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Title: Lille Before and During the War - Illustrated Michelin Guides To The Battle-Fields (1914-1918)
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Lille Before and During the War - Illustrated Michelin Guides To The Battle-Fields (1914-1918)" ***

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                   TO THE BATTLE-FIELDS (1914-1918)


                       BEFORE AND DURING THE WAR


          MICHELIN TYRE Cº Lᵗᵈ, 81 Fulham Road, LONDON, S.W.
                MICHELIN TIRE Cº MILLTOWN, N.J. U.S.A.

                   Hotels and Motor-Agents at Lille

        Information extracted from the MICHELIN GUIDE (1919)[1]

                        Key to Arbitrary Signs

  ⒽⒽ                Comfortable hotels, with modern or modernised

  Ⓗ                 Well-managed hotels.

  =[CC]=            Central Heating.

  =[L]=             Electric Light.

  =[B]=             Bath-room.

  =[WC]=            Modern W.C.'s.

  =[T] 104=         Telephone number.

  Ⓣ                 Telegraphic address.

  Gar. =[6]=        Accommodation for automobiles, and the number of
                    cars which can be accommodated.

  Box               Private lock-up compartments.

  Att               Adjoining the hotel.

  =100 m.=          About 100 yards from the hotel.

  =Compressed Air=  Depôt for "bouteilles d'air Michelin" for inflation
                    of tyres.

  Ⓡ                 Repair shop.

  _Agt de_          Manufacturer's agent.

  =[3]=             Garage and number of cars it will accommodate.

  =U=               Inspection pit.

  =[E]=             Petrol can be obtained here.

  =E˝=              Electric plant where accumulators may be recharged.

  =[A·A]=           Agent of "Automobile Association" of England.

       *       *       *       *       *

                        HOTELS and MOTOR-AGENTS

  ⒽⒽ    Hôtel Bellevue, _35, rue Jean-Roisin et 17-19, Grande Place_.
             Lift =[CC]= =[L]= =[B]= =[WC]= Gar. =100 m.= =[20]= Ⓣ
             Hôtel Bellevue =[T]= =12-98=.

  ⒽⒽ    Hôtel de l'Europe, _30-32, rue Basse_. Lift =[CC]= =[L]= =[B]=
             =[WC]= Gar. =[15]= =U= =[T]= =4·75=.

  Ⓗ     Hôtel et Restaurant de la Paix, _46, rue de Paris_. =[CC]=
             =[L]= =[B]= =[WC]= Gar. att. =[T]= =1539=.

  Ⓡ     STOCK MICHELIN =(Compressed Air)=, =Garage Dulieux=, _36, rue de
             l'Hôpital-Militaire_. Annexe: _rue de Fontenay_. _Agt de_:
             Corre la Licorne. =[30]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[A-A]= Ⓣ
             Dulieux-Automobiles =[T]= =14·04=.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN =(Compressed Air)=. =Agence Renault=, _141,
             boulevard Carnot_, La Madeleine-lès-Lille. =[30]= =U= =[E]=
             =E˝= =[T]= =19.78= (réseau Lille) Ⓣ Renauto.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =Louis Vallez=, _5, rue du Palais-Rihour_.
             =[40]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[T]= =22·70=.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =Grand Garage Farcot=, _68-70, rue Meurein
             (219, rue Nationale)_. =[80]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[T]= =20·20=.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN =(Compressed Air)=, =Succureale des Automobiles
             Berliet=, _197, rue Nationale_. =[100]= =[E]= =E˝=
             Autoberlie-Lille =[T]= =16·96=.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =Sté des Anciens Etablissements Panhard et
             Levassor= (Succᵉ), _187, boulevard de la République_ (new
             boulevard), La Madeleine-lès-Lille. =[40]= =U= =[E]= =E˝=
             Ⓣ Panhard-Levassor =[T]= =5·83= (réseau Lille).

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =Agences Hotchkiss=, _1 bis, rue de la Chambre
             des Comptes_. =[20]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[T]= =26·83=.

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, Repair Shop for motor-cars, =Emile Faure et
             Cie=, _avenue Verdy et rue du Ballon_, La
             Madeleine-lès-Lille. =[20]= =U= =[E]= =[T]= =14·27= (réseau

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =Kalflèche et Bachmann=, _147, boulevard de la
             République_, La Madeleine-lès-Lille. =[10]= =U= =[E]= =E˝=
             =[T]= =24·18= (réseau Lille).

  --    STOCK MICHELIN, =E. Bouriez et Cie=, _50-52, rue Jean-Bart et
             239, boulevard de la République_, La Madeleine-lès-Lille.
             _Agts de_: Peugeot =[10]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[T]= =3·88=
             (réseau Lille).

  --    =Sociéte Anonyme des Autos et Cycles Peugeot= (Succursale de
             la), _62, boulevard de la Liberté_. =[T]= =20·84=.

  --    =Kœchlin=, _27, rue Colson_. =[30]= =U= =[E]= =E˝= =[T]= =18·30=.

  --    =Marcel Villette=, _5, rue St-Augustin_. =[10]= =U= =[E]= =[T]=

  --    =John et Henry Sergy=, _240, rue Nationale_. =[15]= =U= =[E]=
             =E˝= =[T]= =27·24=.

  --    =Succursale Th. Schneider et Cie=, _3, rue St-Genois_. =[30]=
             =U= =[E]= Ⓣ Theiderco =[T]= =2·92=.

  --    =Usine Pipe=, _56, boulevard de la Liberté et 5 bis, rue de
             l'Orphéon_. =[50]= =20= boxes =U= =[E]= =E˝=.

  --    =Mannessier=, _rue Nationale_. =[E]=.

[1] _The above information dates from March 1st, 1919, and may no
longer be exact when it meets the reader's eye. Tourists are therefore
recommended to consult the latest edition of the "Michelin Guide to
France" (English or French), before setting out on the tour described
in this volume._

  |                                                              |
  |                      The MICHELIN MAPS                       |
  |                                                              |
  |           _Invaluable to Motorists and Tourists._            |
  |                                                              |
  |                           FRANCE.                            |
  |                                                              |
  |                     _(Scale--1:200,000)_                     |
  |                                                              |
  |                  Published in 47 Sections.                   |
  |                                                              |
  |                    Beautifully printed in                    |
  |                        Five Colours.                         |
  |                                                              |
  |                        [Illustration]                        |
  |                                                              |
  |                             The                              |
  |                           BRITISH                            |
  |                            ISLES.                            |
  |                                                              |
  |              _(Scale 3·15 miles to the inch.)_               |
  |                                                              |
  |            Published in 31 Sections. Beautifully             |
  |             engraved and printed in six colours.             |
  |                                                              |
  |                    Price of Maps (English                    |
  |                   or French) per Section:                    |
  |                                                              |
  |          On Paper   -  =1/-=  or post free  =1/1½=           |
  |          On Canvas  -  =2/-=    "     "     =2/2=            |
  |                                                              |
  |           MICHELIN TYRE CO., 81, Fulham Rd., S.W.3           |

  |                                                              |
  |                     The "Michelin Wheel"                     |
  |                                                              |
  |                BEST of all detachable wheels                 |
  |                because the least complicated                 |
  |                                                              |
  |                        [Illustration]                        |
  |                                                              |
  | _Elegant_                                                    |
  |                                                              |
  |         It embellishes even the finest coachwork.            |
  |                                                              |
  | _Simple_                                                     |
  |                                                              |
  |         It is detachable at the hub and fixed by six         |
  |         bolts only.                                          |
  |                                                              |
  | _Strong_                                                     |
  |                                                              |
  |         The only wheel which held out on all fronts          |
  |         during the War.                                      |
  |                                                              |
  | _Practical_                                                  |
  |                                                              |
  |         Can be replaced in 3 minutes by _anybody_            |
  |         and cleaned still quicker.                           |
  |                                                              |
  |         It prolongs the life of tyres by cooling them.       |
  |                                                              |
  |                       AND THE CHEAPEST                       |

  |                          IN MEMORY                           |
  |                  OF THE MICHELIN EMPLOYEES                   |
  |               AND WORKMEN WHO DIED GLORIOUSLY                |
  |                      FOR THEIR COUNTRY                       |



                             Published by
                           MICHELIN & +Cie+
                       Clermont-Ferrand, France.

                   Copyright by Michelin & Cie 1919

    _All rights of translation, adaptation or reproduction (in part
                or whole), reserved in all countries._



The marvellous tales of _"Liliane"_ and the forest rangers _Phinœrt_
and _Lyderic_, which take Lille back to the days of Julius Cæsar, are
mythical. The first mention of Lille in history dates back to the 11th
century, when the town was divided into the _"castrum"_ or entrenched
camp of the Counts of Flanders (where Baudoin V. erected the Basilica
and Forum in about 1050), and the _"forum"_ (to-day the Grand' Place),
where the church of St. Martin already existed.

The _"forum"_ grew rapidly in the 12th century; the suburb of Fives,
with its two churches of St. Saviour and St. Maurice, being enclosed
within the new wall. There were no further changes of importance until
the 17th century, when the Vauban fortifications to the north further
enlarged the town. It was only in 1858 that Moulins, Vazemmes and
Esquermes were included in the southern portion of the town, leaving
the important suburbs of Fives and St. Maurice outside the ramparts.

Its situation on the frontier embroiled Lille in all the great wars.
In 1213, _Philippe-August_ took it twice from Count Ferrand, burning
it completely the second time, to punish the inhabitants for having
received their former chief. _Philippe le Bel_ took it in 1297, and
built the Château de Courtrai to commemorate the event. The _Flemish_
conquered it in 1302, but were defeated in 1304 at Mons-en-Puelle by
Philippe, who forced them to abandon the town after a month's siege.
Then, for half-a-century, Lille belonged to the Kings of France,
but the marriage of the Duke of Burgundy, _Philippe le Hardi_, with
the Heiress of Flanders, in 1369, restored it to the counts. When
_Maximilian of Austria_ espoused Marie of Burgundy, daughter and Heir
of Charles the Bold, last Duke of Burgundy, Lille became part of his

At the head of his armies, _Louis XIV._ besieged and took it in 1667
after "nine days of trench fighting," and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
confirmed the capture.

As an advanced citadel, it defended the northern frontier, but in
1708, the _Spanish_ were before its gates, and Marshal de Boufflers,
after exhausting his supplies and ammunition, was obliged to surrender
to Prince Eugène and the Duke of Marlborough. After a five years'
occupation, the Treaty of Utrecht gave it back to France in 1713.

In 1792, it was besieged by 30,000 Austrians under _Albert of
Saxe-Coburg_, who bombarded it day and night for nine days. The famous
_Lille gunners_ beat off the enemy, who raised the siege, and the
Convention having decreed that "the town deserved well of the country,"
a commemorative column was erected in the Grand' Place _(p. 26)_.

In the Franco-German War of 1870-1871, Lille remained outside the
battle area, and the only local souvenir connected with that struggle
was a visit from _M. Antonin Dubost_ (now Président of the French
Senate) in October, 1870. Leaving Paris, which was besieged, in a
balloon named "The Universal Republic," he landed between Rocroi and
Mézières, going thence on foot to Belgium, and from there to Lille. He
was received by the Commissary of the Government for National Defence
(Mr. Testelin) _(p. 50)_ and General Bourbaki, who had escaped from
Metz, and harangued the people from the steps of the Grand' Garde
_(Place de la Bourse, p. 29)_.

In 1914, the victorious Germans were at its gates, and the Capital of
Flanders was destined to suffer a four years' occupation.



Importance and Military Situation of Lille in 1914

Lying between the rivers Lys, Escaut and Scarpe, in the plain before
the hills of Artois, Lille forms an isolated advance-post between
_Maubeuge_ (which guards the Pass of the Oise), and _Dunkirk_ (which
commands the region of the Dunes). _Vauban_ had fortified the place,
but the treaties of 1815 and 1871 deprived France of her essential
points of support, and rendered these defences valueless. In 1873,
_General Séré de Rivières_, Director of the Engineering Section at the
Ministry of War, commenced a comprehensive scheme which aimed at the
reorganization of the entire northern frontier, whereof Lille was one
of the pivots.

Situated in the centre of France's richest coalfields and allied
industries, Lille has justly been called "the Key to France's
Treasure-House" (see _"Le secret de la frontière,"_ by M.
Fernand Engerand, 1918). To enable it to withstand a surprise attack
and hold out against a long siege, the city's intermediate defences
were increased to such a degree that Lille became the point of support
of the French frontier between the rivers Sambre and Lys. By thus
protecting the Arsenal of Douai, it became possible to assemble a
reserve army within the entrenched camp of Lille, 31 miles in length.
The total cost of these works was 126,000,000 frs.

But, as in Vauban's days, a reactionary movement set in against
defensive works, and it was demonstrated by their opponents that
besieged towns must fall, and that in future the destinies of nations
would be decided in the open battlefield. In 1880, the works of Séré de
Rivières were abandoned.

_(see p. 52)_]

In the meantime, the great cities of the north, with Lille at their
head, had become industrial centres of primary importance, thanks to
their wealth of raw materials (coal, iron and steel). To protect them
from the horrors of war, it was considered only necessary to make open
towns of them. The fortifications of Lille were among the first to be
condemned, as being of no real value, and a Bill to this effect was
passed by Parliament.

Collaborators of Séré de Rivières gave the alarm in March, 1899,
pointing out that the neutrality of Belgium was insufficient
protection, that its violation was inevitable, that the Pass of the
Oise was an open road for invasion, that with Lille outflanked, the
Forest of Saint-Gobain (which Laon and La Fère, whose dismantling the
Bill provided for, would no longer be able to protect) would fall, and
that the enemy would be at the gates of Paris within a few days.

Finally, the fortifications of Lille were not dismantled, but were
allowed to fall into disuse.

On the other hand, the eastern frontier was considerably strengthened.
It was in vain that the _Belgian General Brialmont_, who had just
completed the forts of Antwerp and Liege, pointed out that the
abandonment of the northern frontier would inevitably cause a violation
of Belgium's neutrality. Like her peaceful neighbour, France relied on
the sacredness of treaties, and made it a point of honour to leave that
part of her frontier practically unprotected.

At that time, Germany was neglecting the East, and making all her
railways converge towards the Pass of the Oise. In other words, a
frontal attack against the East being considered impracticable, Germany
decided to turn it from the north. The fortifications of Lille were
again condemned in November, 1911, and it is a curious coincidence that
this was the year of the _Agadir Incident_ and of the first tangible
German threats of war.

In July, 1914, 3,000 artillery-men and nearly a third of the guns had
been removed from the fortifications. On August 1st, the Governor,
General Lebas, received orders to consider Lille an open town, but on
August 21st his successor, General Herment, increased the garrison
troops from 15,000 to 25,000, and later, to 28,000 men, taking units
from each of the regiments in the 1st region. At this time, the
armament consisted of 446 guns and 79,788 shells, to which were added
9,000,000 cartridges, 3,000 75 mm. shells and 12 47 mm. guns sent from

How Lille fell in 1914

                     _(See Maps on pages 3 and 6)_

At the beginning of the battle of Charleroi, _General d'Amade_ was
in the vicinity of Lille, with territorial divisions extending from
_Dunkirk_ to _Maubeuge_. The 82nd Division alone held the entire space
between the Escaut and the Scarpe, with advance posts at Tournai and
Lille. It was manifest that these troops were insufficient to offer
serious resistance. However, the first care was to defend the town. For
two days, trenches and shelters were made, and the troops sent to their
respective positions.

On August 23rd, the British, defeated on the previous day at Mons,
retreated, leaving Tournai unprotected. The Germans drove out the 82nd
territorial Division and entered the town. Elsewhere, they advanced
as far as Roubaix-Tourcoing, blowing up the station of Mouscron. The
French territorials counter-attacked vigorously, and units of the 83rd
and 84th regiments reoccupied Tournai during the night.

In the early morning of the 24th, _General de Villaret_, commanding the
170th Brigade, organized the defence of the bridges over the Escaut,
where sharp fighting took place. However, his troops were obliged to
fall back about noon, before the numerically superior enemy forces.

While these events were taking place close to Lille, the Mayor
requested that the town should not be needlessly exposed to the
horrors of a siege. A meeting of the principal civil authorities
(town councillors and members of both Houses of Parliament) was
held, at which it was decided to petition the Government to declare
the town open, and withdraw the military. At 5 p.m. on the 24th,
a telegram arrived from the War Minister, with orders to consider
Lille undefended, and to evacuate the troops between La Bassée and

On the 25th, the right wing of the German army was reported to
be advancing, protected by about three divisions of cavalry with
supporting artillery. Patrols reached the outskirts of the town soon

General Herment executed the orders he had received. Moreover, he knew
that the neighbouring town of Maubeuge was holding out with 45,000 men,
and that the Belgian army was intact at Antwerp.

On September 2nd, enemy detachments entered Lille, disappearing three
days later. The town was only occupied by patrols, who had orders to
secure the German right (Von Kluck's army), which was executing its
famous flanking movement. Then came the _Victory of the Marne_. After
the German retreat and the indecisive _Battle of the Aisne_, the enemy
began their northward movement known as the "Race for the Sea," the aim
of which, on either side, was to turn the adversary's wing.

On October 3rd, Joffre joined the 10th army under _General de Maud'huy_
to reinforce his left and prevent its envelopment. The 21st Army Corps
arrived from Champagne, and the 13th Division detrained to the west of
the town.

On the morning of the 4th, battalions of Chasseurs, belonging to the
13th Division, received orders to take up positions to the north and
east of the town. After spending the night at Armentières, they passed
through Lille, where they had an enthusiastic reception.


The 17th Battalion, which was to occupy the suburb of Fives, was met
with a sharp fusillade as it left the ramparts. Organizing promptly, it
drove the enemy from the railway station and fortifications, capturing
a number of machine-guns and prisoners. To the north of the town, the
French troops came into contact with German patrols near Wambrechies
and Marquette, while the 7th cavalry Division had skirmishes in the
neighbourhood of Fouquet.

Meanwhile, the garrison, consisting of territorials and Algerian
mounted troops, took up positions to the south of Faches and
Wattignies, in liaison, at Ronchin, with other units of the 13th
Division. The enemy attacked at this point, and reached the railway.

On the 5th, after a sharp counter-attack, the French took Fives,
Hellemmes, Flers, the Fort of Mons-en-Barœul and Ronchin. To the west
of the town cavalry engagements took place along the Ypres Canal. On
the 6th, the 13th Division left the outskirts of the town, following
the 21st Corps in the direction of Artois. Only two battalions of
Chasseurs were left in Lille.

On the 7th, the two battalions of Chasseurs rejoined the 13th Division,
the defence of Lille being left to the territorials and Algerian
troops. On the 9th and 10th, the 2nd cavalry Corps engaged the enemy
near Estaires-Merville (between Aire-sur-la-Lys and Armentières), but
was unable to open the road to Lille, which was then left to its fate.

At 10 a.m. on the 9th, the first enemy aeroplane appeared, and dropped
two bombs on the General Post Office. In the afternoon, all men from 18
to 48 years of age were ordered to the Béthune Gate, with instructions
to leave Lille immediately.


A crowd of people from Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix and the neighbouring
villages, left on foot for Dunkirk and Gravelines. Several died on the
way of exhaustion, others being taken prisoners by the Uhlans. The last
train left at day-break on the 10th. At 9 a.m., the first enemy shell
burst, being followed by many others which fell in the neighbourhood
of the station, and on the Prefecture and Palais des Beaux-Arts. The
afternoon was quiet, but at 9 a.m. the bombardment began again, lasting
until 1 in the morning, then from 5 a.m. to 8 a.m. and from 10 a.m. to
6 p.m. On the 12th, when the garrison capitulated, 80 civilians had
been killed and numerous buildings destroyed by the bombardment. That
part of the town near the railway station was almost entirely destroyed
_(see plan, p. 25)_.

The Rue Faidherbe, Café Jean, Grand Hôtel, Grande Pharmacie de France,
part of the Rue des Ponts-de-Comines, and the whole of the Rue du
Vieux-Marché-aux-Poulets, were in ruins. The Hôtel Continental in the
Parvis-St.-Maurice Square, was a mere heap of rubbish. The Rue de
Béthune, Rue de l'Hôpital-Militaire and Rue du Molinel were partially
destroyed. In the Boulevard de la Liberté, the premises of the "Belle
Jardinière" Stores were wiped out _(p. 38)_.

At 9 a.m., on October 13th, while hundreds of fires were still burning,
five companies of Bavarian troops entered the town, followed throughout
the day by Uhlans, Dragoons, Artillery, "Death Hussars" and Infantry.
The occupation had begun.

[Illustration: The Manœuvre of Marshal Foch

_This map shows the successive advances of the Allies, from August 1st
(1/8) to October 18th (18/10). On October 16th (16/10) the line reached
(shown by thick dots) threatened Lille with envelopment, and forced the
enemy to retreat along a wide front._]

The Deliverance

For more than three years the inhabitants of Lille had heard the guns
thundering almost at their gates, as for a long while the front was
bounded by Armentières and Lens. In _December, 1914_, the Battle of
Artois partially cleared Arras. The offensive of _May-June, 1915_, was
marked by the capture of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, Ablain-St.-Nazaire,
Carency, Souchez, stopping at Vimy Ridge and hemming in Lens on the
south. The victory of _September-October, 1915_, cleared Lens further
to the north, by the capture of Loos. In _March, 1918_, a powerful
German offensive from Armentières, forced the Allies back for several
months, until the successive and correlated offensives of the Allies,
under Foch, beginning on July 18th, finally liberated the French soil,
town by town, and village by village. In August and September there was
an advance along the whole front from the Argonne to the Artois, while
in October, the Artois-Picardy front also burst into flames.

While the _French_, in the centre of their line of attack, crossed the
Oise at Mont-d'Origny, to the south-west of Guise, the _British_, north
of Douai and east of Lens, encircled Lille more closely on the south,
and approached Séclin, Aubourdin and Quesnoy-sur-Deule.

At the other end of the front, on the left, _Belgian_, _British_
and _French_ forces under the _King of Belgium, Albert I._, took
the offensive, and on the 14th, 15th and 16th. of October, in
spite of the rain and mud, took Roulers and Thourout. Meanwhile,
the 2nd British Army captured Menin, crossed the Lys 9 miles from
Lille, taking from the rear the northern defences of the latter. In
possession of Menin and Bouchain, the British continued to encircle
Lille and Douai, and approached the two ends of the important
Menin-Tourcoing-Roubaix-Cysoing-Orchies-Somain-Cambrai railway.

On the 14th, the Germans, who were preparing to evacuate Lille,
destroyed the railway behind them, and on the 15th, burnt the goods
station of St. Sauveur, after hurriedly plundering it.

At 4 a.m. on the 17th, the inhabitants were ordered to form up and
march towards the British lines.

At 5 a.m. on the 17th the last of the Germans left Lille, after blowing
up all the bridges and a number of locks on the canal.

At noon, on the 1,536th day of the war, the 5th British Army entered
Lille, after a four years' occupation.

Although they had organized powerful defences to a depth of 12 miles
around the town (barbed-wire entanglements, concrete trenches, etc.),
the Germans made only a faint show of resistance. To console the people
at home, the newspapers _(Strassburger Post)_ announced that _"retreat
was the only way to preserve the elasticity of the front and prevent a
break-through at all costs."_ (See opposite, map showing, step by step,
the advance of the Allies, from August 1st to October 18th, 1918.)

The joy of the liberated population may best be expressed by the words
with which the _Mayor of Lille_ received _Président Poincaré_ on
October 21st: _"For four years we have been like miners buried alive,
listening for the sound of the rescuers' picks; then all at once the
dark gallery opens and we perceive the light."_

In Paris, the news was received with singing and cheers. In the Place
de la Concorde, the Statue of Lille was decorated with the French
and British colours and flowers. The Fourth National Loan, named the
"Liberation Loan," opened under the most favourable conditions.


_(Rue Faidherbe and Place du Théâtre, before the ruins of the Café

_(Most of the photographs in the "Occupation of Lille" portion of
this Guide, were taken by M. Hazebroucq, engineer, in spite of enemy
prohibitions and threats.)_]

OCTOBER 21ST, 1918

_(A portrait of the King of Belgium is seen in one of the shop



The German occupation began on October 13th, 1914. From the 13th to the
28th of that month it was _Major-General Wahlschaffe_ who directed the
operations, levied the War Contributions and chose the hostages. His
successor, _Artillery General Von Heinrich_, was appointed Governor on
October 25th, and held the post until December 27th, 1916, when he was
made Governor of Bucharest. _General Von Graevenitz_ was Chief of the
Kommandantur, which occupied the premises of the Credit du Nord bank in
the Rue Jean Roisin.


The Hostages and War Contributions

=Sixty hostages= were chosen from among the most notable persons in
the town, and included the Bishop _(Mgr. Charost)_, the Prefect of
the North _(M. Trépont)_, _MM. Delory_ and _Ghesquière_, Members of
Parliament, the Mayor _(M. Delesalle)_ and deputy mayors. In groups
of ten they were made to spend the night in turns at the Citadelle
_(photo, p. 51)_.

From December 31st, they were required merely to sign a presence-sheet,
but were later again forced to spend the whole of their time (day and
night) in the Citadelle, this time in groups of five. Finally, they had
to sign a presence-sheet each morning and evening until October 5th,
1915, when this formality was dispensed with, _i.e._ after the Census
operations had been completed.

In November, 1914, began exorbitant exactions in the guise of =War
Contributions=. On the 4th, Von Graevenitz demanded a million francs
to be paid on the 10th; then two millions on the 17th, and three
millions on the 24th, in addition to the expense of feeding the troops,
which alone amounted to 10,000 frs. daily. After much negotiating the
Governor finally agreed first to give more time, then to reduce the
amounts of the contributions.

To ensure an effective control, a very strict _census_ of the
population was taken on August 27th, 1915. Particulars of the persons
in each house were constantly posted up, and after September 1st
=identity-cards= with photographs were obligatory. To be found in
the street or even standing on one's doorstep without this card, was
punishable by fine (3 to 30 marks) or imprisonment (one to three days).

[Illustration: M. JACQUET'S IDENTITY CARD _(see p. 16)_.]


In January, 1915, the Kommandantur drew up rules for the granting of
passes, a fruitful source of profit to the Germans, and of annoyance
to the population. A scale of prices provided even for the shortest
journeys. Funeral processions going to the South Cemetery were also
required to have passes (free), to go through the Porte des Postes, and
were escorted by soldiers, both going and coming, to prevent the people
from leaving the ranks.

p. 25)_.]

However, little by little, the people took up their occupations again.
Forty schools for boys and girls reopened early in November. Of the
remainder, five had been destroyed, two turned into hospitals and ten
into barracks. The higher schools and, later, the Lycée reopened, as
did also the Conservatoire, whose pupils were exempted from having
passes. The only newspapers allowed were the _Bruxellois_ and the
_Gazette des Ardennes_, both under German control. On November 15th,
1915, at the request of the Kommandantur, the Municipality started the
bi-weekly _Bulletin de Lille_, which appeared on Thursdays and Sundays,
and contained the Proclamations, Birth and Death notices, etc.


Next came the =Requisitions=: saddles and bridles, bicycles,
photographic apparatus, telephones, bedding and horsehair (photo
opposite). The Germans relentlessly seized all bedding, including that
of the old people, some of whom died of cold from sleeping on bare
stone floors. Neither sickness nor old age could soften them, and when
at last Lille was relieved, very few houses contained any bedding.


The town now began to be threatened with =famine=. Since 1914, bread
had only contained one-third of wheat flour. At the request of the
Military Authorities, the Mayor sent an =urgent appeal= to Switzerland
for help, to save the women and children from starving, and cited the
case of Strasburg generously revictualled by her in 1870. In March,
1915, a _Commission of Swiss Officers_ visited Lille, but was unable
to conclude arrangements. On April 19th, after lengthy negotiations,
the _Comité National Belge_, under the patronage of the _Ambassadors
of the United States and Spain_, obtained permission to revictual the
famine-threatened town.

In the meantime, recourse was had to various expedients to eke out the
stocks of food. In December, wheat flour was mixed with rye, Indian
corn and rice. In April, potatoes were added. On the 11th, bread
cards were inaugurated, fixing the daily ration per head at 9 oz. The
inhabitants were divided into two classes, the ration being distributed
every other day.


The gold, silver and copper coinage disappeared, and was replaced by
cardboard pennies and paper "bons" (photos above and below).




=Prohibitory Decrees= followed in quick succession, in an endeavour
to terrorize the people, who were forbidden to possess arms, approach
the prisoners, import Belgian tobacco, or sell their wares in the
streets, breaches being punished often with vindictive severity. Two of
the first =victims= were the Prefect _(M. Trépont)_ and his secretary
_(M. Borromée)_, the former accused of treason, the latter of stirring
up revolt against the German Authorities. Their "crime" was that, on
August 24th, in conformity with their duty, they had mobilized the
French citizens, within sight of the enemy. They were roughly handled
at the time by the German soldiers, and would probably have been shot,
but for the intervention of one of the University professors _(M.
Piquet)_, who, acting as interpreter, managed to smooth matters over.
After being closely watched and spied on, they were =arrested= on
February 17th, 1915. M. Borromée was tried by Court-Martial on March
13th, and sent to =prison= at Alrath. Nine months later (December 27th,
1915), his release was obtained through diplomatic representations. The
Prefect was sent as =hostage= first to Rastatt, then to Cellaschloss in
Hanover, and his liberation was only obtained on January 17th, 1916.

In April, 1915, a system of Roll Calls was inaugurated, to prepare the
way for the wholesale =deportations= which followed. At a given time
and place, the people were required to present themselves, with a small
quantity of baggage. Absentees were first fined, then imprisoned, the
penalty increasing in severity with each succeeding "offence."

=Domiciliary searches= were carried out at all hours of the day and
night, for hidden soldiers, arms, carrier-pigeons, smuggled French
newspapers, and the like.

Then, as if fines, imprisonment and starving were not punishment
enough, the Germans started =shooting=.

[Illustration: NOTICE

The undermentioned persons were tried by Court-Martial and shot to-day
at the Citadel:

  _Wholesale Wine merchant:_    +Eugène JACQUET.+
  _Second-Lieutenant:_          +Ernest DECONINCK.+
  _Shop-keeper:_                +Georges MAERTENS.+
  _Workman:_                    +Sylvère VERHULST.+

(1) For hiding the British aviator who landed at Wattignies on March
11 last, supplying him with food and lodging, and helping him to reach
France and get back to the enemy lines.

(2) For assisting members of the enemy forces, helping them to remain
in Lille and neighbourhood in civil dress and procuring their evasion
to France.

In conformity with the Proclamation of the Governor, dated April 7,
1915, these two cases are considered as espionage, and are brought to
the notice of the public as a warning.

Lille, September 22, 1915.

                                                         +The Governor.+]

The Case of the Four

When, on October 12th, 1914, the small garrison which was holding
Lille, surrendered, several hundred French soldiers escaped capture and
hid themselves in the town. Until evasion should be possible, it was
necessary to feed and shelter them, and this _M. Jacquet_, a wholesale
wine merchant, undertook to do. A good organizer, his coolness and
courage fitted him well for the task. He was assisted by his daughter
_Geneviève_ (who, later, narrowly escaped being shot), his friends
_Deconinck_ and _Georges Maertens_ and a Belgian, _Sylvère Verhulst_.


                                 The Citadel, Lille, September 22, 1915.

  My Beloved Wife and Children,

At the moment of starting for the place of execution, I tenderly
embrace your dear image for the last time. My last kiss, from the
bottom of my heart, here for you. Farewell! Long live France!

                                                           +E. Jacquet.+]

On March 11th, 1915, a British aviator was forced to land in the town,
after having bombed a German telephone station. Hidden by Jacquet,
he eventually escaped to Belgium, guided by Melle. Geneviève. A few
days later, he again flew over the town and dropped notes reading
as follows: _"Lieutenant Mapplebeck sends his compliments to the
Kommandant of the German Forces in Lille, and regrets that he was
unable to make his acquaintance during his recent pleasant stay in the

The joy of the inhabitants and the rage of the Kommandantur may be
better imagined than described in print. Orders were immediately given,
and the "Polizei" set to watch. Previously, on March 16th, notices had
been posted up all over the town, threatening with death any person who
should hide "any member of the enemy forces."

_Hostages_, including the foremost persons in the town, were
=imprisoned= in the Citadelle, while the liberties of all were severely
curtailed. Passes to and from the surrounding villages were stopped,
and "lights out" was sounded at 5 p.m.

Being unable to imprison the entire population, the Kommandant deprived
them of =liberty= and =air= in mid-summer.

Meanwhile _Jacquet_, who knew that he was suspected, made light of the

=Arrested= several times under various pretences, all efforts to
incriminate him failed. However, a =spy= was at last found, who
undertook to do the business. Passing himself off as a French prisoner,
he asked Jacquet and his friends to help him, and then betrayed them to
the "Polizei." A new search enabled the Germans to lay hands on 2,000
frs. in gold, but they could not find any incriminating documents (the
list of the soldiers in hiding, 200 in number, was in the upholstering
of an armchair at Deconinck's house).

[Illustration: THE MOAT OF THE CITADELLE _where M. Jacquet, his
friends, and Trulin were shot_.]

In consequence of the spy's information, Deconinck's house was watched.
Informed of the recent search of Jacquet's premises, Deconinck was
looking round for a safer hiding-place, when his next-door neighbour,
who was in the secret, suggested that the armchair would be safer in
her keeping. The offer was well-meant but unfortunate, as the Police,
who were on the watch, seized the chair, smashed it and found the
list. Returning at once to Jacquet's house, they arrested him and his
daughter, and locked them up in the Citadelle.

At the same time, Deconinck, Maertens and Verhulst were arrested.

Jacquet's daughter, Melle. Geneviève, owed her life to lack of evidence.

The four men were tried on September 16th and sentenced to death.
They were shot on the morning of September 22nd, and died bravely,
"standing, their hands free, and their eyes unbandaged." Their last
words, shouted together, were: "Vive la France, Vive la République."
Their names are inscribed on the Roll of Honour of the Army, and the
_Journal Officiel_ of December 8th, 1918, announced that the Legion
d'Honneur had been conferred on M. Jacquet.

Execution of Léon Trulin

When the war broke out, Léon Trulin, a Belgian subject, aged 17, was
living at Lille. Intensely patriotic by nature, he burned to serve his
country against the hated invader. With the help of a few comrades,
among whom were _Raymond Derain_ and _Marcel Gotti_, he got together
various documents and succeeded in bringing them to the Allies across
the Dutch frontier. In 1915, he decided to go back to France and enlist
in the Belgian Army, in company with his friend Derain. On October
3rd they arrived at the frontier. For three hours, in the dark, they
burrowed under the "live" wire entanglements, when suddenly the alarm
was given. Lights flared up, shots were fired, and Trulin and his
companions were taken. The documents found on Trulin proved to be his
death warrant. His friends Derain and Gotti were condemned to penal
servitude for life.

On his way to the place of execution on November 8th, Trulin's nerve
(he was 18) gave way for a moment, but recovering himself quickly, he
walked to the post with a firm step, and so another name was added to
the long list of the victims of Kaiserism.

[Illustration: TRULIN'S PASSPORT.]

[Illustration: TRULIN'S LAST LETTER TO HIS MOTHER _(pp. 20, 21)_.]

[Illustration: (TRANSLATION)

                                                       November 7, 1915.

  My dearest Mother,

I am very sorry for all I have done since I left home on June 30.

I suffered greatly during July, often homeless, then in September life
changed, I was a little happier, I had a pleasant time in Holland
and England for a month, then came back to Belgium, when suddenly
misfortune overtook me. By ill luck I was caught within half a minute
of Dutch territory.

I beseech you not to despair, live for René, who would be an
unfortunate orphan, also for my brothers and sisters, set them an
example of resignation and lift up your head, your son has given his
life for the Fatherland (Long live little Belgium).

I embrace you with all my heart, courage, mother, we shall see each
other again some day, kiss my brothers and sisters for me and tell them
your son knew how to die.

Now I am going to lie down, it is already late, to be ready for the
execution to-morrow.

I forgive everybody, friends and enemies, I pardon, because they do not
pardon me.]

[Illustration: (TRANSLATION)

You will find a note-book, in which I have noted my last wishes.

I ask you to forgive Denèque for what he has done, I have forgiven him,
it is the request of a doomed man.

          Your son, who causes you much suffering and is deeply grieved.

                                                          +Léon Trulin.+

       *       *       *       *       *

I have put 5 marks in the note-book which is in my bag, for one or two
masses and an indulgence, I have given the rest to the Priest for the
same purpose.

November 7, 1915, the last day before my death.

Excuse me, if I do not write very well, I am writing on a garden table.

Courage, dear Mother, courage, brothers and sisters, live in peace,
without hatred.

I die a good Christian.

                                                          +Léon Trulin.+]

The Explosion of the "Dix-huit Ponts"

On January 11th, 1916, at about 2 o'clock in the morning, a terrific
explosion shook the town, hurling huge stones and débris in all
directions for a distance of several miles. An ammunition depot
situated in the south-east portion of the ramparts, between the Gates
of Valenciennes and Douai, about 400 yards distant from the railway
station of St. Saviour, had blown up. It was an enormous underground
vault, commonly known as the "Dix-huit Ponts," because of the 18
massive stone arches which formed the entrance.

It will probably never be known how many thousand shells and tons of
explosives blew up, as the greatest secrecy was observed by the German
Authorities. All the soldiers who were there were killed. The damage
was tremendous, whole streets and numerous factories, including two
large spinning-mills, were entirely destroyed.

[Illustration: "LILLE IN TEARS."]

At the funeral, which took place on Saturday, January 15th, 1916,
there were 108 coffins, but this figure does not include the numerous
persons who were literally pulverized by the explosion. The noise of
the latter was heard at _Breda_ in _Holland_, nearly a hundred miles
away, and houses as distant as the Rue Jeanne d'Arc, Place Philippe le
Bon and Rue des Postes were destroyed by the flying stones. In general,
the catastrophe was stoically borne by the inhabitants, one citizen
remarking: "There were enough shells to have massacred whole regiments.
Better we should mourn our dead, than the precious lives of so many of
our soldiers."

One huge stone, weighing more than a ton, fell in the studio of
the sculptor Deplechin (Rue de Douai), Director of the Ecole des
Beaux-Arts, who carved the bas-relief _"Lille in Tears"_ on it _(see
Itinerary, p. 36, and photo above)_.

The Deportations

In 1916, the prohibitions increased in number, the people being
forbidden to leave their houses after 6 p.m., or before 7 a.m.; to
criticise the news published by the authorities, to remain at their
windows, or to stand on their doorsteps, under a penalty of 5 to 10
days' imprisonment. They were also forbidden to use the trams without
a special permit. These measures paved the way for the =deportations=
of April-May, 1916. During Easter week, under the pretence that the
revictualling of the population was difficult, the Governor decided
to deport the inhabitants of Lille, Tourcoing and Roubaix into the
country, and make them cultivate the soil. Rumours to that effect had
been rife for several days previously, but the people would not believe
it. However, all doubts were cleared away on April 20th, when posters
warned the people to hold themselves in readiness with about 70 lbs. of
luggage. The 21st was a day of painful suspense. On the 22nd at 3 a.m.,
German soldiers hemmed in the Fives Quarter, and placed =machine-guns=
at the corners of the streets. House by house, street by street, amid
blows from the butt-ends of their rifles, the Germans forced the people
out of their houses. They were counted like cattle, and the number
checked with the sheet posted up on each house. Those who were to go,
mostly girls, were forcibly taken from their parents and led away
between fixed bayonets, then loaded into cattle-trucks and sent to an
unknown fate. Girls were taken from mothers and wives from husbands,
with coldblooded indifference. It was in vain that the Mayor and the
Bishop indignantly protested, the former to the Kommandantur and the
latter from the pulpit. Methodically, this abomination was perpetrated.

[Illustration: THE HÔTEL-DE-VILLE BURNING _on the night of April 24th,

For ten days the people lived in mortal suspense, asking themselves if
and when their turn would come.

On Easter-Sunday night, the 64th German Infantry Regiment surrounded
the Vauban Quarter, the horror of the scene being intensified by the
Hôtel-de-Ville in flames.

Each night, until April 30th, 1,800 to 2,000 persons were wrested from
their homes.

Although greatly depressed, the deported people recovered their courage
as the trains left the station, and to the amazement of the Germans
sang the _"Marseillaise"_ in a mighty chorus.

Twenty-five thousand persons, mostly women and children, were forcibly
taken from their homes and made to cultivate the soil, break stones,
build bridges, make sand-bags, turn shells, etc., their only food
consisting of a little black "bread," nauseating soup and broken scraps
of meat.

As soon as the French Government learned the facts, a Note was sent
to the Neutral Powers, protesting against these inhuman deportations,
which were ordered by _General Von Graevenitz_, and executed by the
64th Infantry Regiment, commanded by _Captain Himmel_.

Five months later, thanks to the intervention of the King of Spain,
Alfonso XIII., these unfortunate people were allowed to go back to
their homes.

For several months in 1917 things went better, but in 1918, the German
Authorities recommenced deporting. A first batch of men and women
was interned at Holzminden, while on another occasion the women were
sent to Holzminden and the men to Jewie, near Vilna (Lithuania). The
Official Records, to which the reader is referred, contain full details
of these inhuman crimes and of the abominable treatment to which the
exiles were subjected: privations of every kind, humiliation, torture
and degrading occupations.

On September 30th, 1918, the Kommandantur ordered the evacuation of
all males from 15 to 60 years of age, but the German soldiers carried
out their instructions in a half-hearted way, and many escaped. The
approaching sound of the guns and the lax discipline of the soldiers
announced the Allies' Great Victory and the coming deliverance to the
war-weary people.

On October 17th, the British troops entered Lille.

[Illustration: M. JACQUET'S GRAVE _in the East Cemetery_.]

The Ruined Industries of Northern France

Before the war, Northern France was one of the most flourishing
industrial centres in the country.

The metallurgical firms of the North produced annually over a million
tons of =steel=, representing nearly a quarter of the country's total
production. This steel was transformed locally into finished articles.
The exceedingly prosperous =textile= industry was carried on mainly at
Tourcoing, Roubaix, Rheims and Sedan.

The =flax= industry was also concentrated around Armentières, Lille and

The =cotton= mills of Roubaix, Tourcoing and Lille were extremely
prosperous and important.

The following general figures give an idea of the industrial importance
of this region, which contributed one-sixth of the country's total
taxes. Before the war, the annual industrial production was estimated
at 4,000,000,000 frs., of which the textile industries accounted for
2,500,000,000 frs.

[Illustration: TRULIN'S GRAVE _in the East Cemetery_.]

The industries of Northern France have been =ruined=, not so much by
the war, as by the systematic =pillaging= and =destructions= carried
out by the Germans.

Official documents left behind in Brussels by the routed enemy brought
to light the existence of two German Organizations: the ="Abbau
Konzern"= and the ="Wumba Waffen und Munitions-Beschaffungs Anstalt."=
The mission of the =former= was to cripple France industrially, by
methodically destroying her factories and mills, while the =latter's=
agreeable and profitable task was to sell stolen French machinery and
tools to competitive German industrial concerns.



_To enable tourists to visit the town quickly and thoroughly, we have
drawn up 4 itineraries, each of which starts from and returns to the
Grande Place._

1st Itinerary (pp. 25 to 35).--=The Centre of the Town. The Ruins in

2nd Itinerary (pp. 36 to 48).--=From the Grande Place to the "Dix-huit
Ponts." The Ruins in 1916.=

3rd Itinerary (pp. 49 to 54).--=From the Grande Place to the Citadelle.=

4th Itinerary (pp. 55 to 58).--=The Old Town.=


_Quarters destroyed by the bombardment of 1914_: =Rue de Paris=, =Rue
de Tournai=, =Rue Faidherbe=, etc.

_Monuments seen on the way_: =The "Bourse,"= =Town Hall=, =Palais de
Rihour=, =St. Maurice's Church=, =Tournai Gate=, =Theatre=, "=New

_Starting-point_: The Grande Place.

[Illustration: _Starting from the =Grande Place=, follow the streets
indicated by =thick lines=, in the direction of the =arrows=._

_The blocks of buildings shown by the blank spaces were destroyed by
the 1914 bombardment._]


_Left: Column commemorating 1792; right: Corner of the Bourse._]

The Grande Place

In the centre of the Square is a fluted Granite =Column= by
_Benvignat_, erected in 1848 to commemorate the _Siege of Lille_ in
1792. At the top is a =statue= of _Jeanne Maillotte_ holding a lighted
torch in her hand. During the siege of the town in 1792, she crossed
the enemy lines and set fire to the Austrian batteries which were
shelling the town. The name of this heroic woman was given to one of
the streets, in which a later hero, M. Eugène Jacquet, lived _(see p.
44)_. The inhabitants have surnamed the statue _"The Goddess."_


_In front the "Goddess" statue (left) and the Theatre (behind the

[Sidenote: _See itinerary, p. 25_]

Behind the column is the "=Bourse=" or Stock Exchange. Square in shape,
it stands between the Grande Place, Rue des Sept-Agaches, Place du
Théâtre and Rue des Manneliers. Rising above the roof is a polygonal
turret, the upper part of which forms a terrace with small timber-work
campanile. It has been restored in recent times.


The "Bourse"

The Bourse is the finest specimen of 17th century Flemish architecture
in France. Dissatisfied with transacting their business in the open,
twenty-four merchants of Lille petitioned the King of Spain, Philippe
IV., for permission to erect a building in the Place du Grand Marché,
to be known as the "Bourse."

The plans of the architect _Julien Destré_ were accepted in 1652. It
was stipulated in the specification that the façades should be "of
like symmetry and construction," that only the armorial bearings of
the King were to appear over the entrances, and that the twenty-four
buildings composing the edifice should be beneath one continuous roof,
so as to form a harmonious whole. The petitioners were to guarantee the
completion of the building within a given space of time.

To-day, shops on the ground-floor hide part of the façade, so that it
is difficult to distinguish the bossages and semi-circular tympanums,
but the rich, severe ornamentation of the upper stories, composed of
caryatids, pilasters, pediments, and garlands carved in the stone-work,
is plainly visible. The different periods of life (childhood, youth,
and old-age) and the passions are depicted. The head of King Midas with
stellated crown is especially noteworthy. A judicious use of brick with
stone, while ensuring a harmonious _ensemble_, reposing to the view,
also causes the relief motifs to stand out well.



Of the four doors ornamented with scroll-work, horns of plenty and
royal coats of arms, in the four sides of the edifice, one gives
access to the interior courtyard which is lined with four wide arcaded
galleries. Doric columns of polished black stone support the vaulting,
which is of brick, with binding ribs and nerves of white stone. On
the plinth are heads of leopards connected by garlands of flowers and
foliage. A bronze =statue= by Lemaire, representing Emperor _Napoléon
I._, protector of the national industries, stands in the middle of the
courtyard. This statue was inaugurated in 1854, and was cast from old
presses from the Mint of Lille, which had previously been made from
guns taken at Austerlitz.

The interior galleries of the Bourse were decorated in 1850.

Facing each of the bays formed by the intercolumniations are large
tablets of marble surrounded by carvings, which recall those of the
façade. In the midst of this sculpture are the symbols of commerce,
industry and science. Inscriptions recall the most important dates and
institutions relating to the commerce and industry of Lille. The busts
over them represent great inventors or learned men (Jacquart, Philippe
de Girard, Chaptal, Brongniart, Chevreul).

_On leaving the Bourse, cross the square to the left, and enter the
Place de Rihour._

At the corner of the Grand Place, the black façade of the =Grand'
Garde= decorated with trophies and curved pediments bearing the arms
of France and Lille, should be noticed. A large shell-hole in the
left-hand pediment has been temporarily bricked up.

_Cross the ruins of the =Hôtel de Ville=_, burnt down on April 24th
1916 _(photo below)_, at the time of the deportations. To the right,
abutting on the Hôtel de Ville, is the =Palais de Rihour= which escaped
damage from the fire.


_(see p. 23)_]


The Palais de Rihour

Built in 1457-1462, this palace was the residence of _Philippe le Bon_,
Duke of Burgundy. Only an octagonal turret, the guard-room and the
chapel of brick and white stone remain. The Hôtel de Ville was erected
on its site.

The low guard-room, in which the town records are kept, is divided in
the middle by three polygonal columns unequally interspaced. The stone
staircase with ribbed vaulting and graceful ornamentation, was formerly
the grand staircase. Transferred to its present position, it now leads
to the chapel known as the "Salle du Conclave," where the magistrates
of Lille sat until 1789.

To the right of the chapel is a brick building, the façade of which
is divided by two similar gables. Jutting out at the corner is an
octagonal turret containing two small vaulted chambers. Above is a
third room with timber-work ceiling, known as the "Oratory of the
Duchess." An opening in the wall communicates with the chapel, and
through it the choir is visible. From this room, which is reached by a
spiral staircase of stone inside the turret, it is possible to hear the
service without being seen.

[Illustration: THE RUE DE PARIS: _in the background_: THE THEATRE _and_

[Sidenote: _See itinerary, p. 25_]

_Re-cross the Hôtel de Ville ruins and return to the Place de Rihour.
Follow the Rue de la Vieille-Comédie and Rue du Sec-Arembault (plan,
p. 25); the latter comes out into the Rue de Paris, in front of =St.
Maurice's church=._

The Church of St. Maurice

                        _(historical monument)_

The church was seriously damaged by the bombardment of October 1914,
which set fire to the roof.

[Illustration: ST. MAURICE'S CHURCH]

It is a curious specimen of the 15th century Gothic-Flamboyant style
of Walloon-Flanders, and comprises five naves of equal height arranged
quincuncially, whereas most of the churches belonging to that period
have three naves under a single roof, the aisles being shorter than
the great nave, while the tower is necessarily placed over the main
entrance _(see St. Catherine's Church, p. 54)_.

It also contains an ambulatory and an apse formed by polygonal chapels.

The façade, with its three portals, steeples of open construction, and
white stone tower at the entrance, dates from the second half of the
19th century. The old square tower was pulled down in 1826 as unsafe.
These different alterations were carried out under the direction of
the architect _Lannissie_. According to _Monseigneur Dehaisnes_,
the remarkable exterior of this church is due to these successive
restorations and alterations.


Inside the church are rows of round slender columns with sculptured
capitals, irregularly spaced.

The springing of the binding ribs or projecting arches which line
the vaults, and their graceful arched branches, rest on and meet
at the capitals. The point of intersection of the arches is marked
by a pendant keystone. High and broad mullioned windows (note the
stone uprights dividing the bays) amply light the interior. In the
choir aisles are the following =paintings=: St. Charles Borromée and
St. Francis, by _Van Oost_, and "Les Disciples d'Emmaüs," by _Van
der Burgh_; in the chapel of St. Barbara: "Vision de Sté. Therese,"
by _Van Oost_ and a landscape by _Van der Burgh_; in the chapel of
the Virgin: "Mariage de la Vierge," by _Wamps_, "Glorification de
la Vierge," by _Van Minne_, and "La Cène," by _Van Audenaerde_. In
the vestry are 15th and 16th century =chasubles= and 17th century

[Illustration: DOOR OF THE VESTRY]


[Sidenote: _See itinerary, p. 25_]

[Illustration: THE RUE DU PARVIS-SAINT-MAURICE _(See plan, p. 25)_

_(The photographer, with his back to the Church, faced the Rue
Scheipers. In the background are the Theatre and the Campanile of the
Nouvelle Bourse.)_]

_After visiting the Church, take the Rue du Priez, behind the Church,
leading to the Place de la Gare._

[Illustration: +THE RUE DES PONTS DE COMINES+ _(see plan, p. 25)_

_The operator faced the Rue Scheipers. In the background is the Church
of St. Maurice, against which he had his back when taking the preceding

[Illustration: +THE STATION AND RUE DE TOURNAI+ _(see p. 15)_]

_Follow the Rue de Tournai, on the right_ (numerous houses damaged by
shells) _as far as the =Tournai Gate=._

[Illustration: THE TOURNAI GATE

_A temporary road replaces the bridge over the moat, destroyed by the
retreating Germans._]


_View taken from the Place du Théâtre. In the background, the station._]

The =Tournai Gate= was built in the reign of Louis XVI.


The =bridge= over the moats of the ramparts, which the Germans blew up
before leaving, has been temporarily repaired.

[Illustration: RUINS IN THE RUE DES ARTS.]

_Return by the Rue de Tournai and the Rue Faidherbe_ (partially in
ruins) _as far as the Place du Théâtre: see the =Nouvelle Bourse=_
surmounted by a tower, and the =New Theatre=, inaugurated during the
German occupation.


_Starting from the =Grande Place=, follow the streets indicated by
=continuous black lines=, in the direction of the =arrows=._




=From the Grande Place to the Douai Gate quarter, destroyed by the
Explosion of the "18 Ponts."=

_Principal sights on the way_: =The Prefecture=, =Museum= _and_ =Paris

_Starting Point_: =The Grande Place=.

_To the right of the Grand' Garde, take the Rue Neuve, continued
by the Rue de Béthune_ (one of those which suffered most from the

_Follow this street to the Place de Béthune and to the Place Richebé_;
see the bronze equestrian =Statue= of _General Faidherbe_ (1896), at
the foot of which are two feminine figures with palm-branches and
arms symbolising France and Lille. Two =bas-reliefs= representing the
battles of Pont-Noyelles and Bapaume adorn the sides. The Monument is
the combined work of the architect _Pugol_ and the sculptor _Mercié_.

_In front of the statue_: Boulevard de la Liberté and the fine Place de
la République; _on the right_ is the =Prefecture=, _on the left_, the
=Palais des Beaux Arts=.


The =Prefecture= is a richly ornamented building, erected in 1869
from the plans of the architect _Matteau_. The walls have been deeply
scarred in places by shell splinters _(note the white patches on the
blackened façade)_.


The =Palais des Beaux-Arts= was inaugurated in 1892.

Composite in style, it is very richly ornamented. Flanked by two round
pavilions with cupolas containing staircases, its principal façade is
in the Rue de la République. The =Museum of Lille= is installed there.


This is one of the finest provincial museums in France. As early as
1795 it contained 183 works of art. A Consular Decree, dated the 14th
Fructidor, Year IX, added 46 paintings taken from the collections of
the Louvre and Versailles. The first catalogue, dated 1850, comprised
274 works of art, which number had increased to 1,275 at the time of
the inventory of January 1st, 1908.

The Museum during the War

The Museum was the edifice which most suffered from the German
bombardments. On October 11th, 1914, it was struck by 75 shells. The
curator took measures at once to have the roof repaired and protect the

However, the Museum was not proof against German greed. On Saturday,
November 17th, two officers, accompanied by military policemen, came to
"requisition" the works of art, in the name of the German authorities.
After visiting the different rooms, and being unable to obtain the keys
of the cabinets, they broke open the latter and took all the medals
and miniatures, which they placed in paper bags from a neighbouring
grocer's shop. The curator protested the same day, both verbally and in
writing, to the Kommandantur and Military Governor.

[Illustration: THE BELLE JARDINIÉRE, _near the Museum (Boulevard de la

The miniatures were brought back on November 19th, and the medals on
December 3rd, less various antique gold jewels, two miniatures, and two
gold medals, which had been "lost."

Later, two well-known German art experts _Herr Demmler_ and _Herr
Professor Klemen_, armed with carefully annotated catalogues, made a
general "requisition" comprising: 1,500 drawings (including those by
Raphael and Michael Angelo), 420 paintings and 518 other works of art,
all of which were packed up, labelled and sent off. The famous _="Wax
Head"= (page 43)_ had, however, been hidden away in an underground
vault, and replaced by a copy.

In an endeavour to justify their action, the Germans sent out a
radiogram on November 4th, 1918, stating that the Museum of Lille had
been damaged so seriously as to be unsafe for works of art, and that at
the request of the curator, an inventory of the collections had been
made and the latter transferred first to Valenciennes and then to the
Old Museum in Brussels.


The collections are classed under four distinct heads: =paintings=,
=modern sculpture=, =archeological and lapidary specimens= and the
=Wicar collections=.


The =Flemish= and =French= schools are the best represented. _(For a
detailed description of the paintings, see "La peinture au Musée de
Lille," by François Benoit_, 3 vols. _in 4to, with reproductions_,

The =Spanish= school includes a St. Jerome, by _Ribera_, dated 1643.

[Illustration: THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. GEORGE _by Veronese (Cliché LL.)_]

The =Italian= school contains The Martyrdom of St. George by _Veronese_
(duplicate of the painting by _San Giorgio Maggiore_ at Verona); two
circular panels: Eloquence and Science (symbolized by two Venetian
women with auburn hair), also by Veronese; The Flight into Egypt by
_Carlo Saraceni_, and the Assumption of the Virgin by _Piazzetta_ (two
very original painters little known in France); a delicate "Virgin
with wild roses," of exquisite colouring, by _Ridolfo Ghirlandajo_;
"Magdalene at the feet of Christ" and a "Judith and Holopherne" by
_Lambert Zustris_ (often called Lambert Lambard)--two paintings of
limpid colouring; (note the delicate lilac-grey tints).

As befits the "Capital of Flanders," the =Flemish= and =Dutch= Schools
of the North are fully represented.

[Illustration: THE DESCENT FROM THE CROSS, _by Rubens (Cliché LL.)_]

The Mystic Press, by _Jean Bellegambe_; the triptych, Virgin surrounded
by Angels, attributed to _Gerard David_; the first portrait of Philippe
le Bon, attributed to _Pierre Etret_; the Symbolical Fountain, an
exceedingly fine altar-screen panel by _Thierry Bouts_ de Haarlem,
is particularly noteworthy; a portrait of Emperor Charles Quint at
the age of 32, by _Christophe Amberger_ and Charles Quint taking the
Monk's Gown, by _Nicolas Francken the Elder_. _Rubens_ is represented
by seven paintings: The Descent from the Cross, of admirable clearness;
the expression is more natural than that of the painting in Antwerp;
Vision of the Virgin appearing to St. Francis, of warm colouring; St.
Bonaventure Meditating, and St. Francis receiving the Stigmas (two
fine long panels); The Death of Magdalene (a somewhat monotonous but
strangely intense monochrome). _Van Dyck_ is well represented by the
following: The Crucifixion, considered by Paul de St. Victor to be his
greatest masterpiece (the figure of Christ stands out clearly against
a cloudy sky pierced by lightning); Portraits of an Old Lady and Marie
de Médicis (in the background are seen Antwerp and the Escaut). The
following artists are also represented: _Jordaens_, by the Prodigal
Son, Christ and the Pharisees, the Temptation, and a wonderful study
of cows; _Gaspard de Crayer_, by Martyrs buried alive (fine harmonious
composition); _F. Franchoys_, by a Portrait of the Prior of the Abbey
of Tongerloo, Gisherts Mutsarts, dated 1645. (Paintings by this
artist are exceedingly rare). _Verspronck_, by the Portrait of Young
Boy; _Jansen Van Ceulen_, by a very fine portrait of Anne Marie de
Schurmann; _Pieter Codde_, by Conversation, of delightful colouring.

[Illustration: PORTRAIT OF OLD LADY _by van Dyck (Cliché LL.)_]

[Illustration: BOY'S PORTRAIT _by Verspronck (Cliché LL.)_]

The =French= school, although incomplete (_Prudhon_, _Ingres_ and
_Antoine Watteau_ are not represented), is nevertheless rich and
instructive. First of all an _anonymous_ 17th century Portrait of an
Architect, whose pale harsh face arrests the attention and haunts
the memory. _Ph. de Champaigne_ is represented by the Good Shepherd;
_Restout_ by a Jesus at Emmaüs; _Mignard_, by A Judgment by Midas;
_Largillière_, by a very fine portrait of his father-in-law, the
painter, John Forest; _Douvé_ (native of Lille), by a fine portrait
of the painter Savage; _Jean Voilles_, by a delightful portrait of
Madame Liénard; _François Watteau_ (grand nephew of Antoine Watteau),
by two amusing sketches: Procession of our Lady of the Vine in 1789
and The Old Clothes Market of Lille; _David_, by his first picture
after returning from Rome, "Bélisaire" (1781), of which there is
a reduced copy in the Louvre (this painting marks the re-birth of
the antique); _Boilly_, a native of the district of Lille, is fully
represented by his Triumph of Marat--masterpiece of great truth and
delicacy--and 28 portraits of artists painted for the picture "Réunion
d'artistes dans l'atelier d'Isabey." The following are the names of
these portraits: _Van Dael_, flower painter; _Houdon_, sculptor (grey
overcoat); _Chaudet_, sculptor (seated); _Duplessis Berteaux_, designer
(head resting on hands); _Hoffman_, art critic (long powdered hair);
_Redoute_, flower painter; _Bourgeois_, designer; _Demarne_, painter;
_Thibaut_, architect; _Swibach_, genre painter; _Lemot_, sculptor;
_Serangeli_, historical painter (half-length, hands in pockets);
_Taunay_, landscape painter; _Isabey_ (red coat); _Percier_, architect
(looking at a plan); _Talma_, actor; _Drolling_, portrait-painter
(red waistcoat); _Corbet_, sculptor (grey coat and white waistcoat);
_Meynier_, painter; _Fontaine_, architect; _Blot_, engraver; _Bidault_,
painter; _Boilly-Chenard_, singer; _Girodet-Trioson_, _Gerard_ and the
remarkable group _Lethière_ and _Carle Vernet_.

[Illustration: +THE TRIUMPH OF MARAT+, _by Boilly (Cliché LL.)_]

In the =modern= school, the following are especially noteworthy: La
Medée, by _Eugène Delacroix_ (strikingly dramatic), L'après-diner à
Ornans, by _Courbet_, the colouring of which is unfortunately fading;
La Becquée, charming genre painting by _Millet_; Effet du Matin, by
_Corot_, remarkable for its beautiful effects of silvery light.

[Illustration: MEDEA KILLING HER CHILDREN _by Delacroix (Cliché LL.)_]


Of the collections of sculpture, only the fine =bust= of Bonaparte by
_Corbet_, dated 1799, is worthy of special mention.

III.--Archeological and Lapidary Museum

The Archeological Museum contains the following remarkable works of
art: Three 14th century =statuettes= of the Virgin (two of wood, one
of marble); an ivory =diptych= of the Crucifixion; a 13th century
=reliquary cross= of Flemish origin; divers curious specimens of
=brass-work=, including the Censer of Lille, rightly considered a
masterpiece; a richly embroidered =altar-cloth=, representing the

IV.--The Wicar Collections

The important Wicar Collections were bequeathed by the Lille painter,
_Jean Baptist Wicar_, pupil of David (1762-1834), who in 1815 succeeded
in protecting the Museum of Lille from spoliation by the Allies.

Commissary to Bonaparte in Italy, and later Director of the Royal
Academy at Naples, Wicar adopted Roman nationality, and collected
a large number of fine drawings and art treasures. Parts of his
collections are to-day at Oxford. The famous "Wax Head" _(p. 43)_ is in
the centre of the Wicar Room.

There are several =Renaissance bronzes= worthy of note, also a
=marble bas-relief= by Donatello, representing the Beheading of John
the Baptist, and a fine terra-cotta =Head of Child= by Verrochio.
The drawings merit careful inspection. The following are especially
remarkable: Studies on pink and yellow grounds, by _Filippo Lippi_,
_Filippino_, _Ghirlandaio_, and _La Verrochio_; Head of Bald Man,
by _Montegna_; 14 drawings on parchment, representing scenes from
the Metamorphoses, Children's Games and Arabesques, attributed by
L. Gonse to _Jacopo Francia_, attest marvellous delicacy and skill;
two sheets of caricatures by _Leonard de Vinci_ and 60 sketches by
_Raphael_; studies in black and red by _Michael Angelo_, especially a
Dead Christ, figure of a naked man, fantastic masks and a series of
184 architectural drawings, generally known as the "Book of Michael
Angelo." _Annibal Carrache_, _Le Guide_, _Guerchin_, _Sodoma_ and
_André del Sarto_ are also well represented.

On the other hand, French drawings are few in number, the most
remarkable being one by _David_ for his "Serment des Horaces."
The others include: "Le Corps de Garde," by _Boilly_ (fine,
carefully-finished drawing); a naked Woman, by _Watteau_; two drawings
by _Ingres_ for his "Apotheose d'Homère;" a drawing by _Poussin_ for
the "Massacre des Innocents"; a wonderful Portrait of Old Man, by
_Lagneau_, an artist little known in the reign of Louis XIII, but a
great master; lastly a fascinating fusain drawing by _Millet_: "Le
Troupeau de Moutons an milieu d'un bois."

The "Wax Head"

The most celebrated work of art in the collections is the =Wax Head=
(Tête de Cire), which has so often been reproduced in engravings,
photographs and casts. This funeral souvenir, which stands in a
golden niche in the middle of a room draped with red plush, was made
to perpetuate the memory of a young girl 15 to 18 years of age. The
pedestal and draperies are of terra-cotta, and date from the 18th

[Illustration: THE WAX HEAD _(Cliché LL.)_]

Of Italian origin, the head is attributed by some to Raphael, by others
to Leonard de Vinci. The possibility of its being antique is no longer
admitted. According to Gonse, it came from the Tuscan studio of Orsino
Benitendi, and dates from about 1480. The wax was tinted at a later

Leaning to one side, the face is pensive in expression. The neck is
flexible and sits with easy grace on the shoulders. The cheeks are
rather broad and somewhat flat, the chin round and short. A faint smile
hovers round the delicate mouth. The eyes are considered by some to
be rather small. The waving hair is divided into two graceful masses,
which are rolled up on the back of the neck.

The expression of the face is enigmatical and changes with the angle
from which it is regarded. Psychologists and artists alike will long
discuss its charms.

When the two German experts _Herr Demmler_ and _Herr Professor Klemen_
"requisitioned" the collections of the Museum _(p. 39)_, what they
took away was a _copy_ of this head, the original having been hidden
in one of the underground vaults. It narrowly escaped destruction in
October, 1918, when the Germans, previous to evacuating the town, cut
the water-mains, so that the sub-basement of the Museum was flooded.
Fortunately, the water did not rise high enough to do serious damage,
and the head was eventually restored intact to its velvet pedestal.

_Near the Museum, at the corner of the Rue Jeanne Maillotte and the
Rue Denis Godefroy which opens on the Boulevard de la Liberté, in line
with the Museum_, is the house where M. Eugène =Jacquet= lived _(his
apartment was on the 1st floor, see photograph below and page 16)_.

_Leave the Place de la République by the Rue Nicolas Leblanc (at the
corner of the Square, by the side of the Museum) at the end of which is
the =Church of St. Michael=. Continue as far as the Place Philippe le
Bon: in the middle, =Monument to Pasteur=; on the left, =University of

The =University of Lille= occupies spacious buildings inaugurated in
1895. An important library and various wings have since been added,
including the Coal and the Gosselet Geological and Mineralogical
Museums, the Electro-Technical and Pasteur Institutes, etc. The
University of Lille is the second in importance in France.

[Illustration: M. JACQUET'S HOUSE]

_On the left, at the end of the Place Philippe le Bon, take the Rue
Solférino which crosses the Place Jeanne d'Arc and leads to the Rue de

[Illustration: THE UNIVERSITY]

_From the Place Philippe le Bon, the tourist may visit the =curious
Monument=_ built by the Germans in the Southern Cemetery, where several
thousands of their soldiers were buried. The monument represents a
Walkyrie carrying off a dead warrior to the Walhalla _(p. 64)_.

_To reach the Cemetery, take the Rue des Pyramides, on the right of the
Church, then the Rue des Postes, go through the Porte des Postes and
follow the Rue du Faubourg des Postes to the cemetery. Return to the
Porte des Postes, taking on the right the Boulevard Victor Hugo which
leads back to the crossing of the Rue Solférino and the Boulevard des
Écoles (see Itinerary, p. 36)._

_If preferred, the tourist can go direct from Philippe le Bon Square to
the Douai Gate, via the Rue Solférino (continued by the Rue de Douai),
passing between the University and St. Michael's Church._

[Sidenote: _See itinerary, p. 36_]


_=The "Dix-huit Ponts"= (see p. 22)_

On reaching the Rue de Douai, the cracked walls of the houses, many
of them roofless, which were damaged by the =Explosion= of the
=German Ammunition Depot= known as the "Dix-huit Ponts," come into
view. The tourist will get a closer view of them as he proceeds. _At
the Douai Gate, take the Boulevard de Belfort on the left_, which
leads to the scene of the catastrophe. The =crater= is still plainly
distinguishable, although its sides are no longer sharp, and grass is
springing up everywhere.

_Climb to the highest point of the fortifications above the crater, to
get a good view of this moving scene._


To the right and left extends the regular and picturesque line of the
Vauban fortifications, the red brick walls standing out well against
the green of the grass-covered slopes. In the nearest walls are large
crevices, while below, the tourist sees the crater strewn with rubbish
and portions of the vaulting. In front, the wrecked spinning-mills, of
which only the chimneys remain standing, and the devastated streets
(Rue de Ronchin, Rue de Trévise, etc.), form impressive silhouettes.

[Illustration: THE RUE DE RONCHIN]

_Return to the Douai Gate_, in front of which traces on the ground mark
the site of a block of buildings burnt down by the Germans in October,
1914, when they entered the town. _Take again the Rue de Douai, then
the Boulevard des Écoles, following the latter to the Rue and Porte de

_To the right of the Rue de Paris, in the Boulevard Louis XIV, are the
=School of Arts and Craft= and the =Pasteur Institute=._

[Illustration: THE RUE DE RONCHIN]

[Sidenote: _See itinerary, p. 36_]


The Paris Gate

This gate was built in 1685-1695 from the plans of a local architect
(Simon Vollant), to commemorate the return of Lille to France (1667).
It was completely restored in 1895. The demolition of the old line of
fortifications left this gate isolated in the middle of the town, and
it was to ornament and finish off those portions which adjoined the
ramparts that additions in the same style were then made. The whole
forms a Monumental Gate and Triumphal Arch.

In a large semi-circular arch is the Royal Coat of Arms, while below
are the Arms of Lille carved on a stone tablet. On either side of the
latter are channels for receiving the drawbridge levers.

To the right and left, two Doric columns on pedestals support the whole
of the entablature with frieze and cornice, above which are trophies,
helmets and flags. On pedestals between the columns are statues of
Hercules _(on the right)_ and Mars _(on the left)_, while above are
sculptured motifs in demi-relief.

The most remarkable part of the monument is the great sculptured motif
which crowns the whole. In the middle, Victory seated amidst arms and
standards, raises her right hand to crown the King (Louis XIV), seen
in the medallion immediately below. At Victory's feet, somewhat to the
right and left, two figures of Fame proclaim the glory on trumpets.

The whole is expressive and graceful, attesting the great ability of
the artist in treating this somewhat commonplace theme.

_Take the Rue Carnot to the right of the Gate, skirting the Square
Ruault, which is the continuation, as far as the =Hospital of St.

This hospital, sometimes known as that of St. John the Evangelist, was
founded in 1216, after the battle of Bouvines, by the Countess Jeanne
de Constantinople. The present brick and stone buildings date from the
17th and 18th centuries.


_Door in one of the galleries_]

In the Middle-Ages, hospital wards contained an altar at one end, so
that the patients could hear Mass from their beds. A heavy curtain was
then drawn, cutting off the altar from the remainder of the room.

In the hospital of St. Saviour, the choir of the chapel, which is
lighted by high, broken-arch windows, still exists. A low, vaulted
room, opening on the right, serves as an oratory for the nuns.

_Skirting the Hospital on the right, the tourist comes to the =Noble

Built in 1459, the Noble Tower was formerly the centre of the
town's defences. It consisted originally of three stories, one of
which contained ribbed Gothic vaulting. Of great size and massive
construction, the tower is flanked by two smaller ones connected by a
curtain. The upper portion of the tower has disappeared.

Near by is seen the steeple of the =church of St. Saviour=, a modern,
pseudo-Byzantine edifice.

_Return to the Paris Gate, via the Ruault Square, taking again the Rue
de Paris. On the left, at No. 224, is_ a high gabled wall containing
vestiges of a broken-arch bay, all that remains of the old =Hospice
Ganthois=, founded in 1466 by _Jean de la Cambe_, surnamed Ganthois.
The right wing was rebuilt in the 17th century. Over the entrance
appears the date "1664." An interior court, shaped like a cloister,
leads to the patients' ward.

[Illustration: THE NOBLE TOWER]


_(Follow the =arrows= along the streets indicated by =continuous lines=)._


From the Grande Place to the Citadelle

_Monuments to be seen on the way_: The =Monument to Desrousseaux= in
the Jussieu Square, the =Testelin Monument=, the =Church of the Sacred
Heart=, the =Palais Rameau=; the =Bridges over the Deule=, =Monument to
Négrier=, =Churches of St. André= and =St. Catherine=.

       *       *       *       *       *

The temporary bridges mentioned further on, existed in April, 1919.
In whatever state the tourist may find them, he need only _follow the
Deule canal, after the =Jardin Vauban=, cross the first bridge he
meets, and turn back to the left (if necessary) on the other side,
until he comes to the avenue which opens out on the right opposite the
Boulevard de la Liberté, and which leads to the =Citadelle=._

_Leave the Grande Place by the Rue Nationale, following the latter as
far as the church of the Sacred Heart_, whose high unfinished tower
will be seen on the right. _To the right is the =Jussieu Square=_
(landscape garden laid out by Barillet in the moats of the old
fortifications), at the entrance to which is a =monument= to the local
poet and song-writer =Desrousseaux= (photo opposite), who started his
career (1820-1892) as a simple working-man, and whose dialect songs are
still sung. At the foot of the monument is the figure of a young mother
rocking her child to sleep, recalling the composer's most popular song;
_"Dors, min p'tit quinquin."_


_Cross the Boulevard de la Liberté, then skirt the =Testelin Monument=.
M. Testelin_ was Prefect of the North of France and "Organizer of
National Defence in the North in 1870-1871." The monument bears traces
of the bombardment, while the bronze statues which surrounded the
pedestal were carried away by the Germans.

_On reaching the =Church of the Sacred Heart=, turn to the right and
follow the Rue de Solférino to the Boulevard Vauban, on the right of
which is the =Palais Rameau=._

The Palais Rameau

This fairly large building was erected in 1878, with the financial help
of an agriculturist named _Rameau_. The principal hall is used for
exhibitions, more especially horticultural. The rather =curious façade=
includes a =bust of Rameau= flanked by figures of the goddesses Flora
(flowers) and Pomona (fruits). In the rear of the Palace Garden is a
fine circular =conservatory=.

[Illustration: THE PALAIS RAMEAU.]

_On leaving the Palais, take on the right the Boulevard Vauban which, a
little further on, crosses the =Jardin Vauban=_ (pretty public garden),
leading to the =Canal de la Moyenne Deule=.

Skirting a portion of the Citadelle and continuing the canal of the
Haute Deule, this canal connects Lille with la Bassée and Douai. The
river Deule was first opened up to navigation in 1271, while in 1830
its sidings were improved and the water-way deepened.

In April, 1919, it was necessary to follow the Deule as far as the
Square du Ramponneau, where a temporary wooden bridge had been built
close to a half-destroyed foot-bridge. After crossing the bridge,
visitors had to come back to the left as far as the first avenue on the
right leading to the Citadelle _(see p. 49)_.


The Citadelle

This masterpiece of the fortification art is the work of Vauban (17th
century). In shape a regular pentagon, it includes numerous detached
out-works. Entrance to it is gained through the Royal Gate, which dates
from 1670 _(photo above)_. It contains barracks and a chapel (photo
below), and it was in the latter that the hostages of Lille spent their
nights during the German occupation _(p. 12)_.

=Jacquet=, =Deconinck=, =Maertens=, =Verhulst= and =Trulin= were shot
in the northern moats by the Germans _(p. 18)_.

_After visiting the Citadelle, re-cross the bridge, turn to the left
and follow the =Façade de l'Esplanade=, fine avenue planted with
linden-trees, which runs alongside the canal._ The ruins of =Napoléon
Bridge=, blown up by the retreating Germans, _will be noticed (photo p.


Further on, at the northern end of the avenue, is the =Négrier Bridge=,
which was also destroyed by the Germans. Looking towards Napoléon
Bridge, the =tower of St. Catherine's church= appears above the trees
bordering the canal. Near by is the =statue of General Négrier= by Bra
(1849), _photo below_, which was damaged by flying débris, when the
bridge was blown up.

[Illustration: NAPOLÉON BRIDGE _(January, 1919)_.]

[Illustration: NAPOLÉON BRIDGE _before destruction_.

The Napoléon Bridge dated from 1912. It was destroyed by the retreating

Beyond the bridge is seen the tower of St. Catherine's Church _(see p.
54)_. This photograph was taken from the Négrier Bridge _(p. 53)_.]

[Illustration: NÉGRIER BRIDGE.]

_Take the Rue du Magasin on the right to the Rue Royale, and follow the
latter to the right. With its continuation, =the Rue Esquermoise=_,
which leads to the Grande Place, the Rue Royale forms one of the main
arteries of the old town.

The =Church of St. André= is reached shortly afterwards.

Church of Saint-André.

This church was erected in 1702. The doorway, with its two tall modern
statues of St. Peter and St. Andrew in niches, is of two different
orders, superposed and divided by an entablature, the whole being
surmounted by a triangular pediment.


Near the entrance are two =paintings=: The Purification, and The
Adoration of the Wise Men, by _Otto Venius_. In the southern aisle is
a St. Theresa in Heaven by _A. de Vuez_; in the chapel of St Joseph:
God sending his Son to save the World, by _Van Oost_; on the High
Altar: Martyrdom of St. Andrew, by a local artist, _G. Descamps_; on
either side of the choir, marble =busts= of St. Peter and St. Paul, by
_Quellin_; in the northern aisle, the Annunciation, by _A. de Vuez_;
in the Chapel of the Virgin, the Virgin giving the scapulary to one
Simon Stock, by _Jean Van Oost_; a =silver Tabernacle= with bas-relief
representing The Crucifixion, by the local goldsmith, _Baudoux_;
an 18th century wrought-iron =railing=; 16th century sacerdotal
=ornaments= from the Abbey of Loos. The _=pulpit= (photo p. 54)_ by
_J.-B. Daneson_ of Valenciennes, dates from 1876. Its sounding-board
represents a heavy curtain raised by an angel.


_Further on in the Rue Royale, after the Banque de France, in a small
street on the right, is the Church of St. Catherine (photo below)._

Church of St. Catherine

Like many Flemish churches, that of St. Catherine has no transept,
and consists of three practically identical naves. Standing out from
the façade, a large square tower, flanked at the corners by eight
buttresses, supports the ancient timber-work =belfry=--one of the
finest in the region. The bell-chamber is lighted by broken-arch bays.
One of the heavy bells (1403) bears a curious =inscription= in rhymes.
Below the tower is the great doorway.

The exterior decoration is very sober in style. The right-hand side
of the building is masked by houses. The left façade, between whose
high mullioned windows are buttresses decorated with small ornamental
arcades, has been restored in modern times. Belts of foliage run round
the gutters of the roof. The carvings on the great and small doorways
are modern.

Inside the church are two rows of columns on moulded bases, the corbels
of whose capitals are ornamented with foliage. The nerves of the
vaulting are plaster.

In the northern aisle is a =painting= by _Rubens_: The Martyrdom of
St. Catherine, dating from about 1622; in the Chapel of Our Lady of
Lourdes, on the left of the choir in a small niche, is a =statuette= of
Our Lady of the Seven Afflictions, given by _Philippe le Bon_, in 1450,
to the collegiate of St. Peter. In the Chapel of the Sacred Heart, to
the right of the choir, is a small 15th century =funeral monument= in a
niche. The =carved stalls= ornamented with statues are also noteworthy.

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE, _seen from the Rue Royale_.]

_After visiting the church return to the Rue Royale_; at Nos. 1 and 3,
=curious 17th century houses=.

_At the end of the Rue Royale, take the Rue Esquermoise (which is the
continuation, and which contains =18th century houses=_ at Nos. 83 and
101), _as far as the Grande Place_.


_(Follow the =arrows= along the streets indicated by =continuous lines=)_

[Illustration: _From the Roubaix Gate, tourists may go to the East
Cemetery, where Jacquet and Trulin are buried (see p. 24)._]


_Chief Buildings_: The =Church of Our Lady of the Vine=; =Comtesse
Hospital=, =Law Courts=, =Church of St. Magdalene=, =Hôtel des
Canonniers=, =Roubaix Gate=.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Starting from the Grande Place, cross the Place du Théâtre and take
the Rue de la Grande Chaussée, on the left of the Nouvelle Bourse_:
13th and 14th century houses at Nos. 11, 14, 15, 42 and 52. _On the
right take the Rue des Chats Bossus and Place du Lion d'or, leave the
Place St. Martin on the right, and take the Rue de la Monnaie on the
left._ At No. 31 in this street, opens a narrow passage leading to the
=Church of Our Lady of the Vine=, which is being erected on the site
of the Castle of Buc. When finished, it will be one of the largest
of modern Gothic churches. The inhabitants of Lille have already
surnamed it "the Cathedral." Building was begun in 1855, from plans
by the English architects Clutton and Burges, revised by the Jesuit,
Arthur Martin. 13th century in style, the choir, over crypt, is only
half-finished, while the remainder of the edifice has not yet been

In the chapel of the apse, over the altar, is a =statue= of Our Lady of
the Vine, venerated since the 13th century as the Patron Saint of the
town. In a chapel on the left are =plans= and a =model in relief= of
the finished basilica.

_Return to the Rue de la Monnaie_, at No. 32 of which is the =Comtesse

The =Comtesse Hospital= was founded in 1243 by Countess Jeanne de
Flandre; the entrance dates from 1649, and opens on to a curious
vaulted passage. A 15th century gable faces the Rue Comtesse.

Inside are =paintings= by _Arnould de Vuez_ and _Wamps_. The chapel
contains fine =timber-work vaulting= and a =commemorative tablet=
inscribed with the names of the French officers who died in this
hospital of wounds received at the Battle of Fontenoy.

_Follow the Rue de la Monnaie as far as the Place du Concert. Turn to
the right as far as the Canal de la Basse Deule_, by the side of which
is the =Colonnade= of the Law Courts (1837) _(photo below)_.


The Deule is an important river about 40 miles long, which traverses
the whole of the coalfields of Northern France, and helps to carry the
enormous traffic connected with the metallurgical, cotton, woollen and
sugar industries of that region.

_Follow the Deule Quay to the left, to the steps of the Pont Neuf.
(If motoring or driving, the tourist will have to go via the Place
du Concert, Rue St. André, then taking on the right the Rue du Pont
Neuf.)_ The latter crosses the Deule by the =Grand Pont= or =Pont
Neuf=, formerly called the Pont Royal. Built in 1701 from plans by the
architect Vollant, this bridge connects up the two parallel roads which
run alongside the canal. Originally it was composed of six arches, two
of which spanned the river, the other four passing over the low-level
roads on either bank.

To allow the trams to pass, the two arches on the quay where the
colonnade of the Palais de Justice stands have been replaced in recent
times by an unartistic platform resting on iron pillars, which has
spoilt the appearance of the bridge.

Steps connect the bridge with the quays.

_After crossing the bridge, the tourist arrives in front of the
=Church of St. Magdalene= (1675)_, a vast round edifice surrounded by
chapels and surmounted by a cupola. It contains several interesting
=paintings=: on the High Altar, the Resurrection of Lazarus, by
_Jacques Van Oost_; under the dome, The Four Doctors of the Latin
Church, by the same painter; in the Chapel of Our Lady of Help, The
Adoration of the Shepherds, by _Rubens_; in the Chapel of the St.
Sacrement, Christ crucified, by _Van Dyck_: at the entrance to the
choir, The Woman of Samaria and the Canaanitish Woman, by _Arnould de

[Illustration: ST. MAGDALENE'S CHURCH.]

_Follow the Rue de Thionville, which begins opposite St. Magdalene's
Church, then turn to the left into the Place de Gand, at the end of
which is the =Gand Gate=. On the right take the Rue de Courtrai which
leads to the Place aux Bluets. At the lower end of this square, turn to
the left into the Rue des Urbanistes, then take the first street on the
right, the Rue des Canonniers, which skirts the =Hôtel des Canonniers=.
The latter_, formerly an Urbanist Convent, was given by +Napoléon+
in 1804 to the "Sedentary Gunners Corps" of Lille. It contains town
records and a small museum of local interest.

A little further on, at the corner of the Rue des Canonniers and the
Rue de Roubaix is the old =Hôtel d'Aigremont=, dating from the 18th

_Turning to the left into the Rue de Roubaix, the tourist comes out in
front of the =Roubaix Gate=._

[Illustration: THE ROUBAIX GATE.]

[Illustration: ROUBAIX GATE.

_As in the case of the Tournai Gate (p. 34), the retreating Germans
blew up the bridge over the moat, seen on p. 57 (before) and above
(after) the explosion. A temporary road replaces the Bridge._]


The =Roubaix= or =St. Maurice Gate= dates from about 1620, and was
erected from the plans of _Jean de Mesre_, _Jean Petit_ and _Jean
Fayet_. Of its three entrances, the middle one only is ancient. Above
each entrance is carved a coat of arms. The one in the centre, forming
a tympanum, is between two pilasters supporting a triangular pediment.
At the top is a row of battlements, with a stone niche surmounted by
a broken pediment in the centre. The niche contains the =statue= of a

Over the passage is a slate-roofed building ornamented with coloured
glazed bricks.

_Go through the gate and take the Rue du Faubourg de Roubaix to the
=Eastern Cemetery=._ The graves of =Jacquet= and =Trulin= are in this
cemetery _(see photos p. 24)_.

_Return to the Grande Place by the Rue de Roubaix, Rue des
Ponts-de-Comines and Rue Faidherbe._


      From Lille to Roubaix and Tourcoing, via the Boulevard des
                             Trois Villes.

          Total Distance, including return journey: 16 miles.

=ROUBAIX=, one of France's =chief industrial centres=, is of very
ancient origin. The first important mention of it in history, however,
only goes back to the 15th century (1469), when one, _Peter of
Roubaix_, obtained permission from Charles the Bald to manufacture
cloth. It was occupied and sacked several times by foreign invaders. In
1792 it was taken by the Austrians, in 1794 by the English, and in 1914
by the Germans.

In 1554, Roubaix, which had become a rival to Lille, obtained
permission from Charles Quint and later (1609) from the Council of the
Arch-Dukes of Austria, to manufacture velvet, fustian and common grey
linen cloth.

A decree of the State Council in 1762, granting similar privileges to
all the parishes, was the subject of long lawsuits, which were decided
against Lille.

The popular song-writer, _Gustave Nadaud_ (1820-1893) was a native of

There are no monuments in the town anterior to the Revolution.

The population, largely composed of the working classes, increased
rapidly between 1881 and 1891, and numbered 120,000 in 1914. The
suburbs: Wattrelos, Lys, Croix, Wasquehal and Mouvaux, are extensions
of the town itself and are growing steadily.

Since 1830 Roubaix has been an important centre for =wool combing= and
=spinning=, the machinery employed comprising 700 washing, carding,
combing and weaving machines and 300,000 spindles. Before the War, the
wool-spinning mills produced =6,000 tons= of yarn annually, the whole
of which was used in France.

The =dyeing= and =finishing= industries, which date back to 1760, had
steadily prospered. In 1914, 48 firms, employing 8,000 workpeople, were
engaged in this branch.

       *       *       *       *       *

=TOURCOING= shared the fate of Flanders during the course of its
history. The English and Flemish burnt it during the 14th century,
while the French seized it in 1477. In 1566-1568 it was twice sacked by
the Gueux, and the Duke of Albe held it to ransom. From 1667 to 1708 it
was annexed to France by Louis XIV. Later it fell successively under
the yoke of the Austrians, Dutch and Saxons. On May 18th, 1794, the
French beat the Duke of York's troops at Tourcoing, and paved the way
for the Victory of Fleurus on June 26th.

=Tourcoing= is essentially an =industrial town=. Its population has
steadily increased since 1491, when it numbered 2,500. In 1851 it had
grown to 27,615 and in 1914 to 82,644.

From time immemorial Tourcoing has been a =wool manufacturing= centre.
Here, the wool is first washed and dried, then treated with cocoanut
fat, before combing, and lastly spun. Since 1845 the combing has been
done mechanically (Heilman's system). The same may be said of the
spinning, which, since 1811, was done on Bobo machines. Before the War,
=5,000 tons= of spun wool were exported annually.

Among the =specialities= made at Tourcoing were: =fine thread=,
=tablecloths= and =tapestry-work= of mixed silk and mercerised cotton
(well known for their fine colouring and reasonable price), and
=carpets= of the Wilton and Oriental types.

[Illustration: +PANORAMA OF ROUBAIX+ _(Cliché LL.)_]


Itinerary: _Leave Lille by the Boulevard Carnot at the Place du
Théâtre, between the Theatre and the New Bourse. Follow the Boulevard
des Trois Villes to =Roubaix=. Enter the latter by the Rue de Lille,
follow its continuation, the Rue Neuve, which leads to the Grande
Place: =Hôtel de Ville= and =Church of St. Martin=._

Hôtel de Ville

The present building is the work of the architect _Laloux_ (1911); it
replaced the old Town Hall, built in 1845 and pulled down in 1907. The
latter, as the town grew, had several times been enlarged and otherwise
altered, but had finally become too small for a population of more than
50,000 workpeople and an annual production exceeding 500,000,000 frs.
in value.

[Illustration: THE HÔTEL DE VILLE _(Cliché LL.)_]

The new Town Hall is a fine building, with a =frieze= representing
scenes from the local industries. A wing on the right serves as the
=Stock-Exchange=, while another on the left contains the town's records.

Church of St. Martin

This church, which was rebuilt and transformed in 1849, recalls
vaguely the 15th century Gothic style of the original edifice. Only
the =steeple= is ancient. The church has five naves and contains four
=ancient tombs= and a Flemish =altar-screen=.

_Take the Rue de la Gare, to the Nord-West of the Grande Place._ At the
corner of the Rue Nain is the =National School of Industrial Arts=,
to which has been added a =Museum= of =Paintings= and =Sculpture=
(recently organized by _M. Victor Champier_), a =Textile Museum= and a
=Library= containing 15,000 volumes.


The School proper (whose courses, which are well attended, include
dyeing, spinning, weaving, etc.) and its annexes (museum and library)
are installed in a fine building erected in 1889 from the plans of
the architect, _F. Dutert_, who designed the Galerie des Machines in
Paris. Built of dressed stone and brick, the three doorways lead to the
library, museums (sculpture, paintings, art-history and textiles) and
the public lecture-hall.

The =central pediment= by Allar, represents Industry and Art. On the
=pediments of the pavilions= are symbolized: The Arts _(by Lanson)_
and the Sciences _(by Hughes)_. The =frieze= _(by Laoust)_ represents,
symbolically, the various branches of learning taught in the school.

_At the station, take the Rue de l'Alma on the right, then turn to the
left into the Rue de Tourcoing, which leads straight to =Tourcoing=._

[Illustration: THE GRANDE PLACE.



_The Rue de Roubaix (continuation of the Rue de Tourcoing) is prolonged
by the Rue Carnot, which leads to the Grande Place._ Here the tourist
will find the =Church of St. Christopher=.

[Illustration: +ST. CHRISTOPHER'S CHURCH+ _(Cliché LL.)_]

[Illustration: +THE DOOR-WAY+ _(Cliché LL.)_]

[Illustration: THE GRANDE PLACE.


The Church of St. Christopher

The original church was erected in the 12th or 13th century, but was
entirely rebuilt in 1860, in 15th century Gothic style. The body of
brick and stone, with its various balustrades, graceful sculptured
pinnacles, and richly decorated tracery windows, recalls the churches
of that period, but it is evident from the aspect of the interior,
where the decoration is less rich, that the church is modern. The spire
above the tower is 17th century.

To the N.W. of the church is the =Hôtel de Ville=, a modern, French
Renaissance building, surmounted by a large dome. It contains a
=library= of about 10,000 volumes, a =museum= of fine =paintings=,
mostly modern _(Paul Chabas_, _David_, _Guardi_, _Harpignies_, _Peter
Naefs_, _Henri Zo_, _Henri Zuber)_ and specimens of =old cloth-stuffs=
of local manufacture.




  Origin and chief historical events                                     2

  How Lille fell in 1914                                                 5

  The Deliverance                                                        9

  The German occupation                                                 11

  The Case of the Four                                                  16

  The Execution of Léon Trulin                                          18

  The Explosion of the "Dix-huit Ponts"                                 22

  The Deportations                                                      22

  Plan of Lille (2 colours)                              between 24 and 25

  +1st Itinerary+                                                       25

  The Grande Place                                                      26

  The Bourse                                                            27

  The Hôtel de Ville                                                    29

  The Palais de Rihour                                                  30

  The Church of St. Maurice                                             31

  The Street and Gate of Tournai                                        34

  +2nd Itinerary+                                                       36

  The Museum                                                            38

  The Ruins of the "Dix-huit Ponts"                                     45

  The Paris Gate                                                        47

  The Noble Tower                                                       48

  +3rd Itinerary+                                                       49

  The Palais Rameau                                                     50

  The Citadelle                                                         51

  The Napoléon and Négrier Bridges                                  52, 53

  The Churches of St. André and St. Catherine                       53, 54

  +4th Itinerary+                                                       55

  The Church of Our Lady of the Vine                                    55

  The Palais de Justice.                                                56

  The Roubaix Gate                                                      57

  Roubaix and Tourcoing                                                 59


       *       *       *       *       *


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    Transcriber's Notes:

    Used the unicode circled latin capital letter H, Ⓗ, for the
    small hotel icons on p. ii.

    Used the unicode circled latin capital letter T, Ⓣ, for the
    small telegraphic address icons on p. ii.

    Used the unicode circled latin capital letter R, Ⓡ, for the
    small repair shop icons on p. ii.

    Used the mid-dot (·) rather than the full stop for all decimal

    Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical

    Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.

    Enclosed italics markup in _underscores_.

    Enclosed bold unitalicized markup in =equals=.

    Enclosed small capital unitalicized markup in +plus signs+.

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