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Title: The Alberta Public School Speller - Authorized by the Minister of Education for Alberta
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Alberta Public School Speller - Authorized by the Minister of Education for Alberta" ***

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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.

  Breves and macrons are accurately represented (ă ĕ ā ē etc). Letter e
  with a dot above is represented by ė. Letters a and u with a diaeresis
  underneath are shown as a̤ ṳ (using Unicode combining diacritical).

  Obvious punctuation errors have been corrected after careful
  comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation
  of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



  THE ALBERTA
  PUBLIC SCHOOL SPELLER

  _Authorized by the Minister of Education for Alberta._


  TORONTO
  THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED



  Copyright, Canada, 1910, by THE COPP, CLARK COMPANY, LIMITED,
  Toronto, Ontario.



  CONTENTS.


                                                           PAGES
  Standard I, Grades 1 and 2                                1-25

  Review of Hard Words                                     26-30

  Standard II, Grade 3                                     31-54

  Review of Hard Words                                     55-58

  Standard III, Junior, Grade 4                            59-82

  Rules for Spelling                                          83

  Review of Hard Words                                     84-87

  Words Often Mispronounced                                   88

  Standard III, Senior, Grade 5                           89-112

  Review of Hard Words                                   113-116

  Standard IV, Junior, Grade 6                           117-139

  Review of Hard Words                                   140-143

  Words Often Mispronounced                                  144

  Standard IV, Senior, Grade 7                           145-164

  Review of Hard Words                                   165-167

  Small Words                                                168

  Standard V, Junior, Grade 8                            169-188

  Review of Hard Words                                   189-191

  Rules for Syllabication and Spelling                       192

  Public School Leaving                                  193-197

  Small Words                                                198

  The Building of English Words                          199-200

  Prefixes                                               200-203

  Suffixes                                               203-210

  English Root Words and Derivatives                     210-212

  Latin Words and Derivatives                            213-226

  Greek Root Words and Derivatives                       227-230

  Words, Phrases and Noteworthy Sayings                  231-236

  Abbreviations and Contractions in common use           237-242


  CHIEF FEATURES.

  =1. Choice of Words.= There has been a careful selection of those
  words best suited for the various grades or years in school.

  =2. Grouping of Words.= These words have been so grouped as to
  favor their being taught economically, and to impress upon the
  pupil that spelling rests largely upon a basis of law and order.
  In the earlier grades the sequence of lessons gives an orderly
  development of phonic forms; by this arrangement spelling and
  phonic reading can be made mutually helpful.

  =3. Dictation Exercises.= These are so constructed as to give in
  the briefest space an adequate test of the words taught. They
  should be supplemented by sentences constructed by the pupil,
  embodying the new and difficult words he is learning.

  =4. Reviews.= There are regular reviews at short intervals. Many
  of the hardest words appear several times, but with some change
  of context. At the end of each year's work there is given in
  alphabetical order a list of the most difficult words used therein.

  =5. Seat Exercises.= These exercises are intended to lead the pupil
  to make lists of words having a phonic element in common, to show
  how words are built up, and, later, to give practice in derivation.

  =6. Homonyms.= There has been a systematic use of these throughout
  the book, but in the junior grades they are not given together,
  in order to prevent the confusion that often results from such a
  practice.

  =7. Spelling Rules.= There are numerous and varied exercises to
  lead, inductively, to a knowledge of the most useful rules for
  spelling.

  =8. Authority.= The authority usually followed for spelling and
  pronunciation is THE CONCISE IMPERIAL DICTIONARY. The pupil should
  be taught the system of diacritical marks employed therein.



THE ALBERTA

PUBLIC SCHOOL SPELLER.



STANDARD I.

GRADES 1 AND 2.


    1

  back
  pack
  black
  Jack
  crack
  track
  see
  whip
  give
  they
  bring
  horse
  cry
  were
  ducks

  SEAT WORK.--Put h, l, s, t, r, sm, st, sl, wh, qu, with --ack

DICTATION.--See Jack on a black hack. Crack the whip, Jack, and give
the horse a whack. Bring back a sack of bran. Ducks cry quack. A pack
of dogs ran to the hay stack. They were on the track of a black fox.
Give me a tack to fix the rack. Bring back the ducks. See Jack whip
the black horse. The dogs track the fox.


    2

  neck
  check
  wreck
  kick
  chick
  quick
  very
  two
  house
  peas
  there
  where
  yes
  play
  ship

  SEAT WORK.--With --eck put b, p, d, fl, sp; and with --ick put l,
  p, s, t, w, br, sl, st, th, tr.

DICTATION.--The wick is very thick. Pick two pecks of peas. Be quick.
Where is the brick house? There is a speck of red on the chick. Is
Jack sick? Yes, Dick hit him with a stick. Play no bad tricks. The
ship was a wreck. See the horse kick. The hen has two chicks. There
are two black dogs. Give me a thick stick.


    3

  rock
  clock
  crock
  duck
  cluck
  stuck
  boy
  toy
  girl
  new
  much
  warm
  key
  little
  baby

  SEAT WORK.--Put l, d, m, s, bl, fl, sh, st, fr, with --ock; and l,
  b, s, t, pl, tr, str, with --uck.

DICTATION.--Hens cluck but ducks quack. That boy has much pluck. The
clock struck two. The key stuck in the lock. That little girl has a
new frock. Tuck baby up warm. I got a toy ship in my sock. A crock of
peas. See the flock of ducks by the rock. There is the little baby.
Bring me a black frock.

  NOTE.--Pupils should use the words in the lists and exercises in
  sentences of their own.


    4

  and
  sand
  grand
  hang
  sang
  sprang
  hear
  near
  church
  one
  none
  done
  drum
  upon
  write

  With --and put b, h, l, s; and with --ang put r, b, g, cl, sl.
  Copy,--I see her. She sees us. We see you.

Hear the band play. One man bangs the drum. The two boys are in the
grand stand. Hang the key near the clock. That girl sang in church.
Has Jack done one sum? No, he has none yet. Write clang and slang in
ink. Were you near the new church? Dick sprang upon a black horse. I
hear baby cry.


    5

  king
  bring
  thing
  song
  wrong
  strong
  you
  your
  wasp
  over
  fence
  mitts
  tie
  door
  bell

  Write r, fl, cl, spr, sl, st, str, sw, with --ing; put u for i in
  the words in --ing. Copy,--Is that you? Is that he?

Can you spring over that fence? The wasp may sting you. Were your
sums wrong? Yes, all but one. There is a crack in the crock. Bring
a strong string to tie it. Fling me the keys. The swing is long and
strong. Wet mitts cling to your hands. Ring the door bell. She flung
the peas over the door.


    6 (REVIEW)

  gives
  lives
  were
  one
  once
  fence
  boy
  toy
  joy
  fix
  six
  mix
  such
  much
  church

Tom lives in a red brick house. Once there was a little black boy. He
sang six songs for the king. Pick up your toys. Fix the fence near
the church. It gives such joy to hear you sing. Do not mix sand and
bran. Where were your mitts? It is wrong to whack your horse so. I
see six stacks of hay. Can Jack write? Give me the ink. I have none.


    7

  ash
  cash
  crash
  dish
  fish
  wish
  water
  snap
  have
  more
  like
  pony
  finger
  knife
  words

  Put l, s, h, m, r, cl, tr, thr, spl, with --ash.

See the fish splash in the water. The dish fell with a crash. How
much cash have you? Do you wish a little more hash? Snap the new whip
lash. My horse ran like a flash. It is wrong to thrash your pony so.
The jack-knife cut a gash in my finger. Write two more words. Where
is your new knife?


    8

  fresh
  flesh
  thresh
  hush
  rush
  thrush
  pork
  sweet
  blood
  rye
  nose
  road
  sofa
  worm
  Mary

  Write words like hog with d, l, f, b, j, fl, fr; as, dog. Put g, m,
  fl, sl, br, with --ush. Copy,--It is I. It is she. It is we.

Pork is the flesh of hogs. We thresh rye and peas. Hear the sweet
song of the thrush. Is there much slush on the road? See the blood
gush from his nose. See Mary blush! Stop, you may crush the worm.
Brush the plush sofa. Frogs live in fresh water. Do not flog your
pony. See Dick write.


    9

  lass
  mass
  bass
  glass
  less
  mess
  Bess
  bless
  hiss
  miss
  kiss
  bliss
  loss
  moss
  boss
  gloss
  fuss
  muss
  buss
  truss

  Put p, gr, br, cl, with --ass; and t, fl, cr, acr, with --oss.

Give the horses less grass. There is a brass lock. Jack got six black
bass. Pack the moss in a glass box. Do not muss your new dress. You
may kiss baby once. Floss has much gloss. Is Miss Bess very cross?
Toss the sack across your back. Less fuss in class! Is there much
glass in that door?


    10

  fast
  last
  past
  best
  nest
  chest
  blue
  birds
  year
  said
  mice
  John
  coat
  half
  great

  With --est put r, l, j, p, t, v, w; and with --rap put t, st, w,
  sc. Add --s to whip, duck, horse, boy, word.

Two blue birds had a nest there last year. Brush your best coat and
vest. Lock fast the chest. John said that in jest. Mice are a great
pest. The church is west from your house. I got two mice in a trap.
Run fast, it is half-past six. He said you were at church. My new
coat is blue. One is the half of two.


    11

  fist
  twist
  wrist
  dust
  trust
  crust
  wind
  make
  copy
  our
  about
  books
  apple
  papa
  mamma

  Write c, l, t, fr, with --ost; and m, j, b, g, r, thr, with --ust.
  Copy,--Is it they? That was I. Is it she?

A gust of wind makes much dust fly. Copy a list of your best books.
That apple pie has a thick crust. Mamma, see the frost on the grass.
Twist a string about your wrist. I must have just one more apple.
Papa trusts me with our pony. How much did your coat cost? They lost
two little dogs near the church.


    12 (REVIEW)

  about
  swing
  water
  said
  where
  none
  much
  smash
  pony
  gives
  great
  wrong
  clock
  fence
  thrash
  apple
  mitts
  worm
  crust
  little
  year
  quick
  peas
  finger
  once
  knife
  were
  church
  half
  sweet

  Put y, ag, at, ax, ing, ash, ock, eck, op, og, with fl--. With n,
  h, r, sh, sp, tr, bl, pl, make words in --ot.

Give Mary more sweet peas. Where was your knife? He said much about
the apples. Water my pony.


    13

  slant
  plant
  chant
  bent
  sent
  spent
  storm
  praise
  week
  four
  what
  shop
  buy
  pair
  some

  Put c, h, l, y, with --ard; and b, d, m, h, p, l, sp, sh with
  --ark. Copy and fill in,--My name is -- --. I am -- years old.

The storm bent the plant. It slants very much. In church we chant the
praise of God. John sent for four socks. The dogs bark in your yard.
What is the rent of your shop? We sent you some apples. Buy a pair of
pants. He spent a week in a tent. John got much praise.


    14

  hint
  flint
  print
  hunt
  grunt
  blunt
  wolf
  plums
  story
  next
  axe
  says
  noise
  river
  candy

  Write words in --ift with g, l, s, sh, sw, dr. Put a letter with
  --lip, --pit, --ring, --wing, --rock. Copy,--Yes, sir, I saw you.

Some men hunt a wolf. Hear the pig grunt. This axe is very blunt.
Will you print our next story? Jack says that apple is hard as flint.
Give him a hint to make less noise. I got a gift of candy and plums.
Can we cross that swift river in a punt? Yes, but you may drift upon
a rock. She says the wolf got over the river.


    15

  damp
  scamp
  tramp
  bump
  thump
  stump
  lazy
  idle
  five
  work
  cent
  table
  camel
  beside
  Henry

  Change one letter in fl_e_sh, ch_e_ck, _g_ive, _p_ick, cr_u_sh,
  gl_o_ss. With --ip put l, sl, sh, sk, ch, dr, tr, str, h, wh.

Lazy tramps will not work. A camel has one or two humps. Pump some
water. Make your pony jump over that stump. Buy a two-cent stamp.
Henry is an idle scamp. Camp beside the river. Last week I had the
mumps. We have five lamps. Baby thumps upon the table. Give me one
cent for candy.


    16 (Doubled Letters)

  add
  odd
  Ann
  bee
  see
  egg
  all
  ill
  off
  shoo
  purr
  buzz
  any
  many
  three
  even
  happy
  busy

  Put h, j, sh, cl, sl, cr, sw, with --am. Change the marked letter
  in w_o_rm, _w_ent, _d_one, bl_o_ck, n_e_ck, _f_ling, _g_ash,
  cr_u_sh.

Ann is very ill. Add two and four. Hear the bee buzz. Shoo off any
ducks. Many boys play odd or even. See me jump off the pony. Cats
purr if they are happy. The busy bee works all the day. Buy some eggs
and four black bass. The three fish swam off. Is three odd or even?
How many apples in the sack? There are none. Was Henry busy last
week? Were there many plums on the tree?


    17

  bank
  drank
  prank
  bunk
  drunk
  trunk
  eye
  again
  sleep
  sailor
  often
  pear
  iron
  coal
  orange

  Put dr, w, p, m, l, bl, th, s, r, br, shr, with --ink; and t, bl,
  pl, sp, dr, cr, Fr, with --ank. Copy,--Was it she?

Frank writes in ink on a copy book. Wink your eye again. The iron
trunk sank in the water. Sailors often sleep in bunks. I think that
plank is strong. Thank mamma for the orange and pear. Do not drink
much tea. Give Dick a chunk of coal. I trust he is busy with his
sums. He says he often sees the sailor.


    18 (REVIEW)

  blue
  eye
  lazy
  crazy
  work
  word
  cent
  says
  again
  iron
  often
  soften
  buy
  knife
  writes
  wrong
  many
  pear
  camel
  orange

Papa gives me four cents to buy two pears. He says your eyes are
blue. That idle tramp is not crazy. Write the new words often. Soften
the crust in your tea. Iron my collar again. It was wrong to cut the
table with your jack-knife. Bees are not lazy. How many oranges can
one buy for five cents? Some camels are swift. Jack said he once had
a little black pony. How many eyes have two camels?


    19

  catch
  patch
  snatch
  Dutch
  clutch
  crutch
  uses
  please
  rabbit
  sew
  lady
  wears
  Scotch
  watch
  Helen

  Put c, d, f, p, t, with --ry; add --ing to each, as cry, crying.
  Make new words in --atch with b, h, l, m, sn, th.

Some hens hatch eight eggs. Please sew a patch on my silk skirt. The
Scotch boy uses a crutch. Use an iron latch. That Dutch lady wears a
gold watch. Scratch the match again. Rabbits live in a hutch. Catch
the ball, Helen. Baby may clutch your toys.


    20

  ditch
  witch
  switch
  fetch
  sketch
  stretch
  scarf
  mouth
  wide
  open
  afraid
  dirty
  herd
  oxen
  who

  Make new words with --itch and h, p, st. Add --s to lock, key,
  neck, king, worm, song, wrist, flag, crock, toy.

Fetch me a strong switch. Please stitch my silk scarf. Stretch your
mouth wide open. Is there such a thing as a witch? I am not afraid of
any. The ditch was half full of dirty water. Can you sketch that herd
of oxen? Who are you? Are you afraid?


    21

  ball
  call
  all
  fall
  gall
  hall
  stall
  small
  tall
  wall
  bell
  yell
  dell
  fell
  sell
  shell
  spell
  smell
  tell
  well
  bill
  kill
  still
  fill
  gill
  hill
  mill
  pill
  till
  will
  doll
  collar
  dollar
  folly
  jolly
  holly
  Molly
  Polly
  loll
  dolly
  gull
  cull
  dull
  sully
  gully
  hull
  mull
  null
  lull
  skull
  one
  two
  three
  four
  five
  six
  seven
  eight
  nine
  ten

  Add --y to dirt, dust, sleep, luck, hand, puss, wind.


    22

  arch
  march
  starch
  birch
  perch
  torch
  along
  chop
  robin
  larch
  porch
  quickly
  does
  such
  pinch

  For b in bench or bunch put Fr, h, l, w, p, st, tr. Make words in
  --ig with b, f, g, j, p, r, w, tw.

March along quickly to church. Chop off a branch of birch or larch.
Does the robin perch on your porch? Ask for a small pinch of starch.
Write again in French for a torch. Which do you like best, bass or
perch? Does Helen drink water at lunch? That worm is an inch or two
long. Three and five are eight.


    23

  talk
  walk
  chalk
  kept
  wept
  slept
  board
  knees
  Lucy
  floor
  next
  hurt
  aunt
  uncle
  flower

  Add --es to box, fox, watch, church, dish, wish, glass, brush,
  class, ditch, patch. Copy,--Mr. John Smith; Mrs. Ellen Jones.

Write on the board with chalk. Baby crept on hands and knees. Next
year she will walk and talk. Aunt Lucy wept when you were hurt. How
many flowers on that stalk? I slept till half-past eight. I kept the
candy uncle sent me. She swept the floor. A gully is a ditch made by
water. Buy some collars.


    24

  stiff
  skiff
  cliff
  cuff
  puff
  snuff
  high
  good
  smoke
  soft
  cloth
  cheeks
  fur
  calf
  paper

  Write all the words that you can make from 'carpet,' 'blacken,'
  'holiday.' With --ask put c, m, t, fl.

Iron my cuffs and collars stiff. Uncle uses snuff. Puff out your
cheeks. She lost her fur muff. Papa has a good skiff. See the whiff
of smoke. Stuff paper or soft cloth into the hole. The calf fell from
a high cliff. John makes eight or nine dollars a week.


    25 (REVIEW)

  catch
  please
  does
  crept
  fetch
  aunt
  uncle
  flower
  praise
  quickly
  knife
  knees
  robin
  rabbit
  happy
  chalk
  calf
  next
  high
  table
  Helen
  eight
  said
  week
  board

  Add --ing to buy, work, pull, fall, wink, sleep, bring, ask.

Please, uncle, buy me a pair of rabbits. Which is your knife? Does
John write quickly? Watch the robin fetch four worms. Aunt Helen is
happy. Next week I shall be eight. Please catch the calf. He crept on
his knees to the high table. He said much in praise of flowers. Put
chalk on the board.


    26

  hung
  stung
  swung
  belt
  melt
  dwelt
  lion
  gate
  swamp
  front
  lace
  shoe
  skate
  shelf
  silver

  Put with --ung s, b, r, cl, fl, sl, spr, str; with --elt, put f,
  kn, p, sp. Write a or i for u in the words in --ung.

Some bees stung a great lion. Papa swung me high on the gate. They
dwelt near a swamp. John hung his belt in the front hall. He knelt
to lace his shoe. He slung his skates upon the shelf. Can you melt
silver? Have you strung the glass balls on that string? Ring the bell
at the front door, please.


    27

  bind
  blind
  grind
  born
  horn
  thorn
  come
  waist
  melon
  grist
  wrist
  blow
  oats
  both
  Canada

  With --ind put f, h, k, m, r, w, bl; with --ond f, b, p. Add --ed
  to walk, fix, play, rock, melt, puff, wish, pelt.

Little Boy Blue, come blow your horn. A sharp thorn stuck in my
wrist. Is he blind in both eyes? The grist mill grinds corn and oats.
Is he fond of melon rind? Were you born in Canada? Wind a cord about
your waist. Mind what papa says. Can you find my copy book? The waist
of my new dress is black. Canada gets much praise for her apples.


    28

  paw
  jaw
  straw
  awl
  shawl
  crawl
  lawn
  dawn
  drawn
  down
  gown
  clown
  brown
  drown
  frown
  owl
  fowl
  growl

  Make words in --aw with l, c, h, p, r, s, t, cl, sh, dr, cr, th;
  and in --ow with b, c, h, m, n, r, s, sc, br.

Lucy buys a brown shawl. Worms crawl across the lawn. Dogs howl and
growl. Down town I saw a new gown. Use an awl to sew my shoe. The
clown may drown there. Puss has four paws with strong claws. The scow
was drawn to the mill and sawn. Do not frown or look cross. I hear
the fowl at dawn.


    29

  drew
  grew
  screw
  few
  blew
  flew
  die
  lie
  tie
  cabin
  under
  before
  tiger
  boat
  sister
  father
  mother
  brother

  Put d, h, J, m, n, p, ch, sl, st, with --ew; and b, st, c, th, with
  --rew. Add --er to work, talk, farm, bank, fish, thresh.

He threw the screws under the cabin. The Jew slew a tiger. The storm
blew and the good boat flew. Yet few of her crew were lost. The calf
chews straw. I have a father and mother, two brothers and three
sisters. Tie your shoe before you lie down. Brew the tea. Is your
father a farmer? Henry is a great talker.


    30

  tree
  free
  three
  feed
  weed
  bleed
  seed
  steed
  tweed
  hitch
  buggy
  against
  sure
  began
  among
  beef
  broth
  soup

  With --ee put b, f, s, w, th, kn. Add --ing to feed, seed, buy,
  try, work, hear, talk, see, add.

Hitch the steed to the buggy. Buy a tweed coat. He hurt his knee
against a tree. It began to bleed. Feed the horse half a peck of
oats. Make sure there are no weeds among the seeds. Fetch some beef
broth or soup. The blue-bird has a nest with four wee eggs. Are you
sure you write and spell well?


    31 (REVIEW)

  boat
  wrist
  melon
  tweed
  quickly
  soup
  slew
  waist
  chews
  growl
  Lucy
  shawl
  dwelt
  swamp
  scratch
  come
  knelt
  cabin
  Canada
  buggy
  lion
  tiger
  sprang
  among
  against

The lion sprang upon the tiger and quickly slew him. The cabin of
the boat was full of melons. Lucy wears a tweed belt about her
waist. Dogs growl in the swamp. There comes our buggy. I knelt upon
the shawl. He dwelt in Canada. Fetch some soup. I scratch my wrist
against a tree. Chew the beef well.


    32

  eel
  heel
  wheel
  cool
  spool
  school
  after
  carpet
  summer
  made
  swells
  lemons
  jerk
  away
  chums

  Make new words in --eel with f, p, st, kn; in --ool with f, p, t,
  st. With --eek put m, s, w, ch, sl, cr. Cows cry moo.

See the eel swim after the perch. Our school is kept too cool in
summer. Kneel on the thick carpet. Does Henry use a swift wheel?
There are seven days in one week. The lump on my heel feels soft.
Jerk away the stool. Mamma sent me to buy lemon peel. Our best tools
are made of steel. A spool of silk sells for nine cents. Do not try
to fool your chums. How sleek our pony looks. It is too cold to swim
in the creek.


    33

  keep
  weep
  creep
  hoop
  droop
  stoop
  pussy
  softly
  twelve
  yarn
  hawk
  farmers
  roof
  along
  scrub

  With --eep put d, p, sh, sl, st, sw. Put --oop with c, l, sc, sl,
  sw. Add --ing to such of these as you can.

Some boys keep watch over the sheep. I did not sleep till twelve
o'clock. Pussy creeps softly to catch the mice. Stoop down and scoop
up the pool of water. Please tie a loop in this yarn. Farmers often
keep fowl in a coop. Then the hawk cannot swoop down upon them. The
roof is too steep. Why do the flowers droop? Scrub the front stoop.
Were you weeping just now? Roll your hoop along the road.


    34

  beet
  sweet
  street
  boot
  root
  shoot
  those
  sugar
  target
  under
  train
  worth
  visit
  snow
  winter

  With --eet put f, m, fl, gr, sh, sl; with --oot put h, t, sc. Put
  another o in drop, stop, hot, shot, hop; as, --drop, droop.

In some beets there is much sugar. Shoot at a target, not at birds.
How much are those boots worth? We sleep under a cool sheet. Meet
your aunt at the train and greet her kindly. How many feet have four
horses? Snow and sleet come in winter. Owls hoot. John toots on his
new horn. The boys scoot down the street. Will you visit us again?
The fleet will meet next week. Some roots are sweet.


    35

  beer
  deer
  steer
  room
  bloom
  broom
  clean
  better
  young
  gone
  being
  birthday
  sun
  lily
  bigger

  Put ch, qu, sn, with --eer; and b, d, l, gl, gr, with --oom. Make
  new words in --oon with c, l, m, n, s, sp.

A new broom sweeps clean. Sun and water make the lily bloom. Tea is
better than beer. Many deer live in Canada. Steers are young oxen.
Three cheers for our school. Booms keep logs from being lost. He has
gone to groom the pony. Tweed cloth is made in a loom. Is the moon
bigger than the sun? What a queer bird the loon is. Uncle gave me a
silver spoon on my birthday. Some deer feed on lily roots. Too large
or too small.


    36

  breeze
  freeze
  sneeze
  goose
  loose
  moose
  plump
  burst
  bottle
  search
  proof
  apron
  wrap
  north
  queen

  Make words in --een with k, s, gr, qu; in --oof with h, r, pr. Put
  ee for oo in tooth, pool, goose, soon, sloop, boot.

The moose scoops away the snow in search of food. Feel how plump that
goose is. If the soup freeze it will burst the bottle. Her apron is
too loose. Brush your teeth often. Have you seen the queen? Green
plants need much water. We feed beets to a calf. The moose has a big
hoof. The keen north breeze makes me sneeze. Wrap up the shawl. What
proof can you give that he was wrong?


    37 (REVIEW)

  lily
  softly
  lemon
  sneeze
  search
  proof
  wheel
  scoop
  worth
  queen
  wrap
  hawk
  apron
  visit
  twelve
  pussy
  queer
  burst
  bottle
  school
  loose
  sugar
  plump
  young
  birthday

Is your wheel worth much? Hawks fly in search of young chickens. My
brother will be twelve on his next birthday. How softly pussy creeps
along. Wrap the lemons in your apron. The queen often visits schools.
Where did you buy that queer bottle? That lily is in full bloom.
Scoop up the sugar. He threw the trunk and it burst open. What makes
you sneeze? Tack down the loose carpet. Plump cheeks. Give proof of
being good.


    38

  beech
  speech
  screech
  sleeve
  fleece
  cheese
  elm
  torn
  burnt
  Francis
  touch
  swarm
  mews
  smart
  needle

  To cr-- add ept, ied, ops, oss, ock, awl, ack, ib. Write all the
  words you can from the letters in 'catching,' 'dreamed.'

Elm and beech trees grew about our school. The sleeve of my coat is
torn. Francis burnt his heel; then he began to screech. Do not touch
the cheese. The swarm of bees flew into an apple tree. He made a
speech about cheese. Let us search for beech nuts. Sew a patch on
your sleeve. Where is the needle? We need the fleeces of many sheep.
John seems such a smart boy. The gray cat mews.


    39

  book
  shook
  brook
  wood
  hood
  stood
  lamb
  comb
  climb
  soot
  split
  barrel
  cosy
  dinner
  Friday

  Make new words in --ook with c, h, l, n, r, t, cr. To cl-- add am,
  ap, ock, uck, ub, ing, ip, ean, ear.

John sawed and split the wood. Throw the soot into a barrel. What a
cosy nook this is. Can you climb a high beech tree? See the crook
in the stick uncle uses. Cook a lamb chop. Men comb wool and flax.
I lost two fish hooks in the brook. The lamb cannot climb over that
rock. My new hood is made from Scotch wool. Mamma cooks dinner on
Friday. She took a look at my story book. He uses a black comb.


    40

  paid
  maid
  braid
  gain
  pain
  grain
  eleven
  thirteen
  fifteen
  Abel
  raise
  honest
  basin
  truth
  always

  With --ain put C, l, m, r, v, ch, pl, sl, st, br, dr, tr, spr, str.
  Add --teen to four, six, seven, eight, nine. (Note eighteen.)

I paid eleven cents for braid. If sold for thirteen cents find the
gain. Did you sprain your wrist? Yes, and it gives great pain. Abel
was slain by his brother Cain. The maid has lain down. Wait till I
raise the chest. The grain needs much rain. Strain the soup into a
basin. Honest work is not done in vain. Always tell the plain truth.
The iron chain has fifteen links. The main thing is not to be afraid
of work.


    41

  fail
  jail
  snail
  air
  stair
  fairy
  clerk
  nobody
  month
  twenty
  thirty
  forty
  July
  April
  cruel

  Make new words in --ail with b, h, m, n, p, r, s, t, w, fl, fr, tr.
  Add --y to sh, sk, th, fl, sl, sp, st, dr, cr, fr, tr, spr.

A steel rail was loose. The mail train ran off, nobody was hurt. Bail
out your sail boat. The snail crawls under the pail. Were you afraid
of a fairy? Flails were used to thresh grain. The maid with fair hair
fell down stairs. The clerk was sent to jail for twenty days. Uncle
is paid forty dollars a month. Fix that frail chair with a strong
nail. April has thirty days, July thirty-one. It was cruel to cut off
the tail of that dog.


    42

  died
  lied
  cried
  hoe
  foe
  toe
  chirp
  churn
  chunk
  spill
  whey
  first
  move
  David
  choose

  To ch-- add in, ill, aff, ew, ain, est, oose, eese, eck, ick, ore,
  air, arm, urch. With --ied put t, sh, sp, tr, fr, dr, pr.

The hoe struck his toe and he cried. She tied her apron strings. The
colt shied and tried to jump over the fence. The flowers soon died. A
chunk of beech wood burns well. Spill the whey from the churn. David
killed his foe with a sling. Which do you choose? I spied you first.
She fried two lamb chops. We tried to move the buggy. The sun dried
my hair. Robins chirp. They pried the boxes open.


    43 (REVIEW)

  lamb
  fleece
  basin
  barrel
  screech
  jail
  first
  fairy
  speech
  eleven
  hoes
  chirp
  cruel
  cheese
  combs
  touch
  month
  climb
  choose
  nineteen
  cosy
  whey
  churn
  fried
  always

He hoes beets. Lambs always look cosy in fleeces of wool. Eleven and
eight are nineteen. Baby will screech if you touch his toes. Cheese
is made in the warm months. Choose two combs. Pussy tried to climb
into the churn. Throw the basin of whey into the barrel. First tell
me a fairy story. He goes to jail for being cruel. Pork chops were
fried. Hear the little birds chirp.


    44

  road
  load
  toad
  boast
  coast
  toast
  scrap
  scald
  scrawl
  drags
  ugly
  oven
  Percy
  satin
  pencil

  Make words in --oan with m, l, gr; in --oak with s, cl, cr. To sc--
  add ar, arf, ow, owl, at, ud, um, alp, amp, otch, orch.

Percy scrawls with a pencil. The horse drags a great load on a
snow road. Do you think a toad ugly? We roast beef in an oven. She
scorched her shoes. He likes to coast down steep hills. Toads croak
in the spring. Lucy boasts about her satin scarf and cloak. There is
a deep scar on his scalp. The hot tea will scald you. He gave me the
loan of his knife. The Scotch boy moans and groans. Soak the scraps
of toast in water.


    45

  boat
  float
  throat
  old
  sold
  scold
  crowd
  organ
  studying
  false
  dozen
  pantry
  tongs
  jelly
  pretty

  Put c, g, bl, with --oat; and b, c, f, g, h, t, with --old. Add
  --ty to six, seven, nine; eight + (t)y.

Tie the scarf about your throat. The boat may not float with such a
crowd. We sold our organ for ninety-four dollars. Goats often climb
very high. Papa will scold you for not studying. I paid sixty cents
for a dozen pencils. Fetch the jelly from the pantry. His uncle died
at eighty-two. The iron tongs cost seventy-five cents. Be not bold or
false. Lucy wears such a pretty gown. There was too great a crowd.


    46

  eat
  beat
  wheat
  beam
  cream
  scream
  dumb
  crumb
  thumb
  rich
  purse
  never
  hurl
  flask
  brisk

  Put h, m, n, s, ch, bl, pl, tr, with --eat; and s, t, st, gl, dr,
  str, with --eam. To gr-- add ace, ass, and, ab, ew, ain, asp.

Lions eat raw meat. The beams of the sun make wheat grow. Hear the
lambs bleat. Heat turns water into steam. Two horses make a team.
What a neat seam you sew. Treat the dumb boy to some cream. Henry
screams, for he hurt his thumb. Sweep the crumbs from the seat of the
chair. A rich man lost his purse. Never cheat any one. Hurl the flask
into the stream. Be brisk at your work. Which team beat?


    47

  ear
  dear
  spear
  bean
  mean
  clean
  shuns
  nurse
  rolled
  folk
  spilt
  foolish
  worn
  army
  towels

  With --ear put f, h, n, r, t, y, sh, cl, sm. Make new words with
  --eap and h, l, r, ch. Add y, in, ip, im, iff, ate, to sk--.

The tears rolled clear down his cheeks. We will reap much wheat this
year. The nurse shuns foolish folk. He spilt the beans near the door.
Were the towels cheap or dear? The army had sharp spears. Does he
mean to shear the sheep? My mother is very dear to me. His coat is
much worn but clean. Do not smear your chin with candy. Do you fear
to leap across that clear stream? It is easy to hurt the ear.


    48

  beak
  weak
  speak
  bead
  lead
  plead
  coax
  party
  color
  beard
  thorn
  scratch
  hazel
  bushes
  hungry

  Put l, p, sn, bl, str with --eak. Copy high, nigh, sigh, thigh. To
  str-- add ap, ip, ing, uck, ong, eet, etch, eam.

Coax mamma, do not tease her. Aunt is too weak to speak. Glass beads
are of many colors. Hear Helen sigh. The barrel leaks. Who leads the
party? There are streaks of gray in his beard. Some birds have blunt
beaks. A thorn scratched my thigh. The fox sneaks among the hazel
bushes. The hungry man pleads for meat. Can you climb that high peak?
A bleak road. Please lead us home. Push a chair nigh.


    49

  each
  teach
  preach
  east
  beast
  yeast
  loaf
  curse
  Thursday
  stroll
  taffy
  cover
  leave
  clover
  sense

  Write words in --each with b, p, r, bl. With --eal put d, h, m, p,
  s, v, st. Add atch, ub, ew, eam, een, to scr--.

Each loaf is made with yeast. Teach us to weave carpets. We leave on
Thursday for the east. A feast of peaches and cream. Good men preach
that it is wrong to steal or curse. Each beast was given a meal of
raw veal. They stroll along the sea beach. Reach down the taffy.
Cover your thumb, it will soon heal. The bells peal for joy. Split
open the beans. Copy a clover leaf. He has too much sense to sulk.



REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.


  about
  add
  afraid
  again
  air         5
  among
  any
  apple
  April
  apron      10
  army
  aunt
  awl
  baby
  barrel     15
  basin
  bass
  beach
  beads
  beans      20
  beard
  beast
  beat
  bees
  beech      25
  beef
  beets
  before
  being
  better     30
  bigger
  birch
  black
  bleed
  blew       35
  blood
  bloom
  blue
  boast
  bottle     40
  braid
  breeze
  broom
  brown
  buggy      45
  bump
  burnt
  burst
  busy
  buy        50
  buzz
  cabin
  calf
  camel
  Canada     55
  candy
  carpet
  catch
  cents
  chair      60
  chalk
  cheat
  cheeks
  cheese
  chew       65
  chirp
  choose
  clean
  climb
  clown      70
  clutch
  coal
  coast
  coax
  collar     75
  color
  comb
  come
  copy
  cosy       80
  cover
  crack
  crawl
  crazy
  cream      85
  creek
  crept
  cried
  crowd
  cruel      90
  crumb
  crutch
  cuff
  dawn
  dear       95
  deer
  died
  dinner
  dirty
  ditch     100
  does
  dollar
  done
  door
  dozen     105
  drawn
  drew
  drown
  dumb
  Dutch     110
  dwelt
  each
  easy
  eel
  eggs      115
  eight
  eleven
  elm
  eye
  fairy     120
  false
  fence
  fetch
  first
  five      125
  fleeces
  flew
  float
  floor
  flowers   130
  folk
  forty
  four
  fowl
  Francis   135
  freeze
  front
  girl
  goats
  goose     140
  great
  growl
  hair
  half
  happy     145
  hawk
  hazel
  heap
  hear
  heel      150
  Helen
  Henry
  high
  hitch
  honest    155
  hungry
  idle
  iron
  jail
  kneel     160
  knees
  knife
  lain
  lambs
  lawn      165
  lazy
  leads
  lemon
  lied
  lily      170
  lion
  little
  loaf
  loose
  lost      175
  Lucy
  maid
  mail
  mamma
  main      180
  many
  mean
  meat
  meet
  melon     185
  moans
  month
  moose
  move
  much      190
  needle
  never
  new
  next
  ninety    195
  nineteen
  noise
  none
  nose
  oats      200
  odd
  off
  often
  once
  one       205
  orange
  organ
  oven
  owl
  oxen      210
  paid
  pails
  pair
  pantry
  papa      215
  paper
  patch
  paw
  peaches
  pears     220
  peas
  peel
  pencil
  perch
  Percy     225
  pinch
  please
  plump
  plums
  pony      230
  porch
  praise
  preach
  pretty
  pried     235
  proof
  pussy
  quick
  rabbit
  reach     240
  road
  robin
  roof
  rye
  said      245
  sail
  sailor
  satin
  sawed
  says      250
  scald
  scarf
  school
  Scotch
  scratch   255
  scrawls
  scream
  screech
  screw
  seam      260
  search
  sense
  seven
  sew
  shawl     265
  shied
  shoes
  shoo
  sigh
  silver    270
  sketch
  skiff
  skull
  sleeve
  slept     275
  small
  smoke
  snatch
  sneeze
  snuff     280
  sofa
  soften
  some
  soot
  soup      285
  speak
  spears
  speech
  split
  spoon     290
  steals
  steam
  steel
  steer
  stiff     295
  story
  straw
  stream
  street
  stretch   300
  stroll
  studying
  such
  sugar
  summer    305
  sure
  swamp
  swarm
  sweep
  sweet     310
  swift
  switch
  table
  taffy
  talk      315
  target
  tea
  teach
  team
  tears     320
  tease
  there
  they
  thigh
  thirteen  325
  thrash
  three
  thresh
  threw
  throat    330
  throw
  thumb
  thump
  tie
  tiger     335
  toad
  toe
  too
  towels
  toy       340
  tried
  truth
  tweed
  twelve
  twist     345
  two
  ugly
  uses
  vain
  very      350
  waist
  wait
  walk
  warm
  watch     355
  water
  weak
  wear
  weave
  wept      360
  were
  wheat
  wheel
  where
  whey      365
  who
  witch
  wolf
  woods
  worm      370
  worn
  worth
  wrap
  wrist
  write     375
  wrong
  year
  yell
  young
  your      380

  bet
  betting
  hop
  hopping
  drop
  dropping
  rub
  rubbing
  brag
  bragging
  blot
  blotting
  come
  coming
  have
  having
  hope
  hoping
  live
  living
  use
  using
  like
  liking



STANDARD II.

GRADE 3.


    1

  ate
  plate
  slate
  face
  race
  brace
  size
  huge
  burst
  quite
  angry
  meadow
  larger
  became
  strange

  With --ate put d, f, g, h, K, l, m, r, sk, gr, cr, pr, st. Write l,
  p, pl, Gr, tr, sp, with --ace. Add --ing to see, be, free, flee.

Does Grace skate? Place the wood in the grate. Brace up for a race.
Keep a space for my school mate. Buy a pair of shoe laces. Little
Jack Frog once spied a huge ox in a field. He told what a strange
beast he had seen, larger than any frog in the stream. His mother
became quite angry. She tried to puff herself out to as great a size.
But she only burst and died.


    2

  bake
  shake
  drake
  game
  flame
  shame
  Nellie
  garden
  mother's
  tulip
  dainty
  basket
  proud
  bright
  Saturday

  Put c, f, l, m, r, s, t, w, fl, sn, sp, st with --ake. Write c, d,
  f, l, n, s, t, bl with --ame. Add --ful to spoon, hand, care, arm.

Shake the grate and see the flame shoot up. Nellie grows flowers in
her garden. Her mother's birthday was on Saturday. Then Nellie picked
a basket of bright tulips. These she fixed in a dainty bowl, placed
near her mother's seat at table. How pleased her mamma was, and how
proud Nellie felt.


    3

  fade
  shade
  spade
  Jane
  pane
  plane
  age
  wage
  stage
  eager
  quiet
  kitten
  broke
  pieces
  smooth

  With --ade put m, w, bl, gr, tr; with --ane write c, D, l, m, s,
  cr. Put c, p, r, s with --age. Add --ly to last, great, swift, apt.

He broke a pane of glass. My knife has four blades. Plane off the
stage. What wages does Jane get? Two pretty gold fish were happy in a
bowl of water. A young kitten spied them, and jumped upon the table.
At first she was quiet, and watched them swim about. She was eager to
touch one with her paw. She climbed up the smooth side of the bowl.
But it rolled off and broke into many pieces.


    4

  gave
  shave
  grave
  ale
  pale
  whale
  able
  fable
  stable
  Topsy
  negro
  merry
  also
  learn
  garden

  Put c, p, r, s, w, br, cr, sl, st, with --ave. Write b, g, h, m, s,
  t, sc, st with --ale. Put c, f, g, with --able.

Has a whale scales like fish? There are oak staves in the barrel. The
male lion has a mane. Read a fairy tale or fable. A pale face. Pave
the stable yard. Buy a stale loaf. Topsy is a jolly negro girl. Her
father was once a slave. Now he owns a house and garden. He is able
to grow many melons and lemons. Besides he raises some fine fowl.
He is hale and merry. Topsy hoes the sugar cane. She learns quickly
also.


    5

  mare
  share
  square
  gaze
  blaze
  graze
  cape
  shape
  scrape
  giant
  castle
  person
  thief
  robbed
  coming

  With --are put b, c, d, f, h, p, r, fl, sc, sn, sp, st. Write d, h,
  m, cr, gl with --aze. Put t, dr, gr, esc, with --ape.

The mare grazes in the square. As crazy as a March hare. The fare is
a dollar. Pare the apples. Scrape the walk bare. See the blaze flare
up. Once there lived a huge giant eight feet high. His home was in a
strong castle, often hidden by haze. He used to steal lambs, sheep
and oxen. The thief spared no person. The farmers he robbed were very
angry. But they were scared and tried to escape his coming.


    6 (REVIEW)

  size
  huge
  giant
  angry
  castle
  quite
  graze
  stable
  smooth
  meadow
  eager
  negro
  quiet
  tulip
  dainty
  thief
  pieces
  escape
  basket
  square
  bright
  proud
  coming
  person
  Saturday

They tried to escape from the giant's castle on Saturday. The angry
negro was quite crazy. There were pieces of smooth cloth. The stable
is of great size. The thief spied a dainty, square basket. The quiet
pony grazes in a huge meadow. Who is that proud person coming along?
Eager for some bright tulips.


    7

  haste
  taste
  waste
  dance
  chance
  France
  alive
  begged
  return
  early
  rising
  clothes
  could
  would
  should

  To tw-- add ice, ine, ig, irl, ist, elve, enty. Add --ed to visit,
  melt, start, hand, scold, load, drift, play, hoot, risk.

Bears prance and dance. They waste little in France. I chanced to
glance about. He should make haste. His mother begged Jack not to
climb the bean stalk. She said the giant would be sure to know him,
and he could never return alive. Jack kept quiet for he would not
tell a lie. He put on his old clothes, and stained his face and hands
a dark brown color. Rising early one summer day, he said he would try
his luck again.


    8

  fire
  spire
  quire
  sore
  chore
  swore
  Bible
  wagon
  velvet
  jacket
  mason
  burden
  heavy
  silent
  healing

  With --ire put h, m, s, t, w, squ. Write b, c, f, m, t, w, y, sc,
  sh, sn, st with --ore. Add --er to clear, dark, soon, neat.

A sore throat. A quire of note paper. The fore wheels and hind
wheels. An apple core. He does chores after school. He snores very
often. He swore on the Bible. The wagon tire broke. Squire Jones
wore a velvet jacket. He climbs the church spire. Do you know the
base-ball score? He bore a heavy burden. Hire the silent mason. His
sore thumb is healing. Twist the wires in the cable. I tore my shoe
there.


    9

  ice
  price
  twice
  file
  smile
  while
  death
  mince
  clever
  laugh
  lying
  lovely
  ropes
  plenty
  forever

  Put m, n, r, v, sl, sp, spl, with --ice; and m, p, t, v, w, with
  --ile.

Sailors splice ropes. The slice of ice-cream was nice. You may fail
twice or thrice, try again. It is worth while to smile or laugh.
Lying is a mean vice. The price of a steel file. Put plenty of spice
in mince pies.

    Be good, sweet maid, and let who will be clever;
      Do lovely things, not dream them, all day long;
    And so make Life, and Death, and that Forever,
              One grand, sweet song.


    10

  rove
  stove
  grove
  nose
  close
  chose
  flies
  built
  calico
  lively
  poplar
  greedy
  parent
  window
  hatched

  Write c, d, w, cl, dr, str, with --ove; and h, r, pr, th, with
  --ose.

She chose a calico gown. Please close the stove door. A drove of
sheep. They roved in a shady grove. They wove tweed from wool. He
strove to cross the river. A pair of robins built their nest in a
poplar tree near my window. There were four blue eggs after two
weeks. From those were hatched four lively birds. They opened their
mouths very wide, always greedy for food. The two parent birds were
kept busy bringing them worms and flies. Young robins have downy
coats.


    11

  blue
  glue
  cube
  cute
  mute
  flute
  cure
  pure
  rude
  money
  village
  robber
  market
  walking
  tumbled

  Write d, h, s, cl, fl, with --ue. Add --e to tub, cub, hug, plum,
  cur, us. Add --ly to love, false, wise, live, nice, sure, cool.

She wears a blue plume. There is no clue to the cute robber. He
sued for wages due. Smoke goes up the flue. Glue the cube. A lively
milkmaid was walking to market to sell a pail of cream. This she bore
on her head. She would buy eggs with the money, and raise chickens.
These would bring high prices at the village. She could buy a new
gown. She felt so proud she tossed her head. The pail tumbled down
and all was lost.


    12 (REVIEW)

  score
  twice
  village
  lying
  heavy
  Bible
  lovely
  chores
  poplar
  clothes
  cute
  mason
  wagon
  thrice
  chance
  built
  early
  could
  quire
  calico
  lively
  money
  tumble
  hatched
  window

A village mason built a score of stables. A lovely calico frock.
The Bible is lying on the window. His clothes are always too heavy.
He was hired to clean the wagon and do chores. He offered twice or
thrice the money. The cute ducks were hatched early. Buy a quire of
paper. Could you tell a poplar tree? A jug of cream. By chance he
tumbled down stairs.


    13

  loud
  cloud
  shroud
  hour
  flour
  scour
  spider
  insect
  tadpole
  fatter
  dipper
  friend
  appear
  become
  narrow

A barrel of flour. Scour the dipper. Half an hour. Thou shalt not
steal. Clouds in the south shroud the sun. Proud of his friends.
The yeast was sour. The toad is dark brown, with a fatter body and
shorter legs than the frog. Little warts cover its body. It eats
insects, spiders and worms. From its eggs come little black tadpoles.
Soon the hind legs appear, then the front ones. The long, narrow
tail slowly becomes shorter. So, after some weeks, the tadpoles have
turned into toads.


    14

  pout
  spout
  sprout
  couch
  crouch
  slouch
  quart
  quite
  quilt
  timid
  fellow
  supper
  can't
  seeing
  careful

  With --out put ab, g, r, sh, sc, sn, st, tr. To qu-- add ack, ail,
  een, eer, ill, iet. With --ouse put h, d, l, m, s, gr.

Fetch the quilt to the couch. Timid quails crouch down and keep
quiet. Walk quickly, do not slouch. Plants sprout in the spring. Not
quite a quart of cream. "Be careful," said a mother trout to her son,
"some school boys shout; they come here to fish." "They can't catch
me," cried the foolish fellow, "I know their tricks." He swam off in
search of supper. Seeing a plump worm twisting about, he snatched it.
There was a loud splash, but one trout swam in the brook never again.


    15

  bound
  found
  ground
  ounce
  bounce
  flounce
  squaw
  animal
  settlers
  ripened
  Indians
  wigwam
  easily
  season
  between

  Write h, m, p, r, s, w with --ound.

Sixteen ounces make a pound. A tiger pounced upon the hound. She
wears flounces. Bounce your ball. He wound the clock. The French were
the first white settlers in Canada. They found here many Indians.
These lived by fishing and the chase. They dressed in the skins of
animals which they had killed. Their wigwams were easily moved, and
often this was done each season. The squaws tilled the crops. They
ground the ripened corn between two stones.


    16

  light
  fight
  fright
  ought
  fought
  brought
  native
  safety
  bravely
  kettle
  candle
  tallow
  strange
  instead
  blazing

  With --ight put m, n, kn, r, s, t, br, fl, sl.

The Indians were friendly at first, but later they thought it right
to fight the French. But these settlers fought bravely. The guns they
had brought frightened the natives, who sought safety in flight. The
settlers built rude log houses, now a strange sight. Often oiled
paper was used for glass. Tallow candles gave light at night. Instead
of an iron stove a huge fireplace might be found. Over the bright
blazing fire hung iron kettles for cooking.


    17

  edge
  wedge
  sledge
  judge
  budge
  grudge
  dodge
  badge
  bridge
  cradle
  simple
  lessons
  rattle
  paddle
  silently

  Write h, l, pl, dr with --edge. Put f, n, sm, dr, tr with --udge.

Trudge to the edge of the bridge. Nudge John. He grudges a badge for
the judge. We could not budge the wedge. He dodged the sledge. The
Indian baby was strapped into a wooden cradle. The children played
many games, and had simple toys, dolls and rattles. They had many
lessons not found in books. They knew where to find the birds and
animals. They could tell their colors and habits. When twelve the boy
could build a boat, and paddle swiftly and silently.


    18 (REVIEW)

  dodge
  fright
  cradle
  crouch
  simple
  easily
  bounce
  judges
  native
  blazing
  quilt
  ounce
  safety
  paddle
  friend
  kettle
  animal
  season
  grudge
  insect
  candle
  tallow
  sought
  Indian
  between

The Indian crouched down and sought to dodge the animal. My friend
paddled in safety to the blazing dredge. He grudges even an ounce of
sugar. The judge bought a pound of tallow candles. Simple folk are
easily frightened. I tumbled the quilts in the cradle. Are there many
native insects? Bounce baby on your knee. A quiet season. Between you
and me.


    19

  head
  bread
  spread
  health
  wealth
  stealth
  sweat
  threat
  breath
  solid
  travel
  mostly
  letter
  post-office
  newspaper

  With --ead put d, l, r, dr, st, tr, thr, r---y, st---y.

Health is better than wealth. Horses sweat. He read tales by stealth.
A steady breath. As heavy as lead. Ready to spread the news. Thread
the needle. Does he dread such threats? For many years there were
no horses in Canada. Travel was mostly by boat in summer. The solid
log houses were built along the rivers. There were no post-offices;
letters were sent by friends. Newspapers were not known, books were
few. A few schools were kept for white or Indian children.


    20

  aught
  caught
  taught
  naughty
  haughty
  daughter
  world
  heart
  every
  glory
  honor
  nation
  assist
  respect
  fortune

I caught the naughty boy and taught him a lesson. His daughter is
haughty. Can I do aught to assist you?

    To all the world I give my hand;
    My heart I give my native land,
    I seek her good, her glory;
    I honor every nation's name,
    Respect their fortune and their fame,
    But love the land that bore me.


    21

  pause
  cause
  clause
  daub
  Maud
  fraud
  haul
  fault
  vault
  piano
  garret
  comma
  bundle
  chamber
  scrubbed

  Add --en to dark, black, fright, sweet, smooth, moist, weak.

Should you pause at every comma? Read the clause again, Laura. A team
hauls a load of pianos. He caused Paul to close the vault. The giant
was a fraud. Wipe off that daub of paint. Was it Maud's fault? The
young daughter washed the dirty dishes and scrubbed the floors. She
swept the carpet in my lady's chamber. Her two elder sisters slept in
cosy feather beds, while she had some bundles of straw in the garret;
yet she bore all without finding fault.


    22

  bough
  plough
  lounge
  count
  fount
  mount
  coach
  stately
  ladder
  fancy
  magic
  hurried
  meant
  pumpkin
  Cinderella

  Join --ing to daub, mount, plough, hurry, count, scoop, hitch.

Do not lounge at the plough. Count the boughs on the oak. Mount the
ladder. A fount or spring of water. Cinderella hurried to the field
and brought back a huge pumpkin. She could not fancy what use it was
meant for. But the fairy scooped it out, then touched it with her
magic wand. At once it became a stately coach, beaming with gold and
bright colors. She found four mice caught in the trap. These were
changed into stout horses and hitched to the coach.


    23

  lief
  chief
  grief
  fiddle
  riddle
  griddle
  banjo
  until
  gruel
  polite
  amuse
  relieve
  shinny
  visitor
  entertain

  Write un-- with able, safe, just, true, load, fair, learn, tried.

I had as lief have a banjo as a fiddle. Do riddles amuse you? He ate
gruel and griddle cakes. Shinny is our chief game. Silent grief is
often deep. Always be polite to callers in your home. Should your
parents be absent or unable to see the visitors at once, offer them
chairs. Stand until they are seated. Try your best to entertain them
until some older person relieves you. Then leave the room quietly,
closing the door without noise. Be sure to pass behind, not in front
of persons.


    24 (REVIEW)

  chief
  coach
  fault
  fancy
  office
  banjo
  bundle
  nation
  health
  garret
  lounge
  wealth
  relieve
  shinny
  fiddle
  gruel
  thread
  plough
  visitor
  hurried
  naughty
  fortune
  chamber
  pumpkin
  daughter

The count's coach hurried to the office. I know what the visitor
sought in the bundle. A fiddle was lying on the garret lounge. Good
men are the nation's chief wealth. Plough the pumpkin field. Shinny
is healthy sport. It was that naughty boy's fault. His daughter's
banjo. I fancy a bowl of gruel. Fetch the thread from my lady's
chamber. I ought always to relieve my friends.


    25

  singe
  fringe
  ginger
  angel
  danger
  arrange
  orphan
  orchard
  coward
  sudden
  blunder
  thunder
  echo
  suffer
  account

  Add --es to sash, bush, porch, march, gas, press; as sash, sashes.
  Won't means will not; don't, do not; doesn't, does not.

Can't I exchange the blue shawl fringe for a lighter hue? Arrange to
have some ginger tea. Read the account of the orphan's sudden rise.
She sings like an angel. I suffer from twinges of pain. Won't the hot
iron singe the clothes? Yes, there is danger. How the thunder echoes!
Don't the cowards cringe with fear? Doesn't Ralph plough the new
orchard? By some blunder the fringe is tinged with red.


    26

  squat
  squash
  squall
  squint
  squirt
  squirm
  turnips
  parsnip
  parsley
  radish
  lettuce
  rhubarb
  sprays
  picture
  mixture

  Add --es to hatch, pass, hero, motto, tax, fix, negro. I've means I
  have; we've, we have; you'll, you will.

Take a picture of the dog as he squats on the floor. The bright
sunlight causes us to squint. You'll soon hear the baby's squalls.
The larger squashes grow near the turnips. We've tender lettuce and
rhubarb in the garden ready to use. I've sown parsley, radish, and
parsnip seed in the pumpkin field. Charles sprays the bushes. He
squirts the green mixture over the leaves. We've a rhubarb pie for
lunch. Eels squirm like snakes.


    27

  clench
  drench
  quench
  locket
  packet
  bucket
  scheme
  scholar
  schooner
  captain
  certain
  curtain
  ribbon
  bonnet
  monkey

  Add --es to echo, lash, six, crutch, church, match; as echo,
  echoes. It's or 'tis means it is; 'twas, it was; they'll, they will.

'Tis the captain of the schooner. 'Twas the crew's fault. My gold
locket. It's certain the scheme will cause some fun. A sailor
clenched his fist. The scholars hurry home. The rain pours down and
they'll be drenched. Quench the burning curtain with a bucket of
water. Post the packet of letters. Tie my ribbon. The angry monkey
tore the lady's bonnet.


    28

  Bertha
  Julia
  Louisa
  puddle
  huddle
  stubble
  real
  trial
  goal
  dizzy
  puzzle
  dazzle
  china
  facing
  closet

  Copy,--man, men; woman, women; gentleman, gentlemen; ox, oxen. E'er
  means ever; o'er, over; ne'er, never.

Bertha lies on the sofa. The baking soda is in a jar in the china
closet. A mud puddle. The chubby quail huddle close to each other,
facing outward. Western farmers burn their stubble before ploughing.
We won both goals. Louisa's coat is real seal. Try the puzzle. Make
two trials. Julia is dizzy; there is buzzing in her ears. My eyes are
dazzled. The muzzled bear is dancing. E'er be true; ne'er be false to
anyone. O'er the hill the sun is setting.


    29

  urge
  charge
  George
  Noah
  Sarah
  signed
  anvil
  forge
  shoeing
  charcoal
  oatmeal
  porridge
  glowing
  bellows
  hammer

  Copy,--foot, feet; tooth, teeth; goose, geese; mouse, mice; louse,
  lice; this foot; these feet; that mouse; those mice.

Noah was saved from the flood and stormy billows. Urge on the team.
George, the blacksmith, is shoeing the mare. Will he charge much? He
lights the forge with charcoal. Hear the bellows roar. Isn't the iron
glowing red? Yes, he hammers and shapes the shoes on the anvil. See
his tongs and big heavy sledge. We won't grudge the money. Porridge
is made from oatmeal. Sarah signed the pledge.


    30 (REVIEW)

  bonnet
  orphan
  ribbon
  curtain
  shoeing
  lettuce
  squalls
  sudden
  parsley
  George
  quench
  scheme
  monkey
  scholar
  porridge
  echoes
  puzzle
  coward
  radish
  captain
  'twas
  ne'er
  you'll
  won't
  doesn't

The orphan's bonnet has pretty ribbon. I've grown radishes, lettuce,
and parsley. A monkey's face. Half a bowl of porridge. Shoeing the
ponies. Why doesn't a scholar quench the blaze? 'Twas a coward's
scheme. Hear the echoes. The captain told queer tales. Of course I
won't. You'll work out the puzzle. So huge a squash on vine ne'er
grew. Sudden squalls of wind.


    31

  rouse
  blouse
  spouse
  quaint
  quince
  question
  circle
  cinder
  cistern
  centre
  decent
  cement
  William
  deserve
  answer

  Write un-- with clean, kind, seen, hook, tie, loose, furl. I'd
  means I would; e'en, even; shan't, shall not.

I'd rouse William. He's sleepy. He calls his wife 'spouse.' He
deserves praise. I shan't wear a blue silk blouse. Quinces are
somewhat like pears. My niece answers these questions. In the smoke
from the coal fire were many cinders. The cistern is eight feet deep.
The walls and floor are made of stone and cement. In the centre of
the circle are a few quaint but decent folk. Of course, I hear. We
told tales.


    32

  scum
  scuttle
  scarce
  notice
  recess
  vessel
  doctor
  excuse
  dismiss
  view
  raisin
  furnace
  surface
  surname
  surprise

  Write --ful and --less after pain, harm, joy, cheer, help, waste.
  Copy,--Mr. Hugh Lee lives on New Street. His house is No. 8.

Notice the scum on the surface of the pond. Wait at the creek. It is
useless to scold that scamp. There is scarcely a hair on his scalp.
The window screens. The furnace room. The coal scuttle. After recess
he ate some raisins. Will the teacher excuse a wrong answer? We
dismiss at four o'clock. The clear view was a great surprise. What is
the doctor's surname?


    33

  poured
  poultry
  shoulder
  court
  mould
  smoulder
  cider
  cipher
  recite
  senior
  junior
  period
  figure
  arrive
  pudding

  12 m. means noon; a.m., before mid-day; p.m., after mid-day, as 9
  a.m., 4 p.m. Sen., Senior; Jun., Junior.

I poured sauce over the pudding. Hugh's daughter is as high as my
shoulder. We've a coop for poultry. Birds and fowl moult. By the
court-house is a huge boulder. Mould two clay figures. A piece of
wood smoulders in the furnace. The senior scholars recite in an hour.
They arrive at 9 a.m. The juniors leave at 4 p.m. They dismiss us at
    12 m. Make a cipher or naught. Cider is made by crushing apples.


    34

  vein
  skein
  weigh
  Peter
  fever
  lever
  linen
  muslin
  chisel
  metal
  cocoa
  coffee
  Samuel
  tangled
  smother

  Write --er after play, mow, preach, print, paint, bank, mill, fish,
  sell. Add --en to short, tight, cheap, slack, thick.

Notice the veins in Peter's wrist. The heavy coat will almost smother
baby. Weigh the skein of tangled yarn. Iron is a useful metal. Rev.
Daniel Robb will preach on Sunday, 9th inst., at 11 a.m. and 7 p.m.
Samuel Johnson, Jun., was ill of fever. Dr. Brown uses cocoa and
coffee. The chisel and the strong lever are made of steel. I spoilt
my muslin dress and linen coat.


    35

  wreath
  wretch
  wriggle
  wring
  wrestle
  wrinkle
  object
  subject
  earnest
  aged
  ashore
  kindled
  drunken
  wrapped
  blanket

  N. stands for North; S., for South; E., for East; W., for West;
  N.E., North-East; S.W., South-West; St., Street.

A wreath of flowers. The drunken wretch had sunken eyes and a
wrinkled brow. I wring clothes. Sleigh bells tinkle. Boys wrestle.
Eels wriggle. Learn the object of the busy black ants. Study four
subjects. Aren't they in earnest? An Indian, his squaw, and his aged
mother crossed the river in a canoe. He tenderly lifted ashore the
old woman, wrapped in a blanket. Then he kindled a fire and cooked
some food for her.


    36 (REVIEW)

  blouse
  cinder
  quince
  centre
  answer
  view
  weigh
  metal
  skein
  lever
  wrestle
  junior
  cocoa
  wretch
  cipher
  doctor
  question
  cistern
  smother
  earnest
  Daniel
  wrinkle
  period
  circle
  poultry

Dr. Jolly is visiting an unhappy wretch. A cinder lodged in his eye.
Her blouse is wrinkled. Will you wrestle Daniel? He ciphers with the
juniors. Answer my question. Weigh the cocoa, John. The centre of
the cistern is a circle. A lever is made of metal. Let us view the
poultry. Pare the quinces. A skein of yarn. For a short period we
almost smothered.


    37

  berry
  cherry
  cherries
  suit
  fruit
  juice
  nectar
  number
  bumble
  honey
  perfume
  humming
  beauty
  quarrel
  blossom

  In berry, fly, baby, pony, story, city, change y to i and add --es.
  Use each word; as, One berry. Two berries.

Spring! The berry bushes are clothed in green. The fruit-trees,
cherry, apple, pear, and peach, have lovely white and pink suits.
They are full of perfume and beauty. Hear the humming sound made
by numbers of insects. See the honey-bees, bumble-bees, flies,
and wasps. They are feeding on nectar, the sweet juice within the
blossoms. Do bees often quarrel?


    38

  busy
  busily
  family
  owe
  tidy
  tiny
  debt
  doubt
  waist
  owner
  sower
  earning
  tongue
  shining
  bottom

  In busy, easy, lazy, happy, pretty, merry, change y to i and add
  --ly. Use each word; as, The busy bee. John works busily.

We owe each tidy, busy worker a great debt. A bee tumbles down to the
bottom of a flower. Here it reaches with tiny, shining tongue, the
clear, sweet nectar. It is busily storing up for its own family, and
no doubt earning money for its owner. But it is also doing another
and a greater work for us. Without the bee's help we should have few
juicy berries, apples, or pears. A sower sows the seed. The pail
leaks. A girl's waist.


    39

  pollen
  yellow
  gather
  drones
  spines
  inside
  cells
  peal
  fleas
  hairy
  pocket
  slender
  rubbed
  setting
  carried

  In easy, lazy, greedy, happy, merry, change y to i and add --er,
  --est; as, An easy chair. An easier chair. The easiest chair.

In the bee-hive is the comb of six-sided cells, made of wax. Bees
gather pollen, the yellow dust on the tiny, slender spines inside the
bloom. From this the workers make combs and bee-bread. The queen and
the lazy drones have no wax pockets. A bee pushes its head and hairy
body into a flower. Pollen clings to it and is carried into another
blossom. There it is rubbed off and the setting of fruit is sure.
Fleas bite dogs. Bells peal.


    40

  curly
  curve
  Arthur
  ruin
  bruin
  bruise
  butter
  cripple
  choking
  wound
  group
  croup
  crown
  shower
  drowsy

  In sky, candy, lily, copy, dolly, kitty, change y to i and add
  --es; as, The sky is blue. The skies are blue.

Arthur is an honest player. He is tired and drowsy. Emma's maid has
curly hair. Her eyebrows curve downward. The mail bag. Lilies are
fair to see. The maid sighs. Butter will ruin the maid's gown. Bruin
has a bruise on his nose and a cruel wound on his body. A group of
children watch the wounded bear. A cripple is choking with croup. The
sun's warm rays and summer showers will crown the fields with grain.


    41

  earth
  heard
  pearls
  aim
  ail
  aid
  cousin
  country
  courage
  whistle
  thistle
  bristle
  nestle
  glisten
  cottage

  In spy, party, poppy, pussy, change y to i and add --es; as, Is
  this a spy? Are these spies? Copy,--A steel pen.

I heard rain patter. A load of earth. Dew-drops glisten like pearls.
Aid cousin Anna. Her wrist is bruised. Aim to please. What ails the
children? The country air will cure the croup. Scotch thistles have
sharp points. Bristles are stiff hairs. Arthur is able to whistle a
tune. Have courage; be brave. The humble cottage nestles beside the
stately castle. Listen, I heard my cousin whistle.


    42 (REVIEW)

  ruin
  suit
  debt
  earns
  group
  cells
  busily
  curve
  juicy
  doubt
  easily
  drowsy
  glisten
  heard
  bruise
  pearls
  cousin
  owner
  courage
  thistle

Will the moist air ruin Lucy's suit? Does Thomas owe debts for coal?
Groups of drowsy children. These young bees work busily making
honey-cells. The pears are juicy. Arthur, no doubt, earns money
easily. We heard of cousin John's painful bruise. The thistle blossom
is light. Wear your necklace of pearls. The owner of the cottage
lives at the curve in the road. Courage! my boys, dare to do right.
The dew glistens.


    43

  arrow
  hollow
  swallow
  flown
  grown
  mown
  Stephen
  nephew
  cotton
  crayon
  yonder
  beyond
  staircase
  breakfast
  beefsteak

  In carry, fry, try, cry, dry, copy, change y to i and add --es,
  --ed; I carry wood. He carries wood. He has carried wood.

Like an arrow from a bow the swallow skimmed the grassy hollow. The
larks had flown before the mower had mown the field. Stephen, my
nephew, has shown us cotton, grown in the fields. See the chalk or
crayon marks on yonder cupboard beyond the staircase. I found some
cold beefsteak. After breakfast I slept an hour.


    44

  Ruth
  Susan
  Luke
  eaten
  squeal
  squeak
  fully
  bitten
  middle
  believe
  cabbage
  suitable
  cases
  cocoon
  wander

  In sheaf, shelf, half, wolf, calf, loaf, thief, change f to v and
  add --es; as, One leaf, Two leaves. Copy,--Weigh the bee-bread.

Ruth cleans the beans. Luke eats prunes. Mice squeak; pigs squeal.
Look at Susan's cabbage plants! A number of leaves have been eaten
off. Others have pieces bitten out. I believe this worm lying along
the middle of the leaf has done it. Others are climbing the stalk,
just the color of the cabbage. These worms, when fully grown, will
wander away. In some suitable place they will cover themselves with
little cocoons.


    45

  silken
  girdle
  almost
  dreary
  weaving
  creature
  higher
  flight
  unlike
  potted
  flitting
  sipping
  basking
  sunshine
  spinning

  In beauty, pity, mercy, fancy, change y to i and add --ful. In
  lazy, greedy, happy, pretty, change y to i and add --ness.

All the long, dreary winter the green worm sleeps in its silken
cocoon. This robe or girdle is made from its own spinning and
weaving. Later on, a beautiful white butterfly will appear. This
lovely creature with black-spotted wings is quite unlike the worm.
Soon it will be flitting about among the blossoms. It is almost
always sipping nectar and basking in the sunshine. It does not make
higher flights.


    46

  Ralph
  Joseph
  Philip
  sleigh
  weight
  neighbor
  couple
  double
  trouble
  parcel
  cancel
  celery
  attic
  music
  public

  In make, shine, have, tumble, store, close, curve, pile, drop e and
  add --ing; as, Make bread. Are you making bread?

Joseph is taking the trouble to pick us a couple of pecks of nice
pears. Double as many, or four pecks, is a whole bushel. Philip
weighs parcels of sugar. Cancel my order for raisins. I'm giving full
weight. Ralph is busy driving the sleigh. Wrap up some celery for our
neighbor's son. He studies music in the public school. Our house has
a higher attic. Horses neigh.


    47

  writing
  written
  scribble
  pupil
  stupid
  student
  niece
  pierce
  fierce
  shield
  priest
  shriek
  pawn
  fawn
  yawn

  In take, drive, choke, weave, cure, please, bruise, clothe, drop e
  and add --ing; as, He is taking a walk. Copy,--The sun's rays.

This student's writing is a mere scribble. Have the scholars written
their spelling? The pupils yawn. They feel sleepy and stupid. Shield
the little, spotted fawn. The fawn's mother is called a doe. Ella, my
niece, gave a piercing shriek. A fierce dog sprang at the doe. Don't
pawn your watch. The Indian chiefs believed the priest's words.


    48 (REVIEW)

  nephew
  swallow
  believe
  breakfast
  currants
  sheaves
  thieves
  stupid
  courage
  cabbage
  Philip
  chiefly
  beauty
  spotted
  creature
  Stephen
  pierce
  weight
  couple
  raisins
  celery
  written
  parcel
  squeak
  shriek

My nephew ate no breakfast. Stephen swallows the cabbage too hastily.
See the beautiful sheaves of wheat. Notice chiefly their hue and
weight. Thieves often lack courage. Shrieks pierce the air. Send
some celery and a couple of parcels of raisins and currants. The doe
and spotted fawn are not stupid creatures. Philip has written to our
nephew. New shoes squeak.


REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.

  able
  aged
  almost
  angel
  angry       5
  animal
  answer
  appear
  arrive
  arrow      10
  Arthur
  assist
  attic
  aught
  badge      15
  banjo
  beauty
  believe
  berries
  Bertha     20
  between
  beyond
  billow
  blanket
  blazing    25
  blossom
  blouse
  bonnet
  bottom
  bough      30
  bounce
  breath
  bridge
  bright
  brought    35
  bruise
  bucket
  built
  bumble
  bundle     40
  burst
  busily
  bustle
  cabbage
  calico     45
  candle
  captain
  carried
  castle
  caught     50
  cause
  celery
  cells
  cement
  centre     55
  certain
  chamber
  charcoal
  cheerful
  chief      60
  chisel
  chore
  chose
  cider
  cinder     65
  cipher
  circle
  cistern
  cities
  clause     70
  clench
  closet
  clothes
  cocoa
  cocoon     75
  coffee
  comma
  easier
  cottage
  cotton     80
  country
  couple
  courage
  court
  coward     85
  crayon
  crouch
  croup
  cube
  curtain    90
  cute
  dainty
  Daniel
  daub
  dazzle     95
  death
  debt
  dizzy
  doctor
  dodge     100
  doesn't
  double
  dreary
  drench
  drowsy    105
  eager
  earnest
  early
  earth
  easily    110
  echo
  edge
  every
  excuse
  facing    115
  family
  fancy
  fault
  fawn
  fellow    120
  fever
  fiddle
  fierce
  figure
  fleas     125
  flight
  flute
  forge
  fought
  fraud     130
  friend
  fright
  fringe
  furnace
  fruit     135
  garret
  gather
  George
  giant
  ginger    140
  girdle
  glisten
  glue
  goal
  graze     145
  grief
  grieves
  group
  grown
  grudge    150
  gruel
  halves
  haughty
  haul
  health    155
  heard
  heart
  heavy
  hollow
  honor     160
  hour
  huddle
  hurried
  Indian
  insect    165
  instead
  judge
  juice
  junior
  kettle    170
  kindle
  laugh
  lesson
  lever
  lief      175
  Louisa
  lounge
  magic
  mason
  metal     180
  meadow
  meant
  mince
  money
  mould     185
  monkey
  mower
  mown
  music
  nation    190
  native
  naughty
  nectar
  neighbor
  nephew    195
  niece
  notice
  oatmeal
  object
  office    200
  orphan
  ought
  ounce
  paddle
  parcel    205
  parsley
  pause
  pearls
  period
  Philip    210
  piano
  pictures
  pieces
  pierce
  pitiful   215
  plough
  polite
  pollen
  poplar
  poultry   220
  poured
  priest
  public
  pumpkin
  puzzle    225
  quaint
  quench
  question
  quiet
  quince    230
  quire
  raisins
  Ralph
  recess
  recite    235
  relieve
  rhubarb
  ribbon
  riddle
  robber    240
  rouse
  ruin
  Sarah
  scarce
  scuttle   245
  scheme
  scholar
  scour
  scrape
  season    250
  senior
  servant
  settler
  shoulder
  shriek    255
  shroud
  signed
  silent
  simple
  singe     260
  skein
  sledge
  sleigh
  smother
  slouch    265
  spied
  spouse
  squall
  squash
  squeak    270
  squint
  squirm
  steak
  stealth
  stubble   275
  student
  subject
  surface
  swallow
  suits     280
  swore
  tallow
  taught
  thief
  thistle   285
  threat
  tiny
  tongue
  trouble
  tulip     290
  twice
  unfurl
  unloose
  until
  urge      295
  vault
  vein
  village
  visitor
  view      300
  waist
  waste
  wealth
  weaving
  wedge     305
  weight
  whistle
  William
  world
  wound     310
  wrapped
  wreath
  wrestle
  wretch
  wriggle   315
  wring
  writing
  written
  yawn
  yellow    320



STANDARD III. JUNIOR.

GRADE 4.


    1

  guide
  guard
  guess
  lose
  whose
  bosom
  prove
  worse
  worry
  worthy
  worship
  worsted
  beggar
  ragged
  stagger

  Add --er to fat, red, in, rob, up, hot, wet; as, fatter. Notice the
  single vowel and the single consonant at the end of each word.

Guide the ragged beggar up the garret stair. He staggers. Whose
bundle of clothes is here? I cannot guess. Fierce dogs guard the
fruit. Fasten the bosom of your blouse. Did you lose any money? Don't
worry. The trouble might have proved worse. Dr. Lee wears a suit of
worsted. We worship the one living and true God. He is worthy of all
praise.


    2

  cedar
  cellar
  cigar
  crocus
  cleanse
  custom
  mayor
  mirror
  parlor
  sponge
  shovel
  gloves
  circus
  govern
  common

  Add --ed, --ing to shop, grin, stir, skip, chat, strap, sun, grip,
  mop; as, shopped, shopping.

The deep cellar has a cedar floor. Don't smoke cigars; the custom is
too common. The crocus is in bloom. A circus with a wild beast show
is coming here. The mayor governs the city. He has a dozen beautiful
doves. They hover round our cottage. The mirror in the parlor is of
plate glass. Shovel out the earth. Wear no gloves. Cleanse your hands
with a sponge.


    3

  auger
  August
  autumn
  saucer
  sausage
  laundry
  author
  caution
  auction
  limbs
  yield
  bored
  scarlet
  harvest
  crimson

  Write in full: Sun., Mon., Th., Fri., Sat.; as, Sunday. Aug.,
  August; Sept., September; Oct., October; Nov., November.

August and harvest have passed. October and autumn are here. The
leaves are scarlet, crimson, and yellow. Soon they will carpet the
ground, leaving the limbs and branches bare. The birds have flown
south. The fields now yield them no food. Who is the author of the
book? My linen is in the laundry. I bored holes with the auger. Cover
the fried sausage with a saucer. Buy with caution at the auction sale.


    4

  sorrow
  borrow
  furrow
  feather
  weather
  leather
  tough
  rough
  enough
  detain
  obtain
  remain
  people
  squirrel
  sparrow

  With --low put fel, mel, yel, wil, pil, fol, hol, tal, mal; as,
  fellow. Write other words in --low, --row, --dow; as widow.

The sparrow, woodpecker, and chickadee remain. But few others of the
feathered people can obtain enough to eat. The squirrels are busy
hiding away food in their narrow houses for the rough winter weather.
They pick to pieces the tough pine cones to obtain the seeds between
the scales. Borrow a neighbor's wheelbarrow. Plough deeper furrows
to-morrow. Our leather shoes. The widow's sorrow. I'll not detain you
long.


    5

  ferns
  herbs
  verse
  wonder
  perfect
  pattern
  observe
  servant
  pleasant
  merchant
  January
  February
  curious
  furious
  serious

  Dec. means December; Jan., January; Feb., February; Mar., March;
  Apr., April. Spring begins Mar. 21; Autumn, Sept. 21.

Winter! It is cloudy but pleasant weather. Snowflakes are quietly
falling. Observe the curious patterns. The wind often breaks their
frail points. Snow forms a perfect covering for the herbs and ferns.
The furious storm did serious damage. The servants were filled with
wonder. Merchants buy and sell. January and February are cold months.
Recite your verses on New Year's Day.


    6 (REVIEW)

  limbs
  yield
  herbs
  whose
  worry
  sponge
  cigar
  circus
  mirror
  enough
  guess
  serious
  people
  beggar
  furrow
  saucer
  perfect
  between
  weather
  autumn
  auction
  worsted
  squirrel
  pleasant
  February

Boughs are strong limbs. Don't yield to worry. Govern your temper.
I guessed whose circus he saw. Sponge off the cigar ashes from the
mirror. He ploughs an almost perfect furrow. Great swamps lie between
us. The beggar looks serious. The saucy squirrel eats from a saucer.
Autumn weather is pleasant enough. Our people will auction worsted
goods in February.


    7

  Daisy
  dairy
  mainly
  rainbow
  railroad
  sailboat
  wired
  pores
  fibres
  toward
  mustard
  custard
  explain
  contain
  breathing

  Add --ing to ask, add, farm, sell, print, chirp, shirk, whirl; as,
  asking. Notice the two consonants at the end.

The "Daily News" praised Daisy's courage. In the dairy we make
butter mainly. Hail the sailboat. See the arched rainbow toward the
south. The railroad fences are wired. Explain why mustard seed is
ground. I've a pailful of bait and two custard pies. The tired oxen
were nearly mired. The surface of a leaf contains small pores for
breathing. In the stalk are tough fibres or threads.


    8

  palm
  balm
  calm
  gnat
  gnaw
  bathe
  capsize
  allowed
  drowned
  canoe
  beaver
  healing
  borne
  divide
  purpose

  Add --ing to oil, bowl, seal, suit, cloud, aim, cook, boat; as,
  oil, oiling. Notice the two vowels before the last consonant.

Healing balm will cure the sores in the palm of your hand. We'll
bathe in the calm lake. My boat floats. Are we allowed to paddle
canoes? We might capsize and be drowned. The air is full of gnats
and flies. Beavers gnaw down trees and build storehouses. Trees have
boughs with leaves borne on the twigs. Hidden in the earth are the
roots, which divide into rootlets. Their main purpose is to obtain
food from the soil.


    9

  icy
  icing
  icicle
  argue
  value
  avenue
  eaves
  except
  through
  alarms
  annual
  beneath
  reckon
  timber
  lumber

  To set, skim, spot, hum, sip, snap, plug, add --ing; as, setting.
  To pat, dip, spin, blot, chop, skip, drum, add --er; as, patter.

Coasting down icy hills alarms me. Icicles hang from the eaves.
Spread icing over the cake. Oak is of great value. We wheel on the
avenue. We argued for and against it. Trunks of trees never grow
higher except through cutting off some lower boughs. New growth is
added just beneath the inner bark. Woodcutters observe these annual
rings and reckon the tree's age. Timber and lumber are scarce and
dear.


    10

  saddle
  peddle
  meddle
  reels
  beetle
  steeple
  syrup
  maple
  purple
  spruce
  balsam
  walnut
  molasses
  Tuesday
  Wednesday

  Add --ed, --ing to camp, dress, scald, lunch, track, clinch, thank,
  plough; as, camped, camping. Tues., Tuesday; Wed., Wednesday.

Don't meddle with pony's saddle and bridle. Peddle ice. The beetle
has curious wings. He prizes the flowers. The church steeple is
ninety feet high. The maple, beech, birch, alder, poplar, and walnut
lose their purple leaves every autumn. The pine, spruce, fir, cedar,
and balsam remain green. The sap of the sugar maple, when boiled,
yields syrup or molasses. Tuesday and Wednesday, the third and fourth
of February.


    11

  knit
  knot
  knob
  knack
  knock
  knuckle
  tempt
  prompt
  glimpse
  whittle
  prattle
  bubbles
  coarse
  hoarse
  uproar

  Add --ed and --ing to groan, cheer, fear, aim, spoil, thread, seat,
  pout, fool; as, groaned, groaning.

The knave has the knack of knitting quickly. The old knight kneels.
Cut the knot with a knife. He knocked the door knob with his knuckle.
Be prompt to do your duty. Tempt no one. We caught a glimpse of a
vessel afloat. The captain had coarse clothes and a hoarse voice.
Indians whittle. Hear the uproar. Babies prattle. We blew soap
bubbles on Wednesday.


    12 (REVIEW)

  knit calm bathe gnaw tempt borne fibres pores argue syrup divide
  walnut purple icicle balsam peddle hoarse knuckle glimpse Tuesday

I knit mitts. A walnut tree. Calm music quiets us. He argues in a
hoarse voice. We purpose using boughs of spruce and balsam for fires.
The dog gnaws the bone. He ate fibres of lean beef. Peddle maple
syrup. A purple ribbon tempts me to buy. We had a glimpse through a
glass of the pores of the skin. The long icicle was borne away. The
boys skinned their knuckles wiring stove pipes. Bathe my sore heel.


    13

  berth
  stern
  asters
  offer
  differ
  suffer
  lawyer
  lantern
  iceberg
  vowel
  trowel
  empire
  suppose
  support
  British

  Add --ing to hug, split, clap, flap, flag, wed, span, slam, jar,
  whir, whet; as, hugging, splitting.

Arrange the asters in vases. They differ in color. I prefer a berth
in the stern of the vessel. Icebergs float on the sea. Support the
tired mason. Does he suffer pain? I suppose he dropped his trowel.
Offer him a lantern. Uncle is a lawyer. The puppy tears the towel.
Name five vowels. Potters mould clay. Canada is the largest country
in America. In size it is one-third of the whole British Empire.


    14

  flirt
  shirk
  mirth
  stirred
  twirled
  thirsty
  angle
  jingle
  spangle
  ankle
  twinkle
  sprinkle
  pigeon
  dungeon
  luncheon

  Add --ed to stun, scrub, trip, brag, trim, tar, rip, club, fan,
  crop, spur, knit; as, stunned. Copy,--Scotland, Scotch.

The first of July is Canada's birthday. The flirt shirks duty. Mirth
is fun. I stirred a pailful of iced lemonade. I twirled about. The
pigeons bathe. Spangles glitter. Silver coins jingle. Stars twinkle.
Sprinkle roses. Luncheon is ready. We're hungry and thirsty. An ugly
dungeon. I sprained my ankle. An angle of the road. Great Britain is
the greatest empire in the world. 'Britons never shall be slaves.'


    15

  Turk
  turf
  lurch
  murmur
  turban
  disturb
  scuffle
  muffler
  shuffle
  musket
  muzzle
  union
  totter
  mutter
  stutter

  Add --ed, --ing to cheat, chat; root, rot; stoop, stop; chain, hem;
  as, cheated, chatted; cheating, chatting.

Turks are often cruel and savage. The creek murmurs under the grassy
turf. The boat lurched. Don't disturb the woman wearing the turban.
Boys scuffle. Take off your wool muffler. He stutters. Play a game of
authors. Shuffle the cards. The bridge totters. "Load the musket," he
muttered. A fierce dog wears a muzzle. One-fourth of the land surface
of the globe flies the Union Jack.


    16

  Adam
  human
  album
  capital
  several
  sentence
  enemy
  annoy
  employ
  enjoy
  royal
  loyal
  oysters
  destroy
  victory

  Add --ing, --ed to lock, blot; twist, fit; risk, dip; drift, ship;
  as, locking, blotting; locked, blotted. Copy,--England, English.

Madam's album contains several fine pictures. Do you enjoy eating
oysters? Enemies annoy me. Begin each sentence with a capital. Satan
is the enemy of the human race. He tempted Adam and Eve. 'Alfred
the Great' is a royal name. He was King of England many hundred
years ago; he taught his loyal people to read and write. The Danes
destroyed the English villages. The king offered battle and won a
great victory.


    17

  plaid
  plait
  hotel
  twelfth
  welcome
  welfare
  level
  nickel
  flannel
  ague
  fulfil
  skilful
  shepherd
  sandwich
  handsome

  Add --ed, --ing to sup, sob, wag, bag, wet, step, hum, spur.

A plain is a level stretch or tract of land. Braid your hair into a
plait. A Scotch plaid is a shawl or scarf woven in different colors.
The twelfth month. Skilful doctors differ. Muffle your throat with
flannel. At the hotel we bought a sandwich and coffee for a nickel.
Welcome the handsome shepherd. Look after his welfare. Fulfil my
wishes. I have fever and ague.


    18 (REVIEW)

  union
  fulfil
  angle
  ague
  plaid
  oyster
  scuffle
  loyal
  twirl
  ankle
  human
  jingle
  trowel
  pigeon
  enemy
  lawyer
  flannel
  thirsty
  welfare
  several
  skilful
  dungeon
  shepherd
  luncheon
  sandwich

The skilful shepherd suffers from ague. He wears flannel and a plaid.
The lawyer's ankles ached. We are loyal to the Union Jack. Several
thirsty boys. A sharp angle. Oyster soup. Wait until luncheon for
sandwiches. Twirl your thumbs. Sleigh bells jingle. A mason's trowel.
Pigeons coo. Fulfil your promise. Satan disturbs human beings. He
destroys the welfare of families. The king's enemy suffered in a
dungeon.


    19

  roam
  loam
  foamy
  whoa
  hoard
  soaring
  gallop
  gallon
  dreamt
  dealt
  wharf
  dwarf
  measure
  pleasure
  treasure

  Join all-- to so, most, ways, though, ready, one, mighty; as, also.
  Notice that 'all' drops one l. Copy,--Ireland, Irish.

The dwarf roams through the country for pleasure. He measures forty
inches high. He dealt in teas. The boats are by the wharf. The ponies
gallop. Shout, Whoa! The roan's mouth is foaming. The hawk is soaring
higher. I dreamt of hoarding up treasures. A soil of sandy loam. I
meant one gallon or four quarts. London in England is the greatest
city in the world.


    20

  crease
  greasy
  ceased
  jewel
  gravel
  anthem
  collect
  correct
  connect
  grizzly
  bargain
  fountain
  inquire
  request
  butcher

  Add --ish to blue, white, purple, self, girl, boy; as, bluish.

The butcher's gloves are greasy. His clothes are creased. My knitting
unravels. What a clean gravel road! Correct this sentence. Collect
their debts. Connect the two pieces. Elect a chairman. She offers
her jewels at a bargain. The fountain has ceased flowing. Inquire
the reason. In the Rocky Mountains there are giant cedars. In my
travels there I saw grizzly bears. At the Mayor's request, we sang
the National Anthem.


    21

  medal
  final
  bridal
  veil
  heir
  rein
  throne
  peace
  dying
  potato
  tomato
  buffalo
  tannery
  nursery
  creamery

  Add --y to gust, glass, cream, frost, curl, show; as, gusty. Add
  --ery to shrub, pot, slip, rob, pig, tan; as, tannery.

Canada is at peace with all nations. Our creamery butter won the gold
medal. The final match to-day. A horse's rein. The bride wears a
bridal veil. Edward, Prince of Wales, is heir to the throne. Nursery
tales may be bought for a quarter of a dollar. A loamy soil suits
potatoes. The tomatoes are smooth. The buffaloes are dying of thirst.
Leather is made in a tannery.


    22

  quill
  quiver
  quartz
  waltz
  knead
  dough
  Esther
  sword
  soldier
  temper
  temple
  granite
  expect
  attract
  factory

  Add --y to ease, breeze, slime, bone, rose, stone, smoke, shine,
  haste, mire, wire; as, breezy. Notice the final e is dropped.

A leaf quivers. Old Gray's mane. I rapped loudly. Find my quill pen.
Esther kneads the flour and yeast into dough for bread. The soldier's
sword and shield attract us. We expect the Captain to invite us. Our
factory is on the island. Play a waltz. He struck me on the temple. I
knew his ill-temper. There is quartz in granite rocks. The male bird
led the geese.


    23

  button
  mutton
  glutton
  pistol
  morsel
  nostril
  razor
  rascal
  pedlar
  nibble
  babble
  gabble
  accept
  offend
  defend

  Add --y to mud, fur, slop; and --ish to red, hog, thin; as, muddy;
  reddish. Notice the final consonant is doubled.

Pardon my firing off the pistol. Gluttons eat too much. The pedlar
sells buttons. An ill-bred rascal. Is it veal or mutton? He offended
me. His nostrils bleed. Punish wrongdoers. Defend your country.
Accept these red peppers. The razor is steel. Geese gabble. Chub
nibble at the bait. Don't babble so much. Ontario stretches farther
south than France. The king's throne.


    24 (REVIEW)

  heir
  peace
  sword
  veil
  dough
  waltz
  knead
  dwarf
  jewel
  dying
  pistol
  attract
  island
  ceased
  quiver
  accept
  rascal
  gallon
  request
  bargain
  soldier
  buffalo
  pleasure
  fountain
  creamery

"Peace on earth" the angel said. Cease waltzing. Soldiers wear
pistols and swords. Knead the dough. A gallon of syrup. A tied veil.
The fountain is near the creamery. I accept the buffalo robe with
pleasure. A hare's nostrils. A rascal attracts notice. A bargain in
jewels. Morsels of bread. A dying lawyer's request. The dwarf is heir
to the island. Poplar leaves quiver.


    25

  prison
  poison
  sermon
  equal
  brutal
  usual
  heaven
  forehead
  threaten
  comfort
  compass
  company
  valise
  sardine
  machine

  Add --en to lead, wax, flax, birch, wood, earth, wheat, oat, ash;
  as, leaden. Copy,--A pale maid kneads dough for bread.

Prisons and jails have few comforts. The bottle contains poison.
Brutal deeds. Equal in size. The preacher's forehead was high. He
spoke of heaven. As usual, the sermon was brief. Is your company
coming? Fetch my leather valise. I value my sewing-machine. The
needle of the compass points to the North Pole. December's skies
threaten hail. The mounted police. A dreary season. The polar seas. A
box of sardines.


    26

  rogue
  plague
  fatigue
  pastor
  favor
  humor
  ghost
  yolk
  balky
  bullet
  pulley
  pulpit
  rifle
  warble
  walrus

  Place un-- before do, lock, dress, veil, seat, fold, hinge, twine,
  clasp; as undo. Copy,--On the road are boughs and knotty wood.

The rogue is tricky but good-humored. He requests a favor, a loan
of a hickory stick. Thieves plague us. The rope passes through the
pulley. The pastor of the church is fatigued. His pulpit is of carved
walnut. The mules were balky. Rifle bullets are of lead. A ghost
story. Eat the yolks of eggs. Birds warble. An Eskimo dresses in furs
of the seal, walrus, or white bear.


    27

  onion
  million
  opinion
  error
  errand
  harbor
  ivory
  history
  horrid
  Olive
  parasol
  seldom
  region
  fashion
  cushion

  Put dis-- before like, please, grace, place, cover, agree, lodge,
  obey, appear; as dislike. Copy,--The sewing girl sews a seam.

Millions of onions are grown in light soil. Olive seldom offers an
opinion on any question. She makes few errors. I go on errands. Touch
lightly the white ivory keys. Your parasol is quite in fashion. The
cushion is lying on the lounge. Several steamboats made the harbor.
Do you read history? That horrid wretch. The Eskimo dwell in the
frozen regions. Their reindeer live on moss.


    28

  donkey
  jockey
  volley
  alley
  chimney
  turkey
  turtle
  curdle
  current
  nettle
  brittle
  tattle
  hostler
  hustled
  freckled

  Add --s to day, play, key, turkey, jay, monkey, boy, joy, alley,
  toy, way; as, days. Notice the vowel before y.

Two jockeys rode the prize donkeys. Fire two volleys up the valley.
I lent four dozen alleys. Chimneys are built of brick and mortar.
Turkeys are dear. He sees a turtle caught. The current of the river
is rapid. The milk curdles. The crowd hustled the thief along. A
freckled face. Nettles scratched his palms. A hostler stayed at our
hotel. Don't tattle. Hickory is not brittle wood. Goats graze in the
lane.


    29

  journey
  nourish
  flourish
  carrot
  beckon
  buckle
  baggage
  engine
  endure
  civil
  citron
  citizen
  belief
  mischief
  kerchief

  Add --ful (full) to fear, harm, trust, shame, truth, fright, grace;
  as, fearful. Copy,--A well-bred youth won the medal.

Boiled carrots nourish calves. Reckon the cost of your journey. Palm
trees flourish in the south. Buckle my straps. Our friends beckon to
us. The baggage is checked. I build steam-engines. I can't endure
liars. This soldier prays every day. He is civil and polite to the
citizens. Do no mischief. It is my belief that the thief carried off
the citron in his handkerchief.


    30 (REVIEW)

  belief
  usual
  ivory
  valise
  alley
  ghost
  onion
  guest
  equal
  citizen
  sermon
  fatigue
  poison
  seldom
  plague
  heaven
  parasol
  engine
  compass
  current
  machine
  journey
  opinion
  chimney
  mischief

She carries a parasol. Poisons usually kill. The heavens are the
higher regions. A muddy stream seldom has a strong current. Our
guest's valise. An ivory-handled knife. Sermons on our belief.
A narrow alley. Long journeys fatigue me. A knitting machine. A
sailor's compass. The hostler plagues me. His good-humor and mischief
amuse the citizens. A toy engine. My friend grows onions and citrons.
Be civil children.


    31

  parrot
  ballot
  balloon
  ascend
  descend
  lecture
  erect
  direct
  expect
  tassel
  stirrup
  rescue
  pursue
  avenue
  continue

  Add --less to law, sleep, cease, leaf, shoe, smoke, dust, cloud.

The parrot says "Pretty Polly." Vote by ballot. We ascend in a
balloon. The guide directs us. We intend to descend in half an hour.
Stand erect. He expects to lecture. My cushions have tassels. The
saddle has stirrups. Hounds pursue the hare. A team of balky ponies
on our avenue drew a crowd of people. Continue to improve. Rescue us
from being drowned. Jacob and Esau were the sons of Isaac. Rachel was
Joseph's mother.


    32

  awful
  awkward
  awning
  grumble
  thimble
  ramble
  oblige
  refuge
  college
  package
  passage
  message
  choir
  chorus
  anchor

  Add --en to wide, white, like, straight, bright, broad, light; as,
  widen. Copy,--I need a whole bundle of tracts here.

An awful example. We sought refuge in a narrow passage, under an
awning. The package is awkward to carry. Oblige me by taking this
message. The student rambles about the college grounds. Esther
grumbles over her sewing. Her thimble is too large. I'll sing the low
bass notes. Join in the chorus. The ship's anchor is heavy. The value
of Canada's wheat, cheese, and cattle increases rapidly each year.


    33

  myth
  hymn
  lynx
  Egypt
  gypsy
  system
  mimic
  comic
  frolic
  antic
  picnic
  cambric
  violet
  violin
  violent

  Add --er to bake, bathe, bite, write, smoke, vote, poke; as, baker.
  Copy,--Ring the bells. The church bell tolled slowly.

Myths are strange stories. The lynx is a cousin of the tiger. Sing
hymns, not comic songs. The parrot mimics my voice. The black-eyed
gypsy tells fortunes cleverly. Play the violin gently not violently.
Smell the odor of violets. What system of writing are you taught?
Watch the antics of the young bears as they frolic in their den. A
cambric handkerchief was tied in knots at the picnic.


    34

  type
  style
  rhyme
  ceiling
  receive
  deceive
  either
  neither
  column
  gospel
  gossip
  gosling
  tomb
  ostrich
  purchase

  Put --'s after turkey, donkey, company, army, fly; as, The fly's
  wing. Copy,--A steel knife. The brakes creak.

Purchase the nursery rhymes printed in large type. Either style will
suit. Gossips tattle idly. The ceiling is high. I received neither
the ribbon nor the ostrich feather. Doesn't he deceive you? Add the
column of figures. A gosling is a young goose. 'Gospel' means good
news. Richard, the Lion Heart, was a brave knight. He fought the
Turks in the Holy Land to rescue from them the sacred tomb of our
Lord.


    35

  idea
  eagle
  measles
  total
  profit
  secret
  ocean
  voyage
  truant
  prosper
  whisper
  whisker
  Canadian
  guardian
  Christian

  Add --er to cut, dig, chop, chat; as, cutter. Add --y to knot, fat,
  sun, star, spot, wit; as, knotty. Copy,--Hurrah for Santa Claus and
  Christmas! The doe's fawn. New Year's Eve.

Eagles are birds of prey. I have an idea that the children have
measles. The beaver is a Canadian emblem. Kittens have whiskers. The
truant whispers a secret to his guardian. Many merchants prosper.
Their total profits increase. Our forefathers came from Christian
countries. Their ocean voyage required several weeks.


    36 (REVIEW)

  idea
  gypsy
  type
  picnic
  hymn
  rescue
  tassel
  ceiling
  ascend
  parrot
  chorus
  oblige
  awful
  anchor
  college
  secret
  violet
  truant
  rhyme
  violin
  frolic
  total
  eagle
  ocean
  column

A gypsy's idea. We need faith and courage. The hymns, rhymes, and
choruses are in small type. Lambs frolic. Rescue the bitten parrot.
The descent was awful. The ocean steamer is a total wreck. Oblige
me by singing a college song at the picnic. The truant watches the
eagle. Our secret thoughts. The columns ascend to the ceiling of the
tomb. My parasol has a violet tassel. We received a message to weigh
anchor.


    37

  jostle
  bustle
  gristle
  chatter
  shatter
  shutter
  gamble
  nimble
  rumble
  release
  increase
  decrease
  salad
  salary
  banana

  Add --ish to snap, style; fat, rogue; pet, slave; red, ape; hog,
  blue; as, snappish, stylish. Copy,--Don't stare at the nun's veil.

The pupils wrestle and jostle each other. Try the lettuce salad. He
bustles off to close the shutters. There is gristle in the beefsteak.
Will the price of bananas increase or decrease? Monkeys chatter.
Their fingers are active and nimble. Heavy wagons rumble along the
road. Does thunder shatter window-panes? Release the prisoner. He
moans and groans. He loses money by gambling. The honest youth wears
stylish clothes. His salary is paid weekly.


    38

  deny
  reply
  supply
  chequers
  chestnut
  chipmunk
  burly
  furled
  sturdy
  occur
  fluid
  bacon
  process
  success
  subtract

  Add --ing, --es, --ed, to pity, copy, deny, reply, study, supply;
  as, pitying, pities, pitied. Copy,--A baby's shoe.

A burly butcher supplies our bacon. Can you subtract? I'll explain
the process. The sturdy boy denies throwing chestnut burs. It often
occurs. I'm chuckling over my success at chequers. Please reply by
next mail. Beef teas are fluid. The chipmunk has stripes on its back
and pouches in its cheeks. He unfurled the Union Jack. Busy until
recess.


    39

  copper
  cobbler
  toddler
  tingle
  mingle
  shingle
  jangle
  wrangle
  bungled
  scorn
  scoff
  scowl
  address
  express
  possess

  Add --ing, --es, --ed, to spy, pry, bury, marry, hurry, worry; as,
  spying, spies, spied. Copy,--Our family's name.

Don't linger any longer. My fingers tingle with cold. Wait for the
wee toddler. The maid's proud gait. Men jangle and wrangle over such
trifles. Value this bungled piece of work. Two foul creeks mingle.
Shingle the roof. The copper kettle. The cobbler sews shoes. He
should scorn to beg. Don't scoff, or scowl at beggars. Doesn't he
possess great wealth? Send the parcel by express to my address.


    40

  novel
  hovel
  panel
  rocket
  bucket
  bracket
  slipper
  blister
  distress
  perfect
  permit
  perform
  repeat
  defeat
  retreat

  Add --ing, --s, --d, to die, tie, lie, hie, as dying, dies, died.
  Copy,--The enemy's camp. A lady's veil.

In these hovels the women are almost always reading novels. Paint a
perfect panel. The rockets ascend and burst. An oaken bucket or pail.
Fasten the bracket with a nail. A pair of leather slippers. Blisters
may cause much distress. Permit me to repeat the tale. Perform
gracefully. Their army suffered defeat. Many soldiers perished in the
retreat.


    41

  alter
  halter
  reward
  squad
  squib
  esquire
  tether
  whether
  together
  insult
  result
  sultry
  dictate
  imitate
  separate

  Add --ing, --s, --ed to pay, say, lay; as, paying, pays, paid; and
  --ly, to gay, day, as gaily. Copy,--He sees leeks in the lane.

Alter the figures. What is the result? What reward does Thomas Johns,
Esquire, offer? See the squads of soldiers drilling. Don't insult our
friends. Make a squib of this firecracker. A sultry Tuesday. Tie this
rope to the horse's halter. Tether him to the stake. Imitate Paul's
groan. Dictate loudly. I don't know whether they board together or in
separate cottages.


    42 (REVIEW)

  chatter
  gamble
  dictate
  rumble
  gristle
  reply
  occur
  salad
  bacon
  fluid
  linger
  scowl
  jangle
  cobble
  novel
  banana
  possess
  defeat
  esquire
  wrangle
  whether
  increase
  subtract
  success
  separate

My teeth chatter. A dog chews tough gristly meat. Have some bacon
or salad. It won't occur again. A train rumbled past. Try a banana.
Fluids flow easily. Choose a novel. Subtract ninety. Squire Hughes
lingers a moment. The cobblers separate. The miners jangle and
wrangle as they gamble. One chuckles, the other scowls. Increase the
learning you now possess. Sometimes defeat has led to success.


    43

  engage
  carriage
  marriage
  serge
  gauze
  sieve
  whoop
  giggle
  wiggle
  aisle
  brake
  script
  trustee
  prosper
  tobacco

  Copy,--due, duly; true, truly; whole, wholly.

The trustees have engaged a teacher. The carriage has a brake to
check its speed. Don't crowd in the aisle of the church to see the
marriage. May they prosper. Boys whoop. Girls giggle. Read the words
in script. Make screens of thin gauze. Use a coarse sieve. Your serge
suit smells of tobacco. Eels squirm and wiggle. Yours truly. Duly
paid. Wholly evil.


    44

  abuse
  accuse
  refuse
  funeral
  murder
  further
  bury
  coffin
  hearse
  edging
  stingy
  bleach
  elegant
  elephant
  alphabet

Never abuse dumb animals. We accused him of stealing. He refused to
talk further about the murder. Bury the dead. A plain coffin. The
black hearse. Tying his shoe. The edging is torn. A stingy quart. The
cotton is bleached. The elephant's figure is not elegant or graceful.
Repeat the whole alphabet.

    Dare to do right! Dare to be true!
    The failings of others can never save you;
    Stand by your duty, your honour, your faith,
    Stand like a hero and battle till death.--_Wilson._


    45

  cough
  trough
  depth
  length
  strength
  breadth
  injure
  minute
  promise
  declare
  prepare
  compare
  pious
  famous
  nervous

My clerk is cheerful but pious. A cough makes me nervous. Famous
doctors. Promise to prepare. Under the eaves is a zinc trough. Don't
injure your health. Compare answers. The judge will declare the
result in a minute. The length and breadth are equal.

    All hail to the broad-leaved Maple!
    With her fair and changeful dress,
    A type of our youthful country,
    In its pride and loveliness.


    46

  coins
  noisy
  loiter
  voice
  rejoice
  appoint
  acre
  agent
  crate
  soul
  choir
  reign
  instant
  distant
  station

Collect old coins. King George reigns. The noisy freight train. A
distant station. The busy agent sells crates of choice wares. He
doesn't loiter an instant. Half an acre. Appoint the hour. The choir
sang a hymn. I rejoice to hear that the ointment will heal your
wound. The clothes were washed, wrung out, then dried on the smooth
beach. Tow the boat. Choose an awl. There is constant pain in my
eyes.


    47

  desire
  retire
  advise
  advice
  decide
  excite
  pitcher
  catcher
  hatchet
  repair
  rowdy
  memory
  anxious
  plumber
  umbrella

  Add --ing, --d, to dye, singe, eye, toe, hoe, shoe, canoe; as,
  dyeing, dyed; toeing, toed. Dyeing the cloth red.

The pitcher is excited. The catcher desires to retire. The team is
anxious. Give the rowdy some good advice. His memory fails him. The
plumber advises me. I decided to buy a hatchet. Repair my umbrella.


    48 (REVIEW)

  acre
  soul
  coin
  sieve
  choir
  serge
  aisle
  brake
  bury
  gauze
  bogus
  whoop
  hearse
  accuse
  trough
  injure
  nervous
  loiter
  anxious
  plumber
  minute
  tobacco
  breadth
  marriage
  elephant

An acre of land for a burying ground. The soul never dies. A sieve
to sift flour. A cloak of blue serge. The choir march up the aisle.
Indians whoop. Apply the brakes. Don't touch poison-ivy. A thin gauze
covers the glass hearse. We accuse the plumber of using bogus coin.
Tobacco injures the health. Drive the calves from the trough. We rode
the elephant. For some minutes we were nervous. The breadth of the
field. I loitered to view the marriage.


    49

  motor
  liquor
  police
  justice
  goblet
  brooch
  social
  special
  christen
  attempt
  hearsay
  farewell
  exercise
  examine
  example
  scramble
  eyesight
  fortnight
  bedstead
  headache
  multiply
  arithmetic
  lonesome
  good-bye

  Write in a short sentence each word in these columns. Use properly
  in sentences each of the following: too, knows, here, their, new,
  write, wring, pair, fore, buy, blew, road, aunt, cent.

    Canada, Canada, land of the Maple,
    Queen of the forest, and river, and lake;
    Open thy soul to the voice of thy people,
    Close not thine heart to the music they make.--_Reade._



RULES.


  1. The letters _f_, _l_, or _s_ at the end of words of one syllable
  and after a single vowel are usually double; as, muff, ball, grass.

  2. Words ending in _e_ usually drop it on adding _ing_ or any other
  suffix beginning with a vowel; as, come, coming; bride, bridal;
  love, lovable.

  3. Words of one syllable, and words accented on the last syllable,
  if they end in a single consonant with a single vowel before it,
  usually double the final consonant on adding _ing_, _ed_, or any
  other suffix beginning with a vowel; as, rob, robbed; mad, madden;
  admit, admitting; begin, beginner.

  4. Words in _y_ with a consonant before it usually change the _y_
  into _i_ when a suffix not beginning with _i_ is added; as, cry,
  cries, crying.

  5. The apostrophe (') is used to indicate the omission of one or
  more letters; as, didn't for did not; can't for cannot; let's, let
  us; I'm, I am; you're, you are; isn't, is not.


REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.

  accept
  accuse
  acre
  address
  aisle
  alley
  alphabet
  anchor
  ankle
  annual
  10

  anxious
  argue
  arithmetic
  ascend
  attempt
  auction
  auger
  August
  author
  autumn
  20

  avenue
  awkward
  awful
  awning
  baggage
  balky
  balloon
  balm
  balsam
  banana
  30

  bargain
  bathe
  bedstead
  belief
  beneath
  borne
  bosom
  breadth
  bridal
  brittle
  40

  brooch
  buffalo
  brutal
  butcher
  calm
  cambric
  canoe
  capital
  capsize
  carriage
  50

  caution
  ceiling
  cellar
  chestnut
  chimney
  choir
  chorus
  christen
  Christian
  Christmas
  60

  circus
  cleanse
  citizen
  coarse
  college
  column
  compass
  continue
  cough
  creamery
  70

  crease
  curious
  current
  curtain
  cushion
  custom
  dealt
  deceive
  descend
  dictate
  80

  divide
  dough
  drowned
  dungeon
  dwarf
  eaves
  either
  elephant
  enemy
  engine
  90

  English
  enough
  equal
  error
  example
  except
  excite
  exercise
  eyesight
  fatigue
  100

  feather
  February
  flannel
  flourish
  forehead
  fortnight
  fuel
  fulfil
  funeral
  furious
  110

  gamble
  gauze
  ghost
  glimpse
  gnaw
  good-bye
  gristle
  grizzly
  guardian
  guessed
  120

  guest
  guide
  gypsy
  handsome
  headache
  hearsay
  heaven
  heir
  hoard
  hoarse
  130

  horehound
  hostler
  humor
  hustled
  hymn
  iceberg
  icicle
  imitate
  injure
  ivory
  140

  jewel
  journey
  justice
  kerchief
  knead
  knit
  knock
  knots
  knuckle
  laundry
  150

  lawyer
  liquor
  loiter
  lonesome
  luncheon
  lynx
  machine
  marriage
  mayor
  measles
  160

  measure
  medal
  meddle
  merchant
  message
  million
  minute
  mirror
  mischief
  molasses
  170

  morsel
  muffler
  multiply
  muzzle
  myth
  neither
  nickel
  nimble
  nostril
  oblige
  180

  occur
  ocean
  onion
  opinion
  ostrich
  oysters
  palm
  parasol
  parrot
  peddle
  190

  pedlar
  people
  picnic
  pigeon
  pistol
  plague
  plaid
  plait
  pleasant
  plumber
  200

  poison
  police
  possess
  potato
  prompt
  pulley
  pulpit
  purchase
  purpose
  pursue
  210

  quartz
  quiver
  rascal
  razor
  receive
  refuge
  region
  reign
  reins
  rejoice
  220

  request
  rescue
  rhyme
  roam
  rogue
  rough
  royal
  saddle
  salad
  salary
  230

  sandwich
  sardine
  saucer
  sausage
  scramble
  script
  scuffle
  secret
  seldom
  sentence
  240

  separate
  serious
  several
  shepherd
  shovel
  sieve
  skilful
  soaring
  social
  soldier
  soul
  special
  sponge
  squirrel
  stirrup
  255

  subtract
  success
  sword
  syrup
  system
  tassel
  temple
  tempt
  thimble
  thrones
  through
  tobacco
  together
  tomb
  tough
  270

  toward
  treasure
  trough
  trowel
  Tuesday
  twinkle
  union
  until
  usual
  valise
  veil
  victory
  violent
  voice
  volley
  285

  voyage
  weather
  Wednesday
  welcome
  welfare
  wharf
  whether
  whose
  worship
  worsted
  wrangle
  yeast
  yield
  yolk
  zinc
  300

    Thy choicest gifts in store
    On him be pleased to pour,
    Long may he reign!
    May he defend our laws,
    And ever give us cause
    To sing with heart and voice,
        God save the King.



PRONOUNCE.


  NOTE.--See that the italicized letters are distinctly pronounced.

  acorn, ā´korn
  acts, ak_t_s
  again, a gen´
  alder, a̤l´dėr
  always, a̤l´wāys
  alms, ämz
  ant, ant
  any, en´ni
  apron, ā´prun
  asked, as_k_t
  aunt, änt
  balm, bäm
  bath, bäth
  baths, bäTHz
  bathe, bāTH
  beard, bērd
  burst, bėrst
  calf, käf
  calm, käm
  can't, känt
  catch, k_a_ch
  creek, krēk
  crept, krep_t_
  dance, dans
  daub, da̤b
  daunt, da̤nt
  deaf, def
  dew, dū
  dost, dust
  duke, dūk
  duly, dū´li
  e'er, ār
  elm, elm
  err, er
  every, ev´ėr-i
  fluid, flṳ´id
  food, föd
  for, for
  from, from
  gape, gāp
  God, god
  grimy, grī´mi
  half, häf
  halve, hav
  haunt, ha̤nt
  helm, helm
  hoist, h_oi_st
  hoof, höf
  idea, ī-dē´a
  ivory, ī´vōri
  just, j_u_st
  kept, kep_t_
  laugh, läf
  leapt, lēp_t_
  length, len_g_´th
  lief, lēf
  loam, lōam
  loose, lös
  lose, löz
  moth, moth
  new, nū
  niche, nich
  none, nun
  oaths, ōTHz
  of, ov
  often, of´n
  orphan, or´-phan
  oven, uv´n
  palms, päms
  peril, per´il
  piano, pi-ä´no
  plaid, plād
  plait, plāt
  poem, pō´em
  pretty, prit´i
  psalm, säm
  quoit, koit
  quoth, kwoth
  real, rē´al
  resin, rez´in
  rinse, rins
  roof, röf
  said, sed
  salve, säv
  several, sev´ėr-al
  sewer, sū´er
  shrub, s_h_rub
  since, sins
  sixth, siks_th_
  sleek, slēk
  soot, söt
  suit, s_ū_t
  syrup, sir´up
  taunt, ta̤nt
  teat, tēt
  tepid, tep´id
  tiny, tī´ni
  tulip, tū´lip
  with, wiTH
  yeast, yēst

  Fāte, fa̤ll, fär, fat; mē, met, hėr; pīne, pin, nōte, not, möve;
  tübe, tub, bṳll; TH, _th_en, th, _th_in; oil, chain.



STANDARD III. SENIOR.

GRADE 5.


    1

  halve
  salve
  salmon
  almonds
  quality
  quantity
  squander
  squabble
  tenant
  vacant
  gallant
  remnant
  balance
  distance
  instance
  substance

  Add --ing to lose, line, lace, pare, idle, leave, ache; as, losing.

Apply salve to the gallant soldier's sore eyes. He halved the citron
in an instant. Divide the almonds. Don't squander your substance
or earnings. Our tenants paid the balance due. The cottage is some
distance off. Squabbling, for instance, hinders quiet work. The
remnant of the serge is of choice quality. Great quantities of salmon
are caught in the Fraser.


    2

  ulcer
  cancer
  grocer
  officer
  famine
  imagine
  heroine
  medicine
  primary
  library
  contrary
  burglary
  guidance
  grievance
  entrance
  hindrance

  Add mis-- to step, state, spell, spend, sent, shaped; as, misstep.

A primary pupil's guidance was welcome. The burglary at the grocer's
puzzles me. A narrow, misshapen entrance to the library will prove
a serious hindrance. Contrary to orders, the officer misspent the
money. He gulped a dose of acid medicine. Don't misspell common
words. She imagines herself a heroine. The India famine. The knight's
grievance. Cancers and ulcers are diseased growths.


    3

  altar
  almanac
  alderman
  balcony
  warrior
  warrant
  warfare
  war-whoop
  alms
  isles
  phases
  phrases
  tedious
  various
  bilious
  studious

  Add --ing, --es, and --ed to empty, reply, marry, bury, study,
  supply, defy, satisfy; as, emptying, empties, emptied.

The warrior knelt at the altar. The tedious warfare had wearied
him. The almanac foretells the moon's various phases. What ails the
studious scholar on the balcony? Merely a bilious headache. I bade
him total the column. I'm satisfied with the supplies. Phrases are
not sentences. Isles in the ocean. An Indian's war-whoop. Elect an
alderman. Asking alms is begging.


    4

  fertile
  sterile
  hostile
  reptile
  badger
  cudgel
  burrow
  burial
  merely
  anxiety
  nuisance
  riddance
  lattice
  poultice
  crevice
  liquorice

  Join --ing to upset, begin, forget, omit, prefer; as, upsetting.

Poultice your sore throat. Liquorice relieves a cough. I ate oyster
patties. Huge ants crept through the crevice. Alter the lattice
porch. His enemies, trudging along with heavy cudgels, looked very
hostile. He brews ale or beer from malt. The soil is not fertile,
but sterile, fit merely for a burial ground. I relieved a lawyer's
anxiety about his collie. Are lizards reptiles? We made a riddance of
the badgers. Their burrows were a nuisance.


    5

  honest
  exhort
  exhibit
  exhaust
  stomach
  monarch
  vinegar
  vineyard
  plumage
  foliage
  drainage
  advantage
  barrier
  carrier
  terrier
  furrier

  Put dis-- before honest, loyal, proved, agreed, lodge, quiet,
  honor, credit, figure, own; as, dishonest.

The Monarch of Great Britain and Ireland. Italy has many vineyards.
The mail-carrier exhorts us to be honest. I'm exhausted by climbing
the barrier. Farmers know the advantage of tile drainage. The furrier
exhibits an Irish terrier. Vinegar disagrees with my stomach. Parrots
of gayest plumage flew through the dense foliage.


    6 (REVIEW)

  isle
  salve
  altar
  grocer
  vacant
  honest
  foliage
  exhaust
  anxiety
  furrier
  phrases
  nuisance
  terrier
  library
  stomach
  exhibit
  riddance
  almonds
  poultice
  medicine
  vineyard
  squabble
  grievance
  hindrance

Grocers sell teas, coffees, spices, almonds, but not salves or
medicines. The furrier exhibits a lynx. Thieves are dishonest. In the
library the owner of the vineyard aired his grievance. The thorny
brambles and thick foliage were hindrances. The Scotch terrier knows
the mail-carrier's knock. A weak stomach causes anxiety. Poultice my
thumb. Buried in a sacred isle.


    7

  starry
  scarred
  giraffe
  lacrosse
  bargain
  chieftain
  scaffold
  stubborn
  vague
  league
  plague
  brogue
  gallery
  slippery
  millinery
  machinery

  Copy,--A baby's brooch. I bought two ladies' brooches. A lady's
  blouse. Ladies' blouses for sale. Enemies' camps.

The rogue used Irish brogue. Slippery stairs led to the gallery. I'm
captain of the lacrosse team in the junior league. The starry skies.
Ladies' millinery is often expensive. The Scottish chieftain was a
stubborn fighter. He had a vague idea of escaping the scaffold. The
giraffe is scarred with wounds. A plague of gnats and flies. The
machinery was sold at a bargain.


    8

  credit
  summit
  culprit
  benefit
  severe
  severity
  persevere
  interfere
  piety
  nicety
  gimlet
  eaglet
  delicate
  intimate
  fortunate
  porcupine

  Copy,--A jockey's horse. Two jockeys' horses. A donkey's travels.
  Monkeys' tricks. Donkeys' ears.

Moderate supplies will not satisfy the eaglets on the rocky summit. A
porcupine's quill pierced the unfortunate culprit's thigh. Persevere
in boring the hole; but don't interfere with my gimlet. The severe
weather will benefit my niece. Notice the nicety of their speech and
the piety of their intimate friends. High ceilings. A hart is a male
deer. A fierce boar chased Ernest.


    9

  frolic
  traffic
  elastic
  electric
  crystal
  mystery
  bicycle
  tricycle
  cleanly
  heather
  cunning
  lullaby
  inferior
  superior
  interior
  exterior

  Copy,--Men's and boys' overcoats. Women's parasols. Girls' waists.
  Infants' wraps. A turkey's feather. Turkeys' wings.

The exterior and the interior of the engine are polished. Most
babies' eyes look cunning. A sweet lullaby. I prefer a bicycle to a
tricycle. An elastic band disappeared in the frolic. The electric
light is a mystery. Employ cleanly and superior servants. Freight
traffic is heavier. Dye the arrows red. Ewes graze in the meadows.
Heather is purple. Water, clear as crystal.


    10

  crackle
  shackle
  chuckle
  speckled
  lynch
  syringe
  patient
  quotient
  agreed
  indeed
  proceed
  succeed
  familiar
  peculiar
  horizon
  horizontal

  Add --d, --ing to glide, disable, glance, grudge, provoke, tremble,
  trickle, trifle, trudge; as, glided, gliding.

He agreed to proceed slyly. Shackle the prisoner. The torch is
crackling. Use the syringe. He chuckles as he buckles the harness.
His eyes seem familiar but his walk or gait is peculiar. The horizon
seems ablaze. Negroes are sometimes lynched in the Southern States.
Horizontal beams. Be patient, the quotient is correct.


    11

  preface
  surface
  retrace
  embrace
  bureau
  biscuit
  ketchup
  moustache
  knoll
  knavish
  increase
  decrease
  vagrant
  fragrant
  stagnant
  ignorant

  Join --ness to slow, fast, rough, smooth, weak, numb, coarse,
  prompt, calm, deaf, mean, even, plain, keen; as, keenness.

The brief preface shows sense. The whole surface seemed knolls, rough
boulders, and stagnant pools. The knavish pedlar carries biscuits and
ketchup. The vagrant twirls his moustache. A quaint bureau fragrant
with roses. Ignorant of Canadian customs. Pause for each clause.
Misers' hoards increase; their comforts decrease. Retrace your
footsteps. A mother's embrace.


    12 (REVIEW)

  clause
  league
  culprit
  knavish
  bureau
  quotient
  peculiar
  chieftain
  persevere
  ignorant
  moustache
  machinery
  biscuit
  syringe
  patient
  decrease
  lacrosse
  mystery
  lynch
  giraffe
  gallery
  bicycle
  superior
  delicate

Our maid was ignorant of the mysteries of dyeing. By persevering she
succeeded in kneading dough for biscuit. She has a peculiar stare,
but is certainly a superior servant. The chieftain waxes his reddish
moustache. They may lynch the culprit who knavishly interfered with
the machinery. On the bureau is a model of a bicycle near a picture
of a giraffe. The patient is in delicate health.


    13

  gaudy
  pauper
  haunted
  gauntlet
  musical
  medical
  musician
  physician
  withhold
  nowhere
  loophole
  threshold
  accident
  hesitate
  meditate
  obstinate

  Add --ness to saucy, heavy, weighty, cleanly, lazy, lively, easy,
  chilly, hasty, musty; as, sauciness.

The musician meditates on a new hymn. The heir's birthday. Nowhere
would physicians or medical men withhold medicine from a pauper.
The obstinate knave's laziness and sauciness made them hesitate.
The great heaviness or weightiness of lead. I innocently caused an
accident. The door-hinges creaked. He threw the gauntlet on the
threshold of the haunted chamber.


    14

  hyena
  hyphen
  cycling
  hyacinth
  victuals
  cayenne
  conquer
  conquest
  dye-stuff
  rye-bread
  therefore
  buckwheat
  ravine
  vaseline
  benzine
  magazine

  Add --y to humble, noble, single, double, forcible, ease, able,
  ample, simple, wheeze; as, humbly.

"Rye-bread" requires a hyphen. Before the tempest it was calm in the
ravine. Use cayenne pepper sparingly on victuals. Benzine removes
stains. Vaseline is advertised in the weekly magazine. The savage
hyena was conquered. We see lovely hyacinths when cycling. Lye comes
through leaching ashes. Dye-stuff injured his eyesight, therefore he
wears glasses.


    15

  talons
  dragon
  ransom
  random
  baffle
  ruffle
  tussle
  muddle
  mumble
  hubbub
  smuggle
  straddle
  infancy
  vacancy
  resemble
  assemble

  Join --d, --ing to meddle, tattle, haggle, prattle, crinkle,
  cackle, kindle, stifle, puddle; as, meddled, meddling.

The eagle's cruel talons. St. George slew the dragon. A blazing
chimney baffled the brigade. After a severe tussle he seized the
smuggler's dagger. Avoid mumbling words. Random efforts are usually
vain. Ransom the captive from the tower. Choose a roan mare. In
infancy he resembled my nephew whose legacy he enjoys. Crowds
assembled. Fill the vacancy. A good policy.


    16

  ulster
  bolster
  upholster
  register
  moisten
  moisture
  pastime
  furniture
  tangle
  triangle
  mangled
  dangling
  garbage
  herbage
  encourage
  discourage

  Write --ing after piece, pierce, grieve, dangle, jingle, arise,
  deserve, drizzle, resemble, assemble; as, piercing.

My ulster resists moisture. Weigh the feather bolster. Erase their
names from the register. Flying kites is a boy's pastime. A triangle
has three corners. Moisten the clothes. A mangled limb. Bury the
decayed herbage and other garbage. See the cord dangling. Upholster
the lounge at the furniture factory. Encourage the scholar. He seems
discouraged.


    17

  affect
  protect
  inspect
  prospect
  bantam
  banners
  fleeting
  greeting
  plight
  delight
  sight-seer
  twilight
  satchel
  thatched
  petticoat
  hoar-frost

  To worthy, hungry, speedy, crusty, cheery, airy, weary, angry,
  sturdy, dreary, add --er, --est; as, worthier, worthiest.

The prospect of bathing at twilight delights us. Satchel in hand,
he inspected our quiet village. Even the sight-seers were affected
by the children's greeting. A thatched roof often leaks. See the
hoar-frost glisten. A sorry plight, a clumsier gait. Protect the
herdsman's bantams. Baby clutches a red banner. The fleeting hour.


    18 (REVIEW)

  gaudy
  plight
  ravine
  tussle
  affect
  hyphen
  ransom
  ruffle
  satchel
  smuggle
  victuals
  moisture
  pastime
  muscle
  cycling
  fatigue
  nowhere
  therefore
  cayenne
  withhold
  vaseline
  physician
  threshold
  magazine

Hewing wood exercises the muscles. Cycling for pastime causes slight
fatigue. A whole horde of smugglers. My victuals were withheld. A
sorry plight. He threw the magazine on the threshold, and seized his
satchel. He was fined for using foul oaths. My heart was, therefore,
sore with grief. Nowhere in the ravine have I seen moisture or
hoar-frost. Physicians wrap up in furs.


    19

  dealt
  deafness
  stealthy
  endeavor
  trounce
  trousers
  aroused
  announce
  matron
  sexton
  summon
  Solomon
  vulgar
  grammar
  similar
  particular

  Put en-- before able, noble, large, rage, circle, dear, camp, wrap,
  feeble, slave, title; as, enable.

The hale and hearty sexton is threatened with deafness. The matron
of the hospital dealt with the rogue. The thief in tweed trousers
was severely trounced. Endeavor to learn grammar. The calendars are
similar. We received a summons to haul down our colors. The sun's
rays. Steer for the pier. Vulgar talk arouses the wrath of the
officers and guests. A sly, stealthy step.


    20

  sinews
  pewter
  skewer
  steward
  oarsmen
  boarding
  reproach
  approach
  rebel
  tunnel
  spaniel
  Spaniard
  Arctic
  Pacific
  Atlantic
  Antarctic

  Add --ful to mourn, power, respect, hope, delight, youth, trust.

The injured oarsmen moan and groan with pain but utter no oaths. A
gaunt Spaniard sought a boarding-house. He reproached his spaniel for
approaching the gray mare and foal. Near the tunnel entrance is a
lime-kiln. The rebels swore on the Holy Book. Through a clever ruse
we won a goal. A pewter spoon. The steward's muscles and sinews are
strong. A skewer fastens the roast. The Pacific and Antarctic oceans.


    21

  terror
  horror
  traitor
  portrait
  insane
  profane
  baneful
  hurricane
  absence
  essence
  commence
  difference
  vicious
  precious
  gracious
  spacious

  Copy,--Negro, negress; emperor, empress; duke, duchess; prince,
  princess; actor, actress; hunter, huntress.

Their profane oaths, baneful and vicious language filled us with
horror. A fire commenced in our absence. The servants were almost
insane with terror. Portraits and precious keepsakes of our gracious
empress were seized by the traitors. Many rare jewels were buried
on the ocean beach. There is a difference between the juice and the
essence of lemon. A furious hurricane.


    22

  adore
  encore
  restore
  explore
  necktie
  nickname
  shamrock
  shipwreck
  thrifty
  panther
  Sabbath
  sheathed
  wallop
  wallow
  drenched
  wrenched

  Join --ful to will, skill, peace, grace; as, wilful, graceful.

Swine wallow in the mire. The soldier on guard was drenched with
rain. He sheathed his sword. He wrenched the pistol from the
villain's grasp, and walloped him. In exploring the Arctic seas, we
heard awful tales of shipwreck. Select pieces for encores. I admire
the four-leaved shamrock. Panthers and hyenas are savage. Avoid
nicknames. Plaid neckties. The holy Sabbath. Worship and adore Him.
Restore all borrowed supplies.


    23

  zero
  cargo
  volcano
  mosquito
  quarry
  quarrel
  bankrupt
  scripture
  sulphur
  triumph
  prophet
  camphor
  comical
  festival
  vertical
  practical

  Add --ess to lion, poet, heir, count, baron, govern; and to mister,
  tiger, hunter, songster, waiter; as, mistress.

Write a zero or naught. A practical builder hews stone from the
vertical walls of the quarry. The cargo of bankrupt stock has
arrived. The harvest festivals are announced in autumn. The chief
returned in triumph. The New Testament Scriptures. I smell camphor.
Great musical revivals commenced in Wales. The mosquitoes annoy the
actress. Sulphur is hurled from the volcano.


    24 (REVIEW)

  zero
  dealt
  encore
  quarry
  Arctic
  wallow
  arouse
  traitor
  profane
  essence
  trousers
  vertical
  vicious
  sulphur
  quarrel
  prophet
  summons
  wrenched
  portrait
  approach
  scripture
  mosquito
  precious
  difference

A vicious beggar approached the lime-kiln. His profane oaths aroused
the portrait painter's anger. The hale old sailor hauls loads of
sulphur to the piers. A hearty encore. The deer has lain down among
the fir trees. The giraffe was led to a high stake and tied there.
A quarrel commenced near the quarry. The Arctic Circle. The prophet
Daniel. Read the Scriptures through.


    25

  accent
  decent
  century
  innocent
  victor
  victim
  verdict
  Victoria
  science
  scissors
  scenery
  scented
  element
  elevator
  skeleton
  celebrate

  Put im-- before pure, proper, perfect, polite, patient, prudent.

The victim of the wreck was an innocent pianist, skilled in the
elements of science. The victor was a decent but impatient lawyer
with a Scottish accent. What delightful, rugged scenery! An imperfect
skeleton of a buffalo. The verdict was in our favor. The storm
destroyed a huge elevator. The twentieth century celebrates Queen
Victoria's birthday. A scented cambric handkerchief. He peddles
scissors and skeins of yarn.


    26

  solemn
  condemn
  Saviour
  behavior
  gouge
  indulge
  draught
  laughter
  twitch
  twitter
  whinny
  whimper
  peasant
  pheasant
  assistant
  assistance

  Place dis-- before mount, lodge, courage, grace, unite, continue.

The crippled peasant dreaded the assistant's threat to poison his
pheasants. Be truthful in business. Swallows twitch and twitter.
The steeds whinny when unhitched from the whipple-trees. The hounds
whimper. The Chief Justice solemnly condemned the officer. The
Saviour of the world awed their wicked behavior. The chimney-flue has
a great draught. Roars of hearty laughter.


    27

  afford
  assort
  absorb
  portion
  apparel
  apparent
  excellent
  continent
  assert
  dessert
  goddess
  headdress
  sculptor
  bachelor
  professor
  conductor

  Put fore-- with tell, see, run, warn, show, stall; as, foretell.

After dessert, a professor read a droll essay on our continent. The
celebrated sculptor is apparently a bachelor. He moulds the figure
of a goddess. The excellent actress in neat apparel is absorbed
in headdresses. The heiress foresees fraud but feigns assent. The
conductor jostled the people in the aisle. Assort a portion of the
colors. Use minnows as bait for bass.


    28

  whir
  whirl
  virgin
  origin
  intrude
  confuse
  consume
  conclude
  salute
  dispute
  compute
  execute
  visible
  possible
  terrible
  horrible

  Put in-- before correct, complete, direct, human, exact, active.

The barren trees are consumed. Virgin soil has never grown grain.
Horrible crimes possibly owe their origin to disputes. The intruder
withdrew, seeming quite confused. Whirled round by machinery.
Terrible bruises were visible. The dead bugler's bier. Salute the
duchess. I concluded the accused would duly execute the dredging. A
partridge whirred past.


    29

  acute
  curate
  cucumber
  cultivate
  adult
  consult
  druggist
  luggage
  polar
  popular
  regular
  singular
  movable
  probable
  valuable
  vegetable

  Join mis-- to chance, use, lay, lead, led, call, deal, hap, quote.

The curate suffers acute grief. Consult a physician or a druggist.
A teaspoonful of this draught is probably enough for an adult.
Cultivate wholesome vegetables or cucumbers. Silk caterpillars are
valuable. Polar bears devour seals. An inhuman butcher slashed the
dun-colored deer. Regular attendance. Singular behaviour. The dyer
seems popular.


    30 (REVIEW)

  whirl
  essay
  polar
  twitch
  curate
  whinny
  origin
  actress
  dessert
  accuse
  solemn
  sulphur
  terrible
  execute
  regular
  skeleton
  decency
  valuable
  visible
  scissors
  prophet
  bachelor
  cucumber
  headdress

The bachelor's scissors are valuable. An essay on the origin of
sulphur. For decency's sake. The actress wears a movable wreath
as a headdress. Two terrible dragons were visible. Of course the
lynx steals bait. The prophets were accused and executed. A sign of
meanness and baseness. The curate's speech at dessert was too solemn.
Regular meals improve one's health.


    31

  brier
  fiery
  variety
  society
  debtor
  editor
  janitor
  operator
  opinion
  religion
  rebellion
  dominion
  permit
  admitted
  remitting
  submission

  Add --ed, --ing to admit, remit, permit, submit; as, admitted.

Legions of British soldiers and fiery hordes of savages fought during
the rebellion in Egypt. All debtors must settle their accounts with
the editor. The janitor of the school paid the operator. "Good-day,"
cried the mower, whetting his scythe. Briers have grown among the
lilies and furze bushes. Permit no wrong. The gambler's companions
submitted. Our country is a dominion. We have a variety of opinions
in our society.


    32

  cutlet
  omelet
  banquet
  pamphlet
  jovial
  billiards
  burdock
  bulrush
  ruffian
  guardian
  historian
  librarian
  fraction
  affection
  recollect
  collection

  Put --ly after cool, cruel, royal, central, jovial, natural, exact.

At the banquet I ate a cutlet and an omelet. Our guardians seized
the ruffians. He coolly knelt. I guessed the quantity exactly. Do
you recollect my collection of problems on fractions? The genial
historian has written a pamphlet. The librarian bought tracts. He
pried into the secret of our large profits. The actor is jovial and
plays billiards. A burdock is a coarse weed. Bulrushes or cat-tails
grow in swamps.


    33

  oval
  vocal
  petal
  formal
  oral
  coral
  floral
  mortal
  infinite
  definite
  opposite
  favorite
  admirable
  reasonable
  confession
  profession

  Put --er, --est, --ly with icy, haughty, guilty, shabby, steady,
  sleepy, pretty, gloomy, noisy, mighty; as, icier, iciest, icily.

Petals are oval-shaped. What admirable vocal music! I made an oral
confession. Act reasonably. Coral beads. Bicycle pedals are made of
steel. Dredge opposite the pier. Florists deal in floral wreaths. The
prophets taught the people to value their immortal souls. Mention a
definite sum for freight. The heavens seem infinite.


    34

  valiant
  brilliant
  ridicule
  vestibule
  dribble
  dwindle
  constable
  estimable
  appeal
  reveal
  conceal
  congeal
  cavalry
  mineral
  political
  principal

  Add --able to love, move, tame, blame, value; as, lovable.

A valiant cavalry charge won the fight. Bleak, level plains. The
syrup dribbles. The profits dwindle away. Conceal the precious
minerals. The brilliant light revealed several new features. Lambs
bleat. Sun-bleached linen. The vestibule floor creaks. You resemble
our estimable principal. Ice is water congealed. He ridicules the
miner's bare pate. The choir chants a psalm or hymn. Observe the
pauses. A political speech. Appeal to the judge.


    35

  general
  eternal
  internal
  external
  forgery
  drapery
  drollery
  drudgery
  actual
  gradual
  punctual
  continual
  derrick
  barracks
  bullock
  hammock

  Write over-- with rate, run, ride, reach, joyed; as, overrate.

The generals alight. Their arrival at the barracks was the signal
for freeing negroes from slavery. Internal or external injury. A
gradual growth. Almighty God is eternal. The pale widow's mite.
Two mettlesome steeds. The drapery blazed up. Forgery is a serious
offence. Drudgery is continual labor; drollery, odd humor.


    36 (REVIEW)

  fiery
  blight
  creak
  bleach
  actual
  vocal
  debtor
  floral
  omelet
  ruffian
  conquest
  punctual
  several
  eternal
  conceal
  banquet
  guardian
  drudgery
  rebellion
  recollect
  admitted
  ridicule
  opposite
  reasonable

Conceal the gilt sword. Ruffians tease the bear. At the banquet
the guardian seemed bored by debtors. Gamblers admitted their
profits. The mason's plumb-line. I recollect the Indian rebellion.
The debtor's temper was fiery and unreasonable. The vocal solo was
ridiculed. The conquest of several islands. Nuns' veiling. This
floral wreath seems actually bleached. An eternal scourge.


    37

  dairy
  despair
  exclaim
  claimant
  bronze
  apology
  hideous
  listener
  statue
  tissue
  immense
  specimens
  juvenile
  appetite
  dove-cot
  anecdote

  Put --ing after urge, charge, rage, dodge, pledge, judge, manage,
  oblige, race, measure, praise; as, urging.

An immense statue of bronze metal was visible. Goblins were hideous.
I wear a specimen medal on my mantle. "A lion's mane!" exclaimed he.
A faithful dairy maid. Peel the oranges in tissue paper. No apology
is needed. The claimant for damages suffers an agony of despair.
An amusing anecdote. A keen appetite. A juvenile carpenter built a
dove-cot.


    38

  ewer
  ewe-lamb
  dewdrops
  brand-new
  wizard
  hazard
  gizzard
  blizzard
  lobster
  canister
  cashier
  clothier
  obedient
  obedience
  experience
  experiment

  Add --ed, --ing to model, level, travel, equal, quarrel, cancel,
  ravel, shovel; as, modelled, modelling.

The cashiers were obedient and rarely quarrelled. Meddle less with
minor affairs. I heard a clothier's experience. A brand-new plate
glass. Ewers or jugs of water. Maize is Indian corn. He hazards his
safety by travelling in blizzards. Fowls have gizzards. Our mettle
won the main battle. The wizard's charms. Try some experiments. Tea
canisters. Boiled lobsters.


    39

  captor
  captive
  candor
  clamor
  cholera
  character
  backache
  mechanic
  ear-rings
  Methodist
  memorize
  accompany
  canvass
  carcass
  trespass
  windlass

  Join --ed, --ing to tunnel, pencil, label, gravel, tassel, barrel,
  carol, gambol; as, tunnelled, tunnelling.

Captors of negroes used blood-hounds. The captive women sold their
ear-rings. Canvass the mechanics. Obscure sounds of a startling
character accompanied the earthquake. Memorize the chorus. They
meddle with our windlass and trespass on our premises. They're
labelling the parcels. Speak with candor. Avoid noise or clamor. Bury
that carcass. Cholera is unknown here.


    40

  borax
  smilax
  conveys
  surveys
  soldered
  dandelion
  cinnamon
  raspberry
  allspice
  colander
  Yukon
  Montreal
  effect
  difficult
  architect
  catechism

  Add --ing to inquire, increase, suppose, accuse; as, inquiring.

Were you conveying allspice or cinnamon from the freight train?
Survey the wreaths entwined with smilax. Borax is used in soldering
metals. Squeeze the raspberries through a colander. What effect has
chilly weather on dandelions? The architect's scheme is difficult to
grasp. He knows the catechism by rote. The Yukon is many leagues from
Montreal.


    41

  commit
  command
  commence
  recommend
  excel
  expel
  compel
  comrade
  compass
  cardinal
  hiccough
  knowledge
  caress
  assess
  discuss
  district

  Put --s, --ed after obey, annoy, survey, employ, display, array.
  Add --es to grocery, dairy, ally, folly, quarry; as, groceries.

I recommend that we command the officer to commit the comical rascal
to jail, and expel his comrades. The district will compel the Mayor
to aid the villagers. We've commenced to discuss business. He excels
in a knowledge of the cardinal points of the compass. Caress the
child with hiccoughs. A wheelwright makes naves and spokes.


    42 (REVIEW)

  dairy
  boggy
  sphere
  chord
  effect
  wizard
  clothier
  survey
  commit
  camphor
  despair
  hiccough
  colander
  architect
  blizzard
  ear-rings
  catechism
  blackguard
  raspberry
  obedience

The patient clothier wears a bronze medal. The trails seem a maze
of cross-roads. Pare the juicy pears. The sweet-scented, new-mown
hay. Hawks soar o'er the strait. My thick-soled shoes creak. A chord
in music. A wizard's tricks. In obedience to the architect. I fear
a blizzard. Hiccoughs annoy me. I despair of ever committing the
catechism to memory.


    43

  bakery
  brewery
  pottery
  knavery
  surgery
  delivery
  discovery
  embroidery
  tinware
  barefoot
  cylinder
  clergyman
  council
  surround
  boundary
  warehouse

  Join --able to admire, desire, excuse, dispute; as, admirable.

Delivery wagons haul flour to the bakery. A brewery at the city
boundary is wrecked. The clerk's knavery. A lone warehouse near
the freight yard. Elect eight aldermen to the city council. The
iron roller is a hollow cylinder. I cut my bare wrist on a piece of
pottery or tinware. The clergyman is distinctly heard. Idol worship
exists in India. She wears rare finery and embroidery. He made a
discovery in the surgery.


    44

  necessity
  necessary
  possession
  procession
  attach
  attacked
  mucilage
  pencilled
  rigor
  vigor
  honor
  harbor
  complain
  Champlain
  waistcoat
  mail-pouch

  Add --y to paste, grease, pebble, sponge, possible; as, pasty.

Attack them with vigor. Attach pieces of rope if necessary. Detached
rocks made the descent dangerous. Mucilage is a necessity in an
office. Champlain explored several rivers in the interior of Canada.
The mail-pouch was rifled. My waistcoat pocket. Her pencilled
eyebrows. The lynx's lair. Complain to the City Council. The
procession took possession of the street.


    45

  ballad
  ballast
  cannon
  channel
  laurel
  auburn
  assault
  applause
  signal
  arrival
  ordinary
  asparagus
  oneself
  bayonet
  gingham
  dumpling

  Put --some after glad, delight, bother, trouble, blithe, frolic.

Vessels need ballast to cross the channel. Wrest the reed or cane
from that liar. The wreck is wrapped in mist. My niece is combing her
auburn hair and tying it with dyed ribbons. She sang several ballads,
winning laurels. An ordinary gingham apron. Tender asparagus for
dessert. Manual training is of great benefit to oneself. The gradual
descent of the road. An apple dumpling. The pilot made no assault.
The captain's bayonet.


    46

  torrent
  decorate
  monitor
  astonish
  villain
  mermaid
  maintain
  remainder
  cooing
  cuckoo
  raccoon
  heirloom
  castor
  bishop
  scallop
  atmosphere

  Join --ness to clumsy, flimsy, gaudy, haughty; as, clumsiness.

The monitor's haughtiness was maintained. A torrent's roar. I rowed
near the sea-beach with sculls. An enemy's revenge. A bishop's white
robes. Decorated with scalloped lace. The villain's prison cell.
A drier atmosphere. Cooing pigeons. The cuckoo clock is an old
heirloom. Buffalo and raccoon robes for sleighs are made without
seams. Castor oil is prepared from seeds.


    47

  receipt
  leisure
  seizing
  deceive
  swoon
  saloon
  balloon
  spittoon
  journal
  courage
  courtesy
  adjourn
  gentry
  laundry
  foundry
  gallantry

  Add --ness to weary, steady, muddy, woolly; as, weariness.

The cooper makes barrels of hoops and staves. The saloon-keeper wrung
his hands in sheer despair and swooned. I'm aware that courage and
courtesy are national traits of the French. The council adjourned.
The foundry moulds iron patterns. Erase all false entries. A daily
journal. A receipt from the laundry. His leisure and gallantry
deceived the gentry.


    48 (REVIEW)

  villain
  leisure
  council
  descent
  brewery
  bayonet
  flavor
  assault
  camphor
  oneself
  raccoon
  cylinder
  channel
  torrent
  spheres
  necessary
  ordinary
  warehouse
  heirloom
  mucilage
  boundary
  waistcoat
  necessity
  atmosphere

He leant against the lime-kiln. The lynx has lain down in his lair. I
need a key for the mail-pouch. Idols are deaf and dumb. A great herd
of deer. Raccoon overcoats. Torrents make their descent through the
rugged channels. Warehouses are not necessary in ordinary business.
Cylinders are not spheres.



REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.


  absence
  absorb
  accent
  accident
  actual
  acute
  adjourn
  admirable
  advise
  affect
  almanac
  almighty
  almonds
  alms
  altar
  allspice
  anecdote
  announce
  anxiety
  apology
  apparel
  appeal
  appetite
  applause
  approach
  arrange
  asparagus
  assemble
  assert
  assistant
  atmosphere
  attach
  auburn
  bachelor
  backache
  baffled
  balance
  balcony
  ballad
  banquet
  barefoot
  bargain
  barrier
  bayonet
  behavior
  benefited
  benzine
  bilious
  billiards
  bleach
  biscuit
  borax
  boundary
  brier
  brilliant
  brogue
  bronze
  bureau
  burglary
  burial
  cancer
  candor
  canvass
  cannon
  captive
  camphor
  carcass
  carrier
  cashier
  castor
  catechism
  caterpillar
  cavalry
  cayenne
  chaplain
  Champlain
  channel
  character
  chieftain
  chuckles
  cinnamon
  claimant
  clamor
  cleanly
  clothier
  colander
  commence
  companion
  compel
  complain
  conceal
  condemn
  conductor
  confession
  conquest
  continual
  council
  courtesy
  crackle
  crevice
  crystal
  cucumber
  cudgel
  cultivate
  curate
  cycling
  cylinder
  dairy
  dandelion
  deafness
  debtor
  decayed
  decency
  deceit
  decorate
  decrease
  definite
  delicate
  delivery
  dearth
  despair
  dessert
  difference
  difficult
  discourage
  discovery
  dominion
  draught
  drollery
  drudgery
  dwindle
  dye-stuff
  ear-rings
  effect
  elevator
  embroidery
  encore
  endeavor
  estimable
  ewe-lamb
  excellent
  exclaim
  execute
  exhaust
  exhort
  experience
  exterior
  external
  familiar
  famine
  favorite
  festival
  fiery
  foliage
  foresee
  fortunate
  foundry
  fragrant
  furrier
  gallant
  gaudy
  gauntlet
  gingham
  giraffe
  gizzard
  goddess
  gouge
  gracious
  grammar
  grievance
  grocery
  guidance
  haddock
  harbor
  hazard
  headdress
  heather
  heirloom
  herbage
  heroine
  hesitate
  hiccough
  hideous
  hindrance
  hoar-frost
  horizontal
  hyacinth
  hyphen
  immense
  innocent
  interfere
  irregular
  isles
  jovial
  knavish
  knowledge
  language
  lattice
  league
  leisure
  librarian
  liquorice
  luggage
  lullaby
  lynch
  magazine
  maggot
  mail-pouch
  maintain
  manual
  mechanic
  medicine
  memorize
  merely
  millinery
  moisten
  monarch
  monitor
  moustache
  movable
  mucilage
  musician
  mystery
  necessary
  nuisance
  obedience
  obstinate
  omelet
  oneself
  opposite
  origin
  Pacific
  pamphlet
  paragraph
  particular
  pastime
  patient
  peasant
  peculiar
  petticoat
  phrase
  pheasant
  physician
  plague
  plumage
  political
  popular
  porcupine
  portrait
  possible
  poultice
  practical
  precious
  principal
  professor
  prophet
  punctual
  quotient
  raccoon
  raspberry
  reasonable
  rebellion
  receipt
  recommend
  rectangle
  remnant
  reptile
  riddance
  ridicule
  ruffian
  rye-bread
  salmon
  salve
  satchel
  Saviour
  scaffold
  scenery
  scissors
  science
  seizure
  severity
  sexton
  shackle
  similar
  sinews
  skeleton
  slippery
  smuggler
  solder
  solemn
  Solomon
  spacious
  specimen
  sphere
  spittoon
  squabble
  stagnant
  sterile
  steward
  stomach
  stubborn
  studious
  sulphur
  superior
  summon
  surgery
  survey
  tedious
  terrier
  therefore
  threshold
  traffic
  traitor
  triumph
  trudging
  tussle
  unusual
  upholster
  valiant
  various
  vaseline
  vertical
  vestibule
  Victoria
  victuals
  vigor
  villains
  vineyard
  virgin
  warehouse
  warrant
  warrior
  war-whoop
  windlass
  withhold
  wrenched



STANDARD IV. JUNIOR.

GRADE 6.


    1

  baboon
  harpoon
  caboose
  papoose
  survive
  surmount
  surround
  surrender
  melody
  harmony
  injury
  industry
  melodious
  harmonious
  injurious
  industrious

  Add --ful to care, spoon, pail, mouth, tear, sorrow, wonder, mirth.

The whale survived the harpoon's injurious effects. The city will
surrender ere the troops surround it or surmount the towers. Their
melodious voices seem in perfect harmony. The squaw's papoose slept
in the caboose. The industrious carpenter's adze. Wear a ruff. Our
yacht is a swift sailer. Baboons are apes.


    2

  dial
  diary
  diamond
  dialogue
  falcon
  weapon
  jealous
  zealous
  fidgety
  hedgehog
  partridge
  cartridge
  colony
  colonial
  envious
  previous

  Put --less after speech, flaw, fault, shame, tear, thought, doubt.

Falcons are trained hawks. Partridge are called grouse. The
hedgehog's weapons are quills. The zealous preacher's diary contained
an account of a previous wreck. Be not jealous or envious of people
wearing diamonds. Colonial means belonging to a colony. The dial of a
clock. Alter our dialogue. The fidgety maiden dreaded all weapons. We
load pistols with cartridges.


    3

  liable
  denial
  defiant
  reliance
  peony
  surgeon
  sturgeon
  melodeon
  grateful
  pressure
  forbade
  forbidden
  angular
  irregular
  circular
  particular

  Add --ing to lodge, trudge, grudge, pickle, crumble, curdle,
  gurgle, cripple, pierce, rescue, partake; as, lodging.

After some pressure the surgeon sent a defiant denial. Put no
reliance in irregular scholars. Angling with bait for sturgeon is
strictly forbidden. You are liable to be fined. In this particular
case a surgeon dressed the wound. In vain he forbade their teasing
the lynx. I gratefully accepted the red peony. Play the melodeon.
Make angular blocks.


    4

  notify
  modify
  signify
  qualify
  divine
  divisor
  division
  diligent
  esteem
  redeem
  peevish
  discreet
  twopence
  threepence
  halfpenny
  blackguard

  Join --able to note, love, tame, cure, endure, adore, advise,
  remove, dispute; as, notable.

Notify the buyers that we'll modify our terms. Twopence per ounce is
the wholesale price. The diligent are esteemed. Redeem your sundial.
The division is correct but the divisor is wrong. Only a blackguard
would steal a child's halfpenny. Place circular rows tier above tier.
Our discreet physician has a peevish patient. Are you qualified for
the position?


    5

  tunnel
  funnel
  furnish
  burnish
  savor
  flavor
  tumor
  rumor
  suet
  cruet
  frequent
  eloquent
  describe
  subscribe
  description
  subscription

  Place un-- before envied, noticed, settled, erring, foreseen,
  christian, known, married, merciful; as, unenvied.

At the inquest I was frequently requested to furnish a description of
the stolen cruet. The steak has the flavor and savor of suet. Accept
half-yearly subscriptions from the subscribers. Burnish the brass
funnel. Rumors of a wreck in the tunnel. The eloquent doctor cures
tumors.


    6 (REVIEW)

  melody
  weapon
  caboose
  fidgety
  jealous
  surgeon
  liable
  funnel
  qualify
  forbade
  diligent
  previous
  colonial
  frequent
  circular
  pressure
  irregular
  injurious
  surround
  diamonds
  twopence
  halfpenny
  partridge
  subscribe

At the Colonial Exhibit I bought funnels for twopence. Jealous of a
friend. A brooch of real diamonds. Liable for damages. "To forgive
is divine." Written in a diary. The fidgety student was diligent and
frequently eloquent, but could not qualify for a surgeon. Surround
the circular table. The intense heat may prove injurious. During the
previous day the pressure of business demanded every minute.


    7

  guilty
  guilds
  guitar
  guinea
  cavity
  brevity
  nobility
  humility
  reverse
  disperse
  immerse
  converse
  ancient
  deficient
  efficient
  sufficient

  Join --ity to scarce, pure, cave, false, secure, chaste; as, purity.

The miner has sufficient gold for a guinea. The women's guild has
dispersed. Its members plead for purity and chastity. The guilty
officer often shows traits of nobility. This efficient player on the
guitar converses with brevity. Be not deficient in humility. Ancient
chinaware is very expensive. The staid donkey brayed. Reverse the
engine. Immerse the beef in brine.


    8

  despise
  chastise
  Chinese
  Japanese
  sorcery
  slavery
  archery
  flattery
  armor
  vapor
  poached
  encroach
  luscious
  delicious
  suspicion
  suspicious

  Write dis-- with abuse, allow, approve, claim, arrange, color,
  favor, credit, satisfy, respect, qualify, possess; as, disabuse.

The Japanese were encroaching on Chinese territory. The poacher is
under suspicion. The luscious peaches and the delicious ice-cream
vanished like vapor. Despise flattery. I ate poached eggs. We
chastise people for sorcery. The brood of pigeons soared above the
stile. Warriors wear steel armor when repairing breaches in the
walls. Bowmen boast of their archery.


    9

  hearth
  hearken
  heartiness
  heart's-ease
  parade
  paradise
  parable
  paragraph
  blighted
  lightning
  thorough
  doughnut
  election
  direction
  dictation
  dictionary

  Place un-- before aided, aware, bearable, buried, ceasing.

Hearken to the parable of the sower. Soldiers were on parade during
the election. The heartiness of their welcome. The doughnut dropped
on the hearth unnoticed. We can imagine scenes in paradise. The
lightning blighted the beech-tree. The officer gave directions. A wry
face. A thorough examination of the skull. Choose a paragraph for
dictation. The pansy is called heart's-ease. Consult your dictionary.


    10

  heathen
  sheared
  teamster
  seamstress
  hallo
  coasting
  wherever
  wherefore
  lustre
  lustrous
  wondrous
  monstrous
  genuine
  masculine
  feminine
  glycerine

  Place dis-- with taste, honor, honest, united, pleased, loyal.

Seamstress is feminine gender, while teamster is masculine. The
sheared goat chased the wheelwright across a rood of pasture to butt
him. Hallo! What dangerous coasting! They show a genuine interest in
the heathen. Diamonds possess wondrous lustre. These monstrous beasts
browse wherever there is no grazing. The captain wrung my hand. Buy
four bottles of glycerine.


    11

  lilac
  rival
  final
  spinal
  pinafore
  separate
  tomahawk
  marmalade
  niggard
  braggart
  sluggard
  drunkard
  engineer
  volunteer
  auctioneer
  mountaineer

  Join --ing to hem, refer, regret, expel, wrap, begin, forget,
  compel, occur; as, hemming.

Her pinafore was daubed with marmalade. The engineer made a final
attempt to rescue the drunkard. Ants are neither sluggards nor
braggarts. The volunteer will broach the subject. The auctioneer had
spinal trouble. The mountaineer wrapped his plaid around him. He was
niggardly on his bridal tour. The Indian sought to fight with the
tomahawk.


    12 (REVIEW)

  scene
  bridal
  hearth
  guitar
  weapon
  sheared
  breaches
  lustrous
  separate
  paradise
  deficient
  feminine
  genuine
  disperse
  election
  thorough
  luscious
  referring
  sufficient
  glycerine
  lightning
  occurring
  dictionary
  auctioneer

Make a thorough search in the dictionary. Is the weapon a genuine
pistol? The fuel on the hearth is sufficient. Glycerine is sold by
druggists. Buy a new medal. What a lustrous bronze color! Seeing
the lightning, the timid women dispersed. I'm referring to colonial
acts and scenes. Breaches of the law occurred daily. The auctioneer
offered silk, deficient in lustre.


    13

  pilot
  otter
  felon
  heron
  colonel
  oppress
  express
  distress
  majestic
  domestic
  gigantic
  romantic
  ransack
  knapsack
  knick-knacks
  knickerbockers

  Write in-- before curable, elegant, different, human, sufficient.

Their chief seized the felon's leather knapsack. I ransacked auction
rooms for knick-knacks. The clerk carried some accounts in his
knickerbockers. Otters are not domestic animals. We knew the pilot's
signals of distress. An address on our romantic scenery. He expressed
sorrow for his fault. A gigantic fraud. Never oppress the weak. The
colonel's majestic bearing. The crane resembles the heron.


    14

  coolly
  woolly
  shrilly
  squally
  solar
  lunar
  relapse
  collapse
  disguise
  dissolve
  persuade
  camomile
  addition
  petition
  partition
  competition

  Add --ed to shrivel, parcel, gambol, control; as, shrivelled.

A competition in rapid addition. A solar day and a lunar month. Lambs
with woolly fleeces gambol in the vale. Squally weather. Don't give
camomile flowers to our friends. Dissolve the powder in vinegar.
Persuade the guests to sign a petition. The choir sang shrilly. The
patient suffered a relapse. He coolly bored through the partition
with an auger. The walls collapsed instantly.


    15

  sewer
  lewd
  shrewd
  jews'-harp
  stanza
  veranda
  mastiff
  slouched
  miracle
  manacles
  obstacle
  spectacle
  massive
  passive
  strolling
  toll-gate

  Join --er, --est to simple, nimble, obscure, secure; as, simpler.

The shrewd lawyer sought a clew. The huge mastiff slouched off the
veranda. Recite the fourth stanza. I leaned against a massive sewer
pipe. He strolled along, playing a jews'-harp. The manacles on his
wrists were serious obstacles. I dropped a pair of spectacles at the
toll-gate. A lewd, base fellow. Miracles startle the wisest or the
simplest.


    16

  russet
  jagged
  gossip
  daffodil
  atlas
  paltry
  asphalt
  falsehood
  verdant
  verdure
  suggest
  gesture
  surged
  purging
  passenger
  messenger

  Add --ing to engage, examine, kindle, bundle, behave, provoke,
  relieve, grieve; as, engaging.

The roaring, foaming surge caused the passengers to make gestures.
Suggest a cheaper passage. Purge the filthy lanes. A quick messenger
took my message. The dancing daffodils. Gossips spoke base
falsehoods. The rocks had jagged edges. A Canadian atlas for sale.
Asphalt pavement. Paltry excuses. The lawn is verdant. Showers and
sunbeams cause verdure. A russet apple.


    17

  bison
  talons
  beckon
  reckon
  cruise
  council
  malady
  granary
  promote
  postpone
  wholesale
  wholesome
  mansion
  expansion
  omission
  submission

  Join --er, --est to fleecy, bulky, foggy, cleanly; as, fleecier.

The council may postpone their cruise. Promote the expansion of
wholesale trade. I need a cleanlier maid. I tied a coarse cord in
knots. Their submission led to the omission of salads from our usual
fare. A mansion with a princely salary. A dreadful malady. The
falcon's beak and cruel talons. The bison's horns.


    18 (REVIEW)

  pilot
  surge
  lunar
  felon
  sewer
  bison
  cheque
  shrewd
  quartz
  gossip
  cleaver
  verdure
  gesture
  asphalt
  colonel
  collapse
  omission
  persuade
  disguise
  domestic
  gigantic
  barracks
  wholesome
  spectacles

Do gossips discuss wholesome subjects? Persuade the city to build
a gigantic asphalt sewer. See the felon on the domestic's finger.
The omission of gestures and disguise would improve the actress. A
shrewd rogue signed a cheque for gold quartz. The colonel left his
spectacles in the barracks. Verdure is greenness. The total collapse
of the building. The butcher's cleaver is dull. Hunt the bison. The
pilot fears the surging sea.


    19

  insure
  assure
  demure
  procure
  tinsel
  damsel
  morsel
  counsel
  abates
  abandon
  whet-stone
  homestead
  overseer
  foreseen
  industrial
  caterpillar

  Write be-- before wail, witch, grudge, moan, numb, smear.

Though hoarse I was relieved by a morsel of horehound. A demure
damsel assured us that we were heartily welcome. A caterpillar's
cocoon. Procure a whet-stone. As was foreseen, the homestead was
abandoned by the settler. Tinsel is of slight value. I assure you
he will counsel insuring the industrial school. Rubbing abates the
aching in my knee-joint.


    20

  decline
  refined
  entwine
  combine
  verbal
  proverb
  perjury
  jurymen
  revise
  comprise
  preside
  confide
  evident
  penitent
  president
  confident

  Join --ness to clumsy, dreary, gaudy, silly, ruddy, haughty, manly,
  womanly; as, clumsiness.

That witness, wearing the ruff or collar, declined to commit perjury.
A refined physician reported verbally. Evidently the judge confides
in the jurymen. The counsel is confident that the penitent prisoner
will be released on bail. The club comprises a president, the
necessary officers, and nineteen members. Revise the old proverb.


    21

  tonic
  topic
  tropics
  frolicsome
  italics
  mandolin
  Catholic
  cathedral
  marigold
  navigate
  obstinate
  vaccinate
  solitary
  sanitary
  military
  imaginary

  Add --d, --ing to ridge, bridge, wedge, lodge, hedge; as, ridged.

Print in italics. The Catholic church is a beautiful, sanitary
cathedral. Give that obstinate invalid a tonic before vaccinating
him. Captains and pilots navigate ships. The tropics are imaginary
lines. The topic discussed was military weapons. A frolicsome youth
played a mandolin. I wore a brooch fashioned like a marigold. The
draught made the solitary lamp flare.


    22

  census
  isthmus
  surplus
  omnibus
  pallet
  mallet
  gorilla
  vanilla
  uniform
  unicorn
  universe
  universal
  instinct
  distinct
  extinguish
  distinguish

  Write in-- before come, close, dwell, trench, dent, lay, grain.

The hotel omnibus meets us. A nutmeg grater. Hares and lambs leap
and gambol by instinct. The design is uniform but made of distinct
patterns or units. Rude pallets of straw. The isthmus of Panama. Put
the surplus money in the wallet. Extinguish the flames. Flavor the
custard with vanilla. Does the mayor deign to bow? The universe is
the world. I can distinguish gorillas from bears. The lion and the
unicorn. A census of the village.


    23

  syllable
  analysis
  symbol
  sympathy
  latitude
  solitude
  multitude
  destitute
  corrupt
  interrupt
  multiple
  chipmunk
  footwear
  bearskin
  postscript
  door-jamb

  Add --es to belfry, diary, nursery, grocery, daisy, charity,
  misery, dairy, century, lobby; as, belfries.

The destitute hermit dwelt in solitude. The sign or symbol of
addition. In a postscript he showed a system of finding our latitude.
I'm too hoarse to utter a syllable of sympathy. Clad in bearskin cap
and heavy footwear. Substitute zinc for lead. A multiple of four. A
multitude of chipmunks scampered off. I interrupted their review. The
analysis of the sentence.


    24 (REVIEW)

  census
  tropics
  surplus
  vanilla
  symbol
  isthmus
  counsel
  district
  Catholic
  perspire
  overseer
  analysis
  sympathy
  interrupt
  extinguish
  military
  vaccinate
  imaginary
  frolicsome
  individuals

A new system of analysis. The census reveals a surplus of officers
in one military district. A heavy omnibus. The overseer of these
individuals is perspiring. The isthmus is guarded. Imaginary fires
are difficult to extinguish. Vaccinate the Italian as a sanitary
measure. Despise not his counsel in tropic seas. The symbol of peace.
Flavor with vanilla.


    25

  intense
  expense
  suspense
  nonsense
  select
  defects
  afflict
  affliction
  heifer
  mullein
  rat-trap
  mattress
  lenient
  convenient
  audience
  convenience

  Write up-- before heave, raise, rear, roar, lift, stroke, risen.

An Indian uprising caused intense excitement, much inconvenience,
and great expense. Captains mustered their volunteers. Faint from
suspense we awaited further news of our sore affliction. Select
mattresses of convenient size with no defects. A touching, musical
selection greatly affected the large audience. The peer showed
affection for children. What nonsense to set a rat-trap there! A
heifer grazed among the mulleins.


    26

  advance
  romance
  prudence
  violence
  cutlery
  battery
  culvert
  accident
  induced
  reducing
  produced
  introduce
  culture
  vulture
  torture
  structure

  Join --s to delay, essay, employ, pulley, parley, kidney, volley.

Produce the cutlery which was concealed in the culvert. An electric
battery may cause accidents. Vultures attacked the wounded creature
with great violence, and tortured it with their beaks and talons.
They exhibit prudence, culture, and knowledge in erecting convenient
structures. The yeast is in a jar on the hearth. A legend or romance.
The English bow was made of yew.


    27

  genial
  menial
  trivial
  material
  particle
  decayed
  pickerel
  mackerel
  swath
  thwart
  reject
  bazaar
  religion
  religious
  foreign
  sovereign

  Place under-- with bid, drain, brush, value, mine, rate, score.

The blithe mower's machine cuts a narrow swath. Menial labor is
no trivial affair. This genial sovereign knows several foreign
languages. Reject all material a particle decayed. One's religion
affects others' lives. The injured engineers attended their bazaar.
He endeavors to thwart every religious scheme. Buy a pickerel or some
mackerel.


    28

  agate
  palate
  rebate
  frigate
  assume
  presume
  dispute
  compute
  irritate
  fugitive
  liniment
  regiment
  eminent
  prominent
  semicolon
  semicircle

  Write --ed, --ing after deny, glory, envy, tarry, reply, study,
  steady; as, denied, denying.

A prominent village officer envies my agate ring. The delicate pilot
on the frigate has an irritated palate. He assumes charge. I presume
the captain neither denies nor disputes his ability. Compute the
interest. A fugitive from the regiment asked a citizen for liniment.
Dr. Sunshine is a most eminent physician. Use fewer semicolons. A
semicircle is a half-circle. A rebate for cash.


    29

  easel
  weasel
  resign
  design
  refrain
  abstain
  extreme
  supreme
  terrify
  territory
  interred
  referred
  partial
  initials
  essential
  confidential

  Add --er --est to silly, naughty, ruddy, stalky, puny, tardy, wiry,
  noisy, icy, greedy; as, sillier, silliest.

A partial design lies on the easel. A supreme court official says it
is essential to resign. Strictly confidential. Refrain from sardines
and abstain from ale or beer. The late colonel was interred in the
new cemetery with martial honors. Acquire more territory. A terrified
weasel fled. Whose initials are written here?


    30 (REVIEW)

  weasel
  cutlery
  lenient
  produce
  mullein
  suspense
  scythe
  foreign
  trivial
  fugitive
  violence
  structure
  palate
  thwart
  assume
  material
  sovereign
  semicolon
  initial
  terrify
  acquaint
  referred
  irritated
  prominent

Mow the mulleins on the terrace with scythes. Be lenient with a
prominent citizen. Listening in suspense. A foreigner attempted
violence on our sovereign. Buy steel cutlery of the best material.
A terrified fugitive. I assumed you were acquainted. The initials
should be capitals. He referred to trivial faults in their language.


    31

  cactus
  tactful
  contact
  attract
  trophy
  gopher
  dolphin
  typhoid
  ebony
  agony
  economy
  scoundrel
  denounce
  pronounce
  mahogany
  toboggans

  Write --s after halo, solo, folio, piano, banjo, lasso, canto,
  memento; as, halos.

The greyhound caught a gopher. Our curlers won the trophy. Denounce
the scoundrel. The senior judge pronounced sentence. A tactful
phrase. Erect the steeple according to the contract. The coroner at
the inquest. The dolphin often changes color when dying. Ebony is
dear. Practise economy. The sewing-machine cover is mahogany. He
cried in agony. A lassoed ox gored him. A toboggan slide.


    32

  recruit
  pursuit
  herring
  haddock
  divorce
  corridor
  tortoise
  porpoise
  career
  pioneer
  peelings
  teeming
  antelope
  envelope
  velvety
  roly-poly

  Place inter-- with line, lock, mingle, meddle, marry, lard, leave,
  twine, view, weave, space; as, interline.

Gild the frame. A porpoise pursued the herring. The envelopes in the
corridor are of velvety material. Tortoises are turtles. Creeks,
teeming with salmon. A pioneer's career seldom led to divorce. In
subduing a nation we use forcible means. The roly-poly is surely
cooked. The peelings of the potatoes. Eat some haddock. The young
recruit started in pursuit of an antelope.


    33

  fatal
  brutal
  psalm
  pshaw
  release
  meagre
  features
  deceased
  quoits
  feigned
  slaughter
  smudged
  pumice
  avarice
  jaundice
  sacrifice

  Join --ly to guilty, hearty, heavy, happy, saucy; as, guiltily.

The disease proved fatal. The details of deceased's career were
meagre. Pumice floats in liquid. I feel fatigued. A brutal slaughter.
The features seem calm. Release the prisoner afflicted with jaundice.
Avarice and greediness are undesirable qualities. Their sacrifice was
only feigned. Select a psalm. The smudged moulder can pitch quoits.
Pshaw! the file was too brittle.


    34

  nozzle
  drizzle
  palings
  parings
  adieu
  ochre
  euchre
  Europe
  frigid
  average
  revenge
  challenge
  adventure
  calculate
  aggregate
  congregate

  Add --er, --est, --ly to speedy, plucky, hasty, weary, knotty.

Reuben bade adieu to Europe. The victor challenged us to a game
of euchre. The aggregate is forty-four, the average eleven. They
congregate to seek revenge. The sunbeams glare on the snow in frigid
lands. I can gauge a barrel of ale. The apple parings are frozen and
rigid. Paint the fence palings with yellow ochre. He held the nozzle
of the hose in a drizzling rain. Calculate the cost.


    35

  sorrel
  gospel
  marvel
  sentinel
  gluey
  clayey
  exempt
  brethren
  route
  tourist
  artery
  energy
  spinach
  chicory
  grievous
  mischievous

  Copy,--Gov. means Governor; Gen., General; Col., Colonel; Prof.,
  Professor; B.C., Before Christ; A.D., In the year of our Lord.

The sentinel challenged with great energy a mischievous tourist.
The colonel cut an artery. The sorrel horse followed by a different
route. The clayey soil was gluey, too stiff for spinach. An
exhibition of sleight-of-hand tricks. A mixture of chicory and
coffee. He marvels at our grievous affliction. Preach the gospel.


    36 (REVIEW)

  ochre
  pshaw
  quoits
  tourist
  energy
  meagre
  nozzle
  career
  clayey
  grateful
  pioneer
  forcible
  recruit
  typhoid
  release
  brethren
  grievous
  features
  economy
  envelope
  mahogany
  challenge
  mischievous
  congregate

The pioneer practised economy in his whole career. Paint the
door-jambs with yellow ochre. A crowd congregated. I was grateful
for my release. He laments over his brethren's grievous attacks
of typhoid fever. A mischievous recruit turned the nozzle on the
tourists. The supply of mahogany wood is meagre. A blue envelope.


    37

  pacify
  crucify
  glorify
  specify
  reveal
  bereave
  pasturage
  orphanage
  avail
  prevail
  delaine
  maimed
  colonize
  apologize
  patronize
  economize

  Add --d, --ing to guide, grieve, cease, receive, plague, erase,
  scare, relieve; as, guided, guiding.

A quaint carriage conveyed the bereaved waifs to an orphanage. The
maimed woman is dressed in delaine. Specify a chance to economize.
Apologize to the mayor for the pasturage. Colonize the islands and
patronize their people. If he prevailed, some would glorify, others
crucify him. Endeavor to pacify the rebels. It is of no avail to
reveal the secret.


    38

  bamboo
  grooved
  dragoon
  kangaroo
  applaud
  defraud
  fraction
  fractured
  intimate
  emigrate
  obstinate
  ventilate
  advocate
  suffocate
  summary
  rummage

  Put in-- before direct, distinct, constant, decent, capable,
  corrupt.

The squeamish dragoon has a vein of humor. He obstinately refuses to
emigrate. Our intimate friends applaud the supple kangaroo's tricks.
We shall suffocate unless you ventilate this chamber. The fractured
limb was cut off. What fraction of eight is four? Write a summary of
the scene. Advocate honesty. The bamboo was grooved. He was defrauded
at a rummage sale.


    39

  Saxon
  caldron
  squadron
  simpleton
  scandal
  placard
  numeral
  scabbard
  numerous
  generous
  accustom
  customary
  positive
  inquisitive
  negative
  interrogative

  Add --ous to fury, study, melody, envy, vary; as, furious.

The simpleton read the placard. He gives negative or interrogative
answers. He is positively furious at the scandal. Soup was supplied
to the squadron from a generous caldron. Draw forth the sword from
the scabbard. The inquisitive dwarf, wrapped in numerous robes,
occupies his customary seat. We grate nutmegs on the grater. Numerals
as four. Briton and Saxon are one. The detective's sight is not
defective.


    40

  jersey
  blarney
  abolish
  demolish
  idiot
  patriot
  chariot
  champion
  merino
  tapioca
  myrtle
  pyramid
  delegate
  desperate
  reverent
  tenement

  Write --es after mulatto, mosquito, motto, calico, domino.

Could the pyramids of Egypt be demolished by cannon? I've read of
Scottish patriots and warriors. Speak reverently to aged women. Is
their son an idiot? We'll abolish crowded tenements. A delegates'
meeting. In a chariot rode a wizard clad in myrtle green. I ate
tapioca pudding. A desperate rogue tried to blarney us. The champion
Jersey cow. Merino wool.


    41

  acquire
  acquaint
  prairies
  porcelain
  treacle
  theatre
  stirrup
  innings
  scalawag
  vengeance
  geography
  photograph
  turnstile
  valentine
  turpentine
  Hallow-e'en

  Write --es, --ed after copy, glory, envy, pity, fancy, modify.

Hallow-e'en is the eve of All-Saints' Day. Buy a porcelain bowl,
and a quart of turpentine. A scalawag emptied treacle upon the
turnstile. We upbraided her for acquiring a craving for the theatre.
St. Valentine's Day. His stirrup broke on the prairie. Photograph the
maid studying geography.


    42 (REVIEW)

  Saxon
  jersey
  treacle
  crucify
  patriot
  placard
  theatre
  merino
  prairie
  scandal
  bereaved
  summary
  accustom
  negative
  suffocate
  acquaint
  squadron
  vengeance
  positive
  fraction
  generous
  dialogue
  desperate
  economize

Wear a jersey. He speaks plain Anglo-Saxon. A generous patriot is
bereaved. The woollen cloak is merino. Thieves were crucified. Here
is a summary of the squadrons of Europe. The theatre has fine prairie
scenes. A desperate character vowed vengeance. I am positive he was
accustomed to economize. May peace prevail. Placard the house. A
suffocating chamber.


    43

  agile
  fragile
  docile
  domicile
  penance
  peninsula
  moderate
  temperate
  mania
  petunia
  betwixt
  probable
  indolent
  insolent
  crocodile
  chocolate

  Join --ed to pad, fulfil, blur, strip, excel, mob; as, padded.

The indolent volunteer will probably do penance for insolence. Use
chocolates moderately. Be temperate. The elephant is docile. An
agile squirrel. A mania for stealing. Petunias have fragile stalks.
They flourish betwixt the baron's castle and our domicile. I saw
crocodiles lying on a sandy peninsula.


    44

  phial
  phlox
  phonic
  phlegm
  abrupt
  illustrate
  disciples
  discipline
  Leonard
  leopard
  jeopardy
  prophesy
  flexible
  perplexed
  occasion
  assurance

  Put en-- before camp, chain, circle, close, courage, girdle, graft.

His disciples had too much assurance. Abrupt words caused a rupture
in the discipline. Leonard's life was in jeopardy from a leopard.
You seemed perplexed. There is phlegm in my throat. A phonic primer.
These flexible stalks are tough. The cheque is genuine. I prophesy a
famine. The phlox has purple flowers. A phial of medicine. Illustrate
this occasion.


    45

  pennon
  saffron
  suburbs
  curbstone
  landscape
  hailstorm
  honeysuckle
  huckleberry
  edifice
  precipice
  cowardice
  prejudice
  alcohol
  swollen
  observant
  attendant

  Write --able after cure, imagine, note, laugh, reason, fashion.

A swollen limb. Alcohol contains poison. The landscape gardener made
their residence attractive with honeysuckle. The hailstorm ruined
their huckleberries. The wolf's cowardice. His wary attendant is
yellow as saffron but is very observant. He built an edifice near a
steep precipice. See their pennon float. He has a prejudice against
curbstones in the suburbs.


    46 (REVIEW)

  docile
  mania
  phonic
  fragile
  phlegm
  edifice
  saffron
  leopard
  betwixt
  penance
  alcohol
  prophesy
  assurance
  precipice
  geography
  swollen
  disciples
  observant
  prejudice
  photograph

Photograph the spotted leopard near the precipice. We prejudiced
him against alcohol. Betwixt the saffron leaves were slight stalks.
Fragile glass in a pasteboard box. His docile, observant disciples
had assurance of success. I prophesy a failure in geography. He has a
mania for sketching ancient edifices. A few moments of leisure.



REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.


  abate
  adieu
  afflict
  alcohol
  analysis
  armor
  artery
  asphalt
  assurance
  attract
  audience
  avarice
  average
  barracks
  battery
  bazaar
  beetle
  bereaved
  betwixt
  brethren
  caboose
  caldron
  cathedral
  census
  challenge
  camomile
  champion
  chariot
  chastise
  chicory
  Chinese
  circular
  clayey
  collapse
  colonel
  colonial
  coolly
  congregate
  convenient
  conveys
  cowardice
  crocodile
  crucify
  cruet
  cruise
  customary
  cutlery
  decease
  decayed
  defiant
  defraud
  delaine
  delegate
  delicious
  denial
  denounce
  describe
  desperate
  destitute
  dial
  dialogue
  diamond
  diary
  dictionary
  diligent
  disguise
  dissolve
  distinct
  divorce
  docile
  dolphin
  domestic
  domicile
  drizzle
  economy
  edifice
  efficient
  encroach
  engineer
  entwine
  envelope
  essential
  Europe
  excavate
  expense
  extreme
  falcon
  features
  feigned
  feminine
  fidgety
  flattery
  footwear
  forbade
  forcible
  foreign
  fractions
  fracture
  fragile
  frolics
  fugitive
  funnel
  genuine
  geography
  gesture
  gigantic
  gluey
  glycerine
  gopher
  gorilla
  granary
  grateful
  grievous
  grooved
  guiltily
  guinea
  guitar
  halfpenny
  hallowed
  harmony
  hearken
  hearth
  heartiness
  heathen
  hedgehog
  heifer
  herrings
  hallo
  homestead
  hose-reel
  humility
  illustrate
  imaginary
  immerse
  industrial
  initial
  injurious
  innings
  insolent
  instinct
  interred
  interrupt
  introduce
  irritate
  isthmus
  italics
  Japanese
  jaunty
  jealous
  kangaroo
  lenient
  leopard
  loyalty
  luscious
  lustrous
  mackerel
  mahogany
  maimed
  majestic
  mallet
  mandolin
  marmalade
  martial
  masculine
  massive
  mattress
  mauve
  messenger
  military
  miracles
  mullein
  navigate
  nozzle
  numeral
  obstacles
  occasion
  ochre
  omnibus
  oppress
  overseer
  pacify
  palate
  palings
  parable
  paradise
  particles
  partition
  partridge
  passenger
  patriot
  patronize
  penance
  peninsula
  penitent
  perjury
  permanent
  persuade
  petition
  phlegm
  photograph
  pickerel
  pilot
  pioneer
  pinafore
  porcelain
  positive
  prairies
  precipice
  president
  pressure
  previous
  probable
  proverb
  psalm
  pshaw
  pumice
  pyramid
  quoits
  quoting
  rat-trap
  rebate
  recruit
  reduction
  referred
  refrain
  regiment
  reject
  release
  reliance
  religion
  resign
  revenge
  reverent
  reverse
  romance
  route
  rummage
  rumor
  russet
  sacrifice
  saffron
  sanitary
  scabbard
  scalawag
  scandal
  scoundrel
  scripture
  seamstress
  semicolon
  sentinel
  service
  sewer
  shrewd
  shrilly
  signify
  singular
  slaughter
  solar
  solitary
  sorcery
  sorrel
  sovereign
  specify
  spectacle
  spinach
  squeamish
  stanza
  stirrup
  strangle
  strolling
  structure
  sturgeon
  subdue
  subscribe
  suburbs
  sufficient
  suffocate
  suggest
  summary
  supreme
  surged
  surgeon
  surrender
  survive
  suspense
  suspicious
  syllable
  sympathy
  swath
  swollen
  tactful
  tapioca
  tendency
  tenement
  terrace
  territory
  theatre
  thorough
  thwart
  tomahawk
  torture
  tortoise
  tourist
  treacle
  trivial
  trophy
  tropics
  tunnel
  turnstile
  twopence
  typhoid
  tyrant
  unicorn
  upbraid
  vaccinate
  vagabond
  valentine
  vanilla
  vapor
  velvety
  vengeance
  ventilate
  veranda
  verbal
  verdant
  vigor
  volunteer
  weapon
  weasel
  wherefore
  wherever
  wholesome
  wondrous
  woolly
  yacht
  zealous



PRONOUNCE.


  NOTE.--See that the italicized letters are distinctly pronounced.

  ally, al-lī´
  arctic, är_k_´tik
  area, ā´rēa
  asphalt, as-falt´
  avenue, av´e-nū
  almond, ä´mund
  balsam, ba̤l´sam
  barren, bar´en
  because, bē-ca̤z´
  beneath, bē-nēth´
  breadth, bre_d_th
  brethren, breTH´-_ren_
  bristle, bris´l
  barrel, bar´el
  castle, kas´l
  cemetery, cem´-ē-ter-y
  chimney, chim´ni
  clothes, klōTHz
  collie, kol´i
  column, kol´um
  depths, dep_th_s
  donkey, dong´ki
  drought, drowt
  eleven, ē-lev´-n
  English, ing-glish
  errand, er-ran_d_
  February, Feb´rṳ-a-ry
  flannel, flan´el
  follow, fol´lō
  foundry, foun´-dri
  friends, fren_d_s
  figure, fig-ūr
  forbade, for-bad´
  glisten, glis´n
  greasy, grē´zi
  genuine, jen´ū-in
  height, hī_t_´
  hearth, härth
  heroine, her´ō-in
  history, his´-to-ry
  instead, in-st_e_d´
  kettle, ket-l
  kiln, kil
  launch, länsh
  leisure, lē´zhūr
  lettuce, let´is
  livery, liv´er-i
  minute, mi-nūt´ _adj._
  mouths, mouTHz
  nephew, ne_v_´ū
  nothing, nuth´-ing
  peony, pē´ō-ni
  perhaps, pėr haps´
  pumpkin, pum_p_´-kin
  princess, prin´-ses
  really, rē´al-li
  recess, rē ses´
  recipe, res´i-pe
  respite, res´-pit
  ruffian, ruf´_i_-an
  ru´-in, rö´in
  saliva, sa-lī´va
  several, sev´ėr-al
  shriek, s_h_rēk
  shrill, s_h_ril
  slaked, slāked
  soften, sof´n
  solder, sol´dėr
  sterile, ster´il
  strength, stren_g_th
  stupid, stū´pid
  toward, tō´ėrd
  Tuesday, t_ū_z´dā
  turnip, tėr´nip
  violet, v_ī_´-ō-let

  Fāte, fa̤ll, fär, fat; mē, met, hėr; pīne, pin; nōte, not, möve;
  tūbe, tub, bṳll; TH, _th_en; th, _th_in.



STANDARD IV. SENIOR.

GRADE 7.


    1

  typical
  renewal
  magical
  chemical
  botanical
  valiant
  hydrant
  indignant
  stimulant
  luxuriant
  assailant
  occupant
  incessant
  applicant
  consonant
  cereals
  alleged
  civilian
  secluded
  abominate

  Join --al to comic, logic, cubic, sign, brute, recite, remove,
  arrive.

The applicant made indignant denial of his alleged scheming. The
occupants of the secluded domicile gambled incessantly. A valiant
civilian shielded a mulatto from a brutal assailant. Our fertile
prairies yield a luxuriant growth of cereals. Chemical changes appear
almost magical. The rector abominates the use of whisky or like
stimulants. The city's hydrants need renewal. With breech-loading
rifles we defended breaches in the rampart.


    2

  miscreant
  intolerant
  mendicant
  immigrant
  descendant
  critical
  tragical
  physical
  identical
  fanatical
  prodigal
  cannibal
  acquittal
  occasional
  economical
  incite
  censure
  beseech
  stalwart
  lieutenant

  Add --ant to account, assist, claim, defend, attend, repent, depend.

His descendants were prodigal, not economical. Finally they became
mere mendicants. Immigrants are intolerant of even occasional
censures. The lieutenant was critical of his recruit's physical
courage. A stalwart miscreant accused of cannibal practices secured
acquittal. Another tragical scene occurred at that identical spot.
Pontiac readily incited the fanatical Indians to revolt. An adept in
botanical lore went on a canoeing trip. Lye for cleansing woollen
shawls has lain here for eight weeks. A mere mite of a bugler moaned
beseechingly for a draught of water.


    3

  raiment
  adjacent
  reticent
  opponent
  diffident
  indulgent
  competent
  consistent
  provident
  permanent
  marvel
  sequel
  infidel
  citadel
  trammel
  gibbet
  penitent
  obligation
  protector
  antiquated

  Write --ent with differ, insist, confide, reside, provide, compete.

His wily opponent was reticent, divulging few secrets. A gibbet was
erected adjacent to the citadel. His antiquated raiment is consistent
with his provident custom. Is he competent to revise any permanent
obligations? Though hesitating and diffident he stubbornly maintained
his stand. The sequel showed how indulgent the protector was to
penitent rebels. Do not trammel the posse of police in pursuit of the
kidnapper. Broken treaties led to conflict. Consult a treatise on
ague. The lawyer gave good counsel to the mayor and village council.


    4

  deceit
  conceit
  ceiling
  conceive
  receiving
  fiend
  shriek
  achieve
  relieve
  reprieve
  prevalent
  expedient
  stringent
  intelligent
  benevolent
  pleurisy
  catarrh
  manifest
  bigamist
  machinist

Catarrh and pleurisy are prevalent. Satan is the arch fiend. The
court received urgent requests to reprieve the bigamist. Success
is achieved by intelligent effort. It is expedient to use metal
ceilings. The benevolent machinist is believed to be conceited. The
villain shrieked when his deceit was manifest. Customs officers
conceived it necessary to make stringent rules against smugglers.
Pistils are seed-bearing organs. Rewarded according to his deserts. A
stream with cascades and cataracts.

  NOTE: When sounded like long _e_, _i_ comes before _e_, except
  after _c_.


    5

  elegance
  defiance
  alliance
  variance
  appliance
  arrogance
  ambulance
  reluctance
  annoyance
  conveyance
  surfeit
  forfeit
  counterfeit
  heinous
  inveigle
  project
  dynamite
  terminate
  excessive
  explosive

  NOTE: When not sounded like long _e_, the order of the letters is
  _ei_.

Use an ambulance for his conveyance to a hospital. A surfeit of
wealth leads to arrogance. The use of dynamite and other explosives
was an excessive annoyance. With reluctance a counterfeiter produced
his skilful appliances. The elegance of his address diverted
suspicion from his heinous crimes. As the allies are at variance, the
alliance may terminate. By their defiance of justice they forfeited
our assurance of relief. His soul was teeming with projects of
deceit. A Hindu fakir inveigled me by his cleverness. A wretch reeled
over but, seizing the reins, he reseated himself.


    6 (REVIEW)

  cereal
  achieve
  incite
  typical
  catarrh
  heinous
  renewal
  fiendish
  reticent
  variance
  civilian
  physical
  adjacent
  pleurisy
  inveigle
  dynamite
  reprieve
  expedient
  miscreant
  acquittal
  counterfeit
  descendant
  assailant
  consistent
  machinist
  benevolent
  lieutenant
  conveyance

Improvident mendicants made incessant appeals for relief. A reticent
lieutenant achieved mastery over his assailant. Is it expedient to
reprieve the miscreant who incited to such heinous crimes? Pleurisy
and catarrh are physical ailments. Was it fiendish to use dynamite in
besieging a citadel? An arrogant but benevolent machinist deemed it
consistent with honor to inveigle counterfeiters. Wheat is a typical
cereal. A renewal of the civilians' league led to many variances with
the soldiers.


    7

  offence
  defence
  pretence
  eminence
  diligence
  deference
  eloquence
  indolence
  excellence
  recurrence
  device
  entice
  suffice
  spliced
  indict
  bulwarks
  maintain
  inditing
  commodore
  despicable

  Form words in --ence from prefer, infer, confer, reside, revere.
  Give verb forms corresponding to advice, device, practice, prophecy.

For a recurrence of the despicable offence he was promptly indicted
before a magistrate. The eloquence of the lawyer sufficed for his
defence. In deference to the commodore's request he spliced ropes
with diligence. His indolence was truly a pretence to cloak knavery.
A bulwark is perched on the lofty eminence. Savory fruits enticed the
saucy ruffian. The excellence of his device for maintaining warmth
is acknowledged. The document was indited and sealed. It is a wise
practice not to prophesy about elections.


    8

  malice
  novice
  cornice
  solstice
  artifice
  estuary
  obituary
  dromedary
  secretary
  arbitrary
  auxiliary
  adversary
  sanctuary
  temporary
  stationary
  wether
  brigand
  bureau
  enumerate
  incredible

  Add --ary to beg, note, vision, infirm, imagine, mission, custom.

The malice of his adversary was incredible. Though a mere novice
in business, he is made temporary secretary of the grocers' guild.
The obituary notice was deceiving. The brigands fled on dromedaries
beyond the Nile estuary. The cornice meets the sanctuary ceiling.
Is the sun stationary at the solstice? The arbitrary tyrant was won
over by a clever artifice. Enumerate the auxiliary verbs. From a
circle around the moon many augur foul weather. A tainted wether of
the flock. An ermine mantle occupied the mantel-piece. The adze and
auger are carpenters' tools. A handsome bureau adorned the ladies'
waiting-room.


    9

  roguery
  quackery
  colliery
  cemetery
  artillery
  cajolery
  treachery
  shrubbery
  monastery
  stationery
  axis
  oasis
  crisis
  gratis
  trellis
  mechanism
  ingenious
  delectable
  periodical
  revolution

  Join --ery to brave, scene, pot, mock, slave, brew, distil, bake.

Can you distinguish between quackery, cajolery, and roguery? A corps
of artillery quelled the feud at the colliery. A cemetery near the
monastery is concealed by profuse shrubbery and vines climbing on
trellises. The treachery of the guards occasioned an alarming crisis.
An oasis in the desert is delectable. The earth's revolution on its
axis is shown by an ingenious mechanism. His services are given
gratis. Purchase the periodicals at a stationery store. A stationary
engine is one not movable. A stationer sells stationery, as a
confectioner sells confectionery.


    10

  oratory
  cursory
  dilatory
  lavatory
  dormitory
  directory
  desultory
  obligatory
  compulsory
  promissory
  harass
  cutlass
  trespass
  abscess
  embarrass
  merciless
  malignant
  merchandise
  curriculum
  interrogative

  Put --ory or --tory with direct, deposit, prepare, purge, explain.

The college lavatory adjoins the dormitory, not the vestibule.
A dilatory customer was embarrassed by the cashier's refusal to
discount a promissory note. A cursory glance revealed a malignant
abscess. Desultory attacks in the merciless warfare harassed our
adversaries. Trespassers were frightened off by guards equipped
with cutlasses. Oratory is made obligatory by the new curriculum.
I certified to the completeness of the revised directory. Freight
charges on the cargo of merchandise are not satisfactory. Alter the
exclamatory sentence to an interrogative one.


    11

  destine
  doctrine
  aniline
  gelatine
  sanguine
  profile
  ductile
  missile
  imbecile
  projectile
  license
  incense
  dispense
  condense
  recompense
  superseded
  destructive
  apothecary
  temperament
  Dreadnought

  Form words by adding --e to bath, cloth, loath, wreath, breath.

Condensed aniline dyes seem destined to supersede other varieties. He
advocates the doctrine of recompensing owners of revoked licenses.
The projectiles hurled from a modern Dreadnought's batteries are most
destructive missiles. The apothecary does not dispense gelatine or
incense. The imbecile is obstinate. Gold is ductile. His countenance
as seen in profile indicates a sanguine temperament. The marshal
mustered the troops levied in populous centres. A circus troupe
delighted the populace.


    12 (REVIEW)

  indict
  missile
  artifice
  roguery
  harass
  aniline
  dilatory
  obituary
  imbecile
  guerilla
  cemetery
  business
  auxiliary
  sanguine
  solstice
  secretary
  projectile
  supersede
  recurrence
  ingenious
  despicable
  eminence
  promissory
  curriculum
  apothecary
  embarrass
  treachery
  Dreadnought

A stationer was indicted for roguery. The artifice of his counsel
sufficed in that crisis. The novice was dilatory in inditing the
secretary's obituary notice. The apothecary was embarrassed by
despicable treachery. Offensive warfare harassed our auxiliaries. The
Dreadnought's eminence is due to projectiles of incredible force.
The apparatus for aniline dyeing is ingenious. Sanguine of business
success. A recurrence of the solstice. A new curriculum of studies
supersedes the old. Ancient missiles are found in a cemetery facing
the sanctuary. I purchased two bureaus.


    13

  ratable
  pitiable
  laudable
  palatable
  acceptable
  deplorable
  impassable
  inestimable
  inflammable
  controllable
  sabre
  lucre
  sombre
  spectre
  sceptre
  equipped
  battalion
  compassion
  phosphorus
  expenditure

  Form words in --able from agree, excite, prove, deplore, conceal.

The emperor's sceptre is of inestimable value. Few mountain barriers
are now impassable. The tax on rateable property is for controllable
expenditures. Filthy lucre is a term applied to money got by
deplorable practices. The battalion were equipped with acceptable
sabres. The spectre in the theatrical scene wore a sombre mien. His
laudable attempts to relieve pitiable distress. Phosphorus is highly
inflammable. Castor-oil is usually unpalatable. Commiseration lessens
grief, yet the lesson of affliction is invaluable. After dessert he
usually dozes on a lounge.


    14

  legible
  audible
  credible
  plausible
  digestible
  eligible
  feasible
  admissible
  corruptible
  contemptible
  creator
  incisor
  impostor
  executor
  competitor
  affidavit
  plaintiff
  testimony
  signature
  cauliflower

  Add --ible to force, resist, divide, digest, sense, corrupt,
  produce.

A credible witness made affidavit that the plausible professor was an
impostor. The laughter was inaudible. The competitor was ineligible,
nor was his testimony deemed admissible. Beavers possess forcible
incisors. The executor of the plaintiff's estate is incorruptible.
God is our creator. The signature is illegible--a contemptible
scrawl. Though perplexing, the project is feasible. Is cauliflower
fairly digestible? They were admitted to the queen's presence and
their beautiful presents accepted. Undue severity towards criminals
is rarely permissible. I gain nought by climbing a knoll. The belle
wore a pearl brooch at the bridal party.


    15

  traceable
  chargeable
  changeable
  damageable
  manageable
  peaceable
  noticeable
  serviceable
  advantageable
  marriageable
  integer
  coroner
  diameter
  conjurer
  idolater
  czar
  forte
  duet
  cede
  queue
  diet
  lieu
  guise
  alien
  adage

  Note that the _e_ is retained to preserve the soft sound of _c_ or
  _g_.

An alien idolater was in the guise of a native conjurer. The czar
is a peaceable ruler. A serviceable rule for finding the diameter
of a circle. The Chinaman's queue is noticeable. Coroners' fees
are chargeable to public funds. He has two marriageable daughters.
Wrestling is my forte. Use goblets in lieu of tumblers. An
unmanageable team of ponies. His ideas are changeable. Malleable iron
is made into wagon tires. France ceded Canada to England. The celery
was unsaleable. Wrap the damageable goods in linen. Two-thirds is not
an integer.


    16

  facial
  official
  glacial
  especial
  judicial
  artificial
  beneficial
  provincial
  commercial
  appointment
  gamester
  gossamer
  barrister
  chorister
  scavenger
  bouquet
  recently
  government
  responsible
  community

  Note the hyphen in well-bred, ox-eyed, air-tight, text-book,
  able-bodied, well-meant, high-flier, lion-hearted, fire-escape.

Canada has wonderful commercial advantages. The barrister aspires to
a judicial appointment from the provincial government. Glacial action
is largely responsible for our Great Lakes. The scavenger's duties
are beneficial to the whole community. The facial expression of the
gamester is especially severe. A bouquet of artificial lilies was
recently presented to the chorister by the choir officials. Gossamer
has an interesting derivation. Europeans were here later than the
Indians; the latter are dying out. His lax behavior proves that he
lacks self-control.


    17

  physic
  mimic
  traffic
  shellac
  bivouac
  picnicker
  mimicking
  trafficked
  rollicking
  bivouacked
  spiritual
  inspiring
  aspiration
  dispiriting
  conspiracy
  urchin
  extinct
  corridor
  galvanized
  wearisome

  NOTE: _k_ is used in these words to keep the _c_ hard.

Zincked or galvanized iron is serviceable. Trafficking in negroes is
not wholly extinct. The frolicsome urchins mimicked the simpleton.
Bivouacking is usually wearisome. Some rollicking picnickers suffered
later from colicky pains. He shellacked the corridor floors. A
prominent doctor believes in physicking his patients. He has
aspirations to be a pianist. We have spiritual as well as bodily
comforts. It was dispiriting to find the conspiracy so widespread.
The address on science was most inspiring.


    18 (REVIEW)

  spectre
  integer
  bouquet
  incisors
  coroner
  acceptable
  plausible
  pitiable
  sceptre
  feasible
  affidavit
  palatable
  signature
  chargeable
  bivouac
  battalion
  beneficial
  artificial
  competitor
  conspiracy
  government
  eligible
  plaintiff
  impostor
  noticeable
  trafficker
  scavenger
  cauliflower

The coroner's signature is noticeable in the affidavit. It was
pitiable to see the scavenger wasted to a mere spectre. The bivouac
of the battalion was highly beneficial. Cauliflower is palatable. The
plaintiff charged his competitors with conspiracy. The government
favors a feasible scheme of artificial drainage. The plausible
impostor is not eligible for office. A bouquet of daisies was
acceptable. Integers are not fractions. Gnawing animals have sharp
incisors. Is he a trafficker in liquor licenses?


    19

  option
  fiction
  diction
  sanction
  rejection
  deception
  expedition
  absorption
  temptation
  competition
  rudiment
  nutriment
  merriment
  impediment
  compliment
  hazardous
  physiology
  examination
  conscience
  proposition

  Write words in --tion from create, defect, rotate, quote, dispose.

I await the sanction or the rejection of my proposition. Even
keen competition need not induce deception. The author received
compliments on his recent fiction. We had the option of joining the
expedition but deemed it too hazardous. There is an eager absorption
of nutriment by a healthy system. He has an impediment in speech, but
his diction is choice. Their merriment implies no deception. He tries
an examination on the rudiments of physiology. Obey your conscience
despite temptations. Send a petition to the city council against
flimsy partitions in buildings.


    20

  terrific
  aquatic
  athletic
  despotic
  pathetic
  prolific
  intrinsic
  pugilistic
  democratic
  aristocratic
  vehement
  implement
  settlement
  amazement
  complement
  ensue
  beverage
  exhibition
  programme
  agricultural

  Add --ic to angel, hero, tone, algebra, botany, drama, mason.

Pugilistic exhibitions were excluded from the athletic programme.
The regiment had a full complement of heroic privates. In the newer
settlements agricultural implements are necessary. Our government is
democratic, not despotic or aristocratic. We viewed with amazement
their use of alcoholic beverages and the pathetic scenes that
ensued. The naval conflict was vehement, even terrific. The walrus
is aquatic in habits. Our prairies give a prolific yield of wheat,
whose intrinsic or inherent worth is great. The United States is a
republic. A frantic struggle with a lunatic.


    21

  deity
  agility
  facility
  civility
  sincerity
  iniquity
  docility
  alacrity
  vicinity
  dexterity
  Grecian
  magician
  optician
  politician
  electrician
  prescribe
  displayed
  negotiate
  worshipped
  certificate

  Join --ity to intense, absurd, plural, noble, fatal, sincere,
  docile.

An optician prescribed for my eyes. The politician dwelt on the
iniquity of his opponents and his own sincerity. A magician
displayed agility and dexterity. Ancient Grecian deities were
publicly worshipped by sacrifices. An electrician negotiated for a
residence in our vicinity. Civility and sincerity are certificates
of refinement. Accepting the challenge with alacrity, he showed his
facility in handling weapons. Don't meddle with the gas-meter. Juicy
pears are extremely agreeable to the palates of fever patients.


    22

  apprise
  criticise
  catechise
  advertise
  supervise
  analyse
  paralyse
  enterprise
  compromise
  enfranchise
  gaiety
  surety
  sobriety
  notoriety
  propriety
  collapse
  habitual
  definition
  disputant
  intoxicating

  NOTE: Chastise, comprise, demise, despise, devise, disguise,
  exercise, merchandise, revise, surprise, surmise, also end in ise.

There is no surety that the enterprise will not collapse. He
criticised the propriety of using gestures. The deceased was
paralysed for years before his demise. To analyse means to resolve
into simpler elements. The disputants compromised by agreeing to
accept my definition. I apprised the foreigners that they could not
vote, as they were not enfranchised. Their disloyalty was a matter of
public notoriety. Habitual temperance in using intoxicating liquors
is laudable sobriety. Mention the provinces comprised in Canada.
Explain the meaning of numerator and denominator.


    23

  baptize
  utilize
  realize
  civilize
  tantalize
  patronize
  authorize
  familiarize
  emphasize
  sympathize
  addict
  verdict
  dedicate
  contradict
  predicate
  assertion
  missionary
  justifiable
  licentious
  bereavement

  Join --ize to equal, brutal, real, central, signal, pauper.

He realizes that the verdict is justifiable. Emphasize the
predicate. I am authorized to contradict his assertions. Refrain
from tantalizing dumb creatures. Patronize home products. The church
was dedicated to divine worship. The heathens were baptized in
the presence of many spectators. Previously they were addicted to
licentious practices. Missionaries aid in civilizing savage peoples.
I sincerely sympathize with you in your bereavement. Familiarize
yourself with the means of utilizing waste products.


    24 (REVIEW)

  gaiety
  aquatic
  analyse
  civility
  beverage
  sincerely
  sanction
  facility
  criticise
  optician
  paralyse
  dexterity
  negotiate
  magician
  docility
  decision
  vehement
  recognize
  conscience
  intoxicate
  physiology
  spectator
  implement
  emphasize
  worshipper
  competition
  programme
  bereavement

The worshippers criticised the spectators for lack of civility. The
magician's dexterity was advertised on the programme. The optician
vehemently condemns beverages that intoxicate. Recognize the sanction
of a sincere conscience. He analyses sentences with facility. The
mayor's decision recognized the aquatic exhibition. He negotiated a
loan to organize an implement factory. His bereavement has paralysed
all gaiety. Elephants are remarkable for their docility. There is
keen competition in our physiology class. The missionary emphasized
the iniquity of perjury.


    25

  genius
  radius
  exodus
  impetus
  stimulus
  gladiolus
  terminus
  narcissus
  apparatus
  ignoramus
  siphon
  graphic
  epitaph
  phaeton
  phantom
  vision
  solicitor
  extraordinary
  encouragement
  manufacturing

  Use no hyphen in barefaced, greyhound, breastplate, breadstuffs.

The Bible contains a graphic account of the exodus from Egypt.
The narcissus and gladiolus are favourite flowers. Describe the
difference between a phaeton and a carriage. The epitaph on the
solicitor's tomb was composed by a genius, not an ignoramus. The
radius of a circle can readily be computed without special apparatus.
Encouragement is a great stimulus to exertion. The terminus of the
steamboat route is an important site for manufacturing. The weight
of the atmosphere causes liquids to flow in a siphon. A phantom is a
fancied, not a real, vision. Abundant harvests give an extraordinary
impetus to trade.


    26

  perilous
  covetous
  timorous
  frivolous
  poisonous
  felicitous
  disastrous
  boisterous
  gluttonous
  miraculous
  mileage
  acreage
  mortgage
  equipage
  disparage
  republic
  allowance
  adventure
  exaggerate
  automobile

  Add --ous to fibre, nerve, pomp, resin, riot, venom, wonder, zeal.

The acreage under cultivation is exaggerated. He disparages the
importance of our felicitous relations with the republic. A
gluttonous person is too covetous of dainty victuals. Senators have
an ample mileage allowance. To the timorous the adventure appeared
perilous. His recovery after swallowing the poisonous draught
was miraculous. The automobile is our latest equipage. It may be
disastrous to mortgage the residence. Avoid being frivolous or
boisterous. Beware the bite of a venomous reptile.


    27

  session
  evasion
  version
  decision
  collision
  derision
  omission
  dimension
  dissension
  digression
  ninths
  eighths
  twelfths
  thirtieths
  ninetieths
  calculate
  utterance
  parliament
  penniless
  pronunciation

  Form words in --sion from confuse, infuse, possess, depress, omit,
  revise. Add --ths to forty, sixty, eighty, hundred, thousand.

There was an omission of two-eighths from the total. The utterance
of a penniless passenger gives a new version of the collision.
Dissensions in parliament prolonged the session. How many ninetieths
equal eleven-thirtieths? His address contained serious digressions
from the main issue. Calculate the dimensions of the rectangle to the
twelfth of an inch. The decision to modify pronunciation was greeted
with cries of derision. There should be no evasion of duty. How much
is two-thirds of one-ninth?


    28

  function
  quotation
  exemption
  redemption
  completion
  inflection
  institution
  conjunction
  transaction
  consumption
  mosque
  opaque
  unique
  oblique
  antique
  renown
  campaign
  chameleon
  congratulate
  triumphant

  Write words in --tion from exert, digest, donate, incline, reject.

The conjunction has no inflection. His collection of antique vases
is renowned. The chameleon is unique in some respects. What is
the function of the hyphen? The worshippers in the mosque are
not Christians. I congratulated the general upon the triumphant
completion of his campaign. Explain the difference between vertical
and oblique lines. Ground glass is somewhat opaque. A foreign
institution secured exemption from taxation. Consumption is often
fatal. I cited quotations from English authors. The redemption of the
notes was a costly transaction.


    29

  duellist
  jeweller
  traveller
  towelling
  imperilled
  chiselled
  medallist
  apparelled
  councillor
  victualler
  gentian
  artesian
  comedian
  barbarian
  Presbyterian
  decrepit
  costume
  extricate
  scrutinize
  exhaustible

  Note: Words ending in one _l_ double it on adding a vowel suffix.

The comedian is a noted duellist, excelling in the use of the sword.
The traveller was apparelled in the native barbarian costume.
The councillor advocated artesian wells to give an inexhaustible
supply of excellent water. The jeweller chiselled a gentian on the
medallist's watch. The licensed victuallers scrutinized the quality
of the towelling. A Presbyterian clergyman imperilled his life to
extricate the decrepit vagrant. He shovelled the snow away to steer
the sleigh easily. People who affect too much politeness rarely
effect much real good.


    30 (REVIEW)

  opaque
  acreage
  epitaph
  twelfths
  decrepit
  covetous
  solicitor
  oblique
  phaeton
  equipage
  omission
  mortgage
  frivolous
  ninetieths
  victualler
  inflection
  campaign
  counsellor
  apparelled
  apparatus
  felicitous
  completion
  automobile
  miraculous
  parliament
  exhaustible
  congratulate
  Presbyterian

There was an omission of the phaeton, automobile, and other equipages
from the mortgage. The frivolous solicitor was covetous of being made
king's counsellor. The epitaph of the Presbyterian minister is very
felicitous. A decrepit victualler was oddly apparelled. The acreage
under cereals is a great encouragement. Parliament congratulated
the army upon the completion of the campaign. Our prairies
appear inexhaustible in fertility. How much is eight-twelfths of
seven-ninetieths? A miraculous rescue.


    31

  labor
  valor
  dolor
  arbor
  fervor
  succor
  rancor
  glamor
  splendor
  demeanor
  honorary
  valorous
  dolorous
  humorist
  clamorous
  cypress
  corporal
  sycamore
  appreciate
  accomplish

  NOTE: Instead of the final _or_ in many noun forms _our_ is
  recognized as a variant. The _u_ in the latter form is invariably
  dropped when the suffix _ous_ is added.

The mien of the humorist when off the stage is dolorous. The
corporal's valorous demeanor was highly commended. He was elected
honorary president of the federated labor union. The villain's malice
and rancor were severely censured. Her beauty and splendor cast
a glamor over all. Deeds of valor are accomplished in the joyous
fervor of youth. When in danger of drowning he was very clamorous for
succor. In my garden is an arbor sheltered by cypress and sycamore
trees. Filled with dolor at the prospect of death. I appreciate Arbor
Day.


    32

  duteous
  piteous
  aqueous
  gaseous
  bounteous
  righteous
  plenteous
  nauseous
  courteous
  erroneous
  typify
  mystify
  rectify
  beautify
  sanctify
  illuminate
  almsgiving
  manuscript
  compassionate
  circumstantial

  Add --ify to class, pure, false, glory, ample, intense, just,
  diverse.

Steam is aqueous vapor. He was very courteous when requested to
rectify the erroneous statement. Castor-oil typifies a nauseous
draught. Bounteous almsgiving and righteous behavior beautified his
life. Gaseous products from coal illuminate our houses. A plenteous
peach yield. The circumstantial evidence merely mystified the jurors.
Her piteous appeal fell on compassionate ears. A duteous daughter
sanctifies a home. He was accused of falsifying the manuscript. A
pair of moccasins. He related an anecdote of a penniless acquaintance
of ours.


    33

  dubious
  hilarious
  obnoxious
  laborious
  penurious
  notorious
  delirious
  ingenious
  luxurious
  abstemious
  rarefy
  liquefy
  putrefy
  stupefy
  rascality
  corduroy
  telephone
  vagabond
  phonograph
  temperature

  Join --ous to injury, envy, mystery, vary, victory, study.

When delirious his temperature was so high as to cause anxiety. He
seemed dubious of victory. When he won there was hilarious rejoicing.
Heat liquefies metals. Using tobacco tends to stupefy a youth. He is
not luxurious, but rather penurious, in his tastes. Obnoxious weeds
should be ruthlessly destroyed. Instances of long life are chiefly
among the abstemious. Putrefied meat is poisonous. The vagabond was
notorious for his rascality. Edison is a type of the laborious and
ingenious inventor. To him we owe the phonograph. The telephone was
invented by a Canadian, Dr. Bell. The air is rarefied as one ascends.
Corduroy trousers.


    34

  cavalier
  fusilier
  grenadier
  brigadier
  chevalier
  gaselier
  chandelier
  electrolier
  financier
  chiffonier
  geranium
  aquarium
  gymnasium
  harmonium
  nasturtium
  resolute
  originally
  inadequate
  discordant
  establishment

  NOTE: No capital is needed in such phrases as, morocco leather,
  plaster of paris, french polish, prussian blue, turkey red, etc.

Originally soldiers were described by the particular weapon used; as,
grenadier, fusilier, bombardier. The chandelier is the most ancient,
next the gaselier, and now the electrolier. The financier encouraged
the establishment of a gymnasium. Place a bouquet of geraniums and
nasturtiums on the chiffonier. The brigadier was resolute in exacting
obedience. Our school aquarium is inadequate. The church harmonium is
woefully discordant. Cavaliers or chevaliers were armed horsemen.


    35

  mutineer
  domineer
  gazetteer
  buccaneer
  scrutineer
  athlete
  compete
  secrete
  complete
  concrete
  secede
  accede
  concede
  precede
  stampede
  cupola
  asthma
  militia
  naphtha
  orchestra

  NOTE: Agreed, exceed, indeed, proceed, succeed.

The mutineers seized the ship and started as buccaneers. He proceeded
to complete the cupola. The athlete conceded the advantage to his
rival. He graciously acceded to my request. Some dissatisfied
members seceded from the orchestra. A wooden pavement preceded the
concrete one. The scrutineer succeeded in preventing our secreting
the ballots. The militia domineered over the citizens. Purchase a
naphtha launch. Fire caused the tethered horses to stampede. We did
not compete for publishing the gazetteer. Asthma is frequently fatal.


    36 (REVIEW)

  accede
  militia
  piteous
  asthma
  cypress
  concrete
  succor
  gaselier
  naphtha
  adequate
  sanctify
  splendor
  ingenious
  rascality
  putrefy
  telephone
  sycamore
  plenteous
  aquarium
  humorous
  orchestra
  financier
  geranium
  preceding
  nauseous
  obnoxious
  demeanor
  manuscript

The militia proceeded to succor the cavalry. The financier's demeanor
was obnoxious to the orchestra. Sycamore trees are plenteous, but
cypresses are scarce. The orchestra played humorous pieces at the
aquarium. Concrete the cellar. It was piteous to witness the asthma
patients. Telephone for an adequate supply of naphtha. A piece of
ingenious rascality. In the preceding year the queen acceded to the
request of her subjects. Putrefying vegetables are dangerous. A
manuscript shows a gaselier.


    37

  judicious
  capacious
  malicious
  audacious
  sagacious
  veracity
  ferocity
  vivacity
  scarcity
  capacity
  adhere
  sincere
  austere
  cashmere
  hemisphere
  reticule
  renegade
  adherence
  characterize
  archipelagos

  Change ferocity, vivacity, capacity, sagacity, veracity to forms in
  --ous. Make nouns in --ity from atrocious, capacious, sagacious.

The sagacious collie exhibits no ferocity. The audacious renegade
adhered to his malicious fiction. Though austere in features he has
great vivacity in manner. A sincere, judicious adherence to right
principles characterized the governor. I am conscious of the scarcity
of men with eminent business capacity. Veracity signifies strict
regard for truth. Genuine cashmere shawls come from Asia. There are
few archipelagos in our hemisphere. A foreign guide carried a bowie
knife in a capacious reticule.


    38

  fictitious
  vexatious
  ambitious
  infectious
  expeditious
  curiosity
  inferiority
  generosity
  university
  immensity
  opium
  asylum
  gypsum
  quorum
  museum
  committee
  inordinate
  overwhelm
  magnificent
  acknowledge

  Make noun forms of words in --ious, and adj. forms of those in
  --ity.

The university possesses a magnificent museum. Infectious diseases
are readily spread. Hire an expeditious conveyance. Be cautious to
abstain from opium. The patients at the asylum gave fictitious names.
Gypsum frequently contains the fossil remains of extinct animals.
Owing to the lack of a quorum the committee transacted no business.
Inordinate curiosity is often vexatious to others. Though almost
overwhelmed by adversity they manifested princely generosity. The
immensity of the British empire is now fully acknowledged. He is
ambitious to control the woollen industry.


    39

  secrecy
  privacy
  delicacy
  clemency
  obstinacy
  cordial
  congenial
  parochial
  centennial
  testimonial
  beacon
  matron
  venison
  environs
  oblivion
  beguile
  revenue
  heighten
  ceremony
  complexion

  Write sec. person sing. of pray, prayed, bless, hate, ruled;
  _e.g._, burnest.

The delicacy of the matron's complexion is very noticeable. The
city's environs have asphalt avenues. The emperor is renowned for
clemency. The centennial ceremonies rescued many quaint customs from
oblivion. The rector maintained secrecy as to his parochial revenues.
Congenial companions beguiled a tedious voyage. Obstinacy merely
heightened the culprit's guilt. The princess is most cordial towards
friends in the privacy of her home. Beacon lights are essential to
the safety of sailors. I won a testimonial for good behavior. Savory
venison is digestible.


    40

  accurate
  duplicate
  intricate
  elaborate
  collegiate
  initiate
  fascinate
  anticipate
  expectorate
  emancipate
  indicative
  nominative
  transitive
  subjunctive
  comparative
  obscene
  crescent
  sciatica
  ascertain
  condescend

  Write verb forms like prayeth, from love, mourn, fear, see, reign.

I ascertained that the principal of the Collegiate Institute
anticipates a big attendance. The crescent moon is the Turkish
symbol. His scheme is too elaborate and intricate. I sent a receipt
in duplicate. He distinguishes accurately between the indicative
and the subjunctive mood. The empress condescended to occupy a
comparatively mean cottage. Serpents are said to fascinate and
stupefy their prey. England emancipated negro slaves about 1808.
Refrain from obscene language. A skilful doctor relieved my sciatica.
Avoid coughing and expectorating phlegm on the street.



REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.


  abscess
  absorption
  abstemious
  acceptable
  acknowledge
  acquaintance
  acquittal
  adherence
  adjacent
  admissible
  adversary
  affidavit
  agriculture
  amazement
  ambitious
  analyse
  anecdote
  aniline
  annoyance
  anticipate
  apologize
  apothecary
  apparel
  appliance
  appreciate
  aquarium
  archipelago
  aristocratic
  arrogance
  artesian
  artifice
  artillery
  ascertain
  asphalt
  asthma
  asylum
  athlete
  audacious
  austere
  authorize
  automobile
  auxiliary
  baptize
  barbarian
  battalion
  beneficial
  benevolent
  bereavement
  beverage
  bivouac
  boisterous
  bouquet
  bounteous
  brigadier
  buccaneer
  campaign
  cannibal
  capacity
  cashmere
  cataract
  catarrh
  cauliflower
  cavalier
  cemetery
  centennial
  cereals
  ceremony
  chandelier
  changeable
  characterize
  chorister
  citadel
  civilian
  clamorous
  clemency
  collegiate
  colliery
  comedian
  commercial
  committee
  commiserate
  comparative
  compassionate
  competition
  complete
  complement
  complexion
  compliments
  compulsory
  concede
  conceit
  concrete
  confectionery
  congenial
  congratulate
  conscience
  consonant
  conspiracy
  consumption
  conveyance
  cordial
  corduroy
  cornice
  coroner
  corridor
  costume
  councillor
  counsellor
  counterfeit
  courteous
  covetous
  crescent
  criticise
  curriculum
  cursory
  cypress
  damageable
  deception
  decision
  decrepit
  deference
  delicacy
  delirious
  demeanor
  descendants
  despicable
  dexterous
  diameter
  dilatory
  diligence
  disparage
  dissension
  divisible
  docility
  doctrine
  dromedary
  duplicate
  duteous
  dynamite
  economical
  electrician
  eligible
  eloquence
  emancipate
  embarrass
  emphasize
  enfranchise
  encouragement
  epitaph
  equipage
  erroneous
  especially
  estuary
  exaggerate
  excellence
  exclamatory
  executor
  exemption
  exhaustible
  expedition
  extinct
  extraordinary
  facility
  familiarize
  fascinate
  fanatical
  feasible
  felicity
  ferocious
  fiction
  financier
  frivolous
  function
  gaselier
  gentian
  gluttonous
  gorgeous
  government
  Grecian
  gymnasium
  hazardous
  heinous
  hemisphere
  humorist
  identical
  idolatrous
  imbecile
  immigrant
  impassable
  impediment
  imperilling
  implement
  impostor
  inadequate
  incessant
  incisor
  indolence
  infectious
  integer
  interrogative
  intoxicant
  intricate
  inveigle
  judicious
  license
  lieutenant
  liquefy
  luxuriant
  machinist
  magician
  magnificent
  malicious
  manuscript
  marriageable
  merciless
  merriment
  mimicking
  miraculous
  moccasin
  mortgage
  museum
  naphtha
  nasturtium
  nauseous
  negotiate
  ninetieths
  nominative
  nutriment
  obituary
  obligatory
  obnoxious
  obscene
  offensive
  officious
  omission
  optician
  opponent
  orchestra
  original
  overwhelm
  palatable
  paralyse
  parliament
  parochial
  peaceable
  penurious
  periodical
  permanent
  phaeton
  phonograph
  phosphorus
  physical
  physiology
  picnicker
  piteous
  plaintiff
  plausible
  plenteous
  pleurisy
  politician
  preceding
  predicate
  Presbyterian
  pretence
  privacy
  programme
  projectile
  promissory
  pronunciation
  provincial
  putrefy
  raiment
  rancor
  rascality
  receipt
  recurrence
  recommend
  redemption
  renewal
  renowned
  reprieve
  rescuing
  resolute
  reticent
  reticule
  revenue
  righteous
  roguery
  sagacious
  saleable
  sanction
  sanctuary
  sanguine
  savory
  scarcity
  sciatica
  scrutinize
  seceded
  secrecy
  secrete
  secretary
  serviceable
  shrubbery
  signature
  sincerely
  sobriety
  solicitor
  solstice
  spectator
  splendor
  stampede
  stationary
  stationer
  stimulus
  suffice
  supersede
  supervise
  surfeit
  sycamore
  sympathize
  tantalize
  telephone
  temperament
  temptation
  testimonial
  timorous
  tragical
  transaction
  treachery
  triumphant
  typify
  utilize
  utterance
  variance
  vehement
  venison
  veracity
  vexatious
  vicinity
  victualler
  vivacity
  wearisome
  woollen
  worshipper



SMALL DIFFICULT WORDS.


  accede
  acreage
  adage
  adhere
  adze
  agile
  alien
  allies
  antique
  apprise
  aquatic
  arbor
  axis
  basque
  beau
  beguile
  belle
  blonde
  bureau
  cede
  chord
  cite
  civility
  crisis
  deceit
  deity
  diction
  diet
  dozing
  draught
  ductile
  duet
  duly
  eighths
  ensue
  ermine
  evasion
  eyelet
  facial
  fakir
  fervor
  feud
  fiend
  fossil
  forte
  fusilier
  gaiety
  gibbet
  glacial
  gnash
  graphic
  gratis
  guild
  guise
  gypsum
  harass
  haunch
  heighten
  hoax
  incite
  indict
  indite
  issue
  joist
  knack
  lair
  legible
  lieu
  lilies
  loathe
  lore
  lucre
  mauve
  meagre
  merely
  mien
  mileage
  militia
  missile
  mites
  mosque
  novice
  oasis
  oblique
  odious
  opaque
  option
  oriole
  pitiable
  plague
  posse
  prairie
  precede
  profile
  prolific
  pshaw
  queue
  quorum
  rarefy
  rateable
  realize
  recent
  rectify
  rector
  relief
  revenue
  roguish
  rouge
  rout
  route
  sabre
  sacque
  sceptre
  scrawl
  sequel
  session
  shield
  siege
  sieve
  siphon
  site
  sleight
  sparsely
  spectre
  stealth
  stupefy
  succor
  surety
  symbol
  toque
  trellis
  troupe
  truly
  twelfth
  typical
  unique
  vagrant
  valor
  version
  villain
  vision
  wether
  wholly
  woeful
  wrought



STANDARD V. JUNIOR.

GRADE 8.

  NOTE.--In this grade exercises in derivation should be given for
  seat-work.


    1

  nuisance
  grievance
  compliance
  accordance
  significance
  allegiance
  resistance
  pursuance
  inheritance
  perseverance
  artificer
  poulterer
  interpreter
  fishmonger
  parishioner
  maritime
  pedestrian
  relinquish
  attachment
  indefatigable

By indefatigable perseverance the rector won the loyal attachment
of his parishioners. A skilful artificer executed this emblem. The
fishmonger's stall adjoins the poulterer's. The interpreter converses
fluently in several languages. In 1812, the Canadians offered valiant
resistance to the Americans. On a pedestrian tour baggage is a
nuisance. The Boers recounted their alleged grievances. In accordance
with the judge's decision, the sheriff secured inheritance of the
estate. Their allegiance to the sovereign is of great significance.
In pursuance of treaty agreements they relinquished all maritime
possessions. Ready compliance with requests.


    2

  incessant
  defendant
  irrelevant
  exorbitant
  extravagant
  malignant
  supplicant
  conversant
  complainant
  predominant
  auditor
  ancestor
  aggressor
  chancellor
  benefactor
  affability
  boatswain
  handiwork
  confederate
  cousin-german

The complainant and the defendant are cousins-german. He asks
exorbitant prices for his handiwork. His predominant characteristic
is affability. The auditor says the outlay for police is extravagant.
Our ancestors scarcely comprehended Canada's wonderful wealth. Cancer
is a malignant disease. The haughty aggressor gave his confederate
a significant look. The boatswain's testimony was deemed irrelevant
by the chancellor. The incessant entreaties of a wretched supplicant
were answered by a generous benefactor. I am conversant with all the
circumstances.


    3

  lamentable
  formidable
  remediable
  accountable
  commendable
  irrevocable
  disreputable
  inconceivable
  indispensable
  irreconcilable
  adjutant
  buoyant
  pageant
  confidant
  ascendant
  tariff
  sumac
  suavity
  premier
  combating

Samson's one lamentable failing wrought his irrevocable ruin. A
buoyant spirit sustained the adjutant when combating formidable
foes. The historic character of the Quebec pageant is accountable
for its success. The disaster to the relief corps is irremediable.
The premier's uniform suavity is most commendable. His disreputable
behavior changed stanch friends into irreconcilable enemies. The
distance to the fixed stars is inconceivable. Make few confidants.
The high-tariff party was in the ascendant. Bring only indispensable
necessaries. Sumac leaves are used in tanning. The Protestant divine
wore a surplice.


    4

  delinquent
  malevolent
  antecedent
  fraudulent
  belligerent
  recipient
  proficient
  armament
  munificent
  omnipotent
  accessible
  invincible
  susceptible
  exhaustible
  corruptible
  paraffin
  kerosene
  marauder
  firmament
  resources

Their armament, vaunted as invincible, was readily conquered. The
starry firmament proclaims the omnipotent Creator. The belligerent
tribes offered a stout resistance to the marauders. Be not
susceptible to flattery. He inherits his ancestors' malevolent
disposition. Paraffin candles were antecedent to kerosene oil. The
delinquent debtor had made fraudulent statements of his resources.
The fortunate recipient of the prize is a proficient musician. He was
a munificent benefactor to the hospital. He evinced inexhaustible
energy. Were the city's officials wholly incorruptible? The ibex
browses at almost inaccessible heights.


    5

  deference
  existence
  penitence
  negligence
  conscience
  precedence
  abstinence
  occurrence
  abhorrence
  interference
  ostensible
  intelligible
  discernible
  irresistible
  imperceptible
  eclipse
  telescope
  seniority
  gratifying
  enunciation

"Conscience doth make cowards of us all." During the earthquake we
trembled for our very existence. Prolonged abstinence from a meat
diet impaired his strength. Such gross negligence is indefensible.
The tornado was irresistible. His penitence was more ostensible than
genuine. Clear enunciation aids in making reading intelligible.
In deference to his seniority he was accorded precedence. I feel
abhorrence for interference in politics by women. The eclipse was
discernible through a telescope. A slight, even imperceptible
difference. A gratifying occurrence.


    6 (REVIEW)

  pageant
  ancestor
  artificer
  nuisance
  existence
  maritime
  recipient
  benefactor
  gratifying
  susceptible
  occurrence
  fraudulent
  enunciation
  parishioner
  bulletin
  caravan
  upheaval
  fulfilment
  sacrament
  matrimony
  enthusiasm
  corpse
  episode
  vacation
  banisters
  shanghai
  appendix
  rhinoceros

The parishioners made their generous benefactor the recipient of a
salver. Our ancestors' fanciful costumes were seen in the pageant.
A recent edition of the book has the addition of an appendix. The
episode of their rescue was a gratifying occurrence. A fierce grizzly
bear mauled his prey. Though in attendance, the hospital assistants
and attendants were of little assistance to the surgeon. The
artificer was susceptible to cajolery. He acknowledged the existence
of fraudulent receipts. In vacation I go to the maritime provinces.
The mangled corpses were a grisly sight.


    7

  raillery
  dysentery
  effrontery
  buffoonery
  debauchery
  interstice
  dentifrice
  armistice
  apprentice
  accomplice
  judgment
  argument
  lodgment
  abridgment
  acknowledgment
  lichen
  lenient
  gratuitous
  miscreant
  cantaloupe

The apprentice is addicted to debauchery. The dentifrice was a
gratuitous gift. A respite from buffoonery. The Commander-in-Chief
signed an armistice after an argument. Lichens found lodgment and
grew in the interstices of the cliff. Well-bred people rarely descend
to raillery. The judgment of the court inflicted a severe penalty
upon the counterfeiter's accomplices. Dysentery resulted from eating
unripe cantaloupe. He censured the miscreant's shameless effrontery.
An acknowledgment of his offence resulted in a lenient sentence. An
abridgment is the whole in little.


    8

  culinary
  hereditary
  mercenary
  alimentary
  incendiary
  exemplary
  sanguinary
  preliminary
  penitentiary
  anniversary
  synopsis
  paralysis
  emphasis
  verdigris
  parenthesis
  utensil
  inspector
  aluminum
  subordinate
  deportment

Correct emphasis gives pleasing variety to speech. The incendiary was
sentenced to the penitentiary. Culinary utensils made of aluminum are
preferred in hotel kitchens. Our national anniversary is celebrated
on July 1st. He is distinguished for exemplary deportment. There
was a sanguinary encounter preliminary to the main battle. Formerly
many sovereigns employed mercenary troops. Verdigris is poisonous. A
tendency to certain diseases appears to be hereditary. Enclose the
subordinate clause in parentheses. Paralysis of the alimentary canal
interferes with digestion. The inspector requested a synopsis of
Queen Victoria's reign.


    9

  offertory
  derogatory
  peremptory
  promontory
  conciliatory
  ejaculatory
  valedictory
  observatory
  explanatory
  inflammatory
  crucial
  financial
  sacrificial
  prejudicial
  controversial
  analyst
  soprano
  eliminate
  teetotaler
  chloroform

The valedictory address was enlivened by ejaculatory remarks from
the audience. During the offertory the soprano rendered a fine
solo. I made a peremptory demand for salary due. The appeal was
inflammatory, not conciliatory. This treatise is explanatory of the
elaborate sacrificial rites of the Jews. All controversial points
were eliminated from the report. He is accused of uttering statements
derogatory to the teetotaler's sincerity, and prejudicial to the
state. An analyst made a crucial test of the purity of chloroform.
Scrutinize the financial report.


    10

  alienate
  emaciate
  negotiate
  facilitate
  assimilate
  accelerate
  syndicate
  confiscate
  gesticulate
  corroborate
  celestial
  influential
  equinoctial
  reverential
  confidential
  despatch
  detective
  asbestos
  mastication
  benediction

Excise officials confiscated an illicit whisky still. The politician
alienated influential adherents. With reverential mien the vicar
invoked a celestial benediction. Many foreigners gesticulate freely
in talking. The detective's confidential report corroborated my
statement. Several capitalists were incorporated as a syndicate. They
negotiated for an asbestos mine. Accuracy and despatch facilitate
business. Equinoctial gales accelerated the yacht speed. Thorough
mastication aids the assimilation of food. His emaciated appearance
excites compassion. The frigate's crew mutinied. He is repairing the
dilapidated edifices. There was much cordiality in his greeting. A
suit of linen pyjamas.


    11

  linear
  jocular
  jugular
  globular
  muscular
  requite
  expedite
  parasite
  anchorite
  anthracite
  integrity
  depravity
  perplexity
  tranquillity
  susceptibility
  sawyer
  bequeath
  mistletoe
  mercantile
  intersperse

The mistletoe is a parasite on the oak. His jugular vein was
nearly severed in two. Anthracite is accorded preference over
bituminous coal. A lone anchorite aims to live in tranquillity. I
am in perplexity as to linear and cubic measures. He requited my
hospitality by bequeathing a generous legacy. Such degradation and
depravity are attributed to savage barbarity. Extreme susceptibility
to weather conditions materially weakens the patient's vitality.
Punctuality expedites mercantile affairs. Secular interests differ
from spiritual. Many recent balloons are not globular in shape. A
muscular-looking sawyer interspersed jocular remarks.


    12 (REVIEW)

  raillery
  bequeath
  dysentery
  facilitate
  emphasis
  dentifrice
  miscreant
  paralysis
  teetotaler
  apprentice
  gesticulate
  benediction
  explanatory
  conciliatory
  bailiff
  attitude
  steadfast
  stratagem
  detriment
  calcimine
  diametrically
  tarlatan
  trillium
  pictorial
  cretonne
  vanquish
  loathsome
  masquerade

The teetotaler's emphasis and gestures evoked the apprentice's
raillery. Detectives were despatched to seize the miscreant's
accomplices. Amity and enmity are diametrically opposed. The navvy
interspersed jocose remarks about the use of a dentifrice. Nothing
can exceed my desire to accede to your request for mistletoe. My sire
bequeathed me his benediction. His conciliatory attitude towards the
anthracite miners facilitated negotiations. A difference of a few
instants menaced the success of our stratagem. I related an instance
of the bailiff's deference.


    13

  fallacy
  efficacy
  celibacy
  advocacy
  obstinacy
  intricacy
  democracy
  supremacy
  episcopacy
  aristocracy
  futile
  facile
  textile
  ductile
  versatile
  cheviot
  loyalist
  platinum
  persuasive
  Shakespeare

The fallacy of the critic's argument was evident. The principles of
democracy rarely find advocacy among members of the aristocracy.
Within his realms the king holds supremacy. The ductile nature of
platinum permits nice intricacy of design. None ever surpassed
Aristotle in versatile genius. Cheviot cloth is a textile fabric.
Celibacy of the clergy is a trait distinctive of the Catholic Church.
The majority of the loyalists embraced Episcopacy. He vouched for
the efficacy of the liniment. Shakespeare's facile pen has delighted
many generations. The tyrant's obstinacy rendered futile our most
persuasive appeals.


    14

  heresy
  ecstasy
  apostasy
  courtesy
  hypocrisy
  curtsy
  epilepsy
  amateur
  grandeur
  chauffeur
  tragical
  sceptical
  fanatical
  majestical
  ecclesiastical
  succumb
  transient
  obeisance
  palmistry
  bumptious

A stranger's courtesy often exceeds a friend's. Revere sincerity,
shun hypocrisy. Even transient visitors were unwearied in lauding
the grandeur of the scene. Judas's apostasy consigned him to the
reprobate class. "Waked to ecstasy the living lyre." The tutor
succumbed to epilepsy. She made a graceful curtsy or obeisance to the
duchess. I dissuaded him from employing a bumptious amateur in lieu
of an experienced chauffeur. The procession swept majestically along.
His bigoted, fanatical views were resolutely suppressed. Subsequently
he was sceptical of the claims of palmistry. The curate was tried for
heresy before an ecclesiastical tribunal. The ruffian met a tragical
fate.


    15

  decency
  currency
  tendency
  efficiency
  emergency
  vagrancy
  brilliancy
  occupancy
  discrepancy
  repugnancy
  radical
  identical
  technical
  tyrannical
  alphabetical
  redoubt
  schedule
  catalogue
  veterinary
  vaccination

"Want of decency is want of sense." Evidently there is some
radical defect when young men descend to vagrancy. None doubted
the efficiency of the veterinary surgeon. The auditor found no
discrepancy in the schedules. The Kaiser's occupancy of the castle
was brief. The impostor has a tendency to use spurious currency. In
case of emergency the militia will defend the redoubt. The brilliancy
of the meteor was obscured by vapor. The catalogue of the technical
school gives an alphabetical list of apparatus. That is the identical
excuse you proffered previously. Our evil inclinations are our most
tyrannical foes. I feel no repugnancy towards vaccination.


    16

  velocity
  sagacity
  audacity
  duplicity
  simplicity
  elasticity
  loquacity
  complicity
  reciprocity
  eccentricity
  lineage
  heritage
  assuage
  scrimmage
  hemorrhage
  woeful
  stevedore
  surcingle
  subpœna
  malefactor

In children simplicity is usually preferred to loquacity. All men
appreciate the heritage of a noble lineage. I endeavored to assuage
his grief for his niece's death, due to a hemorrhage. Accused of
complicity in the plot, the malefactor was served with a subpœna.
The elasticity of rubber is familiar to all. The stevedore displayed
great audacity in the scrimmage. The initial velocity of a cannon
ball is tremendous. The artist's eccentricity of manner is woeful. He
accused me of duplicity in advocating a policy of reciprocity with
the United States. He is noted for the sagacity of his judgments. Get
a snaffle and surcingle for the pony.


    17

  diversity
  verbosity
  animosity
  immensity
  perversity
  intensity
  pomposity
  propensity
  monstrosity
  impetuosity
  hypocrite
  plebiscite
  exquisite
  requisite
  perquisite
  reconcile
  conciseness
  disinfectant
  amphitheatre
  sanctimonious

A sanctimonious hypocrite evinced great propensity to deceit. Part
beast, part bird, the creature was a monstrosity. The pomposity of
the speaker aroused the animosity of his audience. The immensity
of the amphitheatre was revealed by the intensity of the light.
Conciseness of style is preferable to verbosity. A diversity of
opinion exists as to the utility of disinfectants. A suite of
exquisitely fitted rooms is a perquisite of the viceroy's. Explain
the requisite qualifications for a voter in the plebiscite on local
option. A stubborn perversity of will may accompany impetuosity of
action.


    18 (REVIEW)

  ecstasy
  assuage
  amateur
  exquisite
  identical
  schedule
  obeisance
  subpœna
  hypocrite
  efficiency
  transient
  veterinary
  hemorrhage
  eccentricity
  pretext
  optical
  warily
  mirage
  illusion
  cymbals
  humane
  chemise
  embezzle
  primitive
  semaphore
  crucifixion
  inseparable
  sauer-kraut

Has he the remedies requisite to assuage the stevedore's hemorrhage?
A subpœna cut short the amateur's ecstasy. These concise schedules
are not identical. A mirage is a transient optical illusion. No
allusion was made to the veterinary's apostasy, but his eccentricity
is plain. The mace is a symbol of authority. His offer to play
the cymbals was merely a pretext for soliciting alms. An eminent
physician was most humane in prescribing for the wretch, who was in
imminent danger. Sea-sickness induced violent retching. The secretary
has a record of the ayes and noes.


    19

  igneous
  ligneous
  beauteous
  cutaneous
  miscellaneous
  gorgeous
  courageous
  outrageous
  advantageous
  simultaneous
  galleon
  dudgeon
  bludgeon
  puncheon
  chameleon
  assassin
  suzerain
  eruption
  accordion
  ingredient

Granite is an igneous rock. Sailing in the gorgeous sunset,
the galleon was a beauteous sight. The editor found the use of
miscellaneous items very advantageous. The suzerain was in high
dudgeon at the outrageous conduct of subordinates. Cutaneous
eruptions are cured by balms. The two courageous firemen emerged
from the ruins almost simultaneously. The assassin used a heavy
bludgeon. The chameleon was drowned in a puncheon. The metal box has
a ligneous appearance. In accordions the tones are generated by means
of metallic reeds. What are the ingredients in the mixture?


    20

  vexatious
  rebellious
  fastidious
  contagious
  mysterious
  ingenious
  illustrious
  salubrious
  amphibious
  ignominious
  plebeian
  meridian
  tragedian
  equestrian
  grammarian
  jonquil
  hygiene
  anatomy
  cyclamen
  hysterics

People so fastidious about appearances are most vexatious. An
ingenious physician proved the disease to be contagious. The
illustrious tragedian died at the meridian of his glory. Many
amphibious animals live in salubrious climates. The grammarian
preserved a mysterious silence. The oppressive laws enacted by the
nobles made the plebeians rebellious. The equestrian performance in
the circus was an ignominious failure. The cyclamen and jonquil bloom
profusely. Hygiene was substituted for anatomy. A frenzy of grief
induced hysterics. Nicotine from tobacco is highly poisonous.


    21

  spirituous
  impetuous
  sumptuous
  ambiguous
  contiguous
  superfluous
  conspicuous
  tempestuous
  promiscuous
  contemptuous
  pavilion
  cotillion
  vermilion
  postillion
  contagion
  crochet
  croquet
  furlough
  insomnia
  barricade

A free use of spirituous liquors was once believed to prevent
contagion. Contemptuous treatment often gives rise to tempestuous
scenes. Contiguous to the infirmary is a barricade. A promiscuous
crowd danced a cotillion. Conspicuous among these by his vermilion
necktie, was the postillion. Later, a sumptuous banquet was served
in the pavilion with scrupulous care. The use of superfluous phrases
renders his meaning ambiguous. Is he apt to be crotchety when playing
croquet? The ensign's furlough was curtailed. Laudanum should not be
used for insomnia.


    22

  mucous
  ludicrous
  dexterous
  garrulous
  tremulous
  scurrilous
  unanimous
  marvellous
  anonymous
  omnivorous
  routine
  aquiline
  crinoline
  guillotine
  tambourine
  courier
  missive
  attorney
  intercede
  restaurant

Fishwives are noted for scurrilous language. Viewed merely as a
literary work, the Bible is a marvellous volume. The attorney was
tremulous when interceding with the jury. The restaurant waiter
is garrulous. A courier received an anonymous missive. Mucous
expectorations contribute to spread disease. The guillotine is so
named from its introducer. A swarthy gypsy maiden played a tambourine
dexterously. Stylish ladies may resume the wearing of crinoline. The
bugler has an aquiline nose and a ludicrous squint. I found solace in
the routine of daily duties. Swine are omnivorous feeders. The vote
for the aqueduct was unanimous.


    23

  melee
  decree
  refugee
  matinee
  employee
  pedigree
  fricassee
  guarantee
  mortgagee
  chimpanzee
  baptism
  witticism
  fanaticism
  hypnotism
  rheumatism
  fraught
  symptom
  foreclosure
  marchioness
  pianoforte

He guarantees seats for the matinee at the theatre. The chimpanzee's
appearance is uncouth. A forlorn refugee evinces symptoms of chronic
rheumatism. Judgment and witticism are often at strife. Cæsar issued
a decree to his subjects to be enrolled. The chicken fricassee was
insipid. Several instances of lunacy have developed from fanaticism.
Four weeks' notice of foreclosure was issued by the mortgagee. I
enquire into no man's pedigree. Hypnotism is fraught with danger. The
marchioness is bountiful towards her employees.


    24 (REVIEW)

  hygiene
  plebeian
  furlough
  symptom
  guillotine
  beauteous
  guarantee
  assassin
  witticism
  tragedian
  dexterous
  marvellous
  rheumatism
  equestrienne
  auricle
  palisade
  Jehovah
  opossum
  abstinence
  vindictive
  hallelujah
  philopena
  variegated
  diaphragm
  somersault
  œsophagus
  appropriate
  sarsaparilla

The attorney interceded to save the tragedian's assassin from the
guillotine. The observance of hygiene alleviated all symptoms of
hysterics or rheumatism. The prophets of old were persecuted. A
sergeant prosecuted his search for recruits for his regiment. The
athlete observes a strict abstinence as to fricassees and spirituous
liquors. The beauteous and dexterous equestrienne is marvellously
fastidious. I have studied about the auricles of the heart, the
œsophagus, and the diaphragm. "The oracles are dumb." Though of
plebeian origin his witticisms guaranteed him a place at court.


    25

  friction
  abolition
  cessation
  discretion
  laceration
  repetition
  extinction
  exhaustion
  conciliation
  exaggeration
  typhus
  fungus
  octopus
  humerus
  hippopotamus
  bunion
  species
  ultimate
  epidermis
  chilblain

Oiling a machine lessens friction. Moulds are a species of fungus
growth. "Discretion is the better part of valor." Repetition
induces a habit. Exaggeration is frequently due to a too lively
imagination. I dislocated my humerus; there was also a laceration of
the epidermis. The abolition of slavery led to the American Civil
War. The ultimate extinction of the hippopotamus is probable. Typhus
fever is accompanied by great exhaustion. The Board of Conciliation
effected a cessation of hostilities. The octopus has attained
notoriety from tales of its ferocity. Bunions and chilblains are
annoying.


    26

  calibre
  accoutre
  mediocre
  fracture
  stricture
  massacre
  saltpetre
  sepulchre
  manœuvre
  reconnoitre
  inscription
  specification
  stupefaction
  annunciation
  conflagration
  curfew
  suture
  ligament
  decipher
  carbine

Saltpetre is used in curing bacon. Scouts were detailed to
reconnoitre. Is the inscription on the pendant decipherable? Every
manœuvre of the battalion was exact. There were frequent massacres of
the pioneers by the Indians. A stricture of the intestines made an
operation necessary. Christ's sepulchre was rock-hewn. The militia
are accoutred with carbines of small calibre. The sexton gave a
minute description of the conflagration. Orchids grew in the fissures
of the cliff. The niche is occupied by a handsome statue. He sells
dentists' forceps. Stupefaction was due to his inhaling gas. The
apostles made annunciation of the gospel. "The curfew tolls the knell
of parting day." The sutures of the skull are not tied by ligaments.


    27

  allusion
  incision
  precision
  ascension
  dissension
  pretension
  oppression
  suppression
  intercession
  condescension
  indigo
  portico
  sirocco
  stiletto
  armadillo
  Messiah
  Israelite
  wielding
  subjugate
  quadruped

In surgery precision is essential in making incisions. The
oppression of Christians began after Christ's ascension. The author
has pretensions to elegance of diction. Suppression of feeling
strengthens character. The portico is of Roman style. The Queen's
intercession secured a reprieve. The sirocco poisons the atmosphere.
Condescension is a noble quality. Indigo is a permanent dye. The
assassin was proficient in wielding a stiletto. Our geography has an
allusion to the armadillo. There were lively dissensions among the
Israelites regarding the expected Messiah.


    28

  minuet
  minaret
  parapet
  clarionet
  flageolet
  gazette
  coquette
  etiquette
  quartette
  mignonette
  plateau
  tableau
  chateau
  trousseau
  portmanteau
  capsule
  quinine
  discern
  specialty
  parachute

Her trousseau was conveyed in a portmanteau. A recent issue of the
gazette describes the count's chateau. The coquette is an adept
in dancing the minuet. The graceful minaret was readily discerned
from the height of the plateau. A series of tableaux was a complete
hoax. The best instruments in the quartette were the clarionet and
the flageolet. Does etiquette permit ladies to promenade on the
parapet? The florist makes a specialty of mignonette. Take quinine
in capsules. I descended in a parachute, swinging on a trapeze. The
accounts of the diocese show a deficit. His post at the union depot
is a sinecure. Buy sachet powder.


    29

  alleviate
  castigate
  eliminate
  exhilarate
  capitulate
  fluctuate
  accumulate
  concentrate
  approximate
  contaminate
  quiz
  baize
  azure
  cozen
  chintz
  osier
  crosier
  malign
  benign
  arraign
  vizier
  epicure
  macaroni
  benevolence
  Archbishop

He could neither malign nor cozen the judge. His benign countenance
indicates benevolence. Ski-ing is exhilarating. A deacon bore the
Archbishop's crosier. Censure arraigns both private motives and
public actions. The sky was vested in azure. The price of baize
and chintz fluctuates. The vizier concentrated his troops, and the
besieged garrison capitulated. The ringleaders were castigated,
but the sufferings of the troops were alleviated. Accumulate
knowledge rather than wealth. The epicure disdains macaroni. Give an
approximate estimate of the cost. Simplicity should not be imposed
upon, nor virtue contaminated.


    30 (REVIEW)

  plateau
  coquette
  mediocre
  repetition
  exhilarate
  exaggerate
  trousseau
  massacre
  mignonette
  manœuvre
  quadruped
  stupefaction
  conflagration
  hippopotamus
  cotyledon
  forfeiture
  patrimony
  aggravate
  vocabulary
  orthography
  presumptuous
  biassed
  reynard
  equinox
  colleague
  miniature
  enrolment
  instalment

The manœuvres of the army corps were to prevent a repetition of
the massacres. The hippopotamus is a species of quadruped not yet
annihilated. Explain the uses of the calyx, the cotyledon, and the
tendril. Acquire an extensive vocabulary and correct orthography.
My adherence to the king resulted in forfeiture of my patrimony.
Very exhilarating is the climb to plateaux perfumed by mignonette.
His presumptuous adherents aggravated the quarrel. The loss of her
trousseau in the conflagration stupefied the coquette. He exaggerates
his mediocre abilities.


    31

  abattoir
  reservoir
  delirium
  laudanum
  pendulum
  cerebrum
  linoleum
  petroleum
  mausoleum
  meerschaum
  repellent
  recipient
  delinquent
  fraudulent
  antecedent
  calumny
  sapphire
  amethyst
  attribute
  superintendent

Linoleum and petroleum are got wholesale at an emporium. The pendulum
is of nickel. Distinguish between the cerebrum and the cerebellum. A
public abattoir replaced the slaughter houses. The patient's delirium
is attributed to doses of laudanum. The superintendent was the
recipient of a meerschaum pipe. The delinquent auctioneer was accused
of fraudulent dealings. The mausoleum is adjacent to the reservoir.
His query was to elicit the antecedent of the relative pronoun.
Calumny was utterly repellent to him. The amethyst and sapphire are
precious stones.


    32

  tenacious
  atrocious
  malicious
  efficacious
  avaricious
  capricious
  loquacious
  precocious
  pernicious
  pugnacious
  decalogue
  pedagogue
  demagogue
  synagogue
  avoirdupois
  homicide
  fascinate
  literature
  etymology
  commodity

The decalogue is kept in every synagogue. The precocious child was
very capricious. He prescribed an efficacious elixir. The pedagogue
taught syntax and etymology. The poet is avaricious of fame. The
larceny of the diaper towelling and dimity was a malicious act.
The demagogue incited a political intrigue. Cats are tenacious of
life. Is the chamois pugnacious? Pernicious literature should be
suppressed. Though handsome, she is too loquacious to fascinate her
auditors. The cumbrous avoirdupois system is still used for weighing
coarser commodities. He wreaked dire vengeance for the atrocious
homicide. At the approaching session of Parliament the cession of
territory will be broached. I throttled the dastard who vilified you,
my liege.


    33

  nutritious
  licentious
  pretentious
  contentious
  superstitious
  seditious
  facetious
  propitious
  ostentatious
  conscientious
  cuticle
  canticle
  chronicle
  corpuscle
  tabernacle
  aerie
  specie
  sortie
  reverie
  menagerie

Rice is highly nutritious. Licentious and superstitious, the Roman
Empire fell. Though facetious in speech he is not ostentatious in
manner. A pretentious subaltern solicited leave to head a sortie.
The weather was not propitious for a nocturnal expedition. Listening
to the canticles in the synagogue, I fell into a reverie. The
ancient chronicles relate many trivial episodes. While contentious
in harangue he is not seditious in act. The conscientious physician
prescribed for my carbuncle. Exercise develops muscle. The cuticle
envelops the body. He robbed the eagle's aerie. The Puritans
proscribed theatres. At the menagerie, wages are paid in gold specie.
The blood corpuscles readily coagulate.


    34

  nuptial
  deferential
  reverential
  providential
  consequential
  decisive
  deceptive
  seductive
  initiative
  diminutive
  recipe
  epitome
  anemone
  extempore
  catastrophe
  anchovy
  bologna
  scimitar
  souvenir
  gratitude

The sentinel's warning averted a catastrophe. An influential friend
of ours contemplates building a substantial residence. Consequential
people often aim to take the initiative. He wrote an epitome
of the extempore speech. A diminutive hussar dealt a decisive
stroke with his scimitar. The seductive path bordered by anemones
proved deceptive. On receiving a souvenir of the nuptial ceremony
he expressed his gratitude. Omit the recipe for anchovy sauce.
Lightning struck a boat that was lightening its load. Bologna sausage
satiated his appetite. The escapades of the dissolute servitor were
scandalous. Dahlias, fuchsias, and zinnias.


    35

  regatta
  guerilla
  insignia
  dilemma
  cyclopædia
  influenza
  neuralgia
  scarlatina
  dyspepsia
  pneumonia
  conducive
  suggestive
  consecutive
  competitive
  appreciative
  copse
  spigot
  faucet
  geyser
  trophy
  vassal
  cañon
  tactics
  gauger
  vivacity

Our lacrosse team won the trophy in two consecutive years. Is
scarlatina infectious? Is he appreciative of the stimulus afforded
by competitive examinations? Influenza and pneumonia are very
prevalent. The insignia of office were conferred after the regatta.
Every library requires a cyclopædia. Dyspepsia and neuralgia are
not conducive to vivacity. The gauger was in a sad dilemma when
the faucet and spigot were lost. The skirmish is suggestive of
guerilla tactics. The closing of a business letter may be, "Yours
respectfully." Knight or vassal, let each respectively do his duty.
Near the cañon is a geyser, beside a hazel copse.


    36 (REVIEW)

  recipe
  guerilla
  intrigue
  decisive
  souvenir
  scimitar
  facetious
  defrayal
  reservoir
  apoplexy
  dyspepsia
  diminutive
  efficacious
  abbreviate
  migratory
  erysipelas
  pneumonia
  meerschaum
  anniversary
  superintendent
  chrysanthemum
  rescind
  nautical
  deficiency
  pulmonary
  quarantine
  coincidence
  pre-eminent

Malicious or facetious remarks were utterly abhorrent to the
superintendent. The suicide's remains were borne on a bier to the
morgue and embalmed. The capricious coquette contemned her suitor's
offer. A guerilla war ensued from a seditious intrigue of avaricious
vassals. That scimitar is a souvenir of a disastrous exploit
therein. He condemned the recipe as not efficacious for erysipelas
or pneumonia. An epitome of some chronicles about our antecedents
is given in an encyclopædia. I prefer dahlias or fuchsias to
chrysanthemums. A diminutive meerschaum pipe.


    37

  pharmacy
  blaspheme
  diphtheria
  asphyxiate
  hydrophobia
  autograph
  biography
  calligraphy
  amphibious
  phenomenon
  clique
  physique
  grotesque
  burlesque
  picturesque
  panacea
  avalanche
  lineaments
  conspirator
  frontispiece

The major's autograph on the frontispiece of his biography was in
strange calligraphy. The beaver is amphibious. At the pharmacy I
got a panacea for diphtheria, hydrophobia, and other diseases. The
lackey's grotesque physique is humorously portrayed in a burlesque
play. All admonitions forbade blasphemy. The miners were asphyxiated
by inhaling coal gas. An eclipse of the sun is a striking phenomenon.
The avalanche was a picturesque sight. The clique of conspirators
failed ignominiously. The sculptor has well represented his clear-cut
lineaments.


    38

  eccentric
  authentic
  pneumatic
  spasmodic
  diplomatic
  antiseptic
  lymphatic
  calisthenic
  pyrotechnic
  hieroglyphic
  privilege
  sacrilege
  symptom
  thraldom
  martyrdom
  lucrative
  diarrhœa
  velocipede
  monotonous
  predecessor

Authentic reports state that the ambassador, though eccentric, is yet
diplomatic. Thraldom or martyrdom was once the penalty for professing
Christianity. Pneumatic tires were not used on velocipedes. On
Dominion Day the pyrotechnic display was superb. Calisthenic
exercises, if not spasmodic, may eradicate certain ailments. The
recent statutes give privileges to aliens. In rifling the church they
were guilty of sacrilege. He obtained an authentic report on the
use of arsenic in cosmetics for the complexion. Carbolic acid is an
antiseptic. Describe the lymphatic gland. Hieroglyphics antedated the
alphabet. My predecessor obtained a lucrative but monotonous post. An
epidemic of diarrhœa raged with virulence in the army.


    39

  deodorize
  neutralize
  monopolize
  crystallize
  tranquillize
  delineation
  realization
  anticipation
  specification
  resuscitation
  heredity
  longevity
  ingenuity
  solemnity
  eccentricity
  eulogy
  prestige
  coercion
  procedure
  reparation

Electricity deodorizes sewage. The patriarchs were remarkable for
longevity. He displayed ingenuity in his stage delineations of
the beau's eccentricities. During the requiem service and funeral
obsequies the solemnity of the scene was impressive. The aborigines
of Australia rank low in the scale of humanity. What people are
our antipodes? The mal-contents were finally tranquillized. Acids
and alkalies neutralize one another. Anticipation is often more
pleasurable than realization. Learn how to resuscitate one apparently
drowned. Specifications for the water conduits were drawn up with
exactitude. Sugar crystallizes readily.


    40

  lacteal
  funereal
  ethereal
  corporeal
  cochineal
  effervesce
  acquiesce
  excrescent
  convalescent
  incandescent
  larynx
  pharynx
  baritone
  labyrinth
  strychnine
  vitriol
  seidlitz
  antidote
  mammal
  oleander

Seidlitz powders effervesce. He lopped excrescent growths from his
oleanders. Millions of incandescent lights made the scene almost
ethereal. Funereal rites await all that is corporeal in man. All
mammals are nourished by lacteal fluid. From the cochineal insect a
beautiful dye is obtained. Both the larynx and pharynx are concerned
in sound production. A baritone voice is intermediate between bass
and tenor. Strychnine may be a nerve tonic. The intricate passages
of the ear are called the labyrinth. Soft music is quiescent. During
convalescence he was prohibited from severe exertion. I enquired for
an antidote for vitriol.



REVIEW OF THE DIFFICULT WORDS.


  abbreviate
  abhorrence
  aborigines
  abridgment
  accelerate
  accomplice
  accoutre
  acquiesce
  adjutant
  aggressor
  alimentary
  allegiance
  amateur
  amphibious
  anemone
  anonymous
  anthracite
  apostasy
  approximate
  armistice
  artificer
  assassin
  assimilate
  audacity
  auricle
  authentic
  avalanche
  avaricious
  asphyxiate
  avoirdupois
  banqueted
  baritone
  beauteous
  benefactor
  benefiting
  bulletin
  bumptious
  buoyant
  burlesque
  calcimine
  calligraphy
  capricious
  catastrophe
  celibacy
  chancellor
  chilblain
  chronicle
  cochineal
  coincidence
  competitive
  complainant
  complexion
  conciliatory
  condescension
  confidants
  conscientious
  contemptuous
  contiguous
  colleague
  corporeal
  corpuscle
  corroborate
  cotillion
  cotyledon
  courtesy
  crocheting
  crucifixion
  crystallize
  debauchery
  debilitate
  decisive
  deficiency
  delineation
  delirium
  dentifrice
  dexterous
  diaphragm
  diarrhœa
  dilapidate
  diphtheria
  diminutive
  discrepancy
  dysentery
  eccentricity
  ecstasy
  effervesce
  elasticity
  eliminate
  emaciate
  embezzle
  emphasis
  employee
  epilepsy
  episcopacy
  equestrian
  equinoctial
  etiquette
  exaggerate
  exhaustion
  exhilarate
  existence
  expedite
  exquisite
  exorbitant
  extempore
  facetious
  facilitate
  fastidious
  fraudulent
  fricassee
  funereal
  garrulous
  gesticulate
  gorgeous
  grandeur
  gratuitous
  grievance
  grotesque
  guarantee
  guillotine
  harangue
  hemorrhage
  hippopotamus
  homicide
  hydrophobia
  hypocrisy
  hysterics
  ignominious
  incandescent
  incendiary
  incision
  indefatigable
  influenza
  ingenious
  initiative
  instalment
  interference
  intersperse
  interstice
  irresistible
  irrevocable
  jonquil
  kerosene
  labyrinth
  licentious
  lineaments
  loathsome
  loquacious
  ludicrous
  malevolent
  malicious
  manœuvre
  maritime
  martyrdom
  marvellous
  massacre
  mausoleum
  mediocre
  meerschaum
  menagerie
  mercenary
  meridian
  microscope
  mignonette
  miscellaneous
  mistletoe
  monotonous
  mortgagee
  munificent
  mutinied
  mysterious
  nautical
  neuralgia
  nuisance
  nutritious
  obeisance
  obsequies
  obstinacy
  occurrence
  œsophagus
  omnivorous
  ostensible
  pageant
  palmistry
  panacea
  parachute
  paralysis
  parishioner
  pavilion
  pedagogue
  penitentiary
  pernicious
  perquisite
  pharmacy
  phenomenon
  philopena
  physique
  pictorial
  picturesque
  plebeian
  plebiscite
  pneumatic
  pneumonia
  precedence
  precision
  precocious
  pre-eminent
  prejudicial
  preliminary
  presumptuous
  privilege
  procedure
  proficient
  propitious
  puncheon
  pursuance
  quartette
  raillery
  recipient
  remediable
  repetition
  requiem
  requisite
  resuscitate
  reverential
  rheumatism
  rhinoceros
  sacrilege
  sagacity
  sanguinary
  sarsaparilla
  sauer-kraut
  scarlatina
  sceptical
  scrimmage
  scurrilous
  seditious
  semaphore
  seniority
  sepulchre
  simultaneous
  sinecure
  somersault
  souvenir
  specification
  spirituous
  steadfast
  stratagem
  strychnine
  stupefying
  sumptuous
  superintendent
  surcingle
  susceptible
  symptom
  syndicate
  synopsis
  tabernacle
  tarlatan
  technical
  teetotaler
  tempestuous
  tenacious
  theatrical
  tragedian
  tranquillity
  trousseau
  tyrannical
  unanimous
  upheaval
  variegated
  velocity
  verbosity
  vermilion
  vindictive
  witticism


  allege
  aqueduct
  aquiline
  arraign
  assuage
  bailiff
  balance
  biassed
  bigoted
  bologna
  bunion
  calibre
  carbine
  chamois
  chasm
  clique
  concise
  copse
  conduit
  corps
  corpse
  courier
  critic
  croquet
  crotchet
  curtsy
  dahlia
  decency
  decipher
  deficit
  depot
  despatch
  diocese
  discern
  eclipse
  efficacy
  elicit
  enmity
  ensign
  facile
  faucet
  fissure
  fraught
  frenzy
  fuchsia
  furlough
  guerilla
  hygiene
  illicit
  jugular
  lunacy
  malign
  meteor
  missive
  mucous
  navvy
  nicotine
  optical
  palisade
  plateau
  premier
  pyjamas
  recipe
  redoubt
  requite
  rescind
  reverie
  reynard
  rites
  routine
  salver
  seidlitz
  series
  solace
  species
  succumb
  suite
  sumac
  trait
  trapeze
  trivial
  typhus
  utensil
  vitriol
  weird



RULES FOR SYLLABICATION.


A syllable is a sound uttered with one impulse of the breath. The
group of letters representing such a sound should never be separated
in dividing words; _e.g._, re-bel´ (verb), reb´-el (noun), pres´-ent
(noun), pre-sent´-ed. To divide a word into syllables, pronounce it
slowly and correctly, and note the natural division into sounds. In
writing, it is preferable to put the whole word _on one line_. When
this cannot well be done, that part of the word left at the end of
one line should suggest the part beginning the next line; _e.g._,
_happiness_ should be divided--_happi-ness_, not _hap-piness_.


RULES FOR SPELLING.

1. At the end of monosyllables with a short vowel sound, the letters
_f_, _l_, or _s_ are usually double; _e.g._, muff, ball, pass.

2. Words ending in silent _e_ usually drop it on adding any suffix
beginning with a vowel; _e.g._, come, coming; bride, bridal; love,
lovable.

EXCEPTIONS:--(i) Words ending in _ce_ or _ge_ retain the _e_ before
the suffixes _able_ and _ous_, in order to keep the soft sound of _c_
or _g_; _e.g._, traceable, outrageous.

(ii) Words ending in _ee_, _oe_, or _ye_ retain the final _e_ when
_ing_ is added; _e.g._, freeing, shoeing, eyeing.

3. Monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable, if they end
in a single consonant with a single vowel before it, usually double
the final consonant before a vowel-suffix, _e.g._, clap, clapper;
clan, clannish; nod, nodded; prefer, preferring.

EXCEPTION:--When the derivative has the place of the accent changed,
the final consonant is not doubled; _e.g._, prefer´, pref´erence.
Note also, _gases_, _gaseous_, _transferable_, _woolly_.

4. Words ending in a single _l_ double it before a vowel-suffix;
_e.g._, chisel, chiselled; revel, reveller; cancel, cancelling. But,
_paralleled_.

5. Words ending in _y_ preceded by a consonant usually change the _y_
into _i_ when a suffix not beginning with _i_ is added; _e.g._, cry,
cries, crying.

EXCEPTIONS:--Dryly, dryness; shyly, shyness; slyly, slyness.

Note also daily, gaily, gaiety, laid, paid, said, saith, slain, staid.

6. _ei_ or _ie_. When sounded like long _e_, _i_ comes before _e_
except after _c_; _e.g._, piece, deceit. But, _either_, _neither_,
_plebeian_, _seize_, _leisure_, _weird_.

When not sounded like long _e_, the order of the letters is always
_ei_; _e.g._, skein, height.



PUBLIC SCHOOL LEAVING.


    1

  actuary
  warranty
  accruing
  aggrieve
  indelible
  collectible
  codicil
  clerical
  implicit
  coercion
  obsolete
  obduracy
  cavilling
  repellent
  recurrent
  deterrent
  sullenness
  stubbornness
  statutory
  executrix
  appraisal
  legitimate
  rescinded
  rescission


    2

  coupon
  waiver
  vellum
  engross
  erasure
  issuing
  voucher
  lessor
  lessee
  felony
  nullify
  consols
  vendor
  annuity
  pleas
  marine
  tontine
  zephyr
  vestige
  salvage
  assigns
  vacillate
  oscillate
  irrigated
  deprecate
  desiccate
  mitigated
  litigation


    3

  elegy
  poesy
  lyrical
  couplet
  synonym
  homonym
  ellipsis
  metaphor
  paradigm
  italicize
  rhetorical
  allegorical
  ordnance
  ordinance
  colloquy
  soliloquy
  antithesis
  hyperbole
  dunning
  endorsed
  collateral
  purloined
  remittance
  acceptance


    4

  rabies
  subtler
  sentient
  consular
  succinct
  incipient
  æsthetic
  emanate
  permeate
  relegated
  licentiate
  depreciate
  excruciate
  disseminate
  narrator
  instigate
  promissor
  guarantor
  assignor
  consignee
  mortgagor
  plagiarist
  chirography
  phonography
  facsimile
  petit jury
  puisne judge
  knight-errant


    5

  oriel
  tenon
  newel
  mortise
  dovetail
  boudoir
  mullion
  stanchion
  buttress
  abutment
  colonnade
  escutcheon
  flotilla
  binnacle
  halyards
  forecastle
  pyramidal
  maelstrom
  arsenal
  reveille
  patrolled
  gymnastics
  silhouette
  supercilious


    6

  missal
  schism
  Genesis
  heretics
  perusing
  proselyte
  itinerary
  auspices
  nonpareil
  lacquered
  ensconced
  accountant
  personnel
  sustenance
  judiciary
  beneficiary
  depositary
  depository
  rendezvous
  proprietary
  commissary
  symmetrical
  connoisseur
  malfeasance
  discoloration
  maintenance
  complaisance
  presentiment


    7

  chiffon
  ruching
  chenille
  organdie
  chambray
  tarpaulin
  silesia
  mohair
  taffeta
  bandanna
  buckram
  valenciennes
  beryl
  carat
  emery
  pyrites
  sardonyx
  turquoise
  inertia
  fusible
  residue
  volatile
  calcium
  magnesia


    8

  oxygen
  hydrogen
  sulphate
  chloride
  molecule
  radially
  ambrosial
  febrile
  lesion
  cohesion
  sensory
  specific
  bronchial
  lachrymal
  polygon
  rhomboid
  trapezium
  reciprocal
  precipitate
  centripetal
  centrifugal
  scalene
  isosceles
  equitable
  acoustics
  dynamics
  corollary
  equilateral


    9

  anise
  hyssop
  jasmine
  spiræa
  syringa
  caraway
  hydrangea
  eczema
  biceps
  molars
  calibers
  bicuspid
  debauchee
  victuallers
  chyme
  cognac
  trachea
  cranium
  papilla
  chrysalis
  hellebore
  anæmia
  phthisic
  phthisis
  varicose
  paroxysm
  allopathic
  homœopathy


    10

  cocaine
  calomel
  lobelia
  copperas
  paregoric
  collodion
  anodyne
  osseous
  diagnose
  mortuary
  lymphatic
  panegyric
  morphine
  quassia
  sassafras
  condiments
  eucalyptus
  apocalypse
  eustachian
  belladonna
  ipecacuanha
  laryngitis
  peritonitis
  appendicitis


    11

  abettor
  coadjutor
  precursor
  laboratory
  prohibitory
  admonitory
  alluvial
  connubial
  centennial
  cylindrical
  rhetorical
  rhythmical
  collusion
  demurred
  agrarian
  patrician
  herculean
  sepulchral
  conscientious
  predilection
  reminiscence
  commissariat
  homogeneous
  embarrassment


    12

  moiety
  nucleus
  mussels
  mollusc
  cuisine
  pristine
  libertine
  sedative
  sediment
  abeyance
  prevalence
  dependence
  ascendency
  excrescence
  throes
  pallor
  orgies
  exorcise
  colossal
  analogous
  anomalous
  metaphysics
  psychology
  aide-de-camp
  physiognomy
  paraphernalia
  plenipotentiary
  pharmaceutical


    13

  psaltery
  psalmody
  hierarchy
  espionage
  plenteous
  mnemonics
  irascible
  porphyry
  equipoise
  fortuitous
  reversible
  transferable
  auricular
  auriferous
  succulent
  ameliorate
  deshabille
  dishevelled
  cinerary
  prescience
  saccharine
  boulevard
  troubadour
  tournament


    14

  astute
  abstruse
  falchion
  alchemy
  tubercles
  algebraical
  anatomical
  aspirate
  archives
  authentic
  halcyon
  harlequin
  clairvoyant
  connivance
  bourn
  breviary
  brougham
  bellicose
  captious
  capillary
  seriatim
  centipede
  composite
  charlatan
  iniquitous
  ubiquitous
  incorrigible
  irrepressible


    15

  corsair
  contour
  deify
  expiate
  embryo
  emissary
  deducible
  fallibility
  credibility
  debilitate
  defamatory
  equanimity
  hydraulic
  guttural
  critique
  technique
  hypotenuse
  hypothesis
  expatiate
  ingratiate
  illusory
  internecine
  iridescent
  putrescence


    16

  kraal
  khedive
  jeopardize
  laconically
  lithograph
  litigious
  pharisaical
  memoirs
  maniacal
  medallion
  parricide
  fratricide
  ostracized
  percussion
  vertebræ
  minutiæ
  oligarchy
  miscellany
  adolescent
  omniscient
  necropolis
  indigenous
  ingenuous
  methylated
  immaculate
  Mussulmans
  querulous
  quintessence


    17

  hybrid
  pillory
  placable
  precincts
  papyrus
  repertory
  spherical
  sedulous
  spermaceti
  prodigious
  promiscuous
  perspicacity
  Teutonic
  quixotic
  symphony
  sycophant
  superficies
  surveillance
  phrenologist
  phraseology
  polytechnic
  punctilious
  pseudonym
  surreptitious


    18

  viscid
  zodiac
  satiety
  zoology
  vacuum
  vagaries
  camellia
  facade
  pedagogy
  vibratory
  vicarious
  usurious
  vouchsafe
  vociferate
  nefarious
  voluptuous
  vicissitude
  vernacular
  consummate
  ventriloquist
  deliquescent
  extricate
  defalcate
  exchequer
  perforated
  cognizant
  apparition
  incarcerate


    19

  aviary
  callous
  guerdon
  piquant
  brusque
  flippancy
  aeronaut
  plausible
  aeroplane
  regrettable
  similarity
  contrariwise
  cuirass
  caitiff
  caisson
  cogitating
  tessellated
  pomegranate
  propagate
  immaterial
  acclamation
  subsidiary
  unparalleled
  cartilaginous


    20

  onerous
  libellous
  rancorous
  derelict
  tamarack
  deciduous
  calamitous
  minx
  sphinx
  chloral
  murrain
  vignette
  casually
  casualty
  orifice
  bacillus
  tattooed
  tasselled
  proboscis
  patrician
  dissimilar
  gherkin
  stoicism
  bagatelle
  whirligig
  beleaguer
  stomachic
  decoction



SMALL DIFFICULT WORDS--_Use these words in sentences_.


  abyss
  acacia
  acme
  aerial
  alias
  alpaca
  annals
  axiom
  azure
  benign
  broncho
  cache
  cairn
  calyx
  caulk
  chaise
  chaos
  chary
  chronic
  cinque
  clique
  corse
  cote
  crucial
  cymbal
  cynic
  dais
  débris
  disc
  doily
  ecstasy
  elite
  elixir
  ellipse
  epoch
  facade
  facile
  falcon
  fiasco
  flaccid
  foci
  futile
  ghoul
  gist
  gluey
  gneiss
  groat
  guano
  gyves
  heresy
  holm
  idyl
  igneous
  irate
  ivied
  jargon
  lichen
  liege
  lien
  lithe
  llama
  lode
  lymph
  lyre
  Maori
  melee
  mirage
  morgue
  myrrh
  naive
  newel
  nymph
  ogre
  onyx
  orchid
  oust
  pageant
  placid
  plaguy
  plaice
  poise
  pygmy
  python
  qualm
  radii
  realm
  regime
  rhythm
  schism
  scion
  scroll
  sedge
  seethe
  sere
  sheik
  shoal
  Sioux
  sloyd
  sluice
  soiree
  sphinx
  steppe
  suave
  swarthy
  sylph
  sylvan
  synod
  theme
  theory
  thews
  thrall
  tierce
  trawl
  treatise
  trite
  tryst
  tutor
  umbel
  venial
  vial
  vicar
  viceroy
  virile
  viscera
  viscid
  visual
  vital
  vitiate
  vizier
  vogue
  vying
  waive
  weevil
  weird
  whiz
  whorl
  wiliness
  wince
  winch
  winze
  withal
  wraith
  wreak
  wroth
  wry



THE BUILDING OF ENGLISH WORDS.


The _root_ of a word is the shortest form in which it appears. Thus
_tal_, meaning number, speech, is the root of _tale_, a number
counted; _tale_, a story; _tell_, narrate; _toll_, something counted
out; _talk_, discourse.

The root of a word may undergo modification and become a _stem_. Thus
_love_ is the stem of the root _lov-_, and to this stem are added
such _inflections_ as _-est_, _-s_, _-d_, as loves, lovest, loved.

Again, to the root of a word may be added a _prefix_ or _suffix_,
thereby forming a new word called a _derivative_.

If to the root _dar-_, dear, the prefix _en-_ be added, we get
endear, and the same root with the suffix _-ling_ gives darling. As a
rule, English prefixes and suffixes are added only to English roots.
But there are many exceptions.

Word-making is often effected by _compounding_. A _compound_ word is
one made by uniting two words together, as _sea-lion_.

  =Compound Nouns= are formed in various ways:--(_a_) by uniting a
  noun with a noun: bridal = bride ale, daisy = day's eye, Gospel
  = God's spell or story; (_b_) noun with adjective: redbird,
  midnight, quicksilver, twilight = two lights; (_c_) noun with
  verb: bakehouse, godsend, grindstone, spendthrift; (_d_) noun with
  adverb: bystander, offshoot, uplift; (_e_) noun with preposition:
  afterthought, byword, onset; (_f_) verb with adverb: drawback,
  farewell, income, welcome.

  =Compound Adjectives= are numerous:--(_a_) Noun with adjective:
  barefoot, lily-white, purse-proud, sea-green, sky-blue; (_b_) noun
  with participle: heart-rending, sea-faring, sea-girt, way-laid,
  worm-eaten; (_c_) adverb with participle: bygone, everlasting,
  far-reaching, high-strung, ill-pleased, well-bred; (_d_) noun with
  noun: iron-side, lion-heart; (_e_) nouns with nouns, adjectives,
  and adverbs, + _ed_: club-footed, gray-headed, tender-hearted,
  under-handed.

  =Compound Verbs= are few:--(_a_) Verb with noun: backbite,
  browbeat, henpeck, hoodwink, kiln-dry; (_b_) verb with adjectives:
  dumbfound, fulfil, whitewash; (_c_) verb with adverb: don = do on,
  doff = do off, outdo.

  =Compound Adverbs= are made by uniting (_a_) noun with noun:
  endways, sideways; (_b_) noun with adjective: always, breast-high,
  meanwhile, sometimes; (_c_) preposition with noun: outside,
  overboard; (_d_) adverb with preposition: hereafter, therein,
  whereupon.



PREFIXES.


A favourite way of building words is by the use of prefixes.
Generally speaking, these are of English, French, Greek or Latin
origin--it being understood in this connection that French is but a
modified form of Latin.


ENGLISH PREFIXES.

=Inseparable prefixes= have no meaning in themselves and cannot stand
alone. The most important are:--

=A-=, _on_: away, alive; _at_: ahead: _of_: akin.

=And-=, _against_ (Greek anti-): answer (sweri-an, to declare).

=Be-=, old form of _by_: betimes, bypath; in verbs: bedaub (daub all
over), bewail (wail for), benumb (make numb).

=For-=, intensifies the meaning, (thoroughly): forbear, forlorn,
forswear, forbid (command against), forego.

=Fore-=, _first_, _before_: foresight, forejudge.

=Mis-=, _wrong_, _wrongly_: misdeed, miscall, mislead.

=Un-=, _not_: unholy, unafraid. In verbs, it indicates the reverse of
the simple verb: unbind, unfold, unmask.

=With-=, _against_, (_from_): withstand, withers (of a horse),
withhold.


=Separable Prefixes.=

=After=, _after_: aftergrowth, aftermath (= after the mowing),
afterthought.

=All= (old Eng. _al_), _all_: almost, alone.

=Forth=, _forth_: forthcoming.

=In= (French en), _in_: inborn, illusion, import, irruption; encase,
enclose; entwine, embody, employ; enable = _to make_ able, embitter.

=Off= or =of=, _off_, _from_: offal = what falls off, offspring.

=On=, _against_, _towards_: onset, onslaught, onward.

=Out= has a sense of direction or surpassing, (_beyond_): outcast,
outpost, outrun, outshine; utter, utmost (_i.e._, outer, outmost).

=Over=, _over_, _above_: overhead, overcoat, overturn, overspread,
over-bold.

=Through= = thorough: throughout, thoroughfare, thoroughbred,
through-ticket.

=Twi=, _two_, _double_: twice, twilight = double or doubtful light,
twill, twin = double, twine, twist = two strands twisted.

=Under=, _below_, _lower_: underhand, underlie, underneath, undertone.

=Up=, _up_: upland, upshot, upbraid, uphold, uprise, upward.


LATIN (AND FRENCH) PREFIXES.

=A-=, =ab-=, (=ab-s-=), _away from_: avert, absent, ab-s-tract; Fr.,
avaunt.

=Ad-=, (Fr. =a-=) (-d is often changed because of the influence of
the following consonant), _to_: adapt, abbreviate, accord, affect,
aggression, allude, annul, arrogate, attain; Fr., achieve, acquaint,
amount.

=Amb-= or =am-=, _around_, _round about_, (_both_): ambition (lit.
_going about_, canvassing), ambiguous, ambidextrous, amputate (to cut
around).

=Ante-=, _before_: antedate, ante-room, anticipate; Fr., _an-_ in
ancestor = antecessor.

=Bis-= and =bi-=, _twice_, _two_: bias (= two-faced), biped, bisect,
biscuit (= twice baked).

=Circum-=, _around_: circumference, circuit, circulate, circumvent.

=Cum-=, _with_, takes the forms com-, con-, col-, co-, cor-, under
the influence of the letter following: compound, concord, collect,
coöperate, correct, counsel.

=Contra-=, _against_: contradict; Fr., controvert, counterfeit.

=De-=, _down_, _from_: decline, deduct, decamp. It is negative in
derange, deform, destroy; intensive in declare, deprave, despoil,
desolate, desiccate.

=Dis-=, =di-=, _asunder_, _separation_: disarm, diffuse, disown,
divorce; Fr., _des-_, _de-_ in defer, defy, delay, descant.

=Ex-=, =e-=, _out_, _out of_, _proceeding from_: exclude, exhale,
ex-governor, extract, educe, elect, emanate, evade.

=Extra-=, _beyond_: extraneous, extraordinary, extravagant.

=In-=, _in_, _into_, _on_: infer, invade, invent. It also becomes
il-, im-, ir-, before certain consonants, as illusion, improve,
irrigate.

=In-=, _not_: incapable, illiberal, impious, irrelevant, ignoble.

=Inter-=, =intro-=, _among_, _between_, _within_: interfere,
intervene, introspection.

=Male-=, _bad_, _ill_, _wrong_: malcontent, malpractice, maltreat.

=Mis-=, _ill_, _wrong_: misadventure, misalliance; Fr., mischief.

=Non-=, _not_: nonage, nonentity, nonsense.

=Ob-=, _toward_, _facing_, _against_: object, obstruct. It also
becomes oc-, of-, op-: occur, offer, oppose.

=Pene-=, _almost_: peninsula, penult.

=Per-=, _through_, often intensive, _throughout_, _thoroughly_--and
so _wrongly_: perspire, pervade; persist, perturb, pervert; pellucid,
pilgrim (see _ager_). Fr. _par-_: pardon.

=Post-=, _after_: postdate, posthumous, post-mortem, postscript.

=Pre-=, _before_: precede, precursor, preëmpt, premature, premise,
prevent.

=Preter-=, _beyond_, _more than_: preterite (of past time),
preternatural.

=Pro-=, _before_, _for_, _forward_: proceed, proconsul, prologue,
pronoun, provide; _por_-tend. Fr., _pur_: purchase, pursue.

=Re-=, =red-=, _back_, _again_: rebel, recede, recover, redeem.

=Retro-=, _backwards_: retroactive, retrograde, retrospect.

=Se-=, =sed-=, _apart_: seclude, secrete, sed-i-tion (a going apart),
segregate.

=Sub-=, _under_, _from under_: subject, subtract. It also becomes
suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sur-, sus-, as in succor, suffer,
suggest, supplant, suspend; subdivision (_i.e._, lower), summon (sub
= slightly), surreptitious.

=Super-=, _above_, _beyond_: superfine, supernatural, superposed;
Fr., _sur-_, surname, surpass, surtout (= over all).

=Trans-=, _across_: transcend, transient; tradition, traverse; Fr.,
_tres-_, trespass.

=Ultra-=, _beyond_: ultramarine, ultra-radical, ultra-tropical.

=Vice-=, _in place of_: vice-consul, vice-president, viceroy; vicar.


GREEK PREFIXES.

=A-=, =an-= (before vowels), _not_: a-nom-alous = ir-regular,
an-archy, an-onym-ous, apathy, atheist; a-morph-ous = formless,
an-aemia = bloodlessness, an-odyne = something that relieves pain.

=Amphi-=, _on both sides_, _double_: amphibious, amphitheatre.

=Ana-=, _up_, _back_, _anew_: anatomy, analysis, anagram, analogy,
anathema.

=Anti-=, _against_: antarctic, antidote, antipathy, antipodes,
Antichrist, anticlimax.

=Apo-=, _from_, _away from_, _off_: apology, apostle, apostrophe,
aphelion, apogee (gē = earth), apostasy.

=Arch-=, _chief_: archangel, archbishop, archfiend, archi-tect.

=Auto-=, _self_: autocrat, autograph, automobile, autonomy,
automatic, aut-opsy.

=Cata-=, _down_, (_thoroughly_): cataract, catastrophe, catechise,
catalogue, (a complete numbering).

=Dia-=, _through_, (_between_): diagonal, diagram, dialogue,
diapason, diaphragm.

=Dis-=, =di-=, _twice_, _doubly_: dissyllable, di-phthong, dilemma.

=Dys-=, _ill_, _bad_: dysentery, dyspepsia.

=Ec-=, =ex-=, _out_, _out of_: ec-centric, ec-lipse, ec-stasy,
exegesis, exodus, exorcise.

=En-=, _in_: energy, emblem, emphasis, empiric, encomium, encyclic,
endo-gen.

=Epi-=, _upon_, _to_: epidemic, epigram, epistle, epitaph,
ep-hemeral, ep-och.

=Eu-=, _well_: eucharist, eulogy, euphemism, euphony, ev-angel = good
news.

=Exo-=, _outside_, _without_: exo-gen, exoteric, exotic.

=Hemi-=, _half_: hemicycle, hemisphere, hemi-stich.

=Hyper-=, _over_, _beyond measure_: hyperbole, hypercritical,
hypertrophy.

=Hypo-=, _under_: hypocrite, hypodermic, hypothesis, hyp-hen (= one).

=Meta-=, _after_, _between_, (_changed for_): metaphor, metathesis,
metamorphosis, metonymy, met-hod = after a way (hodos).

=Para-=, _beside_, _near by_, _contrary to_: parable, paradox,
parallel, parish, parody, par-helion.

=Peri-=, _around_, _near_: period, perimeter, perigee (gē = earth),
perihelion.

=Pro-=, _before_, _for_: problem, prologue, prophet = interpreter.

=Syn-=, _with_, _together_: synagogue, syntax, syl-lable, sym-pathy,
sy-stem.



WORD-BUILDING BY THE USE OF SUFFIXES.


Suffixes, sometimes called _affixes_ or _postfixes_, are even more
numerously employed in English than are prefixes, and, indeed, have
a greater modifying power over the words to which they are attached.
They consist of a letter or letters, syllable or syllables appended
to the end of words or roots, and, like prefixes, are borrowed mainly
from old English, Latin (French) and Greek.


ENGLISH SUFFIXES.

=Nouns.=--The most important are:--

=-ard=, =-art=, denoting habit, or possession of a quality in an
excessive degree: braggart, coward, drunkard, laggard, reynard,
sluggard, wizard.

=-craft=, strength, skill, cunning: woodcraft, priestcraft,
witchcraft.

=-d=, =-t=, =-th=, suffixed to roots: flood (from the root of flow),
seed (sow); drift (drive), drought (dry), flight (fly); death (die),
birth (bear), sloth (slow), health (heal).

=-dom=, authority, dominion, quality, condition: earldom, kingdom,
christendom, Saxondom, wisdom, freedom, serfdom.

=-en=, gives a diminutive meaning: chicken (little cock), kitten,
maiden.

=-er=, denotes agent: instrument; belonging to (of places): brazier,
farmer, fuller, hater, leader, saw(y)er, writer; grater, heater;
Londoner.

=-hood=, (=-head=), condition, order, collection: brotherhood,
childhood, Godhood, knighthood, manhood, priesthood, wifehood;
Godhead.

=-ing=, (participle) act of, result of act: farthing (fourth),
dwelling, feeling, riding. It is collective in clothing, shipping.

=-kin=, diminutive: bodkin, firkin, lambkin, mannikin.

=-le= or =-l=, diminutive, means: bundle, handle, runnel, saddle (=
little seat), satchel, sickle.

=-ling=, diminutive, sometimes contemptuous: darling, duckling,
firstling, gosling, hireling, nestling, seedling.

=-lock=, state: wedlock.

=-ness=, forms abstract nouns from adjectives, quality, state:
goodness, holiness, weakness.

=-ock=, diminutive: bullock, hillock, paddock (= a little park),
Pollock (= little Paul).

=-m=, or =-om=, forms nouns from verbs: bloom (from blow), gloom
(glow), seam (sew), team (tow).

=-red=, state, sometimes collective, quality: hatred, kindred;
Mildred (mild in counsel), Ethelred (noble in counsel).

=-ric=, office, dominion: bishopric.

=-ship=, state, office: clerkship, fellowship, horsemanship,
lordship, stewardship, worship (= worthship).

=-stead=, place: bedstead, homestead, instead.

=-ster= denotes an agent, (originally a woman), a person who does
something with skill or as an occupation: spinster, chorister,
huckster, maltster, songster, tapster, roadster; baxster (bake-ster),
brewster, webster (the woman who weaves). It is depreciative in:
gamester, punster, oldster, trickster, youngster.

=-th=, =-t=, state, quality, act, number in order: dearth, filth,
mirth, wealth, worth, theft, tenth.

=-ther=, =-der=, or =-ter= denotes an agent: father, mother, brother,
sister; bladder (blow), rudder (row), laughter, water (wet), winter
(wind).

=-wright=, work or workman: millwright, playwright, shipwright,
wheelwright.

=-ward=, keeper: hayward, steward (= sty-keeper), woodward.

=-y=, =-ie=, diminutive: baby, lassie, Tommy, Willie.

=Adjectives.=--Some of the more important are:--

=-ed=, =-d=, the past participle ending, possession: honored, landed
(possessing lands), talented.

=-en=, participial ending, also denotes material: drunken, given,
hewn (= hewen), molten, river; flaxen, golden, silken, silvern,
oaken, wooden; heathen (= belonging to the country).

=-erly=, =-ern=, direction, section: southerly, eastern.

=-fast=, firm: rootfast, shamefaced (= shamefast), steadfast.

=-fold=, times: fourfold, manifold.

=-ful=, full: artful, hopeful, needful, sinful.

=-ish=, similarity, pertaining or belonging to, somewhat: boyish,
brutish, foolish, slavish, English, French, Irish, Scottish, Scotch,
Welsh; blackish, whitish.

=-le=, weakens the root: brittle, fickle, little.

=-less=, without: bloodless, childless, fadeless, toothless.

=-like=, =-ly=, like: childlike, Godlike, ghastly (= ghostly),
womanly.

=-ow=, modern form of old Eng. _-u_: callow, fallow, narrow, yellow.

=-right=, straight (= direct): downright, forthright, upright.

=-some=, like, full: blithesome (showing gladness), burdensome,
gamesome, gladsome, irksome, winsome (wyn = joy).

=-teen=, ten: thirteen, etc.

=-ty=, tens: thirty, etc.

=-ward=, course, direction: awkward (awk = Icelandic afug, back
foremost), cityward(s), landward, westward.

=-wise=, way, manner: lengthwise, likewise, nowise. The word _ways_
is often substituted: endways, sideways.

=-y=, =-ey=, like, of the nature of, covered with: bloody, crafty,
dusty, mighty, stormy, tricky.


VERB AND ADVERB SUFFIXES are much fewer and less important than those
used to form nouns and adjectives. The following may be noted:--


=Verbs.=--

=-en=, is causative, make: cheapen, deepen, gladden, quicken.

=-er=, denotes frequency, (energy): chatter, linger, spatter (spot),
splutter, sputter (spout), waver, whimper (whine).

=-le=, also denotes frequency, sometimes energy: handle, jingle
(chink), joggle, shuffle (shove), sparkle, startle, tickle, tipple,
whittle.


=Adverbs.=--Certain suffixes occur which have already been given,
as:--

=-ly=, manner: awkwardly, falsely, nobly.

=-wise=, manner: crosswise, otherwise.

=-ward=, direction: hitherward.


LATIN (AND FRENCH) SUFFIXES.

LATIN SUFFIXES, alike numerous and important, have in perhaps the
majority of cases taken on a French form. For although, prior to
the Norman Conquest, English had been but slightly influenced from
foreign sources, yet Norman French, the language of the Conquerors,
survived long enough to produce an impression on the language of
England.


=Noun Suffixes.=--The most important of these are:--

=-acy=, =-cy=, rank, office, state: abbacy, bankruptcy, captaincy,
magistracy, papacy, tenancy.

=-ade=, state, place of or for: blockade, collonade, promenade,
serenade.

=-age=, makes an abstract or collective noun, act, state: beverage,
bondage, courage, homage, marriage, tonnage, vintage, cordage,
hermitage, plumage, village.

=-al=, pertaining to, possessing, act of: animal (anima = breath of
life), canal, cardinal, hospital, withdrawal.

=-an=, belonging to: American, artisan, Christian, librarian, pagan,
publican, chaplain, captain.

=-ance=, =-ence=, } form abstract nouns, the act of: abundance,
diligence, =-ancy=, =-ency=, } repentance, consistence, pliancy,
clemency.

=-and=, =-end=, that which is to be: memorand-um, -a, agend-a,
multiplicand; dividend, legend, minuend, subtrahend.

=-ant=, =-ent= (participle), one who (does): assistant, combatant,
lieutenant, litigant, agent, client, patient, regent.

=-ar=, one who (is or does): scholar, vicar.

=-ary=, place for: apiary, granary, library, seminary. It also
designates a trade, profession, business: actuary, commissary,
lapidary, notary, secretary; incendiary, voluptuary.

=-ate=, agent, state, office: advocate, consulate, curate, legate,
postulate, protectorate, pontificate.

=-ce=, =-ice=, form abstract nouns: benefice, device, justice,
palace, service.

=-cle=, =-cel=, diminutive: corpuscle, parcel.

=-ee=, (Fr. form of =-ate=), person to whom: assignee, employee,
grantee, legatee, trustee, vendee.

=-el=, =-le=, form diminutives: chapel, libel, buckle, castle.

=-er=, =-eer=, =-ier=, one who (does): mariner, auctioneer, pioneer,
brigadier.

=-er=, place: larder, saucer.

=-ern=, place: cavern, cistern, tavern.

=-ery=, =-ry=, place: cemetery, foundry, laundry, nunnery, surgery.

=-ery=, =-ry=, condition, quality, collection, production: slavery,
bravery, treachery, finery, peasantry, carpentry, poetry.

=-ess=, feminine agent: empress, governess, sorceress.

=-et=, =-let=, diminutive: coronet, floweret, lancet, puppet, ticket,
bracelet, chaplet, eaglet; etiquette (= a little ticket).

=-icle=, diminutive: article, icicle, particle.

=-ion=, =-sion=, =-tion=, action, process, state, result: action,
legislation, mansion, opinion, position, rebellion.

=-ive=, who or that which (does or is): fugitive, native,
representative.

=-men=, =-me=, =-ment=, denoting result accomplished, instrument,
state; regimen, regime, amendment, document, ornament, banishment.

=-mony=, quality, state, act: acrimony, matrimony, sanctimony,
testimony, ceremony.

=-on=, =-one=, denotes greatness: clarion, flagon, million, trombone.
It appears as _-oon_ in balloon, dragoon, saloon.

=-or=, agent, quality, act: emperor, governor, ardour, behaviour,
savor, clamour.

=-sel=, diminutive: damsel (= little dame), morsel.

=-t=, =-ot=, agent, having passion for: prophet, patriot, zealot.

=-ter=, person who: master, minister.

=-tor=, =-trix=, agent: actor, competitor, pastor, executrix,
testatrix.

=-tude=, condition, quality: altitude, fortitude, servitude,
multitude.

=-ty=, quality, state of: charity, docility, frailty, poverty, vanity.

=-ule=, =-cule=, diminutive: globule, spherule, animalcule, molecule.

=-ure=, =-ture=, act of, thing done: capture, departure,
architecture, manufacture, creature.

=-y=, condition, collection: victory, company, family, society.


=Adjective Suffixes.=--The Latin (and French) suffixes are used
extensively to form adjectives. The following may be noted:--

=-able=, able, capable of: amiable, arable, capable, considerable,
friable (= easily crumbled), lovable, portable.

=-aceous=, containing, like: argillaceous (clayey), crustaceous (with
crust-like shell), farinaceous (_far_, corn), herbaceous.

=-al=, pertaining to: ancestral, bestial, communal, final, legal,
tidal, vernal.

=-an=, pertaining to, belonging to: Arabian, civilian, human,
partisan, sylvan.

=-ant=, =-ent=, (be)-ing, (do)-ing: abundant, cognizant, defiant,
errant, observant, mordant, verdant, adjacent, consistent,
convalescent, crescent, diffident, effervescent.

=-ar=, like, belonging to: angular, circular, lunar, secular.

=-ary=, pertaining to: binary (double), capillary, honorary,
military, sanitary, tributary, visionary.

=-ate=, having the quality expressed by the root: delicate,
deliberate, fortunate, intricate, obdurate.

=-atic=, pertaining to: aquatic, fanatic (_fānum_, temple), lunatic.

=-esque=, like, partaking of: arabesque, burlesque, grotesque,
picturesque.

=-ible=, able: credible, divisible, edible, flexible, frangible,
tangible, visible.

=-ic=, pertaining to, like: domestic, gigantic, hectic, lyric,
metallic, poetic.

=-ical= (-ic + al), pertaining to: angelical, chemical, nautical,
theatrical.

=-id=, quality: acid, candid, limpid, morbid, sordid.

=-il=, pertaining to: civil.

=-ile=, like =-able=, =-ible=: docile, ductile, fragile, mobile,
prehensile, versatile.

=-ile=, like =-il=: hostile, infantile, juvenile, mercantile, senile.

=-ine=, pertaining to, partaking of: adamantine, alkaline, aquiline,
canine, clandestine, divine, feline, saline.

=-ive=, inclined to, tending to: abusive, cohesive, corrective,
determinative, fugitive, plaintive, relative, seductive.

=-ite=, like =-ate=: definite, exquisite, favourite.

=-lent=, full of, having (to excess): corpulent, fraudulent, opulent,
truculent, violent (vi-s = force).

=-ory=, inclined to, pertaining to: amatory, accessory, advisory,
illusory, prohibitory, sensory, valedictory.

=-ose=, containing, abounding in (often to excess): bellicose,
comatose, globose, grandiose, jocose, verbose.

=-ous=, like =-ose=: ambitious, arduous, assiduous, bulbous, furious,
piteous, poisonous, omnivorous, riotous.

=-und=, inclined to, possessing: jocund, moribund, rotund, rubicund.


=Verb Suffixes.=--These are few:--

=-ate=, originally past participle suffix, as _am-āt-us_, loved:
celebrate, donate, eradicate, perforate, vaccinate.

=-fy=, make: beautify, fructify, modify, notify, revivify.

=-ish=, make, do: admonish, cherish, establish, finish, relish.


GREEK SUFFIXES.

Although not numerous, Greek suffixes are important in English
word-making. They are used principally in making nouns.


=Nouns=:--

=-asm=, quality, that which: enthusiasm, sarcasm (= flesh-tearing).

=-ast=, one who (does): elegiast, enthusiast, gymnast, symposiast.

=-ic= (=-ics=), an art, science: logic, music, phthisic (asthma),
physic (science of medicine), ethics, physics, politics, statics,
tactics.

=-isk=, diminutive: asterisk (= little star), obelisk (little spit or
pillar).

=-ism=, act of, result, state, doctrine: atheism, baptism, criticism,
euphemism, socialism, schism, syllogism, Anglicanism, stoicism.

=-ist=, denotes practice, occupation: apologist, chemist, copyist,
elegist, eulogist, Hebraist, organist.

=-ma=, =-m=, result produced: asthma, diorama, dogma, drama,
apothegm, theorem.

=-sis=, act of, result: analysis, emphasis, genesis, periphrasis,
synthesis.

=-sy=, like =-sis=: apostasy, epilepsy, hypocrisy, idiosyncrasy,
palsy (= paraly-sis), poesy.

=-t=, =-te=, one who (does or is): apostate, comet (= long-haired),
planet (= wanderer), poet (= maker).

=-ter=, (=-tre=), place of, instrument: center, meter, philter
(love-potion), theatre (_theā-_, see).

=-y=, denotes quality, state, science: autonomy, botany, geography,
geometry, logomachy, melancholy, monarchy, philosophy, theology,
theory.


=Adjectives=:--

=-ac=, pertaining to: cardiac, elegiac, hypochondriac, Syriac.

=-ic=, belonging to, like; aromatic, athletic, authentic, despotic,
frantic, Hebraic, hypnotic, idiotic, monarchic, polytechnic,
theoretic.


=Verbs=:--

=-ize= (=-ise=), do, make or cause to be: baptize, criticise,
dogmatize, Hellenize, ostracize, proselytize, theorize. It is often
attached to stems not derived from Greek: anglicize, authorize,
Judaize, botanize, fertilize, naturalize, pulverize, scrutinize,
terrorize.



ENGLISH ROOT-WORDS AND DERIVATIVES.


The native force of English was such that it came to be a highly
developed language, possessing a copious vocabulary and a rich
literature in prose and verse. Indeed, the English quite surpassed
their Norman conquerors in learning and literary culture. It is this
English that lies at the foundation of the English of to-day, and
some attention may well be given to old English root-words.

=Āc=, an _oak_, gives us oak, acorn, Acton.


=Bac-an=, to _bake_: baker, baxter (female baker), batch.

=Ban-a=, a _slayer_: bane, baneful, henbane.

=Bēat-an=, to _stroke_: beat, bat, battle, beetle, batter.

=Beorg-an=, to _shelter_: bury, burrow, burgh, harbour, harbinger.

=Bēr-an=, to _bear_: bear, birth, bairn, breed, brood, bier, barrow,
brother, bird.

=Bēt-an=, to _make good_: better, best, boot (to boot).

=Bind-an=, to _bind_: band, bond, bondage, bundle.

=Bit=, to _bite_: bit, beetle, bait, bitter.

=Blāw-an=, to _puff_: bladder, blain, blast, blister, blot, bloat.

=Blōw-an=, to _blossom_: blow, bloom, blossom, blade.

=Brec-an=, to _break_: break, breakers, brake, bracken, breach.

=Brēow-an=, brew, brewer, broth, bread.

=Būg-an=, to _bend_: bow, elbow, bough, bight.

=Byrn-an=, to _burn_: burn, brown, brimstone, brand, brandy,
brindled.


=Catt=, a _cat_: catkin, kitten, caterpillar, caterwaul.

=Cēapi-an=, to _buy_: cheap, cheapen, chap, chaffer, Chapman.

=Cen-an=, to _produce_: kin, kindred, kind, kindle.

=Cēow-an=, to _chew_: chew, cheek, cud.

=Clēow-an=, to _split_: cleave, cleaver, cleft, clover (split grass).

=Clifi-an=, to _stick to_: clip, cleave (together).

=Cnāw-an=, to _know_: ken, know, knowledge.

=Cnot-ta=, a _knot_: knot, knit, net.

=Cunn-an=, to _know_, _be able_: can, con, cunning, uncouth.

=Cweth-an=, to _say_: quoth, bequeath, bequest.

=Cwic=, _alive_: quick, quicken, quickset, quicksilver.


=Dæ-an=, to _divide_: deal, dole, dale, dell.

=Dēm-an=, to _judge_: deem, doom, doomsday, king-dom.

=Dēor=, _dear_, dearth, darling, endear.

=Dōn=, to _act_: do, don, doff, deed.

=Drag-an=, to _draw_: drag, draw, dray, draft, drain, dredge,
draggle, drawl.

=Drīf-an=, to _push_: drive, drove, drift, adrift.

=Drinc-an=, to _soak_: drink, drench.

=Drīp-an=, to _drip_: drip, drop, droop, dribble, driblet.

=Dryge=, _dry_: dry, drought, drugs (dried plants).


=Far-an=, to _go_: far, fare, welfare, ferry, ford.

=Fēower=, _four_: farthing, firkin, fourteen, fortnight, forty.

=Flēog-an=, to _flee_: fly, flight, flea, fledged.

=Flēot-an=, to _float_: float, fleet, afloat, flotsam.

=Fōd-a=, _food_, _feed_: food, fodder, foster, father, forage.

=Fōn=, [P.P. gefangen], to _catch_: fang, finger, new fangled.

=Frēon=, to _love_: friend, friendship.


=Gal-an=, to _sing_: gale, yell, nightingale.

=Gang-an=, to _go_: gang, gangway, ago.

=Gnag-an=, to _bite_: gnaw, gnat, nag (to tease).

=Graf-an=, to _dig_, _cut_: grave, engrave, graft, groove, carve.

=Grīp-an=, to _seize_: grip, gripe, grasp, grab, grope.

=Gyrd-an=, to _surround_: gird, girdle, garden, yard, vineyard.


=Hæl-an=, to _heal_: hale, holy, hallow, health, hail, whole,
wholesome, wassail.

=Hebb-an=, to _raise_: heave, heaven, heavy, (heave-offering).

=Hlāf=, _bread_, _loaf_: loaf, lord (hlāford, loaf-keeper), lady
(hlœfdīge = loaf-kneader).


=Licg-an=, to _lie_: lie, lay, layer, lair, outlay.

=Loda=, _guide_: lead, lodestar, lodestone.


=Māg-an=, to _be able_: may, main, might, mighty.

=Māw-an=, to _cut_: mow, math, aftermath, mead, meadow (mown spot).

=Mōn-a=, _moon_: month, moon, (moonshiner).


=Nasu=, _nose_: nose, nasal, nostril, nozzle.


=Penn-an=, to _shut up_: pen, pin, pound, impound.

=Pīc=, _point_: pike, peak, picket, pike (a fish), peck, pecker.


=Rēaf=, _clothing_, _spoil_: rob, robber, reave, bereave, reever,
robe.


=Scēap-an=, to _form_: shape, ship, scape (landscape).

=Scēot-an=, to _throw_: shoot, shot, shut, sheet, shutter, shuttle,
scud.

=Scer-an=, to _cut_: shear, share, shire, scar, scare, score, sharp,
short, shirt, skirt, shred, scrip, scrap.

=Scuf-an=, to _push_: shove, shovel, shuffle, scruffle, sheaf, scoop.

=Sitt-an=, to _sit_: sit, set, seat, settle.

=Slē-an=, to _strike_: slay, slaughter, slog, sledge.

=Slīp-an=, to _slip_: slop, slipper, sleeve.

=Snīc-an=, to _crawl_: sneak, snake, snail.

=Stede=, _place_: stead, instead, homestead, steady, steadfast.

=Stici-an=, to _stick_: stick, stitch, stake, stock, stockade,
stock-still.

=Stīg-an=, to _climb_: stair, stile, stirrup, sty.

=Styr-an=, to _direct_: steer, stern, steerage.

=Sweri-an=, to _declare_: swear, answer (and-, _against_), forswear.


=Tæc-an=, to _teach_: teach, teacher, token, taught.

=Tell-an=, to _account_: tell, tale, talk, toll, teller.

=Tēon=, to _draw_: tow, tug.

=Thæc=, _roof_: thatch, deck.

=Tred-an=, to _walk_: tread, treadle, trade, tradesman.

=Trūwa=, _good faith_: true, truth, troth, betroth.

=Twā=, _two_: twain, twelve, twenty, twig, twine, twist.


=Wana=, _lacking_: wan, wane, want, wanton.

=Wef-an=, to _weave_: weaver, web, woof.

=Warū=, _defense_: war, wary, aware, ward, guard, guardian.

=Wit-an=, to _know_: wit, wise, wisdom, wistful, witness.

=Wraest-an=, to _wrest_: wrest, wrestle, wrist.



LATIN WORDS AND DERIVATIVES.


English and the French of the Norman conquerors continued to live
side by side for about two centuries, neither materially affecting
the other. About 1300 an extensive borrowing of literary (Parisian)
French words began, and during the next two hundred years the
majority of the thousands of French words we now use were taken over
into English.

Latin words began to be used in England while yet there was no
English language; many came in with the introduction of Christianity.
This borrowing has gone on steadily ever since. As has just been
said, English borrowed extensively from literary French. Now, as
French is only Latin in a corrupt form, it is often impossible to
determine whether a particular word was taken directly from Latin or
French. It is estimated that one-fourth of the English vocabulary is
derived from Latin.

The Latin stem or stems have been indicated, as, acr-, _acrid_;
audīt-, _auditor_. The letters (Fr.) occurring after a word indicate
that the Latin stem has been modified in passing through the French
into the English language.

=Ac-=, _sharp_--=āc-er= (acr-) _sharp_; =ăc-us=, _needle_, =ac-uo=,
_I sharpen_: acid, acerbity, acrid, acrimony, acute, acu-men, eager
(Fr. _aigre_, sharp, sour), vin-egar (Fr. _vin_, wine, + _aigre_),
acetic.

=aed-es=, _a building_; =aedi-fic-āre= (see _facio_), _to build_
(_up_): edi-fice, edi-fy.

=aes=, _money_--=aes-tim-are= _to value_: estim-ate, in-estim-able,
esteem, aim (Fr.).

=ăger= (agr-), _field_, _country_; =per-agr-are=, _to travel
through_: agr-arian, per-egr-inate, pil-gr-im (Ital. pellegrino =
peragr-), agri-culture (see _colo_).

=ăg-o= (=ag-ito=), _I drive_, _perform_; =act-us=, _performed_:
ag-ent, co-g-ent, agitate, act-ion, actor, act-ive, ag-ile, ex-act,
transact, amb-ig-uous.

=ali-us=, _other_; =al-ter=, _the other_: ali-en, alienate,
inalienable, ali-as, ali-bi (= else-where); alter, alternate,
altercation, sub-alter-n.

=ăl-tus=, _high_: alt-ar, altitude, ex-alt, ali-ment, ali-mony, alto
(Ital.).

=ăm-o= (amāt-), _I love_; =amī-cus=, _friend_: am-ity, amor-ous,
amatory, amour, amic-able, ami-able, in-imic-al, en-emy and enamoured
(Fr.).

=anim-a=, _air_, _breath of life_; =anim-us=, _mind_: anim-al,
anim-ate, anim-osity, anim-advert (see _verto_), un-anim-ous,
equ-anim-ity (_aequus_), animalcule.

=ann-us=, _year_: ann-als, ann-uity, anni-versary (_verto_), annual,
per-enn-ial.

=antiqu-us= (=anticus=), _ancient_: antique, antiquary, antiquity,
antic.

=apt-us=, _fitted_, _suitable_; =in-ept-us=, _senseless_: apt,
aptitude, ad-apt, in-ept.

=aqua=, _water_: aqu-atic, aqueous, aquarium, aque-duct (_duco_).

=arbiter=, (arbitr-), _umpire_: arbiter, arbitrate, arbitra-ment,
arbitrary.

=ar-=, _join_--=ar-ma=, _fittings_, _arms_; =ar-tus=, _joint_: arm,
armour, army, armament, article, articulate; armada and armadillo
(Span.), armi-stice (_sto_).

=ar-s= (same root as above), _skill_: art, artisan, artist, artifice
(_fac-_), in-ert.

=audi-o= (audīt-), _hear_; =aur-is=, _ear_; =ob-oedi-o=, (_hearken
to_), _obey_: audience, ob-edi-ence, audit, auditor, audit-orium,
audible, aur-al, aur-icle, aurist.


=Bell-um=, old form duellum, _war_: bellicose, belli-ger-ent, re-bel,
revel (Fr.).

=bĕnĕ=, _well_, =bŏnus=, _good_: bene-dic-tion, beni-son;
bene-factor, bene-ficent, benefit (_facio_); bene-vol-ent (_vŏlo_);
beni-gn, boon and bounty (Fr.).

=bis=, =bi=, _twice_; =bini=, _two by two_: bi-cycle, bi-ennial,
bi-sect, bi-weekly, bis-cuit (_twice baked_), bin-ary, combine.

=brev-is=, _short_: brevity, brief (Fr.), breviary, ab-breviate.


=Caballus=, _a nag_: through Fr., caval-ier, cheval-ier, cavalry,
chivalry.

=căd-o= (cĭd-), _I fall_; =căs-us=, _a fall_: cad-ence, c(h)a-nce,
de-cad-ence, de-cay, de-cid-uous, in-cident, cas-e, casu-al, cas-cade.

=caed-o= (caes-), _I cut_; =in-cīd-o=, (in-cīs-) _I cut in_: de-cide,
incisive, precise.

=camp-us=, _plain_, _field_: encamp, campaign, champion and champaign
(Fr.).

=cand-=, _be white_, _glow_--=cand-idus=, _white_; =in-cend-o=
(cens-), _kindle_: candor, candid, candidate, candle, in-candescent,
incend-iary, incense.

=can-o= (cant-), =cant-o= (cantāt-), _I sing_: can-orous, cant-icle,
canto, cant.

=căp-io=, (capt-), =ac-cip-io= (cept-), _take_, _receive_: capacity,
capt-ive, caption, captious, re-cip-ient, de-ceive and re-ceipt
(Fr.), re-cipe, ac-cept, precept, cap-able, sus-cept-ible, cape.

=căpŭt= (căpĭt-), _head_: cape (headland), capital, capitol,
capit-ulate, captain, chapter (Fr. _chapitre_), catt-le and chattel
(Fr.); pre-cipit-ate.

=căro= (carn-) _flesh_: carnal, in-carn-ate, carnat-ion; through Fr.
and Ital.

=car-us=, _dear_; =cāritas=, _dearness_, _love_: charity, cherish
(Fr. _cher_ = _cār-_).

=cast-us=, _pure_; =castīgo= (castigāt-), _punish_: castigate, chaste.

=caus-a=, _cause_; -cūs- in verbs: cause, causal, causation, ac-cuse,
accusation.

=cav-us=, _hollow_: cave, cavern, cavity, con-cave, cage and cajolery
(Fr.).

=ced-o= (cess-), _go_, _yield_, _leave off_: cede, accede, cease,
cessation, proceed.

=cens-eo=, _I assess_, _judge_: census, censor, censure.

=cent-um= _hundred_: cent, century, centurion, centenary, centi-grade.

=cern-o= (crēt-), _I distinguish_, _decide_; =cert-us=, _fixed_:
dis-cern, dis-cri-minate, discreet, con-cern, decree, se-crete,
secret-ary, certain, certi-ficate.

=circ-um=, _around_; =circ-us=, _circle_: circle, circular, circuit
(_ĭ-_), circum-spect.

=cīvi-s=, _citizen_; =cīvi-tas=, _state_, _city_: civic, civilize,
civilian, city and citadel.

=clam-o=, (clamāt-), _I cry out_: claim, exclaim, declamation.

=claud-o=, (claus-), _I shut_; in compounds, -clūdo (clūs-): clause,
close, ex-clude.

=clīv-us=, _slope_; =in-clīno= (clīnāt-), _bend_: de-clivity,
in-clination, declension.

=colo=, (cult-), _I till_, _revere_; =colon-us=, _farmer_: colony,
cult, culture.

=cōmmodus=, _convenient_: commodity, incommode, accommodate.

=cōpia=, _plenty_: copious, copy, cornucopia.

=cŏr= (cord-), _heart_: cord-ial, con-cord, dis-cord, record, core,
cour-age (Fr.).

=cŏrōn-a=, _garland_, _crown_; =corolla= (lit. _little crown_)
_chaplet_: crown, coronal, coronet, coronation, coroner, corolla,
corollated, corollary.

=corpus= (corpŏr-), _body_: corps, corpse, corporal, corporate,
corpus-cle.

=crēd-o= (crēdit-), _I trust_, _believe_: credential, credit,
ac-credit, creed, credible, incredulous, recreant (Fr.).

=crĕ-o= (creāt-), _produce_, =crēsc-o= (crēt-), _grow_, creator,
cresc-ent.

=crĕm-o= (crĕmāt-), _I burn_: cremate, cremationist, crematory.

=crux= (crŭc-), _cross_: crucial, crucify, excruciating, crusade
(Span.), cross, cruise.

=cŭp-id-us=, _desiring_: cupidity, covet (Fr.), covetousness.

=cūra=, _care_; =cūr-o= (cūrāt-) _care for_: cur-ious, cure, curate,
curacy, curé (Fr.), accurate, procure, se-cure = sure (Fr.), (sē =
_without_).

=curr-o= (curs-), _I run_: cur-rent, cursive, in-cur, suc-cor; course.


=Damnum=, _loss_; =damn-o= (damnāt-), _condemn_: damn, condemnation,
indemnity, dam-age (Fr.).

=dēbe-o= (dēbit-), _I owe_: debit, debt (Fr.), debenture.

=decem=, _ten_: December (orig. the _tenth_ month), decim-al,
decennial.

=dĕc-et=, _it is becoming_; =dĕc-us= (dĕcŏr-), _ornament_: dec-ent,
decor-um.

=dens= (dent-), _tooth_: dental, dentist, dentition, in-dent,
tri-dent.

=dĕ-us=, _God_: deity, de-ist, deify, deiform.

=dīc-o= (dĭct-), _say_; =dĭc-o= (dĭcāt-), _proclaim_: dictum,
diction, diction-ary, dictate, indict, verdict (_vērus_), ab-dicate,
predicate.

=dĭ-es=, _day_: dial, diary, diurnal = journal (Fr.), ad-journ (Fr.),
meri-dian.

=dign-us=, _worthy_; =dign-itas=, _worth_: dignity, dainty (Fr.),
dignify, in-dign-ant, condign, deign and dis-dain (Fr.).

=disc-o=, _I learn_; =dŏce-o= (doct-) _I teach_: disciple, docile,
doctor, doct-rine.

=do= (dăt-), =dōn-o= (dōnāt-), _I give_, _present_: data, date,
dative, donor, donate, add (= _ad_ + _do_), render (Fr.; _re-_,
back), dotal, dowry (Fr.), dowager.

=dŏl-eo=, _I grieve_; =dŏl-or=, _grief_, _pain_: dole (= grief),
doleful, dolor, dolorous, condole, in-dolent.

=dŏm-o= (dŏmĭt-) _I subdue_; =dŏmin-us=, _lord_, _master_:
in-domitable, dominant.

=dŏm-us=, _house_: domestic, domicile.

=dormi-o= (dormīt-), _I sleep_: dormitory, dormant and dormer (Fr.).

=duc-= _lead_--=duc-o= (dŭct-); =ēdŭc-o= (educāt-), _I rear_;
=dux= (dŭc-), _leader_: re-duce, ductile, conduct, conduit (Fr.),
deduction, traduce, education.

=duo=, _two_: dual, duel (see _bellum_), double (Fr.; _duplus_),
doublet, duplex.


=Ĕm-o= (empt-), _I buy_; =ex-emp-lum=, _example_: pre-empt,
ex-emption, exemplify, per-emptory, sample (Fr.), redeem, ransom
(Fr.; _red-imo_).

=ĕs-se=, _to be_; =ab-s-ens= (absent-), _being away_; =fŭtūrus=
_about to be_: ess-ence (lit., _being_, _existence_), present,
ent-ity, futurity, inter-est.


=Făber= (făbr-), _workman_; =fabric-a=, _workshop_: fabric,
fabricate, forge (Fr.).

=făci-es=, _form_, _face_: facial, efface, super-ficies = sur-face
(Fr.), façade (Fr.).

=făci-o=, (fact-), _I make_; =ef-fĭci-o= (effect-); =făcil-is=,
easy: fact, fact-ion, fashion (Fr.), factor, pro-fici-ent, affect,
defection, suffice, feat (Fr.), feature, facile, feasible (Fr.),
faculty, artificer.

=fall-o=, (fals-), _I deceive_: fallacy, infallible, false, fail and
fault (Fr.).

=fānum=, _temple_; =fēstus=, _festal_: fane, fanatic, pro-fane,
festive.

=fā-=, _speak_--=fāri= (fāt-, fān-), _to speak_; =fā-bula=, _tale_;
=fā-ma=, _a report_: in-fant, infantry, pre-face, fate, fatality,
fable, affable, fabulous, infamous.

=fē-=, _produce_--=fēmina=, _a woman_; =fēlix=, _happy_: feminine,
female, felicity.

=fend-=, _strike_, _fend_--occurs in compound verbs, _e.g._,
=de-fend-o=, (-fens-), _ward off_: defend, offend, offence, fence,
in-fes-t.

=fĕr-o=, (lāt-), _I bear_; =fertilis=, _productive_: fertile, in-fer,
differ, elated.

=fĭd-es=, _faith_; =fĭdēlis=, =fid-us=, _trusty_; =foed-us=
(foeder-), _treaty_: fidelity, infidel, diffident, feder-al, defy,
af-fi-ance, fi-ancé, faith, fealty.

=fīlius=, _son_, (=fīlia= _daughter_): filial, affiliate, Fitz-
(Fitzedward) (Fr.).

=fing-o=, (fĭct-, fĭg-), _I fashion_, _make up_: figment, figure,
fictile, fiction, effigy; through Fr., feign, feint, faint.

=fīnis=, _end_; =fīni-o= (fīnīt-), _I end_: fine, con-fine, final,
finable, finical, affinity, infinitude; through Fr., finance, finish,
finesse.

=firm-us=, _steadfast_; =firm-o= (firmat-), _I strengthen_,
_strength_: firm, confirmation, affirmative, firmament (lit.
_support_), farm (through Ang. Sax.).

=flagr-o= (flagrāt), _I burn_; =flam-ma=, _flame_: flagrant, inflame,
flambeau (Fr.).

=flect-o= (flex-), _I bend_: in-flect, flex, flex-ible, flexor,
flexion, flexure.

=flōs= (flōr-), _flower_; =floresc-ĕre=, _to blossom_: flora, florid,
florist, florescent.

=flu-o= (flux-), _flow_; =fluct-us= _a wave_: flu-ent, fluid,
influence, flux, fluctuate.

=fŏli-um=, _leaf_; =fŏliāt-us= _leaved_: foliage, folio, foil (Fr.),
trefoil, portfolio.

=fōns= (font-), _a spring_: font, fount, fountain (Fr.), fontal.

=fōrm-a=, _shape_; =form-o (formāt-)=, _I shape_: form, formal,
formula, perform.

=forti-s=, _steadfast_, _brave_: forti-tude, fortify; through Fr.,
comfort, effort, force, forte, fort, fortress.

=frag-=, =frang-o= (fract-), _I break_: fragile, fragment, fracture,
in-fringe.

=frāter=, _brother_: fraternal, fraternity, fratricide (_caedo_),
friar (Fr.).

=frīgidus=, _be cold_; =frīger-are=, _make cold_: frigidity,
refrigerate, refrigerant.

=frons= (front-), _forehead_: front, frontal, affront, effrontery and
frontier.

=frūg-=, =fru-i= (fruct-), _to enjoy_; =frūg-es=, =fructus=, _fruit_;
=frugi=, _useful_: fructify, frugi-ferous, frugi-vorous, fruit,
fruition, frugal.

=fŭgi-o= (fŭgit-), _I flee_: fugitive, refuge, subterfuge, febrifuge
(_febris_, fever).

=fulge-o= (fuls-), _shine_; =fulmen=, _lightning_: refulgent,
fulminate.

=fŭnd-o= (fūs-), _I pour_; =fū-tilis=, _vain_: re-fund (= pay back),
fusible, refuse, confuse, effusion, confound and foundry (Fr.), fount
(of type), futile.

=fund-us=, _bottom_; =fund-āre= (fundāt-), _to found_: fundament
= foundation (Fr.), pro-fundity; Fr., profound, (to) found, (to)
founder, fund, refund.

=fung-i= (funct-), _perform_: de-funct, function (Fr.) perfunctory.


=Gĕl-=, =gelid-us=, _icy cold_; =gĕl-āre= (gelāt-), _to congeal_,
=glacies=, _ice_: gelid, gelatine, glacier, glacial, jelly (Fr.).

=gĕn-= (_birth_)--=gĕn-us= (gĕnĕr-), (_birth_), _race_; =gen-s=
(gent-), _nation_; =gigno= (genit-), _give birth_: general, generate,
congener, gentle, gentile, congenital, ingenious, genius, gender
(Fr.), ingenuous.

=gĕr-o= (gĕst-), _bear_: belli-gerent, gesture, di-gest, register and
jest (Fr.).

=grăd-i= (gressus), _to walk_, _go_; =grăd-us=, _a step_: gradi-ent,
gradation, e-gress, gradual, degrade, aggressive, degree (Fr.).

=grandis=, _great_: grand, grandee (Span.), grandeur (Fr.), grandiose.

=gran-um=, _a grain_: granule, granary, granite, ingrain, garner and
grange.

=grātus=, _acceptable_; =grātia=, _favour_; =grātiae=, _thanks_;
=gratul-āri=, _to congratulate_: gratitude, grateful, gratify,
ingratiate, grace ("say grace" = _ăgĕre grātiās_), gracious, gratis,
gratuitous, gratulation, agree (Fr.).

=grăvis=, _heavy_: gravity, grave (= serious; Fr.), aggravate, grief.

=grĕx= (grĕg-), _a flock_: gregarious, e-greg-ious, aggregation.


=Hăbe-o= (hăbit-), _I have_; in compounds -hibeo, =prohibeo=,
_prevent_; =habilis=, _suitable_: habit, habitude, exhibit,
prohibitive, able (Fr.).

=haere-o= (haes-), _I stick_: ad-here, in-her-ent, hesit-ate.

=hēres= (hērēd-), _heir_: hered-ity, heir (Fr.), co-heir, in-her-it
(Fr.), heir-loom.

=hŏmo= (hŏmĭn-), _man_; =humān-us=, _human_; =humus=, _ground_;
=humil-is=, _lowly_: homi-cide, inhumanity, ex-hume, humility, humble
and homage (Fr.).

=hŏspes= (hŏspĭt-), _host_, also _guest_; =hŏspĭti-um=, _inn_;
=hŏstis=, _enemy_: hospital (= hostel, hotel, Fr.; hence) hostelry,
hostler; host (army), hostile.


=Idem=, _same_; =item=, _likewise_; =ĭ-terum=, _a second time_;
=iterāre=, _to repeat_: identity, identify, item, itemize, iterate,
reiteration.

=impero= (imperāt-), _I command_; =imperium=, _rule_: imperative,
empire (Fr.).

=insŭla=, _island_: insular, pen-insula, insulate = isolate (Fr.),
isle (Fr.).

=in-teg-er=, _whole_ (= in-tac-t; from _tag-_, see _tango_): integer,
entire (Fr.).

=intellego= (intellect-), _I understand_: intelligent, intellect,
intellectualism.

=īra=, _anger_, =irāsc-i=, _to be angry_: irate, iracund, irascible,
ire (Fr.)

=ĭ-=, _go_--This root is found in =ĕo= (ĭt-), _I go_; =ī-tio=,
=ĭ-tus=, _a going_; =iter= (ĭtĭner-), _a going_, _march_;
=ĭn-ĭ-tium=, _a beginning_: amb-ĭ-ent, amb-ĭ-tion, se(d)-ĭ-tion (sē =
_apart_), adit, exit, circuit, itinerant, initial.


=Jac-=, _throw_--=jăcĭo= (ject- in compounds), _I throw_; =jăct-ūra=,
=jăculātio=, _casting_; =jac-ēre=, _to lie (down)_: jactitation,
abject, project, adjective, rejection, conjecture, ejaculation;
adjacent, circumjacent; through Fr., jet (= jut), jetty, jetsam, gist
and joist (from _jacēre_).

=jŏcus=, _jest_; =jŭcundus=, _pleasant_: jocose, jocular, joke,
jocundity, juggler and jeopardy (_jeu parti_ = even chance) (Fr.).

=jūdex= (jūdic-), _a judge_; =jūs= (jūr-), _right_; =jūrāre=, _to
swear_; =justus=, _just_; judicial, prejudice, justice; Fr., judge,
jury, jurist, injury, adjust.

=jŭg-um=, _yoke_; =jung-o= (junct-), _I join_; =juxta=, _near to_:
jugular, conjugal, conjugate, juncture, adjunct, conjunction,
juxtaposition; through, Fr. join, joiner, joint.

=jŭvĕnis=, _young_: juvenile, juvenescent, junior, rejuvenate.

=jūv-o= (jūt-), _I aid_: adjutant, co-adjutor, aid and aide (Fr.).


=Lāb-=, _glide down_--=lapsus=, _a gliding_, _fall_: lapse, collapse,
elapse, relapse.

=laed-o= (laes-), _strike_, _hurt_; =col-līdo= (-līs-), _dash
together_: collide, elide.

=lătu-s= (lătĕr-), _side_: lateral, collateral, multilateral,
equilateral (_aequus_).

=laud-o= (laudāt-), _I praise_; =laus=, _praise_: laud, laudable,
laudatory, laudation.

=lăv-o= (lăvāt) _I wash_; =lăvanda= _(things) to be washed_;
=lŭ-ĕre=, _wash_: lavatory, al-luv-ial, pollution, dilute, lave,
lavender, laund-ry, de-luge.

=lag-=, =langue-o=, _to be_ =languid-us=, _faint_, _dull_; =lax-us=,
_open_, _loose_: languor, languid, lax, laxity, relaxation; through
Fr. lease, leash, release.

=lēx= (lēg-), _law_; =lēg-o= (lēgāt-), _I send_, _depute_; =collēga=,
_colleague_: legal, leal, loyal (Fr.), legitimate, legate, legatee,
legacy, allegation, college.

=lĕg-o= (lĕct-), _I choose_, _read_; =lĕg-i= _legion_: legible,
legend, lecture, lection = lesson (Fr.), elegant, legionary, coil and
cull (_colligo_).

=lĕvis=, _light_, =lĕv-o= (lĕvāt-), _I raise_, _lighten_: levity,
levant, elevator, alleviate.

=lĭber= (lĭbr-), _book_; =lĭbēll-us=, _pamphlet_: library, libel,
libellous.

=līber=, _free_; =līber-o= (līberāt-), _set free_: liberal, liberty,
libertine, liberate.

=lībra= (dimin. =libella=), _a balance_; =libr-o= (lībrāt-), _I
balance_: equi-librium, level (Fr.), libration, deliberate.

=lĭg-o= (lĭgāt-), _I tie_: ligature, ligament; through Fr., league,
liable, lien.

=līnquo=, (rĕ-lĭct-), _I leave_: de-linquent, derelict, relinquish,
relic.

=līn-um=, _flax_; =līnea=, _a thread_: line, lineal, lineament,
delineate, linen.

=lĭqu-ere=, _be moist_; =lĭquid-us=, _flowing_: liquid, liquidation.

=littera=, _a letter_: literal, literature, illiterate, obliterate,
letter (Fr.).

=lŏc-us=, _a place_; =lŏc-o= (lŏcāt-), _I place_: local, allocate =
allow (Fr.).

=long-us=, _long_: longitude, elongated, prolong = purloin (Fr.),
lunge (Fr.).

=lŏqui= (lŏcut-), _to speak_; =lŏqu-ax=, _talkative_: loquacious,
eloquent, colloquial.

=luc-=: this root is seen in =lūx= (lūc-), =lumen= (lūmin-), _light_;
=lūna=, _moon_: lucidity, luminary, luminous, lunatic, illustration.


=Mag-=: this root appears in =magn-us=, _great_, =maior=, _greater_,
=maxim-us=, _greatest_, and =magister=, _master_: magnitude, magnify,
magn-animous, majority, maximum, maxim, magnate, mayor and master
(Fr.).

=male=, _badly_; =malus=, _bad_: mali-gn (see _gĕn-_), malignant,
male-volent, malice and malady (Fr.); malediction, malefactor, etc.

=măne-o= (mans-), _I remain_: per-manent, im-manent, remnant, mansion
(_staying_ (-place)), manse, manor and menial (Fr.).

=măn-us=, _hand_; =mand-o= (mandāt-), _entrust_: manual, manacle,
mandate, emancipate, commend, manu-mission (_mitto_); through Fr.,
amend, command, maintain (_teneo_), manœuvre (Fr. _œuvre_ = _opera_,
work).

=măre=, _sea_: marine, mariner, maritime.

=māter=, _mother_; =materia=, _stuff_, _matter_: maternal, material,
matron.

=mĕd-eri=, _to heal_; =medic-us=, _physician_: medical, re-medy.

=medi-us=, _middle_: medium, mediocre, mediator, mean and means (Fr.).

=mĕmor=, _mindful_; =mĕmŏro= (mĕmŏrāt-), _I recount_: memory,
memorandum.

=mens= (mĕnt-), _mind_; =re-min-isci=, _I remember_: mental,
reminiscent, comment.

=mĕre-o= (mĕrit-), _I deserve_: merit, meritorious.

=merx= (merc-), _wares_; =mercor= (mercāt-), _I purchase_; =merces=
(mercēd-), _hire_: merchant, mercantile, market = mart, mercenary.

=mēt-iri= (mens-), _to measure_: mensuration, dimension, measure
(Fr.).

=miles= (mīlĭt-), _soldier_: military, militant, militia.

=mille=, _thousand_: mile, millesimal, million and millimetre (Fr.),
etc.

=mōns= (mŏn-), _mountain_: mount and mountain (Fr.), promontory.

=mĭnu-o= (mĭnut-), _lessen_; =minor=, _less_; =minister=, _servant_:
minu-end, minute, diminutive, minority, minimum, ministry,
ministration, minstrel (Fr.).

=mīr-āri= (mīrāt-), _to wonder at_: miracle, Fr., mirage, mirror,
marvel.

=misce-o= (mixt-), _I mix_: mixture, promiscuous, miscellaneous.

=mitto= (mĭss-), _I send_: com-mit, missile, mission, dismissal,
manu-mit.

=mŏd-us= and =modul-us=, _a measure_; verb stems =mŏderāt-=,
=mŏdul-āt-=: modesty, modal, modify, moderate, modulation; (Fr.),
model, mode = mood.

=mōles=, _mass_: mole (_i.e._, dam), molecule, demolish, demolition.

=mŏne-o=, (mŏnĭt-), _I warn_; =monstr-um=, _warning_, _prodigy_:
monu-ment, monition, remonstrate, admonish and monster (Fr.).

=morbus=, _disease_; =mors= (mort-), _death_: morbid, mortal, mortify.

=morde-o= (mors-), _I bite_: mordant, mordacious, morsel (Fr.),
remorse.

=mōs=, _custom_, pl. =mōres=, _manners_: moral, moralize, morose,
demure (Fr.).

=mŏve-o= (mōt-), _I move_; =mobilis=, _movable_: movement, motion,
remote, motive, mobile (Fr.), mobility, mob (= Lat. _mobĭlĕ_), move
(Fr.).

=mūni-o= (munīt-), _I fortify_; =mūr-us=, _a wall_: muniment,
munition, mural, intra-, extra-mural, ammunition.

=mūnis=, _obliging_; =mūnus= (mūner-), _service_, _gift_; =municeps=,
_citizen_: munificent (_facio_), immunity, remuneration, municipal.

=mūt-o= (mūtāt-); =mūtu-us=, _borrowed_: mutable, per-mutation,
commute.


=Nāsc-i= (nāt-), _to be born_: nasc-ent, natal, nativity, nation,
nature, cognate.

=nāvis=, _ship_; =nauta=, _sailor_: naval, navy, nautical.

=nect-o= (nex-), _I bind_: con-nect, nexus, an-nex, annexation.

=nĕg-o= (nĕgāt-), _I deny_: negation; deny, re-negade (Span.).

=neuter= (neutr-), _neither_: neuter, neutrality, neutralize.

=nō-=, _older_; =gnō-=, _know_; =nobilis=, _noble_; =nōtus=, _well
known_; =nō-men= (nōmĭn-), _name_; =ignōr-āre=, _not to know_;
nobility, i-gnoble (i = _in_, not), en-noble, notice and notify,
notion, notorious, noun (Fr.), nominal, ignomin-ious, nominate,
nomina-tive, denominator, ignorant.

=nŏce-o=, _I harm_; =nox-ius=, _hurtful_: in-noc-ent, innocuous,
noxious, nuisance.

=norma=, _a rule_; root nō- as in _nōtus_: normal, abnormal, enormous.

=nota=, _a mark_; =nŏt-o=, (nŏtāt-), _I mark_: note and notable
(Fr.), notary.

=nŏvus=, _new_; =nuntius=, _news_: novel and novice (Fr.),
in-nov-ation, denunciate, an-nunciation = announcement (Fr.),
pronounce (Fr.).

=nox= (noct-), _night_: noct-urnal, equi-nox, equinoctial.

=nūbĕre= (nupt-), _to marry_: con-nubial, nuptial.

=nutri-o= (nutrīt-), _I nourish_; =nutrix= (nutrīc-), _a nurse_:
nutri-ent, nutri-ment, nutritious; through Fr., nurse, nursling,
nourish, nurture.


=Ŏculus=, _eye_: ocular, oculist, ocellus.

=omnis=, _all_: omnibus, omni-scient, omnipotent.

=ŏnus= (ŏnĕr-), _burden_: onerous, ex-onerate.

=ops=, _means_; =ōptimus=, _best_: opulent, optimist, optimates.

=ŏpus= (ŏpĕr-), _work_; =ŏpĕra=, _service_: operate, operative,
co-operation, opera.

=opt-o= (optāt-), _I desire_: option, adopt, adoptive, optative.

=ordo= (ordĭn-), _order_, _row_; =ordĭn-o= (ordĭnāt-), _I set
in order_; =orno= (ornāt-), _I deck_: ordinal, extra-ordinary,
ordination, co-ordinate, in-subordination, orna-ment, ad-orn, ornate;
through Fr., order, ordain.

=oriens=, _rising_ (=sōl oriens=, _the east_); =orīgo= (orīgĭn-),
_source_: orient, orientalist, orientation, origin (Fr.), originality.

=ōs= (ōr-), _mouth_; =ōr-o= (ōrāt-), _I speak_, _pray_; =ōmen=
(omin-), _token_: oral, or-acle, o-rotund, ori-fice (_facio_),
os-cul-ation, adore, oration = orison.

=ōvum=, _egg_; =ōvātio=, _an ovation_: oval, ovary, ovi-form,
ovi-parous (_pario_).


=Paenīt-ēre=, _to be sorry_: through Fr., penitent, repentance,
penance.

=pāgus=, _country district_: pagan, page (boy) and peasant (Fr.).

=par=, _equal_: parity; through Fr., pair, peer, compeer, dis-parage,
um-pire.

=păro= (părāt-), _make ready_: com-par-able, ap-paratus,
pre-paration; through Fr., repair, reparation, comparison, parry,
parade, para-sol (Port.).

=pār-ēre=, _be visible_: ap-parent; through Fr., appear, peer (= to
peep).

=pars= (part-), _part_; =partīt-us=, _divided_: partitive, partition,
participate (_căpio_); through Fr., part, parcel, partner, parse.

=pătēre=, _to be open_; =pandĕre= (pans-, pass-), _to extend_:
patent, paten, patella = pail (Fr.), expand; through Fr. pass,
passage, pace, pan.

=pater= (patr-), _father_; =patria=, _fatherland_; =patricius=,
_patrician_: paternal, patron, patrimony, patrician, ex-patriate.

=păt-i= (pass-), _to suffer_: patient, com-pat-ible, passion,
compassion, passive.

=paucus=, _few_, _little_; =pauper=, _poor_: paucity, pauperism;
through Fr., poverty, poor, im-poverish.

=pectus= (pectŏr-), _breast_: pectoral, expectorate, para-pet (Ital.
_petto_, breast).

=pecunia=, _money_; =peculium=, _personal property_: pecuniary,
im-pecunious, peculiar, peculation.

=pell-o= (puls-), _beat_, _drive_; =pulso= (pulsāt-), _push_,
_strike_: com-pel, re-pellent, ex-pulsion, pulse, pulsation.

=pend-ēre= (pens-), _to hang_ (1); =pĕnd-ĕre= (pens-), _to weigh_,
_pay_ (2); =pŏndus= (pŏnder-), _weight_: (1) pendent, pendant (Fr.),
im-pending, pendulous, pendulum, de-pend; (2) ex-pend, spend,
dis-pense, compensate, recompense (Fr.), compendium, suspension,
pensive, poise (Fr.); ponder (Fr.).

=pēs= (pĕd-), _foot_; =ex-pedi-o= (expĕdīt-), _I set free_: pedal,
ped-estrian, pedestal (Span.), expedite, impediment.

=ping-o= (pĭct-), _I paint_: pig-ment, picture, pictorial, depict,
paint (F.).

=pĭus=, _dutiful_: pious, piety = pity (Fr.).

=plăc-ēre=, _to be pleasing_; =plāc-āre= (plācāt-), _to quiet_:
placid, com-placent, complaisance (Fr.), please and pleasure (Fr.),
placable, placate.

=planta=, _a plant_, _sole_: sup-plant, plantation, plantain (Fr.).

=planus=, _level_: plane; through Fr., plain, plan, explain; piano
(_soft_; Ital.).

=plaud-o= (plaus-), _I clap_ (=ex-plōdo=): plaudit, ap-plause,
plausible, explode.

=ple-o= (plēt-), _I fill_; =plēnus=, _full_: de-plete, complement;
expletive.

=plĭc-āre= (plĭcĭt-), _to fold_; =plect-ĕre= (plex-), _I weave_:
du-plicate, implicit, complex; through Fr., ply, reply, display,
triplet; replica (Ital.).

=plumbum=, _lead_: plumbago; through Fr., plumb, plummet, plunge.

=plūs= (plūr-), _more_: plus, plural, plu-perfect, surplus (Fr.).

=poena=, _punishment_; =pūni-o= (pūnīt-), _I punish_: through Fr.,
penal, penalty, pain, punitive, impunity, punish.

=pōno= (pŏsit-), _I place_: post-pone, deponent, posit, opposite,
expositor, depositary; through Fr., posture, position, post, compost,
compound.

=pŏpulus=, _people_; =pūblicus=, _of the people_: popular; public,
publish.

=porta=, _gate_; =portus=, _harbour_; =portāre=, _to carry_: through
Fr., port, porte, portal, porter, import, etc., portly, deportment,
port-cullis, op-portune.

=posse=, _to be able_; =potens= (_able_): potent, potential, possible.

=praeda=, _booty_; =prehendo= (prehens-), _I seize_: predatory,
depredation, prehensile, apprehend, apprentice, prey and prison (Fr.).

=prĕc-āri= (prĕcāt-), _to pray_: precarious, deprecate, pray and
prayer (Fr.).

=prem-o= (prĕss-), _I press_: through Fr., re-prim-and, compress,
print.

=prĕtium=, _price_: through Fr., precious, depreciate, appraise,
price = prize.

=pri-=, _before_--=prior=, _former_; =prīmus=, _first_; =prin-ceps=
(prīncĭp-), _chief_: prior, prime, primal, primitive, principal,
pristine; through (Fr.), primate, primer, premier, primrose, prince,
principle.

=prŏbus=, _good_; =prŏb-o= (prŏbāt-), _I test_: probity, probable,
approve.

=prŏpĕ=, _near_; =proximus=, _nearest_: propinquity, approximate,
approach (Fr.).

=pung-o= (punct-), _I prick_, _pierce_: pungent, puncture, expunge,
compunction; through Fr., punctual, punctuate, point, poignant.

=purus=, _clean_, _pure_; =purg-o= (purgāt-), _cleanse_; =put-o=
(putāt-), _trim_, _reckon_: purify, puritan, purge, am-putate (_am-_
= about), compute, deputy (Fr.).


=Quaer-o= (quaesīt-), _I seek_ [=-quīro= (-quīsīt-) in compounds]:
query, acquire, inquisition, exquisite, quest and inquest (Fr.),
question.

=qualis=, _of what kind_; =quantus=, _how great_: quality, quantity.

=quăti-o=, _I shake_; =-cŭtio= (-cuss-) in compounds: dis-cuss, quash
(Fr.).

=quŏtus=, _what number?_: quota, quotidian (_dies_), quote and
quotient (Fr.).


=Rādix= (rādīc-), _root_: radicle, eradicate, radish and radical
(Fr.).

=răpi-o= (răpt-), _carry off_; =răp-ax= (răpāc-), _grasping_:
rapac-ious, rapt, rapture; through Fr., rapine, ravine, rapid,
ravishing, ravenous.

=rĕg-o= (rect-), =regn-o=, _I rule_, _direct_; =rex=, _king_;
=rēgula=, _a rule_; =rĕg-io=, _district_: reg-ent, regnant, regi-men,
cor-rig-ible, rector, rectitude, di-rect, rectangle, regal, regalia,
regular, region; through Fr., regime, regiment, reign, rectify, dress
(Lat. _di-rect-_), rule (Lat. _rēgula_).

=rēs=, _thing_: through Fr., real, realty, realize, republic; rebus.

=rīd-ere= (_rīs-_), _to laugh_: de-ride, derision, ridi-cule and
ris-ible (Fr.).

=rīpa=, _river bank_: riparian, river (Fr. _rivière_), ar-rive (Fr.).

=rīvus=, _a brook_: rivulet; through Fr., rival, de-rive, derivation.
(For river and arrive see _ripa_).

=rog-o= (rŏgāt-), _I ask_: ar-rogant, ab-rogate, interrogation,
de-rogatory, (Fr.).

=rŏta=, _a wheel_; =rŏt-ula=, dimin.; =rŏt-undus=, _round_: rot-ary,
rotate, rotunda, Fr., roll, rowel, roulette (all from _rotula_),
roué, round.

=rumpĕre=, _to break_; =ruptus=, _broken_: rupture (Fr.), ab-rupt,
e-rupt-ive, dis-ruption, bank-rupt (bank = bench, table of money
changer); through Fr., rout (lit. a division), route and rut (= a
path).


=Săcer= (săcr-), _sacred_; =sacr-āre=, =sanc-īre=, _consecrate_:
sacrifice, sacrilege, sacerdotal, sacrament, de-secration, sanctity,
sanctuary, saint (Fr.).

=sal=, _salt_: salary (_i.e._, salt-money), saliferous; through Fr.,
saline, salad, sauce (= _salsus_, salted).

=săli-o= (sălt-), _I leap_ (-silio, -sult-, in compounds): sali-ent,
re-sili-ent, ex-ultant, saltation, in-sult, de-sultory; through Fr.,
sally, assail, assault.

=salv-us=, _safe_; =sălus= (sălūt-), _health_, _greeting_:
salubrious, salute; through Fr., salvation, salvage, save, salutary,
saviour (Lat. _salvator_).

=sānus=, _sound_; =sān-āre= (sānāt-), _to heal_: sane, sanitary,
sanatorium.

=săpor=, _taste_; =săpi-o=, =săp-ĕre=, _have taste_, _be wise_:
sapi-ent, sapor-ific, in-sip-idity, savour and sage (Fr.).

=satis=, _enough_; =satur=, _full_: satisfy (Fr.), satiate, asset
(Fr.).

=scando= (scans-), _I climb_; =scāla=, _stairs_: a-scend, scale;
scan, e-scalade.

=sci-o=, _I know_; =scĭentia=, _knowledge_; =conscius=, _privy to_:
science (Fr.), nescient, scientific, conscious, prescience (Fr.),
sciolist.

=scrīb-o= (script-), _I write_: scribe (Fr.), scripture, manu-script,
conscription.

=sĕc-o= (sĕct-), _I cut_: secant, sectile, section (Fr.), segment,
bisect.

=sĕde-o= (sĕss-), _I sit_; =as-sĭdeo=, _sit by_: sedentary, sediment,
sedate, sedative, as-siduous, as-sessor, pos-session, subside,
re-sidue (Fr.), supersede.

=sĕnĕx=, _old man_: senile, senior, senate, seignorial (Fr.).

=senti-o= (sēns-), _I feel_: sentient, sentiment; through Fr.,
sentence, sense.

=sĕquor= (sĕcut-), _I follow_; =secundus=, _following_; =secta=,
_a party_, _school_; =socius=, _companion_: con-sequent, sequence,
sequel; through F., obsequies, obsequious, execute, suit, suite,
second, social.

=sĕr-o= (sert-), _I join_, _compose_: series, assert, desert, exert,
insert, concert.

=servo= (servāt-), _I save_: con-serve, conservator, preservation,
conservatory.

=servus=, _a slave_; =serv-īre=, _to serve_: servile, servant,
sergeant, serf, service.

=signum=, _mark_, _sign_; =sign-o= (signāt-), _I mark_, _seal_:
signal, signet, signature, signatory, significant, assign-ment,
re-signation (_a signing back_).

=similis=, _like_; =simul=, _together_; =simul-o= (simulāt-), _I
pretend_: similar and similitude (Fr.), as-similate, simul-taneous,
simulate, assembly (Fr.).

=sōl=, _sun_: solar, sol-stice (= _sol-stit-ium_; _stare_) (Fr.),
para-sol (_par-_, ward off).

=sŏlidus= (and =soldus=), _firm_; also _a gold coin_ (_military
pay_): solidify and solder (Fr.), solidarity (Fr.), consolidate,
con-sols, soldier (Fr.).

=sōlus=, _alone_: through Fr., sole, solitude, solitary, solitaire,
de-solate, solo.

=solv-o= (sŏlūt-), _I loose_, _pay_: solvent, ab-solve, soluble
(Fr.), dis-solute.

=somnus=, =sopor=, _sleep_: in-somnia, somnolence, somn-ambulist,
sopori-fic.

=sŏn-āre=, _to sound_: consonant, sound, sonor-ous, sonnet, per-son,
unison (_unus_).

=sparg-o= (spars-), _I scatter_, _sprinkle_: sparse, di-sperse,
a-spersion.

=spĕci-o= (spect-), _I look_; =su-spici-o= (suspect-), _look up_,
_mistrust_; =species=, _appearance_: speci-men, specious and specify
(Fr.), spectacle and spectre (Fr.), aspect, spectator, despise and
spite (= de-spite) (Fr.).

=spēr-o= (sperāt-), _I hope_: desperate, despair and prosper (Fr.).

=spīr-o= (spirāt-), _I breathe_; =spīrĭtus=, _breath_: a-spirant,
inspire, conspiracy.

=stāre= (stăt-), =sĭst-ĕre=, _stand_; =stătu-o=, _I set_: di-stant,
extant, substance (Fr.), station, stable, insist, obstacle and
e-stablish (Fr.); state and statue (Fr.), statute, rest (=
remainder), armi-stice and sol-stice (Fr.).

=stern-ĕre= (strāt-), _to spread_, _extend_, _cover_; consternation,
prostrate, stratum, stratify, street (through Ang. Sax.).

=string-o= (strĭct-), _I draw together_: stringent, strain and strait
(Fr.), strict, stricture, district, stress (Fr.).

=strŭ-ĕre= (struct-), _to build_: con-struct, structure, construe,
destroy (Fr.).

=sūm-o= (sumps-), _I take_, _use_; =sumptus=, _expense_: as-sume,
sumptuous.

=super=, _above_; =super-āre=, _to overcome_; =supremus=, =summus=,
_topmost_: superb (Fr.), superior, supernal, insuperable, supremacy,
sum and summit.

=surg-o= (surrect-), _I rise_ (see _rĕgo_): through Fr., in-surgent,
surge = source, resource, resurrect.


=Tag-= (_touch_)--=tang-o= (tact-), _I touch_, =in-tĕger=, _whole_:
tangent, con-tingent, tangible, con-tag-ion, intact, disintegration,
contiguous, tact (Fr.).

=tĕg-o= (tect-), _I cover_: tegmen, tegument, protective.

=tempt-o= (temptāt-), _I try_, _test_: at-tempt (Fr.), temptation,
tentative (Fr.).

=tempus= (tempor-), _time_; =temper-o= (temperāt-), _I regulate_;
=tempes-tas=, _season_: temporal, temporize (Fr.), tense (n; Fr.),
temper (Fr.), tempest (Fr.).

=tend-o= (tent-, tens-), _stretch_; =tenuis=, _thin_: tendency,
extent, intend, tense (adj.), tension, attend, pretence, ostentation,
tenuity, extenuate.

=tĕne-o= (tent-), _I hold_: per-tinent, tenable (Fr.), tenet, tenant
(Fr.), sus-tenance, tenor, abs-tain (Fr.), detention, continue and
retinue (Fr.).

=ter-o= (trīt-), _rub_, _wear away_; =tribul-āre=, _to afflict_:
trite, attrition, detriment, contrite, tribulation.

=terra=, _land_: terrestrial; through F., terrace, in-ter, tureen,
territory.

=testis=, _a witness_; =testor= (testāt-), _I bear witness_: testify
(Fr.), testimony, attest, detest, testament, testator.

=tex-o= (text-), _I weave_: text (Fr.), texture, textile, pretext and
tissue (Fr.).

=tōrque-o= (tŏrt-), _I twist_: torment and torture (Fr.), tortuous,
contort, extortionate, torch and tortoise (Fr.).

=trăh-o= (tract-), _I draw_; =tract-o= (tractāt-), _I handle_:
sub-trahend, tract, tractable, abs-tract; through Fr., trait,
por-tray, re-treat, train, trail.

=trēs=, =tria=, _three_: trinity (Fr.), ternary, ter-centenary,
triangle, tri-dent.

=trĭbu-ĕre=, _to give_, _pay_; =trĭbūtum=, _payment_: at-tribute,
re-tributive, tribute.

=tueri= (tuit-), _to see_, _watch_: tuition, in-tuitive, tutor,
tutelage, tutelary.

=tŭm-ēre=, _to swell_; =tuber=, _swelling_: tumid, tubercle,
protuberant.


=Ultra=, _beyond_: =ultimus=, _farthest_: outrage (Fr.), ulterior,
ultimate.

=und-o= (undāt-), _overflow_: ab-undant, abound (Fr.), inundate.

=ungu-o= (unct-), _I anoint_: unguent = ointment (Fr.), unction,
unctuous.

=ūnus=, _one_: unit, union (Fr.), unite, unique (Fr.), uni-son
(_sonus_, sound).

=ūt-ī=, _to use_; =usus=, _use_; =utilis=, _useful_: utensil (Fr.),
usury (Fr.), utility.


=Vād-o= (vās-), _I go_: invade, evasion, pervasive, vade mēcum (lit.
_go with me_).

=văle-o=, _am strong_; valid, valour, value, convalesce, prevail.

=vānus=, _empty_: through Fr., vain, vanish, vaunt.

=vĕh-o= (vĕct-), _I carry_: vehicle, vehement, in-veigh and invective
(Fr.).

=vĕll-o= (vuls-), _I pluck_, _tear_: con-vulse, convulsive,
divulsion, revulsion.

=vēlum=, _cover_, _veil_; =vēl-o= (vēlāt-), _I cover_: (Fr.),
re-veal, revelation, unveil.

=vĕni-o= (vĕnt-), _I come_: con-vene, convenient, intervention;
through Fr., con-vent, covenant, venture, re-venue.

=verbum=, _word_: verbal, verb (Fr.), verbose, verbiage (Fr.),
proverb.

=vert-o= (vers-), _I turn_: version, adverse, versatile.

=vērus=, _true_; =vērax=, _truthful_: veracious; very, verify, aver,
verdict.

=vĭa=, _way_: de-vious, deviate, trivial (Fr.), impervious; through
Fr., convey.

=vĭcis=, _alternation_: vicarious, vicar (Fr.), vicissitude,
vice-regal.

=vĭde-o= (vīs-), _I see_; =vīs-o= (visit-), _go to see_: e-vident,
provident, prudent, visage and vision (Fr.), invidious = envious
(Fr.), visual (Fr.), visitation.

=vĭge-o=, _am vigorous_; vigour, vigil (Fr.), vegetate.

=vĭnc-o= (vĭct-), _I conquer_: convince, invincible and vanquish
(Fr.), victor.

=vir=, _man_; =virtus=, _worth_, _valour_: virile and virtue (Fr.),
virago, trium-vir.

=vita=, _life_; =vīvus=, _living_: vital, vivid, vivacity, vivify
(Fr.).

=vŏco= (vŏcāt-), _I call_; =vox= (vōc-), _voice_: ad-vocate,
vocation, revoke (Fr.).

=vŏl-o=, _am willing_: bene-volent, voluntary, volunteer (Fr.),
volition.

=volv-o= (vŏlūt-), _I roll_; =vōlumen=, _a roll_: de-volve, voluble
(Fr.), evolution.

=vŏr-o=, _I swallow up_: de-vour (Fr.), voracious, carni-vorous.

=vŏve-o= (vōt-), _I vow_: vote (Fr.), votive, votary, devotion,
devout (Fr.).

=vulgus=, _the people_: vulgar, divulge, vulgate.



GREEK ROOT-WORDS AND DERIVATIVES.


To Greek, also, English is indebted for a considerable number of
words, especially in the language of science and medicine; for the
ancient physicians were commonly Greeks. Since the great revival
of Greek studies in England in the 16th Century, Greek literature
and art have exerted an enormous influence upon English thought and
literature.

=Agō=, _I lead_: strat-egy.

=a-dam-as= (= in-dom-itable), _steel_: adamant, diamond (= Fr.
_diamant_).

=aēr=, _air_: air (Fr.), aerial, aerate.

=athlos=, _a contest_: athlete.

=aesthēsis=, _perception_, _feeling_: aesthetic, an-aesthesia.

=akouō=, _I hear_: acoustics.

=akros=, _top_: acro-bat, acropolis.

=allos=, _other_: allo-path, par-allel.

=anemos=, _wind_: anemometer.

=angelos=, _messenger_: angel, ev-angel.

=anthropos=, _man_: anthropoid, anthropology, mis-anthrope.

=arktos=, _a bear_: arctic, antarctic.

=archē=, _beginning_, _rule_; =arch-=, (prefix), _chief_: archetype,
an-archy, archangel.

=aster=, =astron=, _a star_: asterisk, astrology, dis-aster (Fr.),
astral (Lat.).

=autos=, _self_: auto-crat, auto-graph, auto-matic, auto-nomy.


=Ball-o=, _I throw_; =bolē=, _throwing_: dia-bol-ical, hyper-bole.

=bapto=, _dip_: baptise.

=barus=, _heavy_; =baros=, _weight_: barytone, barograph, barometer.

=basis=, _a going_, _foundation_: base (Fr.), basis, basement.

=biblion= (dimin. of =biblos=), _book_; bible, biblio-graphy,
biblio-mania.

=bios=, _life_: amphi-bious, bio-logy.

=botane=, _herbage_, _a plant_: botany.

=bronchos=, _windpipe_: bronchial.


=Character=, _a mark_: character.

=cheir=, _hand_: chiro-graphy, chiro-mancy, chiro-pod-ist,
chir-urgeon.

=chīlio-= (_e.g._ =chilio-pous=), _thousand_: kilo-gramme and
kilo-metre (Fr.).

=chlōros=, _green_: chlorate, chlorine.

=cholē=, _bile_: choler, melancholy.

=choros=, _a dance in a ring_, _chorus_: chorus, choral, choir (Fr.).

=chriō=, _anoint_: Christ, chrism (holy oil).

=chronos=, _time_: chronic, chronicle, chronometer, ana-chronism.


=Daimōn=, _divinity_, _spirit_: demoniac.

=deka=, _ten_: decade, deca-logue.

=demos=, _the people_: demo-crat, dem-agogue, epi-demic.

=derma= (dermat-), _skin_: epi-dermis, hypo-dermic, pachy-dermatous.

=despotēs=, _lord_: despotic, despotism.

=diaita=, _mode of living_: diet (Fr.).

=diskos=, _quoit_: disc, dish and desk.

=dogma=, =doxa=, _opinion_: dogma, dogmatic, heterodox.

=dosis=, _a giving_; =dotos=, _given_: dose, anti-dote, an-ec-dot-al.

=draō=, _I do_: dra-ma, drastic.

=dromos=, _running_: dromedary, hippo-drome, aero-drome.

=dunamis=, _power_, _force_: dynamic.


=Eidos=, _form_; =eidōlon=, _image_; =idea=, _form_, _look_ (all from
=id-=, see): ideograph, idol, kal-eido-scope.

=eikōn=, _image_: icon, iconoclast.

=electron=, _amber_: electric, electrify.

=ergon=, _work_; =en-ergeia=, _energy_: organ-ize, en-ergetic,
metall-urgy.

=ethnos=, _nation_: ethnic, ethnology.

=eu=, _well_; as a prefix: eucharist, euphony, euphemism, ev-angel.


=Gamos=, _marriage_: mono-gamous.

=gaster= (gastr-), _stomach_: gastric.

=gen-=, _beget_--=genos=, _race_; =genesis=, _origin_: genea-logy,
genesis, genetic.

=gē=, _the earth_: ge-o-graphy, ge-o-logy, ge-o-metric.

=glōssa= (=glōtta=), _tongue_: glossary, glottis, epiglottis,
poly-glot.

=gnō-sis=, _knowledge_: gnome, gnostic.

=gōnia=, _angle_: diagonal, pentagon.

=grapho=, _write_; =gramma=, _writing_: graphic, epi-graphy, grammar.

=gumnos=, _naked_; =gumnazo=, _I exercise_: gymnasium, gymnastic.

=gunē= (gunaiko-), _a woman_: gyn-archy, gynaeco-logy, miso-gynist.


=Haima= (haimato-), _blood_: hemal, hematite, hemorrhage, an-aemia.

=hairesis=, _a taking_: heresy (Fr.).

=heteros=, _other_: hetero-dox, hetero-geneous.

=hex=, _six_: hex-agon, hexameter.

=hēlios=, _sun_: heliacal, peri-helion.

=hēmera=, _day_: ep-hemeral.

=hieros=, _sacred_; =hiereus=, _priest_: hierarchy, hieratic,
hiero-glyph.

=hippos=, _horse_: hippo-drome.

=historeō=, _I enquire_: history (shortened in) story.

=(h)odos=, _way_: ex-odus, epis-ode, met-hod, peri-od.

=homos=, _same_; =homoi-os=, _like_: homo-centric, homo-geneous,
hom-ily (_ilē_, throng), homoeo-pathic.

=(h)orizo=, _define_, _bound_: horizon.

=hudōr=, _water_; hydrant, hydr-aulic, hydro-gen.


=Idios=, _private_, _peculiar_; =idiōtēs=, _private person_: idiom,
idiot.

=ion=, _violet_; =iōdēs=, _dark-colored_: iodide, iodine.

=isos=, _equal_: iso-sceles, iso-thermal.


=Kakos=, _bad_: cacography, cacophony.

=kalos=, _beautiful_: calligraphy, callis-thenics (_sthenos_,
strength).

=kaluptō=, =kruptō=, _I conceal_: apo-calypse, eu-calyptus, crypt.

=kaustos=, _burnt_; =kautērion=, _a branding_: caustic, cautery,
cauterize.

=kīneō=, _I move_; =kīnētikos=, _for moving_: kinetics, kinematics.

=kosmos=, _order_, _ornament_, _universe_: cosmetic, cosmic,
cosmo-gony.

=krateō=, _am strong_, _rule_: auto-crat, demo-cracy, aristo-crat.

=kri-=, _to separate_; =krisis=, _a separating_, _deciding_: crisis,
critic.

=kuklos=, _wheel_: cycle, cyclic, cyclone.


=Lab-=, _take_; =lēpsis=, _a taking_: syl-lable, epi-lepsy,
cataleptic.

=legō=, _I pick out_, _say_; =lexis=, _speech_; =logos=, _discourse_,
_reason_: ec-lectic (_ek_, out of), lexi-con, dialect, logic.

=leipō= (lĭp-), _I leave_: el-lipsis, ec-lipse.

=lithos=, _stone_: lithia, lithograph.

=luō=, _I loose_; =lusis=, _a loosing_: ana-lyze, dia-lysis,
paralytic, (palsy is a contraction of paralysis).


=Mania=, _madness_: mania, maniac, Anglo-mania.

=math-=, _learn_; =mathēma=, _learning_: mathematics, philo-math,
poly-math.

=martus= (martur-), _a witness_: martyr.

=mega= (megal-), _large_; as a prefix: mega-cephalous (_kephalē_,
head), megalithic, megaphone.

=melas= (melan-), _black_: melancholy.

=melos=, _song_: mel-ody (_ōdē_).

=metron=, _a measure_: metre, symmetry, diameter, geometric.

=mēchanē=, Lat. _māchina_: mechanic, mechanism.

=mikros=, _small_: microbe (_bios_), micro-cosm, micro-scope.

=mīseo=, _I hate_: misanthrope.

=mnē-mon-euō=, _I remember_: mnē-monics, a-mnē-sty (_a_ = not).

=monos=, _alone_, _one_: monad, mon-arch, monk (Ang. Sax.),
monastery, monopoly.

=morphē=, _shape_: a-morphous, morph-ology, meta-morphose.

=mousa=, _muse_: music, museum.

=mūthos=, _a tale_, _legend_: myth.


=Naus=, _a ship_: nausea, nautilus, aëro-naut (_nautēs_, sailor.)

=nekros=, _dead_: necro-polis.

=neuron=, _cord_, _nerve_: neural, neur-algia (_algos_, pain),
neuritis.

=nomos=, _a law_: eco-nomy (_oikos_), astro-nomy, anti-nomian.


=Ōdē=, _a song_: ode, hymnody, parody.

=oikos=, =oikia=, _house_; =oikēsis=, _inhabiting_, _dwelling_:
eco-nomy (Lat. _oeconomia_), di-ocese (= _di-oikesis_), parish
(_paroikia_, Fr. _par-oisse_).

=onoma= (=onuma=), _name_: syn-onym.

=op-=, _see_; =optika=, _pertaining to sight_; =oph-thalmos=, _eye_:
op-tics, optician, syn-opsis, synoptic, my-opia.

=organon=, _an instrument_: organic.

=orthos=, _right_, _straight_: ortho-doxy, ortho-graphy.

=osteon=, _a bone_: oste-itis, osteo-pathy.

=oxus=, _sharp_: oxy-gen, oxy-tone, par-oxysm.


=Pais= (paid-), _a child_; =paideia=, _training_, _learning_:
ped-agogue, pedant.

=pan= (pant-, pas-), _all_: pan-acea (_akos_, remedy), pan-oply,
(_hopla_, arms), pan-orama (_(h)oraō_, see).

=păthos=, _suffering_, _feeling_: pathology, pathetic, sympathy.

=pauo=, _I stop_; =pausis=, _cessation_ (Lat. _pausa_): pause and
pose.

=pente=, _five_: pent-agon, pentameter, penta-teuch (_teuchos_,
book), Pente-cost [_pentecostē_ = fiftieth (day)].

=petra=, _a rock_; =petros=, _a stone_: petrify and pier (Fr.),
Peter, petrology, petroleum, petrescent.

=plassō=, _I mould_, _fashion_: plastic, plasm, proto-plasm
(_prōtos_, first).

=pleura=, _a rib_: pleurisy, pleuritic.

=plēgē=, =plēxis=, _a blow_, _stroke_: plague (Lat. _plāga_),
apoplexy, pleximeter.

=pneuma=, _air_; =pneumon=, _lungs_: pneumatic, pneumonia,
pneumatomer.

=poieō=, _I make_: poet (Lat. _poēta_).

=polis=, _a city_; =polītēs=, _citizen_; =politeia=, _government_:
metro-polis, polity, politic, police.

=polus=, _many_, poly-gon.

=pous= (pod-), _a foot_: poly-pus, polyp, antipodes.

=praktos=, _done_: practice.

=prōtōs=, _first_: prot-agonist, protomartyr, prototype, protoplasm.

=pur=, _fire_: pyre, pyrites, pyro-latry (= worship), pyrotechnics.

=pōleō=, _I sell_: biblio-pole, mono-poly.

=phagein=, _to eat_: sarcophagus (_sarx_, flesh).

=phainō= (phan-, phēn-, phas-), _I show_: phan-tom, phan-tasm,
phant-asy = fancy (Fr.), phen-omenon, phase.

=pherō=, _I bear_; =phora=, _a carrying_: peri-pher-y, meta-phor,
phos-phorus (_phōs_), sema-phore, (_sēma_, sign).

=phēmi=, _I say_: eu-phem-ism, blas-pheme (_blapsis_, injury),
pro-phet.

=philos=, _dear_, _friend_: phil-tre, philo-sophy.

=phōnē=, _a sound_: phonic, phonetic, phono-graph, eu-phony,
caco-phony, sym-phony.

=phōs= (phōt-), _light_: phos-phor, photo-graph, photometer.

=phrasis=, _speech_: phrase, peri-phrasis, para-phrase, phraseology.

=phrēn=, _the midriff_, _mind_: frenzy and frantic (Fr.), phrenology.

=phusis=, _nature_; =phuton=, _a plant_: physi-cal, physics,
physi-o-logy, meta-physics, neo-phyte.


=Rheō=, _flow_; =rheuma=, _a flow_; =rhuthmos=, _regular motion_:
cata-rrh, rheumatic, rhythm.

=rhētor=, _orator_: rhetoric, rhetorician.


=Sarx= (sark-), _flesh_: sarcasm.

=sitos=, _food_: para-site.

=skopeo=, =skept-omai=, _look at_, _consider_; =skop-os=, _watcher_,
_mark_, _aim_: scep-tical, scope, hor-o-scope (_hōrā_, season),
epi-scop-al, bishop [_epi-scop-os_].

=sophos=, _wise_: sophist, philosophy.

=stă-=, _stand_; =sta-sis=, _a placing_; =statos=, _placed_:
ec-sta-sy, sy-ste-m (_sun_, together), static, hydro-statics,
apo-state.

=stellō= (stol-), _I send_: apo-stle (= _apostolos_; _apo_, away),
epi-stle.

=stichos=, _a line_: di-stich, hemi-stich.

=stratos=, _army_: stratagem, strategy.

=strophē=, _a turning_: strophic, anti-strophe, apo-strophe,
catastrophe.

=sphaira=, _a ball_: sphere, atmo-sphere.

=schizō=, _split_: schism, schist.

=schole=, _leisure_, _school_: scholastic.


=Tax-is=, _arrangement_; =tak-tos=, _ordered_: syn-tax, taxi-dermist.

=taphos=, _a tomb_: epi-taph (_epi_, upon).

=temno=, _I cut_; =tomē-=, =tom-os=, _a cutting_: ana-tomy, tome
(Fr.), a-tom.

=technē=, _art_: tech-nic, technology.

=tele=, _afar_: tele-phone.

=theos=, _God_: theism, theo-cracy.

=thermos=, _hot_: thermal, isothermal, thermo-meter, thermo-dynamics.

=the-=, _place_; =thesis=, _a placing_; =thema=, _proposition_;
=thē-kē=, _case_, _chest_: thesis, theme, hypo-thesis, epi-thet,
ana-thema.

=topos=, _a place_: topic, topography, u-topia, (u = _ou_,
not--_i.e._, land of No-place).

=toxicon=, _poison_: toxin, anti-toxin, intoxicate.


=Zēlos=, _emulation_: through Fr., zeal.

=zōon=, _animal_: zo-diac (_zōdion_, dimin.), zo-ology.



WORDS, PHRASES AND NOTEWORTHY SAYINGS.


From the Greek, Latin and Modern Languages.

_A bas_ (Fr.). Down, down with.

_ab initio_ (L.). From the beginning.

_ab ovo_ (L.). From the egg, from the beginning.

_ad captandum vulgus_ (L.). To attract or please the rabble.

_ad infinitum_ (L.). To infinity.

_ad libitum_ (L.). At pleasure.

_ad nauseam_ (L.). To disgust or satiety.

_ad rem_ (L.). To the purpose, or point.

_ad valorem_ (L). According to the value.

_aequo animo_ (L.). With an equable mind, with equanimity.

_affaire d' amour_ (F.). A love affair.

_affaire d'honneur_ (F.). An affair of honor; a duel.

_affaire du coeur_ (Fr.). An affair of the heart.

_a fortiori_ (L.). With stronger reason.

_à la mode_ (Fr.). According to the custom or fashion.

_alter ego_ (L.). My other self.

_alma mater_ (L.). Gracious mother; the college of which one is a
graduate.

_amende honorable_ (Fr.). Satisfactory apology; reparation.

_amor patriae_ (L.). Love of country.

_amour propre_ (Fr.). Self-love; vanity.

_anno domini_ (L.). In the year of our Lord.

_ante meridiem_ (L.). Before noon.

_a posteriori_ (L.). Reasoning from effect to cause.

_a priori_ (L.). Reasoning from cause to effect.

_apropos_ (Fr.). Suited to the occasion.

_argumentum ad hominem_ (L.). An argument to the individual man,
_i.e._, to his interests and prejudices.

_ars est celare artem_ (L.). It is true art to conceal art.

_ars longa, vita brevis_ (L.). Art is long, life is short.

_artium magister_ (L.). Master of Arts.

_au contraire_ (Fr.). On the contrary.

_au courant_ (Fr.). Fully acquainted with matters.

_au fait_ (Fr.). Well acquainted with; expert.

_aurea mediocritas_ (L.). The golden or happy mean.

_au revoir_ (Fr.). Adieu until we meet again.

_autant d'hommes, autant d'avis_ (Fr.). So many men, so many minds.

_aut Cæsar aut nullus_ (L.). Either Cæsar or nobody.

_aut vincere aut mori_ (L.). Either to conquer or to die; death or
victory.


_Baccalaureus in artibus_ (L). Bachelor of Arts (B.A.).

_beau ideal_ (Fr.). An ideal beauty.

_beau monde_ (Fr.). The fashionable world.

_bel esprit_ (Fr.). A person of wit or genius; a brilliant mind.

_bête noire_ (Fr.). A black beast; a bugbear.

_bis dat qui cito dat_ (L.). He gives twice who gives quickly.

_bon ami_ (Fr.). Good friend.

_bon jour_ (Fr.). Good day; good morning.

_bon soir_ (Fr.). Good evening.


_Cacoethes loquendi_, _scribendi_ (L.). An itch for speaking, writing.

_carpe diem_ (L.). Enjoy the present day; improve the time.

_carte blanche_ (Fr.). A white card; full power.

_casus belli_ (L.). The occasion or cause of war.

_cela va sans dire_ (Fr.). That goes without saying.

_c'est à dire_ (Fr.). That is to say.

_ceteris paribus_ (L.). Other things being equal.

_chacun à son goût_ (Fr.). Every one to his taste.

_chère amie_ (Fr.). A dear (woman) friend.

_chef d'œuvre_ (Fr.). A masterpiece.

_ci devant_ (Fr.). Formerly; heretofore.

_comme il faut_ (Fr.). As it should be.

_compagnon de voyage_ (Fr.). A travelling companion.

_con amore_ (It.). With love; very earnestly.

_corrigenda_ (L.). Corrections to be made.

_coup d'état_ (Fr.). A sudden decisive blow in politics; a stroke of
policy.

_coup de grace_ (Fr.). A finishing stroke.

_cui bono?_ (L.). For whose advantage? to what end?

_cuisine_ (Fr.). A kitchen; cookery.

_cul de sac_ (Fr.). The bottom of a bag; a place closed at one end.

_cum grano salis_ (L.). With a grain of salt; with some allowance.


_Debut_ (Fr.). First appearance.

_de gustibus non est disputandum_ (L.). There is no disputing about
tastes.

_dei gratiâ_ (L.). By the grace of God.

_de jure_ (L.). From the law; by right.

_de mortuis nil nisi bonum_ (L.). (Say nothing but good of the dead.)

_de novo_ (L.). Anew.

_deo adjuvante_ (L.). God assisting.

_deo gratias_ (L.). Thanks to God.

_Deo volente_ (L.). God willing.

_de profundis_ (L.). Out of the depths.

_dernier ressort_ (Fr.). A last resource.

_desipere in loco_ (L.). To jest or be jolly at the proper time.

_de trop_ (Fr.). Too much or too many; not wanted.

_Dieu et mon droit_ (Fr.). God and my right.

_Dieu vous garde_ (Fr.) God protect you.

_docendo discimus_ (L.). We learn by teaching.

_dolce far niente_ (It.). Sweet doing-nothing; sweet idleness.

_dulce et decorum est pro patriâ mori_ (L.). It is sweet and glorious
to die for one's country.

_dum spiro, spero_ (L.). While I breathe I hope.


_Ecce homo_ (L.). Behold the man!

_édition de luxe_ (Fr.). A splendid and expensive edition of a book.

_élite_ (Fr.). A select body of persons.

_emeritus_ (L.). Retired after long service.

_en avant_ (Fr.). Forward.

_en déshabillé_ (Fr.). In undress.

_en masse_ (Fr.). In a body.

_en rapport_ (Fr.). In harmony; in agreement.

_en route_ (Fr.). On the way.

_en suite_ (Fr.). In company; in a set.

_entente cordiale_ (Fr.). Cordial understanding.

_entreé_ (Fr.). Entry; a side dish.

_entre nous_ (Fr.). Between ourselves.

_e pluribus unum_ (L.). One out of many; one composed of many.

_esprit de corps_ (Fr.). The animating spirit of a collective body,
as a regiment.

_et cetera_ (L.). And the rest.

_et tu, Brute!_ (L.). And thou also, Brutus!

_eureka_ (Gr.). I have found it.

_exceptio probat regulam_ (L.). The exception proves (or tests) the
rule.

_exceptis excipiendis_ (L). The due exceptions being made.

_exempli gratiâ_ (L.). By way of example.

_ex pede Herculem_ (L.). From the foot we recognize him as a
Hercules; we judge of the whole from the specimen.

_experientia docet stultos_ (L.). Experience instructs fools.

_extra muros_ (L.). Beyond the walls.

_ex uno disce omnes_ (L.). From one judge of all the rest.


_Facile princeps_ (L.). Easily pre-eminent; indisputably the first.

_facilis est descensus averni_ (or _averno_) (L.). The descent to
avernus (or hell) is easy.

_fait accompli_ (Fr.). A thing already done.

_faux pas_ (Fr.). A false step.

_festina lente_ (L.). Hasten slowly.

_fiat justitia, ruat cælum_ (L.). Let justice be done though the
heavens should fall.

_fiat lux_ (L.). Let there be light!

_fidei defensor_ (L.). Defender of the faith.

_fide non armis_ (L.). By faith, not by arms.

_fides Punica_ (L.). Punic or Carthaginian faith; treachery.

_fidus Achates_ (L.). Faithful Achates; a true friend.

_finem respice_ (L.). Look to the end.

_finis coronat opus_ (L.). The end crowns the work.

_flagrante delicto_ (L.). In the commission of the crime.

_fortiter in re_ (L.). With firmness in acting.

_fortuna favet fortibus_ (L.). Fortune favors the bold.


_Garçon_ (Fr.). A boy; a waiter.

_gardez bien_ (Fr.). Take good care.

_gaudeamus igitur_ (L.). So let us be joyful.

_Gloria in Excelsis_ (L.). Glory to God in the highest.

_Gloria Patri_ (L.). Glory be to the Father.

_gnothi seauton_ (Gr.). Know thyself.

_grace à Dieu!_ (Fr.). Thanks to God!

_grand merci_ (Fr.). Many thanks.


_Hoi polloi_ (Gr.). The many; the vulgar; the rabble.

_homo sum; humani nihil a me alienum puto_ (L.). I am a man; I count
nothing human indifferent to me.

_honi soit qui mal y pense_ (O. Fr.). Evil be to him who evil thinks.

_hors de combat_ (Fr.). Out of the struggle; disabled.

_humanum est errare_ (L.). To err is human.


_Ibidem_ (L.). At the same place (in a book).

_ich dien_ (Ger.). I serve.

_id est_ (L.). That is; contracted to _i.e._

_impedimenta_ (L.). Baggage.

_imperium in imperio_ (L.). A government or rule within another.

_index expurgatorius_ (L.). A list of prohibited books.

_in esse_ (L.). In being; in actuality.

_in extenso_ (L.). At full length.

_in extremis_ (L.). At the point of death.

_infra dignitatem_ (L.). Below one's dignity.

_in loco parentis_ (L.). In the place of a parent.

_in medias res_ (L.). Into the midst of things.

_in memoriam_ (L.). To the memory of; in memory.

_in perpetuum_ (L.). For ever.

_in posse_ (L.). In possible existence; in possibility.

_in præsenti_ (L.). At the present moment.

_in propria persona_ (L.). In one's own person.

_in re_ (L.). In the matter of.

_in situ_ (L.). In its original situation.

_in statu quo_ (L.). In the former state.

_inter alia_ (L.). Among other things.

_inter nos_ (L.). Between ourselves.

_in toto_ (L.). In the whole; entirely.

_intra muros_ (L.). Within the walls.

_in vino veritas_ (L.). There is truth in wine; wine discloses the
secrets of the breast.

_ipse dixit_ (L.). He himself said it; a dogmatic assertion.

_ipsissima verba_ (L.). The very words.

_ipso facto_ (L.). In the fact itself.


_Jacta est alea_ (L.). The die is cast.

_jeu de mots_ (Fr.). A play on words.

_jeu d'esprit_ (Fr.). A display of wit; a witticism.

_jure divino_ (L.). By divine law.

_juste milieu_ (Fr.). The golden mean.


_Labor omnia vincit_ (L.). Labor conquers everything.

_laissez faire_ (Fr.). Let alone; suffer to have its own way.

_lapsus calami, -- linguae, -- memoriae_ (L.) A slip of the pen,
tongue, memory.

_lares et penates_ (L.). Household gods.

_laudator temporis acti_ (L.). One who praises the past.

_le beau monde_ (Fr.). The fashionable world.

_le jeu n'en vaut pas la chandelle_ (Fr.). The game is not worth the
candle; the object is not worth the trouble.

_lése majesté_ (Fr.). High treason.

_l'homme propose, et Dieu dispose_ (Fr.). Man proposes and God
disposes.

_limæ labor et mora_ (L.). The labour and delay of the file; the slow
and laborious polishing of a literary composition.

_loco citato_ (L.). In the place cited.

_lusus naturæ_ (L.). A sport or freak of nature.


_Ma chère_ (Fr.). My dear (fem.).

_ma foi_ (Fr.). Upon my faith.

_magnum bonum_ (L.). A great good.

_magnum opus_ (L.) A great work.

_mal à propos_ (Fr.). Ill timed.

_mal de mer_ (Fr.). Sea-sickness.

_mal de tête_ (Fr.). Headache.

_mauvaise honte_ (Fr.). False modesty.

_mauvais goût_ (Fr.). Bad taste.

_medio tutissimus ibis_ (L.). In a medium course you will be safest.

_mega biblion, mega kakon_ (Gr.). A great book is a great evil.

_me judice_ (L.). I being judge; in my opinion.

_memento mori_ (L.). Remember death.

_mens sana in corpore sano_ (L.). A sound mind in a sound body.

_menu_ (Fr.). A bill of fare.

_meum et tuum_ (L.). Mine and thine.

_mirabile dictu_, (_visu_) (L.). Wonderful to relate, (to see).

_modus operandi_ (L.). Manner of working.

_mon ami_ (Fr.). My friend (masc.).

_mon cher_ (Fr.). My dear (masc.).

_more suo_ (L.). In his own way.

_multum in parvo_ (L.). Much in little.

_mutatis mutandis_ (L.). The necessary changes being made.


_Necessitas non habet legem_ (L.). Necessity has no law.

_née_ (Fr.). Born; maiden name.

_nemine dissentiente_ (L.). No one dissenting; without a dissenting
voice.

_nemo me impune lacessit_ (L.). No one assails me with impunity.

_ne plus ultra_ (L.). Nothing further; perfection.

_nihil ad rem_ (L.). Nothing to the point.

_nihil quod tetigit non ornavit_ (L.). He touched nothing without
embellishing it.

_nil admirari_ (L.). To be astonished at nothing; not to lose mental
balance.

_nil desperandum_ (L.). There is no reason for despair.

_n'importe_ (Fr.). It matters not.

_noblesse oblige_ (Fr.). Rank imposes obligations.

_nolens volens_ (L.). Willing or unwilling.

_nolle prosequi_ (L.). To abandon prosecution.

_nom de guerre_ (Fr.). A war name; a pseudonym; a pen name.

_nom de plume_ (Fr.). A pen name. (Incorrect for _nom de guerre_.)

_non compos mentis_ (L.). Not of sound mind.

_non omnia possumus omnes_ (L.). We cannot, all of us, do everything.

_non sequitur_ (L.). It does not follow.

_nota bene_ (L.). Mark well.


_Obiit_ (L.). He, or she, died.

_œuvres_ (Fr.). Works.

_omnia vincit amor_ (L.). Love conquers all things.

_on dit_ (Fr.). They say; people say.

_onus probandi_ (L.). The burden of proof.

_ora et labora_ (L.). Pray and work.

_o tempora! o mores!_ (L.). Alas for the times! Alas for the manners!

_otium cum dignitate_ (L.). Ease with dignity.


_Pace_ (L.). Not to give offence to. -- _pace tua_, with your consent.

_palmam qui meruit ferat_ (L.). Let him who has won the palm wear it.

_par excellence_ (Fr.). By way of eminence; preëminently.

_pari passu_ (L.). With equal pace; step for step.

_particeps criminis_ (L.). Accomplice in a crime.

_parvenu_ (Fr.). An upstart.

_passim_ (L.). Everywhere.

_pax vobiscum_ (L.). Peace be with you.

_per capita_ (L.). By the head; on each person.

_per se_ (L.). By itself considered; of itself.

_poeta nascitur, non fit_ (L.). A poet is born, not made.

_pour prendre congé_ (Fr.). To take leave.

_prima facie_ (L.). On the first face; at first sight.

_pro aris et focis_ (L.). For our altars and hearths.

_pro bono publico_ (L.). For the good of the public.

_pro patria_ (L.). For native land.

_protégé_ (Fr.). One protected by another.


_Quantum mutatus ab illo_ (L.). How changed from what he once was.

_quantum sufficit_ (L.). As much as suffices; a sufficient quantity.

_quelque chose_ (Fr.). Something; a trifle.

_quid pro quo_ (L.). Something in return; an equivalent.

_quod erat demonstrandum_ (L.). Which was to be proved.

_quot homines, tot sententiae_ (L.). Many men, many minds.


_Raison d'être_ (Fr.). The reason for a thing's existence.

_rara avis_ (L.). A rare bird.

_recherché_ (Fr.). Choice, elegant.

_reductio ad absurdum_ (L.). Reduction to an absurdity.

_requiescat in pace_ (L.). May he, she, rest in peace.

_resurgam_ (L.). I shall rise again.

_revenons à nos moutons_ (Fr.). Let us return to our sheep; let us
return to our subject.

_ruat cælum_ (L.). Let the heavens fall.


_Sang froid_ (Fr.). Cold blood.

_sans peur et sans reproche_ (Fr.). Without fear and without reproach.

_sans souci_ (Fr.). Without care.

_sartor resartus_ (L.). The tailor patched or mended.

_sauve qui peut_ (Fr.). Let him save himself who can.

_savoir faire_ (Fr.). The knowing how to act; tact.

_séance_ (Fr.). A sitting.

_semper idem;--paratus_ (L.). Always the same, always ready.

_sic semper tyrannis_ (L.). Ever so to tyrants.

_sic transit gloria mundi_ (L.). Thus passes away the glory of this
world.

_similia similibus curantur_ (L.). Like things are cured by like.

_si monumentum quæris, circumspice_ (L.). If you seek his monument,
look around you.

_sine die_ (L.). Without a day being appointed.

_sine qua non_ (L.). An indispensable condition.

_sola nobilitas virtus_ (L.). Virtue the only nobility.

_spero meliora_ (L.). I hope for better things.

_splendide mendax_ (L.). Nobly untruthful; untrue for a good object.

_sponte suâ_ (L.). Of one's own accord.

_suaviter in modo, fortiter in re_ (L.). Gentle in manner, resolute
in deed.

_sub judice_ (L.). Under consideration (by the court).

_sub rosa_ (L.). Under the rose, privately.

_sub voce_ (L.). Under such or such a word.

_sui generis_ (L.). Of its own peculiar kind.

_summum bonum_ (L.). The chief good.

_suum cuique_ (L.). Let everyone have his own; honor to whom honor is
due.


_Tant mieux; tant pis_ (Fr.). So much the better; so much the worse.

_tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis_ (L.). Times change, and
we with them.

_tempus fugit_ (L.). Time flies.

_tenax propositi_ (L.). Tenacious of purpose.

_terra firma_ (L.). Solid earth.

_terra incognita_ (L.). An unknown country.

_tête-à-tête_ (Fr.). Face to face; in close conversation.

_to kalon_ (Gr.). The beautiful.

_toujours prêt_ (Fr.). Always ready.

_tour de force_ (Fr.). A feat of strength or skill.

_tout-à-fait_ (Fr.). Wholly; entirely.

_tout ensemble_ (Fr.). The whole taken together.


_Ubi bene, ibi patria_ (L.). Where it is well, there is one's country.

_Ultima Thule_ (L.). The utmost boundary or limit.

_un fait accompli_ (Fr.). An accomplished fact.

_ut infra; ut supra_ (L.). As below; as above.


_Vade mecum_ (L.). Go with me; a constant companion.

_vae victis_ (L.). Woe to the vanquished.

_veni, vidi, vici_ (L.). I came, I saw, I conquered (Caesar's laconic
message to the senate when he overcame Pharnaces, king of Pontus.)

_verbatim et literatim_ (L.). Word for word and letter for letter.

_verbum sat sapienti_ (L.) A word is enough for a wise man.

_vérité sans peur_ (Fr.). Truth without fear.

_via media_ (L.). A middle course.

_vĭcĕ_ (L.). In the place of.

_vice versa_ (L.). The terms being exchanged.

_videlicet_ (L.). To wit, namely (viz.).

_vi et armis_ (L.). By force of arms.

_vincit omnia veritas_ (L.). Truth conquers all things.

_vis à vis_ (Fr.). Facing.

_viva voce_ (L). By the living voice; orally.

_vive le roi_ (Fr.). Long live the king.

_voila_ (Fr.). Behold; there is; there are.

_vox et præterea nihil_ (L.). A voice, and nothing more; sound but no
sense.

_vox populi, vox Dei_ (L.). The voice of the people is the voice of
God.

_vulgo_ (L.). Commonly.


_Zeitgeist_ (Ger.). The spirit of the times.



ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS IN COMMON USE.


_a_ or _@_.--At.

_A.B._--Bachelor of Arts.

_Abp._--Archbishop.

_a/c._ or _acct._--Account.

_A.D._ (_L. Anno Domini_).--In the year of our Lord.

_A.D.C._--Aide-de-camp.

_Adj._--Adjective.

_Adjt._--Adjutant.

Ad lib., or _Ad libit._ (_L. Ad libitum._)--At pleasure.

_Adm._--Admiral.

_Adv._--Adverb; Advocate.

_Advp._ or _avoir._--Avoirdupois.

_Advt._--Advertisement.

_Ae._ or _Aet._ (_L. aetatis_).--Of age; aged.

_A.F. & A.M._--Ancient Free and Accepted Masons.

_Ala._--Alabama.

_Ald._--Alderman.

_Alg._--Algebra.

_Alta._--Alberta.

_A.M._--(_L. ante meridiem_), before Noon. Master of Arts.

_Amt._--Amount.

_Anon._--Anonymous.

_Ans._--Answer.

_A.O.U.W._-- Ancient Order of United Workmen.

_Ap._ or _Apr._-- April.

_A.R.A._--Associate of the Royal Academy.

_Arith._--Arithmetic.

_Ariz._--Arizona.

_Ark._--Arkansas.

_A.S._ or _Ang. Sax._--Anglo-Saxon.

_Asst._--Assistant.

_Astron._--Astronomy.

_Atty._, _Atty. Gen._--Attorney; Attorney General.

_Aug._--August.

_Ave._--Avenue.


_b._--born.

_B.A._--Bachelor of Arts.

_Bal._--Balance.

_Balt._--Baltimore.

_Bart._ or _Bt._--Baronet.

_B.A.Sc._--Bachelor of Applied Science.

_Bbl._ or _bbl._--Barrel.

_B.C._--Before Christ. British Columbia.

_B.C.L._--Bachelor of Civil Law.

_B.D._--Bachelor of Divinity.

_Bk._, _Bkk._--Book; Books.

_B.LL._--Bachelor of Laws.

_B.M._--Bachelor of Medicine.

_B. Mus._--Bachelor of Music.

_Bot._--Botany.

_Bp._--Bishop.

_B. Paed._--Bachelor of Pedagogy.

_Brig. Gen._--Brigadier General.

_Brit._--Britain; British.

_Bro(s)._--Brother(s).

_B.Sc._--Bachelor of Science.

_Bt._--Bought.

_Bu._ or _bu._--Bushel.


_C. Cap._ (_L. Caput._).-- Ch., chap., chapter.

_C.A._--Chartered accountant.

_Cal._--California.

_Can._--Canada.

_Capt._--Captain.

_C.B._--Cape Breton. Commander of the Bath.

_C.C._--County Clerk. County Commissioner. Church Clerk.

_C.E._--Civil Engineer.

_C._ or _Cent._--Hundred.

_Cf._ or _cf._ (_L. confer_).--Compare.

_Chem._--Chemistry.

_Cin._--Cincinnati.

_C.J._--Chief Justice.

_C.M._--Common meter.

_C.M.G._--Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.

_C.N.R.(O.)_--Canadian Northern Railway (of Ontario).

_Co._--Company. County.

_c/o._--In care of.

_C.O.D._--Cash (or collect) on delivery.

_Col._--Colonel.

_Coll._--College.

_Colo._--Colorado.

_Comp._--Compound.

_Conn._ or _Ct._--Connecticut.

_Conj._--Conjunction.

_Con._ (_L. contra_).--Against; in opposition.

_Cor._--Corner. Corinthians.

_Corp._--Corporal.

_Cor. Sec._--Corresponding Secretary.

_C.P.R._--Canadian Pacific Railway.

_Cr._--Credit. Creditor.

_Ct(s)._ Cent(s). Connecticut.

_Cur._ or _Curt._--Current; this month.

_Cwt._--Hundredweight.


_d._--Penny or pence. Died.

_D._--Five hundred.

_D.A.G._--Deputy Adjutant General.

_Dak._--Dakota.

_D.C._--District of Columbia.

_D.C.L._--Doctor of Civil Law.

_D.D._--Doctor of Divinity.

_D.D.S._--Doctor of Dental Surgery. Doctor of Dental Science.

_Dec._--December.

_Deg._--Degree.

_Del._--Delaware.

_Dep._--Deputy.

_Dept._--Department.

_Dis._ or _Disct._--Discount.

_Dist._--District.

_D.Mus._--Doctor of Music.

_Do._ (_Ital. ditto_).--The same.

_Dol._, _Dols._, _$._--Dollar(s).

_Doz._--Dozen.

_Dr._--Debtor. Doctor. Drachm.

_D.Paed._--Doctor of Pedagogy.

_D.R.A._--Dominion Rifle Association.

_D.Sc._--Doctor of Science.

_D.V._ (_L. Deo volente_).--God willing.

_D.V.S._--Doctor of Veterinary Science.

_12 mo._--Duodecimo (folded in 12).

_Dwt._--Pennyweight.


_E._--East, eastern.

_ea._--each.

_Ed._--Editor; edition.

_Edin._--Edinburgh.

_Edwardus Rex_ (King Edward).

_E.E._--Electrical Engineer.

_e.g._ (_L. exempli gratia_).--For example.

_E.I._--East Indies.

_Emp._--Emperor; Empress.

_Eng._--England; English.

_Esq._ or _Esqr._--Esquire.

_et al._ (_L. et alii_)--And others.

_etc._ or _&c._ (_L. et cetera_).--And the rest; and so forth.

_Ex(x)._--Example(s).

_Exec. Com._--Executive Committee.

_E._ and _O.E._--Errors and omissions excepted.


_F._, _Fahr._--Fahrenheit.

_Feb._--February.

_Fig._--Figure. Figurative.

_Fla._--Florida.

_F.O.B._--Free on board.

_Fr._--Franc. France. French.

_F.R.A.S._--Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.

_F.R.C.P._--Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.

_F.R.C.S._--Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

_F.R.G.S._--Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

_F.R.S._--Fellow of the Royal Society.

_F.R.S.C._--Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.

_Fri._--Friday.

_Ft._--Foot.

_Fut._--Future.


_Ga._--Georgia.

_Gal._--Gallon.

_G.B._--Great Britain.

_G.C.M._--Greatest common measure.

_Gen(l)._--General.

_Geog._--Geography.

_Geol._--Geology.

_Geom._--Geometry.

_G.R._ (_L. Georgius Rex_).--King George V.

_G.R. et I._--George, King and Emperor.

_Ger._--German, Germany.

_Gov._--Governor.

_G.M._--Grand Master.

_G.P.O._--General Post Office.

_Gr._--Greek, Gross. Grain.

_gr._--Gramme.

_H.B.C._--Hudson's Bay Company.

_H.B.M._--His (Her) Britannic Majesty.

_Hdkf._--Handkerchief.

_Hf. bd._--Half-bound.

_Hhd._--Hogshead.

_H.I.H._--His (Her) Imperial Highness.

_Hist._--History.

_H.M.S._--His majesty's service, or ship.

_Hon._--Honorable.

_H.P._ or _h.p._--Horse power.

_H.R.H._--His (Her) Royal Highness.


_I._--Island.

_Ia._--Iowa.

_Ib._ or _Ibid._ (_L. ibidem_).--In the same place.

_Id._--the same.

_i.e._ (_L. id est_).--That is.

_I.H.S._ (originally _Gr. Iēs_(ous); usually looked upon as standing
for Jesus, hominum Salvator). _Jesus_, Saviour of men.

_Ill._--Illinois.

_In._--Inch(es).

_Incog._ (_Ital. Incognito_).--Unknown.

_Ind._--Indiana.

_Inst._--Instant; the present month.

_Int._--Interest.

_Introd._--Introduction.

_I.O.F._--Independent Order of Foresters.

_I.O.G.T._--Independent Order of Good Templars.

_I.O.O.F._--Independent Order of Oddfellows.

_I.O.U._--I owe you; an acknowledgement for money.

_Isl._--Island.

_Ital._--Italic; Italian.


_J._--Judge, Justice. _JJ._--Justices.

_Jam._--Jamaica.

_Jan._--January.

_J.C._--Jesus Christ.

_J.H.S._--See I.H.S.

_J.P._--Justice of the Peace.

_Jr._, _Jun._--Junior.


_Kan._--Kansas.

_K.C._--King's Counsel.

_K.C.B._--Knight Commander of the Bath.

_K.C.M.G._--Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George.

_Ken._ or _Ky._--Kentucky.

_K.G._--Knight of the Garter.

_Kilog._--Kilogramme.

_Kilom._--Kilometre.

_K.L.H._--Knight of the Legion of Honour.

_K.M._--Knight of Malta.

_Knt._ or _Kt._--Knight.

_K.P._--Knight of St. Patrick.

_K.T._--Knight of the Thistle. Knight Templar.


_L._--Fifty. Lake.

_L._, _l._ or _£_ (_L. libra_).--Pound or pounds (sterling).

_La._--Louisiana.

_Lat._--Latin. Latitude.

_L._, _lb._--Pound (weight).

_l.c._ (_L. loco citato_).--In the place quoted. Lower case.

_L.D.S._--Licentiate of Dental Surgery.

_Lex._--Lexicon.

_L.I._--Long Island.

_Lib._ (_L. liber_).--Book. Liberal.

_Lieut._--Lieutenant.

_Lieut. Col._--Lieutenant Colonel.

_LL.B._--Bachelor of Laws. (_LL._ is written because the word is
plural.)

_LL.D._--Doctor of Laws.

_L.M._--Long Metre.

_loc cit._--see l.c.

_Lon(g)._--Longitude.

_L.S._--Place of the seal.

_L.S.D._ (_L. Libræ, Solidi, Denarii_).--Pounds, shillings, pence.

_Lt._--see Lieut.

_Ltd._--Limited.


_M._--(_L. mille_), thousand. (_L. meridies_), noon. Mile.

_M._ (_Fr. Monsieur_).--Sir.

_m._--metre, minute.

_M.A._--Master of Arts.

_Ma._ or _Minn._--Minnesota.

_Maj._--Major.

_Man._--Manitoba.

_Mar._--March.

_Mass._--Massachusetts.

_Math._--Mathematics.

_Max._--Maximum.

_M.B._--Bachelor of Medicine.

_Mch._--March.

_M.D._--Doctor of Medicine.

_Md._--Maryland.

_Mdlle._ or _Mlle._--Mademoiselle.

_Mdse._--Merchandise.

_M.E._--Mining, Military, Mechanical Engineer. Methodist Episcopal.

_Me._--Maine.

_Mem(o)._--Memorandum or memoranda.

_Messrs._ or _MM._--Messieurs, Gentlemen.

_Mex._--Mexico.

_Mfg._--Manufacturing.

_Mfr._--Manufacturer.

_Mgr._--Monsignor. Manager.

_Mich._--Michigan.

_Mil. Acad._--Military Academy.

_Min._--Minute.

_Minn._--See _Ma._

_Miss._--Mississippi.

_M.L.A._--Member of the Legislative Assembly.

_mm._--Millimetres.

_Mme._--Madame.

_Mo(s)._--Month(s). Missouri.

_Mon._--Monday. Montana.

_M.P._--Member of Parliament.

_M.P.P._--Member of Provincial Parliament.

_Mr._--Master (pronounced Mister).

_M.R.C.P._--Member of the Royal College of Physicians.

_M.R.C.S._--Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.

_Mrs._--Mistress.

_MS(S)._--Manuscript(s).

_Mt._--Mount; Mountain.

_Mus. B(ach)._--Bachelor of Music.

_Mus. D(oc)._--Doctor of Music.


_N._--Noon. North. Number, Noun, Neuter.

_N.A._--North America.

_N.B._--New Brunswick; (_L. Nota Bene_), note well, take notice.

_N.C._--North Carolina.

_N.D(ak)._--North Dakota.

_N.E._--New England. North-east.

_Neb._--Nebraska.

_Nem. con._ (_L. nemine contradicente_)--No one contradicting;
unanimously.

_Nem. Dis._ (_L. nemine dissentiente_)--No one dissenting.

_Net._, _Nett._--Free from all deductions.

_Neut._--Neuter.

_Nev._--Nevada.

_New Test._, _N.T._--New Testament.

_N.F._, _Nfd._--Newfoundland.

_N.H._--New Hampshire.

_N.J._--New Jersey.

_N. Lat._--North Latitude.

_N. M(ex)._--New Mexico.

_N.N.E._--North North-East.

_No._ (_L. numero_).--Number.

_Nom._--Nominative.

_Nov._--November.

_N.P._--Notary Public.

_N.S._--Nova Scotia. New style.

_N.S.W._--New South Wales.

_N.W.M.P._--North-West Mounted Police.

_N.Y._--New York.


_O._--Ohio.

_Ob._ (_L. obiit_).--He (she) died.

_Obt._--obedient.

_Oct._--October.

_O.H.M.S._--On His Majesty's Service.

_O.K._--"All correct."

_Old Test._, _O.T._--Old Testament.

_O.T._--Oklahoma Territory.

_Ont._--Ontario.

_Ore._--Oregon.

_Oz._--ounce.


_P._, _p._, _pp._--Page; pages; participle.

_Pa._--Pennsylvania.

_Par._--Paragraph.

_Parl._--Parliament.

_Pay't._--Payment.

_P.C._--Police Constable. Privy Council.

_Pd._--Paid.

_P.E.I._--Prince Edward Island.

_Penn._--See _Pa._

_Per an._ (_L._ _Per annum_).--By the year.

_Per ct._ or _cent._--By the hundred.

_Phar._--Pharmacy.

_Ph.D._--Doctor of Philosophy.

_Phm. B._--Bachelor of Pharmacy.

_Pk._--Peck.

_Pkg(s)._--Package(s).

_Pl._, _Plur._--Place. Plural.

_P.M._ (_L. Post Meridiem_).--afternoon. Post Master. Past Master.
Police Magistrate.

_P.M.G._--Postmaster-general.

_P.O._--Post office.

_P.O.O._--Post office order.

_Pop._--Population.

_P.P._--Parish Priest.

_P.P.C._ (_Fr._ _Pour prendre congé_).--To take leave.

_P.Q._--Province of Quebec.

_Pres._--President.

_Prin._--Principal.

_Prof._--Professor.

_pr(s)._--Pair(s).

_Pro tem._ (_L._ _Pro tempore_).--For the time being.

_Prox._ (_L._ _proximo_).--Next, or of the next month.

_P.S._ (_L._ _post scriptum_).--Postscript.

_Pt._--Part. Pint. Point. Port.

_Pte._--Private.

_P.T.O._--Please turn over.

_Pub._--Publisher.

_Pwt._--See Dwt.


_Q._--Query; question.

_Q.E.D._ (_L._ _Quod erat demonstrandum_).--Which was to be proved.

_Q.E.F._ (_L._ _quod erat faciendum_).--Which was to be done.

_Q.M._--Quarter-master.

_Q.M.G._--Quarter-master-general.

_Qr._--Quarter. Quire.

_Qt._--Quart.

_Qto._--Quarto; folded in four.

_Qu._--See _Q._

_Que._--Quebec.

_Q.V._ (_L._ _quod vide_).--Which see.


_R._ (_L._ _recipe_)--Take.

_R._ (_L._ _Rex_; _regina_).--King; Queen.

_R._--River. Rod. Rood.

_R.A._--Royal Academy or Academician. Royal Artillery. Rear Admiral.

_R.C._--Roman Catholic.

_R.C.P._--Royal College of Physicians.

_R.D._--Rural Dean.

_R.E._--Royal Engineers.

_Rec'd._--Received.

_Rec. Sec._--Recording Secretary.

_Rem._--Remarks.

_Rev(d)._--Reverend.

_R.G.S._--Royal Geographical Society.

_R.I._--Rhode Island.

_R.I.P._ (_L._ _requiescat in pace_).--May he (she) rest in peace.

_R.M._--Royal Mail.

_R.N._--Royal Navy.

_R.S.V.P._ (_Fr._ _Répondez s'il vous plait_).--Answer, if you please.

_Rt. Hon._--Right Honorable.

_R.W._--Right Worthy.

_R.W.G.M._--Right Worshipful Grand Master.

_Ry._--Railway.


_S._--Saint. South. Sunday. Sun.

_s._--Second or seconds. Shilling.

_S.A._--South America. South Australia. South Africa.

_Sask._--Saskatchewan.

_Sat._--Saturday.

_S.C._--South Carolina.

_Sc._ (_L._ _scilicet_).--To wit; namely.

_Scot._--Scotland.

_S.D(ak)._--South Dakota.

_S.E._--South-east.

_Sec._, _Secy._--Secretary.

_Sen._, _Senr._, _Sr._--Senior.

_Sept._--September.

_Serg._, _Sergt._--Sergeant.

_S.G._--Solicitor General.

_Shak._--Shakespeare.

_S.J._--Society of Jesus.

_Soc._, _Socy._--Society.

_Sig._ (_L._ _Sigillum_).--Seal.

_S. Lat._--South latitude.

_S.M._--Short meter.

_Sol. Gen._--See S.G.

_Sov(s)._--Sovereign(s).

_S.P.C.A._--Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

_Sp. gr._--Specific gravity.

_Sq._, _Square._--Sq. ft., in., m., yd(s) = square foot (feet),
inch(es), mile(s), yard(s).

_Sr._--Senior.

_SS._--Saints.

_S.S._--Sunday (Sabbath) School.

_S.S._--Steamship.

_S.S.E._--South-south-east.

_St._--Saint. Street. Strait.

_Ste._ _Sainte._--A woman saint.

_S.T.D._--Doctor of Sacred Theology.

_Ster._, _stg._--Sterling.

_Str._--Steamer. Street.

_Sun._--Sunday.

_Supt._--Superintendent.

_Surg._--Surgeon.

_Surv. Gen._--Surveyor General.

_s.v._ (_L._ _sub voce_)--Under the word.

_S.W._--South-west.

_Syn._--Synonym.


_T._, _Ter._--Territory.

_Tel._--Telegram. Telephone.

_Tenn._--Tennessee.

_Tex._--Texas.

_Th._, _Thurs._--Thursday.

_T.O._--Turn Over.

_Tp._--Township.

_Tr._--Transpose.

_Treas._--Treasurer.

_T.T.L._--To take leave.

_Tu._, _Tues._--Tuesday.


_U.K._--United Kingdom.

_Ult._ (_L._ _ultimo_)--Last, of the last month.

_Unit._--Unitarian.

_Univ._--University.

_U.S.A._--United States of America. United States Army.

_U.S.N._--United States Navy.


_V._ (_L._ _vide_).--See.

_Vs._ (_L._ _versus_).--Against.

_V.A._--Vice-Admiral.

_Va._--Virginia.

_Vb._--Verb.

_V.C._--Vice-Chancellor. Vice-Consul. Victoria Cross.

_Ven._--Venerable.

_Vet._--Veterinary.

_V.G._--Vicar-General.

_v.g._ (_L._ _verbi gratia_).--For example.

_Vice-Pres._, _V.P._--Vice-President.

_vid._ (_vide_).--See.

_Vis(c)._--Viscount.

_viz._ (_L._ _videlicet_).--To wit; namely.

_Vol._--Volume.

_vs._--See _V._

_V.S._--Veterinary Surgeon.

_Vt._--Vermont.

_Vul(g)._--Vulgate (Latin version of the Bible).


_W._--West.

_W.A._--West Australia.

_Wash._--Washington.

_Wed._--Wednesday.

_w.f._--Wrong font (of type).

_Wis._--Wisconsin.

_W.I._--West Indies.

_Whf._--Wharf.

_W. Long._--West longitude.

_W.S.W._--West-south-west.

_Wt._--Weight.

_W. Va._--West Virginia.

_Wyo._--Wyoming.


_X_. _Xt._--Christ.

_Xmas._--Christmas.


_yd._--Yard.

_Ye._--The.

_Y.M.C.A._--Young Men's Christian Association.

_Y.W.C.A._--Young Women's Christian Association.

_Yrs._--Years. Yours.


_Zool._--Zoology.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.

  Breves and macrons are accurately represented (ă ĕ ā ē etc). Letter e
  with a dot above is represented by ė. Letters a and u with a diaeresis
  underneath are shown as a̤ ṳ (using Unicode combining diacritical).

  Obvious punctuation errors have been corrected after careful
  comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation
  of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspelling in the text, and
  inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

  Pg 42. '--un' replaced by 'un--'.
  Pg 53. 'an add' replaced by 'and add'.
  Pg 55. 'easier' is out of order, but has not been moved.
  Pg 71. 'un ' replaced by 'un-- '.
  Pg 88. 'always, ' inserted before 'a̤l´wāys'.
  Pg 88. 'length, ' inserted before 'len_g_´th'.
  Pg 88. 'orphan, ' inserted before 'or´-phan'.
  Pg 88. 'several, ' inserted before 'sev´ėr-al'.
  Pg 144. 'brethren, ' inserted before 'breTH´-_ren_'.
  Pg 144. 'cemetery, ' inserted before 'cem´-ē-ter-y'.
  Pg 144. 'February, ' inserted before 'Feb´rṳ-a-ry'.
  Pg 144. 'history, ' inserted before 'his´-to-ry'.
  Pg 144. 'pumpkin, ' inserted before 'pum_p_´-kin'.
  Pg 150. ' e' replaced by ' --e'.
  Pg 169. 'suppliant' replaced by 'supplicant'.
  Pg 181. 'carabine' replaced by 'carbine'.
  Pg 213. 'innalienable' replaced by 'inalienable'.
  Pg 237. 'Cincinatti' replaced by 'Cincinnati'.
  Pg 240. 'Oklohama' replaced by 'Oklahoma'.
  Pg 241. 'Pa.' replaced by 'See _Pa._'.





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