By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Icelandic Primer with Grammar, Notes and Glossary
Author: Sweet, Henry
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Icelandic Primer with Grammar, Notes and Glossary" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Image files scanned in by Sean Crist 



With Grammar, Notes, and Glossary

By Henry Sweet, M.A.




The want of a short and easy introduction to the study of
Icelandic has been felt for a long time--in fact, from the very
beginning of that study in England.  The _Icelandic Reader_,
edited by Messrs.  Vigfusson and Powell, in the Clarendon Press
Series, is a most valuable book, which ought to be in the hands
of every student; but it still leaves room for an elementary
primer.  As the engagements of the editors of the Reader would
have made it impossible for them to undertake such a work for
some years to come, they raised no objections to my proposal to
undertake it myself.  Meanwhile, I found the task was a more
formidable one than I had anticipated, and accordingly, before
definitely committing myself to it, I made one final attempt to
induce Messrs.  Vigfusson and Powell to take it off my hands; but
they very kindly encouraged me to proceed with it; and as I
myself thought that an Icelandic primer, on the lines of my
Anglo-Saxon one, might perhaps be the means of inducing some
students of Old English to take up Icelandic as well, I
determined to go on.

In the spelling I have not thought it necessary to adhere
strictly to that adopted in the Reader, for the editors have
themselves deviated from it in their _Corpus Poeticum Boreale_,
in the way of separating _ǫ_ from _ö_, etc.  My own principle has
been to deviate as little as possible from the traditional
spelling followed in normalized texts.  There is, indeed, no
practical gain for the beginner in writing _tīme_ for _tīmi_,
discarding _ð_, etc., although these changes certainly bring us
nearer the oldest MSS., and cannot be dispensed with in
scientific works.  The essential thing for the beginner is to
have _regular_ forms presented to him, to the exclusion, as far
as possible, of isolated archaisms, and to have the defective
distinctions of the MSS. supplemented by diacritics.  I have not
hesitated to substitute (¯) for (´) as the mark of length; the
latter ought in my opinion to be used exclusively--in Icelandic
as well as in Old English and Old Irish--to represent the actual
accents of the MSS.

In the grammar I have to acknowledge my great obligations to
Noreen's _Altisländische Grammatik_, which is by far the best
Icelandic grammar that has yet appeared--at least from that
narrow point of view which ignores syntax, and concentrates
itself on phonology and inflections.

The texts are intended to be as easy, interesting, and
representative as possible.  With such a language, and such a
master of it as Snorri to choose from, this combination is not
difficult to realise.  The beginner is indeed to be envied who
makes his first acquaintance with the splendid mythological tales
of the North, told in an absolutely perfect style.  As the death
of Olaf Tryggvason is given in the Reader only from the longer
recension of the Heimskringla, I have been able to give the
shorter text, which is admirably suited for the purposes of this
book.  The story of Auðun is not only a beautiful one in itself,
but, together with the preceding piece, gives a vivid idea of the
Norse ideal of the kingly character, which was the foundation of
their whole political system.  As the Reader does not include
poetry (except incidentally), I have added one of the finest of
the Eddaic poems, which is at the same time freest from obscurity
and corruption--the song of Thor's quest of his hammer.

In the glossary I have ventured to deviate from the very
inconvenient Scandinavian arrangement, which puts _þ_, _æ_, _œ_,
right at the end of the alphabet.

I have to acknowledge the great help I have had in preparing the
texts and the glossary from Wimmer's _Oldnordisk Læsebog_, which
I consider to be, on the whole, the best reading-book that exists
in any language.  So excellent is Wimmer's selection of texts,
that it was impossible for me to do otherwise than follow him in
nearly every case.

In conclusion, it is almost superfluous to say that this book
makes no pretension to originality of any kind.  If it
contributes towards restoring to Englishmen that precious
heritage--the old language and literature of Iceland--which our
miserably narrow scheme of education has hitherto defrauded them
of, it will have fulfilled its purpose.

February, 1886


1. This book deals with Old Icelandic in its classical period,
between 1200 and 1350.


2. The Icelandic alphabet was founded on the Latin, with the
addition of _þ_ and _ð_, and of the modified letters _ę_, _ǫ_,
_ø_, which last is in this book written _ö_, _ǫ̈_.


3. The vowel-letters had nearly the same values as in Old
English.  Long vowels were often marked by (´).  In this book
long vowels are regularly marked by (¯)[1].  The following are
the elementary vowels and diphthongs, with examples, and
key-words from English, French (F.), and German (G.):--

[Footnote 1: Note that the longs of _ę_, _ö_ are written _æ_,
_œ_, respectively.]

            a  _as in_  mann (G.)   halda (_hold_)
            ā     "     father      rāð (_advice_)
            e     "     été (F.)    gekk (_went_)
            ē[2]        . . .       lēt (let _pret._)
            ę     "     men         męnn (_men_)

[Footnote 2: Where no keyword is given for a long vowel, its
sound is that of the corresponding short vowel lengthened.]

            æ  _as in_  there       sær (_sea_)
            i     "     fini (F.)   mikill (_great_)
            ī           . . .       lītill (_little_)
            o     "     beau (F.)   orð (_word_)
            ō           . . .       tōk (_look_)
            ǫ     "     not         hǫnd (_hand_)
            ö     "     peu (F.)    kömr (_comes_)
            œ           . . .       fœra (_bring_)
            ǫ̈     "     peur (F.)   gǫ̈ra (_make_)
            u     "     sou (F.)    upp (_up_)
            ū           . . .       hūs (_house_)
            y     "     tu (F.)     systir (_sister_)
            ȳ           . . .       lȳsa (_shine_)
            au    "     haus (G.)   lauss (_loose_)
            ei    =     ę + i       bein (_bone_)
            ey    =     ę + y       leysa (_loosen_)

4. The unaccented _i_ in _systir_, etc. (which is generally
written _e_ in the MSS.) probably had the sound of _y_ in _pity_,
which is really between _i_ and _e_.  The unacc. _u_ in _fōru_
(they went), etc. (which is generally written _o_ in the MSS.)
probably had the sound of _oo_ in _good_.

Note that several of the vowels go in pairs of _close_ and
_open_, thus:

                    close : e ē o ō ö œ
                    open  : ę æ ǫ - ǫ̈ -


5. Double consonants followed by a vowel must be pronounced
really double, as in Italian.  Thus the _kk_ in _drekka_ (to
drink) must be pronounced like the _kc_ in _bookcase_, while the
_k_ in _dręki_ (dragon) is single, as in _booking_.  When final
(or followed by another cons.) double conss. are pronounced long,
as in _munn_ (mouth _acc._), _hamarr_ (hammer _nom._), _steinn_
(stone _nom._), distinguished from _mun_ (will _vb._), and the
accusatives _hamar_, _stein_.

6. _k_ and _g_ had a more front (palatal) sound before the front
vowels _e_, _ę_, _i_, _ö_, _ǫ̈_, _y_, and their longs, as also
before _j_, as in _kęnna_ (known), _keyra_ (drive), _gǫ̈ra_
(make), _liggja_ (lie).

7. _kkj_, _ggj_ were probably pronounced simply as double front
_kk_, _gg_, the _j_ not being pronounced separately.

8. *f* had initially the sound of our _f_, medially and finally
that of _v_, as in _gefa_ (give), _gaf_ (gave), except of course
in such combinations as _ft_, where it had the sound of _f_.

9. *g* was a stopped (back or front--guttural or palatal) cons.
initially and in the combination _ng_, the two _g_'s in _ganga_
(go) being pronounced as in _go_.  It had the open sound of G.
_g_ in _sagen_ medially before the back vowels _a_, _o_, _ǫ_,
_u_, and all conss. except _j_, and finally:--_saga_ (tale),
_dǫgum_ (with days); _sagði_ (he said); _lag_ (he lay).  Before
the front vowels and _j_ it had the sound of G. _g_ in _liegen_,
or nearly that of _j_ (our _y_), as in _sęgir_ (says), _sęgja_
(to say).

10. Before voiceless conss. (_t_, _s_) _g_ seems to have been
pronounced _k_, as in _sagt_ (said), _dags_ (day's).

11. The _g_ was always sounded in the combination _ng_,
as in _single_, not as in _singer_.

12. *h* was sounded before _j_ in such words as _hjarta_ (heart)
much as in E. _hue_ (= hjū).  _hl_, _hn_, _hr_, _hv_ probably
represented voiceless _l_, _n_, _r_, _w_ respectively, _hv_
being identical with E. _wh_: _hlaupa_ (leap), _hnīga_ (bend),
_hringr_ (ring), _hvat_ (what).

13. *j* is not distinguished from _i_ in the MSS.  It had the
sound of E. _y_ in _young_: _jǫrð_ (earth), _sętja_ (to set).

14. *p* in _pt_ probably had the sound of _f_: _lopt_ (air).

15. *r* was always a strong point trill, as in Scotch.

16. *s* was always sharp.

17. *v* (which was sometimes written _u_ and _w_) had the sound
of E. _w_: _vel_ (well), _hǫggva_ (hew).

18. *z* had the sound of _ts_: _bęztr_ (best).

19. *þ* and *ð* were used promiscuously in the older MS., the
very oldest using _þ_ almost exclusively.  In Modern Icelandic
_þ_ is written initially to express the sound of E. hard _th_,
_ð_ medially and finally to express that of soft _th_; as there
can be no doubt that this usage corresponds with the old
pronunciation, it is retained in this book: _þing_ (parliament),
_faðir_ (father), _við_ (against). In such combinations as _pð_
the _ð_ must of course be pronounced _þ_.


20. The stress (accent) is always on the first syllable.



21. The vowels are related to one another in different ways, the
most important of which are _mutation_ (umlaut), _fracture_
(brechung), and _gradation_ (ablaut).


22. The following changes are *i*-mutations (caused by an older
_i_ or _j_ following, which has generally been dropped)[3]:

[Footnote 3: Many of the _i_'s which appear in derivative and
inflectional syllables are late weakenings of _a_ and other
vowels, as in _bani_ (death) = Old English _bana_; these do not
cause mutation.]

*a* (*ǫ*) ... *ę* :-- _mann_ (man _acc._), _męnn_ (men); _hǫnd_
(hand), _hęndr_ (hands).

*ā* ... *æ* :-- _māl_ (speech), _mæla_ (speak).

*e* (*ja*, *jǫ*) ... *i* :-- _verðr_ (worth), _virða_ (estimate).

*u* (*o*) ... *y* :-- _fullr_ (full), _fylla_ (to fill); _lopt_
(air), _lypta_ (lift).

*ū* ... *ȳ* :-- _brūn_ (eyebrow), pl. _brȳnn_.

*o* ... *ö* :-- _koma_ (to come), _kömr_ (comes).

*ō* ... *œ* :-- _fōr_ (went), _fœra_ (bring).

*au* ... *ey* :-- _lauss_ (loose), _leysa_ (loosen).

*jū* (*jō*) ... *ȳ* :-- _sjūkr_ (sick), _sȳki_ (sickness);
_ljōsta_ (strike), _lȳstr_ (strikes).

23. The change of _a_ into _ę_ is sometimes the result of a
following _k_, _g_, or _ng_, as in _dęgi_ dat. sg. of _dagr_
(day), _tękinn_ (taken), _gęnginn_ (gone), inf. _taka_, _ganga_.
_i_ appears instead of _e_, and _u_ instead of _o_ before a nasal
followed by another cons.: cp. _binda_ (to bind), _bundinn_
(bound) with _bresta_ (burst) ptc. prt. _brostinn_.

24. There is also a *u*-mutation, caused by a following _u_,
which has often been dropped:

*a* ... *ǫ* :-- _dagr_ (day) dat. pl. _dǫgum_; _land_ (land) pl.

25. Unaccented _ǫ_ becomes _u_, as in _sumur_ pl. of _sumar_
(summer), _kǫlluðu_ (they called), infin. _kalla_.


26. The only vowel that is affected by fracture is _e_: when
followed by original _a_ it becomes _ja_, when followed by
original _u_ it becomes _jǫ_, as in _jarðar_ gen. of _jǫrð_
(earth)[4].  When followed by original _i_, the _e_ is, of
course, mutated to _i_, as in _skildir_ plur. nom. of _skjǫldr_
(shield), gen. _skjaldar_.

[Footnote 4: Cp. German _erde_.]


27. By gradation the vowels are related as follows:--

*a* ... *ō* :-- _fara_ (go) pret. _fōr_, whence by mut. _fœra_

*e* (i, ja) ... *a* ... *u* (o) :-- _bresta_ (burst), prt.
_brast_, prt. pl. _brustu_, ptc. prt. _brostinn_; _finna_ (find),
_fundinn_ (found _ptc._), _fundr_ (meeting).

*e* ... *a* ... *ā* ... *o* :-- _stela_ (steal), prt. _stal_,
prt. pl. _stālu_, ptc. prt. _stolinn_.

*e* ... *a* ... *ā* ... *e* :-- _gefa_ (give), _gaf_ (he gave),
_gāfu_ (they gave), _gefinn_ (given), _gjǫf_ (gift), _u_-fracture
of _gef-_, _gæfa_ (luck) mut. of _gāf-_.

*ī* ... *ei* ... *i* :-- _skīna_ (shine), _skein_ (he shone),
_skinu_ (they shone).  _sōl-skin_ (sunshine).

*jū* (jō) ... *au* ... *u* ... *o* :-- _ljūga_ (tell a lie), prt.
_laug_, prt. pl. _lugu_, ptc. prt. _loginn_.  _lygi_ (lie _sbst._)
mut. of _lug-_.  _skjōta_ (shoot), _skjōtr_ (swift), _skotinn_
(shot _ptc._), _skot_ (shot _subst._).

Other changes

28. All final vowels are long in accented syllables: _þā_ (then),
_nū_ (now).

29. Inflectional and derivative vowels are often dropt after long
accented vowels: cp. _ganga_ (to go) with _fā_ (to get), the dat.
plurals _knjām_ (knees) with _hūsum_ (houses).

30. Vowels are often lengthened before _l_ + cons.: _hālfr_ (half
_adj._), _fōlk_ (people); cp. _fōlginn_ (hidden) with _brostinn_
(burst _ptc._).


31. _v_ is dropped before _o_ and _u_: _vaxa_ (to grow), prt.
_ōx_, _vinna_ (to win), _unninn_ (won _ptc._), _svelta_ (to
starve), _soltinn_ (starved, hungry).

Final _r_ is often assimilated to a preceding cons.

32. _*-lr_, _*-nr_, _*-sr_ always become _-ll_, _-nn_, _-ss_
after a long vowel or diphthong, as in _stōll_ (chair _nom._),
acc. _stōl_, _steinn_ (stone _nom._), acc. _stein_, _vīss_ (wise
_masc. nom. sg._), _vīs_ fem. nom. sg., and in unacc. syllables,
as in the masc. sg. nominatives _mikill_ (great), fem. _mikil_,
_borinn_ (carried), fem.  _borin_, _ȳmiss_ (various) fem. _ȳmis_.

33. Words in which _l_, _n_, _r_, _s_ are preceded by a cons.
drop the _r_ entirely, as in the masc. nominatives _jarl_ (earl),
_hrafn_ (raven), _vitr_ (wise), _þurs_ (giant), _lax_ (salmon).

34. If _l_ and _n_ are preceded by a short accented vowel, the
_r_ is generally kept, as in _stelr_ (steals), _vinr_, (friend),
_sr_ becoming _ss_, as elsewhere.

35. _r_ is kept after _ll_, and generally after _nn_, as in the
masc. nom. _allr_ (all), and in _bręnnr_ (burns).

36. _z_ often stands for _ðs_ as well as _ts_, as in _þēr
þykkizk_ (ye seem) = _*þykkið-sk_, _Vest-firzkr_ (belonging to
the West Firths) = _-*firðskr_ (_fǫrðr_, firth).

37. Inflectional _t_ is generally doubled after a long accented
vowel: _fār_ (few) neut. _fātt_ (cp. _allr_ 'all,' neut. _allt_),
_sā_ (I saw), _sātt_ 'thou sawest.'



38. *Gender*.  There are three genders in Icelandic--masculine,
feminine, and neuter.  The gender is partly natural, partly
grammatical, generally agreeing with the gender in Old English.
Compound words follow the gender of their last element.

39. *Strong and Weak*.  All weak nouns end in a vowel in the nom.
sg. and in most of the other cases as well.  Most strong nouns
end in a cons. in the nom. sg.

40. *Cases*.  There are four cases--nominative, accusative,
dative, genitive.  All nouns (except a few contractions) have the
gen. pl. in _-a_ (_fiska_, of fishes), and the dat. pl. in _-um_
(_fiskum_).  All strong masculines (_fiskr_) and some strong
feminines (_brūðr_, bride) take _r_[5] in the nom. sg.  Most strong
feminines show the bare root in the nom. sg. with _u_-mutation,
if possible (_āst_, favour, _fǫr_, journey).  The nom. pl. of all
strong masc. and fem. nouns ends in _r_ (_fiskar_, _āstir_).  The
acc. pl. of fem. nouns is the same as the nom. pl. (_āstir_).
The acc. pl. of masc. strong nouns always ends in a vowel
(_fiska_).  The plur. nom. and acc. of neuters is the same as the
sing. nom. and acc., except that in the plur. nom. and acc. they
take _u_-mutation, if possible (_hūs_, houses, _lǫnd_, lands).

[Footnote 5: Subject, of course, to the assimilations described

41. The declensions are most conveniently distinguished by the
acc. plur.

                     Strong Masculines

                       (1) a-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  fisk-r (_fish_)          fisk-ar
      _Acc._  fisk                     fisk-a
      _Dat._  fisk-i                   fisk-um
      _Gen._  fisk-s                   fisk-a

42. So also _heimr_ (home, world); _konungr_ (king); _Þōrr_
(Thor), acc. _Þōr_, gen. _Þōrs_; _steinn_ (stone), acc. _stein_,
gen. _steins_, pl. nom. _steinar_; _hrafn_ (raven), acc.
_hrafn_, pl. nom. _hrafnar_; _þurs_ (giant), acc. gen. _þurs_,
pl. nom. _þursar_.

43. Dissyllables in _-r_, _-l_, _-n_ generally throw out the
preceding vowel before a vowel-inflection: _hamarr_ (hammer),
dat. _hamri_; _jǫtunn_ (giant), pl. nom. _jǫtnar_.  _kętill_
(kettle) and _lykill_ (key) show unmutated vowels in the
contracted forms, as in the acc. plur. _katla_, _lukla_.

44. Some nouns of this decl. take _-ar_ in the gen. sing.,
especially proper names, such as _Hākon_, gen. _Hākonar_.

45. Some nouns add _v_ before vowels: _sær_ (sea), gen.

46. The dat. sometimes drops the _i_: _sæ_ (sea), _Þōr_.  _dagr_
(day) mutates its vowel in the dat. _dęgi_.

47. Nouns in _-ir_ keep the _i_ in the sing., and drop it in the

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  hęlli-r (_cave_)         hęll-ar
      _Acc._  hęlli                    hęll-a
      _Dat._  hęlli                    hęll-um
      _Gen._  hęlli-s                  hęll-a

48. So also a number of proper names, such as _Skrȳmir_, _Þōrir_.

                        (2) i-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  stað-r (_place_)         stað-ir
      _Acc._  stað                     stað-i
      _Dat._  stað                     stǫð-um
      _Gen._  stað-ar                  stað-a

49. So also _gripr_ (precious thing), _salr_ (hall).

50. _gęstr_ (guest) takes _-i_ in the dat. sg., and _-s_ in the
gen. sg.

51. Those ending in _g_ or _k_ (together with some others) insert
_j_ before _a_ and _u_: _bękkr_ (bench), _bękk_, _bękk_,
_bękkjar_; _bękkir_, _bękki_, _bękkjum_, _bękkja_.  So also
_męrgr_ (marrow), _stręngr_ (string).

                        (3) u-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  skjǫld-r (_shield_)      skild-ir
      _Acc._  skjǫld                   skjǫld-u
      _Dat._  skild-i                  skjǫld-um
      _Gen._  skjald-ar                skjald-a

52. So also _vǫndr_ (twig), _vǫllr_ (plain), _viðr_ (wood).
_āss_ (god) has plur. nom. _æsir_, acc. _āsu_.  _sonr_ (son) has
dat. sg. _syni_, plur. nom. _synir_.  It regularly drops its _r_
of the nom. in such compounds as _Tryggva-son_ (son of Tryggvi).

                        (4) r-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  fōt-r (_foot_)           fœt-r
      _Acc._  fōt                      fœt-r
      _Dat._  fœt-i                    fōt-um
      _Gen._  fōt-ar                   fōt-a

53. So also _fingr_ (finger), gen. _fingrar_, pl. _fingr_; _vetr_
(winter), pl. _vetr_.  _maðr_ (man) is irregular: _maðr_, _mann_,
_manni_, _manns_; _męnn_, _męnn_, _mǫnnum_, _manna_.

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  faðir (_father_)         fęðr
      _Acc._  fǫður                    fęðr
      _Dat._  fǫður                    fęðrum
      _Gen._  fǫður                    fęðra

54. So also _brōðir_ (brother), pl. _brœðr_.

55. Pres. participles used as nouns follow this decl. in the pl.,
following the weak class in the sg.:

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  bōndi (_yeoman_)         bœndr
      _Acc._  bōnda                    bœndr
      _Dat._  bōnda                    bōndum
      _Gen._  bōnda                    bōnda

56. So also _frœndi_ (kinsman), pl. _frœndr_.

                       Strong Neuters

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  skip (_ship_)            skip
      _Acc._  skip                     skip
      _Dat._  skip-i                   skip-um
      _Gen._  skip-s                   skip-a

57. So also _orð_ (word), _land_ (land) pl. _lǫnd_, _sumar_
(summer) pl. _sumur_ (§ 25).

58. _męn_ (necklace), _kyn_ (race), _grey_ (dog) insert _j_
before _a_ and _u_: _greyjum_.  _hǫgg_ (stroke) inserts _v_
before a vowel: _hǫggvi_.  _knē_ (knee), _knē_, _knē_, _knēs_;
_knē_, _knē_, _kjām_, _knjā_.  So also _trē_ (tree).

59. _fē_ (money) is contracted: gen. _fjār_, dat. _fē_.

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  kvæði (_poem_)           kvæði
      _Acc._  kvæði                    kvæði
      _Dat._  kvæði                    kvæðum
      _Gen._  kvæði-s                  kvæða

60. So also _klæði_ (cloth).  Those in _k_ insert _j_ before _a_
and _u_: _męrki_ (mark), _męrkjum_, _męrkja_.  So also _rīki_

                      Strong Feminines

                       (1) ar-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  gjǫf (_gift_)            gjaf-ar
      _Acc._  gjǫf                     gjaf-ar
      _Dat._  gjǫf                     gjǫf-um
      _Gen._  gjaf-ar                  gjaf-a

61. So also _mǫn_ (mane), _gjǫrð_ (girdle), _ār_ (oar).

62. _ā_ (river) contracts: _ā_, _ā_, _ā_, _ār_; _ār_, _ār_, _ām_,

63. Many take _-u_ in the dat. sg.: _kęrling_ (old woman),
_kęrling_, _kęrlingu_, _kęrlingar_; _kęrlingar_, _kęrlingar_,
_kęrlingum_, _kęrlinga_.  So also _laug_ (bath).

64. Those with a mutated root-vowel (or _i_) insert _j_ in
inflection: _ey_ (island), _ey_, _eyju_, _eyjar_; _eyjar_,
_eyjar_, _eyjum_, _eyja_.  So also _Frigg_, _Hęl_.  _mær_ (maid),
_mey_, _meyju_, _meyjar_; _meyjar_, _meyjar_, _meyjum_, _meyja_.


              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  heið-r (_heath_)         heið-ar
      _Acc._  heið-i                   heið-ar
      _Dat._  heið-i                   heið-um
      _Gen._  heið-ar                  heið-a

                       (2) ir-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  tīð                      tīð-ir
      _Acc._  tīð                      tīð-ir
      _Dat._  tīð                      tīð-um
      _Gen._  tīð-ar                   tīð-a

66. So also _sorg_ (sorrow), _skipun_ (arrangement), _hǫfn_
(harbour) pl. _hafnir_, and the majority of strong feminines.

67. Many have _-u_ in the dat. sg.: _sōl_ (sun), _sōl_, _sōlu_,
_sōlar_; _sōlir_, _sōlir_, _sōlum_, _sōla_.  So also _jǫrð_
(earth), _stund_ (period of time).

68. One noun has _r_ in the nom. sg., following _heiðr_ in the
sg.: _brūðr_ (bride), _brūði_, _brūði_, _brūðar_; _brūðir_,
_brūðir_, _brūðum_, _brūða_.

                       (3) r-plurals

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  bōk (_book_)             bœk-r
      _Acc._  bōk                      bœk-r
      _Dat._  bōk                      bōk-um
      _Gen._  bōk-ar                   bōk-a

69. So also _nātt_ (night) pl. _nætr_, _bōt_ (compensation) pl.
_bœtr_, _tǫnn_ (tooth) gen. _tannar_ pl. _tęnnr_.

70. _hǫnd_ (hand) pl. _hęndr_ has dat. sg. _hęndi_.

71. _kȳr_ (cow) has acc. _kū_, pl. _kȳr_.

72. _brūn_ (eyebrow) assimilates the _r_ of the pl.: _brȳnn_.

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  mōðir (_mother_)         mœðr
      _Acc._  mōður                    mœðr
      _Dat._  mōður                    mœðrum
      _Gen._  mōður                    mœðra

73. So also _dōttir_ (daughter) pl. _dœtr_; _systir_ (sister) pl.

                      Weak Masculines

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  bog-i (_bow_)            bog-ar
      _Acc._  bog-a                    bog-a
      _Dat._  bog-a                    bog-um
      _Gen._  bog-a                    bog-a

74. So also _māni_ (moon), _fēlagi_ (companion).

75. _hǫfðingi_ (chief) and some others insert _j_ in inflection:
_hǫfðingja_, _hǫfðingjar_, _hǫfðingjum_.

76. _lē_ (scythe) is contracted; its gen. sg. is _ljā_.

77. _oxi_ (ox) has pl. _öxn_.

78. _herra_ (lord) is indeclinable in the sg.

                        Weak Neuters

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  hjart-a (_heart_)        hjǫrt-u
      _Acc._  hjart-a                  hjǫrt-u
      _Dat._  hjart-a                  hjǫrt-um
      _Gen._  hjart-a                  hjart-na

79. So also _auga_ (eye).

                       Weak Feminines

              SINGULAR                 PLURAL

      _Nom._  tung-a (_tongue_)        tung-ur
      _Acc._  tung-u                   tung-ur
      _Dat._  tung-u                   tung-um
      _Gen._  tung-u                   tung-na

80. So also _stjarna_ (star) pl. _stjǫrnur_, _kirkja_ (church),
gen. plurals _stjarna_, _kirkna_.

                    _Sg. Nom._   ęlli (_old age_)
                        _Acc._   ęlli
                        _Dat._   ęlli
                        _Gen._   ęlli

81. So also _glęði_ (joy) and many abstract nouns.

82. _lygi_ (falsehood) has pl. _lygar_; so also _gǫ̈rsimi_
(precious thing).


83. Adjectives have three genders, and the same cases as nouns,
though with partly different endings, together with strong and
weak forms.

                     Strong Adjectives

                 MASC.             NEUT.        FEM.

   _Sg. Nom._    ung-r (_young_)   ung-t        ung
       _Acc._    ung-an            ung-t        ung-a
       _Dat._    ung-um            ung-u        ung-ri
       _Gen._    ung-s             ung-s        ung-rar

   _Pl. Nom._    ung-ir            ung          ung-ar
       _Acc._    ung-a             ung          ung-ar
       _Dat._    ung-um            ung-um       ung-um
       _Gen._    ung-ra            ung-ra       ung-ra

84. So also _fagr_ (fair), fem. _fǫgr_, neut. _fagrt_.

85. Some insert _j_ before _a_ and _u_: _nȳr_ (new), _nȳjum_,

86. Some insert _v_ before a vowel: _hār_ (high), _hāvan_,
_dökkr_ (dark), _dökkvir_, _kykr_ (alive), _kykvir_.

87. The _t_ of the neut. is doubled after a long vowel: _nȳtt_,
_hātt_.  Monosyllables in _ð_, _dd_, _tt_ form their neut. in
_-tt_: _breiðr_ (broad), _breitt_; _leiddr_ (led), _leitt_.
_gōðr_ (good) has neut. _gott_.  _sannr_ (true) has neut. _satt_.
In unaccented syllables or if a cons. precedes, _tt_ is shortened
to _t_: _kallaðr_ (called), _kallat_; _blindr_ (blind), _blint_,
_harðr_ (hard), _hart_, _fastr_ (firm), _fast_.

88. _l_ and _n_ assimilate a following _r_: _gamall_ (old), fem.
_gǫmul_, fem. acc. _gamla_, dat. _gamalli_. _vǣnn_ (beautiful),
gen.  pl. _vænna_.

                 MASC.             NEUT.        FEM.

   _Sg. Nom._    mikill (_great_)  mikit        mikil
       _Acc._    mikinn            mikit        mikla
       _Dat._    miklum            miklu        mikilli
       _Gen._    mikils            mikils       mikillar

   _Pl. Nom._    miklir            mikil        miklar
       _Acc._    mikla             mikil        miklar
       _Dat._    miklum            miklum       miklum
       _Gen._    mikilla           mikilla      mikilla

89. So also _lītill_ (little).

90. Dissyllables in _-inn_ have _-it_ in the neut., and _-inn_ in
the masc. sg. acc.: _tīginn_ (distinguished), _tīgit_, _tīginn_,
pl. _tīgnīr_.  So also _kominn_ (come).


                 MASC.             NEUT.        FEM.

   _Sg. Nom._    annarr (_other_)  annat        ǫnnur
       _Acc._    annan             annat        aðra
       _Dat._    ǫðrum             ǫðru         annarri
       _Gen._    annars            annars       annarrar

   _Pl. Nom._    aðrir             ǫnnur        aðrar
       _Acc._    aðra              ǫnnur        aðrar
       _Dat._    ǫðrum             ǫðrum        ǫðrum
       _Gen._    annarra           annarra      annarra

                       Weak Adjectives

                 MASC.             NEUT.        FEM.

   _Sg. Nom._    ung-i             ung-a        ung-a
       _Acc._    ung-a             ung-a        ung-u
       _Dat._    ung-a             ung-a        ung-u
       _Gen._    ung-a             ung-a        ung-u

   _Pl. Nom._    ung-u             ung-u        ung-u
       _Acc._    ung-u             ung-u        ung-u
       _Dat._    ung-u             ung-u        ung-u
       _Gen._    ung-u             ung-u        ung-u

92. So also _fagri_, _hāvi_, _mikli_, etc.

   _Sg. Nom._    yngri (_younger_) yngra        yngri
       _Acc._    yngra             yngra        yngri
       _Dat._    yngra             yngra        yngri
       _Gen._    yngra             yngra        yngri

   _Pl. Nom._    yngri             yngri        yngri
       _Acc._    yngri             yngri        yngri
       _Dat._    yngrum            yngrum       yngrum
       _Gen._    yngri             yngri        yngri

93. So also all comparatives, such as _meiri_ (greater), and
pres. partic. when used as adjectives, such as _gefandi_
(giving), dat. pl. _gefǫndum_.


94. (1) with _-ari_, _-astr_: _rīkr_ (powerful), _rīkari_,
_rīkastr_; _gǫfugr_ (distinguished), _gǫfgari_, _gǫfgastr_.

95. (2) with _-ri_, _-str_ and mutation: _langr_ (long),
_lęngri_, _lęngstr_; _stōrr_ (big), _stœrri_, _stœrstr_; _ungr_
(young), _yngri_, _yngstr_.

96. The following are irregular:

        gamall (_old_)        ęllri           ęlztr
        gōðr (_good_)         bętri           bęztr
        illr (_bad_)          vęrri           vęrstr
        lītill (_little_)     minni           minstr
        margr (_many_)        fleiri          flestr
        mikill (_great_)      meiri           mestr



           CARDINAL                  ORDINAL

        1. einn (_one_)              fyrstr (_first_)
        2. tveir                     annarr
        3. þrīr                      þriði
        4. fjōrir                    fjōrði
        5. fimm                      fimmti
        6. sex                       sētti
        7. sjau                      sjaundi
        8. ātta                      ātti
        9. nīu                       nīundi
       10. tīu                       tīundi
       11. ellifu                    ellifti
       12. tōlf                      tōlfti
       13. þrettān                   þrettāndi
       14. fjōrtān
       15. fimmtān
       16. sextān
       17. sjautān
       18. ātjān
       19. nītjān
       20. tuttugu
       21. einn ok tuttugu, etc.
       30. þrīr tigir, etc.
      100. tīu tigir
      110. ellifu tigir
      120. hundrað
     1200. þūsund

_einn_ is declined like other adjectives:--


                 MASC.          NEUT.        FEM.

      _Nom._     einn           eitt         ein
      _Acc._     einn           eitt         eina
      _Dat._     einum          einu         einni
      _Gen._     eins           eins         einnar

It also has a pl. _einir_, _einar_, _ein_; gen. _einna_, etc. in
the sense of 'some.'

The next three show various irregularities.


                 MASC.          NEUT.        FEM.

      _Nom._     tveir          tvau         tvær
      _Acc._     tvā            tvau         tvær
      _Dat._     tveim          tveim        tveim
      _Gen._     tvęggja        tvęggja      tvęggja

Similarly _bāðir_ (both):


                 MASC.          NEUT.        FEM.

      _Nom._     bāðir          bæði         bāðar
      _Acc._     bāða           bæði         bāðar
      _Dat._     bāðum          bāðum        bāðum
      _Gen._     bęggja         bęggja       bęggja


                 MASC.          NEUT.        FEM.

      _Nom._     þrīr           þrjū         þrjār
      _Acc._     þrjā           þrjū         þrjār
      _Dat._     þrim           þrim         þrim
      _Gen._     þriggja        þriggja      þriggja


                 MASC.          NEUT.        FEM.

      _Nom._     fjōrir         fjogur       fjōrar
      _Acc._     fjōra          fjogur       fjōrar
      _Dat._     fjōrum         fjōrum       fjōrum
      _Gen._     fjogurra       fjogurra     fjogurra

103. The others are indeclinable up to _þrīr tigir_, etc.; the
_tigir_ being declined regularly as a plural strong _u_-masculine
_tigir_, _tigu_, _tigum_, _tiga_.

104. _hundrað_ is a strong neut.: _tvau hundruð_ (240), _tveim
hundruðum_, etc.  It governs the gen. (as also does _þūsund_):
_fimm hundruð gōlfa_, 'five (six) hundred chambers.'

105. _þūsund_ is a strong _ir_-feminine: _tvær þūsundir_ (2400).

106. _hundrað_ and _þūsund_ are rarely = 100 and 1000.

107. Of the ordinals _fyrstr_ and _annarr_ (§ 91) are strong, the
others weak adjectives.  _þriði_ inserts a _j_: _þriðja_, etc.




    _Sg. Nom._   ek (_I_)       þū (_thou_)     --
        _Acc._   mik            þik             sik (_oneself_)
        _Dat._   mēr            þēr             sēr
        _Gen._   mīn            þīn             sīn

   _Dual Nom._   vit            it              --
        _Acc._   okkr           ykkr            sik
        _Dat._   okkr           ykkr            sēr
        _Gen._   okkar          ykkar           sīn

    _Pl. Nom._   vēr (_we_)     þēr (_ye_)      --
        _Acc._   oss            yðr             sik (_oneselves_)
        _Dat._   oss            yðr             sēr
        _Gen._   vār            yðar            sīn

                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   hann (_he_)    þat (_it_)      hon (_she_)
        _Acc._   hann           þat             hana
        _Dat._   honum          þvī             hęnni
        _Gen._   hans           þess            hęnnar

    _Pl. Nom._   þeir (_they_)  þau             þær
        _Acc._   þā             þau             þær
        _Dat._   þeim           þeim            þeim
        _Gen._   þeira          þeira           þeira

109. _ek_ was often suffixed to its verb, especially in poetry,
being sometimes added twice over: _mætta-k_ (I might), _sā-k-a-k_
(I saw not; _a_='not').  So also _þū_: _er-tu_ (art thou),
_skalt-u_ (shalt thou) = _*skalt-tu_.


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   minn (_my_)    mitt            mīn
        _Acc._   minn           mitt            mīna
        _Dat._   mīnum          mīnu            minni
        _Gen._   mīns           mīns            minnar

    _Pl. Nom._   mīnir          mīn             mīnar
        _Acc._   mīna           mīn             mīnar
        _Dat._   mīnum          mīnum           mīnum
        _Gen._   minna          minna           minna

110. So also _þinn_ (thy), _sinn_ (his, etc., reflexive).

111. _vārr_, _vārt_, _vār_ (our) is regular: acc. masc. _vārn_,
masc. plur. _vārir_, _vāra_, _vārum_, _vārra_, etc.

                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   yðarr (_your_) yðart           yður
        _Acc._   yðarn          yðart           yðra
        _Dat._   yðrum          yðru            yðarri
        _Gen._   yðars          yðars           yðarrar

    _Pl. Nom._   yðrir          yður            yðrar
        _Acc._   yðra           yður            yðrar
        _Dat._   yðrum          yðrum           yðrum
        _Gen._   yðarra         yðarra          yðarra

112. So also _okkarr_ (our two) and _ykkarr_ (your two).

113. _hans_ (his), _þess_ (its), _hęnnar_ (her), and _þeira_
(their) are indeclinable.



                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   sā (_that_)    þat             sū
        _Acc._   þann           þat             þā
        _Dat._   þeim           þvī             þeiri
        _Gen._   þess           þess            þeirar

    _Pl. Nom._   þeir           þau             þær
        _Acc._   þā             þau             þær
        _Dat._   þeim           þeim            þeim
        _Gen._   þeira          þeira           þeira

115. _hinn_, _hitt_, _hin_ (that) is inflected like _minn_
(except that its vowel is short throughout): acc. masc. _hinn_,
plur. masc.  _hinir_, _hina_, _hinum_, _hinna_.


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   þessi (_this_) þetta           þessi
        _Acc._   þenna          þetta           þessa
        _Dat._   þessum         þessu           þessi
        _Gen._   þessa          þessa           þessar

    _Pl. Nom._   þessir         þessi           þessar
        _Acc._   þessa          þessi           þessar
        _Dat._   þessum         þessum          þessum
        _Gen._   þessa          þessa           þessa


The prefixed definite article is declined thus:


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   inn            it              in
        _Acc._   inn            it              ina
        _Dat._   inum           inu             inni
        _Gen._   ins            ins             innar

    _Pl. Nom._   inir           in              inar
        _Acc._   ina            in              inar
        _Dat._   inum           inum            inum
        _Gen._   inna           inna            inna

118. When suffixed to its noun it undergoes various changes. In
its monosyllabic forms it drops its vowel after a short
(un-accented) vowel, as in _auga-t_ (the eye), but keeps it after
a long vowel, as in _ā-in_ (the river), _trē-it_ (the tree).  The
dissyllabic forms drop their initial vowel almost everywhere;
not, however, after the _-ar_, _-r_, of the gen. sg., nor in
_męnninir_ (men, _nom._), _męnn-ina_ (men, _acc._).  The _-m_ of
the dat. pl. is dropped before the suffixed _-num_.

                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   fiskr-inn      skip-it         gjǫf-in
        _Acc._   fisk-inn       skip-it         gjǫf-ina
        _Dat._   fiski-num      skipi-nu        gjǫf-inni
        _Gen._   fisks-ins      skips-ins       gjafar-innar

    _Pl. Nom._   fiskar-nir     skip-in         gjafar-nar
        _Acc._   fiska-na       skip-in         gjafar-nar
        _Dat._   fisku-num      skipu-num       gjǫfu-num
        _Gen._   fiska-nna      skipa-nna       gjafa-nna

    _Sg. Nom._   bogi-nn        auga-t          tunga-n
        _Acc._   boga-nn        auga-t          tungu-na
        _Dat._   boga-num       auga-nu         tungu-nni
        _Gen._   boga-ns        auga-ns         tungu-nnar

    _Pl. Nom._   bogar-nir      augu-n          tungur-nar
        _Acc._   boga-na        augu-n          tungur-nar
        _Dat._   bogu-num       augu-num        tungnu-num
        _Gen._   boga-nna       augna-nna       tungna-nna


119. The ordinary relative pron. is the indeclinable _er_, often
preceded by _sā_: _sā er_ = he who, who, _sū er_ who fem.


120. The neut. _hvat_ has gen. _hvess_, dat. _hvī_, which last is
chiefly used as an adverb = 'why.'


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   hvārr (_which  hvārt           hvār
                       of two_)
        _Acc._   hvārn          hvārt           hvāra
        _Dat._   hvārum         hvāru           hvārri
        _Gen._   hvārs          hvārs           hvārrar

    _Pl. Nom._   hvārir         hvār            hvārar
        _Acc._   hvāra          hvār            hvārar
        _Dat._   hvārum         hvārum          hvārum
        _Gen._   hvārra         hvārra          hvārra


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   hvęrr (_which, hvęrt           hvęr
        _Acc._   hvęrn          hvęrt           hvęrja
        _Dat._   hvęrjum        hvęrju          hvęrri
        _Gen._   hvęrs          hvęrs           hvęrrar

    _Pl. Nom._   hvęrir         hvęr            hvęrjar
        _Acc._   hvęrja         hvęr            hvęrjar
        _Dat._   hvęrjum        hvęrjum         hvęrjum
        _Gen._   hvęrra         hvęrra          hvęrra


123. _einn-hvęrr_, _eitthvęrt_, _einhvęr_ (some one) keeps an
invariable _ein-_ in the other cases, the second element being
inflected as above.

124. _sumr_ (some) is declined like an ordinary adjective.


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   nakkvarr       nakkvat         nǫkkur
        _Acc._   nakkvarn       nakkvat         nakkvara
        _Dat._   nǫkkurum       nǫkkuru         nakkvarri
        _Gen._   nakkvars       nakkvars        nakkvarrar

    _Pl. Nom._   nakkvarir      nǫkkur          nakkvarar
        _Acc._   nakkvara       nǫkkur          nakkvarar
        _Dat._   nǫkkurum       nǫkkurum        nǫkkurum
        _Gen._   nakkvarra      nakkvarra       nakkvarra


                 MASC.          NEUT.           FEM.

    _Sg. Nom._   engi (_none,   ekki            engi
        _Acc._   engan          ekki            enga
        _Dat._   engum          engu            engri
        _Gen._   engis          engis           engrar

    _Pl. Nom._   engir          engi            engar
        _Acc._   enga           engi            engar
        _Dat._   engum          engum           engum
        _Gen._   engra          engra           engra

127. In _hvār-tvęggja_ (each of the two, both) the first element
is declined as above, the second is left unchanged.


128. There are two classes of verbs, _strong_ and _weak_.  Strong
verbs are conjugated partly by means of gradation, weak verbs by
adding _ð_ (_d_, _t_).

129. The _ð_ of the 2 pl. is dropt before _þit_ (ye two) and
_þēr_ (ye): _gefi þēr_, _gāfu þit_.

130. There is a middle voice, which ends in _-mk_ in the 1 pers.
sg. and pl., the rest of the verb being formed by adding _sk_ to
the active endings, _r_ being dropt, the resulting _ts_, _ðs_
being written _z_ (§ 36): _kvezk_ (active _kveðr_ 'says'), _þu
fekkzk_ (_fekkt_ 'gottest').

131. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb _gefa_
(give), which will show those endings which are common to all


                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

  _Present sg._ 1. gef              gef-a
                2. gef-r            gef-ir
                3. gef-r            gef-i

          _pl._ 1. gef-um           gef-im
                2. gef-ið           gef-ið
                3. gef-a            gef-i

_Preterite sg._ 1. gaf              gæf-a
                2. gaf-t            gæf-ir
                3. gaf              gæf-i

          _pl._ 1. gāf-um           gæf-im
                2. gāf-uð           gæf-ið
                3. gāf-u            gæf-i

_Imperative sg._ 2 gef; _pl._ 1 gef-um, 2 gef-ið.
_Participle pres._ gef-andi; _pret._ gef-inn.
_Infin._ gefa.


                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. gef-umk          gef-umk
                2. gef-sk           gef-isk
                3. gef-sk           gef-isk

          _pl._ 1. gef-umk          gef-imk
                2. gef-izk          gef-izk
                3. gef-ask          gef-isk

    _Pret. sg._ 1. gāf-umk          gæf-umk
                2. gaf-zk           gæf-isk
                3. gaf-sk           gæf-isk

          _pl._ 1. gāf-umk          gæf-imk
                2. gāf-uzk          gæf-izk
                3. gāf-usk          gæf-isk

_Impers. sg._ 2 gef-sk; _pl._ 1 gef-umk, 2 gef-izk.
_Partic. pres._ gef-andisk; _pret._ gef-izk _neut._
_Infin._ gef-ask.

                        Strong Verbs

132. In the strong verbs the plur. of the pret. indic. generally
has a different vowel from that of the sing.  The 1 sg. pret. of
the middle voice always has the vowel of the pl. pret.: _gāfumk_.
The pret. subj. has the vowel of the pret. indic. plur. mutated:
_skaut_ (he shot), _skutu_ (they shot), _skyti_ (he might shoot).
But there is no mutation in verbs of the first conj.: _hljōpi_,
inf. _hlaupa_ (leap).

133. The pres. indic. sing. mutates the root-vowel in all three
persons: _ek skȳt_, _þū skȳtr_, _hann skȳtr_, infin. _skjōta_
(shoot).  _e_ however is not mutated: _ek gef_, _þū gefr_.  The
inflectional _r_ is liable to the same modifications as the _r_
of nouns (§ 32): _skīnn_, _vęx_, infin. _skīna_ (shine), _vaxa_

134. Verbs in _ld_ change the _d_ into _t_ in the 1, 3 sg. pret.
indic. and in the imper. sg.: _helt_ (held), _halt_ (hold!),
infin. _halda_.  _nd_ becomes _tt_, and _ng_ becomes _kk_ under
the same conditions: _binda_ (bind), _ganga_ (go), pret. _batt_,
_gekk_, imper. _bitt_, _gakk_.

135. The _t_ of the 2 sg. pret. indic. is doubled after a long
accented vowel: _þū sātt_ (thou sawest).  If the 1 sg. pret.
indic. ends in _t_ or _ð_, the 2 sg. ends in _zt_: _lēt_ (I let),
_þū lēzt_, _bauð_ (I offered) _þū bauzt_.

136. There are seven conjugations of strong verbs, distinguished
mainly by the characteristic vowels of their preterites.


                    I. 'Fall'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

falla (_fall_)      fęllr        fell        fellu     fallinn
lāta (_let_)        lætr         lēt         lētu      lātinn
rāða (_advise_)     ræðr         rēð         rēðu      rāðinn
heita (_call_)      heitr        hēt         hētu      heitinn
halda (_hold_)      hęldr        helt        heldu     haldinn
ganga (_go_)        gęngr        gekk        gengu     gęnginn
fā (_get_)          fær          fekk        fengu     fęnginn
auka (_increase_)   eykr         jōk         jōku      aukinn
būa (_dwell_)       bȳr          bjō         bjoggu    būinn
hǫggva (_hew_)      hǫggr        hjō         hjoggu    hǫggvinn
hlaupa (_leap_)     hleypr       hljōp       hljōpu    hlaupinn

138. The following have weak preterites in _r_:

grōa (_grow_)       grœr         gröri       gröru     grōinn
rōa (_row_)         rœr          röri        röru      rōinn
snūa (_twist_)      snȳr         snöri       snöru     snūinn

139. _heita_ in the passive sense of 'to be named, called' has a
weak present: _ek heiti_, _þū heitir_.


                    II. 'Shake'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

fara (_go_)         fęrr         fōr         fōru      farinn
grafa (_dig_)       gręfr        grōf        grōfu     grafinn
hlaða (_load_)      hlęðr        hlōð        hlōðu     hlaðinn
vaxa (_grow_)       vęx          ōx          ōxu       vaxinn
standa (_stand_)    stęndr       stōð        stōðu     staðinn
aka (_drive_)       ękr          ōk          ōku       ękinn
taka (_take_)       tękr         tōk         tōku      tękinn
draga (_draw_)      dręgr        drō         drōgu     dręginn
flā (_flay_)        flær         flō         flōgu     flęginn
slā (_strike_)      slær         slō         slōgu     slęginn

141. The following have weak presents:

hęfja (_lift_)      hęfr         hōf         hōfu      hafinn
deyja (_die_)       deyr         dō          dō        dāinn
hlæja (_laugh_)     hlær         hlō         hlōgu     hlęginn


                    III. 'Bind'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

bresta (_burst_)    brestr       brast       brustu    brostinn
hverfa (_turn_)     hverfr       hvarf       hurfu     horfinn
svelga (_swallow_)  svelgr       svalg       sulgu     sōlginn
verða (_become_)    verðr        varð        urðu      orðinn
skjālfa (_shake_)   skelfr       skalf       skulfu    skolfinn
drekka (_drink_)    drekkr       drakk       drukku    drukkinn
finna (_find_)      finnr        fann        fundu     fundinn
vinna (_win_)       vinnr        vann        unnu      unninn
binda (_bind_)      bindr        batt        bundu     bundinn
springa (_spring_)  springr      sprakk      sprungu   sprunginn
stinga (_pierce_)   stingr       stakk       stungu    stunginn
bregða (_pull_)     bregðr       brā         brugðu    brugðinn
sökkva (_sink_)     sökkr        sǫkk        sukku     sokkinn
stökkva (_spring_)  stökkr       stǫkk       stukku    stokkinn

143. The following have weak presents (which makes however no
difference in their conjugation):

bręnna (_burn_)     bręnnr       brann       brunnu    brunninn
ręnna (_run_)       ręnnr        rann        runnu     runninn


                    IV. 'Bear'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

bera (_carry_)      berr         bar         bāru      borinn
nema (_take_)       nemr         nam         nāmu      numinn
fela (_hide_)       felr         fal         fālu      fōlginn
koma (_come_)       kömr         kom         kvāmu     kominn
sofa (_sleep_)      söfr         svaf        svāfu     sofinn


                    V. 'Give'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

drepa (_kill_)      drepr        drap        drāpu     drepinn
gefa (_give_)       gefr         gaf         gāfu      gefinn
kveða (_say_)       kveðr        kvað        kvāðu     kveðinn
meta (_estimate_)   metr         mat         mātu      metinn
reka (_drive_)      rekr         rak         rāku      rekinn
eta (_eat_)         etr          āt          ātu       etinn
sjā (_see_)         sēr[6]       sā          sā[7]     sēnn

[Footnote 6: sē, sēr, sēr; sjām, sēð, sjā.  Subj. sē, sēr, sē;
sēm, sēð, sē.]

[Footnote 7: sām, sāið, sā.]

146. The following have weak presents:--

biðja (_ash_)       biðr         bað         bāðu      beðinn
sitja (_sit_)       sitr         sat         sātu      setinn
liggja (_lie_)      liggr        lā          lāgum     leginn
þiggja (_receive_)  þiggr        þā          þāgu      þeginn


                    VI. 'Shine'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

bīta (_bite_)       bītr         beit        bitu      bitinn
drīfa (_drive_)     drīfr        dreif       drifu     drifinn
grīpa (_grasp_)     grīpr        greip       gripu     gripinn
līða (_go_)         līðr         leið        liðu      liðinn
līta (_look_)       lītr         leit        litu      litinn
rīða (_ride_)       rīðr         reið        riðu      riðinn
sīga (_sink_)       sīgr         seig        sigu      siginn
slīta (_tear_)      slītr        sleit       slitu     slitinn
stīga (_advance_)   stīgr        steig       stigu     stiginn
bīða (_wait_)       bīðr         beið        biðu      beiðnn

148. The following has a weak present:

vīkja (_move_)      vīkr         veik        viku      vikinn


                    VII. 'Choose'-conjugation

INFIN.              THIRD PRES.  PRT. SING.  PRT. PL.  PTC. PRT.

bjōða (_offer_)     bȳðr         bauð        buðu      boðinn
brjōta (_break_)    brȳtr        braut       brutu     brotinn
fljōta (_float_)    flȳtr        flaut       flutu     flotinn
hljōta (_receive_)  hlȳtr        hlaut       hlutu     hlotinn
kjōsa (_choose_)    kȳss         kaus        kusum     kosinn
njōta (_enjoy_)     nȳtr         naut        nutu      notinn
skjōta (_shoot_)    skȳtr        skaut       skutu     skotinn
drjūpa (_drop_)     drȳpr        draup       drupu     dropinn
ljūga (_tell lies_) lȳgr         laug        lugu      loginn
lūka (_close_)      lȳkr         lauk        luku      lokinn
lūta (_bend_)       lȳtr         laut        lutu      lotinn
fljūga (_fly_)      flȳgr        flō         flugu     floginn

                          Weak Verbs

150. There are three conjugations of weak verbs.  All those of
the first conjugation have mutated vowels in the pres., and form
their pret. with _ð_ (_d_, _t_): _heyra_ (hear), _heyrða_.  Those
of the second form their pret. in the same way, but have
unmutated vowels in the pres.: _hafa_ (have) _hafða_.  Those of
the third form their pret. in _-aða_: _kalla_ (call), _kallaða_.

                    I. 'Hear'-conjugation



                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. heyr-i           heyr-a
                2. heyr-ir          heyr-ir
                3. heyr-ir          heyr-i

          _pl._ 1. heyr-um          heyr-im
                2. heyr-ið          heyr-ið
                3. heyr-a           heyr-i

    _Pret. sg._ 1. heyr-ða          heyr-ða
                2. heyr-ðir         heyr-ðir
                3. heyr-ði          heyr-ði

          _pl._ 1. heyr-ðum         heyr-ðim
                2. heyr-ðuð         heyr-ðið
                3. heyr-ðu          heyr-ði

_Imper. sg._ 1. heyr; _pl._ 1. heyr-um, 2. heyr-ið.
_Partic. pres._ heyr-andi; _pret._ heyr-ðr.
_Infin._ heyr-a.


                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. heyr-umk         heyr-umk
                2. heyr-isk         heyr-isk
                3. heyr-isk         heyr-isk

          _pl._ 1. heyr-umk         heyr-imk
                2. heyr-izk         heyr-izk
                3. heyr-ask         heyr-isk

    _Pret. sg._ 1. heyr-ðumk        heyr-ðumk
                2. heyr-ðisk        heyr-ðisk
                3. heyr-ðisk        heyr-ðisk

          _pl._ 1. heyr-ðumk        heyr-ðimk
                2. heyr-ðuzk        heyr-ðizk
                3. heyr-ðusk        heyr-ðisk

_Imper. sg._ 2. heyr-sk; _pl._ 1. heyr-umk, 2. heyr-izk.
_Partic. pres._ heyr-andisk; _pret._ heyr-zk _neut._
_Infin._ heyr-ask.

                    A. Without vowel-change

152. The inflectional _ð_ becomes _d_ after long syllables ending
in _l_ or _n_: _sigla_ (sail), _siglda_; _nęfna_ (name),
_nęfnda_, _nęfndr_.

153. _-ðð_ becomes _dd_: _leiða_ (lead), _leidda_.

154. _ð_ after _s_ and _t_ becomes _t_: _reisa_ (raise),
_reista_; _mœta_ (meet), _mœtta_.  Also in a few verbs in _l_,
_n_: _mæla_ (speak), _mælta_; _spęnna_ (buckle), _spęnta_.

155. After _nd_ and _pt_ it is dropped: _sęnda_ (send), _sęnda_,
_sęndr_; _lypta_ (lift), _lypta_.

156. It is preserved in such verbs as the following: _dœma_
(judge), _dœmða_; _fœra_ (lead), _fœrða_; _hęrða_ (harden),
_hęrða_; _hleypa_ (gallop), _hleypða_.

                      B. With vowel-change

157. All these verbs have _j_ preceded by a short syllable
(tęlja), or a long vowel without any cons. after it (dȳja), or
_gg_ (lęggja); the _j_ being kept before _a_ and _u_, as in the
pres. ind. of _spyrja_ (ask): _spyr_, _spyrr_, _spyrr_;
_spyrjum_, _spyrið_, _spyrja_, pres. subj. 1 sg. _ek spyrja_;
they unmutate their vowel in the pret. and ptc. pret. (spurða,
spurðr), the mutation being restored in the pret. subj. _spyrða_,
_spyrðir_, etc.  The ptc. pret. often has an _i_ before the _ð_.

          bęrja (_strike_)       barða          barðr
          lęggja (_lay_)         lagða          lag(i)ðr
          tęlja (_tell_)         talða          tal(i)ðr
          vękja (_wake_)         vakða          vakðr
          flytja (_remove_)      flutta         fluttr
          dȳja (_shake_)         dūða           dūðr

158. The following keep the mutated vowel throughout:

          sęlja (_sell_)         sęlda          sęldr
          sętja (_set_)          sętta          sęttr


159. The following are irregular:

          sœkja (_seek_)         sōtta          sōttr
          þykkja (_seem_)        þōtta          þōttr

Subj. pret. _sœtta_, _þœtta_.

160. The following has an adj. for its partic. pret.:

          gǫ̈ra (_make_)          gǫ̈rða          gǫ̈rr.

                   II. 'Have'-conjugation

161. The few verbs of this class are conjugated like those of
conj. I, except that some of them have imperatives in _-i_:
_vaki_, _þęfi_; _uni_.  _lifa_, _sęgja_ have imper. _lif_, _sęg_.
They mutate the vowel of the pret. subj. (ynða).  Their partic.
pret. generally occurs only in the neut.; sometimes the _a_ is

      lifa (_live_)         lifi       lifða      lifat
      una (_be contented_)  uni        unða       unat
      skorta (_be wanting_) skorti     skorta     skort
      þola (_endure_)       þoli       þolða      þolat
      þora (_dare_)         þori       þorða      þorat
      nā (_attain_)         nāi        nāða       nāðr, nāit

162. The following show mutation:

      sęgja (_say_)         sęgi       sagða      sagðr
      þęgja (_be silent_)   þęgi       þagða      þagat
      hafa (_have_)         hęfi       hafða      hafðr
      kaupa (_buy_)         kaupi      keypta     keyptr

163. The present indic. of the first three is as follows:

        _Sing._ 1. hęfi          sęgi         þęgi
             2, 3. hęfir         sęgir        þęgir

        _Plur._ 1. hǫfum         sęgjum       þęgjum
                2. hafið         sęgið        þęgið
                3. hafa          sęgja        þęgja

164. The rest of _hafa_ is regular.  Pres. subj. _hafa_, _hafir_,
_hafi_; _hafim_, _hafið_, _hafi_.  Pret. indic. _hafða_,
_hafðir_, _hafði_; _hǫfdum_, _hǫfðuð_, _hǫfðu_.  Pret. subj.
_hęfða_, _hęfðir_, _hęfði_; _hęfðim_, _hęfðið_, _hęfði_.  Imper.
_haf_, _hǫfum_, _hafið_.  Ptc. _hafandi_, _hafðr_.

                   III. 'Call'-conjugation


                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. kall-a           kall-a
                2. kall-ar          kall-ir
                3. kall-ar          kall-i

          _pl._ 1. kǫll-um          kall-im
                2. kall-ið          kall-ið
                3. kall-a           kall-i

    _Pres. sg._ 1. kall-aða         kall-aða
                2. kall-aðir        kall-aðir
                3. kall-aði         kall-aði

          _pl._ 1. kǫll-uðum        kall-aðim
                2. kǫll-uðuð        kall-aðið
                3. kǫll-uðu         kall-aði

_Imper. sing._ 2. kall-a; _plur._ 1. kǫll-um, 2. kall-ið.
_Partic. pres._ kall-andi; _pret._ kallaðr (_neut._ kallat).
_Infin._ kalla.


                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. kǫll-umk         kǫll-umk
                2. kall-ask         kall-isk
                3. kall-ask         kall-isk

          _pl._ 1. kǫll-umk         kall-imk
                2. kall-izk         kall-izk
                3. kall-ask         kall-isk

    _Pret. sg._ 1. kǫll-uðumk       kǫll-uðumk
                2. kall-aðisk       kall-aðisk
                3. kall-aðisk       kall-aðisk

          _pl._ 1. kǫll-uðumk       kall-aðimk
                2. kǫll-uðuzk       kall-aðizk
                3. kǫll-uðusk       kall-aðisk

_Imper. sing._ 2. kall-ask; _pl._ 1. kǫll-umk, 2. kall-izk.
_Partic. pres._ kall-andisk; _pret._ kall-azk _neut._
_Infin._ kall-ask.

165. So also _byrja_ (begin), _hęrja_ (make war), _vakna_

                       Strong-Weak Verbs

166. These have old strong preterites for their presents,
from which new weak preterites are formed.

INFIN.            PRES. SG.  PRES. PL.   PRT.       PTC.

eiga (_possess_)  ā          eigu        ātta       āttr
kunna (_can_)     kann       kunnu       kunna      kunnat _n._
mega (_can_)      mā         megu        mātta      mātt _n._
muna (_remember_) man        munu        munða      munat _n._
munu (_will_)     mun        munu        munða      ----
skulu (_shall_)   skal       skulu       skylda     skyldr
þurfa (_need_)    þarf       þurfu       þurfta     þurft _n._
unna (_love_)     ann        unnu        unna       unnt _n._
vita (_know_)     veit       vitu        vissa      vitaðr

167. Of these verbs _munu_ and _skulu_ have preterite
infinitives: _mundu_, _skyldu_.

                       Anomalous Verbs

168. _Vilja_ (will):


                   Sing.             Plur.

                1. vil               viljum
                2. vill              vilið
                3. vill              vilja

_Subj. pres._ vili.  _Pret. ind._ vilda.  _Ptc. prt._ viljat.

169. _Vera_ (be):

                INDICATIVE          SUBJUNCTIVE

    _Pres. sg._ 1. em               sē
                2. ert              sēr
                3. er               sē

          _pl._ 1. erum             sēm
                2. eruð             sēð
                3. eru              sē

    _Pret. sg._ 1. var              væra
                2. vart             værir
                3. var              væri

          _pl._ 1. vārum            værim
                2. vāruð            værið
                3. vāru             væri

_Imper. sg._ ver; _pl._ verið.  _Ptc. prt._ verit _n._


170. Composition with the genitive is very frequent in Icelandic.
Thus by the side of _skip-stjōrn_ (ship-steering) we find
_skips-brot_ (ship's breaking, shipwreck), _skipa-hęrr_ (army of
ships, fleet).  Genitival composition often expresses possession,
as in _konungs-skip_ (king's ship).



171. Prefixes are much less used in Icelandic than in Old

*al-* 'quite,' 'very': _al-būinn_ 'quite ready,' _al-snotr_ 'very

*all-* 'all,' 'very': _all-valdr_ 'all-ruler, monarch,'
_all-harðr_ 'very hard,' _all-stōrum_ 'very greatly.'

*and-* 'against': _and-lit_ 'countenance' (_lita_, look),
_and-svar_ 'answer.'

*fjǫl-* 'many': _fjǫl-męnni_ 'multitude' (_maðr_, man).

*mis-* 'mis-': _mis-līka_ 'displease.'

*ū-* 'un-': _ū-friðr_ 'war' (_friðr_, peace), _ū-happ_
'misfortune' (_happ_ luck).


                          (a) Nouns


172. *-ingr*, *-ingi*, *-ing*: _vīkingr_ 'pirate,' _hǫfðingi_
'chief,' _kęrling_ 'old woman.'


173. *-ð*, fem. with mutation: _fęgrð_ 'beauty' (_fagr_, fair),
_fęrð_ 'journey' (_fara_, go), _lęngð_ 'length' (_langr_, long).

*-ing*, fem.: _svipting_ 'pulling,' _vīking_ 'piracy,' _virðing_

*-leikr*, masc.: _kœr-leikr_ 'affection' (_hœrr_, dear),
_skjōt-leikr_ 'speed' (_skjōtr_, swift).

*-an*, *-un*, fem.: _skipan_ 'arrangement,' _skęmtun_

                        (b) Adjectives

174. *-ugr*: _rāðugr_ 'sagacious,' _þrūðugr_ 'strong.'

*-ōttr*: _kollōttr_ 'bald,' _ǫndōttr_ 'fierce.'

*-lauss* '-less': _fē-lauss_ 'moneyless,' _ōtta-lauss_ 'without

*-ligr* '-ly': _undr-ligr_ 'wonderful,' _sann-ligr_ 'probable'
(_sannr_, true).

*-samr*: _līkn-samr_ 'gracious,' _skyn-samr_ 'intelligent.'

*-verðr* '-ward': _ofan-verðr_ 'upper.'

                          (c) Verbs

175. *-na*: _brotna_ 'be broken' (_brotinn_, broken), _hvītna_
'become white,' _vakna_ 'awake.'  Used to form intransitive and
inchoative verbs of the third conj.

                         (d) Adverbs

176. *-liga* '-ly': _undar-liga_ 'wonderfully,' _stęrk-liga_
'strongly' (_stęrkr_, strong).

*-um*, dat. pl.: _stōrum_ 'greatly' (_stōrr_, great).


177. Icelandic syntax greatly resembles Old English, but has
several peculiarities of its own.


178. Concord is carried out very strictly in Icelandic: _allir
męnn vāru būnir_ 'all the men were ready,' _allir vāru drepnir_
'all were killed.'

179. A plural adj. or pronoun referring to two nouns of different
(natural or grammatical) gender is always put in the neuter: _þā
gekk hann upp, ok með honum Loki_ (masc.), _ok Þjālfi_ (masc.),
_ok Rǫskva_ (fem.).  _þā er þau_ (neut.) _hǫfðu lītla hrið
gęngit..._ 'he landed, and with him L., and Þ., and R.  When they
had walked for some time...'


180. The extensive use of the instrumental dative is very
characteristic of Icelandic: whenever the direct object of a verb
can be considered as the instrument of the action expressed by
the verb, it is put in the dative, as in _kasta spjōti_ 'throw a
spear' (lit. 'throw _with_ a spear'), _hann helt hamarskaptinu_
'he grasped the handle of the hammer,' _heita þvī_ 'promise
that,' _jāta þvī_ 'agree to that.'


181. The weak form of adjectives is used as in O.E. after the
definite article, _þessi_ and other demonstratives.  _annarr_
(other) is always strong.

182., An adj. is often set in apposition to a following noun to
denote part of it: _eiga hālft dȳrit_ 'to have half of the
animal,' _ǫnnur þau_ 'the rest of them,' _of miðja nātt_ 'in the
middle of the night.'


183. _sā_ is often put pleonastically before the definite article
_inn_, both before and after the subst.: _sā inn ungi maðr_ 'that
young man,' _hafit þat it djūpa_ 'the deep sea.'

184. The definite article is generally not expressed at all, or
else _einn_, _einnhvęrr_ is used.

185. A noun (often a proper name) is often put in apposition to a
dual pron. of the first and second persons, or a plur. of the
third person: _þit fēlagar_, 'thou and thy companions,' _með þeim
Āka_ 'with him and Āki.'  Similarly _stęndr Þōrr upp ok þeir
fēlagar_ 'Thor and his companions get up.'

186. The plurals _vēr_, _þēr_ are sometimes used instead of the
singulars _ek_, _þū_, especially when a king is speaking or being
spoken to.

187. _sik_ and _sēr_ are used in a strictly reflexive sense,
referring back to the subject of the sentence, like _se_ in
Latin: _Þorr bauð honum til matar með sēr_ 'Thor asked him to
supper with him.'


188. The tenses for which there is no inflection in the active,
and all those of the passive, are formed by the auxiliaries
_skal_ (shall), _hafa_ (have), _vera_ (be) with the infin. and
ptc. pret., much as in modern English.

189. The historical present is much used, often alternating
abruptly with the preterite.

190. The middle voice is used: (1) in a purely reflexive sense:
_spara_ 'spare,' _sparask_ 'spare oneself, reserve one's
strength.'  (2) intransitively: _būa_ 'prepare,' _būask_ 'become
ready, be ready'; _sętja_ 'set,' _sętjask_ 'sit down'; _sȳna_
'show,' _sȳnask_ 'appear, seem.'  (3) reciprocally: _bęrja_
'strike,' _bęrjask_ 'fight'; _hitta_, 'find,' _hittask_ 'meet.'
In other cases it specializes the meaning of the verb, often
emphasizing the idea of energy or effort: _koma_ 'come,' _komask_
'make one's way.'

191. The impersonal form of expression is widely used in
Icelandic: _rak ā storm_ (acc.) _fyrir þeim_ 'a storm was driven
in their face.'

192. The indef. 'one' is expressed in the same way by the third
pers. sg., and this form of expression is often used when the
subject is perfectly definite: _ok freista skal þessar īþrōttar_
'and this feat shall be tried (by you).'

193. The abrupt change from the indirect to the direct narration
is very common: _Haraldi konungi var sagt at þar var komit
bjarndȳri, 'ok ā Īslęnzkr maðr,'_ 'King Harold was told that a
bear had arrived, and that an Icelander owned it.'  The direct
narration is also used after _at_ (that): _hann svarar at 'ek
skal rīða til Hęljar'_ 'he answers that he will ride to Hel.'


[Note: The asterisks are to help find the spots mentioned in the
notes.  (I took out the line numbers to keep the line width as
close to 65 characters as possible.)  --B.C.]


Þōrr er āsanna framastr, sā er kallaðr er Āsa-þōrr eða
Ǫku-þōrr; hann er stęrkastr allra guðanna ok manna.
Hann ā þar rīki er Þrūð-vangar heita, en hǫll hans heitir [*]
Bilskīrnir; ī þeim sal eru fimm hundruð gōlfa ok fjōrir tigir;
þat er hūs mest, svā at męnn hafa gǫ̈rt. [*]

Þōrr ā hafra tvā, er svā heita, Tann-gnjōstr ok Tann-
grisnir, ok reið þā er hann ękr, en hafrarnir draga reiðina;
þvī er hann kallaðr Ǫkuþōrr.  Hann ā ok þrjā kost-gripi.
Einn þeira er hamarrinn Mjǫllnir, er hrīm-þursar ok berg-
risar kęnna, þā er hann kömr ā lopt, ok er þat eigi undarligt:
hann hęfir lamit margan haus ā fęðrum eða frændum þeira.
Annan grip ā hann bęztan, męgin-gjarðar; ok er hann
spęnnir þeim um sik, þā vęx honum ās-męgin hālfu.  En [*]
þriðja hlut ā hann þann er mikill gripr er ī, þat eru jārn-
glōfar; þeira mā hann eigi missa við hamarskaptit.  En
engi er svā frōðr at tęlja kunni ǫll stōr-virki hans.


Þat er upp-haf þessa māls at Ǫkuþōrr fōr með hafra sīna [*]
ok reið, ok með honum sā āss er Loki er kallaðr; koma
þeir at kveldi til eins bōnda ok fā þar nātt-stað.  En um
kveldit tōk Þōrr hafra sīna, ok skar bāða; ęptir þat vāru
þeir flęgnir ok bornir til kętils; en er soðit var, þā sęttisk [*]
Þōrr til nātt-verðar ok þeir lags-męnn.  Þōrr bauð til matar
með sēr bōndanum, ok konu hans, ok bǫrnum þeira; sonr
bōnda hēt Þjālfi, en Rǫskva dōttir.  Þā lagði Þōrr hafr-
stǫkurnar utar frā eldinum, ok mælti at bōndi ok heima-męnn
hans skyldu kasta ā hafrstǫkurnar beinunum.  Þjālfi, sonr
bōnda, helt ā lær-lęgg hafrsins, ok sprętti ā knīfi sīnum, ok [*]
braut til męrgjar.  Þōrr dvalðisk þar of nāttina; en ī ōttu [*]
fyrir dag stōð hann upp, ok klæddi sik, tōk hamarinn
Mjǫllni ok brā upp, ok vīgði hafrstǫkurnar; stōðu þā upp
hafrarnir, ok var þā annarr haltr ęptra fœti.  Þat fann Þōrr,
ok talði at bōndinn eða hans hjōn mundi eigi skynsamliga
hafa farit með beinum hafrsins: kęnnir hann at brotinn var
lærlęggrinn.  Eigi þarf langt frā þvī at sęgja: vita męgu þat
allir hvęrsu hræddr bōndinn mundi vera, er hann sā at Þōrr
lēt sīga brȳnnar ofan fyrir augun; en þat er sā augnanna, [*]
þā hugðisk hann falla mundu fyrir sjōninni einni samt; hann [*]
hęrði hęndrnar at hamar-skaptinu svā at hvītnuðu knūarnir.
En bōndinn gǫ̈rði sem vān var, ok ǫll hjōnin: kǫlluðu āka-
fliga, bāðu sēr friðar, buðu at fyrir kvæmi alt þat er þau
āttu.  En er hann sā hræzlu þeira, þā gekk af honum
mōðrinn, ok sefaðisk hann; ok tōk af þeim ī sætt bǫrn
þeira, Þjālfa ok Rǫsku, ok gǫ̈rðusk þau þā skyldir þjōnustu-
męnn Þōrs, ok fylgja þau honum jafnan sīðan.

Lēt hann þar ęptir hafra, ok byrjaði fęrðina austr ī
Jǫtun-heima, ok alt til hafsins; ok þā fōr hann ūt yfir
hafit þat it djūpa; en er hann kom til lands, þā gekk hann
upp, ok með honum Loki, ok Þjālfi, ok Rǫskva.  Þā er þau
hǫfðu lītla hrīð gęngit, varð fyrir þeim mǫrk stōr; gengu
þau þann dag allan til myrkrs.  Þjālfi var allra manna [*]
fōt-hvatastr; hann bar kȳl Þōrs, en til vista var eigi gott.
Þā er myrkt var orðit, leituðu þeir sēr til nāttstaðar, ok [*]
fundu fyrir sēr skāla nakkvarn mjǫk mikinn, vāru dyrr ā
ęnda, ok jafn-breiðar skālanum; þar leituðu þeir sēr nātt-
bōls.  En of miðja nātt varð land-skjālfti mikill, gekk jǫrðin
undir þeim skykkjum, ok skalf hūsit.  Þā stōð Þōrr upp, ok
hēt ā lagsmęnn sīna; ok leituðusk fyrir, ok fundu af-hūs til
hœgri handar i miðjum skālanum, ok gengu þannig; sęttisk
Þōrr ī dyrrin, en ǫnnur þau vāru innar frā honum, ok vāru
þau hrædd, en Þōrr helt hamarskaptinu, ok hugði at vęrja
sik; þā heyrðu þau ym mikinn ok gnȳ.  En er kom at
dagan, þā gekk Þōrr ūt, ok sēr hvar lā maðr skamt frā [*]
honum ī skōginum, ok var sā eigi lītill; hann svaf, ok hraut
stęrkliga.  Þā þōttisk Þōrr skiIja hvat lātum verit hafði of
nāttina; hann spęnnir sik męgingjǫrðum, ok ōx honum
āsmęgin; en ī þvī vaknar maðr sā, ok stōð skjōtt upp; en
þā er sagt at Þōr varð bilt einu sinni at slā hann með ham- [*]
rinum; ok spurði hann at nafni, en sā nęfndisk Skrȳmir: [*]
'en eigi þarf ek,' sagði hann, 'at spyrja þik at nafni: kęnni
ek at þū ert Āsaþōrr; en hvārt hęfir þū dręgit ā braut hanzka
minn?'  Seildisk þā Skrȳmir til, ok tōk upp hanzka sinn;
sēr Þōrr þā at þat hafði hann haft of nāttina fyrir skāla, en
afhūsit þat var þumlungrinn hanzkans.  Skrȳmir spurði ef
Þōrr vildi hafa fǫru-neyti hans, en Þōrr jātti þvī.  Þā tōk
Skrȳmir ok leysti nestbagga sinn, ok bjōsk til at eta dǫgurð,
en Þōrr ī ǫðrum stað ok hans fēlagar.  Skrȳmir bauð þā at
þeir lęgði mǫtu-neyti sitt, en Þōrr jātti þvī; þā batt Skrȳmir
nest þeira alt ī einn bagga, ok lagði ā bak sēr; hann gekk
fyrir of daginn, ok steig hęldr stōrum, en sīðan at kveldi
leitaði Skrȳmir þeim nāttstaðar undir eik nakkvarri mikilli.
Þā mælti Skrȳmir til Þōrs at hann vill lęggjask niðr at
sofna; 'en þēr takið nest-baggann, ok būið til nātt-verðar [*]
yðr.'  Þvī næst sofnar Skrȳmir, ok hraut fast; en Þōrr tōk
nest-baggann ok skal leysa; en svā er at sęgja, sem ū-trūligt
mun þykkja, at engi knūt fekk hann leyst, ok engi ālar-
ęndann hreyft, svā at þā væri lausari en āðr.  Ok er hann
sēr at þetta verk mā eigi nȳtask, þā varð hann reiðr, greip
þā hamarinn Mjǫllni tveim hǫndum, ok steig fram ǫðrum
fœti at þar er Skrȳmir lā, ok lȳstr ī hǫfuð honum; en
Skrȳmir vaknar, ok spyrr hvārt laufs-blað nakkvat felli ī
hǫfuð honum, eða hvārt þeir hęfði þā matazk, ok sē būnir
til rękkna.  Þōrr sęgir at þeir munu þā sofa ganga.  Ganga
þau þā undir aðra eik.  Er þat þēr satt at sęgja, at ekki var [*]
þā ōttalaust at sofa.  En at miðri nātt þā heyrir Þōrr at
Skrȳmir hrȳtr, ok söfr fast, svā at dunar ī skōginum.  Þā
stęndr hann upp, ok gęngr til hans, reiðir hamarinn tītt ok
hart, ok lȳstr ofan ī miðjan hvirfil honum; hann kęnnir at
hamars-muðrinn sökkr djūpt ī hǫfuðit.  En ī þvī bili vaknar
Skrȳmir, ok mælti: 'hvat er nū? fell akarn nakkvat ī hǫfuð
mēr? eða hvat er tītt um þik, Þōrr?'  En Þōrr gekk aptr
skyndiliga, ok svarar at hann var þā nȳvaknaðr, sagði at þā
var mið nātt, ok enn væri māl at sofa.  Þā hugsaði Þōrr þat,
ef hann kvæmi svā ī fœri at slā hann it þriðja hǫgg, at aldri
skyldi hann sjā sik sīðan; liggr nū ok gætir ef Skrȳmir [*]
sofnaði fast.  En lītlu fyrir dagan þā heyrir hann at Skrȳmir
mun sofnat hafa; stęndr þā upp, ok hleypr at honum, reiðir
þā hamarinn af ǫllu afli ok lȳstr ā þunn-vangann þann er
upp vissi; sökkr þā hamarrinn upp at skaptinu.  En Skrȳ-
mir sęttisk upp, ok strauk of vangann, ok mælti: 'hvārt
munu fuglar nakkvarir sitja ī trēnu yfir mēr? mik grunaði,
er ek vaknaða, at tros nakkvat af kvistunum felli ī hǫfuð
mēr; hvārt vakir þū, Þōrr?  Māl mun vera upp at standa
ok klæðask, en ekki eigu þēr nū langa leið fram til borgar-
innar er kǫlluð er Ūt-garðr.  Heyrt hęfi ek at þēr hafið
kvisat ī milli yðvar at ek væra ekki lītill maðr vęxti, en sjā
skulu þēr þar stœrri męnn, er þēr komið ī Ūtgarð.  Nū mun
ek rāða yðr heil-ræði: lāti þēr eigi stōrliga yfir yðr, ekki
munu hirðmęnn Ūtgarða-loka vel þola þvīlīkum kǫgur-
sveinum kǫpur-yrði; en at ǫðrum kosti hverfið aptr, ok
þann ætla ek yðr bętra af at taka.  En ef þēr vilið fram [*]
fara, þā stęfni þēr ī austr, en ek ā nū norðr leið til fjalla
þessa er nū munu þēr sjā mega.'  Tękr Skrȳmir nest-bag-
garm, ok kastar ā bak sēr, ok snȳr þvęrs ā braut ī skōginn
frā þeim, ok er þess eigi getit at æsirnir bæði þā heila [*]

Þōrr fōr fram ā leið ok þeir fēlagar, ok gekk fram til miðs
dags; þā sā þeir borg standa ā vǫllum nǫkkurum, ok sęttu [*]
hnakkann ā bak sēr aptr, āðr þeir fengu sēt yfir upp; ganga
til borgarinnar, ok var grind fyri borg-hliðinu, ok lokin aptr.
Þōrr gekk ā grindina, ok fekk eigi upp lokit; en er þeir
þreyttu at komask ī borgina, þā smugu þeir milli spalanna
ok kōmu svā inn; sā þā hǫll mikla, ok gengu þannig; var
hurðin opin; þā gengu þeir inn, ok sā þar marga męnn
ā tvā bękki, ok flesta œrit stōra.  Þvī næst koma þeir fyrir [*]
konunginn, Ūtgarðaloka, ok kvǫddu hann, en hann leit seint
til þeira, ok glotti um tǫnn, ok mælti: 'seint er um langan [*]
veg at spyrja tīðinda, eða er annan veg en ek hygg, at þessi [*]
svein-stauli sē Ǫkuþōrr? en meiri muntu vera en mēr līzk
þū; eða hvat īþrōtta er þat er þēr fēlagar þykkizk vera við
būnir?  Engi skal hēr vera með oss sā er eigi kunni nakkvars
konar list eða kunnandi um fram flesta męnn.'  Þā sęgir sā
er sīðast gekk, er Loki heitir: 'kann ek þā īþrōtt, er ek em
al-būinn at reyna, at engi er hēr sā inni er skjōtara skal eta [*]
mat sinn en ek.'  Þā svarar Ūtgarðaloki: 'īþrōtt er þat, ef
þū ęfnir, ok freista skal þā þessar īþrōttar;' kallaði utar ā [*]
bękkinn at sā er Logi heitir skal ganga ā gōlf fram, ok freista
sīn ī mōti Loka.  Þā var tękit trog eitt, ok borit inn ā hallar-
gōlfit, ok fylt af slātri; sęttisk Loki at ǫðrum ęnda, en Logi
at ǫðrum, ok āt hvārr-tvęggja sem tīðast, ok mœttusk ī miðju
troginu; hafði þā Loki etit slātr alt af beinum, en Logi hafði
ok etit slātr alt ok beinin með, ok svā trogit; ok sȳndisk nū
ǫllum sem Loki hęfði lātit leikinn.  Þā spyrr Ūtgarðaloki
hvat sā inn ungi maðr kunni leika.  En Þjālfi sęgir at hann
mun freista at ręnna skeið nǫkkur við einn-hvęrn þann er
Ūtgarðaloki fær til.  Hann sęgir, Ūtgarðaloki, at þetta er
gōð īþrōtt, ok kallar þess meiri vān at hann sē vel at sēr [*]
būinn of skjōtleikinn, ef hann skal þessa īþrōtt inna; en þō
lætr hann skjōtt þessa skulu freista.  Stęndr þā upp Ūtgarða-
loki, ok gęngr ūt, ok var þar gott skeið at ręnna ęptir slēttum
vęlli.  Þā kallar Ūtgarðaloki til sīn sveinstaula nakkvarn, er
nęfndr er Hugi, ok bað hann ręnna ī kǫpp við Þjālfa.  Þā
taka þeir it fyrsta skeið, ok er Hugi þvī framar at hann
snȳsk aptr ī mōti honum at skeiðs ęnda.  Þā mælti Ūtgarða-
loki: 'þurfa muntu, Þjālfi, at lęggja þik meir fram, ef þū
skalt vinna leikinn; en þō er þat satt, at ekki hafa hēr komit
þeir męnn er mēr þykkja fōthvatari en svā.'  Þā taka þeir [*]
aptr annat skeið, ok þā er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs ęnda,
ok hann snȳsk aptr, þā var langt kōlf-skot til Þjālfa.  Þā
mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel þykkir mēr Þjālfi ręnna; en eigi
trūi ek honum nū at hann vinni leikinn, en nū mun reyna,
er þeir ręnna it þriðja skeiðit.'  Þā taka þeir ęnn skeið; en
er Hugi er kominn til skeiðs ęnda ok snȳsk aptr, ok er [*]
Þjālfi eigi þā kominn ā mitt skeiðit; þā sęgja allir at reynt
er um þenna leik.  Þā spyrr Ūtgarðaloki Þōr, hvat þeira
īþrōtta mun vera er hann muni vilja birta fyrir þeim, svā
miklar sǫgur sem męnn hafa gǫ̈rt um stōrvirki hans.  Þā
mælti Þōrr at hęlzt vill hann þat taka til, at þreyta drykkju
við einnhvęrn mann.  Ūtgarðaloki sęgir at þat mā vel vera;
ok gęngr inn ī hǫllina, ok kallar skutil-svein sinn, biðr at
hann taki vītis-horn þat, er hirðmęnn eru vanir at drekka af.
Þvī næst kömr fram skutilsveinn með horninu, ok fær Þōr ī
hǫnd.  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'af horni þessu þykkir þā
vel drukkit, ef ī einum drykk gęngr af, en sumir męnn
drekka af ī tveim drykkjum, en engi er svā lītill drykkju-
maðr, at eigi gangi af ī þrimr.'  Þōrr lītr ā hornit, ok sȳnisk
ekki mikit, ok er þō hęldr langt, en hann er mjǫk þyrstr;
tękr at drekka, ok svelgr allstōrum, ok hyggr at eigi skal
þurfa at lūta optar at sinni ī hornit.  En er hann þraut [*]
örindit, ok hann laut ōr horninu, ok sēr hvat leið drykkinum, [*]
ok līzk honum svā, sem all-lītill munr mun vera at nū sē
lægra ī horninu en āðr.  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'vel er
drukkit, ok eigi til mikit; eigi munda-k trūa, ef mēr væri
sagt frā, at Āsaþōrr mundi eigi meira drykk drekka; en
þō veit ek at þū munt vilja drekka af ī ǫðrum drykk.'
Þōrr svarar engu, sętr hornit ā munn sēr, ok hyggr nū at
hann skal drekka meira drykk, ok þreytir ā drykkjuna, sem
honum vannsk til örindi, ok sēr ęnn at stikillinn hornsins
vill ekki upp svā mjǫk sem honum līkar; ok er hann tōk
hornit af munni sēr ok sēr, līzk honum nū svā, sem minna
hafi þorrit en ī inu fyrra sinni; er nū gott beranda borð
ā horninu.  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'hvat er nū, Þōrr?
muntu nū eigi sparask til eins drykkjar meira en þēr mun
hagr ā vera?  Svā līzk mēr, ef þū skalt nū drekka af horninu
inn þriðja drykkinn, sem þessi mun mestr ætlaðr; en ekki [*]
muntu mega hēr með oss heita svā mikill maðr sem æsir
kalla þik, ef þū gǫ̈rir eigi meira af þēr um aðra leika en mēr
līzk sem um þenna mun vera.'  Þā varð Þōrr reiðr, sętr
hornit ā munn sēr, ok drekkr sem ākafligast mā hann, ok
þreytir sem lęngst ā drykkinn; en er hann sā ī hornit, þā
hafði nū hęlzt nakkvat munr ā fęngizk, ok þā bȳðr hann upp
hornit, ok vill eigi drekka meira.  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki:
'auð-sēt er nū at māttr þinn er ekki svā mikill sem vēr
hugðum; en vill-tu freista um fleiri leika?  Sjā mā nū, at
ekki nȳtir þū hēr af.'  Þōrr svarar: 'freista mā ek ęnn of
nakkvara leika, en undarliga mundi mēr þykkja, þā er ek var
heima með āsum, ef þvīlīkir drykkir væri svā lītlir kallaðir.  En
hvat leik vili þēr nū bjōða mēr?'  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'þat
gǫ̈ra hēr ungir sveinar er lītit mark mun at þykkja, at hęfja
upp af jǫrðu kǫtt minn; en eigi munda-k kunna at mæla
þvīlīkt við Āsaþōr, ef ek hęfða eigi sēt fyrr at þū ert miklu
minni fyrir þēr en ek hugða.'  Þvī næst hljōp fram kǫttr
einn grār ā hallargōlfit, ok hęldr mikill; en Þōrr gekk til, ok
tōk hęndi sinni niðr undir miðjan kviðinn, ok lypti upp, en
kǫttrinn beygði kęnginn, svā sem Þōrr rētti upp hǫndina; en
er Þōrr seildisk svā langt upp sem hann mātti lęngst, þā lētti
kǫttrinn einum fœti, ok fær Þōrr eigi framit þenna leik.  Þā
mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'svā fōr þessi leikr sem mik varði;
kǫttrinn er hęldr mikill, en Þōrr er lāgr ok lītill hjā stōr-
męnni þvī sem hēr er með oss.'  Þā mælti Þōrr: 'svā lītinn
sem pēr kallið mik, þā gangi nū til einnhvęrr, ok fāisk við
mik; nū em ek reiðr.'  Þā svarar Ūtgarðaloki, ok litask um
ā bękkina, ok mælti: 'eigi sē ek þann mann hēr inni, er
eigi mun lītil-ræði ī þykkja at fāsk við þik;' ok ęnn mælti
hann: 'sjām fyrst, kalli mēr hingat kęrlinguna, fōstru mīna [*]
Ęlli, ok fāisk Þōrr við hana, ef hann vill; fęlt hęfir hon þā
męnn er mēr hafa litizk eigi ū-stęrkligri en Þōrr er.'  Þvī
næst gekk ī hǫllina kęrling ein gǫmul.  Þā mælti Ūtgar-
ðaloki, at hon skal taka fang við Āsaþōr.  Ekki er langt um.
at gǫ̈ra: svā fōr fang þat at þvī harðara er Þōrr knūðisk at
fanginu, þvī fastara stōð hon; þā tōk kęrling at leita til
þragða, ok varð Þōrr þā lauss ā fōtum, ok vāru þær svip-
tingar all-harðar, ok eigi lęngi āðr en Þōrr fell ā knē ǫðrum
fœti.  Þā gekk til Ūtgarðaloki, bað þau hætta fanginu, ok
sagði svā, at Þōrr mundi eigi þurfa at bjōða fleirum mǫnnum
fang ī hans hǫll; var þā ok liðit ā nātt, vīsaði Ūtgarðaloki
Þōr ok þeim fēlǫgum til sætis, ok dvęljask þar nātt-langt ī
gōðum fagnaði.

En at morgni, þegar dagaði, stęndr Þōrr upp ok þeir
fēlagar, klæða sik, ok eru būnir braut at ganga.  Þā kom
þar Ūtgarðaloki, ok lēt sętja þeim borð; skorti þā eigi
gōðan fagnað, mat ok drykk.  En er þeir hafa matazk, þā
snūask þeir til fęrðar.  Ūtgarðaloki fylgir þeim ūt, gęngr
með þeim braut ōr borginni; en at skilnaði þā mælti Ūtgar-
ðaloki til Þōrs, ok spyrr hvęrnig honum þykkir fęrð sīn
orðin, eða hvārt hann hęfir hitt rīkara mann nakkvarn en
sik.  Þōrr svarar at eigi mun hann þat sęgja, at eigi hafi
hann mikla ū-sœmð farit ī þeira við-skiptum; 'en þō veit [*]
ek at þēr munuð kalla mik lītinn mann fyrir mēr, ok uni ek
þvī illa.'  Þā mælti Ūtgarðaloki: 'nū skal sęgja þēr it sanna,
er þū ert ūt kominn ōr borginni--ok ef ek lifi ok mega-k
rāða, þā skaltu aldri optar ī hana koma; ok þat veit trūa
mīn, at aldri hęfðir þū ī hana komit, ef ek hęfða vitat āðr at
þū hęfðir svā mikinn krapt með þēr, ok þū hafðir svā nær
haft oss mikilli ū-fœru.  En sjōn-hvęrfingar hęfi ek gǫ̈rt þēr,
svā at fyrsta sinn, er ek fann þik ā skōginum, kom ek til
fundar við yðr; ok þā er þū skyldir leysa nestbaggann, þā
hafða-k bundit með gres-jārni, en þū fannt eigi hvar upp
skyldi lūka.  En þvī næst laust þū mik með hamrinum þrjū
hǫgg, ok var it fyrsta minst, ok var þō svā mikit, at mēr
mundi ęndask til bana, ef ā hęfði komit; en þar er þū sātt
hjā hǫll minni set-berg, ok þar sātt-u ofan ī þrjā dala fer-
skeytta ok einn djūpastan, þat vāru hamarspor þin; setber-
ginu brā ek fyrir hǫggin en eigi sātt þū þat.  Svā var ok of
leikana, er þēr þreyttuð við hirðmęnn mīna.  Þā var þat it
fyrsta, er Loki gǫ̈rði; hann var mjǫk soltinn, ok āt tītt; en
sā er Logi hēt, þat var villi-eldr, ok bręndi hann eigi seinna
slātrit en trogit.  En er Þjālfi þreytti rāsina við þann er
Hugi hēt, þat var hugi minn, ok var Þjālfa eigi vænt at
þreyta skjōt-fœri við hann.  En er þū drakkt af horninu, ok
þōtti þēr seint līða,--en þat veit trūa mīn, at þā varð þat
undr, er ek munda eigi trūa at vera mætti; annarr ęndir
hornsins var ūt ī hafi, en þat sāttu eigi; en nū, er þū kömr
til sævarins, þā mun-tu sjā mega, hvęrn þurð þū hęfir drukkit
ā sænum.'  Þat eru nū fjǫrur kallaðar.  Ok ęnn mælti hann:
'eigi þōtti mēr hitt minna vera vert, er þū lyptir upp kęt-
tinum, ok þēr satt at sęgja, þā hræddusk allir þeir er sā,
er þū lyptir af jǫrðu einum fœtinum; en sā kǫttr var eigi
sem þēr sȳndisk; þat var Miðgarðs-ormr, er liggr um lǫnd
ǫll, ok vannsk honum varliga lęngðin til, at jǫrðina tœki
sporðr ok hǫfuð; ok svā langt seildisk þū upp at skamt var
þā til himins.  En hitt var ok mikit undr um fangit, er þū
fekkzk við Ęlli; fyrir þvī at engi hęfir sā orðit, ok engi
mun verða, ef svā gamall er at ęlli bīðr, at eigi komi ęllin
ǫllum til falls.  Ok er nū þat sātt at sęgja, at vēr munum
skiljask, ok mun þā bętr hvārratvęggju handar at þēr komið
eigi optar mik at hitta; ek mun ęnn annat sinn vęrja borg
mīna með þvīlīkum vēlum eða ǫðrum, svā at ekki vald munu
þēr ā mēr fā.'  En er Þōrr heyrði þessa tǫlu, greip hann til
hamarsins, ok bregðr ā lopt; en er hann skal fram reiða, þā
sēr hann þar hvęrgi Ūtgarðaloka, ok þā snȳsk hann aptr til
borgarinnar, ok ætlask þā fyrir at brjōta borgina; þā sēr
hann þar vǫllu vīða ok fagra, en enga borg.  Snȳsk hann
þā aptr, ok fęrr leið sina, til þess er hann kom aptr ī Þrūð-


Annarr sonr Ōðins er Baldr, ok er frā honum gott at
sęgja: hann er bęztr, ok hann lofa allir.  Hann er svā fagr
ā-litum ok bjartr svā at lȳsir af honum; ok eitt gras er svā
hvītt at jafnat er til Baldrs brār, þat er allra grasa hvītast;
ok þar ęptir māttu marka hans fęgrð, bæði ā hār ok ā līki;
hann er vitrastr āsanna, ok fęgrstr taliðr ok līknsamastr.  En
sū nāttūra fylgir honum at engi mā haldask dōmr hans. [*]
Hann bȳr þar sem heitir Breiða-blik, þat er ā himni; ī þeim
stað mā ekki vera ū-hreint, svā sem hēr sęgir:

    Breiðablik heita,     þar er Baldr hęfir
        sēr of gǫ̈rva sali;
    ī þvī landi      er ek liggja veit
        fæsta feikn-stafi.


Þat er upphaf þessar sǫgu, at Baldr inn gōða dreymði
drauma stōra ok hættliga um līf sitt.  En er hann sagði
āsunum draumana, þā bāru þeir saman rāð sīn, ok var þat
gǫ̈rt at beiða griða Baldri fyrir alls konar hāska; ok Frigg
tōk svardaga til þess, at eira skyldu Baldri eldr ok vatn, jārn
ok alls konar mālmr, steinar, jǫrðin, viðirnir, sōttirnar, dȳrin,
fuglarnir, eitr, ormar.  En er þetta var gǫ̈rt ok vitat, þā var
þat skęmtun Baldrs ok āsanna at hann skyldi standa upp ā
þingum, en allir aðrir skyldu sumir skjōta ā hann, sumir
hǫggva til, sumir bęrja grjōti.  En hvat sem at var gǫ̈rt,
sakaði hann ekki, ok þōtti þetta ǫllum mikill frami.  En er [*]
þetta sā Loki Laufeyjar-son, þā līkaði honum illa er Baldr
sakaði ekki.  Hann gekk til Fęn-salar til Friggjar, ok brā
sēr ī konu līki; þā spyrr Frigg ef sū kona vissi hvat æsir
hǫfðusk at ā þinginu.  Hon sagði at allir skutu at Baldri,
ok þat, at hann sakaði ekki.  Þā mælti Frigg: 'eigi munu
vāpn eða viðir granda Baldri; eiða hęfi ek þęgit af ǫllum
þeim.'  Þā spyrr konan: 'hafa allir hlutir eiða unnit at eira
Baldri?'  Þā svarar Frigg: 'vęx viðar-teinungr einn fyrir
vestan Val-hǫll; sā er Mistilteinn kallaðr; sā þōtti mēr ungr [*]
at kręfja eiðsins.'  Þvī næst hvarf konan ā braut; en Loki
tōk Mistiltein ok sleit upp, ok gekk til þings.  En Hǫðr stōð
utarliga ī mannhringinum, þvī at hann var blindr.  Þā mælti
Loki við hann: 'hvī skȳtr þū ekki at Baldri?'  Hann svarar:
'þvī at ek sē eigi, hvar Baldr er, ok þat annat, at ek em
vapnlauss.'  Þā mælti Loki: 'gǫ̈r-ðu þō ī līking annarra,
manna, ok veit Baldri sœmð sem aðrir męnn; ek mun vīsa
þēr til, hvar hann stęndr; skjōt at honum vęndi þessum.'
Hǫðr tōk Mistiltein, ok skaut at Baldri at tilvīsun Loka;
flaug skotit ī gęgnum hann, ok fell hann dauðr til jarðar; ok
hęfir þat mest ū-happ verit unnit með goðum ok mǫnnum. [*]
Þā er Baldr var fallinn, þā fellusk ǫllum āsum orð-tǫk, ok
svā hęndr at taka til hans; ok sā hvęrr til annars, ok vāru [*]
allir með einum hug til þess er unnit hafði verkit; en engi
mātti hęfna: þar var svā mikill griða-staðr.  En þā er
æsirnir freistuðu at mæla, þā var hitt þō fyrr, at grātrinn [*]
kom upp, svā at engi mātti ǫðrum sęgja með orðunum frā
sīnum harmi.  En Ōðinn bar þeim mun vęrst þenna skaða,
sem hann kunni mesta skyn, hvęrsu mikil af-taka ok missa
āsunum var ī frā-falli Baldrs.  En er goðin vitkuðusk, þā
mælti Frigg ok spurði, hvęrr sā væri með āsum, er eignask
vildi allar āstir hennar ok hylli, ok vili hann rīða ā hęl-veg [*]
ok freista ef hann fāi fundit Baldr, ok bjōða Hęlju ūt-lausn,
ef hon vill lāta fara Baldr heim ī Ās-garð.  En sā er nęfndr
Hęrmōðr inn hvati, sonr Ōðins, er til þeirar farar varð.  Þā
var tękinn Sleipnir, hestr Ōðins, ok leiddr fram, ok steig
Hęrmōðr ā þann hest, ok hleypði braut.

En æsirnir tōku līk Baldrs ok fluttu til sævar.  Hring-
horni hēt skip Baldrs, hann var allra skipa mestr; hann
vildu goðin fram sętja, ok gǫ̈ra þar ā bāl-fǫr Baldrs; en
skipit gekk hvęrgi fram.  Þā var sęnt ī Jǫtunheima ęptir
gȳgi þeiri er Hyrrokin hēt; en er hon kom, ok reið vargi,
ok hafði hǫgg-orm at taumum, þā hljōp hon af hestinum,
en Ōðinn kallaði til ber-sęrki fjōra at gæta hestsins, ok fengu
þeir eigi haldit, nema þeir fęldi hann.  Þā gekk Hyrrokin ā [*]
fram-stafn nǫkkvans, ok hratt fram ī fyrsta við-bragði, svā
at eldr hraut ōr hlunnunum, ok lǫnd ǫll skulfu.  Þā varð
Þōrr reiðr, ok greip hamarinn, ok mundi þā brjōta hǫfuð
hęnnar, āðr en goðin ǫll bāðu hęnni friðar.  Þā var borit
ūt ā skipit līk Baldrs; ok er þat sā kona hans, Nanna, Neps
dōttir, þā sprakk hon af harmi, ok dō; var hon borin ā
bālit, ok slęgit ī eldi.  Þā stōð Þōrr at, ok vīgði bālit með
Mjǫllni; en fyrir fōtum hans rann dvergr nakkvarr, sā er
Litr nęfndr; en Þōrr spyrndi fœti sīnum ā hann, ok hratt
honum ī eldinn, ok brann hann.  En at þessi bręnnu sōtti
margs konar þjōð: fyrst at sęgja frā Ōðni, at með honum
fōr Frigg ok valkyrjur ok hrafnar hans; en Freyr ōk ī kęrru
með gęlti þeim er Gullin-bursti heitir eða Slīðrug-tanni; en
Heimdallr reið hesti þeim er Gull-toppr heitir; en Freyja
kǫttum sīnum.  Þar kömr ok mikit fōlk hrīmþursa, ok berg-
risar.  Ōðinn lagði ā bālit gullhring þann er Draupnir
heitir; honum fylgði sīðan sū nāttūra, at hina nīundu hvęrja
nātt drupu af honum ātta gullhringar jafn-hǫfgir.  Hestr
Baldrs var leiddr ā bālit með ǫllu reiði.

En þat er at sęgja frā Hęrmōði, at hann reið nīu nætr
dökkva dala ok djūpa, svā at hann sā ekki, fyrr en hann
kom til ārinnar Gjallar, ok reið ā Gjallar-brūna; hon er
þǫkð lȳsi-gulli.  Mōðguðr er nęfnd mær sū er gætir brūar-
innar; hon spurði hann at nafni eða ætt, ok sagði at hinn
fyrra dag riðu um brūna fimm fylki dauðra manna; 'en eigi
dynr brūin minnr undir einum þēr, ok eigi hęfir þū lit dauðra
manna; hvī rīðr þū hēr ā hęlveg?'  Hann svarar at 'ek
skal rīða til hęljar at leita Baldrs, eða hvārt hęfir þū nakkvat
sēt Baldr ā hęlvegi?'  En hon sagði at Baldr hafði þar
riðit um Gjallarbrū; 'en niðr ok norðr liggr hęlvegr.'  Þā
reið Hęrmōðr þar til er hann kom at hęl-grindum; þā steig
hann af hestinum, ok gyrði hann fast, steig upp, ok keyrði
hann sporum, en hestrinn hljōp svā hart, ok yfir grindina, at
hann kom hvęrgi nær.  Þā reið Hęrmōðr heim til hallar- [*]
innar, ok steig af hesti, gekk inn ī hǫllina, sā þar sitja ī
ǫndvegi Baldr, brōður sinn; ok dvalðisk Hęrmōðr þar um
nāttina.  En at morgni þā beiddisk Hęrmōðr af Hęlju at
Baldr skyldi rīða heim með honum, ok sagði hvęrsu mikill
grātr var með āsum.  En Hęl sagði at þat skyldi svā reyna, [*]
hvārt Baldr var svā āst-sæll sem sagt er; 'ok ef allir hlutir ī
heiminum, kykvir ok dauðir, grāta hann, þā skal hann fara
til āsa aptr, en haldask með Hęlju, ef nakkvarr mællr við,
eða vill eigi grāta.'  Þā stōð Hęrmōðr upp, en Baldr leiðir
hann ūt ōr hǫllinni, ok tōk hringinn Draupni, ok sęndi Ōðni
til minja, en Nanna sęndi Frigg ripti ok ęnn fleiri gjafar,
Fullu fingr-gull.  Þā reið Hęrmōðr aptr leið sīna, ok kom ī
Āsgarð, ok sagði ǫll tīðindi þau er hann hafði sēt ok heyrt.

Þvī næst sęndu æsir um allan heim örind-reka, at biðja
at Baldr væri grātinn ōr hęlju; en allir gǫ̈rðu þat, męnninir,
ok kykvendin, ok jǫrðin, ok steinarnir, ok trē, ok allr mālmr;
svā sem þū munt sēt hafa, at þessir hlutir grāta, þā er þeir
koma ōr frosti ok ī hita.  Þā er sęndi-męnn fōru heim, ok
hǫfðu vel rekit sīn örindi, finna þeir ī hęlli nǫkkurum hvar [*]
gȳgr sat; hon nęfndisk Þǫkk.  Þeir biðja hana grāta Baldr
ōr hęlju.  Hon svarar:

   'Þǫkk mun grāta     þurrum tārum
    Baldrs bālfarar;
    kyks nē dauðs     naut-k-a-k karls sonar; [*]
    haldi Hęl þvī es hęfir!'

En þess geta męnn, at þar hafi verit Loki Laufeyjar-son,
er flest hęfir ilt gǫ̈rt með āsum.


Konungr sā er Hǫgni er nęfndr ātti dōttur, er Hildr hēt.
Hana tōk at hęr-fangi konungr sā er Hēðinn hēt, Hjarranda-
son.  Þā var Hǫgni konungr farinn ī konunga-stęfnu; en er
hann spurði at hęrjat var ī rīki hans, ok dōttir hans var ī
braut tękin, þā fōr hann með sīnu liði at leita Hēðins, ok
spurði til hans at Hēðinn hafði siglt norðr með landi.  Þā [*]
er Hǫgni konungr kom ī Noreg, spurði hann at Hēðinn
hafði siglt vestr um haf.  Þā siglir Hǫgni ęptir honum allt
til Orkn-eyja; ok er hann kom þar sem heitir Hā-ey, þā [*]
var þar fyrir Hēðinn með lið sitt.  Þā fōr Hildr ā fund fǫður
sīns, ok bauð honum męn at sætt af hęndi Hēðins, en ī ǫðru
orði sagði hon at Hēðinn væri būinn at bęrjask, ok ætti
Hǫgni af honum engrar vægðar vān.  Hǫgni svārar stirt
dōttur sinni; en er hon hitti Hēðin, sagði hon honum, at
Hǫgni vildi enga sætt, ok bað hann būask til orrostu, ok
svā gǫ̈ra þeir hvārir-tvęggju, ganga upp ā eyna, ok fylkja
liðinu.  Þā kallar Hēðinn ā Hǫgna, māg sinn, ok bauð
honum sætt ok mikit gull at bōtum.  Þā svarar Hǫgni:
'of sīð bauzt-u þetta, ef þū vill sættask, þvī at nū hęfi ek
dręgit Dāins-leif, er dvergarnir gǫ̈rðu, er manns bani skal
verða, hvęrt sinn er bęrt er, ok aldri bilar ī hǫggvi, ok ekki
sār grœr, ef þar skeinisk af.'  Þā svarar Hēðinn: 'sverði
hœlir þū þar, en eigi sigri; þat kalla ek gott hvęrt er drōttin-
holt er.'  Þā hōfu þeir orrostu þā er Hjaðninga-vīg er kallat,
ok bǫrðusk þann dag allan, ok at kveldi fōru konungar til
skipa.  En Hildr gekk of nāttina til valsins, ok vakði upp
með fjǫlkyngi alla þā er dauðir vāru; ok annan dag gengu
konungarnir ā vīg-vǫllinn ok bǫrðusk, ok svā allir þeir er
fellu hinn fyrra daginn.  Fōr svā sū orrosta hvęrn dag ęptir
annan, at allir þeir er fellu, ok ǫll vāpn þau er lāgu ā vīgvęlli,
ok svā hlīfar, urðu at grjōti.  En er dagaði, stōðu upp allir
dauðir męnn, ok bǫrðusk, ok ǫll vāpn vāru þā nȳ.  Svā er
sagt ī kvæðum, at Hjaðningar skulu svā bīða ragna-rökrs.


Sveinn konungr tjūgu-skęgg ātti Sigrīði hina stōr-rāðu.
Sigrīðr var hinn mesti ū-vinr Ōlāfs konungs Tryggva-sonar;
ok fann þat til saka at Ōlāfr konungr hafði slitit einka-mālum
við hana, ok lostit hana ī and-lit.  Hon ęggjaði mjǫk Svein
konung til at halda orrostu við Ōlāf konung Tryggvason, ok
kom hon svā sīnum for-tǫlum at Sveinn konungr var full-
kominn at gǫ̈ra þetta rāð.  Ok snimma um vārit sęndi
Sveinn konungr męnn austr til Svī-þjōðar ā fund Ōlāfs
konungs Svīa-konungs, māgs sīns, ok Eirīks jarls; ok lēt sęgja
þeim at Ōlāfr, Noregs konungr, hafði leiðangr ūti, ok ætlaði
at fara um sumarit til Vind-lands.  Fylgði þat orð-sęnding
Dana-konungs, at þeir Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl skyldi
hęr ūti hafa, ok fara til mōts við Svein konung, skyldu
þeir þā allir samt lęggja til orrostu við Ōlāf konung Tryggva-
son.  En Ōlāfr Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl vāru þessar
fęrðar al-būnir, ok drōgu þā saman skipa-hęr mikinn af Svīa-
vęldi, fǫru þvī liði suðr til Dan-markar ok kvāmu þar svā, [*]
at Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason hafði āðr austr siglt.  Þeir
Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr jarl heldu til fundar við Danakonung,
ok hǫfðu þā allir saman ū-grynni hęrs.

Sveinn konungr, þā er hann hafði sęnt ęptir hęrinum,
þā sęndi hann Sigvalda jarl til Vindlands at njōsna um fęrð
Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar, ok gildra svā til, at fundr
þeira Sveins konungs mætti verða.  Fęrr þā Sigvaldi jarl
leið sīna, ok kom fram ā Vindlandi, fōr til Jōmsborgar, ok
sīðan ā fund Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar.  Vāru þar mikil
vināttu-māl þeira ā meðal, kom jarl sēr ī hinn mesta kærleik
við Ōlāf konung.  Āstrīðr kona jarls, dōttir Burizleifs konungs,
var vinr mikill Ōlāfs konungs, ok var þat mjǫk af hinum
fyrrum tęngðum, er Ōlafr konungr hafði ātt Geiru, systur [*]
hęnnar.  Sigvaldi jarl var maðr vitr ok rāðugr; en er hann
kom sēr ī rāða-gęrð við Ōlāf konung, þā dvalði hann mjǫk
fęrðina hans austan at sigla, ok fann til þess mjǫk ȳmsa hluti. [*]
En lið Ōlāfs konungs lēt geysi illa, ok vāru męnn mjǫk
heim-fūsir, er þeir lāgu albūnir, en veðr byr-væn.  Sigvaldi
jarl fekk njōsn leyniliga af Danmǫrk, at þā var austan kominn
hęrr Svīakonungs, ok Eirīkr jarl hafði þā ok būinn sinn hęr,
ok þeir hǫfðingjarnir mundu þā koma austr undir Vindland,
ok þeir hǫfðu ā kveðit, at þeir mundu bīða Ōlāfs konungs
við ey þā er Svǫlðr heitir, svā þat, at jarl skyldi svā til stilla [*]
at þeir mætti þar finna Ōlāf konung.

Þā kom pati nakkvarr til Vindlands, at Sveinn Dana-
konungr hęfði hęr ūti, ok gǫ̈rðisk brātt sā kurr, at Sveinn
Danakonungr mundi vilja finna Ōlāf konung.  En Sigvaldi
jarl sęgir konungi: 'ekki er þat rāð Sveins konungs at
lęggja til bardaga við þik með Dana-hęr einn saman, svā
mikinn hęr sem þēr hafið.  En ef yðr er nakkvarr grunr ā
þvī, at ū-friðr muni fyrir, þā skal ek fylgja yðr með mīnu [*]
liði, ok þōtti þat styrkr vera fyrr, hvar sem Jōms-vīkingar
fylgðu hǫfðingjum; mun ek fā þēr ellifu skip vel skipuð.'
Konungr jātti þessu.  Var þā lītit veðr ok hag-stœtt; lēt
konungr þā leysa flotann, ok blāsa til brott-lǫgu.  Drōgu
męnn þā segl sīn, ok gengu meira smā-skipin ǫll, ok sigldu [*]
þau undan ā haf ūt.  En jarl sigldi nær konungs-skipinu,
ok kallaði til þeira, bað konung sigla ęptir sēr: 'mēr er
kunnast,' sęgir hann, 'hvar djūpast er um eyja-sundin, en
þēr munuð þess þurfa með þau in stōru skipin.'  Sigldi
þā jarl fyrir með sīnum skipum.  Hann hafði ellifu skip,
en konungr sigldi ęptir honum með sinum stōr-skipum,
hafði hann þar ok ellifu skip, en allr annarr hęrrinn sigldi
ūt ā hafit.  En er Sigvaldi jarl sigldi utan at Svǫlðr, þā
röri ā mōti þeim skūta ein.  Þeir sęgja jarli at hęrr Dana-
konungs lā þar ī hǫfninni fyrir þeim.  Þā lēt jarl hlaða
seglunum, ok rōa þeir inn undir eyna.

Sveinn Danakonungr ok Ōlāfr Svīakonungr ok Eirīkr
jarl vāru þar þā með allan hęr sinn; þā var fagrt veðr
ok bjart sōl-skin.  Gengu þeir nū upp ā hōlminn allir
hǫfðingjar með miklar sveitir manna, ok sā er skipin sigldu
ūt ā hafit mjǫk mǫrg saman.  Ok nū sjā þeir hvar siglir
eitt mikit skip ok glæsiligt; þā mæltu bāðir konungarnir:
'þetta er mikit skip ok ākafliga fagrt, þetta mun vera Ormrinn
langi.'  Eirīkr jarl svarar ok sęgir: 'ekki er þetta Ormr hinn
langi.'  Ok svā var sem hann sagði; þetta skip ātti Eindriði
af Gimsum.  Lītlu sīðar sā þeir hvar annat skip sigldi miklu
meira en hit fyrra.  Þā mælti Sveinn konungr: 'hræddr er
Ōlāfr Tryggvason nū, eigi þorir hann at sigla með hǫfuðin
ā skipi sīnu.'  Þā sęgir Eirīkr jarl: 'ekki er þetta konungs
skip, kęnni ek þetta skip ok seglit, þvī at stafat er seglit, þat
ā Erlingr Skjālgsson; lātum sigla þā, bętra er oss skarð ok
missa ī flota Ōlāfs konungs en þetta skip þar svā būit.'  En
stundu sīðar sā þeir ok kęndu skip Sigvalda jarls, ok viku
þan þannig at hōlmanum.  Þā sā þeir hvar sigldu þrjū skip,
ok var eitt mikit skip.  Mælti þā Sveinn konungr, biðr þā
ganga til skipa sinna, sęgir at þar fęrr Ormrinn langi.  Eirīkr
jarl mælti: 'mǫrg hafa þeir ǫnnur stōr skip ok glæsilig en
Orm hinn langa, bīðum ęnn.'  Þā mæltu mjǫk margir męnn:
'eigi vill Eirīkr jarl nū bęrjask, ok hęfna fǫður sīns; þetta
er skǫmm mikil, svā at spyrjask mun um ǫll lǫnd, ef vēr
liggjum hēr með jafn-miklu liði, en Ōlāfr konungr sigli ā
hafit ūt hēr hjā oss sjālfum.'  En er þeir hǫfðu þetta talat
um hrīð, þā sā þeir hvar sigldu fjogur skip, ok eitt af
þeim var dręki all-mikill ok mjǫk gull-būinn.  Þā stōð upp
Sveinn konungr, ok mælti: 'hātt mun Ormrinn bera mik ī
kveld, honum skal ek stȳra.'  Þā mæltu margir, at Ormrinn
var furðu mikit skip ok frītt, ok rausn mikil at lāta gǫ̈ra
slīkt skip.  Þā mælti Eirīkr jarl, svā at nakkvarir męnn
heyrðu: 'þōtt Ōlāfr konungr hęfði ekki meira skip en þetta,
þā mundi Sveinn konungr þat aldri fā af honum með einn
saman Danahęr.'  Dreif þā fōlkit til skipanna, ok rāku af
tjǫldin, ok ætluðu at būask skjōtliga.  En er hǫfðingjar rœddu
þetta milli sīn, sem nū er sagt, þā sā þeir, hvar sigldu þrjū
skip all-mikil, ok fjōrða sīðast, ok var þat Ormrinn langi.
En þau hin stōru skip, er āðr hǫfðu siglt, ok þeir hugðu
at Ormrinn væri, þat var hit fyrra Traninn, en hit sīðara
Ormrinn skammi.  En þā er þeir sā Orminn langa, kęndu
allir, ok mælti þā engi ī mōt, at þar mundi sigla Ōlāfr
Tryggvason; gengu þā til skipanna, ok skipuðu til at-
lǫgunnar.  Vāru þat einkamāl þeira hǫfðingja, Sveins konungs,
Ōlāfs konungs, Eirīks jarls, at sinn þriðjung Noregs skyldi
eignask hvęrr þeira, ef þeir fęldi Ōlāf konung Tryggvason;
en sā þeira hǫfðingja er fyrst gengi ā Orminn, skyldi eignask
alt þat hlut-skipti er þar fengisk, ok hvęrr þeira þau skip
er sjālfr hryði.  Eirīkr jarl hafði barða einn geysi mikinn,
er hann var vanr at hafa ī viking; þar var skęgg ā ofan-
verðu barðinu hvārutvęggja, en niðr frā jārn-spǫng þykk ok
svā breið sem barðit, ok tōk alt ī sæ ofan.

Þā er þeir Sigvaldi jarl röru inn undir hōlminn, þā sā
þat þeir Þorkęll dyðrill af Trananum ok aðrir skip-stjōrn-
ar-męnn, þeir er með honum fōru, at jarl snöri skipum
undir hōlmann; þā hlōðu þeir ok seglum, ok röru ęptir
honum, ok kǫlluðu til þeira, spurðu, hvī þeir fōru svā.  Jarl
sęgir, at hann vill bīða Ōlāfs konungs: 'ok er meiri vān at
ūfriðr sē fyrir oss.'  Lētu þeir þā fljōta skipin, þar til er
Þorkęll nęfja kom með Orminn skamma, ok þau þrjū skip
er honum fylgðu.  Ok vāru þeim sǫgð hin sǫmu tīðindi;
hlōðu þeir þā ok sīnum seglum, ok lētu fljōta, ok biðu
Ōlāfs konungs.  En þā er konungrinn sigldi innan at hōl-
manum, þā röri allr hęrrinn ūt ā sundit fyrir þā.  En er
þeir sā þat, þa bāðu þeir konunginn sigla leið sīna, en
lęggja eigi til orrostu við svā mikinn hęr.  Konungr svarar
hātt, ok stōð upp ī lyptingunni: 'lāti ofan seglit, ekki skulu
mīnir męnn hyggja ā flōtta, ek hęfi aldri flȳit ī orrostu, rāði
Guð fyrir līfi mīnu, en aldri mun ek ā flōtta lęggja.'  Var svā
gǫ̈rt sem konungr mælti.

Ōlāfr konungr lēt blāsa til sam-lǫgu ǫllum skipum sīnum.
Var konungs skip ī miðju liði, en þar ā annat borð Ormrinn
skammi, en ā annat borð Traninn.  En þā er þeir tōku
at tęngja stafna ā Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma,
ok er konungr sā þat, kallaði hann hātt, bað þā lęggja
fram bętr hit mikla skipit, ok lāta þat eigi aptast vera allra
skipa ī hęrinum.  Þā svarar Ūlfr hinn rauði: 'ef Orminn
skal þvī lęngra fram lęggja, sem hann er lęngri en ǫnnur
skip, þā mun ā-vint verða um sǫxin ī dag.'  Konungr sęgir:
'eigi vissa ek at ek ætta stafnbūann bæði rauðan ok ragan.'
Ūlfr mælti: 'vęr þū eigi meir baki lyptingina en ek mun
stafninn.'  Konungr helt ā boga, ok lagði ǫr ā stręng, ok
snöri at Ūlfi.  Ūlfr mælti: 'skjōt annan veg, konungr ī þannig
sem meiri er þǫrfin; þēr vinn ek þat er ek vinn.'

Ōlāfr konungr stōð ī lyptingu ā Orminum, bar hann hātt [*]
mjǫk; hann hafði gyltan skjǫld ok gull-roðinn hjālm; var
hann auð-kęndr frā ǫðrum mǫnnum: hann hafði rauðan
kyrtil stuttan utan yfir brynju.  En er Ōlāfr konungr sā at
riðluðusk flotarnir, ok upp vāru sętt męrki fyrir hǫfðingjum,
þā spyrr hann: 'hvęrr er hǫfðingi fyrir liði þvī er gęgnt
oss er?'  Honum var sagt at þar var Sveinn konungr
tjūguskęgg með Danahęr.  Konungr svarar: 'ekki hræðumk
vēr bleyður þær, engi er hugr ī Dǫnum.  En hvęrr hǫfðingi
fylgir þeim męrkjum er þar eru ūt īfrā ā hœgra veg?'  Honum
var sagt at þar var Ōlāfr konungr með Svīa-hęr.  Ōlāfr
konungr sęgir: 'bętra væri Svīum heima at sleikja um blōt-
bolla sīna en ganga ā Orminn undir vāpn yður.  En hvęrir
eigu þau hin stōru skip, er þar liggja ūt ā bak-borða Dǫnum?'
'Þar er,' sęgja þeir 'Eirīkr jarl Hākonar-son.'  Þā svaraði
Ōlāfr konungr: 'hann mun þykkjask eiga við oss skapligan
fund, ok oss er vān snarpligrar orrostu af þvī liði; þeir eru
Norð-męnn, sem vēr erum.'

Sīðan greiða konungar at-rōðr.  Lagði Sveinn konungr
sitt skip mōti Orminum langa, en Ōlāfr konungr Sœnski
lagði ūt frā, ok stakk stǫfnum at yzta skipi Ōlāfs konungs
Tryggvasonar, en ǫðrum megin Eirīkr jarl.  Tōksk þar þā
hǫrð orrosta.  Sigvaldi jarl lēt skotta við sīn skip, ok lagði
ekki til orrostu.

Þessi orrosta var hin snarpasta ok all-mann-skœð.  Fram-
byggjar ā Orminum langa ok Orminum skamma ok Trananum
fœrðu akkeri ok stafn-ljā ī skip Sveins konungs, en āttu
vāpnin at bera niðr undir fœtr sēr; hruðu þeir ǫll þau skip
er þeir fengu haldit.  En konungrinn Sveinn ok þat lið er
undan komsk flȳði ā ǫnnur skip, ok þar næst lǫgðu þeir
frā ōr skot-māli.  Ok fōr þessi hęrr svā sem gat Ōlāfr
konungr Tryggvason.  Þā lagði þar at ī staðinn Ōlāfr
Svīakonungr; ok þegar er þeir koma nær stōrskipum, þā
fōr þeim sem hinum, at þeir lētu lið mikit ok sum skip sīn,
ok lǫgðu frā við svā būit.  En Eirīkr jarl sī-byrði Barðanum
við hit yzta skip Ōlāfs konungs, ok hrauð hann þat, ok hjō
þegar þat ōr tęngslum, en lagði þā at þvī, er þar var næst,
ok barðisk til þess er þat var hroðit.  Tōk þā liðit at hlaupa
af hinum smærum skipunum, ok upp ā stōrskipin.  En Eirīkr
jarl hjō hvęrt ōr tęngslunum, svā sem hroðit var.  En Danir
ok Svīar lǫgðu þā ī skotmāl ok ǫllum megin at skipum Ōlāfs
konungs, en Eirīkr jarl lā āvalt sībyrt við skipin, ok ātti
hǫgg-orrostu.  En svā sem męnn fellu ā skipum hans, þā
gengu aðrir upp ī staðinn, Svīar ok Danir.  Þā var orrosta
hin snarpasta, ok fell þā mjǫk liðit, ok kom svā at lykðum,
at ǫll vāru hroðin skip Ōlāfs konungs Tryggvasonar nema
Ormrinn langi; var þar þā alt lið ā komit, þat er vīgt var
hans manna.  Þā lagði Eirīkr jarl Barðanum at Orminum
langa sībyrt, ok var þar hǫggorrosta.

Eirlīkr jarl var ī fyrir-rūmi ā skipi sīnu, ok var þar fylkt
með skjald-borg.  Var þā bæði hǫggorrosta, ok spjōtum lagit,
ok kastat ǫllu þvī er til vāpna var, en sumir skutu boga-skoti
eða hand-skoti.  Var þa svā mikill vāpnaburðr ā Orminn, at
varla mātti hlīfum við koma, er svā þykt flugu spjōt ok ǫrvar;
þvī at ǫllum megin lǫgðu hęrskip at Orminum.  En męnn
Ōlāfs konungs vāru þā svā ōðir, at þeir hljōpu upp ā borðin,
til þess at nā með sverðs-hǫggum at drepa fōlkit.  En margir
lǫgðu eigi svā undir Orminn, at þeir vildi ī hǫggorrostu vera.
En Ōlāfs męnn gengu flestir ūt af borðunum, ok gāðu eigi
annars en þeir bęrðisk ā slēttum vęlli, ok sukku niðr með
vāpnum sīnum.

Einarr þambar-skęlfir var ā Orminum aptr ī krappa-rūmi;
hann skaut af boga, ok var allra manna harð-skeytastr.
Einarr skaut at Eirīki jarli, ok laust ī stȳris-hnakkann fyrir
ofan hǫfuð jarli, ok gekk alt upp ā reyr-bǫndin.  Jarl leit til,
ok spurði ef þeir vissi, hvęrr skaut.  En jafn-skjōtt kom
ǫnnur ǫr svā nær jarli, at flaug milli sīðunna ok handarinnar,
ok svā aptr ī hǫfða-fjǫlina, at langt stōð ūt broddrinn.  Þā
mælti jarl við mann þann er sumir nęfna Finn, en sumir
sęgja at hann væri Finskr, sā var hinn mesti bog-maðr:
'skjōt-tu mann þann hinn mikla ī krapparūminu!'  Finnr
skaut, ok kom ǫrin ā boga Einars miðjan, ī þvī bili er Einarr
drō it þriðja sinn bogann.  Brast þā boginn ī tvā hluti.  Þā
mælti Ōlāfr konungr: 'hvat brast þar svā hātt?'  Einarr
svarar: 'Noregr ōr hęndi þēr, konungr!'  'Eigi mun svā
mikill brestr at orðinn,' sęgir konungr, 'tak boga minn, ok
skjōt af,' ok kastaði boganum til hans.  Einarr tōk bogann,
ok drō þegar fyrir odd ǫrvarinnar, ok mælti: 'ofveikr,
ofveikr allvalds boginn!' ok kastaði aptr boganum; tōk þā
skjǫld sinn ok sverð, ok barðisk.

Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason stōð ī lypting ā Orminum, ok
skaut optast um daginn, stundum bogaskoti, en stundum
gaflǫkum, ok jafnan tveim sęnn.  Hann sā fram ā skipit, ok
sā sīna męnn reiða sverðin ok hǫggva tītt, ok sā at illa bitu;
mælti þā hātt: 'hvārt reiði þēr svā slæliga sverðin, er ek sē
at ekki bīta yðr?'  Maðr svarar: 'sverð vār eru slæ ok
brotin mjǫk.'  Þā gekk konungr ofan ī fyrirrūmit ok lauk
upp hāsætis-kistuna, tōk þar ōr mǫrg sverð hvǫss, ok fekk
mǫnnum.  En er hann tōk niðr hinni hœgri hęndi, þā sā
męnn at blōð rann ofan undan bryn-stūkunni; en engi vissi
hvar hann var sārr.

Mest var vǫrnin ā Orminum ok mannskœðust af fyrirrūms-
mǫnnum ok stafnbūum; þar var hvārttvęggja, valit mest
mann-fōlkit ok hæst borðin.  En lið fell fyrst um mitt skipit.
Ok þā er fātt stōð manna upp um siglu-skeið, þā rēð Eirīkr
jarl til upp-gǫngunnar, ok kom upp ā Orminn við fimtānda [*]
mann.  Þā kom ī mōt honum Hyrningr, māgr Ōlāfs konungs,
með sveit manna, ok varð þar inn harðasti bardagi, ok lauk
svā, at jarl hrǫkk ofan aptr ā Barðann; en þeir męnn er
honum hǫfðu fylgt fellu sumir, en sumir vāru særðir.  Þar
varð ęnn in snarpasta orrosta, ok fellu þā margir męnn ā
Orminum.  En er þyntisk skipan ā Orminum til varnarinnar,
þā rēð Eirīkr jarl annat sinn til uppgǫngu ā Orminn.  Varð
þā ęnn hǫrð við-taka.  En er þetta sā stafnbūar ā Orminum,
þā gengu þeir aptr ā skipit, ok snūask til varnar mōti jarli, ok
veita harða viðtǫku.  En fyrir þvī at þā var svā mjǫk fallit
lið ā Orminum, at vīða vāru auð borðin, tōku þā jarls męnn
vīða upp at ganga.  En alt þat lið er þā stōð upp til varnar
ā Orminum sōtti aptr ā skipit, þar sem konungr var.

Kolbjǫrn stallari gekk upp ī lypting til konungs; þeir
hǫfðu mjǫk līkan klæða-būnað ok vāpna, Kolbjǫrn var ok [*]
allra manna mestr ok frīðastr.  Varð nū ęnn ī fyrirrūminu
in snarpasta orrosta.  En fyrir þā sǫk at þā var svā mikit
fōlk komit upp ā Orminn af liði jarls sem vera mātti ā skipinu,
en skip hans lǫgðu at ǫllum megin utan at Orminum, en
lītit fjǫl-męnni til varnar mōti svā miklum hęr, nū þōtt þeir
męnn væri bæði stęrkir ok frœknir, þā fellu nū flestir ā lītilli
stundu.  En Ōlāfr konungr sjālfr ok þeir Kolbjǫrn bāðir
hljōpu þā fyrir borð, ok ā sitt borð hvārr.  En jarls męnn
hǫfðu lagt utan at smā-skūtur, ok drāpu þā er ā kaf hljōpu.
Ok þā er konungr sjālfr hafði ā kaf hlaupit, vildu þeir taka
hann hǫndum, ok fœra Eirīki jarli.  En Ōlāfr konungr brā
yfir sik skildinum, ok steypðisk ī kaf; en Kolbjǫrn stallari
skaut undir sik skildinum, ok hlīfði sēr svā við vāpnum er
lagt var af skipum þeim er undir lāgu, ok fell hann svā
ā sæinn at skjǫldrinn varð undir honum, ok komsk hann þvī
eigi ī kaf svā skjōtt, ok varð hann hand-tękinn ok dręginn
upp ī skūtuna, ok hugðu þeir at þar væri konungrinn.  Var
hann þā leiddr fyrir jarl.  En er þess varð jarl varr at þar
var Kolbjǫrn, en eigi Ōlāfr konungr, þā vāru Kolbirni grið
gefin.  En ī þessi svipan hljōpu allir fyrir borð af Orminum,
þeir er þā vāru ā līfi, Ōlāfs konungs męnn; ok sęgir Hall-
freðr vandræða-skāld, at Þorkęll nęfja, konungs brōðir, hljōp
sīðast allra manna fyrir borð.

Svā var fyrr ritat, at Sigvaldi jarl kom til fǫruneytis við
Ōlāf konung ī Vindlandi, ok hafði tīu skip, en þat hit ellifta,
er ā vāru męnn Āstrīðar konungs-dōttur, konu jarls.  En
þā er Ōlāfr konungr hafði fyrir borð hlaupit, þā œpði
hęrrinn allr sigr-ōp, ok þā lustu þeir ārum ī sæ Sigvaldi
jarl ok hans męnn, ok röru til bardaga.  En sū Vinda-
snękkjan, er Āstrīðar męnn vāru ā, röri brott ok aptr undir
Vindland; ok var þat margra manna māl þegar, at Ōlāfr
konungr mundi hafa steypt af sēr brynjunni ī kafi, ok kafat
svā ūt undan langskipunum, lagizk sīðan til Vindasnękkj-
unnar, ok hęfði męnn Āstrīðar flutt hann til lands.  Ok
eru þar margar frā-sagnir um fęrðir Ōlāfs konungs gǫ̈rvar
sīðan af sumum mǫnnum.  En hvęrn veg sem þat hęfir
verit, þā kom Ōlāfr konungr Tryggvason aldri sīðan til rīkis
ī Noregi.


Maðr hēt Auðun, Vest-firzkr at kyni ok fē-lītill; hann fōr
utan vestr þar ī fjǫrðum með um-rāði Þorsteins bōnda gōðs,
ok Þōris stȳri-manns, er þar hafði þegit vist of vetrinn með
Þorsteini.  Auðun var ok þar, ok starfaði fyrir honum Þōri,
ok þā þessi laun af honum--utan-fęrðina ok hans um-sjā.
Hann Auðun lagði mestan hluta fjār þess er var fyrir mōður
sīna, āðr hann stigi ā skip, ok var kveðit ā þriggja vetra
bjǫrg.  Ok nū fara þeir utan heðan, ok fęrsk þeim vel, ok
var Auðun of vetrinn ęptir með Þōri stȳrimanni; hann ātti
bū ā Mœri.  Ok um sumarit ęptir fara þeir ūt til Grœn-lands,
ok eru þar of vetrinn.  Þess er við getit at Auðun kaupir
þar bjarn-dȳri eitt, gǫ̈rsimi mikla, ok gaf þar fyrir alla
eigu sīna.  Ok nū of sumarit ęptir þā fara þeir aptr til
Noregs, ok verða vel reið-fara; hęfir Auðun dȳr sitt með
sēr, ok ætlar nū at fara suðr til Danmęrkr ā fund Sveins
konungs, ok gefa honum dȳrit.  Ok er hann kom suðr ī
landit, þar sem konungr var fyrir, þā gęngr hann upp af [*]
skipi, ok leiðir ęptir sēr dȳrit, ok leigir sēr hęr-bęrgi.  Haraldi
konungi var sagt brātt at þar var komit bjarndȳri, gǫ̈rsimi
mikil, 'ok ā Īs-lęnzkr maðr.'  Konungr sęndir þegar męnn
ęptir honum, ok er Auðun kom fyrir konung, kvęðr hann
konung vel; konungr tōk vel kvęðju hans, ok spurði sīðan:
'āttu gǫ̈rsimi mikla ī bjarndȳri?'  Hann svarar, ok kvezk
eiga dȳrit eitthvęrt.  Konungr mælti: 'villtu sęlja oss dȳrit
við slīku verði sem þū keyptir?'  Hann svarar: 'eigi vil ek
þat, herra!'  'Villtu þā,' sęgir konungr, 'at ek gefa þēr tvau [*]
verð slīk, ok mun þat rēttara, ef þū hęfir þar við gefit alla
þīna eigu.'  'Eigi vil ek þat, herra!' sęgir hann.  Konungr
mælti: 'villtu gefa mēr þā?'  Hann svarar: 'eigi, herra!'
Konungr mælti: 'hvat villtu þā af gǫ̈ra?'  Hann svarar:
'fara,' sęgir hann, 'til Danmęrkr, ok gefa Sveini konungi.'
Haraldr konungr sęgir: 'hvārt er, at þū ert maðr svā ūvitr
at þū hęfir eigi heyrt ūfrið þann er ī milli er landa þessa,
eða ætlar þū giptu þīna svā mikla, at þū munir þar komask
með gǫ̈rsimar, er aðrir fā eigi komizk klakk-laust, þō at
nauð-syn eigi til?'  Auðun svarar: 'herra! þat er ā yðru
valdi, en engu jātum vēr ǫðru en þessu er vēr hǫfum āðr
ætlat.'  Þā mælti konungr: 'hvī mun eigi þat til, at þū farir
leið þīna, sem þū vill, ok kom þā til mīn, er þū fęrr aptr,
ok sęg mēr, hvęrsu Sveinn konungr launar þēr dȳrit, ok
kann þat vera, at þū sēr gæfu-maðr.'  'Þvī heit ek þēr,'
sagði Auðun.

Hann fęrr nū sīðan suðr með landi, ok ī Vīk austr, ok þā
til Danmęrkr; ok er þā uppi hvęrr pęnningr fjārins, ok verðr
hann þā biðja matar bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit.  Hann
kömr ā fund ār-manns Sveins konungs, þess er Āki hēt,
ok bað hann vista nakkvarra bæði fyrir sik ok fyrir dȳrit:
'ek ætla,' sęgir hann, 'at gefa Sveini konungi dȳrit.'  Āki
lēzk sęlja mundu honum vistir, ef hann vildi.  Auðun kvezk
ekki til hafa fyrir at gefa; 'en ek vilda þō,' sęgir hann, 'at
þetta kvæmisk til leiðar at ek mætta dȳrit fœra konungi.'
'Ek mun fā þēr vistir, sem it þurfið til konungs fundar;
en þar ī mōti vil ek eiga hālft dȳrit, ok māttu ā þat līta,
at dȳrit mun deyja fyrir þēr, þars it þurfuð vistir miklar, en
fē sē farit, ok er būit við at þū hafir þā ekki dȳrsins.'  Ok [*]
er hann lītr ā þetta, sȳnisk honum nakkvat ęptir sem [*]
ārmaðrinn mælti fyrir honum, ok sættask þeir ā þetta, at
hann sęlr Āka hālft dȳrit, ok skal konungr sīðan meta alt
saman.  Skulu þeir fara bāðir nū ā fund konungs; ok svā
gǫ̈ra þeir: fara nū bāðir ā fund konungs, ok stōðu fyrir
borðinu.  Konungr īhugāði, hvęrr þessi maðr myndi vera,
er hann kęndi eigi, ok mælti sīðan til Auðunar: 'hvęrr
er-tu?' sęgir hann.  Hann svarar: 'ek em Īslęnzkr maðr,
herra,' sęgir hann, 'ok kominn nū utan af Grœnlandi, ok nū [*]
af Noregi, ok ætlaða-k at fœra yðr bjarndȳri þetta; keypta-k
þat með allri eigu minni, ok nū er þō ā orðit mikit fyrir
mēr; ek ā nū hālft eitt dȳrit,' ok sęgir konungi sīðan, hvęrsu
farit hafði með þeim Āka ārmanni hans.  Konungr mælti:
'er þat satt, Āki, er hann sęgir?'  'Satt er þat,' sęgir hann.
Konungr mælti: 'ok þōtti þēr þat til liggja, þar sem ek
sętta-k þik mikinn mann, at hępta þat eða tālma er maðr
gǫ̈rðisk til at fœra mēr gǫ̈rsimi, ok gaf fyrir alla eign, ok
sā þat Haraldr konungr at rāði at lāta hann fara ī friði, ok er
hann vārr ūvinr?  Hygg þū at þā, hvē sannligt þat var þinnar
handar, ok þat væri makligt, at þū værir drepinn; en ek
mun nū eigi þat gǫ̈ra, en braut skaltu fara þegar ōr landinu,
ok koma aldri aptr sīðan mēr ī aug-sȳn!  En þēr, Auðun!
kann ek slīka þǫkk, sem þū gefir mēr alt dȳrit, ok ver hēr
með mēr.'  Þat þękkisk hann, ok er með Sveini konungi
um hrīð.

Ok er liðu nakkvarir stundir, þā mælti Auðun við konung:
'braut fȳsir mik nū, herra!'  Konungr svarar hęldr seint:
'hvat villtu þā,' sęgir hann, 'ef þū vill eigi með oss vera?'
Hann sęgir: 'suðr vil ek ganga.'  'Ef þū vildir eigi svā gott
rāð taka,' sęgir konungr, 'þā myndi mēr fyrir þykkja ī, er þū
fȳsisk ī braut'; ok nū gaf konungr honum silfr mjǫk mikit,
ok fōr hann suðr sīðan með Rūm-fęrlum, ok skipaði konungr
til um fęrð hans, bað hann koma til sīn, er kvæmi aptr.
Nū fōr hann fęrðar sinnar, unz hann kömr suðr ī Rōma-borg.
Ok er hann hęfir þar dvalizk, sem hann tīðir, þā fęrr hann
aptr; tękr þā sōtt mikla, gǫ̈rir hann þā ākafliga magran;
gęngr þā upp alt fēit þat, er konungr hafði gefit honum
til fęrðarinnar; tękr sīðan upp staf-karls stīg, ok biðr sēr
matar.  Hann er þā kollōttr ok hęldr ū-sælligr; hann kömr
aptr ī Danmörk at pāskum, þangat sem konungr er þā
staddr; en ei þorði hann at lāta sjā sik; ok var ī kirkju-
skoti, ok ætlaði þā til fundar við konung, er hann gengi
til kirkju um kveldit; ok nū er hann sā konunginn ok
hirðina fagrliga būna, þā þorði hann eigi at lāta sjā sik.
Ok er konungr gekk til drykkju ī hǫllina, þā mataðisk Auðun
ūti, sem siðr er til Rūmfęrla, meðan þeir hafa eigi kastat staf
ok skreppu.  Ok nū of aptaninn, er konungr gekk til kveld-
sǫngs, ætlaði Auðun at hitta hann, ok svā mikit sem honum
þōtti fyrr fyrir, jōk nū miklu ā, er þeir vāru druknir
hirðmęnninir; ok er þeir gengu inn aptr, þā þękði konungr
mann, ok þōttisk finna at eigi hafði frama til at ganga fram
at hitta hann.  Ok nū er hirðin gekk inn, þā veik konungr
ūt, ok mælti: 'gangi sā nū fram, er mik vill finna; mik
grunar at sā muni vera maðrinn.'  Þā gekk Auðun fram,
ok fell til fōta konungi, ok varla kęndi konungr hann; ok
þegar er konungr veit, hvęrr hann er, tōk konungr ī hǫnd
honum Auðuni, ok bað hann vel kominn, 'ok hęfir þū mikit
skipazk,' segir hann, 'sīðan vit sāmk'; leiðir hann ęptir sēr
inn, ok er hirðin sā hann, hlōgu þeir at honum; en konungr
sagði: 'eigi þurfu þēr at honum at hlæja, þvī at bętr hęfir
hann sēt fyr sinni sāl hęldr en ēr.'  Þā lēt konungr gǫ̈ra [*]
honum laug, ok gaf honum sīðan hlæði, ok er hann nū með
honum.  Þat er nū sagt einhvęrju sinni of vārit at konungr
bȳðr Auðuni at vera með sēr ā-lęngðar, ok kvezk myndu
gǫ̈ra hann skutil-svein sinn, ok lęggja til hans gōða virðing.
Auðun sęgir: 'Guð þakki yðr, herra! sōma þann allan er
þēr vilið til mīn lęggja; en hitt er mēr ī skapi at fara ūt
til Īslands.'  Konungr sęgir: 'þetta sȳnisk mēr undarliga
kosit.'  Auðun mælti: 'eigi mā ek þat vita, herra!' sęgir
hann, 'at ek hafa hēr mikinn sōma með yðr, en mōðir mīn [*]
troði stafkarls stīg ūt ā Īslandi; þvī at nū er lokit bjǫrg þeiri
er ek lagða til, āðr ek fœra af Īslandi.'  Konungr svarar:
'vel er mælt,' sęgir hann, 'ok mannliga, ok muntu verða
giptu-maðr; þessi einn var svā hlutrinn, at mēr myndi eigi [*]
mis-līka at þū fœrir ī braut heðan; ok ver nū með mēr þar til
er skip būask.'  Hann gǫ̈rir svā.

Einn dag, er ā leið vārit, gekk Sveinn konungr ofan ā
bryggjur, ok vāru męnn þā at, at būa skip til ȳmissa landa,
ī austr-veg eða Sax-land, til Svīþjōðar eða Noregs.  Þā koma
þeir Auðun at einu skipi fǫgru, ok vāru męnn at, at būa
skipit.  Þā spurði konungr: 'hvęrsu līzk þēr, Auðun! ā
þetta skip?'  Hann svarar: 'vel, herra!'  Konungr mælti:
'þetta skip vil ek þēr gefa, ok launa bjarndȳrit.'  Hann
þakkaði gjǫfina ęptir sinni kunnustu; ok er leið stund, ok
skipit var albūit, þā mælti Sveinn konungr við Auðun: 'þō
villtu nū ā braut, þā mun ek nū ekki lętja þik, en þat hęfi ek
spurt, at ilt er til hafna fyrir landi yðru, ok eru vīða öræfi ok
hætt skipum; nū brȳtr þū, ok tȳnir skipinu ok fēnu; lītt sēr
þat þā ā, at þū hafir fundit Svein konung, ok gefit honum
gǫ̈rsimi.'  Sīðan sęldi konungr honum leðr-hosu fulla af
silfri, 'ok ertu þā ęnn eigi fē-lauss með ǫllu, þōtt þū brjōtir
skipit, ef þū fær haldit þessu.  Verða mā svā ęnn,' sęgir
konungr, 'at þū tȳnir þessu fē; lītt nȳtr þū þā þess, er þū
fannt Svein konung, ok gaft honum gǫ̈rsimi.'  Sīðan drō
konungr hring af hęndi sēr, ok gaf Auðuni, ok mælti: 'þō
at svā illa verði, at þū brjōtir skipit ok tȳnir fēnu, eigi
ertu fēlauss, ef þū kömsk ā land, þvī at margir męnn hafa
gull ā sēr ī skips-brotum, ok sēr þā at þū hęfir fundit Svein
konung, ef þū hęldr hringinum; en þat vil ek rāða þēr,'
sęgir hann, 'at þū gefir eigi hringinn, nema þū þykkisk eiga
svā mikit gott at launa nǫkkurum gǫfgum manni, þā gef
þeim hringinn, þvī at tignum mǫnnum sōmir at þiggja, ok
far nū heill!'

Sīðan lætr hann ī haf, ok kömr ī Noreg, ok lætr flytja
upp varnað sinn, ok þurfti nū meira við þat en fyrr, er
hann var ī Noregi.  Hann fęrr nū sīðan ā fund Haralds
konungs, ok vill ęfna þat er hann hēt honum, āðr hann
fōr til Danmęrkr, ok kvęðr konung vel.  Haraldr konungr
tōk vel kvęðju hans, ok 'sęzk niðr,' sęgir hann, 'ok drekk
hēr með oss'; ok svā gǫ̈rir hann.  Þā spurði Haraldr kon-
ungr: 'hvęrju launaði Sveinn konungr þēr dȳrit?'  Auðun
svarar: 'þvī, herra! at hann þā at mēr.'  Konungr sagði:
'launat mynda ek þēr þvī hafa; hvęrju launaði hann ęnn?'
Auðun svarar: 'gaf hann mēr silfr til suðr-gǫngu.'  Þā sęgir
Haraldr konungr: 'mǫrgum mǫnnum gefr Sveinn konungr
silfr til suðrgǫngu eða annarra hluta, þōtt ekki fœri honum
gǫ̈rsimar; hvat er ęnn fleira?'  'Hann bauð mēr,' sęgir
Auðun, 'at görask skutilsveinn hans, ok mikinn sōma til
mīn at lęggja.'  'Vel var þat mælt,' sęgir konungr, 'ok
launa, myndi hann ęnn fleira.'  Auðun sagði: 'gaf hann mēr
knǫrr með farmi þeim er hingat er bęzt varit ī Noreg.'  Þat
var stōr-mannligt,' sęgir konungr, 'en launat mynda ek þēr
þvī hafa.  Launaði hann þvī fleira?'  Auðun svaraði: 'gaf
hann mēr leðrhosu fulla af silfri, ok kvað mik þā eigi fēlausan,
ef ek helda þvī, þō at skip mitt bryti við Īsland.'  Konungr
sagði: 'þat var ā-gætliga gǫ̈rt, ok þat mynda ek ekki gǫ̈rt
hafa; lauss mynda ek þykkjask, ef ek gæfa þer skipit; hvārt
launaði hann fleira?'  'Svā var vīst, herra!' sęgir Auðun,
'at hann launaði: hann gaf mēr hring þenna er ek hęfi
ā hęndi, ok kvað svā mega at berask, at ek tȳnda fēnu
ǫllu, ok sagði mik þā eigi fēlausan, ef ek ætta hringinn,
ok bað mik eigi lōga, nema ek ætta nǫkkurum tignum manni
svā gott at launa, at ek vilda gefa; en nū hęfi ek þann
fundit, þvī at þū āttir kost at taka hvārttvęggja frā mēr,
dȳrit ok svā līf mitt, en þū lēzt mik fara þangat ī friði,
sem aðrir nāðu eigi.'  Konungr tōk við gjǫfinni með blīðu,
ok gaf Auðuni ī mōti gōðar gjafir, āðr en þeir skilðisk.
Auðun varði fēnu til Īslands-fęrðar ok fōr ūt þegar um
sumarit til Īslands, ok þōtti vera inn mesti gæfumaðr.


1. Vreiðr var þā Ving-þōrr,    er hann vaknaði,
   ok sīns hamars    of saknaði:
   skęgg nam at hrista,    skǫr nam at dȳja,
   rēð Jarðar burr    um at þreifask.

2. Ok hann þat orða    alls fyrst of kvað:
   'heyr-ðu nū, Loki!    hvat ek nū mæli,
   er engi veit    jarðar hvęrgi [*]
   nē upp-himins:    āss er stolinn hamri!'

3. Gengu þeir fagra    Freyju tūna, [*]
   ok hann þat orða    alls fyrst of kvað:
   'muntu mēr, Freyja!    fjaðr-hams ljā,
   ef ek minn hamar    mætta-k hitta?'

                     Freyja kvað:

4. Þō munda-k gefa þēr,    þōtt ōr gulli væri,
   ok-þō sęlja    at væri ōr silfri.' [*]

5. Flō þā Loki,    fjaðrhamr dunði,
   unz fyr utan kom    āsa garða,
   ok fyr innan kom    jǫtna heima.

6. Þrymr sat ā haugi,    þursa drōttinn,
   greyjum sīnum    gull-bǫnd snöri
   ok mǫrum sīnum    mǫn jafnaði.

                     Þrymr kvað:

7. 'Hvat er með āsum?    hvat er með ālfum?
   hvī er-tu einn kominn    ī Jǫtunheima?'

                     Loki kvað:

   'Ilt er með āsum,    ilt er með ālfum;
   hęfir þū Hlō-riða    hamar of fōlginn?'

                     Þrymr kvað:

8. 'Ek hęfi Hlōriða    hamar of fōlginn
   ātta rǫstum    fyr jǫrð neðan;
   hann engi maðr    aptr of heimtir,
   nema fœri mēr    Freyju at kvān.' [*]

9. Flō þā Loki,    fjaðrhamr dunði,
   unz fyr utan kom    jǫtna heima
   ok fyr innan kom    āsa garða;
   mœtti hann Þōr    miðra garða,
   ok hann þat orða    alls fyrst of kvað:

10. 'Hęfir þū örindi    sem ęrfiði?
   sęg-ðu ā lopti    lǫng tīðindi:
   opt sitjanda    sǫgur of fallask,
   ok liggjandi    lygi of bęllir.'

                     Loki kvað:

11. 'Hęfi-k ęrfiði    ok örindi:
   Þrymr hęfir þinn hamar,    þursa drōttinn;
   hann engi maðr    aptr of heimtir,
   nema honum fœri    Freyju at kvān.'

12. Ganga þeir fagra    Freyju at hitta,
   ok hann þat orða    alls fyrst of kvað:
   'bitt-u þik, Freyja,    brūðar līni!
   vit skulum aka tvau    ī Jǫtunheima.'

13. Vreið varð þā Freyja    ok fnāsaði,
   allr āsa salr    undir bifðisk,
   stǫkk þat it mikla    męn Brīsinga:
   'mik veizt-u verða    ver-gjarnasta,
   ef ek ęk með þēr    ī Jǫtunheima.'

14. Sęnn vāru æsir    allir ā þingi
   ok āsynjur    allar ā māli,
   ok of þat rēðu    rīkir tīvar,
   hvē þeir Hlōriða    hamar of sœtti.

15. Þā kvað þat Heimdallr,    hvītastr āsa
   (vissi hann vel fram,    sem vanir aðrir):
   'bindum vēr Þōr þā    brūðar līni,
   hafi hann it mikla    męn Brīsinga!

16. Lātum und honum    hrynja lukla
   ok kvenn-vāðir    of knē falla,
   en ā brjōsti    breiða steina,
   ok hagliga    of hǫfuð typpum!'

17. Þā kvað þat Þōrr,    þrūðugr āss:
   'mik munu æsir    argan kalla,
   ef ek bindask læt    brūðar līni.'

18. Þā kvað þat Loki,    Laufeyjar sonr:
   'þęgi þū [nū], Þōrr!    þeira orða;
   þegar munu jǫtnar    Āsgarð būa,
   nema þū þinn hamar    þēr of heimtir.'

19. Bundu þeir Þōr þā    brūðar līni
   ok inu mikla    męni Brīsinga.

20. Lētu und honum    hrynja lukla
   ok kvenn-vāðir    of knē falla,
   en ā brjōsti    breiða steina,
   ok hagliga    of hǫfuð typðu.

21. Þā kvað þat Loki,    Laufeyjar sonr:
   'mun ek ok með þēr    ambātt vera,
   vit skulum aka tvær    ī Jǫtunheima.'

22. Sęnn vāru hafrar    heim of reknir,
   skyndir at skǫklum,    skyldu vel ręnna:
   bjǫrg brotnuðu,    brann jǫrð loga,
   ōk Ōðins sonr    ī Jǫtunheima.

23. Þā kvað þat Þrymr,    þursa drōttinn:
   'standið upp, jǫtnar!    ok strāið bękki!
   nū fœra mēr    Freyju at kvān,
   Njarðar dōttur,    ōr Nōa-tūnum.

24. Ganga hēr at garði    gull-hyrndar kȳr,
   öxn al-svartir    jǫtni at gamni;
   fjǫlð ā ek meiðma,    fjǫlð ā ek męnja,
   einnar mēr Freyju    āvant þykkir.'

25. Var þar at kveldi    of komit snimma,
   ok fyr jǫtna    ǫl fram borit;
   einn āt oxa,    ātta laxa,
   krāsir allar,    þær er konur skyldu,
   drakk Sifjar verr    sāld þrjū mjaðar.

26. Þā kvað þat Þrymr,    þursa drōttinn:
   'hvar sāttu brūðir    bīta hvassara?
   sāk-a-k brūðir    bīta breiðara,
   nē inn meira mjǫð    mey of drekka.'

27. Sat in al-snotra    ambātt fyrir,
   er orð of fann    við jǫtuns māli:
   'āt vætr Freyja    ātta nāttum,
   svā var hon ōð-fūs    ī Jǫtunheima.'

28. Laut und līnu,    lysti at kyssa,
   en hann utan stǫkk    ęnd-langan sal:
   'hvī eru ǫndōtt    augu Freyju?
   þykkir mēr ōr augum    eldr of bręnna.'

29. Sat in alsnotra    ambātt fyrir,
   er orð of fann    við jǫtuns māli:
   'svaf vætr Freyja    ātta nāttum,
   svā var hon ōðfūs    ī Jǫtunheima.'

30. Inn kom in arma    jǫtna systir,
   hin er brūð-fjār    of biðja þorði:
   'lāttu þēr af hǫndum    hringa rauða,
   ef þū ǫðlask vill    āstir mīnar,
   āstir mīnar,    alla hylli!'

31. Þā kvað þat Þrymr,    þursa drōttinn:
   'berið inn hamar    brūði at vīgja,
   lęggið Mjǫllni    ī meyjar knē,
   vīgið okkr saman    Vārar hęndi!'

32. Hlō Hlōriða    hugr ī brjōsti,
   er harð-hugaðr    hamar of þękði;
   Þrym drap hann fyrstan,    þursa drōttin,
   ok ætt jǫtuns    alla lamði.

33. Drap hann ina ǫldnu    jǫtna systur,
   hin er brūðfjār    of beðit hafði;
   hon skell of hlaut    fyr skillinga,
   en hǫgg hamars    fyr hringa fjǫlð.
   Svā kom Ōðins sonr    ęndr at hamri.


The references marked Gr. are to the paragraphs of the Grammar.


Line 3. *Hann ā þar rīki er Þrūð-vangar heita*, 'he reigns
(there) where it is called Þ.,' i.e. in the place which is called
Þ.  The plur. _heita_ agrees with _þrūðvangar_, as in l. 14
below: _þat eru jārnglōfar_ 'that is (his) iron gloves.'

l. 5. *þat er hūs mest, svā at męnn hafa gǫ̈rt*, 'that is the
largest house, so that men have made (it),' i.e. the largest
house that has been built.  Note the plur. _hūs_ of a single
house; each chamber was originally regarded as a house, being
often a detached building.

l. 13. *spęnnir þeim*, Gr. § 154; cp. 2. 49.


l. 1. *fōr með hafra sīna...ok með honum sā, āss er...*  We
see here that _með_ generally takes an acc. to denote passive,
and a dat. to denote voluntary accompaniment.

l. 5. *soðit* refers to some such subst. as _slātr_ (meat)

l. 11. *sprętti ā...* _ā_ is here an adv.

l. 12. *til męrgjar.*  _til_ here implies intention--to get at
the marrow.

l. 20. *þat er sā augnanna*, 'the little he saw of the eyes.'--
Thor frowned till his eyebrows nearly covered his eyes, and the
man felt as if he were going to fall down dead at the mere sight
of them.

l. 21. The second *hann* refers, of course, to Thor.

l. 34. *til myrkrs*, till it was dark.

l. 36. *þeir*, the masc. instead of the neut. pl., as in l. 32
*foll.*, showing that _leituðu_ is meant to refer only to the men
of the party, and not to include Rǫskva.  (Gr. § 179.)

l. 46. *sēr hvar lā maðr*, 'saw where a man lay,' i.e. saw a man

l. 51. *einu sinni*, for once in his life.

l. 52. *nęfndisk Skrȳmir*, said his name was Skr.

l. 66. *būið til* (_prp._) *nātt-verðar yðr*, prepare supper for

l. 77. *Er þat þēr satt at sęgja*.  _satt_ is in apposition to
_þat_--'that is to be told you as the truth, (namely) that...'

l. 88. *sjā sik*, see himself alive.

l. 104. *þann* = _þann veg_, that way, course.

l. 108. *at æsirnir bæði þā heila hittask*.  The full sense is,
'that Thor and Loki expressed a wish that they and Skrȳmir might
meet again safe and sound.'

ll. 111, 112. *sęttu hnakkann ā bak sēr aptr*, threw back the
backs of their heads till they touched their backs, i.e. threw
back their heads.

l. 118. *œrit stōra*, 'rather big,' i.e. very big.

l. 120. *glotti um tǫnn*, 'grinned round a tooth,' i.e. showed
his teeth in a malicious grin.  Two MSS. read _við_ instead of

l. 121. *er annan veg en ek hygg, at...?*  is it otherwise than
as I think, namely that...?  i.e. am I not right in thinking

l. 127. *engi er hēr sā inni er...* = engi er hēr-inni sā-er...

l. 129. *freista skal*, Gr. § 192.

l. 140. *kallar þess meiri vān at hann sē...*  'says that there
is more probability of that, namely that he is...than of the
contrary,' i.e. says that he will have to be...

l. 150. *fōthvatari en svā*, 'more swift-footed than so--under
these circumstances,' i.e. than you.

l. 156. *ok er Þjālfl eigi þā kominn...* = þā er Þjālfi eigi

l. 172. *at sinni*, this time.

l. 172. *hann*, acc.

l. 173. *laut ōr horninu*, bent back from the horn.

l. 188. *mestr* refers to _drykkr_ understood.

l. 218. *kalli*, Gr. § 192.

l. 241. *þō* refers to _uni_.


l. 7. *engi* agrees with _dōmr_.


l. 11. *hann*, acc.

l. 20. *ungr*, too young.

l. 31. *ū-happ* is in apposition to _þat_; cp. 3. 7.

ll. 33, 34. *vāru með einum hug til...*  had the same feelings

l. 36. *var...fyrr*, was beforehand, prevented.

l. 42. *vili*, subj. 'whether he will';--change of construction.

l. 55. *nema*, 'unless,' here = 'until.'

l. 89. *heim*.  This use of _heim_ in the sense of 'someone
else's home.' is frequent.  Cp. our 'drive a nail home.'

l. 94. *svā* refers to _ok ef allir hlutir..._, the _ok_ being

l. 108. *hvar*, cp. 2. 46.

l. 113. *karl*, 'old man,' here = Odin.


l. 6. *Hēðinn* = hann; this use of a proper name instead of a
pronoun is frequent.

l. 9. *þar*.  Cp. 1. 3.


l. 17. *svā at*, so that, i.e. just when.

l. 30. *er*, namely that.

l. 33. *austan at sigla*, is in a kind of apposition to

l. 40. *svā*, also.

l. 48. *muni fyrir*, awaits you, is impending.

l. 53. *meira*, adv., better, faster.

l. 149. *bar hann hātt*, impers. w. acc.; he was in a conspicuous

l. 244. *við fimtānda mann*, one of fifteen, with fourteen men.

l. 259. *vāpna* is governed by the second half of the genitival
compound _klæða-būnað_, which is here considered as two
independent words.


l. 17. *var fyrir*, was to be found.

l. 26. *tvau verð slīk*, double the price you gave.

l. 55. *fē* is probably dat. here, but may be nom.

l. 56. *ęptir sem...*, according as, in accordance with what.

l. 64. *nū...nū*, lately...just now.

l. 116. *hęldr* is here used pleonastically in a kind of
apposition to the preceding _bętr_.

l. 125. *en*, and = while.

l. 129. *þessi einn var svā hlutrinn, at...*, this single thing
is the case, namely that... i.e. the only thing is that...


l. 7. *jarðar* is governed by _hvęrgi_.

l. 9. *tūna*.  Poetical construction of gen. to denote goal of

l. 15. *þō* goes with the following _at_ = _ok sęlja, þōat_
(_þōtt_) _væri ōr silfri_.

l. 32. *fœri* may be either sg. or pl. 3 pers.


æ _follows_ að, ð _follows_ d, ę _follows_ e, œ _follows_ oð, ǫ
_follows_ o, ö _follows_ ǫ, þ _follows_ t.

The declensions of nouns are only occasionally given.

(-rs) etc. means that the _r_ of the nom. is kept in inflection.


-a  _adv._ not.
ā  _sf._ river.
ā  _see_ *eiga*.
ā  _prp. w. acc. and dat._ on, in.
āðr  _adv., cj._ before.
aðrir  _see_ *annar*.
æsir  _see_ *āss*.
ætla  _wv._ 3, consider, deem: 'ætlask fyrir,' intend.
ætt  _sf._ 2, race, descent, family.
ætta  _see_ *eiga*.
af  _prp. w. dat._ from; of; with; _adv._ 'drekka af,' drink off.
af-hūs  _sn._ out-house, side room.
afl  _sn._ strength, might.
af-taka  _wf._ damage, injury.
āgætliga  _adv._ splendidly.
aka  _sv._ 2, drive (a chariot, etc.).
ākafliga  _adv._ vehemently, hard--'kalla a.' call loudly.
akarn  _sn._ acorn.
akkeri  _sn._ anchor.
ālar-ęndir  _sm._ thong-end, end of a strap.
al-būinn  _adj. w. gen._ quite ready.
aldinn  _adj._ old.
aldri  _adv._ never.
ā-lęngðar  _adv._ for some time.
ālfr  _sm._ elf.
ā-lit  _snpl._ appearance, countenance [līta].
all-harðr  _adj._ very hard, very violent.
all-lītill  _adj._ very little.
all-mann-skœðr  _adj._ (very injurious to men), very murderous
    (of a battle) [skaði, 'injury'].
all-mikill  _adj._ very great.
allr  _adj._ all, whole; 'með ǫllu,' entirely; 'alls fyrst,'
    first of all.
all-stōrum  _adv._ very greatly.
all-valdr  _sm._ monarch, king.
al-snotr  _adj._ very clever.
al-svartr  _adj._ very black, coal-black.
alt  _adv._ quite.
ambātt  _sf._ 2, female slave, maid.
and-lit  _sn._ face [līta].
annarr  _prn._ second; following, next; other; one of the two--
    'annar...annarr,' one...the other.
aptann  _sm._ evening.
aptastr  _adj._ most behind.
aptr  _adv._ back, backwards, behind.
ār  _sf._ oar.
ār  _sn._ year.
ār  _see_ *ā*.
argr  _adj._ cowardly, base.
ār-maðr  _sm._ steward.
armr  _adj._ wretched.
ās-męgin  _sn._ divine strength.
āss  _sm._ 3, (Scandinavian) god.
āst  _sf._ 2, affection, love, _often in pl._
āst-sæll  _adj._ beloved, popular.  [sæll, 'happy'].
āsynja  _wf._ (Scandinavian) goddess [āss].
āt  _see_ *eta*.
at  _prp. w. dat._ at, by; to, towards, up to; for; in accordance
    with, after.
at  _adv._ to.
-at  _adv._ not.
at-laga  _wf._ attack [lęggja].
at-rōðr (-rar)  _sm._ 2, rowing against, attack.
ātta  _num._ eight.
ātta  see *eiga*.
auð-kęndr  _adj._ easy to be recognized, easily distinguishable.
auðr  _adj._ desert, deserted, without men.
auð-sēnn  _adj._ evident.
auga  _wn._ eye.
aug-sȳn  _sf._ sight.
auka  _sv._ 1, increase; _impers., w. dat. of what is added_ 'jōk
    nū miklu ā,' much was added to it (his hesitation increased).
austan  _adv._ from the east.
aust-maðr  _sm._ Easterner, Norwegian.
austr  _sn._ the east--'ī au.,' eastwards.
austr  _adv._ eastwards.
austr-vegr  _sm._ the East, _especially_ Russia.
āvalt  _adv._ continually, all the time.
ā-vanr  _adj._ wanting; _impers. neut. in_ 'einnar mēr Freyju
    āvant þykkir,' Freyja alone I seem to want.
ā-vinnr  _adj._ toilsome, _only in the impers. neut._ 'mun ā-vint
    verða um sǫxin,' it will be a hard fight at the prow.


bað  _see_ *biðja*.
bāðir  _prn._ both, _neut. as adv. in_ 'bæði...ok,' both...and.
bāðu  _see_ *biðja*.
bǣða  _see_ *biðja*.
bǣði  _see_ *bāðir*.
baggi  _wm._ bag; bundle.
bak  _sn._ back, 'vęrja eitt baki,' defend a thing with the back,
    i.e. turns one's back to it = be a coward.
bak-borði  _wm._ larboard.
bāl  _sn._ flame; funeral pile.
bāl-fǫr  _sf._ funeral.
bani  _wm._ death.
bar  _see_ *bera*.
bardagi  _wm._ battle.
barð  _sn._ edge, rim; projection in the prow of a ship formed by
    the continuation of the keel.
barða  _see_ *bęrja*.
barði  _wm._ war-ship with a sharp prow, ram.
barn  _sn._ child.
batt  _see_ *binda*.
bauð  _see_ *bjōða*.
beiða  _wv._ 1, _w. gen. of thing and dat. of pers. benefited_,
    ask, demand.
bein  _sn._ bone.
bękkr  _sm._ 2, bench.
bęlla  _wv._ 1, occupy oneself with, deal in, _generally in a bad
bera  _sv._ 4, carry, take; bear, endure.  berask at, happen.
    b. fram, bring forward, out.  b. vāpn niðr, shoot down.  b.
    rāð sīn saman, hold council, deliberate.
berg-risi  _wm._ hill-giant.
bęrja  _wv._ 1b, strike--'b. grjōti,' stone.  *bęrjask*, fight.
bęrr  _adj._ bare, unsheathed (of a sword).
ber-sęrkr  _sm._ 2, wild fighter, champion.  [Literally
    'bear-shirt,' i.e. one clothed in a bear's skin.]
bętr  _see_ *vel*.
bętri  _see_ *gōðr*.
bęzt  _see_ *vel*.
bęztr  _see_ *gōðr*.
beygja  _wv._ 1, bend, arch.
bīða  _sv._ 6, _w. gen._ wait for; _w. acc._ abide, undergo.
biðja  _sv._ 5, ask, beg, pray, _w. gen. of thing, acc. of the
    pers. asked, and dat. of the person benefited_; express a
    wish, bid--'bað hann vel kominn' (vera _understood_), bad
    him welcome; call on, challenge, command, tell.
bifask  _wv._ 1, tremble, shake.
bil  _sn._ moment of time.
bila  _wv._ 2, fail.
bilt  _neut. adj. only in the impers._ 'einum verðr bilt,' one
    hesitates, is taken aback, is afraid.
binda  _sv._ 3, bind, tie up; dress.
birta  _wv._ 1, show [bjartr].
bīta  _sv._ 6, bite; cut.
bittu  _see_ *binda*.
bitu  _see_ *bīta*.
bjarn-dȳri  _sn._ bear.
bjartr  _adj._ bright, clear.
bjō  _see_ *būa*.
bjōða  _sv._ 7, _w. acc. and dat._ offer, propose--'b. einum
    fang,' challenge to wrestling; invite.  b. upp, give up.
bjǫrg  _sf._ help; means of subsistence, store of food.
blāsa  _sv._ 1, blow; blow trumpet as signal.
bleyða  _wf._ coward.
blīða  _wf._ gentleness, friendliness.
blindr  _adj._ blind.
blōð  _sn._ blood.
blōt-bolli  _wm._ sacrificial bowl.
bœtr  _see_ *bōt*.
boga-skot  _sn._ bowshot.
bogi  _wm._ bow.
bog-maðr  _sm._ bowman, archer.
bōndi  _sm._ 4, yeoman, householder, (free) man [būa].
borð  _sn._ side of a ship, board; rim, the margin between the
    rim of a vessel and the liquid in it--'nū er gott beranda
    b. ā horninu,' now there is a good margin for carrying the
    horn, i.e. its contents are so diminished that it can be
    lifted without spilling.
borg  _sf._ fortress, castle.
borg-hlið  _sn._ castle gate.
bōt  _sf._ 3, mending, improvement; _plur._ *bœtr*,
bǫrn  _see_ *barn*.
brā  _sf._ eyelid.
brā  _see_ *bregða*.
bragð  _sn._ trick, stratagem [bregða].
brann  _see_ *bręnna*.
brast  _see_ *bresta*.
brātt  _adv._ quickly.
braut  _sf._ way--*ā braut*, _adv._ away.
braut  _see_ *brjōta*.
braut, brott  _adv._ away.
bregða  _sv._ 3, _w. dat._ jerk, pull, push; b. upp, lift, raise
    (to strike). change, transform.
breiðr  _adj._ broad.
bręnna  _wf._ burning; incremation.
bręnna  _sv._ 3, burn _intr._
bręnna  _wv._ 1, burn _trans._
bresta  _sv._ 3, break, crack, burst.
brestr  _sm._ crack; loss.
brjōst  _sn._ breast.
brjōta  _sv._ 7, break--'b. (skip)' suffer shipwreck, _also
    impers._ 'skip (acc.) brȳtr,' the ship is wrecked.
broddr  _sm._ point.
brōðir  _sm._ 4, brother.
brotinn  _see_ *brjōta*.
brotna  _wv._ 3, break _intr._
brott  _see_ *braut*.
brott-laga  _sf._ retreat.
brū  _sf._ bridge.
brūð-fē  _sn._ bridal gift.
brūðr  _sf._ 2, bride.
brūn  _sf._ 3, eyebrow.
bryggja  _wf._ pier.
brynja  _wf._ corslet.
brȳnn  _see_ *brūn*.
bryn-stūka  _wf._ corslet-sleeve.
bryti  _see_ *brjōta*.
brȳtr  _see_ *brjōta*.
bū  _sn._ dwelling, home.
būa  _sv._ 1, dwell; inhabit, possess, prepare.  *būask*, get
    ready, prepare _intr._ 'er būit við at...' it is likely to
    be that..., there is danger of...
buðu  _see_ *bjōða*.
būinn  _adj._ ready; in a certain condition--'(við) svā būit'
    _adv._ under such circumstances; capable, fit for--'vel at
    sēr būinn,' very capable, very good (at).
bundu  _see_ *binda*.
burr  _sm._ son.
bȳðr  _see_ *bjōða*.
bȳr  _see_ *būa*.
byrja  _wv._ 3, begin.
byr-vænn  _adj._ promising a fair wind.


daga  _wv._ 3, dawn.
dagan  _sf._ dawn.
dagr  _sm._ day.
dalr  _sm._ valley.
dauðr  _adj._ dead.
dęgi  _see_ *dagr*.
deyja  _sv._ 2, die.
djūpr  _adj._ deep.
dō  _see_ *deyja*.
dōmr  _sm._ decision.
dōttir  _sf._ 3, daughter.
dǫgurðr  _sm._ breakfast [-urð = -verðr, _cp._ nāttverðr].
dōkkr (-vir)  _adj._ dark.
draga  _sv._ 2, draw, drag.  d. saman, collect.
drakk  _see_ *drekka*.
drap  _see_ *drepa*.
draumr  _sm._ dream.
dręginn  _see_ *draga*.
dreif  _see_ *drīfa*.
dręki  _wm._ dragon; dragon-ship, ship with a dragon's head as a
drekka  _sv._ 3, drink.
drepa  _sv._ 5, strike; kill.
dreyma  _wv._ 1, _impers. w. acc. of pers. and acc. of the thing_
    dream [draumr].
drīfa  _sv._ 6, drive; hasten.
drjūpa  _sv._ 7, drop.
drō  _see_ *draga*.
drōgu  _see_ *draga*.
drōttinn  _sm._ lord.
drōttin-hollr  _adj._ faithful to its master.
drukkinn  _adj. (ptc.)_ drunk.
drupu  _see_ *drjūpa*.
drykkja  _wf._ drinking [drekka].
drykkju-maðr  _sm._ drinker.
drykkr  _sm._ 2, draught.
duna  _wv._ 3, resound.
dunði  _see_ *dynja*.
dvalða  _see_ *dvęlja*.
dvęlja  _wv._ 1b, delay.  *dvęljask*, dwell, stop.
dvergr  _sm._ dwarf.
dyðrill  _sm._ (?).
dȳja  _wv._ 1b, shake.
dynja  _wv._ 1b, resound.
dȳr  _sn._ animal, beast.
dyrr  _sfnpl._ door.


eða  _cj._ or.
ef  _cj._ if.
ęfna  _wv._ 1, perform, carry out.
ęggja  _wv._ 3, incite.
eiðr  _sm._ oath.
eiga  _wf._ property.
eiga  _swv._ possess, have: have as wife, be married to; have _in
    the sense of_ must.
eigi  _adv._ not; no.
eign  _sf._ property.
eignask  _wv._ 3, appropriate, gain.
eik  _sf._ 3, oak.
einka-māl  _snpl._ personal agreement, special treaty.
einn  _num., prn._ one; the same; a certain, a; alone, only--
    'einn saman,' alone, mere.
einn-hvęrr  _prn._ a certain, some, a.
eira  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ spare.
eitr  _sn._ poison.
ek  _prn._ I.
ęk  _see_ *aka*.
ekki  _prn. neut._ nothing; _adv._ not.
eldr  _sm._ fire.
ęlli  _wf._ old age.
ellifti  _adj._ eleventh.
ellifu  _num._ eleven.
em  _see_ *vera*.
en  _cj._ but; and.
en  _adv._ than, _after compar._
ęndask  _wv._ 1, end, suffice for.
ęndi, ęndir  _sm._ end.
ęnd-langr  _adj._ the whole length--'ęndlangan sal,' the whole
    length of the hall.
ęndr  _adv._ again.
engi  _prn._ none, no.
ęnn  _adv._ yet, still; besides; after all.
ęptir  _prp. w. acc._ after (of time).  _w. dat._ along, over;
    in quest of, after; according to, by.  _adv._ afterwards;
    behind [aptr].
ęptri  _adj. compar._ hind.
er  _prn. rel._ who, which, _rel. adv._ where; when; because,
er  _see_ *vera*.
er  _see_ *þū*.
ęrfiði  _sn._ work; trouble.
ert  _see_ *vera*.
eru  _see_ *vera*.
eta  _sv._ 5, eat.
ey  _sf._ island.


fā  _sv._ 1, grasp; receive, get; give; be able.  *fāsk*,
    wrestle.  *fāsk ā*, be obtained, be.
faðir  _sm._ 4, father.
fær  _see_ *fā*.
fæstr  _see_ *fār*.
fagnaðr  _sm._ 2, joy; entertainment, hospitality.
fagr  _adj._ beautiful, fair, fine.
fagrliga  _adv._ finely.
fall  _sn._ fall.
falla  _sv._ 1, fall.  *fallask*, be forgotten, fail.
fang  _sn._ embrace, grasp; wrestling.
fann  _see_ *finna*.
fār  _adj._ few--_neut._ fātt _w. gen._: 'fātt manna,' few men.
fara  go, travel--_w. gen. in such constr. as_ 'f. fęrðar
    sinnar,' go his way; fare (well, ill); happen, turn out;
    experience; 'f. með einu,' deal with, treat; destroy, use
    up _w. dat._  *farask* _impers. in_ 'fęrsk þeim vel,' they
    have a good passage.
farmr  _sm._ lading, cargo.
fastr  _adj._ firm, fast, strong.
fē  _sn._ property, money.
fęðrum  _see_ *faðir*.
fekk  _see_ *fā*.
fęgrð  _sf._ beauty [fagr].
fęgrstr  _see_ *fagr*.
feikn-stafir  _smpl._ 2, wickedness.
fela  _sv._ 3, hide.
fēlagi  _wm._ companion.
fē-lauss  _adj._ penniless.
fē-lītill  _adj._ with little money, poor.
fell  _see_ *falla*.
fęlla  _wv._ 1, fell, throw down; kill [falla].
fengu, fęnginn  _see_ *fā*.
fęr  _see_ *fara*.
fęrð  _sf._ 2, journey [fara].
fer-skeyttr  _adj._ four-cornered.
fimm  _num._ five.
fimtāndi  _adj._ fifteenth.
finna  _sv._ 3, find; meet, go to see; notice, see.
fjaðr-hamr  _sm._ feathered (winged) coat.
fjall  _sn._ mountain.
fjār  _see_ *fē*.
fjara  _sf._ ebb-tide; beach.
fjogur  _see_ *fjōrir*.
fjōrði  _adj._ fourth.
fjōrir  _num._ four.
fjǫlð  _wf._ quantity.
fjǫl-kyngi  _sn._ magic.
fjǫl-męnni  _sn._ multitude; troop [maðr].
fjǫrðr  _sm._ 3, firth.
fjǫrur  _see_ *fjara*.
flā  _sv._ 2, flay, skin.
flaug  _see_ *fljūga*.
flęginn  _see_ *flā*.
flestr  _see_ *margr*.
fljōta  _sv._ 7, float, drift.
fljūga  _sv._ 7, fly.
flō  _see_ *fljūga*.
floti  _wm._ fleet [fljōtal.
flōtti  _wm._ flight [flȳja].
flugu  _see_ *fljūga*.
fluttu  _see_ *flytja*.
flȳja  _wv._ 1, flee.
flytja  _wv._ 1b. remove, bring.
fnāsa  _wv._ 3, snort.
fœra  _wv._ 1, bring, take; fasten [fara].
fœrir  _see_ *fara*.
fœti  _see_ *fōt*.
fōlginn  _see_ *fela*.
fōlk  _sn._ multitude, troop; people.
fōr  _see_ *fara*.
for-tǫlur  _wpl._ representations, arguments [tala].
fōstra  _wf._ nurse.
fōt-hvatr  _adj._ swift-footed.
fōtr  _sm._ foot; leg.
fǫður  _see_ *faðir*.
fǫr  _sf._ journey [fara].
fǫru-neyti  _sn._ company [njōta].
frā  _prp._ from, away from; about, concerning.  'ī frā' _adv._
frændi  _sm._ 4, relation.
frā-fall  _sn._ death.
fram  _adv._ forward, forth.  _compar._ *framar*, ahead.
framastr  _adj. superl._ chief, most distinguished.
frami  _wm._ advantage, courage.
framiðr  _see_ *fręmja*.
fram-stafn  _sm._ prow.
frā-sǫgn  _sf._ narrative, relation.
freista  _wv._ 3, _w. gen._ try, test.
fręmja  _wv._ 1b, perform [fram].
friðr  _sm._ 2, peace.
frīðr  _adj._ beautiful, fine.
frōðr  _adj._ learned, wise.
frœkn  _adj._ bold, daring.
frost  _sn._ frost.
fugl  _sm._ bird.
full-kominn  _adj._ (_ptc._) complete; ready (for).
fullr  _adj._ full.
fundr  _sm._ 2, meeting [finna].
fundu  _see_ *finna*.
furðu  _adv._ awfully, very.
fūss  _adj._ eager.
fylgja  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ follow; accompany.
fylki  _sn._ troop [fōlk].
fylkja  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ draw up (troops) [fōlk].
fylla  _wv._ 1, fill [fullr].
fyr, fyrir  _prp. w. acc. and dat._ before; beyond, over--'f.
    borð,' overboard; instead of--'koma f.'  _adv._ be given as
    compensation; for; because of.  'f. þvī at,' because.
    'lītill. f. sēr,' insignificant.
fyrir-rūm  _sn._ fore-hold, chief-cabin.
fyrirrūms-maðr  _sm._ man in the fore-hold.
fyrr  _adv. compar._ before, formerly.  _superl._ *fyrst*, first.
fyrri  _adj. compar._ former.  _superl._ *fyrstr*, first.
fȳsa  _wv._ 1, hasten _trans.--impers._ 'braut fȳsir mik,' I feel
    a desire to go away [fūss].


gā  _wv._ 1, _w. gen._ heed, care for.
gæfa  _wf._ luck [gefa].
gæta  _wv._ 1, watch, take care of [geta].
gaf  _see_ *gefa*.
gæfu-maðr  _sm._ lucky man.
gaflak  _sn._ javelin.
gamall  _adj._ old.
gaman  _sn._ amusement, joy.
ganga  _sv._ 1, go, _with gen. of goal in poetry_; attack--'g. ā
    skip,' board a ship.  g. af, be finished.  g. til, come up.
    g. upp, land; board a ship; be used up, expended (of money).
garðr  _sm._ enclosure, court; dwelling.
gat  _see_ *geta*.
gefa  _sv._ 5, give.
gęgnum, ī gęgnum  _prp. w. gen._ through.
gekk  _see_ *ganga*.
gęlti  _see_ *gǫltr*.
gęnginn, gęngr, gengu  _see_ *ganga*.
geta  _sv._ 5, _w. gen._ mention, speak of; guess, suppose.
geysi  _adv._ excessively.
gipta  _wf._ luck [gefa].
giptu-maðr  _sm._ lucky man.
gjafar  _see_ *gjǫf*.
gjǫf  _sf._ gift.
glotta  _wv._ 2, smile maliciously, grin.
glæsiligr  _adj._ magnificent.
gnȳr  _sm._ din, noise.
gōðr  _adj._ good--'gott er til eins,' it is easy to get at,
gōlf  _sn._ floor; apartment, room.
gott  _see_ *gōðr*.
gǫfugr  _adj._ distinguished [gefa].
gǫltr  _sm._ 3, boar.
gǫmul  _see_ *gamall*.
gǫ̈ra  _wv._ 1c, do, make.  *gǫ̈rask*, set about doing; be made
    into, become.  *gǫ̈ra at*, accomplish, carry out.
gǫ̈rsimi  _wf._ article of value, treasure.
granda  _wv._ 3, _w. dat._ injure.
grār  _adj._ gray.
gras  _sn._ grass; plant, flower.
grāta  _sv._ 1, weep, mourn for.
grātr  _sm._ weeping.
greiða  _wv._ 1, put in order, arrange.
greip  _see_ *grīpa*.
gres-jārn  _sn._ iron wire (?).
grey  _sn._ dog.
grið  _snpl._ peace, security.
griða-staðr  _sm._ sanctuary.
grind  _sf._ 3, lattice door, wicket.
grīpa  _sv._ 6, seize.
gripr  _sm._ 2, article of value, treasure.
grjōt  _sn._ stone (collectively).
grōa  _sv._ 1, grow; heal.
grœr  _see_ *grōa*.
gruna  _wv._ 3, _impers._--'mik grunar,' I suspect, think.
grunr  _sm._ 2, suspicion.
gull  _sn._ gold.
gull-band  _sn._ gold band.
gull-būinn  _adj._ adorned with gold.
gull-hringr  _sm._ gold ring.
gull-hyrndr  _adj._ (_ptc._) with gilt horns.
gull-roðinn  _adj._ (_ptc._) gilt.
gȳgr  _sf._ giantess.
gyltr  _adj._ (_ptc._) gilt.
gyrða  _wv._ 1, gird.


hæstr  _see_ *hār*.
hætta  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ desist from, stop.
hættligr  _adj._ dangerous, threatening.
hættr  _adj._ dangerous.
haf  _sn._ sea.
hafa  _wv._ 1, have; 'h. einn nær einu,' bring near to, expose
    to; use, utilize.  at hafask, undertake.  til hafa, have at
hafna  _see_ *hǫfn*.
hafr  _sm._ goat.
hafr-staka  _wf._ goatskin.
hagliga  _adv._ neatly.
hagr  _sm._ condition; advantage--'þēr mun h. ā vera,' will avail
    thee, be profitable to you.
hag-stœðr  _adj._ favourable.
halda  _sv._ 1, _w. dat._ hold (also with prp. _ā_); keep.  _w.
    acc._ observe, keep (laws, etc.).  _intr._ take a certain
    direction, go.
hālfr  _adj._ half.
hālfu  _adv._ by half, half as much again.
hallar  _see_ *hǫll*.
hallar-gōlf  _sn._ hall floor.
haltr  _adj._ lame.
hamarr  _sm._ hammer.
hamars-muðr  _sm._ thin end of hammer.
hamar-skapt  _sn._ handle of a hammer.
hamar-spor  _sn._ mark made by a hammer.
hana  _see_ *hann*.
handar  _see_ *hǫnd*.
hand-skot  _sn._ throwing with the hand.
hand-tękinn  _ptc. pret._ taken by hand, taken alive.
hann  _prn._ he.
hār  _sn._ hair.
hār  _adj._ high.
harð-hugaðr  _adj._ stern of mood.
harðr  _adj._ hard; strong.
harð-skeytr  _adj._ strong-shooting [skjōta].
harmr  _sm._ grief.
hāski  _wm._ danger.
hā-sæti  _sn._ high seat, dais [sitja].
hāsætis-kista  _sf._ chest under the dais.
hātt  _adv._ high; loudly.
haugr  _sm._ mound.
hauss  _sm._ skull.
heðan  _adv._ hence.
hęfi  _see_ *hafa*.
hęfja  _sv._ 2, raise, lift; begin.
hęfna  _wv._ 1, _w. gen._ revenge, avenge.
heill  _adj._ sound, safe, prosperous.
heil-rǣði  _sn._ sound advice, good advice [rāð].
heim  _adv._ to one's home, home (domum).
heima  _adv._ at home (domi).
heima-maðr  _sm._ man of the household.
heim-fūss  _adj._ longing to go home, homesick.
heimr  _sm._ home, dwelling; world.
heimta  _wv._ 1, fetch, obtain, get back.
heita  _sv._ 1, call; _w. dat. of pers. and dat. of thing_
    promise; _intr._ (_pres._ heiti) be named, called.
hęldr  _see_ *halda*.
hęldr  _adv. compar._ more willingly, rather, sooner, more;
    rather, very.
hęl-grindr  _sf._ the doors of hell.
hęllir  _sm._ cave.
helt  _see_ *halda*.
hęl-vegr  _sm._ road to hell.
hęlzt  _adv. superl._ most willingly, soonest, especially, most
hęndi, hęndr  _see_ *hǫnd*.
hęnnar, hęnni  _see_ *hann*.
hępta  _wv._ 1, bind; hinder, stop.
hēr  _adv._ here--'h. af,' etc. here-of.
hęr-bergi  _sn._ quarters, lodgings.
hęrða  _wv._ harden, clench.
hęr-fang  _sn._ booty.
hęrja  _wv._ 3, make war, ravage [hęrr].
hęrr  _sm._ army, fleet.
herra  _sm._ lord.
hęr-skip  _sn._ war-ship.
hestr  _sm._ horse.
hēt  _see_ *heita*.
heyra  _wv._ 1, hear.
himinn  _sm._ heaven.
hingat  _adv._ hither.
hinn  _prn._ that.
hirð  _sf._ court.
hirð-maðr  _sm._ courtier.
hiti  _wm._ heat.
hitta  _wv._ come upon, find, meet; _trans._ go to.  *hittask*,
    meet, _intr._
hjā  _prp. w. dat._ by, at; in comparison with.
hjālmr  _sm._ helmet.
hjōn  _snpl._ household.
hlaða  _sv._ 2, load, heap up; 'h. seglum,' take in sails.
hlæja  _sv._ 2, laugh.
hlaupa  _sv._ 1, jump, leap; run.
hlaut  _see_ *hljōta*.
hleyp  _see_ *hlaupa*.
hleypa  _wv._ 1, make to run (i.e. the horse), gallop.
hlīf  _sf._ shield.
hlīfa  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ shelter, cover, protect.
hljōp  _see_ *hlaupa*.
hljōta  _sv._ 7, get, receive.
hlōðu  _see_ *hlaða*.
hlōgu  _see_ *hlæja*.
hlunnr  _sm._ roller (for launching ships).
hluti  _wm._ portion [hljōta].
hlutr  _sm._ 2, share; portion, part, piece; thing [hljōta].
hlut-skipti  _sn._ booty.
hnakki  _wm._ back of head.
hōf  _see_ *hęfja*.
hollr  _adj._ gracious, faithful.
hōlmr  _sm._ small island.
hon  _see_ *hann*.
honum  _see_ *hann*.
horn  _sn._ horn.
hœgri  _adj. compar._ right (hand).
hœla  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ praise, boast of.
hǫfðingi  _wm._ chief [hǫfuð].
hǫfða-fjǫl  _sf._ head-board (especially of a bedstead).
hǫfðu  _see_ *hafa*.
hǫfn  _sf._ harbour.
hǫfuð  _sn._ head.
hǫgg  _sn._ stroke.
hǫgg-ormr  _sm._ viper.
hǫgg-orrosta  _wf._ 'cutting-fight,' hand-to-hand fight.
hǫggva  _sv._ 1, hew, cut, strike.
hǫll  _sf._ hall.
hǫnd  _sf._ 3, hand; side--'hvārra-tvęggju handar,' on both
    sides, for both parties.
hræddr  _adj._ frightened, afraid [_ptc._ of hræðask].
hræðask  _wv._ 1, be frightened, fear.
hræzla  _wf._ fear [hræðask].
hrafn  _sm._ raven.
hratt  _see_ *hrinda*.
hrauð  _see_ *hrjōða*.
hraut  _see_ *hrjōta*.
hreyfa  _wv._ 1, move.
hrīð  _sf._ period of time.
hrīm-þurs  _sm._ frost giant.
hrinda  _sv._ 3, push, launch (ship).
hrista  _wv._ 1, shake.
hrjōða  _sv._ 7, strip, clear, disable.
hrjōta  _sv._ 7, start, burst out.
hrǫkk  _see_ *hrökkva*.
hrökkva  _sv._ 3, start back.
hryði  _see_ *hrjōta*.
hrynja  _wv._ 1b. fall down.
hrȳtr  _see_ *hrjōta*.
hugða  _see_ *hyggja*.
hugi  _wm._ thought.
hugr  _sm._ mind, heart; courage, spirit.
hugsa  _wv._ 3, consider, think.
hundrað  _sn._ hundred.
hurð  _sf._ 2, door.
hūs  _sn._ room; house.
hvar  _adv._ where; that.
hvārr  _prn._ which of two; each of the two, both.
hvārr-tvęggja  _prn._ each of the two, both.
hvārt  _adv._ whether, _both in direct and indirect questions_.
hvārt-tvęggja  _adv._ 'hv...ok,' both...and.
hvass  _adj._ sharp.
hvat  _prn. neut._ what.
hvart  _adj._ brisk, bold.
hvē  _adv._ how.
hverfa  _sv._ 3, turn, go.
hvęr-gi  _adv._ nowhere--'hv. jarðar,' nowhere on earth; in no
    respect, by no means.
hvęrnig  _adv._ how [= hvęrn veg.].
hvęrr  _prn._ who.
hvęrsu  _adv._ how.
hvī  _adv._ why.
hvirfill  _sm._ crown of head.
hvītna  _wv._ 2, whiten.
hvītr  _adj._ white.
hyggja  _wv._ 1b. think, mean, determine [hugr].
hylli  _wf._ favour [hollr].


ī  _prp._ in.
ī-huga  _wv._ 3, try to remember, consider [hugr].
illa  _adv._ ill, badly.
illr  _adj._ ill, bad.
inn  _art._ the.
inn  _adv._ in _compar._ *innar*, further in.
inna  _wv._ 1, accomplish.
innan  _adv._ within, inside.  *fyrir innan* _prp. w. gen._
    within, in.
inni  _adv._ in.
it  _see_ *þū*.
it  _see_ *inn*.
ī-þrōtt  _sf._ feat.


jafn-breiðr  _adj._ equally broad.
jafn-hǫfugr  _adj._ equally heavy [hęfja].
jafn-mikill  _adj._ equally great.
jafn-skjōtt  _adv._ equally quick.
jafna  _wv._ 3, smooth; compare _w. dat. of thing compared._
jafnan  _adv._ always.
jarl  _sm._ earl.
jārn  _sn._ iron.
jārn-glōfi  _sm._ iron gauntlet.
jārn-spǫng  _sf._ iron plate.
jāta  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ agree to.
jōk  _see_ *auka*.
jǫrð  _sf._ earth.
jǫtun-heimar  _smpl._ home, world of the giants.
jǫtunn  _sm._ giant.


kær-leikr  _sm._ love, affection [kærr, 'dear'].
kaf  _sn._ diving; deep water, water under the surface.
kafa  _wv._ 3, dive.
kalla  _wv._ 3, cry out, call; assert, maintain; name, call.
kann  _see_ *kunna*.
kapp  _sn._ competition.
karl  _sm._ man; old man.
kasta  _wv._ 3, cast, throw.
kaupa  _wv._ 2, buy.
kęngr  _sm._ bend.
kęnna  _wv._ 1, know; perceive.
kęrling  _sf._ old woman [karl].
kęrra  _wf._ chariot.
kętill  _sm._ kettle.
keypta  _see_ *kaupa*.
keyra  _wv._ 1, drive.
kirkja  _wf._ church.
kirkju-skot  _sn._ wing of a church.
kjōsa  _sv._ 7, choose.
klakk-laust  _adv._ uninjured.
klæða  _wv._ 1, clothe.
klæða-būnaðr  _sm._ apparel.
klæði  _snpl._ clothes.
knē  _sn._ knee.
knīfr  _sm._ knife.
knǫrr  _sm._ merchant-ship.
knūði  _see_ *knȳja*.
knūi  _wm._ knuckle.
knūtr  _sm._ knot.
knȳja  _wv._ 1b, press with knuckles or knees; exert oneself
kōlf-skot  _sn._ (distance of a) bolt-shot.
kollōttr  _adj._ bald.
koma  _sv._ 4. come; happen, turn out; _w. dat._ bring into a
    certain condition.  *k. fyrir*, be paid in atonement.
    *komask*, make one's way (by dint of exertion).
kona  _wf._ woman; wife.
konr  _sm._ kind--'alls konar,' all kinds; 'nakkvars konar,' of
    some kind.
konunga-stęfna  _wf._ congress of kings.
konungr  _sm._ king.
konungs-dōttir  _sf._ king's daughter.
konungs-skip  _sn._ king's ship.
kosinn  _see_ *kjōsa*.
kost-gripr  _sm._ precious thing, treasure.
kostr  _sm._ 2, choice--'at ǫðru kosti,' otherwise; power
kǫgur-sveinn  _sm._ little boy, urchin.
kǫpp  _see_ *kapp*.
kǫpur-yrði  _sn._ boasting [orð].
kǫttr  _sm._ 3, cat.
köm  _see_ *koma*.
krappa-rūm  _sn._ back cabin.
krappr  _adj._ narrow.
kraptr  _sm._ strength.
krās  _sf._ 2, delicacy.
kręfja  _wv._ 1b, _w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing_, demand.
kunna  _swv._ know; feel; venture; like to.
kunnandi  _wf._ knowledge, accomplishments.
kunnusta  _wf._ knowledge, power.
kunnr  _adj._ known.
kurr  _sm._ murmur, rumour.
kvæði  _sn._ poem.
kvæma  _see_ *koma*.
kvān  _sf._ wife.
kveða  _sv._ 5, say.  *kv. ā* settle, agree on.
kvęðja  _wf._ salutation [kveða].
kvęðja  _wv._ 1b, greet.
kveld  _sn._ evening--'ī kv.,' this evening.
kveld-sǫngr  _sm._ vespers.
kvenn-vāðir  _sfpl._ woman's clothes.
kviðr  _sm._ 3, stomach, belly.
kvisa  _wv._ 3, whisper.
kvistr _sm._ 3, branch, twig.
kvǫddu  _see_ *kvęðja*.
kykr (-vir)  _adj._ living.
kykvendi  _sn._ living creature, animal.
kȳll  _sm._ bag.
kyn  _sn._ race, lineage.
kȳr  _sf._ 3, cow.
kyssa  _wv._ 1, kiss.


lā  _see_ *liggja*.
lægri  _see_ *lāgr*.
lær-lęggr  _sm._ thigh-bone.
læt  _see_ *lāta*.
lagða  _see_ *lęggja*.
lāgr  _adj._ low; short of stature [liggja].
lags-maðr  _sm._ companion.
lagu  _see_ *liggja*.
lamða, lamit  _see_ *lęmja*.
land  _sn._ land, country.
land-skjālfti  _wm._ earthquake.
langr  _adj._ long, far.
lāt  _snpl._ noise.
lāta  _sv._ 1, let go; leave; lose; allow; cause, let; behave,
    act; say.
lauf  _sn._ foliage.
laufs-blað  _sn._ (blade of foliage), leaf.
laug  _sf._ bath.
laun  _snpl._ reward.
launa  _wv._ 3, reward, requite _w. dat. of the thing given and
    of the pers., and acc. of the thing requited._
lauss  _adj._ loose; shaky, unsteady; free from obligation.
laust  _see_ *ljōsta*.
laut  _see_ *lūta*.
lax  _sm._ salmon.
leðr-hosa  _wf._ leather bag.
lęggja  _wv._ 1b, lay, put; 'l. eitt fyrir einn,' give, settle
    on; 'l. sik fram,' exert oneself; _intr. w._ skip
    _understood_ sail, row--*l. at*, land; attack; *l. frā*,
    retreat, draw off; pierce, make a thrust.  *lęggjask*, set
    out, proceed; swim [liggja].
leið  _sf._ way--'koma einu til leiðar,' carry out [līða].
leið  _see_ *līða*.
leiða  _wv._ 1, lead, conduct [līða].
leiðangr (-rs)  _sm._ levy [leið].
leiga  _wv._ 1, borrow.
leikr  _sm._ game; athletic sports, contest.
leita  _wv._ 3, _w. gen. and dat._ seek; take to, have recourse
    to.  *leitask*, feel one's way [līta].
lęmja  _wv._ 1b, break.
lęngð  _sf._ length [langr].
lęngi  _adv._ long (of time) [langr].
lęngstr  _see_ *langr*.
lēt  _see_ *lāta*.
lętja  _wv._ 1b, _w. acc. of pers. and gen. of thing_, hinder,
lētta  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ lift.
leyniliga  _adv._ secretly.
leysa  _wv._ 1, loosen, untie, open [lauss].
lið  _sn._ troop.
līða  _sv._ 6, go; pass (of time); _impers._ *līðr*, _w. dat._
    fare, get on.  _impers._ 'līðr ā (nāttina),' (the night) is
    drawing to a close.
līf  _sn._ life--'ā līfi,' alive.
lifa  _wv._ 2, live.
liggja  _sv._ 5, lie.  *l. til*, be fitting.
līk  _sn._ body; corpse.
līka  _wv._ 3, _w. dat._ please.
līki  _sn._ form [līk].
līking  _sf._ likeness, similarity [līkr].
līknsamr  _adj._ gracious.
līkr  _adj._ like.
līn  _sn._ linen; linen headdress.
list  _sf._ art.
līta  _sv._ 6, look at; regard, consider--'l. til eins.' turn to,
    acknowledge greeting.  *lītask* _impers. w. dat._ seem.
litask  _wv._ 3, look round one [līta].
lītill  _adj._ little, small--'lītit veðr,' not very windy
    weather.  *lītlu* _adv._ by a little, a little.
lītil-ræði  _sm._ degradation [rāð].
litr  _sm._ 3, colour, complexion; appearance [līta].
līzk  _see_ *līta*.
ljā  _wv._ 1, _w. gen. and dat._ lend.
ljōsta  _sv._ 7, strike, _w. dat. of instr. and acc. of the thing
    struck_--'l. ārum ī sæ,' dip the oars into the sea, begin to
lofa  _wv._ 3, praise.
lōga  _wv._ 3, _w. dat._ part with.
logi  _wm._ flame.
lokinn  _see_ *lūka*.
lopt  _sn._ air--'ā l.,' up.
lūka  _sv._ 7, lock, close; _impers._ 'lȳkr einu,' it is
    finished, exhausted.  'l. upp,' unlock, open.
lukla  _see_ *lykill*.
lustu  _see_ *ljōsta*.
lūta  _sv._ 7, bend, bow.
lygi  _wf._ lie, falsehood.
lykð  _sf._ ending--'at lykðum,' finally.
lykill  _sm._ key [lūka].
lypta  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ lift [lopt].
lypting  _sf._ raised place (castle) on the poop of a warship
lȳsa  _wv._ 1, shine.
lȳsi-gull  _sn._ bright gold.
lȳst  _see_ *ljōsta*.
lysta  _wv._ 1, _impers. w. acc._ desire.


mā  _see_ *mega*.
maðr  _sm._ 4, man.
mæla (mælta)  _wv._ 1, speak--'m. við einu,' refuse; suggest.
mær  _sf._ virgin, maid.
mætta  _see_ *mega*.
magr (-ran)  _adj._ thin.
māgr  _sm._ kinsman, relation, connection.
makligr  _adj._ fitting.
māl  _sn._ narrative; _in plur._ poem; proper time, time.
mālmr  _sm._ metal.
mann  _see_ *maðr*.
mann-fōlk  _sn._ troops, crew.
mann-hringr  _sm._ ring of men.
mannliga  _adv._ manlily.
margr  _adj._ many, much.
mark  _sn._ mark; importance.
marka  _wv._ 3, infer.
marr  _sm._ horse.
mart  _see_ *margr*.
matask  _wv._ 3, eat a meal.
matr  _sm._ 2, food.
mātta  _see_ *mega*.
māttr  _sm._ 2, might, strength.
með  _prp. w. acc. and dat._ with.
meðal  _s._ middle--ā m.  _w. gen._ between.
meðan  _adv._ whilst.
mega  _swv._ can, may.
megin  --'ǫðrum m.,' on the other side; 'ǫllum m.,' on all sides
    [_corruption of_ vegum].
męgin-gjarðar  _sfpl._ girdle of strength [mega].
meiðmar  _sfpl._ treasures.
meiri  _see_ *mikill*.
męn  _sn._ necklace, piece of jewelry.
męnn  _see_ *maðr*.
mēr  _see_ *ek*.
męrgr  _sm._ 2, marrow.
męrki  _sn._ mark; banner [mark].
mest  _see_ *mikill*.
meta  _sv._ 5, measure; estimate.
mey  _see_ *mær*.
mið-garðr  _sm._ (middle enclosure), world.
miðgarðs-ormr  _sm._ world-serpent.
miðr  _adj._ middle.
mik  _see_ *ek*.
mikill  _adj._ big, tall, great.  *mikit* _adv._ much, very.
miklu  _adv._ (_instr._) much.
milli, ā milli  _prp._ between, among.
minjar  _sfpl._ remembrance, memorial.
minn  _see_ *ek*.
minni  _see_ *lītill*.
minnr  _adv._ less.
mis-līka  _wv._ 3, _w. dat._ displease, not please.
missa  _wf._ loss, want.
missa  _wv._ 1, _w. gen._ lose; do without.
mistil-teinn  _sm._ mistletoe [teinn, 'twig'].
mitt  _see_ *ek*.
mjǫðr  _sm._ 3, mead.
mjǫk  _adv._ very.
mōðir  _sf._ 3, mother.
mōðr  _sm._ anger.
mœtask  _wv._ 1, meet _intr._ [mōt].
mǫn  _sf._ mane.
morginn  _sm._ morning.
mǫrk  _sf._ 3, forest.
mǫrum  _see_ *marr*.
mōt  _sn._ meeting.  *ī mōti* _prp. w. dat._ against.
mǫtu-neyti  _sn._ community of food--'lęggja m. sitt,' make
    their provision into a common store [matr; njōta].
mundu  _see_ *munu*.
munnr  _sm._ mouth.
munr  _sm._ difference--'þeim mun,' to that extent.
munu  _swv._ will, may (of futurity and probability).
myndi  _see_ *munu*.
myrkr  _sn._ darkness.
myrkr  _adj._ dark.


nā  _wv._ 1, reach, obtain; succeed in.
nǣr  _adv. w. dat._ near; nearly.  _superl._ *næst*--'þvī n.,'
nǣtr  _see_ *nātt*.
nafn  _sn._ name.
nakkvarr  _prn._ some, a certain.  *nakkvat* _adv._ somewhat;
nātt  _sf._ 3, night.
nātt-bōl  _sn._ night-quarters.
nātt-langt  _adv._ the whole night long.
nātt-staðr  _sm._ night-quarters.
nāttūra  _wf._ nature, peculiarity.
nātt-verðr  _sm._ 2, supper.
nauð-syn  _sf._ necessity.
naut  _see_ *njōta*.
neðan  _adv._ below.  *fyrir n.* _prp. w. dat._ below.
nęfja  _adj._ long-nosed (?).
nęfna  _wv._ 1, name, call.  *nęfnask*, name oneself, give one's
    name as [nafn].
nema   _sv._ 4, take; begin.
nema   _adv._ except, unless.
nest   _sn._ provisions.
nest-baggi  _sm._ provision-bag.
niðr  _adv._ down, downwards.
nīundi  _adj._ ninth.
njōsn  _sf._ spying; news.
njōsna  _wv._ 3, spy; get intelligence.
njōta  _sv._ 7, enjoy, profit.
norðr  _adv._ northwards.
nǫkkvi  _wm._ vessel, small ship.
nū  _adv._ now; therefore, so.
nȳ-vaknaðr  _adj._ (_ptc._) newly awoke.
nȳr  _adj._ new.
nȳta  _wv._ 1, profit [njōta].


oddr  _sm._ point.
ōð-fūss  _adj._ madly eager.
ōðr  _adj._ mad, furious.
œ̄pa  _wv._ 1, shout [ōp, 'shout'].
œrit  _adv._ enough; very.
of  _prp. w. dat._ over; during; with respect to, about.  _adv._
    too (of excess).
of  _adv., often used in poetry as a mere expletive._
of-veikr  _adj._ too weak.
ofan  _adv._ above; down.
ofan-verðr  _adj._ upper, on the top.
ōk  _see_ *aka*.
ok  _conj._ and; also--'ok...ok,' both...and; but.
okkr  _see_ *þū*.
opt  _adv._ often.  _compar._ *optar*, oftener, again.
ōr  _prp. w. dat._ out of.
orð  _sn._ word--'ī ǫðru orði,' otherwise.
orðinn  _see_ *verða*.
orð-sęnding  _sf._ verbal message.
orð-tak  _sn._ expression, word.
ormr  _sm._ serpent, dragon; ship with a dragon's head.
orrosta  _wf._ battle.
oss  _see_ *ek*.
ōtta  _wf._ the end of night, just before dawn.
ōttalaust  _adj._ without fear.
ōx  _see_ *vaxa*.
oxi  _wm._ ox.
ǫðlask  _wv._ 3, obtain.
ǫðru  _see_ *annarr*.
ǫl  _sn._ ale.
ǫldnu  _see_ *aldinn*.
ǫndōttr  _adj._ fierce.
ǫnd-vegi  _sn._ high seat, dais.
ǫnnur  _see_ *annar*.
ǫr  _sf._ arrow.
ör-æfi  _sn._ harbourless coast.
örendi  _sn._ errand.
örendi  _sn._ holding the breath, breath.
örind-reki  _sm._ messenger [reka].
öxn  _see_ *oxi*.


pati  _sm._ rumour.
pęnningr  _sm._ penny.


rāð  _sn._ advice; what is advisable--'sjā eitt at rāði,'
    consider advisable; plan, policy, resolution.
rāða  _sv._ 1, advise, _w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers._;
    consider, deliberate; undertake, begin _w. prp._ til _or
    infin._; dispose of, have control over _w. prp._ fyrir.
rāða-gǫ̈rð  _sf._ deliberation, decision.
rāðugr  _adj._ sagacious.
ragna-rökr  _sn._ twilight of the gods, end of the world.  [ragna
    _gen. of_ ręgin _neut. plur._ 'gods.']
ragr  _adj._ cowardly.
rāku  _see_ *reka*.
rann  _see_ *ręnna*.
rās  _sf._ race.
rauðr  _adj._ red.
rausn  _sf._ magnificence, anything magnificent.
rēð  _see_ *rāða*.
reið  _sf._ chariot.
reið  _see_ *rīða*.
reiða  _wv._ 1, swing, wield, brandish.
reið-fara  _adj._--'vera vel r.,' have a good passage.
reiði  _sn._ trappings, harness.
reiðr  _adj._ angry.
reka  _sv._ 7, drive; carry out; perform.  'r. af tjǫld,' take
    down awning.
rękkja  _wf._ bed.
ręnna  _sv._ 3, run.
rētta  _wv._ 1, direct; reach, stretch.  *r. upp*, pull up.
rēttr  _adj._ right, correct; equitable, fair.
reyna  _wv._ 1, try, test.
reyr-bǫnd  _supl._ the wire with which the arrow-head was bound
    to the shaft.
rīða  _sv._ 6, _w. dat._ ride.
riðu  _see_ *rīða*.
riðlask  _wv._ 3, set oneself in motion.
rīki  _sn._ power; sovereignty, reign.
rīkr  _adj._ powerful, distinguished.
ripti  _sn._ linen cloth.
rita  _wv._ 3, write.
rōa  _sv._ 1, row.
rœða  _wv._ 1, talk about, discuss.
röra  _see_ *rōa*.
rǫst  _sf._ league.


sā  _prn._ that; he; such, such a one.
sā  _see_ *sjā*.
sær  _sm._ sea.
særa  _wv._ 1, wound [sār].
sæti  _sn._ seat [sitja].
sætt  _sf._ 2, reconciliation, peace.
sættask  _wv._ 1, be reconciled, agree.
saga  _wf._ narrative, history, story.
sagða  _see_ *sęgja*.
saka  _wv. impers. w. acc._--'hann (acc.) sakaði ekki,' he was
    not injured.
sakna  _wv._ 3, _w. gen._ miss.
sāl  _sf._ 2, soul.
sāld  _sn._ gallon.
salr  _sm._ 2, hall.
saman  _adv._ together.
sami  _weak adj._ same.
sam-laga  _wf._ laying ships together for battle.
samt  _adv._ together.
sannligr  _adj._ probable; suitable, right.
sannr  _adj._ true.
sār  _sn._ wound.
sārr  _adj._ wounded.
sat  _see_ *sitja*.
satt  _see_ *sannr*.
sē  _see_ *vera*.
sē  _see_ *sjā*.
sefask  _wv._ 3, be pacified.
sęgja  _wv._ 1b, say, relate [saga].
segl  _sn._ sail.
seilask  _wv._ 1, stretch _intr._
seinn  _adj._ late, slow, tedious.  *seint* _adv._ slowly.
sęlja  _wv._ 1, give; sell.
sem  _adv._ as; _w. subj._ as if; _to strengthen the
    superl._--'sem mest,' the most possible, as much as possible.
sęnda  _wv._ 1, send.
sęndi-maðr  _sm._ messenger.
sęnn  _adv._ at the same time, at once; immediately, forthwith.
sēnn  _see_ *sjā*.
sēr  _see_ *sik*.
sēr  _see_ *sjā*.
sēt  _see_ *sjā*.
set-berg  _sn._ seat-shaped rock, crag [sitja].
sętja  _wv._ 1, set, place.  *s. fram*, launch (a ship).
    *sętjask*, sit down.  *sętjask upp*, sit up [sitja].
sī-byrða  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ lay a ship alongside another.
    _neut. ptc._ *sībyrt*, close up to [borð].
sīð  _adv._ late.  _comp._ sīðar, later, afterwards.  _superl._
    *sīðast*, latest, last.
sīða  _wf._ side.
sīðan  _adv._ afterwards, then; since.
sīðari  _adj. comp._ later, second (in order).
siðr  _sm._ 3, custom.
sīga  _sv._ 6, sink.
sigla  _wf._ mast [segl].
sigla  _wv._ 1, sail.
siglu-skeið  _sn._ middle of a ship.
sigr (-rs)  _sm._ victory.
sigr-ōp  shout of victory.
sik  _prn._ oneself.
silfr  _sn._ silver.
sīn  _see_ *sik*.
sinn  _sn._ time (of repetition)--'einu sinni,' once, for once.
    'eigi optar at sinni,' not oftener than that time, i.e. only
sinn  _see_ *sik*.
sitja  _sv._ 5, sit.  *s. fyrir*, sit in readiness.
sjā = þessi.
sjā  _sv._ 5, see; 's. fyrir einu,' look after, take care of.
    _impers._ 'lītt sēr þat ā, at'...it will hardly be seen
    that...  *sjāsk*, see one another, meet.
sjālfr  _prn._ self.
sjōða  _sv._ 7, boil; cook.
sjōn  _sf._ sight.
sjōn-hvęrfing  _sf._ ocular delusion.
skal  _see_ *skulu*.
skalf  _see_ *skjālfa*.
skāli  _wm._ hall.
skammr  _adj._ short.
skap  _sn._ state, condition; state of mind, mood, humour.
skapligr  _adj._ suitable, fit.
skapt  _sn._ shaft, handle.
skar  _see_ *skera*.
skarð  _sn._ notch, gap; defect.
skaut  _see_ *skjōta*.
skęgg  _sn._ beard; beak (of a ship).
skeið  _sn._ race-course, running-ground; race--'taka sk.,' start
    in a race.
skeina  _wv._ 1, graze.
skellr  _sm._ knock.
skęmtun  _sf._ amusement, entertainment [skammr, _literally
    'shortening (of time)'_].
skera  _sv._ 4, cut, cut up; kill (animal).
skiljask  _wv._ 1, separate, part _intr._
skillingr  _sm._ shilling, coin.
skilnaðr  _sm._ separation, parting.
skip  _sn._ ship.
skipa  _wv._ 3, order, arrange, prepare, fit out.  'sk. til um
    eitt,' make arrangements for.  *skipask*, take one's place;
    change, alter _intr._
skipa-hęrr  _sm._ fleet.
skipan  _sf._ arranging; ship's crew.
skips-brot  _sn._ shipwreck.
skip-stjōrnar-maðr  _sm._ (steerer), commander of a ship,
skjald-borg  _sf._ wall of shields, testudo.
skjālfa  _sv._ 3, shake _intr._
skjōta  _sv._ 7, _w. dat._ shoot, throw, push.
skjōt-fœri  _sn._ swiftness.
skjōt-leikr  _sm._ swiftness.
skjōt-liga  _adv._ swiftly, quick.
skjōtr  _adj._ swift, quick.  *skjōtt* _adv._ quickly.
skjǫldr  _sm._ 3, shield.
skōgr  _sm._ forest, wood.
skorta  _wv._ 1, _impers. w. acc. of pers. and of thing_, want,
skot  _sn._ shot; missile [skjōta].
skot-māl  _sn._ shot-measure, range.
skotta  _wv._ 3, dangle--sk. við drift (of ships).
skǫkull  _sm._ shaft (of a cart).
skǫmm  _sf._ disgrace, shame.
skǫr  _sf._ hair of the head.
skreppa  _wf._ bag, wallet.
skulfu  _see_ *skjālfa*.
skulu  _swv._ shall.
skuta  _wf._ small ship, cutter.
skutill  _sm._ trencher, small table.
skutil-sveinn  _sm._ page, chamberlain.
skutu  _see_ *skjōta*.
skykkr  _sm._ shake--'ganga skykkjum,' shake.
skylda  _see_ *skulu*.
skyldr  _adj._ obliged, obligatory, bound [skulu].
skyn  _sn._ understanding, insight--'kunna, sk.' understand.
skynda  _wv._ 1, hasten, bring in haste.
skyndiliga  _adv._ hastily, quickly.
skynsamliga  _adv._ intelligently, carefully.
skȳt  _see_ *skjōta*.
slā  _sv._ 2, strike.  'slā eldi ī,' light a fire.
slæliga  _adv._ sluggishly, weakly.
slær  _adj._ blunt.
slær  _see_ *slā*.
slātr  _sn._ meat.
sleikja  _wv._ lick.
sleit  _see_ *slīta*.
slēttr  _adj._ level, smooth; comfortable, easy.
slīkr  _adj._ such.
slīta  _sv._ 6, tear--*sl. upp*, pull up; _w. dat._ break
smæri  _see_ *smār*.
smār  _adj._ small, insignificant.
smā-skip  _snpl._ small ships.
smā-skūta  _wf._ small cutter.
smjūga  _sv._ 7, squeeze through, slip.
smugu  _see_ *smjūga*.
snarpligr  _adj._ vigorous.
snarpr  _adj._ sharp; vigorous.
snimma  _adv._ early.
snöra  _see_ *snūa*.
snūa  _sv._ 1, _w. dat._ turn _or_ (_trans._) direct; twist,
    plait.  *snūask*, turn (_intr._).
soðinn  _see_ *sjōða*.
sœkja  _wv._ 1c, seek; go--'s. aptr,' retreat.
sœmð  _sf._ honour [sōma].
sœtti  _see_ *sœkja*.
sofa  _sv._ 4, sleep.
sofna  _wv._ 3, go to sleep.
sǫgur  _see_ *saga*.
sǫk  _sf._ cause--'fyrir þā s. at'..., because.
sökkva  _sv._ 3, sink.
sōl  _sf._ sun.
sōl-skin  _sn._ sunshine.
soltinn  _adj._ hungry [_ptc. of_ 'svelta,' starve].
sōma  _wv._ 2, _w. dat._, be suitable, befitting.
sōmi  _wm._ honour.
sonr  _sm._ son.
sōtt  _sf._ illness.
sōtta  _see_ *sœkja*.
sǫx  _snpl._ raised prow of a war-ship.
spala  _see_ *spǫlr*.
sparask  _wv._ 2, spare oneself, reserve one's energy.
spęnna (spęnta)  _wv._ 1, _w. dat. of thing_, gird, buckle on.
spjōt  _sn._ spear.
sporðr  _sm._ tail.
spori  _sm._ spur.
spǫlr  _sm._ rail.
sprakk  _see_ *springa*.
sprętta  _wv._ 1, split.
springa  _sv._ 3, burst.
spurða  _see_ *spyrja*.
spyrja  _wv._ 1b, ask; hear of, learn--'sp. til eins,' have news
    of, hear of his arrival.  *spyrjask*, be known.
spyrna  _wv._ 1, kick.
staddr  _adj._ placed, staying [_ptc. of_ 'stęðja,' place].
staðr  _sm._ place--'ī staðinn,' instead.
stafaðr  _adj._ (_ptc._) striped.
staf-karl  _sm._ (staff-man), beggar.
stafn  _sm._ prow.
stafn-būi  _wm._ prow-man.
stafn-lē  _wm._ grappling-hook.
stafr  _sm._ 2 (_gen. sg._ stafs), staff, stick.
stakk  _see_ *stinga*.
stallari  _sm._ marshall.
standa  _sv._ 2, stand.  *st. upp*, stand up, rise.
starfa  _wv._ 3, work.
stęfna  _wv._ 1, steer; take a course, go.
steig  _see_ *stīga*.
steinn  _sm._ stone; jewel.
stela  _sv._ 4, _w. dat. of thing and acc. of pers._ steal, rob.
stęndr  _see_ *standa*.
stęrkliga  _adv._ vigorously.
stęrkr  _adj._ strong.
steypa  _wv._ 1, _w. dat. of thing_, throw; pull off.  *steypask*,
    throw oneself.
stīga  _sv._ 6, advance, walk, go.  *st. upp*, mount (horse).
stīgr  _sm._ path, way.
stikill  _sm._ point.
stilla (stilta)  _wv._ 1, arrange.  *st. til*, arrange, dispose.
stinga  _sv._ 3, pierce; 'st. stǫfnum at skipi,' run the prow
    against a ship's side.
stirt  _adv._ harshly [_neut. of_ 'stirðr,' stiff].
stōð  _see_ *standa*.
stœrri  _see_ *stōr*.
stōkkva  _sv._ 3, spring, rebound, start back.
stolinn  _see_ *stela*.
stōrliga  _adv._ bigly, arrogantly.
stōr-mannligr  _adj._ magnificent, aristocratic.
stōr-męnni  _sn._ great men (collective), aristocracy.
stōrr  _adj._ big, great.  *stōrum* _adv._ greatly.
stōr-rāðr  _adj._ (great of plans), ambitious.
stōr-skip  _sn._ big ship,
stōr-virki  _sn._ great deed.
strā  _wv._ 1, strew, cover with straw.
strauk  _see_ *strjūka*.
stręngr  _sm._ 2, string.
strjūka  _sv._ 7, stroke.
stund  _sf._ period of time, time.
stutt  _adv._ shortly, abruptly [_neut. of_ 'stuttr' short].
stȳra  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ steer.
stȳri  _sn._ rudder.
stȳris-hnakki  _wm._ top piece of rudder.
styrkr  _sm._ strength; help.
sū  _see_ *sā*.
suðr  _adv._ southward.
suðr-ganga  _wf._ journey south (to Rome).
sukku  _see_ *sökkva*.
sumar  _sn._ summer.
sumr  _prn._ some.
sund  _sn._ sound, channel.
svā  _adv._ so, as; as soon as.  'ok svā,' also.
svaf  _see_ *sofa*.
svara  _wv._ 3, _w. dat. of thing_, answer.
svardagi  _sm._ oath.
sveinn  _sm._ boy.
sveinn-stauli  _wm._ small boy.
sveit  _sf._ troop.
svelga  _sv._ 3, swallow, gulp.
sverð  _sn._ sword.
sverðs-hǫgg  _sn._ swordstroke.
svipan  _sf._ jerk; moment.
svipting  _sf._ pull, struggle.
sȳnask  _wv._ 1, seem [sjōn].
syni  _see_ *sonr*.
systir  _sf._ 3, sister.


taka  _wv._ 2, _w. acc._ take, seize, take possession of; _w.
    inf._ begin; _w. dat._ receive (well, ill, etc.).  *takask*,
    take place, begin.  *t. at*, choose.  *t. til*, engage in,
    try.  *t. upp*, take to, choose.
tala  _wf._ talk, speech.
tala  _wv._ 3, speak, talk about, discuss.
taliðr  _see_ *tęlja*.
tālma  _wv._ 3, hinder.
tār  _sn._ tear.
taumar  _smpl._ reins.
tękinn  _see_ *taka*.
tęlja  _wv._ 1b, count, recount; account, consider; relate, say
tęngðir  _sfpl._ relationship, connection by marriage.
tęngja  _wv._ 1, bind, fasten together.
tęngsl  _snpl._ cable.
tīða  _wv._ 1, _impers. w. acc._ desire.
tīðindi  _snpl._ tidings, news.
tīðr  _adj._ usual, happening--'hvat er tītt um þik?' what is the
    matter with you?  *tītt* _adv._ often, quickly--'sem tīðast,'
    as quickly as possible.
tiginn  _adj._ of high rank.
tigr  _sm._--'fjōrir tigir,' forty.
til  _prp. w. gen._ to; till; for (of use)--'alt er t. vāpna
    var,' everything that could be used as a missile; for (of
    object, intention)--'brjōta lęgg til męrgjar,' break a leg to
    get at the marrow; with respect to--'til vista var eigi
    gott,' they were not well off for provisions.
til  _adv._ too (of excess).
til-vīsan  _sf._ direction, guidance.
tītt  _see_ *tīðr*.
tīvi  _wm._ god.
tjald  _sn._ tent.
tjūgu-skęgg  _sn._ forked beard.
tœka  _see_ *taka*.
tōk  _see_ *taka*.
tǫnn  _sf._ 3, tooth.
trani  _wm._ crane.
trē  _sn._ tree.
troða  _sv._ tread.
trog  _sn._ trough.
tros  _sn._ droppings, rubbish.
trūa  _wf._ faith--'þat veit tr. mīn at...,' by my faith.
trūa  _wv._ 2, _w. dat. of pers._ believe, trust, rely on.
tūn  _sn._ enclosure, dwelling.
tveir  _num._ two.
tȳna  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ lose.
typpa  _wv._ tie in a top-knot.


þā  _see_ *sā*.
þā  _see_ *þiggja*.
þā  _adv._ then.
þær  _see_ *sā*.
þakðr  _see_ *þękja*.
þakka  _wv._ 3, _w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers._ thank;
    requite, reward.
þambar-skęlfir  _sm._ bowstring-shaker (?).
þann  _see_ *sā*.
þannig  _adv._ thither; so [= þann veg].
þar  _adv._ there; then; 'þ. af,' _etc._, thereof.  'þar sem,'
    since, because.  'þar til,' until.
þarf  _see_ *þurfa*.
þat  _see_ *sā*.
þau  _see_ *sā*.
þegar  _adv._ at once.  'þ. er,' as soon as.
þęginn  _see_ *þiggja*.
þęgja  _wv._ 1b, be silent.
þeim  _see_ *sā*.
þeir, þeirra  _see_ *sā*.
þękja  _wv._ 1b, roof.
þękkja  _wv._ 1, notice.  *þękkjask*, take pleasure in; accept.
þēr  _see_ *þū*.
þess  _see_ *sā*.
þess  _adv. w. comp._ the, so much the.
þessi  _prn._ this.
þiggja  _sv._ 5, receive.
þik  _see_ *þū*.
þing  _sn._ meeting, parliament.
þinn  _see_ *þū*.
þit  _see_ *þū*.
þjōð  _sf._ nation, race.
þō  _adv._ though, yet.
þǫkð  _see_ *þękja*.
þǫkk  _sf._ thanks, gratitude [þakka].
þola  _wv._ 2, endure, put up with.
þora  _wv._ 2, dare.
þǫrf  _sf._ need.
þorrinn  _see_ *þverra*.
þōtt  _adv._ though [= þō at].
þōtta  _see_ *þykkja*.
þraut  _see_ *þrjōta*.
þreifask  _wv._ 3, grope, feel.
þreyta  _wv._ 1, make exertions, try.
þriði  _adj._ third.
þriðjungr  _sm._ third.
þrīr  _num._ three.
þrjōta  _sv._ 7, _impers. w. acc. of pers._ come to an end, fail.
þrūðugr  _adj._ mighty.
þū  _prn._ thou.
þumlungr  _sm._ thumb of glove.
þunn-vangi  _wm._ temple (of head).
þurðr  _sm._ diminution.
þurfa  _swv. often impers._ require, need.
þurr  _adj._ dry.
þurs  _sm._ giant.
þverra  _sv._ 3, diminish.
þvers  _adv._ across.
þvī  _see_ *sā*.
þvī  _adv._ therefore; _w. compar._ the, so much the more.
þvīlikr  _adj._ such.
þykkja  _wv._ 1c, seen, be considered.  'þykkir einum fyrir,'
    there seems to be something in the way, one hesitates.
    'myndi mēr fyrir þ. ī,' I should be displeased.  *þykkjask*,
þykkr  _adj._ thick, close.
þynna  _wv._ 1, make thin.  *þynnask* get thin.
þyrstr  _adj._ (_ptc._) thirsty.


ū-fœra  _wf._ impassable place; fix, difficulty.
ū-friðr  _sm._ hostility, war.
ū-grynni  _sn._ countless number [grunnr, 'bottom'].
ū-happ  _sn._ misfortune.
ū-hreinn  _adj._ impure.
um  _prp. w. acc._ around, about, over; _of time_ in, at; _of
    superiority_ beyond; concerning, about.
um-rāð  _sn._ advice, help.
um-sjā  _sf._ care.
una  _wv._ 1, _w. dat._ be contented--'u. illa,' be discontented.
undan  _prp. w. dat._, _adv._ away (from).
undarliga  _adv._ strangely.
undarligr  _adj._ strange.
undir  _prp. w. acc. and dat._ under.
undr  _sn._ wonder.
ungr  _adj._ young.
unninn  _see_ *vinna*.
unz  _adv._ until.
upp  _adv._ up.
upp-ganga  _wf._ boarding (ship).
upp-haf  _sn._ beginning [hęfja].
upp-himinn  _sm._ high heaven.
uppi  _adv._ up; at an end.
urðu  _see_ *verða*.
ūt  _adv._ out.  _comp._ *utar*, outer, outwards, farther away.
utan  _adv._ outside; outwards.
utan-fęrð  _sf._ journey abroad.
utar  _see_ *ūt*.
ūti  _adv._ outside, out on the sea.
ūt-lausn  _sf._ ransom.
ū-vinr  _sm._ enemy.


vægð  _sf._ forbearance.
vænn  _adj._ likely, to be expected.
væri  _see_ *vera*.
vætr  _neut._ nothing.
vaka  _wv._ 3, be awake, wake up.
vakna  _wv._ 3, awake.
vald  _sn._ power, control.
val-kyrja  _sf._ chooser of the slain, war-goddess [kjōsa].
valr  _sm._ corpses on the battle-field.
vān,  _sf._ hope, expectation, probability.
vandræða-skāld  _sn._ the 'awkward' poet, the poet who is
    difficult to deal with.
vandræði  _snpl._ difficulty.
vangi  _wm._ cheek.
vanr  _adj._ accustomed.
vāpn  _sn._ weapon.
vāpna-burð  _sm._ bearing weapons, shower of missiles.
vāpn-lauss  _adj._ without weapons.
var  _see_ *vera*.
vār  _sn._ spring.
vār  _see_ *ek*.
vara  _wv._ 2, _impers. w. acc. of pers._--'mik varði,' I
varð  _see_ *verða*.
varði  _see_ *vęrja*.
vargr  _sm._ wolf.
variðr  _see_ *vęrja*.
varla  _adv._ scarcely.
varnaðr  _sm._ goods, merchandise.
vāru  _see_ *vera*.
vatn  _sn._ water.
vaxa  _sv._ 2, grow; increase.
veðr  _sn._ weather.
vegr  _sm._ road; way, manner; direction, side; _in composition_,
    region, tract, land.
veik  _see_ *vikja*.
veit  _see_ *vita*.
veita  _wv._ 1, give, grant; make (resistance, etc.).
vękja  _wv._ 1b, wake [vaka].
vēl  _sf._ artifice, cunning.
vęlja  _wv._ 1b, choose.
vęndi  _see_ *vǫndr*.
vēr  _see_ *ek*.
vera  _sv._ exist; remain, stay, happen; be.  'hvat lātum hafði
    verit,' what had caused the noise.  *v. at*, be occupied
verð  _sn._ worth, value; price.
verða  _sv._ 3, happen; happen to come.  'v. fyrir einum,' come
    in one's way, appear before one; become; come into being, be;
    'v. til eins,' be ready for, undertake; _w. infin._ be
    obliged, must.  'nū er ā orðit mikit fyrir mēr,' now I have
    come into a great perplexity, difficulty.  *v. at*, happen.
verðr  _adj._ worth; important.
ver-gjarn  _adj._ desirous of a husband, loose.
verit  _see_ *vera*.
vert  _see_ *verðr*.
vęrja  _wv._ 1b, defend--'v. baki,' defend with the back, turn
    one's back on.
vęrja  _wv._ 1b, dress; lay out money, invest.
verk  _sn._ work, job.
verr  _sm._ man; husband.
vęrr  _adv. comp._ worse.  _superl._ *vęrst*, worst.
verǫld  _sf._ world.
vestan  _adv._ from the west.  'v. fyrir' _w. gen. or acc._, west
vestr  _adv._ westwards.
vetr  _sm._ winter; year.
vęx  _see_ *vaxa*.
vęxti  _see_ *vǫxtr*.
við  _prp. w. acc._ by, near; towards (of place and time); with
    (of various relations).  _w. dat._ towards, at (laugh at,
    etc.); in exchange for, for.
vīða  _adv._ widely, far and wide, on many sides.
viðar-teinungr  _sm._ tree-shoot, plant.
við-bragð  _sn._ push.
viðr  _sm._ 3, tree.
vīðr  _adj._ wide, broad.
við-skipti  _snpl._ dealings.
við-taka  _wf._ reception; resistance.
vīgja  _wv._ 1, consecrate, hallow.
vīgr  _adj._ warlike, able-bodied.
vīking  _sf._ piracy, piratical expedition.
vīkingr  _sm._ pirate.
vīkja  _sv._ 6, turn, move, go.
vilja  _swv._ will.
villi-eldr  _sm._ wildfire, conflagration.
vinātta  _wf._ friendship.
vināttu-māl  _snpl._ assurances of friendship.
vinna  _sv._ 3, do, perform; win, conquer.  *vinnask til*,
vinr  _sm._ 2, friend.
virðing  _sf._ honour [verðr].
vīsa  _wv._ 2, _w. dat._ show, guide.
vīss  _adj._ wise; certain.
vissa  _see_ *vita*.
vist  _sf._ 2, board and lodging; provisions.
vit  _see_ *ek*.
vita  _swv._ know; be turned in a certain direction.  *v. fram*,
    see into futurity.
vīti  _sn._ punishment, penalty.
vītis-horn  _sn._ penalty-horn (whose contents were drunk as a
vitkask  _wv._ 3, come to one's senses.
vitr (-ran)  _adj._ wise.
vǫllr  _sm._ 3, plain, field.
vǫndr  _sm._ 3, twig, rod.
vǫrn  _sf._ defence, resistance.
vǫxtr  _sm._ 3, growth, stature.
vreiðr = reiðr.


yðr  _see_ *þū*.
yfir  _prp. w. acc. and dat._ over [ofan].
ȳmiss  _adj._ various, different.
ymr  _sm._ rumbling noise.
ytri  _adj. comp._ outer.  _superl._ *yztr*, outside(st) [ūt].


Āki  _sm._
Āsa-þōrr  _sm._ (divine) Thor.
Āstrīðr  _sf._
Auðun  _sm._

Baldr (-rs)  _sm._
Barði  _wm._ 'the Ram' (name of a ship).
Bil-skīrnir  _sm._
Brīsinga-męn  _sn._ Freyja's necklace.
Burizleifr  _sm._

Dāins-leif  _sf._ relic of Dāinn ['leif,' leaving, heritage].
Dana-konungr  _sm._ king of the Danes.
Danir  _smpl._ the Danes.
Dan-mǫrk  _sf._ 3, Denmark.
Draupnir  _sm._

Einarr  _sm._
Eindriði  _wm._
Eirīkr  _sm._
Erlingr  _sm._

Fęn-salr  _sm._ 2.
Finnr  _sm._
Finskr  _adj._ Finnish.
Freyja  _wf._
Freyr  _sm._
Frigg  _sf._ wife of Odin.
Fulla  _wf._ Frigg's handmaid.

Geira  _wf._
Gimsar  _fpl._
Gjallar-brū  _sf._ the bridge over the river Gjǫll.
Gjǫll  _sf._ 'the Resounder,' the river of Hell.
Grœn-land  _sn._ Greenland.
Gullin-bursti  _wm._ 'Golden-bristle.'
Gull-toppr  _sm._ 'Gold-top.'

Hā-ey  _sf._ 'High-island.'
Hākon  _sm._
Hall-freðr  _sm._
Haraldr  _sm._
Hēðinn  _sm._
Heim-dallr  _sm._
Hęl  _sf._ the goddess of the infernal regions.
Hęr-mōðr  _sm._
Hildr  _sf._ ['hildr,' war].
Hjaðninga-vīg  _sn._ battle of the Hjaðnings.
Hjarrandi  _wm._
Hlōriði  _wm._ the Thunderer, Thor.
Hǫgni  _wm._
Hring-horni  _wm._ 'Ring-prowed.'
Hyrningr  _sm._
Hyrrokin  _sf._
Hǫðr  _sm._

Īs-land  _sn._ Iceland.
Īsland-fęrð  _sf._ journey to Iceland.
Īslęnzkr  _adj._ Icelandic.

Jōms-borg  _sf._
Jōms-vīkingar  _smpl._ the pirates of Jōmsborg.

Kol-bjǫrn  _sm._

Laufey  _sf._
Litr  _sm._
Loki  _wm._

Mōð-guðr  _sf._
Mœri  _wf._

Nanna  _wf._
Nepr  _sm._
Njarðar  _see_ *Njǫrðr*.
Njǫrðr  _sm._
Nōa-tūn  _snpl._
Noregr  _sm._ Norway [= norð-vegr].

Ǫku-þōrr  _sm._ Thor (the driver) [aka].
Ōlāfr  _sm._
Ōðinn  _sm._ Odin.
Orkn-eyjar  _sfpl._ Orkneys.

Rōma-borg  _sf._ Rome.
Rūm-fęrli  _wm._ pilgrim to Rome [fara].
Rǫskva  _wf._

Sax-land  _sn._ Saxony, Germany.
Sif  _sf._
Sigrīðr  _sf._
Sig-valdi  _wm._
Skjālgr  _sm._
Skrȳmir  _sm._
Sleipnir  _sm._
Slīðrug-tanni  _wm._ [tǫnn].
Sœnskr  _adj._ Swedish.
Sveinn  _sm._
Svīa-konungr  _sm._ king of Sweden.
Svīar  _smpl._ Swedes.
Svīa-vęldi  _sn._ Sweden [vald].
Svī-þjōð  _sf._ Sweden.
Svǫlðr (-rar)  _sf._ island of Svolder, near Rügen.

Tann-gnjōstr  _sm._ [tǫnn].
Tann-grisnir  _sm._ [tǫnn].
Tryggvi  _wm._ 'Trusty.'

Þjālfi  _wm._
Þōrir  _sm._
Þor-kęll  _sm._
Þōrr  _sm._ Thor.
Þor-steinn  _sm._
Þrūð-vangar  _smpl._ 'plains of strength.'
Þrymyr  _sm._
Þǫkk  _sf._

Ūlfr  _sm._
Ūtgarða-loki  _wm._
Ūt-garðr  _sm._ *Ūt-garðar* _pl._ 'outer enclosure,' world of
    the giants.

Vanir  _smpl._ race of Gods.
Vār  _sf._ goddess of betrothal and marriage.
Vest-firzkr  _adj._ of the west firths (in Iceland).
Vīk  _sf._ 'the Bay,' the Skagerak and the Christiania fjord.
Vinda-snękkja  _wf._ Wendish ship.
Vind-land  _sn._ Wendland.
Vindr  _smpl._ the Wends.
Ving-þōrr  _sm._ name of Thor.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Icelandic Primer with Grammar, Notes and Glossary" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.