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Title: The Annals of the Barber-Surgeons of London
Author: Various
Language: English
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                    [Illustration: King Henry VIII]



                   THE ANNALS OF THE BARBER-SURGEONS
                    OF LONDON, COMPILED FROM THEIR
                 RECORDS AND OTHER SOURCES, BY SIDNEY
                 YOUNG, ONE OF THE COURT OF ASSISTANTS
                 OF THE WORSHIPFUL COMPANY OF BARBERS
                OF LONDON, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY AUSTIN
                               T. YOUNG.



               ~Let me embrace thee, good old chronicle,
           That hast so long walk’d hand in hand with time.~
                                                 _Shakespeare._


                            [Illustration]



                                LONDON:
                        BLADES, EAST & BLADES,
                        23, ABCHURCH LANE, E.C.

                                 1890.



                 ~A mery chylde he was, so god me saue
              Wel coude he let blood, clyppe, and shaue.~
                                                 _Chaucer._



PREFACE.


That the foundation of the Commerce, and consequently of the Greatness,
of London was laid by the old Livery Guilds--few will question. Much
is already known, through the Histories of such of them as have
been written--and an apology from me is not needed for a further
contribution to so interesting a study. But whilst I make no apology
for the contribution, I crave the indulgence of my readers for any
shortcomings which, from a literary point of view, may appear in this
work; I invite their attention to the matter, rather than to the style
in which it is expressed.

About eight years ago I applied to our Court for permission to search
the Records, and my request being complied with, I devoted such spare
time as I could secure from an engrossing occupation to the compilation
of these Annals. The work has necessarily led to the burning of much
midnight oil, because every extract and every line has been made _by
my own pen_. The researches have extended to the examination of all,
and the transcript of a considerable portion of thirteen lengthy
Charters and sets of By-laws, as also to the entire perusal of about
a hundred books of Records. In addition to this, there has been much
labour expended at the British Museum, the Public Record Office, the
Guildhall, and Somerset House.

The material thus collected became so voluminous, that I experienced
considerable difficulty in separating it into Subject Chapters, and
also in deciding what to retain and what to reject; my endeavour in
this respect having been to preserve all that is really interesting and
curious, discarding dry legal passages, doubtful points, and wearisome
repetitions.

None but those who have had experience of the crabbed eccentric writing
and contractions of former times (see some of the _fac-similes_ given)
and of the abbreviated “Court hand” Latin in which Charters and other
Records were penned, can have the least idea of the trouble and care
required in their deciphering; but in this respect I have not spared
pains in giving literal and accurate transcripts.

In no case have I modernized the old spelling, or interfered with the
quaintness of the original expressions; though all dates occurring
between the 1st January and 24th March prior to the year 1752 (when
“old style” was extinguished) have been rectified, and the “historical
year,” according to our present computation, given; thus rendering the
chronology systematic, and avoiding confusion and inaccuracy.

It is a matter of the greatest regret, that whilst we possess some
earlier records, our Court Minutes previous to 1551 are lost. It
is conjectured that they must have been at the Hall in 1793 (as a
partial list of Masters was then compiled), but all trace of them has
now disappeared. Again, the Minutes from 1651-1689 are now missing,
although they were at the Hall about forty years ago.

I may here take the opportunity to remark that the Barbers and
Barber-Surgeons held a somewhat distinctive position apart from other
Companies, inasmuch as they were a Professional rather than a Trade
Guild, and their History, consequently, becomes invested with an
especial interest. Another point to which I, as a Barber, am proud
to refer is that our Company stood out, alone, as the pioneer of
Technical Education, hundreds of years before it became as popular
as it now is. From the middle of the fifteenth century the Company
was careful to provide for Surgical Lectures, and the regular and
systematic instruction of its members. The means originally employed
may have been primitive, but they were dictated by high motives, and
gradually extended and developed; a Museum (a poor one, it is true)
and a valuable Library were founded, an Anatomical Theatre was built,
and every opportunity taken to encourage the Scientific study of
Surgery--all with results fraught with the greatest benefit, not only
to London, but to the Kingdom at large.

In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks to those who have aided
me in my work, and especially to my dear and valued friend, Past
Master Charles John Shoppee, whose practical assistance, advice and
encouragement all through, have been to me of the greatest service. Mr.
D’Arcy Power, M.A., has laid me under much obligation, and particularly
for revising and perfecting my translation of the Norman-French
Ordinances, 12th Rich. II. My son, Austin Travers Young, has rendered
valuable assistance in delineating the several Illustrations throughout
the work, and lastly, I must record, with gratitude, my obligation to
Mr. Edward Lawless for the attention and care bestowed upon me on the
numerous occasions of my visits to the Hall.

The preparation of this work, a somewhat arduous task for an Amateur,
has been to me purely a labour of love, and, in laying down my pen I
may be permitted to add, that my best wishes for the Ancient Mystery of
Barbers are summed up in the words of our time-honoured toast, “_The
Worshipful Company of Barbers, Root and Branch, and may it flourish for
ever_.”

    SIDNEY YOUNG.

    ALWYNE ROAD, CANONBURY.
    _March, 1890._



1889-1890.

THE COURT OF THE WORSHIPFUL COMPANY OF BARBERS OF LONDON.


    ~Master~:

    WILLIAM AARON ECCLESTONE, Esq.


    ~Wardens~:

    WILLIAM LUMLEY, Esq.
    JAMES COPE CORNISH, Esq.
    JOSEPH WILSON, Esq.


    ~Assistants~:

    HENRY EVANS, Esq.
    CHARLES JOHN SHOPPEE, Esq.
    JAMES HARVEY, Esq., Deputy.
    HENLEY GROSE SMITH, Esq.
    GEORGE AUSTIN, Esq.
    RICHARD JAMES ATKINSON, Esq.
    CHARLES HOWARD ATKINSON, Esq.
    WALTER HENRY WILKIN, Esq., Alderman.
    JONATHAN DENNY, Esq.
    THOMAS GEORGE DRIVER, Esq.
    NATHAN SALAMAN, Esq.
    JOHN CARY LOVELL, Esq.
    EDWARD CHARLES CORNISH, Esq.
    GEORGE AUSTIN, Jun., Esq.
    WALTER LUMLEY, Esq.
    THOMAS ARTHUR GREENE, Esq.
    SIDNEY YOUNG, Esq.
    ALFRED LOW, Esq.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  PAGE

  Preface                                                          iii

  The Court of the Company 1889 1890                                vi

  Contents                                                         vii

  List of Illustrations, etc.                                       ix

  Table of Leading Dates                                           xii

  The Names of the Masters and Wardens from the year 1308            1

  A list of such members of the Company as have served the Office
     of Serjeant Surgeon                                            18

  A list of King’s Barbers                                          19

  A list of members of the Company who have served the offices of
     Sheriff, Alderman or Lord Mayor of the City of London          19

  Historical Account, The Barbers Unincorporate                     21

  Historical Account, The Barbers Incorporate                       51

  Extracts from Court Minutes, etc., more particularly relating
     to the Internal History of the Company                        169

  Precedence                                                       239

  Court of Assistants                                              242

  The Commonalty                                                   252

  Apprentices                                                      261

  Freemen                                                          270

  Liverymen                                                        273

  The Yeomanry                                                     276

  The Clerk                                                        288

  The Beadle                                                       299

  Surgery                                                          308

  Surgical Lectures and Demonstrations                             361

  Wardens’ and other Accounts                                      379

  Disputes                                                         423

  Heraldry                                                         431

  Feasts                                                           443

  The Irish Estate                                                 468

  Charities                                                        481

  Inventories                                                      486

  Plate                                                            492

  Pictures                                                         508

  Biographical Notices of Eminent Members                          514
     Lord Burgavenny        514         Martin Browne              546
     Lord Windsor           515         Edward Arris               547
     The Duke of Monmouth   515         Sir John Frederick         550
     The Earl of Leven      516         Sir Nathaniel Herne        554
     Sir John Aylef         516         Sir John Lethieullier      556
     Thomas Vicary          522         Ephraim Skinner            558
     Richard Ferris         524         Sir Humphrey Edwin         560
     John Pen               525         Sir William Stewart        562
     Nicholas Alcocke       527         Charles Bernard            563
     Robert Balthrop        528         Sir John Bull              565
     Sir Peter Proby        532         Claudius Amyand            565
     William Clowes         535         Sir Thomas Challoner       567
     William Clowes, jun.   537         William Cheselden          568
     Thomas Thorney         538         Ambrose Dickins            570
     Peter Thorney          539         Sir Cæsar Hawkins, Bart.   571
     John Gerard            540         Walter Henry Wilkin        572
     Sir Thomas Bludder     545

  Sundry Monumental Inscriptions                                   573

  Appendices                                                       575



ERRATA.


    p. 28 l. 20, for “religions” read “religious.”

    p. 126 l. 7, for “Sugeons” read “Surgeons.”

    p. 135 l. 3, for “1869” read “1864.”

    p. 144 l. 20, for “1869” read “1864.”

    p. 169 foot note 1, for “1526” read “1525.”

    p. 258 l. 3, for “freemen” read “freeman.”

    p. 473 l. 7, for “Peek” read “Peck.”



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, &c.


                                                                  PAGE

  FRONTISPIECE--Henry VIII, from a portrait by Holbein at the Hall.

  Old Cabinet of Masters’ Names at the Hall                          1

  Historical Account                                                21

  Henry VIII and Edward IV                                          51

  Great Seal of Edward IV                                           55

  Fac-simile, Grant to Robert Ferbras and others, of property
    in Walbrook, 1462                                               61

  Fac-simile, Saints Cosmo and Damian, and the Surgeons’ Arms       69

  Fac-simile of a Diploma granted to a Surgeon in 1497              69

  Portrait of Sir Thomas More                                       77

  Holbein’s Picture at Barbers’ Hall                                83

  Fac-simile Page of Court Minute Book                              99

  Initial of Charter, Philip and Mary                              101

  Heading of By-Laws, 1606                                         116

  Interior of Court Room                                           132

  Plan of Estate                                                   135

  Old Entrance to Barber-Surgeons’ Hall                            144

  The Committee Room, Barbers’ Hall                                168

  A Master and Wardens, etc.                                       169

  Fac-simile Title-page to Charter Book                            197

  Fac-simile Corn Note                                             212

  The Compter in Wood Street                                       213

  Portion of the Master’s Silver Garland                           239

  A Grotesque, over the Court Room Door                            242

  A Procession of Liverymen                                        252

  An Initial Letter from the Audit Book                            252

  Seals of some of the Charters                                    288

  Autograph of Charles Bernard (Clerk)                             294

  John Paterson                                                    298

  E. L.                                                            299

  One of the Beadle’s Mace Heads                                   302

  Surgical Instruments, &c.                                        308

  Alderman Arris                                                   360

  Sir Charles Scarborough and Alderman Arris at a Demonstration,
    on either side S. Cosmo and S. Damian                          361

  An Initial Letter from the Audit Book                            361

  Fac-simile Page of Court Minute Book                             363

  Upper and Middle Wardens’ Garlands                               379

  An Initial Letter from the Audit Book                            380

  An Initial Letter from the Audit Book                            396

  Barber-Surgeons’ Hall, 1674-1864                                 415

  Renter Warden’s Garland                                          422

  Disputants at the Bar of the Court                               423

  Inigo Jones                                                      430

  Arms of the City of London, the Barbers, the Surgeons,
    and England                                                    431

  The Barbers’ Arms                                                432

  Engraving in Bowl of Henry VIII’s Cup                            435

  The Barber-Surgeons’ Arms, 1561                                  436

  The Barber-Surgeons’ Arms, 1569                                  438

  Serving a Feast                                                  443

  The Irish Estate                                                 468

  The Old Poors’ Box, and names of Benefactors                     481

  Taking an Inventory                                              486

  Some of the Plate                                                492

  Henry VIII’s Grace Cup                                           498

  King Charles’ Cup, Queen Anne’s Punch Bowl, and Atkinson’s
    Punch Ladles                                                   500

  Martin Browne’s and Sir John Frederick’s Loving Cups             502

  Collins’ Flagon, Monforde’s Hammer, and Arris’ Cups              503

  Tea Spoons                                                       505

  The North Side of the Court Room                                 508

  S. Y.                                                            514

  Portraits of Sir John Aylef and Thomas Vicary, after Holbein     522

  Arms of Sir John Aylef                                           516

  ---- John Pen                                                    525

  ---- Robert Balthrop                                             528

  ---- Sir Peter Proby                                             532

  ---- William Clowes                                              535

  ---- John Gerard                                                 540

  ---- Martin Browne                                               546

  ---- Edward Arris                                                547

  ---- Sir John Frederick                                          550

  ---- Sir Nathaniel Herne                                         554

  ---- Sir John Lethieullier                                       556

  ---- Ephraim Skinner                                             558

  ---- Sir Humphry Edwin                                           560

  ---- Sir William Stewart                                         562

  ---- Charles Bernard                                             563

  ---- Sir John Bull                                               565

  ---- Claudius Amyand                                             565

  ---- Sir Thomas Challoner                                        567

  ---- William Cheselden                                           568

  ---- Ambrose Dickins                                             570

  ---- Sir Cæsar Hawkins, Bart.                                    571

  ---- Walter H. Wilkin                                            572

  Seals of the Barber-Surgeons                                     575

[Illustration]



TABLE OF LEADING DATES.


  1308. Richard le Barber, the first Master of the Barbers’ Company,
          is sworn at Guildhall.

  1388. The Masters of the Company make a return to the King’s Writ,
          and set forth their then ancient ordinances.

  1451. Grant of Arms to the Masters of Barbery and Surgery within
          the Craft of Barbers.

  1462. Edward IV incorporates the Barbers by Royal Charter.

  1493. Informal alliance between the Barbers (Barber-Surgeons) and
          the Fellowship of Surgeons.

  1530. The Barbers’ Ordinances are settled and allowed by Sir Thomas
          More.

  1540. The Fellowship of Surgeons are united (by Act of Parliament
          32 H. VIII) to the Company of Barbers.

  1569. Grant of Arms to the Barber-Surgeons.

  1605. James I grants a new Charter.

  1629. Charles I grants a new Charter.

  1684. All of the Company’s Charters are surrendered to the King.

  1685. James II grants a new Charter.

  1745. The Surgeons are separated (by Act of Parliament 18 G. II)
          from the Barbers.



[Illustration]

THE NAMES OF THE

MASTERS AND WARDENS

_From the Year 1308_.


_K.B. signifies King’s Barber; K.S. King’s Surgeon, and S.S.
Serjeant-Surgeon._

  ------+-----------------------------------------+--------------------
  AN{o.}|          MASTERS OF THE BARBERS.        | SWORN AT GUILDHALL.
  ------+---------------------+-------------------+--------------------
   1308 | Richard le Barber.  |      ----         | December, 1308.
   1375 | John Queldrick.     |      ----         |       ----
   1376 | Lawrence de Weston. | John de Grantone. |       ----
   1377 | Thomas Boyvel.      | Will{m.} Osneye.  | 26 August, 1377.
   1378 | John Pacon.         | Rich{d.} Morys.   | 15 October, 1378.
   1382 | Rich{d.} Capoll.    | John Haydon.      | 19 September, 1382.
   1383 | Reginald Godard.    | Walter Gisebourn. | 15 September, 1383.
   1384 | William May.        | Simon Conyngesby. | 6 October, 1384.
   1386 | John Pacon.         | John Levelyf.     | 13 April, 1386.
   1388 | John Shepey.        | Rich{d.} Caupoll. | 16 April, 1388.
   1388 | John Haydon.        | Henry Cook.       | 10 September, 1388.
   1389 | Rich{d.} Geddyngs.  | John Cheyr.       | 22 September, 1389.
   1390 | John Pacon.         | John Bestchirche. | 31 August, 1390.
   1391 | John Childe.        | Will{m.} Chapman. | 27 November, 1391.
  ------+---------------------+-------------------+--------------------

  ------+---------------+------------------------------+----------------
        |               |                              |Masters of the
        |               |                              |Barbers prac-
  AN{O.}|   MASTERS.    |            WARDENS.          |tising the art
        |               |                              | of Surgery.
  ------+---------------+------------------------------+----------------
   1415 |       ----    |     ----     |      ----     |Simon Rolf.
        |               |              |               |Richard Wellys.
   1416 |John Brampton. |John Morysch. |Richard Clerc. |John Parker.
        |               |              |               |Simon Rolf.
   1417 |Richard Wellys.|John Queldryk.|Will{m.}       |John Child.
        |               |              |  Chapeley.    |John Parker.
   1419 |Roger Rooke.   |John Dalton.  |John Blakye.   |Rich{d.} Wellys.
        |               |              |               |Simon Roolf.
   1421 |John Branton.  |Will{m.}      |Will{m.} Bacon.|  ----
        |               |  Shiplake.   |               |
   1423 |Will{m.} Hunne.|Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Simon Rolf.
        |               |  Chapelyn.   |  Ryggewyk.    |John Dalton.
   1424 |Rich{d.}       |John Queldryk.|Rich{d.}       |Rich{d.} Welles.
        |  Snadenham.   |              |  Merlawe.     |Simon Rolf.
   1428 |Simon Poule.   |John Purchas. |      ----     |Simon Rolf.
        |               |              |               |Rich{d.} Welles.
   1441 |Pierce Pope.   |John Warwick. |John Roote.    |  ----
   1442 |Pierce Pope.   |John Warwick. |John Roote.    |  ----
   1443 |John Roote.    |John Urse.    |John Waystbe.  |  ----
   1444 |Henry Grave.   |John Grafton. |John Mereston. |  ----
   1445 |Henry Grave.   |John Grafton. |John Mereston. |  ----
   1446 |John Blakey.   |Roger Scripe. |Will{m.} Legge.|  ----
   1447 |John Daulton.  |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.} Willot.|  ----
        |               |  Woodhouse.  |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1448 |John Struge.   |John Hobbis.  |John Grafton.  |John Porter.
   1449 |Tho{s.}        |John Warwick. |Will{m.} Hill. |Roger Webb.
        |  Geffery.     |              |               |
   1450 |John Grafton.  |John Wale.    |John Wakeley.  |Edmund Callowe.
   1451 |John Struge.   |Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.} Wallis.|Hugh Harte.
        |               |  Willot.     |               |
   1452 |John Wakeley.  |John Porter.  |Will{m.} Legge.|Rob{t.} Dasons.
   1453 |John Daulton.  |Edmund        |Roger Scripe.  |John Caster.
        |               |  Callowe.    |               |
   1454 |John Urle.     |Will{m.} Hill.|Tho{s.} Wallis.|Will{m.} Hayles.
   1455 |John Grafton.  |John Pinchon. |Rob{t.} Dasons.|John Wilkinson.
   1456 |Roger Scripe.  |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |Henry Brooke.
        |               |  Browne.     |  Whitebred.   |
   1457 |Tho{s.} Willot.|John Pinchon. |John Caster.   |John Lunne.
   1458 |John Porter.   |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Reg{ld.} Young.
        |               |  Hobbis.     |  Pollet.      |
   1459 |John Caster.   |Rich{d.}      |Tho{s.}        |John Morden.
        |               |  Eastey.     |  Castard.     |
   1460 |Will{m.} Legge.|Hugh Harte.   |John Saunders. |Tho{s.} Folliot.
   1461 |Roger Scripe.  |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.}        |Rich{d.} Kent.
        |               | Hobbes,_S.S._|  Goddard.     |
   1462 |Rob{t.}        |John Pinchon. |Rowland        |John Springet.
        |  Dallahouse.  |              |  Frankish.    |
   1463 |Will{m.} Hill. |Rich{d.}      |Regin{ld.}     |Rich{d.}
        |               |  Gastey.     |  Young.       |  Cappell.
   1464 |John Grafton.  |Rich{d.}      |Tho{s.}        |Will{m.}
        |               |  Eastey.     |  Goddard.     |  Whitebred.
   1465 |Tho{s.} Willot.|Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.}        |John Bone.
        |               |  Wallis.     |  Collard.     |
   1466 |Regin{ld.}     |Rowland       |Rich{d.} Kent. |Rob{t.}
        |  Young.       |  Frankish.   |               |  Holliday.
   1467 |John Caster.   |Tho{s.}       |Rich{d.}       |John Daunt.
        |               |  Goddard.    |  Brightmore.  |
   1468 |Rowland        |Rob{t.}       |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Green.
        |  Frankish.    |  Holliday.   |  Atwood.      |
   1469 |Roger Scripe.  |Rob{t.}       |John Morden.   |    ----
        |               |  Palmer.     |               |
   1470 |Tho{s.}        |Rich{d.}      |Will{m.}       |Barth{w.}
        |  Goddard.     |  Brightmore. |  Pallet.      |  Crosby.
   1471 |Will{m.}       |Lawrence      |Will{m.}       |Rob{t.} Scott.
        |  Whitebred.   |  Austin.     |  Pewall.      |
   1472 |John Pinchon.  |Rob{t.}       |Rich{d.}       |Edmund Walsh.
        |               |  Scarlett.   |  Lucas.       |
   1473 |Will{m.} Hill. |Rob{t.}       |John Drumacks. |John Hingham.
        |               |  Palmer.     |               |
   1474 |Rob{t.}        |Rob{t.} Scott.|John Johnson.  |William Gatard.
        |  Dallahouse.  |              |               |
   1475 |Rob{t.}        |Lawrence      |Will{m.}       |Rich{d.}
        |  Holliday.    |  Austin.     |  Horton.      |  Southnam.
   1476 |Rich{d.} Kent. |Barth{w.}     |Will{m.}       |John Wilson.
        |               |  Crosby.     |  Pewall.      |
   1477 |Reginald Young.|Rob{t.}       |George         |Rich{d.}
        |               |  Scarlett.   |  Robinson.    |  Chambers.
   1478 |John Morden.   |Alex{r.}      |Philip Potter. |Simon Cole.
        |               |  Slight.     |               |
   1479 |Rob{t.}        |Will{m.}      |Lawrence       |Tho{s.} Parkins.
        |  Studdis.     |  Horton.     |  Rogers.      |
   1480 |Will{m.}       |Rob{t.}       |John Johnson.  |Rich{d.}
        |  Pewall.      |  Palmer.     |               |  Moneycock.
   1481 |Tho{s.}        |Lawrence      |Rich{d.}       |John Denmark.
        |  Goddard.     |  Austin.     |  Lucas.       |
   1482 |Will{m.}       |Rob{t.}       |Rich{d.}       |Rich{d.}
        |  Horton.      |  Scarlett.   |  Chambers.    |  Southnam.
   1483 |Rob{t.}        |James Scott.  |John Stanton.  |Rich{d.}
        |  Holliday.    |              |               |  Hayward.
   1484 |John Pinchon.  |John Johnson. |Edward Walch.  |Rob{t.} Lilley.
   1485 |Rob{t.}        |Philip Potter.|John Tounnyage.|Rich{d.}
        |  Holliday.    |              |               |  Hayward.
   1486 |Reginald Young.|Rich{d.}      |John Wilson.   |John Papworth.
        |               |  Chambers.   |               |
   1487 |Rich{d.} Lucas.|Simon Cole.   |John Johnson.  |Rich{d.} Nevell.
   1488 |Rob{t.}        |Philip Potter.|Ralph Dowell.  |Will{m.} Oakley.
        |  Scarlett.    |              |               |
   1489 |Rob{t.} Palmer.|Rich{d.}      |James Ingolsby.|Owyn Mayne.
        |               |  Hammond.    |               |
   1490 |Rob{t.}        |Rich{d.}      |John Johnson.  |Tho{s.} Walton.
        |  Holliday.    |  Suddenham.  |               |
   1491 |John Johnson,  |James Scott.  |Ralph Dowell.  |Nicholas Lyving.
        |  Sen{r.}      |              |               |
   1492 |John Johnson.  |Rich{d.}      |Rich{d.}       |Henry Tyley.
        |               |  Haward.     |  Nevell.      |
   1493 |James Scott.   |James         |James Holland. |Roger Sheene.
        |               |  Ingolsby.   |               |
   1494 |Robert         |Owyn Mayne.   |Nich{s.}       |John Browne.
        |  Scarlett.    |              |  Lyving.      |
   1495 |Rich{d.}       |James         |James Holland. |Will{m.} Newton.
        |  Nevell.      |  Ingolsby.   |               |
   1496 |Rob{t.}        |Will{m.}      |John Knott.    |Tho{s.} Dawes.
        |  Holliday.    |  Oakley.     |               |
   1497 |John Johnson.  |Roger Sheene. |Andrew Oliver. |Henry
        |               |              |               |  Haselhurst.
   1498 |James Scott.   |James         |John Sommers.  |Henry Geery.
        |               |  Ingolsby.   |               |
   1499 |Rich{d.}       |James Holland.|John Robertson.|John Botelier.
        |  Heyward.     |              |               |
   1500 |James Scott.   |Tho{s.}       |John Knott.    |Will{m.}
        |               |  Daniell.    |               |  Maresfield.
   1501 |James Ingolsby.|Nich{s.}      |Henry Geery.   |Will{m.}
        |               |  Lyving.     |               |  Ashwell.
   1502 |Roger Sheene.  |John Knott.   |Tho{s.}        |John Peerson.
        |               |              |  Atkinson.    |
   1503 |Nich{s.}       |Henry         |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Apleton.
        |  Lyving.      |  Haselhurst. |  Lythego.     |
   1504 |Tho{s.} Dawes. |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |John Oakley.
        |               |  Atkinson.   |  Withers.     |
   1505 |Henry          |John Peerson. |Will{m.}       |Edm{d.}
        |  Haselhurst.  |              |  Kerkby.      |  Milliners.
   1506 |James Ingolsby.|Henry Geery.  |John Woodward. |Tho{s.} Gibson.
   1507 |John Johnson.  |John Knott.   |Will{m.}       |John Mullyns.
        |               |              |  Ashwell.     |
   1508 |Nich{s.}       |John Peerson. |Will{m.}       |John Tayler.
        |  Lyving.      |              |  Kerkby.      |
   1509 |Henry Geery.   |Will{m.}      |John Woodward. |Rob{t.}
        |               |  Lythego.    |               |  Misleden.
   1510 |John Knott.    |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |Edw{d.} Potter.
        |               |  Apleton.    |  Hopkinson.   |
   1511 |John Peerson.  |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.} Gibson.|Tho{s.} Martin.
        |               |  Kerkby.     |               |
   1512 |John Johnson.  |Will{m.}      |John Oakley.   |Rob{t.} Maynard.
        |               |  Lythego.    |               |
   1513 |James Holland. |Will{m.}      |John Tayler.   |Nich{s.} Morton.
        |               |  Ashwell.    |               |
   1514 |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.}       |Walter Kellet. |Henry Baldwin.
        |  Kerkby.      |  Gibson.     |               |
   1515 |Will{m.}       |John Woodward.|Edw{d.} Potter.|Edw{d.}
        |  Lythego.     |              |               |  Arundell.
   1516 |Tho{s.}        |John Tayler.  |Rob{t.}        |Rich{d.} Went.
        |  Apleton.     |              |  Handsom.     |
   1517 |John Johnson.  |John Oakley.  |Roger Foster.  |Will{m.}
        |               |              |               |  Morreyson.
   1518 |Tho{s.} Gibson.|Henry Baldwin.|Rob{t.}        |Tho{s.} Twynne.
        |               |              |  Myneyard.    |
   1519 |John Peerson.  |Walter Kellet.|Rich{d.} Ude.  |John Banks.
   1520 |John Peerson.  |Edw{d.}       |John Banks.    |Henry Cazor.
        |               |  Potter.     |               |
   1521 |Tho{s.} Gibson.|Edw{d.}       |Edw{d.}        |George Brian.
        |               |  Potter.     |  Arundell.    |
   1522 |Tho{s.} Gibson.|Nich{s.}      |Rich{d.} Went. |Rich{d.}
        |               |  Morton.     |               |  Sermont.
   1523 |John Tayler.   |Nich{s.}      |Rich{d.} Went. |Rich{d.}
        |               |  Morton.     |               |  Sermont.
   1524 |John Tayler.   |Tho{s.}       |Rich{d.}       |John Enderby.
        |               |  Twynne.     |  Tayler.      |
   1525 |Will{m.}       |Henry Baldwin.|Henry Cazor.   |Tho{s.} Viccary.
        |  Kerkby.      |              |               |
   1526 |Edward Potter. |John Banks.   |Rob{t.} Simson.|Will{m.} Kidd.
   1527 |Henry Baldwin. |Tho{s.}       |Rich{d.}       |John Younge.
        |               |  Twynne.     |  Tayler.      |
   1528 |Walter Kellet. |Tho{s.}       |John Potter.   |Tho{s.} Sutton.
        |               |  Viccary.    |               |
   1529 |Tho{s.} Gibson.|Edward        |John Enderby.  |Rich{d.} Gower.
        |               |  Arundell.   |               |
   1530 |Tho{s.}        |Rich{d.}      |Ralph Garland. |John Ayliffe.
        | Viccary,_S.S._|  Tayler.     |               |
   1531 |Henry Baldwin. |Henry Cazor.  |Tho{s.} Wench. |Nich{s.}
        |               |              |               |  Simpson.
   1532 |John Banks.    |John Potter.  |John Ayliffe.  |George Holland.
   1533 |Will{m.}       |Ralph Garland.|Peter Daiseman.|James Tompson.
        |  Kerkby.      |              |               |
   1534 |John Potter.   |John Goodby.  |Rob{t.} Postle.|John Bird.
   1535 |John Potter.   |John Ayliffe. |John Bird.     |Charles Wyght.
   1536 |Tho{s.} Twynne.|Ralph Garland.|James Tompson. |John Newman.
   1537 |Nich{s.}       |John Johnson. |George Holland.|Will{m.} Rewe.
        |  Simpson,     |              |               |
        |  _K.B._       |              |               |
   1538 |Sir John       |John Bird.    |Tho{s.} Surbut.|George Geene.
        | Ayliffe,_K.S._|              |               |
   1539 |John Penn,     |K. Barber.    |John Hutton.   |Henry Pemberton.
        |  _K.B._       |              |               |
   1540 |Edmund Harman, |James Monford,|William Tilley.|Rob{t.}
        |  _K.B._       |  _K.S._      |               |  Sprignall.
   1541 |Tho{s.}        |James Tompson.|Tho{s.}        |Rich{d.} Bowle.
        | Viccary,_S.S._|              |  Johnson.     |
   1542 |John Bird.     |Charles Wyght.|Will{m.}       |John Gyle.
        |               |              |  Sherborn.    |
   1543 |John Johnson.  |James Monford,|James Banks.   |Robert
        |               |              |               |  Waterford.
        |George Holland.|  _K.S._      |James Tompson. |Christ{r.}
        |               |              |               |  Salmon.
   1544 |John Younge.   |Rob{t.}       |Rich{d.} Bowle.|John Atkinson.
        |               |  Postle.     |               |
   1545 |John Bird.     |George Geene. |Henry          |Rob{t.}
        |               |              |  Pemberton.   |  Brownhill.
   1546 |Tho{s.}        |Will{m.}      |Dan{l.}        |Tho{s.} Gale.
        | Viccary,_S.S._|  Tilley.     |  Sambrook.    |
   1547 |John Enderby.  |Peter         |Rob{t.}        |John Smith.
        |               |  Daiseman.   |  Sprignall.   |
   1548 |Tho{s.}        |John Skinner. |John Newman.   |John Gyle.
        | Viccary,_S.S._|              |               |Will{m.}
        |               |              |               |  Otherborn.
   1549 |Geo{e.}        |Rob{t.}       |Rob{t.}        |Augustine
        |  Holland.     |  Waterford.  |  Brownhill.   |  Clarke.
   1550 |Geo{e.} Geene. |Tho{s.}       |Rich{d.} Bowle.|Tho{s.}
        |               |  Johnson.    |               |  Stockdale.
        |               |              |               |Matth{w.}
        |               |              |               |  Johnson.
   1551 |Rich{d.}       |Rob{t.}       |John Barker.   |James Wood.
        |  Ferris.      |  Sprignell.  |               |
   1552 |Christ{r.}     |Tho{s.} Knott.|Aug{ne.}       |Rich{d.} Elliot.
        |  Salmon.      |              |  Clarke.      |
   1553 |Rich{d.} Bowle.|John Atkinson.|Tho{s.}        |Hugh Lymcocke.
        |               |              |  Whittingham. |
   1554 |Rob{t.}        |Aug{ne.}      |Will{m.} Green.|John Bonnar.
        |  Sprignell.   |  Clarke.     |               |
   1555 |Tho{s.} Knott. |Tho{s.} Gale. |John Smythe.   |Tho{s.} Fysshe.
   1556 |Geo. Holland,  |Rob{t.} Brown.|Alex{r.} Mason.|Rich{d.}
        |  _K.S._       |              |               |  Tholmwood.
   1557 |Tho{s.}        |Tho{s.}       |James Wood.    |John Warren.
        | Viccary,_S.S._|  Whittingham.|               |
   1558 |John Atkinson. |Hugh Lymcocke.|William Walton.|Geo. Vaughan.
   1559 |George Geene.  |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.} Baylie.|John
        |               |  Greene.     |               |  Smarthwaite.
   1560 |Tho{s.}        |James Wood.   |John Bonnar.   |Rob{t.}
        | Whittingham.  |              |               |  Balthrop.
   1561 |Tho{s.} Gale.  |Alex{r.}      |John Standon.  |Rob{t.} Mudesly.
        |               |  Mason.      |               |
   1562 |Rich{d.}       |Will{m.}      |Rob{t.}        |Rich{d.} Hughes.
        | Ferris, _S.S._|  Walton.     |  Mudesly.     |
   1563 |Rob{t.}        |Rich{d.}      |Geo. Vaughan.  |John Weste.
        |  Brownhill.   |  Tholmwood.  |               |
   1564 |Will{m.}       |Rob{t.}       |Tho{s.}        |Nich{s.}
        |  Greene.      |  Balthrop.   |  Robinson.    |  Archenbold.
   1565 |Rob{t.}        |Geo. Vaughan. |Rich{d.}       |Geo. Corron.
        |Balthrop,_S.S._|              |  Hughes.      |
   1566 |James Wood.    |Tho{s.}       |Nich{s.}       |Tho{s.} Burston.
        |               |  Barber.     |   Archenbold. |
   1567 |Alex{r.} Mason.|Rob{t.}       |Geo. Corron.   |John Robinson.
        |               |  Mudesly.    |               |
   1568 |Rich{d.}       |Nich{s.}      |Tho{s.}        |Rich{d.} Wisto
        |  Tholmwood.   |  Archenbold. |  Burston.     | (_died._)
        |               |              |               |John Field.
   1569 |George Vaughan |John Standon. |John Field.    |Humphry Paris.
        |  (_died._)    |              |               |
        |Alex{r.} Mason.|              |               |
   1570 |Tho{s.} Barber.|Rich{d.}      |John Robinson. |John Yates.
        |               |  Hughes.     |               |
   1571 |Tho{s.} Barber.|George Corron.|Rob{t.} Clarke.|Will{m.} Bovey.
   1572 |Rob{t.}        |John Robinson.|Tho{s.} Banks. |Edw{d.} Ireland.
        |  Mudesly.     |              |               |
        |Alex{r.} Mason |              |               |
        |  (_died._)    |              |               |
   1573 |Rob{t.}        |Tho{s.}       |John Hitchen.  |Will{m.} Bull.
        |Balthrop,_S.S._|  Burston.    |               |
   1574 |Rich{d.}       |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.} Bovey.|Rich{d.} Upton.
        |  Hughes.      |  Robinson.   |               |
        |George Corron  |              |               |
        | (_died._)     |              |               |
   1575 |Tho{s.}        |John Feild.   |Will{m.}       |John Mason.
        | Whittingham.  |              |  Swaine.      |
   1576 |Tho{s.}        |Tho{s.}       |John Yates.    |Will{m.} Crowe.
        |  Burston.     |  Banckes.    |               |
   1577 |John Feild.    |John Hitchen. |Christ{r.}     |Henry Rankyn.
        |               |              |  Swaldell.    |
   1578 |Tho{s.}        |John Yates.   |Rich{d.} Wisto.|Leonard Coxe.
        |  Banckes.     |              |               |
   1579 |John Hitchen.  |William Bovey.|William Crowe. |Tho{s.} Bird.
   1580 |Rob{t.}        |Christ{r.}    |Edward Ireland.|John Haysie.
        |  Mudesly.     | Swaldell.    |               |
   1581 |Will{m.} Bovey.|Will{m.}      |Henry Rankyn.  |Edw{d.} Griffin.
        |               |  Swaine.     |               |
   1582 |Tho{s.}        |Will{m.}      |Leonard Coxe.  |Rich{d.} Wood.
        |  Banckes.     |  Crowe.      |               |
   1583 |Christ{r.}     |Rich{d.}      |Tho{s.} Bird.  |Will{m.} Gale.
        |  Swaldell.    |  Wisto.      |               |
   1584 |John Hitchen.  |Henry Ranken. |John Haysie.   |Rich{d.}
        |               |              |               |  Sprignall.
   1585 |Will{m.} Crowe.|Leonard Coxe. |Rich{d.} Wood. |Henry Bradley.
   1586 |Rich{d.} Wisto.|John Haysie.  |Edward Griffin.|John Leycock.
   1587 |Henry Rankyn.  |Tho{s.} Bird. |Rich{d.}       |John Johnson.
        |               |              |  Sprignall.   |
   1585 |Leonard Coxe.  |Rich{d.} Wood.|Will{m.} Borne.|George Denham.
   1589 |John Haysie.   |Edward        |Will{m.}       |John Martin.
        |               |  Griffin.    |  Gooderus.    |
   1590 |Tho{s.} Bird.  |Will{m.} Gale.|Tho{s.} Wayte. |John Izard.
   1591 |Rich{d.} Wood. |Rich{d.}      |Geo. Baker,    |James Bates.
        |               |  Sprignall.  |  _S.S._       |
   1592 |Edward Griffin.|Will{m.}      |Geo. Denham.   |John Dards.
        |               |  Gooderus,   |               |
        |               |    _S.S._    |               |
   1593 |Christ{r.}     |John Leycock. |John Izard.    |John Burgess.
        |  Swaldell.    |              |               |
   1594 |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |John Newsom.
        |Gooderus,_S.S._|  Borne.      |  Clowes.      |
   1595 |Will{m.} Gale. |John Martyn.  |James Bates.   |John Peck.
   1596 |Tho{s.}        |John Izard.   |Tho{s.} Warren.|Lewis Atmer.
        |  Banckes.     |              |               |
   1597 |George Baker,  |James Bates.  |John Dards.    |John Gerrard.
        |  _S.S._       |              |               |
   1598 |John Leycock.  |John Burgess. |Tho{s.}        |Robert Johnson.
        |               |              |  Thorney.     |
   1599 |Rich{d.} Wood. |John Dards.   |John Newsom.   |Will{m.} Martyn.
        |Will{m.} Borne |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |Edw{d.} Rodes.
   1600 |  (_died._)    |  Thorney.    |  Martyn.      |
        |John Leycock.  |              |               |
   1601 |John Martyn.   |Lewis Atmer.  |Christ{r.}     |Rob{t.} Fuller.
        |               |              | Frederick.    |
   1602 |Tho{s.}        |William       |Edw{d.} Rodes. |Tho{s.} Martyn.
        |  Thorney.     |  Martyn.     |               |
   1603 |Will{m.}       |John Peck.    |Rob{t.} Fuller.|John Richmond.
        |Gooderus,_S.S._|              |               |
   1604 |John Leycock.  |Christ{r.}    |Tho{s.} Martyn.|Rich{d.} Mapes.
        |               |  Frederick.  |               |
   1605 |John Peck.     |Edw{d.} Rodes.|Will{m.}       |John Fenton.
        |               |              |  Fyninge.     |
   1606 |William Martyn.|Rob{t.}       |Rich{d.} Mapes.|Randall Foster.
        |Thomas Thorney.|  Fuller.     |               |
   1607 |John Gerrard.  |Tho{s.}       |John Fenton.   |Tho{s.} Veare.
        |               |  Martyn.     |               |
   1608 |Edward Rodes.  |Rich{d.}      |Robert Johnson.|Roger Jenkins.
        |               |  Mapes.      |               |
   1609 |Christ{r.}     |Will{m.}      |Randall Foster.|Edw{d.}
        |  Frederick,   |  Fyninge.    |               |  Ingolsby.
        |    _S.S._     |              |               |
        |William Gale   |              |               |
   1610 |  (_died._)    |John Fenton.  |Tho{s.} Veare. |John Hassall.
        |John Pecke.    |              |               |
   1611 |Robert Fuller. |Rob{t.}       |Roger Jenkins. |Abraham Allen.
        |               |  Johnson.    |               |
   1612 |Richard Mapes. |Randall       |Abraham Allen. |John Kerrell.
        |               |  Foster.     |               |
   1613 |John Fenton.   |Thomas Veare  |Edw{d.}        |John Coghill.
        |               | (_died._)[1] |  Ingolsby.    |
   1614 |John Hassall.  |Roger Jenkins.|John Kerrell.  |Lewis Rogers.
   1615 |Sir Peter      |Edward        |John Coghill.  |Rich{d.} Cooper.
        |  Proby, _Ald._|  Ingolsby.   |               |
   1616 |Christ{r.}     |John Kerrell. |Lewis Rogers.  |Jasper Arris.
        |  Frederick,   |              |               |
        |  _S.S._       |              |               |
   1617 |Ralph Bovey.   |Lewis         |Jasper Arris.  |Peter Porter.
        |  (_died._)    |  Rogers[2]   |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [1] John Hassall chosen Warden.
  [2] Rich{d.} Cooper chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1618 |Edward         |Henry Ofeild. |Peter Porter.  |Tho{s.} Borne.
        |  Ingolsby.    |              |               |
   1619 |John Coghill.  |Peter Porter. |Tho{s.} Borne. |Tho{s.} Allen.
   1620 |Richard Cooper.|Tho{s.} Borne.|Tho{s.} Allen. |John Newman.
   1621 |Randall Foster.|Tho{s.} Allen.|Dominic        |John Dards.
        |               |              |  Lomleine.    |
   1622 |Alexander      |Jasper Arris  |John Newman.   |Rich{d.}
        |  Baker, _J.P._| (_died_.)[3] |               |  Wateson.
   1623 |John Kerrell.  |Dominic       |Rich{d.}       |Rich{d.}
        |               |  Lomleine.   |  Wateson.     |  Thornebury.
   1624 |Joseph Fenton. |Rich{d.}      |Rich{d.}       |Andrew Wheatley.
        |               |  Wateson.    |  Thornebury.  |
   1625 |Henry Ofeild.  |Rich{d.}      |James Molines. |John Woodall.
        |               |  Thornebury. |               |
   1626 |William Clowes,|James Molines.|Andrew         |Rich{d.}
        |  _S.S._       |              |  Wheatley.    |  Morrice.
   1627 |Tho{s.}        |Andrew        |John Woodall.  |Dan{l.} Hinxman.
        |  Caldwell,    |  Wheatley.   |               |
        |  Esquire,     |              |               |
        |  _K.B._       |              |               |
        |Thomas Borne   |              |               |
        |  (_died_.)    |              |               |
   1628 |Tho{s.}        |John Borne.   |Will{m.}       |Arthur Dowton.
        |  Caldwell,    |              |  Walker.      |
        |  Esquire,     |              |               |
        |  _K.B._       |              |               |
   1629 |Dominic        |Rich{d.}      |Arthur Dowton. |George Roades.
        |  Lomeline.    |  Morrice.    |               |
   1630 |Richard        |John Newman.  |Dan{l.}        |Edw{d.}
        |  Wateson,     |              |  Hinxman.     |  Waterhouse.
        |  _Surgeon in  |              |               |
        |  Ordinary to  |              |               |
        |   the King._  |              |               |
   1631 |Rich{d.}       |Dan{l.}       |Tobias         |Henry Blackley.
        |  Thornbury.   |  Hinxman.    |  Johnson.     |
   1632 |James Molines. |Arthur Dowton.|Rich{d.}       |John Ward.
        |               |              |  Powell.      |
   1633 |John Woodall.  |Rich{d.}      |Henry Blackley.|George Predey.
        |               |  Powell.     |               |
   1634 |Richard        |Henry         |John Heydon.   |John Davyes.
        |  Morrice.     |  Blackley.   |               |
   1635 |Michael        |John Warde.   |Nicholas Heath.|Will{m.} Huckle.
        |  Andrews,     |              |               |
        |  _Surgeon in  |              |               |
        |  Ordinary to  |              |               |
        |  the King._   |              |               |
   1636 |Richard Powell.|John Heydon.  |Will{m.}       |Lawrence Cotton.
        |               |              |  Huckle.      |
   1637 |Henry Blackley.|Will{m.}      |Lawrence       |Tho{s.}
        |               |  Burgin.     |  Cotton.      |  Trevellion.[4]
        |               |              |               |  (_Dismissed._)
   1638 |William Clowes,|William       |George Dunn.   |Henry Wateson.
        |  _S.S._       |  Lingham.    |               |
   1639 |Thomas Davyes, |Nicholas      |Tho{s.}        |Will{m.}
        |  _K.B._       |  Heath.      |  Collins.     |  Bignell.
   1640 |John Heydon.   |Henry Wateson.|Martin Browne. |Tho{s.} Browne.
   1641 |John Ward.     |Lawrence      |Tho{s.} Browne.|John Pinder.
        |               |  Cotton.     |               |
   1642 |William Burgin.|George Dunne. |Edward Arris.  |John Lufkin.
   1643 |Nicholas Heath.|Will{m.}      |John Lufkin.   |Henry Boone.
        |               |  Bignell.    |               |
   1644 |William Huckle.|Tho{s.}       |Henry Boone.   |Robert Clarke.
        |               |  Collins.    |               |
   1645 |Lawrence       |Martin Browne.|Robert Clarke. |Will{m.} Gurney.
        |  Cotton.      |              |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [3] John Dards chosen Warden.
  [4] Will{m.} Lingham chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1646 |George Dunne.  |William Kings.|Will{m.}       |Ralph Foster.
        |               |              |  Gurney.      |
   1647 |William        |Henry Boone.  |Ralph Foster.  |Will{m.}
        |  Bignell.     |              |               |  Bennett.
   1648 |Thomas Collins.|Rob{t.}       |Will{m.}       |John Madocks.
        |               |  Clarke.     |  Bennett.     |
   1649 |Robert Clarke. |Will{m.}      |John Madocks.  |Tho{s.} Allen.
        |               |  Bennett[5]  |               |
        |               |  (_died_.)   |               |
   1650 |William Kings. |Will{m.}      |John Frederick.|Cha{s.}
        |               |  Gurney.     |               |  Stamford.
   1651 |Edward Arris,  |Ralph Foster. |Thomas Allen.  |Tho{s.} Turner.
        |  _Ald._       |              |               |
   1652 |William Gurney.|Rob{t.}       |Cha{s.}        |Rob{t.}
        |               |  Bullock.    |  Stamford.    |  Westbrooke.
   1653 |Martin Browne. |John Madocks. |Tho{s.} Turner.|Lawrence Loe.
   1654 |Sir John       |Tho{s.} Allen.|Abraham Clarke.|Tho{s.} Bowden.
        |  Frederick,   |              |               |
        |  _Ald._       |              |               |
   1655 |Henry Boone.   |Tho{s.}       |Lawrence Loe.  |Tho{s.} Kingman.
        |               |  Turner.     |               |
   1656 |Ralph Foster.  |Cha{s.}       |Nicholas       |John Perkins.
        |               |  Stamford.   |  Brothers.    |
   1657 |Robert Bullock.|Robert        |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.}
        |               |  Westbrook.  |  Watson.      |  Calveley.
   1658 |John Madocks.  |Lawrence Loe. |Will{m.}       |Ralph Thickness.
        |Sir John       |              |  Rymmer.      |
        |  Frederick,   |              |               |
        |  _Ald._       |              |               |
   1659 |Thomas Allen.  |John Perkins. |Ralph          |John Sotherton.
        |Charles        |              |  Thickness.   |
        |  Stamford.    |              |               |
   1660 |Thomas Turner. |Thomas Bowden.|John Sotherton.|Thomas Burton.
   1661 |Humphry        |Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.} Burton.|Tho{s.} Canham.
        | Painter,_S.S._|  Calveley.   |               |
   1662 |Thomas Lisle,  |Nicholas      |James Farre.   |Joseph Bynns.
        |  _K.B._       |  Brothers.   |               |
   1663 |John Knight,   |John          |Joseph Bynns.  |Tho{s.} Hall.
        |  _S.S._       |  Sotherton.  |               |
   1664 |Ralph Foliard, |Ralph         |Tho{s.} Hall.  |Tho{s.} Hollier.
        |  _K.B._       |  Thickness.  |               |
   1665 |Richard        |Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.}        |John Harvie.
        | Wiseman,_S.S._|  Canham.     |  Hollier.     |
   1666 |Thomas         |Tho{s.}       |John Harvie.   |James Pearse,
        |  Calveley.    |  Hollier.    |               | _Duke of York’s
        |               |              |               |  Surgeon_.
   1667 |Lawrence Loe.  |James Farre.  |James Pearse.  |Will{m.} Fryer.
   1668 |Thomas Canham. |James Pearse. |Will{m.} Fryer.|Will{m.}
        |               |              |               |  Markham.
   1669 |John Knight,   |John Harvie.  |Will{m.}       |Tobias Sedgwick.
        |  _S.S._       |              |  Markham.     |
   1670 |James Farre.   |Tobias        |Will{m.}       |Henry Barker.
        |               |  Sedgwick.   |  Markham.     |
   1671 |Ralph          |Will{m.}      |Henry Barker.  |James Brooks.
        |  Thickness.   |  Fryer.      |               |
   1672 |John Harvie.   |Henry Barker. |James Brooks.  |Henry Johnson.
   1673 |Tho{s.}        |James Brooks. |Henry Johnson. |Rich{d.} Powell.
        |  Hollier.     |              |               |
   1674 |Sir Nathaniel  |Henry Johnson.|Rich{d.}       |Will{m.} Perse.
        |  Herne,       |              |  Powell.      |
        |  _Alderman_.  |              |               |
   1675 |James Pearse,  |Rich{d.}      |Will{m.} Perse.|Will{m.}
        |  _The King’s  |  Powell.     |               |  Bellamy.
        |  and Duke’s   |              |               |
        |  Surgeon_.    |              |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [5] Martin Browne chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1676 |Sir John       |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Symonds.
        |  Letheuillier,|  Perse.      |  Bellamy.     |
        |  _Sheriff_.   |              |               |
   1677 |Henry Johnson. |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.}        |Tho{s.}
        |John Knight,   |  Bellamy.    |  Symonds.     |  Middleton.
        |  _S.S._       |              |               |
   1678 |William Fryer. |Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.}        |Edmund Thorold.
        |               |  Symonds.    |  Middleton.   |
   1679 |William Perse. |Philip Foster.|Tho{s.} Page.  |Rich{d.}
        |               |              |               |  Cheshire.
   1680 |James Brooks.  |Edmund        |Rich{d.}       |George Horsnell.
        |               |  Thorold.    |  Cheshire.    |
   1681 |Edmund Thorold.|Tho{s.}       |Geo. Horsnell. |Tho{s.} Baylie.
        |               |  Middleton.  |               |
   1682 |Richard Powell.|Tho{s.} Page. |Tho{s.} Baylie.|Edw{d.}
        |               |              |               |  Cockaigne.
   1683 |Thomas Page.   |Rich{d.}      |Edw{d.}        |Rob{t.} Leeson.
        |               |  Cheshire.   |  Cockaigne.   |
   1684 |Richard        |Geo. Horsnell.|Rob{t.} Leeson.|Rob{t.}
        |  Cheshire.    |              |               |  Sanderson.
   1685 |George         |Robert Leeson.|Rob{t.}        |John King.
        |  Horsnell.    |              |  Sanderson.   |
   1686 |Robert Leeson. |Robert        |John King.     |Will{m.}
        |               |  Sanderson[6]|               |  Layfield.
        |               |  (_died_.)   |               |
   1687 |Thomas Hobbs,  |John King.    |Will{m.}       |John Darling.
        |  _S.S._       |              |  Layfield.    |
   1688 |Sir Humphry    |Will{m.}      |Roger Knowles. |John Stambrooke.
        |  Edwin,       |  Layfield.   |               |
        |  _Alderman_.  |              |               |
   1689 |John Conny,    |John          |Roger Knowles. |John Darling.
        |  Esquire.     |  Stambrooke. |               |
   1690 |William        |Roger Knowles.|John Jackson.  |Henry
        |  Bellamy.     |              |               |  Rossington.
   1691 |William        |John Jackson. |Henry          |Rich{d.} Hewett.
        |  Layfield.    |              |  Rossington.  |
   1692 |John King.     |Henry         |Rich{d.}       |John Deane.
        |               |  Rossington. |  Hewett.      |
   1693 |Roger Knowles. |Rich{d.}      |John Deane.    |Will{m.} Clarke.
        |               |  Hewett.     |               |
   1694 |Richard Hewett.|Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Caister.
        |               |  Gardiner.   |  Clarke.      |
   1695 |Henry          |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.}        |George Minikin.
        |  Rossington.  |  Clarke.     |  Caister.     |
   1696 |William Clarke.|Tho{s.}       |George Minikin.|Tho{s.}
        |               |  Caister.    |               |  Litchfeild.
   1697 |Thomas         |George        |Tho{s.}        |John Pinke.
        |Gardiner,_S.S._|  Minikin.    |  Litchfeild.  |
   1698 |George Minikin.|Tho{s.}       |John Pinke.    |James Wall.
        |               |  Litchfeild. |               |
   1699 |Thomas         |John Pinke.   |James Wall.    |Barth{w.} King.
        |  Litchfeild.  |              |               |
   1700 |John Pinke.    |James Wall.   |Rich{d.} Marks.|Will{m.} Oades.
   1701 |James Wall.    |Rich{d.}      |Will{m.} Oades.|Ralph Hatley.
        |               |  Marks.      |               |
   1702 |Richard Marks. |Will{m.}      |Ralph Hatley.  |Will{m.}
        |               |  Oades.      |               |  Pleahill.
   1703 |Charles        |Ralph Hatley. |Will{m.}       |John Worts.
        | Bernard,_S.S._|              |  Pleahill.    |
   1704 |Ralph Hatley.  |William       |John Worts.    |Zachariah
        |               |  Pleahill.   |               |  Gibson.
   1705 |William Oades. |John Worts.   |Zach{h.}       |Will{m.} Bond.
        |               |              |  Gibson.      |
   1706 |John Worts.    |Zach{h.}      |Will{m.} Bond. |Gratian Bale.
        |               |  Gibson.     |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [6] John Conny chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1707 |Zachariah      |Will{m.} Bond.|Gratian Bale.  |Will{m.} Moss.
        |  Gibson.      |              |               |
   1708 |William Bond.  |Gratian Bale. |Will{m.} Moss. |Anth{y.}
        |               |              |               |  Herenden.
   1709 |Gratian Bale.  |William Moss  |Edw{d.} Green. |Simon Lynch.
        |               |  (_died_).[7]|               |
   1710 |Simon Lynch.   |Edw{d.} Green.|Will{m.}       |Rich{d.} Harvey.
        |               |              |  Watkins.     |
   1711 |Edward Green.  |Will{m.}      |Anth{y.}       |Joseph Cousins.
        |               |  Watkins.    |  Herenden.    |
   1712 |William        |Anth{y.}      |Joseph Cousins |Joseph Greene.
        |  Watkins.     |  Herenden.   |  (_died_).[8] |
   1713 |Anthony        |Will{m.}      |Rich{d.}       |Christopher
        |  Herenden.    |  Smith.      |  Harvey.      |  Toms.
   1714 |William Smith. |Richard       |Christ{r.}     |Alex{r.} Geekie.
        |               |  Harvey.     |  Toms.        |
   1715 |Richard Harvey.|Christ{r.}    |Joseph Greene. |Robert Hayes.
        |               |  Toms[9]     |               |
        |               |  (_died_).   |               |
   1716 |Robert Hayes.  |Joseph Greene.|John Shott.    |Will{m.} Loup.
   1717 |Joseph Greene. |John Shott.   |Alex{r.}       |James Northall.
        |               |              |  Geekie.      |
   1718 |John Shott.    |Alex{r.}      |James          |Will{m.}
        |               |  Geekie.     |  Northall.    |  Cotesworth,
        |               |              |               |  Esquire.
   1719 |Alexander      |James         |Will{m.} Loup. |Sam{l.} Rayson.
        |  Geekie.      |  Northall.   |               |
   1720 |James Northall.|Will{m.} Loup.|Sam{l.} Rayson.|Henry Myddelton.
   1721 |William Loup.  |Sam{l.}       |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}
        |               |  Rayson.     |  Cotesworth,  |  Blanford.
        |               |              |  Esquire.     |
   1722 |Samuel Rayson. |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Will{m.} Cole,
        |               |  Cotesworth, |  Blanford.    |  Esquire.
        |               |  Esquire.    |               |
   1723 |William        |Will{m.}      |Henry          |John Randall.
        |  Cotesworth,  |  Blanford.   |  Myddelton.   |
        |  Esquire.     |              |               |
        |William        |              |               |
   1724 |  Blanford     |Henry         |John Randall.  |James Ferne.
        |  (_died_).    |  Myddelton.  |               |
        |John Shott.    |              |               |
   1725 |Henry          |John Randall. |Will{m.} Cole, |January Farmer.
        |  Myddelton.   |              |  Esquire.     |
   1726 |John Shott.    |Will{m.} Cole,|January Farmer.|Henry Bull.
        |               |  Esquire.    |               |
   1727 |William Cole,  |January       |James Ferne.   |John Nicholls.
        |  Esquire.     |  Farmer.     |               |
   1728 |January Farmer.|James Ferne.  |John Nicholls  |Ambrose Dickins,
        |               |              |  (_died_).[10]|  Esquire,_S.S._
   1729 |Ambrose        |Will{m.}      |Claudius Amyand,|Luke Maurice.
        | Dickins, Esq.,|  Parker.     |               |
        | _S.S. to_     |              |Esquire, _S.S._|
        | _Queen Anne,_ |              |               |
        |_King Geo. I.,_|              |               |
        |_King Geo. II._|              |               |
   1730 |William Parker.|Claudius      |Luke Maurice.  |Edw{d.}
        |               |  Amyand,     |               |  Woodward.
        |               |Esquire,_S.S._|               |
   1731 |Claudius       |Luke Maurice. |Edw{d.}        |John Barnwell.
        |  Amyand,      |              |  Woodward.    |
        | Esquire,_S.S._|              |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [7] Will{m.} Watkins chosen Warden.
  [8] Will{m.} Smith chosen Warden.
  [9] John Shott chosen Warden.
  [10] W{m.} Parker chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1732 |Luke Maurice.  |Edw{d.}       |John Barnwell. |Tho{s.}Bridges.
        |               |  Woodward.   |               |
   1733 |James Ferne.   |John Barnwell.|Tho{s.}        |John Watts.
        |               |              |  Bridges.     |
   1734 |John Barnwell. |Tho{s.}       |John Watts.    |William Petty.
        |               |  Bridges.    |               |
   1735 |Edward         |John Watts.   |Will{m.}       |Dan{l.} Fradin.
        |  Woodward.    |              |  Petty.       |
   1736 |John Watts.    |Will{m.}      |Dan{l.} Fradin.|John Wheeler.
        |               |  Petty.      |               |
   1737 |Thomas Bridges.|Dan{l.}       |John Wheeler.  |John Truelove.
        |               |  Fradin.     |               |
   1738 |Daniel Fradin. |John Wheeler. |John Truelove. |James Dansie.
   1739 |William Petty. |John Truelove.|James Dansie.  |Tho{s.}
        |               |              |               |  Essington.
   1740 |John Truelove. |James Dansie. |Will{m.}       |Joseph Wood.
        |John Wheeler   |              |  Haddon.      |
        |  (_died_.)    |              |               |
   1741 |James Dansie.  |Will{m.}      |John Hayward.  |Jonathan Medley.
        |               |  Haddon.     |               |
   1742 |William Haddon.|John Hayward. |Jonathan       |Joseph Sandford.
        |               |              |  Medley.      |
   1743 |John Hayward.  |Jonathan      |Joseph         |Humphry Negus.
        |               |  Medley.     |  Sandford.    |
   1744 |Jonathan       |Joseph        |Humphry Negus. |Will{m.}
        |  Medley.      |  Sandford.   |               |  Cheselden,
        |               |              |               |  Esquire.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

MEMORANDUM.--That on the 24th June, 1745, The Surgeons were by Act of
Parliament separated from The Barbers.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1745 |Jonathan       |Humphry Negus.|Edw{d.} Boxley.|Sam{l.} Rutter.
    [11]|  Medley.      |              |               |
   1745 |Humphry Negus. |Edw{d.}       |Sam{l.} Rutter.|Rob{t.} Scrooby.
        |               |  Boxley.     |               |
   1746 |Edward Boxley. |Sam{l.}       |Rob{t.}        |Rich{d.}
        |               |   Rutter.    |  Scrooby.     |  Swithin.
   1747 |Sam{l.} Rutter.|Rob{t.}       |Rich{d.}       |John Bearblock.
        |               |  Scrooby.    |  Swithin.     |
   1748 |Robert Scrooby.|Rich{d.}      |John Bearblock.|Will{m.}
        |               |  Swithin.    |               |  Roberts.
   1749 |Richard        |John          |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Cotton.
        |  Swithin.     |  Bearblock.  |  Roberts.     |
   1750 |James Theobald,|John          |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Cotton.
        |  Esq.         |  Bearblock.  |  Roberts.     |
   1751 |John Bearblock.|Will{m.}      |Tho{s.} Cotton.|John Whiting.
        |               |  Roberts.    |               |
   1752 |William        |Tho{s.}       |John Whiting.  |Rich{d.} Lookes.
        |  Roberts.     |  Cotton.     |               |
   1753 |Thomas Cotton. |John Whiting. |Rich{d.}       |Peter Theobald,
        |               |              |  Lookes.      |  Esq.
   1754 |John Whiting.  |Peter         |John Pepys.    |Will{m.}
        |               |Theobald, Esq.|               |  Glenister.
   1755 |John Pepys.    |Will{m.}      |Thomas Potter. |Michael I’Ans.
        |               |  Glenister.  |               |
   1756 |Michael I’Ans. |John Blundell.|Will{m.}       |Charles Moore.
        |               |              |  Tillett.     |
   1757 |John Blundell. |Will{m.}      |Charles Moore. |Thomas Griffin.
        |               |  Tillett.    |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [11] Mr. Medley had been Master of the Barber-Surgeons from Election
  day, 1744, until the 24th June, 1745, and was Master of the Barbers
  from that date until Election day, 1745, when Mr. Negus was chosen.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1758 |William        |Charles Moore.|Thomas Griffin.|Alexander Glen.
        |  Tillett.     |              |               |
   1759 |Charles Moore. |Thomas        |Alex{r.} Glen. |Achilles
        |               |  Griffin.    |               |  Preston.
   1760 |Thomas Griffin.|Alex{r.} Glen.|Achilles       |John Lowther.
        |               |              |  Preston.     |
   1761 |Sir Tho{s.}    |Alex{r.} Glen.|Achilles       |John Lowther.
        |  Challenor,   |              |  Preston.     |
        |  _Ald._       |              |               |
   1762 |Alex{r.} Glen  |John Lowther. |John Marshall. |Isaac Burton
        |  (_died_.)    |              |               |  (_died_).[12]
        |Achilles       |              |               |
        |  Preston.     |              |               |
   1763 |John Lowther.  |John Marshall |Samuel Norton. |Will{m.}
        |               | (_died_).[13]|               |  Hurford.
   1764 |Samuel Norton. |Will{m.}      |Will{m.} Evans.|Will{m.} Peirse.
        |               |  Hurford.    |               |
   1765 |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Edw{d.} Parker.
        |  Hurford.     |  Evans.      |  Peirse.      |
   1766 |Will{m.} Evans.|Will{m.}      |Edw{d.} Parker.|Tho{s.}
        |               |  Peirse.     |               |  Holehouse.
   1767 |Will{m.}       |Edw{d.}       |Tho{s.}        |George Russell.
        |  Peirse.      |  Parker.     |  Holehouse.   |
   1768 |Edward Parker. |Tho{s.}       |George Russell.|Sam{l.}
        |               |  Holehouse.  |               |  Plackett.
   1769 |Thomas         |George        |Sam{l.}        |John Wilding.
        |  Holehouse.   |  Russell.    |  Plackett.    |
   1770 |George Russell.|Sam{l.}       |John Wilding.  |Tho{s.} Barnett.
        |               |  Plackett.   |               |
   1771 |Sam{l.}        |John Wilding. |Tho{s.}        |Joseph Hill.
        |  Plackett.    |              |  Barnett.     |
   1772 |John Wilding.  |Thomas        |Joseph Hill[14]|John Rogers.
        |               |  Barnett.    |  (_resigned_).|
   1773 |Thomas Barnett.|John Rogers.  |Timothy Baylie.|Geo. Veriar,
        |               |              |               |  Esq{re.}
   1774 |John Rogers    |Timothy       |Geo. Veriar,   |John Paterson,
        |  (_died_.)    |  Baylie.[15] |  Esq{re.}     |  Esq.
        |Timothy Baylie.|              |               |
   1775 |George Veriar, |John Paterson,|James Scott.   |Rich{d.}
        |  Esq{re.}     |  Esq.        |               |  Wainwright.
   1776 |John Paterson, |James Scott.  |Rich{d.}       |Will{m.} Stock.
        |  Esq{re.}     |              |  Wainwright.  |
   1777 |James Scott.   |Rich{d.}      |Will{m.} Stock.|Will{m.} Stagg.
        |               |  Wainwright. |               |
   1778 |Rich{d.}       |Will{m.}      |Will{m.} Stagg.|James Potter.
        |  Wainwright.  |  Stock.      |               |
   1779 |William Stock. |Will{m.}      |James Potter.  |Will{m.} Kippax.
        |               |  Stagg.      |               |
   1780 |William Stagg. |James Potter. |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}
        |               |              |  Kippax.      |  Roberts.
   1781 |James Potter.  |Will{m.}      |Will{m.}       |Will{m.} Slade.
        |               |  Kippax.     |  Roberts.     |
   1782 |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}      |Will{m.} Slade.|Tho{s.} Harris.
        |  Kippax.      |  Roberts.    |               |
   1783 |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}      |Henry Wichells.|John Berrow,
        |  Roberts.     |  Slade.      |               |  Esq{re.}
   1784 |William Slade. |Henry         |John Berrow,   |Will{m.} Dodds.
        |               |  Wichells.   |  Esq{re.}     |
   1785 |Henry Wichells.|John Berrow,  |Will{m.} Dodds.|Tho{s.} Garrood.
        |               |  Esq.        |               |
   1786 |John Berrow,   |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.}        |Tho{s.} Golding.
        |  Esq{re.}     |  Dodds.      |  Garrood.     |
   1787 |William Dodds. |Tho{s.}       |Tho{s.}        |Rob{t.} Emerton.
        |               |  Garrood.    |  Golding.     |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [12] Sam{l.} Norton chosen Warden.
  [13] Will{m.} Evans chosen Warden.
  [14] Timothy Baylie chosen Warden.
  [15] James Scott chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1788 |Thomas Garrood.|Tho{s.}       |Rob{t.}        |John Davison.
        |               |  Golding.    |  Emerton.     |
   1789 |Thomas Golding.|Rob{t.}       |John Davison.  |Rob{t.} Downes.
        |               |  Emerton.    |               |
   1790 |Robert Emerton.|John Davison. |Robert Downes. |Ralph Eden[16]
        |               |              |               |  (_resigned_).
   1791 |John Davison.  |Robert Downes.|Daniel Adams.  |David Lamb.
   1792 |Robert Downes. |Daniel Adams. |David Lamb.    |John Adams.
   1793 |Daniel Adams.  |David Lamb.   |John Adams[17] |George Grange.
        |               |              |  (_died_).    |
   1794 |David Lamb.    |George Grange.|Thomas         |John Slee.
        |               |              |  Thompson.    |
   1795 |George Grange. |Tho{s.}       |John Slee.     |John Knox.
        |               |  Thompson.   |               |
   1796 |Thomas         |John Slee.    |John Knox.     |Edm{d.} Humphris
        |  Thompson.    |              |               |  [18]
        |               |              |               |  (_resigned_).
   1797 |John Slee.     |John Knox.    |Rob{t.}        |James Lyon.
        |               |              |  Douglas.     |
   1798 |John Knox.     |Rob{t.}       |James Lyon.    |Francis Pearson.
        |               |  Douglas.    |               |
   1799 |Robert Douglas.|James Lyon.   |Francis        |Jeremiah James.
        |               |              |  Pearson.     |
   1800 |James Lyon.    |Francis       |Jeremiah James.|Joseph Atkinson.
        |               |  Pearson.    |               |
   1801 |Francis        |Jeremiah      |Joseph         |James Speight.
        |  Pearson.     |  James.      |  Atkinson.    |
   1802 |Jeremiah James.|Joseph        |James Speight  |Tho{s.} Herbert.
        |               |  Atkinson.   | (_died_). [19]|
   1803 |Joseph         |Thomas        |Will{m.} Long. |James Clay.
        |  Atkinson.    |  Herbert.    |               |
   1804 |Thomas Herbert.|Will{m.} Long.|James Clay.    |Joseph Wells.
   1805 |Will{m.} Long. |James Clay.   |Joseph Wells.  |Rob{t.} Garwood.
   1806 |James Clay.    |Joseph Wells. |Rob{t.}        |Will{m.} Baylie.
        |               |              |  Garwood.     |
   1807 |Joseph Wells.  |Robert        |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.}
        |               |  Garwood.    |  Baylie.      |  Hampshire.
   1808 |Robert Garwood.|Will{m.}      |Tho{s.}        |John Wilt.
        |               |  Baylie.     |  Hampshire.   |
   1809 |William Baylie.|Thomas        |John Wilt.     |John Hart.
        |               |  Hampshire.  |               |
   1810 |Thomas         |John Wilt.    |John Hart.     |John Driver.
        |  Hampshire.   |              |               |
   1811 |John Wilt.     |John Hart.    |John Driver[20]|Charles Swan.
        |               |              |  (_died_).    |
   1812 |Charles Swan.  |Thomas Rowney.|Thomas Law.    |Rich{d.} Jones.
   1813 |Thomas Rowney. |Thomas Law.   |Rich{d} Jones. |John Benj{n.}
        |               |              |               |  Cole.
   1814 |Thomas Law.    |Rich{d.}      |John Benj{n.}  |Thomas Stimson.
        |               |  Jones.      |  Cole.        |
   1815 |Richard Jones. |John Benj{n.} |Tho{s.}        |John Papps.
        |               |  Cole.       |  Stimson.     |
   1816 |John Benj{n.}  |Tho{s.}       |Malcolm        |Peter Skipper.
        |  Cole.        |  Stimson.    |  Dunnett.     |
   1817 |Malcolm        |Peter Skipper.|Rich{d.}       |Tho{s.} Adam.
        |  Dunnett.     |              |  Morgan.      |
   1818 |Peter Skipper. |Richard       |Tho{s.} Adam.  |Anthony Lyon.
        |               |  Morgan.     |               |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [16] Dan{l.} Adams chosen Warden.
  [17] Tho{s.} Thompson chosen Warden.
  [18] Tho{s.} Herbert chosen Warden.
  [19] John Field chosen Warden.
  [20] Thomas Law chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1819 |Richard Morgan |Tho{s.}       |Anthony Lyon.  |Will{m.} Vale.
        |  (_died_).    |  Adam.[21]   |               |
        |Thomas Adam.   |              |               |
   1820 |Anthony Lyon.  |Will{m.} Vale.|James Clapp.   |James Carpenter.
   1821 |William Vale.  |James Clapp.  |James          |Daniel Stewart.
        |               |              |  Carpenter.   |
   1822 |James Clapp.   |James         |Daniel Stewart.|James Hemp.
        |               |  Carpenter.  |               |
   1823 |James          |Daniel        |James Hemp.    |James King.
        |  Carpenter.   |  Stewart.    |               |
   1824 |Daniel Stewart.|James Hemp.   |James King.    |James Lyon.
   1825 |James Hemp.    |James King.   |James Lyon.    |Tho{s.} Kidder.
   1826 |James King.    |James Lyon[22]|Tho{s.} Kidder.|Warman Thorn.
        |               |  (_died_).   |               |
   1827 |Thomas Kidder. |Warman Thorn. |Edw{d.} Grose  |Geo. Whitehead.
        |               |              |  Smith.       |
   1828 |Warman Thorn.  |Edw{d.} Grose |Geo. Whitehead.|Tho{s.} Wharton.
        |               |  Smith.      |               |
   1829 |Edw{d.} Grose  |Geo.          |Tho{s.}        |Will{m.} Twinch.
        |  Smith.       |  Whitehead.  |  Wharton.     |
   1830 |George         |Tho{s.}       |Will{m.}       |Will{m.}
        |  Whitehead    |  Wharton.[23]|  Twinch.      |  Robinson.
        |  (_died_).    |              |               |
        |Thomas Wharton.|              |               |
   1831 |William        |Samuel Closs. |Geo. Hadden.   |Philip Lawton.
        |  Robinson.    |              |               |
   1832 |Samuel Closs.  |George Hadden.|Philip Lawton. |Henry Waite.
   1833 |George Hadden. |Philip Lawton.|Henry Waite.   |Joseph Carter.
   1834 |Philip Lawton. |Henry Waite.  |Joseph Carter. |John Benj{n.}
        |               |              |               |  Lings.
   1835 |Henry Waite.   |Joseph Carter.|John Benj{n.}  |William Sallis.
        |               |              |  Lings.       |
   1836 |Joseph Carter. |John Benj{n.} |Will{m.}       |Tho{s.} Skegg
        |               |  Lings.      |  Sallis.      |  Driver.
   1837 |John Benj{n.}  |Will{m.}      |Tho{s.} Skegg  |Sam{l.}
        |  Lings.       |  Sallis.     |  Driver.      |  Edenborough
        |               |              |               |  (_died_). [24]
   1838 |William Sallis.|Tho{s.} Skegg |Joel Edwards.  |George Browne.
        |               |  Driver.     |               |
   1839 |Tho{s.} Skegg  |Joel Edwards. |George Browne. |Henry Patten.
        |  Driver.      |              |               |
   1840 |Joel Edwards.  |George Browne.|Henry Patten.  |Robert Low.
   1841 |Joel Edwards.  |Henry Patten. |Robert Low.    |John Atkinson.
   1842 |Henry Patten.  |Robert Low.   |John Atkinson. |George Sadler.
   1843 |Robert Low.    |John Atkinson.|George Sadler. |Tho{s.} Burn
        |               |              |               |  Hopgood.
   1844 |John Atkinson. |George Sadler.|Tho{s.} Burn   |John Colley.
        |               |              |  Hopgood.     |
   1845 |George Sadler. |Tho{s.} Burn  |John Colley.   |John Annis.
        |               |  Hopgood.    |               |
   1846 |Tho{s.} Burn   |John Colley.  |John Annis.    |Will{m.} Vale.
        |  Hopgood.     |              |               |
   1847 |John Colley.   |John Annis.   |Will{m.} Vale. |Will{m.} Hemp.
   1848 |John Annis.    |Will{m.} Vale.|Will{m.} Hemp. |Alex{r.}
        |               |              |               |  Rowland.
   1849 |William Vale.  |Will{m.} Hemp.|Alex{r.}       |Will{m.} Hare.
        |               |              |  Rowland.     |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [21] James Clapp chosen Warden.
  [22] Edward Grose Smith chosen Warden.
  [23] Sam{l.} Closs chosen Warden.
  [24] Joel Edwards chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1850 |William Hemp.  |Alex{r.}      |Will{m.} Hare. |Rich{d.} Haines.
        |               |  Rowland.    |               |
   1851 |Alexander      |Will{m.} Hare.|Rich{d.}       |Sam{l.}
        |  Rowland.     |              |  Haines.      |  Holehouse.
   1852 |William Hare.  |Rich{d.}      |Donald Gray.   |Ralph Smith
        |               |  Haines.     |               |  Kirby.
   1853 |Richard Haines.|Donald Gray.  |Ralph Smith    |Tho{s.} Will{m.}
        |               |              |  Kirby        |  Wood.
        |               |              |  (_died_).[25]|
   1854 |Tho{s.}        |James Fred{k.}|John Heaps.    |Tho{s.}Brock.
        | Will{m.} Wood.|  Burn.       |               |
   1855 |John Heaps.    |Tho{s.}Brock. |Robert Low.    |James Carpenter.
   1856 |Thomas Brock.  |Robert Low.   |James          |Tho{s.} Worton.
        |               |              |  Carpenter.   |
   1857 |Robert Low.    |James         |Tho{s.} Worton.|James Reeve.
        |               |  Carpenter.  |               |
   1858 |James          |Tho{s.}       |James Reeve.   |Martin Love.
        |  Carpenter.   |  Worton.     |               |
   1859 |Thomas Worton. |James Reeve.  |Martin Love.   |Will{m.}
        |               |              |               |  Dunsf{d.}
        |               |              |               |  White.
   1860 |Martin Love.   |Will{m.}      |Will{m.} Riley.|John Swainston.
        |               |  Dunsf{d.}   |               |
        |               |  White.      |               |
   1861 |Will{m.} D.    |Will{m.}      |John Swainston.|George Whiting.
        |  White.       |  Riley.      |               |
   1862 |William Riley. |John          |George Whiting.|Henley Smith.
        |               |  Swainston.  |               |
   1863 |John Swainston.|George        |Henley Smith.  |Abraham Western.
        |               |  Whiting.    |               |
   1864 |Henley Smith.  |Abraham       |John Swainston.|Francis
        |               |  Western[26] |               |  Cuthbertson
        |               |  (_died_).   |               |  (_died_). [27]
   1865 |Francis        |John Mason.   |Thomas         |John Waite.
        |  Snelling.    |              |  Carpenter.   |
   1866 |Thomas         |John Waite.   |Henry Sallis.  |George Driver.
        |  Carpenter.   |              |               |
   1867 |John Waite.    |Henry Sallis. |George Driver. |Will{m.}
        |               |              |               |  Dunnett.
   1868 |Henry Sallis.  |George Driver.|Will{m.}       |James Cornish.
        |               |              |  Dunnett.     |
   1869 |George Driver. |William       |James Cornish. |John Carter.
        |               |  Dunnett.    |               |
   1870 |John Carter.   |James Douglas |Henry Evans.   |Richard Atkinson
        |               |  Bennett[28] |               |Cordell Loader.
        |               |  (_died_).   |               |
   1871 |Henry Evans.   |R. A. C.      |Edward Stone.  |Frederick Baker.
        |               |  Loader.     |               |
   1872 |R. A. C.       |Edw{.d} Stone.|Fred{k.} Baker.|H{y.} Edw{d.}
        |  Loader.      |              |               |  Murrell.
   1873 |Edward Stone.  |Fred{k.}      |H. Edward      |Tho{s.}
        |               |  Baker.      |  Murrell.     |  Emberson.
   1874 |Frederick      |H. Edward     |Tho{s.}        |Edward Ruff.
        |  Baker.       |  Murrell.    |  Emberson.    |
   1875 |H. Edward      |Tho{s.}       |Edward Ruff.   |Fred{k.} Wilson.
        |  Murrell.     |  Emberson.   |               |
   1876 |Thomas         |Edward Ruff.  |Fred{k.}       |Cha{s.} John
        |  Emberson.    |              |  Wilson.      |  Shoppee.
   1877 |Edward Ruff.   |Fred{k.}      |Cha{s.} John   |James Harvey,
        |               |  Wilson.     |  Shoppee.     |  _C.C._
   1878 |Cha{s.} John   |James Harvey, |Ja{s.} Henry   |Benj{n.}
        |  Shoppee.     |  _C.C._      |  Pitcher.     |  Woolley.
   1879 |James Harvey,  |Ja{s.} Henry  |Benj{n.}       |George Austin,
        |  _C.C._       |  Pitcher.    |  Woolley.     |  sen{r.}
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

  [25] Will{m.} Hare chosen Warden.
  [26] Will{m.} Dunsford White chosen Warden.
  [27] Francis Snelling chosen Warden.
  [28] Edw{d.} Stone chosen Warden.

  ------+---------------+-----------------------------------------------
  AN{o.}|    MASTERS.   |                  WARDENS.
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------
   1880 |Ja{s.} Henry   |Benj{n.}      |Geo. Austin,   |Will{m.} Ruston.
        |  Pitcher.     |  Woolley.    |  sen{r.}      |
   1881 |Benj{n.}       |Geo. Austin,  |Will{m.}       |Rich{d.} Ja{s.}
        |  Woolley.     |  sen{r.}     |  Ruston.      |  Atkinson.
   1882 |Geo. Austin,   |Will{m.}      |Rich{d.} Ja{s.}|Walter H{y.}
        |  sen{r.}      |  Ruston.     |  Atkinson.    |Wilkin, _Ald._
   1883 |William Ruston.|Rich{d.}      |Walter H{y.}   |Jonathan Denny.
        |               |  Ja{s.}      | Wilkin, _Ald._|
        |               |  Atkinson.   |               |
   1884 |Rich{d.} Ja{s.}|Walter H{y.}  |Jonathan Denny.|Cha{s.} Howard
        |  Atkinson.    |  Wilkin,     |               |  Atkinson.
        |               |  _Ald._      |               |
   1885 |Walter Hy.     |Jonathan      |Tho{s.} George |Nathan Salaman.
        | Wilkin, _Ald._|  Denny.      |  Driver.      |
   1886 |Jonathan Denny.|Tho{s.} George|Edw{d.} Cha{s.}|George Austin,
        |               |  Driver.     |  Cornish.     |  jun{r.}
   1887 |Edward Cha{s.} |George Austin,|W{m.} Aaron    |Will{m.} Lumley.
        |  Cornish.     |  jun{r.}     |  Ecclestone.  |
   1888 |George Austin, |W{m.} Aaron   |Will{m.}       |Ja{s.} Cope
        |  jun{r.}      |  Ecclestone. |  Lumley.      |  Cornish.
   1889 |W{m.} Aaron    |Will{m.}      |Ja{s.} Cope    |Joseph Wilson.
        |  Ecclestone.  |  Lumley.     |  Cornish.     |
  ------+---------------+--------------+---------------+----------------

[Illustration]



A LIST OF SUCH MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY AS HAVE SERVED THE OFFICE OF
SERJEANT SURGEON.


This List, as well as the list of King’s Barbers, is undoubtedly
incomplete, but contains the names of all those of whom any record
exists at Barbers’ Hall. A short account of the Office of Serjeant
Surgeon etc., may be seen in _The Medical Times_ for 1867, vol. 2,
p. 438.

    William Hobbes, W. 1461.
    Thomas Vicary, M. 1530, &c.
    Richard Ferris, M. 1562.
    Robert Balthrop, M. 1565.
    William Gooderus, M. 1594.
    George Baker, M. 1597.
    Christopher Frederick, M. 1609.
    William Clowes, M. 1626.
    Humphrey Painter, M. 1661.
    John Knight, M. 1663.
    Richard Wiseman, M. 1665.
    Thomas Hobbs, M. 1687.
    Thomas Gardiner, M. 1697.
    Charles Bernard, M. 1703.
    Ambrose Dickins, M. 1729.
    Claudius Amyand, M. 1731.
    John Ranby, S.S. to George II, sworn a foreign brother of the
      Company 5 October, 1722.
    Sir Cæsar Hawkins, Bart., S.S. to George III, admitted to the
      Livery 1736.
    Thomas Gataker, S.S. to George III, was free of the Company.

    M. signifies Master.    W. Warden.



A LIST OF THE KING’S BARBERS.


    Nicholas Simpson, M. 1537.
    John Penn, M. 1539.
    Edmund Harman, M. 1540.
    Thomas Caldwell, M. 1628.
    Thomas Davyes, M. 1639.
    Thomas Lisle, M. 1662.
    Ralph Foliard, M. 1664.

    M. signifies Master.



A LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY WHO HAVE SERVED THE OFFICES OF
SHERIFF, ALDERMAN OR LORD MAYOR OF THE CITY OF LONDON.


  -------------------------+-------+--------+--------------------+------
               NAME.       |MASTER.|SHERIFF.|      ALDERMAN.     |MAYOR.
  -------------------------+-------+--------+--------------------+------
  Sir John Ayliffe         | 1538  |  1548  |Bridge Without, 1551|  --
      (_Grocer_)           |       |        |Dowgate             |
  Sir Peter Proby          | 1615  |  1614  |Queenhithe          | 1622
      (_Grocer_)           |       |        |                    |
  Sir John Frederick       |     } |        |{Vintry, 1653       | 1661
      (_Grocer_)           | 1654} |  1655  |{                   |
      _M.P. for Dartmouth,_| 1658} |        |{Coleman Street     |
      _M.P. for the City._ |     } |        |                    |
  Edward Arris             | 1651  |   --   |Bridge Without, 1663|  --
  Sir Nathaniel Herne      | 1674  |  1674  |Billingsgate, 1676  |  --
      _M.P. for Dartmouth._|       |        |                    |
  Sir John Lethieullier    | 1676  |  1674  |        ----        |  --
  Sir Humphry Edwin        | 1688  |  1688  |Tower               | 1697
      (_Skinner_)          |       |        |                    |
  Sir William Stewart      |  --   |  1711  |Cripplegate, 1711   | 1721
      (_Goldsmith_)        |       |        |                    |
  Sir John Bull            |  --   |  1718  |        ----        |  --
      (_Clothworker_)      |       |        |                    |
  Sir Thomas Challoner     | 1761  |  1762  |Aldgate, 1760       |  --
  Walter Henry Wilkin      | 1885  |   --   |Lime Street, 1888   |  --
  -------------------------+-------+--------+--------------------+------



[Illustration]

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT


THE BARBERS UNINCORPORATE.

The origin of the Barbers’ Guild partook of a religious character; and
the meeting together of men of the craft for religious observances, for
attending the funerals and obits of deceased members and their wives,
and for feasting once a year, gradually transformed a semi-social and
religious guild into what ultimately became a purely secular or “trade
guild.” This religious origin is borne out by the very important Return
made by the Barbers of London, to the Writ of 12th Rich. II, and is
strengthened by reference to the Returns made by the Barbers of Lincoln
and of Norwich (both which latter are preserved at the Record Office),
and which clearly point to those guilds being of a religious character;
indeed the Barbers of Norwich do not seem to have had a single secular
or trade ordinance in their constitution.

1388. In the Return of the Barbers of London to the Writ of Richard
II, the Masters recite that they “have found a document amongst the
articles of their records made of the time to which memory runneth
not,” concerning the points upon which the fraternity was founded;

  PRIMEREMENT al honourance de Dieu et touz ses Seyntes et pur
  excitac͠on les c͠oens des gentz a bien faire et perseverance avoir et
  bien faitz. . . . .

  FIRSTLY to the honour of God and all his Saints, and to stir up the
  commons of the people to do well, and to have perseverance in well
  doing. . . . .

Regulations were made enjoining charity, attendance at funerals and
obits, against the enticing away of the servants of others, providing
for the amicable settlement of disputes, and the like.

The articles above briefly referred to, contain nothing in particular
as to trade regulation or inspection, leaving a pretty certain
inference that they were made for the governance of a social and
religious guild or fraternity. We shall presently see that in 1308, the
Company partook of the nature of a trade guild, and we may therefore
reasonably presume that the articles made in the time to which memory
in 1388 did not run, were drawn up _previous_ to 1308, and therefore
without much hesitation we may assign the origin of the Barbers’
Company to at least the xiij{th.} century.

In the early part of the reign of Edward II, and indeed for a long
while previously, the Barbers were practitioners in the art of Surgery;
at all events they performed the minor operations of that craft, such
as bleeding, tooth-drawing, cauterization, and the like.

The Barbers having been accustomed to assist the monks in the surgical
operations performed by them in early times, acquired a degree of
proficiency which enabled them to practise as Surgeons themselves. Up
till about the xij{th.} century the practice of Surgery and Medicine
was however almost wholly confined to the Clergy, who seem to have
enjoyed the double privilege of curing men’s bodies as well as their
souls. In 1163 the Council of Tours, under Pope Alexander III,
considering that a practice which involved in its operations the
shedding of blood, was incompatible with the holy office of the clergy,
forbad them to interfere in any matter of Surgery; the consequence
of this edict was that they gave over the operations of Surgery but
continued to practise the healing art of Medicine.

As already said, the Clergy very frequently employed the Barbers
as their assistants, and committed to them the preparation of
the medicated baths and the performance of sundry minor surgical
operations. No doubt the Edict of Tours was hailed with joy by the
Barbers, who thus found a lucrative practice thrown in their way,
and seized the opportunity of practising as Surgeons “on their own
account,” calling themselves Barber-Surgeons, and practising both
Barbery and Surgery.

_c._ 1307. The archives preserved at the Guildhall have many entries
concerning the Barbers’ Company, and in _Letter-Book D._ 157{B.}
there is an ordinance concerning the Barbers of London, which shows
that at this time they were occupied in Surgery, and advertised
their profession in an objectionable manner, which was very properly
forbidden by the City authorities.

  DE BARBOURS. Et que nul barbier ne soit se ose ne si hardy qil mette
  sank en leur fenestres en apiert ou en view des gentz, mais pryvement
  le facent porter a Thamise sur peine des doux souldz rendre al oeps
  des Viscountz.

  CONCERNING BARBERS. And that no barbers shall be so bold or so hardy
  as to put blood in their windows, openly or in view of folks, but let
  them have it privily carried unto the Thames, under pain of paying
  two shillings to the use of the Sheriffs.

1308. The first express entry which we have concerning our Company is
the presentation and admission of Richard le Barber, as Supervisor
or Master of the Barbers, before the Court of Aldermen in 1308
(_Letter-Book C._ 96).

  RIC’S LE BARBOUR ex oppõito ecc̃lie omñi scoꝜ parue elect’ est et
  p’sentatˀ pˀ Barbitonsores london die Martˀ p’xˀ p’t fm̃ Sc̃e Lucie
  virgĩs Anno R. E. fiɫ R. E. sc̃do coram dñis Nichõ de ffarndon tũc
  maiore london Johñe de Wengũue cetˀisqʒ Aldermĩs ad custodiendˀ
  officiũ BarbitonsoꝜ &c. Et admissus est et jurˀ q’d quolibet mense
  faciet scrutiniũ pˀ totñ officiũ suũ et si quos invenˀit lupanarˀ
  id alio mõ inhonestos et in scandalũ officii &c. eos distringat &
  distriaõem in cam’am apportari faciet &c.

  RICHARD LE BARBOUR dwelling opposite to the Church of Allhallows the
  Less, was chosen and presented by the Barbers of London, on Tuesday
  next after the feast of Saint Lucy the Virgin (_13th December_) in
  the second year of the reign of King Edward, son of King Edward,
  before Sir Nicholas de Farndon, then Mayor of London, John de
  Wengrave and other Aldermen, to have supervision over the trade of
  the Barbers &c. And he was admitted and made oath that every month
  he would make scrutiny throughout the whole of his trade, and if he
  should find any among them keeping brothels, or acting unseemly in
  any other way, and to the scandal of the trade, he was to distrain
  upon them, and cause the distress to be taken into the Chamber (_of
  London_) &c.

The foregoing record does not appear very creditable to the reputation
of the Barbers of Edward the Second’s time, but it should be remembered
that in those days, and for a long period before and afterwards, the
Barbers superintended the Baths (Bagnios) and that these places were
not infrequently the resort of improper characters; a few of our
predecessors had perhaps, under the circumstances, been somewhat lax in
their morality, and let us hope that Richard le Barber administered to
those whom he found offending, due correction according to his oath and
their deserts.

It would not seem from the terms of the admission, that the Master was
at that period elected annually, and the Office was probably held by
one man for a considerable number of years. There is no entry in the
City books (which have been carefully examined for the purpose) of
another admission to the Office until the year 1376, when two Masters
were appointed, and then for some years subsequently two new Masters
were sworn in annually.

1309. In this year we find the first record of an admission of a Barber
to the freedom of the City, and several others occur about this period
(_see_ Freemen).

1310. On Wednesday next after the feast of the Nativity, 4th Edward II,
Gerard the Barber was sworn keeper of the Gate of Newgate (_Letter-Book
D._ 113), and there are other entries of Barbers being appointed
keepers or porters at the City gates; from one of these, in 1375, it
would seem that they were to keep a strict watch that no lepers should
enter the city, and it was doubtless on account of their surgical
knowledge enabling them to distinguish those afflicted with leprosy,
that these offices were conferred upon them.

1310. On Monday before the feast of St. Gregory the will of Richard
le Barber, our first Master, was proved in the Court of Husting. To
Katherine his wife and Johanna his daughter, he left tenements and
rents in Bread Street, Cordwainer Street, Queenhithe, Candlewike
Street, and Whitecrouche Street. To Thomas de Mangrave his apprentice,
a shop in Bread Street; to the fabric of London Bridge 20{s.,} and the
residue to pious uses.

1312. The earliest admission of a Surgeon (_not_ a Barber Surgeon) to
the freedom is that of “Magister Johẽs de Suthwerk cirurgicus,” who was
sworn on Friday before the feast of St. Barnabas, 5th Edward II, and
who paid nothing for his freedom, being admitted at the instance of
Hugh de Waltham, Town Clerk.

Among the Archives at Guildhall are various entries relating to early
Barbers, which, although not touching upon the history of our Company,
may properly be preserved in these pages, and I shall therefore give
translations of a few of them.

  1315. On Monday next after the feast of the Purification of the
  Blessed Virgin Mary, in the 8th Edward II, by common assent of the
  Mayor and Aldermen in the Hustings of pleas of Land, there was
  granted and demised to William de Dounesheued, Barber to Sir John de
  Sandale, Chancellor of our Lord the King, a certain house belonging
  to the Bridge of London, to have and to hold to the said William for
  his whole life, he paying yearly on the usual days two and a half
  marks to the keepers for the time being of the said Bridge, which
  said house is situate between a house belonging to the said Bridge in
  which John Mew now dwells towards the West, and a house belonging to
  Thomas le Maderman towards the East, in the Parish of Saint Dionis
  Backchurch London. And the said William, the said house and its
  appurtenances in all needful manner shall sustain, and against wind
  and rain cause the same to be defended during the whole term of his
  life.

And there was a proviso that if the rent should remain unpaid for a
whole year that the Bridge Keepers should re-enter. (_Letter-Book E._
28{B.})

1319. On Thursday after the feast of St. Valentine, 13th Edward II,
there was enrolled an obligation by which Roger the Barber (servant to
John de Dallinge, Sheriff of London) and Margaret his wife, were bound
to pay £100 to Sir John de Laugecombe, Rector of the Church of Laumaz
Heys (_sic_) before the feast of Easter. (_Letter-Book E._ 85.)

1320. On Wednesday next after the feast of Saints Fabian and Sebastian,
13th Edward II, Lawrence the Barber, one of the men sworn to keep the
Poultry Market on Cornhill, laid an information against John Bakon that
he the said John was a forestaller of the Market. (_Letter-Book E._
96{B.})

1320. In the same year among the names of the Citizens assessed to
contribute to a fine of £1,000 to the King, occurs that of Thomas the
Barber. (_Letter-Book E._ 106{B.})

1320. On Monday next before the feast of St. Margaret the Virgin, 14th
Edward II, the Wardship of Alice, Joane and Agnes, children of John de
Wynton, Barber, deceased, was given to Joane his widow; several shops
and houses in the City belonging to the deceased are scheduled as for
the benefit of the Wards, and Robert de Lamyngton, John de Bristolle,
Barber, and Roger de Croidon were bound as sureties. (_Letter-Book E._
114.)

Instances also occur of City Wards (sons of Barbers deceased) being
apprenticed by the Chamberlain to various trades.

1340. In 14th Edward III, Hamo the Barber was assessed by the City
at £10 as his contribution towards a forced loan of £5,000 to the
King (_Letter-Book F._ 33) and six years later (1346) Hamo was again
assessed at 20_s._ towards a “present” of 3,000 marks to the King.

1370. On 14th March, 44th Edward III, the wardship of Alice (aged 3
years), daughter of Nicholas the Barber, was given to Gilbert Prince,
who was to use her legacy of 40 marks for her benefit.

1374. On the 28th July, 1374, Lawrence de Weston, Barber (Master of
the Company in 1376), and Margaret his wife, mother of the said Alice,
came before the Mayor, &c., and proved that the said Alice was dead,
whereupon Gilbert Prince, the Executor of Nicholas the Barber’s will,
was discharged, and the money paid to Lawrence and Margaret de Weston.
(_Letter-Book G._ 244 and 317{B.})

Reverting now from individuals to the Company, we find that the Barbers
existed as a Trade Guild, but unincorporated certainly from the year
1308, and that they were at first ruled by one Master, and later on
(in 1376) by two Masters, appointed annually. This Company of Barbers
was composed of two classes of Members--viz., those who practised
Barbery proper (perhaps including phlebotomy and tooth drawing), and
those who practised Surgery, and who were, for distinction sake, called
Barber-Surgeons (in the City books they are spoken of as “Barbers
exercising the faculty of Surgery”). For aught we know to the contrary,
a perfect harmony and good understanding existed between these two
sections of the Company, and it is probable that the ranks of the
latter were continually recruited from the former.

1381. The earliest evidence of the existence of our Hall is to be found
in Harl. MS. 541, which contains a list of Companies’ Halls in the
City, temp. 5 Richard II, by which it appears that the Barbers’ Hall
was then, as now, in the Parish of Saint Olave, Silver Street, and
doubtless on the same site; the entry is, “Barbar hall y{e} p’yssh of
Seynt Oluf in Sylverstrete.” In 1490 the Hall is _known_ to have been
on the same site.

1388. In this year Richard II sent his writs all over the Kingdom to
enquire into the nature and constitution of the several guilds and
fraternities, religions, social or craft, and the returns to these
writs, which must have been an immense number, were formerly kept among
the Records at the Tower of London. Herbert, in his History of the
Livery Companies, refers to his fruitless endeavours to discover these
returns, and I have made diligent enquiry at the Record Office for
them also, with the undoubted result that all of those which relate to
the London Trading Guilds are lost. There are, however, a great number
relating to London religious guilds and to trade guilds all over the
country. Two of these concerning the Barbers of Norwich and of Lincoln
are so highly interesting that I have preserved them in Appendix A.

Amongst our Archives at Barbers’ Hall, is a vellum book of Ordinances
written out fair in 1658, and therein is to be found a copy of the
return made by the Barbers of London to the writ of Richard II, and
which the Company caused to be extracted from the Tower Records in
1634. It is certified by William Colet as agreeing with the original,
but unfortunately Mr. Colet (although he was Deputy-Keeper of the
Records) or his copyist has made one or two mistakes, which necessitate
a little hiatus in the translation, and he has put the year as the 11th
instead of the 12th of Richard II. That the latter year is the correct
one is abundantly proved by the dates on the original writs and on the
numerous returns still in existence at the Record Office, as also by
the names of the Masters certifying, who are recorded at Guildhall as
having been admitted 10th September, 12th Richard II.

Richard II was more solicitous as to the funds and property of the
Guilds, than he was about their observances, and our predecessors seem
to have quickly acquainted him with their pecuniary position, “the
which Company have neither tenements nor rents to their common use.”

The Masters recite an old document which they found in their strong
box, and which will well repay perusal; it opens with a devout
dedication to the Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and the glorious company of
heaven, and the first Ordinance being expressly made in honour of God
and all saints, and with the intention of stirring up the people to do
well and to persevere therein, we must all approve of it. It provides
firstly, that decayed brethren shall have an allowance of 10-1/2_d._
per week, if their poverty have not come about by their own folly.
The second and third Ordinances relate to attendance at funerals and
obits of deceased members. Then follow certain rules, that no man shall
entice away another’s servant; the Masters to settle disputes, payment
of quarterage, refusal of office, absence from Mass and the yearly
feast, the livery clothing, &c., &c. It is well to observe here the
evidence of the antiquity of our livery, of the quarterage, and of the
feast, all of which have come down to these days.

Some later Ordinances are added, which were apparently made in 1387.
This return is probably the only one extant of the whole of those made
by the London trade guilds, and is therefore of the highest interest.
A copy of the original (which is in Norman French), together with a
translation, follows.

    COPIA extracta ex Bundell’ Fraternitatum et Gildar’ Civitatis
      London remaneñ de Recordo prout patet in Rotulis dñi Regis infra
      Turrim London.

  Anno xj{o}.[29] Ricardi Secundi.

  [29] A mistake for Anno xij{o.}

  JOHAN HEYDON et Hen Cook Mestres[30] William Chapman et William
  Gomine Surveyours de la Compaignie appelle ffraternite des Barbers de
  la Citee de Londres dauncien temps ordeigne certifiant au Counsail
  ñre S{r.} le Roy en sa Chancellarie la forme manere et condicion de
  touz articles obseruancez et lour circumstances contenuz en la paper
  de dite Compaignie en la forme quesuyt la quel compaignie nont nul
  teñt ne rent a lour c͠oe oeps les queles articles la dite Compaignie
  nont usez en lour temps forsqz soulement pur auer lour vesture un
  foitz per añ et paier lour quarterage pur sustiner pouerez geñtz de
  mesme la Compaignie et un foitz per añ assembler pur manger et eslire
  neuells Mestres et Surveiours sanz ascun autre article de sontz
  escript mettre en use forsqz ceux qˀ tan soulement sont faitz al
  honour de dieu mes purtant qils ont trouez un paper one les articles
  de sontz escriptz fait del temps donc memorie ne court ils les ont
  p’sentez a vrẽ tressages discrecions.

  [30] Sworn Masters of the Barbers, 10 Sept., 1388. 12th Ric. II.
  (_Letter-Book H._ 235{B.})

  CESTE ENDENTURE fait en nom̃ de Dieu omnipotent pier et fitz et
  seynt Esperitz et de nr̃e Dame Seynt Marie et de tout la gloriouse
  Compaignie de Ciel de la foundacion et de Lordinance de la fraternite
  des Barbers de la Cite de Londres tesmoigñ coment et sur queux pointz
  la dite Fraternite est funduz et ordeigne.

  PRIMEREMENT al honourance de Dieu et touz ses Seyntes et pur
  excitac͠on les coẽns des geñtz a bien faire et perseuerance auoir
  en bien faitz est ordeigne qˀ si ascun frere de cel fraternite qi
  ad este de cell fraternite per vij anz sil cheit en mischief ou en
  pouerte pˀ auenture issint qil neit de quoy il purra viure de son
  propre et ces ne luy aucigne de sa propre folye qu donqz il auera
  chescun semaigne de lour c͠oe boyste x{d.} oᵬ. pur sa sustenance.

  ITEM quant ascun frere du dite fraternite soit mort les freres de la
  dite fraternite serront la veyle al dirige et le jour al Messe et al
  dirige et al Messe del Moys obit et qˀ chescun tiel frere mort eit
  xxx messes de lour c͠oe Boyste et qˀ chescun frier qˀ soit absent
  sanz reasonable eucheson a ascun des ditz iiij foitz qil mette a lour
  c͠oe Boyste en noun de ses offrandes et dispences queux il deust auer
  fait sil eust este en p’sent iij{d.}

  ITEM quant ascun Meistre de la dite Fraternite eit feme Mort qˀ les
  freres de la dite ffraternite soient a La Vigile et a la Messe le
  jour de sont enterment et a la Moys obit et quel frer qˀ soit absent
  a ascun de tres foitz qil paie pur chescun foitz qil soit absent en
  lieu des costages et autres dispences queux il ferreit sil feusse
  present a lour c͠oe boyst iij{d.}

  ITEM qˀ nul frere de la dite Fraternite abette autri seruant hors des
  seruice son Meistre priuement ne apertement.

  ITEM si ascun debate surdre pˀ entre ascuns des freres qˀ dieu defend
  et ces soit redresse per amour per la consideration des Meistres de
  la dite Fraternite . . . . . faire bonement et qˀ nul ne sue vers
  autre en autre manere autant qil ad assaie sil puisse pˀ leide des
  ditz Mestrez estre recorde.

  ITEM qˀ chescun frere de la dite ffraternite veigne chescun quarter
  del an et paie son quarterage a Collectors decell issint qˀ les dits
  Collectors ne.

  ITEM accorde est entre toutz les ditz freres qˀ quel de eux qˀ refuse
  son office quant ces vient a luy sil voet estre de ces allegge qil
  paie a lour c͠oe boyst.

  ITEM si ascun frere soit absent a lour Messe et Manger quant il serra
  un foitz en lan qil paiera a tant en offrandes et toutz autres choes
  come un.

  ITEM qˀ nul des ditz freres allowe autre hors de sa Meason.

  ITEM si ascun frere per auenture tarie ses paiements entre añ et
  demy qil face gree demz les ij anz sanz rien outre le certain doñ.
  Et sil ad luy soient . . . . . . p’donez issint qil paie ce gest
  aderer. Et a ceux pointz tenir solonc amendement si mistier soit qils
  soient amendez ceste Fraternite sont entre jurez et ont chescun de
  eux pleine sa foy et si fra chescun qi serra de la dite ffraternite.
  Et accorde est entre eux . . . . . . endenture soient enclos en lour
  c͠oe boyst et lautre demurge vers les Mestres qˀ serront pur le temps
  de la dit fraternite.

  ITEM chescun frere du dit fraternite paie en arres pur son Drap auant
  la mayn xl{d.} ameyns.

  ITEM qˀ chescun frere garde la liuere ij anz enterrement deuant qil
  le donne ou vende ou aliene la liuere en ascun manere sur peyne de
  paier al compaignie un noble dor sur lour grace.

  ITEM est ordeyne le dymenge ps̃ch ensuant lassumpc͠on de nr̃e Dame
  lan le Roy Richard sẽde xj{o.} qe les Surveiours du dit Mistier
  soient esluy per lassent de tout la ffraternite et nemy per les
  Mestres.

  ITEM qˀ nul du dit Fraternite paie plus pur son mangre qˀ xiiij{d,}
  en apres.

  ITEM ordeyne est qˀ chescun Meistre qˀ eslisera ascun autre home pur
  estre en son lieu cesta sauoir pur estre Meistre celuy qˀ eslisera
  tiel home pur estre Meistre apres lan serra obligee per mesme luy a
  la Compaignie pur la monoy en un obligacon.

                                         Convenit cum Recordo
                                                       WILLŨS COLET.

    A COPY taken from a Bundle “of the Fraternities and Guilds of the
      City of London” which remains of record, as the same is seen in
      the Rolls of the Lord the King, at the Tower of London.

  Anno 12.
  Richard II.

  JOHN HEYDON and Henry Cook, Masters, William Chapman and William
  Gomine, Surveyors of the Company called the Fraternity of Barbers
  of the City of London of ancient time established, certifying
  to the Council of Our Lord the King, in his Chancery, the form
  manner and condition of all the articles, customs and their
  circumstances contained in the Records of the same Company in the
  form following:--The which Company have neither tenements nor rents
  to their common use, And these articles the said Company have not
  used in their time excepting only for to have their Livery once a
  year, and to pay their quarterage to maintain the poor folk of the
  same Company, and once a year to assemble to feast, and to elect new
  Masters and Surveyors without any other article of their writing to
  put forward except those which only are made to the honour of God;
  but, however, as they have found a document amongst the articles of
  the Records, made of the time to which memory runneth not, they have
  presented it to your most wise discretions.

  THIS INDENTURE made in the name of the Omnipotent God, the Father
  and Son and the Holy Ghost, and of our Lady Saint Mary and of all
  the glorious Company of Heaven, concerning the foundation of the
  Government of the Fraternity of Barbers of the City of London
  Witnesseth how and upon what points the said Fraternity is founded
  and ordained.

  FIRSTLY to the honour of God and all his Saints, and to stir up the
  Commons of the people to do well, and to have perseverance in well
  doing, it is ordained that if any brother of this Fraternity who has
  been of this Fraternity for seven years by chance fall into trouble
  or into poverty, and if he have nothing of his own by which he may be
  able to live, and it be not through his own folly, that then he shall
  have each week from their common box tenpence half penny for his
  sustenance.

  ITEM. That when any brother of the said Fraternity dies the brethren
  of the said Fraternity shall go on the Vigil to the dirge, and on
  the day[31] to the Mass, and to the dirge and to the mass of the
  month’s obit, and that each such brother dead have thirty masses from
  their common box,[32] and that each brother who is absent without
  reasonable excuse at any of the said four times, shall put into their
  common box in place of his offerings and expenses, as he ought to
  have done if he had been present, three pence.

  [31] The day of the funeral.
  [32] Thirty masses sung at the expense of the common box.

  ITEM. When any Master of the said Fraternity has a wife dead, the
  brethren of the said Fraternity shall be at the Vigil and at the Mass
  on the day of her burial and at the month’s obit, and that brother
  who is absent at any of the three times shall pay for each time that
  he be absent, in place of the costs and other expenses which he would
  have borne if he had been present, three pence to their common box.

  ITEM. That no brother of the said Fraternity entice any servant from
  the service of his master, privily or openly.

  ITEM. If any dispute arise between any of the brethren, which God
  forbid, it is to be amicably settled by the decision of the Masters
  of the said Fraternity [_and they are_] to deal plainly,[33] and that
  no one sue another in other manner than at the assize (_?_) [_and
  then only_] if he be empowered by leave of the said Masters to be
  recorded.

  [33] _i.e._, honestly.

  ITEM. That each brother of the said Fraternity shall come
  each quarter of the year and pay his quarterage to the
  collectors[34] . . . . . .

  [34] I am unable to complete this sentence.

  ITEM. It is agreed between all the said brethren that whoever of them
  refuses his office when it comes to him, if he wishes to be relieved
  of it, that he pay to their common box.

  ITEM. If any brother be absent from their Mass and Feast when it
  shall be once a year, he shall pay so much in offerings and all other
  things as one present.

  ITEM. That none of the said brethren put [?] another out of his
  house.

  ITEM. If any brother by chance delay his payments beyond a
  year-and-a-half, that he make acquittance within two years without
  any [_penalty_] beyond the ordinary fine. And if he be thus forgiven
  that he settle the matter at once.

  AND to hold these points pursuant to amendment alone if the Mystery
  will that they be amended, this Fraternity are sworn among themselves
  and have each of them pledged his troth, and so from each who shall
  [_hereafter_] be of the said Fraternity. And it is agreed amongst
  them that this Indenture be enclosed in their common box, and the
  counterpart be held by the Masters for the time being of the said
  Fraternity.

The document which the Masters found amongst their records made in “the
time to which memory runneth not” probably ends here, and the following
Items (see the third one) were doubtless additional Ordinances made
circa 1387.

  ITEM. That each brother of the said Fraternity pay in pledge for his
  livery, when he has the same, forty pence at the least.

  ITEM. That each brother keep the livery two whole years before he may
  give, or sell, or alienate it in any manner, under pain of paying to
  the Company for their pardon, a noble of gold.

  ITEM. It is ordained that on the Sunday following the Assumption of
  our Lady in the 11th year of King Richard the Second,[35] that the
  Surveyors of the said Mystery be elected by the assent of all the
  Fraternity, and no longer by the Masters.

  [35] 18th Aug., 1387.

  ITEM. That none of the said Fraternity hereafter pay more than
  fourteen pence for his feast.

  ITEM. It is ordained that each Master who shall choose any other man
  to be in his place, that is to say for to be Master; he who shall
  choose such man to be Master for the year shall be bound by himself
  for him, in an obligation to the Company for the money.[36]

  [36] _i.e._, a guarantee for his honesty.

                                     It agrees with the Record,
                                                       WILLIAM COLET.

Coeval with our Company of Barbers there existed in the City of London,
another Fraternity or Guild, that of the Surgeons, in no way connected
with the Barbers, but, like them, existing by prescription only and
unincorporated. It is not to be expected that these two Companies
would, in the days of so much trade protection and jealousy, exhibit
an over-friendly feeling towards one another, and the records of the
period, though meagre, show that this was the case. The Surgeons’ Guild
at no time appear to have been a numerous body, indeed there is reason
to believe that frequently their numbers were less than a dozen, and
they possibly never exceeded twenty.

In the researches undertaken for the purpose of this work, various
references to the Surgeons’ Guild have turned up, and although at this
early period there was much in common between the two Fraternities, I
have considered it quite apart from the subject in hand to go into any
detail concerning that Guild, more especially as it has recently been
so ably and fully dealt with by Mr. D’Arcy Power in his “Memorials of
the Craft of Surgery.”

1376. In the 50th Edward III, the Barbers made a complaint to the Mayor
and Aldermen against unskilled practitioners in Surgery, and prayed
that two Masters should be yearly appointed to inspect and rule the
craft, and that none should be admitted to the freedom of the City, but
upon due examination of their skill; and this was granted by the Court,
entered of record and Lawrence de Weston and John de Grantone were
chosen Masters. The following is a translation of the original record
concerning this matter.[37]

[37] In this and some other cases I have adopted the able translations
made by Mr. Riley in his “Memorials of London and London Life.”

  To the honourable Lords, and wise, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City
  of London, shew the good folks, the Barbers of the same city, that
  whereas from one day to another there resort men, who are barbers,
  from uppelande[38] unto the said city, who are not instructed in
  their craft, and do take houses and intermeddle with barbery,
  surgery, and the cure of other maladies, while they know not how
  to do such things, nor ever were instructed in such craft; to the
  great damage, and in deceit, of the people, and to the great scandal
  of all the good barbers of the said city:--therefore the said good
  folks do pray that it may please your honourable Lordships, for
  the love of God, and as a work of charity, to ordain and establish
  that from henceforth no such stranger, coming to the said City from
  uppelande, or from any other place, of whatsoever condition he be,
  shall keep house or shop for barbery within the same city, before
  that he shall be found able and skilled in the said art and office
  of barbery, and that, by assay and examination of the good folks,
  barbers of the same city, whom out of the said craft it may please
  you to ordain thereunto. And that it may please you to ordain and
  establish, that from henceforth there shall always be two good men of
  their said craft chosen by their common assent to be Wardens of the
  craft; and that such two persons shall be presented unto the Mayor,
  Recorder, and Aldermen, of the said city, and sworn before them well
  and lawfully, to the best of their power and knowledge, to rule their
  said craft; and that the said Masters may inspect the instruments of
  the said art, to see that they are good and proper for the service of
  the people, by reason of the great peril that might ensue thereupon;
  and that on the complaint of such two Masters, all rebellious persons
  in the said craft, shall be made to come before you, and whosoever
  shall be found in default against this Ordinance shall pay to the
  Chamber 40 pence. And that from henceforth no man of their craft
  shall be admitted to the franchise of the said city, if he be not
  attested as being good and able, upon good examination before you
  made. And that no foreigner shall keep house or shop in their craft
  within the said city, or the suburbs thereof. And that this Ordinance
  shall be enrolled in the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, for all
  time to last.

  [38] The general name for country places in those days.

  And the same was granted unto them. Whereupon, Laurence de
  Westone and John de Grantone were chosen Masters of the Barbers.
  [_Letter-Book H. 28._]

The foregoing ordinance must surely have given umbrage to the Surgeons’
Guild as it placed the Barbers upon an equal footing with them in the
examination of Surgeons, the inspection of their instruments, etc.; and
this more especially as seven years previously (in 1369) the Surgeons
had obtained from the same Court an Ordinance investing them with the
power of presenting the defaults of all unskilful Surgeons.

1382. As an example of a quack Surgeon’s method of practice, and of his
rogueries and punishment, the following case of Roger Clerk will be
found interesting:--

  Roger Clerk, of Wandelesworth,[39] on the 13th day of May in the 5th
  year (_Richard II_), was attached in the Chamber of the Guildhall of
  London, before the Mayor and Aldermen, to make answer, as well to the
  Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London, as to Roger atte Hacche,
  in a plea of deceit and falsehood: as to which, the same Roger said,
  that whereas no physician or surgeon should intermeddle with any
  medicines or cures within the liberty of the city aforesaid, but
  those who are experienced in the said arts, and approved therein, the
  said Roger Clerk, who knew nothing of either of the arts aforesaid,
  being neither experienced nor approved therein, nor understood
  anything of letters, came to the house of him, Roger atte Hacche, in
  the parish of St. Martin, in Ismongereslane, in London, on Thursday,
  the morrow of Ash Wednesday, in the 5th year, etc.; and there saw one
  Johanna, the wife of the aforesaid Roger atte Hacche, who was then
  lying ill with certain bodily infirmities, and gave the said Roger,
  her husband, to understand, that he was experienced and skilled in
  the art of medicine, and could cure the same Johanna of her maladies,
  if her husband desired it.

  [39] Wandsworth.

  Whereupon, the said Roger atte Hacche, trusting in his words, gave
  him 12 pence, in part payment of a larger sum which he was to pay
  him, in case the said Johanna should be healed. And upon this, the
  same Roger Clerk then and there gave to the said Roger atte Hacche an
  old parchment, cut or scratched across, being the leaf of a certain
  book, and rolled it up in a piece of cloth of gold, asserting that it
  would be very good for the fever and ailments of the said Johanna;
  and this parchment, so rolled up, he put about her neck, but in no
  way did it profit her; and so, falsely and maliciously, he deceived
  the same Roger atte Hacche. And he produced the said parchment here
  in Court, wrapped up in the same cloth, in proof of the matters
  aforesaid.

  And the said Roger Clerk personally appeared, and the said parchment
  was shown to him by the Court, and he was asked what the virtue of
  such piece of parchment was; whereupon, he said that upon it was
  written a good charm for fevers. Upon being further asked by the
  Court what were the words of this charm of his, he said;--“Anima
  Christi, sanctifica me; Corpus Christi, salva me; in isanguis
  Christi, nebria me; cum bonus Christus tu, lava me.”[40] And the
  parchment being then examined, not one of those words was found
  written thereon. And he was then further told by the Court, that a
  straw[41] beneath his foot would be of just as much avail for fevers,
  as this said charm of his was; whereupon, he fully granted that it
  would be so. And because that the same Roger Clerk was in no way
  a literate man, and seeing that on the examination aforesaid, (as
  well as on others afterwards made,) he was found to be an infidel,
  and altogether ignorant of the art of physic or of surgery; and to
  the end that the people might not be deceived and aggrieved by such
  ignorant persons, etc.; it was adjudged that the same Roger Clerk
  should be led through the middle of the City, with trumpets and
  pipes, he riding on a horse without a saddle, the said parchment and
  a whetstone, for his lies, being hung about his neck, an urinal also
  being hung before him, and another urinal on his back. [_Letter-Book
  H. 145._]

  [40] “Soul of Christ, sanctify me; body of Christ, save me; blood of
  Christ, saturate me; as Thou art good, Christ, wash me.”

  [41] In allusion, perhaps, to the custom of men who were ready to
  perjure themselves, as false witnesses, to go about with a straw
  sticking out from between the foot and the shoe--“men of straw.”
  [Riley.]

1390. In connection with the Surgeons’ Guild, four Master Surgeons of
the City were sworn before the Mayor, etc., in this year, and _they_
were to make scrutiny amongst persons practising the art of Surgery,
and to present defaults. [_Letter-Book H._ 248.] It will be remembered
that in 1369 a somewhat similar Ordinance was made for the Surgeons’
Guild, and this one in 1390 was probably obtained as a set off to the
powers vested in the Barbers by their Ordinance of 1376, and by way
of assertion of equal rights with them in matters surgical. Anyhow
it is very clear that there were two distinct bodies within the City
ruling the craft of Surgery at this period, each, no doubt, claiming
jurisdiction over its own members, and both anxious and ready to
interfere with outsiders, and probably with each other. It is curious
to note that in the Ordinance of 1390, above referred to, the Masters
inspecting are authorised to make scrutiny not only of men, but of
“women undertaking cures, or practising the art of Surgery”; and here,
in the 19th century, we find history repeating itself, and women again
“intermeddling in matters surgical.”

As might be expected the dual scrutiny exercised over persons
practising surgery, by two distinct and antagonistic Companies,
produced considerable jealousy and unpleasantness, and there are
various records extant indicative of cases of attempted interference
with the Barbers’ privileges, one of which is distinctly stated to have
been the work of the Surgeons and Physicians, as doubtless also were
the others.

1410. By _Letter-Book I._ 94, it appears that the Ordinances for the
Barbers made in 1376 were confirmed to them with the significant
addition that they should enjoy the same, “without the scrutiny of
any person or persons of any other craft or trade, under any name
whatsoever other than the craft or trade of the said Barbers, either
as to shaving, making incision, blood letting or any other matters
pertaining to the art of Barbery or of Surgery, in the craft of the
said Barbers now practised, or to be practised hereafter.” This
Ordinance is, I think, clearly directed against the Masters of the
Surgeons’ Guild, who had sought to exercise their authority over the
Barbers using the faculty of Surgery.

1415. Complaint having been made to the Mayor and Aldermen, concerning
the unskilful and fraudulent practice of certain Barbers in matters of
Surgery, the privileges of the Barbers were again recorded, though the
Company who had hitherto nominated their own Masters, were somewhat
shorn of that privilege, as the Mayor, etc., directed the names of all
the Barber (Surgeons) to be brought before them, and after due enquiry,
_they_ selected two of them for Masters, and gave them their charge and
oath.

1416. “Certain trustworthy and discreet” Barber (Surgeons) complained
to the Mayor, etc., that notwithstanding the last order, there were
still unruly members in the craft, and a fresh Ordinance was enacted
which imposed a penalty on offenders.

The Ordinances above referred to are to be found in _Letter-Book I._
149, and are as follows:

  Be it remembered, that on the 10th day of April, in the 3rd year,
  etc. (_1415_) it was intimated in a relation, and not without alarm,
  unto Thomas Fauconer, Mayor, and the Aldermen, how that some barbers
  of the said city, who are inexperienced in the art of surgery, do
  oftentimes take under their care many sick and maimed persons,
  fraudulently obtaining possession of very many of their goods
  thereby; by reason whereof, they are oftentimes made to be worse
  off at their departure than they were at their coming: and that, by
  reason of the inexperience of the same barbers, such persons are
  oftentimes maimed; to the scandal of such skilful and discreet men
  as practise the art of surgery, and the manifest destruction of the
  people of Our Lord the King.

  And the said Mayor and Aldermen, wishing to obviate an evil and
  a scandal such as this, as also, to provide a fitting remedy for
  the same, and considering first, how that the said barbers by
  themselves, without the scrutiny of any other persons of any other
  trade or craft,[42] or under any name whatsoever, have supervision
  and scrutiny over all men following the craft of barbery, and within
  the liberty of the said city dwelling, as to all manner of cases
  touching the art of barbery or the practice of surgery, within the
  cognizance, or to come within the cognizance, of the craft of the
  said barbers;--as by a certain Ordinance, made and ordained in the
  time of Richard Merlawe,[43] late Mayor, and the then Aldermen,
  and in the Chamber of the said City of London enrolled, of record
  fully appears;--did determine and ordain that in future, by the
  more substantial part of all the barbers following the practice
  of surgery, and dwelling within the liberty of the said city,
  there should be chosen two of the most skilful, most wise, and
  most discreet men, of all the barbers following such practice of
  surgery, and dwelling within the liberty of the said city; seeing
  that oftentimes under their scrutiny and correction there would
  be found cases of possible death and maiming, where, if ignorant
  and indiscreet men should undertake the management thereof--the
  which might God forbid--in their judgment grievous errors might
  unexpectedly ensue, by reason of such unskilfulness. And that the
  same Masters, so often as they should be thus chosen, on election
  should be presented to the Mayor and Aldermen, for the time being,
  there by the said Mayor and Aldermen to be accepted and sworn etc.

  [42] See the Ordinance of 1410.
  [43] Mayor 1409-10.

  And lest perchance a difference of opinion might in future as to
  such election arise, therefore, the said Mayor and Aldermen, after
  taking counsel on the matter aforesaid, on Friday, the 3rd day of
  May, in the same year (_1415_), caused to be brought before them the
  name of every barber who followed the practice of surgery and dwelt
  within the liberty of the said city, in order that, after enquiring
  into the duties and experiences of their practice and skill, in
  manner theretofore approved and customary, they might be the better
  able to accept such Masters. And hereupon, because that, among other
  names, Simon Rolf and Richard Wellys, citizens and barbers of the
  said city practising the art of surgery, as well for their knowledge
  and probity, as for the different kinds of difficult cures that had
  been sagaciously performed and effected by them, were by trustworthy
  testimony, upon sound and umblemished information, commended before
  any others, precept was given by the said Mayor and Aldermen to
  Baldwin Tettisbury, one of the serjeants of the said Mayor, to summon
  the said Simon and Richard for Monday the 6th day of May then next
  ensuing, to appear before the said Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber
  of the Guildhall aforesaid, there to make the oath to them by the
  said Mayor and Aldermen to be administered.

  Upon which Monday the said Simon and Richard, by virtue of such
  summons, appeared before the Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber
  aforesaid. And hereupon the said Simon and Richard were then accepted
  by the said Mayor and Aldermen, and sworn upon the Holy Evangelists
  of God, well and faithfully to watch over and oversee all manner of
  barbers practising the art of surgery, and within the liberty of the
  said city dwelling; to maintain and observe the rules and ordinances
  of the craft or practice aforesaid; no one to spare, for love,
  favour, gain, or hate; diligently without concealment to present unto
  the Chamberlain of the said City, for the time being, such defaults
  as they may find; at all times, when duly required thereto, well and
  faithfully to examine wounds, bruises, hurts, and other infirmities,
  without asking anything for their trouble; and what they should
  find, at their discretion, when duly required thereto, distinctly
  to certify unto the Mayor and Aldermen of the said City, for the
  time being; as also, well and faithfully to conduct themselves from
  thenceforth in future; and all other things to do and perform, which
  of right are befitting or requisite for the masters or overseers of
  such practice to do.

  AFTERWARDS, on the fourth day of July, in the 4th year, etc. (_1416_)
  before Nicholas Wottone, Mayor, the Recorder, and the Aldermen, in
  full Court, upon truthful information of certain trustworthy and
  discreet men of the craft of Barbers, practising the art of surgery
  aforesaid, as of other able and substantial men of the said city, it
  was stated how that, notwithstanding the Ordinance aforesaid, very
  many inexperienced men of the said craft of Barbers, indiscreetly
  practising the art of surgery, did presume, and in their presumption
  pretend, that they were wiser than the Masters inspecting, and, as
  to certain infirmities--indiscreetly excusing themselves therein,
  on the insufficient grounds that they are not liable to the peril
  of maiming or of death--did altogether disdain to give notice of
  the same to the said Masters inspecting, according to the Ordinance
  aforesaid, or to be discreetly examined by them as to the same, or
  diligently to be questioned thereon. Upon which pretence, they did
  not hesitate daily to take sick persons, in peril of death and of
  maiming, under their care, without shewing such sick persons, or such
  infirmities and perils, unto the same Masters inspecting; by reason
  of which presumption or unskilfulness, such sick persons were exposed
  to the greatest peril, either of maiming or of death. Wherefore, the
  said Mayor and Aldermen were prayed that, for the common advantage of
  the whole realm, and the especial honour of the said city, they would
  deign to provide some sure remedy for the same.

  And accordingly, the Mayor and Aldermen, assenting to the said
  petition, as being just and consistent with reason, having taken
  diligent counsel as to the matters aforesaid, and considering that
  very many of such persons in these times are more in dread of loss
  or payment of money than amenable to the dictates of honesty or a
  safe conscience, did ordain and enact, that no barber, practising
  the art of surgery within the liberty of the said City, should
  presume in future to take under his care any sick person who is in
  peril of death or of maiming, unless he should show the same person,
  within three days after so taking him under his care, to the Masters
  inspecting, for the time being, by the barbers practising the art
  of surgery within the liberty of the said City to be elected, and
  to the Mayor and Aldermen presented, and by them specially to be
  admitted; under a penalty of 6_s._ 8_d._ to the Chamber of London in
  form underwritten to be paid, so often as, and when, against this
  Ordinance they should be found to act; namely, 5 shillings to the use
  of the Chamber of the Guildhall, and 20 pence to the use of the craft
  of the Barbers.

1423. In this year certain Ordinances were made by the Mayor (Sir
William Walderne) and Court of Aldermen which are entered in
_Letter-Book K._ 6{B.} This record relates to what Mr. D’Arcy Power,
in his “Memorials of the Craft of Surgery,” has termed a “Conjoint
College” of the Physicians and Surgeons, and has little to do with our
Company, beyond the fact that the scrutiny and oversight of persons
practising Surgery is given to the Masters of the Surgeons’ Guild.
The subject of these Ordinances and many very interesting remarks
thereon and on the Conjoint College may be seen at p. 52, &c., of Mr.
D’Arcy Power’s work; and the record itself is set forth in full at
p. 299; furthermore, extracts from it, so far as the same relate to
the privileges and practice of the Surgeons, are to be found in the
beautiful old vellum MS. formerly belonging to that Guild, and now in
the possession of the Barbers’ Company.

Armed with this additional authority, the Surgeons’ Guild again sought
to interfere with and scrutinize the Barber-Surgeons of the Barbers’
Company. These latter, however, must have had good friends at Court,
and were not slow in asserting and obtaining confirmation of their
rights and privileges, as will be seen by reference to the following
record in _Letter-Book K._ 27{B.}:--

  1424. MEMORANDUM. That on Friday the 10th day of November in the
  third year of the reign of Henry the Sixth from the Conquest
  before John Michell, Mayor, Thomas Knolles and other Aldermen, and
  Simon Seman and John Bithewater, Sheriffs of the City of London,
  It was granted and ordained that the Masters of the faculty of
  Surgery within the craft of Barbers of the same city, do exercise
  the same faculty even as fully and entirely as in the times of
  Thomas Fauconer late Mayor, and other Mayors, it was granted unto
  them, notwithstanding the false accusation (_calumpnia_) which the
  Rector and Supervisors of Physic and the Masters of Surgery pretend
  concerning a certain ordinance made in the time of William Walderne
  late Mayor (_1423_) and entered in the letter book K, folio 6, the
  which, they now endeavour to enjoin upon the said Barbers.

1451. With the exception of a few references (which are noticed
elsewhere) the City records are silent concerning the Barbers’ Company
until this year, when the Master and Wardens, styled here “Gardiani,”
with certain honest men of the Mystery of Barbers, brought a Bill
before the Mayor and Aldermen, praying them to establish certain
Ordinances, and to enter them of record, which was granted and done.

These Ordinances provided for the enforcement of stated penalties
in cases of disobedience and related to attendance upon summons,
settlements of disputes, refusal of office, admission of members, evil
speaking, assemblies and payments, instruction of “foreyns,” employment
of aliens. They are to be found in _Letter-Book K._ 250, and are the
first written in English, all previous ones being either in Latin or
Norman French in the originals.

  MEMORANDUM q{d.} xxv{to.} die ffebruarii Anno regni Regis Henrici
  Sexti post conquestˀ vicesimo nono veniunt hic in Curˀ Dñi Regis
  in Camˀa Guyhald Civitatis london coram Nich̃o Wyfold Maiore &
  Aldermannis ejusdem Civitatꝭ magistˀ & Gardianˀ necnon cẽti probi
  homines misterˀ barbitonsoꝜ Civitatꝭ p’dcẽ & porrexerunt dcisˀ Maiore
  & Aldermannis quandam billam sive supplicacioñe vˀboꝜ sequentˀ seviem
  continentem Unto the ryght Worshipfull and Worshipfull lord and
  souvˀaignes Mair and Aldremen of the Citee of London,

  BESECHEN most mekely all pˀsones enfˀunchised in the craft and
  mistier of Barbours wythin the said Citee That it please unto your
  lordshippˀ and Right wise discrecions for to consider howe that for
  as moche as certein ordin{a}nces been establisshed made and entred
  of Record in the ch{a}umber of the yeldhall of the said Citee all
  pˀsonnes of the said Craft have fully in opinion for to obeye observe
  and kepe theim and noon other in eny Wise, So been y{r.} many and
  divˀse defaultes often tymes amonges your said besechers not duely
  corrected for default of such other ordin{a}nces to be made and
  auctorised sufficiently of record in the said ch{a}umber, like it
  therefore unto your said lordshippe and grete Wisdoms of your blessed
  disposicons for the pˀpetuell Wele and good Rule of the said Craft
  for to establissh and make these ordinaunces here folowyng pˀpetuelly
  to endure and for to be observed and putte in due execucion in the
  same craft And to be auctorised of record in the said ch{a}umber
  for evˀ And your said besechers shall pray god for you.

  FFIRST that evˀy barbour enfˀ{a}uncheised householder and other
  occupier of the same craft holdyng eny shopp of barberye wythin the
  Citee of london shall be redy att all manˀ som̃ons of the Maisters
  and Wardeins of the same craft for the tyme being that is to sey for
  the Kyng the Mair or for eny Worshipp of the said Citee And yef eny
  man occupying the said craft in manˀe and fourme aforesaid absent him
  from eny such som̃ons wythoute cause reasonable and thereof duely
  convict than he to pay at the ch{a}umber of the yeldhall xiij{s.}
  iiij{d.} that is to say vj{s.} viij{d.} to the same ch{a}umber and
  other vj{s.} viij{d.} to the almes of the said craft. Also that evˀy
  man enfˀ{a}uncheised under the fourme abovesaid that disobeyeth
  and kepeth not his houre of his som̃ons at eny tyme w{t}oute cause
  reasonable and yˀof[44] duely convict shall paye to the almesse of
  the said craft at evˀy tyme y{t.} he maketh such defaute ij{d.} And
  yef eny of theim what so evˀ he be of the same craft that disobeye
  this ordin{a}nce he shall paye to the ch{a}umber of the yeldhall
  iij{s.} iiij{d.} at evˀy tyme that he maketh such default.

  [44] thereof.

  ALSO that yef eny matˀe of debate or difference be betwene eny
  pˀsoones of the said craft Which god defend, that none of theim shall
  make eny pursuyt at the comˀon lawe unto the tyme y{t.} he that
  findeth him aggreved in that pˀtie hath made his compleint unto the
  maister and Wardeins of the same craft for the tyme being and they
  to ffynyssh the matˀe and the cause of the said compleint Wythin
  vj dayes after such compleint made and yef they conclude not and
  ffynyssh the same matˀe Wythin the said vj dayes that yanne it be
  lefull to either pˀtie to take the benefice of the comˀon lawe Wythin
  this Citee So alwayes that the pˀtye ageinst whom the compleint is
  made be not fugityf And what pˀsone of the said craft that doth
  contrarie this ordin{a}nce shall paye at evˀy tyme at the chaumber
  of the yeldhall xiij{s.} iiij{d.} that is to sey vj{s.} viij{d.} to
  y{e} said ch{a}umber and oy{r.} vj{s.} viij{d.} to y{e} almesse of
  y{e} said craft.

  ALSO that noon able pˀsone of the said craft enfˀ{a}uncheised shall
  refuse eny manˀ office or clothing pˀtinent to the said craft Whan
  and What tyme that he be by his bretheren be abled and elect y{r}to
  upon pein to paye at the ch{a}umber of the yeldhall xl{s.} that is
  to wete xx{s.} to the same ch{a}umber and other xx{s.} to the said
  almesse Also what man of the said craft that absenteth him fro the
  said eleccion Wythoute cause reasonable or absent him fro the dyner
  to be made the same day and will not paye therto his pˀt thanne he
  shall paye at the said ch{a}umber iij{s.} iiij{d.} that is to sey
  xx{d.} to the same ch{a}umber and other xx{d.} to the almes of the
  said craft.

  ALSO that the maisters and Wardeins of the same craft that nowe be
  or in tyme to come shall be, shall not take admitte or resceive eny
  pˀsone in to the bretherhede or clothing of the same craft Wythoute
  the com̃on assent of the bretheren of the said craft or the more
  pˀt of theim upon pein of eviˀch such maister or Wardein that doth
  cont{a}rie this ordin{a}nce xx{s.} that is to say x{s.} to the
  ch{a}umber and x{s} to the almesse of the said craft.

  FFURTHERMORE it is ordeigned that from hens forward yef eny man
  occupying the said craft be imfouled and of evell Will and malice so
  be unavised to revile or reprof eny man of the same craft that is to
  seye for to lye him or wyth other dishonest Wordes misgovˀne him in
  presence of the said maisters and Wardeins or in eny oy{r.} places
  and pˀof[45] by the report of the said maisters and Wardeins be duely
  convict what so evˀ he be of the same craft that is so misgovnˀed at
  eny tyme shall paye at the said ch{a}umber for evˀy such default
  vj{s.} viij{d.} that is to say to the same chumber iij{s.} iiij{d.}
  and to the Almes of the said craft iij{s.} iiij{d.}

  [45] Query “y{r} of” == thereof.

  ALSO it is ordeigned that evˀy man enfˀ{a}uncheised of the said
  craft under fourme aforesaid shall assemble with his ffelashipˀ of
  the same craft by thassignement of the said maisters and Wardeins
  being for the yeer in a certein place limited by theim at iiij tymes
  of the yeer And at evˀy such quarter day in the yeer evˀy brother
  enfˀ{a}uncheised and being of the clothing therof shall paye to the
  almes abovesaid iij{d.} And evˀy man that is so enfˀ{a}uncheised
  of the same craft and is not of the clothing of the same shall paye
  to the same almes j{d.} Which iiij dayes be these that is to saye
  the tewesday next after all hallown day the tewesday next after
  candelmasday the tewesday next after Trinite sonday and the tewesday
  next after lammas day to thentent that the said maisters and Wardeins
  shall enquere amongꝭ the said compaignye so assembled that yef eny
  default ranker or discord be hadd or moved amongꝭ theim that thanne
  the said maisters and Wardeins shall sett theim at rest accord and in
  unite to that they canne or may, after the fourme and custume as have
  been before used And what parsonne of the said craft be absent eny of
  the said dayes wythoute cause reasonable he shall paye for evˀy such
  day iiij{d.} to the expenses of the said maisters.

  ALSO it is ordeigned and establisshed that no barbour nor other
  able pˀsonne using barbourye shall enfourme eny foreyn nor him
  teche in no wise in eny manˀ point that belongeth to the craft of
  barbourye or surgˀye wherby the same foreyn shall pˀceyve and take
  by his own capacite and exˀcise unto the tyme that the same foreyn
  be bounden appˀntice to a pˀsone barbour or other pˀsonne able
  enfˀ{a}uncheised using the same craft Wythin the Citee of london
  upon peyne to paye at the ch{a}umber of the yeldhall for evˀy such
  defaute iiij marc, that is to say to the same ch{a}umber xxvj{s.}
  viij{d.} and to the Almes of the said craft other xxvj{s.} viij{d.}

  AND also that no barbour nor other able pˀsoone occupying the same
  craft shall take eny Alien nor stˀ{a}unger in to his sˀvice unto
  the tyme that the same alien or stˀ{a}unger be examined by the
  maistˀ and Wardeins of the same craft of his abilite and Connyng
  And thereupon the maistˀ and Wardeins With other vj or viij of the
  moost able and Kunnyng pˀsonnes of the craft shuld taxe him after
  his abilite after that hem semeth that he be worthy to take yeerly
  for his salarie And also that no Barbour shall take eny alien or
  stˀ{a}unger that hath been or w{t}in sˀvice wyth an other barbour
  enfˀ{a}uncheised before that he knowe well that the same sˀvnt hath
  complete his coven{a}ntes wyth his former maister upon pein to
  paye for evˀy such defaute at evˀy tyme that he be founde defectif
  ayenst eny of these ordin{a}nces at the said ch{a}umber xiij{s.}
  iiij{d.} that is to wete to the same ch{a}umber vj{s.} viij{d.}
  and to the said almesse vj{s.} viij{d.} and also make restitucion of
  the damage unto the pˀtie that findeth him greved.

  AND also that no man occupying the said craft shall pˀcure eny
  other mannes sˀvnt oute of sˀvise upon the peyn aforesaid and
  damage unto the pˀtie pleintif And also it is ordeigned that from
  hensforward that no harbour enfˀ{a}uncheised nor eny other able
  pˀsoons occupying the said craft shall not take into his sˀvice
  eny stˀ{a}unger or forein for lasse time thanne a yeer And what
  pˀsone enfˀ{a}uncheised or occupying the said craft disobeys this
  ordin{a}nce shall renne in the pein of xiij{s.} iiij{d.} that to be
  devided in manˀ and fourme above said.

  AND also that no pˀsons of the said craft of barbours nor other able
  pˀsone occupying the same craft huyre no ffˀ{a}unchised man of the
  same craft oute of his shopp ne dwellyng place upon pein of xl{s.}
  that is to wete to the said ch{a}umber xx{s.} And to the Almesse of
  the said Craft other xx{s.}

      Qua quidem billa coram dˀcĩs maiore & Aldermannis lectˀ & per
      eosdem plenius intellectꝭ Qua videtur eisdem qˀd omnes articuli
      in dˀca billa contentꝭ sunt boni & honesti ac racioni consomˀ,
      &c., &c. (The articles were ratified confirmed and ordered to be
      entered of Record in the books of the Chamber of London.)

Nothing is now heard of the Surgeons’ Guild for some years, although
they were still in existence. It is quite probable, that finding the
Barbers had invariably obtained the protection and countenance of the
City authorities, whenever their privileges had been assailed or called
in question, they had given over their attempts at interference with
them as hopeless, and allowed our worthy predecessors to continue to
“exercise the faculty of surgery,” in peace; and being unmolested they
doubtless grew in numbers, in importance, and in the knowledge of their
art, until it was admitted that their position as one of the Guilds,
warranted them in applying for a Charter of Incorporation, which was
granted to them by Edward IV in 1462.

1413. Before proceeding to refer to this important epoch in the history
of our Company, it will be well to introduce a very remarkable
letter, which was written by Thomas Arundell, Archbishop of Canterbury
(formerly of York), to the Mayor, etc., of London, in which he
complained that the Barbers, being, alas! “without zeal for the law of
God,” kept their shops open on the Sabbath days, and he besought the
Mayor and Aldermen (his “sons in Christ, and dearest friends”) to put a
stop to this practice. No trade, perhaps, has from the earliest days,
down to our own times, owned such persistent breakers of the Fourth
Commandment as have the Barbers. Our records abound with by-laws,
enacted and renewed over and over again on this subject, and details
of the delinquencies of numerous Barbers in this respect, and of their
punishments by fine and imprisonment crop up everywhere.

The Archbishop’s letter reveals to us the fact, that nearly 500 years
ago, men were constituted much as they are now; in that “that which
touches the body or the purse, is held more in dread than that which
kills the soul,” and he shrewdly suggests that the clerical punishment
of “the greater excommunication,” should be augmented by a fine to be
levied by the Civil authority. This letter is so deeply interesting
that no apology is needed for reproducing it here. The original is to
be found in _Letter-Book I._ 125.

  1413. On the 24th day of July, in the first year, etc. (Henry V) the
  Reverend Father in Christ, and Lord, Thomas, by Divine permission,
  Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England, and Legate of
  the Apostolic See, sent here, to the Mayor and Aldermen of the City
  of London, certain Letters Close of his, containing words as follow:--

  “Sons in Christ and dearest friends.--We know that you do seek for
  the things which are of above, and that you will the more readily
  incline to our desires, the more surely that the things as to which
  we write are known to tend to the observance of the Divine law,
  the maintenance of public propriety, and the rule of the Christian
  profession. We do therefore write unto you on this occasion, to
  intimate that when we were presiding of late in our Provincial
  Council, holden at London, with our venerable brethren, the
  Suffragan Bishops, and our clergy of the Province of Canterbury, it
  was publicly made known unto us with universal reprobation, that
  the Barbers of the City of London, over the governance of which
  city you preside, being without zeal for the law of God, and not
  perceiving how that the Lord hath blessed the seventh day and made
  it holy, and hath commanded that it shall be observed by no abusive
  pursuit of any servile occupations, but rather by a disuse thereof,
  in their blindness do keep their houses and shops patent and open on
  the seventh day, the Lord’s Day, namely, and do follow their craft
  on the same, just as busily, and just in the same way, as on any
  day in the week, customary for such work. Wherefore we, with the
  consent and assent of our said Suffragans and clergy, in restraint
  of such temerity as this, have determined that there must be made
  solemn prohibition thereof in the City aforesaid, and that, of our
  own authority, and that of our said Provincial Council; and not there
  only, but also throughout the Diocese of London, and each of the
  cities both of our own Diocese and of our Province of Canterbury; to
  the effect, that such barbers must not keep their houses and shops
  patent or open, or follow their craft, on such Lord’s Days for the
  future, on pain of the greater excommunication; in the same manner as
  it has been enacted and observed of late in our time, as to the City
  and Diocese of York, as we do well recollect. But, dearest children,
  seeing that so greatly has the malice of men increased in these days,
  a thing to be deplored--that temporal punishment is held more in
  dread than clerical, and that which touches the body or the purse
  more than that which kills the soul, we do heartily intreat you, and,
  for the love of God and of His law, do require and exhort you, that,
  taking counsel thereon, you will enact and ordain a competent penalty
  in money, to be levied for the Chamber of your City, or such other
  purpose as you shall think best, upon the Barbers within the liberty
  of your City aforesaid, who shall be transgressors in this respect;
  that so at least, those whom fear of the anger of God does not avail
  to withold from breach of His law, may be restrained by a scourge
  inflicted upon their purse, in the way of pecuniary loss; knowing
  that we in the meantime, after taking counsel hereon, will devise
  measures for the prevention of this, and for the due publication of
  our Provincial enactment aforesaid. Fare you well always in Christ.

  Written at Ikham[46] on the 13th day of the month of July.

  [46] Near Wingham, Kent.

                                   THOMAS, Archbishop of Canterbury.”

An Ordinance was forthwith made thereupon, to the effect, that no
barber, his wife, son, daughter, apprentice, or servant, should work
at such craft on Sundays within the liberty of the city, either in hair
cutting or shaving, on pain of paying 6_s._ 8_d._ for each offence;
5_s._ thereof to go to the new work at the Guildhall, and the remainder
to the Wardens or Masters of the Barbers within the city.[47]

[47] Riley p. 594.

1422. In August of this year Henry V died, and thirty-two of the City
Companies assisted at his obsequies, going in procession and carrying
torches. From an entry in _Letter-Book K._ 1{B.}, it appears that the
Barbers bore four torches on this occasion.

1447. This year the Company seem to have contributed 40_s._ towards
the cost of the Roof of the Chapel at Guildhall, as appears by the
following entry in _Journal IV_, 198 (25th October, 26 Henry VI)--

  Itmˀ gardiani misterˀ barbitonsoꝜ & importaverunt in Cur xl{s.}
  sterlingoꝜ pˀse & misterˀ sua ad coopturam Guyhaɫd Sc̃. Capelle.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE BARBERS INCORPORATE.


Hitherto we have considered two distinct and somewhat hostile
fraternities, the Surgeons on the one hand, and on the other the
Barbers (consisting of Barbers and Barber-Surgeons), both of them
City Guilds, existing by prescription, having independent rules and
Ordinances for their government and the scrutiny and correction of
abuses in their respective Crafts, the former Company few in number,
the latter far more numerous and popular; the Surgeons without, and the
Barbers with, a Livery.

Of these two fraternities, the Barbers by the regular and every day
nature of their calling, as shavers and hair cutters, together with the
practice of Surgery combined by so many of them, were the most likely
to become the more popular Company; their fees would surely be on a
lower scale than those of the more aristocratic Surgeons, and their
numbers and constant intercourse with the citizens, in their capacity
as Barbers, enabled them easily to extend their connection as Surgeons.

In all their contentions with the Surgeons’ Guild, as far as we know,
they held their own well, and thus it was that their place in the City,
as a Livery Guild of at that time an ancient standing, their position
as the professors of useful and scientific arts, their numbers and
presumable affluence, all rendered it desirable that they should be
placed upon the same footing as the better class of Guilds, by their
acquisition of a Charter of Incorporation, which they accordingly
obtained from the young King Edward IV in the first year of his reign
(1462).

Thomas Knot (Master, 1555) has recorded in one of our books, a
Translation of this Charter, which Mr. J. Flint South (who does not
appear to have seen the original Latin one) has transcribed, and this
has been adopted by Mr. D’Arcy Power (page 326). Thomas Knot wrote a
good hand, and was a zealous champion of the Barber-Surgeons in his
time, but he made egregious blunders in some of the writings recorded
over his signature, and although there is not great fault to be found
with him in this instance, it is suggested that the Translation given
below, is perhaps a more literal one than that which Knot has handed
down.

The Charter is still preserved at our Hall, and is contained on a small
skin of parchment; the initial letters of the title, which were at the
time left to be illuminated have never been filled in, and the document
is therefore not the work of art which one is accustomed to see in
Charters of this period; it bears signs of having been frequently used,
the ink in some places being worn, and the words only legible with the
aid of a magnifying glass. The great seal pendant is not quite perfect,
but is a beautiful specimen and highly artistic. The following is the
text of the Charter:--

  (E)DWARDUS dei grã (R)ex (A)nglie & (F)rancie & (D)ominus (H)ibñie.
  (O)mnibus ad quos pˀsentes lrẽ pˀuenint saltm̃ (S)ciatis q̃d
  nos considerantes qualitˀ Diɫci nõb prˀbi & liᵬi hoiẽs mistere
  BarbitonsoꝜ Ciuitatis nr̃e london vtentes mistera siue facultate
  SirurgicoꝜ tam circa vulña plagas lesiones & alias infirmitates
  ligeoꝜ nroꝜ ibidem curandˀ & Sauandˀ q{a}m in extracc͠oe sanguinis
  & denc̃iu hˀmꝰ ligeoꝜ nrõꝜ g{a}ndes & multiplices intendencias &
  labores pˀ longa tempora sustinuerunt & supportauerunt indiesqʒ
  sũtinere & supportare non desistunt qualitˀ etiam pˀ ignoranciam
  negligenciam & insipienciam nonnulloꝜ hˀmꝰ barbitonsoꝜ tam liᵬoꝜ
  hõim Ciuitatis nr̃e pˀdc̃e q{a}m alioꝜ SirurgicoꝜ forincecoꝜ & non
  liᵬoꝜ hõim eiusdem Ciuitatis indies ad eandem Ciuitatem confluenciũ
  & in mistera SirurgicoꝜ minus sufficientˀ eruditoꝜ q{a}m plurima ac
  quasi infinita mala diuˀsis ligeis nr̃is in vulnĩbʒ plagis lesionibʒ
  & aliis infirmitatibʒ suis pˀ huius modi Barbitonsores & Sirurgicos
  sauandis & curandis ob eoꝜ defc̃m ante hec tempora euenerunt quoꝜ
  quidem ligeoꝜ nroꝜ alii ea de causa viam vniuˀse carnis sunt
  ingressi alii autem eadem causa tanq{a}m insanabiles & incurabiles
  sunt ab omĩbʒ derelecti similia qʒ mala vel peiora infuturˀ in hac
  parte euenire formidatˀ nisi remedm̃ congruũ supˀ hoc pˀ nos cicius
  pˀuidetuˀ Nos enim attendentes & intime adũtentes qˀd huiusmodi
  mala ligeis nr̃is ob defc̃tuˀ debit supˀuis scrutinii correccõis &
  punicõis huiusmodi barbitonsoꝜ & SirurgicoꝜ minus sufficientˀ in
  eisdem misteris siue facultatibʒ vt pˀdcm̃ est eruditˀ & instructˀ
  euenire contingunt. Ad humilem supplicacoẽm dilc̃oꝜ nobˀ pˀdcoꝜ
  pˀboꝜ & liᵬoꝜ hõim pˀdcẽ mistere BarbitonsoꝜ in Ciuitate nr̃a pˀdcã
  concessimꝰ eis qˀd mistera illa & omẽs hoiẽs eiusdem mistere de
  Ciuitate p’dc̃a sint in re & noiẽ vnũ corpus & vna Coitãs pˀpetua. Et
  qˀd duo principales eiusdem Coitãtis vna cũ assensu duodecim vel octo
  pˀsonaꝜ ad minus Coitãtis illius in mistera Sirurgie maxime expert
  singulis annis eligˀe possint & facˀe de Cõitate illa duos magr̃os
  siue Gubñatores in mistera Sirurgicˀ maxime exp̃tˀ. Ad supˀuidendˀ
  regendˀ & gubñandˀ misterˀ & Cõitatem pˀdictˀ & omẽs hoiẽs eiusdem
  mistere negociti eoꝜdem imp̃pm̃. ET QˀD QˀDEM mãgri siue guᵬnatores
  & Coit̃as heañt successionem pˀpetuam & coẽ sigillum negociis dcẽ
  Coit̃atis impˀpm̃ sˀuiturˀ. Et qˀd ip̃i & successores sui impˀpm̃
  sint pˀsone habiles & capaces ad pˀquirendˀ & possidendˀ in feodo &
  pˀpetuitate trãs tenˀ redditus & alias possessiones quascunqʒ usqʒ
  ad valorem quinqʒ marcaꝜ pˀ annũ ult{a} reprisas et qˀd ip̃i noiã
  magr̃oꝜ siue GuᵬnatoꝜ & Coit̃atis mistere barbitonsoꝜ london pˀlitare
  & imp̃litari possint coram quibuscuqʒ indicibʒ in Curiis & acciõbʒ
  quibuscuqʒ ET QˀD pˀdci magr̃i siue Guᵬnatores & Coit̃as & eoꝜ
  successores congregacoẽs licitas & honestas de seipˀis̃ ac statuta &
  ordinacoẽs pˀ salubri gubnacoẽ supˀuisu & correccõe misteria pˀdictˀ
  sˀcdm̃ necessitatis exigenciam quociens & quando opus fuit̃ facẽ
  valeant licite & impune siue occõne vel impedimento nr̃i heredimi
  vel successoꝜ nr̃oꝜ Justicˀ EscacioꝜ Vicecomitum CoronatoꝜ aut alioꝜ
  BalliuoꝜ vel ministroꝜ nr̃oꝜ heredemi vel successoꝜ nr̃oꝜ quoꝜcuqꝜ
  dum̃odo statuta & ordinacoẽs illa contˀ leges & consuetudines regni
  nr̃i Anglˀ nullo modo existant. PRETERIA VOLUMꝰ & concedimꝰ pˀ
  nos heredbʒ & successoribʒ nrĩs quantũ in noᵬ est qˀd magr̃i siue
  Guᵬnatores pˀdcẽ Coit̃atis pˀ tempore existenˀ & eoꝜ successores
  impp̃m h̃eant supˀuisum scrutinm̃ correccoˀem & guᵬnacoˀem om̃i
  & singuloꝜ liᵬoꝜ h̃oim̃ dcẽ Ciuitatꝭ SirurgicoꝜ vtencm̃ mistera
  BarbitonsoꝜ in eadem Ciuitate ac alioꝜ SirurgicoꝜ forincecoꝜ quoꝜ
  cuq̃ʒ mistera illa Sirurgicꝭ aliquo modo frequentancm̃ & vtencm̃
  infra eandem Ciuitatem & suburbia eiusdem ac punicoẽm eoꝜdem tam
  liᵬoꝜ q{a}m forincecoꝜ pˀ delictis suis in non pˀfecte exequendꝰ
  faciendꝰ & vtendꝰ mistera illa necnon supˀuisum & scrutinm̃ omim̃odoꝜ
  instrumentoꝜ emplastoꝜ & aliaꝜ medicinaꝜ & eoꝜ receptꝭ pˀdcos̃
  Barbitonsores & Sirurgicꝭ huiusmodi ligeis nris̃ pˀ eoꝜ plagis &
  vulnibʒ lesionibʒ & huiusmodi infirmitatibʒ curandꝰ & sauandꝰ dandꝰ
  imponendꝰ & vtendꝰ quociens & quando opus fuit pˀ comõdo & vtilitate
  eoꝜdem ligeoꝜ nr̃oꝜ ita qˀd punicio huiusmodi BarbitonsoꝜ vtencm̃
  dc̃a mistera Sirurgicꝭ ac huiusmodi Sirurgicꝭ forincecoꝜ sit in
  pˀmissis delinquencm̃ pˀ fines am̃ciamenta & imprisonamenta corpoꝜ
  suoꝜ & pˀ alias vias rõnabiles & congruas exequaturꝰ. Et qˀd nullus
  BarbitonsoꝜ vtens dcã mistera Sirurgicꝭ infra dcãm Ciuitatem aut
  suburᵬ eiusdem aut alius Sirurgicus forincecus quicuq̃ʒ & exequendꝰ
  faciendꝰ & exẽcendꝰ eandem misteram Sirurgicꝰ aliquo modo infuturꝰ
  in eadem Ciuitate vel Suburᵬ eiusdem admittat{a} nisi primicũs pˀ
  dcõs magr̃os siue guᵬnatores vel eoꝜ successores ad hoc habiles
  & sufficientes in mistera illa eruditus approbetꝭ & pˀ plenarˀ
  comprobac͠one sua in hac parte maiori Ciuitatis pˀdictꝰ pˀ tempore
  existenꝰ pˀ eosdem magrõs siue Guᵬnatores ad hoc pˀsentet{a.}
  VOLUMUS eciam & concedimꝰ pˀ noᵬ heredibʒ & successoribʒ nr̃is
  quant̃u in noᵬ est qˀd dc̃i magr̃i siue guᵬnatores ac Coit̃as pᵭc
  mistere BarbitonsoꝜ nec successores sui nec eoꝜ aliquis quoquo modo
  infuturꝰ infra Ciuitatem nr̃am pˀdcañ & Suburᵬ eiusdem sumoniunt{a}
  aut ponant{a} neqʒ eoꝜ aliquis sumoniat{a} aut ponat{a} in aliquibʒ
  assisis iuratis enquestis inquisicõibʒ attinctis aut aliis
  recognic̃oibʒ infra dc̃am Ciuitatem & Suburᵬ eiusdem impostimi coram
  maiore aut vicecountꝭ seu Coronatꝭ dc̃e Ciuitatis nr̃e pˀ tempore
  existenꝰ capiendꝰ aut pˀ aliquem officiariũ siue ministm̃ sũu vel
  officiarios siue ministros suos sum̃oniandˀ licet iidem Jurati
  inquisicões seu recognic͠oes sum̃ fuiñt supˀ br̃i vel briᵬʒ nr̃i
  vel heredimi nroꝜ de recto SED qˀd dc̃i mag̃ri siue Guᵬnatores ac
  coit̃as mistere antedc̃e & successores sui ac eoꝜ quiᵬt vˀsus nos
  heredes & successores nr̃os ac vˀsus maiorem & vicecomites Ciuitatis
  nr̃e pˀdcẽ pˀ tempore existenꝰ & quoscũqʒ Officiarꝰ & ministros suos
  sint inde quieti & penitus exonãti impp̃m pˀ pˀsentes. ET VLTERIUS
  nos considerac͠oe pˀmissoꝜ de gr̃a nr̃a sˀpaɫi concessimꝰ pˀ noᵬ &
  successoribʒ nr̃is pˀfatis mag̃ris siue Guᵬnatoribʒ ac Coit̃ati dcẽ
  Mistera BarbitonsoꝜ & successoribʒ suis hanc liᵬtatem viᵭelt qˀd ip̃i
  pˀpetuis futuris temporibʒ pˀsonas habiles & sufficientꝰ eruditos &
  informatos in dct̃i mistera Sirurgicꝰ & pˀ mag̃ros siue Guᵬnatores
  mistera illius pˀ tempore existenꝰ in forma pˀdc̃ti approbatꝰ &
  maiore Ciuitatis pˀdc̃e pˀ tempore existenꝰ vt pˀdc̃am est pˀsentat
  in eandem misteram BarbitonsoꝜ ad libtat̃es dc̃e Ciuitatis hẽndꝰ
  & gaudendꝰ scᵭm consuetudinem dc̃e Ciuitatis admittẽ & recipˀe
  valeant & non alias pˀsonas quascũqʒ neqʒ alio Modo aliquo mandato
  aut requisic͠oe nr̃i heredimi seu successoꝜ nroꝜ pˀ brãs inscriptꝭ
  vel alitꝭ qualitꝭ cumqʒ incontrm̃ factꝭ seu faciendꝭ non obstantꝭ
  ET LICET iidem mag̃ri siue Guᵬnatores ac Coiãtas & eoꝜ successores
  hac liᵬtate continue in futurꝭ vsi fũint cont{a.} aliquod mandatum
  sine requisicõem nr̃i heredũ seu successoꝜ nroꝜ aut aliquoꝜ alioꝜ
  quoꝜcuq̃ʒ in forma pˀdc̃a fiendꝭ ip̃i tamen finem contempt̃u
  depˀditum erga nos heredes seu successores nrõs aut dampñu vel malum
  aliquod in bonis seu corporibʒ suis erga quoscumqʒ alios ea occ̃one
  nullo modo incurrant nec eoꝜ aliquis incurrat. ET hoc absqʒ fine seu
  feodo pˀ pˀmissis seu sigillac͠oe pˀsentum noᵬ faciendꝭ soluendꝭ vel
  aliqualitꝭ reddendꝭ aliquo statuto ordinac͠oe vel actu incontrm̃ ante
  hec tempora editꝭ factꝭ ordinatꝭ seu pˀuis non obstantꝭ. IN cuius rei
  testimonm̃ has lrãs nr̃as fieri fecimꝰ patentes. TESTE me ip̃o apud
  Westm̃ vicesimo quarto die ffebruarii Anno regni nr̃i primo.

                                                       PEKHAM.

[Illustration]

  pˀbrẽ de priuato sigillo de datꝭ pˀdct̃ auctoritate parliamenti & pˀ
  decem libris soluitꝭ in hanapˀio

  (Endorsed.)

  Irt̃o in Curꝰ Domini Regis in Cam̃a Guihalde Ciuitatꝭ Londõn in libro
  signatꝭ cum lit̃ta. l. folˀ tercio decimo. Anno regni Regis Edwardi
  quarti post conquestum Tercio.

  TRANSLATION.

  EDWARD by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of
  Ireland, TO all to whom these present letters shall come, health.
  KNOW ye, that we considering how our beloved, honest, and free men
  of the Mystery of Barbers of our City of London, exercising the
  Mystery or Art of Surgery, as well respecting wounds, bruises, hurts,
  and other infirmities of our liegemen, and healing and curing the
  same, as in letting blood, and drawing the teeth of our liege men,
  have for a long time undergone and supported, and daily do undergo
  and support, great and manifold applications and labours; and also,
  how through the ignorance negligence and stupidity of some of the
  men of the said Barbers, as well of the freemen of our said City,
  as of other Surgeons foreigners and not freemen of the said City,
  and who daily resort to the said City, and in the mystery of Surgery
  are not sufficiently skilled, whereby very many and almost infinite
  evils have before this time happened to many of our liegemen, in
  their wounds, hurts, bruises, and other infirmities, by such Barbers
  and Surgeons, on account of their defect in healing and curing;
  from which cause, some of our said liegemen have gone the way of
  all flesh, and others, through the same cause, have been by all
  given over as incurable and past relief, and it is to be dreaded,
  that similar or greater evils may in future arise on this head,
  unless proper remedy is by us, speedily provided for the same. WE
  therefore, heartily weighing and considering that such evils do
  happen to our liegemen for want of the examinations, corrections,
  and punishments by a due supervision of such Barbers and Surgeons
  as are insufficiently skilled and instructed in the said mysteries
  or arts as aforesaid; have at the humble request of our aforesaid
  beloved, honest, and freemen of the said Mystery of Barbers in our
  said city, granted to them that the said Mystery, and all men of the
  said Mystery aforesaid, may be in deed and name one body and one
  perpetual Community, and that two Principals of the said Community
  may, with the consent of twelve persons, or at least eight of the
  said Community who are best skilled in the mystery of Surgery, every
  year elect and make out of the Community, two Masters or Governors
  of the utmost skill, to superintend rule and govern the Mystery
  and Community aforesaid and all men of the said Mystery, and of
  the businesses of the same for ever. AND THAT the said Masters or
  Governors and Community may have a perpetual succession and common
  seal to serve for the affairs of the said Community for ever, and
  that they and their successors for ever may be able and capable to
  acquire and possess in fee and perpetuity lands, tenements, rents,
  and other possessions whatsoever, to the value of five marks per
  annum, besides reprises. And that they, by the name of the Masters
  or Governors and Community of Barbers of London, may be able to
  plead and to be impleaded before whatsoever Justices in Courts,
  and actions whatsoever. And that the said Masters or Governors and
  Community, and their successors, may lawfully and honestly assemble
  themselves, and make statutes and ordinances for the wholesome
  government, superintendence, and correction of the said Mystery,
  according to the exigency of the necessity, as often and whenever
  it may be requisite, lawfully and unpunishably, without leave or
  hindrance of us, our heirs or successors, Justices, Escheators,
  Sheriffs, Coroners, or any other Bailiffs, or servants of us, our
  heirs or successors; provided that such statutes or ordinances are
  not in any ways contrary to the laws and customs of our Kingdom of
  England. WE FURTHER will and grant, for us, our heirs and successors,
  as far as in us lies, that the Masters or Governors of the aforesaid
  Community for the time being, and their successors for ever, shall
  have the superintendence, scrutiny, correction, and government of
  all and singular the freemen of the said City who are Surgeons,
  exercising the Mystery of Barbers within the said City, and of
  all other foreign Surgeons whomsoever, in anywise practising and
  using the said Mystery of Surgeons in the said City and the suburbs
  thereof, and the punishment of them, as well freemen as foreigners,
  for their offences in not perfectly following, practising and using
  that mystery, and also the superintendence and scrutiny of all kinds
  of instruments, plaisters, and other medicines, and their recipes,
  by such Barbers and Surgeons given, applied, and used for our liege
  men, for curing and healing their wounds, bruises, hurts and such
  kind of infirmities, when and as often as shall be requisite for the
  convenience and utility of our liege men; so that punishment of such
  Barbers exercising the said mystery of Surgeons, so offending in the
  premisses, be executed by fines, amerciaments, and imprisonments
  of their bodies, and by other reasonable and suitable means; and
  that no Barber exercising the said mystery of Surgeons in the said
  City and suburbs thereof, or any other foreign Surgeon whatsoever,
  shall in future be admitted to follow, practise and exercise the
  said mystery of Surgeons, in anywise, within the said City or the
  suburbs thereof, unless he be first approved by the said Masters or
  Governors, or their successors, for this purpose able and sufficient
  as skilled in the said Mystery, and for his plenary approbation in
  this behalf, by the said Masters or Governors to the Mayor of the
  said City for the time being, presented. WE ALSO will and grant,
  for us our heirs and successors, as far as in us lies, that neither
  the said Masters or Governors and community of the said Mystery of
  Barbers, nor their successors, nor any of them shall hereafter, in
  anywise be summoned or appointed on any assizes, juries, inquests,
  inquisitions, attainders, or other recognizances, within the said
  City or suburbs thereof for the time to come, before the Mayor or
  Sheriffs or Coroners of our said City for the time being, by any
  summoning officer or his servant, or summoning officers or their
  servants, although the said juries, inquisitions, or recognizances
  should be summoned by a writ or writs of right, of us or our
  heirs, but that the said Masters or Governors and Community of the
  aforesaid Mystery and their successors shall, from henceforth for
  ever, be peaceably and entirely exonerated towards us, our heirs and
  successors, and towards the Mayor and Sheriffs of our said City for
  the time being, and every of their officers and servants, by these
  presents. AND FURTHER, we, in consideration of the premisses, do of
  our special grace, for us and our successors, grant to the said
  Masters or Governors and Community of the said Mystery of Barbers,
  and their successors, this liberty, to wit, that they in all future
  times may admit and receive persons apt and sufficiently skilled
  and informed in the said Mystery of Surgery, and by the Masters or
  Governors for the time being of the said Mystery, in manner aforesaid
  approved, and presented to the Mayor of the said City for the time
  being as aforesaid, into the said Mystery of Barbers to the fredom of
  the said City, to be held and enjoyed according to the custom of the
  said City; and no other persons whomsoever, nor in any other manner,
  any mandate or requisition of us, our heirs or successors, by written
  letters or otherwise howsoever made or to be made to the contrary
  notwithstanding. AND ALTHOUGH the said Masters or Governors and
  Community and their successors should contumaciously use this liberty
  in future against any mandate or requisition of us, our heirs, or
  successors, or any others whomsoever to be made in form aforesaid,
  neither they nor any of them shall in anywise incur any fine,
  contempt, or loss towards us, our heirs or successors, or any damage
  or punishment in their goods or bodies, or towards any other persons
  whatsoever, on that account; AND this without fine or fee for the
  sealing of these presents, to be done paid or otherwise rendered unto
  us; any statute, ordinance, or any act to the contrary, before this
  time published made ordained or provided notwithstanding IN WITNESS
  whereof, we have caused these our letters to be made patent. WITNESS
  myself at Westminster the twenty-fourth day of February in the first
  year of our reign.

                                                       PEKHAM.

      By writ of privy seal, and of the date aforesaid, by authority of
      Parliament, and for ten pounds paid into the hanaper.

      (Endorsed.)

      Inrolled in the Court of the Lord the King, in the chamber of
      the Guildhall of the City of London in the book marked with the
      letter l. folio thirteen in the third year of the reign of King
      Edward the Fourth from the Conquest.

The chief point which strikes us on reading the foregoing Charter is,
that it contains a great deal relative to Surgery, and little, indeed
nothing, concerning Barbery, and yet it is granted ostensibly to the
Barbers!

Now the Surgical side being the more important one of the craft, and
the _raison d’être_ of the Charter being in a great measure to provide
for the regulation of Surgery and the correction of abuses in that
profession, this silence as to Barbery and recognition of Surgery would
seem to be an evidence that the practice of the latter, more or less,
was the rule rather than the exception with members of the Company
of Barbers; and, as the Masters or Governors were empowered to make
“statutes and ordinances” (by-laws) for the governance of the mystery,
it was doubtless considered unnecessary to descend into any details
concerning shaving and the like in a Royal Charter.

The preamble of this Charter is exceedingly quaint and interesting,
reciting how through the “ignorance, negligence and stupidity” of
various Barbers and other practitioners in Surgery, many of the King’s
lieges had “gone the way of all flesh.” Then at the request of “our
beloved, honest and free men of the said Mystery of Barbers,” the King
grants to them, to be one body perpetual, etc., that two of the chief
men of the Company (no doubt the two then existing Masters “exercising
the faculty of Surgery”) may with twelve or at least eight other
skilled Barber-Surgeons, elect two Masters annually: this provision
in itself is singular, as it would seem to imply that the body then
incorporated was to be ruled by two Masters only; but a reference to
our list of Masters and Wardens will shew that from the year 1448
the Company has been ruled by four Masters, and so on in unbroken
succession to the present time[48]; these other two Masters therefore
were Masters of the Barbers proper, about whom nothing was said in
the Charter, but who were chosen annually in accordance with ancient
custom, the Chief or First Master being alternately a Barber, and a
Barber-Surgeon.

[48] The term “Wardens” is a more modern designation used for
convenience sake; the Master and the three Wardens are, strictly
speaking, the four “Masters or Governors.”

The Corporation was to have perpetual succession, and a Common seal,
to hold lands of a certain value, to be able to plead and to be
impleaded, to make by-laws, to have the scrutiny and correction of
(apparently _all_) Surgeons in the City and suburbs, as also the
oversight of all their instruments and medicines, etc., and to have the
power of inflicting punishment, by fine or imprisonment, on offenders.
None were to practise Surgery until examined and approved by the
Masters and presented to the Mayor, and authority was given for the
freemen of the Company to be admitted into the freedom of the City.

Another clause in the Charter was one which, whilst it conferred a
valuable privilege upon the Company, was a source of continual strife
and conflict with the Civic authorities, for by it _all_ our freemen
claimed to be exempted from serving on Juries and inquisitions, and
this immunity, though constantly disputed, was as often asserted and
maintained, with various qualifications.

In _The Times_, November 26, 1839, is an account of the exemption of
certain freemen of the Company from serving on Juries at the Central
Criminal Court. In this instance neither the claimants nor the Recorder
knew much about the matter--for one of the applicants said, in reply to
the Recorder, “I rest my claim on the Charter of _Henry VIII_”_!!_ And,
further on in the discussion, the same bold Barber had the effrontery
to declare that “the privilege was confirmed by an Act passed in the
reign of George II.” This was the Act which separated the Surgeons from
the Barbers, and which did _not_ confirm to the latter the exemption
claimed, but our freeman gained his point, and the Recorder only
grumbled.

As recently as 1868, a case was submitted to Sir J. D. Coleridge (now
Lord Chief Justice) as to the legality of the exemption, and he gave
his opinion in favour of it. However, since then the Jury Act has,
alas! swept away this cherished immunity, and thus let the Barbers down
to the level of their fellow citizens.

With the possession of their Charter the Company were now in an
unassailable position, and we hear no more of their molestation by the
Guild of Surgeons.

[Illustration: _Grant_ by RICHARD THORNBURY, Citizen and Draper of
London, to Robert Ferbras, Citizen and Surgeon, John Dagvile, Surgeon,
William Sipnam, Grocer, and Walter Bartlot, Fishmonger, Citizens of
London, for ever, of all his title in two shops and solars with their
appurtenances, in the parish of Saint John upon Walbroke, formerly
belonging to John Blounde of Braughyng in the County of Hertford, and
which had been already conveyed to the Grantees by John Thornbury,
gentleman, and Walter Thornbury, Clerk, which shops were situate
between the tenements of William Horn, Citizen and Draper, towards
the north and south, and the tenement of the Prior and Convent of the
Blessed Mary without Bishopsgate towards the east, and the King’s
highway leading from Walbroke to Dowgate towards the west. Dated 11th
May, 2 Edward IV (1462).]

1470. The Company about this period came into possession of some
freehold houses in St. John the Baptist upon Walbrook, to be held
both for trust and corporate purposes. These houses are stated in our
books to have been devised to us by Will (dated 2nd Dec., 1470) of
Robert Ferbras. There are three old title deeds of the period still
at the Hall, relating to these houses, and in the Court of Husting at
Guildhall are two Wills of Robert Ferbras, Surgeon, both proved, one
dated 4th Nov., 1470, and the other 17th April, 1472--but neither of
these contain the bequest to the Barbers. It is, therefore, probable
that Robert Ferbras conveyed the houses to the Company in his lifetime,
and this fact being overlooked in course of years, it came to be said
that they passed by his Will.

1482. 26th April.--The Company applied to the Court of Aldermen,
presenting a set of ordinances for the government of the craft and for
the regulation of apprentices, praying that the same might be allowed
and ratified, which was done. The official entry under this date is in
_Letter-Book L._ 174, and the following are the Ordinances:--

  [Sidenote:
  Ordinacio  }
  BarbitonsoꝜ}]

  Memorand qˀd sexto decimo die Aprilis Anno regni Regis Edwardi quarti
  post conq̃m vicesimo scᵭo pˀᵬi hõies Artis sive mistere BarbitonsoꝜ
  Civitatis london venˀ hic in Curˀ dc̃i Dnĩ Regis in Camˀa Guyhald
  Civitatꝭ pˀdcĩ coram Willm̃e Haryot milite ac maiore & Aldr̃is
  ejusdem Civitatis et porrexer̃nt eisdem maiore & Aldr̃is quand{a}m
  billam sive supplicacõem Cujus tenor sequitur in hec verba.

  TO THE RIGHT hono{r}able lord the Mair And the right wirshipful
  Sovˀaignes the Aldermen of the Citee of London Mekely besechen your
  goode lordship̃ and maistershippes all the pˀsones enfraunchesed in
  the crafte and mistere of Barbours w{t}in the Citee of london That
  it wold pleas the same your lordshipp and maistershippes for the
  Wirship̃ of the said Citee And for the goode Rule to be had w{t}in
  the saide Craft to graunte and establissh thise articles folowyng And
  theym to be entred of Recorde in the Chambre of the said Citee before
  your said lordship and maistershippes hereafter for to be observed
  and executed.

  FFIRST that there shall no ffraunchesed Barbo{r.} w{t}in the said
  Citee take any man or Child to be his Apprentice before that he hath
  pˀsented the same man or Child unto the maister and Wardeyns of the
  said Craft for the tyme being, to thentent that the same maister and
  Wardeyns may duely examyne ovˀsee serche and behold by the Colour and
  complexion of the said man or Child if he be avexed or disposed to be
  lepur or gowty maymed or disfigured in any pˀties of his body Whereby
  he shall fall in disdeyn or lothefulnesse unto the sight of the Kingꝭ
  liege people And also to be examyned of his birth and of his kynrede
  or if there be on hym any bonde claymed, And if he be founde defectif
  in any of thise poyntꝭ that than no fraunchesed Barbo{r.} of the
  saide Citee shall take hym to his Apprentice uppon payn to pay v{li.}
  Whereof that one half shall Remayn unto the Chambre of the said Citee.

  ALSO that evˀy enfraunchesed barbour that taketh any apprentice shall
  pay to the almes of the said Craft for the same Apprentice iij{s.}
  iiij{d.} to be paied in fourme folowyng that is to sey, at the first
  pˀsentacion of the Appˀntice xx{d.} and that other xx{d.} in the same
  yeere When he shall be enrolled And the names of the maister and
  appˀntice and the yeres of appˀntishode of the same appˀntice shalbe
  writen in a book by the said maistˀ & Wardeyns And he that disobeith
  this article or orden{a}nce shall pay unto ye almes of the said Craft
  of barbours xiij{s.} iiij{d.} that one half thereof to be applied to
  thuse of the said Chambre and that other half to the almes of the
  said Craft. And if it so be that the said Apprentice Dye w{t}in the
  first yere, or voide so that the said maistˀ take none avauntage
  by the same Appˀntice, that than the same money stonde for the
  next Appˀntice, And if it hapne the said maister to take any pˀfet
  [_profit_] for the said Appˀntice by way of Sale or sˀvice and that
  so pˀved before the said maister and Wardeyns that than the saide
  maister of the said Appˀntice to be charged for the said iij{s.}
  iiij{d.}

Then follows the usual Ratification (in Latin) of the above Articles.

1487. The next notice which we have of the Barbers in the City books,
indicates that there had been quarrels and dissensions among them, and
that the rules of the Craft had been set at nought by its members,
whereupon a Book of Ordinances was presented to the Court of Aldermen
for approval and ratification and the same is entered at this date, 20
July 2 Hen vij, in _Letter-Book L._ 235{B.} as follows:--

  MEMORANDUM qˀd xx{o.} die Julij Anno regni Regis Henrici septum
  secundo, Gardiani & aɫ pˀᵬi hõies Artꝭ sive occupacõis de Barbours
  Civitatꝭ london venerˀ hic in Curˀ dc̃i dñi Regis in Camˀa Guilhald
  ejusdem Civitatꝭ coram Henrico Colet milite maiore & Aldr̃is Civitatꝭ
  pˀdc̃i & porrexˀunt eisdm̃ maori & Aldr̃is quandã billam sive
  supplicaõem Cujus tenor sequit{r.} in hec verba,

  TO the right honourable lord the maire and fulle discrete sovˀaignes
  thaldˀmen of the Citee of london Shewen mekely unto yo{r.} good
  lordeship and maistˀshippes the maister and the Wardeyns and the
  good ffolke of the Crafte or Science of Barbours Surgeons of the
  said Citee that Where as they of longe tyme have been in discorde
  and not of oon conformite, but evˀy man in effect of the said Crafte
  or Science hathe taken and folowed his own singuler way and apetite
  as menne be[49] under no Rule nor obedience, contrarie to all godly
  policie for lacke of good Rules and orden{a}ncꝭ hadde and used within
  the same Crafte or Science, and in especiall for takyng of over
  many appˀnticꝭ and settyng a werk of money[50] fforeyns comyng oute
  of Seint Martyns, Westmynster, Suthwerk and other placꝭ nere unto
  this Citee to the distruccion of the good ffolke enfraunchised of
  the said Crafte or Science, but if[51] a remedie by yo{r} noble and
  grete wisdomes the rather be pˀvided in that behalf. That it wold
  pleas yo{r.} good lordeship and maistershippes for the good Rule
  and sadde[52] guydyng hereafter to be hadde amongꝭ the good ffolkꝭ
  of the said Crafte within the same Crafte to graunt to yo{r.} saide
  besechers certeyn Articles hereaftˀ ensuying from hensforth to be
  obsˀved and kept and afore you here in this hono{r}able Court to be
  establisshed and entred of Record for ever to endure.

  [49] Being = living.
  [50] Many.
  [51] But if = unless.
  [52] Wise.

  FFIRST that no pˀsone of the said Crafte or science ne none other
  enfraunchised within the saide Crafte and kepyng open shoppe of the
  same Crafte or Science within the same Cite from hensforth in any
  wyse pˀsume to take uppon him to sette a werke within his house or
  Shoppe any sˀvaunt or sˀvauntꝭ or allowes[53] or other beyng fforeyns
  or estraungiers, but[54] evˀry suche pˀsone so enfraunchised in the
  saide Crafte or science or in any other and occupie the same Crafte
  or Science within the Citee aforesaid present any such sˀvaunt or
  sˀvauntꝭ allowes and other before the maistˀs and Wardeyns of the
  same Crafte or Science of Barbours for the tyme beyng within iij
  daies next after his comyng to his saide maister to thentent that
  the saide maister and Wardeyns have knowledge of their habilitie and
  cunyng[55] before they be sette any lenger in occupac̃ion in the
  saide Crafte or Science, And what manˀ pˀsone[56] aforesaid hereafter
  be founde doyng the contrarie of this orden{a}nce shall forfeit and
  pay at evˀy tyme that he is so founden defectif xl{s.} the oon half
  thereof to be applied to thuse of the Chambre of this hono{r}able
  Citee and the other half to the Coẽn boxe of the said Crafte.

  [53] Hired servants.
  [54] Unless.
  [55] Skill.
  [56] Manner of person.

  ALSO that no manˀ pˀsone[57] enfraunchised in the saide Crafte or
  in any other kepying an open Shoppe and occupieth the same Crafte
  within the Citee from hensforth take or set a Werke within his house
  or shoppe or ellꝭ where within the same Citee any moo[58] Sˀvaunts
  allowes at oones[59] beyng fforeyns or Straungiers but oonly ij
  pˀsones and the same ij pˀsones to be pˀsented by their maister
  before the maister and Wardeyns of the said Crafte or Science of
  Barbours for the tyme beyng within iij daies next comˀyng in to
  suche sˀvice to their suche maistˀ And that the same fforeyns or
  straungiers shall take or have of their saide maister suche wages
  for their suche sˀvice as it shalbe thought by the saide Maister and
  Wardeyns of the said Crafte of Barbours that they canne desˀve and
  none other, And what maner of pˀsone aforesaid hereafter be founde
  doyng contrarie to this orden{a}ncꝭ shall forfeit at evˀry tyme that
  he is founde defectif v{li.} to be divided and applied to suche uses
  as be aforeherced.[60]

  [57] Manner of person.
  [58] More.
  [59] Once.
  [60] Afore rehearsed.

  ALSO if it fortune hereafter any pˀsone enfraunchised in the saide
  Crafte of barbours or in any other occupying the same Crafte of
  barbours within the Citee to take any mo sˀvauntꝭ allowes at oones
  beyng fforeyns or straungiers than onely ij as is aforeherced[61]
  Wherethurgh[62] he renneth in the forfaiture of the said penaltie of
  v{li.} for the saide offence, and than that the maister and Wardeyns
  of the saide Crafte of Barbours for the tyme beyng havyng knowleche
  therof put not the said penaltie of v{li.} in execucion accordyng to
  the teno{r.} of the saide Acte thereof made, within xiiij daies after
  that the said maistˀ and Wardeyns have knowleche thereof, that than
  the said maistˀ and Wardeyns for the tyme beyng so founden defectif
  shall forfeit and lose at evˀy tyme xiij{s.} iiij{d.} to be divided
  and applied to suche uses as be aforeherced.

  [61] Afore rehearsed.
  [62] Wherethrough = whereby.

  ALSO that no manˀ pˀsones enfraunchised in the said Crafte or in any
  other occupying the same Crafte within the said Citee from hensforth
  take any moo appˀntices at oones than iij uppon payne of forfaiture
  of v{li.} at evˀy suche tyme as he is founde defectif doyng contrarie
  of this Article, to be divided and applied to suche uses as be afore
  reherced Savyng allway that it shalbe lefull to evˀy suche pˀsone
  oon yeere before the tˀme of appˀntishode of any his appˀnticꝭ be
  expired to take a nother appˀntice in the stede of hym that is nygh
  com̃yng oute of his tˀmes of appˀntishode to thentent that the same
  newe appˀntice may have his due erudicion and lernyng in the said
  Crafte or Science of Barbours before the tˀmes and [63] of the rather
  appˀntice.

  [63] A blank in the original.

  ALSO if any pˀson of the said Crafte or Science selle away his
  appˀntice to a nother manne within his tˀmes of appˀntishode that
  than it shalnot be lefull to any suche pˀsone so silling away his
  appˀntice to take any newe in his stede duryng the tˀme to come of
  appˀntishode of that appˀntice so sold Nevertheles if it fortune any
  appˀntice to dye within the tˀmes of his appˀntishode that than it
  shall be laufull to the mastˀ of that appˀntice so dying to take a
  nother in his stede when so evˀ it shall lyke hym.

  PROVIDED all way that it shalbe lefull to evˀy pˀsone of the said
  Crafte nowe havyng many appˀnticꝭ to reteyne and holde fulle as many
  appˀnticꝭ as he hathe the day of makyng of this Acte or orden{a}nce
  unto suche tyme as the tˀme of their appˀnticialite shalbe fully
  accomplisshed So all way that no suche pˀsone take any mo appˀntices
  unto suche tyme as the nuˀbre of the said appˀnticꝭ be reduced
  and brought unto the said nuˀbre of iij appˀnticꝭ uppon payn of
  forfaiture of v{li.} to be divided and applied to suche uses as been
  afore reherced.

  ALSO that no foreyn Barbour from this tyme foreward occupie the Craft
  or Science of Barbours or Surgeon Barbo{r.} within the ffraunchise
  of the said Citee but if he be lymytted and assigned therto by the
  maister and Wardeyns of the same Craft for the tyme beyng uppon payn
  of forfaiture of v{li.} as often as any suche pˀsone so be founde
  defectif, to be divided and applied to suche uses as be aforeherced.
  Provided allway that if it canne be thought for the wele of the kyngꝭ
  people that if any foreyn Barbours or foreyn Surgeon be founden of
  such habilitie and connyng of Surgerie or of that Crafte that it were
  necessarie to have hym to occupie within the ffraunchise of this
  Citee, that than he be admitted therto by the Chamᵬleyn of london and
  by the Maister and Wardeyns of the said Crafte of Barbours for the
  tyme beyng, With that the same fforeyn fynde suertie sufficient to be
  bounde to the said Chamᵬleyn and Maister and Wardeyns for to do make
  him self free of the saide Crafte or Science of Surgeon Barbours and
  to obey and pˀfourme the Rules and ordenn{a}ncꝭ of the same Crafte
  and to be under the correcion of the same Crafte, provided allway
  that the kyngꝭ people be served in price of their Cure and shavyng in
  tyme to come aswell and as safely as they have been in tymes passed.

Then follows the usual Ratification (in Latin) of the above Articles.

1490. A declaration made by one Bryan Sandford, dated 8th March, 1490,
was produced to the Committee of the House of Commons in 1745, in
which it was stated that the Company were at that time possessed of the
freehold of their Hall in Monkwell Street.

1493. On the 12th July in this year, an agreement was entered into
between the Barbers’ Company and the Surgeons’ Guild which would
indicate that the two bodies were now on amicable terms, working
harmoniously for the increase of the credit of the profession, and
for the correction of inexperienced surgeons and empirics. This
“Composition” is of so interesting a nature that it is here given in
full, as extracted from the fine old Book of Ordinances at the Hall; it
did not unite the two bodies in any way beyond this, that they agreed
to follow the same rules and practice with regard to the government of
all Surgeons; that each guild was to choose two Wardens, and that the
four so chosen were to act in a conjoint capacity as rulers or masters
in matters surgical, and thus comprehend all Surgeons, whether of the
Barbers’ Company, the Surgeons’ Guild, or “foreyns.”

  This present wrytyng endentyd of copˀosicyons made the xij{th}
  day of July iˀ the zere of owyr lord God M{t}CCCClxxxxiij and the
  viij{th} zere of the reyne of kyng harry the vij{th} William Martyn
  then beyng mayre of this cyte of london betwyxt the ffelishippis of
  surgeons enfraunchesˀ w{t} in the cyte of london on that on p’ty
  And the felishippis of barbours surgeons and surgeons barbours
  enfraunchessid iˀ the seyd cyte on the other parte witnesyth that
  the sayde felyshippys of ther comon assent and mere moc̃yons ben
  c͠odescẽdyd and agreyd togethir the day and the zere aboue sayd, in
  mañ and fourme folowyng. That is to sey that eũy pˀson and pˀsons of
  the faculte or scyens of surgeons admyttyd and sworne to eyth̃ of the
  sayde felyshippis from hens forward shall stond and a byde w{t} ther
  felyshippis as they now do and dyd before thys present composicyon.

  Also that from hens forth non of the sayde felyshippis shall admyt
  nor reseyue in to ther felishippys any alyent straungˀ or foreyn
  vsyng the sayde faculte or scyens of surgery w{t}owten knowleg or
  c͠osent of the wardẽs of bothe the seyd felishippys. All so for the
  welth and suerte of the kyngꝭ lege people And the honour of the
  seyde felyshyppys, It is agreyd be twyxt the same two felyshippis
  that non alyent straunger nor foreyn shall use nor ocopy the seyde
  faculte or scyens of surg̃y withyn this cyte or subbers of the same
  unto such tyme as he shewhym selfe to the mayer for the time beyng,
  and by the iiij wardeyns of bothe the saide felishippis, that is to
  sey of eyth̃ of the sayde felishippis, tweyn, and othˀ suche as by
  theyr wysdomys they will call vnto them, be dewly examyned & approuyd
  to be sufficyent of conyng and habilyte in the sayde faculte. And
  yf any such pˀson or pˀsones bi the sayde iiij wardens as is afore
  sayde be taken reputed and a lowed to be sufficient of konyng and
  habylite iˀ the seyd faculte or scyens of surgery that then the pˀson
  or pˀsonys so knowen and admyttyd shall be sworne to all the good
  rewlys and ordenans of y{e} seyd faculte or scyens of surgery, and
  to be under the coreccyon of the iiij wardens for the tyme beyng to
  the entent that at all tymes he may be under dwe coreccyon for the
  sauegard of y{e} kyngis lege people. And if any suche alyent straungˀ
  or foreyn of pˀsumcon refuse to be examyned of the seyde wardens in
  mañ & fourme as is a fore seyd, Or yf any suche straunger or foreyn
  so examyned be the seyde wardens be Juged onsufficient of conyng
  and neũtheles takyth upon hym to occupy or vse the seyde faculte of
  surg̃y w{t}yn the seyde cyte or subbars of the same, Then take the
  name of hym or them so doyng and pˀsent hym by the sayd iiij wardens
  to the mayer for the tyme beyng, to the entent that by his wysdom,
  and advice of hys honerabyll brethern may set suche direccyon as
  shall be thought resonabil formacion[64] therof, restrayne hym from
  the ocupac̃on of the same scyens w{t} in the sayde cyte. Also it
  is agreyd and cõpoundyd betwyxte the sayde felyshippys that from
  hensforth eũy of the seyde felyshippis and seũally by them selfe,
  Chese of themselfe two discrete pˀsons usyng the fete of surgery to
  be seũally wardens of the sayde seũall felishippis, and that these
  iiij wardens for the tyme beyng when and as oftyn as nede shall
  requere, Shall haue the syght and good gounaunce of the seide faculte
  of surgery. And eũy pˀson or pˀsonys of eũy of the sayde felyshippis
  that happenys or shall fortune to haue any Jeopˀde[65] or dowtefull
  cure, dredyng deth or mãy,[66] he or they hauing at eny tyme to
  come, shall shew and pˀsent the cure or curys in as short tyme as
  nede shall be reqˀred, And at the leste at the thyrde dressyd[67]
  to the saide iiij wardens for the tyme beyng, Or any other pˀson or
  pˀsonys that is to seye, to one of yche of the seyde felishippis,
  and the same wardens and yf them seme nedefull shall call unto them
  ij or iij, or more if nede reqˀre, of the wysest and best expˀte
  mẽ of the said felishippis occupyeng the saide faculte of surgery
  as them semeth most expedyent, for the cause or causis aforesayde.
  Also in this coposycion yt is ordeyned and agreyd, that none of
  the iiij wardens for the zere beyng neyther any other pˀson of the
  sayde felishippis ocopyeng the crafte of surg̃i, Put any man of thes
  sayde felishipis oute of ther cure otherwyse then the honeste of the
  crafte wolle, but that yche of them be redy to helpe eche other w{t}
  counsell or deed, y{t} worship profyte and the honeste of the crafte,
  and helpyng of the seke be had and done on all sydis. And if ony of
  thes iiij wardens for the tyme beyˀg or any other pˀson or pˀsonys
  of the seyde felyshippis do the cõtrary that eche suche doer content
  the valvyr[68] of the cure, After discressyon and Jugem̃et of the
  same iiij wardens for the zere beyng, And also for his trespas to
  paye aftur discression and Jugem̃et of the iiij wardens. Also if any
  pˀson of the sayde felishippis dislaunder or depute any of the saide
  felishippis onrightfully ownonestly and ef it so maye be prouyd upon
  hym by two or thre witnesse, that he paye for that trespas iij{s.}
  iiij{d.}, and ouer that to make amendis to y{e} seide pˀsons the
  whiche he hath so disslaunderd aftur Jugement of onest men of the
  seyd felyshippis not founden in non suche defaute.

  [64]? “For reformation.”
  [65] Jeopardy.
  [66] Maiming.
  [67]? “Day” or “dressing.”
  [68]? “Value.”

  This pˀsent cõposicyon was made the daye and zere a bowe wreton by
  Roberd taylour, Rob{t.} Halyday, Thom̃s Koppisley, Thom̃s Thornton,
  Ihoñ Harte, Johñ Marhm̃, Roberd Beuerly, James Scote, James
  Ingoldysby, Johñ Taylour, Richard Swedenhm̃, Nicholas Leueryng, John
  Wilson. In rowlid in Raffe Osterigis tyme, mayer.

Of the persons assenting to this composition, the following were
Barber-Surgeons, viz.: Rob{t.} Halyday (Master 1475, 1483, 1485, 1490,
1496), James Scott (M. 1493, 1498, 1500), James Ingoldysby (M. 1501,
1506), John Taylour (M. 1523, 1524), and Nicholas Leveryng(M. 1503,
1508), the others were most likely belonging to the Guild of Surgeons.

An Ordinance by way of addenda to the above was made, imposing
penalties upon any who should break any of the foregoing rules; the
first offence to be punished by a fine of 10_s._, the second 20_s._,
and the third offence to be remitted to the Mayor and Aldermen for
punishment after their discretion.

[Illustration: FAC-SIMILE OF THE TITLE-PAGE TO THE OLD BOOK OF
ORDINANCES, REPRESENTING SAINTS COSMO AND DAMIAN (PATRON SAINTS OF
THE BARBER-SURGEONS) AND THE COAT OF ARMS GRANTED TO THE COMPANY OF
SURGEONS IN 1492. (_See p. 433._)]

How long this agreement, so beneficial for the practice of Surgery,
continued in force is unknown; but the probabilities are that the old
jealousies soon re-appeared and that each Guild worked on its own
lines until 1540, as, by the uniting Act then passed, it was specially
remarked as desirable that the two Companies should come together, and
be incorporated in one.

1497. We shall now present to the reader’s notice a highly important
document, being a diploma granted by the Master and Wardens of the
Barbers’ Company to one of their freemen, enabling him to practise as
a Surgeon. This is in all probability the earliest English diploma of
a Surgeon extant and cannot fail by the quaintness of its composition,
and the details given, to prove of much interest. We notice in it, that
our Company as usual, did not fail to rehearse its prerogatives and
practice, and we also observe that thus early the Company provided an
instructor and examiner in the science, Dr. John Smith, before whom
came in the Common Hall, Robert Anson, and in the presence of a “great
audience of many right well expert men in Surgery and others, was
openly examined in divers things concerning the practice,” etc.

[Illustration: FAC-SIMILE OF THE DIPLOMA GRANTED BY THE MASTER AND
WARDENS OF THE BARBER-SURGEONS TO ROBERT ANSON (8 AUG., 1497), ENABLING
HIM TO PRACTISE AS A SURGEON.]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]


THE LETTˀ PAT̃E OF BˀBOURS & OF SURGEOS BˀBORS.

  To all trew crysten people to whom thes present lettris shall come.
  ROBERD HALIDAI[69] mastur of barbours and of surgeon barbours of
  london, and Willm̄ Okeley, John Knote[70] and Thomas Dawes[71]
  wardens of the same gretyng, knowe ye that wher as the moste
  excellent Pryns in cryst and soũeyn lord Edward by the grace of god
  kyng of ynglõd and of ffraunce, lord of Ierlond, for many pˀfounde
  cos̃ideracyons his gc̃e movyng, hathe grauntyd the well to hym ĩ
  cryst, the approuyd fremen the coiãlte of barbours and of surgeon
  barbours of the cyte of londõ, The serche and oũsyght correcyon
  and ponyshement, examinacon & approbacion of all fremen usyng or
  hauntyng the conyng of surgery and barbory, And of all maner of men
  foreyns usyng or hauntyng any pˀticuler pˀte of surgery withyn the
  seyde cyte or subbers ther of, As a bowte new woundys, olde soris,
  and other lesyons what so eũ they be, Also in drawyng of teeth
  ventosyng scarificacons and suche othˀ manwall operac̃ons, lyke as
  the lettres patentes of owre seyde lege lord the kyng ther upon made
  planyly may apere. We therfore the saide Roberde, Willm̄, John̄ &
  Thom̄s at this tyme masturs and wardens of the saide felishyp, ffor
  the comyn pˀfyte weth[72] and relefe socour of owr lordis the kyngꝭ
  lege people, entẽdyng to pˀuyde men of good capasite and abill ĩ
  maners and conyng, sufficiently lerned, enfourmed, and labored by
  long experyens, and other in the seide craft of surgery,--haue prayed
  and requyred mastur John̄ Smyth doctour ĩ phesik, Instructour &
  examener of the seide feliship, and be[73] the same for that intent
  chosen and elect to entur & examynacyon for the cawses a boue saide,
  w{t} divers pˀsons whiche long tyme, w{t}owte auctorite, haue vsed
  and haunted w{t} experyens the conyng of surgery, wheruppon aftur
  dewe and dyuers monycions made in this be halue, ROBERD ANSON on of
  the seide coĩalte at the comyn hall of the same ĩ london appered, ĩ
  his pˀpyr pˀson, the first day of August last past, submyttyng hym
  selfe to the examync̃on and thaposicion,[74] wher and when the seide
  Roberd by the sayde John̄ Smyth, in a gret audiens of many ryght well
  expert men ĩ surgery & other, was op̃yly examyned ĩ dyuers thingꝭ
  cõcernyng the practise opˀatife and directif in the seyde crafte of
  Surgery. And the{r} albe it he hathe a fore this many tymys been well
  approuyd, ʒet now he is newly habelyd, be[75] the seyde doctour and
  felyship, and founde abyll and discrete to ocopy & vse the practise
  of surgery, as well a bowte new woundis, as cansers, fystelis,
  vlceracions & many other disessis & dyuers; & the same Robert thus
  aprouyd and abelyd we haue, as an expert man ĩ the seyd faculte,
  aprouyed and abeled to ocupy & practyse in the seyd faculte, ĩ eũy
  place, when and as ofte as hym best lyketh we haue lycensid hym and
  graũtid to hym by thes pˀsentes. ĩ witnes wherof we haue putte the
  comyn seale of barbours and of surgeon bˀbours of london, geuen at
  london ĩ the comyn hall of the seyd Comõnalte the viij day of August
  the zere of oure lord god M{t}CCCClxxxxvij.

  [69] Master 1475, 1483, 1485, 1490, 1496.
  [70] Master 1510.
  [71] Master 1504.
  [72] Wealth.
  [73] By.
  [74] “The apposition”==the questioning.
  [75] By.

1499. In this year the Company obtained from Henry VII a confirmation
of their Charter, paying but 20_s._ for the same. This Inspeximus
Charter recites and confirms that of Edward IV with the very noticeable
exceptions, that four Masters or Governors are named instead of
two, and that they are described as of “the Mystery of Barbers and
Surgeons,” and not “Barbers” only, as in Edward’s grant.

The original, in excellent preservation, with the great seal of England
pendant, is at the Hall, and the text is as follows:--

  HENRICUS dei gracia Rex Anglie Francie & Dominus Hibernie Omnibʒ
  ad quos pˀsentes littere pervenerunt, salutem. Inspeximus litteras
  patentes recolende memorie domine E. quarti nuper Regis Anglie
  progenitoris nostri factas in hec verba. EDWARDUS dei gracia
  . . . . . . . . Teste me ipso apud Westmonasteriũ vicesimo quarto die
  Februarii Anno regni nostri primo. NOS AUTEM litteras predictas ac
  omnia & singula in eis contenta rata habentes et grata ea pro nobis
  et heredibus nostris quantum in nobis est acceptamus & approbamus
  ac dilectis ligeis nostris Rico Haywarde Jacobo Holand Johanni
  Robertson et Johanni Boteler nunc Magistris sive Gubernatoribʒ
  mistere BARBITONSOꝜ et SIRURGICOꝜ infra Civitatem nrãm predc̃am
  & eoꝜ Successoribʒ per pˀsentes ratificamus et confirmamus sicut
  lrẽ predc̃e rõnabilis testantˀ IN CUJUS rei testiom̄ has lr̃as
  nr̃as fieri fecimus patentes. TESTE me ip̃o apud Westm̄ quinto die
  Decembris Anno regni nostri quinto decimo.

                                                       CLERK.
                          pro viginti solidis solutis in hanaperio.

      (Endorsed.)

      Intratur in libro signato cum lr̃a. m. tempore Nich̃i Alwyne
      maioris Civitatis londoñ Anno Regni Regis Henrici septum quinto
      decimo.

                                                       PAKENHAM.

  TRANSLATION.

  HENRY by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of
  Ireland, To all to whom these present letters shall come, health. WE
  have inspected the letters patent of the Lord Edward the fourth, of
  gracious memory, late King of England, our progenitor, made in these
  words, “EDWARD by the grace of God . . . . . . . . Witness my self
  at Westminster the 24th day of February in the first year of our
  reign.” WE ALSO, the aforesaid letters, and all and singular therein
  contained ratifying and granting, for us and our heirs, as much as
  in us lies do accept and approve, and to our beloved lieges, Richard
  Haywarde, James Holand, John Robertson, and John Boteler, now Masters
  or Governors of the Mystery of BARBERS and SURGEONS within our City
  aforesaid, and to their successors, by these presents, do ratify and
  confirm, as in the aforesaid letters is reasonably testified. IN
  WITNESS whereof, we have caused these our letters to be made patent.
  WITNESS myself at Westminster the fifth day of December in the
  fifteenth year of our reign.

                                                       CLERK.
                         for twenty shillings paid into the hanaper.

      (Endorsed.)

      Entered in the book marked with the letter m. in the time of
      Nicholas Alwyne, Mayor of the City of London, in the fifteenth
      year of the reign of King Henry the Seventh.

                                                       PAKENHAM.

1511. In this year an Act of Parliament was passed, which infringed
on the privileges of the Barbers’ Company, inasmuch as it placed the
approbation and licensing of Surgeons in the hands of certain clerical
dignitaries, to wit, the Bishop of London and Dean of St. Paul’s
(while for the country the several Bishops or their Vicars general
were nominated). This Act was possibly the outcome of some laxity on
the part of our Company, or of an intolerable growth of quackery, with
which it could not cope, the pretenders to surgical knowledge being
a “great multitude” of ignorant persons, and women, using sorcery,
witchcraft and noxious remedies. This Act of Parliament (3 Hen. VIII,
cap. XI) as given below, is from an original copy in the possession of
Mr. Charles J. Shoppee (Master 1878).


¶ AN ACTE CONCERNYNG THE APPROBATION OF PHISICIONS AND SURGIONS.

  To the kyng our souerayne lorde, and to all the lordes spiritual
  and temporall, & comoñs in this present parlyament assembled.
  FORASMOCHE as the science and connynge of phisike & surgerie (to
  the perfet knowlege whereof, be requisite both great lernyng and
  rype experience) is dayly within this realme exercised by a great
  multitude of ignorant pˀsons: of whome the great part haue no maner
  of insight in the same, nor in any other kynde of lernynge, some also
  can no letters on the boke, so farforthe that common artificers, as
  smythes, weauers, and women, boldely and customably take upon them
  greate cures and thinges of greate difficultie: in the whiche they
  partly use sorcerye, and witchcrafte, partly apply suche medicines
  unto the disease, as be very noyous and nothyng metely therfore to
  the highe displeasure of god, great infamye to the facultie, and the
  greuous hurte, damage, and destruction of many of the kynges liege
  people: most specially of them that can not discerne the unconnynge
  from connynge. Be it therfore (to the suertie and comforte of all
  maner people) by auctoritie of this present parliament enacted,
  that no persone within the citie of London, nor within seuen myles
  of the same, take upon hym to exercise and occupie as a phisition
  or surgion, excepte he be fyrst examyned, approued, and admytted
  by the byshop of London, or by the deane of Paules, for the tyme
  beinge, calling to hym or them foure doctours of phisike, and for
  surgery, other experte persons in that facultie, and for the fyrste
  examination suche as they shall thynke conuenient, and afterwarde
  alway foure of them that haue ben so approued, upon the peine of
  forfayture, for euery moneth that they do occupie as phisitions or
  surgions, not admytted nor examyned after the tenour of this acte, of
  v.li. to be enployed the one halfe therof to thuse of our soueraine
  lorde the kynge, and the other halfe therof to any person that
  wyll sue for it by action of dette, in whiche no wager of lawe nor
  protection shalbe alowed.

  ¶ And ouer this, that no persone out of the sayd citie and precinte
  of vii. myles of the same, except he haue ben (as is aforesayd)
  approued in y{e} same, take upon hym to exercise and occupie as a
  phisition or surgion, in any diocesse within this realme, but if he
  be fyrste examined and approued by the bysshoppe of the same dyocese,
  or he beynge out of the dioces by his vycare generall: either of
  them callyng to them suche experte persones in the sayde faculties,
  as their discretion shal thynke conuenient, and gyuyng theyr letters
  testimonials under theyr seale to hym that they shall so approue,
  upon lyke peyne to them that occupie contrary to this acte (as
  is above sayde) to be leuied and employed after the forme before
  expressed.

  ¶ Prouyded alway, that this acte nor any thynge therin contayned, be
  preiudiciall to the uniuersities of Oxforde and Cambrydge or eyther
  of them, or to any priuileges graunted to them.

This Act seems to have invested the Bishops, etc., with the power
of licensing _all_ Surgeons, and if so, would have taken away that
privilege from our Company; the point is however doubtful, and I am
inclined to think that the Act did not operate to the prejudice of the
Company, only in so far as it suffered from the existence of another
licensing authority.

Mr. D’Arcy Power has pointed out that the Act very soon became
unpopular, and that it was almost immediately practically repealed by
another one, which provided that it should be “lawful to any person
being the king’s subject, having knowledge or experience of the nature
of herbs, etc., to minister in and to any outward sore or wound
according to their cunning.” (Memorials of the Craft of Surgery, p. 85.)

This latter Act, which in its effect would flood the land with quacks,
must however have remained the law until the Act of 32 Hen. VIII,
whereby the Barber-Surgeons were reinstated in their ancient rights;
and it is the fact, that down to the 18th Century the Ecclesiastics
claimed and enforced their rights (under the Act 3 Hen. VIII) to
license Surgeons, notwithstanding other Acts passed since then, which
although not expressly extinguishing their power, certainly did not
save it. The Barber-Surgeons’ Company seem to have examined the
Surgeons, and, if approved, to have given a certificate under Seal,
which was presented to the Bishop who thereupon issued his licence.
This practice was not however universal, and I think only applied
to some Surgeons who were not free of the Company. In some cases
the Bishop licensed Surgeons, without reference to the Company, and
thousands have been licensed by the Company without regard to the
Bishop. It is almost impossible to say now what course was followed,
the practice certainly varying with the times (see Surgery).

1513. In this year an Act of Parliament was passed exempting Surgeons
from juries, inquests, etc. This must have been passed in the interest
of the Surgeons’ Guild, as the Barber-Surgeons were surely exempt under
their Charter from Edward IV.

1512. The Barbers’ Company having applied to the King (Henry VIII) for
a confirmation of their Charter, their request was acceded to. Henry
is, on more than one occasion, spoken of in the books as “our patron,”
and there is no doubt but that he was very friendly both to our Company
and to individual members of it, as witness his gift of the grace cup,
and the legacies in his will to various members of the Company, with
some of whom, as Pen, Harman, Ayliff, etc., he was on as intimate terms
as a king could be with a subject; there would therefore be, we may be
sure, but little difficulty in obtaining an Inspeximus.

In one of our Minute Books, Thomas Knot (Master 1555) has transcribed
what purports to be a copy of Henry’s Inspeximus Charter with the date
12{th} of May “in the xviij{th} yere of our Reigne” (_i.e._, 1526), and
he appends a certificate that he has compared and agreed it with the
original! Now we possess the original at Barbers’ Hall and it is dated
12{th} March 3{rd} Henry VIII (_i.e._, 1512), and it would indeed be a
strange thing for Henry VIII in 1526 to recite and confirm Henry VII’s
Charter, when he had already done so in 1512. Moreover I have searched
the Patent Rolls and whilst there is no record in 1526, there is the
entry of the 1512 Charter, and further to fix the date, both Philip
and Mary, and Elizabeth in their Inspeximus Charters recite the 1512
Charter.

It has been necessary to enter into this detail, as the date of the
Charter is important when we come to consider Holbein’s picture; and as
my friend Mr. D’Arcy Power has (p. 338) quoted this pretended Charter
not having seen the real one, he, very naturally trusting old Thomas
Knot’s statement, has fallen into the pit dug some three hundred years
ago.

The following is the Text of the Charter, and it will not be necessary
to append a translation, as it follows much on the same lines as that
of Henry VII:--

  HENRICUS dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et Dominus Hibernie OMNIBUS
  ad quos presentes Irẽ pˀvenerunt saltmˀ INSPEXIMUS litteras patentes
  domini H. nuper Rˀgis Anglie septum patris nostri precarissimi de
  confirmacione factas in hec verba HENRICUS dei gracia . . . . . .
  Teste me ip̃o apud Westmonasterium quinto die Decembrˀ Anno regni
  nr̃i quinto decimo. NOS AUTEM litteras predictas ac omnia & singula
  in eisdem contenta rata hentẽs & grata ea pro nobis & heredibus nr̃is
  quantum in nobis est acceptamus & approbamus ac dilectis ligeis
  nr̃is Johĩ Peerson Wil̃l̃o Kyrkeby Thome Gybson & Thome Martyn nunc
  Magistris sive Gubernatoribus mistere BARBITONSORUM et SIRURGICORUM
  infra Civitatem nrãm predictam & eorum successoribus per presentes
  ratificamus & confirmamus sicut lrẽ predicte rõnabiliter testantur.
  IN CUJUS rei testimonium has lrãs nrãs fieri fecimus patentes. TESTE
  me ip̃o apud Westmonasterium duodecimo die Marcii Anno regni nr̃i
  tercio.

                                                       YONG.

               pro viginti solidis solutis in Hanapˀio.

The Great Seal, though still pendant, has been considerably damaged.

1525. This year the Company received a Precept from the Mayor, ordering
them to provide for the “Midsummer Watch.”

    TO THE WARDENS OF THE BARBER SURGEONS,

  We woll and charge you that for the hounour of this Citie ye do
  ordeyne & pˀpare ageinst the watches to be kept within this Citie in
  the nightꝭ of the vigilles of Sent John Baptist & Seint Peter nowe
  next comynge iiij honest & comely pˀsones suche as ye will answere
  for, w{t} Bowes & arrowes clenely harneysed and arrayed yn Jakettꝭ of
  whytte, havynge tharmes of this Citie, to waytte and attende uppon us
  in the said Watches, And to come to Blackwell Hall and there to be,
  for the not fayllynge hereof as ye tendre the honour of this Citie
  and also will answere at your pẽlls. Gyven in the Guihall of the
  said Citie the xiiij day of Junij the xvij year of the Reigne of our
  Soveraigne lorde King Henry the viij{th.}

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Handwritten autograph]

An Act of Parliament was passed in the 20th Henry VII, which provided
that the governing bodies of Guilds should not make any by-laws or
ordinances, without the same should be approved by the Chancellor, the
Lord Treasurer, and the Chief Justices of the King’s Bench and Common
Pleas, or any three of them, etc., and in 1530 our Company, being
desirous of settling many points for the government of the mystery,
drew up a long set of interesting Ordinances, which were presented
to Sir Thomas More the Chancellor, Sir John Fitzjames and Sir Robert
Norwiche the Chief Justices, and were signed by them on the 14th May,
1530. The original (with More’s autograph) is at the Hall, and after
reciting the Act of 20th Henry VII, ordains the following oaths and
articles:--

  The oath of a freeman.
  The oath of the Masters and Governors with directions as to searches.
  Ordinance as to attending on summons.
      "      "    quarterage.
      "      "    presentation of apprentices.
      "      "    number of servants to be kept by freemen and
                    liverymen.
      "      "    wages of servants.
      "      "    enticing away of servants.
      "      "    opening shop.
      "      "    teaching the mystery to any but apprentices.
      "      "    sueing brother freemen at common law.
      "      "    “opprobrios condicions or dishonest wordes.”
      "      "    refusal to come on the Livery, and admission into
                    the Livery.
      "      "    Sunday trading.
      "      "    presenting patients in danger of death.
      "      "    reading Lectures concerning Surgery.
      "      "    supplanting another of his patient.
      "      "    the Dinners.
      "      "    excess of words in debate.
      "      "    departing from the Common assembly.
      "      "    seniority.
      "      "    Barbers setting up shop.

Sir Thomas More’s Ordinances, as above, will be found in full in the
Appendix B, the transcript being made from the original.[76]

[76] The copy of these Ordinances given by Mr. D’Arcy Power (p. 339)
is taken from one made by our old friend Thomas Knot, and is not
literally, though it is substantially, accurate.

1540. This year is one of the most memorable in the annals of the
Barber-Surgeons, as it witnessed the union of the unincorporated
Guild of Surgeons, with their more accredited fellow-craftsmen, the
incorporated Company of Barbers. It has been suggested by more than
one writer that such an union is shrouded in mystery, difficult of
explanation, and that in those days, with science advancing (slowly,
it is true), it might have been expected that we should read of a
divorcement, rather than a combination of two crafts, which then, as
now, were dissimilar both in their operations, and in the training and
intelligence necessary for their practice.

But it is essential to bear in mind that though the Charter of
Edward IV was ostensibly to the Barbers, it really was granted to a
fraternity, which to a great extent practised as Barber-Surgeons, some
of whom were Surgeons pure and simple, others combined both branches,
while others still carried on the more humble craft of Shavers and
Hair-Dressers; those of the Company who practised Surgery did no doubt
consider it a reproach to be dubbed “Barbers,” and for distinction sake
called themselves and were well known as “Barber-Surgeons,” indeed they
had so far established this title to themselves and to their Company,
as to get it recognised and so named in the Inspeximus Charter of Henry
VII (less than forty years after their original Charter as “Barbers”
had been granted to them). This is to a great extent confirmed by the
words of the Act now about to be referred to, which distinctly says
that there was then a Company of “Surgeons occupyinge and exercisynge
the sayde scyence and faculty of surgery . . . . . . commonly called
the Barbours of London.”

The Union therefore was not a joining of Barbers with Surgeons (THAT
had existed from the earliest times), but was the consolidation
of the “Guild of Surgeons” with another body of Surgeons who were
incorporated, and practised under the name of “Barbers” in conjunction
with actual working Barbers; and, as the Act provided what the Surgeons
should and should not do, and the like as to actual Barbers, limiting
their operations also, most if not all difficulty and apparent
incongruity in the union seems to vanish.

The Act (32 Hen. VIII, cap. 42) which will well repay perusal, settled
the Barber-Surgeons in their corporate capacity for many a long year;
under it the old rival society disappeared, it being declared that the
two Companies should be united, so that by their assembling together,
the science of Surgery might be fostered and improved; whereupon it
was enacted that they should be incorporated under the style of “THE
MAISTERS OR GOVERNOURS OF THE MYSTERY AND COMMINALTE OF BARBOURS AND
SURGEONS OF LONDON.” The property of the old Company of Barbers was
handed over to the new Corporation (the Guild of Surgeons are not said
to have had any property to bring into the new concern). The usual
grant of a common seal, of power to plead and to be impleaded, to hold
lands, etc., will be seen at large in the Act. The Surgeons of the
Company were to be exempt from bearing armour or being put into watches
and inquests. The dead bodies of four malefactors were assigned to
the Company yearly for dissections. And, inasmuch as various persons
exercising the faculty of Surgery used to take into their houses
for cure, people afflicted with the pestilence and other contagious
diseases and “do use or exercise barbari, as washynge or shavyng and
other feates thereunto belonging,”[77] the same was declared “veraie
perillous,” and it was enacted that no one using the faculty of Surgery
should practise Barbery, and that no Barber should practise any point
in Surgery, the drawing of teeth only excepted. The Surgeons were to
exhibit a sign in front of their houses, and no Barber was to exercise
his calling unless free of the Company. Four Masters were to rule the
Company, whereof two were to be Barbers and two Surgeons. A penalty was
named for offenders against the articles, all were to pay scot and lot,
and private persons might keep their own Barber or Surgeon, without
interference by the Company.

[77] Here we have the common practice of the joint craftsman, the
“Barber-Surgeon,” clearly indicated.

The Act was passed on the 24th July, 1540, and will be found in
Appendix C. being taken from the original Black-letter copy in the
Author’s possession.

We now refer to the Company’s chief treasure, the Holbein picture, and
are at once met with a difficulty; does it represent the _granting
of a Charter_ to the Company? if so, the year was 1512; or does
it illustrate the union of the Barbers and Surgeons by _Act of
Parliament_? if so, the year was 1540.

The picture exhibits a Charter with the Great Seal pendant, and has
always been popularly known and described as the “granting of the
Charter to the Barber-Surgeons.” On the other hand, however, the King
was but 21 years of age in 1512 and 49 years in 1540, which latter
age accords with the picture; moreover, Vicary, Ayleff, Harman, and
the others represented, were members of the Court in the latter year,
but not in 1512. These considerations are sufficient to demolish the
“Charter” theory, and point to the hypothesis that it is the Union of
the Barbers’ Company with the Guild of Surgeons, accomplished by Act
of Parliament in 1540, which is _commemorated_, but then we must admit
a licence on the part of Holbein (which deceived no one at the time),
when he indulged his artist’s fancy by putting into the King’s hand
a Charter with seal pendant, instead of an Act of Parliament, which
latter would not indeed have been the King’s function to hand to the
Company, and would probably, if represented, have been depicted as a
mere roll, and not therefore so artistic or effective as a Charter with
a Seal in the King’s hand.

The Act received the Royal Assent 25th July, 1540; this would be
towards the close of the year of John Pen’s mastership. Vicary, who
is receiving the Instrument, was Master from September, 1541, to
September, 1542; there is every probability that the painting was
executed during his year of office, and that is why Holbein paid him
the compliment of putting him in the chief position in the painting,
which after all was intended, not as a strictly historical, but rather
as a commemorative picture.

The picture is 10 feet 2 inches long by 5 feet 11 inches high, painted
on oak panel and contains nineteen figures; it represents a room in
the palace (said to have been Bridewell), which is hung with beautiful
tapestry and appears to have been gilded; the King is seated on a
throne, his age apparently about fifty, the complexion florid, the
hair sandy, the eyes small but animated and restless; the expression
on the countenance is impatience, and he seems thrusting the document
hastily into the hand of Thomas Vicary, who receives it kneeling, on
his left; the face altogether might be pronounced handsome, were it
not for the low forehead and contracted eyebrows; he has on his left
thumb a signet ring, and other rings on the first and fourth fingers
of his right hand with which he holds a sword of state resting on his
knee; on his head is a jewelled crown; on his left leg the garter, and
round his neck the collar of the Order; the mantle is short and of
crimson velvet; all these ornaments are most beautifully executed and
are as fine as miniature painting; every hair of his head is distinct,
and the texture of his robe is finely given; his impatience seems to
have warmed him, and the rising colour flushing over his face is most
admirably painted. On the King’s right are three grave and closely
shaved personages on their knees. The first is Dr. John Chambre, one
of the Royal Physicians, he is represented in a skull cap and furred
gown, the sleeves very large and in which his hands are enwrapped; from
the expression of his countenance it would seem that he was anything
but pleased with the provisions of the Act, as the face has a sullen
and discontented look; next to him is the celebrated Dr. William Butts,
also one of Henry’s Physicians, and behind him is Thomas Alsop, the
Royal Apothecary, his hair is long and lank, and features coarse and
hard.

[Illustration]

On the King’s left are fifteen members of the Court on their knees,
and in livery gowns, evidently specially sumptuous for the occasion,
being of brocaded or damask silk, trimmed with fur, and each man wears
a livery hood of red and black upon his shoulder. The first of these
is Thomas Vicary, Serjeant-Surgeon, who wears a gold chain; next comes
Sir John Ayleff, Surgeon to the King, also with a gold chain and a ring
on his finger, the next is Nicholas Simpson, King’s Barber, who, like
Vicary and Ayleff, wears a skull cap, all the others have their heads
bare. Then comes Edmund Harman, King’s Barber, and one of the Witnesses
to Henry’s Will, he wears a gold chain; next him is James Monforde,
King’s Surgeon, then John Pen, the King’s Barber, and Nicholas Alcocke;
the expression on the countenances of all these men is grave and
solemn; the next, Richard Ferris, who has a somewhat merrier face, and
was also King’s Surgeon, completes the front row. The moustaches and
beards of the whole, including the King, would appear as if they had
had great care and attention bestowed upon them. Of the remaining seven
figures in the back row, the names of but two have been preserved,
viz., Christopher Salmond and William Tilley.

This picture of Holbein’s is not surpassed, if indeed it is equalled,
by any other of that master, every part is most elaborately and
delicately finished; the position of none of the figures is
constrained, and there is no attempt at theatrical effect, yet every
person represented is in action, the colouring is chaste, and kept
down, nor is there any of that hardness and stiffness often observed
in Holbein’s pictures. Its reputation has been truly said to be
world-wide, whilst it has been eulogistically described by some one to
be “as glowing as a Titian, and minutely faithful as a Gerard Dow.”[78]

[78] Part of the above description has been adapted from an anonymous
paragraph, which I found interleaved in Allen’s History of London, at
the Guildhall Library.

The names of the persons represented have been somewhat rudely affixed
to their effigies, probably a few years after the picture was painted,
and whilst we cannot but deplore the disfigurement, it is more than
compensated for, as the means of identification of so many of our
illustrious predecessors. The tablet, with inscription, has been said
to be of later date than Holbein’s work, and to have been painted over
a window, through which was once seen the old church of St. Bride;
this, however, is most improbable, as it is personally dedicatory to
Henry. The inscription is as follows:--

      HENRICO OCTAVO OPT MAX: REGI ANGLIÆ FRANCIÆ
      ET HIBERNIÆ FIDEI DEFENSORI AC ANGLICANÆ HIBERNICÆQ
      ECCLESIÆ PROXIME A CHRISTO SVPREMO CAPITI SOCIETAS
      CHIRVRGORVM COMMVNIBVS VOTIS HÆC CONSECRAT.

      TRISTIOR ANGLORVM PESTIS VIOLAVERAT ORBEM
        INFESTANS ANIMOS CORPORIBVSQVE SEDENS
      HANC DEVS INSIGNEM CLADEM MISERATVS AB ALTO
        TE MEDICI MVNVS JVSSIT OBIRE BONI
      LVMEN EVANGELII FVLVIS CIRCVMVOLAT ALIS
        PHARMACON AD FECTIS MENTIBVS ILLVD ERIT
      CONSILIOQ TVO CELEBRANT MONVMENTA GALENI
        ET CELERI MORBVS PELLITVR OMNIS OPE
      NOS IGITVR SVPPLEX MEDICORVM TVRBA TVORVM
        HANC TIBI SACRAMVS RELIGIONE DOMVM
      MVNERIS ET MEMORES QVO NOS HENRICE BEASTI
        IMPERIO OPTAMVS MAXIMA QVE QVE TVO.

TRANSLATION.

  To Henry the Eighth, the best and greatest King of England, France,
  and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and next to Christ, supreme
  head of the Church of England and Ireland, the Company of Surgeons
  dedicate these, with their united prayers.

    A grievous plague had ravaged the region of England,
      Afflicting man’s spirits and penetrating his frame;
    God, pitying from on high this remarkable scourge
      Commanded thee to perform the office of a good physician.

    The light of the gospel flies around on glowing wings,
      This will be the balm to enfeebled minds:
    Whilst the disciples of Galen meet to raise a monument to thee,
      And all disease is swiftly dispelled by thy power.

    We, therefore, a suppliant band of thy Physicians,
      Solemnly dedicate this house to thee,
    And mindful of the favour with which thou, O Henry, hast blessed us,
      Invoke the greatest blessings on thy rule.

The following fragmentary notices of the persons represented in the
picture, will be found of some interest.

The first figure to the left is Thomas Alsop; he was the King’s
Apothecary, and Henry VIII, by his will, left him 100 marks.

Next to him is Dr. William Butts, one of the King’s physicians,
ever famous for his memorable interference with the King on behalf
of Archbishop Cranmer in 1544, when the Roman Catholic party in the
Council endeavoured to procure Cranmer’s committal to the Tower. A
full account of this incident will be found in Strype’s Memorials of
Cranmer (Oxford Ed., 1812, pp. 177-181), and Shakespeare in his play of
Henry VIII (act v., sc. 2) has also graphically described it. Cranmer’s
Secretary, aware of Butts’ great influence with the King, sent for the
Doctor, and acquainted him with the slight which had been put upon the
Archbishop by keeping him standing in the ante-room of the Council
Chamber among lacqueys and servingmen, upon which Butts immediately
repaired to the King, and said:--

      “I’ll show your Grace the strangest sight,
      The high promotion of his Grace of Canterbury:
      Who holds his State at door, ’mongst pursuivants,
      Pages and foot boys.”

whereupon Henry replies,--

      “Ha! ’tis he indeed!
      Is this the honour they do one another?
      ’Tis well there’s one above them. Yet, I had thought
      They had parted so much honesty among ‘em
      (At least good manners) as not thus to suffer
      A man of his place and so near our favour,
      To dance attendance on their lordships’ pleasures,
      And at the door too, like a post with packets,
      By Holy Mary! Butts, there’s knavery.
      Let them alone, and drawn the curtain close:
      We shall hear more anon.”

Henry spoke his mind so freely to the Council, that they one and all
shook hands with the Archbishop, and, as Strype says, “Never more durst
any man spurn him during King Henry’s life.”

Dr. Butts must have had the best practice of any man of his time; there
are several references to him among the State papers at the Record
Office, of which the following are a few examples, and indicate that
his patients were the aristocracy of the day.

  25th May, 1524. Among the funeral expenses of Sir Thomas Lovell,
  K.G., is this item:--“To John Hewson, riding to Cambridge, to fetch
  Dr. Buttes when my master was sick, 4_s._ 8_d._”

  28th April, 1525. The Duke of Norfolk, writing to Cardinal Wolsey,
  says that last night at 7 o’clock the Lord Marney was “drawyng the
  draghts of deth, and Mr. Butts determyned he shuld not lyve after 5
  owrys” (hours).

  14th October, 1525. A warrant was signed by Wolsey, directed to Sir
  Andrew Windsor, for delivery to Dr. Butts, who had been appointed
  physician to my lady Princess, of a livery in blue and green, in
  damask for himself, and in cloth for his two servants.

  17th May, 1528. In a letter from the Duke of Norfolk to Wolsey, the
  Duke says that Mr. Butts had come to him from the King, without whose
  aid he thought that he should not have recovered from his sickness.

  23rd June, 1528. In a letter from Brian Tuke (to Cardinal Wolsey) he
  speaks of an infection which had been much about of late, and how the
  King told him that Mistress Ann Boleyn and my lord Rochford both have
  had it; what jeopardy they have been in, by the turning in of the
  sweat before the time; of the endeavour of Mr. Buttes who hath been
  with them in his return; and finally of their perfect recovery.

  19th January, 1530. A letter from De Augustinis, written from the
  palace at Esher, to Cromwell, desires that Dr. Butts or Dr. Walter
  Cromer may be sent to the Cardinal and requesting that Balthazar the
  physician, may be spoken to, to obtain some leeches; no time was
  to be lost and the doctors were to bring with them some vomitive
  electuary.

Dr. Butts was a personal friend of Henry’s, who, in 1537, granted him
the manor and advowson of Thornage, in Norfolk. He died 17th November,
1545, and lies buried in Fulham Church, where there is (or was) a
monument to his memory.

Next to Butts, and immediately to the King’s right, is Dr. John
Chambre; he was physician to and a great favorite of Henry’s, holding
several clerical preferments as well. He was a Fellow and Warden of
Merton College, Oxon, where he was admitted Doctor of Physic, 29th
October, 1531. In the list of persons to whom Wolsey, in 1526, assigned
lodgings at the King’s house, when they should repair thither, occurs
the name of Dr. Chambre. There is also a catalogue of the King’s new
year’s gifts, in 1528, by which it appears that the Doctor had a piece
of plate weighing 24-3/8 ozs., at the same time the Cardinal’s gift was
40-1/4 ozs., and that of the Archbishop 31 ozs.

In Brian Tuke’s letter (23rd June, 1528), before referred to, he tells
Wolsey that when he called on the King with his letters, he found him
in “secret communication with his physician, Mr. Chambre, in a tower,
where he sometimes sups apart.”

Dr. Chambre was Dean of St. Stephen’s Chapel, Westminster, Canon of
Windsor, Archdeacon of Bedford, Prebendary of Comb and Harnham in
Salisbury Cathedral, Treasurer of Wells Cathedral, and beneficed in
Somersetshire and Yorkshire. Truly the lines had fallen unto him in
pleasant places!

He was one of the physicians in attendance on Queen Jane, at the birth
of Edward VI, and in a letter written by him to the Privy Council,
concerning the Queen’s critical state, he signs himself “priest.”
He was also in attendance on Anne Boleyn, in her confinement with
Elizabeth. His name is mentioned with that of Linacre and three others,
in the Charter to the College of Physicians, in 1518.

Sir William Compton, K.G., in 1522, nominated Dr. Chambre one of his
executors, in conjunction with the Bishop of Exeter, and Sir Henry
Marney, Lord Privy Seal.

Dr. Chambre built a “very curious cloyster,” in St. Stephen’s Chapel,
which cost him 11,000 marks, and he gave the canons of that chapel some
lands. He died in 1549.

On the King’s left is, first, Thomas Vicary (sometimes Vicars and
Vyccary), Master of the Barbers in 1530, and of the Barber-Surgeons
in 1541, 1546, 1548 and 1557. He was a man of great eminence in his
profession, having been Surgeon to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, and
Serjeant-Surgeon to Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary and Elizabeth. He was
the author of “The Profitable Treatise of Anatomy” in “The Englishman’s
Treasure, with the true Anatomie of Man’s Body.” An account of Vicary
will be found in D’Arcy Power, pp. 102, etc., and several particulars
relating to his connection with St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, are
recorded in a paper by Dr. Norman Moore (Hospital Reports, vol. xviii,
pp. 333-358); see also Dr. Furnivall’s exhaustive account (Early
English Text Society).

Next comes Sir John Ayleff (Aylif, Aylyff, etc.). He was Master of the
Barbers in 1538, and Surgeon to the King, with whom he was doubtless on
terms of friendship, as Henry bequeathed him 100 marks. Ayleff treated
Henry for fistula and cured him, at Brinkworth in Wilts, for which
the King bestowed upon him a great estate there in gratification. He
subsequently became a Merchant of Blackwell Hall, Sheriff of London in
1548, and Alderman of Bridge Without in 1550.

17th July, 1550. In the Repertories of the Court of Aldermen is a
Record that the Court of the Barber-Surgeons gave their assent to the
Translation of Sir John from theirs to the Grocers’ Company, of which
Company he was crowned Upper Warden 9th June, 1556.

Sir John Ayleff was buried 20th October, 1556, in the Church of St.
Michael Bassishaw, where there was formerly a marble tomb with this
inscription thereon--

    In Chirurgery brought up in youth,
    A Knight here lyeth dead;
    A Knight and eke a Surgeon such
    As England seld hath bred.
    For which so soveraigne Gift of God
    Wherein he did excell,
    King Henry VIII call’d him to Court,
    Who lov’d him dearly well.
    God gave the Gift, the King gave Goods,
    The Gift of God t’enhance;
    Where God and such a Prince do joyne,
    Such Man hath happy Chance.
    King Edward for his service sake,
    Bade him rise up a Knight,
    A name of Praise and ever since
    He, Sir John Ailiffe hight,
    Right Worshipful, in name and charge
    In London lived he than,
    In Blackwell Hall the merchant chiefe
    First Sheriffe, then Alderman.
    The Hospitals bewaile his death
    The Orphan children mone,
    The chiefe Erector being dead
    And Benefactor gone.
    Dame Isabel who lived with him,
    His faithful Wife and Mate,
    With him (as dearest after death)
    Doth not her Knight forsake
    The Knight the 24[79] of October.
    Yeelded up his breath,
    And she soon after followed
    To live with him in death.

    [79] Probably a mistake for 14th.

  19 April, 1558. My lady Aylyff gave a fyne table cloth of damaske
  worcke to sr̃ve for the uppermost table in the hawle the w{ch} of her
  jentyllness she gave frely unto this hawle.

John Ayleff (son of the Knight) was admitted to the freedom of the
Barber-Surgeons, 3rd June, 1552.

Next to Sir John Ayleff, is Nicholas Simpson, concerning whom nothing
is known to me, but that he was “King’s Barber,” and Master of the
Barbers in 1537.

Edmund Harman, “King’s Barber,” follows next; he was admitted to the
freedom in 1530, and served Master in 1540. Henry VIII bequeathed him
200 marks, and he was one of the attesting witnesses to the King’s
will. There are several references to him among the State Papers and
Household Ordinances. His dignified bearing and expression in the
picture are very striking.

James Monforde (or Mumford), “King’s Surgeon,” is next; he was Upper
Warden in 1540 and again in 1543, but never served as Master. He gave
the Company their silver hammer, still used by the Masters in presiding
at Courts.

Then comes John Pen (Penn or Penne), “King’s Barber,” and Groom of
the Privy Chamber; he was admitted to the freedom in 1527 and was
Master 1539. He married Lucy, daughter and heiress of Edmond Chevall,
of Coddicote, Herts, by whom he had a good estate and seven children
(_vide_ Harl. Soc. Pub. xxii., 82 & 116).

In Liber Niger Domus Regis (Harl. MS. 642) among the orders made for
the regulation of the Household of Henry VIII was one, that none but
fifteen persons whose names are specified should be allowed to enter
the Privy Chamber, and one of these is John Penne.

The following quaint regulation, concerning the King’s Barber, is to be
found in the same MS.--

  Item. It is alsoe ordeyned that the Kingꝭ Barbor shalbe daylie by
  the Kingꝭ upriseinge readdye and attendant in the Kingꝭ Privye
  Chamber there haveinge in reddynesse his Water Basons Knyvesꝭ Combes
  scissourꝭ and such other stuffe as to his Roome doth appertaine for
  trymminge and dressinge of the Kingꝭ heade and bearde. And that the
  sayd Barbour take a speciall regarde to the pure and cleane keepinge
  of his owne p’son and apparrell useinge himselfe allwayes honestlye
  in his conversationne withoute resortinge to the Companye of vile
  personnes or of misguided woemen in avoydeinge such daunger as by
  that meanes hee might doe unto the Kingꝭ most Royall person not
  fayling thus to doe uppon payne of looseinge his Roome and farther
  punnishement at the Kingꝭ pleasure.

In this MS. is also to be found an earlier order, of the time of Edward
IV touching the King’s Barber, which is curious, as indicating that
Saturday night was then (as still it is with many) “tub night” with the
King; and we may also infer from the expression “_if_ it please the
King to cleanse his head, legs or feet,” that it was _not_ a fixed rule
for him to do so _every_ Saturday night.

  A BARBOUR for the Kingis most highe and drad p’son to be taken
  in this Court, after that he standeth in degree gentleman yoman
  or groome. It hath bin much accustomed to one or two well knowne
  officers of the Ewrie in housold Daily of such as bene for the monthe
  Sergeant or othir. Also we finde how this hath bene used amonge by a
  weele betrusted yoman of chambre ffor lacke of cunning of these other
  men. It is accustomed that a knight of the Chambre or elles squire of
  the bodie or both be p’sent every time when the Kinge wolle shave.
  This Barbour shall have every satterday night if it please the Kinge
  to cleanse his head leggꝭ or feete and for his shaveing two lovis[80]
  one pitcher wine. And the usher of chambre ought to testifie if this
  be necessary dispensed or not.

  [80] Loaves.

It is said that the portrait of Pen was greatly admired by Sir Robert
Peel, who frequently came to the Hall to look at it, and who is
reported to have offered the Company £2,000 for the head, if it might
be cut from the picture, he undertaking to make good the damage! He is
also alleged to have said at one of his visits, that he should like to
sleep on the table at the Hall, so that the first thing he would see
on waking in the morning might be Pen’s head. Had Sir Robert known the
legend[81] of the _table_ he would perhaps have suggested a different
bed. Henry VIII left, by his Will, 100 marks to Pen.

[81] Said to have been part of the dissecting table!

Concerning the next man, Nicholas Alcocke, nothing is known beyond
that he was Surgeon to Edward VI, and was admitted to the freedom in
1523. He was doubtless a member of the Court, though he never served as
Warden.

The last on the front row is Richard Ferris (or Ferrers), Master in
1563 and Serjeant-Surgeon to Elizabeth. Like others of his brethren, he
also benefited under Henry’s will, to the extent of 100 marks, and was
one of the King’s Surgeons.

In the back row are seven figures, but of these the names of only two
survive, viz., William Tylley, Upper Warden 1546, and Christopher Samon
(Salmon, Sammond), admitted to the freedom in 1528, and Master in 1553.
By Domestic Papers, Henry VIII, vol. 5, p. 690, it appears that one
Christopher Samon was living in Lombard Street in 1532: this might be
the same man.

29 August, 1668. Dear old Samuel Pepys visited us this day, and thus
records his intentions and opinion concerning the picture--

  And at noon comes by appointment Harris to dine with me: and after
  dinner he and I to Chyrurgeons Hall, where they are building it new,
  very fine; and there to see their theatre, which stood all the fire,
  and which was our business, their great picture of Holben’s, thinking
  to have bought it by the help of Mr. Pierce,[82] for a little
  money: I did think to give £200 for it, it being said to be worth
  £1,000; but it is so spoiled that I have no mind to it, and is not a
  pleasant, though a good picture.

  [82] James Pierce (or Pearse) Surgeon to Charles II and to the Duke
  of York. Master in 1675

James I seems to have entertained a high opinion of this picture, and
borrowed it of us to be copied: his letter applying for it is preserved
at the Hall, and is as follows.

  JAMES R.

  Trustie and welbeloved Wee greete you well. Where we are informed
  of a Table of painting in yo{r} Hall wherein is the Picture of o{r}
  Predecesso{r} of famous memorie K. Henry the 8{th}, together with
  diverse of yo{r} Companie, w{ch} being both like him, and well done,
  Wee are desirous to have copyed. Wherfore o{r} pleasure is that
  you presently deliver it unto this bearer Our Welbeloved Servant
  S{r} Lionell Cranfield Knight, One of Our Maisters of Requests,
  whome Wee have commaunded to receave it of you and to see it w{th}
  all expedition copied and redelivered safely; and so Wee bid you
  farewell. Given at Our Court at Newmarket the 13{th} day of Januarie
  1617.[83]

  [83] _i.e._, 1617/8.

The Court of course agreed to lend the picture, though doubtless with
some misgivings; contrary however to the practice of the time when
money was “lent” to the King, it found its way back to the Hall.

In 1627, Charles I, a more suspicious borrower than his father, had it
to Whitehall, but here again we fortunately had it returned.

The Royal College of Surgeons possess some Cartoons, from which, it has
been said, this picture was painted; this is, however, very doubtful.
Some particulars as to these Cartoons may be seen in Mr. D’Arcy Power’s
book, p. 96.

In 1734 the Company agreed with Mr. Bernard Baron for him to engrave
the picture for 150 guineas, and several details relating thereto are
recorded in the Minutes. It was published in 1736, and is a faithful
reproduction, much sought after by collectors. Baron has however copied
the picture, exactly as he saw it on to the copperplate, so that when
the impressions were struck off, everything was reversed. His original
study, a red crayon, beautifully executed, is preserved in the Court
Room, and the copperplate is still used, each Assistant on his election
being presented with a copy of the engraving. The Company also possess
a rather rough proof before letters.

The print is dedicated to the Earl of Burlington, with a Latin
inscription, of which the following is a translation.

“To the Most Noble Lord Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington and Cork,
&c., Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of the Garter. For the
restoration, with the greatest liberality, at his own costs, of the
Anatomical Theatre built a hundred years before, with the greatest
skill, by the very celebrated Architect Inigo Jones, and decayed by
lapse of time. This painting of Holbein representing the granting of a
Charter given with his own hand by Henry VIII, King of England, &c., to
the Society of Surgeons in London and preserved in their Hall, is by
the Society of Surgeons of London humbly dedicated.”

This inscription, written at a time when the relations between the
Barbers and the Surgeons of the Company were becoming strained, was
evidently drawn by a Surgeon, who coolly ignored the Barbers throughout.

A very good pen and ink drawing of the picture was made by Austin
Travers Young (aged 16) in 1883, and presented by him to the Company,
for which he received the thanks of the Court.

1537. In “Chapter House Book” B. 1. (at the Record Office) is a list
of the freemen of the several Companies of London at this date, which
gives the names of 2,468 freemen in 39 Companies (an average of about
63 to each). The Barbers outstripped in numbers all the others, having
a roll of 185 members; next to them came the Skinners with 151, then
the Haberdashers with 120, so on down to the Bowyers, who mustered
but 19. The premier Company, the Mercers, numbered but 55, whilst the
ancient Weavers had only 30 members.

The following is the list of our freemen, the first twenty-six being
members of the Court, and Nicholas Symson, Master that year.

  Nicholas Symson.     | John Raven.           | Thomas Wilson.
  Willm Kyrckby.       | Robert Hutton.        | John Smythe.
  Thomas Vycars.[84]   | Henry Pemberton.      | Willm Hiller.
  John Bankꝭ.           | Willm Shirborne.      | Richard Tholmod.[85]
  John Potter.         | George Genne.         | John Awcetter.
  Thomas Twyn.         | Thomas Johnson.       |
  John Johnson.        | Robert Spegnall.[86]  | Richard Sermond.
  John Holland.        | Richard Boll.[87]     | Hugh Lyncocke.
  Willm Rewe.          | Nacholas Alcoke.      | John Bordman.
  John Aylyff.         | Willm. Tylley.        | Rauf Stek.
  Edmond Harman.       | John Northcote.       | Henry Hogekynson.
  John Peñ.            | Willm. Wetyngton.     | John Tomson.
  Richard Tayler.      | Henry Yong.           | Hugh Dier.
  Harry Carrier.[88]   | Cristofer Samond.     | Edward ffreman.
  Rauf Garland.        | Robert Waterford.     | Thomas Mone.
  John Enderbye.       | Henry Atkyn.          | Willm Yenson.
  Peter Devismand.[89] | Christofer Bolling.   | John Banester.
  Robert Postell.      | Robert Stocdale.      | Willm Trewise.
  John Bird.           | Mathiewe Johnson.     | Christofer Hungate.
  James Tomson.        | Davy Sambroke.        | John Hutton.
  Willm. Kydd.         | John Atkynson.        | John Browne.
  John Yong.           | Thomas Waryn.         | John Grene.
  Thomas Sutton.       | Robert Grove.         | John Tymber.
  Charles Wyght.       | Robert Brownhill.     | John Shrene.
  John Newman.         | Willm Spencer.        | Thomas Staynton.
  Thomas Grome.        | Thomas Butfilane.[90] | Thomas Pays.
                       | Robert fforster.      | Thomas Mede.
  Willm Higgꝭ.          | Edmond Tyrell.        | John Anger.
  John Dene.           | John Philpott.        | Thomas Worseley.
  Thomas Surbutt.      | John Thowlmod.[91]    | John Gilberd.
  Willm Billing.       | Edward Ingalby.[92]   | Cristofer Haynes.
  Willm. Lyghthed.     | Richard Elyott.       | Willm. Smythe.
  John Mosseley.       | Willm. Downham.       | John Smerthwaite.
  Willm. Hill.         | Rogier Skynner.       | John Lybbe.
  George Wenyard.      | John Gerard.          | George More.
  John Barker.         | Richard Rogiers.      | Thomas Burnett.
  Willm. Barker.       | Thomas Dicson.        | John Hamlyn.
  James Wod.           | Thomas Gylman.        | Richard Child.
  John Stere.          | Thomas Dester.        | Thomas Baily.
  Willm Hetherley.     | Edward Hewett.        | George Vaughan.
  Olyver Wilson.       | John Dormot.          | Thomas Wetyngh’m.
  Willm. Grene.        | George Batman.        | John Bonair.
  Henry Rawshold.      | Thomas Vivian.        | Richard Cokerell.
  Bartilmewe Dobynson. | George Brightwelton.  | Willm. Walton.
  Henry Patterson.     | John Waren.           | Geferey ffraunceis.
  Philip Pegott.       | John Greenway.        | Thomas ffayles.
  Robert Downys.       | John Bell.            | John Edlyn.
  Antony Barowes.      | Laurens Mollyners.    | John Samond.
  James Hogeson.       | John Cobbold.         | Henry Bodeley.
  Robert Wevir.        | Willm. Draper.        | Thomas Stanbrige.
  John Surbut.         | Richard Smythe.       | Willm. Borrell.
  Willm Sewell.        | Robert Ledꝭ.           | Richard Nicols.
  John Denys.          | John Gamlyn.          | Edward Hughbank.
  John Page.           | Thomas Cutbert.       | John Charterane.
  Robert Dodwell.      | Robert Chamber.       | Henry Wotton.
  John Cutberd.        | Lewis Bromefeld.      | Robert Hastyngꝭ.
  John Gray.           | Richard Worseley.     | Alex Mason.
  Willm. Dauntese.     | John Oskyn.           | Thomas Darker.
  Thomas Appilton.     | John Robynson.        | Thomas ffyshe.
  John Cragell.        | Richard Coley.        | Edward Rollesley.
  Thomas Arundell.     | John West.            | John Braswell.
  Willm. Johnson.      | Willm. Welfed.        | Willm. Symsyn.
  Henr’. Adam.         |                       |

  [84] Vycary.
  [85] Tholmwood.
  [86] Sprignall.
  [87] Bowle.
  [88] Cazier?
  [89] Daiseman.
  [90] Butphillian.
  [91] Tholmwood.
  [92] Ingolsby.

The forty-two names following the Court and ending at John Awcetter
were Liverymen, the remaining hundred and seventeen being Yeomanry.

1543. A few years previously the King had set the example of
wearing his hair and beard short, and now the City seems to have
discountenanced long beards, as I find the following in _Letter Book Q.
87_. (10th July, 35 Henry viij.)

  AN ACTE AGAYNST}
  BEARDED MEN.   }

  ITEM for dyvˀse & sundrye consyderac͠ons & causes movyng this Cor̃te
  it is this daye orderyd & decreid & establyshed by the same that
  from henseforward there shall no Cytezen or other iñhit{a}unte[93]
  of this Cytie usyng or havyng a greate berde of more notable
  pˀlyxitie[94] or length then other the seid Cytezens of this Cytie
  do nowe use or have hertofore of late yeres usyd to were, either be
  iñhited pˀmytted or suffred to Receyve or take eny orphanage into his
  handes and custodye albeit that he wolde fynde nevˀ soe good suertyes
  for the same nor yet be admytted from henseforward to this Co{r}te
  for eny Recognito{ns} or suertye for eny suche orphange And yt is
  also assentyd & agreid that no pˀson havynge eny such berde shalbe
  admytted by redempc͠on into the lybt̃ies & fredome of this Cytie as
  longe as he shall were eny such berde.

  [93] Inhabitant.
  [94] Prolixity.

1544 and 1545. In _Repertory XI_ (at Guildhall) ff. 73{B.,} 176,
187{B.,} 229{B.,} 232 and 234 are various records relating to the vexed
question of the Barber-Surgeons going on inquests, bearing armour and
serving as constables, from all which offices they claimed exemption
under their Charters and Act of Parliament.

By the earlier entry, it seems that the Wardens were warned to appear
before the Court of Aldermen to shew cause why they refused to pass
upon inquests, etc.; then came a petition from the Company praying
to be discharged of all offices save the Inquest of Wardmote once a
year; this does not appear to have satisfied the Authorities, and the
Company were directed to draw up further Articles to be submitted
to the Court of Aldermen. Great pressure was no doubt put upon the
Barber-Surgeons, the result being that they abandoned most of the
privileges of exemption which they had claimed, and submitted a Bill
of Articles, which was finally approved, and entered of record on fo.
234. A copy of this lengthy document is at the Hall, and from it it
appears that on the 22nd October, 1545, the Company appeared before
the Court of Aldermen as “humble Besechers” to be shorn of their
privileges, the ground of their petition being “That forasmoche as
some grudge and displeasure is lately sith the unyon and conjunction
of their said ffelowshippes in to one entyre Company growen conteyned
and taken against them and their said ffelowship, by dyverse of theire
neighbours being citezeins of this citie, as they be, by reason that
they your said suppliauntꝭ” are discharged by their Charters and Act
of Parliament from bearing offices, etc., “that other the Cittzeins
of this citie are ellygible and lyable unto, ffor the whiche grudge
and displeasure your besechers are not a little sorye. ffor the
playne declarac͠on thereof and for the eschewyng advoyding and utter
extinguysshement of the said grudge and displeasure from hensforwarde,”
they are content that it shall be ordained that they shall go upon
all Wardmote Inquests, but not upon any inquests between party and
party (_i.e._, sit as jurymen in civil actions); that all freemen
of the Company not practising Surgery shall be contributory to all
assessments, serve as Constables and keep watches in their turn as
other citizens, but that all Surgeons shall be free from bearing
armour, etc.

Notwithstanding this compromise, entered in the City books, it seems
in course of time to have been overlooked, and, as has been previously
remarked, the exemption of _all_ freemen of the Company from juries,
etc., has been claimed and allowed down to quite recent days.

[Illustration: FAC-SIMILE PAGE OF FIRST MINUTE BOOK, 1557.]

1550. The first of our Court Minute Books which has been preserved,
commences in the 4{th} Edward VI, and bears this title,

  ~Orders and Awardes~ made ordered and awarded within the tyme of
  Maister George Geen Thomas Johnson Thomas Stocdall and Mathew Johnson
  Maister and Wardeins of the Company and fellowship of BARBORS
  SURGEONS of London for one hole yere begynnyng the xxvj{th} day of
  Auguste in the fowerthe yere of the reigne of our Sovereigne Lorde
  Kynge Edward the Syxte with thassent and consent of the Assistaunces
  of the same Companye as hereafter ensuethe.

From this and the succeeding Minute Books, the following extracts are
principally taken as illustrative of the Company’s History from this
period:

1556. At the end of the first book is a very long memorandum written
and signed by Thomas Knot, Master, to the effect that on the 26th
March, 1556, he made humble suit to the Lord Mayor, Sir Will{m.}
Garrett and the Aldermen, in the name of the Company, for the exemption
of the Company from finding or setting forth any soldiers or men of war
at any time thereafter, when it might be that the Citizens of London
should be required to do so, either by sea or land, “fforasmoche as
the same Company are alwayes at every such tyme and tymes very sore
burdened and chardged otherwise hereafter expressed, that is to saye,
They are comaunded and bounden to prepare and fynde so manye Surgeons
and so many other men attendinge upon them at every tyme and tymes
that it shall fortune the King” to send out soldiers by sea or land,
and “the same Company doe alwayes prepare fynde and send furthe for
every one houndreth of suche Souldyers one Surgeon and a man attending
upon him.” Upon which representations the Lord Mayor and Aldermen
were pleased to grant to the Company, that on future occasions when
the like requisitions might “fortune to be layed or appointed to
or upon theym, that then they in every suche case upon their gentle
suyte and request made unto the Lorde Mayor and courte of Aldermen for
the tyme beinge for and concernynge their sayd dischardge for and in
consyderac͠on of the causes above remembered, shalbe as gentelye and
charytably holpen eased and releaved in that behalf as the wayte and
ymportaunce of the burden that the Cytie at every suche tyme shalbe
chardged w{th} all will reasonablye permytt and suffer.”

The memorandum then proceeds to state that the Lord Mayor and Aldermen
advised the Master to cause a remembrance of the above (being only a
promise by word of mouth) to be entered and recorded in the Book of
Ordinances of the Company, which was done.

1555. In Henry Machyn’s Diary for this year, is the following reference
to a Romish procession, winding up with a dinner at Barbers’ Hall.

  The xxvij day of May was the Clarkes prossessyon from Yerdhall[95]
  college, and ther was a goodly masse to be hard, and evere clarke
  havyng a cope and garland, with C.[96] stremers borne, and the
  whettes[97] a playng round Chepe, and so to Ledynhall unto Sant
  Albro[98] chyrche, and ther thay putt off ther gayre, and ther was
  the blessyd sacrament borne with torche-lyght abowt, and from thens
  unto the Barbur-hall to dener.

  [95] Guildhall.
  [96] A hundred.
  [97] Waits.
  [98] St. Ethelburga.

Charter from Philip and Mary, which is still in our possession, and has
a most beautifully executed title, the initial letter representing the
King and Queen seated on the throne, and the border containing various
heraldic badges; the seal unfortunately is damaged.

  PHILIPPUS ET MARIA, Dei gracia Rex et Regina Anglie hispaniarum
  ffrancie utriusque Sicilie Jerusalem & hiᵬine fidei defensores
  Archiduces Austrie Duces Burgundie Mediolani & brabantie Countes
  haspurgi fflandrˀ & Tirolis.

  ~Omnibus~ ad quos presentes lr̃e pervñint salt̃m.

  INSPEXIMUS quasdam lrãs patentes domini H. quondam Regis Anglie
  septum[99] fc̃as in hec verba, HENRICUS dei grã, &c. . . . . . . . .
  Teste me ip̃o apud Westmonastiũm duodecimo die marcii Anno regni nr̃i
  tcĩo. Yong. pro viginti soliᵭ solut̃ in hanap̃io. NOS AUTEM lrãs
  pˀdcãs ac omnia & singula in eisdem contenta rata heñtes & grata ac
  ea pro noᵬ heredibʒ & Successoribʒ nr̃m prefate Regine quantum in
  noᵬ est acceptamus & approbamus ac ea dilc̃is noᵬ Thome Vicary nunc
  magistro mistere barbitonsoꝜ Thome Whytyngame Jacobo Wood & Johĩ
  Warren Gubernatoribus ejusdem mistere & Successoribʒ suis ratificamus
  & confirmamˀ p’ut lrẽ p’dc̃e in se r̃onabiliter testantur. IN CUJUS
  rei testimonĩu has lr̃as nrãs fieri fecimus patentes. TESTIBUS nobis
  ip̃is apud Westmonasterium octavo die Junii Annis regnorum quarto &
  quinto.

  [99] A clerical error, for Henry VIII.

                                                       LUTLEY.

      Taxat̃ finis ad x{l.}

             Nico eboꝜ Canc.[100]

  [100] Assessed at a fine of £10. Nicholas (Archbishop of) York,
  Chancellor.

It is noticeable in this Charter that the confirmation is to the
Governors of the “Barbers,” and not “Barber-Surgeons,” although the
latter was then the legal style of the Company, but probably this was
another clerical error.

1560. This year (6th January) the Company obtained an Inspeximus
Charter from Elizabeth, still preserved at the Hall; it has a title in
much the same style as the preceding charter, but the seal is very much
damaged.

  ELIZABETH, Dei gracia Anglie FFrancie, et hibernie Regina fidei
  defensor, &c. ~Omnibus~ ad quos presentes littere pervenerint salutem.

  INSPEXIMUS litteras patentes Dn̄i P. et Dn̄e M. Sororis nr̃e
  precharissime nuper Regis et Regine Anglie de confirmac͠oe factas in
  hec verba PHILIPPUS et MARIA dei gracia, &c. . . . . . . . . TESTIBUS
  nobis ip̃is apud Westmonasterĩu octavo die Junii Annis regnoꝜ nr̃oꝜ
  quarto et quinto. NOS AUTEM lrãs predcãs ac omĩa et singula in
  eisdem contenta rata habentes et grata ea pro nobis heredibus et
  successoribus nr̃is quantum in nobis est acceptamus et approbamus ac
  ea Diɫcis nobis Georgio Geñ nunc magistro mistere BarbitonsoꝜ Willm̄
  Grene Thome Bayly et Joh̃i Smarthawyte Gubernatoribus ejusdem mistere
  et Successoribus suis ratificamus et confirmamus prout lrẽ predcẽ in
  se racionabiliter testantur. IN CUJUS REI TESTIMONIUM has lrãs nrãs
  fieri fecimus patentes. TESTE me ip̃a apud Westmonasteriũ sexto die
  Januarii Anno regni nr̃ secundo.

                                                       COTTON.

                 Taxat̃ finis ad x{l.} vj{s.} viij{d.}

In Machyn’s quaint Diary, we find the following entries:--

  1561. The xxiiij day of Feybruary whent to hang xviij men and
  ij women, and serten ware browthe[101] to be bered in serten
  parryches in London; the barbur surgens had on[102] of them to be a
  notheme[103] at ther halle.

  [101] Brought.
  [102] One.
  [103] Anatomy.

  1562. The xx day of June was a gret shutyng[104] of the Compene of
  the Barbur Surgeantes for a gret soper at ther owne hall for a xxx
  mess of mett,[105] for they dyd make ij godley[106] stremars agaynst
  that day of their harmes,[107] the whyche they wher agmented by the
  most valeant kyng at armes master . . . . . . and they had vj drumes
  plahyng and a flutt; and ij gret ansutts,[108] and as a shot was
  wone, downe whent that and up the thodar,[109] and as they whan the
  shut; and master Gall[110] and ys syd[111] wan the soper--the master
  of the Compene.

  [104] Shooting, probably at Moorfields, with bows and arrows.
  [105] Meat.
  [106] Goodly.
  [107] Arms.
  [108] Ancients (flags).
  [109] The other.
  [110] Thomas Galle.
  [111] His side.

  The x day of August was Barbur surgyons fest, and they capt ther
  communion at Sant Alphes[112] at Crepull-gat, and master Recherdson
  dyd pryche,[113] the skott; ther was good syngyng; and after to ther
  halle to dener, and after dener a play.

  [112] St. Alphage.
  [113] Preach.

1567. Elizabeth inaugurated the first State Lottery in England, as a
means of providing money, and a very peremptory mandate was directed
by the Lord Mayor to the various City Companies, commanding them to
adventure therein.

1st February, 1568. The Barber-Surgeons put in 40{s.} for the “use,
profet and benefyt of the hall,” but did not draw a prize, and indeed
none of the Companies reaped any advantage by the speculation, the
Lottery being simply a trap into which they were ordered to walk.

The proposal for this Lottery was as follows:--

  A verie rich Lotterie Generall without any Blancks contayning a
  great No. of good prices, as well of redy money, as of Plate &
  certaine sorts of marchaundizes having been valued & prised by the
  commaundement of the Queenes most excellent Majestie by men expert
  & skilfull and the same Lotterie is erected by hir majesties order,
  to the entent that such Commoditie as may chaunce to arise thereof,
  after the charges borne, may be converted towards the reparation of
  the Havens and strength of the Realme, & towardes such other publique
  good workes. The No. of lots shall be foure hundreth thousand, and no
  more: and every lot shall be the summe of tenne shillings sterling
  onely, and no more.

Stow says that this Lottery was commenced to be drawn on the 11th
January, 1569, at the West Door of St. Paul’s, and continued drawing
day and night until the 6th May following.

It was a common practice of the Companies to put in their money under
mottoes, and some curious ones are recorded, many being composed with a
quaint sarcasm on the probability of prizes being obtained.

Herbert (Hist. of the Twelve Livery Companies) gives some interesting
particulars of the State Lotteries, and quotes a motto used by the
Merchant Taylors which pretty clearly indicates their opinion of the
business;

      One byrde in the hande is worth two in the wood,
      If we get the great lot, it will do us good.

Some of the prizes were ridiculously small, _e.g._, 1_s._ 2_d._, 2_s._
1_d._, etc., and great dissatisfaction was expressed at the principal
prizes remaining unpaid to the winners.

1573. The Company received a precept from the Lord Mayor for a “loan”
of money to make provision of wheat for the City, and the same was by
the Court ordered to be complied with. This “corn custom” is very fully
treated of by Herbert, and was virtually a tax upon the companies, who
were each rated and compelled to find a certain proportion of corn to
be stored by the City, and sold at such times as when, there being a
scarcity, the markets would otherwise rise, were it not for the immense
stock kept by the City. This custom survived for many years under
certain modifications; as we shall see hereafter, our Company built a
granary in 1633, and stored their own corn.

The precept above referred to was as follows--

  Forasmuche as all comon polecye requyreth the prevenc͠on of
  extremities, and consideringe as you knowe the urgent and present
  necessitie, and the lacke of provision of wheate and other grayne for
  furniture of this so great and populous citie, of the want whereof
  the queenes ma{tie} and her most honorable coñsell are not ignorant;
  but havinge spˀcial regard to the same, are not a lytle offended
  and displeased, with some grefe that there bene no better pˀvision
  heretofore made, and that presentlie the cittie shoulde be no better
  stored, by reson wherof the prices of corne and grayne is now muche
  dearer in this cittie than in any other parte of this realme, have
  not only at sundrye times and gentle meanes, but also w{th} some
  terror, as welle in the Starre-chamber as in other places afore the
  counsell, given us admonicion that the same her ma{ties} cittie and
  chamber may not be unfurnished for lacke of good pˀvision. And we,
  as our duties is, havinge great care and especial consideracion of
  the same, and pˀcevynge by order of the harvest past, and the unkynd
  season of the yeare, sith that the prices of corne is verry likely
  to encrease and be advanced to a greater and higher price than yet
  is, have thought good and verrye necessarye for the avoyding of
  greater inconvenyences, to make immediate pˀvision of a great masse
  and quantity of wheate and other grayne, as well w{th}in the realme
  as beyond the seas for the provision aforesaid, w{ch} cannot be done
  w{th}out a great some of money presentlie to be defrayed, w{ch} is
  not to be levyed but by the good assestens of you and others, good
  coustomers and cittezens of this cittie; have therefore assessed
  your Company of Barber Surgeons at the some of[114]        which is
  agreed upon by acte of coˀen counsell, w{ch} some of        we do
  not only require you, but also streaghtle charge and comande you,
  immediatelie upon the recept hereof, calling your companye together
  in your comon hall, you do forthw{th} tax, levy, and gather of the
  welthiest and most able persones of the same the sum aforesaid,
  in such wise that you fayle not to pay the same, and evrie pˀcell
  thereof, to the hands of George Helton, of the cittie of London,
  w{th} all expedicion, and w{th}out repayment thereof to you. Fayle
  not hereof, as you tender the mytigac͠on of our sovereigne ladye the
  queens majesties displeasure already conceived, and do tender the
  com̃on weale of this cittie, together w{th} your private condytte,
  and as you will answer for the contrarye.

  [114] The amount is left blank.

The next entry would seem to indicate some contemplated State
interference with the Company’s property, and the answer was probably
not in exact accordance with the truth, for on the 28 May, 1576, a
precept in the Queen’s name, having been received, calling upon the
Master and Wardens to return to the Guildhall an account of the revenue
of their lands, and of their goods, “the answere was that the true
revenewe of the landes was xx{ti} markes whereof the most pˀte went
forthe and is disbursed in peñcons, and that we had no goods.”

1578. A precept was received as follows,

  [Sidenote:
  TO THE WARDENS }     BY THE MAIOR.
  OF THE COMPANIE}
     OF BARBOR   }
     SURGINS.    }]

  THYES shalbe to will and require yo{u} and in her maiesties name
  streitlie to charge and comaunde yo{u} that w{th} all convenient
  spede yo{u} appointe and pˀvide the number of twelve hable and
  sufficient pˀsons being Iournemen appnˀtices or others wc{h} are
  fremen of this Cittie and inhabitinge w{th}in the same beinge of
  agilitie and honest of behavio{r} betweene the age of xix yeres and
  xl{ti} w{ch} are fitt to be trayned for harquebus shott, evˀy one
  of them havinge a murrion, a sworde and dagger, and a caliver w{th}
  sufficient furniture for the same, and one half pounde of powder,
  besides touche powder whereof Three of the same pˀsons to be house
  holders and free men of yo{r} saide Companie, and that yo{u} certyfie
  me the saide Maior the names and sir names of all yo{r} saide number
  where and w{th} whome they dwell, of what Companie they be free, and
  what Captaynes or other skilfull men that be of yo{r} saide Companie
  or whome yo{u} knowe inhabitinge w{th}in this Cittie fitt to trayne
  or leade the same men of there names and dwellinge places. And that
  they be all in a redines furnished as aforesaide to muster in there
  hose and dublets onlie, or dublets hose and jerkins w{th}in xiiij{en}
  daies next ensuinge the date hereof. And for the levyenge of monie
  for the saide furniture And for the charge of powder yo{u} shall
  collect suche reasonable somẽs of monie as yo{u} shall finde mete for
  the saide pˀporc͠on, by waie of reasonable assesment of evˀy sevˀall
  welthie and hable pˀson of yo{r} Companie. Wherein we require yo{u}
  in anie wyse to spare the powrer sorte of ffremen although yo{u}
  somewhat more largelie burden the ritche. YOVEN at the Guildhall of
  this Cittie of London the xv{th} daie of Marche 1577.[115]

  [115] _i.e._, 1578.

                                                       SEBRIGHT.

In pursuance of this precept a levy was made upon ninety freemen,
who contributed £19 17_s._ 11_d._ (in sums ranging from 1{s} to 6{s}
8{d}) and upon ten “foreins” who paid in all £3. The Expenses of the
soldiers, and their arms, powder, etc., are all set out in detail (see
Appendix D).

1585. It was agreed “that o{r} Companie by reason of the often and
earnest preceptes from the Lorde maior to move unto some liberall
puttinge in of monie into the Lottery for Armo{r}, that o{r} Companie
should put in x{li} yf that might satisfie for all the Companie viz{t}
the Clothinge vj{li} xiij{s} iiij{d} and the yeomanry v m’kes.”

29th September, 1586. The Lord Mayor had issued sundry precepts to the
Company for the “buyeinge of certein goune powder amountinge in waight
to of one Mr. Henry Dale Hab’dassher at the price of x{d} le ɫi. and
yt was agreed the saide powder should be bought and that Mr. Swaldell
[Master, 1593] should go to chuyse it, and he to have the same powder
for viij{d} the pounde.”

10th March, 1589. It was ordered that the gunpowder directed by another
precept to be provided by the Company, should be bought and that it
should be kept “in the Armorie howse in convenient place for feare of
daunger of ffier.”

29th March, 1596. It was ordered that £40 “ship money” should be “lent”
by the Company to the City, which is the earliest mention of this
obnoxious tax in our books.

8th August, 1596. “Yt was agreed that the som̃e of £xxx{ti} shalbe lent
unto the Cytty for the payenge of Souldiers wages and other charges
diffrayed about the Spanishe voyage.” This was an Expedition of certain
ships (furnished by the City) under the Earl of Essex and Sir Walter
Raleigh “to annoye the King of Spaine.” The English then sacked and
burned Cadiz, burnt the Spanish navy, and on their return home, says
Stow, “great triumph was made at London for their good successe.”

18th August, 1598. At this Court came a precept from the Lord Mayor,
commanding the Company in Her Majesty’s name to “lend” £100 to the
Queen for six months, for suppressing rebels in Ireland. The demand
was, as usual, of a most peremptory nature, and the Court ordered £100
to be paid to the Treasurers appointed by the City.

6th August, 1599. A precept came from the Lord Mayor in the Queen’s
name, commanding the Master and Wardens to deliver to the freemen the
Company’s armour in “suche order as it maye be, in safetye readie for
her Maiesties service,” whereupon the Master took for his own use “one
muskett fflaske and tuche boxe one headepeece and one rest.” Eleven
other members of the Company had armour delivered out to them, as “one
caliver fflaske and tuche boxe, sworde and dager girdle and hangers and
headepeece.”

1599. A precept was received on 11th November, commanding the Company
to be in attendance on the Queen in her progress from Chelsea to
Westminster, which is not only curious for the quaintness of its
description of the persons who were to be appointed, but affords a
glimpse at the magnificence of Royal processions three hundred years
ago.

  [Sidenote:
  TO THE MAISTER  }     BY THE MAIOR
  AND WARDENS OF  }
  THE COMPANYE OF }
  BARBOR-SURGEONS.}]

  WHERE her Ma{ts} moste gratiouse pleasure and comaundement is this
  pˀsente daie signified unto me the lorde Maior from the right ho:
  the lorde Chamberline of her Ma{ties} moste honorable householde
  that myselfe and my Bretheren thaldermen with a conveniente number
  of the beste and moste graveste Cittyzens of this Citye shoulde
  uppon Tewesdaie nexte in the Afternoune wayte and attende uppon her
  highnes royall pˀson from the Towne of Chelsey unto her highnes
  princlie pallace at Westminster in as honorable and statelye sorte
  as conveinentlye maye be pˀformed. In accomplishment of w{ch} her
  highnes said comaundement, These shalbe to chardge and comaunde you
  in her Ma{ts} name to pˀpare not onlye your selves, but alsoe provide
  and have in a readines the full number of eighte pˀsons of the moste
  graveste talleste and comliest pˀsonages of your saide Companye,
  everye of them to be well horsed and appareled in velvet coates and
  chaynes of goulde And that not onlye your sealves but alsoe everye
  of the saide eighte pˀsones maye have one footeman with twoe staffe
  torches to waite and attende upon him, and to be all in a readines
  well and substancially horsed appareled and appointed as aforesaide
  in Cheepeside by twoe of the clocke of the saide afternoone to
  attende uppon me and my bretheren thaldermen to waite upon her moste
  excellente Ma{tie} from Chelsey aforesaide to her highnes saide
  pallace of Whitehall, WHEREOF see you faile not at your pˀill and as
  you will answere the contrarye if throughe your negligence any parte
  of this service shall not be thoroughelye pˀformed. Guihalde the ix
  of November 1599.

                                                       SEBRIGHTE.

In pursuance of the above precept the Master with seven other Members
of the Court were appointed to attend, and eight freemen were nominated
as torchbearers.

1600. The fee simple of three houses in Monkwell Street was this year
purchased by the Company of William Fyninge for £112!

11th November, 1600. In obedience to a precept it was ordered that
twelve members of the Court “well mounted on horseback and apparrelled
in all poynts accordingely,” together with twelve freemen “to wayte
uppon them w{th} evˀy one twoe staffe torches in his hande,” were
to meet at the Hall on the following Thursday (13th November) and
to ride with the Lord Mayor to Chelsea to conduct the Queen to
Westminster. This procession is thus referred to in Stow’s Annals; “On
the thirteenth of November 1600, her Maiestie being most honourablie
attended on, by the most honourable Prelates, and Nobles, and Judges
of the Realme, was received neere unto Chelsey, by the Lord Maior of
London, with his brethren the Aldermen all in Scarlet, besides to the
number of five hundred citizens, in coates of velvet, and chaines
of gold, on horesbacke, every of them having two staffe torches to
attende on them: And they all waited on her, to her royall Pallace at
Westminster.”

9th November, 1602. Various members of the Company “were appoynted to
ryde w{th} the M{r} to meete her Ma{tie} on Saterdaie next” at Chelsea.

9th April, 1603. A precept was received commanding the Company to
contribute £12 10_s._ 0_d._ towards the cost of the reception of James
I by the City, whereupon an assessment was made upon the freemen for
the same, and the Masters made “choyce of sixe pˀsonable menn for
Wiflers to attend the Livˀye of this Companye when his Ma{tie} goeth to
be crowned.”

20th April, 1603. The following precept requiring the Company to assist
in the reception of the King “in greater number and more statelie and
sumtiows shewe then hath bene at any time heretofore within the memory
of man in the like case pˀformed,” will be read with interest;

  [Sidenote:
  TO THE M{RS} AND WARDENS }     BY THE MAIOR
         OF THE COMPANY OF }
         BARBOR SURGEONS   }]

  WHERE the most high and mightie Prince James o{r} most dread &
  soveraygne Lord is by the grace of god shortlie to make his repaire
  from his Kingedom of Scotland into this his Realme of England and so
  consequentlye to this his honorˀble Cittie and chaymber of this his
  imperyall Crowne. And for that it is agreed by mee and my Breethr{n}
  the Aldrẽn of the same Cittie that not onelie o{r} selves but the
  full number of five hundred of the best and gravest Cittizens should
  accordinge to o{r} dueties wayte and attend uppon his royall pˀson at
  his approch nere to this Cittie in greater number and more statelie
  and sumtiows shewe then hath bene at any time heretofore within the
  memory of man in the like case pˀformed, Towards the accomplishm{t}
  of w{ch} number your company is appoynted to pˀvid the full number of
  Twelve pˀsonns, THESE therefore shalbe to chardge and commaund you in
  his Ma{ties} name to prepare not onely yourselves but also to p’vid
  the full number of Twelve persons of the most grave and Comlyest
  pˀsonages of youre said Companye, everie one of them to be well
  horsed and apparrelled w{th} velvet Coates and w{th} sleaves of the
  same and chaynes of golde, and not onely yourselves but every of the
  saide pˀsons to have one comely pˀson well apparrelled in his dublet
  and hose to attend uppon him one[116] foote. All which pˀsons to be
  in redines well and substonciallie horsed apparrelled and appoynted
  as aforesaid w{th}in one daies warneing to be signified unto you
  to attend on mee and my Bretheren the Aldrẽn of the same Cittie,
  to attend and wayte uppon his most exelent Ma{tie} as aforesaid.
  And that uppon Saturdaie morneinge next you doe certifye to mee in
  wrytinge the names and S{r}names as well of youre selves as of all
  other pˀsons free of youre company that you shall appointe for this
  service. Of all w{ch} pˀsons you are to have a regard that noe man
  for insufficiency in any respect be turned back to the disgrace and
  discredit of youre company, nor a mann unfitt furnished and appointed
  for so honorable a service. And hereof fayle you not, as you will
  answer the contrary if through youre defalt any parte of this service
  shal not be fullie pˀformed.

  [116] On.

  Guyldhull this Twenteth of Aprill 1603

                                                       SEBRIGHT.

9th August, 1603. James soon attempted to borrow (as he termed it) of
the Companies. “Where a pˀcept was directed to õr M{rs.} for the lone
of money to the Kinge, wee are to answer that wee have none.”

Perhaps this reply sufficed on this occasion.

22nd October, 1603. London was this year visited with a great Plague,
and in consequence there was no Lord Mayor’s Show.

  [Sidenote:
  TO THE WARDES̃ OF }     BY THE MAIOR.
    THE COMPÃIE OF }
   BARBOR SURGEONS }]

  THEISE are to will and require you that you take speciall knowledge
  herby that for avoydinge of infecc̃on by assemblie of people this
  tyme of gods vizitac̃on It is thought meate therbe noe shewe made the
  morrowe after Simond and Judes daie next, it is intended that youre
  Companie be dischardged thereof for their Attendac̃e for that tyme.

                                                       SEBRIGHT.

  This xxij{th} of October 1603.

7th February, 1604. The Court having considered the many abuses
“comited against the weale of this Company” decided to apply for an
Act of Parliament which should confer upon them extended powers, and
appointed a Committee for the purpose, with the Recorder and Mr.
Wilbraham as counsel.

20th October, 1604. From an entry of this date, it seems that it had
been decided to apply for a fresh Charter, instead of an Act of
Parliament, and a summary of the clauses (twenty-seven in number)
which it was desired to have embodied therein is set out in full. As
the Charter was obtained, it is unnecessary to give these suggested
clauses here (they may be seen in Mr. D’Arcy Power’s book, p. 361). The
16th one is, however, curious enough, declaring the “openinge searinge
and imbalmeinge of the dead corpes to be pˀply belongeinge to the
science of Barbery and Surgery, And the same intruded into by Butchers
Taylors Smythes Chaundlors and others of macanicall trades unskillfull
in Barbery or Surgery, And unseemely and unchristian lyke defaceinge
disfiguringe and dismembringe the dead Corpes, And so that by theire
unskillfull searinge and imbalmeinge, the corpes corrupteth and groweth
pˀntlie contagious and ofensive to the place and pˀsons approachinge.”

30th January, 1605. The Charter of James I is of this date, but not
now in our possession; there are, however, two copies of it at the
Hall, one of which was made in a vellum book in 1658. It was in Latin
of prodigious length; but the following are the clauses as I make them
out, and will suffice for this work.

1. It grants to the Company of Barber-Surgeons that it shall be ruled
by four Masters or Governors and twenty-six Assistants.

2. Power given to the Masters to make lawful assemblies, to keep Courts
in their Common Hall, and therein to consult, counsel and decree
touching their Statutes, Laws and Ordinances, for the good rule, state
and government of the Company.

3. Power to make laws, etc., for the government of the Masters or
Governors, and of all and singular persons using the mysteries of
Barbery or Surgery within the City of London, the liberties and suburbs
thereof.

4. Power to punish offenders by penalties, fines, and imprisonments.

5. Fines to be levied by distress by the officers of the Company.

6. Nomination of John Laycock as Master, and of the three Wardens.

7. The present Masters to continue in office until the Monday next
before the feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, and until the election
of new Masters.

8. The present Masters and Assistants to continue on the Court for
life, unless removed for misbehaviour or other good cause.

9. Upon the death or dismissal of an Assistant, the vacancy to be
filled up by the Court.

10. Assistants to be sworn on admission.

11. The Masters, or the more part of them, to choose twelve persons of
the mystery (six whereof to be expert Surgeons), which twelve were to
be the Electors to choose the new Masters or Governors on the Monday
next before the feast of St. Bartholomew.

12. Of the four Masters, two to be Surgeons.

13. The Masters elected to be sworn to the due execution of their
offices.

14. Any member elected a Governor, to be ever after an Assistant.

15. If a Governor be dismissed for misconduct, another to be chosen in
his place in the form provided.

16. The twelve Electors to be sworn.

17. Power of search, oversight, reformation, government, and
correction, as well of free as of foreign professors of Barbery and
Surgery in London and its suburbs.

18. Power of entry into Shops of Barbers and Surgeons.

19. Power to oversee and approve or condemn plasters, ointments,
instruments, etc.

20. Power to examine Barbers and Surgeons.

21. Power to prohibit ignorant persons, or such as shall wilfully
refuse to be examined, from practising.

22. Power to admit skilful persons to practise Surgery.

23. Power to reject and destroy all noxious or improper medicines,
ointments, instruments, etc.

24. The Masters finding on their search any impostors, ignorant
persons, or refusers to be examined, the same to be bound to their good
behaviour.

25. No butcher, tailor, waxchandler or other persons, to cut, dissect
or embalm any dead body, but the same to be done by members of the
Company approved and appointed by the Masters or Governors of the
Barber-Surgeons.

26. The Masters or Governors and admitted Surgeons, to be discharged
from Watch, Ward, Inquests or Juries, and the office of Constable, and
from assessments for the same.

27. Power to purchase lands, etc.

28. Ratification of the old liberties and franchises of the
Barber-Surgeons, and of their lands.

29. All Mayors, Bailiffs, etc., to be aiding and assisting the Masters
or Governors in the execution of their offices.

  TESTE meipˀo apud Westm̃ Tricesimo die Januarij Anno Regno nr̃i
  Anglie ffrancie et Hibernie sc̃do et Scotie Tricesimo octavo.

                                             pˀ Brẽ de privato Sigillo.

Christian IV, King of Denmark, brother-in-law of James, paid a visit
to England in 1606, and was sumptuously entertained. In accordance
with the custom of the time, there was a grand pageant and procession
in the City, in which all the Companies took part, and the following
precept for the same was received by us;--

                             BY THE MAIOR.

  TO THE M{R} & WARDENS OF THE }
    COMPANY OF BARBOR SURGEONS }

  FFOR the bewtefieinge of the streetꝭ and lanes w{th}in this Cittie
  against the passage of the Kingꝭ most excellent mat{ie} and the
  Kinge of Denmarke their nobilitie and trayne from the Tower through
  this Cittie. THEIS are in his Ma{t}ꝭ name straightlie to charge and
  command you that all delayes & excuses sett aparte you have and
  provide yo{r} rayles in a readines for the livery of yo{r} company
  to stand in and to be sett up in the streetꝭ against wednesday the
  xxx{th} day of July at the furthest. AND likewise that yo{r} railes
  against that tyme be hanged with blew azure cloth & garnished w{th}
  Banners & streamers in the most bewtifull manner that may be, as
  formerlie in like solempnities hath bin accustomed. AND that you
  likewise have and provide sixe whifflers at the least to evˀy score
  of yo{r} livery well apparrelled w{th} white staves in their handes
  to stand with their backꝭ to the Common railes over against your
  yo{r} Companies railes for the better and quieter ordering of the
  streetꝭ through which his ma{tie} shall passe. AND hereof faile you
  not at yo{r} pˀill. This xxj{th} of July 1606.

                                                       SEBRIGHTE.

Three days after the receipt of the above, came another precept
demanding £5 from the Barber-Surgeons towards the City’s expenses to be
incurred about the Pageant.

The two Kings landed at the Tower, from Greenwich, on the 31st July, on
which day the City gave itself up to the gayest doings and rejoicings.
A curious and interesting description of the pageant is to be found
in a rare tract by H. R., 1606, preserved at Guildhall Library. Howes
also gives an entertaining account of the proceedings, and relates how
the King of Denmark “seriously observed the unimaginable number of
gallant Ladies, beauteous virgins, and other delicate Dames filling the
Windowes of every houss with kinde aspect saluting” him as he passed
by. He also tells us of the melodious harmony, the Latin speech, the
pastoral device, and the fountains which ran with wine, etc.

It seems that on this great occasion one of the Marshalls had
endeavoured to take our Company “down a peg” in order of precedence.
This was, however, successfully resisted, and the Clerk proudly records
the following in the Minutes on the same day:

  MEMORAND: that the Kingꝭ ma{tie} w{th} the Kinge of Denmarke & the
  Prince of Wales came through this Cittie from wardes the Tower of
  London attended uppon with the Lordes and gentry of this Land on the
  last day of this instant moneth of July Att which tyme M{r.} ffoxe
  beinge one of the Comittees for placeinge of the Companies standingꝭ
  would have displaced us But by the Lord maiors order wee were placed
  in the seaventeenth place accordinge as wee ought to be placed.

1606. Notwithstanding the new charter granted in the previous year,
the Court found itself unable to regulate the practice of Barbery and
Surgery without an extended set of By-Laws, which were now obtained and
are still preserved at the Hall. They are in English, on eight large
skins of parchment, beautifully engrossed with a handsomely illuminated
title, the initial ~T~ containing the Barber-Surgeons’ arms, and
distributed over the heading are the arms of the Master and Wardens in
1606, viz.: John Peck, Edward Rodes, William Fynynge and John Fenton.

[Illustration]

The By-Laws are allowed by Thomas Lord Ellesmere, Lord Chancellor;
Thomas Earl of Dorset, Lord Treasurer; and Sir John Popham, Lord
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; who send “greeting in our Lord God
Everlasting,” and enact Ordinances of such fearful length, that to
a layman it passes comprehension how the draughtsman could have kept
his head clear whilst he travelled through such a sea of prolixity,
and, to a great extent useless, repetition. If the Chancellor and
his colleagues troubled themselves to read through and understand
the document to which they have appended their seals, they must have
uttered very sensible sounds of relief when they came to the sealing;
the recapitulation of the mere heads of this extraordinary production,
will probably be found wearisome to the reader, viz{t}:

1. Recital of an Act of Parliament, 24th Feby., 19 Henry VII.

2. Oath of a freeman.

3. Oath of the Masters or Governors.

4. Oath of an Assistant of the Livery.

5. Oath of the Electors.

6. Oath of the Clerk.

7. Oath of a “foreign” Surgeon.

8. Oath of the Wardens of the Yeomanry.

9. Oath of an Assistant of the Yeomanry.

10. Oath of the Beadle.

11. Oath of the Porter.

  NOTE.--Some of the foregoing oaths contain over 500 words in each!

12. Every person shall appear upon summons under a penalty of 3{s.}
4{d.}, and for not keeping the hour, a fine of 2{d.} to be imposed.

13. Masters neglecting the day of Election, the distribution of
Ferbras’ alms, or the payment of rents, to forfeit £5.

14. No great Election dinner to be kept without the consent of a Court
of Assistants, under a penalty of £5.

15. The allowance for a great dinner to be 20 marks, and for a small
one £4.

16. Manner of Election of Masters or Governors.

17. Time of Election.

18. Twelve Electors to be chosen.

19. Electors to be sworn.

20. The Masters omitting any next in Election out of their Bills, the
Electors to choose others.

21. The order after Election.

22. A refuser of the office of Master or Governor to be fined 40{s.}
and to be eligible to be chosen again.

23. Or may be absolutely discharged of such office on payment of £10.

24. And on refusal to pay such fines, to be dismissed out of the Court
of Assistants and out of the Livery.

25. If the Electors choose such refuser to further place, before he
have paid his fine, each Elector to forfeit 40{s.}

26. Every person chosen into the Livery to pay £5 if he have not served
as Warden of the Yeomanry, and if otherwise then 40{s.}

27. Election of two Stewards of the Mayor’s feast, and two Stewards of
the Anatomy; £8 to be allowed to the former and £6 to the latter.

28. Refusers of the Office of Steward to forfeit £13 6_s._ 8_d._ each.

29. The Common Seal to be kept under lock and key.

30. Time of the audit and appointment of eight auditors.

31. Day for reading “General Rules.”

32. View of the Company’s lands to be made yearly in October.

33. Allowance for the view dinner.

34. “Search” to be made twice in the year.

35. Apprentices to be presented within one month after they are
retained in service, under a penalty of 40_s._

36. Indentures to be prepared by the Clerk before presentation.

37. The Clerk to make all indentures.

38. Every liveryman may keep three apprentices.

39. No decrepit, diseased or deformed apprentice to be retained by any
Barber or Surgeon.

40. No person to teach any but his apprentice.

41. No person to put away his apprentice, without an order of Court.

42. No person to entice away another’s apprentice or servant.

43. Every person to enroll his apprentice.

44. The Court to punish disobedient apprentices after its discretion.

45. No freeman to “open shop” before he hath served one year as
journeyman.

46. No Barber to use more than one shop.

47. No Surgeon to serve by sea or land before he and “his furniture” be
examined and viewed.

48. Reformation of abuses in disobedient masters and servants.

49. No person to serve as a journeyman unless free of the Company.

50. No person to use surgery before he be examined and admitted.

51. No person to examine but the Examiners.

52. No Examiner to be chosen but by the Court.

53. Every Surgeon to be at every lecture on Surgery.

54. No Surgeon to defraud another of his patient.

55. No Person to shew his porringers, saucers or basons with blood
therein.

56. Every patient in danger of death or maim to be presented to the
Masters.

57. No person to take such presentation but a Master or Governor.

58. Ordinance against unskilful practice in Surgery.

59. No Anatomy to be dissected out of the Common Hall.

60. Anatomies to be decently buried.

61. Warrant to create a Yeomanry.

62. No “Courts of Assistants” to be held on Tuesdays.

63. No Court of Assistants to be under the number of sixteen persons.

64. Order of precedence in speaking.

65. Every Member to go and sit in his due place.

66. Ordinance against contentious and troublesome persons.

67. Ordinance against revealers of Court secrets.

68. No alien or stranger to bear the office of Master or Governor.

69. Ordinance against unseemly behaviour towards the Masters or
Governors.

70. Ordinance against blotting or defaceing of books, pictures or
monuments.

71. Ordinance against any of the Livery refusing to attend in his
Livery gown.

72. Pensions for decayed members.

73. Warrant to search for hurt persons and malefactors.

74. As to quarterage.

75. Third Warden’s duties as to receipts.

76. And as to payments.

77. Duties of Fourth or Renter Warden.

78. Renter Warden to furnish accounts.

79. As to the Audit.

80. Ordinance against Sunday trading by Barbers.

81. As to fines and penalties.

82. Power to the Beadle to distrain (under a Warrant signed by the
Masters) for all fines; also power to dismiss disobedient persons, and
to inflict corporal punishment.

Penalties of varying amounts are specified for breaches of any of the
foregoing Ordinances.

The By-Laws are signed “Ellesmere, Canc̃,” “T. Dorset” and “Jo:
Popham,” and the three seals of their arms are pendant.

  8th September, 1606. This daie it is ordered that the M{rs} shall pay
  v{li} to M{r} Michaell the Lord Cheif Justices man for his paynes in
  penninge of o{r} ordynaunces.

  5th February, 1607. This day it is ordered that a Court howse be
  errected upon the Bulwarke behind the Hall of this Company for the
  M{rs} or Governors to kepe their Courtꝭ at the charge of this Company
  And M{r.} ffenton and M{r.} Jenkins are to joyne with the M{rs} of
  this Company in the same buildinge.

This Court Room was built within the circular Bulwark at the west end
of the old Livery Hall, from which it was shut off by a screen wall
or partition; many years later this screen was removed, and the whole
thrown into one large apartment, and used as the Livery Hall.

  21st January, 1608. The pˀnt M{rs} are this daye authorized to
  furnishe the newe Roome in the Bulwark w{th} cloth of Arras or
  tapestry or w{th} waynscot as they shall think fittest at the chardge
  of this howse, and the Chimney peece & wyndowes to be waynscotted.

1608. The Colony of Virginia (so named from the Virgin Queen Elizabeth,
in whose reign it was discovered) was in an unsatisfactory condition
by reason of its scanty population, want of enterprise and other
causes; whereupon the Council of Virginia endeavouring the prosperity
of the Colony, sent a letter to the Lord Mayor propounding a scheme of
emigration and colonisation to be undertaken by the City, which should
ease the Metropolis “of a swarme of unnecessarie inmates,” make the
fortunes of the emigrants (and of the “undertakers”) and benefit the
Colony. This letter is so interesting that no apology is necessary for
reproducing it here.

  WHEREAS the lords of his Ma{tes} councill, commissioners for the
  Subsedie, desirous to ease the cittie and suburbs of a swarme of
  unnecessarie inmates as a continuall cause of dearth and famine,
  and the verie origenall of all plagues almost that happen in this
  kingdome, have advised yo{r} lordshippe and yo{r} brethren, in
  an ease of state, to make some voluntarie contribuc͠on for their
  remove into the plantation of Virginia, w{ch} we understand you
  all seemed to like as an action pleasing to God and happie for
  this com̃onwealth; We the councell and companie of this ho{ble}
  plantation, willing to yelde unto your lop̃p and them all good
  satisfac͠on, have entered into consultac͠on w{th} o{r}selves, what
  may be everie mans chg̃es, and what of everie private familie, w{ch}
  we send herew{th} at large, not as a thing w{ch} we would exact from
  you, but that you may see, as in a true glasse, the true chg̃e,
  w{ch} we wholly commend unto yo{r} grave wisdoms, both for the somme
  and man{r} of leavie; onlie give us leave thus farre to enforme you
  that we give no bills of adventure for a lesse some than 12{li}
  10{s.} ps̃uminge it wont be an infinite trouble now, and confusion
  in the retribuc͠on, but if your lop̃ make any seasment, or raise any
  voluntarie contribuc͠on out of the best disposed and most able of
  the companies, we are willing to give o{r} bills of adventure to the
  m{r} and wardens, to the general use and behoof of that companie, yf
  by wards, to the good of that ward, or otherwise as it shall please
  you and your brethren out of y{r} better experience to direct. And
  if the inmate called before you and enjoyned to remove shall alledge
  that he hath no place to remove unto, but must lie in the streats,
  and being offerd this journey shall demand what shalbe their pˀsent
  maintenance, what their future hopes, yt may please you to lett them
  know that for the pˀsent they shall have meat, drink, and clothing,
  w{th} an house, orchard, and garden for the meanest familie, and
  a possession of lands to them and their posteritie, one hundreth
  acres for everie man’s pˀson that hath a head or a body able to
  endure labour, as much for his wife, and as much for his child that
  is of yeres to do sˀvice to the colonie, w{th} further pˀticular
  reward according to theire pˀticuler meritt and desert; and yf yo{r}
  lordshipp and yo{r} brethren shalbe pleased to put in any private
  adventure for yo{r} selves in pˀticuler, you shalbe sure to receive
  according to your pˀporc͠on of the adventure, equall pˀts w{th} us
  adventurers from the beginning, both of the comodities returned or
  land to be divided; and because you shall see (being aldermen of so
  famous a cittie) we beare you due respect, we are contented, having
  but one badge of grace and favor from his Ma{tie}, to participate
  w{th} you therein, and to make as many of you as will adventure
  50{li.} or more, fellow councellors from the first day w{th} us who
  have spent double and treble as much as is required, abidden the
  hazard of three sevˀall discoveries, w{th} much care and diligence,
  and many days adventure, and as yo{r} deputies, and yo{r} assistants,
  in yo{r} private wards, so shall as many of them as will adventure
  but 25{li.} present money, be made pˀties of this companie and
  assistants of this councell; and thus as an action concerning God
  and the advancement of religion, the present ease, future hon{r} and
  safety of this kingdome, the strength of o{r} navie, the visible
  hope of a great and rich trade, w{th} many secrete blessings not
  yet discovered, we commend the cause to the wisdome and zeale of
  yo{r} selfe and yo{r} brethren and you, and it, and us, to the holie
  pˀtection of the Almightie.

The City took up the scheme heartily, a large sum was subscribed and
a great number of emigrants crossed the water. The Barber-Surgeons
invested £25, but never received anything for it again.

  23rd March, 1609. This daye it is ordered that the pˀnt M{rs} shall
  advent{r} xxv{li.} uppon a Bill of Exchange for the plantac͠on of
  Virginia, of the stock of this howse.

6th January, 1609. In obedience to a precept from the Lord Mayor, £10
was paid to the Chamberlain, towards the construction of a Garner for
the use of the City.

25th May, 1610. A precept came from the Lord Mayor calling upon the
Company “to be readie in yo{r} bardge well and richlie sett forthe
before vii of the clocke in the morning” on the 31st January, to go to
Chelsea to meet the eldest son of James I, on which occasion he was to
go from Richmond to Whitehall to be created Prince of Wales; whereupon
the following minute is recorded:--

  AT this Court a precept beinge sent from my lord Maior unto this
  Company w{ch} beinge at this Court read, the effect whereof was that
  our Company on Thursdaie next shalbe reddie to attend my Lord Maior
  in their barge for the honor of this Citie in the enterteynement of
  the high & mightie prince at Chelsey. It was ordered that none of
  the Company shold be warned for this service but onely those w{ch}
  ware of the Assistaunce of the Clotheinge to goe in the Barge, the
  reason thereof is that a barge cold not be gotten large enough to
  carry the whole lyvery.

1611. In this year came a precept from the Lord Mayor, by authority of
the King, complaining of “the abuse growing by excesse and straunge
fashions of apparell, used by manye apprentises, and by the inordynate
pryde of mayde servaunts and women servaunts in their excesse of
apparell and follye in varietie of newe fashions, and to admonish
them to have a due and speciall care to see a spedye reformac͠on had
in everye one of their servaunts.” What effect this had upon the
apprentices and servants of the Barber-Surgeons we are not told, but
doubtless they were properly admonished.

1st July, 1614. A precept was received to the effect that the King had
determined to borrow £100,000 of the City, and that the Barber-Surgeons
were assessed at £600 towards this loan, which they were to lend, or
which they were coolly informed they could compound for, by an absolute
fine of £30! As the Court well knew that they would never again see a
halfpenny of the £600 if lent, they quickly and wisely determined to
pay the £30.

Profiting by past experience, the next extracts show that the Court
proceeded warily in the matter of “adventuring” in the State Lottery.

  29th April, 1614. Att this Court the M{r} propounding how they had
  receaved Letters from the Lordꝭ of the privy Councell and from
  the lord Maior thereby exhorting & intreating them to call their
  assistauntes together and to admonishe the genˀall body to be
  adventurers in the great lottery w{ch} is comyng forth, Whereupon the
  same lrẽs being considered on at this Court, it is thought fitt and
  ordered that the M{rs} shall att their pleasures call together the
  body of the Company, and they being gathered together, to admonish &
  pˀswade them to be adventerers in the same Lottery.

17th October, 1614. The Court having collected a sum of money for the
Lottery, it was ordered that it should not be paid to the Treasurer,
Sir Thos. Smith, until the Company shall be “assured” by a Bill of
Adventure under seal “for their adventure unto virgynia, as also that
it shalbe published in print certeynelie when the lotterey shalbe
drawen.”

The College of Physicians had been for many years very jealous as
to the Barber-Surgeons trespassing on their preserves, and as far
back as 12th November, 1595, wrote a long letter to their “verie
loving freends” the Master and Wardens, cautioning the members of
the Company against practising physic, and stating that no few of
them were culpable in the matter, but that the College had hitherto
forborne to molest or punish them; the letter continues, “but for that
we now see by daily experience that upon our lenetie and sufferance
this inconvenience more and more increaseth, insomuch that both in
credit and otherwise, it seemeth to touch us more neere than well
can be indured; We have therefore thought it good to put you in mynd
thereof, and therewithal earnestly and freendlie to request you, that
among yourselves some such discreet order may be taken heerin, that
the like offence hereafter maie not be committed by them or any of
theirs. Wherein if we shall perceave you as ready to fulfil our honest
request, as we are willing to maintain good amytie and concord with
you and your Companie, we wilbe very glad thereof and geve you thanks
therefore. If not, then as we are fully minded to defend our privileges
and to deal with the particular offendors therein, as order of law
and our ordinances in that behalf requireth; so we trust the body of
your Societie will not be offended therewith. And so we bid you most
hartelie farewell.”

The above letter is taken from Dr. Goodall’s History of the College of
Physicians. Dr. Goodall gives several instances of Barber-Surgeons
and Apothecaries being fined or imprisoned for practising physic; and,
indeed, there seems to have been a strife waging between the College
and the Company for a long period.

1617. The Physicians in 15 James I obtained a Charter confirming their
Charter of 10 Henry viij, with several additional privileges and
clauses in restraint of the privileges of the Barber-Surgeons, who
thereupon petitioned the King that that Charter might not be confirmed
by Act of Parliament, as the Physicians were desirous that it should
be. The King on 4th February, 1620, ordered that the petitioners should
be left to seek any lawful remedy either in Parliament or otherwise,
as they might be advised, and accordingly on 23rd April, 1624, they
presented a petition to the House of Commons, who ordered that the
Physicians’ Patent should be brought into the Committee of Grievances,
and both parties heard by Counsel, the consequence of which was that
the Physicians proceeded no further with their Bill.

1632. Later on the Physicians endeavoured again to obtain a supremacy
over the Barber-Surgeons, and on 13th June, 1632, procured an Order in
Council which made it incumbent upon Surgeons in certain serious and
specified cases of Surgery, to call in a “learned Physitian,” and to
enforce this order they procured the Attorney General to exhibit a Bill
in the Star Chamber in which the obnoxious clause was inserted, but on
a Petition of the Barber-Surgeons complaining of the injury that would
thereby accrue not only to themselves, but to the public, the King,
by an Order of Court dated 22nd July, 1635, directed the clause to be
struck out.

After the Restoration, the Physicians again endeavoured to procure
an Act of Parliament confirming their Charter, whereupon the
Barber-Surgeons claimed to have a clause inserted in the Act in the
nature of a proviso that nothing therein contained should be construed
to the prejudice of their privileges, and again the Physicians seem
to have been checkmated, for they allowed their proposed Act to fall
through.

Kings’ Barbers and Kings’ Surgeons seem to have secured substantial
benefits from their official positions, as the following notices (from
Domestic State Papers at the Record Office) testify.

25th August, 1625. There is a letter of this date from Sir James
Fullerton to Secretary Conway, intimating that it is His Majesty’s
pleasure to grant to Michael Andrews (Master 1635 and King’s Surgeon) a
pension of £150 per annum for life.

17th December, 1625. And at this date is a grant to Thomas Caldwell
(Master 1627 and King’s Barber).

  A graunt to Thomas Caldwell esq{r} his Mat{s} servant of ye som̃e of
  one thousand poundes To be received as well out of the remainder of
  three hundred pounds due to his Ma{tie} by Richard Harbin sometime
  Collecto{r} of his Ma{t}ꝭ greenwax before his accesse to the Crowne
  and out of the arrerages of grenewax money then due unto his Ma{ty.}
  As also out of the other grenewax moneys now accrewing to his Ma{tie}
  not being in farme. And is granted to him as of his Ma{ts} bounty
  in lieu of 800{li} formerly graunted unto him by his Ma{ty} of
  w{ch} he received no benefitt. Subscrˀ by Mr. Attorney Genˀall upon
  significac͠on of his Ma{t}ꝭ pleasuere by the Lord Trẽr.

In addition to stray grants like the above, the perquisites and fees
attaching to the Office of King’s Barber were very lucrative, and Mr.
Caldwell must have done exceedingly well out of the following stroke of
business.

  January, 1626. Whereas his Ma{tie} hath bene pleased to appoint Mr.
  Thomas Caldwell his Ma{ts} servant and Barber to make provisions of
  all such necessaries as are to be used at the Ceremony of Bathing the
  Kn{ts} of the Bath at this his Ma{ties} Coronac͠on to be holden on
  the 2{d} day of February next at Westm{r} as to his place by auntient
  custome belongeth I do therefore will and require all such whome it
  may concearne to take notice thereof hereby for permitting him to
  doe and performe all such services as hath bene accustomed in that
  behalfe & for delivering such necessaries in kynd or allowance of
  money to the valeu thereof as shalbe by him required for the same
  according to the auntient custome heretofore used therein. The number
  of the said Kn{ts} for whome such provisions are to be made being 80,
  by his Ma{tie} appointed to receave that degree.

                                                     ARUNDELL & SURREY.

  Examined by W{m} Ryley }
  Lancaster Herald       }

Mr. Caldwell does not appear to have left his widow well provided for,
as we read under date 10th July, 1643:

  Upon the distressed Petic͠on of Widdow Thamar Caldwall late Wife of
  M{r} Thomas Caldwall deceased there is given to her of the gift of
  this House v{li.}

1624 and 1625. In the minutes of this period are constant notices of
the “visitation,” and of “the contagious tyme.” The Plague raged with
great severity in London in 1625, and it is said that over 40,000
died of it in the year. The Company appear to have been very liberal
in their gifts of money to any who had the least claim upon them, the
relief being frequently stated to have been given by “reason of the
hardnes of the tymes.”

  11th April, 1625. This daye the pˀcept for provision of corne sent
  unto o{r} Companie by the lord Maio{r} of london was here read in
  Courte, And this Courte is fullie resolved that the present M{rs} doe
  give unto the Lord Maio{r} and returne him this answeare that the
  Companie is provided of their proportion of corne and more they are
  not able to provide or receive into their charge.

1628. This year the Company were compelled to “lend” the King £360,
which they with great difficulty raised, the greater part being
borrowed at interest to enable them to do so. They also paid £30
towards a “present” (?) of £5,000 given by the City to the Palsgrave
(Frederick, Prince Elector Palatine, son-in-law of James I).

15th August, 1629. On this day was sealed the Company’s new Charter
from Charles I. It is in Latin on five large skins of parchment with
the Great Seal of England pendant. There is a portrait of the King
with a stiletto beard in the initial letter, and an ornamental heading
along the top of the first skin. This Charter ratifies that of James I,
directs that public lectures on Surgery shall be given, and confirms
and somewhat varies the old regulations for the governance of the
practitioners of that science.

22nd October, 1629. The Company evidently began now to kick at the
numerous demands made upon its purse by the authorities, for a precept
coming from the Lord Mayor demanding £12 10_s._ contribution towards
a pageant, it was ordered that it be not paid until the Court was
satisfied that it could be legally demanded, and enquiry made as to
whether or no other Companies had paid similar contributions.

1632. The fabric of old St. Paul’s being in a lamentable state
of decay, the celebrated Archbishop Laud wrote a letter to the
Barber-Surgeons asking a contribution towards its repair. Ever ready
to assist in good works, the Company cheerfully devoted a very
considerable sum towards that object, notwithstanding the comparative
poverty to which they had been reduced (in consequence of the grievous
impositions made upon them by the authorities in the shape of forced
loans and other unconstitutional demands). Moreover, they recorded
their benefaction, in a delightfully expressed minute, which will be
found at the end of the following letter.

  9th April, 1632. The letter written by William Lord Bishopp of London
  and directed to this Court concerneing our contribuc͠on towardꝭ the
  repaire of St Paulls Church in London being now much ruined was here
  in Court reade, the teno{r} whereof is as followeth, vidz{t}

      To the right worp{ll} my very worthy ffreindꝭ the Maister Wardeins
      and Assistantꝭ of the Companie of Barbar surgions London, theis

  S. in xp̃o.[117] After my verie hartie comendac͠ons, you cannot but
  take notice of his Ma{t}ꝭ most hon{ble} and pious intention for
  the Repaire of the decayes of S{t} Pawles Church here in London,
  being the Mother Church of this Citty and Diocess, and the greate
  Cathedrall of this Kingdome. A greate dishono{r} it is not onely to
  this Citty but to the whole State to see that Auncient and goodly
  Pyle of building soe decayed as it is, but it will be a farr greater
  if care should not be taken to prevent the fall of it into ruin, And
  it would be noe lesse disgrace to Religion happily established in
  this Kingdome, if it should have soe litle power over the mindes of
  men as not to prevaile with them to keepe those eminent places of
  Gods service in due and decent repaire which their fforefathers buylt
  in tymes by their owne confession not soe full of the knowledge of
  gods truth as this present age is. I am not ignorant how many worthy
  workes have bene done of late in and about this Citty towardꝭ the
  building and repayring of Churches which makes me hope that every
  mans purse will open to this greate and necessary worke (according to
  Gods blessinge upon him) soe much tending to the service of God and
  the hono{r} of this nation. The generall body of the Cittye have done
  verie worthily in their bounty allready as alsoe the lord Maio{r}
  Aldermen and Sheriffes severally for their owne pˀsons. Theis are
  therefore accordinge to their examples hartily to pray and desire
  you the Maister Wardeins and other Assistants of the worthy Company
  of Barbar Surgions to contribute out of y{e} publicke Stock, to the
  worke aforesaid what you out of y{r} Charitye and devotion shall
  thinke fitt, and to pay the Summe resolved on by you into the Chamber
  of London at or before our Lady Day next, praying you that I may
  receave by any servant of yo{r} Companye a note what the Summe is
  which you resolve to give. And for this Charity of yo{rs} whatsoever
  it shall prove to be, I shall not onely give you harty thankes, but
  be as ready to serve you and every of you, as you are to serve God
  and his Church. Soe not doubting of yo{r} love and forwardnes to this
  greate worke, I leave you to the grace of God, and shall soe rest

  [117] Health in Christ.

                                Yo{r} very loving ffreind

                                                        GUIL: LONDON:

  London house, January 30. 1632.


  And thereupon this Court deepely considering the contentꝭ of that
  letter together with the pˀnte ruines and dilapidac͠ons of the said
  Church, and as faithfull and charitable members obliged largely to
  contribute to soe pious and religious a worke Doe nowe order that out
  of the stock and revenew of this house there shalbe paid into the
  Chamber of london towardꝭ the said repaire x{li} pˀntely and x{li}
  yearely for nine yeares followeing to make it upp compleate a C{li}
  as of the free guift of this house. And if att any tyme hereafter the
  worke doe cease that then our payementꝭ to cease likewise.

1633. This year the Company built a granary at the Hall, for the store
of Corn.

12th July, 1633. A new set of By-Laws was framed and allowed by
the proper authorities. These are extant on twelve great skins of
parchment, more wordy and of greater length than those of 4th James I!
They are, however, very similar to those, with technical alterations
and amendments here and there, and provision is made for Lectures on
Surgery, demonstrations of anatomy, and for the better Examination of
Surgeons. Clause 19 provides that any freemen of the mystery who shall
use any arts, trades or sciences other than Surgery “shall be accepted,
reputed, adjudged and taken for Barbars.” Empirics and impostors were
to be rigorously dealt with, and the Court was to have supervision
over _all_ Navy Surgeons, their chests, medicines and instruments. No
Barbers or Surgeons were to be impressed for the Navy without license
of the Court, and numerous regulations were made for the government of
the Company.

The document is signed by Richard Earl of Portland, Lord Treasurer; Sir
Thomas Richardson and Sir Robert Heath, the Lords Chief Justices; the
seals of the first two are still pendant, but that of Sir Robert Heath
is missing.

1636. Spurred into further action for the advancement of the science
of Surgery, which their extended powers under the new By-Laws had
conferred upon them, the Company determined upon building a Theatre
for the delivery of Lectures, and for anatomical purposes, etc. This
they set about in 1636, employing the great Inigo Jones as their
Architect, who about this period also designed and carried out the
present beautiful Court Room or Parlour, one of the best proportioned
and prettiest rooms in London.

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF COURT ROOM.]

  11th February, 1636. Upon the moc͠on of o{r} M{r} to this Court
  concerneing the want of a publique Theater for Anatomycall exercises
  and Sceletons and a lesser roome for private discections, This Court
  doth order that if the M{rs} or Governo{rs} upon their petic͠on to
  the Lord Maio{r} and Aldrẽn they have the bullwarke & long stripp of
  ground lieing betwixt the gould smiths tenement & clothw: tenemtꝭ
  & london wall at the one end & the Companies hall & pˀlor & london
  wall at the other end, by purchase in fee farme or a long lease from
  the Cittie, that then a Theater to the largenes of the upper ground
  betwixt the goldsmithes tenem̃t & the clothworkers tenem{t} on the
  one side & london wall on the other side shalbe be ovally built for
  the Wor̃p[118] and comiditie of this Companie at the Charge of this
  house.

  [118] Worship.

The piece of ground on which it was proposed to erect the Theatre
was then on lease to the Company from the City. The Lease was dated
29th March, 7 Charles I (1631), and made between the Mayor, &c., of
London, of the one part and the Masters, &c., of the Barber-Surgeons,
of the other part. In consideration of £20 paid by the Company the
City leased to them lwark and the houses Roomes and buildings therein
or thereupon made or erected, And all that ground or garden plott
with thappurtenñces scituat lyinge and beinge in the parish of St
Olave in Silver Street in the Citie of London next unto the Wall of
the same Citie there of the one side, and the landes of the saide
Maisters or Governors and others on the other side late in the tenure
or occupac͠on of the right honoro{ble} Henry late Lord Wyndsor
deceased or of his assignes and now in the tenure or occupac͠on of
the said Maisters,” etc., from the feast of the Annunciation, 1631,
for forty-one years at a rent of £3. The lease contained the usual
covenants of a repairing lease, as also one “that neither they the
saide Masters or Governors their successors nor assigns shall or will
att any time or times during the said Terme suffer any Inmate or
Inmates to dwell in any part of the premises afore demised.”

5th May, 1636. There is an Indenture of Lease of this date made
between the Mayor, &c., of London, and the Masters, &c., of the
Barber-Surgeons, which after reciting the last mentioned lease
proceeds: “And whereas the said Maisters or Governors of the Misterie
and Comonaltie of Barbars and Surgians of London for the better
enhableing of them in the Arte of Surgerie Doe intend to erect and
build a decent Roome or Theatre on part of the premisses for the
keeping therein A learned and constant Lecture in the Theorie and
practiqʒ partꝭ of Surgerie As also to pˀforme their publique operac͠ons
of Anatomies and other exercises thereunto belonging, Which will be
verie chargeable to them Wherein the said Maior and Cominaltie and
Citizens are desirous and willinge to aide and further the saide
Maisters or Governors in the setting forward of soe necessarie
and comendable a worke tendinge to the generall good of the whole
kingdome,” wherefore the Mayor, &c., leased the said premises to the
Company for a further term of 200 years upon the expiry of the lease
then running, at the same rent of £3 per annum, the Lessees covenanting
to build the Theatre within seven years.

  16th May, 1636. Upon o{r} M{rs} report to this Court that the Lord
  Maio{r} & Aldrẽn have freely graunted to this house a new lease of CC
  yeares comenceing from the expirac͠on of o{r} lease now in being It
  is ordered with the generall consent of the whole Court here present
  that the Theater shalbe proceeded in and built according to the
  plotts drawne by his Ma{t}ꝭ Surveigher.

  3rd August, 1636. It is ordered by this Court that the Companies
  Armes with Helmett Crest supporters and mantlings shalbe sett up in
  Portland Stone under the Cantilaver does of the Theater being over
  the Windowe next the Granarye.

  Alsoe the mottoe viz{t.} SPECIOSUM HOC THEATRUM ANATOMICUM ERECTÑ
  FUIT MICHAELE ANDREWS CHIRURGO REGIO AC COMUNIONI BARBITONSOꝜ ET
  CHIRURGOꝜ Pˀ TEMPORE PRÆFECTO, GUARDIANIS VERO JOANNE WARDE NICOLAS
  HEATH ET WILHELMO HUCKLE ANNO AB EXHIBITO IN CARNE MESSIÆ SUPRA
  MILLESIMUM SEXCENTESIMUM TRIGESIMO SEXTO shalbe engraven in the voyde
  stone worke over the greate doore into the Theater.

A plan of the Theatre is preserved in a collection of the works of
Inigo Jones, at Worcester College, Oxford, and a short description of
it is found in Hatton’s New View of London, 1708. The curiosities in
the Barber-Surgeons’ museum of those days will excite a smile when
compared with the collection now at Lincoln’s Inn Fields. Hatton says
that the Theatre was built in “an elliptical form, and commodiously
fitted up with four degrees of seats of cedar wood, and adorned with
the figures of the seven liberal sciences, and the twelve signs of
the zodiac. Also containing the skeleton of an ostrich, put up by Dr.
Hobbs, 1682, with a busto of King Charles I. Two humane skins on the
wood frames, of a man and a woman, in imitation of Adam and Eve, put
up in 1645; a mummy skull, given by Mr. Loveday, 1655. The sceleton of
Atherton with copper joints (he was executed) given by Mr. Knowles in
1693. The figure of a man flead, where all the muscles appear in due
place and proportion, done after the life. The sceletons of Cambery
Bess and Country Tom (as they then call them), 1638; and three other
sceletons of humane bodies.”

Hogarth has, in ghastly style depicted the dissection of a criminal
in this Theatre, in which the skeletons above referred to are seen in
niches in the wall.

[Illustration: ESTATE IN MONKWELL STREET]

The plan of the Company’s Estate, has been kindly supplied for this
work by Mr. Charles John Shoppee, as surveyed by him in 1869, previous
to the demolition of the old Livery Hall, Kitchen, etc. The Theatre had
been pulled down in 1784, and houses erected on its site; the Theatre
is, however, shewn upon this plan, as being more interesting than the
houses which supplanted it. In 1636 the Company commenced the erection
of the Livery Hall and present Court Room, the work being carried out
from the designs and under the superintendence of the celebrated Inigo
Jones, the Livery Hall was, however, burnt in 1666, and that shown upon
the plan is the one which was erected after the Great Fire.

5th September, 1636. The Plague was again abroad in London, and the
Court, for fear of infection by meeting together, resolved as follows:

  In regard of the now greate visitac͠on of the plague This Court
  doth deferre the Courts for the daye of Rules the Vew daye & other
  publique Courts till it shall please God to cease the Sicknes.

23rd September, 1636. The Lord Mayor having requested the Company to
nominate “twoe Surgians to take care of those that were infected with
the plague in this Cittie & liberties,” the Court thought that two was
a wholly insufficient number and nominated six Surgeons to be presented
to the Court of Aldermen.

2nd October, 1636. £5 was ordered to be paid in to the Chamber of
London towards the relief of the poor, stricken with the Plague.

30th March, 1637. The Company were assessed to pay £10 “ship money,”
whereupon an order was made that they should forbear to pay it, and
a Committee appointed to wait on the Court of Aldermen to petition
against the assessment. The application was, however, unsuccessful, as
by an Order of Court, 29th March, 1638, the money was directed to be
paid.

8th November, 1638. The Court of Aldermen having assessed the Company
to furnish 80 quarters of corn in lieu of 60 as heretofore provided,
it was resolved to petition against it. This would be a very important
matter to the Company as the assessments for all public purposes were
made upon the City Companies _pro rata_ with their corn quarterages,
and if the 80 quarters were allowed to stand, it would raise all the
future assessments 33 per cent. The result however, of the protest does
not appear in the minutes.

28th October, 1640. On receipt of a precept from the Lord Mayor, it was
ordered that three barrels of Gunpowder should be bought and stored.

1640. The Company unwillingly agreed to lend the King £400, and were
put to great inconvenience in raising the money, which was required by
Charles for his campaign in Scotland.

After several skirmishes with the Scots, the English Army was at length
disbanded, and the King went himself to Scotland to negotiate the
difference which had arisen by his attempted interference in Church
matters in that Kingdom; he returned to London in November, 1641, and
the following minute refers to the preparations made by our Company to
meet him.

  22nd November, 1641. Upon reading the Lord Maiors precepts for the
  Companyes enterteyning the King upon his returne from Scotland It is
  ordered that the Ma{r} and Wardens, Mr. Serjeant Clowes, Mr. Richard
  Wateson, Mr. Woodall, Mr. Powell, Mr. Burgin, Mr. Heath, Mr. Henry
  Wateson, Mr. Bignall, Mr. Dye, Mr. Arris, Henry Boone, and Thomas
  Turner, shalbe attendant on Twesday next well mounted on Horseback in
  plush or Velvett with Chaines of Gold, and that John Perkins shall
  beare the Pendon with our Coate of Armes on Horseback and that these
  18 ffree men shalbe Decently cladd in the Companyes Colours of White
  and Greene, each of them with a greene flatt Cap with a white Ribbon
  about it, a greene Cassock and Drawers of the same Stuffe Whiffler
  like laced with a white Lace a white ribaning and a greene Ribbin
  athwart theire Brests, and each of them a Truncheon in theire hands
  in the forenoone, and in the aftˀnoone each of them 2 Torches, and
  these 18 to attend perticulerly one of them to each of the Horsemen,
  viz{t.}

(Then follows a list of the freemen chosen.)

The “Riding out” on this occasion must have been a magnificent sight,
if all of the Companies spent proportionately to the outlay of ours,
which was no less than £39 17_s._ 10_d._ upon decorations, etc., for
those taking part in the procession. Strype informs us that--

  The Lord Mayor on horesback wearing a gown of crimson velvet & a
  collar of SS, and attended by his suite, rode in the front of the
  procession to meet the King. Then followed the Aldermen in scarlet
  gowns and the City council and chief officers in black gowns. Upon
  reaching Moorfields, there waited in a readiness to attend his
  Lordship and the service, about five hundred horsemen selected out
  of the Liveries of the several Companies, being Masters, Wardens,
  and prime men of each Company in velvet or plush coats and suits,
  with chains of gold, being well horsed and gallantly furnished, every
  Company having a horseman in the front carrying a pendant with that
  Company’s arms to which he did belong (for distinction sake), and a
  footman to attend each horseman of the Livery with truncheons and
  torches as before, both horsemen with the pendants and footmen being
  suited cap-a-pee with the Company’s colours on which they waited.
  There were also fourteen Trumpeters, with trumpets, banners and
  scarfs, who were placed two between every hundred of the horse, and
  four at the head of the troop. The procession moved on to Kingsland,
  where the Lord Mayor and Aldermen and the Companies awaited the Kings
  approach, while the Sheriffs attended by seventy-two men in Scarlet
  Cloaks trimmed with silver lace (the colours of the City) with
  javelins and feathers and four trumpeters, rode as far as Stamford
  Hill, and there met their Majesties and escorted them to Kingsland.

  His Majesty was accompanied by the Queen, the Prince, the Duke of
  York, the Princess Mary and the Prince Elector Palatine, and after
  receiving an address, the Royal party joined the civic procession
  to London, entering it at Moorgate, and proceeded through London
  Wall, Bishopsgate Street, Cornhill and Cheapside, to the banquet
  at Guildhall, amidst the City Companies in their formalities and
  stands on each side of the streets, the City conduits running with a
  diversity of wines.

1643. The relations between the King and the City having become
estranged in the fearful distractions of these times, Charles
endeavoured to conciliate the citizens with a message, which was
publicly read at Guildhall on the 13th January, and later on he sent
a circular letter to the Masters of the several Companies requiring
them to call their freemen and apprentices together, to read to them a
copy of a letter which he had sent to the City on the 17th January. The
Court of the Barber-Surgeons met on Tuesday, 24th inst., and cautiously
record that they would have summoned their freemen for the next day,
but that it was a fast day and that in the interim an order had come
from the Committee of Safety that the letter, etc., should not be read.

  24th January, 1643. The Kings Letter sent to the M{rs} & Wardens of
  this Company was read in Court and the printed Letter in it and the
  Cittyes Petic͠on and his Ma{ties} gracious answer unto it. And but
  that the morrow was fast day being the last Wednesday in this Moneth
  the ffreemen and apprentices of this Company could not be summoned
  to appeare then, it should have bin read. Soe that in the Interim
  an Order of Comand from the Lords and Comõns was directed to this
  Company to countermaund the said Letters in these words,

  Die Martis 24{to} Januarii, 164-2/3. At the Comittee of Lords and
  Comõns for the safety of the Kingdome.

  Whereas there are divers Letters pretended to be sent by his Ma{tie}
  to the M{rs} and Wardens of the severall Halls in the city of London
  with Two litle Bookes therein closed the one intituled The humble
  Petic͠on of the Maior, Aldermen and Comõns of the City of London
  to his Ma{tie.} And the other intituled his Ma{ties} Letter and
  declarac͠on to the Sheriffes and City of London Dated the 17{th}
  of January, which evidently tendeth to sedition and setting of the
  whole State in a Combustion. These are therefore strictly to charge
  & comand the M{rs} and Wardens of every Hall in the City to whome
  the said Letters and Bookes inclosed shalbe directed to forbeare to
  publish or open any of them till both the Houses of Parliament shall
  give further order therein. And the M{rs} and Wardens of every Hall
  are required to bring the said Letters with the Messengers thereof to
  this Comittee which they will take to be an Argument of theire good
  Affection to the Parliament

      Pembroke         Montgomery   Bolingbroke   Ed: Manchester
      W. Say & Seale   Ed: Howard   Jo: Evelin    Jo: Pym
      Antho: Nicoll.

  17th January, 1644. It is ordered that in respect of the greate
  troubles and distractions of these times there shalbe noe publique
  Anatomy this yeare dissected.

1644. The Company seem to have become greatly impoverished by the
venture in Ireland, the rebuilding of their premises, and the forced
loans to the King and the Parliament. In a certificate given by the
Master and Wardens (5th September, 1644) to be produced in a suit in
which they were defendants, they state that their debts are £3,000,
and that they can get no return of any of the money lent for public
purposes, or even the interest of it.

If the Stuarts acted in an unconstitutional manner in their oppressive
demands upon the Companies, the Roundheads were as bad, with just this
difference, that, with all their pretensions to purity, piety and
high-mindedness, they did not hesitate to practise actual dishonesty
in their _modus operandi_ of squeezing the Companies, as the following
painful incident from our books testifies:--The Company had borrowed
from Mr. Richard Wateson, one of the Assistants, £1,200 upon sealed
bonds, for the express purpose of meeting the demands which had been
made upon them by the King and Parliament from time to time. Mr.
Wateson having been declared a “Papist and Delinquent,” his property
was seized, and the Bonds of the Barber-Surgeons, found in his strong
chest, were taken to the Committee for Gloucester and Hereford, sitting
at Grocers’ Hall. These worthies, in conjunction with the Committee
for Sequestrations, came down upon the Company and demanded payment
of the £1,200 for which they had given their bonds to their brother,
Mr. Wateson. The Court deeming this a monstrous piece of injustice,
hesitated to comply, whereupon the Committees threatened to seize
the Company’s entire estate; and then the Court resolved to petition
Parliament, but the House not sitting for some time the petition could
not be prosecuted, and the Committee being urgent, the Company most
reluctantly agreed to pay down £400 and to have the bonds cancelled.
Although these shameful terms were definitely agreed upon, the
Committees a few days later broke faith, demanding £400 cash and the
Company’s bond for another £100, to which the Company, like the lamb
with the wolf at its throat, _nolens volens_, consented. The iniquity
of this business was made apparent to the Committees, who were well
aware that the Company had incurred the debt to Mr. Wateson in order
to meet the previous rapacity of themselves, and yet they hesitated
not to compel the Company to submit to a further fine of £500 for
having complied with their demands in the past, besides manifesting the
dishonesty proposed by them in offering to cancel the debt due by the
Company to Mr. Wateson.

  29th April, 1645. By the power and authority to this Court given by
  severall Orders of a late Court of Assistants, this Court for and
  towards the raiseing of the 400{li} agreed to be paid in part of
  the composic͠on for Mr. Watson’s debt unto the the Comittee for the
  releife of Gloucester, &c., did pawne all the Companyes plate both
  guilt and white, weighing 1,120 oz. 1/3 or thereabouts, unto Mary
  Crosse of London Widdow for the Sum̃ of 280{li} by a Writeing of
  Bargaine and Sale this day sealed with this Companyes Com̃on Seale
  bearing date the 16{th} day of this Instant Aprill with a provisoe of
  Redempc͠on. And borrowed of Mr. George Dunn 100{li} more at Interest
  at vj{li} 10{s} pˀ annum pˀ centum for w{ch} he tooke the secureity
  of our Com̃on Seale.

A few years later on (14th September, 1648), Mr. Edward Arris presented
to the Court a letter from Mr. Wateson, wherein was intimated that he
expected the Company to repay him the money borrowed, the bonds for
which had been seized by Cromwell’s party, and for which the Company
had already compounded, whereupon we read “This Court doth declare
theire acknowledgement of a great respect and esteeme they have and
beare towards him and shalbe ready to doe him all the right they can
without prejudicing the Company”; and again on 30th April, 1650, “Mr.
Richard Wateson an ancient M{r} of this Company Doth this day desire
to know the mind of this Court concerning the 1,200{li} by him lent to
this Company and sequestred in this Company’s hands and compounded ffor
500{li} in full of principall and Interest, The matter being of great
Consequence, this Court doth take time to consider of it and to give
him an answer therein.”

What answer Mr. Wateson got, I do not know; he was held in great esteem
by the Company, and doubtless some honourable compromise was arranged.

In their negotiations with the Committees, the Company seem to have
been able to impress the Chairman favourably on certain occasions,
though there is grave reason to apprehend that this official of the
party of purity was open to a bribe, as the following minutes would
seem to indicate.

27th October, 1645. The Company having been threatened with
sequestration of their entire estate unless an assessment made upon
them was paid on Friday following, a Committee of the Court was ordered
to wait on Mr. Scawin, the Chairman of the Committee for the Army, to
beg his favourable consideration of the Company’s poor estate; the
result is seen in the next entry.

  14th September, 1648. This Court takeing notice of the greate Love
  and ffavour of Mr. Scawin Chaireman to the Comittee ffor the Army
  expressed oftentimes upon severall occasions towards our Company
  Doth thinke fitt in gratitude and accordingly doth order That the
  present Governours doe present to him a guift of the value of vj{li}
  13{s} 4{d} The quality and price of the guift is left to theire
  discretions.

1646. To relieve them of their great debts, the Company about this
period raised considerable sums by granting annuities; the following
are examples in point:--

  24th March, 1646. This day M{r} Nicholas Heath payd the sum of
  200{li} to the use of this Company and is the purchase money for an
  Annuity of 26{li} pˀ añn. for 10 yeares to himselfe and Grace his
  Wife Whereupon the Deed of Grant of the said Annuity was sealed with
  the Com̃on Seale and delivered to theire use.

  Alsoe this day M{ris} Elizabeth ffreeman payd the sum of 200{li} the
  Purchase money for the like Annuity of 26{li} pˀ añn. for 10 yeares
  and the Deed for that purpose was sealed and delivered to her.

On the 30th January, 1649, the King’s troubles were ended by his
murder, and very shortly afterwards we find this significant minute.

  19th March, 1649. This Court doth order That the Oath conteyned in
  the Rules and Ordinances of this Company be administred unto every
  ffreeman upon his admission as before, The ffirst Words which doe
  concerne allegiance to the King and his Successors only to be left
  out.

The banners of the Company bearing the late King’s arms were destroyed,
and any heraldic insignia at the Hall which contained the Royal Arms
were ordered to be defaced. We may readily believe that this was most
unwillingly done by the Court, who however, had no option in the matter.

1648-9. Fairfax had filled the City with troops, “billetting orders”
being made upon the several Companies for the reception of the soldiers
at their Halls. Herbert (Vol. I, p. 181) states that the Merchant
Taylors were fortunate enough to procure an order of exemption which
cost them £20 10_s._, and further that he believed their case to be
unique, but it seems that the Carpenters by means of “Gratuities ‘to
sevˀall men of qualitie,’” amounting to £13 2_s._ 6_d._, managed to
get free of this imposition, whilst the Barber-Surgeons procured their
immunity at a much cheaper rate, for we read in the Wardens’ accounts
of the period,

  Paid fforr the charges expended in procureing a Protecc͠on from the
  Lord General from quartering Souldiers in the hall 13{s} 3{d.}

These notices are clear indications that Cromwell and the “men of
qualitie” about him, were accustomed to take bribes.

3rd February, 1654. The City entertained Cromwell at Grocers’ Hall, and
our Company had to go out in procession to receive him, our “standing”
being in St. Paul’s Churchyard.

1660. The Barber-Surgeons contributed £96 towards a present of £10,000
given by the City to Charles II at the Restoration. No money exacted
under precept was more willingly paid than this, and indeed the
Companies generally seemed to have cheerfully contributed, delighted
to have escaped the gloom of the Commonwealth, and with a prospect
of brighter times in store. On the 5th July, the King was nobly
entertained at Guildhall, our Company taking part in the rejoicings
(see Wardens’ Accounts of this date).

1666. Our Minute Books for this period having been lost or stolen, we
unfortunately have no records of the Great Fire beyond those preserved
in the “Wardens’ Accounts” (which see), and although these are somewhat
meagre, they are highly interesting, especially those which relate to
the fortunate preservation of the great Holbein picture. It has been
stated (but without any other authority than that of gossiping Samuel
Pepys, who had a special interest in disparaging the picture) that it
was damaged in the fire, though no notice of such a mishap is known to
me, and the Accounts (which are _complete_) are significantly silent
as to anything having been spent on its restoration or cleansing,
which, had it been injured, would have been necessary; it seems to have
been taken away from the Hall by Major Brookes to a place of safety,
and subsequently brought home again by six porters.

[Illustration: OLD ENTRANCE TO BARBER-SURGEONS’ HALL.]

The Theatre, which was a detached building, as also the present Court
Room, both the works of Inigo Jones, were saved, though the Hall was
burned, entailing a great expense upon the Company in rebuilding (see
Wardens’ Accounts).

The houses 33, 34 and 35, Monkwell Street (see plan, p. 135) were
rebuilt 1671, when the gateway to the Hall Court Yard was formed and
the grotesque coat-of-arms put up over the Lintol.

When the alterations were made under the superintendence of Charles J.
Shoppee in 1869, the old lintol, corbels, tympanum, and door-head were
very carefully taken down and refixed over the present entrance to the
Hall in the Court Yard. This door-head is always an object of interest
to visitors to Barbers’ Hall; long may it continue to be so!

25th August, 1681. A short set of By-Laws was this day enacted. It
is on a single skin of parchment, and imposes penalties upon such
persons, as, being elected, should refuse to serve as Masters or
Stewards of Anatomy. It is signed by Heneage, Earl of Nottingham, Lord
Chancellor, and Sir Francis Pemberton and Sir Francis North, the two
Lords Chief Justices, all of whose seals are pendant to the document.

1684. This was indeed a troublous year for the Corporation and for
the guilds of London. Charles having interfered with the privileges
of the City by thrusting in his nominees for Sheriffs, had met with
considerable opposition from the citizens, and being assured that
this resistance would be continued and maintained by the City, he
determined to strike a blow at the root of its franchise, by getting
into his hands the Charter of the City, as also the Charters of the
several Companies. It was not difficult to procure a venal tribunal
which would be prepared to pronounce an iniquitous judgment upon any
fictitious statement submitted to it by the King. Sir Rob{t.} Sawyer,
the Attorney-General, thereupon undertook, on behalf of the Crown,
to prove that the City Charters were forfeited, and contrived the
celebrated _quo warranto_, upon which judgment was (as a matter of
course) obtained against the City, on the 12th June, 1684.

The Companies seem to have unanimously anticipated this decision, and
by so doing and by “surrendering” their Charters and liberties before
the delivery of the judgment, hoped to ensure the favour of the King.

The original of the “surrender” of the Barber-Surgeons is very neatly
engrossed on extra thick parchment, but the seal was of course removed
when it was returned to the Company. The text is as follows:--

  To all to whom these p{r}sents shall come. GOVERNO{RS} of y{e}
  MYSTERY and COĨALTIE of BARB{RS} & SURGEONS of LONDON send GREETING.
  KNOW yee y{t} wee considering how much it imports the Governm{t}
  of our company to have men of known Loyalty & approved integrity
  to bear offices of Magistracy & places of Trust. The s{d} Ma{rs}
  or Govern{rs} have granted surrendred and yielded up, and by these
  p{r}sents do grant surrend{r} and yield up unto his most gracious
  Majesty CHARLES ye second by the Grace of God King of England,
  &c., his Heires and Successo{rs.} All and singular y{e} Powers
  Franchises liberties priviledges and authorities whatsoever and
  howsoever granted to or to bee used or exercised by y{e} said Masters
  or Governo{rs} by vertue of any right Title or Interest vested in
  them by any Charters Letters Patents Custome or Prescripc͠on in
  force of or concerning the electing nominating constituting being
  or appointing of any person or persons into or for y{e} severall
  and respective offices of Mast{r} Wardens Assistants and Clerk of
  y{e} said Company. And y{e} said Masters or Governo{rs} do hereby
  humbly beseech his Ma{tie} to accept of this their surrend{r} and
  do with all submission to his Majesties good pleasure implore his
  grace and favo{r} to regrant to y{e} said Masters or Governo{rs} the
  nameing and Chusing of y{e} said Officers and the said libertie and
  ffranchises or so many of them and in such mann{r} as his Majesty in
  his great wisdome shall judge most conducing for y{e} governm{t} of
  y{e} said Company, And with and under such reservacc͠ons restricc͠ons
  and qualificac͠ons as his Majestie shall bee pleased to appoint. IN
  WITNES whereof the said MAST{RS} or GOVERNO{RS} have hereunto affixed
  their Com̃on seal the sixteenth day of Aprill in y{e} Thirty sixth
  year of y{e} reign of o{r} or sovˀaign LORD CHARLES y{e} second, &c.,
  and in y{e} year of o{r} Lord Christ 1684.

Similar forms of surrender were adopted by other Companies. I am unable
to say whether or no the King interfered with the franchises of the
Barber-Surgeons, but think not, as no record of such meddling is to be
found in our books, though, doubtless, the Court took care, remembering
the rod in pickle, to govern in accordance with the wishes of the King.

Some time in this year (1684) certain unquiet spirits, Surgeons of our
Company, got up a petition to the King, setting forth that the union of
Surgeons with Barbers hindered rather than promoted the end for which
the two bodies had been united, and praying the King to incorporate the
Surgeons a distinct and separate body. Nothing came of this application
beyond a reference (ordered by the King, 15th May, 1684) to the Lord
Keeper of the Great Seal, and the Lord Chief Justice of the King’s
Bench, who were directed to examine and report upon the petition, but
whether they ever did so or not, I don’t know.

27th February, 1685. James II, in the first year of his reign, granted
us a Charter, which is contained on seven skins of parchment, all of
which have handsomely designed head-pieces and borders, the first one
having a fine portrait of the King as well; only a fragment of the
great seal remains, and the charter itself is considerably damaged,
apparently by rats. It is in Latin, of great length, and, like others
granted to other companies at the period, is an “unreal mockery.”
The Charter recites the “Surrender,” and proceeds to grant another
charter in which, _inter alia_, the appointment of any Master, Warden,
Assistant, or Clerk should be subject to the approval of the King,
that all members of the Company should take the Oaths of Supremacy and
Allegiance, be in the Communion of the Church of England and receive
the Sacrament, and that no person who frequented a conventicle should
be eligible for the Livery.

4th April, 1687. The King having published a declaration, allowing
liberty of conscience to all his subjects, suspending and dispensing
with the penal laws and tests, and even with the Oaths of Supremacy
and Allegiance on admission into offices civil and military, numerous
addresses of thanks for this liberty were presented to the King, among
others the following one from our Company, which is preserved in the
“London Gazette” of 20th October, 1687.

      THE HUMBLE ADDRESS OF THE MASTERS GOVERNORS ASSISTANTS
        AND MEMBERS OF THE MYSTERY AND COMMONALTY OF BARBERS
        AND SURGEONS OF LONDON.

  MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY

  We having daily before our eyes the munificent Bounties of your Royal
  Brother of Blessed Memory, and other Your Ancestors, and also that of
  your Majesties Gracious Favour, in restoring to us our new Charter,
  we must be esteemed ever ungrateful and undutiful Subjects, if we did
  not with all humility acknowledge the same.

  But we are in more especial manner bound to cast ourselves at Your
  Majesties Feet, and return our most humble and hearty Thanks for
  Your late Declaration; wherein You are Graciously pleased to give
  us Your Royal Word, whereby we are protected in the Profession and
  free Exercise of our Religion, and also in the Enjoyment of our
  Liberties and Properties in Peace and Safety; for which Your Gracious
  Condescension and Goodness (as God hath made it our Duty), Your
  Majesty hath made it our Interest duly to pray to the Divine Majesty
  for his Blessing upon your Royal Person, Family and Government. And
  that after the enjoyment of a long and prosperous reign here, over a
  Dutiful and Obedient People, You may receive an everlasting Crown in
  the World to come.

  And that it may be so, it shall be as it becomes us, the constant and
  utmost endeavour, as well as the hearty Prayer of,

      Dread Sir!

      Your Majesties most humble, most Loyal,
      and most obliged Subjects.

1688. Matters were now rapidly approaching a crisis with James, who
in vain, when too late, sought to conciliate the citizens whom he had
wronged. One of his acts of propitiation was the redelivery to the
Companies of the “surrenders” which they had made of their franchises
and charters in 1684. We have no note of the date of the return of our
surrender; but it was towards the end of November and within about a
fortnight of the King’s flight when this tardy act of justice was done,
and the Barber-Surgeons thus partly restored to their ancient rights
and privileges. The Bill of Rights was shortly afterwards passed, the
_quo warranto_ declared illegal, and all charters granted by Charles
II and James II since the judgment on the _quo warranto_, declared
absolutely null and void, thus practically reinstating the Guilds in
_statu quo ante_.

  28 July, 1690. Ordered that in pursuance of an order of the Com̃on
  Counsell & Lord Mayor &c. that the Company advance towards the
  provideing one Rigiment of Horse & one of Dragoone the sum̃e of one
  hundred pounds.

1699. Jealousies arose in the Company in consequence of the more
frequent election of Surgeons than Barbers, as Governors. The By-Laws
required that every year there should be two Barbers and two Surgeons
chosen (a Barber being defined to be any member who did not practise
Surgery). The Surgeons disregarding the law and the old custom, seem to
have been able to procure the election of an undue number of members of
their own craft to the offices of Master and Wardens, whereupon certain
of the Company filed an information in the King’s Bench against the
Masters or Governors; the Barbers were successful, and having obtained
a Mandamus, a fresh election took place. This altercation between the
Barbers and Surgeons was never forgotten, and, indeed, helped to pave
the way to further estrangement and the absolute separation in 1745.

The following Minutes relate to these proceedings:

  14th December, 1699. Ordered Mr. S{r}geant Wright Mr. S{r}geant
  Darnell Mr. Com̃on S{r}geant & Mr. Dee bee advised with upon the
  Informac͠on ag{t} the Govern{rs.}

  25th January, 1700. Ordered that the Cause ag{t} the Govern{rs} at
  the prosecuc͠on of the Barbers bee referred to S{r}geant Darnell
  & his opinion to bee taken & to pˀceed thereupon, Mr. Oades Mr.
  Pleahill & Mr. Barnard to meet tomorrow at the raine bow to attend
  him by five in the afternoone.

  2nd May, 1700. Ordered Mr. Dee bee consulted concerning the Rule of
  Court of King’s Bench for a copy of the by laws &c. & to follow his
  advice &c. He advised to give Copyes if required & not to oppose it.

  11th May, 1700. Ordered that Mr. S{r}geant Darnell have three guineys
  Mr. Com̃on S{r}geant & Mr. Dee have two a peece given them for the
  Tryall of the Informac͠on on Tuesday next & that all the Court of
  Assistants bee desired to bee there.

  28th June, 1700. Ordered that nothing bee done in the Cause ag{t} the
  Company untill the Mandamus be served & then the Comittee to meete.

  4th July, 1700. A pˀemtory Mandamus being served the last Court,
  Ordered that on Tuesday next by two of the Clock in the afternoon
  there bee an elecc͠on of two Wardens Expert in Barbery for the
  remainder of this yeare.

9th July, 1700. An election took place, with the result that Mr. John
Pinke and Mr. Richard Marks, both being Barbers, were elected Wardens.
Mr. Pinke was already a Warden, but the Mandamus required two Barbers
to be elected, and he was simply re-elected. Mr. Marks took the place
of Mr. Bartholomew King, Surgeon. The Master, Mr. Lichfield, and the
second Warden, Mr. James Wall, were both Surgeons.

13th January, 1709. It was agreed that a new set of By-Laws which had
been settled by the Common Serjeant and Sir Edward Northey should be
presented to the Lord Chancellor, etc., for confirmation, it being
considered that the existing By-Laws were defective in many parts, and
that “good & wholesome Lawes were the life strength & support of this
Company.”

6th April, 1709. A set of By-Laws of this date was confirmed. They are
comprised on thirteen great skins of parchment, and, like previous
ones, are far too voluminous, and indeed not of sufficient interest,
to warrant transcribing, being practically the former set with sundry
technical and minor alterations. There is a fine portrait of Queen
Anne on the first skin, and the Document is signed by William Lord
Cowper, Lord Chancellor, Sir John Holt and Sir John Trevor, Lords Chief
Justices, whose seals are pendant. These By-Laws were brought into
Court on 5th May, 1709.

13th January, 1709. The Court were informed that the Barbers of the
Company were in treaty with the Peruke Makers “of the other end of the
town,” about incorporating them into this Company, and that they were
endeavouring to procure an Act of Parliament to that effect, whereupon
the proposition was approved and leave given to the Barbers to petition
Parliament in the name of the Court.

5th December, 1709. A petition was presented by sundry liverymen
(Barbers) representing that Peruke making was an encroachment upon the
art of Barbery, and praying the Court to obtain an Act of Parliament
incorporating the Peruke Makers with the Barber-Surgeons; the petition
was favourably received by the Court and a Committee appointed, who
met the next day and recommended the proposed union, the Peruke Makers
paying such fees as other members of the Company paid.

24th December, 1709. A petition for an Act was ordered to be drawn by
the Clerk and submitted to several eminent counsel for their perusal.

9th January, 1710. Five hundred copies of the proposed Bill, and a
similar number of the reasons for the suggested incorporation, were
ordered to be printed; but in the result nothing came of this proposed
union with the Peruke Makers.

25th August, 1714. The following precept relating to the Accession of
George I was received:

  TO THE MASTER AND WARDENS OF   }      BY THE MAYOR.
  THE COMPANY OF BARBER SURGEONS.}

  WHEREAS it hath been resolved in Com̃on Councill y{t} if our most
  Gratious Lord King George upon his comeing into this Kingdome be
  pleased to pass through this his City of London, y{t} he shall be
  received by us & our fellow citizens with all the Demonstrationes of
  Joy & affection as are suitable to our duty and Loyalty.

  These are therefore to require you to have your Rayle Cloaths
  Standings Banners Streamers Ensignes & other Ornaments of triumph
  belonging to your Company in a readiness to sett up imẽadiatly upon
  Notice y{t} shall be given you of the time & place by any further
  precept & y{t} yo{r} Cloaths Banners Streamers Ensignes & other
  ornaments be fresh & Good & y{t} you forthwith send to all the
  Liverymen of yo{r} Company that they be well & decently apparrelled
  in their best Cloaths & Gowns to attend in their Standings y{t} so
  your Company may be ready (when required) to receive his Maj{tie} to
  his satisfac͠on & the Honour of this City and thereof you are not to
  faile. Dated this 25{th} day of August, 1714.

                                                       GIBSON.

23rd December, 1717. The Company having had great difficulty in
getting in some of their rents, and various of the houses being empty,
determined to sell their property in Mowse Alley, East Smithfield, and
in Butcher Row in St. Botolph’s, Aldgate, agreeing to convey the fee
simple to Mr. Robert Finlay for £1,250.

  And it is further ordered by this Court that till such time as the
  said sume of 1250{li} can be laid out in a convenient purchase of
  houses or lands with the approbac͠on of the Court of Assistants, The
  same shall be forthwith placed out at Interest by the Governors upon
  such Government or other Publick securitys as they shall think fitt,
  But that the said sume of 1250{li} or any part thereof shall never be
  expended on the Company’s common occac͠ons or be any way lessened or
  broke into on any account whatsoever.

17th April, 1718. The following record was ordered to be made of the
“reasons” for disposing of this property:

  The Estate in East Smithfield in eleven years time produced to the
  Company above all disbursements relating thereto[119] but £28 15_s._
  in the whole, Whereas the annual interest of £1250 at 4 pˀ cent. is
  £50.

  [119] But these disbursements had been very heavy _in the nature of
  repairs_.

  Eleven years interest at £50 pˀ ann. for £1250 amounts to without
  computeing Interest upon Interest £550.

  The Company have run behind hand for severall years by means of the
  great sumes laid out upon this Estate.

  Whoever goes backward every year must in time be undone.

  The Estate is still in such a condition as to require a great sum̃e
  of money to be expended upon it in Repairing and Rebuilding in order
  to make it tenantable.

  The Company had not money to lay out upon it.

  If they had, the Estate is so scituated that there is no room to
  hope, even in case the whole had been rebuilt (as it wants to be)
  that it would have answered the laying out so much money.

  And if the Company had let it upon building Leases The pˀsent method
  of building is so as to last exactly the term for which the Lease is
  taken, wouˀd have put the Company in the same condic͠on as they are
  now, when the term expired, besides loss of Rent, & disputes with
  such Tenants in the mean time.

  It was therefore thought better to dispose of the Estate.

Following are the details of negotiations with one or two parties other
than Mr. Finlay, and some curious particulars of the Company’s title to
part of the Estate, which seems to have been an equitable rather than a
legal one, whereby the Court apprehended some difficulty in disposing
of it to another party from whom a somewhat better price might have
been obtained, and therein, under the circumstances, showed themselves
good men of business by concluding with Mr. Finlay: we cannot however
now, but regret that this most valuable property should have passed
from us for so comparatively insignificant a sum. The purchase-money
was laid out in thirteen East India Bonds of £100 each.

  7th April, 1730. M{r} Serj{t} Dickins the Master of the Company
  informing the Court, That he having the honour to be acquainted with
  the Right Honourable The Earl of Burlington and with his Lordships
  most extraordinary genius and superior judgment in Architecture, had
  taken the liberty to address himself to the said noble Earl, and to
  make it his humble request to his Lordship that he would be pleased
  to favour the Company with his opinion, in what manner it would
  be safest and best to repair the anatomical Theatre built by the
  celebrated Inigo Jones about one hundred years ago.

  That his Lordship had thereupon condescended to take a view of the
  Theatre and most obligingly directed the proper method of repairing
  a structure of so peculiar a frame, and afterwards out of his
  accustomed generosity, and in regard to the memory of that great
  Architect offered to defray the expence thereof.

  IT IS THEREUPON RESOLVED NEMINE CONTRADICENTE by this Court, That
  the Master and Wardens of the Company together with the late Master
  William Cotesworth Esq{r} be, and they are hereby desired forthwith
  to wait on the Right Honb̃le The Earl of Burlington, and in the most
  gratefull manner to assure his Lordship in the name of the whole
  Company.

  THAT they do receive this noble instance of his Lordships bounty and
  generosity as a most distinguishing & illustrious mark of honour
  shown by his Lordship to the Company & Profession.

  And that this Court will take care so to record & transmitt the
  remembrance of this magnificent action of his Lordship to their
  successors That the gratitude of the Company to his Lordship’s person
  and memory may be for ever preserved among them.

13th August, 1730. A marble Bust of the Earl of Burlington was ordered
to be set up in the Theatre.

27th April, 1739. “The Court taking into their considerac͠on that
several of their By-Laws, which had been confirmed by the Lord
Chancellor and Lord Chief Justices for the time being, were in want of
alteration, by reason of the variation of the times and circumstances
of the Company and their Members since such By-Laws were made, and
several new By-Laws being also wanting for the better government of
the Company in times to come,” It was ordered that a Committee of six
should consult and draw up fresh By-Laws, to be submitted to a future
Court of Assistants, but in the result no action was taken.

1744. The long slumbering animosity between the Surgeons and the
Barbers had now reached a climax, and indeed it is a matter of surprise
that an union which had become grotesque should have existed for as
many years as it had. The Surgeons, many of whom had attained to
great eminence, naturally chafed under a system which required their
diplomas to be signed by Governors, two of whom were always Barbers,
or members of some trade or profession other than that of a Surgeon,
and with the rapid progress of science and of surgical skill and
knowledge, they felt their alliance with the Barbers a restraint upon
their advancement, as also that the exercise of their profession under
Charters and By-Laws, antiquated in form, and more adapted to the times
in which they were framed, a hindrance rather than an incitement to
further proficiency.

There is little in the records as to this disagreement, it being
tacitly agreed that neither side should place their arguments or
grievances in the books, which were their joint property.

  20th December, 1744. This day the gentlemen on the Surgeons side
  having made known at this Court their desire of being separated from
  the gentlemen on the Barbers and that each may be made a distinct
  and independent Body free from each other, and producing a Case
  intended to be offered to the Honourable House of Commons praying
  such separation, which being read at this Court It was agreed that
  the following gentlemen on the Barbers side viz{t.}--

  M{r.} Warden Negus M{r.} Parker M{r.} Maurice M{r.} Truelove and
  M{r.} Haddon.

  & on the Surgeons side viz{t.}--

  M{r.} Serj{t} Dickins Will{m} Petty Esq{r} James Dansie Esq{re} M{r.}
  Freke and M{r.} Sainthill

  be a Committe appointed to meet on Monday next at the Kings Arms
  Tavern in Saint Paul’s Church Yard at one of the Clock at noon to
  receive the proposals from the Gentlemen on the Surgeon’s side for
  such Separation, and that when they had so done that the Gentlemen on
  the Barber’s side members of this Court should lay the same before
  the Livery on their side, by a Meeting to be had for that purpose,
  and that a Court of Assistants should be held on the Tenth day of
  January next, at which time the Gentlemen on the Barber’s Side
  Members of this Court, should then report their opinion and assent or
  Dissent to such proposals made.

  At the same time it was agreed that any Member of this Court should
  at any time have the free liberty of examining and inspecting into
  the several Books and writings belonging to this Company In case the
  same should be in the presence of the Master or one of the Wardens
  but not otherwise, but no such Books or writings be at any time
  removed from the Hall, on any account whatever unless by a special
  order of this Court first had and obtained for that purpose.

  10th January, 1745. Pursuant to an Order of the last Court of
  Assistants the gentlemen on the Barbers side Members of this Court,
  did this day make their report on the proposals made by the gentlemen
  on the Surgeons side for a separation, by Dissenting in general to
  such proposals made.

By the Journals of the House of Commons, 18 George II, it appears that
the Surgeons on 31st January, 1745, presented a petition to Parliament,
in which among other things they recited the Act, 32 Henry VIII, and
also that Charles I in the 5th year of his reign,

  by Letters Patent under the great seal confirmed the Barber Surgeon’s
  Company in their possessions and privileges and gave the Company
  power to make by-laws and to constitute ten persons to be Examiners
  of Surgeons during their lives, and it was thereby further granted
  that no person whether freeman foreigner native of England or alien
  should practise Surgery in London or Westminster or within seven
  miles of the City of London unless previously examined allowed and
  admitted by the Company in manner therein mentioned; and that the
  Surgeons so examined might practise in any part of England; and that
  the Masters and Governors of the said Company might appoint and
  have a public lecture for the science of Surgery, for the better
  instruction and information in the principles and rudiments of the
  art and science of Surgery, and that no person exercising the art of
  Surgery within the limits therein mentioned should go out or send any
  apprentice or servant from the Port of London to serve in quality
  of a Surgeon for any ship without the approbation and allowance of
  the said Company, in such manner and under such penalties as are
  therein mentioned. That since the said Act for incorporating the two
  said Companies, those of the said Company practising Surgery have
  from their sole and constant study of, and application to the said
  science, rendered the profession and practice thereof of great and
  public benefit and utility to this Kingdom, and that the Barbers
  belonging to the said Corporation are now, and have been many years,
  employed in a business foreign to and independent of the practice of
  Surgery; and that the Surgeons belonging to the same Corporation,
  being now become a numerous and considerable body, and finding their
  union with the Barbers inconvenient in many respects and in no degree
  conducive to the progress or improvement of the art of Surgery,
  are therefore desirous that the Surgeons being freemen of the said
  Company, may be made a Corporation separate and distinct from and
  independent of the Barbers of, and belonging to the said Company;
  and therefore praying the House to give leave that a bill may be
  brought in dissolving and vacating the union and incorporation of the
  Barbers and Surgeons made by the said former act; and for making the
  Surgeons of the said Company a separate and distinct Corporation; and
  for making a partition and division of the real and personal estate
  and effects of and belonging to the said united Company, unto and
  for the separate benefit of the said two Companies so proposed to be
  separated, as to this House shall seem meet and reasonable.

Whereupon it was ordered--

  That the said petition be referred to the consideration of a
  Committee and that they do examine the matter thereof, and report the
  same with their opinion thereupon to the House.

A Committee was at once appointed with power to send for persons,
papers, and records.

On the 6th February the Barbers presented a Petition against the
proposed separation, and asked to be heard by counsel; whereupon it was
ordered--

  That the said petition be referred to the consideration of the
  Committee to whom the petition of the Surgeons of London, whose
  names are thereunto subscribed, on behalf of themselves and other
  the Surgeons in the City and suburbs of London is referred: And that
  these petitioners the said Barbers, if they think fit be heard by
  their Counsel before the said Committee according to the prayer of
  the said petitioners.

This petition of the Barbers to the House of Commons was identical
with a very scarce pamphlet “The Case of the Barbers,” a copy of which
has been kindly given to me by Mr. D’Arcy Power, M.A. It is full of
interest, and will be found in Appendix E.

27th February, 1745. The Committee brought up their report, which was
read by the Clerk, and recited the various documents produced and the
evidence tendered; among other matters it is stated that Mr. John
Hayward, a Past Master, was examined and deposed, that the Master
(who every other year was a Barber) and the Wardens present, sign the
diplomas. That there are ten Examiners who have each half a guinea
for their attendance, and the Master and Wardens have the like. That
he did not know that the presence of Barbers at these examinations
was any inconvenience, but he apprehended it would be more eligible
if the Master were always a Surgeon. That the Barbers are generally
present at the four public lectures of Anatomy, two of which are at
the expense of the Company, the other two being at the expense of the
Surgeons. That the Demonstrators of Anatomy and Osteology are chosen
by the whole Court of Assistants (fifteen of whom are Barbers, and
fifteen Surgeons). That he apprehends the present union is the reason
why so many persons do not bind their sons apprentice at the Hall. He
never knew of the Barbers interfering in or giving interruption to
examinations, and he never heard any fact mentioned as a reason for the
separation desired by the Surgeons, except that a great many foreign
brothers (who are gentlemen that practise both in and out of town)
refuse to come into the Company on account of the present expense.

Being examined as to the money generally given to the Poor’s Box by
Sea Surgeons at the time of their receiving a Qualification, he said
that it was always expected, but that if they are not in a capacity
it is not insisted upon, and that he never heard of any person being
denied a Qualification for refusing to pay it. That the Qualification
is delivered to the party sealed up, to be carried to the Navy Office,
and that the Master commonly signifies to him what fees are expected;
that the said Box is examined every month, and about nine-tenths of
the money distributed by the Master and Wardens, among the poor of the
Barbers.

Being asked what proportion the Barbers pay to the Poor’s Box, he said
that the greatest part of the income applied to that use arises from
the examination of Sea Surgeons, but that the Apprentices of Barbers
(who are as twenty to one) always pay when bound at the Hall, and at
their admission to the freedom, as well as the Surgeons.

Mr. Hayward put before the Committee a statement of the fines received
by the Company, which was as follows--

                                             Surgeons.       Barbers.
                                           _£   s.  d._   _£   s.  d._

  For Freedom by purchase                   10  10   0      6   6   0

   "  Livery fine, and all Offices to the
        Parlor door                         35   0   0     25   0   0

   "  Examination for great Diploma          6   6   0

   "  The fine for not serving the four
        several offices of Master and the
        three Wardens, which the Surgeons
        often pay, but the Barbers never
        do, sometimes 30 guineas but
        oftener                             40   0   0     40   0   0

   "  The fine for Master and Stewards of
        Anatomy when called upon in turn
        (and if they serve, the expense
        is rather greater)                  40   0   0
                                          ------------    -----------
                                          £131  16   0    £71   6   0
                                          ============    ===========

The Clerk’s and Beadle’s fees are not included in the above.

Mr. Joseph Wheeler, the Clerk of the Company, was examined by the
Committee, and generally confirmed Mr. Hayward’s evidence.

The next witness, Mr. Neil Stewart, was evidently called in the
interest of the Surgeons, to show the inconvenience which had arisen
(in his case at all events) by reason of the warrants being issued
by the “_Barbers_ and Surgeons.” He deposed that he was surgeon to
H.M.S. The Looe, and, being taken prisoner by the French, was put in
the common prison at Brest, where he petitioned to be removed to an
open hospital at Dinan, and enclosed his warrant as a surgeon with
his petition to the French authorities; some days after, he enquired
of the “Linguist” as to the success of his petition, and was informed
that “the Superintendent did not know by his warrant whether he
(the witness) was a Barber _or_ a Surgeon: that upon his desiring
the linguist to read the warrant, by which it would appear he was a
surgeon, the linguist replied that it might be so, but that if the
witness had been taken on board one of the King of Great Britain’s
ships it would have been out of doubt.” This witness further stated
that he believed the unfavourable notice which was taken of his
petition was because his warrant came from the Masters of the _Barbers_
and Surgeons.

With reference to the gift of Edward Arris the Court minutes of 29th
February, 1675-6 were produced which stated that “Mr. Edward Arris a
very worthy member of this Company having formerly settled by Deed £30
a year for a dissection of a body yearly and Reading on the Muscles,
desired that deed might be delivered up to him,” and he in return
would pay the Company £510 to enable them to apply the interest to the
same purposes, which was agreed to. Mr. Arris dying on the 28th May,
1676, the Company soon became involved in a Chancery suit with his
son, Dr. Thomas Arris, and the Court minutes of 20th January, 1677-8
were produced and read to the Committee. These set forth the answer
which the Company filed to the Bill of Complaint before the Master of
the Rolls, and stated the circumstances referred to in the minutes of
29th February, 1675-6, and that Mr. Arris gave as his reason for this
“That his only son and heir, the now Doctor, had and did then receive
the profits of the said lands to his own use upon condition and under
promise to pay the said £30 per annum for the said Dissection; but he
found that he did never pay one penny of it, or ever would do, when he
their benefactor was dead, without trouble or suit; with some severe
and sharp expressions, which we will by no means mention, although they
were the very words of the father spoken of the son.”

The answer goes on to express the hope that the Company will not be
compelled to enter into any further covenant with Dr. Arris than they
had done with his father their “pious benefactor,” for the carrying out
of the trust, or be ordered to refund the £510 to Dr. Arris. It also
prayed that he might be ordered to pay the costs of “this troublesome
and unnecessary suit, which doth so much shew what they must expect
from him hereafter, if they should part with the £510.” As the Company
retained the £510 till the separation in 1745, there is no doubt but
that Dr. Arris, as he deserved to do, lost his suit.

Various extracts from the Company’s books were read, on behalf of
the Barbers, to show that the united Company had always assisted the
Surgeons, and promoted the cause and interest of Surgery out of the
common fund of the Barbers and Surgeons.

Part of the Will of Robert Ferbras, Citizen and Surgeon, dated 2nd
December, 1470,[120] was read, whereby it appeared that several estates
formerly belonging to the said Company, were given to the Barbers
before their union with the Surgeons in Henry VIII’s time. And a
declaration of Bryan Sandford, dated 8th March, 1490, was read, whereby
it appeared that the site of the Hall was purchased by the Barbers
before the said Union.

[120] But see p. 61 as to this Will. I cannot explain the discrepancy.

The Committee of the House of Commons reported that they had
recommended the parties to settle the dispute as to the division of the
property between them, and that thereupon the Surgeons had proposed
that they should have given up to them Dr. Gale’s Annuity of £16 per
annum and Alderman Arris’ gift of £510; also that for about three years
until the Surgeons could provide themselves with suitable premises,
they should have the use of the Hall, Theatre, &c., at a nominal rent
of one guinea per annum.

The Barbers agreed to give up Gale’s and Arris’ gifts, but proposed
that the Surgeons should take a lease for such days in the year as they
commonly used the premises, at £80 per annum, and pay the Barbers £100
towards the expenses to which they had been put by this suit in the
Parliament.

In the result the Committee reported:--(_a_) That the Surgeons had
made good the allegations of their petition. (_b_) That the proposed
separation was desirable. (_c_) That the propositions of the Surgeons
touching the division of the property were reasonable.

Subsequently the Bill passed both Houses and received the Royal Assent,
the quaint union being dissolved 25th June, 1745.

By this Act (18 Geo. II) the Surgeons were erected into a separate
Corporation, and the Barbers were re-incorporated under the style of
“The Master, Governors and Commonalty of the Mystery of Barbers of
London.” So much of this Act as relates to the Barbers will be found in
the Appendix F.

The first Court of Assistants of “~The Barbers’ Company~” was held on
the 25th June, 1745, at 10 a.m., and there were present:--

  Mr. JONATHAN MEDLEY                  _Master_.
  Mr. HUMPHRY NEGUS                    _Second Governor_.

  Mr. WILLIAM PARKER. }               { Mr. SAMUEL RUTTER.
  Mr. JOHN BARNWELL.  }               { Mr. ROBERT SCROOBY.
  Mr. JOHN TRUELOVE.  }               { Mr. RICHARD SWITHIN.
  Mr. WILLIAM HADDON. } _Assistants._ { Mr. EDWARD COLEBECK.
  Mr. JOHN NEGUS.     }               { Mr. TOGARMAH JONES.
  Mr. EDWARD BOXLEY.  }               { Mr. JOHN GURNEY.

The Act of Separation being read, and the Oaths as formerly required to
be taken by Freemen, Master, Warden, Assistant, Clerk, and Beadle being
also read and considered, the Court settled and formulated the various
Oaths, and the same are entered in the Minutes.

The Election of nine fit and able persons to be Assistants was then
proceeded with, and Mr. William Jackson, Mr. John Bearblock, Mr.
Will{m.} Roberts, Mr. Thomas Cotton, Mr. John Whiting, Mr. Richard
Lookes, James Theobald, Esqre., Peter Theobald, Esqre., and Mr. John
Pepys, were unanimously elected.

Mr. Edward Boxley and Mr. Samuel Rutter were chosen third and fourth
Governors or Wardens.

Thanks were voted to Mr. Jonathan Medley and Mr. Humphry Negus “for
their great care in defending and preserving the Rights Priviledges and
property of this Company on their Separation from the Surgeons.”

Thanks were also voted to Mr. John Paterson “for his great care and
diligence in executing the orders and directions of the Master and
Governor about the defence and preservation of the rights priviledges
and property of the Company” and to further mark their sense of the
same, the Court unanimously elected Mr. Paterson as Clerk.

The two Beadles, Henry Gretton and William Littlebury were re-elected.

It was ordered that all Charters, Books, Plate and goods belonging
to the Company, then in the custody of Mr. Joseph Wheeler (the late
Clerk) should be delivered to Mr. Paterson, who was to make and sign an
Inventory of the same, and also to examine Mr. Wheeler’s accounts, and
report thereon to the Court.

The Common Seal was directed to be altered by omitting the words ET
CHIRURGORUM and by adding ANNO MDCCXLV.

A Committee was appointed to peruse the By-Laws of the late United
Company, and to report as to which of them required amendment or were
fit to be repealed or added to.

8th August, 1751. Mr. John Brooks attended and produced a Deed to
which he requested the subscription of the Court; this deed recited
that by an Act of Parliament passed in the 10th year of Queen Anne,
it was enacted that a duty of 2_d._ per lb. should be laid upon all
starch imported, and of 1_d._ per lb. upon all starch made in Great
Britain, that no perfumer, barber, or seller of hair-powder should
mix any powder of alabaster, plaster of Paris, whiting, lime, etc.
(sweet scents excepted), with any starch to be made use of for making
hair-powder, under pain of forfeiting the hair-powder and £50, and
that any person who should expose the same for sale should forfeit
it and £20. Also that by further Acts additional duties were laid
upon starch. And by an Act passed in the 4th year of George II the
penalties were somewhat mitigated. “And whereas the said laws with
respect to hair-powder have by experience been found not to answer the
end proposed by the Legislature, the sum arising by the said duties
upon starch and hair-powder having gradually lessened, whilst the
fair traders have been great sufferers by the practice of those who
by the greatness of the duty have attempted to make vend or use the
said prohibited articles. And whereas the trade or business of making
vending or dressing of Perukes or other Ornaments of hair for the head
and also of cutting and dressing the hair of the head being considered
as distinct from the business of Barbers is under no regulation
whatever,” etc., the parties whom Mr. Brooks represented (and whose
names were signed to the deed) had, therefore, agreed to join in an
application to Parliament for reducing the duties on hair-powder, as
also for incorporating all persons carrying on the trade of Barbers and
Peruke-makers within the Bills of Mortality, into one joint Corporation
or Body politick, and for restraining persons from exercising those
trades who had not served seven years’ apprenticeship.

It was stated that subscriptions towards defraying the costs of the
proposed Bill had been paid to Messrs. Gosling & Bennett, Bankers in
Fleet Street, that John Paterson, Esq., Clerk of the Company, was
Solicitor for the Bill, and Mr. John Brooks was Secretary of the
Petitioners.

The Court, having considered the application, decided to contribute
Twenty Guineas, but the matter seems to have been in abeyance for
eighteen months, as the petition to the House of Commons was not
sealed by the Company until the 7th January, 1753.

13th January, 1753. The petition was this day presented and is recorded
in the Journals of the House; it states, among other things, that the
Company “are in danger of being unable to support themselves and that
the petitioners who exercise the art of Peruke making in the liberties
and neighbourhood of the said City are not a body corporate, nor under
any order or regulation; for want whereof great frauds are practised
in the said manufacture to the discouragement of the fair trader, and
manifest injury of the consumer, And therefore praying the House that
leave may be given for the bringing in a Bill for incorporating the
Peruke makers as well within as without the liberties of the City of
London, and within such distance thereof as the House shall think fit,
with the said petitioners”--the Barbers’ Company. This petition was
referred to a Committee, but no report of that Committee is entered in
the Journals.

4th December, 1764. The Peruke makers turned up again in 1764, for we
find in the Minutes that certain of them attended with the draft of
a petition to the King, to which they asked the assent of the Court.
This petition which strangely commenced “We the Company of Barbers _and
Peruke makers_,” stated that the suppliants laid before his Majesty the
distresses into which the Peruke makers had fallen by reason of the
change of fashion, and thus appeals to the King, “Where can we look
for relief but there only where it is to be found, for as the Fashion
your Majesty approves will very justly be a pattern to your subjects,
We most humbly hope not to be too bold in wishing Perukes may soon be
as much in fashion as the wearing of hair is at present, which will
increase the Revenue, give happiness to the indigent and distressed
Peruke makers, and increase the many great unmerited Favours, We as a
Company have received from Royal Hands!”

16th January, 1765. The Court took this ridiculous petition into
consideration, and of course refused to adopt it, informing the
suppliants that they were concerned to observe the decay in their
trade, as it was connected by usage with that of Barbery, but as the
Charters of the Company did not extend to Peruke making, the Court
could not with propriety address his Majesty on the subject.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: THE COMMITTEE ROOM, BARBERS’ HALL.]



[Illustration]

EXTRACTS FROM COURT MINUTES, ETC.,

MORE PARTICULARLY RELATING TO THE

INTERNAL HISTORY OF THE COMPANY.


  29th August, 1550. ~Memorandum~ the xxix{th} day of Auguste in the
  house belonging to the sayd Company it was condescended and fully
  agreed by the aforesayed M{r} and Wardeins M{r} Geen Thomas Johnson
  Thomas Stocdall and Mathew Johnson w{t} thassent of thassistance
  being there present that is to say M{r} Kyrkeˀ (Kyrkeby)[121] M{r}
  Vycary[122] M{r} Bancks[123] M{r} Byrde[124] M{r} Yonge[125] M{r}
  Henderbe[126] Robert Postell[127] Willm Tyllˀ (Tylley)[128] Peter
  Dayseman[129] Robert Waterforde[130] Richard Bowll[131] Henry
  Pemberton[132] Robert Sprignell[133] Robert Brownell[134] John
  Smythe[135] Willm̄ Otherborne[136] and Austeyn Clarck.[137]

  [121] Master 1526, 1533.
  [122] M. 1530, etc.
  [123] M. 1532.
  [124] M. 1542, 1545.
  [125] M. 1544.
  [126] M. 1547.
  [127] Warden 1544.
  [128] W. 1546.
  [129] W. 1547.
  [130] W. 1549.
  [131] M. 1553.
  [132] W. 1539.
  [133] M. 1554.
  [134] M. 1563.
  [135] W. 1547.
  [136] W. 1548.
  [137] W. 1554.

  [Sidenote:
  An order taken
  concerninge
  Thomas Knot.]

  THAT Thomas Knot shalbe dischardged and not called to no manner of
  office unto such tyme that it shall please the m{rs} to agree for
  Another order. And also that he shall not paie no maner of scott lot
  nor subsedye nor any other chardge concerning the saied Crafte but
  shalbe dischardged of and from the same Ecept onelie his quarterage
  and except that which he shall gyve & paye of his owne fre will and
  gentelnes.

  [Sidenote:
  An order for
  the elecc̃on of
  the Maister.]

  ~Alsoo~ yt was ordered and agreed the sayd daye by the hole
  assistaunce that the maister shall put in iiij{or} into his bill for
  his electyon and so the same byll to goo through the house and every
  man to prycke as his mynde doth serve him w{th}out any telling and
  when every man hathe pricked about the house then the byll to be
  brought to the M{r} And he that hath the moste pricks to have the
  roome of M{r} the yeare ensuynge. The names of the ellecyon for the
  M{r} was M{r} Geen Richard Ferres Robert Postell and Willm̄ Tylle.

  [Sidenote:
  An order for the
  eleccyon of the
  upper wardein.]

  ALSOO for the elleccyon of the upper wardein he shall put iiij{or}
  names into his Byll and so to goo through the house like as the M{r}
  Byll hath dooen. The names for the elleccyon for upper wardein was
  Thomas Johnson, Richard (The remainder of this line is torn away in
  original).

  [Sidenote:
  An order for the
  Elecc̃on of the
  Second Wardein.]

  ALSOO for the Elleccyon of the Seconde Wardein he shall put in
  iiij{or} names in his byll and so to goo through the house like as is
  before mencyoned. The names for the Elleccyon was Thomas Stocdall,
  John Atkinson, John Smyth and Thomas Knot.

  [Sidenote:
  For the Eleccyon
  of the youngest
  Wardein.]

  ALSOO for the Elleccyon of the youngest wardein he shall put iiij{or}
  into his Byll and so to goo through the house like as before. The
  names for the Elleccyon are Mathew Johnson, John Tholmoode, Richard
  Elliot and John Shryffe.

10th Sept., 1551. It was ordered that--

  [Sidenote:
  An order that the
  Seconde Wardein
  shall receyve all
  fynes quartrage
  and other
  casualtyes.]

  The second Wardein shall receyve all maner of Receite as fynes
  quartrag for prentises, for fremen and all other casualtyes
  whatsoev{r} yt be. And he to paye also all maner of wage, And the
  Bedyll to have a booke of all suche receitte and dischardge as the
  seconde wardein hathe for his dischardge.

  Also yt ys agreed that the younger wardein shall receyve nothing but
  onely the Rents of the Londes, and to see reparac͠ons dooen where as
  nede shall requyer and that he shall take Appulton[138] w{th} him
  when he goeth to receyve the rentes of the Londes so that bothe there
  books may agree.

  [138] The Beadle.

4th Nov., 1551. It was agreed--

  That there shalbe allowed in goyng and searching of their Londes
  vj{s} viij{d.}

Ordered--

  That John West shall bring in his fyne which ys vj{s} viij{d} for
  speking opprobryous wordes against John Androwson in the presence of
  the M{rs.}

17th Nov., 1551. It was ordered--

  That the Kings maiestyes Barbor or Barbors to his highness parson And
  also his mat{s} Surgeon or Surgeons shall sytt next to the Last M{r}
  upon the benche where as the M{rs} nowe usually doo sytt and alsoo
  shall goo next to the M{rs} in all goyngs and syttings.

It was ordered that no Barber should take a “foreigner” as journeyman
and set him to work, before presenting him to the Master and Wardens,
under a penalty of 3_s._ 4_d._ per week.

This order was made because many foreigners (_i.e._, non-freemen) who
were inexpert had lately come into the City, and the Court directed
that each foreigner should give proof of his skill, and then that he
should remain for one year only and in one service, and no Barber was
to pay a foreigner higher wages than the Masters should from time to
time “sess” or determine under a penalty of 13_s._ 4_d._ for “every
weke so offending.” The Beadle was directed to keep a register book of
all foreigners for the year, and when the year was expired, the Barber
who kept a foreigner and was minded to keep him longer was to come to
the Hall within fourteen days to have him re-registered under a penalty
of 3_s._ 4_d._ per week. And no Barber was to “entyce or envegyll any
mans servant from him upon peyne of forfeyting for a fyne xiij{s.}
iiij{d.}”

The Court fixed the wages of these men as follows--

  The best jorneyman that is a forrein shall have for a weke xij{d.}
  the second x{d.} and the thurde as the sayd M{rs.} shall thinke meate
  & convenyente.

17th November, 1551. It was ordered that the youngest Warden should be
chosen out of the Livery and that he should be--

  in especcyall one that hathe byn stewarde so that he be a man that
  hath usyed himself in that behalf honestleye and discretly.

It was also ordered that all freemen should come every quarter day to
the Hall to pay quarterage, hear the rules read, and to hear the book
set forth by the Corporation of London concerning Orphans, and no man
was to sit out of his appointed place, under a penalty.

17th July, 1553. It was ordered that Mr. John Enderby (Master 1547)--

  shall have the benevolense of the crafte fower marks a yere.

20th September, 1553. The Masters agreed with Richard Drewe--

  For a barge when the Mayer goeth to Westmˀ for Twentie sixe shillings
  and eighte pence.

12th August, 1554. Being Election day it was agreed that at the
choosing of the Masters--

  There shalbe a solempe masse[139] or other dyvyne servyce sayd and
  songe that the M{rs.} be choessen and the hole lyverye to be therat
  in their best clothing and to meete at the hall at or before the
  hower of ix of the clocke and he that fayleth his hower to paye
  xij{d} for his fyne w{t}out any redempcyon or gayne sayeing. The
  sayed masse[140] to be at the chardgs of the Companye.

  [139] The word “masse” has been subsequently erased.
  [140] “Masse” has been subsequently erased, and “s’rvice” substituted.

1st Oct., 1555. The following Articles were agreed upon by the Court--

  I. There shall no man ffreeman fforyner or straunger of the Clothinge
  or w{t}out the clothing shave wasshe a Bearde or tryme any man w{th}
  any Instrumēt as to make cleane teathe upon the Sondayes within the
  Cytie of London or withoute in his owne house or in any mans house or
  chamber or in any place els he shall forfayete at every tyme beinge
  duely proved for a fyne to the hall the some of xl{s.} And further
  that no fforyner being no ffreman shall carry out any Bason or clothe
  or Instrumēt to make cleane teathe to shave poll or wasshe a bearde
  or to trym̄e any man but w{t}in the Lybertye where he dwellethe But
  w{t}in the Cytie of London he shall not trym̃e any man at no dayes
  w{t}in anye of their howses or in any place els w{t}in the Cytie upon
  payne to lose at every tyme beinge duely proved for a fyne to the
  hall xl{s.}

II. That Apulton the Beadle of the Clothing was to be the Clerk, and
that the Beadle of the Yeomanry was to help the Clerk at

  coronac͠on tyme or at other greate tryumphes when any other greate
  man cometh in or when the kinge or quene comen through the Cytie.

  III. That whenever the Shreif be chosein or the Mayor or the
  burgesses of the parlyamẽt or upon the kings or queenes comĩg into
  the Cytie or any other greate man comyth in or upon any other greate
  truymphe whereapon comaundement ys geven by the Mayor of London to
  the sayed Company of the Clothinge of Barbors and Surgeons to geve
  their attendaunce Then the hole Company of the Clothinge to meete
  at our owne hall of Barbors and Surgeons in our owne lyverye all to
  gether fyrste, and afterwards to gooe out of the hall two and two
  together as of olde tyme yt hathe been used, and when the Mayor goeth
  to poules[141] then the M{r} and governors to gooe throughe out Wood
  streate to poules w{th} the rest of the Company of the Clothinge.
  And that M{r} and governors that dothe not this shall forfaycte for
  a ffyne to the hall vj{li} xiij{s} iiij{d} And they of the Clothing
  that dothe not come to the hall firste but will meete us at the
  place where we shalbe appointed to stande and to remayn and dothe
  not kepe his hower shall loose for a ffyne in the hall at every tyme
  so offending iij{s} iiij{d} Provyded alwayes yf the Mayor gooe not
  to poules at the Mayors ffeaste Alhollande daye xp̃emas daye twelves
  daye and Candlemas daye In what streets we doo gooe throughe yt be
  not throughe Wood streate yt shall not be prejudycyall to the master
  and governors of the Company for the tyme being.

  [141] St. Paul s.

IV. It was ordered that Apprentices, before being presented, should pay
2_s._ 6_d._ fine, also 8_d._ to the Clerk for drawing the Indentures.

8th October, 1555. Further ordinances were framed, viz{t}:--

I. That at all sittings of the Court when any business was discussed
the Members should speak to the subject in order of seniority, and any
one interrupting or speaking out of turn was to pay 12_d._ fine. The
Beadle also was to stand without the door, in the Hall, and there to
give his attendance whenever the Master should knock for him.

II. That there should be an Armourer with a yearly fee of 10_s._, and--

  for the same he shalbe bounde to make cleane our harneys w{th}
  daggers gunnes armyng swords and bills and with all other things that
  doethe appertayne to an Armorer for to doo in mending of buckells
  lethers or any other thinge which dothe appertayne to that whiche we
  nowe have.

III. When the Master and Governors should go to view their lands and
tenements to see the state of repair, the Bricklayer was to go with
them to advise and to have a fee of “ij{s} and his dynnar.”

IV. This relates to the Clerk (see Clerk).

V. That a Minute book be kept to record all the orders made at any
Court, and that such orders be read at the next Court and signed.

VI. That no freeman shall serve a foreigner under a penalty of 13_s._
4_d._ for every time so offending, and any foreigner taking a freeman
to serve with him should be fined 26_s._ 8_d._

19th November, 1555. John Demynge, “Cowper[142] & ffre denysen,” was
granted a lease of a house belonging to the Company at St. Katherine’s,
Tower Hill, at £2 per annum for thirty years, with a fine of £4 on
sealing the lease and a “barrell of doble beare.”

[142] Cooper.

26th November, 1555. Thomas Glynton, Goldsmith, was to have a lease
of the house in Tower Street, where he then dwelt, for 30 years from
Christmas, 1555, no rent stated, but a fine of £10 to be paid on
sealing the lease.

5th March, 1556. Several further Ordinances and awards were made by the
Court, among which were the following:--

I. That the Masters and Governors should not let the Hall to anyone to--

  daunce or use anye other kynde of games els whereby the sealinge or
  other things being broken in the hall or kitchen shall redowne to
  the losse of the Company Yf therefore the sayed M{r} and governors
  for the tyme being doo let out the hall to any bodye to thentent
  aforesayde w{t}out the consent of the hole howse to be called for the
  same they should forfeit and pay etc.

  IV. The ffourthe Artycle is that if any of the Lyverye or of the
  yomanrye come to sesse any man being a jornye man to serve him as
  the order is that he taketh 1{d} for a yere or ij{d} for ij yere
  That his M{r} shall not put him awaye at his pleasure as many now
  a dayes do, but he shall complayne to the M{r} and Governors for
  the tyme of the demeaner usuage and evell behaveor of the sayed
  Journyman for noen kepinge of his M{rs} howse all the weke daye by
  reason wherof he dothe lose his customˀs or that he goeth out at his
  pleasure and come in at his will againe w{t}out asking of any leave
  of his M{r} or mysteris w{ch} pertayneth not to a servaunte for to
  doo for theyse consyderac͠ons and other the m{r} maye complayne.
  The Jornyman lykewise may complayne of his M{r} yf that he doo not
  paye him his wages and to have his meate and dryncke as Jornymen
  shoulde have according to the agremẽt of bothe the partyes as the
  M{r} and the Jornyman shalbe at a pointe when he cometh to sesse any
  Jornymen because that if the Jornyman doo not his dewtye that he
  may be punysshed and put in prison to thentent that Jornymen may be
  kept in good order otherwise then they be nowe. And that the M{r}
  and govˀnors for the tyme being shall declare to the Jornyman what
  is his dewty to his M{r} when he dothe come to be seste to thentent
  that he shall knowe his dewtye to his M{r} and if he doo not the same
  then he knoweth the pryce. And agayne to declare to the Jornyman what
  his M{r} shall doo to him, as to paye his wages mete and dryncke and
  other things that a Jornyman oughte to have. Yf any of the Clothinge
  or of the yomanrye put awaye his Jornyman before his yere or yeres
  come out and not declaring the matter to the M{r} and governors [he]
  shall forfaycte at every tyme so doinge for a ffyne to the hall vj{s}
  viiij{d.} And that all ffremen being Journymen may be preferred and
  taken, being a workman before any fforyner duynge his dewty to his
  M{r} as is aforesayed because we are bounde to preferre the ffremen
  w{ch} beare scot and lot to the Cytye and company w{ch} the Jornymen
  doo not being forryners but come out of the contrye to learne there
  scyence here and so after warde goo away agayne w{ch} is not to the
  welth of the Companye.

VII. No Liveryman was to presume to come into the parlour, whilst the
Court was sitting, without being sent for.

VIII. Freemen were not to put away apprentices to make room for others
by whom they might get money.

IX. Two Stewards for the Anatomy were to be chosen every year.

X. The Clerk having claimed to provide the napery and vessells, and to
appoint the Cook for the Anatomy dinners, alleging an old custom to
that effect, it was ordered that he should not again do so as he had
aforetime for a “lytle lucer of moneye,” but that the Stewards of the
Anatomy should make their own provision and “dresse there meate clenly
and honestlye because of worshipfull men comyng thereunto,” and if the
Clerk again offended he was to “paye to the hall for a fyne his half
yeres wages w{ch} is x{s.}”

  XII. THE TWELVE Article is that if Olyver Wilson dothe hereafter
  speake evill of the M{r} and governors and thassistaunce of the
  clothinge or of any of the yomanrye as heretofore he hathe dooen
  w{ch} by profe hathe been tryed and therfore hathe been punnished in
  pryson, yf ever hereafter he dothe the like he to be expelled.

NOTE.--In all cases penalties or punishments were specified for breach
of the foregoing ordinances.

5th March, 1556. William Goodwin, Merchant Taylor, leased to the
Company for 99 years “all the houses next the hall w{th} the house of
the prevy w{t}in the hall for vj{li} vj{s} viij{d}” per annum, the
Company to keep the premises in repair.

27th June, 1556. Arnold Tymes, “beare brewer,” had a lease of a
“gardein lying in easte Smithefelde” for 40 years, paying 12_d._ for an
earnest penny, and to pay at the sealing of the lease £4, and at the
Audit day other £4.

9th July, 1556. John More, Cordwainer, and Richard Wiston, had leases
of houses in St. John’s, Walbrook, for 30 years from Midsummer, and
about this period there are several other notices of leases for 30
years having been granted of property in East Smithfield, Holborn
Bridge, and Mugwell Street.

22nd July, 1556. An order was made:--

  That there shalbe a painter belonge to the hall, and he to have a
  penc͠on yerely of vj{s} viij{d} by the yere to be payed at fower
  tymes of the yere and for the same he shall make cleane all the
  paintinge w{t}in the hall bothe above and benethe as the Tables in
  the hall and other things and in the gardein every qr̃ter of a yere
  if it so neede: and to amend faults where there ys anye at his owne
  proper costs and chardgs as is afore declared.

26th August, 1557. It was ordered that Mrs. Dawson, the Widow of one
Bryckett--

  a Toothe drawer shall paye no quartryge to the hawle nor hange oute
  any signe or clothe w{th} teethe as she hearetofore hath don.

  12th October, 1557. John West was discharged out of this howse
  bycawse he wold not abyde y{e} order of y{e} M{r} & govˀnors and one
  Asheton had lycence to arest hym.

Various entries occur about this period of freemen being brought before
the Court and punished for using “obrobrious wordes.”

9th November, 1557. It was ordered that Robert Postell (Warden 1544)
should have a “yerely anewitie oute of thys howse” of 40{s.}

A freeman before “setting up shop” was required to procure the
testimony of one or more citizens that he was worth 10 marks, and to
obtain a licence from the Court; there are numerous examples in point,
_e.g._:--

  16th November, 1557. Heare was before the M{r} and Govˀnors Rychard
  Lynley and he had Lycẽce to sett up hys shoppe and one Johan Coale
  of the Cytie of London Cytizen and Clothwoorcker Deposed that the
  sayd Rychard ys worthe and valued of hys proper owne vj{li} xiij{s}
  iiij{d.}

23rd November, 1557. Licence was granted to William Thomlyn--

  To drawe teethe and to make cleane teethe and no more and he ys so
  admytted a brother into thys howse but not yet sworne and he hathe
  payde x{s} and rest other ten shyllings he wyll brynge in as sowne as
  he can.

  11th January, 1558. The same daye Tyndall y{e} Armorer is dysmyst &
  shall have no more his fee oute of this howse bycawse he gave none
  attendañce whan o{r} soldyers wer sett oute to calyce[143] & John
  gamlyn is admytted armorer & he to have y{e} same fee y{t} tyndall
  had y{t} is to saye by the yere x{s.}

  [143] Calais.

  19th April, 1558. My lady Aylyff gave a fyne table cloth of damaske
  worcke to srv̈e for the uppermost table in the hawle the w{ch} of her
  jentyllness she gave frely unto this hawle.

22nd November, 1558. An order was made against John John that he should
pay 6_s._ to William Bourne for “ij Barbores potts” which he had lost.

1566. The second volume of Court Minutes contains a long list of
“Lawes Actes and Ordenances” enacted by the Court in 1566, but as many
of these are not of sufficient interest to warrant transcribing, the
headings of such will only be given here

  1. An order to avoied grudg or displeasure for the elecc͠on.

This was that no one was to “fynd fault” with the election of Master or
Governors if the persons so elected should at any time be chosen out of
their turn.

  2. An order that solempne service be saied one the day of Elecc͠on.

  Also yt is ordayned that the M{r} and govˀnoures of the saied
  mystery for the tyme beinge yerelye uppon the daye of elecc͠on of
  the newe M{r} and governoures shall cause Devine service solempnely
  to be kepte at the churche therefore to be appoynted. And that the
  whole company of the Clothinge or Lyverye of the said ffellowshippe
  shall pˀsonallye be present at the same yf there be no Lawfull
  and reasonable cause of Absence to be allowed of by the M{r} and
  goveno{rs} of the sayed mysterye uppon payne that whosoevˀ absenteth
  hym self shall for evˀy suche default paye xij{d.} The said service
  to be at the charges of the common Boxe.

  3. An order ffor the allowance of the Dynner one the daye of Elecc͠on.

This directed that £13 6_s._ 8_d._ should be allowed yearly towards the
Election Dinner out of the common box.

  4. An order that y{e} Clothing shall bring home the M{r} & govˀnors
  in their Lyvˀyes.

  Also yt is also ordayned y{t} uppon the day of the Elecc͠on of the
  newe M{r} and governoures of the saied mysterye After that they shall
  be chosen and that suche of them as be present have taken their othe
  that then they and every off them shalbe had home unto their howses
  with the Lyvery or Clothinge and their hoodds uppon their shoulders
  accordinge unto an ould custome heretofore used.

  5. An order howe evˀy man shall behave hym self in the Court tyme.

This relates to the order in which the members of the Court shall speak
upon any debated point; the Master to speak first, the Upper Governor
next, and so on down to the Junior Assistant, and, in the event of the
Court being equally divided, the Master to have the casting vote.

  6. An order that evˀye one of thassistaunce shall come to all courts
  of Assist{s.}

  7. An ordre against the Lettinge out of the Hall.

The Hall was not to be used or let out for “weddings sportes or games
therein or playes or dauncinge or for any other like entente,” but by
permission of the Court.

  8. An ordre that y{e} M{r} and upper governor shall quarterlye take
  accompte of the youngre govˀno{r.}

  9. An order that y{e} younger govˀn{r} shall quartˀly make an
  accompte to the M{r} & upp{r} govˀnor.

  10. An order concernynge the younger govˀnor his receipts & payments
  and to see all repac͠ons[144] done.

  [144] Reparations (of the Company’s houses).

  11. An order concerninge the Secound govˀnors receiptes and payments.

  12. An ordre concernynge y{e} examynac͠on of such as shall be
  admytted Surgeons.

No one was to be examined for admission to practise Surgery but in the
Common Hall, and in the presence of at least three Examiners and one or
more of the Masters or Governors.

  13. An order that everie man of the said company shall abide the
  ordre and award made by the M{r} and governors.

  14. An order that no pacient be brought unto the hall one y{e} Court
  dayes.

  15. An order for chosenge M{rs} and Stewards of thannothomye.

  There shall be chosen yerelye for ever two Masters and twoe Stewardes
  for the Anathomyes and that those twoe whiche were Stewardes the one
  yere shalbe Masters of The Anathomies the nexte yere ensewinge To
  thende that thereby yt maybe bettˀ knowne howe to wourke and make the
  same.

  16. An order concerninge the Anathomyes.

This provided that all anatomies, whether public or private should be
made at the Hall and “that all private Anathomyes shall reverently from
hensforth be buryed as publick Anathomyes ar for the worshippe of the
said mysterye, any skelliton to be made onelye excepted.”

  17. An order that none supplant or take anothers cure from him one
  paine of v{li.}

  18. An order that none take any apprˀntice for Surgerie but that he
  can write & reade.

  19. An order how many sˀvnts evˀy man may kepe.

No liveryman was to keep more than four apprentices or servants working
in his art, and no freeman more than three.

  20. An order that none use eny mann{r} of Barbory on Sundayes.

  Yt is ordayned that none of the said mysterye usinge any manˀ of
  Barberye . . . . . . shall uppon any sondaye shave wasshe poule or
  trymme any manne or w{th} any Instrum{t} to make cleane teeth either
  w{th}in his howsse or in any other place elles where privelye or
  appartlye uppon payne of forfeture of xl{s.}

  21. An order that none doe make any shewe of Barborye one Sonndais or
  other holy days.

This provides that Barbers shall not “hange upp set or put out any
bason or basons pott or potts uppon his poule Racke shoppe windowes or
otherwise” on Sundays or holy days, and is the earliest mention of the
“Barbers’ pole” in our Books.

  22. An order that assistaunts maye be made nevˀ beinge any Governor.

  23. An order that none being out of thassistants com̃ into the pˀlor
  except he be called.

  24. An order that no courte of Assistaunce be houlden one the
  tuesdayes.

Tuesdays were set apart for Lectures and for the ordinary or Monthly
Courts; no reason is given why Courts of Assistants should not be held
on the Tuesdays.

  25. An order for the pˀsentac͠on of apprentices before they be bounde.

Every apprentice was to be presented to the Court that they might
“uppon the sight of him allowe hymme to be cleane in pˀson and Lymme
and meete for the excersycinge of the same mysterye.”

  26. An order that none put away his appˀntice before the cause be
  knowne before y{e} M{r} & govˀnors.

  27. An order that none lett any bloud stand to the annoyaunce of the
  people.

“Barbours excercyseinge fleabothomye or bloud lettinge” were not to
show blood in vessels in their windows.

  28. An order that all pˀsentac͠ons in Surgery shalbe pˀsented to the
  M{r} w{th} his governoures for the tyme beinge.

This order provided that any Surgeon having a patient in peril of
“mayme” or death, was to “present” or make known the case to the
Governors within three days, and the Court would then appoint certain
expert Surgeons to see the patient and assist in the cure. There
are scores of entries in the books of Surgeons being fined for not
“presenting” patients.

  29. An order that none take any pˀsentac͠ons but y{e} M{r} &
  govˀnoures for the tyme beinge.

  30. An order that the M{r} and governoures and their deputies shall
  goe to the poore as well as to the rich.

Any Master or Governor being sent for to see a sick or hurt person and
refusing to go without payment, was to forfeit 20{s.}

  31. An order for puttinge the rules in execuc͠on.

  32. An order for multipliinge speche in the corte tyme.

This was an early form of _closure_ directed against such members of
the Court as were given to an over-indulgence in oratory.

  33. A rule for order in goinge.

Every member of the Company was to take his place according to
precedence, at burials, anniversaries, Courts, etc.:--

  And if anie of them of any scrypulosytie frowardnes follye or
  pusyllanimity refuse to take his owne romme or place accordinge to
  the order in good obedyent manner he was to be fined 12{d.}

  34. An order for the view.

This relates to the yearly inspection of the Company’s property.

  4th March, 1566. In Thys Courte Willm̄ Gyllam was discharged and
  released oute of warde and hath p̃d his arerages and he hathe
  confessied y{t} Richard Bromehed doth shave the vycar of Stepney in
  his howse every sondaye.

4th July, 1566. It was ordained that if any of the Court hereafter
might “happen to lyght or fall into povertie or dekaye” that he should
have a pension out of the Common box. One who had served as Master was
to have per ann. £4; an Upper Governor £3; Second Governor £2; Younger
Governor £1; and an Assistant 13_s._ 4_d._

It was also ordained that Thomas Hall should have an exhibition of
40_s._ per annum--

  towardes hys studye in the unyvercytie for Surgery anexynge physycke
  thereunto, and thereby hereafter to pˀphet his other brethren beynge
  of this sayde mystery and comynaltie usynge and ocupyenge the sayde
  syence & arte w{th}in the cytie of London by Readynge lectures unto
  them in y{e} Comon Hall and other wyse by his councell conynge and
  knowlege in the same science & arte of Surgery.

It was also ordained that whenever the Lord Mayor should invite the
Masters and Governors to dine with him, that--

  then and there after the same dynner ys don The M{r} or govˀnors
  shall make his oracyon or request in the behalf of the sayde Company
  as to hys wysdome yt shall seme best in most descrytest maner and
  shall then geve and delyver unto the sayde Lorde maior of lawful mony
  in golde l{s} and in orther corrant mony iij{s} iiij{d} that is foure
  marks by waye as a good wyll of the same Company.

  ALSO IT YS ORDAYNED That god callyng oute or frome this Trancytory
  vale or worlde any of this saide Company decessed and beynge w{th}in
  the clothing or lyvery of the same, his best hood shalbe layed upon
  the hearse and unto the churche and y{r} upon yt shall so remayne
  untyll the takynge of[145] of the said herce clothe w{ch} is used at
  the goynge forth of the M{r} govˀnors & company of the clothinge oute
  of the churche & the corps goynge to be buryed. And then and y{r} the
  clarke of the saide Company shall take the same hood and [it] shalbe
  his pˀper owne of dewtie. (_In default the widow or executor was to
  pay 6s. 8d._)

  [145] Off.

The Beadle was directed to look after, and to help in removing back to
the Hall, the standings, banners, carpets, etc., after they had been
used on any public occasion, and a small yearly fee was to be allowed
him for this service.

3rd November, 1566. Edward Parke, referred to in the next minute, was
constantly getting into trouble, and sometimes into the Compter:--

  Here was Thomas Lambkyn & John Merryt wytnesses against Edward Parke
  for y{t} he saide he wolde not com̃e to the Courte beynge warned &
  y{t} yf the M{r} com̃ytted hym to warde he wolde brynge the M{r}
  before the lorde cheefe Justice And yt is ordered y{t} the saide
  Parke shall [be] & is upon his humble submyssion remytted.

16th Jan., 1567. The old vellum book of ordinances, etc., containing
portions of the four Gospels in Latin, and still in our possession is
probably the book referred to in the minute of this date, which states
that Willm̄ Grene had “taken an othe upon the blacke booke that serveth
in this howse for the same purpose.”

  13th Nov., 1567. Yt ys ordayned that Wyllyam Bull Chrystofor
  Swalldell William Crowe Wyllyam Grene Henry Rankyn and Leonard Coxe
  is elected to be of the clothyng and Lyvery and that theyre hoods
  shalbe by the M{r} for the tyme beyng put upon theyre shoulders
  w{th}in the pˀlor one Chrystmas day next ensuyng before the company
  go to pawles to weyghte on the lorde mayor, unto the olde usuage in
  that behalf provyded accordyngly.

  27th Jan., 1568. In this court Rich Hughes is graunted to have the
  hall to kepe a maryage in upon Sonday c͠o[146] a sevenighte.

  [146] Come.

Again this year a licence for a similar purpose was granted to Francis
Partridge, and there are other instances.

  18th May, 1568. In this Courte here was Phillip Jorden for trymynge
  on the Sondayes & for now he is forgeven beynge the fyrst tyme.

  13th Oct., 1568. Here was W{m} fferrat for Trymyng upon the Sonday
  but he wyll do yt no more here after.

About this period there were numerous cases of Sunday trading
before the Court, and in many instances the offenders were fined or
imprisoned.

  9th Nov., 1568. In thys Courte here was Rich Roberts and he is
  comanded that he shall agree w{th} this mystery as a brother or ells
  he to shutte up his shoppe and ocupye no more but as a servant upon
  the penallties of the statute.

10th March, 1569. It was ordered:--

  That Richard Wysto for his mysdemeanor and unquyet behaveor and beyng
  a troublesom pˀson, so that the courte of assystents canne neyther
  thincke well or good on hym, therupon and therfore he the saide
  Richard Wysto is relynquyshed depryved and dysmyst of his office
  and yong{r} govˀnorshyp and also fourth of assystents of the saide
  mystery.

Wysto appears from time to time to have given the Court trouble, his
offence on this particular occasion being that he had ordered his
apprentice to let a man blood in the Compter contrary to the order of
the Aldermen. Wysto was contumacious for a long period, but seems on
17th July, 1572, to have made humble submission and apology, whereupon
an order was made “That none do stirre upp any talke consr̃ninge
the deprivac͠on or submyssion of Ric. Wistowe”; he was subsequently
re-admitted on to the Court and served Master 1586, but the animus
against him revived, and on 7th November, 1587, certain parties were
before the Court for reviling him on the old score, and were duly
threatened and admonished as to their future behaviour.

  22nd November, 1569. Here was Phillip Jordan for trymming upon the
  sabboth daye and he once agayne is warned upon the penalltie of the
  acte that he do y{t} hence forwardes no more (see 18th May, 1568).

  10th October, 1570. Margaret y{t} was M{r} Vaughan[147] his mayde is
  graunted to kepe one Sonday her wedyng in the hall & no more.

  [147] George Vaughan, Master 1569.

1568 to 1570. There are several entries in the books of members of the
Court being removed for misbehaviour.

27th January, 1571. It was ordered that--

  a newe Bayle be made to thentent them of the clothing of this
  mysterie maie decentlie stand to attend all soch tymes as it shall
  please the Queenes ma{tie} to come through the citie of London.

The Bayle was a movable stand or platform; there are various notices as
to the one previously in use, having been out of repair. It was taken
out on all great days of processions or triumphs and on Christmas day
when the “lorde maior went to Poules,” and numerous references are also
made to the Company’s banners which accompanied it.

  19th January, 1573. Here was Willm̄ Carrington for havinge iiij
  servaunts one Christmas even and ordre was taken that he should laye
  downe his ffyne.

  15th March, 1573. Here was a question moved concerninge takynge in
  certeyne into the Assystaunce But the howsse would not consent to the
  takinge in of any more for that there were alredye xxviij pˀsones.

  Here was a question moved concernynge the takinge in of certayne
  pˀsons into the clothinge but the house did not think good to take in
  anye for that the nomber is alredy fyftye.

  26th May, 1573. Here was John Johnsonne and brought in his fyne for
  kepinge a foryner uncest xx{d.}

There are frequent entries of freemen being fined for not “cessing”
foreigners and journeymen, and for teaching foreigners their “science.”

It would seem from the following precise minute that commitments to
prison were made by the Court direct, and not always upon Warrants
obtained from the Lord Mayor or a Justice.

  15th March, 1575. Here was one Mˀkes [Markes] servñte w{th} M{r}
  Tholmwood sometyme, sent to the Compter by Willm̄ Eden Clark to this
  misterye for not pˀforming an Awarde made betwene the saide M{r}
  Tholmwood and the saide Mˀkes and divers others stubborne and lewde
  behavio{rs.} The comitte{mt} made by the saide M{r} and Wardens.

  22nd March, 1575. Here was John Clark sessed w{th} Edward Park for
  two yeres to begin at the ffeast of Thannuncˀ of o{r} Ladye next
  viz{t.} the first yeare xxij{s} and a payre of hose, the seconde yere
  xxvj{s} viij{d} a payre of hose and a Capp.

  15th May, 1575. Here was a pˀsept sent by my Lo{r}de maior straitly
  charging and commandinge the companye in her Majesties name that they
  take immediate order that theyr sˀvaunts and app̃ntices nor any of
  them in any wyse or sorte do mysuse annye s̃vyng man page or lackey
  or anye other pˀson that shal goo throwe the streets of this Cittee,
  nor shall attempt anything to the breach of her Ma{ties} peace
  either in wordes acts countenaunce or otherwise at their uttmost
  pˀyll, whereupon all the whole Companye were sent for and had that
  Comaundement.

1577. Thomas Hall (see 4th July, 1566) was appointed an Examiner in
Surgery and to dissect the anatomies for ten years.

There are several instances of exhibitions to sons of freemen
(generally 40_s._ a year), to enable them to study at Oxford and
Cambridge, and these entries extend over a great many years.

  22nd Oct., 1577. Here was M{r} Skarlet the Quenes Bargeman and he
  pˀmised the Companie that they shoulde have a barge called the
  Greyhounde belonging to the maydes of honor for lij{s} iiij{d} yf my
  Lorde maior do go unto westmˀ.

This sum would not of course include the Bargemaster’s or his men’s
fees for their services, or the providing banners, accessories or
attendants, all of which were paid for by the Company in addition.

  23rd July, 1582. At this Coˀte John Yates Thomas Lamkin and Edward
  Parke were dismist from their places and owte of thassistance for
  revelinge of secrets contrarie to a rule in that case pˀvided.

  6th March, 1583. Yt was agreed that whereas a demaunde was made
  by the L. Maio{r} and Co{r}te of Aldermẽ unto o{r} Companie for a
  contribution of certein monie for certeine Landes we hold as the
  saide Corte gave in Certificate of John Johnsons guifte for thuse of
  an obit. The answere was made by the consent of the said Masters that
  this house will joyne w{th} other Companies in the charge accordinge
  to their porc͠ons.

21st Nov., 1583. Mr. Banester, a liveryman, being indebted to the
Company £5, gave a “watche or clock” and it was ordered that his debt
should be cancelled in consideration of this gift.

The following minute refers to the obit for John Johnson (_vide_
6th March, 1583) the property having been declared to be held for
superstitious uses, the Company purchased their right to retain its
possession for £13 6_s._ 8_d._

  5th July, 1585. At this Co{r}te yt was agreed That whereas a Teñte in
  Tower streate belonginge to this house ys founde [to] be concealled
  Landes. That the pattenist should have for agreament to have o{r}
  Teñte surelie the som̃e of xx{tie} markes.

The next is a curious instance of an ancient tenure.

29th Sept., 1586. A lease for 21 years of a house in East Smithfield
was granted to Humphry Rowland at £6 per annum, and the said Humphry
was to--

  deliv{r} and geve unto the saide masters and to suche as shall come
  w{th} them to viewe the said Teñte yerely the nombre of xviij shoing
  hornes franck and ffree.

  14th Aug., 1587. It was also condiscended and agreed That the newe
  masters or governo{rs} of this o{r} Company shall eṽy yeare on the
  daie of o{r} Ellecc͠on of them be brought home to their howses with
  the Levery or some p̃te of them as heretofore hathe ben accustomed
  eṽy one wearinge his hood in decent order.

  6th July, 1592. Certein newe silver booles are to be bought for those
  pˀcell gilt booles w{ch} were the guifte of M{r} Vaughan.

9th February, 1596. It was agreed for “the taking in of the water w{ch}
cometh from the Themes by pipes into this howse.” Heretofore the water
had been supplied from a well, and later on by a leaden “pomp.”

1596. In this year a curious episode occurred, which showed that the
Court were not unwilling to shield their freemen when offending, if
the party taking action against the offender did not belong to the
Company. Four freemen (one being an Assistant) had been “put into”
the Court of Exchequer by “one Holmes an Informer for using both
Barbery and Chirurgery against the Statute,” and the Court, without
troubling to enquire if the offence had been committed or not, ordered
that £10 should be lent the parties to assist them in defending the
suit. At the next Court the matter was much debated as to whether the
Barber-Surgeons should go on with their defence or make terms with the
informer, and the parties themselves were consulted, whereupon it was
finally decided “among themselves to agree w{th} the said Informer
w{ch} they related to the whole Corte, whereupon the Corte rose and
the said pˀties made their owne agreement privately w{th} the saied
Informer to their best likinge.”

10th December, 1596. Mr. Storer came to the Court and agreed with the
Company, by indenture, in consideration of £5 per annum for seven
years, to relieve the Company from all charges in respect of the
provision of grain for serving the market during that period.

  9th June, 1597. This daie one septer or mace and twoe pictures
  latelye and verye loveingelye given to this Companye by William
  Martyn[148] of the Clothinge in token of his love to this house was
  presented to this Courte and verye gratefullye accepted.

  [148] Master 1606.

  This daie one cupp made of an Ostridge Egge or shell and sett in
  silver and guilte given by the laste will and testamente of M{r}
  Thomas Bankes divers tymes M{r} of this Companye was likewise
  presented to this Courte and verye gratefullye accepted.

  15th Jany., 1598. This daie William Clare one of the Lorde Maiors
  serjeantes at mace is chosen officer of this house and where his fee
  to fore was but vj{s} viij{d} per Anñ it is nowe by this Courte uppon
  good consideration augmented to x{s} pˀ Anñ and John Smith in his
  absence is appointed deputye.

The duty of this officer was to attend the Courts of Assistants and to
arrest and convey to the Compter such persons as were committed.

30th Jan., 1598. Nicholas Kellaway, in consideration of his years,
was excused serving the offices of Steward and Master of the Anatomy
and “freelye gave one standinge cup double guilte w{ch} was kindely
accepted.”

14th Aug., 1598. There is under this date an interesting account of the
Election of Master and Wardens; twelve Electors from among the Livery
were appointed:--

  Which electors after they had their chardge given them by the
  Maisters or Governors of this Companye and their severall billes
  for the elecc͠on delivered unto them after longe and deliberate
  considerac͠on had, did electe for the Maister John Leycocke and for
  the upper Governor John Burgis and for the seconde Governor John
  Pecke and for the yongeste Governor Roberte Johnson Which saide John
  Leycocke beinge not then presente the garlande accordinge to the
  manner and custome of this house was by the Maister for the yeare
  paste placed uppon the heade of Mr. Docter Browne as deputye for the
  saide John Leycocke, after which another garlande was likewise placed
  uppon the heede of the saide John Burgis by the upper governor And
  a like garlande tendered to the saide John Pecke which he utterlye
  refused and for the same was fined at ffortye shillinges which fine
  he paid accordinglye likewise a nother garlande was placed by the
  yongeste Governor uppon the heade of the said Roberte Johnson and
  by him gratefullye accepted And the saide Maister Burgis and M{r.}
  Johnson were sworne standinge for the due execuc͠on of their offices.

1598. In the Minute Book commencing 1598 there are scores of cases of
Barbers being fined for working on Sundays; the informant was generally
the Beadle, and it is amusing to note how frequently a delinquent,
after purging himself by a fine, voluntarily took to the office of
Informer against his brother Barbers.

Many Barbers and Surgeons were fined for presuming to “sett up shoppe”
without licence, here is an instance:--

  28th November, 1598. This daye George Collimer appeared before the
  M{rs} of this Companye and had daye till the next court to bringe in
  his fine for openinge his shop w{th}out licence.

  11th December, 1598. This daye Thomas Powell appeared before the
  M{rs} for workinge on the saboth daye and puteth him self uppon his
  tryall, wherefore he is comaunded to attend here the next Court And
  in the meane tyme for his unrevˀent behaviour towards the M{r} is
  comitted to the Compt{r.}

  15th January, 1599. Where divers grudges and manye greate
  inconveniencies have happened amongest suche as have benne familiar
  frendes and brothers of this Societye by the unadvised rashnes of
  some of the Assistance of this Companie whoe have disclosed and
  revealed suche secretes as have bene advisedlye and discretlye for
  the benefit of the said Companye spoken in the courte tyme Contrarye
  to the solempne othes of suche assistanˀ to the greate dishoner of
  god and scandall to the said Companye, ffor reformac͠on whereof it
  is ordered by consente of a full Courte of Assistance That if at any
  tyme hereafter any of the Assistance of this ffelowship shall utter
  or reveale to any other pˀson beinge not Assistante any secretes
  uttered and spoken at any courte which oughte not to be uttered or
  revealed And also if any Elector of the M{r} or Governors for the
  tyme beinge shall at any tyme hereafter utter or reveale any speches
  concerninge the election to any person which oughte not to knowe the
  same suche person soe offendinge and due proffe thereof made, beinge
  of the Assistance shalbe dismissed oute of his place and livery, and
  beinge onlye of the livery shalbe dismissed oute of the liverye.

  Where this house hath a barrel of Gunpowder It is ordered that the
  same be soulde to the beste benifitt of this house.

  30th January, 1599. This daie Edward Downes was comitted to the
  Compter for calleinge villayne before the maisters of the Companye.

  6th February, 1599. It is ordered that John Mullines shalbe comitted
  to the Compter for his disobedience in not payeinge his debte to this
  house.

  17th April, 1599. This daie Michaell Bullocke complayneth of William
  Webbe forren brother for workeinge with Henrye Needeham beinge not
  ceassed with him and for grindeinge of rasares[149] And Needeham is
  to be warned to the nexte Courte.

  [149] Razors.

  8th May, 1599. Marmaduke Jefferson hath till the nexte Courte to
  bring in his fine for hangeinge oute his basones on maye daie.

5th July, 1599. Richard Sprignall, to be excused serving the office of
Master, presented a--

  drinckeinge cupp made of a nutte and garnished with silver and guilte
  which was thankfullye accepted.

  17th July, 1599. This daie William Lacye is Comitted to the Compter
  for his contemptious behaviour towardes the Maisters of the Companye
  and for workinge in the trade of barberie beinge noe freeman.

  24th July, 1599. This daie Richard Samborne complayned of one Phillip
  Winter for settinge upp a shoppe in paules church yarde beinge not
  free. It is ordered that the saide Winter shalbe comitted to prison
  untill he be free, or bounde before my lorde Maior to departe the
  Citye.

  This daie Gabriell Hunte appeared before the Maisters and was
  comitted to prison for workeinge on the sabouth daies.

  30th July, 1599. This daie Thomas Hobbes hath lycence of the Maisters
  to sue Thomas Watson at the Comon lawe for not accomptinge with him
  for iij{li.} due in the tyme of his apprentishipp.

  13th August, 1599. It was further ordered that because this tyme is
  troblesom and to avoyde the evill speches of men, that there shoulde
  go home with the Maister but eighte of the liverye and with the rest
  of the Governors sixe a peece and that withoute their hoodes.

29th May, 1600. It was ordered that two streamers and two banners
should be purchased to garnish the Company’s barge.

  3rd July, 1600. This daye Anthony Millington Esquier Executor to the
  laste Will and Testament of Elizabeth Scoloker deceased payd unto the
  M{rs} viz., M{r} Wood M{r} Dardes & M{r} Martin a legacy of tenne
  poundes by the sayd Elizabeth bequeathed to this Company whereuppon
  it is ordered that there be a Cup made w{th} the same money And that
  her name be ingraven uppon it as a thinge geven by her.

  11th Aug., 1600. Whereas Thomas Cole a verye disobedient and pervers
  brother of this Companye did verye disobedientlie and perversely
  behave himselfe towardes the Maisters or Governors in the presents
  of the Assistants and liverye there assembled And alsoe for that
  hee refused to paie the musicions iiij{d} according to order It is
  ordered by the consent of a full Courte of Assistants and of the
  reste of the assemblie that he be dismissed oute of the liverye of
  this Companye And not to be warned to any assemblies or meetinges in
  other sorte then one[150] of the yeomanrie till it shall please a
  Courte of Assistants at the like tyme to restore him to his former
  place, yet he is to paye his quarterage dulye.

  [150] Than as one.

Thomas Cole reformed his ways, and was subsequently re-admitted to the
Livery.

  4th Nov., 1600. This daye it is ordered that Wheelis dwellinge in
  Longe Lane take downe his basons and make no shewe towardes the
  streete uppon payne to be comitted to the Compter.

  22nd Apl., 1601. This daye where this howse alloweth but v{s} to
  the parson of St. Olaves for his sermon on the Election daye It is
  ordered by this Court that the same be augmented to x{s.}

  5th May, 1601. This daie Henry Eaton uppon warninge appeared before
  the maisters or Governors for keepinge a forren Jorneyman whereuppon
  it was ordered that the said Eaton shoulde put a waie the said
  fforren before the next courte daye.

30th June, 1601. Noah Bayley, a Surgeon, who for two or three years
past had continually been complained of for various offences, and
disagreements with patients and apprentices, came at last to grief, for
having--

  not onely abused M{r} Warden Thorney w{th} reprochefull & slanderous
  speeches but also M{r} Mapes and M{r} ffenton twoe of the assistants
  of this Company making mowes[151] and mockinge them as they sate
  in the Courte in contempt of the said Court it was ordered that
  hee therefore shalbe comitted to the Compter uppon the Lo: Maiors
  commaundement for example of oth{rs.}

  [151] Mouths.

  22nd September, 1601. This daye Richard Higgins was committed to the
  Compter by the M{rs} uppon the Lo: Maiors commaundm{t} for refuseinge
  to paye his fine for his absence from the hall at the daye of
  gen{r}all Rules.

  This day Thomas Allen[152] was fined for his absence from the said
  rules.

  [152] First Master of Dulwich College.

  6th October, 1601. This daye it was ordered that Will{m} Braye for
  certayne speeches & for his misbehaviour towards M{r} Warden Atmer
  should be pˀsently comitted to the Compter, of w{ch} imprisonm{t} at
  his humble suite and uppon his submission to the said M{r} Atm{r} hee
  was dischardged of his said imprisonm{t.}

  10th October, 1601. This daye Will{m} Deepeinge Owin Jones and Edward
  Waterhowse were appoynted for three of the wiflers for the yere
  ensuinge.

A committee was ordered to meet at “Mˀcers Chappell by sixe of the
Clock in the morninge to viewe the repac͠ons of the howses belonginge
to this Company.” How many members of the Court would _now_ attend at
6 a.m. in chill October?

  27th October, 1601. This daye it is ordered that the M{rs} of this
  Company & also M{r} Bird M{r} Wood M{r} John Izard Thomas Thorney
  William Martin & John Gerrard[153] be warned to meete on ffrydaye
  next by sixe of the clock in the morninge to goe on serch accordinge
  to custome.

  [153] The celebrated herbalist.

  23rd February, 1602. This daye it is ordered that Richard Jackson a
  brother of this Company shall be committed to the Compt{r} for not
  appearinge before the M{rs} uppon warninge to answer the complaint of
  Edward Bird his apprentice.

  22nd March, 1602. This daye it is ordered that John Rea Strang{r}
  shall be committed to the Compter for settinge out his billes[154]
  uppon the gates & oth{r} places in the Cytie contrary to his
  tollerac͠on.

  [154] Probably quack doctor’s advertisements.

  30th March, 1602. This daye it is ordered that M{r} Warden ffrederick
  M{r} Thorney M{r} Will{m} Martin M{r} John Peck M{r} Gerrard[153] &
  M{r} ffenton shall meate on ffrydaye next by eyghte of the clock in
  the morninge at Lyon Key to goe from thence to my Lord Admirall[155]
  to complayne against Robert Derham for his contempt in refusinge her
  Mat{s} imprest.

  [155] The Earl of Nottingham, at Greenwich.

  13th April, 1602. This daye Robert Durham (Derham) appeared before
  the M{rs} of this Company of his owne voluntary And it was by this
  Courte ordered that for his sevˀall contempts of this Company aswel
  in their serch as in their prest hee should bee committed to the
  Compt{r} uppon the Lord Maiors Commaundem{t} whereuppon hee was sent
  to the Compter But at the speciall instance and request of one M{r}
  Meredith and M{r} Morgan twoe of the said Derhams ffrendes hee was
  sent for back agayne and uppon his humble submission & intreaty hee
  was dischardged of his imprisonment And thereuppon did promise to be
  obedient to this Company at all tymes hereaft{r.}

  24th November, 1602. This daye it is ordered by the M{rs} or
  Governors of this Company that Robert Redhead one of the Lord Maiors
  officers shalbe officer to this Company as aft{r} the decease of
  Will{m} Clare And to have such fee for the same as the said Willm̄
  Clare held the same And also hee is to be confirmed in the same place
  by the next court of Assistance.

  20th March, 1604. This daye it is ordered that on thursdaye next
  the M{rs} of this Company shall attend the Lord Maior to knowe his
  pleasure concerninge their places of standinges.

The Masters on this occasion procured an order of the Court of Aldermen
ranking the Company as sixteenth in order of precedence, and this is
set forth in the Minute Book as follows:--

      17th April, 1604. ~A Copie~ of an order of Courte set downe the
      daye and yere hereaft{r} expressed concerninge the place of this
      Company in all assemblies of the Companyes of this Cytie.

       *       *       *       *       *

  ~Martis~ decimo septimo die Aprilis 1604 Annoqʒ regni Dñi nr̃i Jacobi
  Regis Anglie &c sc̃do.

  BENNET } Soane Garrard Lee Hollydaye Wattes Rowe Craven Anderson
  MAIOR  } Swynerton Hayes ac Romney uñ vĩc &c.

  ~Where~ it appeareth to this Court aswell by the humble supplicac͠on
  of the Maisters or Govˀnors of the Mistery & Coiãltye of Barbors and
  Chirurgeons of this Cytie as by an ord{r} taken by the same Courte
  the fowerth daye of ffebruary in the tyme of the Maioraltie of S{r}
  Stephen Peacock knighte and in the fower and twenteth yere of the
  reigne of the Late Kinge of famous memory Kinge Henry the eight That
  the M{rs} or Governors of the said mistery & Coiãlty of Barbors
  & Chirurgeons & their pˀdecessors in the order of their goinges
  standinges rydinges sittinges & oth{r} assemblies of the livˀyes
  of the sevˀall Companyes of this ho: Cytie have bene alwayes tyme
  oute of mynde reputed taken & placed as the seaventeneth Company
  amongest oth{rs} the sevˀall Companyes of this Cytie next & imediatly
  from & aft{r} the Company of Mercers Grocers Drapˀs ffishemongers
  Goldsmythes Skinners Marchaunttaylors Haberdashers Salters Iremongers
  Vinteners Stockfishmongers Clothworkers Brewers Lethersellers and
  Pewterers And forasmuch as it doth likewise appeare to this Co{r}te
  that sythens the makeinge and establisheinge of the said order the
  said M{rs} or Governo{rs} of the said Mistery and Coiãltie of Barbors
  and Surgeons have enjoyed the Benifit of the said order and borne
  all chardges taxes and contribuc͠ons whatsoevˀ imposed on them from
  tyme to tyme w{th} credytt to the good likinge of the Magistrats
  and Governors of this Cyttie as well as other Companies of like
  sorte and State have done And yett notw{th}standing of late at the
  Royall passages of the Kinge and Queenes most exelent Ma{ties} and
  the prince of wales attended by the Nobilitie and gentry of the land
  through this Cyttie on the fifteenth daie of March last when through
  ignorance theie were misplaced by the Comittie appoynted by this
  Cyttie for the mannaginge of those affaires. It is therefore this
  daie upon due considerac͠on had of the pˀmisses, and for that the
  said Company of Stockfyshmongers have bene since the tyme of the said
  order wholelie dissolved and abrogated and noe Company or Corporac͠on
  remayninge w{th}in this Cyttie of that name, ordered and decreed
  that the said M{rs} or Governors of the said Misterie and Coiãltie
  of Barbors and Surgeons shalbe from henceforth reputed taken and
  placed as the syxeteenth Companie w{th}in this Cyttie in all theire
  goeings rydinges sytteinges standeinges and assemblies whatsoever,
  any misplaceinge of them on the said fifteeẽth daie of March last to
  the contrary notw{th}standinge.

                                                       SEBRIGHT.

  22nd May, 1604. This daie it is ordered that from henceforth the
  Clark of this Companie shall against evˀy Courte daie bestowe iiij{d}
  in hearbes and flowers.

  12th June, 1604. This daye Will{m} Wrighte a very disobedyent
  Broth{r} of this Company was accordinge to the Rules of this howse
  fined at vj{s} viij{d} for callinge the officers of this howse knaves
  and for other his lewde & disobedient behaviour and is to bringe it
  into this Court on tewsedaye next.

8th November, 1604. Mr. Thomas Goodall and Mr. Kellaway were each fined
10_s._ “for not riedinge w{th} the M{rs} when the kinge came through
the city” (probably in March last).

[Illustration: FAC-SIMILE TITLE-PAGE OF CHARTER-BOOK.]

  5th February, 1605. This daye Marcus Davie appeared before the
  M{rs} and was rebuked for shewinge the Copie of õr Chr̃e[156] to a
  Scrivener.

  [156] Charter.

  28th February, 1605. This daye it is ordered that the numb{r} of 16
  pˀsons of the Assistance of this Company shalbe accompted a full
  Court of Assistance.

It was also ordered that a “fayre parchem{t} booke” be bought for
engrossing therein the Charters of the Company; this book is still in
our possession.

  28th February, 1605. This daye M{r} Warden ffrederick made request to
  have a Deputie to supplie his place and office of upper warden and
  to sit in his place till his retorne from Spayne whith{r} the saide
  M{r} ffrederick is bounde And alsoe to kepe his keyes whereuppon it
  was ordered that he should make choyce of any sufficient man of the
  Assistantꝭ to keepe his keyes in his absens if hee pleased. But it
  was denyed that any should sit in his place as deputy.

Christopher Frederick was Serjeant-Surgeon to the King, and father of
Sir John Frederick, Lord Mayor in 1661. He was of alien birth and did
not work harmoniously with the Court of Assistants. In _Repertory_
xxvii. fo. 117 (at Guildhall), is an order of the Court of Aldermen
that Sir Thomas Garrard and four other Aldermen were to call the
Master and Wardens and Mr. Frederick before them and to end their
controversies (which, however, they did not succeed in doing).

21st March, 1605. Mr. Frederick brought a letter to the Court from
the Earl of Nottingham, saying it was the King’s pleasure that Mr.
Frederick should appoint a deputy to act as Warden in his place, whilst
he was away with the King in Spain, but the Court adhered to its
decision of 28th February.

  This daye M{r} Warden ffrederick pˀsented to this Court a letter
  wrytten to the M{rs} or Governors & Assistants of this Company the
  contents thereof hereafter ensueth, viz{t.}:

  Aft{r} my very hearty commendac͠ons I have thoughte good to signifie
  unto you his Ma{ties} pleasure That I should have to attend me in
  this my ambassage into Spayne Mr. Xpõfer ffrederick one of the nowe
  Governors of yo{r} Company w{ch} by reason of the place hee bereth
  amongest you can hardely be spared nevertheles because the necessytie
  of the service urgeth the same It is thought fit by his Ma{tie} that
  hee shall noĩat and appoynt such a sufficient man to execute his
  place in his absens as formˀly hath borne that office, wherefore I
  doubt not but you will admitt and allowe of such a one as for that
  purpose hee shall noĩat to sit in his absens as his deputy who shalbe
  answerable for all matt{s} as if M{r} ffrederick were there himself
  So to continue eyth{r} untill the tyme of the yere that you make
  choyce of some other pˀsone fit for the same or M{r} ffrederickꝭ
  retorne oute of Spayne w{ch} shall first happen, of whose ready care
  to satisfie the Kinges expectac͠on and my desyre I dowbte not And
  evenso I bid you righte hartely farewell. ffrom Arnedell howse the
  ix{th} of March 1604.[157]

  [157] 160-4/5.

                     Yo{r} very lovinge frend

                               Notingham[158]

      I do praye you that Will{m} Martin be
      excepted[159] in his place till M{r}
      ffrederickꝭ retorne          Notingham

  [158] Lord High Admiral.
  [159] Accepted.

  26th March, 1605. This daye M{r} James Hodson one of the tenaunts of
  this Company accordinge to an order of a Court of Assisstance payd to
  the M{rs} his fyne of L{li} for his lease And had lycence graunted
  unto him to demyse the tenement w{ch} hee holdeth of this Company or
  any pt̃e thereof And did pˀmise to geve unto this howse one hogshead
  of clarret wyne when it should for the use of this howse be called
  for & demaunded.

  9th April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Humfrey Gorston bringe
  in his fyne at the next Courte for teachinge of a forren his Art.

  16th April, 1605. This daye Stephen Abraham was commaunded [to] geve
  over his keepinge a barbors shop in Phillip Lane untill hee shalbe
  made free of this Company uppon payne of imprisonment.

  23rd April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Stephen Abraham be
  committed to the Compter for contempt of the M{rs} order heretofore
  set downe.

Abraham must have instantly obeyed the order, and shut up his shop in
Phillip Lane, and directly afterwards have opened another in Finch
Lane, for we read:--

  30th April, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Stephen Abraham shall
  take downe his basons and geve over his shop in ffynch Lane and shall
  continue w{th} his mr̃is mr̃is Smyth orels to be committed to prison.

  24th May, 1605. fforasmuch as Mathew Peele a broth{r} of this Company
  hath delt underhand w{th} the tenante in possession of the howse
  where in one Edward Sares lately dwelt at Dowgate, makinge the tenant
  to beleeve that hee the sayd Mathew Peele had a lease graunted unto
  him from this howse of the same and pˀffered to sell the same to the
  said tenaunt where there is no such thinge to him graunted. It is
  therefore ordered that an order made the xviij{th} of March whereby
  it was determyned that the sayd Mathew Peele should have the first
  pˀffer of the next tenem{t} that should fall voyde of this Company
  better cheape by x{li} then any oth{r} pˀson shalbe voyde & of none
  effect to all intents & constructions.

  11th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Willm̄ Wrighte shalbe
  committed to the Compter for abuseinge the late M{rs} of this Company.

  25th June, 1605. This daye John Crispe dwellinge in St. Martins
  Barbor is dischardged from kepeinge a shop.

  12th September, 1605. This day it was agreed that the pˀnte M{rs}
  shall pˀceed to build againe the wall latelie taken downe betwixt
  o{r} yard and the Bulwark w{th} Brick only And the same to be
  correspondent to the reste of the bricke wall of the said yard In
  which wall they are to cause to be made and placed such and so many
  convenient wyndowes w{th} lettice and casementꝭ as they shall thincke
  fitt. And it is further agreed by the consent of the Court that they
  shall proceed w{th} the worcke now in hand for the erectinge of a
  steyre and steyrecase to be made to passe through the pˀlor into the
  said Bullwarke or garden plott And the same to be finished and done
  in such mannˀ and forme as the said M{rs} shall thincke fitt And also
  shall repaire and amend the defectꝭ of the wainscott in the said
  pˀlor where need shall require. And that such chardges shalbe borne
  by this house as shalbe in that behalf disburssed.

  26th September, 1605. This day M{r} Nicholas Collins is chosen to be
  of Councell w{th} this Company and is to have a fee of xl{s} pˀ añn.
  and is to continue in the same place so longe as it shall please the
  Assistantꝭ of the same Company.

  1st October, 1605. This day William Gravenor was fined for hanginge
  out of his basons on Bartholomew day And also Humphry Gorston.

  This day there was redd to this Court a lrẽ directed from Doctor
  Browne to the said court importinge that Christopher ffredricke was
  as forward in his advice as in his Assistaunce in the cuttinge of
  S{r} Anthony Cooke as M{r} ffenton was.

About the year 1605 the Court were at law with Mr. Frederick as appears
by the Wardens’ accounts, though there is no reference to the subject
of the dispute in the Minutes, beyond the above reference to a surgical
operation performed on Sir A. Cooke, and the controversy about the
Deputy Warden when Mr. Frederick went to Spain. Mr. Frederick was alien
born, and the following order, without doubt, had a reference to this
circumstance:--

  10th October, 1605. This day it is ordered that from henceforth no
  Alien or stranger borne out of his Matꝭ dominions shall hereafter be
  capable or eligible to beare or take upon him any place or places or
  office of a M{r} or Governour of this Company And that an ordinaunce
  shalbe pˀntlie drawne to such purpose if by o{r} Councell wee shalbe
  advised so to doe.

The above order was rescinded 21st July, 1608.

  8th October, 1605. This day Thomas Emerie William ffarris John Heydon
  John Burrowes Roger Brecknocke John Hullins Wyddow Turner widdow
  Eaton John Phillipps and Robert Samme were fined for workinge upon
  last Saboth.

  10th October, 1605. This day it is ordered by this Courte that
  the reparac͠ons of the Citties wall next to the Bullwark shalbe
  accomplished and done according as the pˀnte M{rs} or Governo{rs} of
  this Company shall thincke fitt And all charges therein disburssed
  shalbe borne by this house.

  7th November, 1605. It is also ordered that the pˀnte M{rs} or
  Governors of this Company shall if they cann bargaine w{th} the Ladie
  Windsor for the glasse in the wyndowes of the Bulwark And for such
  other thingꝭ as are by her Ladishipp to be sold and to give such
  Composition for the same as they in their discretions shall thincke
  fitt.

  This day it is ordered that the youngest Governo{r} Rento{r} doe
  cause all needful and necessarie repˀac͠ons to be done upon such
  tenemtꝭ as ought to be repaired by this Company And also shall cause
  the privit hedge in the garden next the Bullwark to be taken up and
  the ground to be leveled and another hedge to be planted and sett all
  alonge from the further end of o{r} new bricke wall to the furthest
  corner of that garden.

  19th November, 1605. This day it is ordered that the M{rs} of this
  Company togeather w{th} M{r} Bird M{r} Wood M{r} John Martin and M{r}
  Mapes are to goe in search on satterday and upon munday next And they
  are to meete in Powles.[160]

  [160] St. Paul s.

  28th Nov., 1605. This day it is ordeyned that o{r} M{r} shall
  compound with some Baker to pˀvide for this Company 50 quarte{rs} of
  good wheate at such yearelie rate and for such tyme as they can agree
  And he to be Baker to the house so longe as he behave himself well.

One Will{m.} Clifton was on 17th December following appointed Baker,
and agreed to find 50 quarters of wheat for £5 per annum.

  28th January, 1606. This day John ffoxe a forren Barbor appeared
  before the M{rs} and was by them forbidden to keepe shopp in London
  any more for Barbinge or Surgery, And he pˀmissed that he would not.

  16th June, 1606. In the controvˀsie betwixt Thomas Orton & ffrauncꝭ
  Holland It is ordered that the said Orton proceed not in suite of law
  against the said Holland otherwise then by takeinge the peace of him
  till the next Court Att w{ch} tyme the said Holland is comaunded by
  this Court to bringe in his fine of xl{s} for strikinge of him the
  said Orton. And the said Orton is to geve his attendaunce at that
  Courte.

  14th July, 1606. This day uppon the suite of the pˀson and
  pˀishione{rs} of St. Olaves in Silver Street It was ordered by this
  Court that at such tyme as the now church of the said pĩsh shal begin
  to be reedified beinge now in great decay and fallen into ruyn That
  then the M{rs} or governou{rs} of this Company for the tyme beinge
  shall of the stocke of the said Company pay to the then church
  wardens of the said pĩsh the somme of x{li} towardꝭ the reedifiẽg of
  the said Church w{th}out makinge further suite for the same.

Several liverymen were complained of for not having attended in their
liveries of late, and among other notes is the following:--

  14th July, 1606. This day Henry Bradley one fferris and Henry Bracey
  are dismissed out of the Clothinge and Assistaunce of this Company
  for they have not given their attendaunce in their liveryes uppon
  summons.

  8th September, 1606. This daie Mr. Peck did lend voluntary to this
  howse L gratis for a yeare next ensueinge.

  This daie M{r} ffenton did lend C{li} gratis to this Company for a
  yeare next ensueinge Also he did lend to this Company L{li} more for
  a yere at x{li} pˀ cent.

  23rd September, 1606. This day it is ordered that Percivall Jackson
  shalbe comitted to the Compter for his severall Contemptꝭ to this
  howse.

  30th September, 1606. This daie Percivall Jackson was dischardged out
  of prison upon his mothers intreatie. And is to bring in his debt to
  Burrowes at the next Court.

  7th October, 1606. This daie John Hedlow paid to the M{rs} vj{s}
  viij{d} w{ch} by them was tofore paid to officers w{ch} attended to
  committ the said Hedlow for his severall contemptꝭ to this howse.

13th October, 1606. Percivall Jackson was again committed to the
Compter for his “severall contemptꝭ.”

  4th November, 1606. This daie John Kerrell Richard Cade & Richard
  Houlden were fyned for being absent from the funerall of M{r}
  ffyneinge.

  10th March, 1607. This daie Thomas Grig was fyned at xii{d} for not
  wearinge his Cap on Candlemas daie last.

19th September, 1607. The Clerk’s child having died of the plague, and
being carried through the gate of the Hall, an order came from the
Lord Mayor commanding the Court not to sit for 28 days, and it was
thereupon ordered that the Courts should sit at Mr. Fenton’s house in
Bartholomew’s Court during that period.

  This daye it is ordered that Carehills wyef be warned to the hall
  against the next Court for keepinge of twoe shoppes of Barbinge
  w{th}out Bisshoppesgate.

  8th October, 1607. This daye it is ordered by this Courte uppon due
  considerac͠on had That from henceforth the M{rs} or Governors of this
  Company every yere yerely shall geve to the Recorder of this Cytie
  a yerely fee of money oute of the stock of this Company at their
  pleasures so that it exceede not the somme of iiij{li.}

It was ordered that no liveryman should henceforth--

  attend in his lyvery and w{th}out a ruffe band uppon payne of xij{d}
  for evˀy offence.

  3rd November, 1607. This daye uppon the humble suite of one wydowe
  Burrows shee is admitted to keepe her Barbors shop where shee now
  dothe for 2 yeres next ensuinge not w{th}standinge that w{th}in the
  said tyme shee mary an husbond of any oth{r} trade.

  1st December, 1607. This daye Thomas Allen[161] and James Mullins
  were fined for wearinge of falleinge bands w{th} their livˀy gownes.

  [161] The first Master of Dulwich College.

  21st January, 1608. This daye it is ordered that . . . . Braye [be
  appointed] Informer to pˀsecute suites by informac͠on against such
  pˀsons as the pˀnt Masters shall noĩat for one yere next ensuinge at
  the chardgꝭ of this howse And hee is to have tenne poundes for his
  paynes therein.

27th January, 1608. Five of the Company were fined for not being at the
funeral of Mistress Izard in their liveries.

  5th April, 1608. This daye lycence is geeven to Will{m} Buckley to
  arrest John Dodd breakeinge his wyndowes.

  21st July, 1608. This daye it was thought fit that the pˀnt
  Assistantꝭ showld sit in Court w{th}out their Gownes for that the
  weath{r} is hot.

  It is ordered that the laste quarters penc͠on due to John a Lee
  lately deceased shalbe paid to the poore woman w{ch} kept him in his
  sicknes.

At almost every Court, charities in sums varying from 2{s} to 40{s}
were given to poor members for their relief, or to the widows of
former members, and in many cases yearly annuities were granted out of
the stock of the house, independent of the Trust charities distributed
by the Court.

  14th February, 1609. This daye John Stubbes one of my lord maiors
  officers is appoynted a Serjeant to this Company.

  27th June, 1609. This daye it is ordered that George Dugdale shall
  before Michaelmas next paye to Thomas Shephard v{s} w{ch} hee oweth
  him ORELS to be Committed to the Compter.

  6th July, 1609. This daye Roger Rayney Marchaunt tayler is elected
  & chosen Butler to this howse so longe as hee shall well & honestly
  behave himself therein And is to have all such fees and allowances as
  to his said place or office are incedent or belongeinge Provided hee
  enter into bond to the M{rs} of this Company w{th} sufficient surety
  w{th} Condic͠on to make good to this howse all such plate linen &
  oth{r} thingꝭ as shalbe committed to his chardge by the M{rs} of this
  Company the Stewardꝭ of the Maiors feast The Maisters or Stewardꝭ of
  the Anathomy or Wardens of the Yomanry.

  This daye uppon the due examinac͠on of sevˀall abuses & misbehaviours
  comitted by Thomas Goodale on of the Assistantꝭ of this Company
  towardꝭ Mr. Edward Rodes maister of this Company wrongefully
  chardgeinge him w{th} injustice before the wholl Courte And for
  oth{r} his misdemeanures hee is by the wholl Consent of this Court
  dismissed oute of the Assistance of this Company.

  26th July, 1609. Whereas heretofore it hath byn observed for a
  rule and customary order that the M{rs} of the Company to whom the
  Electo{rs} on the Election day before dyñn should deliver the names
  of such pˀsons who were at such tyme elected M{rs} of the Company for
  the yeare insuinge, should not give any notice to any new M{r} so
  elected before the garland should be put upon his head, it was now
  thought fit that that rule should be put on one side, and that those
  chosen should be at once informed of their Election that they may
  make pˀvision for the entertaynement of the livery, etc.

  10th August, 1609. This day Richard Browne was admitted Armorer to
  the Company and to have p̃. anñ. xiij{s} iiij{d} and he to have a
  speciall care to keepe the Armour in repac͠ons and to be therefore
  paid by the Rentor warden for the tyme beinge.

  This day Mr. John Leacocke[162] contemptuoslie depˀted out of the
  Courte w{th}out licence of the M{rs} or of any of them And albeit
  he was required by the Clarke by the comand of the M{rs} to come
  into the Courte beinge depˀted out of the hall, he answered that he
  would not come againe Therefore it is ordred by this Courte that he
  shall pay his fine of iij{s} iiij{d} for depˀtinge the Court without
  the M{rs} licence And if he refused to pay the said iij{s} iiij{d}
  then the som̃e of xl{s} is by this Courte ordred to be assessed and
  ymposed upon him w{ch} if he shall likewise refuse to pay then he is
  by this Court dismissed out of the Assistaunce ipso facto.

  [162] Master in 1604.

Mr. Leacocke submitted and paid his fine 26th September, 1609.

21st August, 1609. In answer to a precept from the Lord Mayor, a
certificate was sent to his Lordship that there were remaining of the
50 quarters of wheat wherewith the Company was charged, 20 quarters,
and that the remainder had been sold in the Markets according to former
precepts.

19th October, 1609. It was ordered that:--

  no M{r} or govˀno{r} of this Company shall from henceforth have power
  or authority in them or any of them to sell morgage or ympawne the
  fower pieces of Tapistry hangingꝭ or any of them w{ch} were bought
  for the use and creditt of this house.

  9th January, 1610. Att this Courte Henry Jones paid vj{d} to the
  pore’s box for hanginge out his basons one Twelveth day last.

  6th March, 1610. Att this Courte it is ordered that Thomas Burgis
  shall at the next Tusedayes Courte pay unto the widdow Burrowes his
  late M{ris} iiij{s} for that he hath broken her Combes and Sise{rs.}

  21st March, 1610. Att this Court it is ordered that the wyddow
  Saunde{rs} shall no longer reteyne in her service one Allexander
  ffarrington uppon payne that if shee doe her basons shalbe taken
  downe & she comitted to the Compter.

  8th May, 1610. At this Court it is ordered that Pyramus Porter shall
  be pnˀtely discharged out of Prison being layd in by Richard Gessell
  for that Porter was layd in w{th}out the M{rs} Consentꝭ.

Porter was Gessell’s apprentice, and their disagreements had been
before the Court on a previous occasion.

20th August, 1610. Mr. William Gale (who had been Master, 1595) was
elected Master; he was an eminent Surgeon but, dying on 19th November,
1610, was succeeded in his office by Mr. John Peck (who had been Master
in 1605). Mr. Gale was buried at Monken Hadley, in the chancel of which
church may still be seen in the floor on the North side of the Altar,
a brass with an inscription to his memory, and two brasses with the
effigies of his sons and daughters. There were formerly brasses of the
effigies of William Gale and his two wives, but they have unfortunately
been removed.

The arms of Gale (as appearing on his son’s brass in Monken Hadley
Church) Az. on a fesse betw. three saltires ar. as many lyons’ heads
era. of the field langued gules.[163]

[163] The tinctures are from Burke’s Armory.

  20th September, 1610. Att this Court a motion being proposed by the
  present M{rs} to thentent to bringe the howse out of debt, w{ch}
  cannot be soddenly effected except the Assistauntꝭ of this board
  shall of their owne free willꝭ by their pˀticuler free guiftꝭ or
  other wise by the voluntary free loane of money to this howse for
  a certayne tyme, be assistinge And thereupon M{r} Warden ffenton
  declared that o{r} M{r} was contented towardꝭ soe good an acc͠on to
  gyve freely xx{li} and M{r} Warden ffenton vj{li} xiij{s} iiij{d}
  M{r} Warden Veare iij{li} vj{s} viij{d} M{r} Warden Hassald xl{s} And
  demaundinge of the residue of the bord what they would gyve, M{r}
  Wood he would gyve x{li} if the howse will renewe his lease, M{r}
  Sˀjaunt Goodorus would thinck of itt, M{r} Leycock M{r} Thorney M{r}
  Gerard M{r} Rodes & M{r} ffrederick would doe the lick M{r} Thomas
  Martyn would gyve xx{s} M{r} Isard vj{s} viij{d} M{r} Mapes would
  gyve xl{s} M{r} Johnson M{r} ffoster M{r} Ingolsby & M{r} Coghill
  they would doe as others in their Ranck would doe. M{r} Cook would
  gyve xxxiij{s} iiij{d.}

  16th October, 1610. Att this Court It is agreed that one Henry
  Pullyard a Drummer shalbe admitted to be the Drummer to this howse
  And he is to have for evˀy dayes service that he shall serve as a
  Drummer to this Company on the lord Mayors daie the some of xiij{s}
  iiij{d.}

  20th November, 1610. Att this Court ytt is ordered that William Jones
  shall bringe in the next Tuesdaye Cort xx{s} for a ffyne for keeping
  two shoppes.

22nd November, 1610. Roger Joanes, a Waterman, was appointed Bargeman
with a yearly fee of 20_s._, and was in consideration thereof to find
a Barge with “all thingꝭ therein and therewith fittinge” whenever the
Company should require the same for £3 on each occasion.

  11th June, 1611. Itt is likewise ordered that the Clothworker w{ch}
  practizeth Barberye about Thames Street if he be found workinge, that
  then he shalbe comitted to the Compter.

  18th July, 1611. At this Court upon the humble suite of Edward
  Handsome it was thought fitt & decreed that he should first agree
  w{th} the Informer, w{ch} being done come & make his suite to this
  house at some Court of Assistantꝭ and then he shoulde knowne & fynd
  howe kyndlye they would deale w{th} him.

  8th October, 1611. At this Court John Scott was ffyned at vj{s}
  viij{d} for refuseinge to holde the place of a whiffler.

  4th May, 1613. At this Court Henry Clawes came before the M{rs} and
  by them is pˀhibited and forbidden to keepe a Barbo{rs} shopp or
  deale any more in surgery for that he is noe denizen.

22nd August, 1614. It was ordered that in future, any liveryman being
called to the Court should pay a fine of five marks. It does not appear
that before this time a fine had been taken on like occasions.

By an entry about this date, it seems that when a “foreigner” was
admitted to the livery he paid £5 for yeomanry and £5 for livery fines
in one payment.

  30th March, 1615. At this Court it is further ordered that the new
  Ryver water shalbe taken into this howse so as it maie be had for
  30{s} fyne & 30{s} pˀ anñ in rent.

6th July, 1615. The hall, which was in “great decay,” was ordered to be
viewed by a Committee of the Court, as to its restoration.

  11th November, 1615. At this Court our M{r} acquayntinge them how
  unfortunatlie it hath happened that the Hall on Tewsdaie night last
  beinge 7 November was broken open & what losse the howse susteyned
  thereby. Whereupon it was then presentlie considered and then ordered
  that a present course be taken for the spedie repaieringe of the
  howse & tresory howse and that the same shalbe forthwith stronglie
  borded & made up at the charges of the howse. And for this purpose
  this Court did noĩate the p’nte M{r} together with M{r} Peck M{r}
  ffenton M{r} Martyn & M{r} ffoster for to be Comittees for the well
  orderinge & appoyntinge of the workmen to doe & finish this worke as
  in their discretions shalbe thought mete. And what the Comittees or
  anie three or two of them shall thinke fittinge to be done this howse
  will rate for & allow of as also of the charge to be borne by this
  howse.

  Note That the xj{th} daie of November Thomas Lyne confessed how he
  was the plotter for the Robbinge of o{r} Hall and how o{r} plate was
  Carried to Westmˀ & our monie was devided amongst the theves who were
  these Thomas Jones Nicholas Sames & Walter ffoster wc̃h did break
  open the Hall, whereupon the Clarke haveinge order from o{r} M{r}
  went to Westmˀ & upon search there made found our plate locked up
  in a trunke in the howse of one ... a shoemaker xj{li} xviij{s} of
  the monie M{r} Warden Coopˀ found the same daie in the howse of one
  ffulses in Fleete Street. About the xvj{th} of Nov. then followinge
  Thomas Jones was taken who beinge brought to Newgate in December
  followinge Jones & Lyne were both executed for this fact.

  In January followinge Sames was taken & executed. In April 1616
  ffoster was taken & executed. Now letts pray God to blesse this howse
  ever from any more of these damigees. Amen.

  13th December, 1615. At this Court was gyven unto the officers in
  regard of their paynes taken in apprehendinge the theves & obteyninge
  our plate 5{li} that is to the Clarke 40{s} & 30{s} a peice to the
  beadell & Porter.

  30th June, 1617. At this Court is gyven unto the weif of John Davis a
  fre brother who lieth in prison x{s.}

  27th January, 1618. Upon the humble petic͠on unto this Companie
  preferred by Thomas Shaw a pore brother of this Companie & now
  lyeinge in Ludgate thereby sueing for some releife to discharge him
  out of prison. It is therefore ordered by this Court that if the some
  of 30{s} will discharge him out of prison it shalbe disbursed out of
  the stock of this howse.

  20th September, 1622. At this Court is gyven to Susan the Clarkꝭ
  mayde towardꝭ her marriage 40{s} in gratuity.

  At this Court it is ordered that Jones the Waterman shall have for
  the hier of our barge against the lord Maio{rs} day fower poundꝭ So
  as it is a large barge will hold the hole lyvery And to worke w{th} 7
  or 8 oweis.[164]

  [164] Oars.

  31st January, 1625. It is straightly ordered by this Courte that the
  pˀnte M{rs} or Governo{rs} and their successors shall take speciall
  care to comence and prosecute any suite by lawe against any ignorant
  imposters or other pˀsons exerciseing the arte of Chirurgery aboute
  this Cittie not free of this Companye & alsoe such as shall keepe
  shoppes for barbery within this Cittye being free of other Companies
  & not of ours.

  19th January, 1626. This daye John Mills and George Roades are chosen
  to be of our Assistants for Barbars and Henry Blackley and Peter
  Thorney for Surgions.

  Item this Courte takeing into their considerac͠ons the fewnes of our
  Livery many of them being lately dead by reason of the late greate
  visitac͠on doe elect and choose John Pinder Edward Charley Edward
  ffleete Robert Clarke Samuell Dye and Lewis Gossidge to be of the
  Clothing of our Companye.

  15th February, 1626. At this Courte it is ordered that William
  Kellett do bring in his fine of vj{s} viij{d} at the next Courte
  for his unseemely carriage and vile language to Walter Preist being
  contrary to the ordinance and good goverment of this house, which
  fine the said William Kellett here in Courte refused and said he
  would not paye it.

At the same Court Priest was ordered to pay Kellett £3 which he owed
him.

8th June, 1626. Kellett, not having paid his fine, was ordered to be
dismissed out of the livery.

26th October, 1626. But becoming repentant, he made humble suit to the
Court to be reinstated, “protesting here in Courte that as he hopeth
to be saved he did not speak those wordꝭ and if he did he is very
sorroy for it,” upon which submission and payment of his fine, he was
readmitted to the livery.

  23rd February, 1626. This daye upon the petic͠on of Thomas Borne and
  a certificate under the hand of Docto{r} Allott that the said Borne
  was a Scholler of the house in St. Johns Colledge in Cambridge it
  is ordered by the Court that for one yeare ensueing he shall have
  iij{li} to be paid him by M{r} Warᵭ Molins.

  1st February, 1627. Item It is ordered by this Courte that there
  shalbe given unto M{r} Docto{r} Gwyn and his sonne for his preferm{t}
  in takeing degree of Batchelo{r} of Arte in the universitie of
  Oxenford xij{li} as the free gift of this Court.

  9th November, 1628. This daye Richard Roades a Barbar & Surgion hath
  leave to open his shopp according to the ordinances of this house.

Roades was probably a man who had practised both as a Barber and a
Surgeon outside the Company’s jurisdiction (the common usage of those
days), but now being admitted a brother he had licence to practise
“according to the ordinances,” that is, either as a Barber or a
Surgeon, but not as both.

  5th February, 1629. Upon the humble petic͠on made unto this Courte
  by John ffranck a professor of Surgery the sonne of John ffrancke
  late of the clothing of the livery of this Companie for that the said
  ffranck is nowe taken prisoner in Turkey and his ransome is assessed
  to 600 Crownes. In comiserac͠on of whose distressed estate in a deede
  of charitye of soe greate consequence this courte doth order that
  upon the said John ffranckꝭ being safe delivered into England here
  alive he shall have viij{li} paid unto such pˀtie as the ransome doth
  belong unto.

  24th July, 1629. This daye in the complaint made unto this Court
  by Henry Edwardꝭ against John Cox for arresting of him without the
  consent of the Maisters they both being here present in Court It is
  ordered that Edwardꝭ shall paye Cox the xx{s} which he received of
  him uppon the wager that was wagered betweene them, and that M{r} Cox
  shall withdraw his acc͠on and proceede noe further in lawe and It is
  further ordered that M{r} Cox shall paye his fine of a marke on the
  next Tuesdaie for not askeing leave of the Maisters to arrest him.

1629. The fine for not serving Steward of the Mayor’s feast was £13
6_s._ 8_d._, and this had been the usual fine for many years.

16th September, 1630. A reference is made to a brick building which
a tenant of the Company was erecting at Holborn Bridge, under the
direction of Inigo Jones.

  28th January, 1631. This Court doth give to Marshall Petoe[165] for
  his elegies on M{r} Banckꝭ his funˀall v{s.}

  [165] A City Poet.

  15th March, 1631. It is ordered by this Courte that the 12 Electors
  shalbe chosen and drawne by a ballotting box in this manner, twoe out
  of the auncient M{rs} one barbar one Surgion, 6 out of those of the
  whole Assistantꝭ 3 Barbars 3 surgions, 4 out of the livery 2 barbars
  2 surgions as shalbe present on the Election daie.

  10th April, 1632. Nicholas Moseley made complaint against goody Smith
  of her unruly and disorderly liefe amongst the Tenementꝭ in the alley
  at Holborne Bridge and thereupon this Court doth give him leave to
  expulse her from dwelling [there] any longer.

  2nd July, 1632. This daye upon the humble and pittifull petic͠on
  made unto this Court by Richard Hayeward in the behalfe of Ric:
  Heyward his son whoe is now captivated and inthrawled under the
  slaverye of the Turke and his Ransome being to the som̃e of one C{i.}
  w{ch} the said Heyward is not able to raise, This Court therefore
  compassionateing the said Richard Heywards distressed estate, whoe
  being a Christian is in bondage to those Turkish & heathen Infidelles
  dothe order that there shalbe x{li.} paid out of the stock of this
  house for and towards the ransomeing and redeemeing the Captive at
  such tyme as the said Richard Heyward the son shalbe delivered alive
  here in England and not otherwise.

  6th February, 1633. Anthony Mondeys wĩdd pˀnted to this Court a Booke
  called The Surveigh of London beinge in folio and newlie printed.

This would be Munday’s edition of Stow presented by his widow, and for
which she, in return, had a present from the Court.

  29th November, 1633. It is ordered that for the stock of Corne to be
  provided yearely by this house every one of the Assistantꝭ of the
  Liverye shall lend xl{s.} presently and every one of the liverye
  shall lend xx{s.} o{r} M{r} giveing a noate under his hand that the
  house shall repaie it within a moneth after each mans death to his
  executo{rs} if it be demaunded And soe hereafter every pˀson that
  cometh into the Assistantꝭ to lend xl{s.} or that cometh into the
  liverye to lend xx{s.}

[Illustration: CORN NOTE.

M_emorandum_. That whereas by Precept yearly from the
right Honourable, the Lord Mayor, and Court of Aldermen. Our companie
is streightly commanded to provide and have readie LXXX. Quarters of
Corne for this Cities service, a Court of assistants, was held the
18{th}. Day of _December_ 1633. to consider how to raise the Money, in
regard our Companie is much indebted, by building our Granary, _&c._
And upon mature deliberation had, it was concluded & ordered, that each
Person then being, or that thereafter should be, a Livery-man, should
thereunto lend XXs. To be hereafter by the Masters, or Governours, for
the time being, repaid out of their Corne-stock, to such Livery-mans
Executors, or Administrators, within one moneth next after such
Livery-mans death, being demanded, we therefore the present Masters, or
Governours, do hereby acknowledge our selves to have received of Mr.
the said allotted some of Twenty shillings for the use aforesaid, And
do hereby promise, that we or, our Successors then being, shall repay
the said XX{s.} accoding as is before expressed witness our hands this
3{d} day of Aprill _Anno Dom._--1688

    Roger Knowles   }
    John King       }
    Will Sayfield   } Governours.
    John Standbrooke}]

4th March, 1634. 52 quarters of corn only being in the granary, it
was ordered that 8 quarters more should be purchased to make up the
complement of 60, which the Company were required by the City to keep
in stock.

14th January, 1634. The question of “Ship money” being considered by
the Court, it was thought that the Surgeons of the Company were free
from the same by Charter, and a Committee of the Court was appointed to
take counsel’s opinion thereon.

20th April, 1635. £10 was ordered to be given towards the restoration
of the Church of St. Alban, Wood Street.

2nd June, 1635. Hugh Ward, for his absence from lectures, was summoned
before the Court, when he used “approbrious language,” and defied the
Masters,

  Whereupon this Court did in the Lord Maiors name comitt the said Hugh
  to the Compter in Woodstreete & charged the said Ward to staye but
  he struggled to gett forth of y{e} parlor soe the M{rs} comaunded
  the dores to be shutt till an officer had taken him in charge, but
  after the officer had him in charge and they were gone forth into the
  streete (as the officer reported to this Court) Ward stepped from him
  and drew his knife & swoare hee would sheath it in his guttes if he
  came after him and soe he made an escape from the officer.

[Illustration: WOOD STREET, COMPTER.

_On the east side of Wood Street, stood this Prison, pertaining to
the Sheriffs of London, built in the Mayoralty of Sir Samuel Strange,
K{nt}:--(Sir John Smith, & James Edwards, Esq.{r} being Sheriffs) in
the year 1670._

_Publish’d Jan{y}. 1 1793 by N. Smith G.{t} Mays Buildings, S{t}.
Martins Lane_]

13th August, 1635. Ward made his submission and paid a fine of 40_s._

  1st December, 1635. John Robinson a forreyne bar̃b was questioned
  here in Court for setting up a barbars shopp in Blackfriers before
  he had made knowne to this Court that he had served 7 yeares
  appnˀticeship with a barbar by trade, and had a licence to sett upp
  shopp, said he was bound appˀntice to Rich. Davyes of Hereford barbar
  x{th} of Januar xxj{th} of King James for 8 yeares but could not
  bring testimony he had served that time This Court doth charge him to
  take in his barbars pole & basons & to forbeare keepeing that shopp
  any longer.

  8th March, 1637. Whereas there was an intenc͠on to make an open
  Gallery The Court is now resolved & doe order that it shalbe made a
  convenient faire Parlour over the walke leading into the Theater at
  the costꝭ of y{s} house.

  30th March, 1637. It is ordered that the Gallery or Parlour leading
  to the Theater from the Bullwarke shalbe built and the Hall Cupboard
  that cants into the stone yarde shalbe taken downe and the leade
  thereof shalbe imployed to leade the Tarris that passeth from that
  plo{r} into the Theater.

19th May, 1637. £10 was ordered to be paid towards the ransom of Thomas
Wright, a Surgeon, who had been captured by the Turks.

  10th June, 1637. It is ordered that the 3 stone Columbꝭ allready
  wrought shalbe sett up and the walk next the hall side to be leaded
  over and railes & turned ballasters to be sett up Alsoe that there
  shalbe Iron barrs for all the windowes Alsoe a portland stone for the
  mantle tree Alsoe a tablett of stone shalbe sett up in the front and
  the M{r} & Wardeins names to be insculpted thereon and a sunn diall
  to be in a convenient place.

  24th July, 1637. It is ordered that the Concave seeleing of the
  Theater shalbe painted with the Constellac͠ons of the Heavens and
  the 7 planetts over the 12 signes in every peere and sceletons to be
  wrought and sett up on every one of the 12 signes or Corbells.

  Alsoe that this mottoe shalbe sett in the tablett of stone in the
  front of the greate pˀlor. This Parlour was built in y{e} yeare of
  o{r} Lord 1637 M{r} Richard Powell being M{r} M{r} John Heydon M{r}
  W{m} Huckle M{r} Law: Cotton Wardeins.

13th August, 1637. The painting the ceiling of the Theatre was ordered
to be deferred until next year, and the scaffolding to be taken down
forthwith.

  20th September, 1637. It is ordered that the seeleing of the greate
  pˀlo{r} shalbe boarded shott & planed over with hole deales.

  20th September, 1637. It is ordered that there shalbe given xl{s} to
  St Edmunds berey for reliefe of the poore people visited with the
  plague.

  20th November, 1637. It is ordered that the yeomanryes hearse cloth
  shalbe altered and the imbrothered scutchions & figures to be
  decently sett by an Imbrotherer to be alwayes used at the publique
  discections in the Theater.

  28th December, 1637. This daye complaint was made ag{t} Thomas
  Trevilion now Rento{r} Wardein both for his obstinacy and ill words
  and exacting money from yonge freemen and throughing up his keyes
  of the Threasurye & sayeing he would come no more to keepe Courtꝭ
  at the Hall and desireing to be put out of his place, for w{ch} his
  misdemeano{rs} and other evill behavio{r} being made apparent to this
  Court and his acknowledgem{t} of them upon due considerac͠on of all
  w{ch} It is ordered by this Court y{t} the said Thomas Trevilion doe
  stand and shalbe from henceforth absolutely removed and dismissed
  from his office & place of ffowerth M{r} or Governo{r.}

Mr. William Lingham was subsequently chosen in Trevilion’s place.

The Court sometimes acted in the capacity of private trustees of the
estates of deceased members, and among the archives there remains
a deed of acknowledgment signed by the Master and Wardens in 1637,
wherein it is recited that Richard Mapes, a former Master of the
Mystery, deceased, had left legacies to his four children, then being
infants, and had appointed his wife Faith, executrix and trustee, with
the proviso that in the event of her marrying again the Court of this
Company were to be the trustees for the said children, and that the
widow, having remarried, had paid over the children’s portions to the
Masters or Governors. Attached is the seal of the Barber Surgeons,
unfortunately not perfect, though a good specimen.

  8th February, 1638. It is ordered that the Seaven liberall Sciences
  shalbe provided for the Theater by the M{r} and Wardens at the house
  charge soe it exceede not x{li.} x{s.} the carveing of them.

29th March, 1638. The whole of the Assistants and Livery were called
together to know what they would give to the building fund, when the
following sums were promised.

  M{r} Serj Clowes         x{li.}    Morrice Griffith        v{li.}
  M{r} Rich Wateson        x{li.}    W{m} Bennett          iij{li.}
  M{r} Michaell Andrews    x{li.}    Robert Terrill         ij{li.}
  M{r} Hen Blackley        x{li.}    Edward Arris            v{li.}
  M{r} Warden Burgen       v{li.}    Humfrey Painter       iij{li.}
  M{r} Warden Cotton       v{li.}    Thomas Allen     ij{li.} x{s.}
  M{r} Warden Lingham      v{li.}    Lawrence Loe            v{li.}
  M{r} John Heydon         v{li.}    Robert Bulluck        iij{li.}
  M{r} Nicholas Heath      v{li.}    Thomas Bowden         iij{li.}
  M{r} William Huckle    iij{li.}    John Dorrell         iiij{li.}
  M{r} Martine Browne      x{li.}    James Clarke         iiij{li.}
  M{r} W{m} Kinge          v{li.}    Hugh Warde             ij{li.}
  M{r} John Pinder         v{li.}    William Watson        iij{li.}
  Edward Charley           v{li.}    Nicholas Brothers     iij{li.}
  Edward ffleete           v{li.}    John Meredith         iij{li.}
  Henry Eaton              v{li.}    Thomas Biggs         iiij{li.}
  Henry Boone              v{li.}    Phillip Gill            v{li.}
  Samuell Sambrooke      iij{li.}    Charles Stamford      iij{li.}
  Hugh Napkin             ij{li.}    James Walsall         iij{li.}

  3rd July, 1638. This daye was made knowne to this Court y{t} Jo{n}
  Pemberton formerly chosen an Assistant hath given his answeare that
  he will not hold that place nor come to the Hall unlesse he were
  drawne with wild horses thither, whereupon this Court doth fine him
  at x{li.} & that he shalbe prosecuted for the same at Lawe.

16th August, 1638. A stormy election of Master and Wardens was holden
this day, and a very precise minute of the proceedings is entered, from
which it appears that the Court and Livery being assembled, the Master
declared--

  The occasion of this solempne meeteing & the necessarye succession
  of the Governors & governem{t} of this Corporac͠on. And thereupon a
  ballatting box being sett on the table and the names of the auncient
  M{rs} & Assistants and livery being severally put into the twoe Sells
  of y{t} box, o{r} M{r} according to order did first drawe forth the
  names of theis twelve pˀsons following for Electors viz{t} for the
  Six Surgians M{r} Rich Wateson M{r} Martine Browne M{r} Jo{n} Pinder
  Tho. Tomlinson Edward Arris & Henry Eaton. And for the other six M{r}
  Richard Powell M{r} William Huckle M{r} Jo{n} Davyes M{r} Samuell Die
  Hen. Hodgkinson & Evan Owen. And thereupon the said Electors haveing
  w{th}drawne themselves from the publique Assemblye & taken their
  oathes upon the holye evangelists for the election of fower Masters
  or Governo{rs} for the yeare ensueing, The M{rs} and the rest of the
  Assembly made their repaire to the Church and after Sermon upon their
  returne to the Hall the Masters being called to those 12 Electors
  they were informed that the Election could not proceede and be made,

by reason that certain of the Electors being of divers trades were
unable to agree upon two persons expert in Barbery, and these Electors
refusing to choose two Masters Barbers, a Court was at once held and
the six Barber Electors were discharged, six more Electors being chosen
and called; two of these, however, being contaminated by those already
dismissed, refused to serve, and eventually a fresh set of Electors was
chosen, who retired, and elected Mr. William Clowes, Serjeant-Surgeon
to the King, as Master, and three others Wardens, “and after dinner
ended and the Seremonye pˀformed by the Masters or Governo{rs} of
chooseing the new M{rs} or Governo{rs} with silver Garlands in the
publique Hall,” the new Master and Wardens were sworn in.

8th November, 1638. A great feud having arisen between the Court and
Richard Morrice, an Assistant, a suit was prosecuted against Morrice
in the Earl Marshal’s Court, when the sentence pronounced against him
was that he should attend the Court at the Hall, and there bareheaded
rehearse in an audible voice an abject apology, the exact words of
which are set out. This Morrice did, and the Master and Wardens having
testified the same, he was again called into Court, when it would seem
that his apology had been made under fear of the Earl Marshal and
not of his free will, for the Court calling upon him to make answer
“for his contentious carriage & foule & bitter languages & invective
speeches by him given from Court to Court ag{t} divers Assistantꝭ to
the generall disturbance of their Courtꝭ he refused to cleare himselfe
or to give answeare,” whereupon the Court dismissed him from his place
as an Assistant.

  13th September, 1640. This Court is willing that there shalbe a
  distribuc͠on of M{r} Mapes Legacy on Cosmas and Damianus day being
  the 27{th} of this Instant September to 12 poore people 12 Angells
  according to the directions of M{ris} Joy they haveing red crosses on
  theire brests.

  MEMORAND. on the 27{th} September being Cosmus and Damianus day 6{li}
  13{s} 4{d} was distributed according to M{r} Richard Mapes Will.
  viz{t} These 12 poore persons free of our Company came into our
  Hall with red Crosses each of them on theire right Brests and the
  Governours gave to each of them 10{s} which amounted to 6{li} and the
  13{s} 4{d} was to themselves for a repast for their paynes.

                { Widdow Wright.   { Widdow Chapman.
                { Widdow James.    { Widdow Tyler.
    The poores  { Widdow Colley.   { Widdow Pebworth.
    names were  { Old Holmewood.   { Old Kelham.
                { Widdow Bullock.  { John Mulis.
                { Blind Reynolds.  { Widdow Wadlowe.

20th November, 1640. A dispute between Edward Molins and one Coppinger
was heard by the Court, when the decision was against Molins, and he
was fined for using bad language.

  12th January, 1641. Edward Molins came into the Court and stood in
  the face of the Court with his Hatt on his head and his Armes on his
  side and told the Court he would doe noe obedience to the co{te} and
  swore Gods wounds he would submitt to noe man liveing.

15th January, 1641. Molins was fined 40{s} for this contempt.

  18th January, 1641. Richard Tompkins & Symon Crouch Surgeons by
  profession yet useing Barbery, This Court doth give them Order by
  our Lady day next to leave barbeing it being against y{e} Statute to
  practise both.

  29th July, 1641. Mr. George Dunn hath given 5{li} to buy Bookes
  for the Library which is by this Court ordered to be performed
  accordingly.

There having been many quarrels in the Court, and various members
expelled, a general shaking of hands appears to have taken place, for
we read:--

  30th July, 1644. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe order That
  a Sermon be made on the next Election day of thankes giveing to
  Almighty God for peace and amity which is now begun to be restored
  among the members of the Company And that M{r} Sharpe be desired to
  performe the same.

  9th March, 1645. This day M{r} Callice Barber being complayned of
  for teaching to trimm to other then his Apprentices contrary to the
  Ordinance of this House did absolutely deny the same upon the Oathe
  that he tooke upon his admission into the ffreedome.

  17th March, 1645. Mr. William Kings this day freely gave for the
  Ornament of this House a great Tortershell Whereon at his owne charge
  he hath given order for the Companyes Armes to be painted.

This shell is preserved at the Hall.

  7th January, 1646. M{r} Michaell Markeland appeareing to this Court
  at the request of our M{r} he was here complayned of to have embalmed
  severall humane Bodyes within this City against the Ordinance of this
  Company in that behalf being an Apothecary and not a Surgeon approved
  according to Law Nor a ffreeman of this Company which M{r} Markeland
  acknowledged But alleadged It was through his ignorance Not knowing
  that the right thereof was in approved Surgeons and ffreemen of this
  Company only and none other And being now well satisfyed thereof
  haveing heard the said Ordinance read unto him promised not to doe
  the like againe.

  2nd June, 1646. This daye Mr. Lawrence Loe Chirurgeon a Member of
  this Company through his good affection thereunto Did for the worship
  thereof freely offer to give for the beautifying of the Hall soe
  many stones of black and white Marble as shalbe sufficient for the
  Pavement thereof.

These marbles were laid to form the floor at the upper end of the Hall,
and when the Hall was pulled down they were preserved and now form the
pavement in the Entrance to the Hall from Monkwell Street.

There is a Memorandum that Mr. John Bancks by his will left--

  To the Company of Barber Chirurgions London so long as they shall
  performe the uses hereafter limitted (or els not) To be paid them
  betwixt the first and seaventh day of May next after the decease
  of the said John Banckes and so yearely for ever the sum̃e of
  Twenty shillings w{ch} Twenty shillings shalbe by the said Company
  distributed in forme following viz{t} To Twelve poore householders or
  widowes of the same Company To each of them ffower poundꝭ weight of
  good beefe Two penny loaves of good sweet bread Two pence a peece in
  mony and each of them one Woodden platter.

  14th December, 1646. This Court doth at the humble suite of the
  Ordinary of the Goale of Newgate freely give unto him 10{s} for his
  releife in his present want.

  7th July, 1647. This Court doth give to John ffranck Chirurgeon who
  hath bin for a long time in Captivity in Turkey iiij{li} towards the
  setting him forth to sea and doth order that he be admitted into the
  ffreedome gratis when he shall desire it.

See the Minute 5th February, 1629. John Franck (the son of a Liveryman)
was doubtless a “foreign brother,” and entitled to his freedom by
patrimony upon payment of the fine, which the Court now ordered to be
dispensed with if he wished to take up his freedom. Being a Sea Surgeon
only, it was not necessary that he should be free of the Company. He
had probably been in slavery 18 years!

Several entries similar to the following are to be found in the books.

  9th August, 1647. Upon the humble suite of Thomas Tomlinson an
  ancient Member of this Company and of the Livery now fallen into
  greate Poverty and Want for some charitable releife from this
  Company. This Court being moved in Compassion to his deplorable
  Condic͠on and calling to mind his former good service to this Company
  Doth freely give him 10{li.} out of the Stock of this House.

  14th September, 1648. Samuell Needler an examined Chirurgeon
  complayned to this Court that he was required to beare Armes
  notwithstanding his exempc͠on therefrom and therefore craved this
  Courts Assistance in his defence therein which was granted.

  27th October, 1648. M{r} Warden Madocks and certaine others of
  the Assistants here present desireing to peruse our Charter for
  theire informac͠on the better to enable them for the Governement of
  this Company had a sight thereof and were well satisfyed in every
  particuler.

13th August, 1655. Mr. John Gale of Bushey (son of William Gale, M.
1595) a Surgeon of this Company, by his Will of this date left to the
Barber-Surgeons £16 per annum, payable out of certain houses on Snow
hill, in the parish of Saint Sepulchre, for the founding of an Anatomy
lecture in the name of Gale’s Anatomy. This trust was transferred to
the Surgeons’ Company in 1745.

Our Minute Books from the year _1651 to 1689_ are unhappily lost;
they are known to have been at the Hall as recently as 1832. Should
any reader ever light upon them, he is particularly entreated to
communicate with the Clerk of the Company or with the author.

1689. The practice was now adopted of entering all admissions to the
freedom, etc., in the Court Minute Books (as well as in the Register)
the forms being as follows:--

3rd September, 1689. For an apprentice:

  Johẽs Rawson app̃r Caroli Peters admĩs est ex Rẽl Magr̃i & Jur̃.

for a freeman by patrimony:

  Ptrũs Hartley Stac͠oner filˀ Thome Hartley Civis & Barbitonsorˀ &
  Chirurgˀ London admĩs est pˀ patrimõn ex Rẽl Isaacii Boddington
  Weaver & Wil̃l̃i Bletsoe Grocer, Wil̃l̃i Bateman Barbitonsorˀ &
  Chirurgorˀ London & Jur̃.

for a freeman by redemption:

  Henr̃ Chamberlane admĩs est pˀ redemc͠on vˀtute orᵭem Curˀ Majorˀ &
  Alᵭrn Dat xviij{o} die Augusti 1689 & Jur̃.

  17th January, 1690. This day an order was sealed to presse 40
  Surgeons mates for the Kings service in Ireland.

At this period all freemen on their admission “took the oathes
menc͠oned in a late Act of Parliament & subscribed the Declarac͠on
therein named”: these were the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy as
required by the “Bill of Rights” (passed December, 1689).

  2nd July, 1690. Ordered that the Clarke keep an accompt of all pˀsons
  faleing at a Court of Assistants and that every one faileing for
  every such time soe doeing shall forfeit v{s} & shall not be admitted
  to binde or make ffree untill he or they have made payment of the
  same of which they are to have notice except S{r} John Letheullier
  S{r} Humfry Edwin & M{r} Thomas Canham.

  29th April, 1693. Ordered that the 2 Chirurgeons Governo{rs} & whome
  they shall thincke fitting to call to them Attend the Archbishopp of
  Canterbury conserning his Barber practiceing Chirurgery.

  20th July, 1693. Ord{d} that a lease bee taken of the Archbishopp for
  one & twenty yeare from the 19{th} day of July 1693 for the Barge
  house[166] & that as the Governo{rs} have agreed a ffine of the same
  they pay to his Grace the sume of one hundred pounds besides ffees.

  [166] At Lambeth.

  3rd October, 1693. Ordered that the Bargeman have a new coate &
  britches &c.

  19th July, 1694. Ordered that M{r} George Minikin bee warned before
  the Lord Major to shew cause why he doe not attend the Court of
  Assistants as he hath been chosen one of them.

18th June, 1696. A new sun dial was ordered to be put up.

About this period there seems to have been a general disinclination
to serve as an Assistant, many of the Livery being fined £10 for
refusing to serve the office, while some who had sat as Assistants were
dismissed the Court for non-attendance.

  25th October, 1697. Ordered that the Barge house bee mended & M{r}
  Warden Pinke take care to see it done.

  18th August, 1698. Ordered that the Govern{rs} dispose of the Barge &
  let the Barge house from yeare to yeare.

  12th October, 1698. Ordered That there may be papers made for a
  subscriptõn for a Barge.

  21st October, 1700. Ordered that the ill manadgement of the late
  Master M{r} Tho: Lichfeild as to his office of Master and his other
  offices of Warden bee pˀsented to the next Court of Assistants in
  order to bee expelˀd the sˀd Court it being the opinion of this
  Comittee that he deserves soe to bee as alsoe for being any longer
  an examin{r} he haveing acted contrary to the establish{mt} of the
  Corporac͠on in the s{d} offices.

8th November, 1700. A Committee of the Court having waited upon the
Commissioners of the Navy and reported that Mr. Lichfeild had committed
irregularities in certifying men as qualified Surgeons for sea service,
such men not being duly qualified, the Court adjudged him to be
dismissed from his office of an Examiner in Surgery, and out of the
Court of Assistants.

10th March, 1707. The new Clerk, Mr. Chas. Bernard, seems to have
been industrious in searching out practising Barbers not free of the
Company, as also others who had committed abuses; several were fined
and compelled to take up their freedom and this day the following
entries occur:--

  Clyett being sum̃oned for Shaveing on Sunday last appeared before the
  Comittee and the fact being plainly proved against him the Comittee
  fined him ten shillings for his said offence.

  Newland being sum̃oned for the like offence appeared also before
  the Comittee but there being no possitive proofe against him he was
  dismissed.

  John Gould a Dutchman being sum̃oned for keeping a Shopp and
  exercising the trade of a Barber not being free of this Company And
  the matter being plainly proved against him the Comittee ordered him
  to be prosecuted on the statutes of the 32nd of Hen 8{th} and the
  5{th} of Queen Elizabeth.

  Ordered that a Second Sum̃ons be sent to all such Defaulters as have
  not appeared with intimation that theire ffines will be levied on
  them by distresse.

  Ordered that Thomas Latham be sum̃oned to take upp his ffreedome &
  that all other persons exerciseing Barbery not being ffree of this
  Company be sum̃oned.

17th March, 1707. Nineteen delinquents who had been summoned appeared,
and their cases were heard; a few examples will suffice--One Darby was
“seen to comb a persons haire on Sunday morning last but alleadging
that it was his ffather,” he was let off with 5_s._ fine.

Lewis Roger made answer that it “was onely his Apprentice combing a
persons haire without his knowledge and that it was his first offence,”
he likewise escaped with a 5_s._ fine.

James Good was more fortunate, for proving that his offence “was onely
the Combing of a Lodgers Wigg,” he escaped.

Willm. Haslegrove appears to have filled up the measure of his
iniquity, for being detected in “actually shaveing a person on Sunday
morning,” he was fined 10_s._

Samuel Beaumont, charged with keeping two Barbers’ shops, had a month
given him to part with one of them, and John Shoard who, not being free
of the Company, kept a Barber’s shop in Cloth Fair, was ordered to quit
the same within two months.

  31st March, 1707. Elizabeth Presbury being sumoned appeared &
  alleadged that she was very poore & that her husband was an Idle man
  and promised to reforme her method whereupon the Comittee excused her.

The number of Barbers fined for working on Sundays, or for keeping shop
not being free, was enormous, and it becomes wearying to travel through
the records of their offences and fines.

  17th June, 1708. Ordered that the Company’s Barge house and the
  Dwelling house thereunto belonging be forthwith repaired.

13th January, 1709. Sir Edward Northey was appointed standing counsel
to the Company with a yearly retainer of two guineas.

  15th April, 1709. Upon complaint made against one Henry Drudge for
  exerciseing Barbery & Surgery w{th}in the City not being ffree he
  attended and alleadged that he haveing been a Soldier in the late
  Warr thought himself intituled to keep his Shoppe without takeing
  up his ffreedome, by Virtue of the Act of Parliament made upon the
  disbanding the Army which gives liberty to disbanded soldiers to
  exercise any trade within the Corporations or places where they were
  borne, althoˀ they had not served seven years to it But the Court
  believing that act did not extend to Drudge by reason he was not
  borne in London, ordered that in case he did not shut up his Shop in
  a month’s time he should be prosecuted.

21st July, 1709. In consequence of the great expense to which the
Company had been put in the repairs to the Hall, the Court determined
to call thirty-one freemen into the Livery, and the fine being £10 each
on admission or £20 on refusal, a considerable sum was realized.

It having been suggested to the Court that the yeomanry objected to
pay 20_s._ for “corn money” when called to the Livery, the Clerk was
directed to enquire into the origin of that tax, and finding that it
had been originally levied on each member taking his livery, to satisfy
the precepts made in 1633, and afterwards for providing a stock of
corn for the City; and for that at the present time the Company had no
Granary or stock of corn to provide, and “being out of debt,” it was
ordered that in future this fine should be discontinued.

18th August, 1709. At the Election, ten of the Livery who had attended
without their gowns, were severally fined and paid 1_s._ each, and
there are other references to Assistants being fined for not appearing
in their gowns.

  4th October, 1709. A complaint being made against Richard Stockwell
  for being copartner with a fforreigner & the fact being made appeare
  pritty plain against him the Court fined him five pounds being the
  penalty imposed by the By Law, But upon his promise to discharge his
  said partner the Court were pleased to remitt his ffine.

  18th April, 1710. M{r} John Booth a Surgeon at Warrington in
  Lancashire applying to this Court to be admitted a fforeign brother
  & he being examined in Surgery & approved It was ordered that upon
  his payment of ten Guineas he should be admitted a fforeign brother
  of this Company, But the said M{r} Booth refusing to take that part
  of the fforeign brothers oath whereby he was sworne to be true to the
  Queen he was not for that reason admitted.

  1st June, 1710. It is ordered that the Members present at this Court
  shall be excused from wearing their gowns in regard to the heat of
  the weather.

  20th October, 1710. It is ordered for the accomodation of the Members
  of this Court of the Barbers side for the seeing & being heard at
  Courts of Assistants That for the future at all Courts of Assistants
  the Governo{rs} on the Surgeons side shall set even with the Ma{r}
  next on his right hand & the Governo{rs} on the Barbers side next
  on his left. But that at all other Courts all the Governo{rs} shall
  according to their seniority sett along the side of the Parlour Table
  on the left hand of the Master in such maner as has been accustomed.

11th January, 1711. The Clerk’s and Beadle’s houses were ordered to be
insured against fire, for £600 in the “Amicable Society.”

20th February, 1711. Mr. Willm. Smith, an Assistant, complained that
Mr. Joseph Cosins, also an Assistant, and his junior in the freedom,
had always taken precedence of him at the Courts, whereupon the matter
was considered and the following order made:--

  Forasmuch as it appeared that M{r} Cosins was first chosen into the
  Court of Assistants & that it is in the power of this Court to chuse
  whom they shall think fitt to be an Assistant out of the whole Livery
  without respect to Seniority & for that M{r} Cosins continued for
  many years in his present station as Assistant The Court were of
  opinion & did so declare themselves to be That the s{d} M{r} Cosins
  shou’d continue to take place of the said M{r} Smith as he formerly
  had done.

9th July, 1711. The Common Seal of the Company being worn out a new one
was ordered to be cut in steel, together with an “Ingine,” wherewith to
make the impressions.

  6th May, 1712. Ordered that the Porter who shaves att the Custome
  house be sum̃oned.

27th May, 1712. Walter Browne being “one of the people called Quakers,”
was admitted into the freedom and took a “solemn affirmation.”

  7th April, 1713. Valentine Day Tallow Chandler was admitted into
  the freedom of this Company by Redempc͠on and at the same time was
  admitted to ffine for all offices to the Parlour door for both which
  he paid a ffine Clock worth 30{li.}

  5th October, 1714. It is ordered that the Musitioners shall have five
  pounds for attending on the day of the Kings Entrance. (George I.)

  5th June, 1716. Nathanael Charles owned that he has several times
  let blood for One shilling & sixpence upon which the Company ordered
  him to be prosecuted as also his Mast{r} Joseph Roe; twas observed
  that Roe could not write his name having sett his mark only to the
  Inᵭre.[167]

  [167] Indenture.

  15th August, 1717. M{r} William Highmore Jun{r} haveing marryed the
  Vintners widow who kept the Bell Taverne in Nicholas Lane applying to
  this Court and acquainting them that he had quitted the Barbers Trade
  and had undertook the trade of a Vintner, and was for that reason
  under a necessity of becomeing a freeman of the Vintners Company
  or of takeing a License from the Crown to retail wine and praying
  of this Court to translate him from this Company to the Company of
  Vintners, This Court after hearing the By-Law in that behalf read and
  due considerac͠on had thereof doth order that the said M{r} William
  Highmore shall be translated from this Company into the Company of
  Vintners upon payment of £20 to the use of this Company and upon
  Condic͠on that he shall not from henceforward exercise the trade of a
  Barber or Perriwig maker.

1st October, 1717. Robert Rainsford, the Company’s Barge Master, was
ordered to have a new livery provided for him.

24th June, 1718. The Theatre was ordered to be repaired and beautified.

21st April, 1720. Mr. Berney, Mr. Burroughs and Mr. Fitzhugh, Liverymen
Barbers, applied to the Court, giving their reasons and praying that
the Court would petition the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council
to suspend the act of Common Council restraining them from employing
foreigners as journeymen, whereupon the matter was considered and
the Court thought it would be contrary to their oaths to join in any
such petition, because it was a standing By-Law of the Company, as
well as of the City, that no Barber should employ any foreigner as a
journeyman; it was also considered that such a liberty would prove a
great discouragement to apprentices and that the present inconvenience
complained of would soon be cured if Masters would sufficiently
instruct their apprentices so as to make them useful during their
servitude and competent as journeymen afterwards. The Court further
decided to oppose, by every means in its power, the movement set on
foot by Mr. Berney and his friends.

24th June, 1722. The lease of the Barge-house at Lambeth expiring in
April, 1723, and the Archbishop having offered to renew the same for
21 years at £10 per annum and £100 fine, it was resolved not to renew
it, in consequence of its being an unprofitable property, and the
Company not then having a barge. The Barber-Surgeons let off part of
their Barge-house to the Drapers and Ironmongers, and the Clerk was
instructed to give those Companies notice that it was not the intention
of this Company to renew the lease from the Archbishop.

2nd December, 1729. In consequence (as was alleged) of the difficulty
in sometimes procuring a full Court, it was ordered that in future each
Assistant who attended within one hour of the time mentioned in his
summons and remained till the rising of the Court, should receive a fee
of 2_s._ 6_d._

  1st February, 1731. It is ordered that all the Liverymen shall attend
  on Election day and Lord Mayors day in their Gowns and at publick
  anatomys in their Capps upon Forfieture of Three shillings and
  Fourpence for every offence.

8th July, 1731. A precept coming from the Lord Mayor recommending the
Company to contribute “towards the relief of the poor sufferers by the
late fires at Blanford Tiverton & Ramsey being read The Court upon
considerac͠on had thereof and from a just sense of the calamity and
distress of their fellow subjects the late inhabitants of the said
towns,” ordered £20 to be paid into the Chamber of London.

1732. The following fines were in force at this date, viz.:--

£6 6_s._ 0_d._ for a Barber admitted to the freedom by redemption.

£10 for a free Barber admitted to the Livery.

£30 for a Barber’s or Surgeon’s apprentice, made free by servitude,
admitted to the Livery, and for all offices to the parlour door.

£7 7_s._ 0_d._ for examination, admission and diploma of a foreign
brother.

£3 3_s._ 0_d._ for the same, if the applicant had been bound to a
foreign brother at the Hall.

  5th March, 1733. It is hereby referred to the Master & Wardens M{r}
  Serj{t} Dickins M{r} Serj{t} Amyand M{r} Petty M{r} Shott M{r} Parker
  & M{r} Maurice to receive proposalls for Building a Cupola in the
  Hall parlor and report the same to the next Court of Assistants.

  19th July, 1733. Several of the livery attending upon a complaint
  against a Jew in Duke’s place for exercising the trade of a Barber
  without being free of the Company or having served seven years
  apprenticeship It is ordered that the Clerk of the Company shall sue
  the said Jew in such manner as he shall think fitt or be advised at
  the Company’s expence.

  4th May, 1736. At this Court Abraham Diaz Delgadoa Jew was admitted
  into the freedom of the Company by Redemption for Ten pounds Ten
  shillings which he paid down and was sworn upon the Old Testament
  being a Jew.

3rd August, 1738. The Company contributed five guineas towards the
Organ recently set up in the Church of Saint Alban, Wood Street.

  3rd April, 1739. M{r} John Owen a Freeman of the Company & who lives
  at Islington was chosen Musicianer to the Company in the room of M{r}
  Brown dec̃ed.

  11th November, 1740. It is ordered (in regard this Company have no
  Barge) That the Waterman shall forthwith deliver up his Livery coat
  and Badge belonging to the Company to the Beadles and that he no
  longer be annually intitled from this Company to a new Coat nor make
  use of nor wear the old one but that when he shall be employed in
  the Companies service. And also that for the future on every Lord
  Mayor’s day that this Company shall walk in procession in order to
  attend the L{d} Mayor a Stand or proper building shall be provided
  at the Companies expence for the better accomodation of the Livery
  belonging to this Company and in such manner and fform as several
  other Companies of this City are usually provided with on that day.

1745. The Surgeons are now separated from the Barbers.

8th August, 1745. The Clerk reporting that many of the Company, as well
as Surgeons lately free of the Barber-Surgeons’ Company, were greatly
in arrear in their quarterage, he was ordered to acquaint them that
unless the said arrears were paid up forthwith, they would be sued.

17th September, 1745. The Company of Surgeons sent to the Company of
Barbers two documents under their Common Seal, the one authorising
Mr. Joseph Cruttenden to peruse and copy any Charters or documents in
the possession of the Barbers, and the other empowering him to take
possession of any books, papers or writings relating to Surgeons or
Surgery only, on behalf of the Company of Surgeons; whereupon the Court
acceded to the request, and gave instructions as to the same.

4th December, 1745. Mr. Cruttenden applied on behalf of the Surgeons’
Company for £510 (the Arrisian endowment) which had been directed to
be paid by the Act of Parliament, whereupon the Master told him that
by reason of the late fall in the Public Stocks, the Company could
not without great loss, raise the money, but were ready to give the
Surgeons a proper bond for the same, with Interest.

19th February, 1746. Forty-one freemen were reported as being fit and
able persons to take the Livery, and were ordered to be summoned for
the same with the intimation that if any refused he or they would be
sued for the penalty of £20 each upon such refusal.

Of these, seven appeared at the next Court, took the livery and paid
the fine of £10; six others begged to be excused. The remaining
twenty-eight did not appear till later Courts, when some were excused,
and others ordered to be sued; subsequently a large proportion of those
nominated, accepted and paid their fines.

17th July, 1746. The Surgeons’ Company having pressed for payment of
the £510 and Interest, and our Company having in Cash but £300, Mr.
Luke Maurice (Master 1732, a Wine Merchant in Lime Street) lent the
Company £200 at 4-1/2 per cent., and the Clerk advanced the balance,
whereupon the principal, with £15 17_s._ 0_d._ interest, was paid to
the Surgeons.

  18th May, 1747. The Master acquainting the Court that he had employed
  M{r} Whiston the Bookseller to putt the Company’s Library in order
  and to make a Catalogue and valuation thereof And that M{r} Whiston
  had appraised the same at Twenty Guineas And the Clerk acquainting
  the Court that a learned Physican had offered twenty-five Guineas for
  the Library together with the Skeleton and other curiosities formerly
  kept in the Library It was ordered that the Clerk should acquaint the
  Master of the Worshipfull Company of Surgeons with the said offer
  made to this Company And that this Court being desirous to manifest
  their esteem for and preserve the ffriendship of the Surgeons did
  give them the refusal of the said Library Skeleton and Curiosities
  at the said price of Twenty ffive Guineas And that in case of their
  acceptance thereof the rich and ancient Pall belonging to this
  Company should be at their service as a free gift.

16th July, 1747. The Clerk reported that he had made the above offer
to the Surgeons who replied that they considered themselves entitled
to the Library under the Act of 1745, but that to avoid controversy
with the Barbers they would be willing to refer the matter to Counsel,
whereupon it was resolved that the matter should be submitted to the
opinion of Counsel.

  5th July, 1749. Ordered that the Library of Books formerly belonging
  to the late united Company be forthwith sold for the most money that
  can be gotten for the same.

  2nd June, 1749. Ordered that the Companys Arms be cast in lead and
  affixed upon the several houses belonging to this Company.

Various specimens of these castings are extant about the Hall, and in
possession of Mr. Charles John Shoppee (Master 1878) and of the author.

  2nd May, 1750. Ordered that M{r} Paterson do wait upon the Earl of
  Burlington to know his Lordship’s intention about repairing the
  Company’s Theatre.

  6th June, 1750. Ordered that the Clerk do write to the Right
  Honorable the Earl of Burlington to aquaint him of the ruinous
  condition of the Theatre and Company’s inability to repair the same
  and to know whether his Lordship will be pleased to order the said
  Repairs agreable to his own generous proposal in the Mastership of
  M{r} Rutter.

Nothing came of this application.

  1st August, 1750. Ordered that the Clerk do cause a Catalogue to be
  made of the Books in the Library, and that he deliver a copy thereof
  to M{r} Samuel Rutter.

9th August, 1750. Mr. Gheys, Sculptor, was ordered to have the
Skeleton, in exchange for the Bust of Inigo Jones, still preserved at
the Hall.

  3rd September, 1751. Resolved also that the old Pall be given to the
  Beadle.

This, alas! was the “rich and ancient pall.”

The Clerk was again directed to endeavour to sell the Library and it
was disposed of to Mr. Whiston the Bookseller for £13!!

  29th October, 1751. Resolved that the Doctors Gown and Hood be given
  to the Beadle.

  13th August, 1752. Ordered that it be referred to the Master and
  Wardens to treat with M{r} Thomas Reynolds about erecting a Cupola
  over the great Parlor agreable to the Draft now produced to this
  Court and about repairing the Roof And also repairing whitewashing
  and painting the said Parlor so as the Contract for that purpose do
  not exceed the sum of One hundred and seventeen pounds.

19th August, 1752. The Agreement between the Company and Mr. Reynolds
was entered into at £116 15_s._, and the Specification of his work is
recorded in the Minute Book, from which I extract the following:--

  The Cupola compleat and properly secured glazed and ornamented
  with Stucco and the Roof covered with Milled lead seven pounds to
  the ffoot with good brass pulley in the middle fit for a Branch or
  Lustre. A new white veined marble Chimney piece and Slabb with a
  carved wooden ovalo round it and Slabb of the same Marble The Chimney
  piece of the same dimensions as the present and the Slabb six foot
  nine inches by two foot four inches with a new fire stone hearth.

  The ceiling and ornaments thereof to be secured mended cleaned and
  whitewashed.

9th August, 1753. The Great Hall, Kitchen and Lobby were ordered to be
repaired by Mr. Reynolds in accordance with his Estimate of £101 17_s._
6_d._

  8th August, 1754. Ordered that the thanks of this Court be given to
  James Theobald Esq{r} one of the Ancient Masters of the Company for
  the magnificent Lustre by him lately presented and at his Expense
  fixed up in their great parlor assuring him This Court doth most
  gratefully accept the same as a monument of his regard for the honor
  and prosperity of the Company.

This handsome lustre still adorns the Court Room.

12th September, 1754. The Court having considered the state of the
Theatre, which was out of repair, and for which the Company had no use,
ordered advertisements to be inserted twice in three daily papers,
asking for tenders for the materials of the same, and for pulling down
and clearing it away. The “N.B.” to the advertisement states that “The
Doors, Benches and Railes of the said Theatre are of Cedar.”

1st October, 1754. Three tenders for the materials of the Theatre were
received, £21 10_s._ 0_d._, £32 and £35 respectively, and the decision
thereon postponed.

4th February, 1755. William Shakespear (Barber) the apprentice of
Richard Hulett, was admitted to the freedom.

5th June, 1764. The Clerk informed the Court of the death of Mrs.
Elizabeth I’Ans, widow of Mr. Michael I’Ans, and that the Master and
Wardens had, on the 23rd May, received of the Executors of Mr. I’Ans
£2,200--3-1/2 per cent. Bank Annuities, and £75 in accordance with Mr.
I’Ans’ will.

1764 and 1765. Mr. James Clowes who had been summoned to take up the
Livery, refused to do so, whereupon he was sued for the fine of £20 and
judgment obtained against him with costs.

14th August, 1766. A Committee having been appointed to examine and
report upon the Theatre, and having done so, were now authorised to
apply to the Court of Common Council for permission to pull down the
same, and to treat with that Court for the purchase of the ground, for
which the Company paid the City £3 per annum under an old lease.

3rd November, 1767. The City Comptroller having requested the Company
to make an offer for the site of the Theatre, it was resolved that 30
years’ purchase (£90) be offered for the same.

7th February, 1769. A plan of the ground leased by the City to the
Company and on which the Theatre stood, having been prepared by Mr.
George Dance, Clerk of the Works to the City, it was laid before the
Court, and the City sold the fee simple to the Company for £90. Would
that one could buy City freeholds at the same rate now!

2nd September, 1783. Mr. Sylvanus Hall, of Paternoster Row, Carpenter,
proposed to take a lease of the ground on which the Theatre stood,
to take down the whole building, and to erect two dwelling houses on
the site similar to those he had already built in Monkwell Street.
The lease to commence at Christmas, 1784, and to be for 61 years at
£10 ground rent. He also proposed to pay the Company £20 for the old
materials of the Theatre and to clear the same away. To all these
propositions the Court agreed, and Mr. Hall paid a guinea as earnest
money.

1st February, 1785. Mr. Hall having pulled down the Theatre, the Clerk
was instructed to write to him for the £20 for the old materials which
he had removed.

  4th October, 1791. There being a sufficient number of Members present
  to form a Court of Assistants, thoˀ no such Court was called, the
  Master took the sense of the Members present, as an adjournment from
  the last Court of Assistants, whether the Company should go out
  in the usual procession the ensuing Lord Mayor’s day, when on the
  question being put, the same was resolved in the negative.

  4th November, 1794. M{r} Thomas Holehouse who was on the 1{st} July
  last elected on the Livery of this Company, but had refused to take
  upon him the same, without shewing any cause to the Contrary, and
  against whom an Action had been commenced for the recovery of Twenty
  Pounds the penalty incurred by such his refusal, this day attended
  and paid the said sum of Twenty pounds together with the costs of the
  said Action.

9th November, 1795. The following Circular was distributed amongst the
Livery at the dinner this day:--

  The Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Barbers having
  received information that many persons residing within the City of
  London carry on the Trade of a Barber and Hair dresser without being
  free of this Company to the great prejudice of the Members and the
  rights of the Company Do hereby give notice that they have come to a
  resolution to prosecute all persons carrying on the trade of a Barber
  or Hair dresser within the said City not being free of this Company
  and they request the assistance of their Members for that purpose for
  the benefit of the Company and Trade at large; any information to
  their Clerk at the Hall will be duly attended to.

                             By order of Court,

                                             EDW{D} GROSE SMITH,

                                                               Clerk.

9th November, 1796. The By-Laws of the Company having been found,
on the opinion of Mr. Serjeant Adair, insufficient to enforce the
payment of fines for the refusal to serve various offices, a new set
was drawn up by the Clerk, and submitted to and approved by the Court,
who ordered the Clerk to get the same confirmed and allowed by the Lord
Chancellor and two Chief Justices, but this was never done.

5th September, 1797. The Mahogany table now in the Court Room was made
about this time. There is a tradition that the bulb-shaped end of it
was a portion of the old dissecting table used by the Surgeons. If so,
its latter days are more cheerful than its first.

1796 to 1799. Several Barbers were prosecuted for exercising their
Trade within the limits of the Company’s Charters and brought to terms,
generally they became freemen, and then were compelled to come on to
the livery; in other cases the barbers removed out the jurisdiction,
and paid the costs.

18th May, 1802. The Commissioners for the Public Lottery having
advertised for a place in which to hold the lotteries, the Court
decided to send in proposals offering the use of the Hall (under
certain restrictions) for the next three lotteries for Six hundred
guineas, but the offer was not accepted.

1st August, 1809. A case was submitted to the Attorney General (Sir R.
Gibbs) who gave an opinion that the freemen of the Company were exempt
from serving on Juries, but not from serving as Constables.

4th February, 1812. A memorial signed by four freemen of the Company
was presented to the Court, the purport of which was that the
memorialists having been summoned to act as Ward Constables had refused
to serve, and that thereupon actions had been brought against them,
which, being tried before Lord Ellenborough, the verdicts were against
them and they were ordered to pay the costs (£333 9_s._ 0_d._). The
memorialists alleging that they defended the actions for the benefit of
the Company and really to uphold its privileges, prayed that they might
be reimbursed the costs, which, however, the Court declined to accede
to, but ordered that £12, which had been paid to the Company for copies
of the Charters, should be refunded.

1814. The Churchwardens of St. Olave, Silver Street, having assessed
the Hall at £172, they were requested to attend the next Court which
they did, and the following delightful method of settling these matters
is recommended to the Authorities nowadays.

  1st November, 1814. The parish officers of Saint Olave Silver
  Street attended & stated to the Court that the Vestry of that
  Parish had taken the subject of the Poor rate into consideration,
  and considering the great increase of the rate they left it to the
  Company to say what they were agreeable to be rated at; the Court
  proposed to say £100 per annum; the gentlemen (having withdrawn)
  were then called in and informed of such proposal, with which they
  cordially acquiesced.

  2nd April, 1816. Alexander Rowland the younger [of Macassar oil fame]
  of Kirby Street Hatton Garden, Barber was admitted to the Livery.

3rd May, 1825. The Livery stand, being in a decayed and useless
condition, was ordered to be sold.

2nd May, 1826. But as a purchaser could not be found, the Master
offered to give £5 for it, which was accepted, and this, together with
an additional £5, was ordered to be given to the Committee for the
Relief of Distressed Manufacturers.

5th February, 1861. Mr. John Atkinson gave £100 consols for the purpose
of distributing the dividends thereof in the purchase of Bibles and
Prayer Books for the poor members of the Company.

7th February, 1862. Mr. John Atkinson’s Will reciting a munificent
bequest to the Company is set out in the minutes of this date.

3rd February, 1863. A Statement of the property left by Mr. John
Atkinson is recorded in a letter from the Solicitors to his Trustees
directed to the Court, and entered in the minutes of this date.

[Illustration]



[Illustration: PORTION OF THE MASTER’S SILVER GARLAND (DATE 1629).]

PRECEDENCE.


The Barbers’ Company is ranked the seventeenth in order of the City
Companies, and is the fifth after the “Twelve great Companies,”
the thirteenth being the Dyers, fourteenth Brewers, fifteenth
Leathersellers, sixteenth Pewterers, seventeenth Barbers, eighteenth
Cutlers, etc.

The question of precedency in former times gave rise to many
contentions between the City Guilds, and the Barber-Surgeons seem
to have had some experience in these quarrels: the City pageants,
processions, and public attendances at church, were numerous in the
days of the Tudors and Stuarts, and at most of these the Livery
Companies attended, each guild jealously striving to keep its place,
and no doubt to advance its position whenever opportunity arose.

There are extant, lists of the Companies in the City books, in which
our Company takes various positions; and Stow, having incorporated one
of these lists in his Survey, has given it an authority as a table
of precedence which it was never intended to possess; he furnishes a
list of the Companies attending the Lord Mayor’s feast, 23rd Henry VIII
(1531), and places the Barbers as the thirty-second, whereas at that
time they were undoubtedly the twenty-eighth.

1516. The first authentic reference to our Company’s standing is found
in _Letter-Book N._ leaf 5 (January, 1516), where it is ordained that
the Barbers, although they claimed of their ancient right to be the
seventeenth Company, yet were adjudged to take the twenty-eighth place,
following the Cordwainers, and preceding the Paynter-Stainers.

1532. This order was probably in force until February, 1532, when the
Barbers got back their old position (_Repertory_ 8, leaf 272) and an
officer was directed to wait on the Pewterers to “shewe theym that
the seyd Company of Barbours Surgeons be Restored ageyn to their olde
Rowme.” Three months later (May, 1532), the Barbers were “taken down
one,” and directed to occupy the eighteenth place.

1533. In February, 1533 (_Letter-Book O._ _fo._ 213), is a record which
is somewhat puzzling, as, altogether ignoring the orders of February
and May, 1532, it is stated that the Barber-Surgeons had petitioned
to be restored to their old place of seventeenth Company, from which
it is said they were dispossessed about sixteen years back (evidently
alluding to the order of January, 1516), “so that they be nowe the xxix
or xxx{th} Companye yn thordre of such goynges,” etc.

Perhaps the orders of February and May, 1532, had been disregarded by
the other guilds, and our Company forcibly ousted from their rightful
position, so that this is in effect an application for a confirmatory
order, which was granted, and thus they were again fixed as the
seventeenth Company.

1534. The Barbers must have given some offence to the Civic authorities
in 1534, for in October of that year (_Repertory_ 9, leaf 79) the
last-named order was repealed, and they were put back again to the
twenty-eighth place, and further the Company were ordered that they
“shall no more goo yn pˀcessyons, standyngꝭ, Rydyngꝭ, goyngꝭ, and other
assembles from hensfurth, tyll it be otherwyse ordered by thys coˀrte.”

1535. This vacillation on the part of the Court of Aldermen in settling
our position, was not yet at an end, for in March, 1535, we were again
placed seventeenth, to come before the Cutlers and after the Pewterers,
and this order was confirmed no less than four times in 1535, and twice
in 1536.

1604. At a Royal Procession on the 15th March, 1604, our Company got
misplaced by some of the Marshals, and this led to another application
to the Court of Aldermen, whereupon a peremptory order was made that
the Barber-Surgeons should stand sixteenth in precedence. This order
is set out in full elsewhere (see page 195); the sixteenth place
was then accorded to us in consequence of the Stockfishmongers, who
formerly held the twelfth place, having been dissolved, whereby the
Barber-Surgeons went up one: the Clothworkers who, at that time were
the thirteenth Company, then became the twelfth.

Some short time afterwards, the Dyers, who had been the eighteenth
Company, got the thirteenth place, and we reverted to our old position
of seventeenth Company in which we still continue.

1606. An attempt to misplace us was made in July, 1606, but this was
successfully resisted. (See p. 116.)



[Illustration]

COURT OF ASSISTANTS.


The constitution of the governing body of the Company has grown up in
the course of time from one Prime Master or Ruler to a Master with
three Wardens and twenty Assistants, forming a Court of twenty-four
members.

We gather from the earliest records, that the business of the Company
was then transacted by the meeting together in Common Hall, of the
whole fraternity (which probably included both freemen and liverymen),
under the presidency of a single Master, who, as in the case of Richard
le Barber in 1308, was invested with the supervision of the craft, and
power to make search and scrutiny, and to punish offenders.

In 1376 two Masters were appointed to rule the craft, while in 1388 we
find that two Masters and two “Surveyors” formed the governing body.

In 1416 is recorded the admission of five Masters, three of whom are
described as “Barbitonsores” (_i.e._, Barbers proper) and two as
“Masters of the Barbers exercising the faculty of Surgery.” In 1428
there were four Masters, two of each class, and this number was the
governing body at the time of Edward IV’s Charter of Incorporation, in
1462.

As has been elsewhere remarked, this Charter provides for the
appointment of two Masters only, and they to be skilled in Surgery,
to be chosen by twelve Electors taken from the Commonalty; but as our
records preserve the names of four Masters elected in that year, and
so on ever since in unbroken succession, there cannot be any doubt
but that (the Charter dealing almost entirely with the regulation of
matters surgical) the two Masters of the “Barbers side” were left to be
elected in accordance with old custom, or under the By-laws which the
Company were, by their Charter, empowered to make.

At what period a Court of Assistants was created in our Company is
unknown, but I am inclined to think the date is about 1480 to 1500.
The four “Masters or Governors” (answering to our “Master and three
Wardens”) were chosen out of the Commonalty by twelve electors yearly,
and do not, as seems by the lists preserved, appear to have gone up
annually by seniority as now they do, _i.e._, from third Warden to
second, and so on. Those who had served as second, third, or fourth
Governors, if not chosen to higher office the next year, as a general
rule took their places again as simple liverymen; whilst those who
had served as Prime or Chief Governor were, at the expiry of their
term of office, designated “Ancient Masters,” and these, with some
past Wardens, having become qualified by experience in the affairs of
the Company would naturally be consulted by the ruling Governors who
sought their “assistance” and advice, and thus grow up into a Court
of Assistants[168] (nearly always in early time spelt “Assistance”)
and be recognised to a great extent as a power in the direction of the
Company’s business.

[168] This theory is confirmed by the Ordinances made in 1566, whereby
it was enacted that a liveryman _might_ be chosen an Assistant without
having ever served the office of Governor.

The earliest mention of Assistants is in the By-laws settled by Sir
Thomas More in 1530, though throughout these By-laws the actual ruling
power was evidently in the four Masters or Governors. The Assistants
are here twice referred to, in one case where it is enacted that the
Masters shall not admit a “fforen” to the freedom without the assent of
the “xxiiij{ti} assistentes,” and in another place they are to have,
with the Masters, the election of the Livery.

The Act 32 Henry VIII is silent as to Assistants, vesting all power
in the Masters or Governors. In 1557 at one of the Courts twenty-one
Assistants and four Masters attended, and at a Court held 19th July,
1595, the names of twenty-five Assistants are recorded. The number
seems to have varied with the times, the full Court, however, never
exceeding four Masters and thirty-two Assistants. The Assistants have
always been elected by the Court, and the custom became in time to
choose the senior liveryman whenever a vacancy occurred, though there
does not appear to have been at any time a by-law to that effect, and
indeed this practice has been departed from on very many occasions.

The Election of Masters prior to the year 1633 was on the Monday next
before the feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle (Aug. 24); from 1633 to
1745 it was held on the third Thursday in August, and since 1745 it has
been held on the second Thursday in August.

The ancient practice was for the whole body of the livery to be
summoned to the Hall in their livery gowns, hoods and caps on the
Monday at 8 o’clock in the morning “at the furthest” to whom the
Masters, sitting in Court, declared the cause of their assembling;
this done, the Masters retired, and the livery, sitting there, chose
twelve of their number to be “Electors,” of whom six were to be “expert
Surgeons,” and four at least must never have served the office of
Master or Governor. The Clerk then called the twelve Electors out (the
rest of the livery remaining in the Hall). The Masters then delivered
to the Electors the “Bills of Election,” each Master nominating two
Barbers and two Surgeons, so that sixteen in all were nominated, and,
after administering to them the oath prescribed, the Electors retired
to a private room apart to make their choice. Should the Electors deem
that one or more of themselves ought to have been put in nomination,
they were to send for the Masters who were bound to withdraw such
person or persons, and choose others in their place. The Bills were to
be made out in accordance with seniority, but the Electors were not
bound to choose by seniority. Having made their choice, the Electors
sent for the Masters and delivered to them a Bill with the names of the
four persons selected, and these names were (under a heavy penalty) to
be kept secret until after the “dener.”

The whole Company then proceeded in state to the Church of St. Olave,
Silver Street (after the Great Fire to St. Alban, Wood Street), maids
strewing the way with flowers. At Church there was a “goodly masse”
celebrated, and in later times a “devyne sˀrvice,” which, being ended,
the parson and some of the church officials had customary fees and
returned with the Company to the Hall to celebrate the Election dinner.
The feast over, the outgoing Masters, according to “auncient order,”
walked about the table, each bearing a garland and placing it on the
head of the member who had been chosen to fill his place in the year
ensuing. If anyone elected happened to be absent, his garland was
placed on the head of one of the Ancient Masters as proxy, and the
newly-elected Masters were sworn on the Holy Evangelists to the due
execution of their offices, absentees being sworn at the next Court.

The Election dinners were held at any early hour in the afternoon (1
or 2 p.m.) and were generally followed by a play or a dance, sometimes
both; the wives of the livery and Assistants were present at the
dinner, and the latter had their apprentices in attendance waiting at
table.

In 1633 the mode of choosing the Electors was varied as follows: a
“fair ballating box” with two cells therein, one labelled “Surgeons”
and the other “Barbers” was placed upon the table,

    Into _each_ cell the Master put the names of
    two Ancient Masters, and drew one out of each       2

    The second and third Governors put into _each_
    cell the names of six Assistants, and the Master
    drew three out of each                              6

    The fourth Governor put into _each_ cell the
    names of four liverymen and the Master drew
    two out of each                                     4
                                                       --
                                                       12
                                                       ==

The twelve so drawn constituted the Electors, and the proceedings were
then much the same as has been before described.

The new Masters or Governors commenced their duties immediately upon
being sworn.

From the earliest period the custom has been to hold the monthly and
ordinary Courts on Tuesdays, but the meetings do not seem to have
taken place on any definite or fixed days, numerous Courts being
held at irregular intervals and frequently on Mondays. “Courts of
Assistants,” as distinguished from Monthly and special Courts, were,
in early times, for some reason or other, particularly prohibited from
being held on Tuesdays, there being several orders and by-laws to this
effect, but why, I do not know.

In the year 1557 twenty Courts were held. In 1572 forty-one Courts,
the average attendance at which was twelve. In 1599 forty-six Courts
assembled. At the intermediate Courts a great deal of important as
well as minor business was transacted, including the admissions and
presentations of freemen and apprentices, the examination of Surgeons
and Sea Surgeons, and a great variety of business connected with the
medical service of the army and navy.

Previous to the separation in 1745, the office of Master was supposed
to be, and generally was, held by a Barber and a Surgeon alternately,
the Wardens being chosen in like manner, any member not practising as
a Surgeon being accounted a Barber, whatever his trade or occupation
might be.

Great importance has at all times been attached to the question of
precedence in sitting at table and in speaking in Court, and many have
been the rules enacted, and the disputes and jealousies which have
arisen between members of the Court on this question.

Some of the powers executed by the Masters of old and by the Court
of Assistants in later times have been those which now are peculiar
to Courts of Law, _e.g._, the settlement of disputes upon every
conceivable question, the imposition of fines, and their recovery by
distress levied by the Beadle, the summary committal of offenders to
gaol, and the issuing of orders for their release, the prohibition of
actions and suits at common law (if commenced by a freeman without
leave of the Court), the inhibition of members from practising their
profession, and the infliction of corporal punishment upon unruly
freemen and apprentices.

The Court as now existing, consists of four Masters or Governors and
twenty Assistants, appointed under the provisions of the Act 18 George
II, cap. xv. By this Act the election of the Masters or Governors is
in the Court and takes place on the second Thursday in August, but
alas! without the ancient ceremonies of attending Church, crowning with
garlands, and--may I add?--the Election dinner for the Livery.

As will be seen elsewhere, there have been frequent disturbances at
the Courts, and there are numerous entries of Assistants, Wardens, and
Past Masters having been expelled the Court and sometimes dismissed
from the Livery as well, for their misconduct or quarrelsome behaviour.
Instances of impertinence and abuse by freemen and liverymen before the
Court, are also by no means rare, and in these cases condign punishment
by imprisonment or fine was invariably meted out.

  9th March, 1624. This daye Mr. Warden Thornebury made knowne to this
  Court y{t} one Tanner, a brother of this Companie, hath abused him
  in words. Whereupon it is ordered by this Court that John Bayard
  the officer belonging to this Companie shall laye the Lord Maio{rs}
  comaund on the said Tanner and comitte him to one of the Compters
  of this Cittye And that imediately upon the said comittm{t} shall
  acquaint the M{rs} therewith That thereupon the M{rs} maye acquaint
  the lo: Maio{r} with the reson of his comittem{t.}

  19th January, 1626. This daye the letter directed to the Maister
  Wards and Assistants of the Companie of Barbor Surgions of London
  from M{r} William Clowes Sarjeant Chirurgion to his Ma{tie} was
  here in Courte reade in hec verba viz{t} Right worthie Maister and
  Governors and assistants of the companie of Barbers and Surgions
  in my true love I wish all health and florishinge goverment of
  yo{r} Company to the glory of God the honor of the Kinge and the
  good of Gods people Amen. Now whereas I have bin not only by many
  Brothers advertised but also of yo{r} Officer legally by letter and
  otherwise given to understand that you had chosen me Renter warden
  of the company from the w{ch} Election I desired by M{r} Cooper and
  M{r} Thomas Allen I might be freed yett could not, I then knewe
  well that in duty I owed you an aunswer which might well be seeme
  my reverent respect to yo{r} Authoritye; and my tender regard of
  the kinge my M{rs} honor which in yo{r} Chusinge and my acceptinge
  maye be considered, which as much as in me is I desired to doe, And
  nowe, not once questoninge the troblesomnes of the place, nor other
  hinderances w{ch} god Almighty did then send I thus aunswer (because
  I wilbe free of Ambition or pride) that if you can make that appeere
  upon yo{r} Records that any of my predecessors did beare the office
  of Wardein after he was sworne Serjeant Surgion to any of the Kˀs or
  Queenes of England I shall humbly serve it, if not, I Crave yo{r}
  pˀdon for I might not soe poorely value the Kinge my M{r} as thinke
  him less mighty, less absolute a Prince then any Kinge whatsoever
  hath raigned before him, and so as his Servaunt I expect from the
  Company as good respect as any Sergeant Surgion heretofore hath had,
  for my M{rs} honor I will not give to any other, And further because
  I am many tymes summoned to yo{r} Courts and other meetings, w{ch}
  service I am very willinge to performe, when I shall knowe my place
  in the Company, which I must leave to yo{r} grave considerac͠on, only
  if you please to take notice how the Colledge of Phisitions and the
  Company of Apothecaryes of London have rancked the Kingꝭ Phisitions
  and Apothecaryes, you may thereby guess what place I expect, but
  howsoever if by the occasion of back freinds wee may not so well
  agree as I desire, so as I may personally absent my selfe from the
  Company yett thus much I ingenuously and religiously profess that I
  will alwayes in harty love be present and ready press either by the
  Kinge my M{r} or any other wayes to doe the Companye any loveing
  Service I may, And so ceasing further troubling you but desireing to
  heare of yo{r} smoothe acceptance, I rest.

  Whereas he was chosen renter warden of this Companie for this yere
  ensueing w{ch} place by reason of this contagious tyme and other
  respects he is not able to execute, It is thereupon ordered by this
  courte that he shalbe discharged from the said place of youngest
  warden and second warden of this Company, And it is further ordered
  that he shall take place next unto the youngest of our assistants
  that have served the place of upper warden and when he shall have
  served the place of upper warden of this Companye then he to take his
  precedencye and ranck according to that service.

21st August, 1626. Serjeant Clowes was elected Master, but it seems his
election was called in question, as it was the turn for a Barber this
year, and it was moved that the electors should be fined for breach of
the ordinance in choosing a Surgeon, but the Court decided not to do
so. There was evidently a dislike to Mr. Clowes on the part of some of
the Company, as the Wardens of the Yeomanry were on the 20th September,
fined 40_s._ for refusing, or neglecting to carry the Standing Cups
before him and the Wardens of the Livery on the Election day.

1638. Serjeant Clowes was again elected Master.

  9th April, 1641. M{r} Warden Martin Browne made his complaint against
  M{r} Serjeant Clowes and he did freely declare that he did forgive
  the Serjeant his personall Wrong, and did referr the Wrong due to the
  Court unto the Court, And this Court did order that M{r} Serjeant
  Clowes shall acknowledge that in his anger and passion he did speake
  some words to the wrong of this Court, and this being done this Order
  to be annihilated.

  22nd September, 1642. Alsoe for the more peaceable treaty and
  discussing matters in times of Courts of Assistants It is ordered
  That decency be held in these Courts proceedings and that every one
  of the Assistants as he is in his turne and time of Delivery to
  yeild his voyce shall not use any impertinent speeches or divert
  the matter in question into some other busines but give his answer
  freely to the present matter proponed and that during the time of his
  delivery of his speech or opinion none other of the Assistants shall
  give crosse or thwarting speeches or calumniate that Assistant And
  if any Assistant shalbe soe Uncivill That then the present M{r} or
  Governour shall cause him to be silent and shall put such Assistants
  Interrupc͠on of speech to question concerneing his ffine for evill
  behaviour and such Interruptor being found faulty shall pay the ffine
  of vj{s} viij{d} according to the Ordinance in that behalfe made.

  3rd October, 1642. Alsoe M{r} Cotton layed downe his ffines imposed
  on him at the last Court of Assistants viz{t} xxvj{s} viij{d} The
  M{r} of the Company moveing by the consent of the last Court M{r}
  Cotton to withdrawe himselfe according to Orders and Custome, he gave
  this Court this peremptory answer, I will not goe out of the Court
  nor the M{r} hath noe power to bidd mee goe out and that the Court
  had noe power to fine him, then he threatned M{r} Warden Arris as
  he sat in the Court saying Winter will come, Alsoe he abused M{r}
  Dye in his delivery of speech to this Court that his speeches were
  rotten speeches and thwarted him to the generall disturbance of the
  Court, and to M{r} Martin Browne threatning him I will make you know
  it better in another place Alsoe he sought to disable the M{rs} hand
  which was signed to Ticketts for his and other appearances at the
  Hall for defaults saying they might choose whether to appeare or not
  Alsoe he told the Court with high language I will not be dismissed.

  fforasmuch as this Court is informed and it doth fully appeare to
  this present Court of Assistants That M{r} Lawrence Cotton hath from
  time to time bin a disturber of the Unity peace and amity of this
  Society and hath by many reproachfull Words and ill behaviour abused
  the present M{rs} of the Company and divers of the Assistants and
  Members of this Company Whereupon this Court doth dismisse the said
  M{r} Cotton out of and from his place of an Assistant and being an
  Examiner.

Mr. Cotton subsequently made his peace, was reinstated and served the
office of Master, 1645!

  8th July, 1644. Whereas by Order of the Honourable house of Comõns
  assembled in Parliament of the 28{th} June last the President of the
  Colledge of Physicians was appointed to call this Company before them
  and to tender the Covenaunt by them This Court conceiveing their
  Priviledges to be thereby infringed this Co{rt} the M{r} doe advise
  with Councell Doth order that a Petic͠on be framed to be preferred
  by all the Assistants that are now present or the major part, to the
  House of Comõns to have the tendring of the Covenñt themselves to
  theire owne Members and the Charge to be allowed out of the Comõn
  stock.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE COMMONALTY.


The admission to membership in the Company has ever been by servitude,
patrimony, or redemption, and the fines and fees payable have varied
so much at different periods in our history, and have frequently
been so capricious, that no attempt has been made to tabulate them,
though references will be made here and there to the prevailing fees
of the period. The fees for apprentices have always been of a nominal
description, and generally so of freemen, though, in olden time,
the Court, as became the Masters of the mystery of “bleeding,” not
unfrequently bled a new member by a substantial fine on admission, but
also put him to the expense of a dinner into the bargain.

[Footnote: The initial letter T is reduced from one in the Audit Book
1614-15.]

An ample fine, suited to the period, has always been taken from
the Liverymen who were, in the days of the Tudors and Stuarts a
comparatively small section of the Company, and rarely exceeded fifty
in number; they were always chosen from the more substantial of the
Yeomanry, and if on election they refused “to take the clothing,”
as was frequently the case, a heavy penalty was imposed, which, if
not paid, the unhappy yeoman was forthwith committed to the Compter,
where, upon reflection, he generally came to the conclusion to submit.
It is right, however, to state that at all times the Court have, in
cases where the proposed Liveryman was actually a poor man, remitted
the fine, and allowed him to continue a yeoman; on the other hand,
contumacious refusal was invariably met in the firmest manner and
conquered.

The practice of calling up yeomen to the Livery was at times resorted
to as a means of putting the Company into funds, and as these calls
generally took place at periods of national trouble, when the coffers
of the Company had been emptied by the King or the Parliament, the
intended Liverymen were themselves not unfrequently in sore straits,
and great contentions arose.

About one hundred and fifty years ago the practice of enforcing these
fines was in regular operation, but since then it has been attended
with varying success; not that the Company has not by law the power of
enforcement, but a prejudice had grown up against the system, and the
Court has been unwilling to sanction a resort to extremities.

Early in the present century three or four actions were brought against
freemen to recover penalties of £20 for refusing to accept the Livery;
in one case which was ripe for trial the Company withdrew the record
and paid the costs, and the others seem to have been abandoned.

All freemen on being sworn were liable to pay “quarterage,” which has
been from the earliest period, and still is, 2_s._ per annum.[169] On
a man coming up for admission he was “presented,” that is, seen by the
Court who enquired into his position, knowledge, fitness and general
qualifications, and if approved he paid his fees and was sworn. Some of
the earlier forms of oath will be seen on reference to the Ordinances,
and that used up to a very recent period was as follows:--

[169] The quarterage is now usually compounded for on admission by
payment of a sum down.

  You shall swear That you shall be True and Loyal to our Sovereign
  Lady Queen Victoria and faithful and true in all lawful things unto
  the Corporation and Company of the Mystery of Barbers of London,
  whereof you are now made free, and accordingly be obedient to the
  Master and Governors thereof: and as much as in you lieth maintain
  amity and unity therein; and obey observe and perform all the
  lawful rules statutes and ordinances thereof; and be proportionably
  contributory to the best of your power, to all lawful or reasonable
  charges contributions and payments belonging or necessarily
  appertaining to you to bear and pay as other Brethren of the same
  Company do. And also you shall obey all manner of summons or warnings
  done, or to be made by the Clerk Beadle or other officer of the said
  Company thereunto assigned in the name of the Master and Governors,
  having no lawful or reasonable excuse to the contrary. All these
  articles you shall duly, truly, fully and faithfully observe, perform
  and keep to the best of your power. So help you God.

A few years since, this oath was changed into a declaration, the words
“You shall declare” being substituted for “You shall swear.”

It was generally the practice, when a member wished to be translated
to another Company or entirely discharged, that he should pay a fine
for his dismission. In 1724, Mr. John Bamber, a Surgeon, informing
the Court that he intended to practise as a Physician and to become a
Member of the College of Physicians prayed for his discharge, which
was granted to him on payment of thirty guineas, and there are other
entries to the like effect.

The regulations for the governance of the members are very fully
contained in the Ordinances referred to elsewhere, and it would
therefore be tedious to further allude to them here. On a perusal
of the extracts from the minutes, etc., many curious particulars
will be seen concerning both freemen and liverymen who were liable
to be expelled for not being “able” (_i.e._, solvent) and also for
not attending in their livery gowns and hoods upon summons. There
are many and often reminders to the livery to appear in their gowns
with their hoods upon their shoulders, and there are also cases in
which individuals were forbidden to wear their gowns and hoods by way
of punishment. The dress of the livery has been well described in
Herbert’s Livery Companies, and Planche’s Costume, and we can see it
in our great Holbein picture, though the dresses worn on that occasion
were of a much richer description than those in daily use.

It will be seen that the Livery were constantly going out in procession
in days of old. There were the services at St. Paul’s on Christmas and
Candlemas days, the Lord Mayor’s procession, the setting of the watch
on Midsummer Eve, the celebration of 5th November, the anniversary
of Gowrie’s Conspiracy, the Election Service at St. Olave’s, Silver
Street, days of thanksgiving and humiliation, Royal progresses and
Civic pageants. To all of these the Livery were bidden to go by
precept, and on neglect of the summons were fined. In many cases
certain of them were appointed to ride on horseback with velvet coats
and chains of gold about their necks, and when not so apparelled
they appeared in their gowns of black and scarlet, with their hoods
upon their shoulders. What would we not give for a photograph of one
of these gorgeous scenes wherein we should see the “liverie of our
solempne and grete fraternite” riding “ayenst,” say, Queen Elizabeth in
1599?

Our earlier records of freemen are unfortunately lost, the first
register commencing in the year 1551, but at Guildhall I have
discovered several admissions of freemen Barbers to the freedom of the
City, and here place a few of them upon record. The first is in 1309:--

  Thomas Orgor barbitonsor admissus fuit in libtãte civitatis & jurˀ
  &c die sabĩ pˀxima post festñ scĩ Edmundi Regis & martirˀ anno R. E.
  filˀ R. E. tcĩo coram Nich̃o de ffarendon Joh̃e de Wyndesore & Henrˀ
  de Dunolm Aldris Et dat commitati xx{s} quos pˀdcĩ Aldr̃i recepˀunt.

  (TRANSLATION.) Thomas Orgor, Barber, was admitted into the freedom of
  the City and sworn, etc., on Saturday next after the feast of Saint
  Edmund the King and Martyr in the third year of King Edward, the son
  of King Edward, before Nicholas de Farendon, John de Windsor and
  Henry de Durham, Aldermen, And gave to the Commonalty 20_s._, which
  the aforesaid Aldermen received.

Other entries are much in the same form, a few of which, abridged,
follow:--

1309. John de Dodinghurst, Barber, admitted and sworn, etc., Friday
next after the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle; paid half a mark.

1310. Ralph the Barber admitted, etc., 16th March; paid one mark.

1310. Gilbert Blaunchard, Barber, admitted, etc., 1st April; paid 10_s._

1310. Peter de Pecham, Barber, admitted, etc., 12th May, “at the
instance of Roger le Brabanzon, a justice of our Lord the King”; paid
5_s._

1310. Galfridus de Trengye, Barber, admitted, etc., Saturday before the
feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist; paid 10_s._

1311. John Syward, Barber, admitted, etc., Monday before the feast of
St. Edmund the King, at the instance of the Lord Walter, Bishop of
Winchester, Chancellor, “et ideo nichil dat ꝓ liᵬtate habenda,” “and
_therefore_ gave nothing to have the freedom!”

1312. Ralph de Bosbery, Barber, admitted, etc., on Monday in the feast
of St. Valentine; paid half a mark.

1312. John de Fynceham, Barber, admitted, etc., 6th April; paid 10_s._

1312. Henry de la Chaumbre, Barber, admitted, etc., on Monday in the
vigil of the Assumption; paid half a mark.

1312. Thomas de Mangrave who was the apprentice of Richard le Barber of
Bread Street, was admitted on Wednesday before the feast of St. James
the Apostle, on the testimony of Katherine, widow of the said Richard
and of Robert de Gloucester, the executors of his will; paid 2_s._ 6_d._

The “Richard le Barber” mentioned in the last entry was Master of the
Company in 1308.

The freemen were formerly enrolled in the “yeomanry” and formed a minor
fraternity within the Company (_see_ the chapter on the Yeomanry).

All freemen practising as journeymen or assistants, if Barbers,
Surgeons, or Barber-Surgeons were “sessed at the Hall,” that is, their
wages were settled for them by the Court, and entered in a book,
together with the period for which they agreed to serve, the period
being never less than one year nor more than three. These men were
often called “covenant servants,” but they paid quarterage, and were
entitled to all the privileges of freedom, excepting that they could
not take apprentices.

If a freemen desired to start in business, the By-laws of 1530 required
that he should prove to the Court as an act precedent to his so doing,
that he was possessed of goods to the value of ten marks.

A certain class of members called “Foreign Brothers” are very
frequently alluded to in the Books, and it has been a matter of some
difficulty to ascertain what their status exactly was, but by collation
of numerous entries I have come to the conclusion that, with very few
exceptions, they were all of them practising Surgeons, and that they
had _not_ been apprenticed to freemen of the Company. If practising
within the jurisdiction of the Company, they were compelled to join, or
else to forbear to practise, and it seems that on admission they were
required to satisfy the Court by the production of their Indentures of
apprenticeship to Country or other Surgeons that they had duly served
seven years, and to give ample proof of their skill and knowledge
before the Examiners; exceptions to the production of indentures were,
however, made in favour of those who came with recommendations from
persons of quality, or of such as had acquired eminence and position
in the profession. All sea surgeons were “Foreign Brothers” and paid a
fine (generally seven guineas) on admission, they also paid quarterage
as freemen, and when they resided within the jurisdiction were subject
to all the rules and ordinances of the Company as other freemen, being
frequently fined and imprisoned for malpractice, etc., though they were
not entitled to the benefit of the charities, to come to the dinners,
or to confer the right of admission by patrimony upon their sons, nor
do they seem to have been necessarily free of the City. Many Surgeons
practising in the Country became Foreign Brothers for the sake of the
diplomas granted at Barber-Surgeons’ Hall.

There are a few instances of “Barbers” being compelled to become
Foreign Brothers, for which I am unable to give an explanation, unless
they be errors of description by the Clerk for “Barber-Surgeons.”

Every freeman on admission formerly paid 3_s._ 4_d._, and every
apprentice on “presentation” 2_s._ 6_d._ For many years the names of
these persons are entered in the Audit Books, and thus it has been
possible to ascertain the number admitted extending over a considerable
period.

It appears that from the year 1603 to 1674, 3,479 persons were admitted
to the freedom, an average of about 48 per annum; and 9,554 apprentices
were presented, an average of about 133 per annum. The greatest number
of freemen admitted was in the year 1647 when 82 came on, and the least
in 1666 when but 23 were admitted. With apprentices the greatest number
presented was in the year 1629 when there were 219, and the least again
in the year of the Great Fire when there were but 54.

Between 1674 and 1745, about 75 freemen and 162 apprentices would be
the yearly average.

After the separation in 1745, and indeed down to the beginning of this
century, a respectable average was maintained, being about 40 freemen
and 60 apprentices per annum.

In the hundred years between 1746 and 1845, 2,964 persons were admitted
to the freedom and 4,298 apprentices were presented, being an average
of about 30 of the former and 43 of the latter for each year. The least
number of freemen coming on was in 1845, when only 5 were admitted, and
of apprentices in 1844, when but 4 were presented.

The apprentices always seem to have been a fruitful source of trouble
both to their Masters and to the Company, and numerous are the
entries of their floggings and imprisonments. The term of servitude
was generally seven years, but in a few instances it was eight and
even nine, the age at which boys were taken was usually fourteen, and
before the Indentures were sealed the boy was “presented” to the Court
that it might be seen that he was clean and not deformed or diseased.
If approved, the Indentures were executed and recorded, and in all
cases the apprentice actually lived with his Master, who covenanted
to find him meat, drink, apparel, lodging and all other necessaries
according to the custom of the City. If the boy’s master died or for
other reasons was unable to continue his business, it became necessary
for him to be “turned over” to another master, free of the Company,
and that such turn over should be approved and recorded, otherwise the
apprentice was disqualified for his freedom. When his term expired the
Master brought him to the Hall and “testified” to his faithful service,
whereupon he became entitled to the freedom on payment of a nominal
fine. Sometimes Masters refused to make their apprentices free, in
which cases the Court enquired into the circumstances, and acted in
accordance with the merits of the case.

From the earliest times the custom has prevailed to admit women to the
freedom, mostly by apprenticeship, but also by patrimony, and these
freewomen bound their apprentices, both boys and girls, at the Hall; of
course the ladies were not admitted to the livery, but otherwise they
had the same privileges as freemen so far as the same were compatible
with their sex. At the present time (1890) there is one freewoman of
the Barbers’ Company.



APPRENTICES.


  Ordered 17th July, 1551. That Water Lynche whiche was prentise w{th}
  John Tholmwoode Barborsurgeon shalbe and ys contented to serve Thomas
  Woolf as a prentice from the daye above written untyll the viij{th}
  yere of King Edward the sixte and so the sayd Water Lynche his yeres
  to be fully ended and ronne out at the feaste of all Saints as may
  appere by his Indenture.

  19th September, 1552. Ordered that when any prentise dothe goo awaye
  from his M{r} the same M{r} shall bring in his Indenture and here to
  remayne tyll the prentice come agayne and to be regestred.

It was also ordered that the Beadle should make out all Indentures of
apprenticeship, and any one else presuming to do so should pay a fine
of 3_s._ 4_d._

27th April, 1556. It was ordered that no apprentice should wear a beard
of beyond fifteen days’ growth, and that on breach of this order the
master of the apprentice was to pay a fine of half a mark.

  15th October, 1566. Here in this Court John James the appñts of John
  Shryve for pylferyng, & so here he had his correction.[170]

  [170] That is, he was flogged.

27th May, 1567. Robert Cholmeley complained of his apprentice

  for y{t} he doth not his worke as he ought & for his other ill
  demeanors And so in the pˀsents of this Court the saide appˀnts
  humbled hym upon his knees and pˀmyssed his amendment.

1567. The quarrels between masters and apprentices about this period
were numerous, and occupied a great deal of the time of the Court, who
in dealing with them generally pursued a policy of reconciliation and
made the parties friends again. In certain cases, masters were fined
for ill-treating apprentices, whilst some of the latter had their
Indentures cancelled or “torn in Court” and were either whipped or
ordered to behave better, or to find new masters.

  22nd August, 1569. Here was Rich Upton Playntyf agaynst his app̃nts
  W{m} Fyshe for that he ranne awaye frome his said M{r} the xxj{th} of
  the former moneth and tooke w{th} hym sˀten instruments for surgery
  & other things more, w{ch} pˀtyculers were here pˀsently sene & by
  the said W{m} Fyshe confessed and that he had no cawse to go frome
  his said M{r} but that he wolde have gon to the sea and accordynge to
  his desert had correction and punnyshment unto auncyent custom w{th}
  roddes.

  22nd November, 1569. Memorandˀ upon the xxij{th} day of November 1569
  in the afternowne Gyles Swalldell thappeñtꝭ of Chrystofor Swalldell
  for goyng forth of his maisters house at unlawfull tymes and houres
  & in evell company wastinge and consumyng his M{rs} grocery wares
  also therebye he the appntꝭ then had the correction of this hall
  accordyng to his desertꝭ as the justice & equytie by the M{r} &
  govˀnors thoughte at the request of his said M{r} to be most mete and
  convenient. And so the said Gyles Swalldell appntꝭ hathe promysed
  here that he wylbe a good faythfull & trusty servant unto his said
  M{r} and never hereafter offende any more.

  1st June, 1570. Here was John thappntꝭ of Thomas Wayte (for) abusying
  of Rog{r} Laborne & his wyfe and his M{r} also and he had favorable
  correction for his offencꝭ.

John possibly thought it rather _unfavourable_.

By the next entry it would appear that Master Ralph Soda found the
society of the ladies more congenial to his tastes than the practice of
shaving and bloodletting.

  15th February, 1572. Here was Henry Lusshe and witnessed how that his
  app̃ntice Rafe Soda ranne awaye ffrom hym and contract hym self to
  three wemen and was asked at Westm{r} in the church and also had delt
  unhonestly w{th} his mayde srˀvnt.

  19th May, 1573. Here was John Newsam and he was appoynted to brynge
  in his fyne for not pˀsentynge his apprentice.

  Here was John Appowell and he was appoynted the lyke.

  9th June, 1573. Here was Olyvˀ Pecocke the covenaunte Sˀvaunt of
  Allen Colly beinge comytted to Warde uppon Wednesday last on M{r}
  Warden Robynsons comaundment for goynge ffrom his master ffrom the
  Sounday untill Wednesdaye next and he was nowe relesed so that his
  master paynge his wages he shall serve hym.

21st July, 1573. Pecocke complained to the Court against his master
“ffor not well usinge hym in beatinge hym.”

The next is a quaint piece of dry humour--

  6th October, 1573. Here was an order taken between Danyell Botham and
  his appˀntice that he should well and trewly sˀve his M{r} and not to
  make any more complainte or trouble the M{rs} any more, and yf he do
  nott sˀve his M{r} accordyngly he shall have the Almes of the howsse.

The “Alms of the house” were on some other like occasions promised to
troublesome apprentices.

  18th October, 1573. Here was John Staples and brought in his
  apprentyze for evyll behavio{r} by hym comytted in his masters house
  w{th} his masters mayde and he made his submyssion on his knees and
  asked his master forgevenes in the courte, and he was forgeven uppon
  condyc͠on that he should amend well & faythfullye w{th}out farther
  complaint or elles to have the ponnyshment of the howsse.

  11th December, 1599. In the matter in controversie betwixt Juliance
  Yonge & John Bradley his apprentice it is ordered that the sayd Yonge
  shall take his sayd apprentice into his service agayne And that the
  sayd Yonge shall use him as hee oughte to doe And that the sayd
  apprentice shall well and honestly behave himself towardsˀ his sayd
  M{r.}

  22nd January, 1600. This daye Daniell Hinkesman brought in his fine
  of xl{s} for sufferinge his apprentice to dwell w{th} a gentleman.

This apprentice had probably been let out to hire as a valet by
Hinkesman, who received his wages instead of teaching him his trade.

20th February, 1600. Noah Bayley having been complained of for striking
his apprentice Andrew Mathew, he was fined 40_s._, and at the next
Court Mathew had license to sue Bayley at the Common law for “breaking
his head.”

  17th June, 1600. This daye it was ordered that George Langton
  apprentice to M{r} ffrederick shalbe comitted to the compter for his
  unreverent behaviour towardes his M{r.}

  7th August, 1600. John Sares is to be called in question for geveinge
  wages to his apprentice.

  2nd December, 1600. This daye uppon complaynt made to this Courte it
  was ordered that Henry Needham should put awaye his apprentice Willm̄
  Webbe for that it was then apparantly pˀved that hee is marryed
  w{th}in his terme And it was thereuppon furth{r} ordered that the
  pˀsentac͠on should be discharged by a vacat thereuppon to be entered.

  5th May, 1601. This daie the wiefe of Thomas Asbridge decessed did
  complaine of Marke Nurse her apprentice for absentinge himselfe from
  her service and other his misdemeanors towardes her All w{ch} uppon
  his humble suite and promise of amendment was forgeeven him.

  16th June, 1601. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Shurwin
  apprentice to John Urvey shalbe for ever utterly dischardged of his
  terme of apprentisship for that it appeareth to the Maisters uppon
  hearinge of their controversie that he hath the said apprentice
  colorablie.

  30th June, 1601. This daye Robert Wallis is dischardged from his
  apprentiship for that it appeared to this Court that his maister did
  not mayntayne him w{th} sufficient meate drynck and apparrell.

  22nd September, 1601. This daye uppon complaynt made by ---- Jelly
  apprentice to Hughe ffell that the said ffell had put him oute of his
  service before hee had acquainted the M{rs} therew{th} It was ordered
  that the said ffell should receive his said apprentice in to his
  service againe & that hee should pˀsently inroll him. And that the
  said ffell should appeare before the M{rs} at the next Courte.

  3rd November, 1601. This daye uppon hearinge of the Controversie
  betwixt John Howe & his apprentice It is ordered that hee shall take
  home his said apprentice and use him well hereafter And whereas the
  said Apprentice hath complayned for that the said Howe dothe not
  exercyse the said apprentice in his trade of Barbery & Surgery It is
  furth{r} ordered that if the said Howe shall not take a shoppe and
  use his trade before Christemas next that the said apprentice shalbe
  turned over to anoth{r} of the same arte.

  16th March, 1602. This daye it is pˀmised & undertaken before the
  M{rs} of this Company by Robert Leadbeater that hee the said Robert
  shall & will at the expirac͠on of the apprentisheep of Henry Edwards
  his apprentice geve unto the said Henry twoe suites of decent
  apparrell & a cloke.

  20th April, 1602. I Michaell Braye doe pˀmise and undertake That
  at the ende & expirac͠on of the tearme of apprenticeship of George
  Parkins my Apprentice I will geve unto him a new suite of apparrell
  viz one dublett one pˀ of hose one hatt one pˀ of stockins and one
  Cloke of decent apparrell In witnes whereof I have hereunto put my
  hand.

  22nd February, 1603. This daye it is ordered that Thomas Mownsley
  shall for his disobedience to his M{r} be comitted to the Compter.

  16th April, 1605. This daye Peter Saunderson certiefied the Court
  that hee had offered to inroll his apprentice before the Chamberlin
  and it was denyed him because the apprentice could not at the end of
  his terme accomplishe the Age of xxiij yeres.

  4th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that John Udall shall at
  the next Courte bringe in his fine of xl{s} for puttinge a waye his
  Apprentice Tho. Hobbes w{th} out o{r} M{rs} consent (see 18th June).

  4th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that Roger Kiffin shalbe
  dischardged of his apprentiship w{th} Richard Bonner for that hee
  wanteth meate drinck & apparrell And hee is to finde him selfe a
  nother M{r} of this Company. (See 25th June.)

  18th June, 1605. This daye it is ordered that John Udall shalbe
  committed to the Compter for his contempt.[171]

  [171] The contempt being that Udall having “put away” his Apprentice,
  (_i.e._, had him locked up in Bridewell, without the leave of the
  Court,) and being fined 40_s._ for that offence, had refused to pay
  his fine.

  25th June, 1605. Richard Bonnẽr is to bringe in his apprentices Roger
  Kiffins Indenture at the next Courte or ells hee is to be comitted to
  the Compter.

  25th June, 1605. This daye Thomas Clemence was fined at x{s} for that
  hee was not bound apprentice by the Clark of this Company.

  24th September, 1605. This day it is ordered that David Vaughan
  apprentice to Richard Davis shalbe pˀntlie dischardged from his said
  M{r} for the residue of his terme to come for that his said M{r}
  hath given him unlawfull correction as it was affirmed and hath not
  trayned him up in the trade that he used being Barbinge and Surgery.
  And is to bring in the Apprentices indenture att the next Courte
  or ells to be comitted to the Compter for his contempt. And the
  appˀntice is in the meane tyme to continue w{th} his freindꝭ And is
  not to sˀve any pˀson that useth the trade of silck weavinge any more
  w{th} in the liberties of London.

  7th January, 1606. This day it is ordered that John Browne and his
  apprentice be here at the next Courte. And he is to be comaunded
  from our M{rs} to discharge his appˀntice out of Bridewell w{ch} he
  holdeth there And then to be before o{r} said M{rs} at their next
  Court both he and his apprentice.

  14th January, 1606. John Browne is to bringe in his fine for puttinge
  away his appˀntice w{th}out the M{rs} order.

  5th July, 1608. This daye in the Controversie betwixt Nicholas Braye
  and Humfrey Pittꝭ It is ordered for that the M{rs} doe fynde that the
  Apprentice is not kept as hee ought to be but is lowsie and also his
  M{r} for want of change of apparrell And that therefore wee doe not
  fynde him a fit M{r} It is ordered that if the said Nicholas Braye
  doe not hereafter use his apprentice in Better Order that then the
  apprentice shalbe turned over to anoth{r} freeman of this Company.

  23rd May, 1609. This daye Richard Tyler broughte in his fine
  accordinge to a former order for puttinge awaye (_i.e._, imprisoning)
  his apprentice w{th}out the M{rs} order And it was mittigated to
  xx{s.}

  19th November, 1611. At this Court it is ordered that John Todd shall
  on the next tuesdaies Court bring in his fyne of 40{s} for that he
  did not bynde an appˀntice w{ch} is now w{th} him according to the
  Custome of this howse.

  19th November, 1611. At this Court Robert Hawley the appˀntice of
  Thomas Clarke was for his stubbornes & other unsemely pranckꝭ by him
  used towardꝭ his M{r} as also for his lewd & bad service brought
  before the M{rs} whereupon he promising of amendem{t} his faultꝭ was
  for this tyme remitted.

  22nd February, 1613. In the complaint made by William Richardson
  against his M{r} John Sabyn being heard & proved at this Court by
  his owne confession that Sabyn did use unlawfull correction to his
  appˀntice. It is ordered that the M{r} shall not use hereafter
  any such unlawfull correction for if he doe & his appˀntice make
  complaint thereof to the M{rs} of this Company, then the appˀntice
  shall be taken awaye from him And further it is ordered that the
  appˀntice shall doe his M{r} just & true service, And that the said
  Sabyn shall the next Court daie bring in his fyne for not inrowling
  of his said appˀntice w{th}in the tyme lymitted by the ordynancꝭ of
  this howse.

  22nd February, 1613. This daye Joseph Boreman made promise to pˀforme
  such order as the M{rs} did heretofore set downe between him and his
  appˀntice namely⁾ that he will give to the same appˀntice two suitꝭ
  of apparell fitt for such an appˀntice accordinge to the true meaning
  of the same w{th}out any fraud.

  27th September, 1614. At this Court Raph Dixon the appˀntice of our
  M{r} Hassall for manie lewd misdemeano{rs} & for getting a woman
  w{th} child, being an appˀntice shold have had the correction of the
  howse, but upon considerac͠on had he is to be sent to bridewell.

  23rd January, 1615. In the complaint made by Margery Stokes in the
  behalf of her grand child John Taft who is thˀ apprentice of one John
  Hedlowe for that the said Hedlow haveing receaved w{th} the said
  appˀntice the some of Tenn poundꝭ doth now turne him away & refuseth
  to restore the monie w{ch} he had w{th} him. It is therefore by this
  Court ordered that the said Hedlow shall either receave the same
  appˀntice into his service agayne or otherwise repaie the said some
  of Tenn poundes wherefore he promised unto this Court to take the
  same appˀntice agayne into his service.

  14th March, 1615. In the matter of complaint made by the weif of one
  Xp̃ofer Greene who is now gone to the East indies of & about her
  servaunt or appˀntice for that he kepeth her shop & doth gyve her no
  allowaunce towardꝭ the kepeing of her out of the gettingꝭ in the same
  shop w{ch} being duely herd at this Court It is ordered that the said
  appˀntice shall from henceforth weekelie make unto his M{ris} a trew
  & just accompt of such monie as he shall gett in the same shop &
  that from henceforth he shall be at the appoyntment of his mistris &
  of the M{rs} of this companie and his M{ris} shall have & enjoy all
  such benifitt as shalbe gotten by the said shopp.

  14th November, 1615. In the complaynt made by the servant of William
  Corbett against his M{r} w{ch} beinge examyned at this Court It is
  aparyant that the boy hath very stubburnlie & naughtielie behaved
  himself unto his M{r} Whereupon it is this daie ordered that the boy
  shall goe home agayne w{th} his M{r} & behave himselfe more honestlie
  then formerlie he hath done w{ch} the boy promiseth to doe.

  18th February, 1616. In the complaint made by M{ris} Wootten against
  her appˀntice Thomas Hill for his neclect of service & for pleaing at
  dice & whoring It is therefore ordered that the boy be corrected.

  18th February, 1616. In the complaint made by David Richardson
  against his M{r} ffletcher for lack of vittualls It is ordered that
  ffletcher shall take the boy home & kepe him as an appˀntice ought to
  be kept.

There are several records of masters being fined for keeping more
than three apprentices, the usual penalty being £5, though this was
sometimes mitigated on petition.

  13th June, 1626. This daye John Pinder made complaint against Janson
  his appˀntice, this Courte caused the vizard and coate to be brought
  into the Parlor, and the apprentice submitted himselfe to his Maister
  soe that his punishment was forborne.

For some particulars as to the vizard coate and bulbegger, see p. 393.
The mere sight of them had a softening effect upon Master Janson, as
also upon George Tether, who seems to have caught a glimpse of them
next year.

  7th August, 1627. This daye the weife of Salomon Carr made complaint
  against her apprentice George Tether formerly bound to Jeffery
  Baskervile deceased and he had the bulbegger showed him, whoe upon
  his humble submission to his M{ris} was spared in hoape of his better
  service to her hereafter.

  20th November, 1632. Martine Stamp made complaint ag̃t John Scott
  by petic͠on to this Court thereby intimateing that his son Scotts
  appˀntice is nowe kept and imployed onely for digging delveing &
  planting and pruneing potatoes & tobacco in the Barmoothoes Iland.
  (Query Bermudas.)

  28th January, 1635. It is ordered that Jonas Gargrave shalbe
  prosecuted to be disfraunchised at the charge of this house in regard
  he tooke a married mann apprentice knoweingly.

Mr. Heydon’s apprentice, next referred to, was doubtless a gay and
swaggering young gentleman, and the Court in meteing out its amusing
sentence must have been conscious of touching him on a sore place.

  9th August, 1647. Mr. Heydon complayneing to this Court of his
  apprentice here present in Court ffor his evill and stubborne
  Behavior towards him and frequent absences out of his service in
  Day time and in late houres at night The said apprentice being in
  Court to answer to the same did rudely and most irreverently behave
  himselfe towards his said M{r} and the whole Court in sawcy language
  and behaviour useing severall Oathes protesting that he will not
  serve his M{r} whatever shall come of it This Court did therefore
  cause the Haire of the said apprentice (being undecently long) to be
  cut shorter.

  8th August, 1729. It is ordered that the Clarke do sue M{r.} Lee
  M{r.} Pemble and M{r.} Bonzer for binding their Apprentices by
  Scriveners and not at the Hall.

  4th August, 1741. It is ordered that James Parnell Stevenson who
  was this day bound an apprentice to Tho{s.} fford be brought here
  12 months hence by his Ma{r} that the Court may be satisfyed of his
  being better improved in his Learning.

5th November, 1791. Elizabeth Conyers was apprenticed to Elizabeth
Castle and presented and bound in Court. This is but one of numerous
entries of girl apprentices.

The Registers of apprentices were for a long period kept in Latin,
_e.g._:

  28th July, 1658. Mathew Moy fil̃l̃ M.M. nuper de com̃ Staford
  vintener̊ defunct: põ: se ap̃p. Tho. Pace Watchmaker pro 7 annis a
  die dãt.

The following is an example of a boy being bound to a freewoman of the
Company.

  23rd June, 1658. Daniel Alderson fil̃l̃ Jacobi A. nuper Civ. et B. S.
  Londini defunct põ: se ap̃p. matri suo Katherine Alderson pro 8 annis
  a die dãt.

And here is an instance of a girl, the daughter of a “gentleman,” being
bound to a Barber-Surgeon and to his wife.

  18th December, 1660. Katharina Bowghy fiɫ. Georgii B. de Addley in
  com̃ Stafford gent. defunct põ: se ap̃p W{mo} Bennett B.C. et Marthæ
  uxori ejus pro 7 annis a die dãt.



FREEMEN.


The earliest recorded fine on admission to the freedom was £3, one
Martin Partridge being sworn in on 26th July, 1551, when he paid £1 and
gave security for the remainder.

10th September, 1551. John Bryckett, “toothe drawer,” was admitted “a
brother into this house” and paid £1.

10th November, 1551. On this day four freemen were admitted paying
respectively 6_s._ 8_d._, 10_s._, 2_s._, 10_d._, and another man paid
nil, which indicates that the fines on admission were variable and at
the pleasure of the Court.

19th September, 1552. It was ordered that free journeymen should not
pay quarterage until such time as they set up for themselves and kept
house.

4th July, 1566. It was ordered that in future any one seeking admission
to the freedom if “Inglyshe borne” should pay £4 and any “alyan or
straynger” £5.

  7th October, 1567. In this Courte Rich Morrys upon his fre makinge
  pˀmyssed to geve the M{rs} a bucke.

  21st October, 1567. In this Courte Thomas Symons and Willm fferrat
  are sworne and admytted brethren of this Company and are lycenced to
  sett open shoppe as parteners to gether w{th}oute Smythefelde bars.

  2nd June, 1573. Here was Edward Duffeeld of London a practioner in
  phisick & Surgery and required to be a brother of this Company and yt
  was agreed that he should pay xl{s} in hand and other xl{s} at S{t.}
  James daye.

  9th June, 1573. Here was Gabriel Petrol for not being admytted a
  Brother [he] occupynge Surgerye w{th}out admyttaunce and he promysed
  he would and yt was agreed that he should at a moneth ende bringe in
  xl{s} in pˀte of payment of v{li} w{th}out any farther delaye.

  3rd June, 1600. Henry Wheelis is appoynted to pˀcure his M{r} to make
  him free the next Court or to geve ovˀ his shop in long lane yf not
  then to be comitted to the compter.

  22nd July, 1600. This daye Henry Wilson of Ratcliffe and Mathewe
  Eaton of S{t} Bartholomew in West Smythfeyld were suters to the M{rs}
  of this Company to become broth{rs} of the same whereuppon they are
  by this Court injoyned to geve their answere the next Court what
  gratificac͠on they will bestowe of[172] the Company.

  [172] On.

  6th November, 1604. This daie Vincent Lowe became humble suiter to
  this Companie to be admytted into the same by redempc͠on to w{ch}
  request this Courte hath consented pˀvided hee paie to this Companie
  in gratificac͠on v{li} of lawfull money of England and doe bestowe a
  dinn{r} uppon the Assistantꝭ on Thursday next.

  5th February, 1605. This daie it is ordered that Edward Carelill
  Inholder shalbe translated from his Company to this payinge to the
  M{rs} to the use of this Company iiij{li} and beareinge the ordenary
  chardge.

  9th April, 1605. It is this daye ordered that Raphe Parsons a freeman
  of this Company and Thomas Sampson Edward Squier and Robert Hoddy
  late servants & apprentices to xp̃ofer Thompson shall fynde them
  M{rs} in this Company to be turned over unto before whitson tyde next
  And that they shall continue no longer w{th} their mistres because
  shee is nowe marryed to a Grocer who is not free of this Company.

  29th January, 1610. fforasmuch as Tobye Johnson would not give
  consent to this Court that James Kent[173] should be made a freeman
  The Court have thought fytt the said James should be at this Court
  sworne a freeman of this Company for that ytt cannot appeere to this
  Court that the said Johnson can prove any materiall thinge against
  the said Jame to debarr him of his freedome.

  [173] His late apprentice.

  14th January, 1611. This daie William Tavernor the late appˀtice of
  Widdowe Sanderson did before the M{rs} of this Company promise that
  he would not at any tyme hereafter set up a barbers shopp in any
  place w{th}in two pˀisshes[174] at the least where the said Widdowe
  Sanderson dwelleth or keepeth shopp uppon w{ch} promise soe by him
  made the said Widdowe Sanderson is contented to make him a freeman of
  this cittie not w{th}standing he hath untill October next to serve.

  [174] Parishes.

  2nd July, 1612. This daie at this Court yt is ordered that Edward
  Squior the Dyer shall not be translated from this Company unto the
  Company of the Dyers for that if this howse shall give consent unto
  him maney others of this Company as well Dyers & grocers as other
  tradꝭ would sue to have the like kindenes.

9th January, 1615. At this Court, one John Mathews, “an oculist,” made
suit for his admission by redemption--

  w{ch} this Court did consent unto conditionallie to gyve this howse a
  great beare bowle sutable to the rest of the great beare bowles w{ch}
  he consented unto.



LIVERYMEN.


  Ordered 19th September, 1552, that Peter Saxton and Thomas Dixon
  shalbe dysmiste of the Clothinge for their yll demeanor and behavyor
  And also Mathew Johnson because he ys not habull.[175]

  [175] Able, _i.e._, solvent.

  5th November, 1555. Ordered that Henry Pemarton shall not weare his
  Lyvery hoode nor paye no maner of quartrage unto this house but
  shalbe cleane exempted out of the same.

26th March, 1558. Robert Foster, Robert Grove, and Thomas Barnet were
expelled the Livery “because they are not able.”

4th July, 1566. It was ordered that the Livery from thenceforth should
not exceed fifty persons.

3rd December, 1566. Thomas Lambkyn and John Morryt appeared before the
Court and testified against Edward Parke for that the said Edward--

  saide he wolde not come to the Courte beynge warned & y{t} yf the
  M{r} comytted hym to warde he wolde brynge the M{r} before the Lorde
  cheefe Justice And it is ordered y{t} the saide Parke shall & is upon
  his humble submission remytted.[176]

  [176] Be forgiven.

  26th September, 1581. It was agreed that evˀy one in the Lyverie
  should go decently in gownes all a like at all metinges and
  assemblies.

  30th June, 1601. This daye Abraham Allen John Hassold Richard Eade &
  Henry Oseyld lately taken into the livery of this Company pˀsented
  themselves in their livˀy gownes and the M{r} accordinge to order
  placed their hoods uppon their showld{rs.}

6th May, 1602. Roger Jenkins, free of the Weavers’ Company and an
“admitted broth{r} in the practize of Surgery,” applied to be admitted
to the freedom, and upon payment of £10 was made free and taken into
the Clothing.

  7th June, 1602. This daye it was ordered that forasmuch as Richard
  Samborne one of the livery of this Company had used divers opprobrius
  & undecent woordes of M{r} Newsam That the said Richard should
  forbeare the wearinge of his livery & hud untill hee had ord{r}
  therefore from the M{rs} of this Company.

  16th August, 1602. This daye Richard Howlden and Thomas Grig were
  admitted into the clothinge of this mistery and were commaunded to
  pˀvide them necessary apparrell for the same.

  8th November, 1604. This daye Dominick Lumley became humble suiter
  to this Courte to be dischardged of the office of Steward and M{r}
  of the Anothomie and of the Livˀy and all officers w{th}inne the
  same and in considerac͠on thereof hee is to paie tenn poundꝭ to be
  converted into three peecꝭ of plate as a guifte for his dischardge.

  5th February, 1605. This daye Richard Cade & Richard Holden were
  fyned for not beinge at Powles[177] in theire Lyveryes & theire
  hoodes on Candlemas daye last.

  [177] St. Paul’s.

  22nd January, 1606. This daie Roger Buckley & Richard Wood Junio{r}
  for that they dwell in the Cuntrey and have not for long tyme
  gyven their attendaunce in their lyveryes accordeing to order are
  absolutely dismissed owt of the lyvery of this Company.

  21st August, 1609. This day Andrew Wheatley was fined to xij{d}
  for attendinge in a fallinge band w{th} his livery gowne w{ch} he
  accordinglie payd.

  26th October, 1612. This daie it is ordered that from hensforth the
  lyvˀie of this Company maie at their meetingꝭ out of this howse weare
  their hates[178] w{th} their lyvˀies Any order heretofore made to the
  contrary notwithstanding.

  [178] Hats.

29th December, 1615. Four liverymen admitted this day paid £2 each as a
fine, and fifteen others paid £5 each. Humphrey Downinge, who had been
chosen a Liveryman, and would not accept the Clothing, was fined and
paid £10.

27th January, 1617. It was ordered that from henceforth the Liverymen
were not to appear at the Hall in their gowns and hoods on Christmas,
Twelfth and Candlemas days “as formerlie they were accustomed to doe,”
but at their seats at St. Paul’s instead.

13th September, 1621. The livery was generally composed of an equal
number of Barbers and of Surgeons; on this day it was ordered--

  That at the next choise of a new Lyvery there shalbe chosen a Barber
  more than a Surgeon for that M{r} Kellett hath not accepted of the
  place as yett, if he shall not accept thereof.

1636. A great many Liverymen were chosen this year, apparently for the
purpose of assisting by their fines, the fund for the building of the
Anatomical Theatre; from various entries at this period it would seem
that when a freeman desired to be excused taking the Livery, he was
obliged to take an oath before the Masters of his inability to pay the
fine.

  19th May, 1637. This Court upon divers treatise with Abraham Purrott
  a brother of this Companie being chosen into the livery by a former
  Court & he being summoned to appeare this daye by agreem{t} yet came
  not and hath alsoe formerly[179] answered that he will not hold the
  place of a liveryman nor paye the fine but would onely give a peece
  of plate of v{li} to this house as his gift in full satisfaction
  of all his fines & places, w{ch} this Court doth think to be farr
  short And therefore this Court doth impose and fine the said Abraham
  Purrott at xx{li} according to the ordinances confirmed by the Lords
  & by the Statute.

  [179] Formally.

Several others were from time to time similarly fined, both in the 17th
and 18th centuries.

  2nd August, 1737. At this Court Robert Young who was the apprentice
  of James Phillips Surgeon was admitted into the freedom of the
  Company by service and was sworn, and the said M{r} Young at the same
  time took the Livery, and his master M{r} Phillips out of his own
  bounty and a just sense of the diligent and faithfull services of
  the said Robert Young during his Apprenticeship did not only pay the
  charges of the said M{r} Young’s freedom but did likewise bestow upon
  him his fine for the Livery being ten pounds.

  29th October, 1751. It is ordered that upon all future days for
  swearing in the Lord Mayor of this City at Westminster when this
  Company shall have their Stand as usual No Liveryman shallbe admitted
  into the same without leave of the Master unless he shall walk in
  the Publick Procession cloathed in his proper Livery gown and hood
  according to his summons.

3rd October, 1752. It was further ordered--

  That two men and a constable shall be hired to guard the Stand and
  see that the said Order be complied with.

9th November, 1765. Several liverymen notwithstanding former orders to
the contrary, having appeared on the Company’s Stand on Lord Mayors’
days without their gowns and hoods, it was ordered that any liveryman
transgressing in the like in future, should be fined half-a-guinea.



THE YEOMANRY.


The Yeomanry of the Barber-Surgeons appear to have had a most chequered
existence, having been “established” and “put downe” several times,
until finally they appear to have died out both in constitution and in
name.

The Yeomanry answered exactly to the class of Members who are now
styled “Freemen,” and for a long period were the most numerous body
in the Company. In early times the numbers of the Livery or Clothing
were strictly limited, and under the Tudors and Stuarts rarely exceeded
fifty, but as the persons who were compelled to take up their freedom,
and those who came in voluntarily or by patrimony and servitude have
always been a numerous section, it appears to have been considered
politic to give a constitution to these inferior members of the
Mystery, and consequently a Yeomanry, or Company within the Company
was set up, and to this the new freeman was admitted after he had been
presented and sworn before the Masters or Governors of the Clothing.

The Court of the Company framed the Ordinances for the Yeomanry,
and whilst delegating to them many of their own privileges, as, for
instance, the power to levy fines, and to summarily commit offenders
to prison, they always seem to have retained a very tight and jealous
hand over them, and were constantly interfering with the Wardens of the
Yeomanry.

The Yeomanry had their own four Wardens and Court of Assistants, their
Beadle and mace, common box, standing cups and other silver plate,
their annual dinner, and sometimes, when in a flourishing condition, no
less than four dinners in the year, their “corrector” for apprentices,
and they also possessed the choice privilege of collecting the
quarterage from their members. Under such auspicious circumstances, it
could hardly be otherwise than that, in process of time, they should
become both presumptuous and audacious and thus provoke inevitable
collision with the Ruling body of the Company.

The Wardens of the Yeomanry at one period had designated themselves,
or certainly encouraged others to describe them, as “The Wardens of
the Barber-Surgeons,” an assumption not to be tolerated, and, like
their Masters on the Clothing, had been accustomed to go to their homes
(after their gatherings and feasts) in state, accompanied by a “trayne
or traynes”; these acts of presumption called forth the restraining
order of the 15th September, 1588 (_vide post_). Later on we find that
they went “in searche to see what serˀvnts some ffremen of the Companie
had, w{ch} they ought not to do,” they gave way to too much feasting
and arbitrarily exercised their powers of fine and imprisonment, all
which offences brought them reprimands, and somewhere about the year
1604 their temporary extinguishment. They were, however, soon after
re-erected, but in the year 1635 permanently “disestablished and
disendowed.”

Although the Constitution of the “Yeomanry” was then abolished, the
appellation was retained for over 200 years after, though merely as
a traditional distinctive name synonymous with that of “freemen.”
Thus, the whifflers for Lord Mayor’s day were always chosen out of the
“Yeomanry,” and members of the “Yeomanry” are continually spoken of as
being chosen into the Livery.

In the Audit Book, 1847-1848, this ancient term is used for the
last time in respect of the receipts for quarterage, after this the
designation becomes “freemen.”

  19th September, 1552. It is condescendyd and agreed that there shalbe
  no more yomanry of the said Company of Barbors Surgeons.

1st October, 1555. It was agreed “that the yomanrye of the sayed
Company of Barbors and Surgeons shalbe establisshed and set up agayne
and be in as full strenght force and power as ever yt was before
the plucking downe of the same,” and articles or ordinances for the
Yeomanry were enacted. As, however, these articles are excessively
verbose, the following descriptions and extracts will suffice:--

Article 1. Out of the Yeomanry were to be chosen four Wardens annually,
and named respectively, the uppermost, second, third and youngest
Wardens.

Article 2. One of the Yeomanry to be appointed Beadle of the Yeomanry
to execute summonses, etc.

Article 3. The Wardens of the Yeomanry to bring in once a year to the
Masters and Governors of the Clothing, an account of monies remaining
in their hands to be delivered to the new Wardens, and to be “kept and
bestowed as they w{t}in themselves shall thinke yt meete and convenyent
to the helpe and comforte of them w{t}in the yomanry of Barbors and
Surgeons.” The Wardens were also to present the new Wardens to the
Masters or Governors for approval within eight days after being chosen.
The Masters or Governors were to “have nothinge to dooe withe the monye
of the yomanry.”

Article 4. If the Masters or Governors should borrow any monies of the
Yeomanry they were to repay on a day to be agreed upon “the saved som̄e
so borrowed w{t} thanks geving.”

Article 5. The Wardens on the day of Election of Masters or Governors
of the Clothing shall--

  come to the dynner at the hall in their best apparrell at the daye
  appointed whiche is the mondaye senighte before Barthelmew daye, and
  when the M{r} and governors of the Clothinge doo gooe and choose the
  new M{r} and governors the cheif wardein of the yomanrye shall beare
  the cup before the M{r} The seconde wardein shall beare the cupp
  before the uppermoste governor of the clothinge. The thirde wardein
  of the yomãry shall beare the cupp before the seconde governor of the
  clothinge and the yongest wardein of the yomanry shall beare the cupp
  before the yongest governor of the clothinge in knowledging of the
  setting up of the yomanrye agayne.

In the event of sickness or lawful absence, others were to be appointed
to this duty.

  And furthermore that noen of the wardeins of the yomanrye of barbors
  and surgeons doo presume to goo aboute to make searche to see in
  anye of the Companyes houses to knowe what prentizes they have or
  journeymen as the M{r} and governors doo of the clothinge whoo have
  aucthoritie so to dooe. Yf the wardeins of the yomanry be taken or
  justelye proved that they doo soo, to forfaycte at every tyme so
  doying to the hall vj{li} xiij{s} iiij{d.}

Article 6. The Wardens of the Yeomanry were to collect the quarterage
of freemen (3_d._ per quarter) and of “fforyners” (6_d._ per quarter),
and duly pay same over to the Masters and Governors, and books of
account were to be kept by the Wardens. NOTE.--In practice this article
was varied, as the Yeomanry kept the quarterage and “compounded” with
the Masters for a fixed annual sum.

Article 7. The Masters were to pay the Wardens of the Yeomanry £4 which
had been “advanced by them in 1543 for provysyon of wheete for the
Cytie,” and which sum had been recently refunded by the City.

Article 8. The Yeomanry were to have the use of the chamber “where
the Lecture ys reade every Tewysday” whenever they please to consult
therein.

Article 9. These Articles were to be written on parchment, sealed and
delivered to the Wardens of the Yeomanry.

Article 10. The Masters were to give notice to the Wardens of the
Yeomanry of any rules which they from time to time should make touching
the craft.

Article 11. The rules and ordinances of the Company were to be read to
the Yeomanry three times in every year, viz.: at Candlemas, in May and
at Lammas.

Article 12. The Yeomanry were to obey all the rules and ordinances now
made or to be made.

16th October, 1555. The first four Wardens of the Yeomanry were
presented to the Masters, their names being Edward Hewet, John Surbut,
George Corraunte (Corron) and Thomas Buston (Burston).

12th October, 1557. It was ordered:--

  That the Wardens of the yeomanry allwaise for the tyme beinge and
  by theire Assistantꝭ shall Elect and chuse every yeare to (two)
  w{th}in themsylffs to be Coostꝭ[180] of the Lyberary and of the
  Instrmentꝭ w{ch} by the M{rs} and Governors it was thought good and
  most Convenyent that those too whyche are maisters of the Anathomys
  to be Elected and Chosen the sayde Cowstꝭ (of the) Lyberary and
  Instrumẽtis, and the Wardens of the yeomanry for the tyme beinge
  shall delyvˀ and geve the kayse of the lyberarye and of the
  instrument howse unto those whyche they have Chosen to be Coustose
  thereof. And ffurther allso That the sayde Wardens of the yeomanry
  for the tyme beinge shall allwayse se and looke y{t} the saide
  instrumentꝭ be kepte Cleane and that they shall do upon theyre owne
  Chirgis.[181]

  [180] Custos or keepers.
  [181] Charges.

15th September, 1558. It was ordered:--

  That uppon the Election daye and chusynge of the fowre wardeyns of
  the yeomãry of the Mystery or Companye aforesayde And also theyre
  Wardeyns then beynge elected and chosen and also theyre Dyner or
  Recreocion then at o{r} hall beynge w{th} all y{r} Lawfull busynes
  then don and ended That and then also at theire goynge and depˀtinge
  frome ou{r} hall the sayde fowre wardeyns of the yeomanrye so named
  by that name and by none other shall in any maner of wyse pˀsume or
  take uppon them nor any of them to be wayted on or broughte home
  unto y{r} owne houses Neyther shall go unto any other place or placꝭ
  elꝭwhere havynge w{th} or after them any trayne or traynes eyther of
  y{e} sayde Assystaunce or any beynge oute of theyre sayde assystaunce
  and Companye But every pˀsone and persones of the sayde feloshyppe of
  the yeomanrye then shall quyetly departe and go every man his owne
  waye aboute his necessarye busynesse.

A fine of five marks was ordered to be taken from the “comon boxe” of
the yeomanry, if the above regulation should be transgressed.

  PROVIDED ALLWAYE That the sayde Wardeyns with the Rest of theyre
  assystaunce feloshyppe and Companye of the Yeomanry maye and shall
  at all Tyme and tymes decently and orderly go unto the maryagis
  offeringꝭ and Buryalls of theyre sayde Brethren and Susters of the
  sayde Company of the yeomanry as they here to fore have don.

4th July, 1566. It was ordered that the Wardens and Assistants of the
Yeomanry should be allowed to sit at the “Uppermore” table in the Hall
on quarter days to receive their quarterages, and to read the rules and
ordinances to the Yeomanry.

  18th February, 1567. IN THYS COURTE here was Edward Parke beynge[182]
  comytted to warde at the comaundment of the wardens of the yeomanry
  for his disobedyencˀs, and for his oprobrius & obstynat words in the
  pˀsents of this Courte to the M{r} & govˀnors he is comytted to warde
  agayne.

  [182] _i.e._ Having been.

18th January, 1569. At this Court seven freemen were sworn in to be
Assistants to the Yeomanry.

  15th November, 1569. In this Courte the wardens of the yeomanry
  broughte in the pˀsentꝭ of this courte John Wyllet Thom̃s Warren and
  John Jaggard & they reported y{t} Nycolas Whytemore sholde reporte
  at the thre tonnes at yeldehall gate y{t} M{r} Pole of the chauncery
  shold saye y{t} we ought to have no wardens of the yeomanry. And
  Nyc͠ols Whytemore said y{t} he was at supper at M{r} Pole & one M{r}
  Lovels & they pˀused the statutꝭ said to Whyttemore he hath ben
  warden of his cõpany & he said no he had been warden of the yeomanry
  & M{r} Pole sholde saye we cold not have a yeomanry.

  18th April, 1570. Here was John Jagger sayth that he was nevˀ a
  councell or knoleg of any pˀmoter beyng set to trouble the Company
  for the state of o{r} yeomanry And also John Wyllet denyeth the byll
  & wyll not confesse any thinge w{th}oute the pˀsentꝭ of his accuser
  but for knowledge of the pˀmotter he nevˀ meante yt he said befor
  god. And Thomas Warren saed he hathe kepte all to hymsylf & nevˀ
  mynded nor thoughte to trouble in any respecte and denyeth the byll
  also. And yt is ordered that they shall agree brotherly together and
  here after they nor any of them shall move or speake or make any
  rehersall of any matter as consernyng the state of the yeomãry upon
  payne of ip̃rysonment. And Thom̃s Warren John Wyllet & John Jagger
  shall take y{r} romes & placꝭ and brotherly they have eyther of them
  taken one a nother handes & so these matters nevˀ to be reported any
  more here after.

This brotherly amity did not long continue, for:--

  23rd May, 1570. Here was John Warren & John Wyllet is comytted to
  warde for dysobedyence, and Thomas Newens said that one Husto an
  informer his neyghbo{r} saide that the company sholde be arẽsted[183]
  upon a statute & y{t} yt is one of o{r} company did sett the enformer
  to do yt but he founde not the statute to holde w{th} them & y{r}fore
  he wolde not deale, but to name the pˀte[184] he wolde not.

  [183] _i.e._ Sued.
  [184] Party.

Warren and Wyllet must have been sent straight off to prison, as a
further minute states that on the same day “after diner,” Warren was
brought up out of the Compter for examination.

On the 29th May, Wyllet made submission and was released from prison.

19th September, 1570. Warren and Wyllet seem to have been cantankerous
brethren, for they were complained of by the Wardens of the Yeomanry
for refusing to take upon themselves the office of Wardens to which
they had been elected.

7th October, 1572. Wyllet is again complained of for going to law with
another member of the Company without license from the Masters, to
which he pleaded that under a statute 19 Henry VII, cap. viii, he could
lawfully do so. The result of this contention is not expressly stated,
though there is not the least doubt but that Wyllet revisited the
Compter, and ultimately withdrew his suit.

5th March, 1573. It was ordered--

  That where there hath ben an order that the whole bodye of the
  yeomanrye of this mysterie were compelled under a certeine fyne
  and penaltye to meet theire wardens at a certeine place by them
  appointed beinge by the beadle warned, to go to offre at the weddings
  of their brethren at all times when any of them weare married w{ch}
  was to their great trouble, and divers inconvenyences grewe thereoff
  as absence from sˀrvice and sermons one sonday mornyngs and other
  unmeate and inconvenient meetinges in steed therof. Wherefore, the
  said order was declared henceforth to be void.

  6th October, 1573. Here was a controvˀsy betweene the wardens of the
  yeomanrye that were the last yere and the Audyto{rs} of yeomanryes
  accomptes for that the Audytoures would not allowe that w{ch} was
  required by the said late wardens for bread and dryncke at theyre
  ellecc͠on Daye, the som̃e was xxvij{s} and order was taken that they
  should be allowed xvj{s} and they to beare the reste on theire owne
  chargeis and so to be ffrendꝭ and Lovers w{th} quietnes.

  6th June, 1577. Here also the wardens of the yeomanry were comaunded
  for good and urgent Cawse to bring in there graunt from the maisters
  of there yomanry against the next Co{r}te Daie for that they did take
  more Quarteridge then by the Lawe they might do and also contrary
  to there saide graunte and in breche of the same they went after a
  sort in searche to see what serˀvnts some ffremen of the Companie had
  w{ch} they ought not to do, and so yt was for that tyme let passe
  w{th} warning to do so no more and also for that they did not yerelie
  shewe there accompt w{ch} now they did and henceforth will according
  to there dutie.

  9th October, 1579. At this Co{r}te also the Wardens of the Yeomanry
  brought in their accompte before the saide masters and yt was agreed
  upon good considerac͠ons for that manye of the said yeomanrye did
  ympoverishe them selves by makinge of qr̃ter Dyners and suche
  unnecessary metinges that from henceforthe their shalbe no more
  quarter Dyners be kept in o{r} Hall by the saide yeomanrye or any of
  them but shall do as heretofore hathe ben accustomed to be don.

1587. The Yeomanry seem to have again incurred the displeasure of the
Masters, who thereupon summoned them to appear and shew cause why their
grant should not be annulled, whereupon they came on the 27th July and--

  gave their ffree and full consentꝭ that yf they have broken any pt̃e
  of their graunte to them heretofore made they will surrender upp
  their yeomanry.

10th August, 1587. The privilege of collecting quarterage was taken
away from the Yeomanry.

  Also whereas there hathe ben a Rule graunted to the yeomanrie
  that they maie send pˀsons to ward for disobedyence and to take
  ffynes yt ys fullie agreed the same Rule shalbe void But yf anie
  varyance happen to be, the same shall be declared to the masters or
  governo{rs} for Reformac͠on And further that the said yeomanrie shall
  take none into their Assystance w{th}oute the consent of o{r} saide
  masters or governo{rs} and their successo{rs.}

  7th September, 1587. M{r} Henry Rankin M{r} of o{r} Companie made a
  motyon whether he sholde swere the yeomanry or not and yf they should
  be sworne what othe he should geve them. And yt was agreed by the
  saide Corte That the Masters or Governo{rs} may take the pˀsentment
  of them but not swere them. And further yf the yeomanry do request
  to be sworne they must be answered w{th} the wordꝭ of their pattent
  w{ch} ys onlie to pˀsent them. And further touching the collecc͠on
  of their quartridge yt must stand as yt dothe untill further
  consultac͠on be had therein and yf they have any request to make or
  ought to saie they must bring the same in writinge into this Corte.

  29th May, 1600. This daie the wardens of the yomanrye made requeste
  to the Maisters that they woulde be pleased to redeliver unto them
  their booke of orders which remayneth in their Custodie, whereuppon
  it is not thoughte fitt by the Courte that the yeomanrie have the
  Custodie of the said booke, but that the Clarke of this Companye
  keepe the same And that he shewe the same booke to the yeomanrye when
  they have occasion to use it.

About two years previously the Court had endeavoured to put down the
Yeomanry and had curtailed many of their privileges; the exact nature
of the disagreement is not stated, but it doubtless arose from the
Yeomanry “takeinge to much uppon themsyllfs.”

  17th January, 1604. At this Courte it is ordered That the Ould
  Wardens of the Yomanrye doe bringe in such money as is behind by
  theire Audite beinge eight pounds twelve shillings and eight pence
  ORELLS to be committed to the Compter.

28th February, 1605. It was ordered that a Yeomanry of this Company
should be established, though there is no entry of its extinguishment.
Rules and ordinances were to be made by the Court, and twenty-four
persons were to be nominated by the “present wardens of the said
Yeomanry” to serve as a Court of Assistants for the Yeomanry, with a
power of veto reserved to the Masters.

16th April, 1605. A Committee sat to consider the patent to be granted
to the Yeomanry.

  2nd May, 1605. This daye the M{r} and M{r} Warden Mapes and M{r}
  Thorney delivˀed to the Wardens of the yomanry viz. Robert Jenninges
  and Richard Alderson and also to Robert Wood and Edward Goodale the
  yomanryes boxe and money their Corrector their twoe standinge Cuppes
  & Covers and their cases and all such oth{r} thinges as they had of
  the yomanryes, but onely their patent w{ch} is to be renued & twoe of
  their keyes were delivˀed to the sayd Robert Wood and Edward Goodale
  by them to be kept.

  24th May, 1605. This daye the ordynancꝭ of the yomanry were ratiefied
  & confirmed by this Court. Also the quarterages of the yomanry was
  this daye demised unto the wardens of the yomanry from the xvj{th}
  of September next ensuinge for the terme of ... at the yerely rent
  of 8{li} to be paid by quarterly payments w{ch} demyse was passed by
  wrytinge indented as by the same more at lardge may appeare.

At the end of the Minute Book, 1598-1607, is a copy of a part of this
indenture.

26th November, 1607. It was ordered:--

  That the wardens of the yomanry shall take for the use of their
  funerall clothe at eˀvy funerall wherein it is used ij{s} vj{d} And
  the bedell for his attendaunce xij{d} provided notw{th}standinge
  that if such deceased pˀson shall owe unto the yomanry arrerages of
  quarterage that the wardens of the sayd yomanry shall not lend their
  said funerall cloth before such arrerages be first paid.

  10th August, 1609. It was ordered that the Yeomandry shall hold their
  great generall dinner albeit they made request to the Contrary.

The next extracts record the last events in the chequered existence of
the Yeomanry.

  17th November, 1635. According to a former order of Court the
  Wardeins of the yeomanrye did this daye deliver up unto the Maisters
  their Accompt and the xvij{li} v{s} viij{d} in money upon the foote
  of that Accompt Also they delivered up to this Court their plate
  bookꝭ and goodꝭ with the Inventarye and that being delivered & donn
  Richard Lamb and Thomas Duppa twoe of the yeomanrye Wardeins threwe
  downe their keyes on the table in a scornefull manner and badd y{e}
  M{rs} take all.

  3rd December, 1635. This daye upon mature deliberac͠on had as alsoe
  upon just groundꝭ and causes showed to this Court of the greate
  burthen of this Companie in the continuall charge of the keepeing
  of a yeomanrye And it being propounded to this Court whether the
  Wardeins and Assistants of the yeomanrye should continew the holding
  of the yeomanrye yea or noe It was by most voyces fully concluded and
  ordered that they shall continew noe longer their governem{t} And
  they the Wardeins & Assistantꝭ of the yeomanrye & their governem{t}
  are by this Court dissolved.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE CLERK.


The office of Clerk of the Company is doubtless as ancient as the
Company itself, although there is no mention of one prior to the year
1530[185]; but as there were always registers to be kept, fees to
receive, apprentices to bind, and the multifarious business of a Livery
Guild to conduct and record, we conclude that the office has existed
from the earliest period.

[185] In the ordinances of Sir Thos. More.

The Clerk in Queen Mary’s time seems to have combined the occupation of
gardener with that of his office, and for this he had but a small fee
in addition to his stipend. Later on the Clerks appear to have devised
fees for every conceivable kind of business which could possibly
be transacted at Barber-Surgeons’ Hall, and in the 17th and 18th
centuries the income derived from this source alone must have been very
considerable.

The Company has been served by good, bad and indifferent Clerks; we
prefer to dwell only on the former and record the names among others,
of Francis Rowdon, Charles Bernard and John Paterson as being worthy
to be held in goodly remembrance. The books of the Company abound in
testimony to their ability as well as to the fidelity and zeal which
they displayed in the execution of their office.

1st October, 1555. The first Clerk of whom there is any record is
Thomas Apulton (or Apleton), who, being Beadle, was promoted to that
office.

As will be seen elsewhere, the Company had a fair garden in Monkwell
Street, and the following interesting minute connects it with the
Clerk:--

  8th October, 1555. The Clercke of our Companye shall have for waxe
  pennes and ynke and for trymynge of the gardeyn yerelye vj{s}
  viij{d.} Yf the gardeyn be not well trymmed and made clene weded and
  swept at all tymes when the M{r} and Governors of the clothing or
  any of Thassistaunce of the same shall see yt and thereupon fynde
  faulte then the saide Clercke shall paye a ffyne to the hall because
  the said gardein ys not made cleane swept and wedyd as the M{r} and
  Governors of the Clothinge and thassistaunce of the same shall think
  meete and convenyent.

5th March, 1556. It was ordered that if--

  The Clercke of the Company doo evile mysuse any of the Clothinge or
  of the yomanry w{th} unsemely words & dewe proofe therof had and
  proved he shalbe dismyssed clere from the having of the Office of
  clercke.

27th August, 1557. John Johnson was elected and sworn Clerk “for so
longe time as he shal behave hymsyllfe well and honestlye in the saide
office.” The salary was fixed at £4 per annum, with 6_s._ 8_d._ extra
for paper, ink and keeping the garden, and “for wasshinge of the lynen
of the howse iij{s} iiij{d.}”

It would appear that one Wilson had some time previously been Clerk,
for arrangements were made by which Wilson’s widow was not to be put
out of her house, and it was also settled that if Johnson died before
his wife, his widow should in like manner have the house after his
decease. The rent of this house, which was attached to the Hall was
10_s._ per annum, and paid by the Clerk to the Renter Warden.

Johnson probably continued Clerk till about 1570, as the books are kept
in the same handwriting until then.

Thomas Garter succeeded Johnson, but on 14th January, 1572, he was
dismissed from his office for a “certain lewde facte by him committed,”
and William Field was elected and sworn in in his place. Field wrote an
exceedingly neat and precise hand.

20th March, 1572. It was ordered that in future the Clerk of the
Company should always be chosen from among the freemen.

15th March, 1575. William Eden elected Clerk vice Field.

14th November, 1577. Eden was ordered to receive £6 per annum
“benevolence” over and above his salary of £4, in consideration of the
“smalenes of his lyvinge.”

10th December, 1596. Eden was indebted to the Company £10, “yet in
regard of the hardnes of the tyme and his greate charge he shalbe
forborne this yere.” At the same Court, gifts were made to the Beadle
and Porter on account of the hardness of the times.

16th June, 1597. Eden’s troubles had not forsaken him for we read under
this date--

  There was geven unto Willm̃ Eden Clark of the Companie in regard of
  his greate charge and the scarsytie of the tyme the some of v{li}
  and for the x{li} w{ch} he oweth he ys to pay the same as god shall
  inable him.

2nd November, 1597. Francis Rowdon elected Clerk vice Eden. Rowdon
appears to have been a most methodical man and kept the books with
scrupulous neatness and care; his writing is a very fine specimen of
the Court hand of the period, and the best in the Company’s books for
many years.

1599. The Clerk’s Salary was raised to £6 per annum.

1600. To £8 per annum, and in

1603 To £10 per annum.

  26th November, 1607. This daye ffrancꝭ Rowdon Clark to this Company
  pˀsented his petic͠on to this Court by w{ch} hee prayed ratificac͠on
  of certen fees belonginge to his place and office in this Company as
  hereof doe insue.

  FFIRST hee prayed to have xl{s.} for the drawinge registringe of the
  M{rs} accompt so that it be regestered w{th}in twoe moneths aft{r}
  the awdit.

  ALSO hee prayed to have x{s.} for evˀy alienac͠on of every lease of
  any of the Companyes landes or tenemtꝭ for wrytinge thereof.

  ALSO to have for the drawinge & ingroseinge of every lease xx{s.}

  ALSO to have xij{d.} for evˀy othe ministered by any of the M{rs} to
  any of the yomanry of this Company.

  ALSO to have xij{d.} for evˀy one that is made free by service
  and sixe shillingꝭ & sixe pence of every man that is made free by
  redempc͠on or translac͠on.

  ALSO vj{s.} viij{d.} for enteringe of every Anathomy accompt.

  ALSO to have iiij{d.} for every Acquittance that hee shall make for
  the wardens of the yomanry for the forme of theyre quarterage And
  xij{d.} of them for the Coppie of every order w{ch} concerneth the
  governem{t} of the yomanry.

  ALSO that hee may have of evˀy freeman for his letter of admittance
  or tollerac͠on under the seale of the house vj{s.} viiij{d.} And of
  evˀy forren for the lyke x{s.} And of evˀy alien xiij{s.} iiij{d.}

  ALSO for pennes Inck & papˀ and for the wardens bookes pˀ an. x{s.}

  ALSO for every bill of complaynt iiij{d.}

  ALSO for enteringe of evˀry order betwixt pˀtie & pˀtie for the
  endinge of any Controversie xij{d.}

  ALSO for makeinge cleane the hall against evˀy feaste iiij{s.} And
  such a dishe of meate as the M{rs} of evˀy such feast shall think
  fit.

  ALSO for evˀy searche for the name of evˀy freman or appˀntice
  iiij{d.}

  ALSO for evˀy pˀson that is taken into the livˀy iij{s.} iiij{d.}

  ALSO for evˀy pˀson that is taken into the Assistantꝭ iiij{s.}
  iiij{d.}

  ALL w{ch} ordinancꝭ and allowances were ratiefied & confirmed by this
  Court.

  6th July, 1609. Uppon the humble suite & petic͠on of ffrancꝭ Rowdon
  Clarke to this Company It is this daye ordered by this Courte that
  w{th}in one moneth next ensuinge hee shall noĩat to the pˀnt M{rs} a
  sufficient Clarke to whom hee is desyreous to surrender his place and
  office of Clark to this Company And his suite shalbe graunted unto
  him if such pˀson so to be pˀnted unto this Court shalbe lyked and
  allowed.

26th July, 1609. Rowdon presented Richard Ratsdale, Scrivener, for the
office of Clerk, about whose sufficiency and ability enquiries were
ordered to be made, but they were not satisfactory, for, on the 10th
August, William Syddon was elected Clerk vice Rowdon.

The same day it was ordered that Rowdon was to continue in the Livery
and to have the use of the Hall and his house until Michaelmas, also
that Syddon was to be translated from the Cutlers’ Company.

Syddon’s records of the Company’s business were very meagre and a great
contrast to those of the former Clerk.

7th October, 1625. Syddon surrendered his clerkship to Richard Turner
(a son of Cressens Turner, Clerk in the Lord Mayor’s Court), who
was admitted and sworn. Turner died in 1643, and by his will left
some property to the Company to be annually distributed in charity
amongst freemen of the Barber-Surgeons, and this became the source
of a protracted litigation between his widow and the Company. On the
17th November, 1643, she filed a bill against the Company, which
they defended, and succeeded in retaining the greater portion of the
bequest. The accounts appear to have been very intricate and involved,
remaining unsettled for many years. The Court, however, distributed
the whole of the bequest in accordance with the will, as long as the
estate (which was leasehold) held out.

  16th June, 1628. It is ordered by this Court and our M{r} gave order
  to the Clarke that he should henceforward have a stoole and sitt at
  the end of the table w{th} his bookes and register as the clarkes of
  other Companies doe.

2nd October, 1643. Robert Rawlins elected Clerk vice Turner.

30th June, 1648. The Court granted Rawlins £30 in consideration of his
great pains about the Company’s business, and ordered that his salary
should be raised from £10 to £30 per annum.

23rd February, 1658. Richard Reynell elected Clerk vice Rawlins
(resigned).

21st July, 1685. Joseph Masters elected Clerk.

17th September, 1685. Charles Hargrave elected “Deputy Clerk.” The
business of the Company had of late years increased enormously in
consequence of the examinations of and Certificates to Navy Surgeons,
examinations held for superannuation of wounded or infirm soldiers and
sailors, and other matters connected with the Navy office, all of which
entailed vast labour on the Clerk.

28th November, 1688. Charles Hargrave elected Clerk vice Masters.

20th November, 1707. Charles Bernard elected Clerk vice Hargrave.

Hargrave had kept the books in a slovenly manner, and appears to have
been both a dishonest servant as well as an improvident man.

11th December, 1707. It was reported to the Court that Hargrave’s
Estate was indebted to the Company £320 8_s._ 6_d._, moneys which he
had received and not accounted for.

8th July, 1708. Mrs. Sarah Hargrave (his Widow) presented a petition
for relief, stating that she was in poor circumstances, with six
children unprovided for, whereupon the Court, notwithstanding her late
husband’s delinquencies, very generously ordered her a gratuity of £12
10_s._ 0_d._

Charles Bernard was a relative of, and Executor to Charles Bernard,
Serjeant-Surgeon to Queen Anne and Master in 1703. It is delightful
to observe the methodical and careful manner in which Bernard began,
and all through his life kept the books and accounts; he wrote a large
and elegant hand, though somewhat encumbered with flourishes, and his
signature is a characteristic one.

[Illustration: Handwritten signature]

7th September, 1708. Hargrave’s son was in the Compter, and the Clerk
was directed to see and talk with him about the Company’s papers in
his custody, and if he would give them up the Clerk was to make him a
present of three guineas.

The Court frequently relieved Mrs. Hargrave, and in December, 1709,
gave her £15.

Among the official list of Clerk’s fees at this period were the
following:--

    For the use of the Hall for ffuneralls, Country ffeasts
      or weddings                                                1 0 0

    ffor the ffunerall of every Liveryman, the best hood or      0 7 0

  17th July, 1718. The Court as a particular reward to Charles Bernard
  their Clerk for abstracting and peruseing the Company’s title to
  the Estate in East Smithfield and for his care in passing the fine
  thereof whereby the Company saved a sume of money and for his
  extraordinary trouble in attending the Lords of the Admiralty and
  prosecuteing several persons for takeing the dead bodys from the
  place of Execuc͠on Did and do hereby give him the sum̄e of fourscore
  pounds who accepted the same as a most bountifull Instance of the
  kindness of this Court to him with a full resoluc͠on on his part to
  acquitt himself by all imaginable and constant returns of duty and
  gratitude.

Mr. Charles Bernard, who had been a most zealous Clerk and high in the
esteem of the Court, died somewhere between the 5th and 20th February,
1740.

25th March, 1740. Joseph Wheeler, son of John Wheeler, Barber-Surgeon,
elected Clerk, vice Bernard. Wheeler wrote a fine bold and flowing
hand; and the books were well kept, but he was evidently not so able a
man as Mr. Bernard.

4th July, 1740. Joseph Wheeler provided two sureties who entered into a
bond for £3,000, to ensure his fidelity in the execution of his office.

17th January, 1743. The Commissioners of the Navy having complained
that sufficient regard had not been paid to former letters of theirs
respecting Surgeons’ Mates, and it appearing that the Clerk had
withheld the said letters from the Court, it was ordered that he should
be suspended forthwith, with which the Commissioners were acquainted
and also that the Court had resolved not to take off such suspension
but by the consent and desire of the Commissioners.

31st January, 1743. The Commissioners of the Navy having signified
their desire that the Clerk should be restored to his office, he was
called into Court, severely reprimanded, reinstated in his position,
and cautioned as to his future conduct.

Mr. Wheeler continued Clerk until the separation of the Surgeons from
the Barbers in 1745, when neither body retained his services, and it
appearing that moneys were due from him to the Company, application was
made to his sureties.

25th June, 1745. John Paterson was chosen Clerk to the Barbers’ Company
at the first Court held after the separation, and entered into a Bond
with two sureties in a sum of £2,000.

19th February, 1746. Mr. Paterson having brought in an account of his
Costs in the matter of the separation of the Surgeons amounting to £167
13_s._ 2_d._, and also an account of voluntary contributions by members
of the Company towards defraying the same amounting to £168 10_s._
6_d._, he begged the Court to accept of his past services as a return
for the honour done him in his election, and the Court were pleased
to accept of the compliment, but having a high sense of the services
rendered by Mr. Paterson, they directed the sum of £80 to be laid out
in plate and presented to him “to remain in his family as a memorial of
his merit and of their gratitude.”

5th March, 1765. Mr. Paterson requested permission to resign his
office, which the Court accepted with great reluctance, and passed a
complimentary resolution in his favour.

Richard Beale, who had been Mr. Paterson’s clerk and was highly
recommended by him, was elected Clerk.

8th August, 1765. Mr. Paterson was unanimously elected an Assistant.

Mr. Beale bequeathed £500 to the Company in reversion on the death of
Mrs. Ann Woodhouse.

22nd April, 1766. James Marye elected Clerk vice Beale (deceased).

  22nd April, 1766. John Paterson Esquire being withdrawn a Motion was
  made and the question being put That a piece of plate of the value of
  Fifty Pounds or thereabouts be presented to the said M{r} Paterson
  as a mark of the high esteem and value this Court entertains of his
  merit and abilities and to shew their gratitude to him for his long
  and faithful services during the course of twenty years and in return
  for his readiness on every occasion to assist this Court with his
  advice and council, the same was carried in the Affirmative, NEMINE
  CONTRADICENTE.

By the Accounts for this year it appears that a Silver Tureen, Dish and
Ladle were purchased for £65 16_s._ 0_d._, and this was no doubt the
gift to Mr. Paterson.

20th August, 1767. The Court being informed that Mr. Paterson intended
to stand for the City at the next General Election, it was ordered that
he should have the use of the Company’s Hall for his meetings.

An excellent mezzotint portrait of Mr. Paterson, with some eulogistic
lines below, is preserved at Barbers’ Hall.

In 1754 Mr. Paterson presented to the Company the valuable portrait of
the Duchess of Richmond, painted by Sir Peter Lely, and which still
adorns the Court Room.

Mr. Paterson was a member of the Common Council, and sometime
Chairman of the Bridge House Estates Committee, he was also M.P. for
Ludgershall, Wilts. He was ever faithful to this Company, serving it
with distinguished ability, and seems to have been greatly respected
and esteemed.

1st June, 1790. William Wood elected Clerk vice Marye.

Mr. Wood presented the Company with a handsome Silver Tea Urn.

13th August, 1795. Edward Grose Smith (Mr. Wood’s partner) elected
Clerk vice Wood, resigned.

5th March, 1822. Henley Smith (son of E. G. Smith) elected Clerk vice
Smith, resigned.

5th February, 1861. Mr. Henley Smith resigned and was elected an
Assistant (Master in 1864).

7th May, 1861. Henley Grose Smith (son of Henley Smith) elected Clerk
vice Smith, resigned. Mr. Henley Grose Smith was elected an Assistant
1877.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE BEADLE.


There is no certainty as to the first institution of this office,
though it is probably not so old as that of the Clerk, who in ancient
times, summoned the Livery, collected the quarterage and performed
various duties which we afterwards find assigned to the Beadle, and we
may conclude that in those days he was little more than a Caretaker or
“Porter”; indeed, this is the more likely as the latter designation is
frequently applied to the Under Beadle in the Records.

As the business and numbers of the Company increased, several minor
functions of the Clerk were delegated to the Porter or Beadle, who had
distinctive duties assigned to him varying with the age in which he
lived; among these may be enumerated, sweeping the garden, collecting
quarterage, cleaning the Hall, whipping naughty apprentices, summoning
freemen, etc., bringing home dead bodies from Tyburn, keeping lists of
journeymen, pressing Surgeons and Barbers for sea service, assisting
the Masters on search days, hunting up and laying informations against
non freemen practising Barbery and Surgery, marshalling and heading
processions, both at the Hall and in the City pageants, guarding the
Parlour door, and other offices too numerous to particularise, though
there were but few of them which did not yield a fee, and indeed our
Beadle could hardly have lived without fees, for his official salary
in Edward VI’s time was but £4 per annum, which, notwithstanding the
greater value of money then, could scarcely be considered a fat living.

With one exception, the office has been (and properly so) held by
freemen, and in the appointment of the Court. In 1626, however, the
Lord Keeper sent a letter “recommending” (_i.e._, commanding) the
Company to elect one Gorton, a servant of his, to the place, and Gorton
was accordingly chosen. The interference of the King and his great
officers in the patronage and appointments vested in the City guilds
was carried to great lengths with some of the Companies, and there are
amusing accounts extant of the astuteness with which this meddling was
sometimes met (_vide_ Herbert’s Livery Companies). Our Company, with
the solitary exception above referred to, appears to have been happily
free from this species of intervention.

Early in the 17th century there were two Beadles of the Clothing, the
Under Beadle being often styled the Porter, but about the middle of the
18th century, and since then, one Beadle has sufficed.

The Beadle has always had his “house” at the Hall, and used formerly
to pay a small quit rent for it. On the dismission of a Beadle for
misconduct, a difficulty was sometimes experienced in regaining
possession of this house, and various shifts were resorted to;
even the Beadles’ Widows now and then refused to turn out, and the
“benevolences” meted out to them were possibly sometimes in the nature
of bribes to induce them to go.

Besides the Beadles of the Clothing, there was a Beadle of the
Yeomanry, whose duties were analogous to those of his more exalted
brethren, and into whose office he frequently stepped when there was a
vacancy.

The Beadles for many years had a most disagreeable duty to perform,
namely, the procuring and bringing home from Tyburn the dead bodies
of malefactors. By the Act 32 Hen. VIII, the Company were empowered
to have yearly the bodies of four executed felons for “anatomies,”
and the practice was for the Beadles to attend at the gallows and
select such bodies as they pleased. Their opponents were generally the
hangman, who himself trafficked in these uncanny goods, the relatives
of the criminal, and the populace who were incited by the relatives
to resist the Beadles. Many were the unseemly fights which took place
over these bodies, and oftentimes when the Beadles had secured a
“subject” and were driving off with it in a coach, they were attacked
and beaten, and the body rescued from them. The hangman appears to
have been entitled to the dead man’s clothes, for on more than one
occasion the Company gave him compensation for them, they having been
torn to pieces in the brutal struggle for possession. Moreover the
Company had often to satisfy the Coachmen for personal injuries and
for damages to their coaches, as well as to give special gratuities to
their Beadles by way of solatium for the beatings which they underwent.
Frequent prosecutions and convictions followed the interference with
the Company’s Officers at these times, and even the Sheriff’s Officers
were on one occasion dismissed by the City for having sided against the
Beadles.

The hangman came to the Hall regularly for his Christmas Box and gave a
receipt for the same, sometimes affixing the title “Executioner” after
his signature. Many curious particulars relating to the above will be
found elsewhere. (_Vide_ Wardens’ Accounts, Surgery, etc.)

[Illustration: Mace]

The Beadle is elected annually by the Court, and resides at the Hall.
The two Silver maces pertaining to his office are as handsome and
massive as any in the City and are always carried before the Master on
Court days.

14th May, 1530. The earliest reference to the Beadle in our Records is
to be found in the Ordinances signed by Sir Thomas More, where it is
directed that the Members shall take their seniority “according to the
trew entrance therof in the Bedyllꝭ Rolle.”

6th November, 1550. Richard Wilson was Beadle at this time.

6th July, 1552. Thomas Appulton, Beadle, vice Wilson deceased.

19th September, 1552. It was agreed that Appulton “shall have his messe
of meate on the feaste dayes.”

  4th May, 1574. Here was the Wardens of the yeomanry and brought
  Anthony Hall in to the Courte to be admytted Beadle of the yeomanrye
  and he was sworne and admytted and fathe(r) Roger(s) put to his
  penc͠on and to geve attendaunce but as he is able.

22nd July, 1577. Richard Rogers, the old Beadle of the Yeomanry, was
ordered a gift of 20_s._ and a yearly pension of 20_s._

23rd July, 1582. Robert Norton, Yeomanry Beadle, was authorised to take
2_d._ of every freeman on his admission, and his yearly salary of 8_s._
was raised to 26_s._ 8_d._

14th August, 1587. Robert Norton was Livery Beadle.

10th December, 1596. James Hewes (Hughes) was Livery Beadle.

16th June, 1597. John Smith, Livery Beadle.

15th August, 1603. Edward Evans, Livery Beadle.

15th August, 1603. Kellam Clifton appointed Porter or Under Beadle.

21st July, 1608. Edward Blayny, Beadle, was dismissed for behaving
himself “very dishonestly.”

14th August, 1617. Kellam Clifton elected Beadle and Edward Presson,
Porter.

2nd December, 1617. Clifton was suspended for misbehaviour, but
subsequently reinstated.

9th July, 1618. William Chapman elected Porter.

19th February, 1621. Clifton, again misbehaving himself, was dismissed.

14th June, 1621. Humphry Mumford elected Beadle.

3rd July, 1621. Chapman, the Porter, dismissed for using “lewd
speeches,” but on his humble submission and craving pardon on his
knees, he was reinstated, 10th July, 1621.

20th August, 1621. The Company could not get Clifton out of his house,
so they gave him 20_s._ and a pension of 40_s._ per annum during good
behaviour and the pleasure of the Court. Possibly the “pleasure of the
Court” did not extend beyond one year.

15th February, 1626. Edward Gorton (recommended by the Lord Keeper)
elected Beadle in place of Mumford.

  10th July, 1628. This daye this Court takeing notice of an order
  made the 3 of Julye, 1621, by w{ch} order Chapman our Porter for his
  dissolute and deboist carriage was ip̃o facto then by that order
  dismissed of his said place and likewise of an order made in the
  beginning of oure M{rs} tyme for the dismissing of the said Chapman
  for his misbehavior and upon the generall complaint made unto this
  Court against the said Chapman for the most parte being drunck
  misbehaveing himselfe towardꝭ the M{rs} and carrieing himselfe soe
  basely & quarrelsome to the brethren of this Companie and neglecting
  his duety to this house. It is thereupon ordered that he shall stand
  dismissed from his said place unlesse at the next Court of Assistantꝭ
  it doe appeare that he hath left his former carriage of being often
  drunck & deboistnes.

3rd February, 1634. Gorton requested to be discharged of his office of
Beadle in respect of his age and feebleness, and Nathaniel Foster was
elected in his place.

25th January, 1637. Chapman, “Under Beadle,” resigned, and was assigned
a pension of £4 per annum during pleasure.

25th January, 1637. Edmond Johnson “who writeth very well” was elected
Under Beadle.

6th March, 1639. Foster, for his “sawcey carriage unto this Companie”
and general neglect of duty, was dismissed.

1659. Francis Johnson was Beadle with a salary of £10, and Peter Smith,
Porter, with a salary of £8.

1662. Peter Smith was Beadle, and Thomas Veere, Porter.

23rd June, 1692. Ordered that William Cave be admitted to assist Peter
Smith and Jonas Wills the Beadles.

19th July, 1694. Peter Smith was dead; he had been a very zealous
servant of the Company. On the first floor landing at the Hall is a
pretty piece of heraldic glass in the window with his name and the date
1671. Jonas Wills elected Beadle.

16th August, 1694. William Cave elected Beadle vice Wills deceased.

8th July, 1708. William Cave and Thomas Repton were Beadles.

6th July, 1710. Repton’s widow had £3 given her to bury her late
husband.

20th February, 1711. Mr. Gratian Bale (son of Nathan Bale, Citizen
and Grocer) who was apprenticed 22nd June, 1669 to Robert Andrewes
(Surgeon), and afterwards became an Examiner in Surgery, and Master in
1709, petitioned the Court to be relieved of the office of an Assistant
on the ground that he had fallen into decayed circumstances and could
not possibly support that dignity, and on his resignation being
accepted, the Court proceeded to the election of a Beadle in the room
of Thomas Repton deceased, whereupon Mr. Bale was elected--

  And in regard that the s{d} M{r} Bale had been Ma{r} of This Company
  This Court doth hereby give him leave (asking the consent of the
  Governo{rs} for the time being) to depute some other person to walke
  before the Company in his stead with the Beadles staffe & gowne upon
  the Lord Mayors & Elecc͠on days.

18th May, 1714. Mr. Bale having become too infirm to execute his
office, the Court, in consideration of his past services, appointed
William Hardy, Barber, his assistant, at a salary of £10 per annum.

31st July, 1716. William Cave died of a “high fever.”

16th August, 1716. William Watkins and William Hardy elected Beadles,
on condition of paying Mr. Bale £10 per annum, which the Court
supplemented with another £10.

10th July, 1717. Richard Collins elected Beadle vice Hardy, deceased.

18th August, 1720. It was ordered that in future no man could be
qualified to be put in nomination for the office of Beadle if above 40
years of age--

  in order that the business may from thenceforward be discharged and
  dispatched with propˀ vigour and dexterity and to the honour and
  profitt of the Company.

13th April, 1721. Watkins being so indisposed as not to be able to
perform his duties, Charles Window (who looked after the dead bodies at
Tyburn) was ordered to officiate for him. Watkins shortly after lost
his speech and got into Ludgate prison, where he had a weekly allowance
from the Company--he seems to have remained in prison till his death,
3rd August, 1724.

7th October, 1722. Henry Gretton elected Beadle vice Watkins.

6th November, 1724. Matthew Morris elected Beadle vice Collins,
resigned.

30th October, 1732. William Littlebury elected Beadle vice Morris,
deceased.

5th June, 1764. John Wells elected Beadle vice Littlebury, resigned on
pension.

3rd April, 1787. William Smith elected Beadle vice Wells, deceased.

4th March, 1788. Joseph Wells (son of John Wells) elected Beadle vice
Smith, deceased.

6th February, 1798. Jacob Bonwick elected Beadle vice Wells, deceased.

1st March, 1814. William Barnes elected Beadle vice Bonwick.

11th August, 1831. Samuel Borrett elected Beadle vice Barnes (who
retired on a pension of £50 per annum).

11th August, 1864. John Heaps (Master in 1855) elected Beadle vice
Borrett (who retired on a pension of £50 per annum).

1st July, 1879. Edward Lawless elected Beadle vice Heaps (who retired
on a pension of £52 per annum).

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

SURGERY.


  1551. ~Memorandum~ the xxviij{th} daye of Aprill in the v{th} yere of
  the reigne of King Edwarde the sixte yt was condescended and agreed
  by M{r} Bancke and Edward Hewit before M{r} Geen with his Wardeins
  That John Chambr̃ shall performe his bargayne w{th} Willm̄ Drew for
  the healing of his mayde for the mony receyved of him aforehand
  which is xiij{s} iiij{d.} And further yt is agreed that James Wood
  shall repay to the said Drewe the mony receyved of him which is
  xiij{s} iiij{d.} Also the sayd John Chambr̃ shall agre w{th} the sayd
  James Wood for his labor and content him for his payne according to
  conscience.

  19th September, 1552. ALSOO it ys ordered and agreed that the serṽnts
  of Straungers that occupye Surgery shall paye x{d} the quarter w{ch}
  is iij{s} iiij{d} by yere.

5th March, 1555. Among the Articles ordained on this day are the
following:--

  That there shalbe chosein viij examyners wherof iiij to be alwayes
  present to examyn all such as experte in Surgery, the M{r} and
  governors being present Wherupon the sayed examyners may sett their
  hands w{th} the consent of the M{r} and govˀnors hearing the mater.
  And that the sayed examyners shall not examyn nor geve Lrẽs of
  lycence but that the M{r} and govˀnors shalbe prevy therof. And that
  there maye be a booke made wherine every mans name that have Lycence
  to occupye Surgery being approved, to be enrolled and what ys the
  grace that ys to him or them appointed. And if they take upon them to
  doo otherwise than there grace ys geven them, the blame to redowne to
  him or them that so doo and not to the examyners nor to the m{r} and
  govˀnors, and that there maye be alwayes at every courte day twoo at
  the leaste of the sayed examyners during a moneth: and so afterward
  monethelye two of them to be there whose chaunce the monethe shall
  fall too yf there besynes be not the greater because the m{r} and
  govˀnors shoulde not be to seke if anye bodye shoulde be examyned
  there. And for defaulte of noen being there having no reasonnable
  excuse, to lose to the hall ij{s} if he doo not send worde or com̃e
  himself being in the Cytie of London, or desyen a nother examyner
  to be there for him when his course ys at every Courte daye because
  we shoulde not be w{t}out them who cañ answer the matter towching
  Surgery.

  That they whiche be appointed for the Anathomye for the yere next
  following and must sarve the Docter and be about the bodye he shall
  se and provyde that there be every yere, a matte about the harthe
  in the hall that M{r} Docter made not to take colde upon his feate,
  nor other gentelmen that do com̃e and marke the Anathomye to learne
  knowledge And further that there be ij fyne white rodds appointed
  for the Docter to touche the body where it shall please him and a
  waxe candell to loke into the bodye and that there be alwayes for
  the Docter two aprons to be from the sholder downewarde and two peyr
  of Sleaves for his hole arme w{t} tapes for chaunge for the sayed
  doctor and not to occupye one Aporne and one payer of Sleves every
  daye w{ch} ys unseamly. And the M{rs} of the Anathomye y{t} be about
  the bodye to have lyke aprons and sleves every daye bothe white and
  cleane. Yf y{t} the M{r} of the Anathomye y{t} be about the Docter
  doo not see theise things ordered and that their knyves probes and
  other instrumẽts be fayer and cleane accordinglye w{th} Aprons and
  sleves, if they doo lacke any of the said things afore rehersed he
  shall forfayte for a fyne to the hall xl{s.}

22nd July, 1556. It was ordained among other articles--

  [Sidenote:
  An Article that evˀye
  Barbor Surgeon occupˀing
  Surgery shall take no
  mañ’ of prentice but
  suche as hathe some
  knowledge in the
  Latten tonge.]

  That from the feaste of Saint Michaell tharchaungell next comynge
  no barbor Surgeon that dothe occupye the mystery of Surgery in the
  Clothinge or out of the Clothing shall take or have any prentys but
  that he cañ skyll of the Laten tonge and understand the same and cañ
  wryte and reade suffycientlye and yf they or any of them doo take any
  that cañ not doo the same they that offende shall paye to the hall
  for a ffyne xl{s.}

  [Sidenote:
  An Article that all
  prentizes that here
  after shalbe made
  ffree and do entend
  to occupye Surgery
  shalbe examyned and
  to passe his ffirste
  prefermẽt of grace.]

  That prentisses that shalbe made ffree after michelmas next comynge
  that doo occupy the mystery of Surgery and all other men that doo
  desyer to occupy the same and to be a brother w{th} us, to be
  examyned and to passe according to the order of this house as a
  prefermẽt of a grace to him geven as the order hereafter followeth as
  he shalbe demaunded and apposoe.

  [Sidenote:
  An Article howe the
  sayed prentizes
  shalbe examyned.]

  That after michelmas next comyng all pˀntyces when they are made
  ffree must (be) demaunded by the M{r} and govˀnors and the iiij
  examyners what he intendeth to doo after he is made free, whether he
  will occupye the mystery of Surgery or no w{t}in the Cytie of London.
  Yf he saye ye Then to be examyned what he can doo towards yt, howe he
  knoweth what ys Surgery and also what an Anatomye ys and howe manye
  perts it ys, of what the iiij{or} Elements and the xij signes be
  w{ch} ys the fyrste pert of examynac͠on for a prentyce & for other
  that wilbe brother with us as the examyners shall see cause, for
  having of their preferment of their first grace to them to be geven.

  [Sidenote: An Article
  that upon his examy’on
  of Surgery the said
  prentis shall have his
  preferme’t of grace
  and if he or they can
  reade to bring in
  qr’terly an epistle.]

  That when he hathe aunswered to the firste article preyving that he
  hathe some Learninge or practyse Then to have his firste preferment
  of grace to occupye Surgery by the space of so many yeres or tyme
  as the M{r} and govˀnors and the examyners shall thinke meete, and
  as his Industrye shall seme to receyve the grace of god and by his
  dilligent travell to studye in the same and for an homage thereof if
  he be learned or can wryte to bringe in an Epistell evˀy half yere
  and to reade it himselfe openly at the day of Lecture before the hole
  house that they may see his furtheraunce how he hathe profyted in his
  dilligent Labor and studye, and the unlearned that can not wryte nor
  reade to be examyned half yerelye what they can doo in the practyse
  because they be unlettered by the m{r} and govˀnors and the Examyners
  how they have taken payens in their studye to practyse because they
  be unlettered for the Savegarde of the kg̃ and queenes mãt{s} people.

  [Sidenote:
  An Article that any man
  desyring to have his
  prefermẽt of grace shall
  paye to the Clarcke for
  y{e} wryting therof viij{d.}]

  That any man occupyinge the mystery of Surgery being made free and
  desiereth to have his firste preferment of grace shall paye to the
  Clercke of the Companye for the wrytinge Inrolling fynding waxe to
  seale it and for the having of the Seale viij{d.}

  [Sidenote:
  An Article that no man
  occup’ing Surgery shall
  sewe for the Busshopes
  seale before he be
  admitted a M{r} of
  Surgery by the M{r}
  and govˀnors & the
  iiij Examyners.]

  That no man of the Companye after the feaste of Saint Michell
  Tharchaungell next comyng shall call for the Busshopes seale which ys
  the confyrmac͠on of a Surgeon untill suche tyme as he hathe passed
  his fyrste preferment of grace & the Seconde admyssion to be admitted
  to be a Surgeon and a Maister of Anathomye, and to paye for the
  having of the Seconde admyssyon a spone of an ounce of Silver and
  his name to be wrytten upon it to the hall, and the Clercke of the
  Company for the wryting and findinge waxe and enrolling of yt in the
  boke viij{d.} and if the pˀson doo not this passe orderly he to paye
  for a ffyne to the hall xl{s.}

    ~The order~ of the ffyrste preferment of grace of the admissyon of
        practycyoners that have been prentizes and be made ffree what
        they shall have fyrste towards their preferment.

  [Sidenote:
  The order of the first
  prefermẽt of grace of
  practicioñs and
  prentices.]

  ~Fforasmoche~ as yt is expedyent that no man occupye the worthye
  Scyence of Surgerye but suche as shalbe thoughte apte and industrˀ to
  execute the same truelye and accordinglye as well for the comodytie
  and proffyt of the comen welthe as also for the avoyding of the
  Inconveniences and Slaunder that otherwise mighte happen by the
  rasshenes and unconning of suche lewde persons as taketh upon them
  to exercyse Surgery being neither expert nor of us admytted to the
  same. And forasmoche as it is not possyble that any shall attayne
  to the same w{t}out instrucc͠ons firste learned of conninge and
  well exercysed men of that facultie: being broughte up therin as a
  practycyoner or otherwise under some well scylled M{r} for certayne
  yeres: in whiche tyme he mighte applye his mynde to learne perfectly
  the rules and speculatyve pert therof. The maister and govˀnors of
  the Barbors and Surgeons of London w{th} the foure Examyners and the
  rest of the hole assistaunce have thoughte it good after suche tyme
  and terme of yeres expired every suche prentis or otherwise Servaunt
  being made ffre of the sayed Companye and ffellowship shall also have
  a tyme appointed by us and the reste of the Companye to practise and
  to put in use suche knowledge as he hathe that we in tyme afterwarde
  havinge intelligence of his connynge and well dooyngs may constitute
  him a maister of Surgery if his deserving so requier. WHERFORE we
  the sayed Maisters and governors and the iiij{or} examyners w{th}
  the rest of the hole assistaunce here at this instante doo admitt
  A. B. as a practycyoner: who hath served as a prentis with R. G.
  maister aucthorisshed of this Company the space of yeares and now
  being a freeman of this Companye to practise Surgery in all placˀs
  according to his knowledge for the space of      yeares as a tryall
  and a proofe of his knowledge may be had. In Witnesse wherof of the
  premisses we have caused this Lrẽ to be sealed w{t} our seale of our
  hall touching the firste admissyon of his fyrste prefermẽt of grace
  the xxiiij{th} day of Julye Anno dñi 1556.

      ~The Order~ of the firste preferm̄et of their grace that be Lay
          bretherne that occupye the Scyence of Surgery w{th} us and
          also for them that be not a brother w{th} us and dothe desyre
          to be (of) us for their fyrste admissyon of practycyoners.

  [Sidenote:
  The order of the firste
  prefermẽt of grace for
  Laye Bretherne.]

  “~Fforasmoche~ as yt is moste expedyent that no man occupie,” etc.,
  etc. This licence is similar to the last one excepting that it
  provides that the person admitted being made a brother, though no
  free man, should have a time given to him in which to practise the
  art of Surgery on approval.

      ~The Order~ of the Admissyon of Maisters of Surgery and of the
          Anatamye to be confyrmed for ever before they have the Seale
          of the Busshop w{ch} maketh up the hole confyrmac͠on of a
          master of Surgery & of Anathomye.

  [Sidenote:
  The order of the
  admissyon of a
  M{r} of Surgerye.]

  ~We~ Thomas Knot M{r} Thomas Gayle John Smythe and Thomˀs ffishe
  Governors Thomas Vycary George Hollande George Geen and Richard
  fferes M{rs} and examyners of the Company of Barbours and Surgeons of
  London w{th} the rest of the whole assistaunce of the same Companye
  To all men to whome this wryting shall come greting. ~We~ certifye
  youe by this Lrẽ that whereas o{r} welbeloved in Christe T. A. ys
  not onely a man of honest fame and good behaveor but is also expert
  connynge and well exercysed in the arte of Surgery as his well
  defycell[186] cures and prosperous successe w{ch} can not be dooen
  w{t}out maturate judgement and Learninge dothe make thereof moste
  certayne trueth and be assure witnes. ffurther more we are assured by
  the experyence we have of the man that he is not onely substancyally
  well exercysed in the curing of infyrmities belonging to Surgery
  of the p̃ts of mans bodye comonly called the Anathomye: Wherfore
  we aswell in the behalf equyte reason and conscyence as also for
  the preferm̃et of Learning knowledge and experyence doo thinke yt
  meete convenyent and reasonnable to constitute the same T. A. bothe
  A Maister of Surgery and also of the Anathomye and willeth him so
  to be taken for ever hereafter and to have auctorytie to exercyse &
  occupye as well the one as the other wheresoever he shall come w{t}in
  this Realme or ellswhere of the premisses ~In~ Witnes wherof we have
  caused this Lrẽ to be sealed w{t} the great comon seale of our Hall
  the xxiij{th} daye of July A{o} dñi 1556.

  [186] Difficult.

  27th August, 1557. The same daye It Wase ffurder ordered and agreed
  that all men of the saide Companye and fellowshypp usinge the mystere
  and crafte of Surgerye maye take unto hys or y{r} Apprentice anye
  person or persons althoweth[187] he or they be not lerned in the
  Latin Tonge, anye Acte here to fore made to the contrarye not with
  standinge.

  [187] Although.

The same day it was ordered that the two Masters of Anatomy should have
the keys and custody of the “Lyberary and of the Instr̃ments” therein,
and that the Wardens of the Yeomanry were to keep the Instruments clean.

Attendance by the members on the Surgical side was compulsory at the
Anatomy lectures, and 27th August, 1557, is an order of Court that
Robert Mudsley (Master in 1572 and 1580) “hath lycence to be absent
from all lecture dayes w{th}oute paymẽte any fyne for by cawse he hath
gyven over the exercysynge of the arte of Surgery and doth occupy only
a sylk shoppe and shave.”

A little later on, William Cawsey had licence to be absent from the
lectures on payment of a yearly fine of 3_s._ 4_d._, and there are
scores of similar exemptions in the books.

  1st March, 1558. Jasper the Cutter for the Stoane had Lycence by the
  M{r} and govˀnors that he shall worcke and set forth his sygne and
  he payde for hys fyne x{s} and yf that he do not go ovˀ in to his
  owne cuntrye before whytsontide nexte after folowyng he hath promysed
  that he wylbe a brother of this howse but as yet he ys not admytted a
  brother.

25th October, 1558. There was before the Court one Leonardo Rodergo--

  Surgeon & deuchem̃a whome pˀsumptinglye & arogantly stood and bragged
  w{th} a letter to be in the name of Kyng Phillippe lycencing hym to
  occupye surgery w{t}in all y{e} Kyngs & quenes domynions & when yt
  was seene y{r}to was nether seale nor the kyngs hande, but a sorte of
  Spanyards hands & names whome he sayde afterwards yt one of them was
  y{e} kyngs secretary & thother of his Councell.

Dr. J. J. Howard had in his collection the following document, which,
as he says, affords good evidence of the low condition of Surgical
practice in the metropolis at the accession of Elizabeth.

      ~Elizabeth~ by the grace of God Queen of England Fraunce and
          Irelonde Defender of the faith etc. TO ALL Mayours Sheriffs
          Baylliffs Constables and all other our Offycers Mynisters and
          Subjects thees our Lettres hearinge or seinge and to every of
          them greetinge.

  ~We~ lett you wete that for certeyn consideracions us movinge we
  have by theise presents auctorised and lycensed our Trustie and
  Wellbeloved Servaunte ~Thomas Uncarn~ Sergeant of our Surgions and
  the Wardens of the Fellowshipp of the said Surgions within our Cytie
  of London that now be or hereafter shalbe, that they by themselfs
  or their assigne bearer hereof shal and may from hensforth take and
  reteyne at our wages as well within the Cytie of London as elsewhere
  within any other Cytie Towne Boroughe or other place within this
  our Realme as well franchised and privileged as not franchised nor
  privileged suche and as many Surgions as they shall thinke mete and
  able from time to time to doe unto us servyce in the scyence of
  Surgerie at any season hereafter as well by sea as lande and further
  that the Sergeant and Wardeyns aforesaide shal or maye take of suche
  as be not able to serve suche instruments and other stuff of Surgerie
  as they shal thinke mete to sarve agreinge and payinge therfor to all
  suche of whom any suche instruments or stuff shal be taken. ~Wherfore
  We~ woll and comaunde you and eṽy of you that unto our saide Sergiant
  and the Wardeyns aforesaid and their assigne bearer hereof in the due
  execucion of this our aucthoritie and lycense ye be aydinge helpinge
  and assistinge as oft as the case shal require without any your
  denyall lett or contradycion as ye and eṽy of you tender our pleasure
  and woll avoide the contrary at your peril ~In~ Witness whereof We
  have caused theis our Lettres of Commissyon to be sealed with our
  Greate Seale. Wytness ourself at Westmynstre the      day of December
  the seconde yere of our Reigne.

1st October, 1566, is an entry of the translation from the Woodmongers’
Company of William Slade, who was stated to be “a Surgeon & learned yt
w{th} Ric. Venar & John Hall at Maydstone.” This John Hall was a famous
Surgeon in his day and wrote “An Historiall Expostulation Against the
beastlye Abusers, bothe of Chyrurgerie and Physyke,” which has been
reprinted with several valuable notes by the Percy Society (Vol. XI)
accompanied with John Hall’s portrait.

  14th January, 1567. M{r} Doctor Julyo made request y{t} he myghte
  have the work of the anathomy these iiij{or} or fyve yeres so y{t}
  the coledge of the phicysions sholde not put hym from us & also y{t}
  he myghte have pˀvat anathomyes at his demaunde in this howse.

16th January, 1567. It was agreed that Dr. Julius Borgarneins (“Dr.
Julyo”) should “make and worke ow{r} anathomyes and skellytons” for the
space of five years.

18th March, 1567. Thomas Wells, Merchant Taylor, complained against
Nicholas Wyborde for “not curynge his mans hed y{t} he tooke in hande.”

The following order for the erection of raised seats for the members
attending the Anatomy lectures, and for a screen to temporarily hide
the body, indicates the growing interest taken by the Company in the
furtherance of technical education; and from the reference to _the_
skeleton, for which a case was directed to be made, it is highly
probable that this was the only specimen which the Company in those
days possessed!

  1st February, 1568. Also yt ys ordayned and agreed by this Courte
  That there shalbe buyldyngꝭ don and made aboute the hall for Seates
  for the Companye that com̃eth unto every publyque anathomy, ffor by
  cawse that every pˀsone comyng to se the same maye have good pˀspect
  over the same and that one sholde not cover the syght thereof one
  frome another as here to fore the Company have much cõplayned on the
  same. And also foder more yt is agreed that the olde standyng w{ch}
  did sˀve for the company of the clothing at coronacions or any noble
  pere his com̃yng throughe the cytie oute of any fforeyns Cõntrey or
  lande, for bycawse yt is broken and spoyled and olde shall all be put
  to the makyng of the saide seates or for sparyng of the charge for
  new Tymber. And also That whan yt shall happen any greate pere of
  any fforren Lande upon tryumphe to com̃e as aforsaid and the Company
  beynge then com̃anded to theyre standyng for to receyve any noble
  man for the hono{r} of the prince kynge or quene of this Realme of
  England and the cytie of London, That then as now and now as then
  also the M{r} and govˀno{rs} for the tyme beyng shall buylde & make
  a new Substanciall and Com̃ly fayer standyng To serve in lyke and
  ample maner. And also ther shalbe pyllers and Rodꝭ of Iron made to
  beare and drawe Courteynes upon & aboute the frame where w{th}in the
  Anathomy doth lye and is wrought upon, for bycawse that no pˀsone or
  pˀsones shall beholde the desections or incysyngꝭ of the body, but
  that all maye be made cleane and covered w{th} fayer clothes untyll
  the Docter shall com and take his place to reade and declare upon the
  partes desected. And also yet forder more also, That there shalbe a
  case of weynscot made w{th} paynters worke y{r} upon as semely as
  maye be don ffor the skellyton to stande in and that for the Worshyp
  of the Company--and all these to be made wrought and don at the
  charges of the mistery and Com̃on boxe of the hall.

  16th March, 1568. Here was Edward Park for y{t} he hath wretten
  upon his Surgeons signe the skoller of S{t} Thomas of Wallingforde
  and the said Edward Parke is comaunded by the aucthorytie of this
  worsshyphfull Courte That he the said Edward Parke shall w{th} all
  expedicion put oute of his said Signe the said wrytinge & to sett his
  signe as other Surgeons do w{t}out any superscryption yt upon and not
  ells otherwyse as he wyll answere to the contrarye.

  13th July, 1568. In this Courte John ffrende is comytted to warde for
  a pacient dyeing under his hands and not presented.

  19th April, 1569. Here was the wyfe of Richard Selbye of London
  Ironmonger playntyf agaynst William Wyse for that he cured not her
  housbonds leg as he promysed he wolde have don, and yt is ordered
  that Wylliam Wyse shall repaye agayne of the money w{ch} he receyved
  in parte of the bargayne made be twene them and then was in the
  pˀsents of this Courte payde unto Agnes the wyf of the above said
  Richard Selby vj{s} viij{d} and so William Wyse is clerely dyscharged
  of pacyent & all.

1570. This year it was deemed advisable to increase the number of the
Examiners in Surgery from five to seven, and these were Mr. Serjeant
Balthrop, Mr. Alexander Mason, Mr. Thomas Baylie, Mr. Robert Mudesley,
Mr. John Field, Mr. John Yates, and Mr. William Bovie.

5th April, 1570. It was agreed that in consequence of the great charges
with which the Company was always burdened in time of wars, in setting
forth sufficient surgeons and their men with unguents, balms, etc., as
also common soldiers, that a petition should be sent to the Queen for
redress in the matter of providing soldiers.

  11th April, 1570. Here was one         playntyf agaynst W{m} Beton
  for a bubo & W{m} Beton wyll heale hym yf he wylbe ruled by him.

  28th April, 1570. In this Courte W{m} Gyllam is charged to cure
  Elizabeth Hyns of carmebrontyasis & once a day Gyllam shall pˀseve
  her untyll she be hole and then she shall paye the said Gillam in the
  pˀsents of this Courte in redy money vj{s.} viij{d.}

  11th November, 1572. Here was one Steven Robinson to complaine
  againste Edward Parke for arestinge hym for the curinge of hym for
  v yeres seence. (_Which means that Parke had sued Robinson for a
  surgeon’s bill five years old, without leave of the Court._)

  12th February, 1573. Here was John ffrend and was comaunded to lay
  downe his fyne for not pˀntinge M{r} Watson of the Towre w{ch} dyed
  of Gangrena in his fote and he p{d} xv{s.}

This non-presentation of patients in danger of death, was a common
offence, and Mr. Frend had been previously convicted of it (13th July,
1568), on which occasion he was committed to prison.

  31st March, 1573. Here was Edwarde Saunders warned because he wold
  not paye the Anathomytꝭ ther dutye and also that he had let one
  bloude at Blackwall and that he dyed, his arme fallynge to Gangrena
  and made no pˀsentac͠on therof also that he w{th}eld certeyne things
  of Whittingtons widdowe and he was willed to be here the next Courte
  daye.

  21st April, 1573. Here was one to complaine one[188] John Burges for
  not delinge well w{th} hym in his cure concernynge a sore arme and he
  is to be warned the next court.

  [188] On, _i.e._, of.

  28th April, 1573. Here was John Burgis and witnessed that the said
  pacient would not be ordered as was necessary and therefore he
  forsoke to deale w{th} hym.

  21st May, 1573. Here was John Deane and appoynted to brynge in his
  fyne x{li} for havinge an Anathomye in his howse contrary to an order
  in that behalf between this and mydsomer next.

21st July, 1573. “Here was one Robert Grottell a straunger and cutter
for the Stone, admitted a brother and paid iiij{li}” and bound to pay
the remainder of his fine for admission at the rate of 10_s._ per
quarter.

  30th July, 1573. Here was one John Gardener a healer of the rupture
  and Stone and was examyned and had his Lr̃e of Admyttaunce and paid.

  15th September, 1573. Here was one Alexander Capes a carpenter
  and required that he might have some helpe concernyng his griefs
  consyderinge that he had ben in thands of John ffrend Willm̃ Wise &
  Richard Storye and had geven them mony for to be cured and was not,
  wherefor order was taken that they should deale further w{th} him for
  his health.

  11th May, 1574. Here was James Marcadye and required to have Lycens
  of absens one[189] Lecture dayes and it was graunted hym savinge that
  he muste pay for his lycens xx{d} the quarter.

  [189] On.

Surgeons were continually being called before the Court for “evil
dealing” with their patients, and for not performing cures for which
they had received the money beforehand. The Court generally endeavoured
to effect a friendly relationship between the parties, though in
cases which were considered as clearly proved against the Surgeon,
he was either fined or imprisoned, or else ordered to make suitable
compensation to the patient.

  7th September, 1574. Here was John Griffen complayned uppon William
  Pownsabe for gevinge him a powder w{ch} lossed all the teeth in his
  head, w{ch} John Griffen had the dissease w{ch} we call Demorbo
  gallico.

2nd February, 1575. Wm. Pownsabe was ordered to confess his fault for
his “unskilfull dealinges” with John Griffen and to pay him 5_s._ as
compensation.

  13th March, 1576. Here was a complainte determyned upon w{ch} was
  made against Tho: Hodes and for that he was provde ignorant he is
  bounde in xl{li} never to medle in any matter of Sˀgery.

  3rd April, 1576. Here was a complainte against Willm̃ More by one
  Henry Dobbyns for that he did not cure his sonne but made the same
  worse.

10th May, 1576. William More was ordered, on account of his ignorance,
to meddle no more in Surgery.

  2nd October, 1576. Here was likewyse a complaint by one Tho: Adams
  against John Pˀadice[190] for that the saide John had receyved
  certen monie in hand and a gowne in pawne for a remainder to cure
  the daughter of the saide Tho: whiche daughter died and the pore man
  made request for the gowne agayne and so the M{r} and governo{rs}
  abovesaide awarded that the saide Jo: Pˀadice sholde redelivˀ the
  gowne the next tuesdaie and that the saide Tho: Adams sholde geve
  unto the saide Jo: Pˀadyce towardꝭ his bote hier spent in going to
  the made at Putney v{s.}

  [190] Paradice.

  8th October, 1577. Here was a complainte made by one M{rs.} Riche
  against Robt. Bewsy for that he had her husbonde to cure who died
  and the said Bewsye said and repoˀted that she was an evell liver
  and that he died of a botch called Bubo veneria and taken of her,
  w{ch} he denied, but beinge proved she put the matter wholie to this
  woˀshipfull howse who did award that he sholde in the pˀsence of her
  nighbors who were here present in the pˀlor upon his knees aske her
  forgevenes, w{ch} he did and so the matter was finally ended.

  7th February, 1578. Here was a complainte against Willm̃ Knightly for
  Cuttinge of the yearde of his pacient but yt was pˀved by one M{r}
  Grene that the member was mortefied and so there was little to be
  saide against him.

  24th February, 1578. Here was a Complaint against Willm̃ Clowes[191]
  by Richard Carrington for that the saide Willm̃ Clowes as he saide
  had abused him in wordes in the hall and here they did shake handes
  and were made frends, for that the said Clowes had been sent to ward
  before by the saide Richard Carrington being one of the wardens of
  the yeomanry.

  [191] An eminent Surgeon and Warden in 1594.

  18th March, 1578. At this Coˀte Hewe Placket was rebuked for takeing
  upon him to heale a pacient who ys deade and comaundement geven that
  he shall medle no more in surgerie.

20th March, 1578. It was ordered:--

  That yf any man of this misterie shall at any tyme hereafter make any
  booke or bookes of Surgerie the same shall not be published unles the
  same booke or bookes be first presented unto the masters governors
  and examenors of this Companie for the tyme beinge upon payne of
  x{li.}

The following order was doubtless directed against a prevalent mania
for relics of notorious criminals.

  17th July, 1578. That no pˀson or pˀsons of this Companie do presume
  at anie tyme or tymes hereafter of Anathomies to take and carrie
  awaie or cause to be taken or carried awaie any pˀte of the skynn of
  anie bodie whiche shall at anie tyme hereafter happen to be wrought
  upon w{th}in the hall of the misterie and the same tann or cause to
  be tanned like lether upon the payne of v{li.}

  7th December, 1581. It ys agreed that there shalbe a Bill put into
  the pˀliament house for easinge the Companie of the charge of
  sendinge souldiers to the wars and also for suppressinge of lewd
  dealers in surgerye.

18th July, 1583. The Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen having
recommended that persons using Barbery should not practise Surgery, the
Master and Governors went to Guildhall, and there promised the Court of
Aldermen that they would compel all their free Barbers to enter into
bonds not to “medle or deale w{th} any sick of the plauge or infected
cum morbo gallico,” and accordingly the Barbers entered into bonds to
that effect.

In Stow’s Annales, ed. 1592, p. 1261, is the following remarkable
account of a “subject” coming to life again at our hall.

  1587. The 20 of Februarie, a strange thing happened a man hanged for
  felonie at Saint Thomas Wateringes, being begged by the Chirurgions
  of London, to have made of him an Anatomie, after hee was dead to
  all mens thinking, cut downe, stripped of his apparell, laide naked
  in a chest, throwne into a carre, and so brought from the place
  of execution through the Borough of Southwarke over the bridge,
  and through the Citie of London to the Chirurgions Hall nere unto
  Cripelgate: The chest being there opened, and the weather extreeme
  cold hee was found to be alive, and lived till the three and twentie
  of Februarie, and then died.

It was doubtless the above circumstance, to which reference is made
in the next minute; it would seem that the body had been begged by
some surgeons and taken to the hall to be dissected there, it being
unlawful to dissect elsewhere, and that on the resuscitation of the
unhappy man, the Company had been put to some expenses whereupon they
made an order to provide for any similar case in the future. This body
would be what is often referred to in the Books as a “private anatomy,”
in opposition to the four “public” bodies of felons to which the
Company were annually entitled.

  13th July, 1587. Iˀtm yt ys agreed That yf any bodie w{ch} shall at
  anie tyme hereafter happen to be brought to o{r} Hall for the intent
  to be wrought uppon by Thanatomistes of o{r} Companie shall revyve
  or come to lyfe agayne as of late hathe ben seene The charges aboute
  the same bodie so revivinge shalbe borne levied and susteyned by such
  pˀson or pˀsons who shall so happen to bringe home the Bodie. And
  further shall abide suche order or ffyne as this Howse shall Awarde.

  7th December, 1598. This daye commaundm{t} cam from the lordes of her
  ma{ts} most ho: privie councell for to presse a sufficient Surgeon
  for her ma{ts} sˀvice in Ireland under the conduct of Captayne Winsor.

12th December, 1598. John Cumberland was pressed for the above service
and delivered into his Captain’s charge, and four or five other
Surgeons were also pressed and handed over _nolens volens_. One of
these, Dominick Lomeline (or Lumley, Master in 1629), is recorded on
the 16th January following as having “confessed voluntarelye before the
Masters that to be dischardged of his presse for Ireland it stud him in
Twenty Nobles of which the Captayne had in monye three poundes.”

  6th February, 1599. This daie one Richard Hallydaie marriner made his
  complainte of Raphe Rowley for settinge forthe an insufficient man
  not approved to serve as a surgeon at sea in the Sheepe called the
  Costely of London by whose unskylfullnes hee was dismembred of his
  arme and is in greate dainger of liefe.

Ralph Rowley had been pressed for a Sea Surgeon, and this complaint
would be against him for the incompetency of some substitute, whom he
had no doubt paid to take his place.

  27th March, 1599. It is ordered that an Informac͠on be exhibited
  againste the Sexton of White Chappell for Surgerye.

  6th August, 1599. This daie the Maister of the Company made his
  petic͠on to the lorde Bishopp of London that noe person shoulde be
  admitted to practize Surgerie but suche person as shoulde have the
  seale of this house to testefie his examinac͠on before the Maisters
  &c. which was graunted And order sett downe for the same.

  23rd October, 1599. Pascall Lane hath Thursdaie comme a moneth to be
  examined and in the meane tyme not to hange out banners and not to
  cutt unles he acquainte the m{rs} therewithall.

  27th November, 1599. This daie Richard Cadwalder hath undertaken
  that Roberte Thompson nowe shewed[192] in the Exchequer for useinge
  surgerie withoute a signe[193] shall uppon his retorne be examined
  concerninge his skille in Surgerye and shall paie suche chardges as
  shalbe due to this howse.

  [192] Sued.
  [193] Outside his house.

  10th June, 1600. This daye Olivˀ Peacock brought in his fine for not
  pˀsentinge his Cure[194] being nowe dead and it was mittigated to
  five shillinges And it is farthˀr ordered that he practize surgery no
  more.

  [194] _i.e._, His patient.

  3rd July, 1600. This daye Andrew Mathew Edward Peck Robert Steward
  and Owine Jones free brothˀrs of this mistery were at their sevˀall
  instancˀs examined & approved concerninge their skill in the arte of
  Surgery and had their severall letters of grace und{r} the seale of
  the sayd mistery by Richard Wood Willm̄ Martin Thomas Thorney & John
  Peck examiners appoynted in the pˀsence of the M{rs} of this Company.

  8th July, 1600. This daye warrant came to the M{rs} for the
  pˀsinge[195] of a Surgeon for Captayne Thomas Minn bearinge date the
  sixth daye of this instant moneth.

  [195] Pressing.

  15th July, 1600. This daye Raphe Barrett & Robert Thompson forren
  Surgeons[196] made theyr request to the M{rs} that they might be
  examyned on thursdaye next Whereuppon it was ordered that the
  Examyners should be warned to be at the hall at the sayd tyme.

  [196] _i.e._, Surgeons not free of the Company.

  29th July, 1600. This daye it is ordered that John Mowle shalbe
  warned to be before the M{rs} the next Court for usinge Surgery
  beinge but a barber.

    8th September, 1600. ~Octavo~ die Septembris Anno dñi 1600 Annoque
    Elizabeth Quadragesimo secundo.

  ~Whereas~ at a Courte holden the Maisters or Governors and Assistants
  of this Companye the Nynteenth daie of Maye laste paste It was
  amongest other thinges ordered condiscended and agreed by consente
  of a full courte of the said Assistance That the request and moc͠on
  of ffrancis Rowdon Clarke to this Companye shoulde be referred to
  the Considerac͠on of the Auditors of the Maisters Accompts And what
  they shall doe in the premisses should be lawfull and effectuall
  to all intentes and purposes ~Wee~ Thomas Byrd John Leycocke Lewis
  Atmer Robert Johnson Richard Mapes Thomas Goodale Thomas Martyn and
  Joseph ffenton beinge chosen Auditors for the Maisters accomptes for
  the yeare paste havinge taken due considerac͠on of the premisses and
  findinge that the accomplisheinge of the said requeste maye muche
  proffitt the bodye of this Companye in the banisheinge of lewde and
  unskylfull practic͠oners in the arte of Surgerie ~Doe~ therefore
  by the Aucthority to us geeven order in manner and forme hereafter
  ensuinge viz{t} ffirste wee order that there be presentlie paide unto
  the saide Clarke the somme of xx{li.} of lawfull money of England
  out of the stocke of this howse the same to be repaide to this howse
  by v{li} pˀ Ann. Alsoe wee doe further order that uppon payment of
  the said xx{li} to the said Clarke aforesaid the said Clarke shall
  termelie prosecute a competent number of the said practic͠oners in
  Surgerie and shall not delaie any suite he shall undertake but shall
  prosecute the same with effecte unles there be any misprison in the
  same And if there be any misprison then to acquainte the Maisters
  for the tyme beinge with the same misprison. Alsoe wee doe order
  that the said Clarke shall porsecute such pˀsons as the Maisters of
  this Companye shall from tyme to tyme geeve order for. Alsoe wee
  doe further order that the said Clarke shall not compounde or agree
  with any he shall have to doe by waie of informac͠on before he hath
  acquainted the Maisters therewithall and hath obtayned their consents
  thereunto And whatsoever he shall receave uppon any Composic͠on over
  and besides such Costes and chardges as he shall expend in and aboute
  suche suite he shall well and trulye contente and paie unto the said
  Maisters or Governors for the tyme beinge. Provided alwaies that he
  ffirste acquainte the Maisters or Governors of this Company for the
  tyme beinge therewith And deliver unto them a reasonable and true
  bill of his Costes and Chardges disbursed as aforesaid And that he
  seale and deliver as his deed one wrytinge obligatorie wherein he
  shall become bounden to the Maisters or Governors of this Companye
  with Condic͠on theruppon indorced contayninge the Articles above
  specified In Witnes whereof wee the said Auditors hereunto put o{r}
  severall handes. Yoven the daie and yeare ffirste above written.

  22nd October, 1600. Robert Swayne was this daye examined by M{r}
  Thorney M{r} Willm̄ Martin M{r} Wood & M{r} Atmer and not founde
  sufficient but is nevertheles tolerated to come to o{r} Lectures
  & Annathomies And is to paye for the same xx{s} yerely by 5{s}
  quarterly till hee be founde more sufficient.

  5th May, 1601. This daie a complainte was made againste Martyn Pelham
  by a patient he had in cure of his arme for not fynisheinge the said
  cure w{ch} cure was accomplished by Thomas Watson whereuppon it is
  ordered that the said Pelham be warned to appeare uppon the next
  courte daye.

  6th August, 1601. This daye Will{m} Pilkinton uppon his examinac͠on
  was tolerated to practize Surgery for five yeres next ensuinge
  Provided that hee paie quarterly to this howse ij{s} vj{d} and that
  hee the said Pilkinton doe joyne w{th} him in evˀy cure he shall have
  in dang{r} of death or mayne some expert surgeon of this Company.

  10th November, 1601. This daye John Russell of Canterbury Surgeon was
  examined and was admitted & approved.

  24th November, 1601. ~Whereas~ James Van Otten and Nycholas Bowlden
  are this daye become humble suiters to this Company to be tollerated
  & pˀmitted to practize as Surgeons w{th}in this Cytie of London for
  and durynge the space of Three moneths next ensuinge onely for the
  couchinge of the catarack cuttinge for the rupture stone and wenne It
  is uppon consideracc͠on of their sevˀall suites ordered by consent
  of this Courte That hee the said James Vanotten shalbe pˀmitted to
  practize for the couchinge of the catarack cuttinge for the rupture
  stone and wenne for the space of three monethes next ensuinge
  w{th}out contradicc͠on or denyall of the M{rs} or Governors of this
  Company And that hee the said Nycholas Bowlden shalbe assistant unto
  the said James Vanotten in such cures as hee shalbe as aforesaid
  possessed of duringe the tyme & space aforesaid. PROVIDED allwayes
  and it is nevertheles pˀmised & undertaken by the said James &
  Nycholas that hee the said Nycholas shall paye unto the M{rs} or
  Governors of this Company to the use of the poore of the same every
  moneth monethly duringe the said space of three moneths the somme of
  ij{s} vj{d} And that the said James Vanotten shall paye to the said
  M{rs} or Governors to the use of the poore of the said Company for
  every moneth monethly of the said three monethes in w{ch} the said
  James shall practize or continue in London or the libertyes suburbes
  or one myle compase of the said Cyty after the fower & twentyth daye
  of decemb{r} next ensuinge xx{s} of lawful money of England. And
  provided that neyth{r} they nor eyth{r} of them shall pˀsume to hange
  oute any banners or signe of Surgery in any place oth{r} then where
  they shall lye and make theyre abode w{th}in the tyme aforesaid
  or practize in any oth{r} poynte of Surgery then before is spec̃ˀd
  w{th}out furth{r} lycence of the M{rs} or Governors of this Company
  for the tyme beinge first had & obteyned. ffor pˀformance whereof
  they the said James & Nycholas by bond are become bounden to M{r}
  Warden ffrederick in the somme of x{li} of lawful money of England.
  In Witnes whereof they have hereunto put their sevˀall names. Yoven
  the daye & yere above wrytten

                                                  JACOBUS VAN OTTEN
                                                  NICHOLAS BODEN.

  2nd March, 1602. Havard is to pave to Nicholas Kellawaye v{s.} the
  nexte Courte daye for a launset w{th} silver scales w{ch} he borrowed
  of the said Nicholas Kellawaye.

  20th April, 1602. This daye one Edward Stutfeyld a practic͠oner
  in bone settinge appeared before the M{rs} of this Company uppon
  warninge to him geven by the beadell of this Company And at his
  humble suite he was lycenced to practize in bone settinge onely
  Provided hee paye to the M{rs} of this Company to the use of the
  poore of the same x{s} for every quarter of yere that hee shall
  practize as aforesaid.

  20th April, 1602. This daye one John ffoster a poore and unskylfull
  man of this Company made his appearance before the M{rs} of this
  Company and was examined concerninge his skyll in the arte of Surgery
  and was found altogeth{r} unskilfull in all the partes therefore
  Whereuppon it is ordered that M{r} Wilbraham Coroner to this Cytie
  be warned to be here w{th} the Coroners Inquest on Thursdaye next by
  tenne of the clock in the forenoone to be satisfied by their owne
  hereinge of the unskilfullness of the said ffoster.

  22nd June, 1602. This daye Garrett Key a Strang{r} appeared before
  the M{rs} of this Company and in respect hee hath undertaken the cure
  of his patient one ffeake a Gowldesmythe beinge in danger of death
  w{th}out makinge pˀsentac͠on thereof to the M{rs} of this Company Did
  voluntaryly geve to the said M{rs} to the use of the poore of the
  same Company iij{li} And thereuppon they have acquited him all former
  offences done to this Company.

  11th October, 1602. This daye Gabriell Hunt Practic͠oner in Surgery
  was Committed to the Compter for practizeinge of Surgery beinge not
  approved nor admitted accordinge to the Statute.

3rd April, 1604. Under this date is an award made by the Court in an
action remitted to the Masters by the Lord Mayor, wherein Walter
Barton Barber-Surgeon, was plaintiff, and Thomas Sheeres Imbroiderer,
Defendant. It appeared that Barton had cured Sheeres and his servant,
Eustace Skelton, and had been at great charges in prosecuting Sheeres
for his fees. The Court ordered the Defendant to pay Barton £4 within
14 days.

  5th June, 1604. This daye M{r} ffenton pˀsented to this Courte
  500 bookes of Horatius Moras tables translated into Englishe and
  delivˀed them to the M{rs} of this Company in the name & behalf of
  M{r} Deputie Caldwell[197] who freely gave them to this Company to
  be distributed amongest the pˀfessors of Chirurgery freemen of this
  Company.

  [197] For a very interesting account of Morus’ Tables and of Mr.
  Deputy Caldwell see Mr. D’Arcy Power’s Memorials, p. 184.

  28th February, 1605. This daye it is ordered that there shalbe a
  letter pˀntly drawne by the advice of the M{rs} of this Company and
  sent to the Colledge of Phisic͠ons by the Clark of this Company
  wherein there shalbe desyred if they please a Conferrence betwixt
  some of theire College and some of the auncientꝭ of this Company in
  some indifferent place of meetinge to conferre concerninge theire
  greevancꝭ.

  18th March, 1605. This daye uppon the request of M{r} Serjeant
  Prymerose & M{r} Neste Smyth the kynges Surgeons by their Letter It
  was ordered that Cezar Scultinge Duchman theyre servant should be
  examyned and approved concerninge his skill in Surgery on thursdaye
  next And beinge found skilfull that hee mighte have letters of
  admittance from this Company gratis.

21st March, 1605. “Zeger Schultynchs,” the Dutchman above mentioned,
was examined and had his diploma gratis, but was ordered to pay 2_s._
quarterage and 2_s._ for absence from lectures.

  30th April, 1605. This daye M{r} ffenton complayned of Robert Morrey
  for supplantinge him of div{s} cures And for slanderinge him in his
  pˀfession And also for his evell practize And was for his said abuses
  fyned at v{li} w{ch} hee is to bringe in at the next Court orels to
  be committed to the Compter.

7th May, 1605. Morrey being contumacious, was by the Court committed to
prison.

  28th May, 1605. This daye Willm̃ Corbet appeared before the M{rs} of
  this Company and was dismissed from the exercyze of Surgery for his
  evill practize.

  This daye Willm̃ Corbet was bounde to the M{rs} in x{li} not to
  practize Surgery or w{th}in one myles compasse w{th}out the M{rs}
  lycence.

  25th June, 1605. This daye Abraham Renex is fined at x{s} for his
  absens from lectures And is to pay x{s} pˀ an. for his lycence of
  absens hereaft{r}.

  3rd September, 1605. This day Pascal Lane a practicioner in the
  art of Surgery was by our M{rs} order comitted to the Compter for
  cuttinge of one Thom̃s Thorntons child for the stone who dyed
  pnˀtlie under his handꝭ by his neckligence & ignoraunce where he is
  to continue till he hath payed the fine of xl{s} for not makeinge
  pˀntac͠on[198] to the M{rs} of the cure accordinge to the orders of
  the Company.

  [198] Presentation.

  12th September, 1605. In the controvˀsie betwixt Thomas Thornton and
  Pascall Lane ãls[199] Lyne It is ordered by consent of both pˀties
  That the said Pascall Lane shall pˀntlie pay to the said Thornton
  xx{s} which he pˀntlie did And he hath delivˀed a ring to o{r} M{rs}
  w{th} condic͠on to pay to the said Thornton xx{s} more this night
  And all controvˀsies betwixt them are to cease and determine from
  henceforth.

  [199] Alias.

  26th November, 1605. This day Henry Goodwyn a Sorcerer was by the
  M{rs} forbidden to practize any more in the arte of Surgery.

  1st July, 1606. This day Stephen Abraham a Barbor was fined for
  not makeing pˀentac͠on of his cure in daunger of death and it was
  forgeven him.

14th July, 1606. The funds of the Company were, at this period, very
low, Mr. Pecke offering to lend £50 and Mr. Fenton £100, without
interest, and the following entry would indicate that the expenses
attendant upon the Anatomy demonstrations were a burden.

  This day for the avoydinge of charges it is ordered by this Courte
  that no publique Anothomy shalbe holden in the Comon hall of this
  mistery for the space of theis three yeares now next ensuinge. Yett
  notw{th}standinge it is ordered by this Courte y{t} the M{rs} &
  Stewardꝭ of the Anothomy for the yeare next ensuinge shall continue
  M{rs} & Stewardꝭ the said space And shall once in evˀie yeare at
  such tymes as the M{rs} of this Company shall thinck fitt dissect
  a private Anothomy in the Comon hall of the said mistery for their
  better experience and cunninge.

  14th July, 1606. ~Also~ it is further ordered & decreed by this
  Courte fforasmuch as dive{rs} pˀsons ffremen of this Company who
  have very litle or no skill at all in the Arte of Surgery doe
  neverthelesse make a publique pˀfession of the said Arte And thereby
  comitt many erro{rs} to the great dispaˀgm{t} of the worthie and
  experienced professo{rs} thereof and to the hurte of div{rs} of his
  Ma{t}ꝭ lovinge subjectꝭ That from henceforth no man be admitted to
  have his name entered downe for a Surgeon into the lecture bill
  except by the consent of the m{rs} or governours of the said mistery
  & Coiãltie for the tyme beinge And that it shalbe lawful for the
  pˀnte M{rs} or governours to dismisse out of the lecture bill the
  names of such pˀsones as they shall thincke fitt to be put out, which
  pˀsons so dismissed and put out shall live out of the protexion
  of this Company for & in respect of their practize in the Arte of
  Surgery untill they shall by them be thought fitt to practice in
  that Arte & admitted into such bill uppon their humble suite. But if
  any disobedient obstinate or stubborne pˀson shall notw{th}standinge
  his such dismission practice in the said arte Then it is further
  ordred by this Courte that suite in law shalbe pˀsecuted against
  such obstinate pˀsons at the charge of this Company for such their
  unlawfull practice in Surgery.

  7th October, 1606. This daie Willm̃ ffoster was fyned at xx{s} for
  his evell practize upon his patient being a servaunt of my Lord grace
  of Cant. and is to bring in the same fyne at the next Court.

  This daie it is ordered that Richard Holden be warned to the next
  Court for not reeding his lecture.

  24th October, 1606. This daie Clement White appeared before this
  Court upon Complaynt for settinge his servaunte to sea before he was
  examyned & his chest vewed by the M{rs} And for that he knew not the
  orders of this Company he is forgyven his offence for this tyme.

  2nd December, 1606. This daie John Anslow was comitted to the Compter
  for defraudinge of Willm̃ ffoster of his patient And is to pay
  ffoster for his paynes in that cure.

  9th July, 1607. This daye Roger Jenkins[200] heretofore examined
  & appˀved in the Arte of Surgery was pˀsented before the Deane of
  Pawles. And his letters of Admittance from the said Deane.

  [200] Warden in 1608.

  Also Abraham Allen[201] was lykewyse admitted by the said Deane.

  [201] Warden in 1611.

20th July, 1607. Mr. Thomas Thorney (Master 1602), Mr. Richard Mapes
(M. 1612), Mr. Richard Wood (M. 1591), Mr. Serjeant Gudderus (M. 1594),
Mr. Willm̃ Gayle (M. 1595), Mr. George Baker (M. 1597 and Serjeant
Surgeon), Mr. John Peck (M. 1605), Mr. Christopher Frederick (M. 1609
and Serjeant Surgeon), Mr. John Gerrard (the celebrated Herbalist, M.
1607), and Mr. Joseph Fenton (M. 1624), were appointed Examiners of
Surgeons, and amongst other articles it was ordained:--

  That none of the said examiners shall pˀsent any pˀson useinge
  surgery to the Bishop of London or to the Deane of Pawles to the
  intent to get or pˀcure such Surgeon Lycence or admission to practize
  Surgery unlesse such Surgeon at such tyme shall have his letter of
  admittance from this Company under the Common scale of the same
  testifieinge his admission to practize surgery.

  7th July, 1608. This daye Mathias Jenkinson was examyned concerninge
  his skyll in the arte of Surgery And was lycenced to cut for the
  hernia or Rupture to couch the Catrac to cut for the wry neck & the
  hare lip Provided that hee call the pˀsent M{rs} of this Company to
  every such Cure or such of the Assistantꝭ as are examined & approved
  as the said M{rs} in such case shall appoynt And is to enter into
  bond in xl{li} for pˀformance hereof And paid to the pˀsent M{rs}
  xl{s} And is to paye xl{s} more at midsomer next.

  20th June, 1609. This daye Mathias Jenkinson is dischardged from his
  practize in Surgery for that hee hath not observed the articles of
  his Tollerac͠on and for his evell & unskilfull practize.

  27th February, 1610. Whereas one William Wright was a suiter to this
  Courte that he might be examined & admitted to practice Surgery. Now
  forasmuch as it appeareth he is one of a contentious & troublesome
  speritt & of a bad & scandalous disposition who hath not onlie
  heretofore dive{rs} tymes byn fined for usinge slanderous & evill
  speeches against dive{rs} that have byn M{rs} & governours of
  this Company but also sundrie tymes heretofore & now daylie useth
  slaunderous wordꝭ & speeches w{th} many wicked cursingꝭ & revilingꝭ
  against M{r} Mapes in the hearinge of dive{rs} of the neighbou{rs} of
  the said Wright where he dwelleth, which beinge by this Court dulie
  examined is found that the same slaunde{rs} & revilingꝭ doe proceed
  out of his wicked mynd w{th}out any just cause given Wherefore it
  is by this Courte ordered and fullie decreed That the said Wright
  shall not at any tyme hereafter be examined or approved for his skill
  of Surgerie untill he shall & doe before 4 or 5 of the neighbou{rs}
  of the said Wrighte to whom he hath thus abused M{r} Mapes and in
  his & their presence openlie confesse & acknowledge that he the
  said Wrighte hath wronged and abused the said M{r} Mapes And shall
  then and there before them submitt himself & be sorrie for all such
  wrongꝭ & wicked Cursingꝭ as he hath reported or spoken with promise
  hereafter never by wordꝭ or deedꝭ to wronge him or any other of this
  Courte or any other of the Assistantꝭ of this Company.

  27th February, 1610. At this Courte was John Cotton of Radcliffe
  a professor of Surgery comited to the Compter for not makinge
  presentac͠on of his Cure w{ch} dyed under his hand & also for his
  evill practice w{ch} he used to his Cure as it did appeare beinge
  examined thereuppon And further he is forbidden to practice Surgery
  any more untill that he be examined.

  2nd October, 1610. At this Court it is ordered that Richard Baynes
  and Xpõfer Browne shalbe comitted to the Compter for that they did
  not come and make answer to this Court of the Complayntꝭ w{ch} are
  made against them by their sevˀall patientꝭ they being therefore
  warned at sevˀall Court dayes.

  9th October, 1610. At this Court was one wyddowe Bryers comitted to
  the Compter for practising Surgery contrary to the Statutꝭ of this
  Realme.

About this period are several instances of Surgeons being fined for
going to sea without licence, and for not having their sea chests
examined, _e.g._:

  6th November, 1610. Att this Court Gyles fflemmynge did promyse that
  on Tewsdaye come ffortnight he woulde bring in his ffyne of x{li}
  for going to Sea w{th}out lycence of this howse, whereupon the Court
  was contented to proceed noe further against him in respect of such
  abuses as he hath offred.

22nd January, 1611. James Blackborne applied to be admitted a brother
to practise Surgery and promising to pay £10 for his admission and to
make the examiners a dinner, a day was appointed for his examination.

  31st January, 1611. This daie James Blackborne was examined
  touchinge his skill in the generatyve ptꝭ of women; and bringinge
  of women to bedd in their dangerous and difficult Labors: And he
  the said Blackborne was found fitt and allowed to practize (in that
  Chirurgicall pˀte of Surgery touching the generatyve ptꝭ of women &
  bringinge them to bedd in their dangerous & difficult Labours) by
  letters under the seale of the howse beinge the date above wrytten
  And was att this Court sworne and admitted a fforayne brother; and in
  considerac͠on thereof he paid to the pˀnte M{rs} att this Court x{li.}

The Barber-Surgeons had claimed the exclusive right of embalming dead
bodies, but how they fared in their contention with the Wax Chandlers
(referred to in the next extract) does not appear.

  26th October, 1612. This daie it is ordered that at the chardgꝭ
  of the howse the pˀnte Masters w{th} the Clark shall seeke in the
  Rowles for the charter of the wax chaundlers and to tak a coppie of
  that pˀte of the charter touchinge the libertie gyven unto them for
  the imbaulmynge of dead bodyes And as they shall finde the same soe
  to take the advice of my lord cheife Justice about the same at the
  chardgꝭ of the howse.

  3rd November, 1612. This daie the Company receavinge a letter from
  the lordꝭ of his Ma{t}ꝭ most honˀable privye Councell wherein
  they intreated the Company to give leave unto one Bartholomew
  Vanderlatch a stranger to take in hand one Melser Gisberd whoe had an
  ympedym{t} in his eye, whereupon this Court was pleased that the said
  Vanderlatch should take in hand to cure the said Gisberd w{th}out
  disturbance of this howse.

  17th November, 1612. Att this Court Richard ffynche dwelling at
  Pyckle herring is forbidden to practise bonesetting or any other
  matter touching surgery at any time hereafter.

  7th December, 1613. This daie John Antonio an Italian being an
  Imposter practizing in surgery is forbidden by this Court to deale
  any more in Surgery.

  3rd March, 1614. This daie M{r} Robert Allott docto{r} in Phissick &
  one of the fellowes of S{t} Johnes Colledge in Cambridge was admitted
  a brother of this Company and hade the letters of this howse under
  the seale thereof graunted unto him.

  15th March, 1614. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Gillam shall
  at the next court of assistauntꝭ bring in his fyne of v{li} for
  discecting of an Anothomy out of this hall.

  12th April, 1614. This daie it is ordered that Thomas Collyns shall
  bring in his fyne of 10{li} for going to sea not having his Chest
  vewed.

  27th May, 1616. At this Court is gyven unto M{r} Docter Crooke the
  some of 5{li} for that he did dedicate a booke unto this Companie &
  gave one of them unto this howse.

15th August, 1616. John Walgrave came before the Court upon Summons,
and being questioned--

  if he practized Surgery he peremptorily replied he did & gott his
  lyveinge by the same and was an auntienter Surgeon then themselves
  Then he was demaunded by what authoritie he did practice Surgery to
  w{ch} he aunswered he had sufficient authoritie for he was allowed by
  the Archbusshop of Canterburie and the Busshop of London Then M{r}
  ffenton demaundinge of him in what busshops tymes he was so admitted,
  after manie insolent & menasinge speches & unsemely behaviors he
  aunswered he was admitted by Busshop Whiteguift. Then was demaunded
  of him by what Busshop of London he was admitted to w{ch} he very
  insolent replied that he scorned to tell them or to be examined by
  anie of them all, vauntinge further that he was a better gentleman
  than anie of them all To w{ch} M{r} ffenton aunswered that if he did
  so he did it unlawfully & he aunswered that he cared not, for he
  had practized these 30 yeares & wold still practice the same. And
  M{r} ffenton told him that though he had practized so long yet that
  made it not lawfull except he had byn examined & approved according
  unto the lawes of the land To w{ch} Walgrave beinge in great passion
  w{th} menaceinge & threatninge behavio{r} replied unto M{r} ffenton
  & the rest, you lye & I tell you agayne you lye And so w{th} proud
  menacinge & insolent behavio{r} w{th} many insolent unsemely &
  irreverent speches to all that satt at that tyme in the Court he most
  unmanerly & w{th}out regard of anie that sat their depˀted.

In all probability it was ascertained that Walgrave had the Bishop’s
licence or else some powerful friends, as no further notice seems to
have been taken of his contempt, though the records abundantly show
that the Court was never slow to visit condign punishment on far lesser
offenders than this man.

  15th July, 1624. Whereas informac͠on is given to this Court that of
  late Docto{r} Grints servingman John Eethell lett a maide blood, her
  arme mortified and the maid thereupon died, it is ordered by this
  Court that there shalbe counsell taken thereon, and a suite comenced
  agˀt him at the Costs of this house.

  7th December, 1624. This daye John Baptista Succa a mountibancke and
  an Italian borne had order to forbeare his practise here in London.

  6th November, 1627. This daye was presented to this Courte by Humfrey
  Bromley a letter from the Lord Maio{r} of this Cittie of London the
  teno{r} whereof is as followeth

  ~To~ the M{r} and Wardeins of the Companie of Barbar Surgions
  ~Whereas~ S{r} Henry Herbert Knight M{r} of the Revells hath
  authorised the bearer hereof Humfrey Bromley to shew a Child
  presented to be naturallie borne haveing Twoe heades ffower Armes
  and three leggꝭ w{ch} I suppose not to be borne of any woeman or to
  be the perfect substance of a child in respect whereof I forbeare
  to pˀmitt the said Humfrey Bromely to make shewe thereof within
  the libˀties of this Cittye untill such tyme as I maye be truely
  satisfied from you whether the same child be of the substance as is
  pretended Therefore I desire you that upon advised view of the said
  Child you truly certifie mee in writing under yo{r} handꝭ whether
  the same be really a child as is presented to thend I maye not
  unadvisedly suffer his Ma{t}ꝭ subjectꝭ to be deceyved thereby. This
  second of November Anno Dni. 1627.

                                           HUGH HAMERSLEY _Maio{r.}_

  Whereupon the vew of the supposed body as aforesaid it is ordered
  that this answere be returned to the Lord Maio{r} as followeth viz:

  ~Right~ Hono{ble} According unto yo{r} Lõps reference unto us
  directed dated the second of November 1627 ~Wee~ have taken a
  deliberate vewe of the supposed monstrous birth presented unto us to
  be vewed as from your hono{r} by one Humfrey Bromley And although
  wee cannot possitively affirme it proceeded not from a woeman Yet
  under favor, wee conceive and soe deliver our opinions that the said
  supposed monstrous shape hath beene, either by Arte soe composed
  and put together from unnaturall and untimely birthes of Children
  or from other Animalls, as Apes, Munckeys or the like w{ch} have a
  greate resemblance of Manns bodye, in many of their partes and soe
  by the cunninge subtiletye of the composer made into a monster,
  thereby to delude the worlde and haveing a Bodye of Antiquitie cannot
  safely receive a flatt and manifest contradiction; And wee are
  induced the rather to suspect it for that the producer thereof hath
  noe testimonye from any learned or judicious men; neither from any
  Magistrates of the partes where it is pretended to have bene borne,
  w{ch} such offendors use aboundantly to be furnished withall. And in
  conclusion compareing his printed demonstrac͠on of his monster, with
  the Author he siteth, and others that have written of such and the
  like monsters, Wee finde a greate deale of Addition and a manifest
  disagreem{t} w{ch} is a playne badge of fixion and falsehoode. All
  w{ch} our opinions wee humbly submitt to yo{r} hono{rs} grave wisdome
  to be further considered of.

  20th November, 1627. Item this daye M{r} Warden Woodall M{r} Peter
  Thorney M{r} George Perrine and M{r} Thomas Gilham are appointed
  by our M{rs} commandꝭ to goe to Portsmouth for the cureing of the
  wounded souldiers that come from the Isle of Rea in ffrance which are
  nowe remayneing wounded and sicke at Portsmouth upon the letter of
  the Lord Conwaye signifieing his Ma{t}ꝭ pleasuer therefore.

  8th July, 1628. This daye M{r} Peter Thorney is by this Court desired
  to goe Surgion generall for the Armye that goes by Land.

23rd January, 1629. Mr. Peter Thorney having died in the King’s
Service on the coast of France, John Heydon was chosen an Assistant in
his place. Peter Thorney is mentioned on the monument to his Uncle,
Thomas Thorney (Master, 1602, 1606), in St. Andrew’s, Holborn. (_See_
Biographical Notices.)

  19th April, 1630. This daye the Examiners mett here in Court upon
  the recomendac͠on of the lordꝭ of the privey Councell signified by
  S{r} John Cooke secretary of state for the approveing of one Dupont
  a french man to practise for the cure of the pox. Whereupon the said
  Dupont being examined was found altogether insufficient.

  20th April, 1630. This daye Edward ffleete paid in xx{s} for his fine
  for not reading lecture according to his turne.

  20th October, 1631. This Court takeing notice of the lack of a
  Private dissection Roome for anatomicall imployementꝭ and that
  hitherto those bodies have beene a greate annoyance to the tables
  dresser boardes and utensills in o{r} upper Kitchin by reason of the
  blood filth and entrailes of those Anathomyes and for the better
  accomodateing of those anatomicall affaires and preserveing the
  Kitchin to its owne propˀ use, Doe nowe order that there shalbe a
  faire convenient roome built over the greate staire case next the
  back yard to be imployed onely for discection of private Anathomyes
  to the value of xl{li.}

28th December, 1632. On the death of Dr. Gwyn, in December, 1627, it
had been arranged that in future the Surgeons of the Company should
read the Anatomical lectures in turn, weekly; but great difficulty
having been experienced in carrying out this regulation, the Court now
reverted to the former practice of employing a Professor, and appointed
Dr. Alexander Reade at a salary of £20 per annum.

  23rd March, 1635. Alsoe this Court takeing notice that in theis
  latter yeares there hath bene a generall remissnes in the greater
  pˀt of the Surgians of this Companie in their not appearance and
  personall attendance in their Seates on the Scaffoldings at the Six
  lecture tymes at the publique Anatomye, and the disorderlynes of
  those Surgians y{t} doe appeare for wanting their outward ornament
  commixing themselves confusedly amongst the Comon people then pˀnte,
  whereby the hono{r} and worthynes of this Companie on the Surgians
  pˀte hath bene much eclipsed. ffor redresse of w{ch} enormious
  exorbitance and for the better grace and Worˀp̃ of this Companie.
  It is now decreed that for ever hereafter at the tymes of publiq̃e
  Lecture readings on the Sceletons or Anatomies in this Comon Hall
  this ensueing order for the greater decencye & more Worˀp̃ of this
  Companie shall from tyme to tyme hereafter yearely be observed and
  put in due execution, viz{t.,} That every Surgian either of the
  Assistants or of the Liverye shall appeare in his gowne in the
  forenone and afternoone of one daye at the least of the 3 dayes
  lectures at every publiq̃e discection And that every Surgian of
  the Wardeins and of the Assistants of the yeomanrye shall likewise
  appeare in his gowne in the forenone and afternoone of one daye at
  the least of the three dayes lectures at every publiq̃e Anatomye, and
  everye one of those Surgians dureing the tyme of such lecture shall
  sitt decently in such place in the Scaffoldings as is appropriated
  to every of them in their degrees and Rancks as aunciently hath bene
  accustomed upon payne that every Surgian that shall not accordingly
  appeare shall forfeite and paye to the use of the Companie the some
  of Twoe shillings and Six pence, or appeareing shall not weare his
  gowne all the tyme of such readeing for one daye at the least the
  som̃e of Twelve pence, And that every pˀson of the Coiãltie or
  fforreine brothers professeing Surgerye shall likewise appeare in
  the forenone and afternone of one daye at the least of the 3 dayes
  lectures at the publiq̃e Anatomye and not appeareing shall forfeite
  Twelve pence without redempc͠on of all or any pˀte of any of the
  fines aforesaid.

  24th September, 1635. Alsoe for that Nicholas Downeing not being an
  approved Surgian according to Lawe did twoe opac͠ons[202] in Surgery
  contrary to the Lawes of this Kingdome & the Customes & ordinances of
  this Companie and being forbid by the M{rs} & Governo{rs} to forbeare
  those opac͠ons did notwithstanding that prohibic͠on make opac͠ons
  and both patients died, Was fined at iiij{li,} viz{t.,} xl{s} a peece
  for each of those twoe opac͠ons because he made not two presentac͠ons
  according to the ordinance of this Companie in that behalfe, And he
  to be prosecuted at Lawe for the Childs miscarriage.

  [202] Operations.

  Alsoe this daye the said Nicholas Downeing was fined by this Court at
  vj{s.} viij{d.} for his uncivill behavio{r} to M{r} John Woodall an
  auncient M{r} of this Companie.

  6th October, 1635. Alsoe Nicholas Downeing being here in Court was
  required to paye his three fines according to his promise the last
  Thursdaye, denied to paye them, is by this Court comitted to the
  Compter in Wood Streete in my lord Maio{r} of Londons name.

The following entry is not complimentary to Dr. William Harvey, the
discoverer of the circulation of the blood, the marginal note in the
minute book being “Doctor Harveys ill practise.”

  17th November, 1635. This daye W{m} Kellett being called here in
  Court for not makeing presentac͠on of one M{r} Kinnersleys maide that
  died in his charge, he saied here in Court that M{r} Doctor Harvye
  being called to the patient did upon his vew of the patient saie,
  that by the meanes of a boulster the tumor on the temporall muskle
  would be discussed and his opinion was, that there was noe fracture
  but the vomiteing came by reason of the foulenesse of the Stomacke,
  and to that purpose pˀscribed physick by Briscoe the Apothecarye, soe
  the patient died by ill practise, the fracture being neglected & the
  Companie not called to the vew.

The next entry illustrates the peremptory method of dealing with a
quack:--

  22nd October, 1635. One Christopher Hatton whoe saied he waighteth
  on S{r} W{m} Belfore his Ma{t}ꝭ Lieutenant of The Tower came to this
  Court to knowe the reason of the Companies takeing downe of Lãw
  Raylens banner or mountabanck table of bladders & stones being a
  stranger borne & then were hung upon Tower hill execution place, this
  Courts answere was that by the Lawes & Charters of this Companie they
  tooke & demolished them.

  ALSO the said Lawrence Ruylen a mountabanck was called here in
  Court and ordered to paye his fine of v{li} for hanging his signes
  tables bladders and stones upon the publique postꝭ in streetes &
  on the Traitors scaffold on Tower hill in an exorbitant manner
  being contrary to the Lawes and Charters of this Companie confirmed
  according to Lawe And this Court doth order that those signes
  and bladders shalbe demolished and he is forbidden from further
  practiseing any pˀt of Surgerye hereafter within London or 7 miles
  Compasse of this Cittye.

1637. For several years prior to and about this period numerous entries
occur of Surgeons being fined £5 for going to sea without license
or without having their sea chests examined, also for sending their
apprentices to sea as surgeons’ mates without examination.

  29th March, 1638. It is ordered that Edward Arris[203] and Hen:
  Boone[204] shall have libertie to sett up in o{r} Theater a Sceleton
  by them wrought on when they were Masters Anatomysts on the body of
  Cañbury besse[205] to be placed on the Corbell stone of the Signe
  Libra alsoe they have leave to paint that peere of bricks up to the
  Cornish & to depict the planett Venus governeing those twoe signes
  underneath Libra & Taurus with twoe shadowed neeces[206] for two
  Sceletons & to sett up their names or mottoe under Libra they payeing
  the charge for the same & such pˀson or pˀsons as shall sett up a
  sceleton on the other signe Taurus shall paye the moietye of the
  charge they are now at in painting.

  [203] Alderman, Master 1651.
  [204] Master 1655.
  [205] Canonbury Bessie, a malefactor.
  [206] Niches.

  3rd July, 1638. Upon the complaint ag{t} ffran: Soare for discecting
  a bodye in his owne house contrary to the ordinance It is ordered he
  shalbe sumoned ag{t} the next Court.

  22nd October, 1638. Tho. Bowden being called to this Court for not
  makeing pˀntac͠on of his patient Godfrey Lee whoe died under his
  handꝭ is fined at xl{s.}

  Alsoe the said Thomas Bowden being not an approved Surgian for that
  he tooke upon him the cure & charge of y{e} said Godfrey being
  daungerouslie wounded & did not joyne an able & approved surgian with
  him in that cure is fined at v{li.}

  Alsoe it is ordered that for his the said Thomas Bowdens evill
  practise in Surgerye he shalbe Comitted to the Compter in Wood
  Streete.

Mr. Bowden subsequently mended his ways as he was elected Third Warden
in 1654 and Upper Warden in 1660.

  22nd October, 1638. It is ordered that the M{r} & Wardens & as many
  of the Assistants Surgians with Counsell shall attend the right
  hono{ble} y{e} Lordꝭ of his Ma{t}ꝭ most hono{ble} privye Councell
  about the new Patent for distilling strong Waters.

6th March, 1639. Mrs. Susan Gwinn, widow of Dr. Gwinn, the Reader of
Anatomy, presented the Doctor’s MSS. to the Company.

1638-9. About this period the war with Scotland consequent upon Charles
I interfering in Scotch Church matters, broke out, and a large army
being collected in the North the Barber-Surgeons were directed to
“press” and forward twenty-three Surgeons to Newcastle.

The Minute relating to this is as follows,--

  20th April, 1639. Upon reading the warr{t} sent to this house from
  Yorke signed by the Lord Generall concerneing the want of Surgians in
  the Armye It is concluded by the Governo{rs} & Assistants here pˀnte
  that M{r} Warden Dunn & M{r} Collins shall goe on, & goe aboard some
  Newcastle shipp and agree with a shipper for y{e} conveighance of
  y{e} Surgians & their Chests & provisions & their mates, & likewise
  give them conduct money, & that for the present that charge to be
  borne out of the stock of this house untill it cann be reobteyned
  from the Thrẽr of y{e} Armye.

This appears to have cost the Company £44 14_s._, whereof they
received but £23, the balance never having been paid. The details
of the expenditure are subjoined, and in reading them we cannot but
commiserate the unhappy men who were barged to Gravesend and thence
“transported” to Newcastle.


DISBURSEM{T}ꝭ FOR IMPRESTING AND SHIPPINGE OF THE SURGIANS IN THE YEARS
IMPLOYM{T} FOR THE KINGS SERVICE.

  Laid out by Edmund Johnson for ymprestinge
    of Surgeons for the Kingꝭ service           v{li}

  Delivered to M{r} Collins for the like                  x{s}

  Spent in goeinge to Lymehouse Ratcliffe &
    wappinge to presse                                        xviij{d}

  Paid to xxiij Surgions who were transported
    by sea from London to Newcastle xxiij{li}
    of w{ch} rec{d} by M{r} Serjant Clowes
    xvij{li} x{s} & my selfe xx{s} so that
    there doth remayne unsatisfied           iiij{li}     x{s}

  Paid unto Tho: Wells the M{r} of the
    shipp to transport them                  viij{li}

  Paid for a barge to carry us & them to                xxx{s}
    Gravesend

  Spent at Gravesend at dynner                           ix{s}   vj{d}

  Spent at Supper                                       vij{s}

  Paid Jo: Mules w{ch} he disburced for
    Warfage literage caremenn & other like
    Charges as pˀ bill                                  xxvj{s}
                                              -------------------------
                                     Sum̃ is   xxj{li} xiiij{s}
                                              -------------------------

In accordance with their Charters the ancient practice of the Company
had been to elect annually two Surgeons and two Barbers for Master
and Wardens; this fell into electing two Surgeons and two others
who were often neither Barbers nor Surgeons, and latterly, even the
qualification of Surgery came to be disregarded, whereupon (29th March,
1639) a mandate, signed by Charles I and directed to the Company, was
read in Court (see Appendix, G) in which the King set forth that divers
persons as “hosiers dyers & other tradesmen unskilfull in Chirurgery
or Barbarye” had been chosen for Masters and Wardens contrary to
the Charters and Acts of Parliament, and further “wee takeing into
considerac͠on of what dangerous consequence it maye be to suffer a
Companye wherein the lives and safetie of o{r} people are soe much
concerned and for w{ch} o{r} progenitors have soe carefully provided to
be governed by such unskilfull pˀsons,” the King straitly commanded
the Company to elect the Governors in the future as they ought to do,
viz.: two Barbers and two Surgeons each year.

This order of the King appears for some little time to have been
obeyed, and then the Company relapsed into their old practice of
choosing at their pleasure, whereupon another mandate came from the
King, for we find that:--

17th January, 1644. The Court took notice of the King’s mandate, and
a very long and elaborate minute is entered to the effect that the
practice of choosing two Barbers and two Surgeons for Governors was
fraught with much inconvenience and had led to great dissensions, and
the Court referring to the Statute of Henry VII, where it is allowed
that any person free of the Company following any other profession than
that of a Barber or Surgeon should be reputed and taken as a Barber,
ordered that for the future, any Member of the Assistants, other than
a Barber or Surgeon, might be put in nomination, and that he should
be accounted a Barber. The Court were very careful to express their
loyalty to the King whilst they ignored his mandate, trusting no doubt,
that should they afterwards be called to account by the King, their
dutiful expressions towards him would serve in a measure as an excuse
for disobeying his express commands.

  [Sidenote:
  Mould for y{e}
  Kings Evill.]

  2nd July, 1639. Anthony Mould called to this Court and questioned
  concerneing his practise in Surgerye, confessed that he deales onely
  in swellings and Kernills & hath a licence from the Kinge to practise
  the same, he hath lately taken into his Cure one George Ravenscroft
  for scrophilous tumo{rs} in the neck, this Court at the said Moulds
  request, hath given libertye to Mould to cure him by Michaelmas next,
  & he hath promised then to present the said Geo: whole & well to this
  Court.

Some nine years afterwards Mould was again before the Court in a case
of King’s evil.

  21st March, 1648. Henry Ivatt complayned against Anthony Mold for
  his evill practice On the Wife of the said Ivatt who being afflicted
  with the Kings Evill Whereof he undertooke to cure her And for that
  purpose did receive of the said Ivatt xxx{s} in hand and was to have
  40{s} more when she was cured Both partyes refeered themselves to
  this Court Whereupon this Court doth Order That the said Mold doth
  restore xx{s} back againe to the said Ivatt Which he promised to pay
  accordingly And soe all differences betweene the said parties by
  theire owne consent to cease and determine.

  6th February, 1646. It is this day ordered That our M{r} and M{r}
  Warden Browne[207] with the other Assistants Surgeons present doe
  move the Sheriffs That at the time of Execuc͠on a Body be quietly
  delivered to this Companye’s officer for an Anatomy.

  [207] Martin Browne, an eminent Surgeon, Master in 1653, gave the
  Company a Silver loving cup and cover.

  9th March, 1646. This day M{r} Warden Browne acquainted this Court
  that whereas he about 6 yeares sithence had a child of M{r} Hamonds
  to his Patient with whome he upon his first calling thither found
  M{r} Thomas Bowden[208] with others Who after presentac͠on made by
  the Motion of M{r} Warden Browne dyed, that he hath bin reported by
  the ffather of the child to have murthered the child And that M{r}
  Thomas Bowden had justifyed and would justify the same of w{ch}
  scandall M{r} Warden complayneing to this Co{rt} M{r} Bowden prayed
  to be excused from giveing any answer thereunto ffor that there was
  a Suite at Law now depending betweene M{r} Hamond and M{r} Warden
  Browne concerning that matter.

  [208] Warden, 1654.

23rd April, 1646. Mr. Martin Browne requested and had a Committee of
Examiners to enquire into the case of Hamond’s child, and to report to
the Court.

14th May, 1646. The Committee brought up their Report, finding that on
the 28th January, 1639, Mr. Browne was called to Mr. Hamond’s child
in Bow Lane, the child having fallen out of a window and seriously
injured its head. That Mr. Browne consulted with Dr. Spicer and Mr.
Thomas Bowden (whom he found there) and as they all conceived the
child to be in danger, presentation was duly made to the Wardens of
the Barber-Surgeons, that thereupon by general consent, the child was
let blood and had a glister, and the next day his head was shaved
and a cataplasm applied, that these remedies were continued for about
eight days and that then it was deemed advisable to open the head,
which was done by Mr. Browne with a Trapan in the presence and with the
advice and approbation of Mr. Serjeant Clowes (then Master), Mr. George
Dunn[209] (Warden), Mr. William Kings,[210] Mr. Eaton and the said Mr.
Bowden, and that the child died on the 15th day, that proper remedies
had been duly applied and that everything had been done with great care
according to art.

[209] Master, 1646.

[210] Master, 1650.

  23rd October, 1646. This Court doth order That all the approved
  Chirurgeons according to Law shall appeare at all publique Anatomyes
  for the time to come in a fflatt Capp upon the penalty of 3{s} 4{d}
  and all the rest of the Livery in a Hatt.

       1646. ~The~ CHARGES OF THE ANATHOMYES BETWEENE MICHAS AND
                            CHRISTMAS LAST.

  Paid for Carryeing the Cophin to Newgate                      00 00 06

  ffor horsehire to the place of execuc͠on                       00 02 00

  ffor the ffees at the place of execuc͠on                       00 05 06

  ffor expences at S{t} Gyles xij{d} to the carman xij{d}
    and for washing the bodye xij{d}                            00 03 00

  ffor Perfumes xij{d} wax candles ij{d} and soape j{d}         00 01 03

  ffor lynnen for the Bodye                                     00 06 08

  To the Beadles Assistant in taking the Bodye                  00 01 00

  Paid the Parsons dutye for the buriall ij{d} for y{e}
    grave xij{d} for the Clerke & Sexton xxij{d}                00 04 10

  To the Bearers ij{s} & expended at the buriall ij{s} vj{d}    00 04 06

  ffor a Cophin to burye the bodye in                           00 03 04

  To Doctor Godard for reading six lectures                     06 00 00

  To M{r} Nicholas Brothers and M{r} William Watson
    whoe desected the bodye xl{s} appeece                       04 00 00

  Paid for 3 dynners for the M{rs} or Governo{rs} Assistants
    Reader & desectors                                          10 00 00

  ffor Candles for 3 mornings                                   00 11 11

  To the twoe Beadles their ffee for three dayes
    attendance                                                  00 10 00

  1647-8. Paid and disbursed in Charges in sending Chyrurgians
  to the seige at Colchester by lr̃e from the Com{rs} of the
  Armye & for their maintenance & medicines                     17 13 06

  26th January, 1647. William Watson haveing his Letters of admittance
  and not sealed the Bond according to the ordinance in that behalfe
  did amongst other uncivill behaviour and words to our M{r} and the
  Court say That he would not be whipˀd by a Bond and that he would
  give his answer at his owne convenience. And when our M{r} told him
  That he must seale the Bond he answered That must was for the King,
  But this Court gave him a fortnight to give his answer peremptorily.

1655. The following is a Copy of a Surgeon’s Certificate to practise:--

  [Sidenote:
  CERTIFICATE IN
  THE BEHALF OF
  A CHIRURGEON.]

  ~To all people~ to whom this present writeing shall come JOHN
  FREDERICKE ESQ{R} Alderman of the Cittie of London Thomas Allen
  Abraham Clerke and Thomas Bowden Mas{rs} or Govˀno{rs} of the Mistery
  and cominalty of Barbers and Chirurgeons of London send Greeting in
  our Lord God everlasting.

  ~Whereas~ WEE have had experience & sufficient Tryall as well of the
  good behaviour & honest conversac͠on of Samuell Holditch a Freeman of
  the said mistery and Cominaltie & one of the Cloathing of our said
  Corporac͠on as alsoe of his skill exp̃ience & knowledge in the Arte
  or Science of Chirurgery. NOW KNOW YEE that wee the said Masters or
  Govˀno{rs} (att the humble suite and entreatie of the said Samuell
  Holditch & for his further appᵬac͠on of his skill) Have on the day
  of the date of these presents caused him to be deliberately examined
  & tryed before us concerning his sufficiency & knowledge in the same
  arte by William Kings[211] Edward Arris[212] Henry Boone[213] Robert
  Bullacke[214] Charles Stamford[215] & Lawrence Loe[216] Masters
  in Chirurgery being six of the examiners appointed and auth̃ized
  according to Lawe for the examinac͠on and appᵬac͠on of Chirurgeons
  And findeing him the said Samuell Holditch a fitt and able pˀson to
  practice use & exercise the said Arte of Chirurgery Wee doe by these
  ps̃ents as much as in us is admitt app̃ve of & allowe him to practice
  use and exercise the said Arte or science of Chirurgery & all and
  every the parts thereof according to the force forme & effect of the
  statutes in that behalf made & p̃vided.

  [211] Master 1650.
  [212] M. 1651.
  [213] M. 1655.
  [214] M. 1657.
  [215] M. 1659.
  [216] M. 1667.

  IN WITNESSE whereof we the said Masters or Govˀno{rs} have hereunto
  subscribed our names & caused the Comõn seale of y{e} said
  Corporac͠on to be fixed this seaventh day of May in the yeare of our
  Lord God according to the accompt kept in England One thousand six
  hundred fifty & five.

                                                  JOHN FREDERICK
                                                  THO: ALLEN
                                                  ABRA: CLERKE
                                                  THO: BOWDEN.

1690. The following is a copy of a Press warrant issued by the Masters
and Governors to their Beadles, Smith and Wills:--

  ~Whereas~ by certeine Letters pattents of our Late Sovereigne Lord
  King Charles the first dated the ffifteenth day of August in the
  first yeare of his reigne As alsoe by order of our Sovereigne Lord
  the King in Councill beareing date the twenty eight day of December
  last ~Wee~ the Masters or Governo{rs} of the Mistery & Coiãlty of
  Barbers & Chirurgions of London are Authorized and required forthwith
  to cause to be impressed or taken up for their Maj{ties} service
  in Ireland ffortey Chirurgeons Mates & to returne their Names to
  the Councill Board that care may be taken for their subsistance, In
  pursuance of the said Authorities & in discharge of the trust in us
  reposed Wee doe hereby require & com̃and you Peter Smith & Jonas
  Wills being our officers joyntley & severally to imprest for their
  Maj{ties} Service fortey Able Chirurgeons Mates delivering every
  person by you imprest one shilling impresse money chargeing him upon
  his Allegiance forthwith to pˀpare himselfe for the said Service &
  to make his personall appearance before us at our Com̃on Hall upon
  further Summons there to receive such orders & direcc͠on for his
  speedy repaire to such Service as he shall be assigned unto, and for
  better execuc͠on hereof his Maj{ties} Deputy leiftennants Sherr̃s
  Mayors Bayliffs & Constables & others whom it may concerne are to be
  aiding & assisting unto you. Given under our Comon Seale this 17{th}
  day of January in the first yeare of the Reigne of our Sovereigne
  Lord & Ladie King William & Queene Mary 1689.[217]

  [217] _i.e._, 1690.

2nd July, 1690. It was ordered that any of the Assistants or Livery
being Surgeons and not appearing at the Public Anatomy were to forfeit
3_s._ 4_d._ each.

  12th December, 1690. Whereas there hath been an abuse offered to M{r}
  ffenton Bynns by Doct{r} Goodall for giveing internall medicines in a
  case of Surgery, Ordered that if the College of Phisitians doe arrest
  M{r} Bynns that he shall bee defended at the cost of the Company for
  the fact now menc͠oned in Court.

  20 July, 1693. Considering some late ill practises in this Company
  relating to Anatomy & to prevent the same for the future it is
  ordered by this Court that noe pˀson what soever (except the Reader,
  Masters & Stewards of Anatomy for the time being) shall use a knife
  &c to disect any humaine body at any time hereafter brought to this
  Hall for an Anatomy upon the forfiture of xl{s} for every fact soe
  com̃itted.

The Court would seem to have had the power of nominating the Surgeons
and Surgeons’ Mates to the ships of the Royal Navy. There are hundreds
of instances in the books of these appointments, but the following will
suffice as examples:--

  11th August, 1693. Ordered that M{r} John Bamber bee warranted
  Chirurgeon of the Waymouth at Portsmouth.

  Ordered that Larkham bee continued on board the Bristoll.

  Ordered that M{r} Harding have the first fowerth rate that shall bee
  ordered out.

  13th February, 1694. Ordered that M{r} Nicholson bee continued
  Chirurgeon of the Oxford & that the Captaine bee acquainted with the
  same.

  27th February, 1694. John Jenkin this day relinquished all title &
  clame to the S{t} Paull ffire shipp, ordered that Richard Woolett bee
  warranted in his rome at the request of Captaine Mitchell.

  22nd June, 1698. Ordered that the whole body of the pˀson desected
  bee entirely buried some time tomorrow & that Cave the Beadle take
  care & see it done.

  20th July, 1698. M{r} Woodward pˀsented five Books of M{r} Arris
  Surgery to the Company.

There is no notice at the British Museum, of any Surgical book written
by Edward Arris; these were probably some books which had belonged to
him.

29th July, 1701. Dr. Tyson having made some proposals as to the
regulation of the Library, a Committee was this day appointed and
drew up a great many rules, which are set out in the minutes with much
prolixity.

3rd December, 1709. It was ordered that no Examiner in Surgery should
in future accept any gratuity from, or be treated or entertained in any
manner by, any Sea Surgeon or Surgeon’s Mate, either before or after
examination, under the penalty of being removed from his offices of
Examiner and Assistant.

1st June, 1710. The Archbishop of Canterbury[218] having licensed
several persons to practise as Surgeons without due examination, the
following memorial was ordered to be sent to his Grace.

[218] Thomas Tenison, ob. 14th December, 1715.

      TO The most Reverend ffather in God Thomas by Divine Providence
          Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.

      THE humble petition of the Masters or Governo{rs} Assistants
          Livery & ffreemen of the Mystery & Comonalty of Barbers &
          Surgeons of London.

    SHEWETH:

  THAT severall Surgeons unlearned & unskilfull in that Art have set up
  & practised within Seven miles of the City of London under Colour of
  a Licence from yo{r} Grace & without the examination & approbation
  of such Surgeons as the Law hath appointed for that purpose ffor
  which reason wee beg leave to lay before yo{r} Grace the following
  representation, viz{t.}:

  THAT the Company of Barbers & Surgeons were incorporated by the
  Charter of King Edward the Second w{ch} was confirmed by the Charter
  of Edward the fourth with this Addic͠onal Clause That the Governo{rs}
  of the Company should examine approve & authorise all such as should
  practise in that ffaculty.[219]

  [219] This statement as to a Charter by Edward II is a fiction, as
  also that it was confirmed by Edward IV, with an additional clause.
  The first Charter was granted by Edward IV, 24th February, 1462. The
  remainder of the facts stated in this letter to the Archbishop are,
  however, correct.

  THAT the said Charter of Edward 4{th} not having provided by
  sufficient penaltys against that great & growing mischeife which
  sprung from the unskillfullness of several vain pretenders in this
  art, It was provided by the Statute of the 3 H. 8, cap. 11 That no
  person within London or seven miles of it should exercise Surgery
  except they were first examined approved & admitted by the Bishop of
  London or Dean of Paul’s calling to him four expert persons in that
  faculty under forfeiture of five pounds pˀ month And out of the City
  & precints seven miles, unless exaĩed & approved by the Bishop of the
  Diocess or his Vicar Generall in like mañer, upon which Statute yo{r}
  petitioners beg leave to observe That it was wholly introductive of a
  new law & creates a power in the Bishop that was before vested in the
  Company by the Charter, so doth it take care to confine that power
  meerly to the Diocesan under the limitation of a regular examination
  in his presence by four persons that had already passed their
  examinations.

  THE Bishop of each Diocess being therefore by their Law invested
  with a Temporall power perfectly forreign to their Ecclesiasticall
  Jurisdiction & Spirituall care We do humbly hope yo{r} Grace will not
  exercise this authority which was never by this law placed in the
  Metropolitane but was only to be exercised by the Diocesan under a
  regular Examination by persons admitted into our Company. And yo{r}
  Grace will find this the more reasonable upon Consideration of this
  Act for the law makes it a part of the Ecclesiasticall concernment
  upon a supposition that severall persons pretending to Surgery had
  practised Sorcery & Witchcraft which yo{r} Grace will pardon us if
  we beg leave to say was an artificiall notion set up by the popish
  Clergy in those times to draw within their own Verge the Inspection &
  approbation of all such persons as attended the beds of dying men.

  BUT however that law was obtained, our Company which consisted of
  all such persons as exercised Surgery within London or seven miles
  being afterwards incorporated by the Statute of 32 H. 8, C. 42, no
  man could practise within London or seven Miles Compass of the City
  without an examination by four of the faculty thus incorporated &
  without being solemnly admitted into the Company.

  AND accordingly the Bishop of London has from time to time been
  pleased to do us that Justice that we humbly presume yo{r} Grace will
  not deny us, viz{t} not to license any person within his Diocess who
  hath not first obtained a Testimoniall under the Seale of our Company
  certifying the examination of such person & his skill & ability for
  the exercise of that art.

  BUT if this restraint of yo{r} Graces Licences were not to be asked
  as a matter of Justice We should not doubt to obtain it as a favour,
  when yo{r} Grace considers how this maner of entring into the faculty
  opens a way to the Ignorant & unskillfull to the great prejudice
  both of the Company & of the publick, for yo{r} Grace cannot be
  so much at leisure from yo{r} pastorall care to enquire into the
  abilitys of such as pretend to sign their Testimonialls nor is any
  person that comes in by this method subject to the regulation of our
  Company’s By-Laws which are all signed under the hands of the two
  Cheife Justices & the present Lord Chancellour & contrived with the
  greatest exactness to regulate the practise of this art, besides that
  every person admitted is obliged to give bond to the Company that he
  will diligently attend such cures as he shall be called unto & that
  he will never wilfully administer any hurtfull medecine, And in all
  cases of danger call in one of our ten Examiners to his assistance
  who are always ready to afford their assistance when asked.

  LASTLY we think we may add that the Companys services of the publick
  may reasonably deserve some consideration from all lovers of the
  publick for that ten of the principall persons of the faculty meet
  once a week at their Hall to examine & approve all Surgeons &
  Surgeons Mates that are in her Majesties Service which amount to five
  hundred in a year & to inspect all Sea Surgeons Chests of medicines &
  instruments & to peruse the Journalls of their practice & to view all
  Sea officers who are wounded in fight & this without the least reward
  nor are any admitted into the Sea Service without their Testimoniall
  & approbation to the very great preservation of the Seamen And tis
  presumed that a Regulation that has been found so necessary at Sea
  will appear at Land to be equally beneficiall.

  WHEREFORE yo{r} petitioners humbly begg that yo{r} Grace will not for
  the future be pleased to give Lycences to any persons to practise
  Surgery within London or seven miles compass thereof untill such
  persons skill & ability for the exercise of that art appears by a
  Testimoniall under our Companys Seale to have been tried & approved
  of by the ten Examiners of our Company appointed for that purpose.

There is no note of any reply to this letter having been received from
the Archbishop.

6th February, 1711. The Court petitioned the Queen that they might have
the Examination and certifying of all Army Surgeons (who were then
examined by the Surgeon-General) in the same way that they examined and
passed the Navy Surgeons.

20th February, 1711. Letters similar in effect to the one addressed to
the Archbishop on 1st June, 1710, though slightly differing to meet
some altered circumstances not necessary to be here set forth in
full, were ordered to be sent to the Bishops of London, Winchester and
Rochester, and to the Dean of St. Paul’s.

  6th March, 1711. It is ordered that William Cave one of the Beadles
  of this Company do make Inquiry who the persons were that carryed
  away the last body from Tyburne & that such persons be Indicted for
  the same.

16th August, 1711. Mr. Daniell Turner intending to become a “Collegiate
Physician” applied for his discharge from the Freedom and Livery of the
Company, which was granted to him for £50, and that sum he at once paid
down.

  9th October, 1711. Richard Russell one of the persons who stands
  Indicted for carrying away the last publick body applying himself
  to this Court & offering to be evidence against the rest of the
  persons concerned It it ordered that the Clerk do apply himself to
  Her Majesty’s Attorney Generall for a Noli pˀsequi as to the said
  Russell in order to make him an evidence upon the s{d} Indictment &
  particularly ag{st} one Samuell Waters whom the Court did likewise
  order to be indicted for the said fact.

It was no uncommon circumstance for candidates under examination to be
rejected, the reason being often rather tersely given, _e.g._:

  13th February, 1712. W{m} Ogilby Rejected & said very Saucily it
  should be the last time.

  Alex{r} Keith Rejected because an Apothecary’s boy.

  Edward Brown Rejected because a Barber.

  James Erwin ffor a Mate and rejected for Sauciness to M{r} Blundell &
  the Court.

1st April, 1712. Two Barbers were ordered to be prosecuted for
practising Surgery contrary to the By-Laws.

  6th May, 1712. Ordered that M{r} Watts be summoned to appear before
  the Governo{rs} att the next Court to answer a Complaint ag{t} him
  for practiceing Surgery & Instructing Barbers for 2 Guineas a peice.

  Ordered that M{r} Small be likewise summoned to appeare before the
  Governo{rs} att the next Court to answer a Complaint ag{t} him for
  amputateing a Breast without calling an examiner to be present.

27th May, 1712. John Wooding having been convicted at the Old Bailey
for taking away the body of John Addison from the place of execution,
the Court prayed the Lord Chief Justice to allow the sentence upon
him to be inserted in the Gazette, and afterwards to consent in the
Company’s name to the remission of his fine and imprisonment.

19th June, 1712. Mr. Bartlett, a truss maker, having been summoned for
practising Surgery, he was ordered “to take from his sign board that he
cures Ruptures.”

7th May, 1713. The Court having complained to the Bishop of London
of the inconvenience arising from his licensing persons to practise
Surgery, and the Bishop having informed the Company that he would not
issue any more such licenses without a certificate of fitness from the
Company, it was thereupon ordered that 5 guineas should be paid yearly
to his Lordship’s Registrar as Caveat money.

  28th May, 1713. Ordered that the Clark go to the Secretary at War for
  a Guard in order to gett the next Body [from Tyburn].

  13th August, 1713. Upon hearing a complaint ag̃st M{r} Godman & M{r}
  Pinsent for p{r}tending that one Vincents thigh was broke when it
  was not & then they had sett it contrary to truth & proficiency in
  Surgery & the Patient & other Witnesses being examined & proving
  y{e} fact ag̃st him, the Court fined M{r} Godman five pounds for his
  unskillfull & wilfull practice & to be sued upon the by law or his
  bond as shall be thought most convenient.

  19th November, 1714. Att this Court John Spurling a Barber at
  Highgate was ordered to be prosecuted upon the Company’s Charter for
  practising Surgery upon John Holmes Barber.

21st April, 1715. The Court being informed that the Lords Commissioners
of the Admiralty proposed to place the viewing of Sea Surgeons’ chests
with Dr. Oliver and Mr. Rider, Physician and Surgeon of Greenwich
Hospital, to the exclusion of the Company’s rights and contrary to
the Charter of Charles I; it was ordered that a memorial should be
presented to the first Lord against such a proposal.

4th June, 1715. The Lords of the Admiralty having requested the Court
to undertake, with Dr. Oliver, the examination of such Warrant Officers
in the Navy as should apply for superannuation pensions on the ground
of age, wounds or infirmities, the Court directed the Clerk to reply
stating that the Company would perform that office, and hold Courts for
the purpose, on the first Friday in each month. Pursuant to the above,
Courts were held and certificates granted from time to time.

  5th June, 1716. It is ordered That Nathaniel Charles be prosecuted He
  owning that he had lett blood severall times for one shilling and six
  pence, As allso his Master Joseph Roe. Twas observed that M{r} Roe
  could not write his name haveing set his mark only to the Indenture.

  3rd July, 1716. Ordered that the Clerk do permitt Mr. Beckett[220] to
  Inspect the Company’s Registers of ffremen and apprentices and The
  Table of Governors Names to enable him to publish his book now in
  hand relateing to the lives and writings of eminent Surgeons.

  [220] At the British Museum there is “A collection of Surgical
  Tracts,” by William Beckett, F.R.S., London, 1740, and in the preface
  thereto it is stated that the collection formed by Mr. Beckett
  relating to eminent Surgeons had not been published.

  6th July, 1716. Att this Court M{r} Langley who lives in Shoreditch
  being suspected to be a Quack Doctor was exaĩed touching his skill in
  Surgery but not being able to answer a question was rejected.

  1st July, 1720. Ordered That the Porter in Southwark and a Bone
  setter in Cheapside be prosecuted for Bone seting.

  5th August, 1720. James King the Surgeon who deposited £7 13_s._
  0_d._ in order to be exaĩed againe as a fforreigne Brother was now
  Examined againe but not being fittly qualifyed he was rejected and
  ordered his money back And ordered to be prosecuted in case he shall
  ever practice Surgery for the future.

23rd June, 1721. The Master represented to the Court that “great
trouble and inconveniency” had arisen in consequence of such Surgeons
as had of late offered themselves for examination not having presented
the Governors and Examiners “with Gloves of such sort and goodness as
had been customarily and antiently given to the Governors and Examiners
upon such examinac͠on and by buying the gloves of tradesemen who were
not proper dealers in such sort of goods.” Whereupon it was ordered
that in future every Candidate before Examination should deposit with
the Clerk as much money as would be sufficient to pay each of the
Governors and Examiners who should be present six shillings, for them
to lay out in the purchase of such gloves as they should see fit. On
the 10th December, 1725, the glove money was raised from 6_s._ to
10_s._ 6_d._

The real secret of the above order, no doubt was, that there were such
a great number of surgeons coming up for examination from time to time,
that the Governors and Examiners got less money and more gloves than
they wanted.

  26th April, 1723. It is ordered that M{r} John Douglass Surgeon
  and a fforeigne brother of this Company shall be admitted into the
  freedom and Livery of this Company and be discharged and acquitted
  from holding or paying any fine for his freedom or Livery, or for
  all or any offices to the Parlour door as a Compliment to him for
  introducing the new method of Cutting for the Stone and to express
  the sense this Court hath of the usefullness therof.

  4th September, 1724. William Turner Barber who was sumoned at the
  last Court for letting blood appeared at this Court and owning his
  practiceing Surgery and insisting on his right and sufficiency so to
  do This Court doth order that the Clark do sue the said Turner for
  letting blood and practiceing Surgery contrary to the Statute of 32.
  Hen: 8: Cap. 42.

  2nd October, 1724. At this Court Thomas Cooke was examined for a
  fforreigne Brother But being found insufficient he was rejected. Note
  he lives in Duck Lane Publishes Bills as a Quack pretending to the
  cure of the Venereall disease, but he being examined touching the
  cure of that distemper in particular and being found to know little
  or nothing of it, the Court directed him to take down his Surgeon’s
  sign and not to practice for the future on pain of being sued upon
  the Act of Parliament and Company’s Charter.

1725. The following seems somewhat inappropriately placed amongst the
dinner accounts for this year.

  ~The~ CHARGES TO BE PAID BY THE MASTERS AND STEWARDS OF ANATOMY
  FOR PROCURING A BODY BESIDES THE DINNER AT YE VISCERA LECTURE.

                                                       _s._ _d._

    Horsehire                                            2    6
    For a Coach                                          6    0
    For expenses in fetching the Body                    2    6
    To the Sheriff’s officers                           13    4
    To the Beadles assistant                             1    0
    For Washing the Body                                 1    0
    For a Coffin                                         5    0
    To Parson Ground Clark and Sexton                    5   10
    To the Bearers                                       2    0
    Funeral expenses                                     2    6
    For a certificate                                    0    6
    The Clark’s fees                                    10    0
    The 2 Beadle’s ffees                                10    0
    For a Link                                           0    3
    To the Chairwoman                                    5    0
                                                    -----------
                                                    £3   7    5
                                                    ===========

  14th October, 1726. At this Court Peter North Boatswain of His
  Majesty’s ship Cornwall was viewed for superannuation and pretended
  to be afflicted with deafness & the Gout. But the Court being of
  opinion that his deafness (if any) was occasion{d} by wax in his ear
  only, which might be cured by syringing, and not being satisfy{d}
  that he had the gout, The Court did not think fit but that he was
  capable of further service at Sea.

  At this Court one Chambers surgeon in Duck Lane was examined touching
  his Skill in Surgery in order to be made a fforeign brother, but
  appearing to be a stupid ffellow & a sort of a Quack who gave out
  Bills, and not being able to answer a question the Court rejected him.

17th February, 1727. The Navy Board having, on the 16th inst., written
to the Master and Wardens enclosing a copy of an anonymous letter
which had been received, charging the Examiners in Surgery with
partiality, and with qualifying incompetent persons as Navy Surgeons,
the Court seem to have taken the matter up in a high spirited manner,
and returned a long letter setting forth their practice in conducting
the Examinations, referring in detail to the particular case alleged
against them, and indeed made a most excellent and satisfactory
defence. The correspondence is very lengthy and full of detail, much
reference being made to the work carried on by the Company for the
public service without fee or reward.

  7th March, 1727. It is ordered That for y{e} future when any
  apprentices are to be bound to Surgeons they shall be called in & be
  examined by themselves touching their skil in y{e} Latin tongue.

  7th April, 1727. James Ripoult a Frenchman was called in but not
  speaking English nor being naturalized the Court did not think it
  proper to examine him.

  5th October, 1727. John Jacob Sax being a Prussian by birth & not
  naturalized nor understanding English The Court did not think it
  proper to examine him.

  William Miles recomended by Lord Torrington & examined but seeming to
  know nothing of Surgery was rejected.

16th January, 1729. A Petition was drawn up by the Court for
presentation to the King, setting forth the Company’s right to four
dead bodies of felons yearly to be obtained at Tyburn, and that of
late divers riotous persons had wrested the bodies from the Company’s
Beadles at the place of execution. The Court declared that these
proceedings were greatly to the detriment of the study of Surgery, and
also set forth the services which the Company rendered to the State, by
examining Surgeons and their Mates for the Royal Navy, viewing their
medicine chests and instruments, viewing all such officers as are
wounded in fight at Sea and for superannuation, and they conclude--

  Your petitioners do therefore humbly pray that your Majesty will
  be graciously pleased to permitt and direct That a ffyle or Two of
  y{r} Majesty’s ffoot Guards shall upon applicac͠on to the Commanding
  Officer attend the publick executions from time to time to guard
  and assist your Petic͠oners Beadles in the taking away so many dead
  bodys yearly as are granted unto your Petic͠oners by the said Act of
  Parliament or otherwise to releive your Petic͠oners in such manner as
  your Majesty in your Majesty’s most gracious wisdom and condescension
  shall think fitt.

The Company seem also to have applied to the Court of Aldermen again
for assistance in this matter, for, on the 7th March following, it was
ordered that 2,000 copies of two orders of the Lord Mayor and Court
of Aldermen, dated respectively 4th February and 4th March, should be
printed, and copies fixed up at Newgate and other public places on the
road to Tyburn, some time before any execution, and also that the said
orders should be inserted in the London Gazette and other papers.

  4th April, 1729. Peregrine Compton Rejected being fuddled & not
  answering a question.

1st February, 1732. It was ordered that any extraordinary cases of
Surgery appearing in the journals of the Sea Surgeons should be copied
out into a book, as well as any others which might be reported to the
Governors, and the same be laid before the Court of Examiners, from
time to time, for their direction as to whether the same should be
published. This book, if it ever existed, is not now in the Company’s
possession.

  15th August, 1734. It is ordered that from henceforward a Silver
  Medal not exceeding the value of a Guinea with a proper device upon
  each side of it to be made and presented at the end of the year to
  each of the Demonstrators now chosen and to the Demonstrators for the
  time being as an acknowledgment for their trouble in performing such
  Demonstrations.

These medals by a subsequent order, were to have a representation of
Holbein’s picture on one side and of Inigo Jones’ Theatre on the other,
but they do not appear to have ever been struck.

It was customary at the Demonstrations of Anatomy to provide specimens
of parts of animals, presumably for comparison, as appears by some of
the expenses incurred, _e.g._, in 1732:--

  To a sheeps hart & kidney                            0  0  6
  A sheeps hart and lights                             0  0  4
  2 Bullocks eyes                                      0  0  4

and the following is the Beadle’s Bill at the dissection of a female
malefactor in 1735:--

  For a board to lay her head upon                     0  0  4
  For a board to shew her liver upon                   0  1  0
  For two bullocks eyes                                0  0  4
  For four sheeps eyes                                 0  0  4
  For a quarter of soap                                0  0  1-1/2
  For hogs brissels                                    0  0  1
  For a new spunge                                     0  0  3
  For Borrowing a Hone to set the Instruments          0  0  3
  For Sticking up the Bills                            0  2  6
  For nine days attendance at 2{s} 6{d} p{r} Day       1  2  6
                                                      ------------
                                                      £1  7  8-1/2
                                                      ============

4th February, 1735. Under this date is an entry of a long letter from
the Commissioners of the Navy, complaining of the want of skill in a
Surgeon, whereby great mortality had ensued on the ship _Newcastle_;
the Court examined the Surgeon and his Journal and considered that
there was nothing to find fault with as regarded his proficiency in
Surgery, and that the sickness among the ship’s crew required skill
in Physic rather than in Surgery, moreover they declared that the
Physician at Greenwich examined the Navy Surgeons as to their skill
in Physic and not the Barber-Surgeons’ Company. The Clerk was directed
to write to the Commissioners to this effect, and to state that the
Company did not consider themselves answerable for any man’s want of
skill in Physic.

A long letter dated 5th February was accordingly written and is set out
in the Minute Book. The Surgeon complained of was Thomas Middleton, son
of Mr. Henry Middleton (the oldest Member of the Court) and it appears
that he had been fully examined and qualified.

29th September, 1735. The following order touching the vexed question
of dead bodies was issued by the Sheriffs:--

  ~London~ TO WITT

  IN PURSUANCE of an Act of Parliament made in the Thirty second year
  of King Henry the Eighth and of an order of Sessions bearing date
  the eighth day of July in the Fifteenth year of our late Sovereign
  Lord King Charles the First Sir Maurice Abbott Mayor. ~Wee~ do
  order and command our Officers who are entrusted with or attend
  the execution of such Malefactors as shall be to dye at any time
  hereafter during our Sheriffalty to deliver to Henry Gretton and
  William Littlebury Beadles of the Company of Barbers and Surgeons
  of London or such other Officer or Officers as the Company shall
  appoint, One of the Bodys of the said Malefactors from time to time
  for a publick Dissection and to assist them with the said body to
  their Hall according to an Order of the Court of Aldermen of the
  Thirteenth of February 1675[221] Sir William Hooker Mayor and to two
  other subsequent Orders of the Court of Aldermen one bearing date the
  fourth day of February the other the fourth day of March 1728[222]
  Sir Robert Baylis Knight Lord Mayor.

  [221] 1676 N.S.
  [222] 1729 N.S.

  Given under our hands this 29{th} day of September 1735.

                                                  JN{O} BARNARD
                                                  RO{T} GODSCHALL.

  1st June, 1736. It is ordered that the Constables of the Holborn
  Division shall be allowed Three Guineas and a halfe above the Guinea
  already paid them in regard to their expences at the last execution,
  when the Body was taken from the Beadles and retaken by the
  Constables and the Clerk is ordered to repay the same But the Clerk
  is not to pay the officers of the Compter the Two guineas usually
  received by them at every execution.

  24th September, 1741. John Thrift the Executioner this day attended
  on a complaint made against him by the Beadles for obstructing the
  Bodys being brought from Tyburne to the Hall for dissection and
  threatning to prevent the Company’s measures for obtaining the same,
  when after he had been reproved, was Dismissed, But the Court then
  agreed (in order to prevent his intended proceedings) to attend the
  Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen that they may on complaint made be
  releived therein.

  18th December, 1741. Ordered that the High Constable of Holburne be
  allowed Ten shillings and sixpence as his ffee for every Body that
  shall be brought from Tyburne and delivered at this Company’s Hall
  and for his aiding and assisting the Company’s Beadles therein and
  not otherwise.

10th February, 1742. The Court either forgetting or ignoring their
order of 7th May, 1713, now ordered that Mr. William Skelton, a proctor
in Doctors’ Commons, who had for many years past received five guineas
annually as Caveat money (being Registrar of the Bishop of London)
and “pretended to be allowed him by this Company on account of his
Lordship’s Grant for the Prohibiting of Surgeons to practice within
his Diocese be no longer entitled to such fee untill such time as this
Court shall be better informed of the nature of his right of demanding
the same.”

23rd November, 1740. Great consternation prevailed at the Hall in
consequence of a malefactor who had been hung at Tyburn having revived
when brought here for dissection. The account of this remarkable
occurrence is recorded by the Clerk, Mr. Joseph Wheeler, on the last
page of the rough Minute Book 1738-1742, and is very interesting.
From the record of his trial at the Old Bailey (see Sessions Papers)
Duell appears to have been an outrageous young scoundrel. A popular
impression prevails, and frequent currency has been given to it, that
Duell subsequently made a fortune abroad and out of gratitude to the
Barber-Surgeons for saving his life, presented them with the handsome
leather folding screen now in the Court Room, the best answer to
which is, that the screen in question is referred to in the Company’s
Inventory some thirty years previously to Mr. Duell’s visit to Tyburn.

Mr. Wheeler’s account is as follows--

    November the 23{d.} 1740.

  This day W{m.} Duell (who had been indicted at the Old Bayley for a
  Rape and had received sentence of Death for the same) was carryed
  to Tyburne in order to be executed where having hung some time was
  cutt down and brought to this Company’s Hall in order to be dissected
  where he had not been five minutes before Life appeared in him &
  being let blood and other means used for his recovery in less than
  two hours he sat upright drank some warm wine and lookˀd often round
  him and before he was carryed back to Newgate which was about Twelve
  o’the Clock at Night he severall times pronounced distinctly the
  word DONT when anybody touched him though was thought to be mostly
  insensible of anything but paine which in a great measure he endured
  by his most violent screamings & was often in strong convulsions in
  his bowells which he then exprest by applying his hands to those
  parts.

  The Sheriffs having ordered him back to Newgate he was carryed out in
  a blankett putt into a Coach & was seemingly much composed & quiet
  not making any manner of noise wherein 3 or 4 days time he recovered
  sufficient to converse & eat & drink very freely but never could give
  any reasonable account of what had passed. He afterwards obtained a
  reprieve in order to be transported for life which he was accordingly
  in the 16th year of his age. (_Vide_ his Tryall in the Sessions paper
  of that time.)

The Wardens’ accounts give the following particulars relative to this
case:--

                                                      £  _s._ _d._

  Paid the Beadles their expences in bringing
    the last Body from Tyburne                        2   19    0

  Paid the Officers of the Two Compters               2    2    0

  Paid Joseph Wheeler the Company’s Clerk his
    Coach hire and expences in attending the
    Sheriffs when the Body came to life               0   10    0

  Paid the Chairwoman for her trouble and
    expences about the Body                           0    5    0

A somewhat similar account of the foregoing circumstance will be found
in Maitland’s London (ed. 1756), Vol. I, p. 613, and also in the
Gentleman’s Magazine, Vol. X, p. 570.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

SURGICAL LECTURES AND DEMONSTRATIONS.


There are many references throughout the books to the Lectures and
Demonstrations of Anatomy at our Hall, as well as indications that
from the period of Incorporation (1462), if not earlier, the Company
took care to provide for the professional education of its members and
apprentices, and to increase their proficiency in Surgical science.

[Footnote: The initial letter ~T~ is reduced from one in the Audit
Book, 1612-13.]

In addition to the Examiners in Surgery (who though not necessarily
members of the Court of Assistants were often consulted by the Masters
or Governors) there were chosen “Masters and Stewards of the Anatomy,”
generally two Masters and two Stewards, on whom devolved the duty of
conducting the Demonstrations, and arranging for the Dinners which
invariably followed. The exact duties of these officials are not at all
times clearly defined, though elsewhere will be found allusions to, and
orders concerning their offices and functions, but it may be generally
taken that the Stewards dissected and prepared the body, the Masters
reading the Lectures thereon to the assembled Surgeons and their
apprentices.

These Demonstrations usually took place four times in the year, and
were termed “Public Anatomies,” from the fact that the subject was
generally a public body, _i.e._, a malefactor, and the attendance of
the free Surgeons was compulsory on these occasions; besides these
Public Anatomies, there were also an indefinite number of “Private
Anatomies” held at the Hall, and at these the attendance was by
invitation. It was illegal for any one to dissect a “humane bodye”
within the limits of the Company’s jurisdiction without the permission
of the Masters or Governors, and whenever a Surgeon was desirous
to anatomatize some specially interesting subject, it was termed a
“Private Anatomy,” and generally performed at the Hall by permission,
the Surgeon inviting his own friends and pupils, and the Court inviting
whom they chose. (See the curious entry as to a Private Anatomy, page
321.)

Besides the Demonstrations of Anatomy, public and private, there were
several other lectures delivered (oftentimes once a week) by members
of the College of Physicians and members of the Company; two of these,
which were trusts, the Arrisian Lecture and Gale’s Anatomy still
survive I believe, at the Royal College of Surgeons; the others were
provided by the Company out of their corporate funds.

Among some loose papers at the Hall, I found a MS. relating to the
lectures, which I lent to Mr. D’Arcy Power, who incorporated it in
his work, as “Appendix M.” I have since compared this document with the
original minutes, and finding it somewhat incorrect and imperfect, have
prepared the following more accurate account.

[Illustration: FAC-SIMILE PAGE OF MINUTE BOOK. 16TH JANUARY, 1567.]

Previous to 1566 Dr. William Cunningham was Reader at the Hall. He was
author of the “Cosmographical Glasse containing the pleasant principles
of Cosmographie Geographie Hydrographie or Navigation,” London, 1599.
fo. Dr. Cunningham resided at Norwich 1556-9, whence he removed to
London. He wrote a letter prefacing John Hall’s book against the
“beastlye abusers” of Surgery, which is dated at Coleman Street, 18th
April, 1565, and he also wrote a recommendatory letter in Thomas Gale’s
“Certeine workes of Chirurgerie,” London, 1586. 4{to.}

  14th January, 1567. Here was m{r} doctor Julyo & he made request y{t}
  he myghte have the worke of the anathomy these iiij{or} or fyve yeres
  so y{t} the coledge of the phicysions sholde not put hym frome us
  & also y{t} he myghte have pˀvat anathomyes at his demaund in this
  howse.

    16th January, 1567. ~How that~ doctor Julius borgarneyns shall
    make ow{r} anathomyes.

  ~Also forder more It ys ordayned.~ That M{r} Julius borgarniens
  doctor in physyck w{th}in the Cytie of London unto his request
  accordyngly Is graunted That for and by the space of fyve yeres shall
  make and worke ow{r} anathomyes and skellytons Condycionally That
  at any Tyme and tymes w{th}in in the for saide terme of fyve yeres
  y{t} yf yt happen the above named m{r} doctor Julius borgarneins to
  be sycke or oute of Towne or by any other manner his Lawfull absence
  That then yt shalbe Lawfull to and for the m{r} and govˀno{rs} and
  y{r} successors To take any other doctor and make ow{r} anathomyes
  and skellytons and not ellꝭ other wyse as by a paire of Indentures
  and Covenantꝭ bearynge date frome the xiij{th} daye of August in
  an{o} dn{i} 1566 and in the viij{th} yere of ow{r} Sovˀaigne lady
  Quene Elyzabeth as by the same Indentures more at large yt doth
  testefye the one beyng sealed w{th} the Seale of the mystery and the
  m{r} and govˀno{rs} for the tyme then beinge have subscrybed y{r}
  names & markes and unto the oth{r} Indenture the saide doctor Julius
  burgarniens hath subscrybed his name & have put y{r} unto his seale.

    ~How that~ the anathomystꝭ shall Leave of theyre Excessyve and
    extraordenary charges in y{r} expencꝭ

  ~Also yt is ordayned.~ That John morland shall abyde and stande
  M{r} of the Anathomye accordynge unto an ordenañce in that behalf
  pˀvyded and Ordayned, and he also shall beare his portion of the
  Charges of the same accordingly as hertofore yt hathe bene usually
  acostomed and yt is fully condesended and agreed that the saide
  John morelande shall in and for good consideraciõ of his silvered
  yeres, set and Requyer any one of this saide Cõpany To make Sexcions
  w{th} the doctor as hymsylf and in his behalf upon the saide Corps
  or bodye and yf he wyll ~And also~ forder more yt is ordayned by
  thaucthorytie aforesaide That hereafter the saide m{r} and stewardꝭ
  of the anathomyes shall not brynge in theyre accomptes any moñy
  by them or any of them spente or layed forthe at the Tavernes or
  ellꝭ where at theire sondry metingꝭ but the mere and only exspencꝭ
  defrayed and paide oute for the Gates and other necessarys at the
  hall pˀpared for the same tyme and not ellꝭ otherwyse And also the
  saide anathomistꝭ shall frome hence forwardꝭ put of and laye aparte
  theire Sooppars[223] and all others y{r} wastefull and excessyve
  charges and exspenceꝭ by the w{ch} theire accomptꝭ amounteth unto the
  greter Som̃es. And also John Staple upon his humble request made is
  lycenced not to be stewarde in this yere, and m{r} bovy is chosen and
  admytted to be stewarde of the saide anathomy and shall also pˀcede
  to m{r} of the nexte[224] unto order accordingly.

  [223] Suppers.
  [224] _i.e._, proceed to be Master of the Anatomy next year.

  17th January, 1575. It was agreed by this whole howse that m{r}
  docto{r} Smythe sholde wo{r}k upon Thannatomye for the space of thies
  iiij yeres next coming and yf he be sick or oute of the Towne to take
  there choyse where they will.

  20th December, 1577. M{r} Thomas Hall to desect the Anatomies.

Thomas Hall (see pp. 183, 187) was a Member of the Court of Assistants,
and a brother of the John Hall referred to on p. 314.

  1st July, 1596. M{r} Docto{r} Paddy ys chosen to be the desecto{r}
  of o{r} Anathomies yf yt shall pleas him to accept of the same And
  also xx{s} ys geven yerelie to the Anathomistꝭ more then they were
  accustomed to have in regard that suche Doctor{s} of Phisick as shall
  associate the said M{r} Docto{r} shalbe invited to dyner at the good
  liking of the masters or governo{rs} from tyme to tyme.

  23rd November, 1609. Att this Court upon the motion made by S{r}
  William Paddy Knighte and at his earnest request and suite made to
  this Courte and uppon the surrenderinge up of his place which he held
  for the redinge of the Anathomyes lectures for discection thereof It
  is by a generall consent of the whole Courte agreed That M{r} Doctor
  Gwyn doctor in Phisicke shall from henceforth possesse his place in
  the Hall for readinge of the discection of the Anathomy Att such
  tymes and when as any such shall happen or be.

  28th March, 1610. This day wee had the bodie of one . . . . . . to
  descect for an Anotomy & M{r} Docter Gwyn did reede upon the same.

  17th September, 1612. This daye itt is ordered (upon a motion by the
  M{r} propounded touchinge that one of the Colledge shold read in this
  howse the weeklie lectures of Surgery on Tewsdaies) That the M{rs}
  shall conferr with M{r} President of the Phisitions Colledge to see
  whether they will give Consent that M{r} Docto{r} Davis or some other
  sufficient phisition whome the company shall please shall read the
  weeklie lectures in o{r} howse And yf the president & Colledge shall
  not consent thereto then this howse is to deale & compound with some
  other of our owne company to read their lecture in this howse whereof
  ye M{rs} are to make certificatt unto the said M{r} President And to
  take such order that the howse maye not in anywise be charged towards
  y{e} same Lecture.

  6th October, 1612. This daie upon the motion made of M{r} Doctor
  Gwyne to be lecturer Itt is by this Court ordered that the said M{r}
  Docto{r} Gwyne shalbe reader of the weekelie lectures of surgery
  w{ch} the said M{r} Docto{r} accepted of In Considerac͠on whereof the
  M{rs} have allowed unto the said M{r} Doctor Gwyne an yerelie paym{t}
  of x{li} to contynew soe long as he shall be reder of the lecture.

  19th September, 1616. M{r} Doctor Gwyne is by this Court ordered &
  entreated that he wold proceed in his reading of o{r} lectures out of
  Gwydoes Surgery.

  13th December, 1627. Alsoe this daye o{r} M{r} propounding to this
  Courte that where as M{r} Docto{r} Gwin our lecturer is lately
  dead by reason whereof wee are destitute of a lecturer it is very
  expedient either to choose a Doctor to Reade our lectures on
  tuesdayes or every Surgion in his turne according to his antiquitye
  to reade his lecture as formerly the Surgions of this house hath bene
  used, whereupon deliberac͠on being had it is by this Court fully
  concluded and agreed that our weekely lectures shalbe reade according
  to the auncient custome of the Companie by the Surgions of our
  Companie approved according to lawe and that it shall begin with the
  auncientest Maister M{r} Richard Mapes and soe after every Surgion in
  his antiquitye and degree in the Companie.

  Alsoe it is further ordered that dureing the tyme of reading of
  such lecture none of the audience shall interrupt or question the
  reader till the hower be runn out, and the lecture ended, at which
  tyme it shalbe lawfull for the M{rs} and Wardeins and the examiners
  then present (if any error have bene comitted by such lecturer) to
  question such reader and to make manifest wherein he hath erred.

  23rd October, 1628. Alsoe this daye M{r} Doctor Andrewes is freely
  and loveingly chosen to be our reader at the next publique Anathomye
  to be holden in this Hall.

  9th April, 1632. Alsoe this Court takeing into their considerations
  the greate care and paines of M{r} Doctor Andrewes in his agitac͠ons
  and yearely readinge of our lectures in tyme of the discections of
  the publique Anathomyes for this fower yeares past doe nowe order
  that there shalbe given him xiij{li} vj{s} viij{d} as of the free
  guift of this house for his paines therefore.

  16th June, 1632. And as concerning the order for reading of lectures
  in Surgerye by an approved surgion of this Companie, this Court did
  againe deliberate upon the same and every one of the Assistants
  declared his opinion therein and the pluralitie of voyces was to have
  lectures read by the approved Surgians of this house according to our
  ordinances and not by a Doctor of phisick.

  20th December, 1632. Alsoe o{r} Soveraigne Lord Kinge Charles his
  Letter directed to this Court was here openly reade and thereupon
  this Court in all obedient duetye and loyaltie to o{r} soveraigne
  Lord the Kings pleasure signified in that letter doe make mc͠on of
  M{r} Docto{r} Andrewes to be the weekely lecturer in surgerye for
  o{r} Companie upon such Court dayes as wee are accustomed to keepe.

  28th December, 1632. This daye was reade in Court the letter directed
  to o{r} M{r} from M{r} Richard Andrews Docto{r} in Phisick whereby
  he doth desire to be excused from reading o{r} weekely lectures in
  Surgerye, & thereupon this Court did goe to a new election, takeing
  notice of M{r} Alex: Reade Docto{r} in Phisick approved by the
  Colledge of Phisitians London whoe was bredd a Chirurgian in ffraunce
  and hath bene a long time free of o{r} Companie did make choice of
  the said Docto{r} Reade to be o{r} Lecturer in Surgerye at such dayes
  and tymes as by order of Court is formerly ordered by this Court. And
  this Court doth further order that evˀy Surgian in the Lecture bill
  shall yearely paye towards the reading of such Lecture a certeyne
  some pˀticulerly, and that all those moneys gathered being cast up to
  a totall some shall out of the stock of this house be yearely made up
  xx{li} compleately for the said Docto{rs} Readeing.

Among a collection of old books on Surgery, in my possession, is a
small quarto by Dr. Read (dedicated to Thomas, Lord Windsor, who was
free of the Barber-Surgeons) and entitled:--

  The Chirurgicall Lectures of Tumors and Ulcers delivered on Tuesdayes
  appointed for these exercises, and keeping of their Courts in the
  Chirurgeans Hall these three yeeres last past, viz. 1632, 1633 and
  1634. By Alexander Read Doctor of Physick, and one of the Fellowes of
  the Physitians College of London. LONDON 1635.

  28th December, 1637. Upon the riseing of the Court of Assistants it
  was concluded & agreed by the Examiners and Assistants Surgians that
  M{r} Docto{r} Meverell an auncient Phisitian of the Colledge shalbe
  Reader of o{r} Anatomicall lectures at the next publique discection
  to be held in the new erected Theater.

  8th November, 1638. It is this daye ordered by the M{rs} or
  Governo{rs} Surgians and the Examiners and Assistant Surgians here
  present y{s} afternoone that there shalbe pˀnted as the guift of this
  Companie to M{r} Doct. Meverell a peece of plate w{th} the Companies
  Scutchion ingraven thereon for his paynes in readeing at o{r} last
  publiqe Anatomye in the new Theater before the Lords of his Ma{ties}
  most hono{ble} privye Councell & others Spectato{rs} in the time of
  those 3 dayes readeings.

  And in regard the said Docto{r} Meverell doth desire to be spared
  from reading any more the said M{rs} or Governo{rs} Surgians & the
  Examiners & Assistant Surgians do make choice of M{r} Doct. Prujeon
  to be their reader in M{r} Doct. Meverells roome.

  19th August, 1641. It is ordered that henceforward the Tuesday
  Lectures shalbe delivered by the Surgeons of this Company themselves
  and not by a Doctor and that the Examiners shall meete and consider
  of the manner.

  23rd September, 1641. The Tenn Examiners are desired to meete &
  consider concerneing Lectures on Thursday next and in regard of the
  present sicknes this Court doth order that noe Tuesday Courts or
  Lectures be held till after the fortnight within the next terme.

  30th September, 1641. This day M{r} Lawrence Cotton, Warden, M{r}
  Serjeant Clowes M{r} Richard Wateson M{r} Woodall M{r} John Heydon
  M{r} Heath M{r} George Dunn, Examiners of Surgeons takeing into
  theire Considerac͠ons the manner of the reading of Lectures in
  Surgery have thought it fitt and ordered That the Surgery Lectures
  should be read by approved Surgeans only and the Lecture to begin by
  the first Surgeon that is approved next to the Examiners and soe
  every one by his turne to read the Tuesdayes Lecture and every one
  to have a preceeding moneths time of warneing or notice to prepare
  himselfe for such Lecture as he shall read.

  Alsoe It is thought fitt the publique Anatomy 6 Lectures shall this
  yeare be read by Doctor Prudjeon.

  5th May, 1642. It is ordered that Doctor Chamblent shall have a
  silver tankard of vj{li} price with Armes of the company ingraven
  in it as the Guift of this Court for his paynes the last publique
  Anatomy.

  17th January, 1644. It is ordered That in respect of the greate
  troubles and distractions of these times there shalbe noe publique
  Anatomy this yeare discected.

  27th October, 1645. This day M{r} Edward Arris acquainting this Court
  that a person a friend of his (who desired his name to be as yet
  concealed)[225] through his greater desire of the increase of the
  knowledge of Chirurgery did by him freely offer to give unto this
  Corporac͠on for ever the sum of 250{li} to the end and upon Condic͠on
  that a humane Body be once in every yeare hereafter publiquely
  dissected and six Lectures thereupon read in this Hall if it may be
  had with Conveniency and the Charges to be borne by this Company
  And if noe humane Body may be had nor conveniently dissected in one
  yeare then the Company to destribute One halfe of the Sum of the
  usuall Charges of a publique Anatomy to our owne poore and the other
  halfe to the poore of S{t} Sepulchers, the said worthy Overture is
  thankefully accepted by this Court And it is Ordered a Draught be
  drawne by our Clerke against the next Court of Assistants for the
  performance thereof And to that purpose a Rent charge of xx{li} pˀ
  annum be granted out of our Lands at Holborne Bridge.

  [225] It was the worthy Alderman Arris himself.

  24th November, 1645. This Court taking into Considerac͠on in what
  manner the publique Bodyes hereafter shalbe dissected and by whome
  that Anatomy which is now newly about to be established shalbe
  performed Doth thinke fitt and soe Order That the present M{rs} of
  Anatomy or such others as shalbe appointed by the two M{rs} Surgeons
  for the time being and the more part of the Examiners shall performe
  the same and that the manner of dissections of every publique Anatomy
  shalbe such as they the said Two M{rs} or Governo{rs} for the time
  being and Examiners on the more part of them shall direct.

30th January, 1646. The draft deed of settlement for the Arrisian
Lectures was brought into Court and (6th February, 1646) approved; but
it appearing at the next Court that there was some technical difficulty
as to the names of the feoffees it was remitted to the donor’s counsel.

  20th February, 1646. This Court doth agree That the Deed of an
  Annuity formerly granted to the use of the new publique Anatomy be
  made for 24{li} upon the Considerac͠on of 300{li} And it is promised
  by M{r} Arris on the behalfe of the Donor That if the 300{li} shalbe
  restored within 12 yeares he or his Heires shall grant unto this
  Company for the same use the like sum of 24{li} p. Annum out of some
  of his Lands or Tenements And doe nominate and appoint for ffeeoffees
  M{r} Dunn M{r} Collins M{r} Kings M{r} Pinder M{r} ffleete M{r} Arris
  M{r} Boone and M{r} Bennett.

  24th March, 1646. This daye M{r} Edward Arris payd the sum of 300{li}
  to the use of this Company and is the purchase money for the Annuity
  of 24{li} pˀ annũ for the use of the new publique Anatomy Whereupon
  the Deed of Grant of the said Annuity and for establishing the said
  new Anatomy was sealed with the Com̃on Seale and Delivered to the
  Donor and the severall ffeoffees intrusted in that matter.

In consequence of our later Minutes being lost, it is not possible to
say precisely how this trust came to be varied and increased, though
from the House of Commons Journals (see p. 160) it can be conjectured
almost to a certainty to have been as follows:--Within twelve years
from the date of the original grant (say in 1658) the Company returned
the £300 to Alderman Arris, and he thereupon settled upon them a rent
charge, not of £24 as he had promised to do, but of £30 per annum
payable out of some of his houses. He seems however, subsequently,
to have had good reason to believe that his only son and heir, Dr.
Thomas Arris, M.P., would give the Company trouble in the matter of the
settlement, and so, on the 29th February, 1676, he requested that his
deed of grant might be given up to him cancelled, and that he should
in return give the Company £510 absolutely and free from any trust,
save only an honorable understanding that the Anatomy Lectures should
be continued. This was done, and after his death (which happened 28th
May, 1676) the Company were involved in a Chancery suit with Dr. Thomas
Arris who endeavoured, though unsuccessfully, to recover possession of
the £510.

  17th July, 1646. Whereas 300{li} hath bin worthily given to this
  House for the Discharge of all expences to be layd out in and about
  a publique Anathomy to be henceforth had yearely for ever Betweene
  the ffeaste of Michaelmas and Christmas in every yeare And for
  that Doctor Prudjon who formerly read the Anatomicall Lectures
  hath desired to be excused from reading the Lectures on the next
  Anathomyes to be dissected betweene Michaelmas and Christmas next
  This Court doth think fitt That Doctor Wright be desired to performe
  the same And that the M{rs} of the Anatomy for the time being When
  the said Anatomy shalbe dissected do alwayes in theire severall &
  respective times of M{rs} of Anatomy dissect the said Anatomy And
  this Court doth thinke fitt That the dissection of the said Anatomy
  be of the Muscles of the Body But that the manner thereof be left to
  the Judgement of the Reader and the Dissectors.

  21st September, 1646. Our M{r} acquainting the Court that Doctor
  Prudjon and divers other learned Physitions have recõmended Doctor
  [John] Goddard as a Man well qualifyed and very able to reade the
  Anatomicall Lectures This Court doth Order That Doctor Prudjon be
  requested to performe the Lectures On the next publique Anatomy
  himselfe But if he shall Deny it That then Doctor Goddard Or such
  other as Doctor Prudjon shall thinke more fitt be desired to read the
  Lectures.

  23rd October, 1646. This Court doth Order That all the approved
  Chirurgeons according to Law shall appeare at all publique Anatomyes
  for the time to come in a fflatt Capp upon the penalty of 3{s} 4{d}
  and all the rest of the Livery in a Hatt.

  24th December, 1646. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe Order That
  the M{rs} or Governours and Assistants nor any of them Nor any of
  the M{rs} or Stewards of Anathomy doe invite or enterteyne any
  Guest at any of the Three Dinners to be had within this Hall at the
  next publique Anatomy Or at any other publique Anathomy betweene
  Michaelmas and Christmas in any yeare hereafter But doth consent &
  Order That Doctor Prudjon be invited to the said Dinners Anything
  aforesaid to the contrary Notwithstanding.

  7th January, 1647. Whereas this Court is well satisfyed That Doctor
  Prudjon is desireous to be excused from reading the next Anatomicall
  Lectures This Court doth Order That Doctor Goddard be desired to
  performe the same.

  15th February, 1647. This Court doth thinke fitt and soe Order That
  the Tuesday Lectures be againe revived and read by Chirurgeons
  ffreemen of this Company in their turnes according to theire
  authority[226] in the Livery. The eldest Assistant Chirurgeon to read
  the first Lecture and that to be On the first Tuesday in May next and
  the other to be from thence monethly and noe oftner viz{t} The ffirst
  Tuesday in evˀy moneth Provided Nevertheles That when as any such
  Tuesday shall not be within the time lymitted in and by an Order of
  a Court of Assistants of ix{th} August 1632 in that behalfe Or shall
  happen to be on any the dayes thereby excepted That then every such
  Tuesday be noe Lecture day.

  [226] A clerical mistake for “antiquity,” _i.e._, precedence.

The order of the 9th August, 1632, above referred to, was as follows--

  ALSOE this daye this Court for removeing of uncerteinties & setling
  of one certeyne course and forme for Courts to be kept on y{r}
  Tuesdayes in every yeare doe now upon deliberac͠on had, order that
  from henceforth for ever hereafter there shalbe Lectures reade &
  Courts held in the Comon Hall of this Companie at such dayes and
  times in every yeare annually as hereafter followeth viz{t} on
  every Tuesdaye w{ch} shalbe betwixt Michaelmas daye and the Tenth
  daye of December, On every Tuesdaye betwixt the ffeast of Epiphanie
  and Palme Sondaye, on every Tuesdaye betwixt Easter holydayes and
  Rogac͠on weeke, on every Tuesdaye betwixt Whitesonday holydayes and
  the last daye of Julye. Provided alwayes that if it shall happen any
  of the aforesaid Tuesdayes to fall out to be either on a holydaye or
  one a holydayes Eve That then every such Tuesdaye to be noe Court
  or Lecture daye Provided alsoe that the Tuesdaye in the weeke next
  before the Lord Maio{rs} daye and the Tuesdaye in the weeke next
  before the Publiqe discection of Anatomye and alsoe Shrove tuesdaye
  to be noe Court dayes.

  29th March, 1647. This Court doth explaine the Order of the last
  Court of Assistants (15th February 1647) concerneing the Tuesday
  Lectures That it is the meaneing of this Court and this Court doth
  accordingly Order That the said Lectures be read aswell by the
  ancient M{rs} Chirurgeons and Examiners in theire course as by any
  others.

  23rd September, 1647. This Court takeing notice that Doctor Prudjon
  desireth to be excused from reading the next Anatomicall Lectures
  to be had betweene Michaelmas and Christmas next But wilbe ready
  hereafter to serve the Company in that kind Doth therefore freely
  chuse Doctor Nurse for the reading these Lectures and Doth order That
  our Clerke doth attend him and desire his answer therein And this
  Court doth further Order That the present Masters of Anathomy may
  dissect the first publique Anathomy and in the meane time may have a
  private Body.

  11th January, 1648. This Court at the Suite and request of M{r}
  Daniell Worrall M{r} William Molins M{r} Thomas Woodall and M{r}
  Thorpe Chirurgeons of the Cloathing of this Company Doth grant
  That they or any of them joyneing the M{rs} & Stewards of Anathomy
  privately desect in the Com̃on Hall of this Company and not elsewhere
  a humane Body executed as a Malefactour that they or any of them
  may procure ffor the bettering theire Judgement and Skill in
  Anatomy, Provided That they at theire owne proper Costs doe defray
  and disburse All the Necessary & accustomed Charges ffees & Duties
  belonging to a private Anathomy.

  14th January, 1648. This Court doth Order That there be a publique
  Anathomy this yeare and doth chuse and desire Doctor Nurse to read
  these Lectures and inasmuch as Doctor Prudeon doth desire to be
  excused ffrom reading hereafter this Court doth Choose Doctor Nurse
  to be the constant Anatomicall Reader to this Company.

  8th October, 1649. This Court taking into considerac͠on severall
  worthy Physicians of whome one might be elected Reader of the
  Anatomicall Lectures at the publique dissections of this Company Doe
  thinke fitt That Doctor Scarborough be elected thereunto Who being
  desired to come to this Court appeared during the sitting thereof
  and declared himselfe very willing to performe the same and rendered
  thanks to this Court for their good opinions of him.

We have at the Hall a fine portrait of Dr. Sir Charles Scarborough with
Alderman Arris engaged upon an Anatomy.

Dr. Scarborough was elected Anatomical Reader on the 12th October, 1649.

23rd October, 1649. The periodical lectures by the Surgeons of the
Company, which had again fallen through of late, were ordered to be
revived, and there is a long minute on the subject at this date.

27th February, 1663. Samuel Pepys records, under this date:--

  About 11 o’clock Commissioner Pet and I walked to Chyrurgeon’s Hall,
  we being all invited thither, and promised to dine there, where we
  were led into the Theatre; and by and by comes the reader, D{r}
  Tearne,[227] with the Master and Company, in a very handsome manner:
  and all being settled, he begun his lecture; and his discourse being
  ended, we had a fine dinner and good learned company, many Doctors of
  Phisique, and we used with Extraordinary great respect.

  [227] Christopher Terne, of Leyden, M.D., originally of Cambridge,
  and Fellow of the College of Physicians. Ob. 1673.

  30th June, 1698. Ord{rd} that there bee an Anatomy Lecture called
  Gales Anatomy. D{r} [Clopton] Havers & D{r} Hands being put in
  nominac͠on for reading of the same D{r} Havers was choosen for three
  yeares & to read on the second Tuesday Wednesday and Thursday in
  July next by three of the clock in the afternoone & to have thirty
  shillings for his paines & the remainder to bee disposed of by the
  Com̃itte.

  14th December, 1699. Ord{rd} the two D{rs.} Readers to this Society
  for the future shall bee elected for noe longer terme then fower
  yeares onely at one time Ord{rd} by the Court that D{r} [E.] Tyson
  have liberty to lay downe [his office].

  D{r}     Hans & D{r}     Havers were put in nominac͠on for Reader of
  the Ventera Lecture in the roome of D{r} Tyson, D{r} Hans was chosen
  for fower yeares.

22nd April, 1708. Dr. Colebrooke and Dr. Thomas Wadsworth put in
nomination for Reader of the Osteology Lecture (Gale’s foundation),
when Dr. Wadsworth was elected for four years.

  16th August, 1711. Then the Court proceeded to the Elecc͠on of
  Readers for the Muscular Ventor & Osteology lectures D{r} [Richard]
  Mead D{r} ffreind & D{r} Wadsworth the present Readers were
  unanimously chosen Readers of the said severall Lectures for the four
  ensuing years.

  17th July, 1712. D{r} John ffreind was unanimously Chosen Reader of
  the Muscular Lecture. And D{r} Comer [? H. Colmer] was Chosen Reader
  of the Venter Lecture for the next 4 yeares ensueing.

1st October, 1712. Dr. Henry Plumtree and Dr. Douglas put in nomination
for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (Arris’s foundation) in the room of
Dr. Meade, when Dr. Plumtree was elected for four years.

Dr. J. Douglas and Dr. Wadsworth put in nomination for Reader of the
Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Wadsworth was elected for four years.

15th December, 1715. Dr. Douglas and Dr. Marmaduke Giles put in
nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture, when Dr. Douglas was
elected for four years.

Dr. William Wagstaffe and Dr. Hezekias Jones put in nomination for
Reader of the Viscera Lecture, when Dr. Wagstaffe was elected for four
years.

13th March, 1717. Dr. W. Barrowby and Dr. Stewart put in nomination for
Reader of the Ostelogy Lecture, when Dr. Barrowby was elected for four
years.

6th November, 1717. Dr. Douglas resigned the Readership of the Muscular
Lecture, on account of a difference with the Masters of Anatomy, and
Dr. Plumtree was chosen in his place.

18th August, 1720. Dr. Wagstaffe and Dr. Barrowby put in nomination for
Reader of the Muscular Lecture, when Dr. Wagstaffe was elected for four
years.

Dr. Barrowby and Dr. Thomas Jewrin put in nomination for Reader of the
Viscera Lecture, when Dr. Barrowby was elected for four years.

Dr. Jewrin and Dr. W. Rutty put in nomination for Reader of the
Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Jewrin was elected for four years.

30th October, 1721. Dr. Jewrin and Dr. Charles Bale put in nomination
for Reader of the Viscera Lecture (_vice_ Dr. Barrowby resigned), when
Dr. Jewrin was elected.

Dr. C. Bale and Dr. W. Rutty put in nomination for Reader of the
Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Jewrin), when Dr. Bale was elected.

29th March, 1722. Dr. Bale being in France, and unable to return for
five months, Dr. Rutty and Dr. Sisterton were put in nomination for
Reader of the Osteology Lecture, when Dr. Rutty was elected.

20th August, 1724. Dr. Jewrin and Dr. Rutty put in nomination for
Reader of the Muscular Lecture in place of Dr. Wagstaffe, when Dr.
Jewrin was elected for four years.

Dr. Rutty and Dr. Robert Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader of the
Viscera Lecture (_vice_ Jewrin), when Dr. Rutty was elected for four
years.

Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. John Deodate put in nomination for Reader of the
Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Rutty), when Dr. Deodate was elected for four
years.

6th June, 1727. Dr. E Wilmott and Dr. Goldsmith put in nomination for
Reader of the Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Deodate deceased), when Dr.
Willmott was elected.

15th August, 1728. Dr. Rutty and Dr. Wilmott put in nomination for
Reader of the Muscular Lecture (_vice_ Jewrin), when Dr. Rutty was
elected.

Dr. Wilmott and Dr. Lawrence Martell put in nomination for Reader of
the Viscera Lecture (_vice_ Rutty), when Dr. Wilmott was elected.

Dr. Martell and Dr. Goldsmith put in nomination for Reader of the
Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Wilmott), when Dr. Martell was elected.

7th April, 1730. Dr. Goldsmith and Dr. Watts put in nomination for
Reader of the Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Martell resigned), when Dr.
Goldsmith was elected.

13th August, 1730. Dr. Goldsmith and Dr. Francis Nicholls put in
nomination for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (_vice_ Rutty deceased),
when Dr. Goldsmith was elected.

Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader of of the
Viscera Lecture (_vice_ Wilmott resigned), when Dr. Nicholls was
elected.

Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. Watts put in nomination for Reader of the Osteology
Lecture (_vice_ Goldsmith), when Dr. Nesbitt was elected.

Mr. Joshua Symmonds was chosen Demonstrator or Teacher of Anatomy for
three years.

5th March, 1731. Mr. Symmonds resigned through ill-health, and Mr.
Edward Nourse and Mr. John Belchier being put in nomination, Mr. Nourse
was elected.

17th August, 1732. Dr. Nesbitt and Dr. Guy Ruffiniac put in nomination
for Reader of the Muscular Lecture (_vice_ Goldsmith deceased), when
Dr. Nesbitt was elected.

Dr. Ruffiniac was elected Reader of the Osteology Lecture (_vice_
Nesbitt).

5th March, 1734. Mr. Nourse resigned the place of Demonstrator of
Anatomy.

15th August, 1734. Mr. Abraham Chovett and Mr. Peter Maccullock were
chosen Demonstrators of Anatomy.

17th September, 1734. A lengthy set of regulations for the conduct of
the Demonstrations of Anatomy is entered on the minutes of this date.

17th July, 1735. Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Owen put in nomination for Reader
of the Osteology Lecture (_vice_ Ruffiniac resigned) when Dr. Nicholls
was elected.

19th August, 1736. Mr. Abraham Chovett resigned his place as
Demonstrator of Anatomy, and Mr. Peter Maccullock and Mr. Cæsar Hawkins
were elected Demonstrators.

Dr. Nicholls and Dr. Nesbitt put in nomination for Reader of the
Muscular Lecture, when Dr. Nicholls was elected.

Dr. Nicholls was also elected Reader of the Osteology Lecture.

7th December, 1738. Dr. R. Banks was elected Reader of the Viscera
Lecture.

16th August, 1739. Mr. Peter Maccullock elected Demonstrator of
Anatomy, which office he held until his death.

10th July, 1744. Mr. W. Bromfield elected Demonstrator of Anatomy
(_vice_ Maccullock, deceased).

       *       *       *       *       *

The following Will of Charles Whyte (Warden in 1535 and 1542) is
interesting, as it furnishes a partial list of the books and belongings
of a Barber-Surgeon in Henry VIII’s time.

The Will is dated 3rd July, 1544, and by it testator desires to be
buried in St. Paul’s Church Yard. He gives 20{d.} to St. Martins
Ludgate, where he dwelt, for tithes forgotten--

  Also I bequeathe to the Masters Wardens and felowsshipp of the
  barbo{r} surgons for theyr payne to com to my buryeng vj{s.} viij{d.}
  To Thomas Wanlon poticary my beste Gowne furryd wyth black bugge.
  Also I bequeathe to Nicholas Archepolle[228] the Surgion twoo books
  of surgery thone ys borded and coverd wyth yelowe lether and ys
  named John of Ardren being wryten hande wyth Divers pictures And
  thother book being coveryd wyth black lether having on thone syde
  the armes of England wyth a rose paynted and one thother syde the
  armes of England and spayne being wryten hand. Also I bequeathe to
  John Colman that was my prentyce my great black boke borded and
  coveryd wyth black lether wher in is the boke of the harball and the
  shepardes kalender wyth divers other bookꝭ Also I bequeathe to M{r}
  John Woodwarde my best gowne furryd with foynes and to Mrẽs Margaret
  Woodwarde his wif a gold ring with a turkes[229] that was Wyllyam
  Taylours or els fourty shillingꝭ in money. Also I bequeathe to Robert
  Clerk my kynsman six barbours basins of latyn Item a kettyl wyth a
  cock in yt to wasshe heddes wyth,[230] a great pott of latyn. It̃.
  a nother great pott of pañ mettell wyth a cock in the botom, three
  barbours chayres, a lowe chest wyth holes in the cofer . . . . Also
  I bequeathe to Robert Clerk and Wyllyam his brother all my bokes of
  surgery and physyck equally to be devided betwene them yf so be they
  wyll study the science of surgery. Also . . . all my instruments
  being made of Iron, style,[231] coper, and brasse which belongethe to
  the science of surgery.

  [228] Probably, Nicholas Archenbold (Warden 1564, &c.).
  [229] Query “turquoise.”
  [230] A primitive appliance for shampooing.
  [231] Steel.

[Illustration]



[Illustration: UPPER WARDEN’S GARLAND. MIDDLE WARDEN’S GARLAND.]

WARDENS’ AND OTHER ACCOUNTS.


The Great Book of Wardens’ Accounts has unfortunately been kept in a
damp place, and the earlier portion of it is severely damaged. The
cover still indicates the elaboration of the bookbinder’s art, being
stamped in patterns with the portcullis fleur de lys and Tudor rose;
opposite what is left of the first page is a magnificently painted
achievement of the Company’s arms on vellum, but this unhappily, is
damaged.

The first page has rotted almost entirely away, leaving only the upper
left hand corner, on which there is an initial letter T illuminated in
the highest style of art, though this is also seriously damaged.

The accounts commence with those for the year 1603, the first few pages
are worn away, pages 7 to 36 are but slightly damaged, whilst the
remainder of this huge book is quite perfect and abounds with quaint
and artistic initial letters.

The following is the reduced initial letter for the year 1610-11.

[Illustration]

1603. The Wardens account for quarterage received by them amounting to
£4 17_s._ 6_d._, this quarterage was 2_s._ for each freeman, though
some did not pay, and others had only paid 6_d._ or 1_s._

£5 was received for the admission of six foreign brethren.

Twenty-five freemen were admitted, who paid 3_s._ 4_d._ each on
presentation.

Eighty-nine apprentices were bound, each paying 2_s._ 6_d._

The receipts for the rents from the Company’s tenants follow, viz.:--

                                                     £   _s._ _d._
  Holborn Bridge (14 tenements)                      29    4    0
  Conyhope Lane (Grocers’ Hall Court)                 8    0    0
  Walbrook (2 tenants)                               15    0    0
  Tower Street                                        5    0    0
  Mugwell Street (4 tenants)                         11   13    4
  East Smithfield (13 tenants)                       28   14    0
  Swanne Alley (5 tenants)                           17    6    8
  Old Bailey                                          1    0    0
                                                   --------------
                                                   £115   18    0
                                                   ==============

The following is a verbatim copy of the remainder of this year’s
accounts, and will serve as a fair specimen for the other years.

  1603.--The said Accomptants doe aske allowance for moneys by them
  defrayed w{th}in the tyme of this pˀsent accompt by the handes of
  M{r} Edward Rodes Second Governor afores{d} for ordenary as [well as]
  extraordinary Expences as hereafter ensueth viz{t.}--

                         ~Ordinarie~ expenses.

  ~Inprimis~ payd for the Awdit dinner         vj{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the Butler for his fee then               iij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Cock for dressinge of nyne
    messe of meate then                                  ix{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Laundres then                           v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Porter for his attendance                      xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for the view dinner                           xl{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Carpinter & Bricklayer
    then[232]                                           iij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Stewardꝭ of the Maior’s
    feast                                      vj{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the Cock for dressinge of 14
    messes of meate then                              xviij{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Butler then                             v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Laundresse then                         v{s}
  Itm̃ paid for the hyre of o’ Bardge          iij{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clark & Sexton of the
    Churche of Garlick Hythe when the
    Company toke barge                                           xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for rushes & small cord                      iij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Croner[233] for his fee                vj{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the Bardgemen in reward                   ij{s}    vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for the Companyes seats in
    Powles[234]                                           v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Lo: Maiors officer for
    his fee                                               x{s}
  Itm̃ paid to ffrancꝭ Rowdon[235] for his fee
    pˀ Ann                                       x{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the Porter for his fee pˀ Ann             xxvj{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid him more in augmentac͠on of his fee            xl{s}
  Itm̃ paid to John a Lee for his yerely penc͠on         lxij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the pˀson[236] of S{t} Olaves
    pˀ Ann                                                vj     viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clarke of that Churche                         xvj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Scaveng{r} per ann                   iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to o{r} Clarke for lanthorne
    Lyghte[237]                                          ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Stewards of the Anathom    iiij{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clarke for white brushes
    & broomes                                            ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a Loade of greate Coales                 xxv{s}
  Itm̃ for a thowsand of Billettꝭ                         xv{s}
  Itm̃ paid for small coles                                       xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for an hundreth of ffagottꝭ                  vij{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon o{r} tenantꝭ in potac͠on[238]          ij{s}   iiij{d}
  Itm̃ distributed in Almes accordinge to the last
    will & testament of M{r} fferebras                   vj{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ more distributed in augmentac͠on of the
    same almes                                         xiij     iiij
  Itm̃ allowed to the M{rs} for the distributinge
    thereof                                              vj{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ allowed to the M{rs} for gatheringe of the
    rentꝭ                                             xiiij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clark for pennes Inke & papˀ           vj{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ layd oute for herbes & flowers on the
    Election daye                                       iij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Bedell for his yerely fee              xl{s}
  Itm̃ geven to the Porter for his Attendance on
    the Election daye                                            xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Hilles[239] for his yerely fee        xl
  Itm̃ paid to the Collectors for subsidye               lij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Stower for pˀvision of
    corne[240]                                  v{li}
  Itm̃ paid to the poore of St. Olaves                  xvij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the preach{r} for his sermon on the
    daye of Election                                      x{s}
  Itm̃ distributed in money bred & byfe[241]
    accordinge to M{r} Bankes last Will & testam        xix{s}
  Itm̃ for washinge of some linnen w{ch} was used
    on the daye of Election                                    xviij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clark for registringe of this
    Accompt                                              xx{s}

      ~Some totall~ of the }
      Ordenary expencꝭ is  }                  Lxj{li}  xiiij{s}

  [232] The Company’s Carpenter and Bricklayer always accompanied the
        Masters on view days, to advise as to the state of repair of
        the property.
  [233] Coroner.
  [234] St. Paul’s.
  [235] The Company’s Clerk.
  [236] Parson.
  [237] The Clerk provided the Lantern over the Entrance in Monkwell
        Street, in accordance with the ancient City custom of lighting
        the streets.
  [238] Potation, _i.e._, drinking.
  [239] The Company’s standing Counsel.
  [240] The Company compounded with Mr. Stower at £5 per annum to
        provide the corn required by the City.
  [241] Beef.

                       ~Extraordinarie~ Expencꝭ

  ~Inprimis~ paid for the use of sixe garnishe
    and twoe dozen of pewter at the Awdit Dinner        vij{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for makinge cleane of the Hall then            j{s}
  Itm̃ geven by Consent to Erasmus Haunce a poore
    Strang{r}                                             v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Paynter for the Coockꝭ
    apron[242]                                         xiij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Clark for Drawinge & engroseinge
    of the Indentures of Covenaunt betwixt the
    Carpnt{r} & o{r} M{rs} concerninge o{r}
    Buyldinge in Easte Smith feild                        x{s}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Justice Wooddes Clark for the
    Recognizance & for o{r} lycence to buyld            iij{s}    ij{d}
  Itm̃ paid M{r} Wood for his Advice then                  x{s}
  Itm̃ spent at the hartes horne uppon some of the
    committees when o{r} M{r} & they toke advise
    concerninge M{r} ffyneingꝭ conveyancꝭ                iij{s}  viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Hilles for his advise then             x{s}
  Itm̃ geven to the Lord Maior’s officer for his
    Attendance at the Awdit                             iij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to Symon Parkinson in benevolence by
    consent                                              ij{s}    vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven in benevolence to Mark Criffeyld                      vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for the wiflers staves[243]                           xvj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for cakes at the Maiors feaste               iij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for Clarret wyne then                       iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a Gallond of Muskadell                  iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for half a dozen of Rolles                             vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for 2{li} suger & for Cloves then             ij{s}     x{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the music͠ons in reward then               ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to M{r} Petersons folkes then                ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to the Bardgemen in reward                   ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to good wief Lee in benevolence             iij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to twelve torcheberers when the
    Maior went to meete the Queene’s Ma{tie}           xiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for 3 dozen of torches then and a
    greate Lynke                                     xxxvij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to a poore man that helped to carry
    the staffe torches                                           xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the beadell for his paynes                        xij{d}
  Itm̃ spent on a supper uppon those that went to
    meete her Ma{tie} beinge of o{r} Assistantꝭ       xlviij{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the maydes that dressed o{r} supper
    then & to a poore man                                ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid M{r} Hillˀ for his oppinion and paine
    taken aboute o{r} ordinancꝭ                           xx{s}
  Itm̃ spent on some of the Assistance then that
    went w{th} the M{rs}                                  ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to Harbert[244] in benevolence                       xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to Jõ Smyth in benevolence then                      xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven them in benevolence at anoth{r} tyme          ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to Tho. Tholmwood in benevolence by
    ord{r}                                                 x{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the Committees when they mett
    about the ordinancꝭ                                   vj{s}   ix{d}
  Itm̃ spent the same nyghte at the bores head at
    supper when wee delivˀed o{r} petic͠on to the
    queene                                                 x{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ spent the 13{th} of Decemb{r} at the bell at
    Westm{r} at dinn{r} when the M{rs} went to
    delivˀ the petic͠on to the queene                     xvj{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven in benevolence to wydowe Barbor                    xviij{d}
  Itm̃ to wydowe Norton                                           xij{d}
  Itm̃ to widowe Grew                                             xij{d}
  Itm̃ to wydowe Powell                                           xij{d}
  Itm̃ to good wief Harris                                        xij{d}
  Itm̃ to John a Lee                                              xij{d}
  Itm̃ to Markes Cristofeyld                                      xij{d}
  Itm̃ to John Smythe                                             xij{d}
  Itm̃ to Robert Harberte                                       xviij{d}
  Itm̃ to Markꝭ Cristefeyld                                        vj{d}
  Itm̃ to him at anoth{r} tyme                                     vj{d}
  Itm̃ to wydow Barbor                                             vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to oth{r} poore at the hall                        xiiij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more to wydow Barbo{r}                               xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more to wydow Norton                                 xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more to John Smyth and Harbert by
    consent before Easter                                 vj{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more to wydowe Norton at anoth{r} tyme       iij{s}
  Itm̃ geven more to Markꝭ Christofeyld                            vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to wydowe Smythe                                     xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more in benevolence to John a Lee              v{s}
  Itm̃ geven to Robert Harbert in benevolence                     xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to goodwyfe Norton in benevolence                    xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to wydowe Barber in benevolence                      xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to John a Lees wief in benevolence                   xij{d}
  Itm̃ geven more to Markes Crisfeyld in
    benevolence                                                  xij{d}
  Itm̃ more geven to him at anoth{r} tyme                          vj{d}
  Itm̃ more to him at anoth{r} tyme                               xij{d}
  Itm̃ more geven to John a Lee in benevolence             ij{s}
  Itm̃ geven to John Smyth in his sicknes & towards
    his funerall                                          xx{s}
  Itm̃ geven Harbert in his sicknes & towardꝭ
    his funerall                                           x{s}
  Itm̃ geven to Harbertꝭ wyef in her sicknes &
    towardꝭ her funerall[245]                             vj{s}
  Itm̃ geven to Harbertꝭ Children in the tyme of
    their sicknes                                          x{s}
  Itm̃ geven to a poore man at the Hall in
    benevolence                                                   vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to M{r} Johnson for fayre wrytinge of
    the petic͠on to the Queene                             ij{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ spent when the M{rs} went to Courte aboute
    the Companyes busines the xviij{th} of November        v{s}
  Itm̃ geven then to a poore man                                  iij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for o{r} Seates in Powles churchyard on
    the queenes daye                                      ij{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the keeper of the Exchange for
    pullinge downe of Mountebankꝭ billes[246]                     xij{d}
  Itm̃ to M{r} Wilbraham M{r} of the Requestes
    for settinge downe the Queenes answere
    to o{r} petic͠on                              v{li}
  Itm̃ geven in gratificac͠on to his Clark                   x{s}
  Itm̃ geven to M{r} Hilles for his advise uppon
    the same petic͠on                                       x{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon some of the Company that went
    w{th} the M{rs} then                                        xiiij{d}
  Itm̃ spent uppon M{r} Peck M{r} ffenton and
    oth{rs} w{ch} went to acquaint the Lo: Keper
    w{th} her Ma{ties} answere to the said petic͠on       ix{s}    vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Collect{rs} of the fiftenes           iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for ingroseinge of the breviat for
    the Lords                                             ij{s}    vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Counsellors man for his paines         ij{s}    vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid towardꝭ the Butlers fee for the
    Anathomy                                             iij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for 2 bottelles of sack that the
    M{rs} sent for on the Maiors daye                    iij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Collectors for 4{or} fifteenes
    for cleansinge of the towne dyche                    xvj{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Collecto{rs} of the kinges
    subsidie                                            xvij{s}  iiij{d}
  Itm̃ spent by consent uppon a supper uppon
    those that rode to meete the kinge        iiij{li}     j{s}    xj{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the twelve wifelers then                  xij{s}
  Itm̃ spent in pˀsecuc͠on of Rea the
    mountiebank before the Lo: Maior                    iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a copie of the Kinges Commission
    and of Chauncery for the hearinge of petic͠ons
    pˀferred to his Ma{tie}                            [247]
  Itm̃ spent in wyne and cakes on the Election daye        xl{s}
  Itm̃ for makinge cleane of the Hall then                 ij{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon a supper on the Election daye of
    the Assistants by consent                          xliij{s}
  Item̃ geven to wydowe Barbor in benevolence and
    for washinge & makinge cleane of the Lybrarye          v{s}    vj{d}

         ~Some of the~ ex̃tordinary }
         expencꝭ amounteth in the  }
         wholl to the somme of     }        xxxvij{li} xviij{s}  iiij{d}

  ~Some totall~ as well of the ordenary }
  as extraordinary expences Layd oute   }
  by the handes of M{r} Edward Rodes    }
  amounteth in the wholl to the somme of}  Lxxxxix{li}   xij{s}  iiij{d}

  [242] The Cook’s apron was probably embellished with the Company’s
        arms or crest.
  [243] The wands or staffs carried by the whifflers who headed the
        processions on pageant days, etc.
  [244] The Beadle.
  [245] There was a great plague in the City this year--Harbert was the
        Company’s Beadle.
  [246] Quack doctor’s advertisements.
  [247] The amount torn out in original.

  ~The said Accountants~ doe aske allowance for money disbursed by the
  handes of the said M{r} Thomas Martin yongest Governor w{th}in the
  tyme of this pˀsent Accompt for rentꝭ and Repac͠ons[248] as hereaft{r}
  ensueth viz{t}

  [248] Reparations.


                      ~Paiments~ for Chiefe Rentꝭ
                         and Annuities  viz{t}

  ~Inprimis~ paid to the M{rs} of S{t} Kathiñes                 viij{d}
      and for the Acquittance                                   iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Cannon for a quit rent for
    o{r} land at Hoborne Bridge                            v{s}
  Itm̃ for the Acquittance                                       iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Renter of the Bridge howse            iiij{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Parvis for o{r} water pˀ ann          xxvj{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} ffyneinge for his Rente      vj{li}    vj{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Mapes for his Annuitie        x{li}

         ~Some~ of the Cheefe Rentꝭ }
         and Annuities paid out is  }        xviij{li}  iiij{s} iiij{d}

      ~Laid owte~ for new buyldinges Repac͠ons and oth{r} expencꝭ
                          as followeth viz{t}

  ~Inprimis~ paid to Hamlet Xpiãn[249] Carpenter
    by order of Court of Assistantꝭ for the new
    buyldinges Easte Smyth feld and for oth{r}
    Repac͠ons done accordinge to a pˀ of
    Indentures of Covenant w{th} that money
    w{ch} before hee had received in earnest    xi{li}     x{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the smythe for an iron grate
    for the utt{r} yard of the hall                      iij{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Plumb{r} & Pavier for
    mendinge the water pype at the hall                   ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a planck to put under the
    leaden cesterne in the iner yard                             xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the plumber for makinge of
    the same cestern                                   xxxvj{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Bricklayer for underproppinge
    the same cesterne                                    iij{s} viij{d}
  Itm̃ spent when M{r} Wood & M{r} Leacock went
    to compound w{th} the Bricklayer for o{r}
    new buyldingꝭ in Easte Smithfeild                             vj{d}
  Itm̃ spent uppon some of the Assistantꝭ w{ch}
    went to Easte Smythfeyld to compound w{th}
    the Carpinter for the said buyldingꝭ                iiij{s}  vij{d}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the M{rs} & Carpinters the
    25{th} of Septemb{r}                                          xv{d}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the Tyler and the oth{r}
    workmen when we bargayned w{th} them                  ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Plumb{r} & Pavier for
    unstoppinge the pype that bringeth the wat{r}
    to the hall                                         iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Smyth for two peeces of Iron to
    hold up the Cesterne in the back yard                        xvj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to twoe laborers for scoweringe &
    clenseinge the well at the hall                        v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Goldsmyth for amendinge of the
    Corrector[250]                                              viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Smythe for amendinge of the
    key of the Election howse dore                                vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for sixe thowsand of Tyles and
    for a quarterne of roughe tyles            iij{li} xiiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Bricklayer for makeinge the
    foundac͠on of the new buyldinges in Easte
    smythfeyld & for sixe bryck Chimneys       xij{li}           xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to two Laborers for 3 dayes woork a
    peece for rayseinge of the flowers[251] in
    the same houses at xij{d} per daye                    vj{s}
  Itm̃ paid 2{o} Baskettꝭ to carry rubbishe in                     vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for 18 Lodes of gravell to raise the
    highe wey or causeway there                           vj{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the Bricklayers for their
    dinn{r} when they layd the foundac͠on of the
    new buildinge                                              xviij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to a laborer for carryinge of gravell
    to Levell the Bridge                                  ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to Peerson the Bricklayer for
    workmanship and stuffe done uppon the new
    buyldinges as by his bill appeareth        iij{li}   xvj{s}
  Itm̃ payd to the Playsterer accordinge
    to his bargaine for woork done there      viij{li}
  Itm̃ paid to Hamlet the Carpinter for
    worke done there                            vj{li}    ij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Smythe for work done
    there as appeareth by his bill                       xlj{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a padlock for the greate gate
    there                                                        xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Glasier for work done
    there as appeareth by his bill                       xlv{s}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the M{r} M{r} Wood and
    oth{rs} that went to viewe the same
    buyldinges after they were finished                    v{s}
  Itm̃ paid to Harbert for mendinge of the
    Cushions                                                     xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Glasier for work done
    about the hall                                       vij{s}    x{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Carpinter for settinge up the
    Scaffoldꝭ of the Anothomy & for mendinge
    of the same                                       xxxvij{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for 2{o} plankes to cover the well in
    the hall yard                                       iiij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Plasterer for worke &
    repac͠ons done uppon o{r} tenemtꝭ in Easte
    smythfeyld                                           xxx{s}
  Itm̃ paid the Mason for free stones to cover the
    well at the hall & for layinge thereof                ix{s}    v{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Plumber for woork done at
    the hall and for gutters of leade for
    o{r} said new buyldinges                   iij{li}     x{s}    x{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Rudd for blew and Crimson
    taffata to make the kinges banner as
    appeareth by his bill                      iij{li}           xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the upholster for fustian
    sowinge silke and for makeinge
    the same                                             xij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} Leacocke for 3 ounces & 3
    q{rs} of greene & white[252] silke fringe              x{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a staffe for the banner                            xx{d}
  Itm̃ paid to M{r} ffrizemigefeyld for
    payntinge the bann{r} w{th} kinges
    armes in gold                               vj{li}  xiij{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the paviers for paveinge the
    waye to o{r} new buyldingꝭ in Easte
    Smythefeyld                               iiij{li}  viij{s}    x{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Laborers then                           vj{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Carpinter for makeinge of the
    shed ov{r} the pissinge place at the hall            xij{s}    x{d}
  Itm̃ payd to the tyler for tyleinge of the same           x{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the plaistere for his worke aboute
    the same                                              vj{s}
  Itm̃ paid for an iron grate for the gutt{r} there             xviij{d}
  Itm̃ paid the Joyner for mendinge the Cupbord
    where the plate useth to be placed in the hall               xvj{d}
  Itm̃ spent uppon the Carpinters when they sett up
    the gate postes & the gate and Rayles in Easte
    smythfeld                                                     xv{d}
  Itm̃ geven to wydowe Barbor for scowringe of o{r}
    pewter                                                        vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Tyler for repac͠ons done by
    him aboute the hall                                   ix{s}   vj{d}
  Itm̃ paynter for payntinge the skreene in the
    hall and for varnishinge the skreene postes & the
    banner staves                                         xl{s}
  Itm̃ paid for a newe register boke to register
    the M{rs} Accomptes and to the Paynter for
    payntinge the Companyes Armes therein and the
    firste greate Lett{r}[253]                        xxxvij{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the officers for whippinge a
    disobedient Apprentice                                        vj{d}
  Itm̃ paid for 12 wiflers staves                         iij{s}
  Itm̃ paid to Hamlet Xpiãn[254] Carpinter for
    takinge downe the old pale in Easte smythfeyld
    over against Gomers howse & for settinge it up
    agayne & for more pales & Rayles and for
    removeinge the pales belonginge to Hamlettꝭ
    yard to inlardge the waye there                    xxxij{s}
  Itm̃ payd to Bricklayer for stuffe & workmanship
    in underpinninge the new buyldinge aforesaid
    and the house at the bridge end                      vij{s}   ix{d}
  Itm̃ paid to the Bricklayer for Playses
    forges for underpininge his howse and
    for underpininge the new pales there       iij{li}   xix{s}
  Itm̃ paid for serch in the office of
    statutes and rec͠og to see wheth{r} there
    were any fyne or recognizance passed
    whereby M{r} ffininges land to us
    pˀferred to be sold mighte stand charged              iij{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to M{r} ffyneinge in earnest
    of the bargaine                                        x{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Carpinter Plaisterer &
    bricklayer for seelinge & foweringe[255] the
    brushmakers howse & for foot pases for the
    Chimneys of bothe the newe howses                   xxxv{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Carpinters for pˀtinge[256] the
    gardens in Easte Smythfeyld                        xxvij{s}
  Itm̃ paid for turninge & triminge of the
    tapistrye Cushions                                   iij{s} iiij{d}
  Itm̃ paid to Isack the Carpinter for settinge
    the Companyes standinges[257] in order &
    for rep̃inge & augmentinge of the same                 xl{s}
  Itm̃ paid to the Smyth for mendinge the
    Lock & key of the hall dore                                  xij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for a padlock haspe & hinge for
    the Celler dore                                                x{d}

        ~Some~ totall of the Buyldinges
        & Repac͠ons is                      Cxxiiij{li}     x{s}  iij{d}

  [249] Christian.
  [250] For whipping apprentices.
  [251] Floors.
  [252] These are the Company’s “colours,” and purchases of green and
        white silk and ribbons occur almost every year in the accounts.
  [253] This is the book from which these extracts are taken.
  [254] Christian.
  [255] Ceiling and (qy.) flooring.
  [256] Parting, _i.e._, dividing with a fence.
  [257] The Standings which were placed in the Street for the Company’s
        use on Lord Mayor’s Day.

        ~Some~ totall of the rentes
        and Repac͠ons togeth{r} is            Cxlij{li} xiiij{s}  vij{d}

  ~Some~ totall of all the money chardged
  and received within the tyme of this pˀsent
  Accompt That is to saye uppon the foote
  of this Laste yeres Cxj{li} xij{s} ix{d.}
  Also by the handes of M{r} Edward Rodes
  second Governor xlvj{li} xv{s} viij{d}
  and by the handes of M{r} Thomas Martin
  youngest Governor Renter Cxv{li} xviij{s}
  w{ch} sevˀall sommes beinge added
  togeth{r} doe amounte in the wholl
  to the somme of                          CClxxiiij{li}   vj{s}   v{d}

  ~Some totall~ of all the money         }
  disbursed and paid within the tyme     }
  of this pˀnt Accompt That is to saye    }
  by the handes of M{r} Edward Rodes     }
  second Governor Lxxxix{li} xij{s}      }
  iiij{d} And by the  handes of  M{r}    }    CCxlij{li}   vj{s}  xj{d}
  Thom̄s Martin yongest Governor          }
  Cxlij{li} xiiij{s} vj{d} which said    }
  sevrˀall som̃es beinge added togeth{r}   }
  doe amount in the wholl to the som̃e of }

  ~So resteth~ uppon the foote of this   }
  pˀnte Accompte besydes the debtꝭ and    }
  Arrearages hereafter menc͠oned the      }     xxxvj{li}  xix{s}  vj{d}
  somme of                               }

Then follows a list of arrearages of debts due from freemen and others
for fines and quarterage unpaid, with which the year’s account closes.

The accounts for the ensuing years are very similar to the foregoing,
and we shall now give sundry extracts of the more interesting items to
be found in them.

  1603-4. Itm̃ spent uppon a dinn{r} in the
    hall when the Coronac͠on of the Kinge
    was solempnized                              vij{li}        iiij{d}
  Itm̃ geven to the beadell for warninge
    certayne disobedient pˀsons to the hall                      viij{d}
  Itm̃ paid for o{r} seates in powles church
    yard when we prayed for the kynge                     iij{s}

1604-5. Among various fines received this year occur--

  Of Hughe ffell for not appearinge uppon summons                xij{d}
  Of Willm̃ Patrick for not appearinge uppon
    summons                                                ij{s}
  Of Thomas Goodale for his fyne for not rydeinge
    w{th} o{r} M{rs} to meet the Kingꝭ Ma{tie}              x{s}
  Of Nycholas Kellawaye for the Lyke offence                x{s}
  Of Robert Morrey for his fine for geveinge evell
    report of a Broth{r} of this Company                    v{s}
  Of John Udall for puttinge awaye his App̃ntice
    w{th}out the M{rs} order                                x{s}
  Of Abraham Renex for his fine for his absens from
    Lectures                                                x{s}
  Of John Carre for his fine to this howse for his
    evill practize in Surgery                               v{s}
  Of Barker Browne for hanginge oute Basons on St.
    Peters daye                                                  xij{d}

In this and many subsequent years occur entries of 10_s._ paid to the
preacher of the sermon at St. Olave’s, Silver Street, on Election day
as well as 1_s._ to the Clerk of that church, and 6_s._ for herbs and
flowers.

  Item geven to the Beadell & Porter for serch for
    an hurt malefactor                                     ij{s}

This would be a criminal wounded in some affray and who it was
suspected was concealed by a Surgeon to be cured of his wounds--an
offence against one of the Company’s by-laws.

  Item geven to the Beadell for his paynes for
    arrestinge Coates & Sebastian                         iij{s} iiij{d}
  Item paid for 2 whippes for correction                        xiiij{d}
  Item paid for 12 yardes of greene & white rybbin
    when o{r} M{rs} rode to meete his Ma{tie}              vj{s}
  Item geven then to the Torch bearers to the
    Porter & for wannes[258]                             xiij{s}   vj{d}
  Item spent the same night uppon a supper
    uppon the Ryders & their wyves              iij{li}  xiij{s}    x{d}
  Item geven the Coock at the Winmill then                         vj{d}
  Item geven to John a Lee to buy him a shirt              ij{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid for mendeinge the hower glasse                        xij{d}
  Paid to o{r} Armorer for scowringe of o{r} Arm          lvj{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid for 3 vizors                                   vj{s}

  [258] Wands.

1605-6. At this period the Court and Livery numbered together but
fifty-nine persons.

  Item paid on the Lo: Maiors daye in the morninge
    for suger & Cloves for the Burnt wyne                 iij{s}   ij{d}
  Item pᵭ for arrestinge of wydowe Ebbes an
    abuser of the Arte of Surgery                          ij{s}
  Item paid for his Matꝭ picture by order
    of Court of Assistantꝭ                      iiij{li}

1606-7. Twelve of the Yeomanry were this year taken into the Livery, of
whom eleven paid £5 each and the other £2.

1607-8. Fines were received:--

  Of Xp̃ofer Stopforth for settinge upp shopp
    before he had served one yeare jorneyman               vj{s} viij{d}
  Item of Thomas Allen for wearinge a
    faulinge band in his Lyverye                                  xij{d}

Falling bands (which are described in Planche’s Cyclopedia of Costume)
were considered by the Court an “excess of apparel,” then rigorously
suppressed. Thomas Allen, here referred to, was Warden 1620-1-2, and
was the first Master of Dulwich College.

  Item of Andrew Wheatley for waytinge in his
    Lyverye in a hatt and a faulinge band                  ij{s}

Henry John Bushe presented an Apprentice. This is noted as being the
earliest instance of a double Christian name in the Company’s books.

  Item paid for 108 flemish ells of tapestrye
    the xxvj{th} of March at x{s} pˀ ell        liiij{li}
  Item bought a pece of Blacke buckaram to
    make Coote for correction of Appr̃                      xj{s}

This coat (popularly known as the “bulbeggar”) was a garment somewhat
like a sack with apertures for the eyes and arms, which was put over
the head and body of the person appointed to flog an unruly apprentice,
who was thereby prevented from identifying his castigator. See more
fully as to this in the amusing foot note on p. 423, Vol. I, of
Herbert’s Livery Companies.

  Item paid to Braye y{e} informer the xj{th}
    of Maye for 9 informations[259] 9 fees
    xxx{s} for drawinge the 9 informations
    and inrowlinge xxij{s} vj{d} for 4
    subpenas viij{s} and the Barons
    hand iiij{s} vj{d}                           iij{li}    v{s}
  Item paid to the Joyners for the frames
    of the xxiiij chayres @ xxij{d} a pece        ij{li} iiij{s}
  Item payd for 8 muscovye skynnes the 2 of
    June at xij{s} vj{d} a pece for the
    makinge of the chayres                         v{li}
  Item payd for the frame of a chaire for
    the maister                                            vj{s}
  Item payd to Blanye for makinge upp y{e}
    coate for correction of Apprentices                  viij{s}
  Item paid to the uphoulster for making upp
    all the chayres and fynding some thingꝭ
    to them as appeareth by his bill xix{th}
    of June                                       vj{li}
  Item paid the xxx{th} of June for xix yardꝭ
    of greene Kerseye for curtaines at
    4{s} vj{d} the yarde                        iiij{li}    v{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid for a fair wallenut tree table      viij{li}
  Item paid for a Clocke bought the second
    of August                                      v{li}

  [259] Against persons practising Barbery or Surgery and not free of
        the Company.

The new room in the Bulwark, which formed the upper end of the Hall
where the Master sat, was built at this period, the accounts containing
many items of payment for Builders’ work connected with that room.

1608-9. The rents received this year for the Company’s property at
Holborn Bridge, Conyhoop Lane, Walbrook, Tower Street, “Mugwell”
Street, East Smithfield, Moorfields and Swan Alley amounted to £130
17_s._ 4_d._

  Item paid to y{e} Shrife’s officer for his
    attendaunce to carry Humphry Gorston &
    W{m} Wright to the Counter[260]                        ij{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid to the Clarke for making cleane the hall       ij{s}
  Item for moing the grasse in y{e} backe yard &
    Cariing away                                                   xx{d}
  Item for weedinge y{e} Stone yard and making it cleane          xij{d}
        1609-10. Item paid for seatꝭ in Paules Church
      yarde on the daie of Gowries Conspiracye            iij{s} iiij{d}

  [260] Compter in Wood Street.

This day (5th August) was for some years observed in thanks-giving, to
commemorate the escape of James I from assassination by the Earl of
Gowrie (see Chambers’ Book of Days, Vol. II, p. 178).

  Item gyven to a poore broosen boye                              xij{d}
  Item paid to the mynister of Garlick hill
    church for reading service on my lord
    Mayors daye                                            ij{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid for bread and beere for the Bargmen
    in the morning  before wee went out                  iiij{s}
  Item paid to the Drummer and ffyfe                       xv{s}
  Item paid to the Cornettꝭ                              xxxj{s}
  Item paid to M{r} of the Barge                 iij{li}
  Item gyven to the maydes where wee take boate            ij{s}
  Item gyven to the sexton of the churche                         xij{d}
  Item gyven that night to the Bargemen to drincke         ij{s}
  Item paid for drinck fetched to the Barge                       xvj{d}
  Item paid two Taverne Billꝭ that daie           ij{li}  vij{s}   ix{d}
  Item gyven to the Mayde of the howse by Consent                 xij{d}
  Item paid for Cakꝭ and Roles                           iiij{s}
  Item paid for a Lanthorne to hange out
    before the hall Gate                                  iij{s} iiij{d}
  Item paid for cuttinge of the vyne & for
    nayles and Lether                                       v{s}   vj{d}
  Item paid for a Roome to laye Gees goodes in
    and for Carryinge thereof the distresse to
    the hall and spent upon the Constable when I made      ij{s}   vj{d}

The power of distraint for non-payment of fines, etc., was granted to
the Company by their By-laws, the warrant was signed by the Master and
executed by the Beadle, with the assistance of a constable.

  1612-13. Item paid for herbes at sevˀall tymes
    on tewsdaies Courtꝭ to strowe the howse                       xij{d}
  Item paid the 11{th} daie of September 1612
    for washinge of the pictures                          xxj{s}
  1615-16. Laid out about obteyninge of the
    plate & followinge the Theves                  x{li}  xix{s} iiij{d}

An account of this robbery, and the apprehension and execution of the
thieves, will be found on p. 208.

  1616-17. For mending the great bible                             vj{d}
  1617-18. Paid for Torches Ribbins & Whifflers
    staves the xv{th} of September when the
    masters went to mete the Kinge                 j{li}  xix{s} iiij{d}
  Gyven unto Thomas Shaw to release him out
    of Prison                                             xxx{s}
  To Presson[261] in his last sicknes at
    severall tymes                                         xx{s}
  Gyven by order of Court to apparell Presson’s
    sonne                                                xxij{s}
  Paid the rent of the Water                              xxx{s}
  Paid unto Browne the Armorer for his yeares fee        xiij{s} iiij{d}
  Paid for two spitt wheeles & mendinge the Jack                xviij{d}
  Paid for a dore in East Smithfeild & mendinge
    the pryvie howse bords                                  x{s}   vj{d}
  1618-19. Paid for sending childeren to virgynia          ij{s}

  [261] Preston was the Porter or Under Beadle.

This sum would not send out many children; for a notice of the Virginia
scheme see p. 121.

  Paid for our seatꝭ on the daie of thankꝭgyveinge
    for the Recovery of his Ma{ties} Sicknes              iij{s} iiij{d}
  Paid for M{r} Aldermans Picture                iij{li}

This would be a portrait of Alderman Proby, Master in 1615, and Lord
Mayor in 1622.

  For a muskett furnished sent to Ireland               xxiij{s}   vj{d}
  1619-20. P{d} for sendinge the childeren
    to virgynia                                            ij{s}   ij{d}
  1620-21. Paid by precept towardꝭ the
    disburseinge of the 5000{li} gyven to
    the Palsgrave[262]                           xxx{li}
  1621-2. Paid unto the Clarke of the
    Ironmongers fora Copie of the Irish
    accomptꝭ & the Acquittaunce                           iij{s}
  Paid for sendinge childeren to virgynia                  ij{s}   ij{d}
  Item paid for three black Jackꝭ of leather               xj{s}
  P{d} for mendinge the Rapper of the hall gate                    vj{d}
  1622-3. Gyven by a Court of Assistantꝭ unto
    the Clarks maid towardꝭ her marriage          ij{li}
  Paid by consent for a noyse of Trumpetꝭ
    on the Lord Maiors daie                               xxv{s}

  [262] Frederick V, Elector Palatine--son-in-law of James I.

Sir Peter Proby was Lord Mayor this year.

  1623-4. Received of the Companie of
    Ironmongers for the Irishe plantac͠on
    being o{r} pˀt of the 5 division              xj{li}   ix{s}   vj{d}

The Recorder had a yearly “fee” of £6 in this and many subsequent
years, most probably to secure his friendship towards the Company.

[Footnote: The initial letter ~T~ is reduced from one in the Audit
Book, 1623-4.]

In 1623 occurs the last entry of the Company keeping “Gowries day.”

  1625-6. Received of John Pinder for his
    comeinge into the Livery who hath byn
    once Warden of the Yeomanrye                          xl{s}
  Of Edward Charley for his comeinge into
    the Livery haveing not byn Warden of
    the Yeomanry                                   v{li}
  Paid to Thomas Bourne a poore Scholler
    by order of Court                            iij{li}

Every year about this period is an entry for wooden Trenchers,
generally a gross of them, and the cost about 6_s._

There are also many entries for “boat hire”; whenever a journey was
taken it seems to have nearly always been on the river, and only on
rare occasions is horse hire mentioned.

  1626-7. Given by order of Court amongst miserable
    poore people                                          xl{s}

The cost of obtaining the Charter this year, as appears by the detailed
account amounted to £168 19_s._ 8_d._

  1627-8. Paid unto to Mercer for Taffitaes to
    make the banners streamers and Ancient     xviij{li}  vj{s}  viij{d}
  Given the worke men that made the flaggs
    to drinck                                             ij{s}
  Paid M{r} Babb and M{r} Withers uppon consent
    for their painting the Auncient 2 Streamers
    2 bannors and 10 bannorettꝭ and the quarter
    for Scotland in the kingꝭ armes and likewise
    for painting those flagg staves               xv{li}
  Paid for silke and fringe for the flaggs to
    M{r} March in Cornhill                               vij{s}    vj{d}
  Given by consent to a poore souldier that
    shewed a Mandrake to this Courte                       v{s}

The root of the mandrake is said to bear a resemblance to the
human form, and the “poore souldier” was not disappointed when he
thought that by laying such a professional curiosity before the
Barber-Surgeons, he would receive a benevolence.

  Paid unto the Chamᵬlaine of London for the
    Kings use as by precept                    ccclx{li}
  Paid and disbursed for takeing downe and
    carryeing of King Henrye the 8 picture
    to White hall for the Kinge to see and
    bringeing it back and setting it up againe           xij{s}

James I in 1617 borrowed this picture, his letter demanding it is
still at Barbers’ Hall, and it would appear by this entry that his son
Charles did the same; the wonder is that we have still got it, after
running two such risks.

  1628-9. Paid M{r} Greene the Gouldsmith for
    the silver and makeing of 4 new Garlandꝭ
    as pˀ bill                                    xx{li}

These Garlands, the most elegant in the City, are still worn by the
Master and Wardens on Court days.

  ffor an hundred of sweete briers xiiij{d} for
    rosemary ij{s} violettꝭ and strawberryes iiij{d}
    and nayles ij{d}                                     iij{s}  viij{d}

Imagine sweetbriar with rosemary, violets, and strawberries in a garden
in Monkwell Street in this present year of grace!

  1629 30. Given to M{r} Greenebury painter for new
    amending M{r} fferebras picture and to his man
    for bringing it home                                   x{s}    vj{d}
  Spent that day wee attended S{r} John Cooke
    secretarye of State as concerneing one Dupont a
    frenchmen recomended from the Lordꝭ of the privey
    Councell to practise in the cure of the pockꝭ                 vij{d}
  Given to M{r} Secretary Cookes man upon the returne
    of o{r} answere to him of Duponts insufficiencye
    in the cureing the pockꝭ                                       ij{s}
  Given to Edward Downes a poor barbar by order of Court   x{s}
  Given by order of Court to John Blackwell barbar
    towardꝭ his losse by fier at Wood streete corner      xl{s}
  Paid in December to the Gardner for 2 daies worke
    cuting and nayleing the vines                         ij{s}  viij{d}
  Paid for a dozen of double woodbines and 25 sweete
    briers                                                ix{s}  iiij{d}
  Paid to a woeman for 3 dayes weeding the gravell
    and Stone walke                                       ij{s}  viij{d}
  Paid to William Brice for 4 daies at ij{s} vj{d}         x{s}
  Paid to him for halfe a daye w{ch} he grumbled for       j{s}   iij{d}

1630-1. In this year the trades of the masters binding apprentices are
recorded, there being 48 barbers, 22 surgeons, 9 tailors, 5 diers, 1
drawer, 3 butchers, 1 merchant, 1 sempster, 1 grocer, 1 thridman, 1
brewer, 1 stocking seller, 1 sheeregrinder, and 26 unclassed; these
latter were most probably either barbers or surgeons.

  Given to Edward Pardoe and his wiefe lieing in prison    x{s}
  Given to Marshall Petoe for his elegies on M{r} Banckꝭ
    his funerall daie by order of Court                    x{s}

Petoe was a City poet who wrote a dirge upon Queen Elizabeth, and a few
other not very cheerful compositions.

1631-2. This year the Livery fines were raised, those who had served
the office of warden of the Yeomanry paying £7 and all others £10.

Of the masters taking apprentices this year, 55 were barbers, 31
surgeons, 15 tailors, 8 dyers, 3 stocking sellers, 3 button makers, 1
button loope maker, 2 chaundlers, 1 sempster, 1 butcher, 1 carpenter, 1
bookbinder, 1 wheelwright, 1 glass seller, 1 grocer, 1 merchant, and 1
was unclassed.

  Paid for our Dynner the 14th of June and other
    Expencꝭ for those Assistantꝭ that attended the
    Lordꝭ of the Councell when the Phisitians
    complayned to have obteyned the viewinge of
    o{r} Pacients in daunger of death                   xlvj{s}    vj{d}
  Paid to a Smith for mending and refreshinge of
    the Clock                                             xv{s}
  Paid for 8 fyrre poales to beare up the vynes          iij{s}  viij{d}
  Paid for Nayles and Prymeinge the Vynes                iij{s}  viij{d}
  Paid for 3{li} of plaster of parris                              ix{d}

1632-3. This year the sum of £343 1_s._ 5_d._ was expended in the
erection of a Gallery and a Granary over it in the Inner Stone Yard,
the Granary being for the storage of the City corn. The details of all
the expenses about this business are given and the following are a few
extracts therefrom:--

  ~Imprimis~ paid to Thomas Doorebarre
    Tymberman for a C of Deales at 7{li} 10{s}
    the C and 18 Loadꝭ and 27 foote of tymber
    at 36{s} the Load as pˀ bill                  xl{li}  xvj{s}   vj{d}
  Paid to the Turnor for turneing the 6 great
    Collumbs at 9{s} a peece as  pˀ bill                liiij{s}
  Paid alsoe to the Turner for turneing 4 postꝭ
    & 25 ballisters for the stayres as by bill           xvj{s}
  Paid to Thomas Stanley Mason for squareing and
    layeinge of 630 foote of old stone in the
    Gallerye the stone stepps to the Granary the
    Capitalls and pedistalls of stone in the
    fronte the 6 bases the large sonne dyall
    & the little dyall as pˀ bill                 xl{li}
  Paid to John Jeames Carver for Cuttinge
    the Companyes Armes in stonne               iiij{li}
  Paid to Nathaniell Glover Dyall maker for
    paynting the great Sunne Dyall the
    Companyes Armes in Stone & layeinge in
    Oyle Collour the inscripc͠on of the M{r}
    and Wardens names the sume of                iij{li}   x{s}
  Paid to the Cittyes Bricklayer to viewe
    the foundac͠on of o{r} Bricke wall to
    the Granarye                                         iiij{s}
  Paid to John ffowler Bricklayer for tyleing
    9 ten foote squares & 1 quarter & tenn
    foote at 18{s} a square & for 9 Roddꝭ &
    51 foote 10 ynches of bricke worke at
    6{li} the Rodd & for 5 Rodd & 119 foote
    9 ynches of the lower Bricke worke at
    4{li} the Rodd cometh to                   lxxxv{li} xiij{s}  ij{d}
  Paid to Thomas Aldridge Plasterer for 155
    yardꝭ of lyme & hayre layd on the Brick
    walls at 3{d} ob[263] the yard And for
    312 yardꝭ & 6 foote of lathed worke layd
    with lyme & haire at 9{d} ob. the yard
    And for whiteing & sizeinge that worke
    w{ch} was more then the Bargaine As by
    bill appeareth                              xvj{li} xviij{s} iiij{d}
  Paid to Edward Spencer Plumber for 52C 3
    quarters and 1 pound of lead at 14{s}
    the C 54{li} & a half of Sauder at 9{d}
    the pound And for Plumbers worke &
    Carriage of the Lead as pˀ bill              xlj{li}  iij{s} iiij{d}
  1633-4. Given to       Mondayes widow whoe
    pˀsented a guift to this Courte The booke
    of The Surveigh of London beinge in folio            xxx{s}

  [263] ob. = obolus, a halfpenny.

This was the widow of Anthony Munday, the author of many City pageants,
and of the Edition of Stowe’s Survey, which his widow “presented” to
the Court _in exchange for 30s._

  Given by order of the 29 Aprill to the Keepers
    of The xchaunge to  put downe Mountabanck bills        x{s}

These were quack surgeons’ advertisements; the Royal Exchange seems to
have been a favourite place for their exhibition, as there are various
other entries to a like effect.

  Paid to M{r} Treswell Harrold painter for
    the amendinge & paintinge of o{r} fflaggꝭ
    that were torne and ruyned by the weather
    as pˀ bill                                  iiij{li}    v{s}

The following entries relate to the Company’s “provision of corn.”

  Paid for a Bushell a halfe bushell a Peck
    and a halfe peck measures and bringinge
    them to the hall                                       xj{s}  iij{d}
  Paid for a Roape for the Jynn                            vj{s}    v{d}
  Paid for a great Iron Beame & Scales to
    weyghe Corne                                         xxvj{s}
  Paid for new Leaden waightꝭ waighing CCC{li}
    viz{t} 5 halfe hundrede waight 1 quartern
    1 halfe quarterne 1 seaven pounde 1 foure
    pounde 1 twoe pounde 1 pound 1 halfe pound
    & 1 quarter of a pound waightꝭ at 16{s} 8{d}
    pˀ C. comes to                                           l{s}
  Paid for a Skreene for the Corne                          xj{s}
  Paid for a sacke for that Skreene                        iij{s}
  Payd for the Carryage of the great Skreene for
    Corne w{ch} the Companye did not like of                ij{s}  vj{d}
  Paid for twoe hand treys to sell meale by
    in y{e} mˀket                                                 xvj{d}
  Paid for a Ballattinge boxe & Bullettꝭ                    xl{s}
  Disbursed in chargꝭ about the 4 Condempned
    Lancashire woemen that were brought to
    o{r} Hall by the Kingꝭ Comaũnd to be searched
    the sume of                                              x{s}  vj{d}

These women were examined to ascertain if any were pregnant, that if so
their execution might be stayed.

  1634-5. Paid to S{r} Willm̃ St. George Herrauld
    at his genˀall visitat̃on for the severell
    Companies Armes in London the sume of
    iij{li} vj{s} viij{d} as his ffee &
    xx{s} amongst his Clerkꝭ                     iiij{li}  vj{s} viij{d}

The Company paid £16 “ship-money” this year.

  Paid to the Clocke Smith for mendinge the Clock         iij{s}

This entry is curious, being the transition name of a trade; the
blacksmiths were originally the clockmakers (_see_ p. 399); here we
have the “clock smith” and later on the “clock maker.”

The records obtained from the Guildhall and the Tower to which
reference is made in the following extracts, and which are preserved
in a vellum book (still in the possession of the Company) were made by
William Colet, here called “Colley.” The record from the Tower has been
already fully referred to on p. 29, etc.

  Paid for searchinge in the Threasury at Guildhall
    and for a Coppy of Richard le Barbars beinge
    chosen M{r} to governe the Companye for one yeare
    Intrat in Libro C. folio 96, and in the second
    yeare of Edward the Second Also in Libro H folio
    73. Thomas Boyvell & Willm̃ Osney sworne M{rs}
    for one yeare to rule the Company in the first
    yeare of Richard the second                             x{s}
  Paid the ffee for search in the Roles in the Towre
    of London for the Companies antiquitye                  x{s}
  Paid for a Coppy of o{r} Companies auncient
    Ordynances out of those Roles The Eleaventh of
    Richard the second                                    xij{s}   vj{d}
  Paid to M{r} Colley at twoe tymes for his
    extraordinary paynes in searchinge                      x{s}
  Paid to M{r} Riley for his paynes there                  ij{s}   vj{d}
  Paid & given for a search & Coppye out of the
    Herrauldꝭ Office of our Companies beinge the
    17{th} in precedency at their visitac͠on 1568            x{s}
  Given to the Porter at the Herrauldꝭ office that
    day o{r} hearinge was betwixt us and the
    Talloughchandlers                                      ij{s}   vj{d}
  1635-6. Spent when M{r} Inigo Jones the Kinges
    Surveyor came to view the back ground                  xj{s}   vj{d}
  Given to M{r} Mason that drew y{e} plotꝭ for
    y{e} Theater                                           xl{s}

1636-7. In the previous year £480 had been paid in respect of the
building of the Anatomical Theatre and this year a further sum of
£242 17_s._ 4_d._ This was exclusive of the cost of digging for the
foundations which the Company did by their own labourers, whom they
paid 16_d._ per day each. It was the practice of the Company to allow
each workman engaged, whether labourers or mechanics, 1_d._ a day for
“breakfast money,” and this was paid to the “chandler” for them.

Amongst the expenses incurred about the Theatre were these:--

  Spent by water at tymes when wee went to M{r}
    Surveigher (Inigo Jones) about the Theater             vj{s}    j{d}
  Paid to M{r} Wilson a Mason to Measure Stanleys
    worke in the Theater & spent then                    xiij{s}   ix{d}
  Given to Robert Butler and John Pullen for their
    measureing the Theater                                 xl{s}

The expenses connected with the Building of the New or Great Parlour,
and the Gallery next the Theatre, were this year £263 7_s._ 7_d._

  Paid to widᵭ Lucas for an iron money box for
    the M{rs}                                              xx{s}

This quaint old box is still in use as the “Poor’s box.”[264]

[264] See head piece to Chapter on “Charities.”

1637-8. The Wardens received £188 10_s._ 0_d._ from 41 members of the
Company by way of gift to the Building fund; the names of the donors
are all set out in the book.

  Recẽd for the old Rustie Armo{r} and Gunnes
    the som̃e of                                  ij{li}   xvj{s}  ij{d}
  P{d} for Linckes & torches at the awdite
    day night & Lo: Maiors day night                       ij{s}  iij{d}
  Paid for mendinge and pitchinge the
    3 Blacke Jacks                                        iij{s}

The Company paid £30 being three years’ contribution to the repair of
St. Paul’s, due August, 1638. £224 0_s._ 3_d._ was also paid in respect
of the building of the Theatre.

  1638-9. ~The charge~ and settinge upp o{r}
    bookes and auntient Manuscriptꝭ in o{r} new Library.
  Paid for 36 yardꝭ of chaine at 4{d} the yard &
    36 yards at 3{d} ob. the yard cometh to              xxij{s}   vj{d}
  Paid to the Coppersmith for castinge 80 brasses
    to fasten the Chaines to the bookes                  xiij{s} iiij{d}
  To porters at sevˀall tymes to carry these
    bookꝭ                                                  ij{s}
  Paid to the bookebynders for new byndinge 15
    bookꝭ                                              xlviij{s}   vj{d}
  Paid for Claspinge 19 large & small bookꝭ &
    fasteninge all the brasses to the iron chaines
    to Threescore & foure bookꝭ in the Library,
    new bosses for two great bookꝭ 8{s} setting on
    old bosses j{s} mending ould Claspes ij{s}           xxxj{s} viij{d}
  Paid for makeinge Ringes swiffles & fittinge all
    the iron chaines                                      xij{s}
                                                 -----------------------
                                  ~Som~ is       vj{li} xviij{s}
                                                 =======================

  1639-40. Paid 2 fifteens towardꝭ Midletons
    water[265]                                             vj{s}
  Given to the Recorders Clerke that the ffrenchmen
    might not take the body from Tyborne                   ij{s}   vj{d}

  [265] The New River water.

  1640-1. Paid to the Tellers of the Exchequer in
    8{ber} 1640 for y{e} Kings use                             400  0  0
  Paid and given to M{r} Davies man ij{s} and the
    water men and Porters to bring King Charles figure
    in Brasse to the hall                                        0  4  6

This Bust of the King was set up in the Theatre.

1641-2. There were seventy-three liverymen on the roll this year, and
the Court numbered thirty-three in addition.

  Paid to Edward Cock Painter for mending the pictures
    & frames of Queene Eliʒ. S{r} Peter Probye Sarjeant
    Balthrop and blacking Gilding Apollo                         1  2  0

  ~Disbursed~ at the Kings enterteynem{t} in London the 25{th} of
    November 1641.
  Paid for a peece of rich Taffitae to make a pendant            0 18  0
  P{d} for Greene Perpetuana for the 18 ffootemen                9  4  0
  P{d} for white lace to sett on those suites                    1 11  4
  P{d} for white and greene ribaning as by bill                  3 16  0
  P{d} in the morning for buttred sack 8{s} buns 3{s}
    butter 3{li} ij{s} beere & bread 4{s}                        0 17  0
  P{d} for the Companies dinner at the Castle that daye          6  8  0
  P{d} to M{r} Berisford taylor for making 6 suites
    tape & thread                                                1  2  0
  Paid to M{r} Ball taylor for making 12 suites                  2  4  0
  P{d} to M{r} Treswell the Harrould Painter                     2 12  0
  P{d} for the Pendaunt Staffe and 18 trunchions                 0  9  0
  P{d} to a porter to watch the standings and candles            0  3  6
  to workemen to drink                                           0  0  6
  ffor making 18 greene flatt capps                              0 18  0
  ffor 3 dozen of torches that night                             2  8  0
  for hier of three blewe clothes and porteridge                 0 16  6
  To Richardson a porter                                         0  2  0
  Paid by consent towards the 18 ffootmens suppers               1  0  0
  Paid for John Perkins his scarfe that beare our Pendant
    with our Coate of armes                                      1  0  0
  Paid M{r} Dorebare Carpinter for boards and setting
    upp and taking downe and cariage of our standings            4  8  0
                                                               ---------
                                           ~Sume~ is            39 17 10
                                                               =========

  1642-3. Paid into the Chamber of London for Ireland          400  0  0
  Paid into the Committees at Grocers Hall for releife
    of Ireland                                                  50  0  0
  Paid the Companies viij{li} weakly assessment for
    12 weekes                                                   96  0  0
  Paid the 9{th} August 1642 for one Silver Canne given to
    Docto{r} Chamberlaine for his anatomye Lecture vj{li}
    and to the Porter that brought things from thence j{s}
    & to Docto{r} Meverells man j{s} when he sent Cafferius
    Placentius his booke of Anatomye w{ch} he gave to the
    Librarye                                                     6  2  0
  Paid for 60 yards of Chaine for bookes in the Librarye
    at 4{d} p. yard                                              1  0  0
  P{d} to the Copper Smith for 60 brasses                        0 10  0
  To the Claspmaker for setting on 32 brasses                    0  8  0

  1644-5. Wee charge ourselves with foure hundred
    and five pounds received of S{r} Iohn Wollaston
    and the rest of the Thrẽrs at warres by order of
    the Comittee of Parliam{t} for the Army for
    furnishing xxvij Chyrurgians Chests & Instrumt{s}
    for S{r} Thomas ffairfax his Armie                       CCCCv{li}

The Company were bound under precepts directed to them, to press
Surgeons for the Army and to provide them each with a Medicine chest
and Instruments value £15. It is a remarkable circumstance that the
Parliament should have _paid_ the money to the Company for this
service, a proceeding contrary to the practice then in vogue.

At this time it appears that the indebtedness of the Company to various
creditors for monies lent to enable them to meet the demands of the
authorities amounted to no less a sum than £2,633 4_s._ This was
borrowed at 6, 7 and 8 per cent. interest upon the seal of the house;
the Company had pawned the best of their ancient plate to satisfy the
rapacity of the King and the army, and the following pitiful entry
speaks volumes--

  Paid for the hyre of 4 Cupps for the elecc͠on                  0  2  0

1645-6. Money was raised by granting annuities thus--

  Wee charge ourselves with Twoe hundred pounds rec̃d of M{r}
    Nichãs Heath for an Annuitye of xxvj{li} for tenn yeares    CC{li}
  Paid for one newe black Jack                                   0  5  0
  Paid for amending two old black Jacks                          0  2  6
  Paid for two douzen of sawcers                                 0 12  0
  Paid for 15 dozen of Trenchers                                 0  6  7
  P{d} the Lord Maiors Officers as a fine for the Rubbish
    lyeing in the Streete                                        0  2  0

The indebtedness of the Company this year amounted to £2,847 18_s._
10_d._

  1646-7. ffor mending the Corrector twice                       0  3  0

The apprentices must have been especially troublesome this year.

  1647-8. Given to Richard Greenburye Workeman to this
    house towards his inlargement out of prison                  2  0  0

Mr. Greenbury had often been employed by the Company as a portrait
painter, and it is delightful to notice their kindly regard for him in
both his and their evil days.

1648-9. In 1644 the Company had pawned their plate, but seem to have
redeemed it within the next year or two, for under this year we read
that plate to the value of £297 11_s._ 8_d._ was _absolutely_ sold to
Mr. Thomas Madox, Goldsmith, and other plate was pledged with Mr. John
Browne for £250.

  Paid for our seates in S{t} Paulls Church on
    Thancksgiving day for the Northerne Victorye                 0  7  0
  Paid for the same on a day of humiliac͠on for a
    blessing on the treatie w{th} his then Ma{tie}               0  7  0

  1649-50. Paid for o{r} Seates at Christchurch the
    Thancsgiving day for the Irish Victorye                      0  3  0
  Paid for cakes and ale for the Livery on that day
    at y{e} hall                                                 0  4  4

The expenses of ~Lord Mayor’s~ day were as follows:--

  Paid for Ribbon for the Whifflers Officers & Bargemen          1  4  4
  ffor eight staves                                              0  2  0
  Paid to Edward Soare Barge M{r}                                3 15  0
  Paid to the Trumpetts that came to the hall voluntarilye       0 10  0
  Given to the Clarke & sexton of S{t} James Church
    Garlick hith                                                 0  2  6
  Given to the Porter at Baynards castle                         0  1  6
  Paid to the Drum̃e & Phiffe                                     0 12  0
  Given to the Watermen to drinck                                0  2  6
  More for beare for the Watermen                                0  0  6
  ffor 8 dozen of cakes & 3 dozen of other bread                 0 11  0
  Paid for foure pounds of butter                                0  3  4
  Paid the Grocers bill and Vinteners bill for a potac͠on
    for the Liverye in y{e} morning                              1  3  6
  Given to the Servants of the Taverne                           0  2  6
  ffor washing linnen & making cleane the hall                   0 11  6
  Paid the Butler for his attendance                             0 10  0
  Paid for hyre for 3 dozen of Napkins                           0  4  0
  ffor hier of Pewter                                            0 10  0
  Given to the Stewards by order of Court                        8  0  0
  Paid for cords                                                 0  0  4

It was the custom for the Stewards to provide the Livery dinner, and
the £8 was an allowance made by the Company towards the cost of the
dinner.

  Paid in exchange of clip̃d & counterfitt money                  0 16  6
  Given by order of Court to widᵭ Morgan towards the
    apparelling her sonne to bee placed an Appñtice              1 10  0

On the 1st November, 1649, the Company attended a Thanksgiving service
at Christchurch, and later on they were present at the same place for a
“Humilation day for Ireland.”

  1650-1. Paid for a large Banner of the Armes of England
    and Ireland and mending the old Banners                      6 17  6

This “mending the old banners” was really taking out the Royal arms and
inserting those of the Commonwealth, and was done under compulsion by
order of Oliver Cromwell.

  Paid to Greenburye for painting the Picture of M{r} Edward
    Arris and Doctor Charles Scarborough & Anathomye             9 10  0

This fine picture is preserved at Barbers’ Hall.

On October 8th, 1650, the Company attended a Thanksgiving at
Christchurch, for a victory at Dunbar.

1652-3. On Lord Mayor’s day the ribbons for the whifflers were 30 yards
of white 6_d._ ribbon, and 30 yards of green 8_d._ ribbon.

The Company were present at one Humiliation and two Thanksgiving
Services this year.

  1653-4. Paid for hire of a greene cloth to lay over the
    Rayle of our standing in Paulls Churchyard when the
    Lord Protector was enterteined by the Citie at Grocers
    hall                                                         0 12  6
  To the Butler for his attendance then                          0 10  0
  ffor the hire of a Case of Knives then                         0  1  0
  Paid for Cakes and wine 7{s} and for attendance ij{s}          0  9  0
  Paid to M{r} Dorebarre Carpinter for fitting the standing
    and doeing other worke as by twoe bills appeare              7 10  0
  Paid for washing the Table Lynnen and making cleane the
    Hall on y{t} day                                             0 11  6
  Paid to M{r} Dorebarre Carpinter for the newe building
    next the newe gate of the hall according to agreement      120  0  0

The liabilities of the Company to Creditors for money borrowed amounted
to £2,386 13_s._ 10-1/2_d._

  1655-6. ffor a large Mapp of the World on the Chymney
    in the long Parlour                                          2 10  0
  1657-8. Payd for thinges to p{r}serve the Robes and
    Carpettꝭ from mothes                                         0  5  0
  Paid for a paire of Gloves p{r}sented to M{r} Secondary
    Trottman by order of Court                                   1 10  0
  1658-9. To the Herauld Painter for severall Armes in the
    new Booke of Charters and ordinances                         2  0  0
  Paid the Clerke for Velome bindinge and other charges
    about that Booke                                             0 13  0

This book, very handsomely illuminated, is preserved at the Hall.

The Great Account Book ends here, and the next one embraces the years
1659 to 1674.

  1659-60. Payd by order of a Court of Assistantꝭ into
    the Chamber of London o{r} proporc͠on of 10000{li}
    to be raysed by the Companies of London to be sent
    as a Guift to the Kinge[266]                                96  0  0
  Payd M{r} Phinees Bill for Cloathes for the ffootemen
    att the Kinges Entertainem{t} in the Cittie when hee
    came first into the Kingdome                                20  0  0
  ffor 4 peices of Greene & white Ribbon
    for the Horsemen and footemen that day                       3 12  0
  ffor 24 Staves for the ffootemen                               0  8  0
  Payd to the Herauld Painter for a new Pendent and
    the Kingꝭ Armes                                             11 15  0
  ffor payntinge the ffootemens staves                           0  8  8
  Payd for a Dynner for the Horsemen that day                    3  1  6
  Payd ffor 4 peeces of Greene & white Ribbon the
    5{th} of July for the ffootemen &c when the Kinge
    dyned at Guildhall                                           3 12  0
  ffor a breakefast for the Livery that day                      0 10  4
  ffor three Staves for the Attendantꝭ that day                  0  1  0
  ffor a Dynner for the horsemen that day                        4  6  7
  ffor a Dynner for the Livery that day                          5  3  2
  ffor the Trompeterꝭ that day                                   1 12  0
  Payd the Cookes Bill upon a Thancksgivinge day
    the 10{th} of May                                            4  8  7
  The Vintnerꝭ Bill that day                                     1  7  0
  Spent att the Miter on choyce of my Lord Maio{r}               0 12  6
  Expended in Attendance on the Duke of Yorkes Secretary att
    severall tymes to frustrate the designe of the Apothecaries  0 13  4
  1660-1. Payd by order of a Co{rt} of Assistantꝭ into the
    Chamber of London o{r} proporc͠on towards makeinge of
    pageantꝭ                                                    48  0  0

  [266] Charles II at the Restoration.

This refers most probably to the rejoicings in June, 1660, when the
City entertained Charles II, the Dukes of York and Gloucester, and
other persons of quality.

  ffor strowingꝭ on the Elecc͠on day                             0  1  8

These were herbs, etc., spread over the floor of the Hall, and flowers
strewed by the maids in the street in front of the Company as they went
to church.

1661-2. This year there were 158 Liverymen, of whom 29 were on the
Court.

  To a Couple of Serjantꝭ to Arrest severall pˀsons
    that used the Art of Shaveinge in this Citty
    and not beinge ffreemen of this Company                      0 15  0
  To S{r} W{m} Wylde for his advice upon a Declarac͠oon
    ag{t} those pˀsons                                           1  0  0
  Payd the Attorneys Bill in that Businesse                      3 13  6

  1662-3. ~August~ 26{th} 1662 att the Kinge & Queenes cominge
  by water to London (from Hampton Court to Whitehall)

  Spent lookeinge after a barge                                  0  1  6
  The Bargemans Bill                                             8  0  0
  To the Trompeters                                              3  0  0
  ffor 74 yards of white & Greene Ribbon att 6{d} pˀ yard        1 17  0
  The Vintners Bill att the 3 Tunnes att Breakefast              3 16  0
  Butlers Bill that day                                          2  1  2
  Beadles Bill that day for expenses                             0 12  1
  Cookes Bill that day                                           4  8  7
  Vinteners Bill at the Sunne that day                           3  3  8
  ffor 4 douzen Bottles of Ale that day                          0 14 10
  To the Clerke at Garlicke Hithe Church that day                0  2  6

  ~Lord Mayors Day.~

  The Bargemans breakefast                                       0  2  6
  To the Bargeman & 11 men                                       4  8  0
  ffor 84 yards of Ribbon att 6{d} pˀ yard                       2  2  0
  Michells bill for Cordage, &c.                                 0  2  2
  ffor washinge the Table Lynnen & makeinge cleane the
    hall then                                                    0 11  6
  The Butlers ffee then                                          0 13  4
  The Vintners Bill for Breakefast                               3  8  0
  The Beadles Bill for Tabaccoe that day                         0  3  8
  To the Sexton of Garlicke hithe Church that day                0  2  6
  To the porter att Baynards Castle                              0  1  6
  To the Trompeters then                                         2  5  0
  ffor 8 douzen of cakes then                                    0  8  0
  ffor 6 Staves for the Whiflers then                            0  2  0

This year also the Company rode to “meete the Russia Embassadour” and
the charges for this are set out in the accounts.

The Company employed counsel and presented a petition against the
granting of a Charter to the Physicians; this business involved several
meetings at taverns and some presents to the Duke of York’s Secretary,
who seems to have espoused the cause of the Barber-Surgeons.

  ffor makeinge presipientia to be præscientia in the
    Bason and Tankerd                                            0  1  6

This would be the correction of an engraver’s mistake in the Company’s
motto on some silver plate.

  ffor paintinge the staves for the Companyes Colo{rs}
    and 4 windowes of the Granary                                1 10  0
  ffor makeinge cleane of severall pictures                      0 17  0
  ffor two Silver Salts                                          2  2  0
  ffor mendinge Erasmus statute                                  0  3  0
  ffor a large Chamber pott                                      0  5  6

  1663-4. Received of the Governours Assistants and Livery
    towards the Building of a Barge with other necessaryes
    thereunto belonging                                        178  0  0

A considerable sum was again spent in opposing the Physician’s Charter,
Sir Wm. Scroggs, Mr. Pollexfen, Mr. Serjeant Glyn, Mr. Phillips, and
Sir Orlando Bridgeman being the Company’s counsel.

  ffor mẽding King Henry the 8{ths} cupp                         0  2  0
  To a Serjeant to arrest M{r} Arnold for refusing to
    take a fine for the Cloathing and entring the Acc͠on         0  5  4
  To M{r} Banes the Attorney his ffee                            0  2  6
  To Peter Smith [the Beadle] for his expences to ketch
    M{r} Arnold                                                  0  2  6

The Company spent a large sum on their Barge and Barge house; all the
details are in the accounts, but the following extracts will suffice:--

  To Henry fforty for makeing the Barge                        115  0  0
  ffor Calicoe for the Watermens Suites                          3  5  0
  ffor Staining the Coates                                       2 15  0
  ffor makeing 20 Suites and Capps at 4{s} 6{d} each             4 10  0
  To Henry fforty for triming the Barge Curting Rods
    &c v{t} pˀ Bill                                              2  0  0
  ffor Bayes and Curtaines                                       0 18 10
  ffor Oares                                                     1 14  0
  To M{r} Blackmore the Herrald Painter for fflags
    to the Barge                                                29 10  0
  ffor Boards to house the Barge last Winter                    17  5  6
  Boathire and given to a Carpenter to view the
    Duke of Richmonds Bargehouse                                 0  2  6
  To the Archbishop of Canterburyes Counsell ffor his
    perusall of the Draught of a Lease for ground to
    build a Barge house on [at Lambeth]                          1  0  0
  To his Clarke for drawing it                                   0 10  0
  To M{r} Snowe and M{r} Turney 2 of the Archbishops
    Servants upon sealing the Lease 10{li} in Gold and
    the change of Silver for Gold at 2{s} 4{d} a peice
    1{li} 3{s} 4{d} in all                                      11  3  4
  To M{r} Turneyes man for ingrossing the Lease                  0 10  0
  To the Archbishops Porter                                      0  5  0
  Given to other Servants of the House when the
    Governours attended his Lordship                             0 12  0
  To M{r} Matthewes the Bricklayer in part of payment
    for his Brickworke about the Bargehouse                    100  0  0

1664-5. The Company subscribed £94 15_s._ 6_d._ as a Contribution
towards the ship “The Loyal London,” to be presented to the King by the
City. They also “lent” the King £500 for which 6 per cent. interest was
_promised_.

  Coach hire for the Governours to the Navy Office
    on Audit day                                                 0  2  0
  Given to M{r} Pepis[267] his man that day                      0  1  0
  To the Hoboyes [on Lord Mayor’s day]                           2  5  0
  To Peter Smith for Tobaccoe and pipes                          0  2 10
  ffor Rosemary and Bayes for the Barge                          0  2  0
  ffor mending a Skelliton                                       0  5  0

  [267] Samuel Pepys, the Diarist.

An entertainment was given to the Duke of Monmouth (who was free of the
Company) and among other items of expense incurred were:--

  Comfitt makers Bill that day                                   4  2  6
  ffor a quarter of a Pound of Spanish tobaccoe that day         0  2  6
  Given to the Officers of the Navy according to
    custome yearely                                              2  0  0

Perhaps Samuel Pepys came in for some of this.

There was a grand dinner at our Hall on 20th June, 1655, being
Thanksgiving day for the Victory over the Dutch.[268]

  ffor bringing the Woodden Griffen from Wapping to
    the Guilders                                                 0  2  6

This would be the Opinicus for the bow of the barge.

  ffor Imbroydering the Barge Cloath                            15  0  0
  Payd M{r} Rolls his Bill for the Barge Cloath                 11  0  0
  To M{r} Goodwyn for paynting the Barge                        35  0  0

The next refers to the Great Plague.

  Given to the poore visited persons the Third part of the
    Companyes usuall allowance at an Election Dinner             5  0  0
  Given to Thomas Vere in his visitac͠on                         1  0  0
  To Chamberlaines Widdow her house being visited                1  0  0
  To Peter Smith in his sicknes                                  3  0  0

  1665-6. Expended by myself y{e} Clerke & Beadles in
    sevˀall Journeys to Greenw{ch} to attend y{e} officers
    of y{e} Navy in y{e} late time of Visitac͠on                  1 16  6

The Company made very many grants of money to the poor stricken people
about this time; and further contributed £69 9_s._ 6_d._ towards the
Ship “The Loyal London.”

[268] Pepys also kept this day. He says,--“Thankes-giving day for
victory over the Dutch. To the Dolphin Taverne, where all we officers
of the Navy met with the Commissioners of the Ordnance by agreement,
and dined: where good musique at my direction. Our club came to 34_s._
a man, nine of us. By water to Fox-hall, and there walked an hour
alone, observing the several humours of the citizens that were there
this holiday, pulling off cherries, and God knows what.”

1666-7. The following interesting entries relate to the ~Great Fire~
and the providential preservation of the ~Holbein~ painting.

  To a souldier two dayes & two nights on the trained
    bands when the great fier was & for powder                   0  8  0
  ffor carrying of the Companyes goods by Porters to
    Moorefeildꝭ, howse roome there & carrying thence
    to Holborne bridge                                           3  0  0
  To a seaman that quenched the top of the theater when fired    0  4  0
  To other labourers at that time                                1  0  0
  To one hurt in that service                                    0 10  0
  ffor drinke for the labourers then                             0  1  6
  To a poore fellow that found a skelliton                       0  1  0
  To the City Marshall for getting of labourers and
    laders & an engine to save the Theater                       1  0  0
  ffor the use of timber & other things at that time             0  2  6
  To Major Brookes for his expences about ~H~ y{e} 8th picture   0 13  0
  Given him as the Companyes gift                                1  0  0
  To six porters w{th} expences of bringing home y{t} picture    0  8  9
  To Cap{t} Carroll his expenses about that picture              0 16  0
  Given him as the Companyes gift                                1  0  0
  Expended on him                                                0  2  6
  ffor a Cipres chest to put the plate in                        2  0  0
  ffor foure locks 2 handles & 8 plates for that chest           1 10  0
  ffor a trunke for the linnin                                   0 10  0
  To Jonas Wills for Workemen to Carry in leade & iron
    out of the ruines                                            0 13  0
  To a Carpenter & his man that assisted                         9  6  0
  To Peter Smith for Workemen at the hall 22{th} Septemb. 1666   4  7  4
  More to him for workemen y{e} 25 of 7{ber} 66                  7 11  8
  ffor 7 large boxes w{th} Locks & keys to put the Companyes
    writings in                                                  1  8  0
  To Peter Smith his charges in getting home sevˀall
    flaggs & pictures & a skelliton                              0 14  0
  To Jonas Wills for the Skelliton the Cobler had                0  5  0
  ffor a Warrant for sevˀall pˀsons suspected to have
    some of the Companyes goods & Expended about it              0  2  6

  1667-8. Received of severall Members of the Company and
    fforreyn{rs} towards the Building of the Hall and other
    offices                                                    383  8  0

These contributions were voluntary and are accounted for every year for
a considerable period. At the end of the book is a long and detailed
list of the contributors, commencing 23rd April, 1668, and extending
to March, 1681. There seem to have been 398 subscribers, and the sum
collected from them was £1,850; this amount, however, was wholly
inadequate for the rebuilding of the hall, which appears by entries
extending over 1668 to 1674, to have cost the Company no less than
£4,292. The deficit was made up by sales of freehold property in the
City, for what to us, in these days, would seem absurdly low prices,
and by loans, etc.

[Illustration: BARBER-SURGEONS’ HALL, 1674-1864.]

1668-9. The Company received from the Chamber of London £620 6_s._
6_d._, being the return of £500 lent to the King in November, 1664,
and the interest thereon £120 6_s._ 6_d._ This is the _only_ instance
recorded of any forced loan having been refunded.

  Received of severall Barbers for trimminge on y{e} Lords Day  10  4  0

1669-70. The Company’s barge seems to have been manned by twenty
rowers, besides the Barge Master, and these men had 4_s._ each for
rowing on Lord Mayor’s day.

1669-70. Serjeant Surgeon John Knight wainscotted the Parlour at his
own charge, and Mr. Barker glazed the Windows; part of this glazing is
still preserved. It should be borne in mind that the present Court room
or Parlour (as it was formerly called) and which was the work of Inigo
Jones in 1636 was not destroyed in the Great Fire.

1670-1. The freehold property in Conyhope Lane, Grocers’ Hall Court,
was sold to the Corporation of London for £190.

1671-2. The livery this year numbered one hundred and eighty-five
persons.

1672-3. The Company sold an extensive property at Holborn Bridge to the
City for £650.

  To--Woodroffe for measuringe all the hall worke
    April y{e} 19{th} 1673                                       7 17  0

The whole of the Wardens’ accounts from 1674 to 1715 are unfortunately
lost, and the next book embraces the years between 1715 and 1785.

1715-16. The Ironmongers’ Company rented at £5 per annum from the
Barber-Surgeons a portion of their Barge House at Lambeth for the
Ironmongers’ Barge. Our Company still retained their Barge and
Bargemaster and this year purchased for him a new livery.

  Paid M{r} Wiseman the Painter for new Painting and
    Gilding the Company’s Banner                                 9  0  0
  Paid the maids who strewed the flowers to Church
    upon Election Day                                            0  3  0

  1716-17. Received of M{r} George Stevenson S. his ffine
    for practising Surgery before he was admitted being          3  4  6
  Paid a person to go to Islington to see after a dead
    body which had been drowned[269]                             0  5  0

  [269] This was no doubt wanted for an “Anatomy.”

1717-18. The Company sold a large property in East Smithfield for
£1,250.

  Paid the Hangman for his Christmas Box                         0  2  6

Similar entries to the above occur for many years.

  Paid Charles Window for fetching four Dead Bodies from
    Tyburn this year and expenses                                2  8  0
  Paid my Lord Chief Justice Parkers Tipstaffe for taking
    up severall persons who rescued the Dead Body from
    the Beadles                                                  1  0  0

  1718-19. Paid M{r} Elms his Bill for ffees at the Sessions
    in prosecuting the persons who were Indicted last year
    for taking away the Dead Bodies                              5  7  0

  1719-20. Paid Cha: Window for fetching two bodies from
    Tyburn & for going for another when they could not
    gett one                                                     1  5  0
  Paid to bring a Skeleton from St. Giles’s to the Hall in
    a coach                                                      0  2  0
  Paid the Beadles expences for going to Tyburn for a Body
    for the Muscular Lecture when they could not get one
    by reason of a great Mobb of Soldiers & others               0 13  0

  1720-1. Paid for a Livery gown and hood to the use of
    the Company to Cloth the Members with upon their taking
    the Livery                                                   2 12  6
  P{d} the High Constable of S{t} Giles’s Parish for
    assisting the Beadles in recovering a Body which had
    been taken from the Beadles by the Mobb                      0  7  6
  Paid the Hangman for the Dead mans cloths which were
    lost in the Scuffle and for his Christmas Box                0 15  0
  Paid for a halfe length Picture of King Charles the
    Second to hang up in the Parlour and for a Gold frame
    to the said Picture                                          7  5  0
  Paid M{r} King the Frame maker for a frame to Inigo Jones
    the famous Architect’s picture Presented to the Company
    by our late Master M{r} Alexander Geekie                     1  5  0

Both of these pictures are still preserved at Barbers’ Hall.

Every year now, and for some years, are entries of Expenses incurred
about the rioting, which took place when the Beadles went to Tyburn for
the bodies of malefactors; very frequently the Company prosecuted the
rioters, and were continually compensating the Beadles and others who
were injured in the fights.

  1731-2. Paid M{r} Osmond for Plumber’s Work about the
    Trough for the Dead Bodys                                    6  0  0
  Paid M{r} Ashfield for Carpenters Work about the said Trough   1 14  0

This was a species of wooden coffin lined with lead in which the
“subjects” were placed on their arrival from Tyburn.

  Paid for 4 Silver Pepper Boxes[270]                            5  5  0
  Paid the Officers of both Counters for a body[271]             2  2  0

  1735-6. Paid M{r} Newton the Silversmith for a new Badge
    for the Barge master                                         4 11  6
  Paid the High Constable for the expenses at the late
    execution when the body was rescued                          3 13  6
  Paid the Beadles expenses in prosecuting John Miller,
   one of the Persons who assaulted the Constables and
   rescued the body                                              2  2  0
  Paid M{r} Clarke the Sollicitor at Hicks Hall his Bill
    for Indicting and prosecuting the said John Miller
    to a conviction                                              8  7 10
  Paid M{r} Clarke the Engraver for engraving the Dedication
    to the Right Honorable the Earl of Burlington on the
    Print of King Henry the Eighth’s Picture                     5  5  0

  1737. Paid M{r} Babbidge for making a Skeleton of
    Malden’s[272] Bones                                          3  3  0

  [270] These are still at the Hall.
  [271] Probably the body of a prisoner who had died in one
        of the Compters.
  [272] A criminal hung at Tyburn.

  1739. Paid the Beadles for their being beat and wounded
    at the late execution                                        4  4  0

  1740. Paid for mending the Windows broke upon bringing
    the last Body from Tyburn                                    0  6  0

  1741. Paid for a Silver Punch Laddle                           1  4  0
  Paid the expences for the Buck S{r} Rob{t} Walpole
    gave the Company                                             1  3  6

  1744. Paid M{r} Hawes for two large Branches for the Hall     70  0  0

These massive chandeliers were broken but preserved when the Hall was
pulled down in 1864, and one formed of their fragments is now hung on
the staircase leading up to the Committee Room.

 Paid taking the Company’s Linnen out of Pawn                    4  2  6

This linen must have been stolen and pawned, as the Company were not
at this period in such financial difficulties as to necessitate their
personal property being taken care of by a pawnbroker.

1745-6. Dr. Tyson’s picture was sold to Mr. Luke Maurice for £10 10_s._

Mr. Goodyer was paid £11 for the table and inscription (now in the
entrance lobby) which records the separation of the Surgeons from the
Barbers in 1745.

1751-2. Mr. Whiston bought the Company’s library for £13. This library
consisted of a great number of ancient MSS. and books relating to
Surgery.

  Putting an Advertizement in the Daily Advertizer offering
    a Reward to any Person who should discover who stole the
    Lead from off the Hall Kitchen                               0  2  0
  Paid M{r} Spencer for cleaning the Guns Swords and bayonetts   0  6  0

  1760. Paid M{r} Chessun the Upholsterer his Bill for new
    Standards & making the new cloth for the Stand               67 15 6

This was the stand for the liverymen used on Lord Mayor’s day and on
other public occasions.

1770. The expenses on Lord Mayor’s day this year were as follows, and
are a fair sample of the entries for many years before and after this
date.

  CASH PAID--
  M{r} Bick for Spermaceti                                       1 10  0
  The Watermen for their Breakfast and attendance                1 12  6
  Two men to keep the gates                                      0 10  0
  Four men to keep the Stand                                     1  0  0
  M{r} Beaumont for musick                                       5  0  0
  Mess{rs} Sherwood & Co. for Ribbons                            3 14  9
  M{r} Hulberd for Beef for breakfast                            4  1  0
  M{r} Wareham for dressing ditto                                0 16  0
  The Housekeeper’s Bill                                         2  0  0
  M{r} Wilding’s Bill for Wine for the Stand                     6 15  7
  The Beadle for pipes and Tobacco for the Stand                 0  6  0
  M{r} Dance Clerk of the City Works for fixing the Stand        1  1  0
  The Carpenter’s Bill about ditto                               8 11  3
  The Upholsterer’s Bill                                         2  0  0
  Jarvis & Sharpe, Turner’s Bill                                 0 18  8
                                                               ---------
                                                               £39 16  9
                                                               =========

The Livery dinners on these occasions were paid for by the Stewards.

The next book of Accounts extends from 1785 to 1821, but like the
latter part of the last one it is almost destitute of interest. On the
first page is an extract from the Will of Mr. Edward Griffin (10th
April, 1596) relating to his gift to the Company, and there are also
sundry memoranda concerning Banckes’ gift.

1785. This was the last occasion on which the Company “went out” on
Lord Mayor’s day.

In addition to the Wardens’ accounts, there are two books containing
receipts of tradesmen and others for money paid to them extending from
1722 to 1764. These books are not specially interesting, excepting that
they contain autographs of a few eminent Surgeons, hangmen and others,
and the following extracts will suffice:--

  1722. Recẽd of the Governours of the Company the sume of ten
  shillings for fetching the Body of Richard Oxer from Tyburne.

                                                       CHARLES WINDOW.

  1723. Recẽd of the Governours of the Compã the sume of five pounds
  fifteen shillings for fetching the Body of W{m} Pincher from Tyburne
  and for sev{ll} Disbursements expended thereon.

                                                       RICH: COLLINS.

1723. The Receipt of Abraham Shepherd, Attorney, for £15 0_s._ 6_d._,
being the costs of prosecuting Cooke and others for taking away the
body of William Pincher from the Beadles when they brought it from
Tyburn.

  1729. Rec̃ed Dec{r} 23{d} 1729 of the Gov{rs} of y{e} Comp{a} pˀ the
  hands of Cha: Bernard their Cl: 7{s} 6{d} for my Xmãs Box.

                                                       JOHN HOOPER.

In 1730 this gentleman signs “John Hooper, Executioner.”

1743. The hangman, John Thrift, signed with a × the receipt
for his Christmas box, and the Clerk has humorously styled him “John
Thrift, Esq{re} Hangman.”

1736. The printing of 1,000 Copies of Baron’s Engraving of Holbein’s
picture cost £15 15_s._ 0_d._ John Harper was the printer.

A copy of this print was sent to the Earl of Burlington, as there is a
Bill of William Gills as follows:--

  One large picture frame w{th} a broad carved & Gilt
    Sanding inside and a fine plate glass &c for The
    Earl of Burlington                                          £2  8  0

  Recẽd Nov 5 1736 of y{e} Gov{rs} of the Compa pˀ the
  hands of Cha. Bernard their Cl: twenty one pounds for
  the paper to print the 1000 prints of King Hen: 8{ths}
  Picture being two Rheams of paper

                                                       pˀ B. BARON.

[Illustration: RENTER WARDEN’S GARLAND.]



[Illustration]

DISPUTES.


1388. One of our earliest ordinances enacts that--

  If any dispute arise between any of the brethren, which God forbid,
  it is to be amicably settled by the decision of the Masters of the
  said Fraternity and they are to deal plainly,[273] and that no one
  sue another in other manner than at the assize, and then only if he
  be empowered by leave of the said Masters to be recorded.

  [273] _i.e._, openly, honestly.

1530. And again in the ordinances signed by Sir Thomas More, it states
that--

  yff any matter of stryffe or debate herafter be betwene eny pˀson
  of the said Crafte as God fforfende that noon of them shall make
  eny pˀsuts[274] in the Comen lawe but that he whiche ffyndeth hym
  aggreved shall ffurst make his complaynt to the Maisters . . . . . .
  to thˀentent that they shall ordre the said matter or cause of
  complaynt so made yff they can . . . . . .

  [274] Pursuits.

This prerogative of the Company was jealously guarded, and indeed
extended, the Court becoming in effect a sort of Court of Conscience,
in which _non-freemen_ frequently appeared as plaintiffs against
freemen, when their cases were heard and adjudicated upon, the Court
settling the amount and time of payment, or dismissing the suit.

Whenever (as often happened) one freeman went to law with another,
without leave of the Court, and the defendant complained, the
plaintiff was ordered to withdraw his action, and if he declined to do
so, an opportunity of reflection upon the powers of the Company was
afforded him in the seclusion of the “Compter.”

It was frequently the custom for the Masters to require both parties to
enter into bonds to abide the decision of the Court, and where this was
not so, and either of them disobeyed the order made, the offender was
either fined, imprisoned or expelled.

The following are a few notices of cases of dispute which came before
the Court from time to time, and other instances will be found
elsewhere.

30th June, 1551. It was ordered--

  That James Wood John Chamber and William Drewe Waterman shalbe lovers
  and friendes and clerlye to acquite and discharge either other of and
  from all maner of acc͠ons quarrells detts demaundes and suts as well
  spirytuall as temporall whatsoever they be from the begynnyng of the
  worlde untyll the daye abovesayd.

4th November, 1551. Ordered--

  That John West shall bring in his fyne which is vj{s} viij{d} for
  speking opprobryous wordes against John Androwson in the presence of
  the M{r.}

2nd May, 1552. It was ordered and declared that Harry Cooke and
Nicholas Connysbye--

  are fully condescended concluded and agreed for all maner of acc͠ons
  dettes suetts demaunds and quarrells whatsoever they be from the
  begynnynge of the worlde unto this daye and that they shall clerly
  dischardge eche other and to be lovers and freinds.

1566. By an entry in this year it seems that each disputant when before
the Court was “put to his othe upon a booke y{t} he sholde saye the
trothe.”

10th December, 1566. Thomas Lambkyn appeared against his late
apprentice W{m} Woodfall--

  for serten shavynge clothes y{t} he tooke awaye w{th} hym when he
  went frome his M{r} w{th}out his lycence and the saide W{m} hath
  payde unto the saide Thom̃s Lambkyn in the pˀsents of this courte in
  lawfull Englyshe mony x{s} in recompence.

  In this Courte here was John Hawkes playntyf agaynst Richard Olkar
  for his unfyttinge words & Olkar shalbe here the nexte courte.

30th December, 1566. William Collins the covenant servant of John
Johnson complained of his master for “myssusing hym in his boxe money,”
whereupon M{r} Johnson was ordered to amend his ways.

  4th March, 1567. Here was Walter Lynche for his unfytting wordꝭ
  seyeng y{t} Richard Dycson sholde be got his mayde w{th} chylde and
  Lynche denyeth yt, y{t} he nevˀ harde of yt, and Dycson sey{d} y{t}
  Edward Parke & too other servyngemen he hath to wytnes the same,
  spoken at the Rose taverne at the fleete brydge And yt is ordered
  y{t} they shall brotherly one gyve unto & by another good wordꝭ &
  good reports & no more repetallꝭ to be had any more hereafter in this
  behalf.

  11th March, 1567. In this Court here was John Wall for y{t} he warned
  John Staple unto the courte of concyence in the guyldehall in London
  w{th}oute lycence of the M{r} & Govˀno{rs} and yt is now ordered
  once agayne y{t} John Wall shall not pˀcede any forder in lawe but
  shall stande to the awarde made ordered & awarded the xij{th} daye
  of november laste paste and not ells otherwyse upon payne of his
  alegiance & penaltie in that behalf pˀvyded & ordayned.

Edward Park, who was a troublesome fellow, and often before the Court,
would seem (by the next extract) to have revived the old scandal about
Dycson and his “mayde,” for--

  14th November, 1567. Here was Rich. Dycson playntyf agaynst Edward
  Parke for undecent and slaunderous words And they both have consented
  to put yt unto the determynacion of this worsshypfull Court, & they
  shalbe both bounde in oblygacions to abyde the order & warde[275] &
  to kepe the peace in y{r} owne pˀsons. Rich. Dycson hath chosen to
  be arbytraytors for hym John Bonar & Thomas Burston, and for Parke
  he hath chosen for hym M{r} Bowie & Rich Wysto & the M{r} & govnors
  shalbe umpers,[276] bonde in xx{li} a peece.

  [275] Award.
  [276] Umpires.

  13th January, 1568. In thys Courte here was John Cooke playntyf
  against Rich{d} Barker for serten wordꝭ undecently spoken by Rich{d}
  against the said John and also for serten housold stuff y{t} the said
  Rich{d} Barker w{th}holdeth frome the said John, and they both are
  comaunded the nexte courte daye to brynge in bothe y{r} fynes vj{s}
  viij{d} a pece for y{r} unfytting wordꝭ.

  7th June, 1569. In this Courte here was the wyf of John Burges for
  that Rich. Barker beate black her armes and yt is ordered that the
  said Rich. Barker shall upon this pˀsent daye go unto the house of
  the said John Burges his m{r} and y{r} acknowledge hym sylf to be
  sory for trespassynge hym & his wyf.

  19th July, 1569. Here was John Charnock, said that he is his M{rs}
  pntꝭ[277] & kepeth shoppe & is accomptant wekely to his M{r} & he
  said the M{r} of the company did hym wronge & y{t} he wolde at
  lawe trye yt and unreverently he did behave hymsylf w{th} stoute
  & undecent [words] & so he charged the M{r} styll, but not the
  worsshypfulls of this Courte.

  [277] Apprentice.

  18th November, 1572. Here was one Edward Browne Bricklayer and
  complayned [against] one Richard Upton for that he had taken his
  money for curynge hym of Morbus Gallicus but the sicknes as he said
  was not cured & M{r} Upton pˀmised to agree w{th} hym.

The next is a rare piece of tittle tattle; like Edward Park, Colley
was often in trouble, and it is amusing to observe how he shortly
afterwards lays an information against Carrington, which compliment
Carrington returns to him in the March Court.

  18th November, 1572. Here was Willm̃ Carington and required his
  complaint to be herd in that Allein Colley had slaundered hym w{th}
  unhonest wordes, that is, that Allein should say that Wiberds wife
  should say that Charringtons wief should not be honest, and they were
  pˀmytted to take ordre of Lawe.

10th February, 1573. Colley laid an information against Carrington for
“Trimminge on a Sondaye,” whereupon he was fined 40_s._

11th March, 1573. Carrington complained of Colley “for undecent wordes
calling him verlet before the Mr.,” etc., and they were ordered to be
friends, and to bring no more complaints against each other.

This feud seems, however, to have continued for a few years, but was at
last happily settled, for we read under date, 24th January, 1576:

  Here at this Co{r}te witnesses being hard betwene Willm̃ Carrington
  and Allen Collye they were made frendes, shoke handes and frendly
  depˀted.

  2nd March, 1573. Here was a complaint agaynste Henrye Lushe by John
  Parradize for that the said Henry Lushe called the said John Paradize
  knave, and he p{d} his fyne xij{d} and they toke hands & were ffrends.

  19th April, 1574. Here was Willm̃ Brode and brought in an answere
  agaynste the complaynt of Edward Saunders for lykeninge hym to
  Esoppes dogge and they were appoynted to be ffrends and to brynge the
  matter no more in question.

Was this the “dog in the manger”? Anyhow, it seems a trivial matter to
have been brought before the grave old Masters.

  2nd February, 1575. Here came one Willm̃ Goodnep and complayned of
  Willm̃ Clowes for not curing his wief de morbo gallico and yt was
  awarded that the saide Clowes sholde either geve the saide Goodnep
  xx{s} orells cure his saide wief, w{ch} Clowes agreed to pay the
  xx{s} and so they were agreed and eche of them made acquittance to
  other.

  28th February, 1576. Here was a complainte against Willm̃ Clowes
  by one Goodenge for that the saide Clowes had not onlie misused
  the saide Goodinge in speeche but also most of the masters of the
  Companye w{th} scoffing wordes and jestes and they all forgave him
  here openlye in the Co{r}te and so the stryfe was ended upon condˀ
  that he shold nev{r} so misuse him self a gayne, and bonds was caused
  to be made to that effect.

  25th September, 1576. At this Coˀte came Willm̃ Wise and Mathew Ken,
  and divers evell and unbrotherlike speches was pˀved and so the saide
  Willm̃ Wise confest his falt paide his ffyne and made a breakfast to
  the Companie for their paynes, and so they shoke hands and were made
  ffrends.

  25th March, 1577. Here at this Corte was a greate contension and
  stryffe spoken of and ended betwene George Baker[278] and Willm̃
  Clowes[279] for that they bothe contrary to order and the good and
  holsome rules of this howse misused eche other and fought in the
  ffelds togethers, but the M{r} Wardens and assistance wishing that
  they might be and continewe loving brothers pˀdoned this greate
  offence in hope of amendment.

  [278] Master 1597 and Serjeant Surgeon.
  [279] Warden 1594.

  9th January, 1598. Thomas Cole complayned of Thomas Goodall for
  sueinge him at the Comon lawe w{th}out license of the M{rs} And was
  fined And his fine mittigated to 3{s} 4{d}

  4th December, 1599. This daie Roberte Morrey complayned of William
  ffoster for callinge him Pandor and Bawde and for sayeinge he was
  presented by the Wardemot inqueste for keepinge a bawdye house, uppon
  hearinge whereof their controversies were referred to the Maisters of
  this Companye, the same to be ended before the sixte daie of Januarye
  nexte.

  24th July, 1600. In the matter in Controversie betwixt Roger Semper
  and ffrancis Thompson it is ordered that the sayd Sempˀ shall at the
  next Court bringe in his fine for usinge reprochefull wordes against
  the sayd Thompson And for that the sayd Sempers wyefe did assalt the
  sayd Thompson & brake his shop wyndowes. And that the sayd Semper
  shall delivˀ such goodes as hee hath of the sayd Thompson before
  the next Court And that hee shall at the same Court geve the sayd
  Thompson satisfacc͠on for his wyndowes.

  24th July, 1600. In the Controversie betwixt John Izard & Robert
  Steward it is ordered that the sayd Robert Steward shalbe comitted to
  the Compter for refusinge to paye his fine for supplantinge the sayd
  John Izards cure and for behavinge himselfe unreverendly before the
  M{rs} in the Court.

  11th September, 1600. This daie John Urvey complayned of Henry Bracye
  for arrestinge him before he had obtayned leave of the Maisters And
  it was thereuppon ordered that the said Henrye Bracye shoulde be
  warned to appeare before the Maisters at the nexte Courte and that he
  shoulde be commaunded from the Maisters to staie his suite till then.

  17th September, 1600. This daie in the matter in controversi betwixte
  Henry Bracy and John Urvey It is ordered that the saide Henry Bracye
  shall not proceede any further in his suite but that the said John
  Urvey shall paie the debte of ffowerteene shillinges and twoe
  shillinges for his chardges by twoe shillinges wickelye till all be
  fully satisfied and paide And uppon the payment thereof the said
  Bracye to make him a generall acquittaunce the firste payment to
  begine on Tewsdaie nexte, And the money to be paide to the M{rs} of
  this Companye.

  20th October, 1600. This daye it is ordered that John Urvey shalbe
  comitted to the Compter for not pˀforminge his payments to Henry
  Bracy accordinge to the orders of this howse.

  21st July, 1601. Where div{s} controversies hath bene betweene John
  Browne and Jenkin Marcrafte the endinge of w{ch} is by them of their
  mutuall assents referred to the M{rs} or Governors of this Company
  who aft{r} hereinge of their sevˀall controversies & fyndeinge
  thereby that the wounde for w{ch} the money was to be paid to John
  Browne was reverted to his former state It is thought fit that the
  said Marcrafte shall paye to the said Browne pñˀtly[280] the somme of
  xl{s} in full satisfacc͠on of all debts duties and demaunds, w{ch}
  the said Browne accepted of and received the said somme accordingly.
  And whereas Lewis Atm{r} finished the Cure after it was reverted
  Therefore it was lykewise ordered that the said Marcrafte shall paye
  to him xx{s} for his paynes.

  [280] Presently, _i.e._, at once.

  6th August, 1601. This daye John Ibatson and John Wyndet referred
  a controversie betwene them concerninge a debt of iiij{li} lent by
  the said Wyndet to the said Ibatson to the hereinge & endinge of the
  M{rs} of this Company and gave the eyth{r} to the oth{r} 6{d} to
  stande to their award so that they ended the same before the laste
  daye of Septemb{r} next w{ch} if they refuse to stand to, the refuser
  shall forfeyt x{li.}

  27th March, 1604. This daye Lycence is geven to Andrew Mathewe to sue
  Richard Tyler at the Com̃on Lawe for the tenemˀt wherein the said
  Tyler nowe dwelleth, for that Tyler refuseth to referre the heareinge
  & endinge of that controversie to the M{rs} of this Company.

  16th October, 1610. In the Controvˀsie between William Wright and one
  Harrington Itt is att this Court ordered that Harrington shall paie
  unto Wryght for and in respect of such rentes he doth owe unto Wright
  the some of xxx{s} imediate And like wise he shall mend such paynes
  of glasse as nowe by his necligence are broken in Wrightꝭ wyndowes
  and soe all controvˀsies between them are determyned.

  24th September, 1611. In the Controvˀsey between ffrauncꝭ Bilford of
  thˀone pˀte & John fflint on thˀother pˀte It is ordered that either
  of them shalbe bound unto thˀother of them in 20{li} a peece to stand
  to the Award of M{r} John Gerard & M{r} Richard Mapes.

  1st October, 1611. At this Court forasmuch as John fflynt would not
  stand to the order of the M{rs} set down the last Court between him
  & ffrauncꝭ Bilford the said Bilford hath leave to arrest the said
  fflynt.

  22nd October, 1611. In the Controvˀsie between Dennis Davys on thˀone
  pˀte & John Person on thˀother pˀte It is ordered that they shall
  live quietlie togethers as brothers of one Company should doe and
  neither of them by him selfe or his servantꝭ to gyve or move offence
  either by word or deed unto thˀother of them.

It was not often that the good offices of the Court were unavailing in
the settlement of disputes, but in the following case, in which the
lady probably played a prominent part, the Masters seem to have been
unable to settle the matter:--

  12th July, 1614. In the complaint made by William Purkꝭ and ffrauncis
  his wife against Greene, w{ch} beinge heard at this Court, the M{rs}
  could drawe them to noe quiet ende, all pˀties being verye obstinate.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

HERALDRY.


There are numerous excellent examples of the Company’s Arms at the
Hall. The records contain many beautiful drawings and emblazoned
shields of arms, not only of the Company but of some of the Masters as
well.

One of the choicest specimens is the massive old carving beneath the
semicircular canopy of the entrance doorway; this is dated 1671, and
is both bold and quaint; long may it be preserved to the Barbers!
The carved coat of arms which formerly ornamented the stern of the
Company’s barge, and which is probably late 17th century work, has
been carefully preserved, and may be always admired over the chimney
piece in the Committee room. There is the large “tortershell” in the
vestibule given by Mr. William Kings in 1645. The cloth on the Court
table is artistically embroidered with the Arms of the Company and
the City, the embroidered portions being part of the ancient barge
cloth. There is a handsomely emblazoned coat of arms on the plan of
the Company’s property (presented by Mr. Charles John Shoppee), and
a pretty little bit of old stained glass in the window on the first
floor landing. The Company formerly possessed a great many banners, but
these are unfortunately lost to us; the one which is placed behind the
Master’s chair is beautifully painted by Bishop of Doctors’ Commons,
and has at the back the inscription--

    EX DONO SIDNEY YOUNG MISTERII BARBITONSORUM FRATRIS AMANDI 1885.

1451. In this year the original grant of arms was conferred, being
simply the first quarter of our present achievement; sable, a chevron
between three fleams argent, the fleams being mediæval lancets, though
from their shape they have sometimes been thought to represent razors.
This coat was borne by both the Barbers and their successors, the
Barber-Surgeons, until the time of Elizabeth. The grant is as follows:--

[Illustration: Coat of arms]

  ~Be~ it knowen to all men that y Clarensew Kyng of Armes of the
  South Marche of Englond Consideryng the noble estate of the Cite of
  London by the name of Erle & Barons as in their ffirst Charter by
  scripture appereth and as now called mayre and aldermen and by good
  avyce of all the aldermen and the noble citezenis of London that
  every alderman shuld have award by hymself to governe and rule to
  the Worship of the cite and the maires power evˀy alderman in his
  Ward with correccion of the mair beyng for the tyme and so notablie
  ordeyned to be custumed evˀy Craft clothing be hem self to know o
  Craft from a nother and also synes of Armes in baner wyse to beer
  conveniently for the worship of the reame and the noble cite and so
  now late the Maisters of Barbory and Surgery within the craft of
  Barbours John Strugge Thomas Wyllote Hugh Herte & Thomas Waleys come
  & praying me Clarensewe Kyng of Armes to devise hem a conysauns &
  syne in fourme of armes under my seall of myn Armes that might be
  conveniently to ther Craft. And where y Clarensewe Kyng of Armes
  consideryng the gode disposicion of them y have devysed a Conysaunce
  in fourme of Armes that is to sey A felde sabull a cheveron bytwene
  iij flemys of silver the which syne of armes y Clarensew gyve the
  same conysaunce of Armes to the forsaid Crafte and none other Crafte
  in no wyse shall not bere the same. ~To~ the which witenesse of this
  wrytyng y sette my seal of myn armes & my syne manuall wreten atte
  London the xxix day of the monthe of September the xxx{th} yere of
  the regne of oure soverayne lord Kyng Henry the Sixt.

                                        By CLARANSEW Kynge of armes.

1492. In this year a cognizance, or possibly an informal grant of arms,
was given to the Surgeons’ Company; this is depicted on the first
leaf in the beautiful old vellum book of Ordinances at the Hall, the
inscription under, stating that it was given to the Craft of Surgeons
of London in the year 1492, at the going over the sea into France of
Henry VII. (_See_ the fac-simile at p. 69.)

No other authority than the above statement is known for this coat, but
in the grant to the Barber-Surgeons (1569) it is recited that Henry
VIII granted the Company of Surgeons a cognizance “which is a spatter
thereon a rose gules crowned golde for their warrant in fielde but
no authoritie by warrant for the bearinge of the same in shilde as
armes.” The Herald in drawing the grant of 1569 probably accidentally
put in the name of Henry VIII for that of Henry VII, the entry in our
book being undoubtedly coeval with the circumstance. We here get the
foundations of our present coat of arms; the fleams representing the
old Barber-Surgeons or Barbers, and the crowned rose and spatula the
Surgeons proper, both of which were introduced into one shield in 1561,
and quartered in 1569.

On either side of the shield of the Surgeons’ Arms stands a Saint
habited as a doctor or physician, one of whom holds a medical vessel in
his right hand, while the other has a box of ointment and a spatula,
indicative of their being professors of the healing art. These are the
patron Saints of the Company, Cosmus and Damianus. Mrs. Jameson states
that they--

  were two brothers, Arabians by birth but they dwelt in Ægæ, a city of
  Cilicia. Their father having died while they were yet children, their
  pious mother Theodora, brought them up with all diligence, and in the
  practice of every Christian virtue. Their charity was so great, that
  not only they lived in the greatest abstinence, distributing their
  goods to the infirm and poor, but they studied medicine and surgery,
  that they might be able to prescribe for the sick, and relieve the
  sufferings of the wounded and infirm; and the blessing of God being
  on all their endeavours, they became the most learned and the most
  perfect physicians that the world had ever seen. They ministered to
  all who applied to them, whether rich or poor. Even to suffering
  animals they did not deny their aid, and they constantly refused all
  payment or recompense, exercising their art only for charity and for
  the love of God; and thus they spent their days.

In the cover of a Latin Bible, printed in 1470, I discovered some
vellum padding, which on examination proved to be a MS. of XIth
century, consisting of part of a collection of the lives of the
Saints, interspersed with prayers, etc., and which probably had been
read in some Convent refectory during the hours of meals. This MS. is
moreover curious, as those portions intended to be sung have certain
signs affixed, known as “neumes,” which, before the more modern method
of musical notation was introduced, were employed to denote musical
expression. An account of the martyrdom of Cosmo and Damian, together
with their brothers, is here preserved, but as the original is in very
contracted Latin, the following translation will, perhaps, better
supply its place:--

  The souls of Cosmus and Damianus the Just are in the hands of God.

  There have moreover been crowned these five brothers Cosmus,
  Damianus, Antimeus, Leuntius and Eutrepius.

  Furthermore we beseech Thee, Almighty God, to grant that we, who
  commemorate the nativities of thy Saints Cosmus and Damianus, may by
  their intercessions be delivered from all present and future evils.
  Amen. The blessed martyrs Cosmus Damianus, Antimeus, Leuntius and
  Eutrepius, were committed to prison by order of the governor; and
  on the following day, the proconsul sitting on the judgment seat,
  caused an enormous fire to be made, and the above-named men to be
  led out of prison and cast into its midst. But on account of their
  prayers the fire lost its power over these saints. The governor was
  astounded, and the executioner, thinking that the circumstances which
  had happened with regard to the martyrs of God depended on their
  magical arts, ordered them to be again interrogated. But, when they
  remained firm with a cheerful and joyous countenance rendered more
  noble by torture, he ordered crosses to be made, and the martyrs,
  when stretched upon them, to be pelted with stones. Accordingly,
  when the blows recoiled on those that delivered them, the governor,
  inflamed with excessive rage, gave orders to attack them with arrows,
  so that at a less distance the steel might at least penetrate. But,
  although he had not been able to injure them in any way, many of
  those who discharged arrows and who stood near withdrew on account of
  the wounds that they received.

  For so is the testimony.

  Seeing accordingly that his ill will was overcome by Divine power,
  the governor ordered them to be mutilated with a sword.

  The blessed martyrs were put to death on the Twentieth day of
  September; and their bodies were buried by devout men in a holy spot
  not far from the city of Ægae.

Mrs. Jameson relates a legend somewhat similar to the above, and states
that it was of great antiquity, being transplanted into Western Europe
in the first ages of Christianity. The Emperor Justinian, having been
recovered, as he supposed, from a dangerous illness by the intercession
of these saints, erected a superb church in their honour. Among the
Greeks they succeeded to the worship and attributes of Æsculapius;
and from their disinterested refusal of all pay or reward, they are
distinguished by the honourable title of Anargyres, which signifies
moneyless, or without fees. These saints are commemorated on the 27th
September, and all over Europe have ever been the patron saints of the
Barbers and Surgeons; they are also the patrons of the Medici family,
and as such they figure on the coins of Florence.

1540. In the bowl of the grace cup given by Henry VIII to the
Barber-Surgeons, the arms of the Barbers impaling the Surgeons are cut,
but this is merely the fancy of an engraver, and of later date than the
cup.stration]
 Pg468

10th July, 1561. In the Heralds’ College (I.C.B., No. 101, 20) is
a grant of arms by William Harvey, Clarencieux King of Arms, to
the Barber-Surgeons, in which he grants and assigns unto them for
an “augmentac͠on to ther old and aunscint Armes (which is sables a
chevrone between thre flumes argent) a chef paly argent & vert on a
pale goles a lyon passant regardant gold betwene two spatters argent a
roze gewles crowned golde & to ther creast upon the healme an opinacus
golde standing upon a wreath argent and sables manteled gewles dubled
argent.”

[Illustration]

1565. This year, Harvey, Clarencieux, granted two supporters to the
above arms, namely, “two lynxe in their proper Collor about there necks
a crowne with a cheyne argent.”

1568. This year, Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy, Kings of Arms,
ratified and confirmed the above arms, crest, and supporters, with
the following variations, the arms to be borne quarterly, “the ffyrst
sables a cheveron bytwyne iij flewmes argent, the second quarter per
pale argent and vert on a spatter of the fyrst a Dobele rose gules and
argent crowned or, over all on a crosse gules a lyon passant Regardant
or.”

12th June, 1569. The grant of Arms by Dethick, etc., is a beautifully
artistic production, though, unfortunately, slightly damaged, and
the seals are missing. In 1885 the Company had it reproduced in
chromo-photography by Mr. William Griggs, whose work has been so
skilfully executed that it is difficult to observe the least difference
between the original and the copies.

[Illustration]

With this grant is the first appearance of a motto “De præscientia
Dei.” How this motto came to be chosen, or in what way it applies to
the Barber-Surgeons, I am at a loss to point out. The following is the
text of the grant.

  ~To~ all and singuler aswell Kinges herehaultes and Officers of
  Armes, as nobles gentlemen and others to whome these presentes shall
  come be seene heard, read or understand Sir Gilbert Dethicke Knight
  alias Garter principall Kinge of Armes, Robert Cooke Esquire alias
  Clarencieulx kinge of Armes of the South partes of Englande, and
  Willm̄ Flower Esquire alias Norroy kinge of Armes of the northe
  partes of Englande send greetinge in our lorde god everlastinge. For
  as much as aunciently from the beginninge the valiaunt and vertuouse
  actes of excellent personnes have ben com̃endid to the worlde and
  posterite with sondrey monumentes and remembrances of their good
  deseartes; Emongest the which the chiefest and most usuall hath ben
  the bearinge of signes and tokens in shildes called Armes, beinge
  none other thinges then evidences and demonstracions of prowesse and
  valoir diversly distributed accordinge to the qualytes and deseartes
  of the persons meritinge the same To thˀentent that such as have
  done com̃endable service to their prince or countrey either in warre
  or peace, or other wyse by laudable and couragiouse entreprices or
  proceedinge of eny person or persons in thˀaugmentacion of the Estate
  or com̄on wealth of their realme or countrey might thereby receyve
  due honor in their lyves, and also deryve the same succesively to
  their successors and posteritie for ever. And wheras in this Citie
  of London thˀexperience & practise of the science and facultie of
  Chirurgery is most requisite and daily to be exercysed & experimented
  for the preservacion of meny, & by thˀoccasion of the practise
  thereof meny expert persons be brought up & experimented to the
  relief, succour, & helpe of an infinite nomber of persons. And for
  as much as within this Citie of London ther were two severall
  c͠opanyes, thˀone by the name of Barbours Chirurgeons, and thˀother
  by the name of Chirurgeons onely: the Barbours Chirurgeons being
  incorporate & y{e} other not, & bothe occupyenge y{e} arte of
  Chirurgery wheruppon greate c͠otention did arise. And for y{t} it was
  most meete and necessary y{t} the sayd two c͠opanyes shuld be united
  & made one hole body & so incorporated, to thˀentent that by their
  union & often assembly togither, thˀexercyse & knowledge of their
  science & mistery might appeere, as well in practise as in speculatiõ
  not onely to theim selfes, but to others under theim. So that it was
  thought most meete & c͠ovenient upon grave & greate c͠osideracion,
  to unyte & joyne y{e} sayd two c͠opanyes in one: w{ch} was don as
  may appeere by an acte of parleament in an̄o xxxij of Henry theight
  w{t} these wordes “Be it enactid by the Kinge our souvereigne lorde
  & the lordes spirituall & temporall & the com̃ons of y{e} same, that
  y{e} sayde two severall & distinct companies, that is to say bothe
  y{e} Barbours Surgeons, & the Sourgeons & every parson of theim
  beinge a freman of either of y{e} sayde c͠opanies after y{e} custome
  of the sayde citie of London, & their successors, from hencefoorthe
  immediatly be unyted & made one entier and whole body corporate, &
  one societie perpetual, which at all tymes heerafter shalbe called by
  y{e} name of Maisters & Governours of y{e} mistery & com̃unalty of
  Barbours & Surgeons of London for evermore, & by none other name.”
  In consideracion whereof & for that it doth appeere a thinge most
  requisite for the unitinge of these two c͠opanyes togither and for
  that thˀoccupation of the Barbo{rs} Chirurgeons beinge incorporate
  hath since y{e} tyme of Kinge Henry the sixt used & boren Armes
  y{t} is to say Sables a cheveron betweene thre Flewmes argent w{ch}
  Armes wer unto theim assigned onely by the gifte & assignement
  of Clarencieulx Kinge of Armes, as by y{e} patent thereof doth &
  may more plainly appeere. And since y{e} unitinge of y{e} sayde
  two c͠opanies these Armes of y{e} sayd corporation of Barbours
  Chirurgeons hath ben used & none other, yet notw{t}standinge y{e}
  late Kinge Henry thˀeight of famouse memory assigned & gave unto y{e}
  company of y{e} Chirurgeons onely, a Cognoysance, w{ch} is a spatter,
  thereon a rose gules crowned golde, for their warrant in fielde, but
  no authoritie by warrant for the bearinge of the same in shilde as
  Armes. And for y{t} it pleased y{e} same Kinge Henry thˀeight, not
  onely to unite & incorporate these two c͠opanies togither by acte of
  parleament but also hath ratifyed & c͠ofirmed the same by his letters
  patentꝭ under the greate seale of Englande & so lately c͠ofirmed
  by y{e} Queenes Ma{tie} that now is.[281] And wheras Thomas Galle
  in the 3 yere of the Queene’s Ma{ties} reigne that now is beinge
  Maister, Alexander Mason John Standon Robert Mudesley governors of
  y{e} same corporation mistery & comunaltie of Barbours & Chirurgeons
  being desirouse to have some signes & tokens addid & augmented to
  thˀold & auncient Armes of the Barbours Chirurgeons, not onely for a
  perpetuall memory as well of y{e} famouse prince Kinge Henry thˀeight
  their founder & patrone but also for a further declaration of y{e}
  unitinge of those two c͠opanies togither did instantly require the
  late Clarencieulx Hervy to consider y{e} premisses & to shew his
  endevor therein. Who finding their request just and lawfull did
  graunt & give unto them by his letters patentes under his hand &
  seale bearinge date the x{th} of July in the third yere of y{e}
  reigne of the queenes Ma{tie} that now is, an augmentacˀon in chief
  to their olde & auncient Armes w{th} heaulme & Creast to the same:
  which chief was paly argent & vert on a pale gules a lyon passant
  gardant golde betweene two spatters argent, on eche a double rose
  gules and argent crowned golde: and to their Creast on a torce silver
  and sables an Opinacus golde: Mantelled gules, doubled argent. And
  further in the tyme of Robert Balthrop Esquire serjeaunt of the
  Queenes Ma{ties} Chirurgeons then beinge Maister of the sayd mistery
  and comunalty of the Barbours & Chirurgeons and George Vaughan
  Richard Hughes & George Corron governours of the same corporation
  the sayd Clarencieulx Hervy did graunt unto the sayd corporation
  two supporters to those Armes before given them: which were two
  Linxe in their proper coulor, aboute their neckes a Crowne w{t} a
  chayne argent pendant therat: As by the sayde letters patentes more
  plainly doth appeere. YET NOTWITHSTANDINGE for as much as it doth
  plainly appeere unto us the sayd Garter Clarencieulx & Norroy Kinges
  of Armes, that the aforesayd Armes in some respectes wer not onely
  contrary to the wordes of the corporation of the sayd Barbours and
  Chirurgeons but that also in the same patent of Armes ther ar sondrey
  other thinges contrary and not agreinge with the auncient lawes &
  rules of Armes: We the sayd Kinges of Armes by power & authoritie to
  us com̃itted by Letters patent under the greate Seale of Englande,
  have confirmed given and graunted the foresayd Armes Creast and
  Supporters heertofore mentioned, to be boren in maner and fourme
  heerafter specified. That is to say: Quarterly the first sables a
  cheveron betweene three Flewmes argent: the seconde quarter per pale
  argent and vert on a Spatter of the first, a double Rose gules and
  argent crowned golde: the third quarter as the seconde and the fourth
  as the first: Over all on a Crosse gules a lyon passant gardant
  golde: And to their Creast upon the heaulme on a Torce argẽt and
  sables an Opinacus golde: Mantelled gules doubled argent: Supported
  with two Linxe in their proper coulor about their neckes a crowne
  with a chayne argent pendent therat: As plainly appeerith depicted
  in this margent. WHICH ARMES CREAST and SUPPORTERS and every parte
  and parcell thereof, we the sayd Kinges of Armes have confirmed
  ratified given and graunted and by these presentes do ratify confirme
  give and graunt unto Richard Tholmwood Maister of the sayd mistery
  and com̃unatie Nicholas Archenbolde Thomas Burston and John Fielde
  Governors of the sayd Corporation mistery and com̃unaltie of Barbours
  and Chirurgeons and to their successors by the name of Maister and
  Gouvernours, and to the whole Assistantes Company and fellowshippe
  of the sayd Corporation mistery and com̃unaltie of Barbours and
  Chirurgeons within this Citie of London and to their successors
  for evermore: And they the same to have, hold, use beare enjoy and
  shew forthe in shylde, seale, banner or banner rolles, standard or
  standardes, penon or penons, pencell or pencelles or otherwise to
  their honors and worshippes at all tymes and for ever heerafter at
  their libertie and pleasure without the impediment let molestation
  or interruption of eny person or personnes, IN WITNESSE WHEROF we
  the sayd Garter Clarencieulx & Norroy Kinges of Armes have signed
  these presentes with our handes . . . . . unto our severall seales
  of Armes, the second day of June In the yere of the nativitie of our
  Lorde Jesus Christ A thousande five hundred sixty nyne And in the
  eleventh yere . . . . . of our most dread souvereigne Lady Elizabeth
  by the grace of god Queene of Englande Fraunce and Irelande defendor
  of the faithe &c.

  [281] This statement is incorrect. The Act of Parliament was passed
        in 1540, but was not confirmed by any letters patent of Henry
        VIII. We have no such charter or any reference to it, and
        moreover it is _not on the Patent Rolls_, where it would
        appear, had it ever existed; furthermore Elizabeth’s charter
        (in our possession) confirms Henry’s charter of 1512 and not
        this pretended one.

               GILBERT DETHICKE aɫs. garter principall Kinge of arms.
               ROB COOKE Alias Clarencieulx Roy Darmes.
               pˀmoy WYLLAM FFLOWER alias Norrey Roy Darmes.

  Entred approved & allowed in the visitation made 1634

                   HEN: ST. GEORGE
                             Richmond.

It will be observed that this grant recites that it plainly appeared
that the grant of 10th July, 1561, was [_a._] contrary to the words
of the Corporation (_i.e._, Incorporation) of the said Barbers and
Surgeons, and [_b._] contrary to and not agreeing with the ancient laws
and rules of arms.

With regard to the former assertion [_a._] I take it that the grant
being made to the “Master and Governors of the Corporation Mystery
and Commonalty of Barbers and Surgeons” and _not_ to the “Masters
and Governors of the Mystery and Commonalty of Barbers and Surgeons
of London” as they are styled in the Act 32 Hen. VIII, offended the
precise Heralds of 1569, and that it was indeed a technical defect and
contrary to the exact words of the incorporation.

As to the second point [_b._] there cannot be any doubt but that Hervey
committed a violation of one of the fundamental and most ancient laws
of heraldry, viz., that colour must not be on colour (nor metal on
metal). He gave the Company on their old sable field, a chief with
gules and vert thereon! This greatly shocked old Garter, Clarencieux,
and Norroy, and enabled them, whilst recording the blunder of one of
their predecessors, to extract a good fee from the Barber-Surgeons for
a new grant.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

FEASTS.


There is a wide-spread impression that the Livery Guilds exist
principally for the purpose of feasting, and there are unscrupulous
persons who do not hesitate to affirm that the Courts of the Companies
act as fraudulent trustees, and are consenting parties to the
malversation of trust and charity property, eating up money which it is
audaciously pretended belongs to the “people of London.”

These statements have been assiduously put forth by a certain class of
politicians whose acquaintance with the true details of the case must
be absolutely nil, and who it is but reasonable to suppose, are willing
to assume that the gentlemen who manage the affairs of the Companies
are in the habit of acting as their traducers would do, had they but
the opportunity.

To any one conversant with the history and management of the Livery
Guilds, these assertions are known to be false. Here and there, as
in every concern in life, improprieties and errors in judgment may
have occurred, but it is confidently asserted, and capable of proof,
that no charitable or trust funds suffer from feasting; indeed, on
the contrary, the practice has obtained for centuries, with but few
exceptions, for the members of the guilds to themselves supply the
funds which are spent upon their entertainment, and for the surplus
accumulations of these funds to be applied _to the augmentation of
charities and trusts_. It has certainly been so in the Barber-Surgeons’
Company, and for a long period the calls upon the Livery for feasting
purposes (when the custom was to nominate Stewards in rotation) were
a severe strain upon the members, and occasioned great irritation and
ill-feeling.

The earliest practice in the Companies would appear to be that the
Livery and their wives attending the feasts, paid a stipulated sum per
head, and we know this by our records to have been so in our Company
long before the time of Richard II. This custom was altered in later
times, and we find that certain appointed entertainments were given on
fixed days, to which all members were invited, and which were paid for
by fines laid down upon admission to the freedom, and further fines on
going on to the Livery and Court. In addition to this, each Liveryman
had, in his turn, to serve “the office of Steward,” that is, to join
with four or five others in providing the costs of certain dinners.[282]

[282] The office of Steward is not now served, but each Liveryman on
admission pays a special fine of fifteen guineas in lieu, which is
applied towards the cost of the entertainments.

The fees on admission into the Companies are greatly in excess of the
ancient ones, and it is mainly from this source of revenue that the
expenses of the feasts are now defrayed. It is so in the Barbers’
Company, but, if at any time these funds have temporarily been found
insufficient for the purpose, they have been supplemented from a
property, which is in no sense a Charity Estate, or subject to any
trust whatsoever.

There have been and are, good men of business on the Courts, and by
prudent investments of surplus funds derived from fees, fines, etc., a
property has been created, which is exclusively their very own to deal
with as they please. We have, amongst many others, the opinion of Lord
Chancellor Selborne very decisively to this effect, and also one, which
by the traducers of the Companies ought to be respected, for it is that
of Sir Horace Davey, Q.C., who was consulted by the Livery Companies’
Commission--a Commission notoriously hostile to the guilds. Sir H.
Davey stated that they would “not be justified in recommending that
the corporate property of the Companies should be taken from them by
the State.” He further reported that, such an act “would be an act of
_confiscation_, and would not unreasonably shake the confidence of the
owners of property in the security of the rights of property. It must
be remembered that the Estates of these Companies have been recognised,
and held by the Courts of Law, to be as much their property with a
full right of disposition, as the property of individuals.” Truly, the
Commissioners must have said to their legal adviser as Balak of old
said to Baalam, “I took thee to curse mine enemies, and behold thou
hast blessed them altogether!”

It is a pleasing characteristic of all true Englishmen that they love
to meet together around a festive board; while their hospitality in
inviting their friends, or the eminent and great in all sections of
society to partake with them has happily not gone out of fashion, and,
spite of the sour critics of the guilds, we fervently trust that it
never may.

1388. In the return to a writ, 12th Richard II, the Masters of the
Barbers certified, amongst other matters, that it was their practice
“once a year to assemble to feast,” and that they had an ordinance by
which none of the brotherhood were to pay more than 14_d._ each towards
the feast.

10th May, 1435. Among the Ordinances of the Surgeons was one that each
member was to “paie ʒeerli to the dyner of the craft that is to seie
oonys aʒeer on the dai of Seint luke ech man lich mich whethir he be
pˀsent or absent,” _i.e._, once a year on St. Luke’s day each man was
to pay like much whether present or absent.

28th September, 1503. It was ordained that every member attending the
dinner the day on which the Wardens were presented to the Lord Mayor
was to pay 20_d._, and if he brought his wife with him, then 2_s._

The Barber-Surgeons from the earliest times appear to have entertained
the ladies at certain feasts, and their unique toast “The Good Wives,
Merry Maids and Buxom Widows of the Worshipful Company of Barbers” is
traditionally said to have had its origin in Elizabeth’s time.

14th May, 1530. The following is amongst the ordinances signed by Sir
Thomas More at this date--

  AND WHERE OF OLDE Custume yerely upon the Sondaye next ensuyng the
  ffeaste of Seynt Bartholomew the appostell[283] a dyner is kept
  and provyded for theym of the lyvery of the said Company in their
  Comen halle called Barbors hale AND ON the daye of saynt Cosme &
  Damian[284] yf it be not on the saterday a dynˀ for them of the same
  compani owt of the lyverey IT IS ordeyned and enacted that evˀy man
  that hathe been upper maister or upper Govˀnor of the said Company
  shall paye at and for the same dyner xij{d} for hymselff and viij{d}
  for his wyffe yff she come. And evˀy other man beying of the lyverey
  of the same Company shall paye in likewyse for hym selffe viij{d} and
  for his wyffe yff she come iiij{d.} Provided alwaye that the maisters
  or Govˀnors of the said Company for the tyme beyng shall paye nothing
  for their wyffꝭ comyng to the dyner for that yere fforasmoche as
  their Wyffꝭ must of necessitte be theire to helpe that evˀy thyng
  theire be sett in ordre. And that evˀy man of the said Company beyng
  owt of the lyverey shall pay at and for his dyner on the said morowe
  viij{d} and for his wyffe yff she come iiij{d.}

  [283] 24th August.
  [284] 27th September.

8th July, 1552. The earliest entry in the Court Minutes on this subject
is a doleful one, for it was ordered “That there shalbe no dynner kept
this yere.”

19th September, 1552. William Bette was appointed “Cooke for the Hall,”
and Steven Reede the “Butler.” John Edwards (a Freeman) was to supply
the flowers on the feast days.

28th July, 1555. It was ordered that the Masters should have a yearly
allowance of £7 for the Election dinner, and that none should be at the
dinner but Liverymen.

22nd July, 1556. This allowance was increased to £13 6_s._ 8_d._

20th February, 1567. Henry Smith, yeoman to Lord Robert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester, was admitted to the freedom, and because he had been frankly
and freely admitted to the freedom of the City at the suit of the Duke
of Norfolk, the Marquess of Northampton and the Earl of Leicester, he
paid nothing but 3_s._ 4_d._, and 4_d._ for entering his name--

  but the same daye the saide Henry Smythe gave the M{r} & govˀnor{rs}
  and assystentˀ a dynar at his owne pˀpr coste & charges franckely and
  gratefully and also he hath forder more pˀmysed and graunted to geve
  one boock[285] of season to serve at the dynar upon the daye of the
  Electyon.

  [285] Buck.

  28th July, 1593. No greate dyner was agreed upon but a smale repast
  w{th} the allowance of xl{s} and nether wemen nor children to come to
  o{r} hall upon the daie of the newe ellec̃ion.

25th August, 1600. There having been abuses at the feasts, an order was
made for their reformation which stated--

  that the bodye of this Company hath susteyned much disparagement
  by reason that some of the livery and others noe white at all
  respectinge the worshipp of this Company have not onely by themselves
  but alsoe by their servants and apprentices disfurnished the tables
  att ffeastes whereat they have sitten to pleasure their private
  frendes contrary to all modestie and good government. Doe therefore
  order for reformac͠on thereof by the aucthoritye aforesaid That noe
  pˀson of the Lyvery of this Companye beinge not of the Assistaunce of
  the same, shall not att any tyme hereafter suffer any of his children
  frendes servants or apprentices to staye or attende uppon him or his
  wiefe att any ffeaste to be kepte in the saide Comon Hall [_under a
  penalty of 6s. 8d._].

An order was also made that no Assistant should have more than one
servant or apprentice to attend upon him and his wife at any feast.

  21st January, 1601. Whereas by the death of Robert Gray late Cooke
  to this Company the house was unfurnished of a Cooke to serve the
  said mistery And therefore divers Cookes became this daie shewters
  to this Courte for the place of the said Robert Gray beinge then
  voyd, yet notwithstandinge forasmuch as Margaret Grey wiefe to the
  said Robert Grey became an humble Suter to the said Courte for the
  same place, it was ordered by the whole consente of this Courte That
  the said Margeret Grey be admitted Cooke to this Company duringe the
  tyme she shall well and honestlie and sufficientlie behave her selfe
  therin And she to receave such fee and salary therefore as at any
  tyme heretofore hath beene graunted to the said Robert Grey Provided
  allwaies that she finde all vessells belongeinge to a Cooke And that
  she execute the said place by a sufficient deputy beinge such a
  pˀsonn as the M{rs} of this Company for the tyme beinge shall like
  well of and shall thinke fitt.

Margery, however, does not seem to have “honestlie and sufficientlie
behaved her selfe,” for as appears by an entry--

  6th May, 1602. This daye Margery Grey late wyef to Robert Grey was
  dismissed from being any more Coocke to this Company for speciall
  causes to the M{rs} best knowen.

The Plague was raging severely in London in 1603, and the following
precept was addressed to the Company, who however seem to have
disregarded it, as the Election and Audit dinners were held this
year. It is only fair, however, to state that the Court disbursed
considerable sums of money amongst the poor stricken people.

    13th April, 1603. BY THE MAIOR.

  [Sidenote:
  To The M{r} and Wardens}
  of the Company of      }
  Barbor Surgeons.       }]

  WHEREAS I and my Brethẽn thˀaldrẽn duely consideringe w{th} our seṽe
  had, the present infecc͠on of this Cittie liberties and Suburbs &
  the greate multitud of poore people w{ch} by reason of the said
  infecc͠on have theire howsees shut upp and restrayned as well from
  goeinge abroad as theire daylie trads and labors wherew{th} theie
  were accustomed to mayntaine themselves theire wieves and families
  and doe at this pˀsent by reason thereof endure greate wante and
  extremities Have thought fitt that all publique feastinge and com̃en
  dinners at every the severill Halles and Comˀn metings of corporac͠on
  and Companies w{th}in this Cittie shall duringe the tyme of gods
  visitac͠on amog̃e us be wholely forborne and left of. And that one
  third parte of the chardge and expenses intended to be bestowed and
  spent uppon the said feastinges and dinners shalbe whoelie bestowed
  and geven for and towardes the reliefe of the most miserable poore
  and needie pˀsons whose howse it shall please almighty god to visit
  Theis therefore in all xp̃ian Charitie shalbe to praie and desire
  you y{t} you take pˀnte order that from hencefort & duringe this
  pˀnte infecc͠on you wholely forbeare to keape any Comẽn feastinge or
  dinners at youre Hall orells wheare for the like purposes And that
  you take pnˀte order w{th} the Wardens of youre Companye and all
  such other of youre Company as should be at any chardge or yeald any
  contraᵬn[286] to any Comẽn feastes and Dinners for youre Companie
  duringe the same tyme to paie and contrabute one thirde parte thereof
  in readie money to some one honest and discrete person of your
  Companie whom you shall appoynte to receave the said some of money
  and to paie it ovˀ to one Robert fflecton Grocˀ noiãted and appoynted
  by mee & my Brethẽn the aldrẽn to be receaved from the Companies
  of such somes of money. All w{ch} somes of money shalbe from tyme
  to tyme wholelie and truelie distributed by order of mee and my
  Bretheren the aldrẽn amongst the most nedie and poore infected pˀsons
  YEOVEN at Guildhall this thirteenth daie of Aprill 1603.

  [286] Contribution.

                                                       SEBRIGHTT.

  6th January, 1609. This daye it is ordered that none of the officers
  wyves shall at any tyme hereafter followe the M{rs} to places where
  they dyne w{th}out the M{rs} consentꝭ uppon payne of the M{rs}
  displeasures.

1609. The dinners were usually held on Election and Audit days, on
Lord Mayor’s day, and after all public dissections, besides Committee
dinners (which usually were at taverns), and this year it was ordered
that a dinner was to be held on “Gunpowder Day.”

  21st August, 1609. This day it was ordered that from henceforth all
  such as are of the Livery should give towardꝭ the charge of the
  musicke on the Election day vj{d} a peice which they then begun and
  confirmed.

The reason of the next order was, that in consequence of the poverty of
the Company at this time, the usual allowance of £8 made by the Court
towards the Mayor’s feast, could not be granted.

  2nd October, 1610. At this Court Richard Cade & Richard Coopˀ whoe
  are appoynted for Stewardꝭ of the Mayors ffeast are contented at
  theire owne chardgꝭ to provide and make the same ffeast as fully as
  formˀly y{t} hath been, only this their provision for their quantitie
  of their messes are not to be soe many for that noe wyves nor guestꝭ
  are to be bydden or brought to the same ffeast.

  18th September, 1611. Att this Court Sebright the Cook is dismissed
  from his place of beinge Cook to this howse as well for that he did
  dresse their last dynner very badlie as for his ill usage in speeches
  towardꝭ the maisters wyves and for dyvˀse other abuses by him
  heretofore committed.

  2nd July, 1612. At this Court our M{r} & M{r} Warden Johnson moving
  this Court that the Barbors as well as the Surgeons might be bedden
  to the dynnˀs that are keept at the examinac͠on of surgeons whereupon
  it was at this Court ordered & agreed that as many of the Auntient
  M{rs} & govˀno{rs} being barbo{rs} should & shalbe bidde unto every
  such dynner as there shalbe Surgeons beinge examiners at evˀy such
  dynner.

21st January, 1613. It was ordered that the Master and Wardens, with
four of the Ancient Masters, should for the “worship & credytt of this
Company,” yearly go and visit the Lord Mayor at dinner, and that 20_s._
each should be allowed them for their “charges” of the same. This
allowance of 20_s._ each was probably given to some officer of the Lord
Mayor to secure his favour towards the Company.

6th February, 1613. An order was made that at the dinner after any
private anatomy, any of the Livery, either Barbers or Surgeons, might
come thereto on payment of 12_d._ each.

  16th September, 1613. This daie it is thought fitt & ordered that
  the widdowes of this company w{ch} doe paie their quarterage shalbe
  bidden to the ffeastꝭ in the hall.

  14th October, 1613. Att this Court it is ordered that such widdowes
  as have been masters wyves and doe keepe shoppes or bynd appnˀtices
  shall paye their quarteradge but for such as doe neither keepe
  shoppes nor bynd appnˀticꝭ they shall not paye any quarteradge And
  yet notw{th}standinge they shalbe bydden to the feastꝭ yerelie.

  24th May, 1614. Whereas this Company hath receaved a preceptt from
  the lord Mayor of this citty forbidding thereby all superfluitie &
  excesse of Dyet at the ffeastꝭ of this company and thereby injoyning
  that such feastꝭ as accustomably have been made & provided by this
  Company shalbe hereafter keept more sparingly & frugally then in
  former tymes they have, Wherefore it is ordered that there shalbe
  keept & made on the ellection daie this yere ensuing a smale
  ellection dynner according to the tenor of the said precept.

25th August, 1614. The above precept soon being forgotten it was this
day ordered--

  that there shalbe kept an Auditt dynner in such manner & forme as
  formerlie in other yeares have byn accustomed. And such allowance as
  formerlie hath byn allowde is to be paid by the howse.

  10th July, 1615. At this Court it is ordered that the Cooke shalbe
  removed & displaced from his place of beinge Cooke of this Companie
  not onely for that he hath abused and wronged manie who have byn
  M{rs} & Stewardꝭ of the feastꝭ in unsemelie wordꝭ but for a generall
  dislike taken against him by this howse & for not pˀforminge his
  office in such sorte as is right he shold & ought to doe.

1624. The funds being very low this year the Court held no election
dinner, but regaled themselves with cakes and wine, and the following
order was made for the Yeomanry:--

  2nd September, 1624. This Court being moved whether the yeomanry of
  y{is} Compa. should hould any election dinner or noe. It is for the
  reason then shewne expressely ordered with a generall consent that
  the yeomanry shall onely keepe their Election as this Court lately
  did onely with Cakes and wyne and neither feast musick or sermon to
  be had at that time.

  20th July, 1625. This daye the letter directed to this Companye
  from my lord Maio{r} of London in effect tending the prohibiting
  of publicke feastingꝭ in our Hall and the contributeing of those
  moneys that should be saved thereby the one halfe to be paid unto the
  chamber of London and the other halfe to the poore of our Companie,
  so hereupon it is ordered by this Courte y{t} Ten poundꝭ shalbe
  distributed to the poore of this Companie at the discretion of the
  present M{rs} & noe money at all to be paid into the Chamber of
  London.

  10th July, 1628. This daye our M{r} propounding to this Court whether
  there should be a greate Election dinner or a small dinner or onely
  Cakes and wine upon the next Election daye for choise of new M{rs},
  whereupon by most voyces it was ordered that there should be a greate
  Election dinner held this yeare and the allowance of xx{li} towardꝭ
  that charge to be defrayed.

  28th January, 1631. This Court being informed of Swinnertons abusive
  and naughtie pewter from tyme to tyme brought to serve this Hall at
  feastꝭ doe dismisse him from serving that place any longer.

  20th September, 1632. It is ordered by this Court that the Twoe
  Governo{rs} that are Surgians shalbe at the charge and give the
  venison that shalbe used at their solepñe[287] feasts and those twoe
  Governo{rs} Surgians and the other twoe Governo{rs} Barbars to paye
  joynetly & sevˀally share and share like amongst them 4 the charge
  for fees and fetching the venison soe to be brought to o{r} Hall.

  [287] Solemn.

  8th March, 1637. Whereas the Lord Windsor & S{r} Tho. Bludder
  brothers of this Company were invited to dine here when M{r} Die
  made his dinner that the fare was enlarged. It is ordered that that
  addic͠on of fare amounting to 50{s} shalbe allowed out of the stock.

  6th April, 1638. Whereas the Companie intendeth to invite the Lords
  of y{e} privye Counsell & other Lords & pˀsons of state at the
  dedicac͠on of the Theater & first anatomicall publiqe opac͠ons[288]
  there It is ordered by this Court & theis pˀsons following were
  appointed to give their attendance in the Hall upper pˀlors & Theater
  at the enterteynment of the lords on mondaye next viz{t}

  [288] Operations.

  Edward Charley   Edward ffleete }
  Henry Eaton      Hen: Wateson   } are appointed & have promised to
  Edward Arris     Hen: Boone     } attend on the Lords in Liverye
  Thomas Allen     John Dorrell   } gownes to carry up the Lords diett
  Lawrence Lowe    John Lufkin    } & attend them at dinner.
  Thomas Turner    John Perkins   }

  M{r} Wateson to be Gentleman Sewer.

  Thomas Browne to be Husher of the Hall.

  John Perkins to be Groome of the Lords Chamber.

  John ffoster to be Groome of the Hall.

  Nathan: ffoster beadle to be attendant at the outer streete gate with
  a white staffe in his hand.

  Also M{r} Joseph Coopˀ the Princes Cooke is desired to pˀvide messe
  of meate for the Lordꝭ diett in y{e} greate pˀlor.

The following expenses of this Entertainment are extracted from the
Great Audit Book, the first item being probably a Committee dinner to
settle details with Mr. Cooper, the King’s Cook.

  1638. Paid by consent for a Dinner at the
    Dragon in Cheape 6 Aprill for the
    Companie and the princes Cooke                ij{li}  ij{s}  iiij{d}

     THE ENTERTAINMENT AND DYNINGE OF THE LORDS OF THE COUNCELL IN
              OUR GREAT PARLOUR AT THE PUBLIQUE ANATOMYE.

  paid to the Butler for Lynnen and plate &
    Attendauc̃e                                     v{li}
  paid to the Pewterer for hire of Pewter then     v{li}
  Given to M{r} Cooper the Princes Cooke that
    dressed the Lords dynner                       v{li}
  paid to two Upholsters for the hier of stooles
    and chaire                                             l{s}
  paid to the Vinctner for wine then            viij{li} iij{s}
  paid to the princes Cooke for soe much
    disbursed by him for the Lords diett as
    to the Butcher Poulterer hearbewoomen
    fruiterer Grocer fishmonger and Under
    Cookes as by bill appeareth the som̃e of   lviij{li} viij{s}
  paid to Stacke for a bushell of flower
    xj{s} vj{d} and 2 dozen of stale bread ij{s}        xiij{s}    vj{d}
  paid for faggottꝭ and Charcoales as by bill           xxvj{s}    vj{d}
  paid for stronge beare and six shillings
    beere by bill xxxv{s} and for carryinge
    in j{s} iiij{d}                                    xxxvj{s}  iiij{d}
  paid for hire of Venice glasses and pottꝭ
    &c and for those pottꝭ and glasses
    that were broaken                                xxxiiij{s}
  paid for 4{li} of double refined sugar                viij{s}  iiij{d}
  paid for 3 dossen of french bread                      iij{s}
  paid to the Waterman and Porter that brought
    the beere in Bottles from the Lord Chamberlaines       v{s}
  paid for the hier of two Close stooles                  vj{s}  viij{d}
  paid to the porter that brought a dozen of
    silver dishes from the Lord of Hollands                     xviij{d}
  paid to Tryman Payne his Scullery man                   ij{s}    vj{d}
  paid to John Bludder of the Kings Wardrobe for
    bringinge and hanginge the great Parlour
    w{th} Tapestry                                        xx{s}
  To John Bare my Lord Chamberlaynes Pantryman             x{s}
  And to one of his Scullery men                           x{s}
  And to the Lady of Devonshires man that
    brought the silver dishes                              v{s}
  Paid for bread when the Lords dined there              xij{s}
                                           ----------------------------
                                  Summ̃.    lxxxxiij{li}    v{s} iiij{d}
                                           ============================

  20th June, 1638. Upon the complaint of the losse of a silver spoone
  the last dinner in the Hall and diver other times napkins & pewter
  dishes this Court doth order that when dinner goes in, the outer
  Wickett doore shalbe alwayes locked & the key thereof brought in and
  layed by o{r} M{r} for the time being till dinner be ended & the
  plate naperye & dishes gathered up & soe discharged.

The next entry would seem to indicate that some previous gift for the
purchase of books had unhappily been diverted into a wrong channel.

  2nd March, 1640. £6 given by Mistress Napkin & Mistriss Eaton is
  absolutely ordered to buy bookes & not disbursed or dispended in
  Drinking.

The following circumstance is significant, as exactly one hundred years
later the separation which Mr. Foster desired, and for which he got
into trouble, became an accomplished fact.

6th November, 1645. Mr. Ralph Foster was complained of for refusing to
make his dinner to the Court on his election as an Assistant, and he
thereupon uttered certain speeches “tending to the separation of the
Barbers from the Surgeons,” for which he was reprimanded, whereupon he
promised to make his dinner and to say no more about disunion.

23rd October, 1649. Upon reading the precept requiring the Livery to
attend the Lord Mayor Elect to Westminster in their Barge, it was
ordered that the Livery should be warned to perform that service in
accordance with old custom, and “that there be a ffeast at the Hall
on that day for the said Livery, But in respect of the hardnes and
troubles of the times this Court doth consent that there be noe second
course and noe Woeman at the same ffeast.”

       *       *       *       *       *

Among the Company’s archives are four books containing many details
of the feasts held between the years 1676 and 1790. They appear to
have been kept by the various cooks, probably under the direction of
the Clerk, and the following gleanings from them will be found to be
replete with interest.

The first entry is as follows--

  July y{e} 4{th} 1676 for barber sirgons hall Cortt diner.

  Leag of mutton boyld | Sallet              | 8 harty Chockes for 2
  S{r} Loyne of befe   | Neack of Mutton     |   dishes
  Shoulder of Venison  | 3 Chickens 3 Rabets | 2 small Dishes of frut

  ffor a Leag of Mutton                                        0  3  4
  ffor a Sirloyne of befe                                      0  9  0
  ffor a Shoulder of venison                                   0  5  0
  3 chickins 3 rabets                                          0  5  6
  8 harty chockes                                              0  1  0
  ffrut                                                        0  3  6
  fyring                                                       0  3  0
  3 pound of butter                                            0  1  6
  veniger                                                      0  0  3
  peper & other spice                                          0  0  3
  oyle & salt                                                  0  0  6
  Gallindine                                                   0  0  6
  4 Colliflouers                                               0  1  3
  ffor dressing Diner                                          0  6  6

  July y{e} 27{th} 1676 ffor y{e} Asestance & thar wivfes att
    barbar sirgons

                                                              ɫi. s. d.
  ffor 5 Dishis of Chickins Backon & Colliflours boyld         2 10  0
  ffor a side of venison                                       1  4  0
  ffor 3 Sir Loynes of befe                                    1 10  0
  ffor 1 fore rebb for breackfast                              0  8  0
  ffor a neack of vele & muton                                 0  7  0
  ffor 3 Grand Sallets                                         0 12  0
  ffor puting 3 peces of venison in past                       1  4  0
  ffor 3 Dishis of geses 2 in a dish                           0 18  0
  ffor 3 made Dishis & 18 Chescaks                             0 15  0
  ffor 3 Dishis of Turkes & sas[289] 2 in a dish               0 18  0
  ffor 3 Lumbard pyes                                          1  4  0
  ffor 4 Dishis of Toung & udders                              1  4  0
  ffor 3 Custtords                                             0 12  0
  ffor a firckin of Sturjon                                    2  0  0
  ffor 4 Dishis of Chickins & pigons                           1  4  0
  ffor y{e} use of putter[290]                                 1  0  0
  ffor wood and coles                                          0 12  0
  ffor 3 Dishis of Tarts                                       1  1  0
  ffor 3 Dishis of oringes & lemonds                           0  7  6
  ffor a small dish of frute                                   0  2  6
  ffor worckmen & labarars and my owne paines                  1  0  0
  3 Dishis of frut                                             0  0  0
                                                              --------
                                                              20 13  0
                                                              ========

  [289] Turkeys and sauce.
  [290] Pewter.

The monthly dinners were very much after the foregoing Bill of fare,
and the following extracts of some of the more interesting items are
taken at random.

        October, 1676. ffor 2 piges[291]                       0  7  0
  2 pullets rostted with saseges & oystters                    0  5  0
  ffor 3 Gallions of oysters                                   1  4  0
  ffor 18 lb. of medling backon                                0 12  0
  ffor 8 lb. of lardin backon                                  0  5  4

  [291] Pigs.

The dinner on Lord Mayor’s Day, 1676, cost £26 6_s._ 4_d._, this was
exclusive of wine. The “buttered ale” on this occasion was compounded
as follows--

  1 C of Eages[292] & 8 Gallions of Ale                        0  5  4
  2 lb. of butter                                              0  1  2
  8 lb. of sugar                                               0  4  0
  1 ounce of nuttmages                                         0  0  5
                                                               -------
                                                               0 10 11
                                                               =======

        December, 1676. ffor 4 Duckes                          0  4  8
        January, 1677. ffor 1 quart of oyle                    0  2  0
        January, 1677. ffor 2 quarts of venigar                0  1  0
        March, 1677. A quarttern of Smelts                     0  2  0
  18 whitting                                                  0  1  6
  a Jegett of mutton                                           0  4  6
  6 capons                                                     0 13  0
  9 chickins                                                   0 12  0
  9 Rabets                                                     0  6  0
  7 Lobstars                                                   0  9  4
  a side of Lamb                                               0  5  6
  ffor Lorell flouers & fenell                                 0  0  6
  ffor flouer spice & Anchoves                                 0  1  6
        May, 1677. ffor 2 Calfes heads                         0  6  0
  ffor 4 hundreds of sparagar                                  0  3  4
  ffor 3 wasfalia hames                                        1  0  0

  [292] Eggs.

Cucumbers under the designation of “cockinbers” and sometimes
“cowcombers,” together with sorell, barbery, “samfer,” “lorell
flouers,” capers, anchovies, oranges and lemons, “gallindene,”
“carberys,” horse reddish, parsley, “red cabbeg,” etc., frequently
occur at this period as being used for garnishes and in the preparation
of the dinners.

        March, 1678. ffor a Hole fresh Cod                     0 14  0
  ffor 12 teale and 3 docks[293]                               0 15  9
  ffor 4 quartes of oysters                                    0  8  0
  ffor 3 dishis of pipins & Caraways                           0  4  0
        May, 1678. ffor 7 Grene geese                          0 19  0
        July, 1678. ffor 4 Battelia pyes                       2  8  0
        September, 1678. ffor a Maria puding                   0  4  0
        October, 1678. a dish of florindines                   0  6  0

  [293] Ducks.

The staple dishes about this period were--

  Westphalia hams.              Venison pasties.
  Sirloins of beef.             Ribs of beef.
  Necks of veal and mutton.     Rabbits.
  Boiled legs of pork.          Capons and sausages.
  “Midlin” bacon.               Pullets and oysters.
  Tongues and udders.           Geese.
  Dishes of Pigeons.            “Lumber” pies.
  Dishes of Turkeys.            “Tansies.”
  Sturgeon.                     Cod.
  Ling.                         Eel pies.
  Dishes of tarts.              “Maid dishes.”
  Apple pie.                    Dishes of fruit.
  Custards.                     Almond florandines.
  Mince pies.                   Oranges and lemons.
  Grand salads.                 French benes.
  Sparagrasse.                  Spinidge.
  Sprouts.                      Turnops.
  Colliflowers.                 Hartychockes.

The pudding now so well known at Barbers’ Hall as “Barbers’ pudding,”
was originally “Maria pudding,” then “mara,” later on spelt “maro,”
and finally “marrow pudding,” by which latter designation it is often
now called.

  September, 1684. ffor 8 oringes                              0  1  8

Poultry seems to have been cheap, as for the election dinner in this
year--

   7 Geese were bought for                                     1  4  6
  16 Turkeys      "     "                                      1 14  8
  39 Chickens     "     "                                      1 19  0
  90 Pigeons      "     "                                      1  6  3

The allowance to the “musick” at nearly every dinner was a shoulder of
mutton, sometimes supplemented by two rabbits. The cost of “dressing”
the monthly dinners was usually about 8_s._, and of the Election, Audit
and quarterly Courts £1 10_s._ to £4.

  May, 1685. ffor 2 dishes of Pidgon and Backon and spinig      0 16 0
    2 dishes of Mackerell                                       0  6 0

August, 1687. This election dinner was a little above the average, the
following being the details--

  for a Brace of Bucks                                         8 13  0
  for Putting them in 8 Pastyes                                4  0  0
  for 6 S{r} Loynes of Beef and a four rib for brakefast       3  4  0
  4 Westfalia hams                                             1 11  0
  7 Lumber pyes                                                2 16  0
  7 Marrow puddings                                            1 15  0
  7 Custarts                                                   1 11  6
  7 Dishes of Tarts                                            2  2  0
  7 Dishes of Tonges and Udders                                1 15  0
  7 Gees                                                       1  5  8
  14 Torkeyes                                                  1 11  6
  45 Chickins                                                  2  5  0
  4 Dozen and 1/2 of Pidgeons                                  0 13  6
  12 Partriges                                                 0 12  0
  a Shoulder of Mutton & 2 Rabits for the musick               0  5  0
  12 pound of midling Bakon and Lard                           0  8  0
  24-1/2 pound of fresh butter                                 0 17  0
  for Artechoaks Cabidg french beans Lawrell Parsly and
    herbs to garnish                                           0  9  0
  flower Salt and Salt butter for the range                    0  5  6
  for Gallindine and Goos sace[294]                            0  3  6
  for Viniger                                                  0  6  0
  for Brooms packthread Candels and other things               0  1  0
  Wood and coles                                               1  0  0
  Kooks and Laberours and my own pains                         3  0  0
  2 pounds of Loaf Suger                                       2  0  0
                                                              --------
                                                              40  6  8
                                                              ========

  [294] Sauce.

  May, 1688. Is the first mention of a “creem chees”           0  0  8

December, 1692. With the exceptions of ling, sturgeon, and salt fish
with egg sauce, but little other fish appears to have been eaten. On
this occasion, however, we find--

  2 Dishis of fresh Cod Drest with Shrimps & Anchove Sawse     0 14  0
  ffor 6 Whitings                                              0  2  0

October, 1693. Green peas are for the first time referred to amongst
the vegetables, and, singularly enough, they only occur once in each
year for many years, and then at the _October_ dinners!

  June, 1698. 2 pounds of fine powdered sugar for
    the Strawberrys                                            0  1  4

  July, 1704.

                         THE STEWARDS DINNER.

  A legg of mutton rosted                                      0  2  8
  A buttered appel pye                                         0  3  0
  Cheese to y{e} appel pye                                     0  0  2
  3 Quartes of Coffee                                          0  3  0
                                                              --------
                                                               0  8 10
                                                              ========

        May, 1707. ffor 15 Mackril                             0 10  0
  16 Gooseberry tartes                                         0  8  0
  Caper sauce for the mutton                                   0  1  0
        April, 1708. A Frygusse of Lamb                        0  6  0


20th September, 1709. It was ordered, in consequence of the great
increase in the Livery, that there should be six instead of five
stewards of the Mayor’s Feast to make the Livery dinner, and any
liveryman chosen to the office and refusing to serve was to be
prosecuted under the by-laws. The fine for not serving was £13 6_s._
8_d._, and was invariably enforced, numerous cases of refusal being
decided at law in favour of the Company. Six Whifflers were as usual,
appointed “to be attendant upon the Govern{rs} at the Hall upon the
next Lord Mayo{rs} day in comely & decent Apparrell with gilded Chaines
& white Staves.”

6th November, 1717. In consequence of irregularities at the Lord
Mayor’s feast, it was ordered that in future the Stewards should be
prohibited from bringing their wives and friends to the dinner.

1721. The third dinner book opens with an account of the receipts
of the Governors’ “Potation Money” for this year, amounting to £131
11_s._ 2_d._, the contributions being from Barbers one guinea, and from
Surgeons two guineas each. This potation money was spent at the Mitre
Tavern in Fleet Street, on ten Monthly Court dinners, which averaged
the modest sum of £4 4_s._ apiece, and the remainder was disbursed
about the election feast, wine and sundries.

The cost of the Mayor’s feast this year was £67 7_s._, and at this
dinner was drunk a hogshead of port (query), six gallons of mountain,
six gallons of white port, and three gallons of canary.

July 19th, 1722. At the ladies’ feast the following wine was drunk--

  30 Gallons Red Port at 7_s._                                 10 10 0
  11   "     Sherry at 7_s._                                    3 17 0
   7   "     Canary at 7_s._                                    2  9 0
   5   "     Rhenish at 7_s._                                   1 15 0

and 4_s._ were expended on tobacco and pipes.

1726. The monthly Court dinners were held at the George and Vulture
Tavern, nine of them costing in all £29 13_s._ 9_d._

The Election dinner this year cost £91 8_s._ 0_d._

And the Lord Mayor’s feast £72 1_s._ 10-1/2_d._

June, 1729. The monthly Court dinner was held at “Vaux Hall.”

The accounts throughout the Third Dinner Book (1720-1740) appear to
be much the same every year. First is a list of receipts for Potation
Money, averaging about £100 per annum, then follow the allowances out
of the same towards the Election dinner, the dressing it and use of
pewter, about £19 in all, the payments for the monthly Court dinners
(nine or ten at about £4 4_s._ each), and the expenses of the Election
feasts, about £80 to £90 a piece.

The cost of the Lord Mayor’s feast, the Livery feast, and the Ladies’
feast, was borne by the Stewards.

There were gay doings at some of these dinners, as witness the
following:

  1726. Paid the Boy who danced the anticks at the Lady’s feast, 5_s._

  1727. By Cash paid the Butchers who played to the Company with their
  Marrow bones and cleavers on Lord Mayor’s day, 1_s._

And there were sometimes rather shady doings after the dinners, thus:

  10th July, 1729. Mem̃dm. M{r} Truelove & M{r} Fradin carried away
  y{e} next morning after y{e} feast four Dozen Quarts of Wine, One
  whole Venison pasty, One whole Goose, one whole fowl, & several
  lemons & sugar.

1st February, 1732. Mr. John Atkinson and the other Stewards of the
Mayor’s feast, employed a cook of their own, and “did make a most
scandalous Dinner for y{e} Co.,” whereupon order was given that in
future no other than the “Standing Cooke” of the Company should be
employed.

One is astounded at the quantity of wine which appears to have been
imbibed at some of these dinners; take, for example, the following on
Lord Mayor’s Day, 1735, and note that it is especially stated that the
wine was “drank at the said feast”:

  Paid for the following quantitys of wine provided for and drank at
  the said feast, viz{t.}

  To M{r} Standert for 21 Gall Red Port                        6  6  0
                        2 Gall Lisben                          0 12  0
                        2 Gall Mountaine                       0 12  0
                        2 Gall Canary                          0 13  0
                       29 Bottles lost                         0  4 10
  To M{r} Gaywood for  20 Gall Red Port                        6  0  0
                        2 Gall Mountaine                       0 12  0
                        2 Gall Lisbone                         0 12  0
                        2 Gall Canary                          0 13  0
  To M{r.} Pierce for   2 Gall Lisben                          0 12  0
                        2 Gall Mountaine                       0 12  0
                        2 Gall Canary                          0 13  0
                       20 Gall Red Port                        6  0  0

By the above account these thirsty old Barber-Surgeons seem to have
consumed no less than 79 Gallons of wine at this dinner.

15th July, 1736. 56 gallons of wine were drunk at the Ladies’ feast.

  21st July, 1726. It is order{d} That from henceforward at all publick
  Feasts or Dinners to be held or made at the Hall the Cook of the
  Company for the time being shall before he sends the Dinner into the
  Hall deliver to the Clark of the Company at his House his Messe of
  meat consisting of six compleat dishes according to the Ancient laws
  and usage of the Company in that behalf the same being the ancient
  ffee & Perquisite of the Clerk.

21st August, 1729. The above order was vacated in consequence of
disputes as to the contents and number of the dishes supplied to the
Clerk, and it was ordered that the Clerk should receive £5 5_s._
annually in lieu of his “messe of meat,” and also that he should dine
at all the feasts “as he has always been accustomed to do.”

  1st February, 1731. For the better regulating of the Ladys Feast It
  is ordered That every Member of the Court of Assistants shall besides
  his Lady and one daughter have three tickets to be delivered to such
  persons as they shall think fitt to be admitted to come and dance at
  the Hall at Five of the Clock on that day and that there shall be two
  Constables to attend at the Hall gate and see that nobody is admitted
  but with such Ticketts and that the Ticketts be made out by the Clerk
  of the Company and sealed with the Company’s seal.

The Summons to a Liveryman to take upon himself the office of Steward
was of a very peremptory nature, as will be seen by the following:--

    S{r}

  By order of the Ma{rs} or Gov{rs} of the Mystery & Comonalty of
  Barbers & Surgeons of London, I do hereby give you notice that you
  having been chosen & admitted of the Livery or Cloathing of the said
  Company, You are appointed by the Masters or Gov{rs} of the s{d}
  Comp{d} together with M{r.} Richard Penton M{r.} Joseph Griffin M{r.}
  Daniel Pengrove and M{r.} Joseph Mitchell who are also Liverymen of
  the said Company to make an Entertainment in the Com̄on Hall of the
  said Company situate in Monckwell Street in the Parish of Saint Olave
  Silver Street in the City of London for the Gov{rs} and Assistants
  of the s{d} Company commonly called the Livery Dinner on Teusday the
  3{d} day of June 1735 at two of the Clock in the afternoon pursuant
  to a By law of the said Company in that behalf made & provided. And
  in case you shall neglect or refuse w{th}out reasonable Excuse to
  join together with the said M{r.} Richard Penton M{r.} Joseph Griffin
  M{r.} Daniel Pengrove and M{r.} Joseph Mitchell to made such Dinner
  on Teusday the 3{d} day of June next, or to contribute and pay your
  share and and proporc͠on of the charges thereof you will forfeit and
  pay to the said Ma{rs} or Gov{rs} of the s{d} Mystery and Comonalty
  to the use of the said Company the sum of £5. And I do hereby give
  you further notice That the gentlemen who are to join with you in
  making the said dinner will meet you at the George and Vulture Tavern
  in Saint Michael’s Alley in Cornhill in the City of London on Friday
  next being the 23rd day of this instant May at six of the clock in
  the afternoon to give the proper directions for the said dinner, at
  which time and place you are desired to attend for that purpose.

                            I am S{r}
                                    Your most obed{t.} humble Serv{t.}
                                               CHA: BERNARD
                                          Clerk to the s{d} Company.

  Herewith you will receive a copy of the Bill of Fare or a Particular
  of w{ch} the s{d} Entertainment is to consist.

  Barbers and     }
  Surgeon’s Hall, } 22{d} May 1735

  To M{r.} Cha: More.

28th May, 1741. By an order made this day in reference to the Ladies’
feast it was directed--

  that the Entertainment shall continue no longer than twelve of the
  clock when there shall be no more Dancing but that the Musick be then
  dismissed and the Company depart.

  28th August, 1741. The Court having taken into consideration the ill
  behaviour and abusive language of John Atkinson Distiller in White
  Chappell (a Liveryman of this Company) on the last day of Election,
  who in a most gross manner (in the Common Hall of this Company) the
  Master of the said Company did greatly insult and abuse and did
  otherwise very indecently and rudely behave to other Members of the
  Company whereby the Peace of the said Company then assembled was
  greatly disturbed, and being determined to put a stop to and prevent
  the like grievances for the future by punishing all such offendors
  herein ORDERED that the said John Atkinson be fined for such his ill
  behaviour to the Master the sum of 6{s} 8{d} and 10{s} for bringing
  in to Dinner on that day another person with him after having been
  acquainted by the Master that the same was contrary to the By laws of
  the said Company.

1745. It is noticeable that the Potation Money fell off on the
separation of the Surgeons from the Barbers. During the three or four
preceding years the amount had been steadily running down from an
average of £105 to £57, and there seems to have been no Election or
Livery Dinners this year, though the gallant Barbers did not forget the
Ladies, for they gave them (and themselves) a dinner at a cost of £52
1_s._ 9_d._

The Barbers, too, at this time do not seem to have drunk quite so much
wine as the Barber-Surgeons did, and in the year 1747 is the first
mention of Beer, when 12_s._ was paid for a barrel of small Beer for
the Lord Mayor’s feast, and only 68 bottles of wine were consumed on
this occasion.

Between the years 1750 and 1786 no records are kept of any but the
Mayor’s feasts, though doubtless the Company did not fast during the
intervals.

There is now a striking similarity in these dinner accounts year by
year; usually there were six stewards each of whom provided, about the
years 1775, and later on, no less than 53 bottles of wine each, thus
emulating their predecessors the Barber-Surgeons; there are numerous
references to these bottles as being quarts, so that about 80 gallons
must have been drunk at each dinner. Happily, all this is now changed.

It is noticeable from the earliest times that the Company on every
occasion of a feast, invariably hired their Pewter dishes and plates
at great cost; it seems strange that this continual outlay should have
been incurred, instead of keeping a stock of pewter.

1830 and 1831. Considerable difficulty had arisen for some years past
in procuring Stewards for the Mayor’s feasts, and also in enforcing
the fines for not serving, whereupon a resolution was passed that
Liverymen refusing to pay the Steward’s fine would not be invited to
the dinners, and would be declared ineligible to come on the Court.

The Court seem to have had grave doubts as to the efficacy of their
By-Laws in recovering at law the Steward’s fines, and a case having
been prepared it was submitted to Sir James Scarlett and to Sir Thomas
Denman (the Attorney General). The opinion of the former eminent
Counsel, dated 10th October, 1832, is set out in the minutes, and he
appears to have been very clear that they would not be recoverable,
whereupon the Court ordered a letter (of 16th October) to be addressed
to the Livery, informing them of the difficulty which had arisen by
reason of Liverymen refusing to serve as Stewards in their rotation
(after having partaken of the hospitality of other Stewards in former
years), and that in consequence thereof there would be no dinner that
year. The day after this letter was sent out, Sir Thomas Denman’s
opinion was handed in, and was to the opposite effect of that given by
Sir James Scarlett! Since this period, and now, the Steward’s fine is
paid on the admission of a Liveryman, and thus a source of constant
annoyance is done away with.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE IRISH ESTATE.


The history of the acquisition by the Corporation of London and the
City Guilds, of their estates in Ireland has been often related,
and full accounts will be found in “Malcolm’s Londinium Redivivum,”
“Herbert’s Livery Companies,” “Nicholl’s Ironmongers’ Company,” and
other works; I shall, therefore, only treat of the subject so far as
the Barber-Surgeons were concerned.

In 1609 when James I floated his Irish scheme, our Company seems
to have been very loath to enter into it, as would appear by the
insignificant subscriptions proffered by the Members (_see_ page 473).

The difficulty which the Court foresaw in raising the £100 demanded in
July, 1609, was endeavoured to be surmounted by the following ingenious
proposition: there had been some previous forced loans to the King
amounting to £123, for which the Company held the City’s bond, and
as this was considered a doubtful asset, it was suggested that £100
thereof should be adventured on behalf of the Company; it is needless
to say that this innocent suggestion was scouted, and a peremptory
precept for the £100 delivered, whereupon the Court assessed the
various members of the Company and with the greatest difficulty £30 was
thus raised and a further sum of £90 later on. The Minutes referring to
these transactions are especially worthy the perusal of those persons
who claim the estates of the City Companies as being the “property of
the people,” or as having been “left for the poor,” &c. We see by them
that (in our Company certainly, and as doubtless an examination of
records would show, in all other Companies) the purchase of these lands
in Ireland was not only compulsory, but that it was made from moneys
contributed by individual members for the most part, and the balance
from the “Stock of the house,” this “Stock” being the floating funds
in the Renter Warden’s hands, derived from admissions, fines, &c. We
thus see that no “trust” money was used for the purchase, and that the
estates are saddled with no trust whatever, but are held free, and by
an infinitely better title as far as morality goes, to say nothing of
legality, than many Estates in the hands of some of the aristocratic
patrons of the busybodies bent on spoliation.

In January, 1611, the Company were commanded by precept to elect
whether they would for their contribution accept a tract of land in
Ulster, _saddled with a condition to build upon it_, or refer the
letting of it to the Irish Society, whereupon they chose the latter,
and in July following came a precept, for its morality worthy of the
Land League, for it called upon the Wardens to pay down £60 more, or
else _to absolutely lose the £120 already contributed_!

The doleful answer of the Court, dated 19th July, 1611, is deeply
interesting, and we cannot but be touched by the wrongs under which
they suffered, and which constrained them to write:--“we must be
forced (yf there be lawfull authoritie to take awaye & compell o{r}
Company) to loose the moneys we have alreadye disburssed.”

James, however, did not care much about the money the Company proposed
to abandon; what he required was a further supply, and the proceedings
thereupon are indicated by the Minute of 16th November, 1611. Shortly
after, the Company wisely applied to “M{r} Recorder” to construe the
answer, but even his skill and interest did not avail, for on 2nd July,
1612, it was agreed that the Master and Wardens should go before the
Court of Aldermen, and “stand hardlie” against paying any more money,
especially as they had not any security for what had been already
advanced, and if committed, they were to go to prison, rather than pay
the £30 demanded, with a proviso that directly they were imprisoned,
the £30 was to be paid, and it was eventually paid.

In 1613, the Company made over their interest in the Irish Estate to
one of the Wardens, Mr. Allen, but this arrangement was subsequently
annulled.

Many more were the precepts, and the troubles in which the Company were
involved, about this business, but it is satisfactory to record that in
1623 £11 9_s._ 6_d._ was received on account of rents, and in 1625 a
further sum of £10 0_s._ 8_d._