib? We'd take it wery kind
on 'em, wouldn't us? wery kind, upon my word, us would._"

                                            "Tramps."--CHARLES DICKENS.



_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]


"_They looked like Time and his wife. There was but the one rake
between them, and they both had hold of it in a pastorally-looking
manner; and there was hay on the old woman's black bonnet, as if the
old man had been playful._"

                                  "City Churchyards."--CHARLES DICKENS.



_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

When G. J. Pinwell first called on us he brought a small water colour
drawing with him. The subject was a lady of the "Old Ballad" style,
with a decided sense of beauty in it, and in colour looked as if he
had been studying the work of Holman Hunt. We recognised at once his
cleverness, and that study and practice only were required to develop
his great ability.

We first gave him some work on _Fun_, as is shown by this letter from

    "DEAR SIR,--I now send you a _Fun_ drawing, which I hope you will
    like. I think it will print well.

                             "Believe me,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                       "G. J. PINWELL."

We also gave him, and obtained for him, work of the most varied kind,
such as sets of illustrations for boys' books. He soon became a regular
contributor to _Good Words_, and in its pages over one hundred of
his drawings appeared. From several of them he painted water colour
drawings, perhaps the most important being a highly finished work:
"Landlord and Tenant," which shows his appreciation of character in the
landlord, and of deep pathos in the fine group of the poor woman and
her children. This picture was painted expressly for us and was never

[Illustration: THE SISTERS.


_Reduced from an Engraving made for the "Graphic" by the Brothers

_By permission of the Proprietors._]

He made a few drawings for "Dalziel's Arabian Nights," but did not go
far, as we had placed entirely in his hands our edition of "Goldsmith's
Works," for which he made a wonderful set of drawings considering the
short time allowed for their production. He, however, lost nothing in
force of design or in excellence, the manipulation only being a little
less painstaking but more suitable for rendering in the reproductions.

Pinwell always objected to working against time: he held that if a
thing was worth doing at all it must be done at his best. He often said
that "money was not enough for him."

Amongst his most careful and finished work are the exquisite rustic
pictures which we issued in "A Round of Days" and "Wayside Posies,"
also those to illustrate "Poems by Jean Ingelow," notably the sets for
"The High Tide" and "Winstanly." He also did some strong character
work for Robert Buchanan's "North Coast and Other Poems," some of a
classic and romantic kind for his "Ballad Stories of the Affections,"
and a small set of illustrations to Charles Dickens' "Uncommercial
Traveller." The pictures of "Old Time and His Wife," and "The Tramps,"
were amongst the best, and for these we gave him a commission to paint
water colour drawings, and very exquisite examples they are.


    "_That's where it lies! We get no good by asking questions, neighbour;
    Parsons are sent to watch our souls while we are hard at labour.
    This world needs help to get along, for men feed one another;
    And what do we pay parsons for, if not to manage t'other?_"

                                "An English Eclogue."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

When Pinwell was a little boy a lady asked his mother what she intended
bringing him up to. She said she did not know, but that he was so fond
of drawing she thought he would like to be an artist. "Oh," said the
lady, "do not let him be that, for none but the best ever make any
money." "But," said Mrs. Pinwell, "why may not my George be one of the
best?" The dear old lady, of whom Pinwell always spoke with reverent
affection, did not live to see that he was "one of the best"--aye, of
the very best--of that wonderful group of young men with whom he was
associated; for he possessed some of the finest and highest qualities
in a supreme degree; his sense of beauty, his fine colour, his grace of
design, his poetic art, being equalled only by his force of character.
In much of his work there is a tinge of sadness; but as a rule, and in
his water colours particularly, beauty dominates everything.

Outside our close connection with him as an illustrator, our interest
in him as a painter was constant from the commencement up to the day
of his death--owning his first finished picture and his last, on which
he worked the day before he died. His first he called "The Sisters";
his second, a very highly finished picture, was "The Rats," from "The
Pied Piper of Hamelin." While this was on the easel we commissioned
him for two others from the same poem, "The Children," and "The Piper
Bargaining with the Burghers in the Market Place." The latter was never
done. "The Children" we lent to the Paris Art Exhibition, where it was
hung under a glass roof and "baked" until the colour was all taken out
of it, to the extent that he said he would repaint it; but after he
had gone so far with the _replica_ he found it so hard a task that he
set to work on the first picture, the modelling all being perfect, and
restored the colour to its original beauty.


    "_'Say it again,' cried little Jim; and when,
    To please his heart, I said the song again,
    In through the smoky glass the setting sun
    Gleamed sickly; and the day was nearly done._"

                                  "The Ballad Maker."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]


                                                          86 Adelaide. Rd

  Dear Dalziel

    I am very glad you like the Old Clock--and pleased that it will go
    in such good company, as to the money I will take it as I want it


                              Yours very
                                                           S T Pinwell]

[Illustration: "_Two young ladies, richly dressed, whom he introduced
as women of very great distinction, and famous, from Town._"

"The Vicar of Wakefield."



_By permission of Messrs. Ward & Lock._]

One of the last pictures we purchased from Pinwell was "The Old Clock,"
it being a repeat of one of the rustic drawings he made for us.

At the time of his death we had acquired a great number of his finished
works, both large and small. At the sale of the remainder of his works
at Christie's we purchased about one third of the collection. Amongst
them were two for which he had been commissioned by us--one, a repeat
of "The Elixir of Love," smaller than the original, and, although
unfinished, much the finer work of the two; the other a water colour
repeat of an oil painting of "Vanity Fair," which he had in progress.

Two or three other unfinished efforts in oil, "The Earl of Quarter
Deck," "Sally in Our Alley," and "The New Slipper," all go to show that
he was a perfect master of the material; and had he lived to complete
any of these, his election into the Academy would have been assured.

Pinwell had not the advantage of high culture early in life, but
he was a true gentleman; though sometimes rough and brusque in
manner, which showed most strongly when he came across or heard of
any act of petty meanness, in all the ordinary ways of life he was
good-natured, genial and sociable, brimful of tenderness, of a vivid
imagination, and generous to a degree. His life was a truly domestic
one, spending most of his time at home with a charming wife and a
few chosen friends, amongst whom, perhaps, E. G. Dalziel and A. B.
Houghton were the closest and most constant. He was the soul of good
fellowship, perfectly human, and sympathetic in the highest degree.
Sir John Millais, speaking of him, summed him up in his own emphatic
way, saying, "no man could produce work like his who was not a man of
exquisite taste and refined poetic feeling."

[Illustration: "_Whenever I approached a peasant's house towards
nightfall, I played one of my most merry tunes, and this procured me
not only a lodging, but substance for the next day._"

"The Vicar of Wakefield."



_By permission of Messrs. Ward & Lock._]


    "_Then, with a strange trouble in her eyes, Meg Blane
    Crept swiftly back into her hut again._"

                                         "Meg Blane."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

Pinwell had all his life been in delicate health, and succumbed to a
lung trouble at an early age.

       *       *       *       *       *

A. Boyd Houghton was perhaps one of the most versatile of the black
and white draughtsmen of our time. Amongst his early friends he was
called "The Young Genius," and his first efforts in art showed that he
well deserved that appellation. He did not require the model set before
him--to look at his subject was sufficient. It was like a "snap-shot"
fixed on the brain, and memory was enough for his purpose. He had a
vivid fancy, and was brimming over with the finest qualities of the
designer's art. Our connection with him was a long and very close
one. He was a most delightful companion--his fine sense of humour was
coupled with a pleasant tinge of satire, such as comes from a man who
knows the world in its various phases of life, but always cultured and


    _"And, ah! she trembled, fluttering and panting,
      While on my knees I fell."_

                                '"The Saint's Story."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

One of his characteristics was his great love of children. It was a
pleasure to him to get a party of young people together, and go off to
the fields to romp and play all sorts of games and antics. His taste in
that way is fully shown in the set of some thirty or more drawings he
made for us of "Child Life," which we published, through Routledge, as
"Home Thoughts." But he made other pictures of the little ones: "Kiss
Me," done for _Good Words_, is an excellent example.

He had special advantages to assist him in his work on our edition of
"The Arabian Nights." He was born in India. His father, his brothers,
and many relatives were Indian army men, who had fine collections of
articles of virtu, curios, costumes, and every sort of thing invaluable
for the illustrators purposes, much of which he placed at the disposal
of Thomas Dalziel, thus enabling both to work with uniformity in all
necessary details.




_By permission of Messrs. Ward & Lock._] There is no doubt that these
"Arabian Nights" drawings of Houghton's are amongst the best work in
black and white of the period; but strange as it may appear, publishers
did not take willingly to his art. Alexander Strahan was almost the
only one who fully appreciated his great ability. He used his drawings
largely in his various magazines and also bought several of his
pictures--one, a large oil, "Sheik Hamel," a truly grand picture. We
had a water colour of the same subject, which by many was considered
the finer work of the two. Both were painted from the original drawing
done for _Good Words_. One of the most beautiful water colours we had
from him was "Coach and Horses," a portrait picture of his wife and
two children, now in the possession of his youngest daughter, Mrs.
Charles Davis, a lady of refined taste, whose greatest pleasure is
to acquire works of her much-loved father. The small water colour of
"Useless Mouths," exhibited in the R.W.S., was a subject he was very
fond of--people being driven out of a beleaguered city. We had two oil
pictures (which he painted with slight variations) of the same subject,
as well as "The Daughter of Herodias Dances before Herod." Another,
which he named "The Sorceress," was a beautiful young girl being tried
as a witch before the tribunal of the Inquisition. Both the latter
pictures were exceptionally fine.

We commissioned him for one hundred illustrations to "Don Quixote,"
which he did most ably. Frederick Warne & Co. published the book
for us. His illustrations to "Krilof's Fables" are very clever.
He contributed to nearly all our "Fine Art Books," notably, "Jean
Ingelow's Poems," "Our National Nursery Rhymes," "Buchanan's North
Coast Poems," and "Ballad Stories of the Affections."




_By permission of Messrs. Ward & Lock._]

Houghton was the essence of kindness and generosity. His impulsive
nature knew no bounds. If any case of distress to a brother artist came
before him he was the first to offer help. We could give many special
instances where he emptied his pockets that he might help those in
immediate want.

       *       *       *       *       *

Although we had done much work with the house of Ward & Lock from
their first commencing business, it was not until 1863 that we held
any financial interest in what they published. In that year we entered
into a contract with them to produce a series of popular standard
works, fully illustrated, to be under the able editorship of Dr. H.
W. Dulcken, and to be published with the general title of "Dalziel's
Illustrated Edition." We were to share equally in the cost of
production, and participate equally in the profits, if there were any.
Before the first number appeared, Mr. J. Stephens, proprietor of the
_Family Herald_, was so much attracted by the probable success of the
scheme, that he begged to be included in the partnership, suggesting
that all costs, losses, or profits should be equally borne by the three
parties. To this we agreed.

"The Arabian Nights' Entertainments," it was decided, should be the
first of the series. Some of the drawings were made by Sir John E.
Millais, P.R.A., Sir John Tenniel, J. D. Watson, R.W.S.,




_By permission of Messrs. Ward & Lock._] G. J. Pinwell, R.W.S., and
other artists, but the great majority of them were done by A. Boyd
Houghton, R.W.S., and Thomas Dalziel.

This was followed by "The Works of Oliver Goldsmith," illustrated by
George J. Pinwell, R.W.S. The work being entirely illustrated by one
artist, and he a very great one, gives it a special interest and value.
Some of Pinwell's finest black and white is here seen.


    "_Lord, hearken unto me,
    Help all poor men at sea._"

                                         "Meg Blane."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]


    "_And women barred their doors with bars of iron
    In the silence of the night; and at the sunrise
    Shivered behind the husbandmen afield._"

                                      "Celtic Myths."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

Though these two books, upon which we bestowed much anxious care, were
very highly appreciated by the press generally, and still more highly
by the art-loving world, the public, unfortunately, did not respond so
enthusiastically as we had expected, and, as a large debt had by this
time been incurred, all further progress in the scheme was abandoned.

Amongst much interesting work in which we were associated with Ward
& Lock, was a very charming edition of "The Pilgrim's Progress,"
containing 100 beautiful pictures, drawn entirely by Thomas
Dalziel--thus adding another to the many editions of this wonderful
book which we had been called upon to embellish.

Our connection with Messrs. Ward & Lock continued for many years after
"The Arabian Nights" transaction had terminated.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was through an introduction by G. J. Pinwell that we first met J.
W. North. He began as a pupil of J. W. Whymper, in whose studio he
made many small drawings, most of which were modelled on the works of
Birket Foster. North said that all the art teaching he ever got at
Whymper's was that when a subject was given him, a print of one of
Foster's was placed before him, with instructions to make his drawing
in that manner. We were struck, not only with the earnestness of his
method, but the beautiful drawing and his sweet simplicity of style.
But it is a fact that publishers generally did not care for his work,
and, broadly speaking, all the drawings he did for us were in the
form of commissions given direct by ourselves, and at our own risk.
Most certainly we have nothing to regret in this; for in different
forms he gave us some of the finest English landscapes that have been
produced in black and white. Amongst the most important are those which
we placed in our "Round of Days," in "Home Thoughts," and in "Jean
Ingelow's Poems." And whatever reputation North may have gained in
other branches of art, we feel assured that these early works will form
no small part of that distinction.


    "_Silent they stood, each gazing on the dust
    Of kindred;--on the well-beloved ones
    Whom they should never lie beside in slumber._"

                           "The Exiles of Glen Oona."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

From his earliest practice of art he devoted much time to water colour
painting, and was elected, on his first "sending in," to the Royal
Water Colour Society, where he at once became one of its most prominent
members, producing, year by year, landscapes of singular beauty. He
also painted several important landscapes in oil, which called forth
much attention at the Grosvenor and at the New Gallery, and for some
years now has had the distinction of A.R.A. as an affix to his name.

It has always been a pleasant memory to us in having had it in our
power to be of some service to this talented artist when he started on
"the battle of life."

We became possessed of several of his very charming water colour
drawings, one of the most important being two beautiful rustic children
looking at a dead robin lying on the snow; another, "An Old Wooden
Bridge," the design of which he used in illustrating one of Jean
Ingelow's poems; and "A Storm at Sea," which is an exquisite piece of


    "_Then calling to his henchman red,
    'Slit me the throat of the Priest,' he said;
    'His red heart's blood shall flow before
    A gracious sacrifice to Thor.'_"

                                             "Hahon."--ROBERT BUCHANAN.


_By permission of Mr. John Hogg._]

Our first introduction to Jean Ingelow was through Mr. Niles, of
Roberts Brothers, Boston, U.S., who wanted some illustrations done for
her poems. Some six or eight page drawings were made by J. W. North,
and the success of that venture induced us to make terms with her for
the elaborately illustrated edition of "Jean Ingelow's Poems," for
which we retained the English rights, and which we produced and placed
in the hands of Messrs. Longman, her English publishers. The pictures
were by various artists--Pinwell is at his very best in "The High
Tide," "Winstanly," and many others; so is J. W. North, who gave us
numerous examples in his most refined manner. Wolf, Small, and Houghton
are all there in good form. There is one fine example of Sir E. J.
Poynter, P.R.A., of "Euphrosyne," and there are a number of our own
drawings of which it is needless to particularize.

       *       *       *       *       *

It was in our connection with _Good Words_ that we first came in
contact with Robert Buchanan, who was at that time coming right to the
front as a popular poet. At our invitation he was induced to write
and procure verses to the set of pictures by Fred Walker and others,
which were published as "Wayside Posies," and for which he gave us much
beautiful work. After this we made arrangements with him to produce an
illustrated book, to be called "North Coast and Other Poems," which
afforded plenty of scope for pictures of varied kinds. Commencing with
"Meg Blane," a strong dramatic story of the sea is fully illustrated
by A. B. Houghton and Thomas Dalziel. "An English Eclogue" has a
fine example of G. J. Pinwell; the same may be said of "The Battle
of Drumlie Moor," and of the illustrations to "The Ballad Maker" and
"Sigurd of Saxony." Houghton's pictures to "The Northern Warning" and
to "The Saint's Story" are all powerful works. There are also two very
fine drawings by William Small from the truly pathetic story of "The
Exiles of Glen Oona."

[Illustration: MUSIC.--A MAN AT THE SPINET.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

"Ballad Stories of the Affections" was always a favourite book with
us--the fine old ballads giving such an opportunity for pictures of an
imaginative, poetic character. Two of Pinwell's--"Maid Mettelil" and
"Young Axelvold"--are of exceeding beauty. Of A. B. Houghton's those
for "Signelil, the Serving Maiden," and that for "The Two Sisters" are
amongst his best. J. D. Watson has some good pictures, and those by J.
Lawson illustrating "Aage and Elsie" are strong dramatic work. As to
our own drawings, which are numerous, we will only say that we loved
the subjects, and had much pleasure in making the drawings.

Among the many truly gifted young artists who came under our notice
at this period was J. M. Lawless. His drawings were of such a refined
and accomplished character that he at once took a place amongst the
distinguished men of the time. He exhibited some few pictures at the
Royal Academy which brought him prominently before the public; one of
these, "A Midnight Mass," another, "A Sick Call"--a poor woman has been
to fetch a priest, who, with his acolytes, is being rowed across a
river; the woman's deep grief, and the solemnity of the entire scene,
gives a touch of pathos to the group, and suggests it being a case _in
extremis_. From "A Man at the Spinet," which we give, he painted a
sweet water colour. Lawless was regarded as a "coming man," but, alas!
like others of that "golden period" of Illustrative Art he passed away
at quite an early age.


[18] It is a curious fact that on this occasion the picture was lost
for some two or three months, but was ultimately restored to us



"Dalziel's Bible Gallery" is composed of sixty-two pictures, most
of which are of a very high order; many quite up to the standard we
aimed at when planning our project for an "Illustrated Bible." Special
mention may be made of those by Lord, then Sir Frederick, Leighton,
Bart., P.R.A., whose drawing of "Cain and Abel" will always rank as
one of the grandest examples of Biblical art of modern times; nor less
highly must be estimated his "Death of the First Born." The "Samson"
subjects also are very fine, particularly that of "Carrying the Gates";
and another notable subject is "Moses Viewing the Promised Land"; but
all his contributions, nine in number, will stand amongst the finest of
his works in black and white.

An art critic, in an appreciative notice of works exhibited at the
Old Water Colour Galleries, where some of Lord Leighton's drawings
were on view, wrote the following words in reference to one of the
illustrations done for the "Bible" series:

    "Whenever we have had anything to write of the late Lord Leighton
    we have always praised him as a draughtsman; we have always pointed
    to his book illustration as his greatest achievement...."

    "It is not, we must confess, so impressive a design as the grand
    'Moses,' or the powerful 'Samson bearing away the Gates.' But it
    has been put together with all the dignity that the old decorators
    would have bestowed upon the subject, 'The Death of the First
    Born.' It might have been, with its three panels beneath, designed
    for an altar.... The drawing was done for 'Dalziel's Bible,' a
    publication that was packed with as good book illustrations, as
    varied illustrations, as ever were produced in England, but that
    was financially a failure. There is, therefore, every reason why
    the public should never have appreciated the original designs.
    But though for Messrs. Dalziel the book was financially never a
    success, some day their effort to produce the best engravings
    they could from the best drawings they could get will be
    acknowledged."--_Daily Chronicle, Feb. 20th, 1897._

The following letters will interest the reader, as showing how
earnestly Lord Leighton entered into this project of illustrating the

    "DEAR SIRS,--I have begun to consider the subjects you propose
    to me, and will shortly send you a list of the passages in the
    stories of Samson, of Elijah, and of Jezebel, which appear to me
    particularly to suggest illustrations. One question I would ask:
    when you spoke of 'six designs' was it that you wished no more
    from those chapters, or was it that some are already given for
    variety to other hands, or that you thought I would not do more for
    you? I ask this because the subjects I shall send you may be more
    likely twelve than six. By-the-by, eventually when you get to the
    Apocalypse I have a great fancy to design the Four Riders.

                           "I am, dear Sirs,
                        "Yours very faithfully,
                                                      "FRED. LEIGHTON."


    "DEAR SIRS,--Many thanks for your letter. When I selected, as
    particularly congenial to me, the subjects from Elijah and those
    which concern Jezebel, it was only to secure them for myself
    eventually, as I have a great fancy for them, but I am quite ready
    to take the subjects of this year as early in the Bible as you
    please, if you will only send me your suggestions. Who is going to
    do that magnificent subject of the 'Promise to Abram that his seed
    shall be as the stars'? If no one, I shall be glad to take it. Of
    the three subjects you propose I should like to single out 'Moses
    Viewing the Promised Land' (not the design I made for St. Paul's)
    and 'David's Charge to Solomon,' also 'Balaam and his Ass' if you
    like. I don't see my way to making a good thing of the 'Judgment.'
    The others seem to call for a great many figures, and you expressed
    a wish, when I saw you last, to confine yourself to subjects
    expressed with very few, if possible.

    "The 'Samson' is indeed short, but contains much that lends itself
    for illustrations. I should have wished to treat the following
    subjects at least: 'The Angel Disappearing in a Flame after
    announcing to Manoah and his Wife, the Birth of Samson,' 'Samson
    and the Lions,' 'Samson and the Gates,' 'Samson in the Mill'; the
    other subjects from the wonderful story would require complicated
    groups. The above are all broad, simple, and very pictorial. As it
    is you will find it impossible to distribute your illustrations
    equally over a book like the Bible, in which one chapter will
    sometimes contain four or five subjects, and four or five chapters
    be without one. Will you let me know at your convenience what
    passages you would like me to treat _early_ in the Bible this
    summer? It will save time if you can; I shall meanwhile ripen them
    in my head.

                           "I am, dear Sirs,
                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                      "FRED. LEIGHTON."

[Illustration: CAIN AND ABEL.



_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]



  Dear Sir

    I send the block I promised you for the end of this month.--I need
    not say I trust you will give peculiar care of the modelling of
    the flesh in which the lightest deviation from the drawing may
    destroy all anatomical correctness--I should with the execution the
    _facsimiles_ throughout--nevertheless in passages where the ink has
    changed and the shading become spotty you will use your discretion
    about leaving the effects--in one or two places also thin lines
    will perhaps require splitting to make them grey--the _white_
    troubles are of course only _corrections_--_not high lights_.

                               Dear sirs
                           Yours faithfully
                                                         Fred Leighton]


    "DEAR SIRS,--Before starting for the Continent I write to tell you
    that you will, in a day or two, receive three wood cut drawings
    from me. I should have sent you a fourth which was also finished,
    and the best of the four (it represented the 'Escape of the Spies
    from the house of Rahab'); unfortunately at the last moment I spilt
    some Indian ink on the upper part of it, and shall have a very
    tedious day's work to restore it, when I return early in November.
    I am sorry for this as I rather pleased myself on this design. I
    shall be in Venice all September--a letter addressed to me, _poste
    restante_, in that town, will find me. I start in a few hours.

                              "In haste,
                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                      "FRED. LEIGHTON."

Why Lord Leighton did not execute so many drawings for our "Bible" as
he had originally intended, the following note will explain:




_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

    "DEAR SIRS,--I send you two designs for the 'Bible' with apologies
    for the delay in finishing them. I very much regret I find that
    the minute work--without which I cannot satisfy myself--on these
    drawings has proved terribly trying to my eyes. I must therefore
    ask you to relieve me, for some time at least, of my promises to
    make some other drawings, as I know that you have already suffered
    much delay. I hope you will not scruple to give away my subjects.

                              "In haste,
                           "I am, dear Sirs,
                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                         "F. LEIGHTON."

G. F. Watts, R.A., also expressed himself in high approval of the
project, and promised his ready help, but ultimately he contributed
only three drawings. His letter will be of interest:

                                                 "LITTLE HOLLAND HOUSE,
                                                    "_July 19th, 1863_.

    "GENTLEMEN,--I am sorry my designs have been so long delayed. I
    have not succeeded in rendering one sufficiently satisfactory
    to myself to send to you. The fact is I have not the habit of
    making designs for wood cutting, and the subject is not a good
    one; my time also is fully occupied, and my health is not good.
    These reasons taken together may form some excuse for my apparent
    neglect; I don't think I can find time, anyhow, to make any fresh
    attempts for the next ten days or a fortnight, so perhaps I had
    better send you back the wood block. If you can wait till after
    that time I will again try what I can do, in order that you may not
    be disappointed, but I do not feel I can make much of the subject.

                             "Yours truly,
                                                         "G. F. WATTS."

Some slight objection having been taken to one of Mr. Watts' drawings,
and a reconsideration suggested, he wrote the following letter:

[Illustration: ESAU MEETING JACOB.



_By permission of Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

                                                "_December 16th, 1863._

    "GENTLEMEN,--I am always ready to receive and act upon criticism,
    and have therefore added a little to the size of the head of Noah,
    according to your suggestion; but my object is not to represent
    the phrenological characteristics of a mechanical genius, but the
    might and style of the inspired Patriarch. For the same reason I
    have thought it fit to give the length of limb and flexibility of
    joint still commonly seen in the East, tho' very rare in northern

    "I made drawing my principle study for a great many years, and
    consider myself at liberty to depart from mere correctness if
    necessary for my purpose; especially if the incorrectness resulting
    be more apparent than real. The accompanying figure, traced from
    the drawing, as you can verify, will show that the disproportion is
    not much less than you imagined, and that the stretch of limb is
    perfectly possible; at the same time I think it most probable that
    it would be objected to, and I do not ask you to risk condemnation,
    and by no means wish you to keep the drawing; but if I do anything
    for you, or anybody else, I must carry out my own sentiment.

                         "I remain, Gentlemen,
                          "Yours very truly,
                                                         "G. F. WATTS."

       *       *       *       *       *

Unstinted praise ought also to be given to the ten contributions of Sir
E. J. Poynter, P.R.A. For conception of subject, beauty of design, and
wonderful manipulation, they must all be regarded as fine examples of
Scriptural art. We must specially mention the drawings from "The Life
of Joseph": "Joseph Distributing the Corn," "Pharaoh Honours Joseph,"
and "Joseph Presents his Father to Pharaoh." From the latter design
he painted for us a most exquisite water colour drawing. Then, again,
"Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh," "Miriam," and "Daniel's Prayer," are
all remarkable for purity of treatment.


_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._ FROM "DALZIEL'S

While arranging subjects for illustration for the "Bible" we received
the following note:

                                              "62 GREAT RUSSELL STREET,
                                                 "_November 6th, 1865_.

    "DEAR DALZIEL,--May I do the following subjects from the Psalms?--

    "(1) 'David singing praises to the harp,' to be put either as a
    heading to the Book of Psalms or to illustrate any of the Hymns of
    Praise and Thanksgiving.

    "(2) 'David penitent,' or a figure of 'Penitence,' to head the
    Fifty-first Psalm. I have made sketches for these, which I think
    will do. Something, I think, might be made of the following,
    although I have no decided notion upon them as yet:

    "(3) 'The Heavens declared,' etc.--_Psalm xix. 21._

    "(4) 'Yea though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death I
    will fear no evil,' etc., etc., etc.--_Psalm xxiii. 4._

    "(5) 'The singers went before,' etc., etc., etc.--_Psalm lxviii.

    "I dare say I could find more, but these are enough to go on with
    for the present, no doubt; if I think of others I will let you
    know. I am sorry that you have again had to send in vain for the
    'Joseph' drawing, but the fault was not mine; I was out of town
    and had left word with the servant that she was to give it to the
    messenger, which she failed to do. I think I could go on with the
    two first subjects at once.

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                    "EDWARD J. POYNTER.

    "I will take up your 'Joseph' drawing as soon as I can manage to
    get up so far."

Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A., was born in Paris, 1836; and was educated
at Westminster, Ipswich, and Brighton College. He returned to Paris
to receive his art training, and entered the studio of Gleyre, going
afterwards to Antwerp, where he was fellow-student with Alma-Tadema and
George Du Maurier. In Rome he made the acquaintance of Leighton, and
for a short time worked in his studio there. He was elected into the
Royal Academy, 1869, and to full honours in that institution, 1876,
attaining the highest honour, that of President, November, 1896. This
is but a short record of a very brilliant career.

[Illustration: MIRIAM.



_By permission of Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

We were first attracted to his work, at a minor Exhibition in Newman
Street, by a small, but very charming water colour drawing of "Egyptian
Water Carriers"--two, half-length, beautiful girls--which we bought, on
its merits, not having any previous knowledge of the artist. Several
years after, this picture was engraved and included in our "Bible

The following letter, remarking upon a proof from one of his drawings
for the "Bible" submitted for correction, is one of several we received
from Sir Edward J. Poynter during the progress of the work:

                                                   "UNIVERSITY COLLEGE,
                                          "_Thursday, Nov. 28th, 1871_.

    "DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--I have touched a little on the proof with a
    view to getting a little more breadth of light. The reduction so
    concentrates the effect that it looks rather spotty; I was a little
    afraid it might. The light on the floor especially seems to want
    shading more gradually into the background; cutting out the cross
    lines in the hatching on the left hand side would, I should think,
    do this, and thinning the lines generally as they get nearer the
    light. I have made a slight alteration in the head of the young
    lady standing up by taking out some of the shading, and one or two
    other points are touched with a view to simplicity. I hope I am
    not giving you too much trouble! The engraving is most beautiful,
    especially the two near figures, which are wonderful; indeed,
    whatever is wrong is my own fault.

                          "Very truly yours,
                                                   "EDWARD J. POYNTER."




_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

We are tempted here to print a letter received from him in reply to one
from us in congratulation upon his election as President of the Royal
Academy of Arts:

                                                 "28 ALBERT GATE, S.W.,
                                                "_November 16th, 1896_.

    "DEAR DALZIEL,--It was a very great pleasure to me to receive your
    letter recalling the delightful times when I was working for you,
    and the kind reception you always gave me and my work. There is no
    part of my life or of the practice of my part to which I look back
    with greater pleasure. Many and cordial thanks for your friendly
    congratulations and good wishes. I can hardly keep pace with my
    correspondence just now, or these should have been sent earlier,
    for one of the first to welcome me in my new and honourable post
    was your letter.

                             "Believe me,
                          "Very truly yours,
                                                   "EDWARD J. POYNTER."

The Holman Hunt drawing of "Eliezer and Rebekah at the Well" is a
work of such simplicity of design and delicate treatment as might be
expected from this distinguished artist, whose life has been mainly
devoted to Biblical art. Of the three grand designs made for us by
the veteran artist G. F. Watts, R.A., we have selected that of "Esau
Meeting Jacob," as being a fine example of the artist, who has always
worked with the highest and noblest aims. Of Ford Madox Brown's three
contributions we have chosen "Elijah and the Widow's Son," as being
not only an original conception of the subject, but perhaps one of the
most beautiful specimens of manipulative skill he ever produced. He
called it an etching, and so it was to all intents, it being perfectly
pure line work. Although more beautiful, it is in no way finer than
"Joseph's Coat," or "The Death of Eglon."




_By permission of Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._] F. Sandy's one drawing,
"Jacob hears the Voice of the Lord," is a very strong piece of work.
There are many other important pictures by F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., E.
Armitage, R.A., A. B. Houghton, R.W.S., H. H. Armstead, R.A., A. Murch,
William Small, E. F. Brewtnall, R.W.S., F. S. Walker, R.H.A., and Sir
E. Burne-Jones. There are also twelve designs by Thomas Dalziel, which
are regarded by many competent judges to be amongst the best work in
the collection. "Hosannah," by S. Solomon, is also a very beautiful
work. What joy and fervour of music are expressed in the drawing! We
well remember the small picture he painted of the subject; it hung on
the line at the R.A., and was looked upon as the work of a coming man.

Burne-Jones' "overwhelming" amount of work, as explained in the
following letter, must be accepted as the reason why he contributed
only one drawing to the "Bible," in which he took such keen interest at
its commencement.

                                                   "52 GT. RUSSELL ST.,

    "MY DEAR SIR.--In a few days you will have 'Ezekiel,' and soon
    after 'The Coming of the Dove to the Ark.' My work has simply
    overwhelmed me and my walks the last month, but for the fortnight
    I can almost give myself to your subject. Your private commission
    still delights me with its congenial nature. The three subjects you
    name explain the 'Noah' subject; as soon as I have made a scheme of
    the 'Carol' you shall have it, and consider about it. Do you think
    of having a 'Temptation of Adam and Eve'? It would be famous for
    engraving, with a horny snake all round the tree, and the naked
    figures could be sufficiently concealed in the thicket so as not
    to offend the prurient (for they ought not to offend the modest).
    I shall thoroughly enjoy all this work. You may depend on having
    the 'Ezekiel' in a few days. I should like a larger block for 'The
    Building of the Ark.'

                        "Yours very sincerely,
                                                         "E. B. JONES."


_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._ FROM "DALZIEL'S

Yet with all this vast array of talent our "Bible," commercially
speaking, was a dead failure. It was carefully printed on India
paper, and issued partly in portfolio and partly in book form, but
the British public did not respond, some two hundred copies being all
that were sold. The balance of the number printed were disposed of at
prices which we will not here record. Thus ended a work, begun with
the highest aims, over which we spent many years of careful, patient
labour, and several thousands of pounds.

Fortunately, many of the best of the original drawings have found their
way to the National Collection at the Kensington Museum, where they
will remain as records of some of the very finest examples of the black
and white work of this period, and to the lasting fame of the artists.

It may be interesting to state that, at the time we were placing
commissions for designs to illustrate the "Bible" and other important
works in the hands of such artists as Sir F. Leighton, P.R.A., Sir John
Millais, P.R.A., Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A., H. H. Armstead, R.A., A.
Armitage, R.A., Sir E. Burne-Jones, A.R.A., Marcus Stone, R.A., John
Pettie, R.A., W. Q. Orchardson, R.A., H. Stacey Marks, R.A., Professor
H. Von Herkomer, R.A., G. F. Watts, R.A., Fred Walker, A.R.A., Fred
Pickersgill, R.A., J. W. North, A.R.A., and J. MacWhirter, R.A.,
all of whom have since attained the highest position in their art,
without a single exception not one of them had at the time of our first
correspondence entered into the ranks of the Royal Academy.


_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._ FROM "DALZIEL'S

Almost the same may be said of many young artists who were not
contributors to the "Bible Gallery," in whose hands we placed
commissions long before they had risen to fame and fortune.

Frederick Sandys, on having a proof submitted to him for correction,
wrote the following letter:

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--The proof is absolutely splendid--one or two things
    I should like a little altered, but these I will see you about. I
    have two of 'Joseph' nearly ready, and have been for some month or
    more, but I have, unfortunately, crushed the bone of the top joint
    of the middle finger of my right hand. It is getting on well, and
    I have this week commenced working on a large picture, but I am
    debarred for the present still from touching the wood cut. I could
    not have sent the portrait of Mrs. Lewis to the Academy had it not
    been for some assistance kindly given me by Holman Hunt. I think I
    may promise, without disappointing you, one, if not two,[19] blocks
    in the first week in May.

                          "Ever yours truly,
                                                    "FREDERICK SANDYS."



_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

Our original intention being to publish an "Illustrated Bible," we were
desirous that it should be carefully watched through the press, and,
if necessary, some few explanatory notes appended. With this object we
offered the editorship to Sir George Grove. The following letter is of
interest, explaining his reasons for declining the responsibility:

                                                       "CRYSTAL PALACE,
                                                "_November 28th, 1863_.

    "DEAR SIRS,--I have carefully considered the proposition you were
    kind enough to make to me and am reluctantly compelled to decline
    it. If I edit a Bible at all I should prefer it to be one in which
    the notes might bear a larger proportion to the text than that
    which you contemplate, and in which modification of the arrangement
    of the text itself might be introduced without imperilling the sale
    of the work, which they would no doubt do in the present case.
    And as I am not likely to be able to edit more than one Bible in
    my lifetime, I've no alternative but to reserve myself for a more
    favourable opportunity. I should also like to be more certain than
    I am in the present case that there would be no discrepancies
    between the illustrations and the notes. If you are not provided
    with any person to undertake the work I think I can recommend you a
    gentleman who would do it very efficiently. I am sorry that we will
    not have the pleasure of working together in this instance. With
    many thanks for your courtesy,

                           "I am, dear Sirs,
                          "Yours faithfully,
                                                         "GEORGE GROVE.


This refusal of Sir George Grove's co-operation, combined with other
insurmountable difficulties which came in the way, caused us very
reluctantly to abandon our _original project_.

Being invited to contribute to the Fine Art section of the Victorian
Era Exhibition held at Earl's Court in the summer of 1897, we sent a
frame containing selections from Tenniel's illustrations to "Through
the Looking Glass," some specimens after F. Walker, and a large frame
containing about twenty examples from "Dalziel's Bible," by Lord
Leighton, Sir E. J. Poynter, Holman Hunt, Ford Madox Brown, Thomas
Dalziel, Sir E. Burne-Jones, and others, with four proofs from Sir J.
E. Millais' illustrations to "The Parables." For these contributions
the Committee awarded us a Diploma for a Silver Medal.

[Illustration: DANIEL'S PRAYER.



_By permission of Messrs. Herbert Virtue & Co., Ltd._]

Among our schemes for publishing high-class works was "The Biblical
Life of Joseph," to be fully and carefully illustrated. We consulted
Frederick Sandys upon the subject. The following letter will show the
feeling with which he received the proposition:

                                                  "THORP, NEXT NORWICH,
                                       "_Thursday, October 24th, 1861_.

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--Many thanks, not only for my own proofs, but for
    those you were good enough to send Rose and Rossetti.

    "I have not yet commenced the drawings of 'Joseph'--it requires
    an immense amount of research, and it would be most unwise to
    spoil the series, and I promise you the drawings as soon as you
    reasonably can ask for them. When would you like to have the 'Life'
    out--in twelve months? If so you shall have my drawings in time. I
    am coming to town in a week to make some drawings at the British
    Museum from the Marbles, and to get some Jewish dresses--can you
    help me here?

    "I am doing all this that I may thoroughly, or, as far as it is
    my gift, make myself to be acquainted with Jews and Egyptians--to
    know all that is characteristic and beautiful, and avoid all that
    is hideous. Millais' 'Moses' is not a bit what I want--it is not a
    Princess; a daughter of Pharaoh he has drawn. Now, what do you say
    about time? Let's have it out in twelve months. Autumn is the right
    time, is it not, for publishing?[20]

    "With kindest regards to all of you.

                             "Believe me,
                        "Very faithfully yours,
                                                          "FRED SANDYS.

    "The more I look at the cutting of 'Life's Journey' the more I am
    delighted and full of hope for 'Joseph.'"



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

Of the many books placed in our hands for illustration, "The Pilgrim's
Progress," by John Bunyan, exceeded in number all others. That immortal
work came to us in every form--published at various prices, from
one shilling, with a large number of original outline designs by a
distinguished artist, to the edition produced by Alexander Strahan,
in 1880, at five guineas. In this instance we printed all the larger
pictures for him on India paper. There were one hundred drawings, no
less than sixty-six of them being by that highly-gifted artist, Fred
Barnard, whose dramatic power quite equalled his high sense of humour.
Of his large pictures in the book, while all are good, those of "The
Giant Despair," "The Man with the Muck Rake," and "The Atheist," are
amongst the best. As to his smaller designs, it is difficult to say
whether one admires them most for their strength of character or for
the delicate and refined touch of his pencil.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

There were other men of distinction to help Strahan with the full-page
pictures. E. F. Brewtnall had ten drawings, all good. "The Three
Shining Ones" is very refined and original in treatment. William
Small's "Slough of Despond," and "At the Gate," are both worthy of
this accomplished artist. E. G. Dalziel had five pictures, of which
"Christian Climbing the Hill of Difficulty," and "Christian and
Faithful Crossing the River of Death," are most remarkable works. John
Ralston, another of the clever young Scotch artists who came to London,
had three pictures, "The Ladies of the House--Beautiful Reading to
Christian," being by far the finest. Sir James D. Linton, P.R.I., had
four very powerful drawings, which were typical of all the work of
this long-distinguished and painstaking artist, who always gives good
sound readings of his subjects: "Old Honest" is an admirable example.
Of Towneley Green's four pictures, "The Bundle Falls off Christian's
Back," we like best; but all are good. The one picture by Joseph Wolf,
"Lions in the Path," is simply grand.

       *       *       *       *       *

A most important and comprehensive work which Messrs. Routledge
entrusted to us was the production of the pictures for the "Illustrated
Natural History," by the Rev. J. G. Wood. They were, of course, to be
under the superintendence of the author, who was at that time Chaplain
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.

During the publication of the book, which was issued in monthly parts,
and extended over a period of nearly four years, it was our custom to
go there and see him every Monday morning, accompanied generally by Mr.
George Routledge, to receive new lists of subjects, to report progress
of those in hand, and to discuss the matter generally. From there
we went on to the printing office of Richard Clay & Sons, who were
printing the work under our supervision.



_Published by Mr. Alexander Strahan._]

Among the many distinguished artists engaged we would first mention
William Harvey, of whom we have spoken elsewhere. He did not, however,
make many drawings, from the fact that J. G. Wood thought them too
mannered and conventional; the same objection was held by the author to
Harrison Weir. Although this clever artist contributed considerably to
certain sections of the book, J. G. Wood summed up his drawings in a
few words: "Always picturesque, but never correct."

Joseph Wolf, a German by birth, made a large number of drawings for
the work, and gave the author every satisfaction. By many it is held
that his birds are more correct than those by any other draughtsman;
certainly his perfect manipulation gives them a beauty that cannot
be excelled. There can be no doubt that his contributions are by
far the best: take his lions, tigers, or his groups of monkeys and
of birds--all denoting the artist of high culture. He was appointed
Special Artist to the Zoological Society, and worked very much at their
Gardens in Regent's Park and also at their Museum.

While we were preparing the first sheets for the press, a very fine
specimen of the gorilla, preserved in spirits, most opportunely arrived
at the Zoological Gardens, one of the first, we were informed, that
had ever reached this country. Permission was obtained for Mr. Wolf to
be present at the opening of the barrel which contained the defunct
animal, so that he might have a better opportunity of making notes
for his guidance in doing the drawing, one of the best in the entire
book, than the indifferently stuffed specimen in the Museum afforded
him. Wolf afterwards remarked that opening the barrel and lifting the
animal out of the spirits was extremely interesting, but the effluvia
was sufficient to poison a regiment of soldiers--whether he considered
it a fact that soldiers as a rule are less susceptible to the influence
of poisonous gases than other men, he did not take the trouble to



_By permission of Messrs. George Routledge & Sons._]

From J. B. Zwecker, who was also a German by birth, we had considerable
help. He was a highly-educated artist of the Dusseldorf School. He
painted in oil and water colour; his work always showed good drawing
and design, but was generally heavy in effect. He made a large number
of drawings for the "Natural History" and for other publications--his
being a ready pencil. He was an accomplished athlete, a genial
companion, a kind-hearted man, and an enthusiastic son of the

Another of the many-sided artists with whom we were connected in this
work was W. S. Coleman. On coming to London he called upon us and we
were of some service to him, we believe, in introducing him as a wood
draughtsman. Beyond his art taste and knowledge, he had considerable
skill in a literary way, creating some small books of his own--"A Book
on Butterflies," and another on "Birds' Eggs," being amongst the first
and best. The Rev. J. G. Wood always said he could rely on Coleman
doing his utmost, for when living specimens could not be obtained he
would take any amount of trouble in searching for the most reliable
representation of the objects required.

We must have had hundreds of his drawings through our hands. He painted
both in oil and water colour, his landscapes in the latter medium being
always very sweet and tender in feeling. In fact, Coleman's work ranges
from a careful drawing of a butterfly--as decoration for a Christmas
card--to classic or nude figures full life size.

T. W. Wood, an artist, in no way related to the Rev. J. G. Wood,
made many careful drawings for the book--principally of birds and
butterflies. Though always technically correct, he was deficient in
artistic treatment--in fact, a playful artist friend once dubbed him
the "Wooden Wood."

The commission to prepare the pictures for "The Natural History of Man"
was also placed in our hands by Messrs. Routledge, in the same manner
as for the "Natural History," with this difference, that, with the
exception of implements--warlike, domestic and otherwise, huts, etc.,
which were all copied from the best authorities by other hands, the
entire set of drawings were done by one artist, J. B. Zwecker, who,
having an excellent knowledge of the human figure, was well qualified
for dealing with the Kaffir, Zulu and other South African tribes, of
which the first portion of the "History" deals so exhaustively. Zwecker
always received his lists and instructions direct from the author;
our portion being the engraving of the wood blocks and a general
supervision of the printing.


[19] Notwithstanding this promise Sandys only made one drawing, "Joseph
hearing the Voice of the Lord," for the "Bible."

[20] Unfortunately, Sandys never sent in one drawing for the book.



Early in 1865 Mr. Edward Wylam became proprietor of the comic
periodical _Fun_--at that time the only competitor of _Punch_--and
was fortunate enough to secure Tom Hood as editor. On taking up the
direction, Hood informed us that one of the stipulations he made with
Wylam was that we should be solicited to undertake the engraving
of all the drawings. At first we felt some hesitation in accepting
the commission, thinking it might considerably interfere with very
important works we were then engaged upon; but ultimately satisfactory
arrangements were concluded, and our relationship continued in the most
amicable manner, without a break for six years. In 1870--Mr. Wylam
wishing to devote his entire attention to the development of "Spratt's
Dog Biscuits," the patent for which he had recently purchased--we
became the sole proprietors of the publication, paying for the goodwill
and copyright the sum of _£_6,000, Hood continuing editor until his

[Illustration: THE OLD YEAR AND THE NEW.

_FUN_ CARTOON, 1867.


In 1869 Hood commenced the publication of "Tom Hood's Comic Annual,"
which at once secured a large amount of public favour. The second
issue more than covered the slight loss sustained on the first. While
the third issue was in preparation we purchased from Hood the title,
copyrights, and stock of all literary and artistic matter connected
with it for the sum of _£_600.


Tom Hood was, as perhaps half the world knows, the only son of the
celebrated wit and poet, Thomas Hood, the author of "The Song of the
Shirt," "The Bridge of Sighs," "Eugene Aram," and many other poems of
great beauty and purport.


_FUN_ CARTOON, 1869.]

Tom Hood, like his father, was somewhat of an artist, possessing
considerable skill in caricature, and giving a comic "twist" to his
sketches. Many of his drawings are scattered through the pages of
_Fun_. He invariably expressed himself well pleased with the manner in
which they were reproduced. The following is only one of many letters
we received from him:

    "I am delighted beyond measure with the blocks. I have returned
    some of the proofs, which I have touched for alteration; which,
    with scarcely an exception, however, arises from my mistake and not
    from the engravers'.

                        "Ever yours faithfully,
                                                            "TOM HOOD."

During the many years of our intimate association with Tom Hood, we
received hundreds of letters and notes from his pen, but the following
is the first and only instance in which he signed his name "Thos.
Hood." After this, when he had resigned his post at the War Office
and sat down steadily to literary work, he always studiously signed
his name "Tom," with the express object that his name might not be
confounded with that of his father, or that he should be accused of
"making capital" out of his father's name and reputation.

                                                 "21 MONTPELIER SQUARE,
                                                        "BROMPTON, S.W.

    "DEAR SIR,--I believe Mr. Routledge has (or is going to do so)
    given you the illustrations of my book to engrave.

    "I need not ask you to do me justice, for I know you will do that;
    but as I am not a professional artist, but an amateur, I fancy I
    may give you more trouble to understand me at times.

    "There are one or two blocks that I wish particularly to call
    your attention to as requiring facsimile engraving, they being
    likenesses. Two drawn in pencil I wish you not to touch, as I
    intend, when I come to see you (which I hope to do soon), to put in
    initial letters, as I think the fun in them forced. I have drawn a
    rude sketch of them on the other side. I can introduce them thus: a
    'W' on the board, and an 'O' on the flag. At present I am sorry to
    say I am too ill to come over, but I hope to be on my legs again by
    the end of the week.

    "I am at the War Office from 10 till 4. Should I be able to see you
    at 5 if I called?

    "I hope this will not be our first and last connection in this
    line, but that it will be a case of 'cut and come again.'

                             "Believe me,
                             "Yours truly,
                                                          "THOS. HOOD."


                                FUN OFFICE.
                           80 FLEET STREET E.C.


  My dear Mr Dalziel

                  With joy I'd resort
    To dine with the Shandies at fair Hampton Court
    On Saturday, were I not bound on that day
    To navigate Thames in the opposite way
    As one of the crew of the scow "Albert-Victor"
    (A steamboat that knowing ones vow is a pictur)
    Which is bound for sweet Margate, the shore light beyond,
    Being chartered expressly by Spiers & Pond,

    (This is Spiers and Pond the bard continues)

    To take down a party--and 'mongst others me--
    To open their famous new Hall by the Sea.

    (This is the Haul by the Sea Again the bard urges on his wild

    So I'm forced--though I'd much like to come if I could--
    To decline your kind offer.

                              Yours truly
                                                               Tom Hood

  E. Dalziel Esq]

All our transactions with Hood, which continued for close upon ten
years, were of the most friendly and agreeable character, leaving
behind delightful remembrances of his truly social and sympathetic
nature. The letter which we give in facsimile was received in reply
to an invitation to join us at an "up-the-river" dinner party, where
we promised he should meet a few kindred spirits and spend a very
enjoyable day.

Unhappily, Tom Hood died too soon, after an illness of some short
duration, against which he fought with great courage. He worked with
the assistance of his friend Henry Sampson, to the last--taking part
in preparing the number of _Fun_ that was published the day after his
death, which took place at his house, in Peckham Rye, on November 26th,

Subsequently his widow handed us the following letter, with the remark
that they were the last lines he ever wrote:

    "MY DEAR SIRS,--To the best of my ability, and to the utmost of
    my power, I have served you loyally and honestly while strength
    remained. If I have failed it has not been wilfully, and when we
    have differed in opinion I have only done what I have believed it
    right to do, or assert beyond mere matter of expediency.

    "Sampson has long co-operated with me, and now so well understands
    the working of the paper that it has been of the greatest comfort
    and use to me to have, for the first time in my life, some one on
    whom I could entirely rely when I was disabled.

    "A more disinterested and faithful friend man never had, and I
    am sure if you transfer the bauble from my hands to his you will
    have secured fidelity and ability of no unusual order, loyalty and
    discretion, zeal and determination. It is my dying wish that he
    might be my successor on _Fun_. Of course I only express this as
    simply a wish of

                            "Yours always,
                                                            "TOM HOOD."



[Illustration: AN URBAN DELUSION.

Jones knew a thing too much for most people. "Nice bunch o'
water-cresses, just fresh in," said his greengrocer. "Oh, ah!" said the
knowing Jones; "_fresh_--oh, yes! after being brought all the way from
the country! Not for me, thankee!" For the fact was that the knowing
Jones was just off for a day or two in the country himself.]

[Illustration: AN URBAN DELUSION--(_continued_.)

But it so happened that the same bunch of water-cress went down by
the same train as Jones did, and alighted at the same rural station.
"Ha!" said Jones, in a stroll down the country lanes, "now, here comes
a fellow with a real fresh country bunch of water-cresses; I will
buy them and take them home to town with me the day after tomorrow.
_That's_ the way to get the real fresh article!"


Among the many men, with whom our connection with _Fun_ and the "Comic
Annual" brought us into close communication, who have steadily ascended
the ladder of fame--some, alas! no longer with us,--mention ought to
be made of Henry S. Leigh, author of "Carols of Cockayne," "Strains
from the Strand," and other volumes of verse; a man possessed of rare
wit and unquestionable genius, but, unfortunately, without one atom of
application or appreciation of the value of time. On one occasion, when
some change of contributors was contemplated, Hood wrote:

    "As for Leigh, he is hopeless: when perpetual motion is patented,
    a machine might be invented to bring him to the scratch regularly,
    but--he is unluckily a 'genius.' You might give him a retaining
    salary that would ensure--his never doing a line."

Yet, notwithstanding his extreme dilatoriness, he was a thoroughly
good fellow, and Hood was at all times only too glad to receive any
contributions he cared to send, for they were certain to contain some
quaint conceit and out of the way sentiment.


_Mrs. Vicar._--"Thomas, what has become of you lately? I haven't seen
you at Church for several months."

_Thomas._--"Noa, ye ain't. _But I haven't been nowheres else._"]

On Leigh being remonstrated with for non-delivery of promised copy, we
received the following:

                                                            "35 STRAND,
                                                     "_1st Feb., 1881._


    "You have treated me so kindly that I dared, a little blindly,
      An ambition and a future to your care to recommend.
    He is timid, he is nervous, but may God above preserve us
      If we cannot stretch a point or so to gratify a friend.
    I have sent you oft a lyric, either genial or satiric:
      Some were bad, and some indifferent, and some were very good.
    So my errors don't be hard on, but beneficently pardon,
      Were it only through the memory of dear old Tommy Hood."

Of W. S. Gilbert, of "Bab Ballads" and Comic Opera fame, it may not
be generally known that all those "topsy-turvy" rhymes were published
in _Fun_: though they were by no means the only work he did for
the journal. For a considerable period he wrote a comic paraphrase
upon the most popular play produced during the week, as well as an
extremely clever series of papers called "People I Have Met." He also
wrote several stories for the "Comic Annual." In his selected edition
of "Fifty Bab Ballads" he gives the following account of how these
happened to be published in _Fun_:

    "It may interest some to know that the first of the series, 'The
    Yarn of the _Nancy Bell_,' was originally offered to _Punch_,
    to which I was at that time an occasional contributor. It was,
    however, declined by the then editor on the ground that it was 'too
    Cannibalistic' for his readers' taste."


_Teetotal Wife._--"Ah, when that 'evingly Sir Wilfrid 'as 'is way,
'e'll put that nasty beer down!"

_Irreverent Brute._--"Hope he'll put it down to the price it used to
was--thruppence a pot."]

W. S. Gilbert, like many of his fellow workers on the staff of _Fun_,
began life in the Civil Service, he having been for a short time in the
Education Office; but the "diurnal drudgery" was not congenial. His
impetuous temperament would not brook direction or control, as his most
intimate friends were not slow to discover. Immediately on his fairly
breaking away from the "ten to four slavery," the first thing he did
was to buy a quire or more of foolscap paper, a bundle of quill pens,
and a few pieces of boxwood. Thus armed, he commenced to fire away
with pen and pencil, for at that time Gilbert contemplated turning his
attention to art. His connection with _Fun_ began in his early days,
when he sent some of his "topsy-turvy" things to Mr. Maclean, the first
proprietor, who, detecting the unquestionable merit, insisted upon
their being accepted and published.

Clement Scott, another early and very valued writer on _Fun_, in a
short sketch of his own career, referring to Gilbert, says:

    "He was courteously, as a contributor, invited to the weekly _Fun_
    dinners, and I fear from what I have heard, that at the outset the
    young writer was not very courteously treated by some of those
    who afterwards recognised his great talent to the utmost, and
    became his warmest friends and companions. Frank Burnand, owing
    to his novel, 'Mokeanna,' was promoted to _Punch_; Tom Robertson,
    the dramatist, whom I met at the club on the _Fun_ meetings every
    week of my life for half a dozen years; Arthur Sketchley, with his
    'Mrs. Brown'; and for verse writers, the delightful Henry S. Leigh,
    Saville Clarke, and your humble servant, who has been writing bad
    verses for over thirty-five years."

So long as Hood lived, George Augustus Sala was a constant contributor,
as were Edmund Yates and Arthur Sketchley; the latter gentleman's
"Mrs. Brown at the Play," as well as a long series of "Mrs. Brown"
papers, chiefly comments on the current events of the day, were all
published in _Fun_, and had immense popularity.


_Pensioner (to Workman)._--"Got e'er a bit o' baccy about ye?" |
_Workman._--"No, mate!--just smoking the last bit!"

_Pensioner._--"Come off that there grass--_directly!_"]

Another prominent member of the staff was William Jeffrey Prowse, a
journalist of great brilliancy and power, and a "leader writer" and
constant contributor to the _Daily Telegraph_. His advent, under the
_nom de plume_ of "Nicholas," was announced by Hood in the following
quaint terms:

    "With feelings of considerable pride we inform our readers that
    we have been enabled (at some expense) to secure the exclusive
    services of the celebrated 'Nicholas.' ... 'Nicholas,' that friend
    of man, has benevolently consented to impart (for a certain weekly
    stipend) the experience of--well, let us say _middle_ age to the
    generous ardour of youth: AND THIS IS HOW HE DOES IT."

But Jeffrey Prowse was something more than the ordinary journalist
working to order; he was a poet of no mean power. Some of his
productions in this way were published after his death at the end of
a small volume of "Nicholas Notes," edited by his friend, Tom Hood.
Among his best are "To Be, to Do, and to Suffer," a poem showing great
ability; and one named "The City of Prague," of which the following are
the first and last verses:

    "I dwelt in a city enchanted,
      And lonely indeed was my lot;
    Two guineas a week, all I wanted,
      'Twas certainly all that I got:
    Well, somehow I found it was plenty,
      Perhaps you may find it the same,
    If--if you are just five-and-twenty
      With industry, hope, and an aim.
    Tho' the latitude's rather uncertain,
      And the longitude also is vague,
    The persons I pity who know not the city:
      The beautiful City of Prague.
           *       *       *       *       *


    As for me I have come to an anchor,
      I have taken my watch out of pawn,
    I keep an account with a banker,
      Which, at present, is _not_ overdrawn;
    Tho' my clothes may be none of the smartest
      The 'snip' has receipted the bill;
    But the days I was poor and an artist
      Are the dearest of days to me still!
    Tho' the latitude's rather uncertain,
      And the longitude also is vague,
    The persons I pity who know not the city:
      The beautiful City of Prague."


_He._--"What a dreadful noise there is down there with those cabs and
things! You can hardly hear yourself speak."

_She._--"Yes; almost as bad as being at the opera, isn't it?"]

Poor Prowse died at the early age of thirty-four. Hood, in a short
memoir, says:

    "Prowse, as a writer, was gifted with a great charm of style; with
    a fertile imagination he possessed a logical mind. The amount of
    work he has done is astonishing, writing often two or even three
    leaders a day; and yet amid this constant and fatiguing trial he
    found time to write poems and essays, papers for the magazines, the
    annuals, and for _Fun_."


_First Hielan'man._--"She'll pe ta pest wusky I shall have tastit for

_Second Hielan'man._--"So tit I, neither!"

_Third Hielan'man._--"Neither tit I, too!"]

We must not omit to mention Ashby Sterry as one of the staff, and a
contributor to _Fun's_ pages of much graceful verse. He is well known
for his volume, "Lays of a Lazy Minstrel." Then, Charles H. Leland, who
gained considerable reputation as the genial Dutchman, Hans Breitmann.
This gentleman contributed very liberally to the "Comic Annual." He
is one of the most affable and interesting men it has been our good
fortune to be associated with. He was full of entertaining anecdote, a
true artist and no mean draughtsman--in appearance, a giant, in manner
as simple as a child. On one occasion in America he asked a negro the
name of a black man of rather fine physique and superior appearance,
who was standing near.

"He Injun," replied the nigger; "he big Injun; he heap big Injun; he
dam heap big Injun; he dam mighty great heap big Injun; HE JONES."
Jones appeared to be the nigger's culminating pinnacle of greatness!

Godfrey Turner, one of the talented young men who, in the early
days, did so much towards placing the _Daily Telegraph_ in the high
position which it attained among the London morning papers, worked very
constantly upon _Fun_, as well as on the "Comic Annual." Poor fellow! a
protracted illness, generally attributed to overwork, incapacitated him
during the last two or three years of his life.

Dutton Cook's short stories appeared constantly in the "Annual"--among
his very last work being one he wrote for that periodical. Nor must
we omit to mention Leman Blanchard, who was the author of more
Christmas pantomimes than can well be counted. He did this work for
Drury Lane under F. B. Chatterton, and then Sir Augustus Harris, for
many years, as well as for many of the Provincial theatres. The able
and accomplished editor of _Sketch_, John Latey, also was one of our
most-esteemed contributors.

Henry J. Byron did much good work for _Fun_ under Hood, but he retired
from the staff on commencing a paper of his own, under the title of the
_Comic News_, which unfortunately for the proprietor had but a short

Frank Barrat, Manville Fenn, Austin Dobson, Byron Webber, Moy Thomas,
H. C. Newton, and Christie Murray, are the names of others whose work
frequently appeared in _Fun_ and the "Comic Annual."

On the death of Tom Hood we complied with his dying request and placed
the "Bauble" in the hands of Henry Sampson, who had been a constant
fellow worker with Hood for some two or three years previous. One of
the first things Sampson did was to introduce George R. Sims upon the
staff. It is superfluous for us to comment upon Sims' great ability
as a dramatist, a writer of short stories and sympathetic ballads,
because the voices of the reading and the play-going world have already
proclaimed their high appreciation of his genius. Suffice it to say
that it was in the pages of _Fun_ that he found his first opportunity
of appearing in print.

In 1893 when _Fun_ passed out of our hands, he alluded to us in the
_Referee_, with which he had long been associated under the _nom de
plume_ of "Dagonet," in the following kind words:

    "It was by writing a small 'Poem' in _Fun_ that I first won
    a little journalistic recognition. It was called 'A Dumpty
    Captain....' It was in November, of 1874, that I first joined
    the staff of _Fun_ and made my bow to the British public as an
    anonymous journalist. Tom Hood had just been laid to rest. It was
    in those days that I commenced my life-long friendship with Henry
    Sampson, the new editor. Though for me it was a time of struggle,
    I would give a good deal for the light heart with which I braved
    the slings and arrows in those dear old days."

Again, Sims writes:

    "Although I left _Fun_ in 1877, my association with the Brothers
    Dalziel was never severed, and right up to the last issue (October,
    1893) I was a contributor to 'Hood's Comic Annual,' of which they
    were the proprietors and editors. I have nothing but pleasant
    memories of the cheery, generous-hearted brothers and their clever
    sons; and I am delighted to hear that this year the honoured name
    will still be on the front page of 'Hood's Annual,' for it is to
    appear as usual under the editorship of Mr. Charles Dalziel.[21]"

Later, in January, 1894, he kindly wrote in the same paper:

    "For nearly half a century the firm of Dalziel Brothers carried on
    the business of newspaper proprietors and engravers with credit to
    themselves and advantage to the public, and they gathered around
    them the best of young men, many of whom have become shining lights
    in the world of art and letters. To those who had the honour
    and pleasure of working under them, their friendship and their
    hospitality were always freely extended, and I have nothing but
    pleasant memories of the days when I was allowed to be one of their
    working staff.

    "The Brothers Dalziel paid me the first money I ever received
    for verse. Tom Hood, the editor of _Fun_, had gone to Paris for
    a holiday, and Henry Sampson edited the journal in his absence,
    and gave me half a column to fill, and I plunged into poetry at
    once; and when I left _Fun_, in 1876, the Brothers wrote me a
    charming letter, which I still possess. Though my connection with
    _Fun_ ended then, I remained one of the contributors to 'Hood's
    Annual' until last year; and so our business relations continued
    uninterruptedly and pleasantly for nearly twenty years--yes, for
    quite twenty years, for it was in 1874 that I did my first work
    for them. Had there been no Dalziels there might have been no


_Mistress._ "Biddy, how is it you did not answer the bell when I rang?'

_Maid._ "Sure, mem, 'twas bekase I didn't know what you was ringing
for, mem!"]

So long as Sims continued on the staff he was at all times a most
welcome contributor, and, with one exception, always to our entire
satisfaction. The exception came about from the severity of a criticism
which he wrote upon Sir Henry Irving's rendering of Macbeth, the
humour of the article not being quite as apparent as it was intended
to be. This caused Irving [and his friends] so much annoyance that
he commenced an action against us for libel. However, Sims at once
acknowledged the authorship of the article, with ample apologies and
regrets, and assurance that there was no "malice aforethought," and
Henry Sampson did the same as the responsible editor, so Sir Henry, in
a very handsome and kindly manner, withdrew from the prosecution, and
the matter ended.

For several years George Dalziel (the elder of the Brothers), regularly
contributed short stories and verse to "Hood's Annual." Among the
latter was a rather lengthy poem, of which we give a few of the verses:


    Oh, can the earth, so dream-like sleeping lie
      Beneath the rays of that pale silvery moon,
    That never gives a weary moan or cry,
      Or sign that sorrow dwelt 'twixt night and noon?
    There, calmly sailing on amid the stars,
      She looks as though no ruthless thought nor care,
    Nor wicked deed could ever be that mars
      And lays the black spots of our nature bare.

    She looks as though she never yet had seen
      An ill deed done in all the million years
    That she has gazed upon the earth, or been
      Pale witness to a flood of bitter tears,--
    Pale witness to the darkest deeds that man,
      With demon brooding in his heart, could frame:
    Foul, miry spots her gentle eye doth scan,
      And "Lady Moon" goes smiling, all the same.

    Lo! she did see the budding earth when young;
      She saw the first red rose that e'er did bloom;
    She heard the first grand carol that was sung,
      And saw the mountains clothed with golden broom.
    She heard each silvery stream and gurgling brook
      Hymn its new song of never-ending praise,
    And leaves and flowers, in every ferny nook,
      Sing psalms to greet the glorious king of days.

           *       *       *       *       *

    She heard the first wild notes of Jubal's lyre,
      That fell upon the ear like magic sound--
    The first bright spark of that celestial fire
      That thrills with rapture rare the whole world round.
    She heard the first loud burst of ocean roar,
      And saw the crested waves careering fly;--
    She heard its ripple kiss the sandy shore,--
      And saw the white foam dash against the sky.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Years, centuries told, come on, and quickly fly,
      And this world rolls beneath the silvery moon
    As she sails calmly through the deep blue sky
      Unheeding joy or sorrow, night or noon.
    Unheeding revel, wail, or bitter cry,
      Or joy, or grief, or weary toil, or rest,--
    She slowly climbs the ever-darkening sky,
      While dying sunlight pales upon her breast.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.

From another issue of the "Annual" we make a few extracts from some
verses which are entitled:


    My books! my friends, my dear companions all!
      My never-failing--ever true and fair!
    There standing round, come ready to my call,
      And talk, and sing, and tell their wonders rare.
    If I am sad, they give me joyous song;
      Or if I wish for pleasant talk the while,
    My friends are there, and will for short or long,
      Just as I please, the ling'ring hour beguile.
    With them at ease I play the conjurers part,--
      They bring for me the stores of other times,--
    Oh, rare the grace!--oh, rare the cunning art
      That stirs the sluggish heart with ringing rhymes!

    I see the patriot rear his banner high;
      The troops march gaily through the busy town;
    Methinks I hear the trembling maiden sigh
      As her true knight goes forth to seek renown.
    King Arthur, with his warriors brave and good,
      Comes forth, the dauntless flower of chivalry;
    And there be priests in monkish garb and hood,
      As well as motley fools of revelry.

    'Neath walls of Troy I see the valiant Greek,
      Brave Ajax, and the mighty Hector there;
    In fancy hear the aged Priam speak,
      And see fair Helen with the golden hair;
    The war-like braves in single combat stand,
      The ponderous spear each doughty hero hurled,--
    Fair Beatrice takes Dante by the hand,
      And shows the myst'ries of the hidden world.

           *       *       *       *       *

    Sweet scenes of peace! here in my native land
      These loving friends will each a posie bring,
    With wooing words they take my ready hand,
      And lead, where meadows smile and brooklets sing;
    Where scented flow'rs cling round the cottage home,
      Sweet new-mown hay, and fields of ripening corn,--
    The broad smooth lake, the gorge where waters foam,
      The shady grove, or by the scented thorn.
    I see the fairies in the woody dells,
      I join their midnight revels on the green;
    The tower where the Enchanted Princess dwells,
      Embowered in a blaze of golden sheen.

    With them I travel o'er the arid plain,--
      And wander where the palm and plantain grow,--
    Through citron groves--or vine-clad summit gain,
      Climb mountains clad with thousand years of snow,
    The heathy moor, and o'er the high hill top,
      And seem to breathe the cold crisp frosty air,
    As from the lofty Alpine icy slope
      I see the fertile valleys stretching there.

    'Mong lofty pines, or where the olives grow;
      Through far-off lands with Livingstone I roam,
    Or loiter where the mighty rivers flow,
      While sitting in my easy chair at home.
    There is no land in all the world we know,
      There is no mighty lake or frozen sea,
    No hidden depth where foot of man can go,
      But my true friends will find and show to me.

    For some will sing, and some will tell a tale,
      A simple story full of jocund glee,--
    And anecdote with point that cannot fail
      To cheer the heart with true hilarity;
    Kind jovial friends that merry songs can sing,
      Or with a touch of pathos bring the tear;
    Anon I hear the wedding bells out-ring,
      And now for gallant deeds the sounding cheer.

    Here true they stand, the many great and good,
      The fairest names the world can ever tell;
    For some like gold the test of time have stood,
      And some!--Oh, there be "maidens fair" as well,
    That take a foremost place amid the true,
      Good trusty friends there loitering by the wall;
    Here Art and Poetry and Science too,
      With Travellers that come whene'er I call.

    When day is done, with all its toil and care,
      The time that busy men together strove,--
    My friends come forth the quiet hour to share,--
      The friends I trust, and trusting, best I love;
    Here motley fool may preach a sermon true,
      Or sombre garb may tell a merry tale;
    Here by the fire where these warm friendships grew
      They talk to me--the friends that never fail.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.



[Illustration: PIT.]

[Illustration: THE THEATRE OF NATURE--(_continued_.)


[Illustration: AT THE DOOR.


During the period that _Fun_ was in our possession George Dalziel was a
constant contributor, writing upon the passing events of the day under
the general heading of "Dots by the Way."

Few matters in modern history caused greater excitement in the public
mind than the many unsuccessful attempts of our troops to reach
Khartoum for the relief of General Gordon, and, on the news of how the
place had fallen and the brave hero had been murdered by a horde of
savage Dervishes, the following verses appeared:


    ["The Fortress of Khartoum was treacherously delivered up
    to the Mahdi on January 26th, 1885, when General Gordon was
    slain."--_Daily Paper._]

    Hush! let no sound of revelry or song
      Be heard in all our busy streets to-day,--
    For such dark news falls 'mong the surging throng
      As sends men sadly pondering on their way.
    Sad news that sends a pang of crushing pain
      To every honest heart throughout the land.
    Khartoum betrayed! her brave defenders slain,
      And Gordon fallen by the assassin's hand.

    Great, noble Gordon, ever true and brave,
      That held this 'leagured city 'gainst the foe,--
    And all that man could do, he did to save
      The women and their babes from direful woe;
    But who can stand against the cunning art,
      The cruel, dark device, and darker sin
    That traitors use, when with a fiendish heart
      They ope' the gates and let the foemen in?

    Beloved by all who knew his noble heart,
      Or ever felt the warm grasp of his hand,
    The loving kindness and the ready part
      He took in each good work in every land.
    A gentle nature, kind as it was brave,
      To help the lowly in their poor estate,
    He spent his life to free the fettered slave,
      And guide the suffering to a better fate.

    O grand career, unsullied to its close!
      Its splendour yet shall brighter shine, and tell
    In glowing numbers how he faced his foes,
      And how by treason dire, great Gordon fell.
    With head bowed down we mourn the good man gone,--
      And with our sorrow comes a sense of shame,
    That in the midst of foes he stood alone,
      And died with added glory to his name.

    The tale spreads like a black cloud o'er the land;
      'Tis like a darkening blight that falls at noon,
    When men together meet and wondering stand,
      And gaze as though the stricken heart would swoon,--
    The flaming sword, the "lightning of the spear,"
      Shone in the place where multitudes were slain,
    The air is full of wailing, and we hear,
      Mingled with prayer, the groan of mortal pain.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.

Again, when the decisive battle was fought under the command of Lord,
then Sir Garnet, Wolseley, at Tel-el-Kebir, which practically brought
the revolt led by Arabi Pasha to a close, this song appeared:


    [On the return of Troops from Egypt in 1882, after the victory at

              A song now for the Guards,
                Right gallant deeds they've done,
              And liberal rewards
                Their bravery has won;
              The world beheld with pride
                On Egypt's sandy plain
              Their dreary midnight ride--
                The battle charge. Like rain
    Before the raging storm they swept the foe away,
    And victory was won at the dawning of the day.

              There in the dull grey morn,
                With paling stars o'erhead,
              We hear the bugle horn,--
                The shouts of those who led;
              We seem to hear the crash,
                To see the gleaming steel,--
              The cannons roar and flash,
                The dusky foemen reel:
    One moment at their guns they stood, then fled in wild dismay,
    And victory was won at the dawning of the day.

              Our heroes now come back,
                In pride they march along;
              Be sure they shall not lack
                Warm welcome, cheers and song;
              Tho' some were left behind,
                And fill a soldier's grave,
              Their honoured names we'll find
                'Mong records of the brave
    Who fell that morn while fighting and upheld old England's sway,
    When victory was won at the dawning of the day.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.

For many years we published at intervals several small volumes of
short stories, by George Dalziel, some of them having been previously
printed in the various issues of the "Comic Annual." These volumes
had considerable popularity, the most successful being, "My Neighbour
Nellie," "Dick Boulin's Four-in-Hand," "The Story of a Shop," "A
Soldier's Sweetheart," and "Only a Flower Girl." We also put together
three volumes of verse, with the titles of "Mattie Grey, and Other
Poems," "Faces in the Fire," and, later, "Unconsidered Trifles." The
first two of these were printed exclusively for private distribution,
but the last volume was addressed to the public through the publishing
house of Mr. Elliot Stock. Some few of the poems in each of these
volumes appeared originally in the pages of the "Annual."


_New Mother._--"Now then, Polly, come and have your hat on, there's a
little duck!"

_Polly._--"Shan't! Other little ducks don't wear none--there now."

[_The rest of the argument is lost in outcries and dissolved in tears._]]

The following lines, printed in "Faces in the Fire," were written as
an affectionate tribute to the memory of one of the sweetest and most
loveable of women:


    Of all the songs from sweetest voice,
      In the sweet days of old,
    That made my inmost soul rejoice,
      However oft they're told,
    Are those sweet songs my mother sung
      While we were round her knee;
    When all the world seemed blythe and young
      And fresh and fair to see.

    O, I have wandered far away
      In sunny lands of song,--
    And I have heard the minstrels play
      That thrilled the listening throng;
    Tho' sweet the charm when beauty sings,--
      And sweet the minstrelsie,--
    There is no charm that memory brings
      Like those old songs to me.

    Oft in the calm clear starry night,
      Among the leafy trees,--
    Or on the weird lone mountain height,
      And in the gentle breeze,--
    Or on the rough wild stormy sea,
      When all is dark and drear,
    The dear old songs will come to me,--
      My mother's songs I hear.

    Sweet is the strange enchanting spell
      That lures all thought away,
    To warm fireside or woody dell,
      Where we were wont to play.
    Around my boyhood's happy home
      Glad mem'ries fondly cling;
    And oft' the sweet old songs will come
      My mother used to sing.

    Through many years of joyous life
      I reach the sere and old;
    Now all the battle and the strife,
      The fierce sun, and the cold,
    Are o'er for me, and calm I wait
      Until the "joy-bells" ring;
    For I shall hear at Heaven's gate
      My angel mother sing.

                                                         GEORGE DALZIEL.

Of the many art contributors, it will be sufficient if we state the
names of the principal men whose works have adorned the pages of _Fun_
and Hood's "Comic Annual." Of these, naturally, the cartoonists take
the foremost place. Paul Gray, who held this position on Hood assuming
the editorship, was a young Irish artist of very considerable promise,
and displayed much fine feeling for black and white work. He also made
drawings for some of our "Fine Art Books." He was a man of delicate
constitution, and within twelve months of his joining the _Fun_ staff
he fell into a consumption and died. Shortly before the sad event,
writing to us on other subjects, he said:

    "I take the opportunity of saying how very pleased I am with the
    way in which the cartoons are engraved--some of the latter, more
    especially, could not possibly be better."

Jeffrey Prowse, in one of his poems, makes the following touching
allusion to the early death of his young friend:

    "There is one of our band whom we cherished--
      The youngest, the purest, the best--
    In the frost of the night-time he perished,
      Going quietly home to his rest;
    And we thought, as we buried our dear one,
      And mournfully turned us to go,
    That the summons was still sounding near one--
            Listen! _On bot,
            On bot le rappel là-haut!_"


The very spot where the Snorkers held a pic-nic. Oh! didn't the ladies
cry out in one voice, "I could live in such a charming place for ever,
if only----" At the self-same pic-nic, Tilbury Pawkins plighted his
troth to Amelia Softispoon. Now they are married, and Amelia has begun
trying to live in the "charming place," and Pawkins is going home to a
damp cottage and a rheumatic wife as blithely as a newly-married man

Then came W. J. Weigand, followed by A. Boyd Houghton. Notwithstanding
the great ability of the latter, his quality of mind hardly fitted him
to join in with Tom Hood's idea of the punctuality indispensable for
conducting a weekly periodical. Next came Henry Doyle, a brother of
the more famous Richard Doyle--an extremely careful and painstaking
artist--who subsequently became Keeper of the Dublin National Gallery,
with the distinction of C.B. After Doyle came Fred Barnard, an artist
of surpassing versatility and humour. Perhaps it is not too much
to say that in wit and true comicality he far outstripped all his
predecessors on the journal; but some slight difference of opinion with
the editor--or was it some interference on the part of Mr. Wylam, the
then proprietor--caused him to secede from the position. Then followed
Gordon Thomson, an artist upon the merits of whose productions there
was a wide difference of opinion; but he did much good work--the
series of double-pages in connection with the Franco-Prussian War
being exceptionally strong. His large pictures for Christmas and other
Holiday Numbers were remarkable for the varied topical events he
crowded into them, and those who remember his "Academy Skits" will know
what quaint burlesques they were. Here is an appreciation by one of his
most distinguished contemporaries:

Sir John Gilbert said:

    "These funny 'Academy Skits' are extravagant to a degree, and at
    the same time they give such a complete embodiment of the picture
    in hand as to stamp the subject in my mind far more fixedly than
    any careful copy could possibly do."

Among the general contributors to _Fun_ were many well-known
draughtsmen--Professor H. von Herkomer, R.A.; George J. Pinwell,
R.W.S.; Hal Ludlow, and "E. G. D." The last named (the eldest son
of Edward Dalziel) was a young artist full of promise and great
ability. Had he given continued attention to his oil painting he must
undoubtedly have taken a very high position. He exhibited many pictures
at the Royal Academy, the Grosvenor, and other galleries, but the
allurement of black and white became too much for him, and he laid
aside his brush for the pencil. He contributed many excellent works
to our various "Fine Art Books," as well as to our "Bible Gallery."
Unfortunately he died at the early age of 39. Amongst his many admirers
was Sir John Gilbert, as the following letter, which refers to his
drawings in _Fun_, will show:

                                            "VANBRUGH PARK, BLACKHEATH,
                                                "_20th December, 1878_.

    "DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--Pray accept my best thanks for your kind

    "The drawings as they appear weekly in _Fun_ I always admired. The
    _uncommon_ humour, the wonderfully expressive faces, with attitude
    in accordance with the face, is always delightful and wonderful.

    "The idea of gathering them together in a volume was excellent and
    I had intended to get the book. I thank you again for it.

    "Pray remember me very kindly to your brother and your son,
    and with best wishes for your continued prosperity, health and

                       "I am, very truly yours,
                                                        "JOHN GILBERT."


_Young Graceless._--"Natural selection!"

_Old Graceless._--"Certainly! Only the finest specimens of the race

_Young Graceless._--"Come now, _that_ won't do! Why, you're over sixty
now, and good for another twenty years!"]

Among other artists employed on _Fun_ were--William Small; Harry
French; "F. A. F." (Francis A. Fraser), and his brother, G. Gordon
Fraser, whose sketches of humorous Irish character were for several
years a prominent feature in the journal (poor fellow! during the very
severe winter of 1895 he was accidentally drowned while skating); E.
J. Brewtnall, R.W.S., the water colour painter; F. S. Walker, R.H.A.;
George Gatcombe, Harry Tuck; and J. W. Houghton. The last named also
contributed the dramatic criticisms, with illustrations, for several
years. Jack Houghton is a ready writer of smart, clever verse, and
wrote all the rhymed descriptions to Gordon Thomson's "Academy Skits."

Another very talented youth who it was our good fortune to introduce on
_Fun's_ pages, both in literature and art, was J. F. Sullivan. He was
a student at South Kensington, when he first forwarded some sketches
for our inspection; and seeing they gave evidence of considerable
ability, we at once availed ourselves of his drawings. Though he had
much originality of conception and design, he did not very readily
acquire a "style" of his own, such as is evidenced in his later
productions. Perhaps the most notable works Sullivan did were some very
clever character sketches--"The British Working-man" and "The British
Tradesman." But he was not an artist only, for, during the many years
he was associated with _Fun_, he contributed to it a fair amount of
very good verse and general comic matter.

[Illustration: OYSTERS.

    "Here you are! the finest natives! best of appetite-creatives.
                                  Come and buy! Taste and try!"


There was a distinct cleverness about the quaint grotesque drawings of
Ernest Griset, a young Frenchman, who made his appearance in London
now many years ago. His drawings were at first exhibited in the
window of a book shop close to Leicester Square, where they attracted
considerable attention. Tom Hood had a great opinion of the artist's
ability. They were generally in pen and ink, lightly tinted with
delicate colour. We thought very highly of Griset's drawings, and soon
enlisted his services, not only on _Fun_ and "Hoods Annual," but upon
many other publications--for which we bought hundreds of his drawings,
and from them made selections. Tom Hood wrote clever verses to some of
these, and we published them in book form through Messrs. Routledge as
"Griset's Grotesques." We also got together several of his drawings
which had appeared in _Fun_ and published them as shilling books from
the _Fun_ Office.

Griset was, and is, a hard and rapid worker. He has been engaged in
many other ways as an illustrator; much on "Prehistoric Man." Also as a
decorator of public halls, he has done good things.


_Frank (just accepted)._--"Love thee, dearest? Ay, and when time shall
have furrowed these youthful cheeks and dimmed the lustre of your eyes,
when age shall have threaded silver amidst these glossy locks and bowed
the figure erstwhile straight----"

_Laura (hastily)._--"Oh, Frank, I hope not! Think how old you will

W. S. Brunton, known as "Billy" Brunton, was a young Irishman full of
racy humour and odd fancies. He was a constant contributor of comic
sketches dealing with passing events of every-day life. It is well
known that when the present Earl Dunraven was a young man he was
occupied for many years as a journalist, on the London Press. He was of
a genial disposition, a fluent writer, and a general favourite among
his brethren of the pen, as well as a popular member of the Savage Club
at the time that "Billy" Brunton and some few other kindred spirits
kept the place pretty lively with their jovial nights and merry Irish
rollicking. On one occasion, shortly after Dunraven had come into the
title and estates, a small group of "Savages" were standing gossiping
in the club smoke-room, when he very quietly said:

"By the way, old chums, now that my position in the world is a little
altered, and I have been obliged to change my name, I hope there may be
no reserve on your parts, or change of feeling towards me, and that we
shall continue to meet and chum together on precisely the same friendly
terms, and with the same cordial good-fellowship, that has always
existed among us."

"Billy" Brunton, who happened to be one of the group, laid his hand,
with a caressing pat, on Dunraven's shoulder, and in an encouraging
tone said:

"All right, old man, that shall be all right, so let your mind be
entirely at ease on that score. Bedad, I pledge my word for it; and
I'm sure I speak the sentiments of every member of this club, that
'although your position in the world is a little altered, and you have
been compelled to change your name,' you'll find no change in us--for
you shall at all times be treated with precisely the same respect and
the same consideration that has always been shown you here; and to
prove I'm entirely in earnest in what I say--gentlemen, I propose that
Dunraven stands glasses round."

It is hardly necessary to say that the proposal met with approval by
the entire party, or that it was responded to by the noble "Savage."

Henry Sampson remained editor of _Fun_ and "Tom Hood's Comic Annual"
for nearly four years, when he resigned that position to commence a
weekly newspaper--the _Referee_.

Early in the Sixties we made the acquaintance of Edward Lear, who
was a landscape painter of great distinction, a naturalist, a man
of high culture, and a most kind and courteous gentleman. He came
to us bringing an original chromo-lithographic copy of his "Book of
Nonsense"--published some years before by McLean of the Haymarket.
His desire was to publish a new and cheaper edition. With this view
he proposed having the entire set of designs redrawn on wood, and he
commissioned us to do this, also to engrave the blocks, print, and
produce the book for him. When the work was nearly completed, he said
he would sell his rights in the production to us for _£_100. We did not
accept his offer, but proposed to find a publisher who would undertake
it. We laid the matter before Messrs. Routledge & Warne. They declined
to buy, but were willing to publish it for him on commission, which
they did. The first edition sold immediately. Messrs. Routledge then
wished to purchase the copyright, but Mr. Lear said, "Now it is a
success they must pay me more than I asked at first." The price was
then fixed at _£_120, a very modest advance considering the mark the
book had made. It has since gone through many editions in the hands of
F. Warne & Co.

Lear told us how "The Book of Nonsense" originated. When a young man he
studied very much at the Zoological Gardens in Regent's Park. While he
was engaged on an elaborate drawing of some "Parrots," a middle-aged
gentleman used to come very frequently and talk to him about his work,
and by degrees took more and more interest in him. One day he said, "I
wish you to come on a visit to me, for I have much that I think would
interest you." The stranger was the Earl of Derby. Lear accepted the
invitation, and it was during his many visits at Knowsley that these
"Nonsense" drawings were made, and the inimitable verses written. They
were generally done in the evening to please the Earl's young children,
and caused so much delightful amusement that he redrew them on stone,
and published them as before stated. That is how this clever, humorous
book came into existence; a work that will cause laughter and pleasure
to young and old for all time. John Ruskin says of Lear's "Book of

    "Surely the most beneficent and innocent of all books yet produced
    is the 'Book of Nonsense,' with its corollary carols, inimitable
    and refreshing, and perfect in rhythm. I really don't know any
    author to whom I am half so grateful for my idle self as Edward
    Lear. I shall put him first of my hundred authors."

       *       *       *       *       *

John Proctor, the celebrated cartoonist, had retired from his position,
and had gone over to _Moonshine_, the then new "comic," and William
Boucher had taken his place, before we became connected in any way with
_Judy, or The London Serio Comic Journal_. Charles H. Ross was the
editor when the paper came into our hands in 1872.


"_She is one of the most amiable ladies I ever met, and has a pleasant
smile and a pretty something to say to one and all, and she doesn't
mean a word she says. Watch her now softly crossing the floor, no doubt
fearful of waking old Mr. Topperton, whose heavy breathing might by
the ill-disposed almost be likened to a snore. See, she is carrying
a pillow; doubtless it is to prop up Topperton's head, now resting
against the hard wooden edge of the chair at a painful angle. Not a bit
of it._"

                   "Behind a Brass Knocker" (_Judy_).--CHARLES H. ROSS.

_Published by Mr. Gilbert Dalziel._]

He was a gifted writer of varied powers, a dramatist and novelist of
the most sensational order. But above all, Ross was a great humorist,
with a manner peculiarly his own. He was also a skilful draughtsman,
and we engraved hundreds of his drawings. His pages of humorous
pictures, which appeared in _Judy_, were generally signed "Marie Duval"
(his wife's maiden name), and the subjects often savoured somewhat of
French origin.

One of the principal contributors to the paper at this period was
Ernest Warren, an admirable verse writer. He, too, wrote for the stage.
Of his books, many of which were of "The Round Table" series, the most
popular were "Four Flirts," and "The White Cat." Another, which had run
through the Journal, and was written in collaboration with his friend
Ross, was "Rattletrap Rhymes and Tootletum Tales." All three books went
through many editions.

"The Bloomin' Flower of Rorty Gulch" was published in the last-named
book, and shows Ross's power as a sarcastic verse writer. As a
recitation, the poem is very popular, and in the hands of that clever
and esteemed actor, E. J. Odell, who has made a feature of it for many
years, it is highly appreciated in Bohemian and other circles.

In his "Book of Beauty" Ross says "On Love":

    "Ladies and gentlemen! there is no such thing as love.

    "This fact is thrown in by A. Sloper without any extra charge.

    "Some people take a long while to find this out, and some never do
    quite find it out: those are the lucky ones.

    "During A. Sloper's infancy, when A. Sloper was a mere boy, he was
    under the impression that he was in love, and couldn't eat over two
    eggs and a couple of rashers for breakfast; but it turned out he
    was wrong, and only wanted medicine.

    "Later on he had another attack, and made poetry. He made a line
    that ended with _love_, and stuck _grove_ on to the end of another,
    and _move_ on to the end of a third, and _hove_ and _stove_ on to
    the end of the fourth and fifth, and still he was not happy, nor
    was any one else to whom he read the poem.

    "Love has been the stock-in-trade of all poets ever since the first
    poet started in business, and they have generally treated the
    subject from a thoroughly business-like point of view.

    "A young man once late at night told A. Sloper that some people
    never tell their love, but feed on their damask--and he fell down
    immediately after making the observation.

    "A. Sloper has known men who could not make love, but have made
    boots, Geneva watches, and other things, very well indeed. He has
    also known men who could make love, but could never propose. You
    might have brought actions against them, and still they couldn't."


"_'What is it?' she asks._

"'_It is_ him--papa,' _responds Melia_; 'he has come back!'"

                   "Behind a Brass Knocker" (_Judy_).--CHARLES H. ROSS.

_Published by Mr. Gilbert Dalziel._]

And see the glowing description of "The Beautiful Gymnast: A Fragment":

    " ... Nothing could have been more lovely!

    "Scarcely eighteen summers had passed over the golden-hued
    silkiness of the tightly-bound tresses of that classic head. The
    flush of health was on her peachy cheeks. The joyousness of youth
    lit up her big blue eyes, and wreathed her red lips into a smile,
    that showed two rows of glistening teeth. The tightly-fitting dress
    revealed in all its glorious young beauty the faultless contour of
    her form.

    "She cast an eye of pardonable pride upon the shapely limbs
    supporting her; then turned her eyes upward towards the horizontal
    bar, set her teeth, and jumped.

    "An instant later, and she had sat down sharply on the resonant
    bounding-board with a deuce of a bump! and all the plain young
    women looking on were smiling...."



_Published by Mr. Gilbert Dalziel._]

One of the most interesting series of stories that Charles H. Ross
wrote for _Judy_, he called "Behind a Brass Knocker." This was done in
conjunction with Fred Barnard, who made all of the drawings. It was
rather a sad theme--the experiences of a lot of impecunious people
living together in a boardinghouse, the poorest of them all being Mrs.
Mite, whose shifts and cunning ways are told with a touch of pathos,
her crowning trouble being a drunken husband. The work had considerable
success in volume form. Fred Barnard's work in this was of his very
best kind.

Ross also wrote a series of wonderfully clever articles to accompany
a set of drawings by E. G. Dalziel, which were strangely unlike the
usual work of this artist--so much so, as to suggest the idea that he
must have been under the influence of Gustave Doré at the time. Ross
called them "Nursery Morals," which were of a fanciful character. After
playfully rebuking "Little Bo-Peep" on her vanity, he concludes:

    "I think the artist might as well have shown us the nose of one
    of the silly sheep peeping round a distant corner; but perhaps
    the sheep were all tired of her airs and graces, and had taken
    themselves off in disgust. I am not naturally of a malignant
    disposition, but I sincerely trust she never did find those sheep.
    Don't you?"

"On The Giant-Killer," he writes:

    "I have every reason to believe that abnormally large men are
    comparatively harmless. There must be exceptions, of course, and I
    will give you 'Sir Roger' and Count Fosco. The Count, by the way,
    is a fictitious personage, and perhaps 'Sir Roger' was also rather
    that way inclined.

    "These, however, were enormously fat men, not giants, and I have
    to do with giants. Now, we have it on good authority, that the
    intellect of a giant is generally as weak as his knees. We hear
    over and over again of giants in shows being awfully bullied by
    the 'smallest man in the world,' who travels with him, and who is
    exhibited outside on the parade in a largish-sized doll's house,
    through the roof of which he pokes out his head, whilst he rings a
    bell from the second-floor window, and rests his feet in the front



_Published by Mr. Gilbert Dalziel._]

He remarks "On the Utter Wrongness of Nursery Lore":

    "The more I reflect upon the unworthiness of the Nursery hero,
    as compared with the spotless purity of my own character (I am a
    London tradesman), the more am I lost in wonder to think that these
    alarming humbugs should so long have been tolerated by an indulgent
    public. When I think of that fellow whose name is associated with
    the beanstalk of abnormal growth--an unhappy combination of rogue
    and fool--when I think of that wholesale murderer (another Jack),
    and indeed all the rest of them, I ask myself 'Why so?' and all
    that remains of the _Echo_, at one halfpenny, is discreetly silent."

"On Love as a Passion":

    "The passion of love is very properly excluded from the subjects
    discussed in the best regulated nurseries. Indeed, in households
    where the young lady's material has reached a certain height and
    breadth and fulness, the love that has any particular amount of
    passion in it is not the one discussed. And I think it right that
    it should not be.

    "Writing as I do exclusively for female babes (or rather, I should
    say, young lady babes, because a young lady babe ought not to be
    called a female, and would with reason feel annoyed at being called
    one), I am anxious to do away with the passionate love-fiction
    altogether. Of course, I know I have only to explain the thing
    properly, in my own particular way, and the thing will at once be
    done away with; and surely it is my duty to do so, when by doing
    so, I know I shall do good."

[Illustration: "_Even Mr. Codlin had nothing to urge against a proposal
so seasonable. Nelly, kneeling down beside the box, was soon busily
engaged in her task, and accomplishing it to a miracle._"

        "The Old Curiosity Shop" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

In 1888, Gilbert Dalziel, who had been working in the interests of
the paper from the day it came into our hands, took over the journal,
paying the sum of eight thousand pounds for it. He at once made
considerable alterations in the conduct of the paper. Amongst his
artistic staff were that powerful draughtsman, W. G. Baxter; Bernard
Partridge, one of the most brilliant and deservedly popular black and
white men of our time; Maurice Greiffenhagen, whose drawings had graced
the pages of _Judy_ from the day of his early studentship; Alfred
Bryan, inimitable in his way; Fred Pegram, Raven Hill, F. H. Townsend,
and Fred Barnard.

With such a list of artists at work week by week, small wonder that it
should now be spoken of as "The Golden Period" of _Judy_.

In the pages of _Judy_, Charles H. Ross created the character of Ally
Sloper and also of his friend Ikey Moses. In the early part of 1884,
Gilbert Dalziel conceived and modelled a new publication, to be called
the _Half-Holiday_, in which Ally Sloper was to be a leading character.
It was finally decided, however, to add the Old Man's name to the
title, and on May 3rd, 1884, _Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday_ made its
first appearance.

Amongst the many quaint features of the paper, perhaps the "Award of
Merit" stands foremost. This decoration consists of a very clever
design by W. G. Baxter, executed in colours, and has been presented
to and accepted by men and women of the highest distinction in all
branches of art, science, literature, music, and the professions

[Illustration: "_'You're the wax-work child, are you not?' said Miss

"_'Yes, ma'm,' replied Nell, colouring deeply._"

        "The Old Curiosity Shop" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

Gilbert Dalziel has in his possession a collection of autograph
letters, in acknowledgment of the "Award," from some of the most
eminent folks before the public during the latter part of the old
century, amongst whom may be mentioned--Lord Tennyson, as representing
Literature; Sir John E. Millais, Bart., P.R.A., for Painting and
Drawing on Wood; Sir Arthur Sullivan, for Music; Sir Charles Russell,
for Law; Arthur W. Pinero and Sir Henry Irving, for the Drama; Lord
Charles Beresford, for the Navy; and Lord Roberts (when he was in
command in India), for the Army.

       *       *       *       *       *

Charles H. Bennett was one of the most original artists of his period.
Alas! his life was all too short. There was an individual stamp about
his work--independent in manner and full of deep thought. We had many
of his drawings through our hands and knew him well. A more earnest
man concerning his work we never met; and, not unlike Pinwell, he held
it as a principle that time should never be allowed to enter into the
question; the task should be defined, but never trammelled by, "How
long will it take?"--whether it be days, weeks or years, for the proper
execution of the project. Perhaps his "Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress"
will rank as his greatest achievement.

We have already spoken of our connection with Messrs. Chapman & Hall,
on that light feat of Doyle's, the "Panorama." There were also a very
clever set of drawings for "Fairy Tales of all Nations," by Richard
Doyle, and illustrations to Morley's "Oberon's Horn, and other Fairy
Tales," by Charles H. Bennett, which we produced for the same firm.

[Illustration: "_I made my way back to the 'Dolphin's Head.' In
the gateway I found J. Mellows looking at nothing, and apparently
experiencing that it failed to raise his spirits._

"_'I don't care for the Town,' said J. Mellows, when I complimented
him on the sanitary advantage it may or may not possess; 'I wish I had
never seen the Town.'_"

    "The Uncommercial Traveller" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

When Charles Dickens abandoned the etchings of H. K. Browne as a means
of illustrating his books, the next work, "Our Mutual Friend," was
placed in the hands of Marcus Stone, whose father, Mr. Frank Stone,
A.R.A., had for many years been a next-door neighbour and a very
constant friend of Dickens. Some of these drawings, which are marked
with all the refinement and good taste of this popular artist, were
entrusted to us to engrave.

We were early engaged on the various editions of the works of Charles
Dickens, commencing (through our friend, Ebenezer Landells,) with the
wood engravings for "Master Humphrey's Clock," which were soon followed
by those for the "Christmas Books" from drawings by Richard Doyle, John
Leech, and Daniel Maclise.

But by far the most important commission ever placed in our hands
by Messrs. Chapman & Hall was the production and entire control of
the illustrations for the Household Edition of the Works of Charles
Dickens, which was commenced in serial form in 1871 and completed in
1879, thus extending over a period of eight years. The publishers began
the issue with "Pickwick," using the original designs by H. K. Browne
("Phiz"), but immediately after this Mr. Frederick Chapman placed the
entire control of the illustrations in our hands. We were to find the
best artists we considered suitable for the various works. The first
selected was James Mahoney, who had already attained some distinction
in drawing on wood. He did in all three books, the first being "Oliver
Twist," followed by "Little Dorrit" and "Our Mutual Friend." Mahoney
had a firm, clear style of manipulation, and no one knew better than he
how to make work look solid and firm by leaving large masses of white
in his arrangement of colour. He painted some good water colours. We
had several small examples, the most important of which is "A Bird
of Prey," a repeat of one of his designs for "Our Mutual Friend."
Charles Green, R.I., made a beautiful set of illustrations to "The
Old Curiosity Shop." Every picture is carefully studied both as to
character, scene, and subject; the picture of "Short and Codlin,"
with Nell and her Grandfather, being one of the most perfect. Green
painted many very fine water colour pictures, several of which we were
fortunate enough to possess.

[Illustration: "_On the second occasion of my seeing him he said,
huskily, to the man of sleep, 'Am I red to-night?' 'You are,' he
uncompromisingly answered._"

    "The Uncommercial Traveller" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

                                                         "78 PARK ROAD.

    "DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--These proofs are so beautiful I cannot find
    any fault; and should be a brute if I did. The only one I have
    touched is because it is a little too dark and heavy--perhaps it is
    a heavy proof. I am delighted with them generally. I send two more
    drawings. Please do not forget to let me have the three proofs I
    mentioned in this morning's letter.

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                            "C. GREEN."

Again on another occasion:

    "I like those proofs very much indeed; they are beautiful. There
    is only one thing wants touching--the face of the Charwoman in No.
    27 is rather muddy, it wants clearing up a bit. I have touched the

H. French, a clever and popular artist, the son of an accomplished wood
engraver, who came of the Bewick school, did the pictures for "Hard
Times," and very good they were.

[Illustration: "_He stooped a little, and with his tattered blue cap
pointed under the carriage. All his followers stooped to look under the

          "A Tale of Two Cities" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

F. A. Fraser, a well-known illustrator, made those for "Great

A. B. Frost, an American artist of great ability, did "American Notes,"
and Gordon Thomson "Pictures from Italy." E. G. Dalziel undertook
"Reprinted Pieces" and "The Uncommercial Traveller," as well as other
short stories. Of "E. G. D.'s" work we will here quote two letters by
distinguished artists in appreciation.

                                                        "2 PALACE GATE,
                                                 "_30th January, 1878_.

    "DEAR DALZIEL,--I ought to have thanked you for your kind and
    thoughtful present of Xmas books. The illustrations of your son to
    'The Uncommercial Traveller' are _admirable_. I recognise his work
    in _Fun_, and the care of his work is not lost upon

                          "Yours very truly,
                                                       "J. E. MILLAIS."

                                                        "VANBRUGH PARK,
                                                "_23rd December, 1877_.

    "DEAR MR. DALZIEL,--I thank you for the volume, where your son's
    drawings show an amazing care and truth--a certain weirdness most
    telling in some subjects, notably, 'Chips, the Carpenter'--the
    Devil with the Rat on his shoulder is _grand_. There is a Donkey,
    taken into custody by the police, most beautifully drawn. The
    Cart is by Albert Durer, so also is 'Mr. Baker's Trap'; 'A Cheap
    Theatre' is good, full of varied character; so is the Group of
    Chair-menders on title--the man's eyes screwed up because of the
    sun, and the woman looking through the back of the chair. There
    is a group of old women on p. 136 which is capital; very good
    character on p. 101, also on p. 84. 'Mr. J. Mellows,' p. 112, very

    "With best wishes for health and happiness to you and yours,

                       "I am, dear Mr. Dalziel,
                          "Very truly yours,
                                                        "JOHN GILBERT."

[Illustration: "_'No matter! What do you mean, sir?' was the tart
rejoinder. 'No matter! Do you think you bring your paltry money here as
a favour or a gift; or as a matter of business, and in return for value

             "Nicholas Nickleby" (Household Edition).--CHARLES DICKENS.


_By permission of Messrs. Chapman & Hall._]

But of all the artists engaged on this edition Frederick Barnard held
the most prominent position, he having fully illustrated no less than
nine out of twenty books.

Barnard ranks as one of England's truly comic artists; but he was not
only comic, he was one of the most versatile artists of our time. He
unquestionably stands among the foremost illustrators of Dickens. The
many drawings he made for the Household Edition, as well as some larger
pictures, illustrating the works of the great author, all possess a
certain peculiarity: while the drawings are strictly in his own style,
there is just enough resemblance to the figures created by H. K. Browne
to save you a shock; the Dick Swiveller, the Bill Sykes, and other
characters are the same as one had accepted when the stories were first

A powerful set of drawings are those for "How the Poor Live," which
were commissioned by Gilbert Dalziel, in connection with G. R. Sims'
articles, for publication in the _Pictorial World_.

Again, how grand are many of his designs for the "Pilgrim's Progress,"
which we prepared for Alexander Strahan; one of the most effective
is "Lord Hategood," from which we commissioned him to paint an oil
picture. Barnard was no mean painter: perhaps his "Saturday Night in
the East End" and "The Guards' Band Marching" are amongst his most
important works. He also painted a "Ball-room Scene," of an elegant
character, from one of the Dickens' books, that had a very prominent
place in the Institute of Painters in Oil Colours.

Our long connection with Barnard was of close intimacy and friendship;
he was a delightful companion, amusing, and full of bright repartee,
and would often "set the table in a roar."

As a mimic and comic singer he was inimitable. A favourite song of
his at studio evenings was "I Long to be a Hartist, Mother," written
by himself, we believe, and screamingly funny. As a practical jokist,
Fred Barnard was simply _au fait_. On one occasion he called at Soane's
Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and asked the porter if Sir John Soane
was at home. "Why, lor bless you, sir," said the man, "Sir John Soane
has been dead these sixty years." Barnard was staggered at the news and
overwhelmed with grief, and beating his breast he cried, "Dead! Dead!
Dead! And we were boys at school together!"

His own death, poor chap, was tragic, and a great shock to all who
knew him. He was an ardent smoker. One morning, having had breakfast
in bed, he requested that he should not be disturbed again for some
hours; when the servant went to call him there was no response, and
on the door being forced open the room was found to be full of smoke,
the bed-clothes smouldering fire. It is supposed that while courting
further sleep he lit a pipe, which, falling from his mouth, ignited the
clothes; although somewhat severely burnt, his death was, in fact, due
to suffocation, and he passed away while in a state of insensibility.

[Illustration: _George Dalziel_



[Illustration: Edward Dalziel



[Illustration: _Thomas BGS Dalziel_ 1901



[21] This is the fourth son of Edward Dalziel.


Early in the year 1844 we took our first pupil, Francis Fricker,
a very steady, industrious fellow, who was always punctual and
reliable. He became a good engraver, and remained with us, without
intermission--with the exception of two or three weeks' holiday in each
year, which we made a practice of giving to all our pupils--until we
broke up our establishment in 1893.

Being all draughtsmen ourselves, we did not take pupils specially for
engraving alone; although, from our earliest days, we made it a rule
to place any commission that was intrusted to us in the hands of the
best artists we could find, whose peculiar ability suited them for the
subject in question.

Nevertheless, we established a school to teach our pupils drawing. We
got together a good collection of plaster casts--the best obtainable;
also other matter suitable for study from the flat and round; works on
"Anatomy," on "Beauty," and on "Perspective." We also provided all the
materials for working free of cost. The engraver's day at that time was
a long one--nine hours--and the drawing only began after the day's work
had been finished; and to this, perhaps, is due the fact that all did
not avail themselves of what had been planned for them. The pupils who
did attend the meetings, and who doubtless possessed the stronger love
of art, benefitted to no small extent.

Among those who availed themselves of these advantages were Harry Fenn
and Charles Kingdon, two of our earliest and very cleverest pupils.
Soon after they completed their term with us they took ship to Canada,
having determined to visit the principal cities there and in the United
States of America. This they did, settling in New York City, where they
soon found profitable employment.

       *       *       *       *       *

Harry Fenn took at once to drawing on wood and water colour painting,
making very rapid progress in both branches of art, and soon becoming
the most popular landscape draughtsman in America. It was he who
projected, planned, and made all the drawings for "Picturesque
America." It came about in this way. He was dining with the well-known
publisher, D. Appleton, who, during conversation, regretted that
America did not afford such fine material for landscape art as the Old
Country--that there was, in fact, nothing picturesque in America. Fenn
said: "Give me the chance and you shall see what a variety of beautiful
material you have got in America." The reply was: "Well, you shall have
a try if you like. Do a few drawings and let us see." Fenn made a few
drawings, which encouraged the publisher to carry out the idea; and he
did a work which was, perhaps, one of the most brilliantly successful
illustrated books ever published, and the forerunner of several
similar works, all of which were filled with beautiful examples of his
skilful pencil. He still continues to be a popular black and white
artist, but devotes much time to painting in water colours.

Joseph Pennell, in his "Modern Illustration," says, "Henry Fenn's
illustrations to 'Picturesque America' entitle him to be called the
Nestor of his Guild, not only for the delicacy, truth and refinement
of his drawing, but also because of the enormous success of the

       *       *       *       *       *

Charles Kingdon, by far the best engraver of the two, was also very
popular in America, but he was of a restless nature and had not the
persistent industry of his companion. He died young, and in his death
the world lost a brilliant young artist. He married an American lady
soon after settling there, and it is worthy of mention, so we have
been told, that his daughter, who evidently inherited her father's art
instincts and good looks--for Kingdon was a very handsome fellow--was
a popular member of the celebrated Augustin Daly's company, and became
the wife of an American millionaire.

       *       *       *       *       *

Another of the most industrious and constant workers was George G.
Kilburne, who, soon after completing his engagement with us, gave up
engraving altogether and took to painting--mostly in water colours--in
which he has long held a prominent position in the Royal Institute of
Painters in Water Colours, as well as being a very frequent exhibitor
at the Royal Academy. He was one of the most satisfactory pupils we
ever had. He took up engraving with great aptitude, and from the day
he came to us his work was always good. Only the second drawing given
to him to work upon was so perfect, that it was published with the set
to which it belonged. A peculiarity with Kilburne was that if he were
asked to do anything, you found him doing it immediately; with him no
time was wanted for preparation. Though he left our studio and forsook
the branch of art we taught him, our connection, instead of being
severed, became the closer by his marrying the elder daughter of our
late brother Robert.

       *       *       *       *       *

Charles A. Ferrier, a young Scotchman of varied capabilities, who
had made some small efforts at wood engraving in his native town of
Arbroath, without instruction, came to us to seek employment through
an introduction he had obtained to William Harvey. He was a youth of
considerable promise and full of enthusiasm for his art. Though the
specimens he had to show were very crude, he had evidently been looked
upon as a genius by his Scottish friends; but on entering our studio
he was indefatigable in his studies, and eager for improvement. Before
he had been two months with us he became London correspondent to an
Arbroath weekly paper. This letter he generally knocked off during the
hour allowed for dinner in the middle of the day. We have reason to
believe he turned his attention very much to scientific subjects, and
became a Fellow of more than one of the learned Societies. During the
whole of his life he has been a staunch teetotaler, and has worked
hard in the temperance cause. He became the personal friend of George
Cruikshank, Dr. Richardson, and many scientific people, who preferred
him as an engraver because of the knowledge he possessed of the objects
he had to work upon. Taken altogether, Ferrier became one of the most
remarkable men who had their beginning in our studio.

       *       *       *       *       *

"W. Y.," a pupil whose name for obvious reasons we will not give, came
to us when about nineteen years of age. He was a member of a good
county family--a younger son; he had good taste for art and some skill
as a draughtsman. By the wish of his elder brother, he was put with us
to learn engraving. His development in our art was simply wonderful,
his manipulative power was quite extraordinary; it was the one case in
our experience where it seemed as if the pupil had come to teach the
masters. He was steady, punctual to his long day's work, and in every
way exemplary, a gentleman in manner, and a great favourite with all
the assistants and other pupils; but it was known to his fellow-workers
that at a certain date he was to come into a considerable sum of money,
and he had often said that when he got it, "then farewell to industry,
to art, and to respectability." His words were: "When I get it I will
let fly." And, sad to relate, he did "let fly." He had been working
out of our studio for some two or three months, when he suddenly
disappeared, and the last we heard of him was that he was spending his
time, and his money chiefly in the immediate vicinity of the Surrey
Theatre, and that in an adjacent public-house bar he was seen lighting
his pipe with a five pound note. Poor fellow! It was the old, old
story--the drink--the drink that did it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Alexander Aitcheson Dalziel and John Sanderson Dalziel, the two sons
of our brother Robert, also, on leaving school, became pupils to learn
wood engraving. The elder brother, Alexander, shortly after completing
his term, married and went out to South Africa, where for a time he
coupled scholastic work with his engraving; but after a bit he gave up
art altogether and went on with his teaching only--while John emigrated
to America, and settled down in Philadelphia for many years, where he
executed a large number of elaborate, highly-finished works, chiefly
of a scientific character, much of which has been reproduced in this
country. At the time we write he is turning his attention to fruit
culture in Colorado.

       *       *       *       *       *

A. W. Bayes was introduced to us by H. Stacy Marks, R.A., as a young
man who had been engaged as a draughtsman at some manufacturing works
in the country, and had shown a wonderful capacity for design. We could
not say he came to us as a pupil; but whatever progress he made in our
studio was the result of the practice derived from the subjects given
to him, and owing to the advantage of his seeing a great variety of
drawings by the leading artists of the time. He was very industrious
and very rapid. He worked with us for many years, until, for the
further development in painting and other branches of his art, he found
it an advantage to have a place of his own. With us he had illustrated
a number of children's books, the most important being the works of
Hans Christian Andersen, for which he made a very large number of
drawings. These books went through many editions. He also made a set of
drawings from Bible history, and another set from the New Testament,
all of which were published for us by Messrs. Routledge, Warne & Co.,
with a fair amount of success. Bayes for some years has devoted himself
almost entirely to painting in oil, and has produced many important
works--chiefly of a historical order.

       *       *       *       *       *

Phil Ebbutt came to us on the recommendation of our friend George R.
Sims. He had a natural taste for drawing, and was quick at design. He
worked much on our publication, _Jack and Jill_, including political
cartoons, and romances strictly historical. He also made many drawings
for _Fun_, which were mostly of a social character. In all he was
an industrious, willing worker, but his progress was hindered by an
affection of the eyes, which now and again demanded complete rest;
though that, for a time, was got over and he went to work again. He
also made many drawings as book illustrations, and was one of the
original artists on the _Daily Graphic_, working for the first number
of that journal. But the eye trouble again caused him to terminate so
close a connection, and he continued as an occasional contributor only.
He still holds a prominent place as a journalistic artist, doing much
good work.

       *       *       *       *       *

Hal Ludlow as a boy showed great taste and skill in drawing. His
friends wished him to be a wood engraver and placed him with us as an
apprentice for that purpose; but he made little or no progress in that
branch and was soon put to drawing entirely, and very quickly developed
as a clever designer. He made hundreds of drawings for children's and
other books; some of the former were carried out in colours--what are
generally known as "Toy Books." He soon became an expert in pure pen
and ink work, and when the _Pictorial World_ was under our control,
made a large number of careful drawings of social life--many of
every-day events, notably river and race scenes. He also made many
important drawings of theatrical representations--new plays, opera and
music hall subjects. His work had become so popular that Mason Jackson
came to us on behalf of the _Illustrated London News_, to know if we
would allow Ludlow to make drawings on wood for that journal, saying,
"it was a pity that such clever drawings should all be reproduced by
process," which he regarded as an inferior manner of rendering them.
What a change has come since that period! How completely has the
then-thought "superior" manner had to stand aside for the "inferior"!
We may here state that, in the long past, we always thought that some
automatic process would be perfected for the proper reproduction
of point work, or what was always known as "facsimile" drawing. Of
Ludlow's work as a popular designer and painter, it is not necessary to
speak further than to say that his smaller water colours rival in grace
and minute finish the work of Jan Van Beers.

       *       *       *       *       *

George Gatcombe was a companion and friend of Phil Ebbutt, and through
that fact came to us. He showed an early taste for drawing, was from
the first a very rapid workman, and soon developed to an extent that
made his work suitable for publication. We gave him an opportunity
by the introduction of his work on _Fun_, in which he evinced a
distinct capacity for the elegant in his social pictures. He made many
illustrations for books; and did much at various times for "Hood's
Annual." Some of his political cartoons, too, showed a distinct taste
in that direction. He also produced several designs of a historical
character. Gatcombe is a good all-round black and white artist.

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the many other pupils and assistants who have passed through
our studios, and proved themselves steady and accomplished artists,
we must not omit to mention Harry Leighton, E. J. Wallis, who has
lately turned his attention very successfully to landscape photography,
Walter Williams, William Arrowsmith, and James Clark, who, like his
fellow-pupil Frank Fricker, remained with us for over forty years.


With the object of printing our own "Fine Art Books," early in the year
1857 we decided to set up a small printing office, which necessitated
our obtaining much more extensive accommodation than we at that time
possessed. We secured a long lease of the premises, 110--at that time
known as 53--High Street, Camden Town, and under the style and title
of The Camden Press gradually built up a large printing and publishing
business. During nearly forty years of varied experience in this branch
of the business, we printed a great number of important works for other
publishers, as well as our own. Amongst the very last of these was
"Dalziel's Bible Gallery."

       *       *       *       *       *

The Camden Press, where this book was printed, is now in the hands
of Charles and Harvey Dalziel. It fully maintains its repute for
high-class art work, after the manner of the old firm, but "running to
numbers" such as were never dreamt of in the days of

[Illustration: Dalziel Brothers]





  1850   PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.  William Harvey       _David Bogue._

    "    HOME FOR THE         Kenny Meadows        _J. Cundall._

  1851   JACK THE GIANT       Richard Doyle        _Cundall & Adey._

    "    AN OVERLAND
         GREAT EXHIBITION     "                   "  _Chapman & Hall._
         OF 1851.

  1852   THE SALAMANDRINE.    Sir John Gilbert,
                              R.A., P.R.W.S.       _Ingram & Cook._

  1854   KRUMMACHER'S         J. R. Clayton        _Nathaniel Cook._

    "    ORIENTAL FAIRY       William Harvey       _Chapman & Hall._

  1856   LONGFELLOW'S POEMS.  Sir John Gilbert,
                              R.A., P.R.W.S.       _G. Routledge &

  1857   POETS OF THE 19TH    Various Artists               "

         BARRY CORNWALL.               "           _Chapman & Hall._

    "    BRYANT'S POEMS.               "           _Appleton, New
         THE POETS.                    "           _G. Routledge &

    "    GERTRUDE OF                   "                    "

    "    MILTON'S COMUS.               "                    "

    "    BEATIE'S MINSTREL.   Birket Foster                 "

         COUNTRY.             Various Artists               "

    "    LIFE OF CHRIST,
         AND THE MIRACLES.    F. R. Pickersgill,   _Chapman & Hall._

    "    FAIRY TALES (H.      C. H. Bennett                 "

    "    OTTO SPECTER'S                            _Routledge,
         PICTURE FABLES.      Otto Specter         Warnes, &

  1859   OBERON'S HORN (H.    C. H. Bennett        _Chapman & Hall._

    "    WORDSWORTH'S POEMS.  Various Artists      _Routledge,
                                                   Warnes, &

    "    ODES AND SONNETS.    Birket Foster                 "

    "    MILES STANDISH.      Sir John Gilbert,
                              R.A., P.R.W.S.                "

  1860   MONTGOMERY'S POEMS.  Various Artists               "

    "    ELIZA COOK'S POEMS.           "                    "

  TO     WORKS (3 VOLS.)      Sir John Gilbert,
  1861                        R.A., P.R.W.S.                "

  1861   ORLEY FARM.          Sir J. E. Millais,   _Chapman & Hall._

    "    LALLA ROOKH.         Sir John Tenniel     _Longman & Co._

  to     HISTORY &  WOOD'S    Various Artists      _Routledge,
  1863   NATURAL HISTORY                           Warne, &
         OF MAN (5 VOLS.)                          Routledge._
   and   BIRDSEYE VIEWS OF    Richard Doyle        _Smith, Elder &
         SOCIETY.                                  Co._

  1862   PICTURES OF          Birket Foster        _Routledge,
         ENGLISH LANDSCAPE.                        Warne, &

    "    ENGLISH SACRED       Various Artists               "

    "    FRAMLEY PARSONAGE.   Sir J. E. Millais,   _Smith, Elder &
                              P.R.A.               Co._

  1863   PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.  J. D. Watson,        _Routledge,
                              R.W.S.               Warne, &

  1864   PARABLES OF OUR      Sir J. E. Millais,            "
         LORD.                P.R.A.

    "    ROBINSON CRUSOE.     J. D. Watson,                 "
         ALLINGTON.           Sir J. E. Millais,   _Smith, Elder &
                              P.R.A.               Co._

    "    DALZIEL'S ARABIAN    Various Artists      _Ward & Lock._

    "    THE GOLDEN HARP.              "           _Routledge,
                                                   Warne, &

  1865   DALZIEL'S            G. J. Pinwell,       _Ward & Lock._
         GOLDSMITH.           R.W.S.

    "    ALICE IN             Sir John Tenniel     _Macmillan & Co._

    "    HOME THOUGHTS.       A. Boyd Houghton,    _Routledge,
                              R.W.S.               Warne, &

    "    AN OLD FAIRY TALE.   Richard Doyle                 "

    "    PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.  Thomas Dalziel       _Ward & Lock._

  1866   DON QUIXOTE.         A. Boyd Houghton,    _F. Warne & Co._

         FOR  THE YOUNG.      AND J. MacWhirter,   _A. Strahan & Co._

    "    THE SPIRIT OF        Various Artists      _F. Warne & Co._

    "    GRISET'S             Ernest Griset        _G. Routledge &
         GROTESQUES.                               Sons._

  1867   A ROUND OF DAYS.     Various Artists               "

    "    GOLDEN THOUGHTS.              "           _F. Warne & Co._

    "    JEAN INGELOW'S                "           _Longman & Co._

         (ROBT. BUCHANAN)              "           _G. Routledge &

  1869   WAYSIDE POSIES.               "                    "

         THE AFFECTIONS.               "                    "

    "    KRILOF FABLES.       A. Boyd Houghton,    _A. Strahan & Co._

    "    RHYME AND REASON.    Various Artists      _G. Routledge &

  1870   LEAR'S BOOK OF       Edward Lear                   "

         NURSERY RHYMES.      Various Artists      _Novello, Ewer &
  1871   THROUGH THE
         LOOKING GLASS.       Sir John Tenniel     _Macmillan & Co._

    "    CHRISTMAS CAROLS.    Various Artists      _Novello, Ewer &
  1872   SING SONG
         (CHRISTINA           Arthur Hughes        _G. Routledge &
         ROSSETTI)                                 Sons._

  1874   PICTURE POSIES.      Various Artists               "

    "    SUNLIGHT OF SONG.             "           _Novello, Ewer &
         HIGHLANDS OF         J. T. Reid           _G. Routledge &
         SCOTLAND.                                 Sons._

         ENTERTAINMENT.       Thomas Dalziel       _G. Routledge &
  1871   DICKENS'S
  TO     HOUSEHOLD EDITION.   Various Artists      _Chapman & Hall._

  1880   PILGRIM'S PROGRESS.           "           _A. Strahan & Co._

    "    DALZIEL'S BIBLE               "           _G. Routledge &
         GALLERY.                                  Sons._

  1880   BYGONE MOODS (J.
         T. JUDKIN)                    "           _Longman for
         (LEWIS CARROL)       A. B. Frost          _Macmillan & Co._

         (LEWIS CARROL)                "                    "




  1841   POEMS AND PICTURES.  Various Artists      _J. Burns._

  to     (ABBOTSFORD                   "           _T. Cadell._
  1846   EDITION)

  1849   THE KING OF THE                           _Smith, Elder &
         GOLDEN RIVER.        Richard Doyle        Co._

    "    FAIRY TALES OF ALL                        _Chapman & Hall._
         NATIONS.                      "

    "    A JAR OF HONEY                            _Smith, Elder &
         FROM MOUNT HYBLA.             "           Co._

  1854   TUPPER'S                                  _Hatchard & Co._
         PROVERBIAL           Various Artists

    "    THE POETICAL WORKS                        _J. Nisbet & Co._
         OF GEORGE HERBERT.            "

  1857   TENNYSON'S POEMS.             "           _Moxon & Co._

    "    POLLOCK'S COURSE              "           _Blackwood & Co._
         OF TIME.

  1858   LAYS OF THE HOLY              "           _J. Nisbet & Co._

    "    THE BOOK OF JOB.     Sir John Gilbert,
                              R.A., P.R.W.S.                "

  1859   THOMPSON'S SEASONS.  Various Artists               "

  1863   LAYS OF THE          Sir J. Noel Paton,   _Blackwood & Co._
         SCOTTISH             P.R.S.A., and H.
         CAVALIERS.           Waller Paton

  1864   INGOLDSBY LEGENDS.    J. Leech,   G.
                              Cruikshank and
                              Sir John Tenniel     _R. Bentley._



  His Gracious Majesty, King Edward VII. (The Prince of Wales), 35

  Absolon, John, R.I., 27, 28

  Ainsworth, Harrison, 76

  Alford, Dean, 54

  Allan, Sir William, R.A., P.R.S.A., 26

  Allingham, William, 86, 192

  Andrews, G. H., R.W.S., 178

  Ansdell, Richard, R.A., 160

  Appleton, Messrs. D., & Co., 180, 344

  Barnard, Frederick, 308, 328, 339

  Barry, Sir Charles, R.A., 114

  Baxter, W. G., 328

  Bayes, A. W., 348

  Bell, Sir Charles, 14

  Bennett, Charles H., 330

  Bentley, Richard, 124, 132

  Beresford, Sir Charlesv, 330

  Bewick, Thomas, 8, 10, 12, 13

  Black, Adam & Charlesv, 34

  Blackwood, Messrs. William, & Sons, 132

  Blanchard, Leman, 292

  Blomfield, Dr., Bishop of London, 49

  Bogue, David, 17, 28

  Bohn, Henry G., 30

  Boucher, W., 318

  Boughton, G. H., R.A., 160

  Boyce, George, R.W.S., 114

  Bradbury & Evans, 6, 82

  Braddon, Miss, 19

  Brewtnall, E. F., R.W.S., 254, 264

  Browne, Hablot K., 8, 332, 338

  Brunton, W. S., 314

  Bryan, Alfred, 328

  Bryant, William Cullen, 180

  Buchanan, Robert, 158, 212

  Burne-Jones, Sir Edward, 81, 161, 163, 254

  Burton, Sir F. W., 168

  Byron, Lord, 94

  Byron, Henry J., 292

  Cadell, of Edinburgh, 26, 29

  Carrol, Lewis (Rev. C. Dodgson), 126

  Chapman & Hall, 330, 332

  Christie, Alexander, 26

  Claxton, Florence and Adelaide, 188

  Clay & Sons, 266

  Clayton, John R., 19, 114, 180

  Colburn, 132

  Cole, Sir Henry, 28

  Coleman, W. S., 270

  Coleridge, Samuel, 94

  Colvin, Sydney, 156

  Cook, Dutton, 292

  Cook, Nathaniel, 40

  Corbould, Edward H., R.I., 26, 34, 122

  Cornwall, Barry, 124

  Creswick, Thomas, R.A., 17

  Cruikshank, George, 16, 44, 49

  Cundall, Joseph, 28, 102

  Daly, Augustin, 345

  Dalziel, Alexander A., 348

  Dalziel, Charles, 294

  Dalziel, E. G., 192, 218, 264

  Dalziel, Gilbert, 326, 328, 338

  Dalziel, John S., 348

  Dalziel, Margaret, 19

  Dalziel, Thomas, 13, 122, 187, 222, 228, 230, 235

  Davis, Mrs. Charles, 224

  Dickens, Charles, 48, 193, 194, 212, 330, 332, 338

  Dicks, William, 25, 26

  Dodgson, George, R.W.S., 27, 116, 120, 122

  Dodgson, Rev. C., 126

  Doré, Gustave, 180, 324

  Doyle, Richard, 40, 58, 63, 82, 134, 308

  Doyle, Henry, C.B., 308

  Dulcken, Dr. H. W., 116, 226

  Du Maurier, George, 180

  Duncan, Edward, R.W.S., 114, 116, 122

  Dunraven, Earl, 314

  Duval, Marie, 320

  Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock, P.R.A., 14

  Ebbutt, Phil, 349

  Elmore, Alfred, R.A., 27

  Evans, Edmund, 10

  Everet, Allen E., 204, 205

  Fenn, Harry, 344

  Ferrier, Charles Anderson, 346

  Foster, Birket, 17, 114, 124, 138, 140, 149, 150, 156, 172, 176,
    180, 193, 196

  Franklin, John, 26, 27, 28, 36

  Fraser, F. A., 312

  Fraser, Gordon, 312

  French, Harry, 312

  Fricker, Francis, 343

  Frith, W. P., R.A., 44

  Frost, A. B., 126

  Frost, W. E., R.A., 54, 55

  Gatcombe, George, 312, 351

  Gilbert, Sir John, R.A., P.R.W.S., 8, 16, 30, 31, 41, 68, 122, 124,
    178, 182, 193, 310, 336

  Gilbert, W. S., 284

  Gordon, General, 302

  Graham, Tom, 158, 188

  Gray, Charles, 2, 10

  Gray, Paul, 307

  Green, Charles, R.I., 334

  Green, Towneley, R.I., 266

  Griset, Ernest, 313

  Grove, Sir George, 260

  Guthrie, Dr. Thomas, 156

  Hall, S. Carter, 36, 37

  Halswell, Keeley, 184

  Hans Breitmann (Charles Leland), 290

  Harding. J. D., 122

  Harris, Sir Augustus, 292

  Harvey, William, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17, 21, 122, 196, 266

  Haydon, Benjamin, 14

  Herkomer, Hubert von, R.A., 202, 205, 206, 310

  Hill, Raven, 328

  Hogg, James, Junr., 188

  Hogg, John, 188

  Hood, Tom, 272, 278, 286, 288, 293, 314

  Hook, J. C., R.A., 54, 56

  Horsley, H. C., R.A., 29

  Houghton, A. Boyd, R.W.S., 42, 81, 110, 192, 218, 220, 228, 234

  How & Parsons, Messrs., 36

  Hughes, Arthur, 87, 91, 192

  Hunt, Holman, 86, 162, 176, 177

  Hunt, Leigh, 134

  _Illustrated London News_, 6, 17, 40

  Ingelow, Jean, 212

  Ingram & Cook, 116

  Ingram, Herbert, 6, 8, 40

  Irving, Sir Henry, 296, 330

  Jackson, Mason, 350

  Jerrold, Douglas, 6, 8, 11

  Judkin, Rev. T. J., 54

  Keene, Charles, 114, 178

  Kilburne, George G., R.I., 345

  Kingdon, Charles, 345

  Knight, Charles, 15, 17, 22

  Lance, George, 14

  Landells, Ebenezer, 4, 6, 10, 66, 138, 332

  Landells, Robert, 12

  Landseer, Sir Edwin, R.A., 14

  Lawless, J. M., 236

  Lawson, J., 236

  Lear, Edward, 317

  Leech, John, 6, 41, 42, 44, 332

  Leigh, Henry S., 282

  Leighton, Lord, P.R.A., 42, 81, 134, 149, 237

  Leland, Charles H., 290

  Lemon, Mark, 8

  Lewis, Arthur, 114

  Linton, Sir James D., P.R.I., 266

  Longman, Messrs., & Co., 125

  Lover, Samuel 18, 19

  Lucas, J. Seymour, R.A., 160

  Ludlow, Hal, 310, 350

  Macdonald, Dr. George, 192

  Mackay, Dr. Charles, 69, 116

  Macleod, Dr. Norman, 156

  Maclise, Daniel, R.A., 332

  Macmillan, Messrs., & Co., 86

  Madox Brown, Ford, 120, 122, 252

  Marks, Stacy, R.A., 178, 192, 348

  Maxwell, John, 19

  Mayhew, The Brothers, 8

  McConnell, William, 190

  McIan, Robert, 26

  MacWhirter, J., R.A., 158

  Meadows, Kenny,16, 38

  Menzel, Herr Adolf, 16

  Millais, Sir John Everett, P.R.A., 42, 81, 94, 102, 104, 119, 123,
    142, 143, 158, 188, 226, 330, 336

  Millais, Lady, 105, 106

  Morley, Professor Henry, 330

  Moxon, Edward, 82, 83, 86

  Muloch, Miss (Mrs. Craik), 198

  Mulready, William, R.A., 28

  Murch, A., 254

  Murray, John, 15

  Napoleon III., Emperor, 146, 148

  Nelson, Messrs. Thomas, & Sons, 184

  Nelson, William, 186

  Nisbet, J., & Co., 70, 110

  North, J. W., A.R.A., 17, 194, 196

  Novello, Ewer, Messrs., & Co., 192

  Orchardson, W. Q., R.A., 158

  Owen, Sir Richard, 190

  Partridge, Bernard, 328

  Pasquier, J. A., 190

  Paton, Sir J. Noel, P.R.S.A., 36, 108, 126

  Pegram, Fred, 328

  Pettie, John, R.A., 155, 158, 188

  Pickersgill, F. R., R.A., 27, 53, 114, 124, 160

  Pinero, A. W., 330

  Pinwell, G. J., R.W.S., 81, 190, 192, 210, 216, 235

  Powell, J. H., 114

  Poynter, Sir Edward J., P.R.A., 42, 81, 234, 246, 252

  Prior, J., 16

  Prior, Melton, 16

  Proctor, John, 318

  Prowse, Jeffrey, 288, 307

  Ralston, John, 264

  Ramsay, J., 23

  Richardson, Dr. W. B., 52, 347

  Roberts Brothers, 234

  Ross, Charles H., 318, 322

  Rossetti, Christina, 90, 91

  Rossetti, Dante G., 81, 86

  Rossetti, W. M., 90

  Routledge, Messrs. George, & Sons, 30, 86, 92, 98, 139, 142, 152,
    168, 266, 271, 317

  Ruskin, John, 134, 154, 156

  Russell, Lord, of Killowen (Sir Charles Russell), 330

  Sala, George Augustus, 136, 286

  Sampson, Henry, 293, 296, 317

  Sandys, Frederick, 81, 134, 178, 190, 258, 262

  Scott, Clement, 286

  Scott, Sir Gilbert, R.A., 114

  Scott, Sir Walter, 17, 26

  Scott, W. Bell, 36

  Sims, George R., 293, 296, 338

  Sketchley, Arthur, 286

  Small, William, 234, 235, 264, 312

  Smith, Elder, Messrs., & Co., 134, 136

  Smith, George Murray, 134

  Smith, J. Orrin, 38

  Stanfield, Clarkson, R.A., 25, 26, 54

  Staunton, Howard, 72

  Stephens, J., 226

  Stirling, Madame Antoinette, 186

  Stone, Marcus, R.A., 332

  Strahan, Alexander, 98, 156, 158, 163, 170, 235, 264

  Sullivan, Sir Arthur, 330

  Sullivan, J. F., 312

  Summerly, Felix (Sir Henry Cole), 28

  Swain, Joseph, 44

  Taylor, Frederick, P.R.W.S., 29

  Taylor, Tom, 143, 144

  Tenniel, Sir John, 26, 47, 114, 120, 124, 126, 128, 130

  Tennyson, Alfred, Lord, 83, 142, 330

  Tennyson, Lady, 143

  Thackeray, W. M., 44, 58, 205

  Thomas, George, 41

  Thompson, of Duddingston, 1

  Thompson, John, 15

  Thomson, Gordon, 188, 308, 312, 336

  Topham, F. W., 27, 116

  Townsend, F. H., 328

  Trollope, Anthony, 81

  Tuck, Harry, 312

  Tupper, Martin F., 124

  Turner, Godfrey, 292

  Van Voorst, 28

  Walker, Frederick, A.R.A., R.W.S., 17, 43, 81, 176, 193, 196, 205, 234

  Walker, F. S., R.H.A., 312

  Ward, E. M., R.A., 37, 54

  Ward & Lock, Messrs., 230

  Warne, Messrs. Frederick, & Sons, 30, 34

  Warne, William, 32

  Warren, Ernest, 320

  Warren, Henry, P.R.I., 36

  Watson, J. D., R.W.S., 165, 174, 176, 188, 226, 236

  Watts, G. F., R.A., 244, 245, 252

  Weigand, W. J., 308

  Weir, Harrison, 122, 178, 182

  Wells, H. T., R.A., 114

  Whymper, J. W., 193, 230

  Wilkie, Sir David, R.A., 26

  Williams ----, 134

  Wilson, Professor J. (Christopher North), 188

  Wolf, Joseph, 114, 182, 234, 266, 268

  Wood, Rev. J. G., 266, 268

  Wordsworth, William, 182

  Wylam, Edward, 272, 308

  "W. Y.", 347

  Yates, Edmund, 286

  Zwecker, J. B., 190, 270

    Transcriber's Notes:

    Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical

    Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

    Enclosed italics markup in _underscores_.

    Enclosed fancy or unusual font markup in ~tildes~.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Brothers Danziel - A Record of Fifty Years Work in Conjunction with many of - the Most Distinguished Artists of the Period 1840-1890" ***

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