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Title: The Art of Candy Making - With Illustrations
Author: Makers, The Home Candy
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Notes: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= while
italic text is surrounded by _underscores_.]



THE ART OF HOME CANDY MAKING

    _WITH ILLUSTRATIONS_

    [Illustration]

    _THIRD REVISED EDITION_


    PUBLISHED BY
    THE HOME CANDY MAKERS
    CANTON, OHIO



    Copyright 1913
    by
    The Home Candy Makers
    Canton, Ohio



          TO THE

    LADIES OF THIS COUNTRY

    WHO ARE FOND OF GOOD
    CANDY AND DESIRE TO
      LEARN THE ART OF
    MAKING IT, THIS VOLUME
        IS DEDICATED.



INTRODUCTION


In presenting to you, our third edition of “The Art of Home Candy
Making,” we can safely say, that a more complete or practical book,
on Home Candy Making, cannot be found. We strive not only to give you
a larger variety of the finest candies that can be made, but to make
each recipe, so thorough and simple that anyone with a little study
before making them, can make every piece in this book with little or no
trouble at all.

In presenting a thermometer with each book and telling you how to use
it, we lessen the work to such an extent, that when once using one, you
would never attempt to make candy without it. In using a thermometer
in candy-making, all it is necessary for you to do, is to put it down
in the kettle in the boiling candy, and when it registers the required
degree, the candy is done and cannot possibly be wrong.

Every batch you make will be just the same, as we give you the exact
degree to cook every recipe. This book is intended for those who make
candy at home, and does not contain a single recipe, but that may be
made right at home in your own kitchen with a very small outlay for
tools, other than for cooking material.

We have endeavored to make all things clear to you, but we must insist
that you read each recipe over and study it carefully before starting
to cook, if you wish success.

With this explanation we think you will agree with us that this is the
most complete book on home candy making ever written.

Hoping you will make a success of your efforts, and with our assistance
in answering all questions you will surely do so, we remain,

                                           Very Truly Yours,
                                               THE HOME CANDY MAKERS.

Canton, O.



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS


After reading the introduction to this book, you will understand that
it is not written for professional candy-makers, but for those who make
candy at home; and consequently it is necessary to go into every little
detail, which of course, will make these instructions rather lengthy.

We will endeavor to make them as plain as though we were holding a
personal conversation with you, and explain to you, how to put the
style and finish to each piece of your home-made candies, that will
equal any of the finest grades of candy that are made today.

In reading these instructions, do not get the idea that any single one
of these recipes are too difficult for you to make, for you will find
they are very simple when once you have begun.

Any of these may be cut down or increased as you desire, but always use
the same proportions, and cook the batch to the same degree. Remember,
the =degree= is always the =same=, no matter how =large or small= you
make your batches.

Do not think it absolutely necessary to get everything in the line of
tools that we mention in this book, to have success with your candy, as
it is not. For our whole aim is to teach you how to make your candies
with as little expense as possible. But to those who wish to go into it
a little deeper than others, or who make their candy to sell, it would
be well for them to have as many of these tools as possible, for while
not being a necessity, are a great convenience.

These candies can be made at an average cost of from eight to fifteen
cents per pound for the materials used in them. In bon-bons the cost is
considerably lower than in chocolates as you will find out.

This chocolate coating you will use for dipping, is very expensive, but
you will find your chocolate creams cost you about fifteen cents per
pound in the end; and they are the same grade of chocolates that you
pay from sixty to eighty cents per pound for in the best candy shops.

There is no way to cheapen your coating chocolate, but one pound of
chocolate will cover two to three pounds of candy, according to the
kind of candy to be dipped, as some are heavier than others.

By bon-bons we mean the fancy colored ones with the fancy centers, and
coated with bon-bon cream; not chocolate coated ones, as we call those
chocolate bon-bons.

The cooking question, which is three-fourths of candy-making, is here
solved by the use of the thermometer, which accompanies this book. By
cooking your candy with a thermometer, you are not only exempt from
burning or overcooking your batches, but your candy will always be
exactly the same; and after you have made the bon-bon cream alone, you
would not take many times the cost of this book for your thermometer,
if you thought you could not procure another.

If at any time you have trouble with any recipe, look and see if you
have followed the instructions exactly as written, and if you have and
it does not act right, drop us a line, enclosing a stamp for reply,
telling us in as few words as possible, how it acts and where it is
not right, and we will write at once where your trouble is. If one of
your batches shows signs of turning to sugar or gets gritty, simply try
it again and use a little more glucose than called for in the recipe.
But we know that if you follow the instructions and read every recipe
carefully before making it, that you will never have any trouble, as we
make these candies ourselves every day, and we know that these recipes
are correct. Therefore we repeat, that you must be exact in your
weighing and the degree you cook the batch to, if you wish success.

These candies can be seen at any time, at either of Mr. Ned. R.
Goldberg’s stores in Canton, O.

In giving you the following recipes we will no doubt shatter a great
many ideas that you now have in regard to home candy making; especially
as to the style of cooking, size of batch, and length of time you keep
your fondants after being made.

In making your Christmas candies, commence from three to four weeks
before hand, and make your chocolate creams first, as they will keep
perfectly for that length of time, and even longer. Make your bon-bon
cream at least two weeks before Christmas, and let it have a few days
to season before making it into bon-bons. It will keep for six weeks in
cold weather if necessary and all you have to do is to dampen the cloth
about twice a week, and keep it in a cool, dry place; if you wish to
make bon-bons or wafers at any time, just go to the crock, take out as
much as you need, replace the cloth, and it is ready for the next time.

If you have a fair sized slab, you can make at least a five-pound batch
of fondant at one time, but if you use a platter to cool it on, we
would not advise you to make more than about two pounds at a time, as
it will not cool quick enough, and is then liable to grain.

If you ever have a batch of fondant so grainy that you cannot use it,
simply cream it up and use it for fudge or caramels in place of sugar
as the recipe calls.



A FEW WORDS ABOUT THE NECESSARY TOOLS.


The number of tools absolutely necessary for making candy at home, are
very few outside of your ordinary cooking utensils. But we will mention
a few of them here, so that you may know just what to get in case you
care to purchase them.

=The Thermometer=—You already have, (see article on “How to Use the
Thermometer.”)

=Marble Slab=—The next most important thing both for its usefulness
and convenience is a marble slab. While it is not absolutely necessary
to have one, we would advise everyone to make an effort to get one.
Almost any size or kind of a piece of marble will do. If you have an
old marble top stand, dresser or some other piece of furniture with
a marble top, use that. If you purchase one, see that it has a nice
smooth top, and the size about 18 x 18 inches. It does not matter if it
is a little larger one way, but this is the standard size. You can buy
candy slabs most any size of any marble dealer very cheap. If you have
a large stone platter, you can use that for nearly every kind of candy
in this book; but buy a slab by all means if you can.

=Steel Bars for Slab=—Get four steel bars ¾ x ½ inch in thickness,
(they will cost you about thirty cents at any hardware store). Measure
your slab before buying the bars in this way; if the slab is 18 x 18
inches, get two bars each 17 inches long, then get two each 16 inches
long; these bars are shorter than the first ones, so that they may be
set in between the long ones, making as large or small a dish as the
individual batch requires.

=Scraper=—The best thing to use for creaming up the different kinds of
fondants is an ordinary wall paper scraper, which can be bought for ten
cents at any hardware store. A wooden butter paddle will answer the
purpose if you cannot get a scraper.

=Candy Paddle=—A wooden paddle is better to use in stirring candy than
a spoon, especially those candies that contain milk or cream, as they
must be stirred continually while cooking to prevent scorching, and you
are very liable to get burned. Take a piece of wood about 15 inches
long and about 2½ inches wide on the paddle end, and about ½ inch thick
and taper it towards the other end for a handle. Keep this paddle
exclusively for stirring candy.

=Spatula=—A spatula is a very convenient tool for the kitchen and
is really as useful for cooking as candy-making. It may be used for
scraping out the candy kettle, cake bowl, removing pies or cookies from
the pan, icing cakes and in various other ways. A spatula nine inches
long will cost you about 25c at any hardware store.

=Kettle=—Take a granite kettle holding about 2½ gallons, and it
will hold any size batch given in this book. Some candies boil up
considerably and it is necessary to have a large kettle to avoid its
running over. If you make only a pound or so of candy at a time, take
a smaller kettle, so the syrup will not scorch and that the bulb of
our thermometer will be well down in the boiling syrup. If possible get
a round bottom kettle, which is better than a flat one, because there
are no edges for the syrup to stick to, and it is much easier to stir,
especially those that must be stirred while cooking.

[Illustration: Funnel]

=Funnel=—If you make wafers frequently, you will find that a funnel
will be a great help to you in dropping them, so that they will be
uniform. Have a tinner make you one after these directions: Shape a
piece of tin 8 inches long like a cornucopia, 6 inches at the top and
tapering to the opening at the bottom, which should be ⅜ of an inch in
diameter; the handle should be about 5 inches long and shaped like a
dipper handle. A round stick, a flag stick, tapered to fit the opening
is used in dropping the wafers. This funnel is also used for dropping
the cream centers for chocolate. (See article on “How to Mold in
Cornstarch.”)

[Illustration: Candy Hook]

=Candy Hook=—In making all kinds of taffy, a hook is the best thing to
pull it on, for taffy which is pulled in this manner, will be lighter
and more fluffy than if pulled with the hands alone. Any blacksmith can
make you one very cheap in this manner: Take a piece of tinned iron 17
inches long, and ½ or ¾ inch in diameter; commence a little over half
way down and bend it up like a fish hook. Have the other end flattened
out a little and have two holes bored about two inches apart so you can
screw it on the wall.

=Gloves=—A pair of canvas gloves with a buckskin face, slightly greased
is a great protection to the hands when pulling taffy or spreading out
the different kinds of brittles. If they stick to your taffy, just dust
them with a little cornstarch or flour.

[Illustration: Double Boiler]

=Double Boiler=—It is not absolutely necessary to have a double boiler,
but it is a great convenience to have one holding about a pint or
a little more, in which to melt the fondant or chocolate. You may
substitute an ordinary bowl and a pan of hot water in which to set it,
and obtain the same results.

=Dipping Wire=—This is used in dipping bon-bons and accompanies the
book. (See article on “Bon-Bons.”)

=Plaster of Paris Moulds=—These moulds accompany the book and are used
for making the centers for chocolates. (See article on “How to Mold in
Cornstarch.”)


HOW TO USE THE THERMOMETER.

[Illustration: Thermometer]

The first thing necessary for you to do is to test your thermometer.
They are supposed to register exactly 212 degrees in boiling water,
as this is the standard they are made by; but in =different altitudes,
water boils at different degrees=, so they are very liable to vary
somewhat. The different degrees given in this book, to which it is
necessary to cook the candies to, are based on the supposition that
your thermometer registers =exactly 212 in boiling water=; so that if
it registers either =higher or lower= than that, you must allow for the
=difference=.

Learn to read it accurately the first thing you do. Put some water
in a kettle on the fire, and as soon it comes to a boil, set your
thermometer down in it with the bottom of the thermometer as near the
center of the pan as possible, and let it lean over against the side.
Let it remain there for a few moments and then look and see what it
registers, and if it is exactly 212, always cook every recipe in this
book to just the degree called for. It does not matter how long you let
it remain in the boiling water, it will never go any higher after it
comes to a good boil. The reason is this, that the water will evaporate
if you allow it to boil long enough, and consequently it can never get
any hotter. In candy there are other substances which, as the water
evaporates, keep getting hotter and retain the heat, and for that
reason the mercury in the thermometer will naturally rise higher than
212.

If your thermometer registers lower than 212 degrees in boiling water,
notice very carefully just how many degrees it is off, and simply
deduct that many degrees from the number given, to which each recipe
must be cooked.

If it registers higher than 212, add the number of degrees it registers
over 212, to the amount given for each recipe. For example: Supposing
your thermometer should register =209 in boiling water=. It would
consequently be =three degrees too low=, and in cooking your candy,
simply =deduct three degrees= from the number called for in the recipe.
That is, if you are making fondant, which called for 240 degrees, only
cook to 237, and it will be exactly the same as it would be, if you
cooked it to 240 with a thermometer registering 212 in boiling water.
In case your thermometer registers over 212, simply add the difference
in the same manner as we have directed you to deduct, in case it was
too low.

To avoid mistakes and spoiled candy, we would advise you to =mark each
recipe as soon as you have tested your thermometer=.

In using it in candy, put it in the kettle just the same as directed
for testing in boiling water, and it is always necessary to have enough
candy in your kettle to come up over the bulb, or it will not register
accurately. We mean by this, that if you cook only a small amount of
candy, you must put it in a small kettle, so it will be deep enough to
cover the bulb of the thermometer.

If the candy should cook up on the thermometer so it would cover the
degree to which you intend it, just raise the thermometer a little,
being very careful not to lift the bulb out of the syrup, wet your
finger, pass it over the glass tube, and you will have no trouble in
reading it.

In cooking fudge and such candies in which you use milk or cream, they
will always boil up high on your thermometer at first, but by the time
it is cooked enough to register the right degree, you will find it has
boiled down enough, so the degree mark will be above the syrup, but you
must wet your finger and wipe off the glass before you can read it.

When cooking candies that require stirring, occasionally slide the
thermometer around the kettle and stir where it stood, to prevent
scorching, being very careful not to lift the bulb out of the syrup.

While the thermometer is tested, and is subject to sudden changes of
heat, it is always advisable to warm it slightly before putting it into
the boiling syrup. The thermometer is too expensive to take any risks.
There is no danger of its breaking when put into the boiling syrup, for
that is the use for which it is intended.

Always remember when making candy, that as soon as the thermometer
registers the right degree, lift it out of the syrup very quickly, and
set it in a pan of water and get your batch off the fire as soon as
possible. You must move quickly, or the candy is liable to go up one or
two degrees and that is sufficient to spoil your batch.

Never put it in cold water after taking it out of the batch, but have a
pan of warm water ready so you can set it in as soon as your batch is
done. This will keep your stove from getting smeared and also protect
your thermometer. The thermometer will never make a mistake if =you
read it correctly=.

Few people are aware that =professional candy-makers use a
thermometer=, and are under the impression, that all candies are
tested in cold water, better known as the hand test. Until a few
years ago, the candy thermometer was almost unknown and candy makers
everywhere used the hand test; but when the thermometer was introduced
for candy-making, they were quick to see the possibilities of such
an invention and abandoned the water test, because by cooking with a
thermometer, the candy was always the same, no batches too hard or too
soft, as was the case with the old way.

We will give you the different hand test degrees as compared with the
degrees on a thermometer:

    =Hand Test.=       =Thermometer.=
    Pearl                   220°
    Small Thread            228°
    Large Thread            236°
    Blow                    240°
    Feather                 242°
    Small or Soft Ball      244°
    Large or Hard Ball      250°
    Small or Light Crack    254°
    Hard Crack              284°



MATERIAL USED FOR CANDY MAKING


=Sugar.= In all the recipes that call for sugar, use granulated sugar
unless otherwise specified.

When cooking a small amount of sugar a small pan should be used or else
the pan should be placed on an additional ring, so that the fire will
only strike a part of the bottom of the pan. The heat should never
strike the pan above the sugar, this causing it to bake on the sides
of the pan and sometimes dissolving the pan.

Slowly cooked sugar makes tough and sticky candy, so that candy of any
description should be cooked as rapidly as possible.

=Confectioner’s Sugar=, sometimes called XXXX, is especially ground
for candy making purposes. XXX sugar is a coarser grade and is not as
satisfactory as the XXXX sugar. Pulverized sugar cannot be used as a
substitute and give satisfactory results, because it hardens.

=Water.= Always use cold water when making candy. The quantity of water
used must be regulated according to the sugar.

=Milk.= Use fresh milk in preference to Pasteurized or sterilized milk,
because it is not so liable to curdle.

=Glucose= is a very thick, transparent, tasteless liquid extracted
from corn; it is usually of a yellow tinge. Very few people know how
glucose is made and are under the impression that it is an injurious
adulteration. Because glucose is used extensively in cheap candy, there
is a certain amount of prejudice against it. By using glucose sparingly
in certain candies it imparts a smoothness and also prevents any
stirred candy from turning to sugar.

It may be purchased from any confectioner that makes his own candy.
When purchasing it, it is necessary to take a bucket or jar, because it
must be put into something that will be easy to get it out on account
of its sticky quality.

In putting it into the kettle, first weigh the kettle with the paddle,
take out the glucose with the paddle and when you think you have the
required amount, weigh the glucose, kettle and paddle. If you do not
have scales to weigh it, be =very careful= not to use too much glucose,
because it will spoil some candies.

Glucose is easily handled in cold weather, because it gets very thick.
Dip your hand in cold water, scoop out a small quantity of glucose,
keeping your hand moving all the time; by doing this it will not stick.

One pint of glucose weighs one and a half pounds.

=Corn Syrup=, which is ninety per cent. glucose, may be purchased at
almost any grocery and may be used as a substitute for glucose. Use a
little more than the amount of glucose called for. Corn syrup is of a
yellow color, consequently all of the candies in which it is used will
be of a cream color. (See cream of tartar.)

=Acetic Acid.= The addition of acid in candy, “breaks the grain” of the
sugar, and brings out the flavor.

It may be purchased at a drug store. Ask for No. 8 and five cents worth
will last a long time because it is only used for making fondant and
oriental creams.

=Cream of Tartar.= (Substitute for glucose.) As a rule a fourth of a
teaspoonful of cream of tartar is used for every five pounds of sugar
in making various kinds of candies, such as butterscotch, brittle,
center cream; it may also be used for making a grainy fudge, which is
the only exception when it is used in a stirred candy.

=Japanese Gelatine=, a vegetable gelatine, is used in making the
various jellies. The ordinary gelatine cannot be used as a substitute.

=Nonparaf= must be used instead of paraffine in all candy made for
sale, on account of the pure food laws. It is used in chewing taffy and
caramels; it keeps them in shape and preserves their good qualities. It
may be omitted, but by so doing a certain chewing quality of the candy
is destroyed.

=Chocolate.= Only coating chocolate should be used for candy making
because it is stronger in flavor and imparts a delicate taste such as
no other kind does. It may be bought of any confectioner, who makes his
own candy, in ten pound cakes.

=Flavors.= The best candies may be spoiled by using cheap flavorings,
and we strongly advise you to buy the very best. Only a few drops are
required for flavoring candies and, by buying a few at a time you will
be able to have a large assortment in a short while.

=Color Pastes= may be used for coloring ice cream, cakes, icings and
desserts and they add a dainty touch to an otherwise ordinary dish.
Those that are used for candy making are adapted for all other needs,
are pure and strong, so that a two ounce jar will last a long time.
Colors seem to be a necessity when making bon-bons, and we offer you a
variety. Leaf green, fruit red, golden yellow, damask rose, caramel,
violet, chestnut, mandarin orange and imperial blue.

Color pastes which we sell are made from vegetable colorings and are
guaranteed under the pure food laws.

=Almond Paste= is used as centers for bon-bons.

=Paper.= Waxed or oiled paper. You may use the ordinary waxed paper
that is found in all stores for covering butter, etc. Waxed paper is
used to line candy boxes and also for wrapping candies.

=Wafer Paper.= For dropping purposes, a heavier paper is required, such
as is found in cracker boxes, cookies, etc. Save all these papers, iron
them flat and they will answer the purpose and save you the expense of
buying wafer paper.

=Rice Paper= is only used when making nougat, and can be bought at a
confectioner’s.

Wax paper bags are a neat and sanitary way of putting up salted and
fresh nuts.



HOW TO CRACK NUTS AND PREPARE TOPS FOR BON-BONS.


It is more convenient to buy your nuts already shelled, although it is
more expensive. English walnuts are probably used more than any other
nut, for tops of bon-bons and centers also. It is probably better to
purchase these with shells on and crack them yourself, as they are very
easily cracked.

In purchasing these nuts, get the smallest ones possible, as the
smaller they are the prettier they will look on your candies. We advise
you to always keep your bon-bons small in size.

The California English walnuts do not crack out as pretty as the
Grenoble nut does, as the meat in them is a much prettier shape and
rougher on top, and looks much nicer on the bons-bons. The Grenoble
nut is an English walnut, imported from Germany, and you may always
distinguish them from the fact that you can stand them on end; while a
California English walnut is so pointed at the ends that it will not
stand up. Crack carefully on the side which does not have the ridge
running down it, as then the halves will come out perfectly whole. The
ones that break may be chopped up and saved, to be used in the centers
of the bon-bons.

Almonds are very easily cracked and you will have no trouble with them.
Always crack hickory nuts on the edge. Black walnuts should be cracked
on the broad side, as you never use them only in small pieces, and it
is not necessary to use any care in cracking them. In some candies,
these walnuts are finer than any other nut, as they give the candy a
peculiar flavor, especially in caramels and different taffies. These
are the ordinary walnuts that grow wild all over the country.

Pecans are a very hard nut to get out whole, but if you purchase as
large thin-shelled ones as possible, put them in a pan, pour cold water
over them, let them stand for about five hours, then pour off the water
and let stand for a while, or even over night until they dry off on the
outside, you will then be able to get the meats out very nicely without
them breaking much. They are a very brittle nut, but by soaking them as
directed, they do not break very easily. Crack on the side which does
not have the small vein running from end to end, taking care not to hit
them too hard, and you will find that the halves will split open very
nicely; and if you will use a little care in removing them from the
shell, by using a knife with which to loosen them around the edge, you
will be able to get a great many of the halves out perfect.

Use the perfect halves for the tops of your bon-bons. Pick over the
broken ones and save the largest pieces of them with which to make
Chocolate Pecan Fritters (see recipe), and the small pieces you may
chop up fine and use for centers. It takes about two pounds of
unshelled pecans, almonds, or English walnuts, to make one pound of
shelled meats.

For peanut candy, always get if possible, the small unroasted Spanish
peanut, and they may be purchased of any confectioner or candy factory,
and at a great many of the large stores. They come already shelled and
should cost you from twelve and one half to fifteen cents a pound.
These nuts are much finer in flavor than the large peanut, and by using
the raw ones and roasting them in the candy as we direct you in the
recipe, you will find the flavor of your candy much nicer. Of course,
if you wish to use peanuts for the centers of bon-bons or chocolate
creams, any kind of roasted ones chopped up will answer the purpose.

In chopping your nuts, it is much better to lay them on the table and
use a butcher knife with which to cut them up, than it is to put them
in a bowl and use a chopping knife; as by chopping them in a bowl,
you are unable to get them so uniform, as the ones at the bottom will
be chopped up into a fine powder, for which you have no use, before
the ones on top are small enough. By cutting them up with a knife as
directed, you will be able to get them all about the same size. You
will see the advantage of this after trying it once.

Pistachio nuts make one of the prettiest tops you can find for
bon-bons. They are a small, dark green nut, which may be purchased at
a great many large grocery stores in cities, if you live convenient to
one. Also some confectioners have them on hand, but not many of them.
They are an expensive nut, but a few of them go a great ways, as they
must be split in two. After splitting them open, save the prettiest
halves for the tops of the bon-bons, and all broken and off-colored
ones you may chop up very fine, and use for sprinkling over the tops
of your pink bon-bons and they also look very pretty sprinkled over
chocolate creams before the chocolate hardens.



BON-BON CREAM (FONDANT).


[Illustration]

Have all of these articles conveniently at hand: Place the table in
a position where the air will strike it on all sides from a door or
window. Be sure that it is level and that you can pass around it.
Arrange the kettle in the most convenient manner, so that when you
lift it off the stove you will not have to turn it about or jar it
unnecessarily, as this is sufficient to spoil the syrup.


BON-BON CREAM.

    5 pounds Granulated Sugar.
    6 drops Acetic Acid.
    1½ pints cold Water.

Put the sugar and water into the kettle and place it over a HOT
FIRE (it must boil quickly and not be allowed to simmer), and stir
constantly until it commences to boil. It is not necessary to stir
quickly, but the sugar must not be allowed to settle. USE THE WOODEN
PADDLE or spoon to stir with, and splash the syrup against the sides
of the kettle to wash down the granulations. Just before the syrup
begins to boil, wipe down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth
and BE SURE THAT THERE ARE NO GRANULATIONS ON THE SIDES OF THE KETTLE,
because, unless they are removed they would make the fondant gritty.
NEVER STIR THE SYRUP AFTER IT BEGINS TO BOIL. NEVER JAR OR MOVE THE
KETTLE WHILE THE SYRUP IS COOKING.

When the syrup begins to boil, add the acetic acid. Drop it on a spoon
because you might not drop it accurately. TOO MUCH ACID would spoil the
candy. Put the lid on the kettle and let it steam for several minutes.
This is done so that the steam will wash down the sides of the kettle
and remove some remaining grains of sugar that might be sticking to the
sides. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT ALL OF THESE GRAINS SHOULD BE REMOVED.
Do not remove the lid until the steam is coming out freely around the
edges, because it does not matter if the lid is left on a little longer
than three minutes. Remove the lid and put in the thermometer, so that
the bulb is covered with the syrup. The thermometer may be read easier
if it is fastened to the kettle by the hook on the back of the case. If
a black scum appears on the surface do not disturb it until it gathers
into a bunch, then carefully remove it by using a spoon and do not
disturb the syrup.

While the syrup is cooking, prepare the slab by washing it with a damp
cloth. Do not dry it and NEVER GREASE THE SLAB WHEN MAKING FONDANT.
Place the bars in position. If you use a platter instead of a slab, it
must be ice cold.

When the thermometer registers =240= (remember to make the correct
allowance if your thermometer does not register =212= in boiling
water), remove it quickly. See that your way is clear, lift the kettle
off the stove and carry it to the slab, taking great care not to shake
the syrup. Pour the syrup on the slab, beginning in the center at
one end of the slab, pouring down toward the corner and while doing
this, keep the kettle as close to the slab as you can, and at the end,
quickly tip up the kettle so that it will not drip. NEVER ALLOW THE
LAST OF THE SYRUP TO DRIP OUT OVER WHAT YOU HAVE ALREADY POURED ON THE
SLAB. NEVER SCRAPE OUT THE KETTLE, because these drops and scrapings
will granulate, and when the syrup is cold there will be sugared spots
on top. If this should occur, they must be removed before the syrup
is worked, because they would make the fondant gritty. NEVER MOVE THE
TABLE OR PLATTER WHILE THE SYRUP IS COOLING AS THIS WOULD RUIN THE
CANDY. Allow the syrup to remain on the slab until cold. Test it by
using the back of the hand, as it is more sensitive than the palm. WHEN
THE SYRUP IS COLD IT IS READY TO BE WORKED. Then it should be as smooth
as glass.


WORKING THE FONDANT.

Remove the bars by running a corner of the scraper between them and the
syrup.

With the scraper or wooden paddle commence by scooping or turning the
syrup toward the center so as to get it into a mass in the center of
the slab, as shown in Fig. 1. Continue turning it over and over; always
work from the edge and keep the scraper in the position of Fig. 1. The
mass will move from one end of the slab to the other, but by always
working around the edge, you will be able to keep the syrup in a mass
and prevent it from spreading over the slab. Each time that you turn
up the syrup, scrape the slab clean and turn the scraper up and over
the mass as shown in Fig. 2. This movement removes the syrup from the
scraper and when it works up to the handle, clean the scraper with a
knife. Sugar will soon appear on the under side of the scraper, but
this is only an indication that the syrup is reaching the creamy stage,
when it will become much thinner and easier to work; also it will
require more rapid working to prevent it from running off the slab.
(Fig. 3.)

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

When this stage is reached, work rapidly and in a short time it will
become harder and finally become a hard ball when it is finished (Fig.
4). Scrape off any remaining particles on the slab; clean the scraper,
and put this sugar on the batch. Wring out a heavy cotton cloth out of
COLD WATER (such as a piece of toweling), so that it is damp, and place
this cloth over the fondant on the slab; tuck it in on all sides,
allowing it to remain for a half hour. This sweats or seasons it and
mellows the fondant. Remove the cloth and your efforts will be rewarded
by a mass of snow-white fondant, smooth as velvet. Cut it into chunks
and put them into a crock or stone jar. Wet the cloth, (wring it out
well), and lay it over the top of the crock. It must not touch the
fondant, because the cloth will draw the syrup and absorb the moisture
of the fondant. In three days it will be ready for use.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

The fondant may be kept six months in a dry, cool place. Keep the cloth
moist. You may have the delicious bon-bons at any time, as the fondant
is always ready for immediate use.

If, after you have poured the syrup on the slab, you find that some
scum has poured out with it, remove it just before you begin to work
the syrup, because it will then be cold and there will be no danger of
spoiling it.

If, when you begin to work the syrup and you find there are
granulations on the bottom of the slab, or through the syrup, it
indicates that you disturbed the syrup while cooking, jarred it too
much when pouring it out, cooked it too high or did not cool it
rapidly. If this should occur, work the syrup according to the above
instructions and the sugar may be used for cooking purposes or for any
kind of candy EXCEPT FONDANT.

You never beat the fondant, but it may be kneaded before putting it
into the crock, if you wish to make it finer grained.

When the fondant is kept for any length of time, a crust forms on top,
if the cloth becomes dry, which may be melted with the rest of the
fondant. It is not spoiled. The contact of the air is the cause of this
crust forming. Moisten the cloth and the crust will soften in a short
while.

IMPORTANT: Never begin to work the syrup until it is cold. This is one
of the secrets of perfect bon-bon cream.

Before you pour the syrup on the slab, wet your hand a little in cold
water and moisten the slab, but do not get it too wet.

If any of the syrup should run out, hold something at the place where
it is running out underneath the bars (for a minute or two) until the
syrup hardens a little and it will stop running out. NEVER PUT THE
SYRUP THAT HAS RUN OUT IN THE BATCH ON THE SLAB, BECAUSE IT WOULD MAKE
THE WHOLE BATCH GRAINY.

Always use the same side of the slab for fondant, and this side must
never be greased.

Bon-bon cream should always be covered, so that it does not dry out.

It should not be used the same day that it is made.

Don’t allow the batch to get too cold, as that takes all the life out
of the sugar.

The crock may be covered with wax paper and a lid.

Do not make a batch larger than what you can cool quickly on your slab,
because it will take too long to cool properly. Sugar that is cooled
slowly loses its strength and after it is melted, it will not keep a
good string, and also will be dull looking within a few days.

If the fondant in the crock becomes hard from neglecting to keep
the cloth damp with which it is covered, wet the cloth, squeeze it
slightly and place it over the crock. The moisture will be taken up
by the fondant, which will be as good as before the moisture was
evaporated.

If you should be so unfortunate as to spoil a batch of fondant, you can
use the sugar for most any kind of candy, except fondant or orientals,
by simply using the grained fondant in place of sugar.


MAPLE FONDANT.

    2 pounds Maple Sugar.
    1 pound Granulated Sugar.
    1 pint Water.

If you cannot procure the maple sugar, use the following recipe:

    4 pounds Maple Syrup.
    1 pound Granulated Sugar.
    ½ pint Water.

Maple fondant is made in the same manner as bon-bon cream. There is no
acid used with the maple fondant.

It is more sticky than the white fondant, but is delicious.


COFFEE FONDANT.

    1 pound Sugar.
    2 drops Acetic Acid.
    1 cup strong Coffee.

Follow the directions given for bon-bon cream.


FILLINGS FOR BON-BONS.

You may use fillings of any kind you are particularly fond of, but we
will mention a few, so as to give you an idea of the different kinds,
and will tell you how to use them later on. One of the finest fillings
is composed of candied cherries and candied citron ground up together,
or chopped very fine. If you should have a food grinder in the house,
use that for this purpose; but if you have none, a chopping knife and
bowl will answer the purpose. About two parts cherries and one part
citron makes a fine combination, but you may use any proportion you
wish. A small amount of candied orange peel ground with them, gives a
peculiar flavor, which is liked by many Any kind of candied fruit,
such as pears, plums, limes, or pineapple, ground very fine, make a
nice filling. Figs, after removing the hard part around the stem, then
ground up alone or with a little orange peel added to them, make a very
fine filling. In fact, most any fruit of this order, such as raisins or
dates, will do, but they are not so nice as the French candied fruits.
It is best to prepare quite an amount of these different fillings while
you are at it, as they will keep indefinitely without drying out, if
put in a small jar of some kind with a tight cover on it. By doing this
you will save a great deal of time and trouble, as your fillings are
always prepared for you, and any time you wish to make a few bon-bons
it will not be necessary to stop and grind your fillings.

Almond paste, which may be purchased at any bakery where they make
macaroons, makes a very fine filling. It is all prepared when you buy
it, and is to be worked in with the bon-bon cream the same as the
chopped fruit. It is not expensive, and will also keep for a long time
in a closed jar.

Ground pecans, English walnuts, hickory nuts, and Brazil nuts
(sometimes called nigger toes), are about the best nuts to use for
centers. It is also best to grind as many of these at a time as
possible, as they will not spoil in cold weather. Fresh grated cocoanut
may also be used, by working it in your bon-bon cream, for centers of
cocoanut bon-bons; but we will tell you a much nicer way to make a
cocoanut filling later on. Any bon-bon with the ground fruit center in
it will keep fresh much longer than one in which you use only nuts. You
will find that, if you put enough ground fruit in the centers, after
your bon-bons are a week or ten days old, they are very soft and sticky
inside, which is caused by the fruit sweating, and are delicious. Some
people will wonder how you were ever able to get a center so soft.

[Illustration]



HOW TO MAKE BON-BONS.


As nearly all bon-bons are made in the same manner, we will explain
very carefully how to make one or two kinds, and after you understand
the idea, you may make any shape, color, or flavor you desire. We will
now tell you how to make pink, rose flavor bon-bons, in several shapes.
Take a small amount of bon-bon cream, and from one third to one half as
much ground cherries and citron (see article on Bon-Bon Fillings) as
you have bon-bon cream, and with your hands work and knead them well
together. This center, especially, is very sticky, and you will be
obliged to work enough XXXX or confectioners’ sugar into it to make it
stiff enough so that you can mould it up into different shapes easily.
Right here we will say that in getting the XXXX sugar, do not allow
them to give you XXX sugar, as it is a little gritty, while XXXX sugar
is as smooth as flour. Of course, if you cannot obtain XXXX sugar the
other will do, but is not so nice.

After you commence kneading this bon-bon cream and fruit, add a little
sugar at a time, knead it in well and as soon as you get the mass so
it feels a little dry, it is ready to mould up. You must use a little
judgment in doing this, as you only need work sufficient sugar into it
to make it stiff enough so that the centers will retain their shape
after being moulded. If you wish any flavoring, put a few drops into
it while you are working in the sugar. In centers where you use only
chopped nuts, and no fruit of any kind, it is not necessary to use
much, if any sugar at all, as the nuts have a tendency to make the
cream work up dry. Sometimes bon-bon cream is stickier than it is at
other times, so if necessary use the sugar, but never use any other
than XXXX or confectioners’ sugar.

When worked sufficiently, cut off a piece and roll it with your hands
into a long roll about as large around as a cigar; then cut in small
pieces about one half inch long and roll each of them in your hands
until they are perfectly round, then lay them on a piece of wax paper,
and when they are all moulded, set them in a cool place for a while
until they harden a little. We advise rolling out in this manner before
cutting up to roll into balls, as it will enable you to get them all
about the same size. If you find upon starting to roll them into balls
that it is still too sticky, you must knead in a little more sugar.

Do not get the centers too large, as your bon-bons are much prettier
when small. Bear this in mind in all bon-bon making, as most amateurs
have a tendency to make their bon-bons and chocolates too large, and
the more dainty your candy looks, both as to size and color, the better
it tastes. After making part of them round, take the remainder of the
mass and pat it out into a flat piece about one-half inch thick and
cut it up in strips seven-eighths inch wide; then take each strip and
cut it into pieces about one-half inch wide and here you have oblong
centers seven-eighths by one-half inch, which are for the centers of
bon-bons, on top of which you put a nut. Remember, after these centers
are coated they will be quite a little larger than this, and you must
try and keep them small enough so that after they are coated, the half
of an English walnut will almost completely cover the top of them.
Of course if you use a smaller nut for the top, your bon-bons will
necessarily be larger than the nut, and still they will not be large
enough to look bad. The ones upon the top of which you use the half of
a pistachio nut, must necessarily be considerably larger than the nut.
We give you these little details, as they improve the looks of your
candy so much, and you will be able to make them to look pretty the
first time, and not be obliged to experiment any in order to get the
correct size. If you wish to use a pistachio nut on these, they are
prettier if you cut these centers =square=, instead of oblong, making
them about five-eighths or three-fourths inch each way.

Experience alone will teach you as to how much bon-bon cream it will be
necessary to melt up in order to cover the centers you have moulded.
Put your bon-bon cream in the double boiler with boiling water under
it, keep it on the fire and stir continually, that is, do not let it
stand over a few minutes at a time without stirring, and when it is
melted, flavor with a few drops of rose flavoring and color a delicate
pink with Damask Rose coloring (Burnett’s), by adding a little at a
time until you have the desired shade. It will probably be necessary to
add a few drops of cold water to your fondant while melting in order
to make it thin enough. Add the water very =sparingly=, as it does
not require much to thin it, and if you get too much in, your bon-bons
will not harden for you after being coated, and neither will they, if
the cream is not hot before dipping. Test it the same as you do center
cream, by sticking your tongue to it, and you should not allow it to
get as hot as you do the center cream. Practice alone will tell you
about how thin it should be. You must have it so that when you dip the
bon-bons out and lay them on wax paper, they will not stick to the
dipping fork, but drop off readily, and as you lift the fork the cream
will string out a little so that you may make any design you wish on
the top. After dipping a a few, you will understand more about this and
will have no trouble. As soon as thin enough, and colored and flavored,
set the double boiler on your table, leaving it in the hot water to
keep it warm. You must avoid sitting in a draught while coating these,
as this cream hardens very quickly. Now pick up a center, and with the
dipping fork in your other hand stir the cream thoroughly on one side
to break the crust which forms on top, then drop in the center, push
it under with the fork, then stick the fork underneath it so it will
rest as near the end of the fork as possible, lift it up and scrape off
most of the surplus cream hanging to it by drawing it over the edge of
kettle, then quickly turn your fork over and lay the bon-bon on the wax
paper, lift the fork, and with the cream that strings up with it, make
the design on top, by twisting it in the form of a knot. Do this by
moving your fork quickly in a circle. You will see by this, as you lift
the bon-bon out of the cream, the side, or bottom rather, which you
scrape off on the edge of the kettle, is the top of the bon-bon after
you turn your fork over and lay it on the paper; so do not scrape it
off too much, as it is necessary to leave a little cream hanging there
in order to have some lift up with the fork with which to make the
design on top.

This whole operation, after you set the cream over on the table to
commence dipping, must be done very rapidly, and you will soon learn to
drop these centers in, lift them out, lay them on the paper, and make
designs, with almost =one continual motion=, which is very necessary,
as the bon-bons harden in a few seconds after lifting them out of
the cream, and must be dropped from the fork very quickly or they
will stick. You must stir this cream with a spoon occasionally while
dipping, and it is necessary each time you throw a center in, to break
this crust with the dipping fork first. When your cream commences to
thicken so that they do not drop readily from the fork, add a few
drops of cold water and stir it in well, and continue the dipping. If
you have had it off the stove for quite a while, it is better to set
it back until the water under it boils again, then add a little cold
water, take it off, and continue the dipping. In dropping these off the
fork, press it down so that your bon-bon will touch the paper, when it
will stick a little, and you can easily lift your fork up. On these
pink bon-bons, a little of the finely chopped pistachio nuts sprinkled
over them, and pressed down slightly so that it will stick, makes them
look very pretty. This must be done immediately after lifting the fork
as they will harden in a few seconds.

In coating the oblong centers, when you lift the fork, simply allow the
cream that comes up with it to drop back on the bon-bon, then quickly
lay on the half of an English walnut and press it down a very little.
These bon-bons do not stick to this wax paper a particle and are =set=
perfectly in a few moments after dipping them. They should be perfectly
smooth all over, and very glossy, and will be like this if you have
your bon-bon cream the right consistency when dipping them.

All bon-bons are coated in the same manner, and after you have tried
it once or twice it will be very easy, and you will be able to dip
a great many of them in a few moments, as you must necessarily work
rapidly after your cream is once melted up. These are the swellest
bon-bons made, and putting the chopped fruit and nuts in the center
in this manner, and dipping them as directed, seals them up perfectly
air-tight, and consequently they will keep for quite a while. You may
use any combination of nuts or fruit that you wish in these centers,
but always put in enough of either in order to have them taste
sufficiently. We will now give a few ideas in regard to making other
colored and flavored bon-bons, but if you have any ideas of your own
you may adopt them.

Many candy makers make fine cream, but spoil it when melting the same
because no matter how good the cream is, it can be spoiled when a
little too much heat is applied. It is also a great mistake to reheat
the cream more than once without getting it too watery and it will then
dry out in a short time.

There is no dipping cream made that will keep the gloss for any length
of time.

Do not attempt to make bon-bons at night, because it is difficult to
get the colors the right shade. A color may look dainty at night, but
be hideous in day time, especially yellow and lavender. Colors and
flavors should be delicate as the taste of the candy seems to improve
with its appearance. When adding colors always add a little at a time.
More may be added but none can be taken out.

You will find from experience that it will always be necessary to melt
more fondant than you will need to coat the centers you have made,
because you must have a certain amount in the double boiler in order
to dip them successfully. As you get to the bottom you will find it
thickens very quickly and you will have to add more water. Do not get
into the habit of adding too much water while dipping the bon-bons as
it will spoil their looks; it is liable to dilute the coating so that
it will not be hard enough.

If you have melted too much it is not wasted. Have some shelled nuts
ready and coat them after you have finished with the centers, or flavor
the remaining cream with either peppermint or wintergreen, as these
flavors will kill any flavor that you have used. With a spoon, drop it
on wax paper in wafers.

If, after you have centers for chocolate coating and do not wish to
coat all that you have made, they may be dipped in melted fondant the
same as any other center.

If bon-bons become soft when brought into a warm room, it indicates
that too much water was used when dissolving the fondant, or it was not
heated enough.


LEMON FIG BON-BONS.

Use chopped figs to mix with bon-bon cream for centers, and cut them
oblong shape and coat with bon-bon cream, flavored with lemon and
colored yellow. You will find Burnett’s Golden Yellow Paste makes a
beautiful color. It is better to make this color in the daytime, as it
is very difficult to get the desired shade at night. You must get your
coating a pretty deep shade of yellow or it will not show up well on
the bon-bons. Either an English walnut, or pecan, are very pretty on
this bon-bon, and be sure to put it on just after you drop it from the
fork, in order to have it stick.


NECTAR BON-BONS.

Make same as others, using chopped pecans with bon-bon cream for the
centers, and flavor slightly with nectar while kneading it. Roll it
into small balls and coat with bon-bon cream colored pale green, and
flavored with nectar.


VIOLET BON-BONS.

Use any kind of chopped nuts to mix with bon-bon cream for centers,
flavor slightly with violet if you have it, if not you may use nectar
or vanilla. Make them round and coat with violet colored and flavored
bon-bon cream. You will find when you are using violet colored cream
with which to dip them, that by adding a small amount of the Damask
Rose coloring to the cream after you get it a good violet shade, it
will make them much prettier, as the violet shade will be a little
brighter, more on the lavender order.


PISTACHIO BON-BONS.

Use almond paste mixed with bon-bon cream for the centers, and do not
use any flavoring, as the almond paste flavors it. Use about one-third
as much paste as you do cream, in making the centers. It will be
necessary to use more XXXX sugar in these than it is in the ones with
nuts in, to enable you to get them stiff enough to retain their shape
after cutting them in squares. Cut them in small squares as directed in
first bon-bon recipe, and as soon as they dry a little, coat them in
plain white bon-bon cream, flavored slightly with either pistachio or
almond flavor, and put one-half of a pistachio nut or small piece of
angelique on the top. Of course you may use any kind of nut on these if
you have not the ones mentioned, but the green and white make a very
pretty combination. These bon-bons are very fine and will keep for a
long time. This same center, coated with bon-bon cream which has been
colored a Mandarin Yellow (Burnett’s), makes a very pretty bon-bon.


COATED CHERRIES.

Take as large and as round candied cherries as possible, and coat
them in the same manner as you do the other centers, using a rose
colored and flavored bon-bon cream for the coating and sprinkle chopped
pistachio nuts on top, or leave them plain if desired. These makes a
delicious bon-bon, but will not keep as long as the others, as the
coating becomes hard in a few days, whereas it does not on the ones
with the chopped fruit or nut centers.


ORIENTAL JELLY OR FIG PASTE BON-BONS.

Buy some fig paste, or Oriental jelly, as it is similar, at any candy
store, cut it in small pieces, and coat with any desired color or
flavor of bon-bon cream you wish, or you may leave the pieces large and
coat them, and when they are cool cut them in two with a sharp knife,
and they make a very pretty bon-bon.


MARSHMALLOW BON-BONS.

Buy some marshmallows, as that is much cheaper and easier than making
them, and coat with bon-bon cream same as other centers, and unless you
are able to buy the very small marshmallows, it is best to cut them in
pieces before coating them. You may color the coating in any manner you
wish. Blanch a few almonds, split them open, and put a half of one on
the top of each bon-bon as soon as dipped, putting the flat side of the
nut up, or you may leave them perfectly plain if you prefer to.


MAPLE BON-BONS.

Mix chopped nuts with either maple or white bon-bon cream for the
centers, cut in oblong pieces, and coat with maple bon-bon cream,
putting either a half of a pecan or English walnut on top of each.
In melting your cream for the coating, it requires no coloring or
flavoring but simply use it just as it is, and this really makes the
finest bon-bon there is made.


COCOANUT BON-BONS.

Mix fresh grated cocoanut with bon-bon cream for your centers, mould in
balls, and coat same as others. Flavor and color coating as you wish,
and as a great many prefer these and other cocoanut bon-bons coated
with chocolate colored coating, you may do that by simply adding enough
melted chocolate to your bon-bon cream after it is melted up to give it
the desired color. These make a very nice bon-bon, but I will tell you
later on how to make a cocoanut center which is far ahead of these, but
a little more trouble.


NUT BON-BONS.

Take either English walnuts, pecans, or Brazil nuts, and coat them with
bon-bon cream same as you do the other centers. You may use any flavor
or color coating desired, but I think that the lemon flavored coating
tastes the best on these nuts. Of course, if you use maple cream with
which to coat nuts, they are much nicer.

Dates, with the seeds removed and then rolled up together, coated in
the same manner, are very nice, and if you take a sharp knife and cut
them in two diagonally after coating them, they look very pretty.



CREAM WAFERS.


All kinds of cream wafers, such as peppermint, wintergreen, chocolate,
and also maple, are made from bon-bon cream. Take the desired amount
of fondant and put it in the double boiler, set it on the fire, keep
stirring it, and when it has melted, flavor and color as you wish.

If you make peppermint wafers, leave it just a plain white. In
wintergreen wafers, add a small amount of damask rose coloring, to make
them a delicate pink.

If your cream is not thin enough to drop off the spoon readily, you may
add a few drops of water, then drop out on wax paper in small patties
about as large as a half dollar. In dropping them out, if you have no
funnel, you may use the spoon with which you stirred the cream, and try
to take just enough each time on the spoon to make one wafer, but in
case you dip out too much, when the wafer is the desired size, quickly
turn your spoon up, in order to stop its running, and continue dropping
them until your cream is too stiff to drop, when you may add a few more
drops of water, stir in well and continue as before.

If you use a funnel, heat it with hot water; push the stick down into
the funnel until it fits the opening tightly, because the stick keeps
the melted fondant from running through. Pour the heated cream into
the funnel; hold the funnel over the wax paper and with one hand raise
the stick a trifle; let enough cream run out to form a wafer; push the
stick into the opening immediately and continue to drop the wafers in
the same manner. You must work rapidly, for the cream gets chilled in a
few seconds.

These wafers are very easily made as you see, and by always having your
bon-bon cream made up as we directed you, it is only a few minutes work
to make up quite a number of these wafers.

In making chocolate wafers, simply add enough finely chopped chocolate
to give them a good color, and finish same as the others.

Always lay the wax paper on wood, to prevent white spots in the wafers.



COCOANUT CENTERS.


    ½ lb. sugar.
    ½ lb. glucose.
    ¾ lb. shredded cocoanut.
    ½ pint water.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla extract.

Put sugar, glucose, and water in the kettle, set on the fire, stir
until it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth,
put in the thermometer and cook to 238, then set off stove and stir in
the cocoanut, and a small lump of butter about the size of a hickory
nut, and the vanilla flavoring. If by pressing your hand down on the
batch it does not stick much, it is about right, but if it should
stick, simply work in a little more cocoanut. The idea is, that it is
necessary to have this to the consistency where it may be moulded into
balls; and of course if it is not thick enough, add cocoanut until it
is. The amount of glucose you use in this prevents it from sugaring.
As soon as you have mixed it thoroughly, scrape it out of the kettle
and spread on slab or platter until it gets cold; then mould it into
balls, lay them on wax paper, and allow to stand for a while until they
dry off a little, then coat with either bon-bon cream the same as other
bon-bons, or with pure chocolate the same as other chocolate dipping
is done. If you do not get these centers too stiff, they sweat a great
deal after being coated, and become very soft and sticky inside, and
for anyone liking cocoanut, they make a fine piece of candy.

This center is not liable to turn to sugar for you, but if it should
happen to grain a little, you will know that you have stirred it too
much, when adding the cocoanut.



COCOANUT KISSES.


    1½ lb. sugar.
    ½ pint water.
    1 fresh grated cocoanut.
    ½ lb. bon-bon cream.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla flavor.

Put the sugar and water on the fire, stir until it commences boiling,
but just before it boils, wash down the sides of the kettle with a
damp cloth and cold water, then add the grated cocoanut, and continue
stirring until it has boiled a little while, when you test it by
lifting the paddle out, and if by taking a little of the candy between
your thumb and forefinger it is good and sticky, and strings out when
you pull your fingers apart, it has cooked enough. This is about the
only method of testing it, and you need have no fear of spoiling it, as
it is a very easy candy to make as you will see.

When it is cooked to the right consistency, set off the fire and add
the bon-bon cream, and stir this through the batch thoroughly until
it is dissolved, and the batch becomes creamy looking and commences to
stiffen up. In case it does not get stiff enough to dip out as directed
later on, it is because it was not cooked quite enough, and you may
overcome this by simply adding a little more bon-bon cream. Add the
vanilla extract when creaming it. Now take an ordinary table fork, and
commence at the edge and take up a small quantity of the candy on the
fork, and lay it on wax paper, and as you lift the fork up from it, the
same as bon-bons, the cocoanut will string up to some extent and make
them rough looking, which improves their looks. As to the amount to
take out on the fork each time, will say that you should take enough to
make the kisses about the size of your thumb, as they will be oblong in
shape, when dipping them out with an ordinary fork in this manner. They
should retain their shape when dropped on the wax paper, but if they
do not do so, simply work in a little more bon-bon cream. Always dip
it from around the edge, as it gets harder there first. After dropping
out about one-third of the batch in this manner, color the remainder a
pink, and flavor with strawberry, but work it in well with the paddle,
and in case the batch is a little too thick by this time, you may add a
very little cold water to thin it. Now dip them out the same as before,
until you have about half of it remaining, then into this remainder
pour some melted chocolate, which you must have ready, add a little
more vanilla, work it in well, and dip out the same as before. You now
see you have three different colored and flavored kisses from the same
batch, and these different flavors do not interfere with each other
by putting them in as directed, as the strawberry kills the vanilla,
and in the last instance the chocolate kills the strawberry. You may,
if you prefer, make the whole batch one flavor, but you have more of
a variety if you make them in this manner. You may use the ordinary
desiccated cocoanut, which comes put up in packages if you wish, but if
you use fresh grated cocoanut, you will find they are much nicer and
will keep longer. While it is not necessary, it improves them greatly,
by adding the well beaten whites of two eggs to the batch when you put
in the bon-bon cream, and working it in at the same time. This has a
tendency to make them a little lighter, smoother, and more fluffy.

If your batch gets too hard to drop out nicely before you have
finished, it indicates that you either have cooked it too long, or you
did not work fast enough after you had mixed in the bon-bon cream. But
the chances are that you did not work fast enough.



VANILLA FUDGE.


    2½ lbs. sugar.
    ½ lb. glucose.
    1 quart cream or fresh milk.
    1 tablespoonful butter.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.

Put the sugar, glucose, cream (or milk) and the butter in a kettle
large enough to allow for its boiling up, set on the fire and stir
constantly, and when it comes to a good boil put in the thermometer,
see that the bulb is covered all the time, and cook to 236 or 238,
being careful to slide the thermometer around the kettle occasionally,
and stir where it stood or it will stick. Then set off the fire, and
cream (or rub) it with a spoon against the sides of your kettle, until
you see it just commences to grain a little; add the vanilla, and it
is then ready to pour out, and it does not hurt this any to scrape the
kettle when pouring.

Most people pour their fudge into a buttered platter, but the best way
is to take a shallow square pan, or make a square place on your slab
with the iron bars, and lay into it or into the pan, some old wax paper
that has been used several times for dropping purposes, and pour the
candy directly on it, and as soon as your fudge has set you can very
easily lift the paper out with the fudge, and it may be peeled off
without any trouble; in fact you may use any kind of a heavy paper with
a gloss on it, in place of the wax paper, and you will find that this
fudge will not stick to it at all. After you pour the fudge out, it
should be set in fifteen or twenty minutes at the most, and then if you
will take a knife and mark it into squares any size desired, it will
readily break wherever marked, which is easier than cutting it up. If
you use a glossy paper instead of a wax paper upon which to pour it,
it is best not to allow it to stand very long after it sets, before
removing the paper; but in using wax paper you will have no trouble at
all with it sticking. A shallow pan, about nine by fifteen inches, will
hold a batch this size, and make it about the right thickness.

If the fudge gets sticky instead of creamy and is soft, cook it two
degrees higher the next time. You may dilute condensed milk with
one-half water, which may also be used instead of cream, but in using
sweet cream you get a nice rich fudge, and there is not as much danger
of its curdling.


CHOCOLATE FUDGE.

Use the recipe for Vanilla fudge, and make it in the same manner, but
do not add your chocolate until you take it from the stove and commence
creaming it. Then add enough finely grated or chopped chocolate to
give it a good chocolate color, also add the tablespoon of vanilla to
it, and you will find that you have a much finer chocolate fudge than
you would have by cooking the chocolate in it, as most people do, and
also, they generally put too much chocolate in their fudge; so only
put enough in it to give it a good color. As this is very hot when you
put the chocolate in, it will readily melt, and work through the batch
while creaming it.


BLACK WALNUT FUDGE.

Make a batch of vanilla fudge, and when it is creamed and just about to
be poured out of the kettle, add a large handful of black walnut meats,
stir them through, then finish just the same as the vanilla fudge.

You may also use any kind of nuts or candied fruit you have, in the
same manner, but black walnuts are considered the best by the majority
of persons.


MAPLE FUDGE.

    1¾ pounds white sugar.
    ¾ pound maple sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    1 quart cream or fresh milk.
    1 tablespoonful butter.

Put all this in a kettle and follow the directions for making vanilla
fudge, except be sure to cook this to 238. This makes a fine eating
piece of candy, if you add a handful of pecans or English walnuts, just
before you pour it out. If you use maple syrup, as in making maple
bon-bon cream, take out a piece of glucose about the size of a whole
English walnut, (not more), before you start to cook.


OPERA FUDGE.

    3½ pounds sugar.
    1 quart cream.
    ⅜ teaspoonful cream of tartar.

Put sugar and cream in kettle, set on hot fire, stir until it commences
to boil, then add the cream of tartar, and put in the thermometer, and
stir constantly but very gently until it is cooked to 238, being sure
to move the thermometer very often with paddle, and stir underneath
it, to prevent it from sticking; then pour on slab, moistened a little
previously, but do not scrape out the kettle, and allow it to stand
until it is perfectly cold, then cream or turn it exactly as directed
for bon-bon cream, and when it works up into a hard ball, cover with
a damp cloth for about thirty to forty minutes, when you will see
that it has sweat enough so that it may be taken in the hands and
moulded up in any way desired, or may be sliced down with the knife,
cut into squares, and eaten at once if you wish. If you wish you may
add a good teaspoonful of vanilla while creaming it, and thus have a
vanilla fudge. If you wish to make a chocolate fudge out of this, as
soon as you remove the damp cloth, take part or all of it, and work
into it, with your hands, by kneading it, enough melted chocolate to
color it well, then pat it out into a thin cake and put it into a small
box cover previously lined with wax paper, smoothing it out to about
three-fourths of an inch thick, then set it away for several hours to
harden a little. To remove it, simply turn the lid over, letting it
fall out, and then peel the wax paper from it, and cut it up in small
squares. Take the remainder, after making part of it chocolate, and
into it work sufficient chopped nuts or chopped cherries and citron to
show up well, and if desired, color it pink and flavor with rose, and
mould up in the same manner as directed for chocolate fudge. As you
see, you may make this fudge any color or flavor you desire; but the
ones we have mentioned you will find about the best. You have probably
noticed that this fudge is made about the same as bon-bon cream,
only with this you do not cover and steam it, and also must stir it
constantly but gently, or it will sugar for you. You will also notice
that it takes longer to cream up than it does bon-bon cream, and is
very stiff when you commence turning it, but do not notice that, nor
get discouraged, because if you cooked it to the required degree, it
will not fail to come out all right for you. You will find that fudge
will keep fresh for quite a while, if you put it in a can or jar with a
tight cover, and keep it in a cool dry place.

If the fudge sugars for you, you will know that you have either stirred
it too much, started to cream it when too warm, or disturbed it while
cooling; try adding a pinch more of the cream of tartar in your next
batch.

Don’t forget to make the correct allowance, in case your thermometer
does not register 212 in boiling water.

If it should sugar and not cream up into a hard ball, it must not be
used for this fudge again, but add a little cream to it, also a small
amount of glucose, and make the plain fudge out of it.

Don’t have the slab too wet when pouring out this fudge, but just
moist, as it is liable to throw your batch back a few degrees.



BROWNIES.


Use the recipe for “Opera Fudge,” adding a tablespoonful of vanilla
extract when starting to cream the batch. Follow the directions for
making opera fudge exactly until you have poured the batch on the slab
to cool, and when it is nearly creamed, pour on some melted chocolate
and continue to cream until the batch sets. When it sets in a hard
ball cover it with a damp cloth and allow it to sweat for thirty or
forty minutes. Knead it with the hands until it is smooth, or if the
chocolate, which you added while creaming it, did not mix thoroughly,
keep working it with the hands until it is all mixed, adding more
melted chocolate if necessary; sufficient chocolate should be used to
make it a nice brown color. Mould into balls at once, the size of a
small nutmeg, and lay them on wax paper to dry a little, and then coat
them in chocolate, and have someone lay a small round dragee on top of
them immediately after being coated. This makes a swell topping piece
for your Christmas boxes. You may also dip them all, or just about half
of them, in chocolate bon-bon cream, as directed for dipping “Cocoanut
Bon-bons,” only you may have to let these last centers, those to be
dipped in the chocolate bon-bon cream, dry out a little longer than
those to be dipped in the chocolate, for if very soft, they might break
when being handled with the bon-bon fork. In making your Christmas
candies it would be well for you to dip them this way and you will have
a bigger assortment.



VANILLA CARAMELS.


    2 pounds sugar.
    1½ pounds glucose.
    3 pints cream.
    1 tablespoonful vanilla.

Put sugar, glucose and one pint of cream in the kettle, stir constantly
before, and also after it commences boiling, until it will form in
a soft ball when dropped in cold water. There is no exact degree
necessary to which to cook this. Now add another pint of cream slowly,
stir constantly and cook again to a soft ball, then slowly add the last
pint of cream, and a piece of non-paraff about the size of a walnut,
and cook again, being careful to stir all over the bottom of the kettle
so that it will not stick, until it will form into a good firm ball
in cold water, but not brittle, remembering that your caramels will
be, when cold, the same consistency as this last ball, so you can get
it just about as you wish. It is very unhandy to use a thermometer in
making these, as they must be stirred continually from the time you put
them on the stove until done. The non-paraff may be left out entirely
if you wish, as that is simply put in to make them retain their shape
after being cut up. In stirring it, do so very gently, but aim to
cover the whole bottom of the kettle. If you stir it hard they might
possibly sugar for you, and your only idea in stirring is to keep them
from sticking. It is very essential to use glucose in order to make a
good caramel. If you should overcook it and they are too brittle, or
undercook it and they are too soft, the batch may be put back in the
kettle with a little more milk or cream, and cooked again. If you have
the iron bars we mentioned, grease your slab thoroughly and lay the
bars on it so as to form a small square place. Then into your candy,
just after taking it off the stove, stir in the vanilla, being careful
not to stir it too much while adding this, but just enough to mix it in
good, and pour on slab between the bars. Always make the square with
the bars small enough as you will want your candy to fill it up level
full in order to have your caramels the correct thickness, which should
be about three-fourths of an inch. If you have not made the place large
enough it is very easy to move one of the bars just a trifle in order
to hold all your candy. But if you made the square too large, it is
almost impossible to move the bars closer together after pouring your
candy out. If you do not wish to use cream, you may use milk or part
milk and part cream. If you use all milk add a little butter after
the batch begins to boil. These caramels may also be made by simply
using only two pints of cream or milk and cooking them twice, instead
of three pints and cooking them three times, but are not so rich. If
your batch should happen to grain and turn to sugar, put it back in the
kettle with a little more glucose and another pint of cream or milk,
stir over a slow fire to dissolve, then cook up as before. When these
caramels are set or cold, mark them in perfect squares with a knife and
one of the bars, then cut up with a large knife, in a sawing motion.
If the milk curdles, do not stop stirring and set the batch off, but
simply cook according to directions, and the curd will not show. These
caramels should be wrapped in wax paper to prevent sticking together.
The kettle may be scraped lightly, when pouring these caramels out.


CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.

Use the recipe for vanilla caramels and, just after you add the last
pint of cream, add enough grated chocolate to give it a good chocolate
color, and finish the same, adding the vanilla. Have the chocolate
grated before starting to cook.


STRAWBERRY CARAMELS.

These caramels are very fine, especially when coated with chocolate.
Make same as the vanilla caramel, excepting, when the batch is removed
from the fire, color a deep red and flavor with strawberry.


NUT CARAMELS.

Any kind of nuts may be used. Hickory, almond, filbert, English and
black walnuts, are especially good. Chop the nuts up a little with a
knife, which makes them look prettier when the caramels are cut, then
add to the batch just before pouring on the slab.


MAPLE CARAMELS.

    1 pound maple sugar.
    1 pound white sugar.
    1½ pounds glucose.
    3 pints cream.

Follow the directions exactly as given for vanilla caramels.


FULL CREAM CARAMELS.

    1 pound sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    1 pint milk or cream.
    1 pint condensed milk.
    1 tablespoonful vanilla flavoring.

A pint can of unsweetened condensed milk, will cost you about ten
cents, and can be purchased of most any grocer. Condensed milk is an
absolute necessity in this kind of a caramel, for two reasons, namely:
to get the peculiar flavor, and to make it hold together, so that it
need not be wrapped, by which it is distinguished from the ordinary
caramel. Mix the sweet milk or cream and the condensed milk before
starting to cook, and in referring to this, we will simply use the
word milk. Put the sugar, glucose and one pint of the milk in a kettle,
stir and cook until it will form a soft ball when dropped in cold
water; then continue stirring and add one-half pint of the remaining
milk, pouring slowly, and cook up again until it forms a soft ball,
then slowly add the remainder of the milk, being careful to stir all
over the bottom of the kettle so that it will not stick, and cook
again until it will form into a good firm ball in cold water, but not
brittle, remembering that your caramels will be, when cold, the same
consistency as this last ball, so you can get it just about as you
wish. Then take it off the fire, stir in the vanilla and any kind of
nuts you desire, and scrape it out of the kettle on a greased slab,
between bars, as directed for making vanilla caramels. When cold,
they may be cut up and either wrapped, or just laid side by side on a
slightly greased plate. If you make these caramels to sell, it would be
well to add a piece of non-paraff about the size of an English walnut,
when starting to cook. You may also make this a chocolate caramel, by
adding enough grated chocolate, when you add the last half-pint of
cream, to give it a good chocolate color. Do not have your fire too hot
when cooking these, as they will scorch very easily, and also, stir
continually from the time you start, till it is off the fire.


MEXICAN GRAIN CARAMELS.

    1 pound sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    1 quart sweet milk or cream.
    1 pound center cream.
    1 tablespoonful vanilla extract.

Put the sugar, glucose, and one-half of the cream in a kettle, stir
and cook till it forms a soft ball when dropped in cold water, add
one-half of the remaining cream, cook up again to a soft ball, then add
the remaining half-pint of cream, stir and cook till it forms a good
hard ball in cold water. Set off the stove, add the center cream and
the vanilla, and stir in good. Rub the batch against the sides of the
kettle with the paddle, until it gets pretty thick and grains, then
pour out on a greased slab between bars, and let harden. It does not
hurt to scrape out the kettle in making these caramels. After these
caramels are hard or set, cut up with a sharp knife, by drawing it
through the batch, instead of sawing as in other caramels, and after
they stand a few hours to dry, after being cut, they may be piled up on
a plate, as they will not stick together.



TAFFY.


    2 pounds sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    ⅔ pint water.

Put all this on hot fire, stir till it commences to boil, wipe down
sides of kettle with a damp cloth, cover and steam, put in thermometer
and cook to 260. Then pour on greased slab, with bars around the edge
to keep it from running off, and just as soon as it commences to cool
or stiffen up a little, lift up the edges and fold toward center, and
continue doing this until it is cool enough to handle, then pull on the
hook until it is snow white. If you wish it vanilla, flavor by pouring
the vanilla over it while on the hook, a little at a time, until you
have it highly flavored. It is much easier to pull taffy on a hook and
also improves it greatly. We have told you about the hook in the item
regarding “tools.”


HOW TO PULL TAFFY ON A HOOK.

In pulling candy on a hook, first get it up in a ball on the slab,
after it has cooled, lay it on the hook and pull it down as far as
possible with both hands, then catch hold of the end with one hand, and
with the other hand take hold of the batch about two thirds of the way
up toward the hook, and then throw the part between your hands up over
the hook with a quick motion, then pull batch down again and continue
in this manner until it is very white. It is best to pour the flavoring
on it when about half pulled, and it will work through the batch by the
time it is finished.

Use a little corn starch on the hands quite often while pulling any
kind of taffy, to keep them from sticking to the taffy.

Do not scrape out the kettle, except in making “Salt Water Taffy,” and
“French Chewing Taffy,” and then, not too much as it will turn your
batch to sugar.

If one of your batches should turn to sugar for you, you will know that
you have either turned in the edges too soon or too often, or pulled it
when too warm. It should be almost cold when you start to pull.

You may substitute corn syrup for glucose in any of these taffies, but
you must use a little more than the recipe calls for. Corn syrup is
about ninety per cent glucose.

Wrap these taffies in wax paper if you wish to keep them any length of
time, and it will keep them from getting sticky.


STRAWBERRY TAFFY.

If you wish to make a strawberry taffy use the recipe for plain vanilla
“Taffy,” and while your batch is on the slab, add enough damask rose
coloring, to give it a good pink color; but do not work the batch any
more, in mixing in the color, than in making plain vanilla taffy. Add
the strawberry flavor while pulling. With the exception of adding the
color to this, make it exactly the same as plain “Taffy.”


CHOCOLATE TAFFY.

Use recipe and directions for making plain taffy, and simply add grated
chocolate to the batch just after you pour it on the slab, and it will
easily melt and work through while folding it.


MOLASSES TAFFY.

    2 pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    1 pint dark molasses.
    1 tablespoonful butter.
    ⅔ pint water.

Cook sugar, glucose and water to about 245, steaming down the same as
others previously mentioned, and when it is up to this degree, put in
the molasses and butter, =stirring constantly from this time on, and
cook to 260=. Pour on greased slab and pull same as others. If you wish
nuts of any description in either this or any of the other taffies,
they may be added by sprinkling them over the slab just before you
pour the candy out to cool.


FRENCH CHEWING TAFFY

    2 pounds sugar.
    1½ pounds glucose.
    1 pint cream or milk.
    1 tablespoonful butter.
    1 egg.
    ½ ounce gelatine.
    Small piece paraffine wax.
    Vanilla.

First break the egg into the pint of cream and beat it thoroughly, and
in no case must the egg be put into the candy except in this manner.
Gelatine generally comes in one ounce boxes, so you must use just the
half of one of these. Put it in a small dish or pan, and pour just
enough warm water over it to dissolve it; then set it on the stove
where it will not cook, but keep warm until needed. Now put sugar,
glucose, cream with egg beaten in it, butter, and piece of paraffine
wax about the size of a small walnut, into the kettle, set on fire and
stir constantly until it is done. When it commences boiling, put in the
thermometer and cook to 254, then take out thermometer, and pour in
gradually the dissolved gelatine, and continue stirring until it boils
up well again. It must be cooked for about three or four minutes after
it boils up with the gelatine in it, then pour on well greased slab,
which has previously been sprinkled over thoroughly with black walnuts,
or you may use any other nuts you have, or in fact no nuts at all, if
you prefer, but you will find the black walnuts greatly improve the
flavor of the candy.

As soon as cool enough, fold in toward the center same as other
taffies, and when you can handle it nicely, put on the hook and pull
until you can pull it no more. It will be quite dark in color while
on the slab, but will pull to a nice, creamy white color. This taffy
will require considerably more vanilla than other taffies; so flavor
it very highly, by pouring the vanilla over it while pulling. You will
probably find this candy sticky at times and if the batch is so, and
should stick to your hands while pulling it, loosen them with a quick
jerk, and you will find the candy will easily pull off, whereas if
you should attempt to loosen your hands slowly, you would not have
much success. If the batch should stick somewhat to the slab, take
your scraper and pry it up by hitting it very quickly. In other words,
simply scoop it up with the scraper, but instead of pushing the scraper
underneath it slowly, jab it under very rapidly, and you will find you
can readily get the candy up in a ball. You will find this candy very
hard to pull if you do not use a hook. As soon as pulled sufficiently,
take off the hook by cutting it off close to the hook with a pair of
shears, then you may either lay it on a platter, put it in a crock
previously lined with wax paper, or lay it on your kneading board and
pull it out, a little at a time, into a strip about one inch wide, then
cut the strip crosswise into small kisses about the size of your thumb,
and when it is all cut up in this manner, wrap each piece in tissue
paper. The paper will not stick to it in the least.

This candy is by far the finest taffy made, if you follow these
directions carefully, as it never gets very hard, and you will be able
to chew it a long time. Cutting it up into kisses, while it may be a
little more trouble, is by far the nicest way to fix it.


SALT WATER TAFFY

    1¼ pounds sugar.
    1¼ pounds glucose.
    2 teaspoonfuls salt.
    ½ ounce glycerine.
    Butter size of a walnut.
    1 pint water.

Put sugar, glucose and water in kettle, stir until it boils, wash down
sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in thermometer and cook to
260. Set off stove, add butter, glycerine and salt and stir in, then
pour on a greased slab between bars. Let cool, then pull on hook as
directed for other taffies, and flavor with vanilla while pulling. Be
careful not to scrape out the kettle too much in pouring it on the
slab, as it is liable to grain it.


BABY CREAM

    2½ pounds sugar.
    ¼ pound glucose.
    ½ pint cream.

Put sugar, glucose and one pint water on fire and cook to 260, then add
the cream and cook up again to about 270. Stir gently after adding the
cream until done. Pour on greased slab, and when cool enough, pull well
on hook, and flavor and color to suit while pulling. Cut up in kisses
or small strips. It will be nice and dry and mealy (inside) after
standing a few hours. It is not chewy like other taffy, and it is a
fine hot weather candy.


CREAM TAFFY.

    3 pounds sugar.
    ½ teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    1 pint water.

Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle and cook to 275.
Pour it on a greased slab and when cool enough pull it over the hook.
Handle the batch as little as possible while cooling, and cool quickly
so as to prevent it from turning to sugar as there is no glucose in the
taffy. Flavor to taste. Pull out and cut in pieces. Wrap in wax paper.
After standing a few hours it will become very creamy, retaining its
shape, and not get sticky.

This is a summer taffy.


ICE CREAM TAFFY.

    2 pounds sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    1 pint milk or cream.
    Paraffine wax, size of walnut.
    1 tablespoonful butter.

Cook all this at once, stirring constantly but very =gently= from
the time you put it on the stove until it is done. When it commences
boiling, put in thermometer and cook to about 256 or 258. Be careful to
stir underneath thermometer to prevent its sticking. When done, pour
on slab, and when cool, pull same as others and flavor with vanilla.


PEPPERMINT RECEPTION MINTS.

Use the above recipe for “Cream Taffy.” Flavor strong with peppermint
while on the slab. After the taffy has been pulled, place it on a table
or slab dusted with XXXX sugar. Shape the batch round; pull it out in a
long strip, cut into small pieces as you pull it out, and roll them in
XXXX sugar. Leave the pieces spread out for a few hours. Place them in
an air tight jar where they will turn mealy.



BUTTERSCOTCH (BRITTLE).


    2 pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    ⅜ pound butter.
    ¾ pint water.

Put sugar, glucose and water in kettle on hot fire, stir until it
boils, wash down sides of kettle, then put cover on until it steams
well, remove cover and put thermometer in and cook to about 300,
then set kettle off the fire and put in the butter, stirring it
through the batch thoroughly, then put the kettle back on the fire,
and you must now stir it constantly; but before you put the butter
in it should not be stirred. Just before you put in the butter, take
out the thermometer, as it is less trouble to stir the candy with
the thermometer out, and it does not need to be cooked to any exact
degree. In putting in the butter, you reduce the temperature of the
batch about fifteen degrees, and it is necessary to cook it, after the
butter is put in, up to about the point it was before; but you will
have no trouble with this, and as soon as it boils up good and hard and
commences to turn color a little, drop some off the spoon very quickly
in cold water, and if it forms a mass of threads in the water it is
done. Be very sure to stir this well after the butter is in it or it
will stick. When done, set off the fire and add a good teaspoonful of
lemon extract, stir it in well and if you have a funnel, pour it in
the funnel, and drop on greased slab in wafers, which is the nicest
way to make this butterscotch; or you may pour the whole batch, if you
wish, on the greased slab, putting your bars on edge of slab to keep it
from running off, and let it run over as large a surface as possible,
as the thinner it is, the nicer it will be. Mark it in squares, but
do so very quickly, as it does not take it long to harden; and always
remember this: that you must take your spatula or a long butcher knife,
and loosen the whole batch thoroughly from the slab before it gets
perfectly cold, as then it will not stick when cold and also loosen the
wafers. Your slab must be well greased before pouring this on, but no
matter how well you grease it, if you allow the candy to get perfectly
cold before loosening it, you will find it will stick somewhat. In
loosening this candy before it gets cold, we do not mean to take it off
the slab, but just to simply run something under and loosen it, letting
it remain on the slab afterward, and you will find that it does not
stick.


SOFT BUTTERSCOTCH

    2 pounds sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    ⅜ pound butter.
    ½ pint dark molasses.
    ¼ teaspoonful ground ginger.
    ⅔ pint water.

Put sugar, glucose and water on the fire, stir until it boils, wipe
down sides of the kettle, cover and steam same as other recipe, remove
cover, put in thermometer and cook to about 245. You notice, probably,
we say “about” in giving degrees in some recipes, which means that if
they are one or two degrees either way, it does not hurt them. When
the batch is up to 245, put in the molasses, butter, and ginger, and
leave the thermometer in it and stir constantly, but not too hard, and
cook to about 260, then remove the thermometer, and pour on greased
slab and mark and cut up to suit. This candy does not get brittle like
the other, but is nice and chewy; and if you put it in boxes, it must
be wrapped in wax paper, or the pieces will stick together. We may as
well mention the fact here, that in most of these candies, you will
find that in hot weather, or rather on warm days, it is necessary to
cook them several degrees higher than it is on a very cool day. This
only applies to candies of this nature, which are called hard boiled
candies. In candies which are creamed up, such as fondant, you do not
make this distinction, as those must always be cooked the same.


PEANUT BRITTLE

    1½ pounds sugar.
    ¾ pound glucose.
    2 ounces butter.
    ½ tablespoonful vanilla.
    ¾ pound peanuts. (Raw.)
    1 heaping teaspoonful soda.
    ⅔ pint water.

Put sugar, glucose and water on hot fire and stir until it commences
boiling, wash down sides of kettle, cover until it steams well,
remove cover, and put in thermometer and cook to 275, then take
out the thermometer and put in the peanuts and butter, and stir
constantly after you put the peanuts in. This of course will reduce
the temperature of the batch, but it will soon boil up, and must be
cooked until the peanuts are roasted, and the candy becomes a golden
brown color, which it does about the time the peanuts are roasted
sufficiently. Sometimes the peanuts will commence to pop, which
indicates that they are roasted about enough, but if they do not pop,
you can very easily tell when they are roasted sufficiently, as a great
many of them break open, and by lifting the paddle occasionally with
some of the peanuts on it, you can tell by their looks if they are
roasted or not. There is no exact degree to which this second cooking
must be done, but be careful and do not let your batch get too brown.
After making one or two batches you will have no trouble in cooking
it correctly. The proper peanuts to use in this candy are the small
unroasted Spanish peanuts that we mentioned before. Do not attempt to
put roasted peanuts in this candy in this manner but if you should use
the roasted ones, they must be stirred in after the candy is cooked, as
they would burn black if you put them in as we directed you in using
the raw ones.

This candy is intended only to be made with the unroasted peanuts as
directed, and if properly done, it is the finest peanut brittle made.

When the peanuts are roasted, set off the fire and stir the vanilla in
well. Have your soda dissolved in just a very little water, using only
enough to cover it. Immediately after stirring in the vanilla, pour in
the dissolved soda and stir through the batch thoroughly, which will
cause it to foam up considerably and get lighter in color. As soon as
you have it stirred enough so that the batch is thoroughly mixed and
foamy, pour on greased slab, and it will be necessary to =scrape= the
kettle out in making this candy.

Always have your slab warm before pouring this candy on it, as it is
cooked very high and will harden very quickly if your slab is cold,
which you do not want it to do. If you stand your slab by the stove
for a while, previous to making the candy, it will warm it enough.
After being on the slab a very few moments, take hold of it all the way
around the edge, lift it so as to free it from the slab, then catch
hold of one side with both hands, one hand at each end of the batch,
and quickly flop the whole batch right over, just the same as you would
turn a pancake. Now commence around the edge and stretch it, by pulling
it out as thin as possible, and you will find that the candy will
stretch out very easily and leave all the peanuts completely covered
with the candy.

Always work very rapidly in doing this, and also work around the edges
first, as that hardens more quickly than the center of the batch. If
your slab is not large enough to hold this candy after it is stretched
out, as soon as you stretch part of it, cut that off with a knife and
lay it on some smooth surface, so that the candy will be perfectly flat
when cool, as it looks better. By cutting it off as you stretch it, in
this manner, you will find that after you have worked around the edges,
your slab will probably be large enough to hold the remainder of the
batch after being stretched out. The thinner you stretch this the nicer
it will be, so try and do not leave any thick places in it, and you
will find you have the finest peanut candy you ever tasted, being as
brittle as glass, and it may be eaten as easily as a soda cracker.

In making this candy, you must have a kettle large enough to allow for
the foaming up, and a kettle holding two and one half gallons will
easily hold a batch just twice the size of this. You will find it is
very easy to flop the batch over, if you loosen it first as we directed
you. This is essentially a cold weather candy, as it keeps brittle
then, and is much better.


BLACK WALNUT BRITTLE

    2 pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    3 ounces butter.
    1½ teaspoonfuls soda.
    ⅔ pint water.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.
    Black walnuts.

Cook sugar, glucose and water same as in peanut brittle, and when up
to 275, remove the thermometer and stir in the butter only, and not
the walnuts. Continue stirring after the butter is in until the candy
is a golden brown color; then take off the stove and stir in the
broken walnut meats, as many as you wish, but the more you put in the
better it will taste. Stir them in thoroughly, and also the vanilla;
then stir in the soda, the same as in peanut brittle, and pour out on
greased slab. Do not flop this batch over and stretch it, as it is not
necessary. As soon as batch is partly cool, mark in small oblong pieces
and when cold, it will break very easily. This is very fine candy on
account of the flavor the black walnuts give it. It is also very fine
coated with chocolate.


FIG OR DATE BRITTLE

    2 pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    ⅔ pint water.
    Figs or dates.

Cook sugar, glucose and water on hot fire to 275 or 280. Then pour it
on well greased slab or platter, which has previously been covered with
figs cut up, or dates with seeds removed, putting in just as many as
you wish. You may also, if you wish, use nuts of any description in
place of the fruit, or part of each. Just before pouring the syrup over
them, stir into it a good teaspoonful of vanilla, but do not stir it
much or it may sugar for you. When cold break up in small pieces.


NUT BRITTLE.

    1 pound sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    ¼ teaspoonful salt.
    ½ teaspoonful essence of lemon.
    1 pound nuts.
    Butter size of a walnut.
    ½ pint water.

Heat the nuts in an oven. Put the sugar, glucose and water into a
kettle, stir until it begins to boil, and wash down the sides of the
kettle with a damp cloth; put in thermometer and cook to 295. Turn out
the fire and remove thermometer, add the butter, salt and essence of
lemon, and stir in well, then stir in the warm nuts and scrape out on a
greased slab. After it has been on the slab about thirty seconds, turn
the batch upside down and commence pulling it out thin, as directed in
making peanut brittle. You may use any kind of nuts in this, as they
are all good in this kind of candy: English walnuts, black walnuts,
roasted peanuts, almonds, filberts, pecans, or hickory nuts. This candy
must be kept in air-tight cans or jars in wet weather or it will become
sticky.



POPCORN CRISP.


    1½ pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    ⅔ cup dark molasses.
    2 ounces butter.
    ⅔ pint water.
    Good pinch of salt.

Cook sugar, glucose and water to 280, in the same manner as other
candies; then take out thermometer and put in the molasses and butter,
and a good pinch of salt, and stir constantly after adding these.
Cook until it is very brittle when dropped in water or until you can
distinguish it just commencing to burn. Then take off the fire and pour
it over about ten quarts of popped corn, stirring it constantly as you
pour the syrup over it, so that it will all be covered, and as soon
as this is done, it is best to scoop it out of the pan and spread it
out on your slab somewhat, so that it will not pack down any, which it
would do if you allowed it to remain in the pan. Before pouring this
candy on the corn, it is best to have your corn free from all the small
hard grains, and put the well popped ones in some very large pan before
pouring the syrup over it.


SUGARED POPCORN

    ½ pound sugar.
    4 quarts popped corn.

Put the sugar in a small kettle with just enough water to dissolve
the sugar, stir until it boils, put in thermometer and cook to 222.
Have the corn ready in a good sized kettle, and as soon as the syrup
is cooked, pour over the corn in a fine stream. Have someone stir the
corn while you pour the syrup in it. Continue stirring briskly, until
the corn separates, and turn out on your work board or wax paper and
immediately pull the grains apart. You may also add a little red or
green color to the syrup before pouring it on the corn. Have the corn
slightly warmed in the oven, so that the sugar syrup will grain easily.


POPCORN BALLS

    6 quarts popped corn.
    1 pound sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    ½ pint water.
    Vanilla flavor.

Put the sugar, glucose and water into a kettle and stir until it
commences to boil. Put in the thermometer and cook to 240. Add vanilla.
Pour the syrup slowly over the corn, stirring well. Moisten the hands
with cold water and take out the desired amount of corn, pressing it
into a ball.

Maple sugar may be used instead of the white. For a variety, color the
white syrup pink and flavor with strawberry.

Have the corn slightly warmed in the oven, so that when the batch is
done cooking, you can get the corn and syrup mixed good, and the balls
moulded up before it gets too cold.



PEANUT BAR.


    1 pound sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    2 pounds raw Spanish peanuts.
    ½ pint water.

Put the sugar, glucose and water in a kettle, stir until it boils, wash
down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth and cook to 240. Take
out the thermometer and add the raw peanuts and stir continually, until
the batch turns a yellowish color, and the peanuts pop and are roasted.
Simply lift out the paddle with a few peanuts on it occasionally,
is a better way to tell when the peanuts are roasted enough. Do not
try to get these peanuts too brown in the kettle, as they will roast
considerably after being poured on the slab, but just until they turn
a yellowish color and pop in the kettle. You must stir the batch
continually after you add the peanuts, and do not use too hot a fire.
They are liable to scorch a little but if your fire is right and you
stir them enough, they will be all right. As soon as the peanuts are
roasted, remove from the fire, take out the paddle and scrape out of
the kettle onto a greased slab, between the bars. Take a knife and
spread it out even, so that it will fill all the corners of the square
made by the bars. Take a greased rolling pin, and run over the top
to smooth it down a little. When almost cool, run a knife under the
batch to loosen it from the slab. Then cut or saw the batch in bars as
desired, but do this while it is yet warm. Have the raw peanuts ready
so that when the thermometer registers 240 you can take it out, put in
the paddle and peanuts and start stirring immediately, and remember,
if the fire is too hot, but not allowed to just simmer, it is liable to
scorch the candy before the nuts are half roasted. It is best to wrap
this candy in wax paper, or put it in air-tight cans or jars in wet
weather. Do not make this candy in warm weather and expect to get good
results, as it is essentially a cold weather candy.



NOUGATINES.


    1½ pounds sugar.
    1 pound glucose.
    Butter size of a walnut.
    ¼ teaspoonful essence of lemon.
    1½ pounds almonds or peanuts.

Roast the almonds in the oven, (or peanuts if you desire) and chop
fine, then set them where they will keep warm until needed. Put sugar,
glucose and one-half pint of water in the kettle, set on fire, and stir
until it commences to boil; then take out paddle, wash down sides of
the kettle and cook to 295. Set off the fire and remove thermometer,
put in the butter and essence of lemon, and stir in well. Have someone
add the warm nuts slowly, while you stir them in, and when mixed good
set the kettle back on the fire for a second or two, to loosen the
batch in the kettle, then scrape out on a greased slab between bars,
about three-quarters of an inch thick; roll it out even between the
bars with a rolling pin quickly, and mark off into blocks three-eighths
by one inch and cut while still warm. You will have to watch very
close, so that your batch will not get too stiff before you get it cut
up. You must use a sharp knife and use a sawing motion while cutting,
as you cannot push the knife straight down and cut them right. If
your batch should happen to get too cold before you get it cut up,
hold it over the fire, turning it over to warm both sides, until it
softens or bends easily, then finish cutting. This is an elegant piece,
when dipped in chocolate, but they must not be coated until they are
perfectly cold.


HOREHOUND CANDY.

    1¾ pounds sugar.
    ¾ pound glucose.
    ½ pint horehound tea.

Put sugar, glucose and horehound tea, (the strength of the tea will
depend upon the individual taste) into a kettle, stir until it boils,
wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in thermometer
and cook to 295 to 300; when it reaches that point, remove the
thermometer and get it off the fire as quickly as possible. Then pour
on a greased slab, with the bars set out far enough so that when the
batch has been poured out evenly, it will be about a quarter of an inch
thick. As soon as it cools a little, run a long knife underneath the
batch, to loosen it from the slab; then mark it into squares any size
desired, and keep going over the marks with a knife until it is cold,
then break up with the hands. Pack in an air-tight jar and it will keep
for a long time in a cool place. This also may be wrapped in wax paper.



GLACE NUTS.


Take about one pound of granulated sugar and one small tablespoonful
of glucose, pour over it just enough water to dissolve it well, stir
until it commences boiling, wash down sides, cover and steam, then
remove cover, and cook without the thermometer until it just starts to
turn straw color. Do not allow it to discolor any, but take it off the
fire just at the moment it commences turning color. If you wish, you
may use the thermometer in this and cook it to about 295, but you will
have no trouble in doing it without the thermometer. Have your double
boiler setting on the stove with boiling water underneath it, or else
have a small bowl in a pan of boiling water in order that either of
them will be very warm. Then stir a few drops of lemon extract into
your syrup which you have just cooked, but do it very gently, then pour
the syrup into the double boiler and set it on the table and commence
dipping. Have handy your nuts, dates with seeds removed, figs cut in
small pieces, any kind of candied fruit, especially candied cherries,
as they are very pretty prepared in this manner, and proceed to dip
them in this syrup in exactly the same manner that we directed you to
dip bon-bons, only in dipping these fruits and nuts in this syrup, you
must be very careful and not disturb the syrup more than is absolutely
necessary. Just drop your nut in, and quickly lift it out and lay
on a piece of tin if you have it, or the bottom of a tin pan will
do, as they do not stick a particle to tin and will harden in a very
few seconds. Malaga grapes are also very nice dipped in this manner.
Marshmallows cut in two and dipped are also very fine. Candied cherries
are really the prettiest fruit that you can dip in this manner, as
they show up very nicely in decorating a box. As soon as you see your
syrup commencing to get cloudy looking, you must stop dipping, and as
quickly as possible, scrape the remaining syrup out into a kettle, and
it may be used for making table syrup but must not be used for this
work again. It will be necessary for you to cook more sugar in the same
manner as you did before, if you are not through dipping.


GRILLED NUTS

Take one pound of granulated sugar with enough water to dissolve it,
and cook with the thermometer, in the same manner as other candies, to
about 275, then set off the stove, and pour into it as many filberts
or hazelnuts as this will cover, and stir them well until they sugar,
and become very white, which will be in a few moments. Have your nuts
previously roasted a little and the skins rubbed off. Do this by
putting them in a pan in the oven, watch them closely, and as soon
as they are nearly brown enough, take them out, and as they brown
considerably after taken out of the oven, you will find, when cooled,
they will be about right; but if you had allowed them to get good and
brown in the oven, they would be roasted too much when cold. These are
very fine eating, especially for a luncheon or tea party and also look
very pretty if used in decorating your boxes. If some of them should
stick together when sugaring, break them apart before serving.


ORIENTAL JELLY.

    3 pounds sugar.
    1½ pounds glucose.
    2½ ounces Japanese gelatine.
    1 quart boiling water.

Cut the gelatine in pieces about one inch long, with a pair of shears,
and put into a kettle, and over this pour the boiling water, then set
aside. Put sugar and glucose into another kettle and remember that this
is the kettle you will cook the batch in. Now take the kettle with the
gelatine in, and add enough warm water to cover the gelatine, which
by this time has puffed up quite a bit, and set on the fire and stir
until it starts to boil. Then turn out the fire and continue stirring
until it is dissolved, then strain this through a sieve or collander,
into the kettle which contains the sugar and glucose. Now set the batch
on the fire, stir and cook to 220. Remember to stir this from the
time you set it on the fire, until it is cooked, and try to cover the
whole bottom of the kettle with the paddle while stirring to prevent
scorching. When the exact degree is reached, set it off the fire and
let stand about ten minutes, then add one-half teaspoonful essence of
lemon, and one and one-half pounds of ground figs, and stir through.
Prepare the slab by dusting it well with XXXX sugar. Pour the jelly on
the slab, between the bars, about three-fourths of an inch thick. This
size batch will fill a place about twelve inches square. Sprinkle the
top with XXXX sugar and let it stand a few hours until it sets, when
it can be cut as desired. This jelly may be made any flavor or color
you want and you may want to change the flavors occasionally. Here are
a few: Color red when the batch is cooked and flavor with strawberry.
Color green and flavor either mint or lime. Color orange and flavor the
same. For lemon, use no color and flavor lemon. Roll the pieces, after
being cut, in XXXX sugar and it can either be packed away or eaten as
it is. If your batch gets a little softer than you like it, simply cook
it two degrees higher the next time.


PINEAPPLE PUFFS.

    1 pound sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    Whites of 2 eggs.
    3 ounces water.

Put sugar, glucose and water into a kettle, set on the fire, stir
until it commences boiling. Then take out the paddle and wash down the
sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, and cook to 252. Beat the egg
whites while this is cooking, or better still, have someone beat them
for you, and as soon as the thermometer registers 252, take the kettle
off the fire. Put the well beaten egg whites into a pan and have them
ready, then take your paddle or spoon and rub the candy against the
sides of the pan, until the batch looks a little cloudy or shows white
streaks, being careful not to work it too long, then put the paddle
into the kettle with the eggs, and pour slowly about one-half of the
batch into the eggs, and have someone stir the eggs continually while
pouring. Then immediately put the paddle back into the other kettle,
and pour the eggs into the kettle with the plain syrup, stirring the
syrup continually. The kettle which held the eggs may be scraped out
clean, but you must remember to do this double mixing as quickly as
possible or the syrup is liable to sugar and harden for you before you
get it mixed. Continue beating, and when it begins to stiffen a little,
add one-half teaspoonful of essence of pineapple, and about a handful
of candied pineapple, cut fine. When stiff enough to handle, drop out
on wax paper or buttered plates in the following manner: With a large
spoon, take a spoonful from around the edge, where it stiffens first
and with a fork push off small portions of it onto the wax paper or
plates. It should harden in a short time after being dropped. If it is
slow in stiffening in the kettle, let it stand a few minutes. It should
be stiff enough to stand and not flatten, when dropped on the paper.
Do not allow the syrup to cool before starting to grain the batch in
the kettle, but start rubbing it against the sides of the pan as soon
as you take it off the fire. If the puffs are too hard, cook them two
degrees lower, the next time.


NUT PUFFS

Use the recipe for Pineapple Puffs, and simply add the nuts in place of
the pineapple, and vanilla flavor instead of the essence of pineapple.
Hickory nuts or pecans are considered the best.



CHERRY BOUNCE.


Make the same as pineapple puffs, using candied cherries and vanilla
flavor in place of the pineapple fruit and flavor. This may also be
colored a delicate pink and are fine when dipped in chocolate.



MEXICAN PENOCHE.


    2 pounds light brown sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    1 quart cream or fresh, rich milk.
    1½ pounds bon-bon cream.
    1 pound nuts.

Put the sugar, glucose and cream into a kettle, stir until it boils,
then put in thermometer, keep stirring and cook to 234. Set off the
fire and add the bon-bon cream and beat until the bon-bon cream is all
melted, and the batch stiffens a little. Chop the nuts a little and
work them in the batch. Beat slowly until the candy is stiff enough to
stand and not flatten out when dropped on wax paper or buttered plates,
then spoon out as directed in dropping pineapple puffs. English walnuts
are the standard nuts to use for penoche, but pecans or hickory nuts
are excellent. If you do not use fresh milk or cream, your batch is
very liable to curdle. If you keep stirring it continually and do not
let it stand, you may even prevent it from curdling at all. But if
it should, you will know that the milk or cream was not fresh. If it
curdles, cook it up just the same, and while not being as smooth, will
taste all right.



ICED SHELL BARKS.


Melt some fondant in a double boiler and flavor it with vanilla. Choose
perfect halves of shell bark nut meats. Dip each nut meat in the cream,
giving it a thin coat. Drop them on wax paper. After they are all
dipped in this manner, put some fresh fondant in the double boiler and
heat the cream just enough so that you can use it for dipping. Flavor
with vanilla. Dip them a second time and drop them on wax paper.


ICED LEMON WALNUTS

Melt some fondant in a double boiler. Color a light yellow and flavor
with grated rind of lemon. Choose perfect halves of white English
walnuts. Dip them into the fondant and drop them on wax paper. If they
are not coated sufficiently thick, dip them a second time. One dipping
is usually sufficient.



TURKISH NOUGAT OR ALAKUMA.


First Batch

    1¼ pounds sugar.
    ¼ teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    ½ pint water.
    Whites of 5 eggs.

Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle, set on the
fire, and stir until it commences to boil, then take out the paddle
and wash down the sides of the kettle with a damp cloth, put in the
thermometer and cook to 248. Have someone beat the egg whites stiff,
so that they will be ready when this batch is done cooking. Put the
egg whites in a kettle large enough to hold the eggs and both of these
batches, and allow room for beating. Have the eggs in the kettle ready,
and as soon as the batch reaches 248, remove the thermometer and get
the batch off the fire as quickly as possible, so that the batch does
not cook up one or two degrees while you are doing this, as that is
sufficient to spoil the whole thing. As soon as the batch is cooked and
off the fire, pour at once very slowly, into the beaten egg whites, and
have someone stir the egg whites while you are pouring, in order to
mix the batch with the eggs thoroughly, but do not let the syrup drip
out, and under no circumstances scrape out the kettle after it is all
poured out and will not run out easily or in a fine stream. Continue
stirring the eggs for a minute, then stop stirring, and let it stand
undisturbed until you pour in the second batch. Do not wash out the
kettle after the first batch is done, but set it on the scales the way
it is, then weigh up the second batch and cook at once.


Second Batch

    1½ pounds sugar.
    1½ pounds glucose.
    ½ pint water.

Set on the fire, stir until it boils, wash down sides of the kettle,
put in the thermometer and cook to 258. Take out the thermometer
quickly and get off the fire, as directed in the first batch, and
immediately pour slowly into the first batch with the eggs, stirring
the egg batch continually, and it does not hurt to scrape out the
kettle a little in this last batch. Now beat the batch until it begins
to get a little stiff, then add a good tablespoon of vanilla flavor;
keep beating until it gets pretty thick and then add about one and
one-half pounds of English walnuts, candied cherries and pineapple
cut fine, or just walnuts alone. Mix through well and scrape out of
the kettle into a small bucket or a deep bread pan, which has been
previously lined with rice paper. This paper need not be taken off but
can be eaten right with the candy. After it has stood for a few hours
it may be cut up as desired. If your batch is a little too dry, but not
too hard, add a trifle more glucose than the recipe calls for, the next
time. Keep this in a crock, with a damp cloth on top of the crock, and
it will stay fresh a long time. This is an elegant piece, when coated
in chocolate.



FRUIT LOAF.


    1½ pounds sugar.
    ¾ pound glucose.
    1 pint water.
    Whites of 3 small eggs.
    1½ pounds nuts and fruit.

Put the sugar, glucose and water into a kettle and set on the fire.
Stir until it begins to boil, wash down the sides of the kettle with
a damp cloth, put in the thermometer and cook to 254. Have someone
beat the egg whites stiff and put them into another kettle and have
them ready. As soon as the thermometer registers 254, take off the
fire quickly and begin at once to rub the syrup against the sides of
the kettle, to grain it a little, occasionally splashing the batch up
against the sides to wash down that which is creaming. When the batch
begins to look cloudy and shows white streaks, stop graining, put the
paddle into the pan with the eggs, and commence pouring slowly about
one-half of the syrup into the eggs, stirring the eggs while pouring,
then immediately pour the eggs back into the syrup, stirring the syrup
very fast. Scrape out all the eggs and syrup that sticks to the pan
that originally held the eggs, and keep beating the batch. Scrape down
the syrup that splashes on the sides of the kettle occasionally, and
beat until it begins to stiffen a little, then add a teaspoonful of
vanilla and a teaspoonful of orange flower water. Beat through well,
then add about a pound and a half of almonds, walnuts, candied cherries
and pineapple, cut fine. Mix in well and scrape out of kettle into a
pan which has been previously dusted with XXXX sugar and let set a
few hours. When set or hard cut up in pieces weighing about thirteen
ounces, shape round and long with flat ends about two inches thick,
dusting with XXXX sugar. Then dip in milk chocolate and when the
chocolate hardens, cut up as desired. Do not grain the batch too much
before pouring into the eggs or it will harden before you can get it
mixed. You can also use your own judgment about the kind of nuts or
fruit you like, but we simply tell you to use candied fruit and nuts
together as that seems to be the most popular.


STUFFED DATES

Remove the seeds from the dates. Color and flavor some fondant. Form it
by rolling it in small pieces and lay it in the date; press it together
firmly. Dust with XXXX sugar. Pistachio flavor with a delicate color of
green is especially nice.


NUTTED DATES

Remove the seeds from the dates and fill them with nuts; press together
firmly and roll in granulated sugar.


CANDIED ORANGE PEEL

Keep the peel of the fruit as you use it, in a weak brine until enough
has collected to preserve. Wash it thoroughly in several waters. Let
it boil in plenty of water until tender, changing the water several
times. If the peels are fresh, they need be boiled in one water only.
When they can be pierced with a straw, drain off the hot water. Let
them cool and scrape out the white pulp with a spoon. Make enough syrup
to cover the yellow peels, using the proportion of a pound of sugar
to a pint of water. When the syrup is boiling, drop in the peels and
let them cook slowly until they are clear. Then boil rapidly until the
syrup is reduced to dryness, using care that it does not burn. Spread
the peels on a flat dish and place them in a warm place to dry for 12
hours or more. When perfectly dry pack them into preserve jars. They
are cut into shreds and used in cakes, puddings, and wherever raisins
and citron are used. The boiled peel may be cut into shreds before
being cooked in the syrup.


SPINNING SUGAR

Although spinning sugar has been called the climax of the art of sugar
work, you need not be deterred from trying it. It cannot be made on a
damp day or in a moist atmosphere.

Spun sugar makes a beautiful decoration for ice creams, glace fruits
and other cold desserts.

    1 pound sugar.
    ½ cup water.
    ½ saltspoonful cream of tartar.

Put the sugar, water and cream of tartar into a kettle and stir until
it commences to boil. Wipe down the sides of the kettle and steam. Put
in the thermometer and cook to 310. Care must be used so that it does
not burn. Remove it from the fire. Place the pan in a pan of cold water
to stop the boiling, because the heat of the pan and sugar might cause
it to boil higher.

Place two of the steel bars (which you use for the slab) on a table so
that the ends project a little way; spread some papers on the floor
under them. For spinning, two forks may be used, but some wires drawn
through a cork are better because they give more points. After the
syrup has cooled a little; take the pan in the left hand, the wire or
forks in the right; dip them into the syrup and spin it over the rods,
and on the return motion, under the rods; fine threads of sugar will
fly off the points and remain on the rods. If the syrup gets too cold,
it may be reheated. Take the spun sugar carefully off the rods from
time to time and fold it around a pan turned over, or roll it into
nests or any form desired. Place the spun sugar under a glass globe as
soon as made. Under an air tight globe with a piece of lime, it may be
kept crisp for a day or two, but it readily gathers moisture, and it is
better to make it the day it is to be used. Do not attempt to make it
on a damp or rainy day, and do not have a boiling kettle in the room.


SALTED ALMONDS

Put one tablespoonful butter in your kettle, for each pint of nuts you
have, and set the kettle on the stove until the butter melts and is
very hot, then put the nuts in the kettle with the butter, and stir
constantly until nearly done, or brown enough, as they cook somewhat
after taking off the stove, then sprinkle well with salt, and pour
them out in a sieve which has been set over a pan, so as to allow any
remaining butter to run off. If you wish, you may first blanch your
almonds by pouring boiling water over them, and then rubbing off the
skins, as you all know how.

You will find these nuts far nicer, when roasted and salted in this
manner, than by doing it in the oven, as they are more brittle and
nicer in every way.


SALTED PEANUTS

Use the raw Spanish peanuts, without blanching them, and roast and salt
in the same manner as directed for almonds.



PACKING CANDY IN BOXES.


Dainty looking candy may be spoiled in packing, and what would be a
nice appearing box of candy loses its charm because it is not packed
with care and taste.

Candy boxes may be bought in almost every town, but if you have saved
some that you have received, these may be used as well. Paste an
appropriate postal card over the name of the firm on the lid.

Line the box with wax paper and cut it so that it will be large enough
to fold over the top of the full box of candy.

Put chocolates, fudge and creams in the bottom of the box. If you have
made some of the brittles, you will find them very convenient to fill
in hollows so that the bottom is level.

[Illustration: Bon-Bon Divider]

Cut a piece of white cardboard to fit between the layers. Bristol board
or two pieces of heavy writing paper will answer the purpose. Fold the
strips of white paper, as illustrated.

[Illustration: _The Home Candy Makers_

_Canton Ohio_]

Illustration on previous page will give you a good idea how to arrange
the candy in diagonal rows. Be very careful not to put rows of candy
near each other which do not harmonize. Fill in the corners of the box
with coated nuts, grilled nuts and candied cherries so that it looks
well filled.

Ornament the top of the box with crystalized mint and rose leaves,
crystalized violets, large silvered dragees and chocolate coated nuts
wrapped in tin foil; two or three is sufficient for one box.

Fold over the wax paper, and cover the box with a candy box lace. Tie a
piece of embroidery floss, white, around the box and put on the lid.

Cut white paper the correct size of your box, making it long enough so
that when the ends are folded up they will just come to the top of the
box. Tie the box with gilt cord.

Sometimes bon-bons with a soft center are put in bon-bon cases, which
adds to the appearance of the box.



CENTER CREAM


    2½ pounds sugar.
    ½ pound glucose.
    1 pint water.

Put the sugar, glucose and water in the kettle and set on hot fire.
Stir this and wipe down sides of kettle same as bon-bon cream, and
when it starts to boil, cover until it steams well, remove cover, put
in thermometer, and cook to 238, then remove from the fire and pour on
slab which has previously been moistened a little. You will see that so
far, you handle this the same as bon-bon cream, but it is not necessary
to use quite so much care with it, as the glucose in it has a tendency
to keep it from sugaring any, but do not get careless with it simply
because we tell you this. This fondant must not stand until perfectly
cold, but commence creaming it when about half cold, and cream it in
the same way that you do bon-bon cream. It is better to scoop this
fondant off into your crock just before it sets firmly. When you see
it is up to that point, quickly scoop it into the crock, for if you
allow it to remain on the slab until it sets perfectly hard, and sweat
it same as bon-bon cream, it is very sticky to handle. If you should
happen to scoop it into the crock a few seconds too soon, it does not
matter, as it will come out just the same in the end. It will take
longer to cream this fondant than it does bon-bon cream. When you put
it in the crock, cover with a damp cloth the same as the other. This is
a snow white, very soft, smooth, and sticky fondant, and is used for
the centers of chocolate creams, as it makes a much softer center for
them than bon-bon cream does. We will tell you farther on how to handle
it, but always remember, we will speak of this as =center cream= and
the other, bon-bon cream.


MAPLE CENTER CREAM

Make exactly same as above, only instead of white sugar, use two-third
maple and one-third white. If you use maple syrup instead of maple
sugar, allow two pounds of syrup for every pound of sugar desired. You
will find this cream very sticky, and it takes longer to cream it up
than the other, but it makes a delicious chocolate cream. Do not get
discouraged and think it is not going to cream for you, for if you
cooked it to the right degree, it will never fail to cream.


HOW TO MOULD IN CORNSTARCH.

As you use the center cream for the inside of chocolate creams, you
must have some method of moulding them on account of that cream being
so soft and sticky. This is done in cornstarch, the same kind as you
use for cooking purposes, as that does not stick to the candy in the
least. Get the cheapest grade possible, as that answers the purpose. It
should cost you from five to eight cents a box, and we would advise you
to get four or five boxes at once, as it never spoils and may be used
indefinitely, over and over again. When you are through with it, scoop
it out into a large jar until you need it again.

Take a square, shallow pan, from one-half to one inch deep, or a pie
pan will answer the purpose as well, and =sift= starch into it until
you have enough in to fill it. Then with a smooth stick that extends
over each side of the pan, smooth it off very even. By having the
stick extend over edges of the pan, you will not pack the starch down,
which is very necessary to avoid, as you cannot make your impressions
perfect if your starch is packed in the least, and consequently this
starch must be =sifted= into the pan and not scooped in. In smoothing
it off, place your stick on the pan at one end and push it across, and
in that manner you will not pack the starch in the least. Now take your
stick with the style of moulds glued on you intend using, take hold
of each end of it, and press the moulds down into the starch until
the stick strikes the sides of the pan; carefully raise the stick and
you will then find your impressions in the starch ready to be filled.
Continue in this manner until you have the pan full of impressions,
always remembering that every time you make a new row of impressions,
you must, when pressing the moulds down in the starch, press away from
the ones you just made, the least trifle, so you will not spoil them,
as this cornstarch is very treacherous, and if you should happen to
press the moulds the least bit toward the impressions previously made,
you would cause them to cave in. By having the ends of your stick
protrude over the edges of the pan as directed, you will thus get all
the impressions the exact depth. You must be =very careful= and do not
jar the table a particle or attempt to move the pan before filling the
impressions with center cream, for if you do, you are liable to spoil
them.

Take as much center cream as you wish, and put it into the double
boiler with hot water underneath it, set on the fire and stir until it
melts, and do not allow any water to get in with the cream. As soon as
it is thin, color and flavor any way you wish, and let it remain on the
stove until it gets good and hot. It must be hot or it will not harden
in the starch, but remember the hotter you get it, the harder it will
be after it is cool, and as you do not wish them to be too hard, be
careful and not allow it to get too hot. The best way to test this, is
to take some out upon your spoon and touch your tongue to it and if it
is very warm it is ready to use. Now set off the stove, but do not take
the inside boiler with the cream in it out of the water, as it must be
kept warm. Dip a little out in a spoon and pour it into the impression.
In doing this you will soon get an idea about how much to dip out each
time in the spoon in order to fill the impression. If you have dipped
out too much to fill it, as soon as it is full, quickly turn the spoon
up, as you only want the impression level full. Continue in this manner
until you fill them all. You must work rapidly, and will soon be able
to drop the cream in the impressions without striking the edges and
breaking them down. If you use a funnel to drop these centers, you must
warm it a little over a fire, but do not get it hot, just warm; then
take the handle of the funnel in your left hand, and with your right
hand push the stick down into the end of the funnel, and have someone
else pour the heated center cream into the funnel. Hold the end of the
funnel over one of the impressions in the starch, and lift the stick
with your right hand, allowing enough cream to run into the mould to
fill it. Continue in this manner till all have been filled. If the
cream becomes too thick to run out of the spoon, or funnel, readily,
set it back on the stove a few moments, until the water under it boils
again, then it will be thin enough to run out as before. If you made
this cream correctly in the first place, it will never be necessary to
add any water to it in order to have it run out of the spoon; but in
case you misread your thermometer and cooked it a little too much, it
may be so thick that it will require a few drops of water, but add very
little. In from ten to twenty minutes, the centers will be hard enough
to pick out of the starch and blow off. Very little of the starch will
stick to them as you lift them out, but what does will blow off easily.
You may do this with your mouth, or better still, if you have any kind
of a small bellows in the house, put the centers in a pan as you take
them from the starch, and when they are all taken out, squeeze the
bellows on them several times, and they are perfectly clean. In blowing
this starch off, we would advise you to take them outdoors and do it,
as the starch makes quite a dust in the kitchen. They are now ready to
coat with chocolate, and do this as directed in article on Chocolate
Coating.

All chocolate creams are moulded in this manner, excepting Orientals.
You may make these any shape or size centers that you have moulds
for. These centers should be coated within several hours after being
moulded.

If you wish chopped nuts of any kind in the centers, stir them in well,
just before you commence dropping them in the starch, or you may if you
wish, drop a large piece or a whole half of a nut in each impression,
then pour the cream on top of it.

If you use a funnel, and wish to use nuts in the centers, do not add
the nuts to the cream before being run in the starch, but simply drop
them in the empty mould before hand, and run the cream on top, till it
fills the mould.

If they do not harden in the starch, it is because of the water you
added or else because you did not get the cream hot enough, and they
may be picked out, blown off, and re-melted again without hurting the
cream in the least. These centers will mellow up a great deal after
being coated with chocolate, and are better after they stand a few days.

If you should have more cream melted up than you have impressions made
for, you may flavor it highly with wintergreen or peppermint, and with
a spoon, drop it out in wafers.

While it really does not come under this heading, we will say here that
centers moulded in this manner and coated with bon-bon cream make a
very nice cheap bon-bon, but are not to be compared with the ones made
after the style we direct you to, in article on Bon-Bon Making. A great
many confectioners never make bon-bons in any other manner than this,
but you will see the others are much finer.

It is a failing of many persons to heat the center too hot so that it
will run through the funnel more readily, but the result is a hard
center that will never get soft, and nothing can be done to soften it
after it is once hard. A chocolate center becomes soft within three or
four days.


CHOCOLATE CREAMS.

You may make them any flavor or color you desire. You may, if you wish,
roll bon-bon cream up into balls and coat them with chocolate, but this
does not make a nice chocolate cream, and the proper way is to mould
the centers in cornstarch as directed, using the center cream for this
purpose. Either rose, wintergreen, peppermint, strawberry, vanilla, or
lemon make a fine chocolate cream. It is best to make each flavor a
different shape. Color the rose, strawberry, and wintergreen a delicate
pink and the lemon a deep yellow. The vanilla should be left uncolored,
and you may put chopped nuts in any of these in the manner we directed,
in article on Cornstarch Work.

When moulded, blow off the starch, and coat with chocolate as directed
in article on Chocolate Coating. If you desire a nut on the top of any
of your chocolates make a flat shaped center, and put the nut on before
the chocolate sets, and press down very gently, so as not to make a
base on them. Maple chocolates, made from maple center cream in this
manner, are very fine. English walnuts, pecans, or almonds, blanched
and split in two, are the prettiest nuts for this purpose; however,
we do not advise putting nuts on chocolate creams, except on rare
occasions, as you will notice the finest grades of chocolate creams do
not have nuts on them.

If you are able to purchase any silver dragees, which are kept only
in large candy stores, they are very pretty on the tops of chocolate
creams. As you see by this, there is no limit to the many different
styles of chocolate creams possible to make, by adopting any ideas you
have of your own and following this recipe.


CHOCOLATE MARSHMALLOWS.

Buy your marshmallows, as that is cheaper and much easier than making
them, and coat them with chocolate the same as chocolate creams. If
they are very large, it is best to cut them in two before coating,
as they will look prettier. Pistachio nuts, chopped very fine and
sprinkled over them before the chocolate sets, look very nice.


CHOCOLATE CARAMELS.

Make some caramels, either vanilla or strawberry flavor, which are the
best for this purpose, and coat same as directed for other chocolates.


CHOCOLATE DATES.

Remove the seeds from dates, roll them up, and coat with chocolate as
directed. If you stuff these dates with chopped hickory nuts after
removing seeds, then press firmly together and coat with chocolate,
they are very fine.


CHOCOLATE FIG PASTE.

Buy some fig paste or Oriental jelly, and coat with chocolate same as
others, and you will find it makes a very fine piece of candy.


CHOCOLATE COATED FUDGE.

Cut freshly made fudge up in squares and coat with chocolate. Chocolate
fudge, coated in this manner, is probably better than the other
flavors. Opera fudge, cut into squares and coated with chocolate, is
much nicer than the other kind of fudge.


CHOCOLATE WAFERS.

Drop out some wintergreen or peppermint wafers in the manner described
before, only use center cream instead of bon-bon cream, then coat with
chocolate. It is best to use the center cream in making these, as it
mellows up more after being coated than bon-bon cream, as it is much
softer.


CHOCOLATE WALNUT BRITTLE.

Make a batch of walnut brittle as directed, and cut into oblong pieces
about one inch long, then coat with chocolate. These are very brittle
and nice eating.


CHOCOLATE CHERRIES.

Select large candied cherries, and coat with chocolate same as other
centers. These are probably the finest chocolates you can make, and
also the most expensive, and I would advise you to only use them in
dressing off the top layer of your boxes.


CHOCOLATE NUTS.

Either English walnuts, pecans, or Brazil nuts are very fine when
coated with chocolate. Do it in the same manner as other chocolate
coating, but do not roast these nuts before coating them.


CHOCOLATE ALMONDS.

Roast the almonds in the oven, being careful about getting them too
brown, and when cool, coat with chocolate. Never coat nuts of any
description with anything but =sweet= coating; if you should use
chocolate on them that is the least particle bitter, they would not
taste good at all. The best way to coat these small nuts, is to work
your chocolate, then put in quite a number of the nuts, roll them
around a little, then with a pair of tweezers, lift them out one at a
time and lay on your oilcloth. This is much quicker than lifting them
out with your hands, one at a time.


FILBERT PYRAMIDS.

Roast the filberts in the oven, same as you do other nuts, then coat
with chocolate, and in laying them on the oilcloth, lay three of them
in the form of a triangle so that they will touch each other, then
lay another one on top and when the chocolate is set, they will stick
firmly together and look very pretty in a box. If you have a pair of
tweezers, they are very convenient with which to pick the nuts out
of the chocolate, and lay them so that they will touch each other.
In laying the last filbert on top, if you will allow quite a little
chocolate to stick to it as you lift it out, it will improve the looks
of the pyramid, as it will run down over the other nuts.


PECAN FRITTERS.

Pour out a little chocolate coating, work it until nearly cold, then
mix into it broken pecan meats until it is pretty thick, then with a
spoon drop it in the form of patties on the oilcloth, and make them
about the size of a silver dollar. Have enough nuts mixed in the
chocolate so that they will be thick enough to hold their shape after
being dropped out and will not spread any, and consequently they will
be very rough looking, which they should be. These are about the finest
candy in this line which it is possible to make, providing of course
that you use the Sweet Coating for this purpose.


PEANUT FRITTERS.

Make them in the same manner as pecan fritters. Always use roasted
peanuts, and if you have the raw Spanish peanuts, roast them in the
oven first, as they are better than the large peanuts.


CHOCOLATE COATED PINEAPPLE.

Cut some candied pineapple into points and coat with chocolate.


CHOCOLATE COATED KISSES.

Molasses and Moonlight Kisses are greatly improved when coated with
chocolate. Cut the kisses into pieces about two inches long and coat
with chocolate.


CHOCOLATE NABISCOS.

Buy a few Nabisco wafers, cut them in four pieces and dip in sweet
chocolate.


CHOCOLATE COCOANUT.

Make a batch of cocoanut centers as given in this book, roll them round
and dip in chocolate. This makes a nice topping piece for your boxes.
You may also set a small round dragee on top of the ball, while the
chocolate is still warm.


MARASCHINO CHERRIES.

Drain the liquor from red or white Maraschino cherries. Melt some
fondant, and dip each cherry in the melted fondant. It is well to add
a little of the liquor to the fondant while melting, as this has a
tendency to make the fondant watery in about a day. As soon as you have
dipped all the cherries, and the fondant on them has cooled, commence
at once to coat with chocolate. If after you have finished coating, and
you find little drops of syrup standing out on the chocolate coated
cherries, simply cover these holes with a little cooled chocolate and
it will stop at once; for if allowed to drop out, the cherries would be
dry in a few days. These are best wrapped in wax paper.

[Illustration]



HOW TO COAT CHOCOLATES


For coating chocolates, confectioners use what is called “Sweet Coating
Chocolate,” which is prepared expressly for this purpose, and you will
be able to purchase it of any confectioner who makes his own candy, or
any candy supply house, if you live convenient to one, and also in some
of the large grocery stores.

There are a great many different grades of coating chocolate, and we
strongly encourage using a good chocolate, as the better grades give
the best results; because there is less sugar in it, and it lends
itself more readily to the manipulations, gives a more glossy finish,
and has a much richer taste than the cheaper chocolates, which are
adulterated. Chocolate which sells for about forty cents a pound is a
good quality. You may, if you are unable to procure this coating, use
the ordinary cooking chocolate, which you will find in all grocery
stores. This is not so nice or satisfactory to use as the other
coating, and if you use it, we would advise you to add enough XXXX
sugar, after it is melted, to sweeten somewhat, and also to thicken it
which improves it. In writing these directions, we take it for granted
you will use the sweet coating, and will write them accordingly; but if
you should use the cooking chocolate, handle it in the same manner.



A FEW PRELIMINARY INSTRUCTIONS.


The condition of the weather plays an important part in candy making,
especially in the chocolate coating. Never attempt to coat on a rainy
day, as the moisture in the air, prevents the chocolate from setting
quickly, and the chocolates become grey. Dry weather is by far the most
satisfactory, as the chocolate is easier to handle, works better, and
coats with more luster.

As no doubt you will do the most of your chocolate work in the winter
time, you must pay strict attention to the conditions under which you
work. To begin with, the temperature of the room in which you work,
must be about 75. Do not attempt to coat in a room that is cold, for
your chocolate will harden on your hands and on the slab, before you
can get it worked enough. The room should at least, be comfortable
enough to sit in. Let us caution you right here, not to have your slab,
nor the centers to be dipped, too cold. Warm the slab a little, before
you pour the chocolate on it, but be careful not to get it hot, just
warm enough to take the chill off. The centers, or whatever you are
going to coat, should not be heated, but by merely leaving them set in
the same room for awhile, they will be about right. Remember, it is
just as bad to dip freshly run centers, or anything that has just been
made, while they are still warm, as it is to dip the cold ones; the
heat must have left them entirely before you coat them, or they will be
grey and streaked. If you dip in warm weather, you will have to cool
the chocolates in a refrigerator for about five or ten minutes. That
is, when you have dipped about a dozen pieces of candy, you must set
them in the refrigerator, so that the chocolate on them will harden
quickly. In cold weather you will not have to use a refrigerator,
but you must set the chocolates in a cool place as soon as you have
about a dozen pieces coated. In real cold weather they may harden very
quickly after being placed on the tray. Remember, you must have them
cool quickly after being coated, for if they do not, it is liable to
make them grey or streaked, and this is as important as working the
chocolate.

It is best to lay these chocolates in boxes, with wax paper between the
layers, and keep them in a cool place. If you lay them in the boxes
carefully, they will not get scratched, and will keep fresh for several
weeks if kept in a cool place.

The slab you use for making the other candies cannot be used for
chocolate coating, because the chocolate will absorb the butter which
has been used to grease the slab, and it will cause the chocolate to
become rancid, if the bon-bon is kept for a length of time. If you have
a piece of marble about twelve inches square, use that. If you have a
large, heavy platter, it will do just as well as a slab.

If you wish to make the chocolate bon-bons for your own use, you
can either use heavy wax paper to lay the coated chocolates on, or
buy enough white table oilcloth, to cover the under side of about
six trays. Flat kettle lids, cake and pie pans may be utilized for
this purpose. Pieces of heavy tin, cut to fit the shelves of your
refrigerator, is about the best. If you wish to make the chocolate
bon-bons for profit, we would advise you to equip yourself with
conveniences for the work.



PREPARING THE CHOCOLATE.


This chocolate coating is very easily and quickly done, and is exactly
the same as all fine hand-made chocolates are coated, and it is
practically all done by girls; so you will have no trouble in soon
mastering it. Do not think it too difficult, for it is so simple that a
child can coat after these directions.

The methods for working the chocolate as illustrated, are those used by
a professional chocolate coater. Notice how the chocolate is kept in
the palm of the hand. These pictures were taken after she had completed
her work of preparing the chocolate, and at the end of the day her hand
is just as free from chocolate as in the pictures.

Take the desired amount of chocolate; break it into pieces, put them
in a double boiler, and place it over the fire. The heat of the water
in the lower part of the boiler melts the chocolate. Do not put on a
lid or add water because moisture or water that gets into the chocolate
ruins it for chocolate coating, but it may be used for cocoa or baking.
In most cases where the chocolate becomes too thick to coat with, you
can save it by adding cocoa butter, of which we will tell you later on.
Stir the chocolate occasionally while melting, to help break up the
lumps. As soon as the water in the lower part of the boiler comes to a
boil, turn the fire down very low, so that the water does not boil and
cause steam to fly over the top of the chocolate, as that is sufficient
to thicken the chocolate. When it is about half melted, draw it to the
back part of the stove, and stir it until all the lumps are dissolved.
If you wish, you may test the chocolate with the thermometer. Put the
thermometer in the chocolate as soon as you set the double boiler
off the fire. The required degree is 125. If the chocolate is cooler
than this, heat it until it registers 125. If it happens to get a
little too hot, lift the upper part of the boiler out of the water for
a few minutes, but do not leave it out long. After you have a little
experience, it will not be necessary to test with the thermometer, as
you can tell with the hand when it is about the required degree.

If you wish to coat a large amount of candy, it is best to melt all
the chocolate at the same time. It can be kept the correct temperature
by allowing it to stand on the back part of the stove, or if you use
gas for cooking, keep a simmering flame under the double boiler. It is
always necessary to melt more chocolate than you expect to use, because
you must allow for that which cools around the edges, forms the base on
the slab, and clings to the sides of the kettle.

Orientals are the favorite chocolate candy and that is why we use it
in illustration. Three-fourths of a pound of chocolate is the actual
amount of chocolate needed to coat a batch, but as you will put it on
thicker, and use more when you are a beginner, melt 1½ pounds.

You will learn from experience only, about how long it is necessary
to work and knead the coating before using it. This is done for
two purposes: One is, to break up the small globules of oil in the
chocolate to prevent them from being spotted when coated, and the other
is, to get your chocolate thick enough, so it will not run off the
cream after you lay it on the oilcloth or wax paper. As you all know,
if you dip chocolate creams in thin chocolate, it runs off and forms a
base on the bottom of them.

If you should use a bowl and a pan of water instead of double boiler,
be very careful and do not get any water in it, and also in pouring the
chocolate out in order to work it, do not pour it on a cold slab or
platter, as that chills it too quickly, but have it lukewarm.


DIRECTIONS.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

Pour on the slab 1½ pounds of the melted chocolate. Assume the
position of the hand as shown in figure 1; draw the fingers through
the chocolate with a “pawing” motion as shown in figure 2. Each time
that the fingers touched the chocolate on the downward motion, close
the hand, and lightly squeeze the chocolate that is held between the
fingers and the palm. The chocolate flows through the fingers and from
the sides of the closed hand. Repeat this motion until the chocolate
is spread out over the slab, (it will only be a few times), then
encircle the outer edge, drawing the chocolate toward the center, as
shown in figures 3 and 4. The thin layer of chocolate which remains is
the foundation for the base which keeps the chocolate within bounds.
Never draw into the center any of the chocolate that has become hard or
that which is getting stiff. It will spoil the entire lot. Continue the
“pawing” process, following it with the operations as shown in figures
3 and 4. Occasionally take up a handful and squeeze it as shown in
figure 5. The chocolate in these illustrations was allowed to become
cold, so as to give you a better idea how it should be done.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

When the chocolate is warm it is thin, but by the time it has cooled
enough it will be thick enough not to run off the center. You must
continue working the mass of chocolate until the heat has all left it.
There are several ways of telling when it is cooled enough.

For a beginner, we might advise you to use the thermometer until you
have had a little experience. Slide the scale with the glass on, out of
the case, so that the chocolate will cover all of the bulb, and after
you have worked it for about five minutes, stand the thermometer in the
center of the mass of chocolate until the mercury stops rising. If it
registers about 82, it is then ready. If it is higher, continue working
until it has reached the required degree. In cool weather the chocolate
may be cooled sufficiently in from five to eight minutes, but in warm
weather it may even take as long as twenty minutes. After you have used
the thermometer a few times, you will know just how cool the chocolate
should be, and then you can get along without it.

Another way to tell when the chocolate is cooled enough is, when you
have worked it for five or six minutes, and it seems cold to the hand
that is in it, simply dip the back of the fingers of the other hand
in the chocolate, and if it is in reality cold, or you are sure the
heat has all left it, then dip a piece or two, and cool them quickly,
and you can soon tell. The chocolate has a high gloss, and retains the
markings if it is cooled sufficiently.


COATING THE BON-BONS.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

When the chocolate has been worked as directed, take a cream, (see
directions “How to Mold in Cornstarch”), an Oriental center, or a nut
and drop it on the mass of chocolate near the edge of the slab in front
of you. Cover it thoroughly by using the thumb and first three fingers,
as shown in figure 6. Pick up the cream from the mass of chocolate,
wipe the side and back of your hand on the slab (or use the back of a
knife) to clear it from the excess of chocolate which clings to it,
otherwise this will drip over the paper when you lay down the cream.
Smooth the chocolate covered cream by rolling it between your thumb
and fingers until it is evenly covered with chocolate. Hold it with
the tips of your fingers as shown in figure 7, and place it on the
oil cloth at your right. In doing this, do not hurry or you will have
strings of chocolate over the table and paper.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

In laying the bon-bons on the oil cloth, LAY THEM DOWN SQUARELY. Do not
allow them to slide or a base will form, which you wish to avoid. It is
essential that the tray be level.

Coat the bon-bons as rapidly as possible so that it will not be
necessary to reheat the chocolate before you have finished. If the
chocolate is reheated, it must be worked again, as in the beginning.


ORNAMENTING THE BON-BONS.

In ornamenting bon-bons it is necessary to have some one help you. The
ornament must be placed on each bon-bon =as soon as coated=, before the
chocolate is set. Your helper can do this while you must continue with
the work of coating.

A nut or silvered dragee, as shown in figure 8, may be put on top as
an ornament. Do not press the ornament on the bon-bon, but place it
lightly, otherwise it will form a base.

To acquire this skill in marking, begin by trying to mark the coated
nuts. Roast some almonds in the oven with the skins on, which need not
be removed when coating. English walnuts or pecans may also be used.
The thread of chocolate is carried with the thumbnail across the top,
as shown in figure 11. There is enough chocolate on the thumb, so that
it is not necessary to touch the coated nut as you do when you mark the
bon-bons.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

After you have coated for some time and become an expert, you can learn
to make the pretty markings seen on chocolate bon-bons, as shown in
figure 9, which always distinguishes the hand-coated bon-bon. After you
have placed the chocolate coated bon-bon on the paper, touch the top
lightly with the chocolate covered middle finger. Carry the thread of
chocolate that lifts up with your finger in a circle as shown in figure
10.

Do not be discouraged with your work, if you do not succeed the first
few times. Many persons prefer the rough appearing candies, because in
their opinion they look more “home-made.”



HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS.


When you coat begin by using the chocolate which is directly in front
of you, and keep this cleared space to wipe the chocolate from your
hand after you pick up the cream center from the mass of chocolate.

When you have used about one-third of the chocolate, sweep around the
inside edge, as you did when working it, so that you may keep the
entire mass the same temperature. Do this quite frequently.

Coating candies in the manner described here, your creams will have no
base on them whatever, and will be very glossy, and not spotted in the
least. If they are spotted after being coated, it is probably because
you did not thoroughly work the chocolate, or because you worked in
some of that around the edge that was too cold. Never mind how much
there is around the edge of the slab, as none of it is wasted.

If they are not glossy, it is either because you commenced coating them
before your chocolate was cool enough, or allowed it to get too cool,
which would spoil the gloss, or did not put them in a cool place soon
enough after coating them in order to set the chocolate.

When you are through coating, take your scraper and scrape all the
chocolate off the slab, and also with a knife scrape it from your hand,
and put it back in double boiler, and you will find that there is not
enough chocolate wasted with which to coat one chocolate cream.

There is absolutely nothing necessary to put in this coating, but
simply melt it and handle as described. If the chocolate is too thick
to coat with, it is because you have allowed some of the steam, or a
drop of water to get mixed in it, and you may then add a little melted
cocoa butter to thin it a little. Do not get it too thin; remember that.

In using milk chocolate, you will find that it is much thicker than the
sweet coating, and also, full of little lumps, which will be broken and
worked through by the time it is cooled. If you wish you may add a very
little melted cocoa butter to this coating, about the time you start to
work it.

The bitter-sweet coating you will use in making Orientals, is thinner
than most of the other coatings, and if you wish to thicken it a
little, simply add a very little XXXX sugar to it, when you start to
work it.

We will repeat again, that you must work the chocolate as much as you
possibly can before you begin to dip; for, while it is absolutely
necessary to have the chocolate cool, or until the heat has all left
it, before you begin to coat. =It is essential to work the chocolate as
much as possible, until it is cool=, even if it takes fifteen to twenty
minutes. Otherwise your chocolates will be grey.

The secret in successful chocolate coating, is in working the chocolate
properly, having it cool enough before you begin to dip, then cooling
the dipped candies as soon as they have been dipped.

Never lift the dipped chocolates off the boards or trays, until they
are set; you can tell this by lifting one piece off the wax paper or
oilcloth, and if the bottom is glossy, then they are set.



ORIENTALS

The Finest Chocolate Cream Made.


This is acknowledged by everyone to be the finest Italian chocolate
cream made, and when coated with the proper coating, it is a delicious
confection, with a very brittle coating, and when broken open, the
center is as smooth and soft as whipped cream.

We put this recipe last for the reason that you should learn to do the
other chocolate coating before attempting this. The coating is done in
exactly the same manner, except with these it is necessary to handle
them very quickly, and consequently you must have a little experience
in this line before attempting these, but after making them once, we do
not think you will ever make the other different kinds, except for the
purpose of filling your Christmas boxes, when it is very nice to have
an assortment. With enough practice to enable you to coat them nicely,
and if you are so disposed, you will have no trouble in selling all you
can make at sixty cents per pound, to private customers only, as there
are very few stores in the country where it is possible to purchase
them. One reason of this is, they are too delicate to stand being
boxed up and shipped around the country to the different dealers, and
probably be kept for months, as some candies are, before being sold.

We tell you this to impress upon you how really fine they are, and
the possibilities of profit, if you expect to make candy to sell. The
formula is very simple, and known only to a very few, but you must
follow directions very closely and cook it to the exact degree. The
thermometer will do the cooking accurately, and the other part is not
difficult in any manner. For the coating, it is best if possible, to
get what is called a Bitter-Sweet Coating. This may be purchased in any
large city, also of a great many candy manufacturers, or of any candy
supply house or chocolate manufactory. If it is not possible to get
the Bitter-Sweet Coating, you may make one which is nearly as nice as
the other, by simply getting the pure unsweetened or bitter chocolate,
which all confectioners handle, and sweeten it partly with XXXX sugar
(never use granulated), in the proportion of one-fourth pound sugar
to two and one-half pounds chocolate, by simply stirring the sugar in
the chocolate after it is melted. If you should be unable to procure
any other kind of chocolate, you could use the ordinary bitter baking
chocolate, sweetened somewhat with XXXX sugar, but do not use it if you
can possibly avoid doing so.

These creams should never be coated with a sweet coating, but always a
bitter-sweet of some description, as the intensely sweet center, and
the bitter coating, form a combination that makes them delicious.

They are made in the following manner, and a batch this size will use
up about one pound of chocolate, but of course it will be necessary for
you to have more melted up for reasons we mentioned before:

    2½ pounds granulated sugar.
    ½ teaspoonful glycerine.
    Whites of 2 eggs.
    6 drops acetic acid.
    ½ teaspoonful vanilla.
    Good pint of water.

Put sugar and water in kettle, set on hot fire, stir until dissolved,
then put in the glycerine, continue stirring and wipe down kettle same
as for fondant, and when it commences to boil add the acid, then cover
the kettle until it steams well, remove the cover, put in thermometer
and cook to =exactly= 236, then pour on moistened slab and allow it
to remain undisturbed until all the heat has left it, the same as you
do bon-bon cream. Now beat the whites of the eggs until dry, or will
stand alone, then pour them on top of the batch, add the vanilla, and
cream the batch in exactly the same manner as you do bon-bon cream,
working the eggs right into it. If some of the syrup should be a little
thick and not seem to mix with the eggs well, just take the scraper or
whatever you are turning it with, and break the hard syrup a little,
when it will readily mix.

Of course this will be thinner than bon-bon cream, and will require
more attention in order to keep it in a mass and not allow it to spread
all over the slab. It will be a little thinner just before it commences
to set, the same as bon-bon cream does, and now turn it =very gently=
in order to give it all the chance possible, as this is the delicate
point. Keep turning it over and over =very slowly=, always working
from the edge, and gradually work it up in a mass until it will stand
alone and not spread any, and it is then done. About the only trouble
you will have in making these will be at this point. The egg whites
have a peculiar action on the cream, and sometimes it sets very quickly
and gets hard enough to handle easily, and at other times it seems as
though it never will set, and even when it does, on such occasions it
is very soft and difficult to coat. Each batch you make will probably
vary a little from the other, owing to the peculiar nature of it, but
it will all come out the same when coated, and allowed to stand awhile.
When properly made, this cream at this stage is an intensely white,
rather fluffy mass, about the consistency of a soft marshmallow, only
it is very tender, and not tough as they are. When creamed up, cut
the batch in two after allowing it to stand for three or four minutes
in order to =set= a little more, and to one-half of it work in some
chopped English walnuts by kneading them in with your scraper, and
allow the other half to remain plain; then cut both halves into several
pieces so as to allow the air to strike it as much as possible, which
has a tendency to dry it and make it easier to handle. It is now ready
to mould up, and must be done so at =once=. Have a small dish with
some XXXX sugar in it, take a knife and cut off a small portion of the
cream, and with your fingers shape it up slightly into a ball, then
as it will probably be a little sticky, lay it in the XXXX sugar and
turn it over in order to get the sugar all over it, then lay it on
wax paper, and proceed in this manner until you get them all moulded.
The ones with nuts in should be made just a trifle oblong, so as to
distinguish them after being coated. In moulding these up, remember
that the =less= they are handled, the easier they will be to coat,
as handling them has a tendency to make them softer. After they are
moulded, it is best to turn them all over, as they lay on the wax
paper, before coating them, in order to allow the bottom to dry off a
little. These must be coated immediately after being moulded, and the
better way is to have someone mould them and you coat them as fast as
they are moulded. The person moulding, will do so faster than you can
coat them, and thus they will be able to dry off a little by the time
you are ready for them.

Coat them in the same manner as other chocolate creams, but remember
that it must be done rapidly, for you cannot hold them in your hand
but a few seconds, as they get too soft, and will lose their shape and
spread out after dropping on the oilcloth.

They have a tendency to pop out, after the chocolate is set, if there
is a thin spot anywhere in the coating, but this does not hurt them.
They will be very soft inside, several hours after being coated, and
are best if eaten within a week after they are made. If you should put
them in boxes, it is better to wrap each one separately in a small
piece of thin wax paper, as they are so soft inside. If one should
break it would run out and spoil the looks of the others.

The length of these directions may cause you to think they are very
difficult to make, but such is not the case, as you will see after
trying them, for the thermometer does the most difficult part, it
being necessary to cook them to the exact degree. In moulding them, do
not try to get them all the same size or the same shape, as they look
prettier made in odd shapes and this sized batch will make about one
hundred ordinary sized creams.


MAPLE ORIENTALS.

    1¾ pounds maple sugar.
    ¾ pound granulated sugar.
    ½ teaspoonful glycerine.
    6 drops of acetic acid.
    Whites of 2 eggs.
    Good pint water.

Put both kinds of sugar and the water into a kettle, stir till
dissolved, add the glycerine, continue stirring and wipe down kettle
same as for fondant, and when it commences to boil add the acid, then
cover the kettle until it steams well, remove the cover, put in the
thermometer and cook to exactly 238, then pour on a moistened slab,
and finish exactly the same as vanilla Orientals. You will notice that
we tell you to cook this to 238, while the vanilla Orientals are only
cooked to 236. The reason of this is, that the maple sugar always has a
tendency to make candies softer than white sugar, and most necessarily
must be cooked to a higher degree.



A FEW WORDS ON CAKE-BAKING


This is not a cook book; but as it is intended principally for ladies,
we will include in it a few ideas we have in regard to cake baking, and
also a few recipes for refreshments to be served when entertaining.

We are not advertising any particular brand of baking powder, as we
use none, neither are we advertising any particular brand of flour.
In place of baking powder, we use cream of tartar and soda, and as
all pure baking powder is composed practically of nothing but these
two ingredients mixed with rice flour, they will, when used in the
following manner, give you the same results as baking powder, and also
prevent your cake from falling.

Always use winter wheat flour for cake baking. One pound of pure baking
powder is composed of one-half pound cream of tartar, one-fourth pound
of soda, and one-fourth pound of rice flour. In all recipes that call
for baking powder, use just one-half as much cream of tartar as it
calls for baking powder, and one-half as much soda as you use of cream
of tartar; that is, if a recipe calls for two teaspoonfuls baking
powder, you simply use one teaspoonful of cream of tartar and a scant
half teaspoonful soda. In measuring soda, =always level your spoon
off=, and in cream of tartar, have it slightly rounding. Always sift
your soda with the flour two or three times, and always put the cream
of tartar in the eggs. If you use only yolks, when beating them beat
the cream of tartar with them, but if your cake calls for the whites,
then put in the cream of tartar and beat them until they are stiff.
In order to tell when your whites are beaten sufficiently, lift your
whipper or beater, turn it over quickly, and the whites that lift with
it should stand up perfectly straight, and if they do this, your eggs
are beaten sufficiently.

The heat of your oven has everything to do with successful cake
baking and you must be careful and not allow it to get too hot. Your
cake should first =raise= in the oven, before it commences to brown
on the top, if you wish to make a success of it. If you follow the
directions exactly as written here, you need have no fear of your cake
falling, from opening the oven doors and looking at it at any time,
or from jarring the oven in any manner, as you may take any of these
cakes out of the oven when they are only =partially= done, shake them
around, then put them back in the oven, and they will raise perfectly,
providing your oven is not too hot, and you mix these cakes exactly
as we direct you. This may seem a rather broad assertion, and shatter
a great many ideas you now hold in regard to cake baking, but it will
only cost you the time and trouble of making one cake to find out that
this is correct. We have done this with cakes repeatedly in order to
convince people it would not hurt them, and they would come out of the
oven as light and as perfect as any cake ever baked.

It does not make a particle of difference which way you beat your cake,
or whether you put all of the flour or milk in at once or a little
at a time, as some cake makers direct you to, so long as you beat it
=thoroughly=, which is a very essential point. Always put all of the
flour and milk in at once, as it is much easier than adding a little
at a time. If your cake falls a particle, or fails to come out perfect
in any way, the fault =beyond a doubt= is with your oven, providing
you have followed the directions. A gas or gasoline oven is by far the
best for cake baking, as you are able to get the heat more regular with
them. If you will measure and sift your sugar on a plate, then set it
in the oven for just a few moments, until it gets warmed through, you
will find it will cream nicer with the butter, as the heat in the sugar
softens the butter.

You may take any cake recipe you have, and apply these same directions
in making it, using cream of tartar and soda in the proportions
directed, follow other directions carefully, and you will never
experience any trouble with your cakes.

If you are much of a cake baker, this article alone is worth a great
deal to you, and if you never had much success with your cakes, you
will find it a very easy branch of domestic science to learn, instead
of a difficult one, as some have led you to believe.


ANGEL FOOD.

    Whites of 11 eggs.
    1 cup flour.
    1½ cup sugar.
    1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    1½ teaspoonful vanilla.

Sift your flour three or four times. If you have powdered sugar, use it
for this cake; if not, use granulated and sift it two or three times.
Add a pinch of salt to your whites of eggs, beat them a little, then
add the cream of tartar and beat until stiff; then stir the sugar and
vanilla into the beaten whites, and in doing this always stir from the
bottom, as it keeps them fluffy, and do not stir it any more than is
necessary. Remember this in all cake recipes where you stir sugar into
whites of eggs. Now gently fold in the flour, and put in pan and bake
in moderate oven, and it will require about forty-five minutes.


GOLDEN CAKE.

    Yolks of 8 eggs.
    1¼ cup granulated sugar.
    ⅔ cup butter.
    ⅔ cup sweet milk.
    3 cups flour.
    1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    ½ teaspoonful soda.
    1½ teaspoonful lemon extract.

Sift the flour and soda together three times, and remember in all cake
recipes, in measuring =soda= to use =scant= measure. Put cream of
tartar in yolks and beat them stiff as possible. Sift your sugar on a
plate, warm it in the oven a little and then cream it and the butter
together thoroughly and add the flavoring while doing this; add beaten
yolks to this and beat in well. Now add the milk and flour and beat it
hard for about two minutes, then bake in two layers and lay up with
white frosting. Have oven moderate and it will bake in thirty or forty
minutes. This cake is also very fine when baked in loaf form, and in
that, only use two and one-half cups flour, making it otherwise just
the same.


DEVIL’S FOOD.

    3 eggs.
    1½ cup sugar.
    ½ cup butter.
    ¾ cup sweet milk.
    3 cups flour.
    1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    2 squares of chocolate.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.
    ½ teaspoonful soda.

Grate your chocolate, and to it add half of the milk, and set on stove
and stir until dissolved. Then stir in half cup of your sugar and set
away to cool. Sift the soda in the flour three times. Beat the yolks
very stiff. Warm the remainder of the sugar in the oven a little;
then cream thoroughly with the butter, then add the beaten yolks to
this and stir in well. Add the cream of tartar to the whites of the
eggs after beating them a little and then beat until stiff. Add the
remainder of the milk to the chocolate and stir in well, and then pour
it into the creamed butter and sugar, add flour and beat very hard.
Then stir in the egg whites and bake in two layers and lay up with
Oriental frosting.


SPONGE CAKE.

    5 large eggs.
    1½ cups granulated sugar.
    1½ cups flour.
    ⅓ teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    1 teaspoonful lemon extract.

Beat the yolks very stiff. Add pinch of salt to the whites, beat a
little, then add cream of tartar and beat stiff. Then stir in gently
the sugar and vanilla, and the beaten yolks, then fold in the flour and
bake in a very moderate oven. This makes a delicious sponge cake.


SUNSHINE CAKE.

    6 eggs.
    1¼ cup granulated sugar.
    1 cup flour.
    ⅓ teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.

Beat yolks very stiff; add pinch of salt to whites, beat a little,
then add cream of tartar and beat until stiff. Sift your sugar once
or twice, then add it and the beaten yolks to the whites and stir in
gently, adding the vanilla when doing this, then fold in the flour
carefully and bake in a moderate oven. This cake is very fine to use in
making Charlotte Russe, as follows: cut it up in very thin strips, then
cut the strips just long enough to fit around the inside of the cup,
then fill center with the whipped cream as we direct you in recipe.


BRIDE’S CAKE.

    6 whites of eggs.
    1½ cup sugar.
    ½ cup butter.
    ½ cup milk.
    2½ cups flour.
    1 teaspoonful cream of tartar.
    ½ teaspoonful soda.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.

Sift first, then warm the sugar as directed before, and cream
thoroughly with the butter and add vanilla while doing this. If you
wish, you may add a little violet flavoring, as it improves it. Put
the soda in the flour and sift three or four times. Then add it and
the milk to the creamed butter and sugar and mix well. Beat the whites
a little, then add the cream of tartar and beat until stiff; then mix
them with the other ingredients, and bake in a deep pan in a moderate
oven, and will require from forty-five to sixty minutes.


ORIENTAL ICING.

    1 pound sugar.
    1 egg white.
    ¼ teaspoonful glycerine.
    2 drops acetic acid.
    ½ teaspoonful vanilla.

Cook the sugar with just enough water to dissolve it to 236, and do
this operation the same as directed in making fondant or Oriental cream
for centers, adding the glycerine when the sugar is dissolved and the
acid when it commences boiling, and be sure and wipe down sides of
kettle and steam it. When cooked to 236 pour out on slab or platter,
which has been dampened a little, and allow it to get cold; then beat
your eggs white and put it on the syrup and cream up the same as in
Oriental creams, adding the vanilla when you commence to cream it. When
you see this is just =commencing= to set or thicken a little, it must
be put on the cake, and done very rapidly. If you attempt to put it on
the cake too soon, it will run off, and if it should commence running
off, simply cream it up a little more before putting any more on, and
also if you should allow it to get too =stiff= before putting it on the
cake, it would make your cake rough looking. There is just a certain
point where you really should commence putting this on the cake, and
after trying it once, you will have no difficulty in telling when you
have creamed it to the right consistency.

       *       *       *       *       *

This is beyond a doubt the finest icing made, in every respect, as it
is smoother than other icings, and also does not get hard and chip off,
as other icings do when you cut the cake. It forms a slight crust on
the outside, but next to the cake it remains soft, and will keep nicely
for about a week. In using this on a layer cake, the better way is to
ice your top first, as the first icing you put on is much smoother than
the last, then use the last of the icing for the middle of your cake,
as that does not show. After making this icing once, in this manner,
we do not think you will ever attempt the other icing which everybody
makes. This amount will cover one cake.


CHARLOTTE RUSSE.

    1 pint very stiff cream.
    4 egg whites.
    1 cup sugar. (XXXX sugar).
    Good teaspoonful vanilla.

Beat the cream stiff enough to stand alone, and this cannot be done
unless you have very thick cream; add the sugar and the vanilla to it
and mix thoroughly; beat the whites after adding a pinch of salt to
them, until very stiff, then mix them well with the whipped cream, and
with a spoon, fill your cups which have previously been lined with the
Sunshine cake, cut up as directed, or with Lady Fingers, split open.
This makes a delicious dessert, and putting a candied cherry on top of
each one, sets them off a great deal.


ORIENTAL PUNCH.

    Juice of 2 lemons.
    Juice of 3 oranges.
    6 to 8 drops of peppermint.
    Green coloring.
    3 quarts of water.

Mix the water, lemon juice, and orange juice together, and add enough
sugar to sweeten to suit the taste. Then strain it and add enough green
coloring to make it a very pale green; then add the peppermint, which
will give it a peculiar flavor that is very fine.

Claret punch may be made in the same manner, only leave out the
peppermint and green coloring, and in their place add enough claret to
flavor and color it. Serve these cold.


CHOCOLATE SYRUP.

    1¼ pound granulated sugar.
    ¼ pound cocoa.
    1 pint hot water.
    1 teaspoonful vanilla.

Mix sugar and cocoa well together, then add the hot water, set on
stove, stir until it commences to boil, then add a pinch of salt and
stop stirring, and cook =exactly two minutes= after it starts boiling.
Set off the stove, and when cool stir into it the vanilla. Then pour
it into a glass jar and put away until needed. This syrup is to use in
making hot chocolate or cocoa, and is done in the following manner: put
a tablespoon of the syrup in your cup, then put in two tablespoonfuls
of cream, and stir them together thoroughly, then fill your cup with
boiling water, and you have a cup of hot cocoa which is very hard to
beat, and is made as you see, much easier than stopping to cook it each
time, as by having the syrup on hand, the only thing necessary, when
you wish a cup of hot cocoa, is to simply have some boiling water. A
little whipped cream put on top, after adding the hot water, improves
it very much.

This recipe alone, to anyone fond of this drink, is worth a great deal.
If the syrup gets too thick at any time, thin it a little with a syrup
made of sugar and water. You may also use it in making chocolate icing.
It is also used in making chocolate ice cream; and you use for this
purpose, one-half pint of the syrup to each gallon of cream, putting it
in when the cream is partly frozen.


TABLE SYRUP.

    1 pound glucose.
    ½ pound sugar.
    1 pint water.

Put all this in a kettle, stir till it boils, then wash down sides of
kettle, and cook to about 218 or 220. Set in a cool place, and do not
disturb till cold. If it is a little too thick when cold, add a little
water. This makes a fine syrup and with the thermometer, it can be made
the same every time. If it is allowed to cool without being disturbed,
it will not sugar, and will keep indefinitely.



INDEX


                                  Page
    Acetic Acid                     15
    Almond Paste                    16
    Alakuma                         66
    Angelica                        33

    Baby Cream                      51
    Black Walnut Fudge              40
    Bon-Bons                        28
      Lemon Fig                     32
      Nectar                        33
      Violet                        33
      Pistachio                     33
      Coated Cherries               34
      Fig Paste                     34
      Marshmallow                   34
      Maple                         34
      Cocoanut                      35
      Nut
    Bon-Bon Centers                 25
    Bon-Bon Cream                   19
    Brittle                         54
      Black Walnut                  56
      Date                          56
      Fig                           56
      Nut                           57
      Peanut                        54
    Brownies                        42
    Butterscotch                    52
    Butterscotch (soft)             53

    Cakes                          101
      Angel Food                   101
      Brides                       104
      Devil’s Food                 102
      Golden                       102
      Sponge                       103
      Sunshine                     103
    Cake Baking                     99
    Cake Icing (Oriental)          104
    Candied Cherries                25
      Fruits                        25
      Orange Peel                   69
    Candy Hook                       9
      Paddle                         8
    Caramels                        43
      Chocolate                     44
      Full Cream                    45
      Mexican Grain                 46
      Maple                         45
      Nut                           45
      Strawberry                    45
      Vanilla                       43
    Center Cream                    73
      Maple                         74
    Centers (Making)                74
    Charlotte Russe                105
    Cherry Bounce                   65
    Chocolate                       15
    Chocolate Caramels              44
    Chocolate Coated Almonds        79
      Brittle                       79
      Caramel                       79
      Cherries                      79
      Dates                         78
      Fudge                         79
      Fig Paste                     79
      Filberts                      80
      Kisses                        81
      Marshmallow                   78
      Nabisco                       81
      Nuts                          79
      Peanut Fritters               80
      Pecan Fritters                80
      Pineapple                     81
      Maraschino Cherries           81
      Wafers                        79
    Chocolate Creams                77
    Chocolate Syrup                106
    Citron                          25
    Cocoanut Centers                36
      Kisses                        37
    Cocoa (hot)                    106
    Color Pastes                    16
    Corn Syrup                      15
    Cream of Tartar                 15
    Coffee Fondant                  25
    Cream Wafers                    35
    Chocolate Fudge                 40
    Chocolate Taffy                 48
    Cream Taffy                     51

    Dates                           25
      Nutted                        69
      Stuffed                       69
    Dipping Wire                    10
    Double Boiler                   10
    Dragees (silver)                91

    Filbert Pyramids                80
    Flavors                         15
    Fondant                         19
      Maple                         25
      Coffee                        25
    Fondant (working)               21
    Fruit Loaf                      68
    Fritters                        80
      Filbert                       80
      Pecan                         80
    Figs                            25
    Fudge                           39
      Chocolate                     40
      Black Walnut                  40
      Maple                         40
      Opera                         41
      Vanilla                       39
    Funnel                           9
    French Chewing Taffy            49
    Fig Brittle                     56

    Gelatine                        15
    General Instructions             5
    Glace Nuts                      61
    Gloves                          10
    Grilled Nuts                    62
    Glucose                         14

    Horehound Candy                 61
    How to Blanch Almonds           70
      Coat Chocolates               83
      Crack Nuts                    16
      Make Bon-Bons                 28
      Mould in Cornstarch           74
      Pull Taffy                    47
      Read Thermometer              10

    Iced Lemon Walnuts              66
    Iced Shell Barks                66

    Kettle                           8
    Kisses                          49
      Cocoanut                      37
      French Chewing                49
      Molasses                      48
      Salt Water                    50

    Marble Slab                      7
    Maraschino Cherries             81
    Materials for Candy Making      13
    Mexican Penoche                 65
    Milk                            14
    Mould                           10
    Moulding in Cornstarch          74

    Nougatines                      60
    Nougat (Turkish)                66
    Nonparaf                        15
    Nutted Dates                    69
    Nut Brittle                     57
    Nut Puffs                       65
    Nuts                            16
      Almond                        17
      Black Walnut                  17
      English Walnut                16
      Filbert                       17
      Hickory nut                   17
      Peanut                        18
      Pecan                         17
      Pistachio                     18

    Opera Fudge                     41
    Ornaments for Bon-Bons          33
    Oriental Jelly                  63
    Orientals                       95
      Nut                           97
      Maple                         98
      Coating                       83
      Moulding Centers              97

    Packing Candy                   71
    Paddle                           8
    Paper                           16
      Rice                          16
      Wafer                         16
      Wax                           16
    Peanut Bar                      59
    Peanut Brittle                  54
    Peppermint Reception Mints      52
    Pineapple (Chocolate)           81
    Pop Corn                        57
      Balls                         58
      Crisp                         57
      Sugared                       58
    Punch (Oriental)               106
    Puffs                           64
      Nut                           65
    Pineapple                       64

    Reception Mints                 52

    Salted Almonds                  70
    Salted Peanuts                  71
    Scraper                          8
    Spatula                          8
    Spinning Sugar                  69
    Steel Bars                       8
    Sugar                           13

    Table Syrup                    107
    Taffy                           47
      Chocolate                     48
      Baby Cream                    51
      Cream Taffy                   51
      Ice Cream                     51
      Salt Water                    48
      Molasses                      48
      Strawberry                    48
    Thermometer                   7-10
    Tools                            7
    Turkish Nougat                  66

    Water                           14
    Wafers                          35
      Butterscotch                  53
      Peppermint                    35
      Wintergreen                   35
      Chocolate                     36



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                  Page
    Funnel                           9
    Candy Hook                       9
    Double Boiler                   10
    Thermometer                     10
    Utensils for Fondant            19
    Working the Fondant—
      Figure 1                      21
      Figures 2 and 3               22
      Figure 4                      23
    Making Bon-Bons                 27
    Box of Candy                    72
    Bon-Bon Divider                 71
    Coating Chocolates              82
      Figures 1 and 2               87
      Figures 3 and 4               88
      Figure 5                      89
      Figure 6                      90
      Figure 7                      91
      Figures 8, 9, 10, 11          92



    BURNETT’S
    STANDARD
    Flavoring Extracts

Are so strong that only a small quantity may be used to give a
delicious flavor. Consequently they are well adapted to be used in
candy, as the flavors will not evaporate when heat is used.

Guaranteed absolutely pure by Joseph Burnett Company under Pure Food
and Drugs Act of 1906, Serial No. 91.

    We recommend and sell Burnett’s Standard Flavoring Extracts.

    JOSEPH BURNETT COMPANY,
    BOSTON, MASS.

    THE HOME CANDY MAKERS



    BURNETT’S
    STANDARD
    COLOR PASTES

“U. S. Certified”

Nothing can take their place. Absolutely harmless, perfectly pure,
bright in hue, and much stronger than any liquid colors.

Burnett’s Standard Color Pastes are made in accordance with the very
severe U. S. Government Regulations regarding the manufacture of colors.

    We recommend and sell Burnett’s Standard Color Pastes.


    JOSEPH BURNETT COMPANY,
    BOSTON, MASS.

    THE HOME CANDY MAKERS

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Some printing errors were resolved
using the fourth edition, 1915.

Page 5, “convenence” changed to “convenience” (are a great convenience)

Page 5, “matreials” changed to “materials” (for the materials)

Page 8, “awys” changed to “ways” (in various other ways)

Page 13, “244” changed to “254” for soft or light crack for candies.

Page 15, “paraffin” changed to “paraffine” to match rest of usage in
text (instead of paraffine in all)

Page 20, “QETTLE” changed to “KETTLE” (SCRAPE OUT THE KETTLE)

Page 25, “composced” changed to “composed” (is composed of candied)

Page 28, “ind” changed to “kind” (no fruit of any kind)

Page 29, “necessray” changed to “necessary” (probably be necessary)

Page 30, “the” added to text (stick the fork underneath)

Page 30, “enge” changed to “edge” (over the edge of kettle)

Page 32, “heatd” changed to “heated” (was not heated enough)

Page 40, repeated word “and” removed from text. Original read (size,
and and make it)

Page 42, text for “BROWNIES” had a repeated line from the “OPERA FUDGE”
recipe preceding. The original text read:

 Use the recipe for “Opera Fudge,” adding a tablespoon-
 in a can or jar with a tight cover, and keep it in a cool, dry
 batch. Follow the directions for making opera fudge exactly

Page 44, “puring” changed to “pouring” (after pouring your candy)

Page 54, “it” changed to “is” (the candy is cooked)

Page 55, “hraden” changed to “harden” (will harden very quickly)

Page 64, a repeated line makes the recipe hard to understand. Original
read:

    and pour the eggs into the kettle with the plain syrup, stir-
    ring the syrup continually. The ettle which held the eggs
    ring the syrup continually. The kettle which held the eggs
    double mixing as quickly as possible or the syrup is liable to
    sugar and harden for you before you get it mixed. Continue

The corrected version was copied from the 1915 edition.

Page 67, “so” changed to “no” (under no circumstances)

Page 67, “boiles” changed to “boils” (fire, stir until it boils)

Page 70, “drown” changed to “drawn” (wires drawn through)

Page 75, “you” changed to “your” (if your starch is packed)

Page 77, “reult” changed to “result” (result is a hard center)

Page 84, “entrely” changed to “entirely” (left them entirely before)

Page 85, “choclate” changed to “chocolate” (the chocolate is kept)

Page 85, “prat” changed to “part” (lower part of the boiler)

Page 90, “qiuckly” changed to “quickly” (cool them quickly)

Page 95, “you” changed to “your” (filling your Christmas)

Page 96, “o” changed to “or” (until dry, or will)

Page 97, “kneeding” changed to “kneading” (walnuts by kneading)

Page 108, “Alkuma” changed to “Alakuma” (Alkuma 66)

Page 109, “Non-Paraf” changed to “Nonparaf” to match usage in text
(Nonparaf 15)

Page 109, “Hickorynut” changed to “Hickory nut” to match usage in text
(Hickory nut 17)

Page 110, “Figure” changed to “Figures” (Figures 1 and 2)





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