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Title: History of the Mackenzies, with genealogies of the principal families of the name
Author: Mackenzie, Alexander
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the Mackenzies, with genealogies of the principal families of the name" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[This book was digitized by William James Mackenzie, III, of
Montgomery County, Maryland, USA in 1999 - 2000.  I would
appreciate notice of any corrections needed.  This is the edited version
that should have most of the typos fixed.  May 2003.  wjm10@juno.com]

The book author writes about himself in the  SLIOCHD  ALASTAIR  CHAIM
section.

I have tried to keep everything intact.  I have made some small
changes to apparent typographical errors.  I have left out the
occasional accent that is used on some Scottish names.  For
instance, "Mor" has an accent over the "o."  A capital L preceding a
number, denotes the British monetary pound sign.

[Footnotes are in square brackets, book titles and italized words in
quotes.]

Edited and reformatted by Brett Fishburne william.fishburne@verizon.net



HISTORY OF THE MACKENZIES WITH
GENEALOGIES OF THE PRINCIPAL FAMILIES
OF THE NAME.

NEW, REVISED, AND EXTENDED EDITION.



BY

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, M.J.I.,

AUTHOR  OF  "THE  HISTORY  OF  THE  MACDONALDS  AND  LORDS  OF
THE  ISLES;"  "THE HISTORY  OF  THE  CAMERONS;"  "THE  HISTORY  OF
THE  MACLEODS;"  "THE HISTORY  OF  THE  MATHESONS;"  "THE  HISTORY
OF  THE  CHISOLMS;" "THE  PROPHECIES  OF  THE  BRAHAN  SEER;"  "THE
HISTORICAL "TALES  AND  LEGENDS  OF  THE  HIGHLAND  CLEARANCES;"
"THE  SOCIAL  STATE  OF  THE  ISLE  OF  SKYE;"  ETC.,  ETC.



LUCEO  NON  URO



INVERNESS:  A. & W. MACKENZIE.  MDCCCXCIV.



PREFACE.


-:0:-



THE  ORIGINAL  EDITION of this work appeared in 1879, fifteen years
ago.  It was well received by the press, by the clan, and by all
interested in  the history of the Highlands.  The best proof of
this is the fact that the  book has for several years been out of
print, occasional second-hand copies of it coming into the market
selling at a high premium on the original subscription price.

Personally, however, I was never satisfied with it.  It was my
first clan history, and to say nothing of inevitable defects of
style by a comparatively inexperienced hand, it was for several
other reasons necessarily incomplete, and in many respects not
what I should wish the history of my own clan to be.

This edition, which extends to close upon two hundred pages  more
than its predecessor, has an accurate and well-executed plate of
the clan tartan, and a life-like portrait of the Author; has been
almost entirely re-written; contains several families omitted from
the first; has all been  carefully revised; and although not even
now absolutely perfect, I believe  it is almost as near being so
as it is possible for any work which contains such an enormous
number of dates and other details as this one to be.

The mythical Fitzgerald origin of the clan, hitherto accepted by
most of its leading members, is exhaustively dealt with, I venture
to hope effectively, if not completely and finally disposed of.
That it is now  established beyond any reasonable dispute to have
been a pure invention of the seventeenth century may, I think, be
safely asserted, while it is, with almost equal conclusiveness,
shown that the Mackenzies are descended from a native Celtic chief
of the same stock as the original O'Beolan Earls of Ross, as set
forth in the Table printed on page 39.

My list of subscribers, for a second edition, shows in the most
gratifying form that the work is still in active demand, and I am
sanguine enough to expect that as soon as it is issued to the
public the remaining copies will be quickly disposed of.

I am indebted to a young gentleman, Mr Evan North Burton-Mackenzie,
Younger of Kilcoy, of whom I venture to predict more will be heard
in this particular field, for valuable genealogical notes about
his own and other Mackenzie families, while for the copious and
well-arranged Index at the end of the volume - a new feature of this
edition - I have again to acknowledge the services of my eldest
son, Hector Rose Mackenzie, solicitor, Inverness.

        A. M.
        PARK HOUSE, INVERNESS,
        March 1894



THE HISTORY  OF  THE  MACKENZIES.



ORIGIN.



THE  CLAN  MACKENZIE at one time formed one of the most powerful
families in the Highlands.  It is still one of the most numerous
and influential, and justly claims a very ancient descent.  But
there has always been a difference of opinion regarding its original
progenitor.  It has long been maintained and generally accepted
that the Mackenzies are descended from an Irishman named Colin or
Cailean Fitzgerald, who is alleged but not proved to have been
descended from a certain Otho, who accompanied William the Conqueror
to England, fought with that warrior at the battle of Hastings,
and was by him created Baron and Castellan of  Windsor for his
services on that occasion.


THE  REPUTED  FITZGERALD  DESCENT.


According to the supporters of the Fitzgerald-Irish origin of the
clan, Otho had a son Fitz-Otho, who is on record as his father's
successor as Castellan of Windsor in 1078.  Fitz-Otho is said to
have had three sons.  Gerald, the eldest, under the name of Fitz-Walter,
is said to have married, in 1112, Nesta, daughter of a Prince of South
Wales, by whom he also had three sons.  Fitz-Walter's eldest son, Maurice,
succeeded his father, and accompanied Richard Strongbow to Ireland
in 1170.  He was afterwards created Baron of Wicklow and Naas
Offelim of the territory of the Macleans for distinguished services
rendered in the subjugation of that  country, by Henry II., who on
his return to England in 1172 left Maurice in the joint Government.

Maurice married Alicia, daughter of Arnulph de Montgomery, brother
of Robert Earl of Shrewsbury, and by that lady had four sons.  The
eldest was known as Gerald Fitz-Maurice, who in due course succeeded
his father, and was created Lord Offaly.  Having married Catherine,
daughter of Hamo de Valois, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland, he had
a son, named Maurice after his grandfather.  This Maurice died
in 1257, leaving two sons, Thomas and Gerald.  Thomas, generally
called "Tomas Mor," or  Great Thomas, on account of his great valour
and signal services in the battlefield, succeeded his father as
Lord Offaly.  He married the only daughter of Thomas Carron.  This
lady brought him the Seigniory of Desmond as a dowry.  By her
Thomas Lord Offaly had an only son, John, who, according to Colin
Fitzgerald's supporters, was first Earl of Kildare and married
first, Marjory, daughter of Sir Thomas Fitz-Antony, by whom he had
issue - Maurice, progenitor of the Dukes of Leinster.  John married,
secondly, Honora, daughter of Hugh O'Connor, by whom he had six
sons, the eldest of whom, according to the Irish-origin theory, was
Colin Fitz-Gerald - but who, if the Fitzgerald theory had not been
a pure invention, really ought to have been called Colin Fitz-John,
or son of John - the reputed ancestor of the Mackenzies.

This, briefly stated, is the genealogy of the Fitzgeralds as given
by  the supporters of the Irish origin of the Mackenzies, and it
may be right or wrong for all we need care in discussing the origin
of the Mackenzies.  Its accuracy will, however, be proved impossible.

According to the true genealogy, Thomas, who was the third son of
Maurice, married Rohesia, heiress of Woodstock, near Athy, and
daughter of Richard de St. Michael, Lord of Rheban. By this lady
he had an only son, John, who succeeded as 6th Baron Offaly, and
was in 1316 created 1st Earl of Kildare.  John married Blanche,
daughter of John Roche, Baron of Fermoy; not the two ladies given
him in the Fitzgerald-Mackenzie genealogy.

The real authentic genealogy of the Fitzgeralds, from whom the
Dukes of Leinster and other Fitzgerald families are descended, is
as follows: The first,

I.  OTHO, known as "Dominus Otho," belonged undoubtedly to the
Gherardini family of Florence.  He passed into Normandy, and in 1057
crossed into England, became a favourite with Edward the Confessor,
and obtained extensive estates from that monarch.  He had a son

II.  WALTER  FITZ  OTHO, or son of Otho.  He is mentioned in Domesday
Book in 1078 as being then in possession of his father's estates.  He
was Castellan of Windsor and Warden of the Forests in  Berkshire.  He
married Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn, Prince of North
Wales, and had three sons, the eldest being

III.  GERALD  FITZ  WALTER, or son of Walter, who was appointed by
Henry I. to the Constableship of Pembroke Castle and other important
offices.  He married Nesta, daughter of Rhys ap Gruffyd, ap  Tudor
Mawr, Prince of South Wales, and had issue by her, three sons, the
eldest of whom was

IV.  MAURICE  FITZ  GERALD, or son of Gerald. This, it will be noticed,
was the first Fitzgerald of which we have any record, and he was the
progenitor of the Irish Fitzgeralds.  He accompanied Richard de Clare,
Earl of Pembroke, popularly known as "Strongbow," to Ireland, and there
highly distinguished himself, having, among other acts of renown,
captured the city of Dublin.  He died at Wexford in 1177.  He married
Alice or Alicia, daughter of Arnulph de Montgomery, fourth son of
Roger de Montgomery, who led the centre of the Norman army at the
battle of Hastings, and by her had issue - five sons, the eldest
of whom was William, Baron of Naas, not Gerald as claimed by the
supporters of the Colin Fitzgerald theory.

Thus far the two genealogies may be said to agree, except in a few
of the marriages.

V.  GERALD  FITZ  MAURICE, the second son, in 1205 became first
Baron Offaly.  The third son, Thomas, was progenitor of the original
Earls of Desmond, who have long been extinct in the male line, the
present Earldom, which is the Irish title of the Earl of Denbigh,
having been created in 1622.  Gerald Fitz Maurice married Katherine,
daughter of Hamo de Valois, who was Lord Chief Justice of Ireland
in 1197, and by  her had a son,

VI.  MAURICE  FITZ  GERALD, second Baron Offaly, one of the Lord
Justices of Ireland. Maurice died in 1257, having married Juliana,
daughter of John de Cogan, who was Lord Justice of Ireland in 1247,
and by her had three sons, Maurice, Gerald, and Thomas.  Maurice
Fitzgerald has no wife given him in the Colin Fitzgerald genealogy.
Thomas, the  youngest son, had a son John, who ultimately, on the
death of Maurice, fifth Baron Offaly, without issue, succeeded as
sixth Baron, and was, on the 14th May, 1316, created the first Earl
of Kildare.  Maurice Fitz Gerald was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII.  MAURICE  FITZ  MAURICE, as third Baron Offaly.  He married
Emelina, daughter of Sir Stephen de Longespee, a rich heiress, and by
her had a son and two daughters. He was succeeded by his only son,

VIII.  GERALD  FITZ  MAURICE, 4th Baron Offaly, who died without issue
in 1287, when he was succeeded by his cousin Maurice, only son of
Gerald, second son of Maurice Fitzgerald, second Baron Offaly, as

IX.  MAURICE  FITZGERALD, 5th Baron Offaly, who married Agnes de
Valance, daughter of William Earl of Pembroke, without issue, when he
was succeeded by his cousin John, son of Thomas, third son of Maurice
Fitzgerald, second Baron Offaly, as

X.  JOHN  FITZ  THOMAS  FITZ  GERALD, sixth Baron Offaly, and first
Earl of Kildare.  From him, by his wife Blanche, daughter of John
Roche, Baron of Fermoy, are descended the present Duke of Leinster and
other Irish Fitzgeralds.  He died on the 10th November, 1316.

Several important particulars bearing on the points in dispute are
noticeable in this genuine Fitzgerald genealogy, a few of which may be
remarked upon.  (1) There is no trace of a Colin Fitzgerald, or of any
other Colin, in the real family genealogy from beginning to end, down
to the present day.  (2) Gerald, the 4th Baron Offaly, died in 1287.
He was succeeded by his cousin Maurice, as 5th Baron, who in turn
was succeeded by his cousin John Fitz Thomas Fitz Gerald, who died
comparatively young in 1316.  According to the Colin Fitzgerald
theory, this John, first Earl of Kildare, was twice married, and by
his second wife  had six sons, of whom Colin Fitzgerald, who really
ought to have been described as Colin Fitz John - for it will
be observed that the Chiefs in the real genealogy are invariably
described as Fitz or son of their fathers - was the eldest.  This
was impossible.  How could John Fitz Thomas Fitzgerald, who died
at a comparatively early age in 1316, have had a son by his second
marriage, who must have arrived at a mature age before he "was
driven" from Ireland to Scotland in 1261, and be able to fight, as
alleged  by his supporters, with great distinction, as a warrior
who had already an  established reputation, at the battle of Largs,
in 1263?  Let us suppose that Colin's reputed father was 70 years
old when he died.  He (the father) must thus have been born as
early as 1246.  Let us take it that his eldest son, the reputed
Colin, by his second wife, was born when his father was only 24
years of age - say in 1270 - and the result of the Fitzgerald origin
theory would be that Colin must have fought at the battle of Largs
7 years  before, according to the laws of nature, he could have
been born.  In other words, he was not born, if born at all, for
seven years after the battle of Largs, four years after the reputed
charter of 1266, and 40 years subsequent to 1230, the last year
in which either of the witnesses whose names are upon the alleged
charter itself was in life.  (3) But take the genealogy as given by
the upholders of the Colin Fitzgerald origin themselves Maurice,
who died in 1257, had, according to it, two sons - Thomas and Gerald.
This Thomas, they say, succeeded his father as third Lord Offaly,
and had a son, John, who, by his second wife, had Colin Fitzgerald.
That is, Maurice, who died in 1257, had a great grandson Colin,
who, as a warrior of mature years and experience, fought at the
battle of Largs only six years after his great-grandfathers death.
But there was in  fact no Earl of Kildare at this early date.  That
title was, as already stated, not created until 1316, twenty-eight
years after his son Colin Fitzgerald was, according to the testimony
of his supporters, buried in Icolmkill.  It is surely unnecessary to
add that such a consummation is absolutely impossible; and these
facts alone, though no other shred of evidence was forthcoming,
would dispose of the Colin Fitzgerald origin of the Mackenzies for
ever.

Colin's five brothers are given by the upholders of the Fitzgerald
origin as Galen, said to have been the same as Gilleon or Gillean, the
ancestor of the Macleans; Gilbert, ancestor of the White Knights;
John, ancestor of the Knights of Glynn; Maurice, ancestor of the
Knights of Kerry; and Thomas, progenitor of the Fitzgeralds of
Limerick.  But it is  quite unnecessary to deal with Colin's brothers
and their descendants here.  It will be sufficient if we dispose of
Colin himself, who, according to the  genealogy given to him by those
who claim him as their progenitor, was really not Colin Fitz-Gerald
but Colin Fitz-John.  He must, however, be dealt with a little more at
length; for, whoever he may have been, and however mythical his
personal history, his name will always command a certain amount of
interest for members of the Clan Mackenzie, and those who have become
allied with them by marriage or association.

Most of us are acquainted with the turbulent state of the West
Highlands and Islands in the reign of Alexander II., when the
Highland  Chiefs became so powerful, and were so remote from the
centre of Government, that they could not be brought under the King's
authority.   His Majesty determined to make a serious effort to
reduce these men to obedience, and for this purpose he proceeded, at
the head of a large force, but died on his way in 1249, on the Island
of Kerrera, leaving his son, Alexander III., then only nine years of
age, with the full weight and responsibility of government on his
shoulders.

Shortly after the King attained his majority, Colin Fitzgerald,
correctly speaking Fitz John is said to have been driven out of
Ireland and to have sought refuge at the Scottish Court, where he was
heartily welcomed by the King, by whom his rank and prowess well
known to him by repute, were duly recognised and acknowledged.

At this time Alexander was preparing to meet Haco, King of Norway,
who, on the 2nd of October, 1262, landed with a large force on the
coast of Ayrshire, where he was met by a gallant force of fifteen
hundred knights splendidly mounted on magnificent chargers - many
of them of pure Spanish breed - wearing breastplates, while their
riders, clad in complete armour, with a numerous army of foot armed
with spears, bows and arrows, and other weapons of war, according
to the usage in their respective provinces, the whole of this valiant
force led by the King  in person.  These splendid, well-accoutred
armies met at Largs two or three days after, and then commenced that
sanguinary and memorable engagement which was the first decisive
check to the arrogance of the Norsemen who had so long held sway
in the West Highlands and Isles, and the first opening up of the
channel which led to the subsequent arrangements between Alexander
III. of Scotland and Magnus IV. of Norway in consequence of which
an entirely new organisation was introduced into the Hebrides, then
inhabited by a mixed race composed of the natives and largely of
the descendants of successive immigrant colonists of Norwegians
and Danes who had settled in the country.

In this memorable engagement, we are told, the Scots commenced the
attack.  The right wing, composed of the men of Argyle, of Lennox, of
Athole, and Galloway, was commanded by Alexander, Lord High Steward,
while Patrick Dunbar, Earl of March, commanded the left wing,
composed of the men of the Lothians, Berwick, Stirling, and Fife.
The King placed himself in the centre, at the head of the choice men
of Ross, Perth, Angus, Mearns, Mar, Moray, Inverness, and Caithness,
where he  was confronted by Haco in person, who, for the purpose
of meeting the Scottish King, took post in the Norwegian centre.  The
High Steward, by a dexterous movement, made the enemy's left give
way, and instantly, by another adroit manoeuvre, he wheeled back on
the rear of Haco's centre, where he found the two warrior Kings
desperately engaged.  This induced  Haco, after exhibiting all the
prowess of a brave King and an able commander, to retreat from the
field, followed by his left wing, leaving, as  has been variously
stated, sixteen to twenty-four thousand of his followers on the field,
while the loss on the Scottish side is estimated at about five
thousand.  The men of Caithness and Sutherland were led by the Flemish
Freskin, those of Moray by one of their great chiefs, and there is
every reason to believe that the men of Ross rallied round one of
their native chiefs.  Among the most distinguished warriors who took
part in this great and decisive victory for the Scots, under the
immediate eye of their brave King, was, it is said, Colin Fitzgerald,
who is referred to in a fragment of the Record of Icolmkill as
"Callenus peregrinus Hibernus nobilis ex familia Geraldinorum qui
proximo anno ab Hibernia pulsus opud regni  benigne acceptus hinc
usque in curta permansit et in praefacto proelio  strenue pugnavit."
That is, "Colin, an Irish stranger and nobleman, of the  family of the
Geraldines who, in the previous year, had been driven from Ireland,
and had been well received by the King, remained up to this time at
Court, and fought bravely in the aforesaid battle."  This extract has
often been quoted to prove that Colin Fitzgerald was the progenitor of
the Mackenzies; but it will be noticed that it contains no reference
whatever to the point.  It merely says that Colin, an Irishman, was
present at Largs.

After the defeat of Haco the King sent detachments to secure the
West Highlands and Isles, and to check the local chiefs.  Among the
leaders sent in charge of the Western garrisons was, according to
the supporters of the Irish-origin theory, Colin Fitzgerald, who,
under the  patronage of Walter Stewart, Earl of Menteith, was settled
in the  Government of the Castle of Ellandonnan, the well-known
stronghold of  the Mackenzies, in Kintail, situated on a small
rocky island at the junction  of Lochalsh, Loch Duich and Loch Long.
Colin's jurisdiction, it is said, extended over a wide district,
and he is referred to in the fragment of the Record of Icolmkill,
already quoted, as he "of whom we have spoken at  the battle of
Largs, and who afterwards conducted himself with firmness against
the Islanders, and was left a governor among them."  Sir George
Mackenzie, first Earl of Cromartie, who will be proved later on
to have  been the inventor of the Fitzgerald theory, says in a MS.
history of the  clan, that Colin "being left in Kintail, tradition
records that he married the  daughter of Mac Mhathoin, heritor of
the half of Kintail.  This Mhathoin," he continues, "is frequently
identified with Coinneach Gruamach Mac Mhathoin, Cailean's
predecessor as Governor of Ellandonnan Castle.  The other half of
Kintail belonged to O'Beolan, one of whose chiefs, Ferchair, was
created Earl of Ross, and his lands were given to Cailean Fitzgerald."
It will be proved by incontestible public documents still in
existence, that these identical lands were, except that they once
for a time exchanged  them with a relative for lands in Buchan,
uninterruptedly possessed by the Earls of Ross, the descendants
of this Ferchair, or Farquhar, for two  centuries after the battle
of Largs.

While the Earl of Cromartie and other clan historians accept the
Fitzgerald origin by marriage with a daughter of Kenneth Matheson of
Lochalsh, the Mathesons maintain that the first Mackenzie, or Mac
Choinnich - the actual progenitor of the clan - was a son of their
chief, Coinneach Gruamach, and that the Mackenzies are thus only a
sept, or minor branch of the Mathesons. It must in fairness be
admitted that the latter contention is quite as near the truth as
the Fitzgerald theory and it must have already occurred to the
reader, how, if the Fitzgerald origin of the Mackenzies had been
true, has it come about that the original patronymic of Fitzgerald
has given way to that of Mackenzie?  It is not pretended that it
was ever heard of after Colin himself.

This difficulty occurred even to the Earl of Cromartie, and this
is  how he attempts to dispose of it.  Cailean, he says, had a son
by the  daughter of Kenneth Mac Mhathoin, or Matheson, whom he named
Coinneach, or Kenneth, after his father-in-law Kenneth Matheson;
Cailean himself was killed in Glaic Chailein by Mac Mhathoin,
who envied him, and was sore displeased at Colin's succession to
Matheson's ancient heritage; Colin was succeeded by his son Kenneth,
and all his descendants were by the Highlanders called "Mac
Choinnich," or Kenneth's son, taking the patronymic from Mac Mhathoin
rather than from Cailean, whom they esteemed a stranger.  Of the two
theories the Matheson one is by far the more probable; but they are
both without any real foundation.

The Fitzgerald theory has, however, until recently, been accepted
by all the leading Mackenzie families and by the clan generally.
It has  been adopted in all the Peerages and Baronetages, and by
almost every writer on the history and genealogy of the Cabar feidh
race.

The main if not the only authority of any consequence in favour of
this Irish origin is the charter alleged to have been granted by
Alexander III. to Colin in 1266, of which the reputed original runs
as follows:-

"Alexander, Dei Gracia, Rex Scottorum, omnibus probis hominibus
tocius terre sue clericis et laicis, salutem sciant presentes et
futuri me pro fideli seruicio michi navato per Colinum Hybernum
tam in bello quam in pace ideo dedisse, et hac presenti carta
mea concessisse dicto Colino, et ejus successoribus totas terras
de Kintail.  Tenendas de nobis et successoribus nostris in liberam
baronium cum guardia.  Reddendo servicium forinsecum et fidelitatem.
Testibus Andrea episcopo, Moraviensi.  Waltero Stewart.  Henrico de
Balioth Camerario.  Arnoldo de Campania.  Thoma Hostiario,
vice-comite de Innerness.  Apud Kincardine, IX die Jan.: Anno Regni
Domini, Regis XVI."

This is a literal translation of the document:-
"Alexander, by the Grace of God, King of Scots, to all honest men
of his whole dominions, cleric and laic, greeting: Be it known to
the present and future that I, for the faithful service rendered to
me by Colin of Ireland, in war as well as peace, therefore I have
given, and by this my present charter I concede to the said Colin
and his successors, the lands of Kintail to be held of us in free
barony with ward to render foreign service and fidelity.  Witnesses
(as above.)  At Kincardine, 9th day of January, in the year of the
reign of the Lord the King, the 16th."

The Kincardine at which this charter is alleged to have been signed
is supposed to be the place of that name situated on the River
Dee; for  about this time an incident is reported to have occurred
in the Forest of Mar in connection with which it is traditionally
stated that the Mackenzies  adopted the stag's head as their coat
armour.  The legend is as follows:

Alexander was on a hunting expedition in the forest, near Kincardine,
when an infuriated stag, closely pursued by the hounds, made
straight in the direction of the King, and Cailean Fitzgerald, who
accompanied the Royal party, gallantly interposed his own person
between the exasperated animal and his Majesty, and shot it with
an arrow in the forehead.  The King in acknowledgment of the Royal
gratitude at once issued a diploma in favour of Colin granting him
armorial bearings which were to be, a  stags head puissant, bleeding
at the forehead where the arrow pierced it, to be borne on a field
azure, supported by two greyhounds.  The crest to be a dexter arm
bearing a naked sword, surrounded by the motto "Fide Parta, Fide
Acta," which continued to be the distinctive bearings of the
Mackenzies of Seaforth until it was considered expedient, as
corroborating their claims on the extensive possessions of the
Macleods of  Lewis, to substitute for the original the crest of that
warlike clan, namely, a mountain in flames, surcharged with the
words, "Luceo non uro," the ancient shield, supported by two savages,
naked, and wreathed about the head with laurel, armed with clubs
issuing fire, which are the bearings now used by the representatives
of the High Chiefs of Kintail.

The incident of the hunting match and Colin Fitzgerald's gallant
rescue of Alexander III. was painted by West for "The last of the
Seaforths" in one of those large pictures with which the old
Academician  employed and gratified his latter years.  The artist
received L8oo for the noble painting, which is still preserved in
Brahan Castle, and in his old age he expressed his willingness to
give the same sum for it in order to have it exhibited in his own
collection.

The first notice of the reputed charter to Colin Fitzgerald is in
the manuscript history of the Mackenzies, by George, first Earl
of Cromartie, already quoted, written about the middle of the
seventeenth century.  All the later genealogists appear to have
taken its authenticity for granted, and  quoted it accordingly.  Dr
Skene, the most learned and accurate of all our Highland historians,
expresses his decided opinion that the charter is forged and
absolutely worthless as evidence in favour of the Fitzgerald origin
of the clan.  At pages 223-25 of his 'Highlanders of Scotland,'
he says -

"The Mackenzies have long boasted of their descent from the great
Norman family of Fitzgerald in Ireland, and in support of this
origin they produce a fragment of the Records of Icolmkill, and
a charter by Alexander III. to Colin Fitzgerald, the supposed
progenitor of the family, of the lands of Kintail.  At first sight
these documents might appear conclusive, but, independently of
the somewhat suspicious circumstance  that while these pages have
been most freely and generally quoted, no one has ever seen the
originals, and the fragment of the Icolmkill Record merely says
that among the actors in the battle of Largs, fought in 1263, was
`Peregrinus et Hibernus nobilis ex familia Geraldinorum qui proximo
anno Hibernia pulsus apud regni benigne acceptus hinc usque in
curta  permansit et in praefacto proelio strenue pugnavit,' giving
not a hint of his having settled in the Highlands, or of his having
become the progenitor of any Scottish family whatever while as to
the supposed charter of  Alexander III., it is equally inconclusive,
as it merely grants the lands of  Kintail to Colin Hiberno, the
word `Hiberno' having at the time come into general use as denoting
the Highlanders, in the same manner as the word 'Erse' is now
frequently used to express their language; but inconclusive as it
is, this charter," he continues, "cannot be admitted at all, as
it bears the most palpable marks of having been a forgery of a
later time, and one by no means happy in its execution.  How such
a tradition of the origin of the Mackenzies ever could have arisen,
it is difficult to say but the fact of their native origin and
Gaelic descent is completely set at rest by the Manuscript of
1450, which has already so often been the means of detecting the
falsehood of the foreign origins of other clans."

Cosmo Innes, another high authority, editor of the 'Orgines
Parachiales Scotia,' the most valuable work ever published dealing
with  the early history of Scotland, and especially of the Highlands,
came to a similar conclusion, and expresses it even more strongly
than Dr Skene.  At pages 392-3, Vol. II., he says "The lands of
Kintail are said to have been granted by Alexander III. to Colin, an
Irishman of the family of Fitzgerald, for services done at the battle
of Largs.  The charter is not extant, and its genuineness has been
doubted."  In a footnote, this learned antiquarian gives the text of
the document, in the same terms as those in which they  have been
already quoted from another source, and which, he says, is "from
a copy of the 17th century."  "If the charter be genuine," he adds,
"it is not of Alexander III., or connected with the battle of Largs
(1263).  Two of the witnesses, Andrew, Bishop of Moray, and Henry de
Baliol, Chamberlain, would correspond with the 16th year of
Alexander II."  He further says that "the writers of the history of
the Mackenzies assert also  charters of David II. (1360) and of
Robert II. (1380) to `Murdo filius Kennethi de Kintail,' but without
furnishing any description or means of testing their authenticity.
No such charters are recorded."

This is emphatic enough and to every unprejudiced mind absolutely
conclusive.  The sixteenth year of the reign of Alexander II. was
1230; for he ascended the throne in 1214.  It necessarily follows that
the charter, if signed at all, must have been signed thirty-three
years before the battle of Largs, and thirty-six years earlier than
the actual date written  on the document itself.  If it had any
existence before it appeared in the  Earl of Cromartie's manuscript
of the seventeenth century, it must have been written during the
lives of the witnesses whose names attest it.  That is, according to
those who maintain that Colin Fitzgerald was the progenitor of the
Mackenzies, thirty-one years before that adventurer ever crossed the
Irish Channel, and probably several years before he was born, if he
ever existed elsewhere than in the Earl of Cromartie's fertile
imagination.

But this is not all.  It has long been established beyond any
possible doubt that the Earls of Ross were the superiors of the
lands of Kintail during the identical period in which the same lands
are said to have been held by Colin Fitzgerald and his descendants
as direct vassals of the Crown.  Ferchard Mac an t-Sagairt, Earl
of Ross, received a grant of the lands of Kintail from Alexander
II. for services rendered to that monarch in 1222, and he is again
on record as their possessor in 1234, four years after the latest
date on which the reputed charter to Colin Fitzgerald, keeping
in view the witnesses whose names appear on the face of it, could
possibly have been a genuine document.  Even the most prominent of
the clan historians who have so stoutly maintained the Fitzgerald
theory felt bound to admit that, "it cannot be disputed that the
Earl of Ross was the Lord paramount under Alexander II., by whom
Farquhard Mac an t-Sagairt was recognised in the hereditary dignity
of his  predecessors, and who, by another tradition," Dr George
Mackenzie says, "was a real progenitor of the noble family of
Kintail."  That the Earls of  Ross continued lords paramount long
after the death of Colin Fitzgerald, which event is said to have
taken place in 1278, will be incontestibly proved.

But meantime let us return to the 'Origines Parochiales Scotiae.'
There we have it stated on authority which no one whose opinion
is worth anything will for a moment call in question.  The editor
of that remarkable work says:- "In 1292 the Sheriffdom of Skye
erected by King John Baliol, included the lands of the Earl of Ross
in North Argyle, a district which comprehended Kintail and several
other large parishes in Ross (Acts of Parliament of Scotland, Vol.
1. p. 917).  Between 1306 and 1329 King Robert Bruce confirmed to
the Earl of Ross all his lands including North Argyle (Robertson's
Index, p. 16, No. 7; Register of Moray, p. 342).  In 1342, William,
Earl of Ross, the son and heir of the deceased Hugh, Earl of Ross,
granted to Reginald, the son of Roderick (Ranald Rorissoune or
MacRuaraidh) of the Isles, the ten davochs (or pennylands) of
Kintail in  North Argyle (Robertson's Index, p. 48, No. 1; p. 99;
p. 100, No. 1).  The grant was afterwards confirmed by King David II.
(Robertson's Index).  About the year 1346 Ranald was succeeded by his
sister Amie, the wife of John of Isla (Gregory p. 27).  Between the
years 1362 and 1372, William, Earl of Ross, exchanged with his
brother Hugh of Ross, Lord of Phylorth, and his heirs, his lands of
all Argyle, with the Castle of Ellandonnan, for Hugh's lands in
Buchan (Balnagown Charters).  In 1463 the lands of Kintail were held
by Alexander Mackenzie (Gregory, p, 83)," when the Mackenzies
obtained the first authentic charter on record as direct vassals from
the Crown.

During the whole of this period - for two hundred years - there is
no trace of Colin Fitzgerald or any of his descendants as superiors
of the lands of Kintail in terms of Alexander III.'s reputed charter
of 1266, the Mackenzies holding all that time from and as direct
vassals of their relatives, the Earls of Ross, who really held
the position of Crown vassals which, according to the upholders
of the Fitzgerald theory, had that theory  been true, would have
been held by Colin and his posterity.  But neither he  nor any
of his reputed descendants appear once on record in that capacity
during the whole of these two centuries.  On the contrary, it has
now been proved from unquestionable authentic sources that Kintail
was in possession of the Earls of Ross in, and for at least two
generations before, 1296; that King Robert the Bruce confirmed
him in these lands in 1306, and again in 1329; that in 1342 Earl
William granted the ten davochs or pennylands of Kintail - which
is its whole extent - to Reginald of the Isles; that this grant
was afterwards confirmed by David II.; and that between the years
1362 and 1372 the Earl of Ross exchanged the lands of Kintail,
including the Castle of Ellandonnan, with his brother Hugh for
lands in Buchan.

These historical events could never have occurred had the Mackenzies
occupied the position as immediate vassals of the Crown contended
for by the supporters of the Fitzgerald theory of the origin of
the clan.  It is admitted by those who uphold the claims of Colin
Fitzgerald that the half of Kintail belonged to Farquhar O'Beolan,
Earl of Ross, after what they describe as the other half had been
granted by the King to Colin  Fitzgerald.  But as it is conclusively
established that the ten pennylands, being the whole extent of
Kintail were all the time, before and after, in possession of the
Earls of Ross, this historical myth must follow the rest.  Even the
Laird of Applecross, in his MS. history of the clan, written in 1669,
although he adopts the Fitzgerald theory from his friend and
contemporary the Earl of Cromartie, has his doubts.  After quoting the
statement, that "the other half of Kintail at this time belonged to
O'Beolan, whose chief, called Farquhar, was created Earl of Ross, and
that his lands in Kintail were given by the King to Colin Fitzgerald,"
he says, "this tradition carries enough of probability to found
historical credit, but I find no charter of these lands purporting
any such grounds for that the first charter of Kintail is given by
this King Alexander to this Colin, anno 1266."  That is, Alexander III.

But enough has been said on this part of the subject.  Let us, however,
briefly quote two well-known modern writers.  The late Robert
Carruthers, LL.D., Inverness, had occasion several years ago to examine
the Seaforth family papers for the purpose of reviewing them in the
'North British Quarterly Review.'  He did not publish all that he had
written on the subject, and he was good enough to present the writer,
when preparing the first edition of this work, with some valuable MS.
notes on the clan which had not before appeared in print.  In one of
these notes Dr Carruthers says -

"The chivalrous and romantic origin of the Clan Mackenzie, though
vouched for by certain charters and local histories, is now believed
to be fabulous. It seems to have been first advanced in the 17th
century, when there was an absurd desire and ambition in Scotland
to fabricate or magnify all ancient and lordly pedigrees.  Sir
George Mackenzie of  Tarbat, the Lord Advocate, and Sir George
Mackenzie, the first Earl of Cromartie, were ready to swear to the
descent of the Scots nation from  Gathelus, son of Cecrops, King
of Athens, and Scota his wife, daughter of Pharaoh, King of Egypt;
and, of course, they were no less eager to claim a lofty and
illustrious lineage for their own clan.  But authentic history
is silent as to the two wandering Irish Knights, and the reputed
charter (the elder one being palpably erroneous) cannot now be found.
For two centuries after the reigns of the Alexanders, the district of
Kintail formed part of the lordship of the Isles, and was held by the
Earls of Ross.  The Mackenzies, however, can he easily traced to
their wild mountainous and  picturesque country - Ceann-da-Shail -
the Head of the two Seas."

This is from an independent, impartial writer who had  no interest
whatever in supporting either the one theory or the other.

Sir William Fraser, the well-known author of so many valuable private
family histories, incidentally refers to the forged charter in
his 'Earls of Cromartie,' written specially for the late Duke of
Sutherland.  He was naturally unwilling to offend the susceptibilities
of the Mackenzie chiefs, all of whom had hitherto claimed Colin
Fitzgerald as their progenitor, but he was forced to admit the
inconclusive character of the disputed charter, and that no such
charter was granted to Colin Fitzgerald by Alexander III.  Sir
William says:- "In the middle of the seventeenth century, when
Lord Cromartie wrote his history, the means of ascertaining, by the
names of witnesses and other ways, the true granter of a charter
and the date were not so accessible as at present.  The mistake
of attributing the Kintail charter to King Alexander the Third,
instead of King Alexander the Second, cannot be regarded as a
very serious error in the circumstances."  Sir William, it will
be observed, gives up the charter from Alexander III.  The mere
admission that it is not of Alexander III. is conclusive against
its ever having been granted to Colin Fitzgerald at all, for, as
already pointed out, that adventurer, if he ever existed, did not,
even according to his stoutest supporters, cross the Irish Channel,
nor was he ever heard of on this side of it, for more than thirty
years after the date written on the face of the document itself
could possibly have been genuine, the witnesses whose names
appear as attesting it having been in there graves for more than
a generation before the battle of Largs was fought.

When the ablest upholders of the Colin Fitzgerald theory are obliged
to make such admissions and explanations as these, they explain
away their whole case and they must be held to have practically
given it up; for once admit, as Sir William Fraser does, that the
charter is of the reign of Alexander II. (1230), it cannot possibly
have any reference to Colin Fitzgerald, who, according to those
who support the Irish origin of the clan, only arrived in Scotland
from Ireland in 1262 and it is equally absurd and impossible to
maintain that a charter granted in 1230 could have been a reward
for services rendered or valour displayed at the battle of Largs,
which was fought in 1263, to say nothing of the now admittedly
impossible date and signatures written on the face of the document
itself; and Sir William Fraser having, by the logic of facts,
been forced to give up  that crucial point, should in consistency
have at the same time given up Colin Fitzgerald.  And in reality
he practically did so, for having stated that the later reputed
charters of 1360 and 1380 are not now known to exist, he adds, "But
the terms of them as quoted in the early histories of the family
are consistent with either theory of the origin of the Mackenzies,
whether descended from Colin Fitzgerald or Colin of the Aird."
In this he is quite correct; but it is impossible to say the same
thing  of the earlier charter, which all the authorities worth
listening to now admit to be a palpable forgery of the seventeenth
century; and Sir William virtually admits as much.

There is one other fact which alone would be almost conclusive
against the Fitzgerald theory.  Not a single man of the name Colin
is found, either among the chiefs or members of the clan from their
first appearance in history until we come to Colin cam Mackenzie
XI. of Kintail, who succeeded in June, 1568 - a period of three
hundred years after the alleged date of the reputed charter to
Colin Fitzgerald.  Colin Cam was a second son, his eldest brother,
Murdoch, having died during his father's life and before he attained
majority, when Colin became heir to the estates.  It was then, as
now, a common custom to name the second son after some prominent
member of his mother's family, and this was, no doubt, what was
done in the case of Colin Cam, the first Colin who  appears - as
late as the middle of the sixteenth century - in the genealogy of
the Mackenzies.  His mother was Lady Elizabeth Stewart, daughter of
John, Earl of Atholl, by Lady Mary Campbell, daughter of Archibald,
second, and sister of Colin, third Earl of Argyll.  Colin Cam
Mackenzie, XI. of Kintail, and the first of the name in the family
genealogy, was thus called Colin by his mother, Lady Elizabeth
Stewart, after her uncle Colin, third Earl of Argyll.

It scarcely needs to be pointed out how very improbable it is that,
had Colin Fitzgerald been really the progenitor of the Mackenzies,
his name would have been so completely ignored as a family name for
more than three hundred years in face of the invariable custom among
all other notable Highland houses of honouring their direct
ancestors by continuing their names as the leading names in the
family genealogy.

It is believed that no one who brings an independent, unprejudiced.
mind to bear upon the question discussed in the preceding pages can
help coming to the conclusion that the Colin Fitzgerald theory is
completely disposed of.  It is indeed extremely doubtful whether
such a  person ever existed, but in any case it has been conclusively
proved by the  evidence of those who claim him as their ancestor
that he never could have been what they allege - the progenitor
of the Mackenzies, whom all the best authorities now maintain to
be of purely native Celtic origin.  And if this be so, is it not
unpatriotic in the highest degree for the heads of our principal
Mackenzie families to persist in supplying Burke, Foster, and other
authors of Peerages, Baronet ages, and County Families, with the
details of an alien Irish origin like the impossible Fitzgerald myth
upon which they have, in entire error, been feeding their vanity
since its invention by the first Earl of Cromartie little more
than two hundred years ago.  For be it remembered that all these
Norman and Florentine pedigrees and descents are supplied to
the compilers of such genealogical works as those by members of
the respective families themselves, and that the editors are not
personally responsible for nor do they in any way guarantee their
accuracy.  It is really difficult to understand the feeling  that
has so long prompted most of our leading Highlanders to show such
an unnatural and unpatriotic preference for alien progenitors -
claiming the Norman enemies and conquerers of their country, or
mythical Irish adventurers, as ancestors to be proud of.  Writing of
the clans who claim this alien origin the late Dr W. F. Skene,
Historiographer Royal for Scotland, says -

"As the identity of the false aspect which the true tradition,
assumes in all these cases implies that the case was the same
all, we may assume that wherever these two circumstances are to be
found combined, of a clan claiming a foreign origin and asserting
a marriage with the  heiress of a Highland family whose estates
they possessed and whose followers they led, they must invariably
have been the oldest cadet of that family, who, by usurpation or
otherwise, had become de facto chief of the clan, and who covered
their defect by right of blood by denying their descent from the
clan, and asserting that the founder had married the heiress of
its chief." ['Highlands and Highlanders.']

In his later and more important work the same learned historian
discusses this question at great length.  He analyses all
the doubtful pedigrees and origins claimed by the leading clans.
Regarding the Fitzgerald theory he says, "But the most remarkable
of these spurious origins is that claimed by the Mackenzies.  It
appears to have been first put forward by Sir George Mackenzie,
first Earl of Cromarty," who, in his first manuscript, made Colin
a son of the Earl of Kildare, but in a later edition, written in
1669, "finding that there was no Earl of Kildare until 1290, he
corrects it by making him son of John Fitz-Thomas, chief of the
Geraldines in Ireland, and father of John, first Earl of Kildare,
who was slain in 1261."  Dr Skene then summarises the story already
known at length to the reader, quotes the Record of Icolmkill
and the forged charter, and concludes -

"The same mistake is here committed as is usual in manufacturing
these pedigree charters, by making it a crown charter erecting the
lands into a barony.  Kintail could not have been a barony at
that time, and the Earl of Ross and not the king was superior,
for in 1342 the Earl of Ross grants the ten davochs of the lands
of Kintail to Reginald, son of Roderick  of the Isles, and we
find that the Mackenzies held their lands of the Earls of Ross
and afterwards of the Duke of Ross till 1508, when they were all
erected into a barony by King James the Fourth, who gave them a
crown charter.  An examination of the witnesses usually detects
these spurious charters, and in this case it is conclusive against
the charter.  Andrew was  bishop of Moray from 1223 to 1242 and
there was no bishop of that name in the reign of Alexander the
Third.  Henry de Baliol was chamberlain in the reign of Alexander
the Second, and not of Alexander the Third.  Thomas Hostarius
belongs to the same reign, and has been succeeded by his son Alan
long before the date of this charter."

Dr Skene adds that if the Earl of Cromartie was not himself the
actual inventor of the whole story, it must have taken its rise not
very long  before his day, for, he says, "no trace of it is to be
found in the Irish MSS., the history of the Geraldine family knows
nothing of it, and MacVureach, who must have been acquainted with
the popular history of the western clans, was equally unacquainted
with it." ['Celtic Scotland,' Vol. III., pp.  351-354.]

This fully corroborates all that was said in the preceding pages
regarding the Fitzgerald-Irish origin of the Mackenzies and which
every intelligent clansman, however biassed, must now admit in his
inner consciousness to be fully and finally disposed of.  Having,
however, quoted Skene's earlier views on the general claim by
the Highland chiefs for alien progenitors it may be well to give
here his more mature conclusions from his later and greater work,
especially as some people, who have not taken the trouble to read
what he writes, have been saying that the great Celtic historian
had seen cause to change his views on these important points in
Highland genealogy since he wrote his 'Highlands and Highlanders'
in 1839.  After examining them all very closely and exhaustively
in a long and learned chapter of some forty pages, he says -

"The conclusion, then, to which this analysis of the clan pedigrees
which have been popularly accepted at different times has brought
us, is that, so far as they profess to show the origin of the
different clans, they are entirely artificial and untrustworthy,
but that the older genealogies may be accepted as showing the descent
of the clan from its eponymus or founder, and within reasonable
limits for some generations beyond him, while the later spurious
pedigrees must be rejected altogether.  It may seem surprising that
such spurious and fabulous origins should be so readily credited
by the clan families as genuine traditions, and receive such prompt
acceptance as the true fount from which they sprung; but we must
recollect that the fabulous history of Hector Boece was as rapidly
and universally adopted as the genuine annals of the national
history, and became rooted in those parts of the country to
which its fictitious events  related as local traditions." ['Celtic
Scotland,' Vol. III., p. 364.]

The final decision to which Dr Skene comes in his great work is
that the clans, properly so called, were of native origin, and that
the surnames adopted by them were partly of native and partly of
foreign descent.  Among these native Highland clans he unhesitatingly
classes the Mackenzies, the clan Gillie-Andres or Rosses, and the
Mathesons, all of whom belong, he says, to the tribe of Ross.  In
his first work on the  Highlands and Highland Clans he draws the
general deduction, based on all our existing MS. genealogies, that
the clans were divided into several great tribes, descended from
a common ancestor, but he at the same time makes a marked distinction
between the different tribes which, by indications traceable in
each, can be identified with the earldoms or maormorships into
which the North of Scotland was originally divided.  By the aid
of the old genealogies he divides the clans into five different
tribes in the following order:- (1) The descendants of Conn of the
Hundred Battles; (2) of Ferchar Fata Mac Feradaig; (3) of Cormaig
Mac Obertaig; (4) of Fergus Leith Dearg; and (5) of Krycul.  In
the third of these divisions he includes the old Earls of Ross,
the Mackenzies, the Mathesons, and several other clans, and to this
classification he adheres, after the most mature consideration,
in his later and greater work, the 'History of Celtic Scotland.'


THE  REAL  CELTIC  ORIGIN.


It is now most interesting to know who the ancient Earls of Ross,
from whom the Mackenzies are really descended, were.  The first of
these earls of whom we have any record is Malcolm Mac Heth to whom
Malcolm IV. gave Ross in 1157, with the title of Earl of Ross, but
the inhabitants rose against him and drove him out of the district.
Wyntoun  mentions an Earl "Gillandrys," a name which we believe
is derived from  the common ancestor of the Mackenzies and Rosses,
"Gilleoin-Ard-Rois," as one of the six Celtic earls who besieged
King Malcolm at Perth in 1160.  Skene is also of opinion that this
Gillandres represented the old Celtic earls of Ross, as the clan
bearing the name of Ross are called in Gaelic Clann Ghilleanrias,
or descendants of Gillandres, and may, he thinks, have led the
revolt which drove Malcolm Mac Heth out of the earldom.  The same
King, two years after the incident at Perth, gave the earldom of
Ross to Florence, Count of Holland, on that nobleman's marriage with
His Majesty's sister Ada, in 1162, but the new earl never  secured
practical possession ['Celtic Scotland,' Vol. III., pp. 66-67.]  He
is, however, found claiming it as late as 1179, in the reign of
William the Lion.

The district of Ross is often mentioned in the Norse Sagas along
with the other parts of the country then governed by Maormors or
Jarls, and Skene in his earlier work says that it was only on the
downfall of those of Moray that the chiefs of Ross appear prominent
in historical records, the Maormors of Moray being in such close
proximity to them  and so great in power and influence that the
less powerful Maormor of Ross held only a comparatively subordinate
position, and his name was in consequence seldom or never associated
with any of the great events of that early period in Highland
history.  It was only after the disappearance of those district
potentates  that  the chiefs appear under the appellation of
Comites or Earls. That most, if not all, of these earls were the
descendants of the ancient maormors there can be little doubt,
and the natural presumption in this instance is strengthened by
the fact that all the old authorities concur in asserting that
the Gaelic name of the original Earls of Ross was O'Beolan - a
corruption of Gilleoin, or Gillean, na h`Airde - or the descendants
of Beolan.  "And we  actually find," says the same authority, "from
the oldest Norse Saga connected with Scotland that a powerful chief
in the North of Scotland named O'Beolan, married the daughter of
Ganga Rolfe, or Rollo, the celebrated pirate who became afterwards
the celebrated Earl of Normandy."  If this view is well-founded
the ancestor of the Earls of Ross was chief in Kintail as early as
the beginning of the tenth century.  We have seen that the first
Earl of Ross recorded in history was Malcolm Mac Heth, to whom
a precept is found, directed by Malcolm IV., requesting him to
protect the monks of Dunfermline and defend them in  their lawful
privileges and possessions.  The document is not dated, but judging
from the names of the witnesses attesting it, the precept must have
been issued before 1162.  It will be remembered that Mac Heth was
one of  the six Celtic earls who besieged the King at Perth two
years before, in  1160.  William the Lion, who seems to have kept
the earldom in his own hands for several years, in 1179 marched
into the district at the head of his earls and barons, accompanied
by a large army, and subdued an insurrection fomented by the
local chiefs against his authority.  On this occasion he built two
castles within its bounds, one called Dunscath on the northern
Sutor at the entrance to the Cromarty Firth, and Redcastle in the
Black Isle.  In the same year we find Florence, Count of Holland,
complaining that he had been deprived of its nominal ownership
by King  William.  There is no trace of any other earl in actual
possession until we come to Ferquard or "Ferchair Mac an t' Sagairt,"
Farquhar the son of the Priest, who rose rapidly to power on the
ruins of the once powerful Mac Heth earls of Moray, of which line
Kenneth Mac Heth, who, with Donald  Ban, led a force into Moray
against Alexander II., son  of William the Lion, in 1215, was
the last.  Of this raid the following account is given in 'Celtic
Scotland,' Vol. I. p. 483:

"The young king had barely reigned a year when be had to  encounter
the old enemies of the Crown, the families of Mac William and
Mac Eth, who now combined their forces under Donald Ban, the son
of that Mac William who bad been slain at Mamgarvie in 1187, and
Kenneth Mac Eth, a son or grandson of Malcolm Mac Eth, with the son
of one of  the Irish provincial kings, and burst into the Province
of Moray at the head of a large band of malcontents.  A very
important auxiliary, however, now joined the party of the king.
This was Ferquhard or Fearchar Macintagart, the son of the 'Sagart'
or priest who was the lay possessor of the extensive possessions
of the old monastery founded by the Irish Saint Maelrubba at
Applecross in the seventh century.  Its possessions lay between the
district of Ross and the Western Sea and extended from Lochcarron
to Loch Ewe and Loch Maree, and Ferquhard was thus in reality a
powerful Highland chief commanding the population of an extensive
western region.  The insurgents were assailed by him with great
vigour, entirely crushed, and their leaders taken, who be at once
beheaded and presented their heads to the new king as a welcome
gift on the 15th of June, when he was knighted by the king as a
reward for his prompt assistance."

The district then known as North Argyle consisted chiefly of the
possessions of this ancient monastery of Appercrossan or Applecross.
Its inhabitants had hitherto - along with those of South Argyle,
which extended from Lochcarron to the Firth of Clyde - maintained
a kind of semi-independence, but in 1222 they were, by their
lay possessor, Ferchair  Mac an t'Sagairt, who was apparently the
grandson or great-grandson of Gillandres, one of the six earls
who besieged Malcolm IV. at Perth in 1160, brought into closer
connection with the crown.  The lay Abbots of which Ferquhard
was the head were the hereditary possessors of all the extensive
territories which had for centuries been ruled and owned by this
old and powerful Celtic monastery.  As a reward for his services
against the men of Moray in 1215 and for the great services which,
in 1222, he again rendered to the King in the subjugation of the
whole district then known as Argyle, extending from the Clyde to
Lochbroom, he received additional honours.  In that campaign known
as "the Conquest of Argyle," Ferquhard led most of the western
tribes, and for his prowess, the Celtic earldom, which was then finally
annexed to the Crown and made a feudal  appanage, was conferred on
him with the title of Earl of Ross, and he is so  designated in a
charter dated 1234.  He is again on record, under the same  title,
in 1235 and 1236.  Regarding an engagement which took place between
Alexander II. and the Gallowegians, in 1235, the Chronicle of
Melrose says, that "at the beginning of the battle the Earl of
Ross, called Macintagart, came up and attacked the enemies (of
the King) in the rear, and as soon as they perceived this they
took to flight and retreated into the woods and mountains, but they
were followed up by the Earl and several others, who put many of
them to the sword, and harassed them as long as daylight lasted."
In 'Celtic Scotland,' Vol. II, p.412, it is stated that the
hereditary lay priests of which he was the chief "according to
tradition, bore the name of O'Beollan"; and MacVuirich, in the Black
Book of Clanranald, says that from Ferquhard was descended
Gillapatrick the Red, son of Roderick, and known traditionally as the
Red Priest, whose daughter, at a later date, married and carried the
monastery lands of Lochalsh and Lochcarron to the Macdonalds of the
Isles.

In one of the Norse Sagas the progenitor of Ferquhard is designated
"King," just the same as the great Somerled and some of his
descendants had been called at a later date.  Referring to Helgi,
son of Ottar, the Landnamabok Saga records that "he made war upon
Scotland and carried off prisoner Nidbjorga, the daughter of King
Bjolan, and of Kadliner, daughter or Ganga Rolf," or Rollo, who,
as already stated, afterwards became the celebrated Earl of Normandy.
Writing of Alexander, third Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles,
Hugh Macdonald, the Sleat historian, says that -

"He was a man born to much trouble all his life time. First he
took to him the concubine daughter of Patrick Obeolan, surnamed
the Red, who was a very beautiful woman.  This surname Obeolan
was the surname of the Earls of Ross, till Farquhar, born in Ross,
was created earl by King Alexander, and so carried the name of
Ross since, as best answering the English tongue.  This Obeolan
had its descent of the ancient tribe of Manapii; of this tribe
is also St. Rice or Ruffus.  Patrick was an Abbot and had Carlebay
in the Lewis, and the Church lands in that country, with 18 mark
lands in Lochbroom.  He bad two sons and a daughter.  The sons
were called Normand and Austin More, so called from his excessive
strength and corpulency.  This Normand had daughters that were
great beauties, one of whom was married to Mackay of Strathnavern
one to Dugall MacRanald, Laird of Mudort; one to MacLeod of Assint;
one to MacDuffie; and another, the first, to Maclean of Bororay.
Patrick's daughter bore a son to Alexander, Lord of the Isles and
Earl of Ross, who was called Austin (Uisdean or Hugh) or as others
say, Augustine.  She was twice before the King, as Macdonald could
not be induced to part with her, on occasion of her great beauty.
The King said, that it was no wonder that such a fair damsel had
enticed Macdonald." ['Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis,' pp. 304-305.]

It is not intended here to discuss whether Hugh of Sleat and his
elder brother Celestine of Lochalsh were illegitimate or not.
They were so  called by their father, Earl Alexander, and by their
brother, Earl John.  The  first describes Celestine as "filius
naturalis" in a charter preserved in the Mackintosh charter
chest, dated 1447, and Earl John calls his brother Austin or Hugh
"frater carnalis" in two charters, dated respectively 1463 and
1470.  This goes far to corroborate the Sleat historian, who was not
the least likely to introduce illegitimacy into his own favourite
family unless the charge was really true.  It is instructive to
find that Celestine succeeded to all the lands of the monastery
of Applecross in Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and Lochbroom.  These lay
abbots are also said to have held, under the old Earls of Ross,
the Sleat district of the Isle of Skye, which Hugh, first of that
family, is alleged to have inherited  through his mother, daughter
of the Red Priest and a descendant of Farquhar Mac an t'Sagairt, Earl
of Ross.  It will be observed also that Austin, Uisdean, or Hugh,
a common name among the Applecross and old Earl of Ross dynasty,
comes into the Macdonald family for the first time at this period,
after Earl Alexander of the Macdonald line had formed a union with
the daughter of the last lay Abbot of Applecross.  Skene distinctly
affirms that Hugh Macdonald of Sleat was the son of Earl Alexander
by a daughter of this Gille-Padruig ('Celtic Scotland,' Vol. III. p.
298) while Gregory suggests that the words naturalis and carnalis
used by Hugh's father and brother in  the charters already quoted
"were used to designate the issue of those handfast or left-handed
marriages which appear to have been so common in the Highlands
and Isles." ['Western Highlands and Isles,' p.41]  Whether the Sleat
district of Skye was or was not carried for the first time to the
Macdonald Earls of Ross and Lords of the Isles by this union with
a member of the family of the original O'Beolan Earls, it is
perfectly clear that the latter had an intimate connection with
the Sleat district at a much earlier period.

Saint Maelrubba, who is first heard of in Britain in 671, two years
later, in 673, founded the original Church of Applecross "from
which as a centre he evangelised the whole of the western districts
lying between Loch Carron and Loch Broom, as well as the south and
west parts of the  Island of Skye, and planted churches in Easter
Ross and elsewhere."  ['Celtic Scotland,' Vol. II. p. 166.]  It is
at least interesting to find these lands going to and afterwards
remaining in possession of the two sons of Earl Alexander who are
said to have been illegitimate, when all their other enormous
possessions were in 1493 finally forfeited to the Crown.  Hugh,
who possessed Sleat during the life of his father and brother,
receives a Crown charter of these lands under the Great Seal two
years after, in 1495, although his brother John, fourth and last
Lord of the Isles, was still alive, his death not having occurred
until 1498, three years later.

Sir Robert Gordon ('Earldom  of Scotland,' p. 36) shows that the
Rosses were originally designated O'Beolan and Gillanders
indiscriminately, according to the writer's or speaker's fancy.
He says that -

"From the second son of the Earl of Ross the lairds of Balnagowan
are descended, and had by inheritance the lands of Rariechies and
Coulleigh, where you may observe that the laird of Balnagowan's
surname should not be Ross, seeing that there was never any Earl
of Ross of that  surname; but the Earls of Ross were first of the
surname of Beolan, then they were Leslies, and last of all that
earldom fell by inheritance to the Lords of the Isles, who resigned
the same unto king James the Third's bands, in the year of God
1477.  So I do think that the lairds of Balnagowan, perceiving the
Earls of Ross decayed, and that earldom, fallen into the Lords of
the Isles' hands, they called themselves Ross thereby to testify
their descent from the Earls of Ross.  Besides, all the Rosses in that
province are Unto this day called in the Irish (Gaelic) language
Clan Leandries, which race by their own tradition is sprung from
another stock."

In the same work, p. 46, we find that the Earls of Ross were called
O'Beolans as late as 1333, for Sir Robert informs us, writing of
the battle of Halidon Hill, that "in this field was Hugh Beolan,
Earl of Ross, slain."

It is established to the satisfaction of all reasonable men that
the Applecross and O'Beolan Earls of Ross were one and the same,
and that they were descended from Gilleoin na h' Airde, corrupted
in the Norse Sagas into "Beolan," the general designation by which
they were known, until Earl William, the last of his line, died
without surviving male issue on the 9th of February, 1372, when the
title devolved upon his daughter, Euphemia, Countess of Ross in her
own right, whose daughter, Mary, or Margaret, by Sir Walter Leslie,
carried the earldom to Donald of Harlaw, second Lord of the Isles.
That the O'Beolan Earls of Ross, of whom Ferquhard Mac an t'Sagairt
was the first, descended from the same ancestor, Gilleoin na h' Airde,
as the older "Gillandres" earl of 1160, is equally certain.  Earl
Gillandres as probably forfeited for the part he took against
Malcolm IV. on that occasion, and Ferquhard having rendered such
important services to Alexander II. was restored probably quite as
much in virtue of his ancient rights as the grandson of Ferquhard as
on account of his valiant conduct in support of the crown in Moray,
in Argyle, and in Galloway, in 1215, 1222, and 1235.

The surname Ross has in early times been invariably rendered in
Gaelic as Gilleanrias, or Gillanders, and the Rosses appear under
this appellation in all the early Acts of Parliament.  There is
also an unvarying tradition that on the death of the last Earl of
the O'Beolan line a certain Paul Mac Tire was for some years head
of the Rosses, and this tradition is corroborated by the fact
that there is a charter on record by Earl William of the lands of
Gairloch in 1366 in favour of Paul Mac Tire and his heirs by Mary
Graham, in which the Earl styles Mac Tire his cousin.  This grant
was confirmed by King Robert II. in 1372.  In the manuscript of
1467 the genealogy of Clann Gille-Anrias, or the descendants of
Gillean-Ard-Rois, begins with a Paul Mac Tire.  The clan whose
genealogy is there given is undoubtedly that of the Rosses, and
in the manuscript they are traced upwards from Paul MacTire in a
direct line to Gilleon na h'Airde, the "Beolan" of the Norse Sagas,
who lived in the tenth century, and who will be shown to be also
the remote progenitor of the Mackenzies.  The Aird referred to is
said to be the Aird of Ross.

In the manuscript of 1467 the name Gille-Anrias appears
in the genealogies of both the Mackenzies and the Rosses exactly
contemporaneous with the generation which preceded the original
grant to "Ferchair Mac an t'Sagairt" of the Earldom of Ross.  The
name Gille-Anrias has been rendered as the Gaelic equivalent for
Servant of Andrew, or St. Andrew, and that, according to Skene,
would seem to indicate that the first of that name, if not a priest
himself, must have belonged to the priestly house of Appercrossan
or Applecross, of which Earl Farquhar ultimately became the head.
The dates exactly correspond; and when, in addition to this, it
is remembered that of the earls who besieged Malcolm IV. at Perth
in 1160 one was named "Gillandres" it seems fully established that
Ferchard Mac an t'Sagairt was descended from the original earls
and that he was entitled to the earldom by ancient right on the
failure or forfeiture of the direct representative of the old line,
as well as by a new creation.  Although there may have been one
or two usurpers - a common event in those turbulent times - Ferquhard
was undoubtedly a near relative and the legitimate successor
of the Celtic "Gillandres" earl of 1160.  He is described in the
'Chronicle of Melrose' as "Comes Rossensis Machentagard," and in
Dalrymple's Annals of Scotland as "Mc Kentagar," a designation
which the author describes in a footnote as "an unintelligible
word," though its meaning is perfectly plain to every Gaelic-speaking
Celt.

Ferquhard founded the Abbey of Fearn, in Easter Ross, about 1230,
and died there in 1251.

Referring to his position during the first half of the thirteenth
century even the Earl of Cromartie is forced to admit in his MS., a
copy of which we possess, that "it cannot be disputed that the Earl
of Ross was the Lord paramount under Alexander II., by whom Farquhard
Mac an t'Sagairt was recognised in the hereditary dignity of his
predecessors, and who, by another tradition, was a real progenitor of
the noble family of  Kintail."  And this was said and written by an
author, who, in another part of the same manuscript, stoutly maintains
that the king granted these identical lands to Colin Fitzgerald by a
charter which, if it was ever signed at all, must have been signed a
full generation before the date which the forged document bears -
thirty years after the witnesses whose names attest it had gone to
their last home.


THE  O'BEOLAN  EARLS  OF  ROSS.


It must now be most interesting to every member of the Clan Mackenzie
to know who these O'Beolan Earls of Ross were and all that can
be ascertained regarding themselves and their family alliances.
Leaving out Earl Gillanders, of whom so little is known, let us begin
with

I.  FERQUHARD,  OR  FARQUHAR  O'BEOLAN, "Mac an t'Sagairt,"
who, as already stated, founded the Abbey of Fearn, and died there
in 1251.  By his wife, whose name has not come down to us, he had
issue, at least,

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Malcolm, of whose life nothing is known.

3.  Euphemia, who married Walter de Moravia, Lord of Duffus from
1224 to 1262.

4.  Christina, who married Olave the Red, King of Man, with issue.

Farquhar was succeeded by his eldest son,

II. WILLIAM  O'BEOLAN,  EARL  OF  ROSS.  He obtained Skye and
Lewis from Alexander III. and died at Earles Allane in 1274.  He
married Joan daughter of the first Red Comyn, who died in 1273,
and sister of John, the Black Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Earl
of Buchan, who married Marjory, sister of King John Baliol, with
issue - the Red Comyn, who was killed by Robert the Bruce in the
Church of Dumfries in 1306.  Another sister of the Countess of
Ross was married to John Macdougall, Lord of Lorn, on record in 1251,
usually styled "King Eoin or Ewin."  By his wife Earl William
had issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Dorothea, who married her cousin, Torquil Macleod II. of Lewis,
with issue.

He was succeeded by his only son,

III.  WILLIAM  O'BEOLAN,  EARL OF  ROSS,  who fought  alternately
with Edward I. and Robert the Bruce, and was imprisoned in London
1296-97.  In 1306 he delivered up to the English King, Robert
Bruce's Queen, Isabella, his daughter Marjory, his sister Mary,
the brave Countess of Buchan, and other ladies of distinction, who
bad for a time found shelter and protection in the Sanctuary of
St. Duthus, at Tain, from the English oppressors of their country.
In 1309 he obtained a new grant of his lands.  By his wife, one of
the Grahams of Montrose, he had issue -

1.  Hugh, his heir and successor.

2.  Sir John, who married his second cousin, Margaret, daughter of
Alexander, Earl of Buchan.

3.  Isabella, who married Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick, brother
of King Robert the Bruce.

4.  A daughter who, as her second husband, married Malise, Earl  of
Stratherne, with issue - four daughters, the eldest of whom married
William St. Clair, Baron of Roslin, whose son Henry afterwards
succeeded in right of his mother to the earldom of Stratherne.

He died at Delny, in Easter Ross, in 1323, and was succeeded by
his eldest son, IV.  HUGH  O'BEOLAN,  EARL  OF  ROSS.  He received
charters, of Strathglass and of the Isle of Skye.  He married first,
in 1308, Maud or Matilda, sister of King Robert the Bruce, with
issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Hugh Ross of Rarichies, from whom the Old Rosses of Balnagown,
of whom the last representative in the male line was the late
George Ross of Pitcalnie.  This Hugh obtained the lands of Philorth
in Aberdeen-shire, and between 1362 and 1372 he exchanged them with
his brother, Earl Hugh, for the lands of North Argyle, including
the Castle of  Ellandonnan.  The territories exchanged included
Strathglass, Kintail, and other lands in Wester Ross.

3.  Janet, who married, first, Monimusk of Monimusk and, secondly,
Sir Alexander Murray of Abercairny.

4.  Euphemia or Eupham, who married, first, Randolph, Earl of  Moray,
who was killed at the battle of Durham, and secondly, her cousin,
King Robert II., grandson of Robert the Bruce and first of the
Stuart dynasty.  This marriage being within the prohibited degrees
of consanguinity a special dispensation was obtained from Pope
Innocent VI. for its celebration in 1355.  She died in 1372.

Earl Hugh married, secondly, also by dispensation from the Pope,
in 1329, Margaret, daughter of Sir David de Graham.

The Earl was killed at the battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, when he
was succeeded by his eldest son, V.  WILLIAM  O'BEOLAN,  EARL  OF
ROSS  AND  LORD  OF  SKYE, banished to Norway for some serious
offence, but in 1336 he is  found in actual possession of the
earldom.  He was afterwards Justiciar of Scotland, and in a charter
of 1374 he is designated "frater Regis," or the  King's brother, no
doubt from the fact that his sister Euphemla was the wife of
Robert II.  He rebuilt the Abbey of Fearn, and married his cousin
Isobel, daughter of Malise, Earl of Stratherne, Orkney, and
Caithness, with issue -

1.  William, who died before his father

2.  Euphemia, who became Countess of Ross in her own right on the
death of her father.

3.  Johanna, who, in 1375, married Sir Alexander Fraser, Lord of
Cowie and Durris, ancestor of the Frasers of Philorth and Pitsligo,
now represented by Lord Saltoun.  Johanna first carried the lands
of Philorth to that family.  She has a charter in 1370.

William died on the 9th of February, 1372, without surviving male
issue, when he was succeeded by his eldest daughter,

VI.  EUPHEMIA  O'BEOLAN,  COUNTESS  OF  ROSS in her own right.
She married first, by dispensation, dated 1367, Sir Walter Leslie,
son of Sir Andrew Leslie, who in right of his wife became Earl of
Ross.  They have a charter of the earldom of Ross and of the lands
of Skye dated 1370, two years before Earl William's death, in their
own favour and that of their heirs male and female in reversion.
Her first husband predeceased her in 1382, whereupon she married,
secondly, Alexander, Earl of Buchan, better known in history as
"The Wolf of Badenoch."  He died, without issue, in 1394.  She died
Abbess of Elcho in 1398, and was buried in Fortrose Cathredral.  By
Sir Walter Leslie she had issue -

1.  Sir Alexander Leslie, who became Earl of Ross in right of his
mother.

2.  Margaret Leslie, who married Donald, second Lord of the Isles,
who in her right, after fighting the battle of Harlaw, succeeded to
the earldom of Ross, and carried it to a new family, the Macdonald
Lords of the isles.

When the Countess Euphemia died, in 1398, she was succeeded by
her only son,

VII.  SIR  ALEXANDER  LESLIE,  EARL  OF  ROSS, who married Isabella,
daughter of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Governor of Scotland,
and by her had issue an only daughter, Lady Euphemia, or Mary, who
became a nun, and resigned the earldom in favour of her maternal
uncle, John, Earl of Buchan.  Donald, Lord of the Isles, who married
her father's sister, Margaret, disputed Euphemia's right to put the
earldom past her aunt, and the battle of Harlaw was fought in 1411
to decide the issue, which, as already stated, turned, so far as the
possession of the great earldom was concerned, in favour of the Lord
of the Isles, since known as Donald of Harlaw.  From this point the
history of the earldom falls properly to be dealt with and is given
at length in 'The History of the Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles.'
But thus far it cannot fail to be extremely interesting to all the
members of the clan Mackenzie, whether they believe in the
Gillanders and O'Beolans or in the Fitzgeralds as the progenitors of
the race; for in any case the clan was in its earlier annals closely
allied with the O'Beolan Earls of Ross by descent and marriage.

It has been established that Gillanders and O'Beolan were the  names
of the ancient and original Earls of Ross, and they continued to be
represented in the male line by the Old Rosses of Balnagowan down
to the end of the eighteenth century, when the last heir male of
that family, finding that the entail ended with himself, sold the
estates to General Ross, brother of Lord Ross of Hawkhead, who,
although possessing the same name, was of a different family
and origin.  It will, it is believed, be now admitted with equal
certainty that the Rosses and the Mackenzies are descended from
the same progenitor, Beolan or Gilleoin na h'Airde, the undoubted
common ancestor of the old Earls of Ross, the Gillanders, and the
Rosses.  The various steps in the earliest portion of the genealogy
connecting the Mackenzies with the common ancestor will be given
with the same detail as that of the Rosses, and it will be stated
with sufficient accuracy to justify the conclusions at which, in
common with Dr Skene and all the best authorities on the subject,
we have arrived.  The genealogy of the Clan Andres or Rosses in
the manuscript of 1467, is as follows:

"Pol ic Tire, ic Eogan, ic Muiredaigh, ic Poil, ic Gilleanrias,
ic Martain, ic Poil, ic Cainig, ic Cranin, ic Eogan, ic Cainic,
ic Cranin, McGilleoin na h'Airde, ic Eirc, ic Loirn, ic Fearchar,
Mc Cormac, ic Abertaig, ic Feradaig."

Dr Skene's translation -

"Paul son of Tire, son of Ewen, son of Murdoch, son of Paul, son
of Gillanrias, son of Martin, son of Paul, son of Kenneth, son of
Crinan, son of Ewen, son of Kenneth, son of Crinan, son of Gilleoin
of the Aird, son of Erc, son of Lorn, son of Ferchar, son of
Cormac, son of Oirbeirtaigh, son of Feradach."

The Mackenzie genealogy in the same MS. is -

"Muiread ic Cainig, Mc Eoin, ic Cainig, ic Aengusa, ic Cristin,
ic Agam, Mc Gilleoin Qig, ic Gilleon na h'Aird."

Skene's translation follows -

"Murdoch son of Kenneth, son of John, son of Kenneth, son of  Angus,
son of Cristin, son of Adam, son of Gilleoin Og, son of Gilleoin
of the Aird."

Skene makes an important correction on this genealogy in his
later work, 'Celtic Scotland,' Vol. III., p. 485, by substituting
Cainig - Kenneth, for Agam - Adam, in his original reading.  In
this form the genealogy of 1467 corresponds exactly, so far as it
goes, with that given by MacVuirich in the Black Book of Clanranald.
In 1222 "Gilchrist filius Kinedi," Gillecriosd son of Kenneth, is
on record as a follower of MacWilliam.   Cristean is the ordinary
Gaelic form of Christopher, otherwise Gilchrist, or Gillecriosd.
There is thus no doubt that the "Cristin" of the Gaelic genealogy
is the same name as Gillecriosd, Gilchrist, and Christopher.

In the MacVuirich manuscript, however, several names are given
between Gilleoin Og and Gilleoin na h'Airde which are absent from
the manuscript  of 1467; for while we have thirteen generations in
the Clan Anrias or Ross genealogy in the latter between Paul Mac
Tire and Gilleoin of the Aird, we have only eight in the Mackenzie
genealogy between Murdoch of the Cave, who was contemporary with
Mac Tire, and their common ancestor Gilleoin of the Aird, or
Beolan.  In the MacVuirich manuscript there are fifteen generations,
translated thus -

"Murdoch son of Kenneth, son of John, son of Kenneth, son of Angus
'crom,' or the hump-backed, son of Kenneth, son of Gilleoin Og,
son of Gilleoin Mor, or the Great, son of Murdoch, son of Duncan,
son of  Murdoch, son of Duncan, son of Murdoch, son of Kenneth,
son of Cristin,  or Christopher, son of Gilleoin of the Aird."

The genealogies of the three families as brought out by these
manuscripts, are shown in the following table:--



                                GILLEOIN OF THE AIRD.
                                         |
          +------------------------------+------------------+
          |CLAN ANRIAS.                  |    MACKENZIES.   |
          +------------------------------+------------------+
          |  Crinan                      |   Cristin        |
          |  Kenneth                     |   Kenneth        |
          |  Ewen                        |   Murdoch        |
          |  Crinan                      |   Duncan         |
          |  Kenneth                     |   Murdoch        |
          |  Paul                        |   Duncan         |
          |  Martin                      |   Murdoch        |
          |  Gillanrias                  |   Gilleoin Mor   |
          +---------|--------------------|   Gilleoin Og    |
                    |                    |   Kenneth        |
+-------------------+------------------+ |   Angus Crom     |
| EARLS OF ROSS     |     ROSSES	   | |   Kenneth        |
+-------------------+------------------+ |   John           |
| The Priest-"An    |  Paul            | |   Kenneth        |
| Sagart"           |  Murdoch         | |   Murdoch of the |
| I. Ferquhard "Mac |  Ewen            | |   Cave who died  |
| an t'Sagairt"     |  Tire            | |   in 1375        |
| II. William       |  Paul Mac Tire   | +------------------+
| III. William      |  who has a       |
| IV. Hugh          |  charter of the  |
| V.  William who   |  lands of        |
| died in 1372      |  Garloch from    |
|                   |  the Earl of     |
|                   |  Ross in 1366,   |
|                   |  confirmed in    |
|                   |  1372.           |
+-------------------+------------------+

There would seem to be no doubt that "Tire" or Tyre, stands here
and elsewhere for "An t'Oighre," or the Heir, and Paul "Mac Tire"
for Pol " Mac-an-Oighre," or Son of the Heir.  It will be observed
that Colin does not appear once in these early genealogies, and it
has been already pointed out that no trace of it is found anywhere
as a family name until the middle of the sixteenth century, when
it was introduced by the marriage of one of  the Mackenzie chiefs
to a daughter of the Earl of Atholl, whose mother  was Lady Mary
Campbell, and who, calling her second son after her own uncle
Colin, third Earl of Argyll, for the first time brought that name
into the family genealogy of Kintail.

It will also be seen as we proceed, although the Earls of Ross were
superiors of the lands of Kintail as part of the earldom, and that
it was therefore impossible that Colin Fitzgerald or any other person
than those earls could have had a gift of it from the Crown, that
the Mackenzies occupied the lands and the castle, not as immediate
vassals; of the King, but of their own near relatives, the O'Beolan
Earls of Ross and their successors, for at least two hundred years
before the Mackenzies received a grant of it for themselves direct
from the Crown.  This is proved beyond dispute by genuine historical
documents.  Until within a few years of the final forfeiture of
the Lords of the Isles in 1476, the Mackenzies undoubtedly held
their lands, first from the O'Beolan Earls and subsequently from
the Island Lords as Earls of Ross; for the first direct Crown
charter to any chief of Kintail of which we have authentic record,
is one dated the 7th of January, 1463, in favour of Alexander
"Ionraic," the sixth Baron.

To show the intimate relations which existed between the original
Earls of Ross and the ancestor of the Mackenzies, a quotation
may be given from a manuscript history of the clan written by Dr
George Mackenzie, nephew of Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth,
in the seventeenth century.  Although he is a supporter of the
Fitzgerald origin, he is forced to say that, "at the same time
(1267) William, Earl of Ross, laying a claim of superiority over
the Western Isles, thought this a fit opportunity to seize the
Castle of Ellandonnan.  He sent a messenger to his  Kintail men to
send their young chieftain to him as being his nearest kinsman by
marriage with his aunt."  He then goes on to say, that Kenneth,
not Colin, was joined by the MacIvers, Macaulays, MacBeolans, and
Clan Tarlichs, "the ancient inhabitants of Kintail," and refused to
surrender, when "the Earl of Ross attacked them and was beaten."
Had there been no previous kinship between the two families - and
no one will  now attempt with any show of reason to maintain
that there was not - this marriage of William, the second Earl, to
Kenneth's aunt would have made the youthful Kenneth, ancestor of
the Mackenzies, first cousin, on the  maternal side, to William
O'Beolan, the third Earl of that line, whose wife and therefore
Kintail's aunt, was Joan, sister of John, the Black Comyn, Lord
of Badenoch.  It has further been proved to a demonstration, and
it is now admitted by all the best authorities, that the O'Beolan
Earls of Ross were descended from Gilleoin na h' Airde; and so are
the Mackenzies, who from the first formed an integral and most
important part of the ancient powerful native Gaelic tribes of
which the Earls of Ross were the chiefs.

It has been shown that Kenneth, from whom the Mackenzies  take
their name, was closely allied by marriage with William, second
Earl of Ross, the latter having married Kenneth's maternal aunt.
This fact by itself would be sufficient to establish the high
position, which even at that early period, was occupied by Kenneth,
who was already very closely connected with the O'Beolan Earls of
Ross by blood and marriage.

Kenneth himself married Morna or Morba, daughter of Alexander
Macdougall, styled, "De Ergedia," Lord of Lorn by a daughter
of John, the first Red Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, who died in 1273.
Kenneth's wife was thus a sister of John, the Black Comyn, who
died about 1299, having married Marjory, daughter of John Baliol,
by whom he had John, the  second Red Comyn, one of the competitors
for the Scottish Crown, killed by Robert the Bruce in the Church
of Dumfries in 1306. Kenneth's issue by Morna or Morba of Lorn was
John Mackenzie, II. of Kintail, who was thus, through his mother,
third In descent from John, the first Red Comyn, who died in 1273,
and sixth from the great Somerled of the Isles, Thane of Argyle,
progenitor of the Macdougalls of Lorn and of all the Macdonalds,
who died in 1164.

John made even a more illustrious alliance than his father, by
which at that early date he introduced the Royal blood of Scotland
and England into the family of Kintail.  He married his relative,
Margaret, sister of David, twelfth Earl of Atholl, slain in 1335,
and daughter of David, the eleventh Earl, who died in 1327 (whose
estates were forfeited by Edward I.), by Joan Comyn (died 1323),
daughter of the Red Comyn killed by Robert the Bruce, and great
granddaughter of John Baliol.  Margaret's father, David, eleventh
Earl of Atholl who died in 1327, was the oldest son of John de
Strathbogie, tenth Earl, hanged by Edward I.  Earl John's mother
was the Countess Isabel de Dover, who died at a very old age in
1292, daughter of Richard Fitzroy de Chillam (died 1216), a natural
son of King John of England.

Kenneth Mackenzie, III. of Kintail, the issue of this marriage, was
sixth in descent from John Baliol of the Royal line of Scotland
and sixth from King John of England.

The Norwegian blood of the Kings of Man was brought into the family
by the marriage of this Kenneth to Finguala, daughter of Torquil
Macleod, I. of Lewis, who was the grandson of Olave the Black,
Norwegian King of Man, who died about 1237, by his wife Christina,
daughter of Ferquhard "Mac an t'Sagairt," first O'Beolan Earl of
Ross.

The Royal blood of the Bruce was introduced by the marriage of
Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Kintail, to Finguala, daughter of Malcolm
Macleod, III. of Harris  (who has a charter in  1343), by Martha,
daughter of David, twelfth Earl of Mar, son of Gratney, eleventh
Earl (whose sister Isabel married Robert the Bruce) by his wife
Christina, daughter of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and sister
of King Robert the Bruce.

The Plantaganet blood-royal of England was introduced later by the
marriage of Kenneth Mackenzie, X. of Kintail, to Lady Elizabeth
Stewart, daughter of John, second Earl of Atholl, fourth in descent
from  John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, son of Edward III., and
father of Henry IV. of England, and this strain was strengthened and
continued by the marriage of Kenneth's son, Colin Cam Mackenzie,
XI. of Kintail, to his cousin Barbara, daughter of John Grant of
Grant by Lady Marjory Stewart, daughter of John, third Earl of
Atholl.  It scarcely needs to be pointed out that, through these
inter-marriages, the Mackenzies are also descended from the
ancient Celtic MacAlpine line of Scottish Kings, from the original
Anglo-Saxon Kings of England, and from the oldest Scandinavian,
Charlemagne, and Capetian lines, as far back as the beginning of
the ninth century.

The origin of the O'Beolan Earls of Ross and the Mackenzies from
the same source is strikingly illustrated by their inter-marriages
into the same families and with each other's kindred.  Both the
O'Beolans and the Mackenzies made alliances with the Comyns of
Badenoch, with the MacDougalls of Lorn, and subsequently with the
Macleods of Lewis and Harris, thus forming a network of cousinship
which ultimately included all the leading families in the Highlands,
every one of which, through these alliances, have the Royal blood
of all the English, Scottish, and Scandinavian Kings, and many of
the earlier foreign monarchs, coursing in their veins.

Surely this is a sufficiently ancient and illustrious origin and
much more satisfactory to every patriotic clansman than an Irish
adventurer like the reputed Colin Fitzgerald, who, if he ever
existed, had not and never could have had any connection with the
real origin of the Mackenzies, which was as purely native of the
Highlands as it was possible for any Scoto-Celtic family in those
days to be.  The various genealogical steps and marriage alliances
already referred to will be confirmed in each individual case as
we proceed with the succession and history of the  respective chiefs
of the family, beginning with the first of the line,


I.  KENNETH,  OR  COINNEACH,


Who gave his name to the clan.  His is the fourth ascending name
in the manuscript genealogy of 1467, which begins with Murdoch
of the Cave.  Murdoch died in 1375, and was thus almost
contemporaneous with the author of the Gaelic genealogy, which,
translated, proceeds up to this  Kenneth as follows: Murdoch, son
of Kenneth, son of John, son of Kenneth, and so on, as already
given at page 39 to Gilleoin of the Aird.

At this interesting stage it may be well to explain how the name
Mackenzie came to be pronounced and written as it now is.  John,
the son  of this Kenneth, would be called in the original native
Gaelic, "Ian Mac  Choinnich," John, son of Kenneth.  In that form
it was unpronounceable to those unacquainted with the native tongue.
The nearest approach the foreigner could get to its correct
enunciation would be Mac Coinni or Mac Kenny, which ultimately came
to be spelt Mac Kenzie, Z in those days having exactly the same
value and sound as the letter V; and the name, although spelt
with a Z instead of a Y would be pronounced Mac Kenny, as indeed
we pronounce in our own day, in Scotland, such names as Menzies,
Macfadzean, and several others, as if they were still written with
the letter Y.  The two letters being thus of the same value, after
a time came to be used indiscriminately in the word Kenny or
Kenzie, and the letter z having subsequently acquired a different
value and sound of its own, more allied to the letter S than to the
original Y, the name is pronounced as if it were written Mackensie.

Kenneth was the son and heir of Angus, the direct representative
of a long line of ancestors up to Gilleoin na li'Airde, the common
progenitor of the O'Beolan Earls of Ross, the Clann Ghille-Andrais,
who about the end of the fourteenth century called themselves
Rosses, and of the Mackenzies.  The close connection by blood and
marriage between the O'Beolan Earls of Ross and Kenneth's family
before and after this period has been already shown, but the ancient
ties of friendship had at this time become somewhat strained.
Kenneth succeeded to the government of Ellandonnan Castle, which
was garrisoned by his friends and supporters, the Macraes and the
Maclennans, who, even at that early date in large numbers occupied
Kintail.  Kenneth, in fact, was Governor of the Castle, and was
otherwise becoming so powerful that his superior, the Earl, was
getting very jealous of him.

At this time the first Earl William laid claim to the superiority
of the Western Isles, which he and his father, Ferchair
Mac an t'Sagairt; were chiefly instrumental, among the followers
of Alexander III., in  wresting from the Norwegians, and he was
naturally desirous to have the government of Ellandonnan Castle
in his own hands, or under the charge  of some one less ambitious
than Kenneth, and on whom he could implicitly rely.  Kenneth
was advancing rapidly both in power and influence among his more
immediate neighbours, who were mainly composed of the ancient
inhabitants of the district, the Mac Beolains, who occupied
Glenshiel and the south side of Loch Duich as far as Kylerhea; the
Mac Ivors, who inhabited Glen Lichd, the Cro of Kintail, and the
north side of Loch Duich; while the Mac Tearlichs, now calling
themselves Mac Erlichs or Charlesons, occupied Glenelchaig.
These aboriginal natives naturally supported Kenneth, who was one
of themselves, against the claims of his superior, the Earl, who
though a pure Highland Celt was less known in Kintail than the
Governor of the Castle.  This only made the Earl more determined
than ever to obtain possession of the stronghold, and he peremptorily
requested the garrison to surrender it and Kenneth to him at once.
The demand was promptly refused; and finding that the Governor
was resolved to hold it at all hazards the Earl sent a strong
detachment to take it by storm.

Kenneth was readily joined by the surrounding tribes, among whom
were, along with those whose names have been already given, the
brave Macaulays of Lochbroom, who were distantly related to him.
By  the aid of these reinforcements Kenneth was able to withstand
a desperate and gallant onset by the Earl and his followers, who
were defeated and  driven back with great slaughter.  This
exasperated the enemy so much that he soon after returned to the
charge with a largely increased force, at the  same time threatening
the young governor with the utmost vengeance and final extirpation
unless he immediately capitulated.  But before the Earl was able to
carry his threats into execution, be was overtaken by a severe
illness of which he very soon after died, in 1274.  His son, the
second Earl William, did not persevere in his father's policy
against Kintail, and it was not long before his attention was
diverted into another channel.  On the death of Alexander III., in
1286, the affairs of the nation became confused and distracted.
This was rather an advantage to Kenneth than otherwise, for, in the
general disorder which followed he was able to strengthen his
position among the surrounding tribes.  Through a combination
of native prudence, personal popularity, and a growing power and
influence heightened by the eclat of his having so recently defeated
the powerful Earl of Ross, he succeeded in maintaining good order
in his own district, while his increasing influence was felt over
most of the Western Isles.

Kenneth married Morna or Morba, daughter of Alexander Macdougall
of Lorn, "de Ergedia," by a daughter of John the first Red Comyn,
and sister of John the Black Comyn, Earl of Badenoch.  He died
in 1304 and was buried in Icolmkill, when he was succeeded by his
only son,


II.  JOHN  MAC  KENNETH,  OR  MAC  KENZIE,


The first of the race called Mac Kenny or Mac Kenzie.  Dr George
Mackenzie, already quoted, says that "the name Coinneach is common
to the Pictish and Scottish Gael," and that "Mackenzie, Baron of
Kintail, attached himself to the fortunes of the heroic Robert the
Bruce, notwithstanding MacDougall's (his father-in-law) tenacious
adherence to the cause of Baliol, as is believed, in resentment
for the murder of his cousin, the Red Comyn, at Dumfries"; while
the Earl of Cromartie says that he "not only sided with Robert
Bruce in his contest with the Cumins but that he was one of those
who sheltered him in his lurking and assisted him in his restitution;
'for in the Isles,' says Boethius 'he had supply from  a friend;
and yet Donald of the Isles, who then commanded them, was on  the
Cumin's side, and raised the Isles to their assistance, and was
beat at  Deer by Edward Bruce, anno  1308.'"  All this is indeed
highly probable.

After Bruce left the Island of Rachrin he was for a considerable
time lost sight of, many believing that he had perished during his
wanderings, from the great hardships which he necessarily endured
in his ultimately successful attempts to escape the vigilant
efforts and search of his enemies.  That Bruce found shelter in
Ellandonnan Castle and was there protected for a considerable time
by the Baron of Kintail - until he found opportunity again to take
the field against his enemies - has ever since been the unbroken
tradition in the Highlands, and it has always been handed down
from one generation to another as a proud incident in the history
of the clan.  The Laird of Applecross, who wrote his manuscript
history of the Mackenzies in 1669, follows the earlier family
historians.  He says that this Baron of Kintail "did own the
other party, and was one of those who sheltered the Bruce, and
assisted in his recovery.  I shall not say he was the only one,
but this stands for that assertion that all who were considerable
in the Hills and Isles were enemies to the Bruce, and so cannot be
presumed to be his friends.  The Earl of Ross did most unhandsomely
and unhumanly apprehend his lady at Tain and delivered her to the
English, anno 1305.  Donald of the Isles, or Rotholl, or rather
Ronald, with all the Hebrides, armed against the Bruce and were
beat by Edward Bruce in Buchan, anno 1308.  Alexander of Argyll
partied (sided  with) the Baliol; his country, therefore, was wasted
by Bruce, anno 1304, and himself taken by him, 1309.  Macdougall
of Lorn fought against the Bruce, and took him prisoner, from whom
he notably escaped, so that there is none in the district left
so considerable as this chief (Mackenzie) who had an immediate
dependence on the Royal family and had this  strong fort, which was
never commanded by the Bruce's enemies, either English or Scots;
and that his shelter and assistance was from a remote place and
friend is evident from all our stories.  But all their neighbours
being stated on a different side from the Mackenzies engendered a
feud  betwixt him and them, especially with the Earl of Ross and
Donald of the  Isles, which never ended  but with the end of the
Earl of Ross and lowering of the Lord of the Isles."  That this
is true will be placed beyond question as we proceed.

It may, indeed, be assumed from subsequent events in the history
of these powerful families and the united testimony of all the
genealogists of the Mackenzies, that the chief of Kintail did
befriend Robert the Bruce against his enemies and protected him
in his castle of Ellandonnan, in spite of the commands of his
immediate superior, the Earl of Ross, and the united power of all
the other great families of the Western Isles and Argyle.  And in
his independent stand at this important period in the history of
Scotland will be found the true grounds of the local rancour which
afterwards prevailed between Mackenzie and the Island Lord, and
which only terminated in the collapse of the Earls of Ross and
the Lords of the Isles, upon the ruins of which, as a reward for
proved loyalty to the reigning monarch, and as the result of the
characteristic prudence of the race of MacKenneth, the House of
Kintail gradually rose in power, subsequently absorbed the ancient
inheritance of all the original possessors of the district, and
ultimately extended their influence more widely over the whole
provinces of Wester and Central Ross.

The genealogists further say that this chief waited on the King
during his visit to Inverness in 1312.  [The MS. histories of the
Mackenzies give the date of Robert Bruce's visit to Inverness as
1307, but  from a copy of the "Annual of Norway," at the negotiation
and  arrangement of which "the eminent Prince, Lord Robert, by the
like grace, noble King of Scors (attended) personally on the other
part," it will be seen that the date of the visit was 1312.  - See
'Invernessiana,' by Charles Fraser-Mackintosh, F,S.A. Scot., pp.
36-40.]  This may now be accepted as correct, as also that he
fought at the head of his followers at the battle of Inverury,
where Bruce defeated Mowbray and the Comyn in  1303.  After this
important engagement, according to Fenton, "all the nobles, barons,
towns, cities, garrisons, and castles north of the Grampians submitted
to Robert the Bruce," when, with good reason, the second chief of
Clan Kenneth was further confirmed in the favour of his sovereign,
and in the government of Ellandonnan.

The Lord of the Isles had in the meantime, after his capture in
Argyle, died while confined in Dundonald Castle, when his brother
and successor, Angus Og, declared for Bruce.  Argyll and Lorn left,
or were driven out of the country, and took up their residence
in England.  With Angus Og of the Isles now on the side of Bruce,
and the territories of Argyll and Lorn at his mercy in the absence
of their respective chiefs, it  was an easy matter for the King,
during the varied fortunes of his heroic struggle, defending
Scotland from the English, to draw largely upon the  resources of
the West Highlands and Isles, flow unmolested, particularly after
the surprise at Perth in the winter of 1312, and the reduction of
all the strongholds in Scotland - except Stirling, Berwick, and
Dunbar - during the ensuing summer.  The decisive blow, however, yet
to be struck by which the independence and liberties of Scotland
were to be for ever established and confirmed, and the time was
drawing nigh when every nerve would have to be strained for a final
effort to clear it, once for all, of the bated followers of the
tyrant Edwards, roll them back before an impetuous wave of Scottish
valour, and for ever put an end to England's claim to tyrannise
over a free-born people whom it was found impossible to crush or
cow.  Nor, in the words of the Bennetsfield manuscript, "will we
affect a morbid indifference to the fact that on the 24th of June,
1314,  Bruce's heroic band of thirty thousand warriors on the
glorious field of Bannockburn contained above ten thousand Western
Highlanders and men of the Isles," under Angus Og of the Isles,
Mackenzie of Kintail (who led five hundred of his vassals), and
other chiefs of the mainland, of whom  Major specially says, that
"they made an incredible slaughter of their enemies, slaying heaps
of them around wherever they went, and running  upon them with
their broadswords and daggers like wild bears without any regard
to their own lives."  Alluding to the same event, Barbour says -

Angus of the Is'es and Bute alsae,
And of the plain lands he had mae
Of armed men a noble route,
His battle stalwart was and stout.

General Stewart of Garth, in a footnote, 'Sketches of the
Highlanders,' says that the eighteen Highland chiefs who fought at
Bannockburn were - Mackay, Mackintosh, Macpherson, Cameron, Sinclair,
Campbell, Menzies, Maclean, Sutherland, Robertson, Grant, Fraser,
Macfarlane, Ross, Macgregor, Munro, Mackenzie, and Macquarrie and
that "Cumming, Macdougall of Lorn, Macnab, and a few others were
unfortunately in opposition to Bruce, and suffered accordingly."  In
due time the Western chiefs returned home, where on their arrival,
many of them found local feuds still smouldering - encouraged by the
absence of  the natural protectors of the people - amidst the
surrounding blaze.  John lived peaceably at home during the remainder
of his days.  He married Margaret, daughter of David de Strathbogie,
XIth Earl of Atholl, by Joan, daughter of John, the Red Comyn, last
Earl of Badenoch, killed by Robert the Bruce in 1306.  He died in
1328, and was succeeded by his only son,


III.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE,


Commonly called Coinneach na Sroine, or Kenneth of the Nose, from
the size of that organ.  Very little is known of this chief.  But
he does not appear to have been long in possession when he found
himself serious trouble and unable to cope successfully with the
Earl of Ross, who made determined efforts to re-establish the
original position of his house over the Barons of Kintail.  Wyntoun
says that in 1331, Randolph, Earl of Moray, nephew of Robert the
Bruce, and at that time Warden of Scotland, sent his Crowner to
Ellandonnan, with orders to prepare the castle for his  reception
and to arrest all "misdoaris" in the district, fifty of whom the
Crowner beheaded, and, according to the barbarous practice of even
much later times, exposed their heads for the edification of the
surrounding lieges high upon the castle walls.  Randolph himself
soon after arrived and, says the same chronicler, was "right
blithe" to see the goodly show of heads "that flowered so weel
that wall" - a ghastly warning to all treacherous or plundering
"misdoaris."  From what occurred on this occasion it is obvious
that Kenneth either did not attempt or was not able to govern
his people with a firm hand and to keep the district free from
plunderers and lawlessness.

It is undoubted that at this time the Earl of Ross succeeded in
gaining a considerable hold in the district over which he had all
along  claimed superiority; for in 1342 William, the fifth and last
O'Beolan Earl, is on record as granting a charter of the whole
ten davochs of Kintail to Reginald, son of Roderick of the Isles.
The charter was granted and dated at the Castle of Urquhart,
witnessed by the bishops of Ross and Moray, and confirmed by David
II. in 1344. ['Invernessiana,' p.56.]  From all this it may fairly
be assumed that the line of Mac Kenneth was not far from the
breaking point during the reign of Kenneth of the Nose.

Some followers of the Earl of Ross about this time made a raid
to the district of Kenlochewe and carried away a great herschip.
Mackenzie pursued them, recovered a considerable portion of the
spoil, and killed many of the raiders.  The Earl of Ross was greatly
incensed at Kenneth's conduct in this affair, and he determined
to have him apprehended and suitably punished for the murders and
other excesses committed by him.

In this he ultimately succeeded.  Mackenzie was captured, chiefly
through the instrumentality of Leod Mac Gilleandrais - a desperate
character, and a vassal and relative of the Earl - and executed
at Inverness in 1346, when the lands of Kenlochewe, previously
possessed by Kintail, were given to Mac Gilleandrais as a reward
for Mackenzie's capture.

On this point the author of the Ardintoul manuscript says, that
the lands of Kenlochewe were held by Kenneth Mackenzie "and his
predecessors by tack, but not as heritage, for they had no real or
heritable right of them until Alexander of Kintail got heritable
possession of them from John, Earl of Ross," at a much later date.
Ellandonnan Castle, however, held out during the whole of this
disturbed and distracted period, and until Kenneth's heir, who
at his father's death was a mere boy, came  of age, when he fully
avenged the death of his father, and succeeded to the inheritance
of his ancestors.  The garrison meanwhile maintained  themselves
on the spoil of the enemy.  The brave defenders of the castle were
able to hold their own throughout and afterwards to hand over the
stronghold to their chief when he arrived at a proper age and
returned home.

The Earl of Cromarty, who gives a very similar account of this
period, concludes his notice of Kenneth in these terms - "Murdered
thus, his estate was possessed by the oppressor's followers; but
Island Donain  keeped still out, maintaining themselves on the spoyle
of the enemie.  All being trod under by insolince and oppression,
right had no place.  This was during David Bruce's imprisonment
in England," when chaos and disorder ruled supreme, at least in
the Highlands.

Kenneth married Finguala, or Florence, daughter of Torquil Macleod,
II. of Lewis, by his wife Dorothea, daughter of William, second
O'Beolan Earl of Ross by his wife, Joan, daughter of John the first
Red Comyn, and sister of John the Black Comyn, Lord of Badenoch
and Earl of Buchan, with issue, an only son,


IV.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE,

Usually called "Murchadh Dubh na h' Uagh," or Black Murdoch of the
Cave, from his habits of life, which shall be described presently.

Murdoch was very young when his father was executed at Inverness.
During Kenneth's absence on that occasion, and for some time
afterwards, Duncan Macaulay, a great friend, who then owned the
district of  Lochbroom, had charge of Ellandonnan Castle.  The
Earl of Ross was determined to secure possession of Murdoch, as he
previously did of his father, and Macaulay becoming apprehensive
as to his safety sent him, then quite young, accompanied by his
own son, for protection to Mackenzie's relative, Macdougall of
Lorn.  While here the Earl of Ross succeeded in capturing young
Macaulay, and in revenge for his father's gallant defence at
Ellandonnan during Kenneth's absence, and more recently against
his own futile attempts to take that stronghold, he put Macaulay
to death, whereupon Murdoch, who barely escaped with his life,
left Lorn and sought the protection of his uncle, Macleod of Lewis.

The actual murderer of Macaulay was the same desperate character,
Leod Macgilleandrais, a vassal of the Earl of Ross, who had in
1346 been mainly instrumental in the capture and consequent death
of Mackenzie's father at Inverness.  The Earl of Cromarty describes
the assassin as "a depender of the Earl of Ross, and possessed
of several lands in Strathcarron (of Easter Ross) and some in
Strathoykell."  When he killed Macaulay, Leod possessed himself
of his lands of Lochbroom and Coigach "whereby that family ended."
Macaulay's estates should have gone to Mackenzie in right of his
wife, Macaulay's daughter, but "holding of the Earl of Ross, the
earl disponed the samen in lyfrent by tack to Leod, albeit Murdo
Mackenzie acclaimed it in right of his wyfe."

Leod kept possession of Kenlochewe, which, lying as it did, exactly
between Kintail and Lochbroom, he found most convenient as a  centre
of operations against both, and he repeatedly took advantage of it,
though invariably without success so far at least as his main object
was concerned - to get possession of the stronghold of Ellandonnan.
On the other hand, the brave garrison of the castle made several
desperate reprisals under their heroic commander, Macaulay, and
held out in spite of all the attempts made to subdue them, until
the restoration of David II., by which time Murdoch Mackenzie had
grown up a brave and intrepid youth, approaching majority.

The author of the Ardintoul MS. informs us that he was called Murdo
of the Cave; being perhaps not well tutored, he preferred sporting
and hunting in the hills and forests to going to the Ward School,
where the  ward children, or the heirs of those who held their lands
and wards from the King, were wont or bound to go, and he resorted
to the dens and caves about Torridon and Kenlochewe, hoping to
get a hit at Leod Macgilleandrais, who was instrumental, under
the Earl of Ross, to apprehend and cut off his father.  In the
meantime Leod hearing of Murdo's resorting to these bounds, that
he was kindly entertained by some of the inhabitants, and fearing
that he would withdraw the services and affections of the people
from himself, and connive some mischief against him for his ill-usage
of his father, he left no means untried to apprehend him, so that
Mackenzie was obliged to start privately to Lochbroom, from whence,
with only one companion, he went to his uncle, Macleod of Lewis,
by whom, after he had revealed himself to him alone, he was well
received, and both of them resolved to conceal his name until a
fit opportunity offered to make known his identity.  He, however,
met with a certain man named Gille Riabhach who came to Stornoway
with twelve men, about the same time as himself, and he, in the
strictest confidence, told Gille Riabhach that he was Mackenzie of
Kintail, which secret the latter kept strictly inviolate.  Macleod
entertained his nephew, keeping it an absolute secret from others
who he was, that his enemies might think that he was dead, and
so feel the greater security till such time as they would deem it
wise that he should act for himself and make an attempt to rescue
his possessions from Macgilleandrais, who now felt quite secure,
thinking that Mackenzie had perished, having for so long heard
nothing concerning him.  When a suitable time arrived his uncle
gave Murdo two of his great galleys, with as many men (six score)
as he desired, to accompany him, his cousin german Macleod, the
Gille Riabhach and his twelve followers, all of whom determined
to seek their fortunes with young Kintail.  They embarked at
Stornoway, and securing a favourable wind they soon arrived at
Sanachan, in Kishorn (some say at Poolewe), where they landed,
marched straight towards Kenlochewe, and arrived at a thick wood
near the place where Macgilleandrais had his residence.  Mackenzie
commanded his followers to lie down and watch, while he and his
companion, Gille Riabhach, went about in search of intelligence.
He soon found a woman cutting rushes, at the same time lamenting
his own supposed death and Leod Macgillearidrais' succession to
the lands of Kenlochewe in consequence.  He at once recognised
her as the woman's sister who nursed or fostered him, drew near,
spoke to her, sounded her, and discovering her unmistakeable
affection for him he felt that he could with perfect safety make
himself known to her.  She was overjoyed to find that it was really
he, whose absence and loss she had so intensely and so long
lamented.  He then requested her to go and procure him information
of Leod's situation and occupation that night.  This she did with
great propriety and discretion.  Having satisfied herself, she
returned at the appointed time and assured him that Macgilleandrais
felt perfectly secure, quite unprepared for an attack, and
bad just appointed to meet the adjacent people next morning at a
place called Ath-nan-Ceann (the Ford of the  Heads), preparatory
to a hunting match, having instructed those who might arrive before
him to wait his arrival.  Mackenzie considered this an  excellent
opportunity for punishing Leod.  He in good time went to the
ford accompanied by his followers.  Those invited by Leod soon
after arrived, and, seeing Mackenzie before them, thought he was
Macgilleandrais with some of his men, but soon discovered their
mistake.  Mackenzie killed all those whom he did not recognise as
soon as they appeared.  The natives of the place, who were personally
known to him, he pardoned and dismissed.  Leod soon turned up, and
seeing such a gathering awaiting him, naturally thought that they
were his own friends, and hastened towards them, but on approaching
nearer he found himself "in the fool's hose."  Mackenzie and his
band fell upon them with their swords, and after a slight resistance
Macgilleandrais and his party fled, but they were soon overtaken
at a place called to this day Featha Leoid or Leod's Bog, where
they were all slain, except Leod's son Paul, who was taken prisoner
and kept in captivity for some time, but was afterwards released
upon plighting his faith that he would never again trouble Mackenzie
or resent against him his father's death.  Murdoch Mackenzie being
thus  re-possessed of Kenlochewe, "gave Leod Macgilleandrais' widow
to Gillereach to wife for his good services and fidelity, whose
posterity live at Kenlochewe and thereabout, and to this day some
of them live there."  According to the Cromarty MS., Mackenzie
possessed himself of Lochbroom in right of his wife and disposed
of Coigach to his  cousin Macleod, "for his notable assistance in
his distress; which lands they both retained but could obtain no
charters from the Earls of Ross, of  whom they held, the Earls of
Ross pretending that they fell to themselves in default of male
heirs, the other retaining possession in right of his wife as heir
of line."

Paul Macgilleandrais some years after this repaired to the confines
of Sutherland and Caithness, prevailed upon Murdo Riabhach, Kintail's
illegitimate son, to join him, and, according to one authority,
became "a common depredator," while according to another, he became
what was perhaps not inconsistent in those days with the character
of a desperado - a  person of considerable state and property.
They often "spoiled"  Caithness.  The Earl of Cromarty, referring
to this raid, says that Paul "desired to make a spoil on some
neighbouring country, a barbarous custom but most ordinary in those
days, as thinking thereby to acquire the  repute of valour and to
become formidable as the greatest security amidst their unhappy
feuds.  This, their prentice try or first exhibition, was called
in Irish (Gaelic) `Creach mhacain' the young man's herschip."
Ultimately Murdo Riabhach and Paul's only son were killed by Budge
of Toftingall.  Paul was so mortified at the death of his young
depredator son that he gave up building the fortress of Duncreich,
which he was at the time erecting to strengthen still more
his position in the county.  He gave his lands of Strathoykel,
Strathcarron, and Westray, with his daughter and heiress in marriage,
to Walter Ross, III. of Balnagown, on which condition he obtained
pardon from the Earl of Ross, the chief and superior of both.

Mackenzie, after disposing of Macgilleandrais, returned to his
own country, where he was received with open arms by the whole
population  of the district.  He then married the only daughter of
his gallant friend and  defender, Duncan Macaulay - whose only son,
Murdoch, had been killed by Macgilleandrais - and through her his
son ultimately succeeded to the lands of Lochbroom and Coigeach
granted to Macaulay's predecessor by Alexander II.  Mackenzie was
now engaged principally in preserving and improving his possessions,
until the return of David II. from England, 1357-8, when Murdoch
laid before the King a complaint against the Earl of Ross for the
murder of his father, and claimed redress but the only satisfaction he
ever obtained was a confirmation of his rights previously granted
by the King to "Murdo filius Kennethi de Kintaill, etc.," dated
"Edinburg 1362, et Regni Domini Regis VI., Testibus Waltero Senescollo
et allis." [MS. History of the Mackenzies.]

Of Murdoch Dubh's reign, the Laird of Applecross says: "During
this turbulent age, securities and writs, as well as laws, were
little regarded; each man's protection lay in his own strength."
Kintail regularly attended the first Parliament of Robert II.,
until it was decreed by that King and his Privy Council that the
services of the "lesser barons" should not be required in future
Parliaments or General Councils.  He then returned home, and
spent most of his time in hunting and wild sports, of which he
was devotedly fond, living peaceably and undisturbed during the
remainder of his days.

This Baron of Kintail took no share in the recent rebellion under the
Lord of the Isles, who, backed by most of the other West Highland
chiefs, attempted to throw off his independence and have himself
proclaimed King of the Isles.  The feeble and effeminate Government of
David II., and the evil results consequent thereon throughout the
country, encouraged the island lord in this desperate enterprise, but,
as Tytler says, the King on this occasion, with an unwonted energy of
character, commanded the attendance of the Steward, with the prelates
and barons of the realm, and surrounded by this formidable body of
vassals and retainers, proceeded against the rebels in person."  The
expedition proved completely successful, and John of the Isles, with a
numerous train of chieftains who joined him in the rebellion, met the
King at Inverness, and submitted to his authority.  He there engaged
in the most solemn manner, for himself and for his vassals, that
they should yield themselves faithful  and obedient subjects to
David their liege lord, and not only give due and prompt obedience
to the ministers of the King in suit and service, as well as in
the payment of taxes and public burdens, but that they would coerce
and put down all others, and compel all who dared to rise against
the King's authority to make due submission, or pursue them
from their respective territories."  For the fulfilment of these
obligations, the Lord of  the Isles not only gave his most solemn
oath before the King and his nobles, on condition of forfeiting his
whole possessions in case of failure, but offered his father-in-law,
the High Steward, in security and delivered his son Donald, his
grandson Angus, and his natural son, also named Donald, as hostages
for the strict performance of the articles of the treaty, which
was duly signed, attested and dated, the 15th November, 1369. [For
a full copy of this instrument, see 'Invernessiana,' pp. 69-70.]

Fordun says that in order to crush the Highlanders, and the more
easily, as the King thought, to secure obedience to the laws, he
used artifice by dividing the chiefs and promising high rewards
to those who would capture or kill their brother lords; and, that
writer continues "this  diabolical plan, by implanting the seeds
of disunion amongst the chiefs, succeeded, and they gradually
destroyed one another."

Before his marriage Murdoch had three illegitimate sons.  One of
them was called Hector or Eachainn Biorach.  He acquired the lands
of Drumnamarg by marrying Helen, daughter of Loban or Logan of
Drum-namarg, who, according to the Earl of Cromarty, "was one of the
Earl of Ross's feuars.  This superior having an innate enmity with
Kenneth's race, was the cause that this Hector had no peaceable
possession of Drumnamarg, but turning outlaw, retired to Eddirachillis,
where he left a son called Henry, of whom are descended a race yet
possessing there, called Sliochd Ionraic, or Henry's race."  The
second bastard was named Dugald Deargshuileach, "from his red
eyes."  From him descended John Mackenzie, Commissary-Depute of
Ross, afterwards in Cromarty, Rev. Roderick Mackenzie, minister of
Croy, John Mackenzie, a writer in Edinburgh, and several others
of the name.  The third bastard was named Alexander, and from
him descended Clann Mhurchaidh Mhoir in Ledgowan, and many of the
common people who resided in the Braes of Ross.

Murdoch had another son Murdoch Riach, after his wife's death,
by a daughter of the Laird of Assynt, also illegitimate, although
the Laird of Applecross says that he was "by another wife."  This
Murdoch retired to Edderachillis and married a Sutherland woman
there, "where, setting up an independent establishment, he became
formidable in checking the Earl of Ross in his excursions against
his clan, till he was killed by a Caithness man named Budge of
Toftingall.  His descendants are still styled Clann Mhuirich, and
among them we trace Daniel Mackenzie, who arrived at the rank of
Colonel in the service of the Statholder, who had a son Barnard,
who was Major in Seaforth's regiment, and killed at the battle of
Auldearn.  He too left a son, Barnard, who taught Greek and Latin
for four years at Fortrose, was next ordained by the Bishop of Ross
and presented to the Episcopal Church of Cromarty, where, after
a variety of fortunes, he died, and was buried in the Cathedral
Church of Fortrose.  Alexander, eldest son of this last (Barnard),
studied medicine under Boerhave, and retired to practice at Fortrose.
He married Ann, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Belmaduthy,
purchased the lands of Kinnock, and left a son, Barnard, and two
daughters, Catherine and Ann."  [Bennetsfield MS. of the Mackenzies.]

This was the turbulent and insecure state of affairs throughout the
Kingdom when the chief of Mackenzie was peaceably  and  quietly
enjoying himself in  his Highland home.  He died in 1375.  [Murdo
became a great favourite latterly with all those with whom he came
in contact.  "He fell in company with the Earl of Sutherland, who
became his very good friend afterwards, as that he still resorted
his court.  In end (being comely of person and one active young man)
the Earl's lady (who was King Robert the Bruce's young daughter)
fell in conceit of him, and  both forgetting the Earl's kindness,
by her persuasion, he got her with child, who she caused name
Dougall," and the earl suspecting nothing amiss "caused bred him
at schools with the rest of his children but Dougall being as
ill-given as gotten, he still injured the rest, and when the earl
would challenge or offer to beat him, the Ladie still said, 'Dear
heart, let him alone, it is hard to tell Dougall's father,' which
the good earle always took in good part.  In end, he comeing to
years of discretion, she told her husband that Mackenzie was his
father, and shortly thereafter, by way of merriment, told the
King how his lady cheated him. The King, finding him to be his own
cousine and of parts of learning, with all to pleasure the earle
and his lady, he made Dougall prior of Beauly." - Ancient MS.]

By his wife Isabel, only child of Macaulay of Lochbroom, Murdoch
Dubh had a son and successor,

V.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE,

Known as "Murchadh na Drochaid," or Murdoch of the Bridge.  The
author of the Ardintoul MS. say's that "he was called Murdo na Droit
by reason of some bad treatment his lady met with at the Bridge
of Scatwell, which happened on this occasion.  He having lived for
many years with his lady and getting no children, and so fearing
that the direct line of his family might fail in his person, was
a little concerned and troubled thereat, which being understood
by some sycophants and flatterers that were about him and would
fain curry his favour, they thought that they could not ingratiate
themselves more on him than putting his lady out of the way,
whereby he might marry another, and they waited an opportunity to
put their design in execution (some say not without his connivance),
and so on a certain evening or late at night as she was going
to Achilty, where her laird lived, these wicked flatterers did
presumptuously and barbarously cast her over the Bridge of Scatwell,
and then their conscience accusing them for that horrid act they
made off with themselves.  But the wonderful  providence of God
carried the innocent lady (who was then with child) nowithstanding
the impetuousness of the river, safe to the shore, and enabled
her in the night-time to travel the length of Achilty, where her
husband did impatiently wait her coming, that being the night she
promised to be home, and entertained her very kindly, being greatly
offended at the maltreatment she met with.  The child she had then
in the womb was afterwards called Alexander, and some say agnamed
Inrick because by a miracle of Providence he escaped that danger
and afterwards  became heir to his father and inherited his estate."
The author of the Applecross MS. says that this Baron was called
"Murchadh no Droit" from "the circumstances that his mother being
with child of him, had been saved after a fearful fall from the
Bridge of Scattal into the Water of Conon."  The writer of the
"Ancient" MS. history of the Mackenzies, the oldest in existence,
suggests that Mackenzie himself may have instigated the ruffians
to do away with his wife.  "They lived," he says, "a considerable
time together childless, but men in those days (of whom be reason)
preferred succession and manhood to wedlock.  He caused to throw
her under silence of night over the Bridge of Scatwell, but by
Providence and by the course of the river she was cast ashore and
escaped, went back immediately to his house, then at Achilty, and
went to his bedside in a fond condition.  But commiserating her
case and repenting over the deed he gave her a hearty reception,
learned from her that she expected soon to become a mother, and
"so afterwards they lived together contentedly all their days."

During his earlier years Murdoch appears to have lived a peaceful
life, following the example of loyalty to the Crown set him by his
father, keeping the laws himself, and compelling those over whom
his jurisdiction extended to do the same.  Nor, if we believe the
MS. historians of the family, was this dutiful and loyal conduct
allowed to go  unrewarded.  All the successors of the Earl of
Cromarty follow his lordship in saying that a charter was given
by King Robert to Murdo, "filius Murdochi de Kintail," of Kintail
and Laggan Achadrom, dated at Edinburgh, anno 1380, attested
by "Willielmus de Douglas, et Archibaldo de Galloway, et Joanne,
Cancellario Scotiae."  As already stated, however, no such charter
as this, or the one previously mentioned on the same authority
as having been granted to Murdoch IV. of Kintail, in 1362, is on
record.

Murdoch was one of the sixteen Highland chiefs who accompanied the
Scots under James, second  Earl of Douglas, in his famous march to
England and defeated Sir Henry Percy, the renowned Hotspur, at the
memorable battle of Otterburn, or Chevy Chase, in 1388.

The period immediately following this historical raid across the
Border was more than usually turbulent even for those days in the
Scottish Highlands, but Mackenzie managed to escape involving
himself seriously with either party to the many quarrels which
culminated in the final struggle for the earldom of Ross between
the Duke of Albany and Donald, Lord of the Isles, in 1411, at the
battle of Harlaw.

As soon as the news of the disaster to the Earl of Mar, who commanded
at Harlaw, reached the ears of the Duke of Albany, at the time
Regent for Scotland, he set about collecting an army with which, in
the following autumn, he marched in person to the north determined to
bring the Lord of the Isles to obedience. Having taken possession
of the Castle of Dingwall, he appointed a governor to it, and from
thence proceeded to recover the whole of Ross.  Donald retreated
before him, taking up his winter quarters in the Western Islands.
Hostilities were renewed next summer, but the contest was not long
or doubtful, notwithstanding some little advantages obtained by
the Lord of the Isles.  He was compelled for a time to give up his
claim to the earldom of Ross, to become a vassal of the Scottish
Crown, arid to deliver hostages for his good behaviour in the
future.

Murdoch must have felt secure in his stronghold of Ellandonnan,
and been a man of great prudence, sagacity, and force of character,
when, in spite of the commands of his nominal superior - the Lord
of the Isles - to support him in these unlawful and rebellious
proceedings against the King and threats of punishment in case of
refusal, he resolutely declined to join him in his desperate and
treasonable adventures.  He went the length of saying that even
if his lordship's claims were just in themselves, they would not
justify a rebellion against the existing Government; and he further
informed him that, altogether independently of that important
consideration, he felt no great incentive to aid in the cause of
the  representative of his grandfather's murderer.  Mackenzie was
in fact one of those prudent and loyal chiefs who kept at home in
the Highlands, looking after his own affairs, the comfort of his
followers, and laying a solid foundation for the future prosperity
of his house, "which was so characteristic of them that they always
esteemed the authority of the magistrate as an inviolable
obligation."

Donald of the Isles never forgave Mackenzie for thus refusing to
assist him in obtaining the Earldom of Ross, and he determined to
ruin him if he could.  On this subject the Earl of Cromartie says
that at the  battle of Harlaw Donald was assisted by almost "all
the northern people, Mackenzie excepted, who because of the many
injuries received by his predecessors from the Earls of Ross, and
chiefly by the instigation and concurrence of Donald's predecessors,
he withdrew and refused concurrence.  Donald resolved to ruin him,
but deferred it till his return, which falling out more unfortunately
than he expected, did not allow him power nor opportunity to
use the vengeance he intended, for on his return to Ross he sent
Mackenzie a friend with fair speeches desiring his friendship,
thinking no enemy despicable as he then stood."  Murdoch, at Donald's
request, proceeded to Dingwall, where the Island Lord urged him
to join and promise him to support his interest.  This Mackenzie
firmly refused, "partly out of hatred to his family for old feuds,
partly dissuaded by Donald's declining fortunes" at that particular
period; whereupon the Lord of the Isles made Murdoch prisoner
in an underground chamber in the Castle of Dingwall.  He was not
long here, however, when he found an opportunity of making his
plight known to some of his friends, and he was soon after released
in exchange for some of Donald's immediate relatives who had been
purposely captured by Mackenzie's devoted vassals.

Here it may be appropriate to give the traditionary account of the
origin of the Macraes and how they first found their way to Kintail
and other places in the West; for their relationship with the
Mackenzies has from the earliest times been of the closest and most
loyal character.  Indeed, from the aid they invariably afforded
them they have been aptly described as "Mackenzie's shirt of
mail."  According to the Rev. John Macrae, minister of Dingwall,
who died in 1704, and wrote the only existing trustworthy history
and genealogy of his own clan, the Macraes came originally from
Clunes, in the Aird of Lovat, recently acquired from patriotic family
reasons by Horatio Macrae, W.S., Edinburgh, the representative
in this country of the Macraes of Inverinate, who were admittedly
the chiefs of that brave and warlike race.  The Rev. John Macrae,
who was himself a member of the Inverinate family, says that the
Macraes left the Aird under the following circumstances: A dispute
had  arisen in the hunting field between Macrae of Clunes and a
bastard son of Lovat, when a son of Macrae intervened to protect
his father, and killed Fraser's son in the scuffle.  The victor
"immediately ran oft; and calling himself John Carrach, that he
might be less known, settled on the West Coast, and of him are
descended the branch of the Macraes called Clann Ian Charraich.
It was some time after this that his brethren and other relatives
began seriously to consider that Lovat's own kindred and friends
became too numerous, and that the country could not accommodate
them all, which was a motive for their removing to other places
according as they had encouragement.  One of the brothers went
to Brae Ross and lived at Brahan, where there is a piece of land
called Knock Vic Ra, and the spring well which affords water to
the Castle is called Tober Vic Ra.  His succession spread westward
to Strathgarve, Strathbraan, and Strathconan, where several of them
live at this time.  John Macrae, who was a merchant in Inverness,
and some of his brethren, were of them, and some others in
Ardmeanach.  Other two of MacRa's sons, elder than the above, went
off from Clunes several ways; one is said to have gone to
Argyleshire and another to Kintail.  In the meantime their father
remained at Clunes all his days, and bad four Lords Fraser of Lovat
fostered in his house.  He that went to Argyle, according to our
tradition, married the heiress of Craignish, and on that account
took the surname of Campbell.  The other brother who went to Kintail,
earnestly invited and encouraged by Mackenzie, who then had no
kindred of his own blood, the first six Barons, or Lords of Kintail,
having but one lawful son to succeed the father, hoping that the
MacRas, by reason of their relation, as being originally descended
from the same race of people in Ireland would prove more faithful
than others, wherein he was not disappointed, for the MacRas of
Kintail served him and his successors very faithfully in every
quarrel they had with neighbouring clans, and by their industry,
blood, and courage, have been instrumental in raising that family."
The writer adds that he does not know Macrae's christian name, but
that he married "a  daughter or grand-daughter of MacBeolan, who
possessed a large part of Kintail before Mackenzie's predecessors
got a right of it from Alexander III."  This marriage, and their
common ancestry from a native Celtic source, and not from "the same
race of people in Ireland" seems a much more probable explanation of
the early and continued friendship which existed between the two
families than that suggested by the rev. author of "The Genealogy of
the Macraes," above quoted.

But the curious circumstance to which he directs attention regarding
the first five Mackenzie chiefs is quite true.  It is borne out by
every genealogy of the House of Kintail which we have ever seen.
There is not a trace of any legitimate male descendant from the
first of the name down to Alexander, the sixth baron, except the
immediately succeeding chief, so that their vassals and followers
in the field and elsewhere must, for nearly two hundred years,
have been men of different septs and tribes and names, except the
progeny of their own illegitimate sons, such as  "Sliochd Mhurcbaidh
Riabhaich" and others of similar base origin.

Murdoch married Finguala or Florence, daughter of Malcolm
Macleod, III. of Harris and Dunvegan, by his wife, Martha, daughter
of Donald Stewart, Earl of Mar, nephew of King Robert the Bruce.  By
this marriage the Royal blood of the Bruce was introduced for the
first time into the family of Kintail, as also that of the ancient
Kings of Man.  Tormod Macleod, II. of Harris, who was grandson of
Olave the Black, last Norwegian King of Man, and who, as we have seen,
had married Christina, daughter of Ferquhard O'Beolan, Earl of Ross,
married Finguala Mac Crotan, the daughter of an ancient and powerful
Irish chief.  By this lady Malcolm Macleod, III. of Harris and
Dunvegan, had issue, among others, Finguala, who now became the wife
of Murdoch Mackenzie and mother of Alexander Ionraic, who carried on
the succession of the ancient line of Kintail.

Murdoch died in 1416 when he was succeeded by his only son,

VI.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE,

Alastair Ionraic, or Alexander the Upright, so called "for his
righteousness."  He was among the Western barons summoned in 1427,
to meet King James I. at Inverness, who, on his return from a long
captivity in England, in 1424, determined to put down the rebellion
and oppression which was then and for some time previously so
rampant in the Highlands.  To judge by the poceedings of a
Parliament held at Perth on the 30th  September 1426, James
exhibited a foresight and appreciation of the conduct of the lairds
in those days, and passed laws which might with good effect, and
with equal propriety, be applied to the state of affairs in our own
time.  In that Parliament an Act was passed which, among other
things, ordained that, north of the Grampians, the fruit of those
lands should be expended in the country where those lands lie.  The
Act is as  follows: "It is ordanit be the King ande the Parliament
that everilk lorde hafande landis bezonde the mownthe (the Grampians)
in the quhilk landis in auld tymes there was castellis, fortalyces
and manerplaicis, big, reparell and reforme their castellis and
maneris, and duell in thame, be thameself, or be ane of thare
frendis for the gracious gournall of thar landis, be gude polising
and to expende ye fruyt of thar landis in the countree where thar
landis lyis." [Invernessiana, p.102.]

James was determined to bring the Highlanders to submission, and
Fordun relates a characteristic anecdote in which the King pointedly
declared his resolution.  When the excesses in the Highlands were
first reported to him by one of his nobles, on entering Scotland,
he thus expressed himself: "Let God but grant me life, and there
shall not be a spot in my dominions where the key shall riot keep
the castle, and the furze bush the cow, though I myself should lead
the life of a dog to accomplish it"; and it was in this frame of
mind that he visited Inverness in 1427, determined to establish
good government and order in the North, then in such a state of
insubordination that neither life nor property was secure.  The
principal chiefs, on his order or invitation met him, from what
motives it is impossible to determine - whether hoping for a
reconciliation by prompt compliance with the Royal will, or from
a dread, in case of refusal, to suffer the fate of the Southern
barons who had already fallen victims to his severity.  The order
was in any case obeyed, and all the leading chiefs repaired to
meet him at the Castle of Inverness.  As they entered the hall,
however, where the Parliament was at the time  sitting, they were,
one by one, by order of the King, arrested, ironed, and imprisoned
in different apartments, and debarred from having any communications
with each other, or with their followers.

Fordun says that James displayed marks of great joy as these
turbulent and haughty spirits, caught in the toils which he had
prepared for them, came voluntarily within reach of his regal
power, and that he "caused to be arrested Alexander of the Isles,
and his mother, Countess of Ross, daughter and heiress of Sir
Walter Lesley, as well as the more notable men of the north, each
of whom he wisely invited singly to the  Castle, and caused to be
put in strict confinement apart.  There he also arrested Angus Duff
(Angus Dubh Mackay) with his four sons, the leader of 4000 men from
Strathnarven (Strathnaver.)  Kenneth More, with his son-in-law,
leader of two thousand men; [All writers on the Clan Mackenzie
have hitherto claimed this Kenneth More as their Chief, and argued
from the above that Mackenzie had a following of two thousand
fighting men in 1427.  It will be seen that Alexander was Chief at
this time, but Kenneth More may have been intended for MacKenneth
More, or the Great Mackenzie.  He certainly could have had no
such following of his own name.]  John Ross, William Lesley, Angus
de Moravia, and Macmaken, leaders of two thousand men; and also
other lawless caterans and great captains in proportion, to the
number of about fifty Alexander Makgorrie (MacGodfrey) of Garmoran,
and John Macarthur (of the family  of Campbell), a great chief
among his own clan, and the leader of a thousand and more, were
convicted, and being adjudged to death were beheaded.  Then James
Cambel was hanged, being accused and convicted of the slaughter
of John of the Isles (John Mor, first of the Macdonalds of Isla.)
The rest were sent here and there to the different castles of the
noblemen throughout the kingdom, and were afterwards condemned to
different kinds of death, and some were set at liberty."  Among the
latter was Alexander of Kintail.  The King sent him, then a mere
youth, to the High School at Perth, at that time the principal
literary seminary in the kingdom, while the city itself was frequently
the seat of the Court.

During Kintail's absence it appears that his three bastard uncles
ravaged the district of Kinlochewe, for we find them insulting and
troubling "Mackenzie's tenants in Kenlochewe and Kintail Macaulay,
who was still Constable in Ellandonnan, not thinking it proper
to leave his post, proposed Finlay Dubh Mac Gillechriost as
the fittest person to be sent to St. Johnston, now Perth, and by
general consent he accordingly went to inform his young master,
who was then there with the rest of the  King's ward children at
school, of his lordship's tenants being imposed on as above, which,
with Finlay's remonstrance on the subject, prevailed on Alexander,
his young master, to come home, and being backed with all the
assistance Finlay could command, soon brought his three bastard
uncles to condign punishment." [Genealogical Account of the Macraes.]

The writer of the Ardintoul MS. says that Finlay "prevailed on him
to go home without letting the master of the school know of it.
Trysting with him at a certaiu place and set hour they set off,
and, lest any should surprise them, they declined the common road
and went to Macdougall of Lorn, he being acquainted with him at
St. Johnston.  Macdougall entertained him kindly, and kept him
with him for several days.  He at that time made his acquaintance
with Macdougall's daughter, whom afterwards he married, and from
thence came to his own Kintail, and having his authority and right
backed with the power of the people, he calls his bastard uncles
before him, and removes their quarters from Kenlochewe, and gave
them possessions in Glenelchaig in Kintail prescribing measures
and rule for them how to behave, assuring them, though he pardoned
them at that time, they should forfeit favours and be severely
punished if they transgressed for the future; but after this,
going to the county of Ross to their old dwelling at Kenlochewe,
they turned to practice their old tricks and broke loose, so that
he was forced to correct their insolency and make them shorter by
the heads, and thus the people were quit of their trouble."

The young Lord of the Isles was at the same time that Mackenzie went
to Perth sent to Edinburgh, from which he soon afterwards escaped
to the North, at the instigation of his mother, the Countess, raised
his vassals, and, joined by all the outlaws and vagabonds in the
country, numbering a formidable body of about ten thousand, he
laid waste the country, plundered and devastated the crown lands,
against which his vengeance was specially directed, razed the
Royal burgh of Inverness to the ground, pillaged and burned the
houses, and perpetrated every description of cruelty.  He then
besieged the Castle, but without success, after which he retired
precipitately towards Lochaber, where he was met by the Royal
forces, commanded by the King in person.  The Lord of the Isles
prepared for battle, but he had the mortification to notice the
desertion of Clan Chattan and Clan Cameron, who had previously
joined him, and of seeing them going over in a body to the Royal
standard.  The King immediately attacked the island chief and
completely routed his  forces, while their leader sought safety
in flight.  He was vigorously pursued, and finding escape or
concealment equally impossible, and being reduced to the utmost
distress, hunted from place to place by his vigilant pursuers, the
haughty chief resolved to throw himself entirely on the mercy of
His Majesty, and finding his way to Edinburgh in the most secret
manner, and on the occasion of a solemn festival on Easter Sunday,
in  429, at Holyrood, he suddenly appeared in his shirt and drawers
before the King and Queen, surrounded by all the nobles of the
Court, while they were engaged in their devotions before the High
Altar, and implored, on his knees, with a naked sword held by the
point in his hand, the forgiveness of his sovereign.  With bonnet
in hand, his legs and arms quite bare, his body covered only with
a plaid, and in token of absolute submission, he offered his sword
to the King.  His appearance, strengthened by the solicitations
of the affected Queen and all the nobles, made such an impression
on His Majesty that he submitted to the promptings of his heart
against the wiser and more prudent dictates of his judgment.  He
accepted the sword offered him, and spared the life of his captive,
but immediately committed him to Tantallon Castle, under the charge
of William Douglas, Earl of Angus.  The spirit of Alexander's
followers, however, could not brook this mortal offence, and the
whole strength of the clan was promptly mustered under his cousin
Donald Balloch, who led them to Lochaber, where they met the King's
forces under the Earls of Mar and Caithness, killed the latter,
gained a complete victory over the Royal army, and returned to
the Isles in triumph, with an immense quantity of spoil.

James soon after proceeded north in person as far as Dunstaffnage;
Donald Balloch fled to Ireland; and, after several encounters with
the rebels, the King obtained the submission of the  majority of
the chiefs who were engaged in the rebellion, while others were
promptly apprehended and executed to the number of about three
hundred.  The King thereupon released the Lord of the Isles
from Tantallon Castle, and  granted him a free pardon for all his
rebellious acts, confirmed him in all his titles and possessions,
and further conferred upon him, in addition, the Lordship of
Lochaber, which had previously, on its forfeiture, been granted to
the Earl of Mar.

After his first escape from Edinburgh, the Lord of the Isles again
in 1429 raised the standard of revolt.  He for the second time burnt
the town of Inverness, while Mackenzie was "attending to his duties
at Court."  Kintail was recalled by his followers, who armed for the
King, and led by their young chief on his return home, they
materially aided in the overthrow of Alexander of the Isles at the
same time securing peace and good government in their own district,
and among most of the surrounding tribes.  Alexander is also found
actively supporting the King, and with the Royal army, during the
turbulent rule of John, successor to Alexander, Lord of the Isles,
who afterwards, in 1447, died at peace with his sovereign.

James I. died in 1460, and was succeeded by James II. When, in
1462, the Earl of Douglas, the Lord of the Isles, and Donald Balloch
of Isla entered into a treaty with the King of England for the
subjugation of Scotland, on condition, in the event of success,
that the whole of Scotland, north of the Firth of Forth, should
be divided between them, Alexander Mackenzie stood firm in the
interest of the ruling monarch, and with such success that nothing
came of this extraordinary compact.  We soon after find him rewarded
by a charter in his favour, dated 7th January 1463, confirming
him in his lands of Kintail, with a further grant of the "5 merk
lands of Killin, the lands of Garve, and the 2 merk lands of
Coryvulzie, with the three merk lands of Kinlochluichart, and 2
merk lands of Ach-na-Clerich, the 2 merk lands of Garbat, the merk
lands of Delintan, and the 4  merk lands of Tarvie, all lying within
the shire and Earldom of Ross, to be holden of the said John and
his successors, Earls of Ross."  This is the first Crown charter
in favour of the Mackenzie chief of which any authentic record
exists.

Alexander continued to use his great influence at Court, as well
as with John Lord of the Isles, for the purpose of bringing about
a reconciliation between his Majesty and his powerful subject
during the unnatural rebellion of Angus Og against his father.
The King, however, proved inexorable, and refused to treat with
the Earl on any condition other than the absolute and unconditional
surrender of the earldom of Ross to the Crown, of which, however,
he would be allowed to hold all his other possessions in future.
These conditions the island chief haughtily refused, again flew to
arms, and in 1476 invaded Moray, but finding that he could offer
no effectual resistance to the powerful forces sent against him
by the King, he, by the seasonable grants of the lands of Knapdale
and Kintyre, secured the influence of Colin, first Earl of Argyll,
in his favour, and with the additional assistance of Kintail,
procured remission of his past offences on the conditions previously
offered to him and resigning for ever, in 1476, the Earldom of
Ross to the King, he "was infeft of new" in the Lordship of the
Isles and the other possessions which he had not been called upon
to renounce.  The Earldom was in the same year, in the 9th  Parliament
of James III., irrevocably annexed to the Crown, where the title
and the honours still remain, held by the Prince of Wales.

The great services rendered by the Baron of Kintail to the reigning
family, especially during these negotiations, and generally throughout
his long rule at Ellandonnan, were recognised by a charter from
the Crown, dated Edinburgh, November 1476, of some of the lands
renounced by the Earl of Ross, viz., Strathconan, Strathbraan, and
Strathgarve; and after this the Barons of Kintail held all their
lands quite independently of any superior but the Crown.

During the long continued disputes between the Earl of Ross and
Kintail no one was more zealous in the cause of the island chief than
Allan Macdonald of Moydart, who, during Mackenzie's absence, made
several raids into Kintail, ravaged the country, and carried away
large numbers of cattle.  After the forfeiture of the Earldom of Ross,
Allan's youngest brother, supported by a faction of the tenantry,
rebelled against his elder brother, and possessed himself for a
time of the Moydart estates.  The Lord of the Isles was unwilling to
appear so soon in these broils; or perhaps he favoured the pretentions
of the younger brother, and refused to give any assistance to Allan,
who, however, hit upon a device as bold as it ultimately proved
successful.  He started for Kinellan, "being ane ile in  ane loch,"
where Mackenzie at the time resided, and presented himself personally
before his old enemy, who was naturally surprised beyond measure to
receive such a visit from one to whom he had never been reconciled.
Allan, however, related how he had been oppressed by his brother and
his nearest friends and how he had been refused aid from those to
whom he had a natural right to look for it.  In these desperate
circumstances he resolved to apply to his greatest enemy, who, he
argued, might for any assistance he could give gain in return as
faithful a friend as he bad previously been his "diligent adversary."
Alexander, on hearing the story, was moved to pity by the manner
in which Allan had been oppressed by his own relatives, promised
him the required support, proceeded in person with a sufficient
force to repossess him, and finally accomplished his purpose.  The
other Macdonalds, who had been dispossessed thereupon represented
to the King that Alexander Mackenzie had invaded their territory
as a "disturber of the peace, and ane oppressor," the result being
that he was cited before His Majesty at Edinburgh, "but here was
occasion given to Allan to requite Alexander's generosity, for
Alexander having raised armies to assist him, without commission,
he found in it a transgression of the law, though just upon the
matter; so to prevent Alexander's prejudice, he presently went to
Holyrood house, where the King was, and being of a bold temper,
did truly relate how his and Alexander's affairs stood, showing
withal that he, as being the occasion of it, was ready to suffer
what law would exact rather than to expose so generous a friend
to any hazard.  King James was so taken with their reciprocal
heroisms, that he not only forgave, but  allowed Alexander, and
of new confirmed Allan in the lands of Moydart."  [Cromartie MS.
of the Mackenzies.]  The two were then allowed to return home
unmolested.

Some time before this a desperate skirmish took place at a place
called Bealach nam Brog, "betwixt the heights of Fearann Donuil
and Lochbraon" (Dundonald and Lochbroom), which was brought about
by some of Kintail's vassals, instigated by Donald Garbh M'Iver,
who attempted to seize the Earl of Ross.  The plot was, however,
discovered, and M'Iver was seized by the Lord of the Isles'
followers, and imprisoned in the Castle of Dingwall.  He was soon
released, however, by his undaunted countrymen from Kenlochewe,
consisting of Macivers, Maclennans, Macaulays, and Macleays,
who, by way of reprisal, pursued and seized the Earl's relative,
Alexander Ross of Balnagown, and carried him along with them.
The Earl at once apprised Lord Lovat, who was then His Majesty's
Lieutenant in the North, of the illegal seizure of Balnagown, and
his lordship promptly dispatched northward two hundred men, who,
joined by Ross's vassals, the Munroes of Fowlis, and the Dingwalls
of Kildun, pursued and overtook the western tribes at Bealach nam
Brog, where they were resting themselves.  A sanguinary conflict
ensued, aggravated and more than usually exasperated by a keen and
bitter recollection of ancient feuds and animosities.  The Kenlochewe
men seem to have been almost extirpated.  The race of Dingwall were
actually extinguished, one hundred and forty of their men having
been slain, while the family of Fowlis lost eleven members of their
house alone, with many of the leading men of their clan. ["Among
the rest ther wer slain eleven Monroes or the House or Foulls,
that wer to succeed one after another; so that the succession of
Foulls fell into a chyld then lying in his cradle." - Sir Robert
Gordon's History 0f the Earldom of Sutherland, p. 36.]

An interesting account of this skirmish and the cause which led to
it is given in one of the family manuscripts.  It says Euphemia
Leslie, Countess Dowager of Ross, lived at Dingwall.  She would
gladly have married Alexander of Kintail, he being a proper handsome
young man, and she signified no less to himself.  He refused the
offer, perhaps, because he plighted his faith to Macdougall's
daughter, but though he had not had done so, he had all the reason
imaginable to reject the Countess's offer, for besides that she
was not able to add to his estate, being but a life-rentrix, she
was a turbulent woman, and therefore, in the year 1426, the King
committed her to prison in St. Colin's Isle (Dingwall), because
she had instigated her son, Alexander Earl of Ross, to rebellion.
She invited Kintail to her Court in Dingwall to make a last effort,
but finding him obstinate she converted her love to hatred and
revenge, and made him prisoner, and either by torturing or bribing
his page, he procured the golden ring which was the token between
Mackenzie and Macaulay, the governor of Ellandonnan, who had strict
orders not to quit the castle or suffer any one to enter it until
he sent him that token.  The Countess sent a gentleman to Ellandonnan
with the ring, who, by her instructions, informed Macaulay that his
master was, or shortly would be, married to the Countess of Ross,
desiring the Governor to repair to his master and to leave the
stronghold with him.  Macaulay seeing and receiving the ring believed
the story, and gave up the castle, but in a few days he discovered
his mistake and found that his chief was a prisoner instead of being
a bridegroom.  He went straight to Dingwall, and finding an
opportunity to communicate with Mackenzie, the latter made
allegorical remarks by which Macaulay understood that nothing would
secure his release but the apprehension of Ross of Balnagown, who was
grand uncle, or grand uncle's son to the Countess.  Macaulay returned
to  Kintail, made up a company of the "prettiest fellows" he could
find of Mackenzie's family, and went back with them to Easter Ross,
and in the morning apprehended Balnagown in a little arbour near the
house, in a little wood to which he usually resorted for an airing,
and, mounting him on horseback, carried him westward among the hills.
Balnagown's friends were soon in pursuit, but fearing capture,
Macaulay sent Balnagown away under guard, resolving to fight and
detain the pursuers at Bealach nam Brog, as already described,
until Balnagown was safely out of their reach.  After his success
here Macaulay went to Kintail, and at Glenluing, five miles from
Ellandonnan, he overtook thirty men, sent by the Countess, with meal
and other provisions for the garrison, and the spot, where they
seized them is to this day called Innis nam Balg.  Macaulay secured
them, and placed his men in their upper garments and plaids, who
took the sacks of meal on their backs, and went straight with them
to the garrison, whose impoverished condition induced the Governor
to admit them without any  enquiry, not doubting but they were his
own friends.  Once inside they threw down their burdens, drew their
weapons from under their plaids, seized the new Governor and all his
men and kept them in captivity until Mackenzie was afterwards
exchanged for the Governor and Balnagown.  [Ardintoul MS.]

There has been considerable difference of opinion as to the date
of  this encounter, but it is finally set at rest by the discovery
of a positive  date in the Fowlis papers, where it is said that
"George, the fourth Laird, and his son, begotton on Balnagown's
daughter, were killed at the conflict of Beallach na Brog, in the
year 1452, and Dingwall of Kildun, with several of their friends
and followers, in taking back the Earl of Ross's second son from
Clan Iver, Clan Tarlich or Maclennans, and Clan Leod."  [The Earl
of Cromarty gives a different version, and says that the battle
or  skirmish took place in the year immediately after the Battle
of Harlaw.  In this he is manifestly in error.  The Highlanders, to
defend themselves from the arrows of their enemies, with their
belts tied their shoes on their breasts, hence the name "Bealach
nam Brog," or the Pass of the Shoes.]   The Balnagown of that date
was not the Earl of Ross's son, but a near relative.

Angus Og, after many sanguinary conflicts with his father, finally
overthrew him at the battle of the Bloody Bay, between Tobermory and
Ardnamurchan, obtained possession of all the extensive territories
of his clan, and was recognised as its legitimate head.  He then
determined to punish Mackenzie for having taken his father's part
at Court, and otherwise, during the rebellion, and swore that
he would recover from him the great possessions which originally
belonged to his predecessors, the Lords of the Isles, but
now secured by Royal Charter to the Baron of  Kintail.  With this
object he decided to attack him, and marched to Inverness, where
he expected to meet the now aged Mackenzie returning from attendance
at Court.  Angus, however, missed his object, and instead of killing
Mackenzie, he was himself assassinated by his harper, an Irishman.
This tragic, but well-merited, close to such a violent and turbulent
career, is recorded in the Red Book of Clan Ranald in the following
terms: "Donald, the son of Angus that was killed at Inverness by
his own harper, son of John of the Isles, son of Alexander, son of
Donald, son of John, son of Angus Og;" an event which must have
occurred about 1485.

Alexander was the first of the family who lived on the island In
Loch Kinellan, while at the same time he had Brahan as a "maines,"
or  farm, both of which his successor for a time held from the King
at a yearly  rent, until Kenneth feued Brahan, and Colin, his son,
feued Kinellan.

The  Earl of Sutherland had been on friendly terms with Mackenzie,
and  appointed him as his deputy in the management of the Earldom
of Ross, which devolved on him after the forfeiture.  On one
occasion, the Earl of Sutherland being in the south at Court, the
Strathnaver men and the men of the Braes of Caithness took advantage
of his absence and invaded Sutherland.  An account of their conduct
soon spread abroad, and reached the ears of the Chief of Kintail,
who at once with a party of six hundred men, passed into Sutherland,
where, the Earl's followers having joined him, he defeated the
invaders, killed a large number of them, forced the remainder to
sue for peace, and compelled them to give substantial security
for their peaceful behaviour in future.

Kintail was now a very old man.  His prudence and sagacity well
repaid the judicious patronage of the first King James, confirmed
and extended by his successors on the throne, and, as has been well
said by his  biographer, secured for him "the love and respect of
three Princes in whose reign be flourished, and as his prudent
management in the Earldom of Ross showed him to be a man of good
natural parts, so it very much contributed to the advancement of
the interest of his family by the acquisition of the lands he thereby
made; nor was he less commendable for the quiet and peace he kept
among his Highlanders, putting the laws punctually in execution
against all delinquents."  Such a character as this, justly called
Alastair Ionraic, or the just, was certainly well fitted to govern,
and deserved to flourish in the age in which he lived.  Various
important events occurred during the latter part of his life, but
as Kenneth, his brave son and successor, was the actual leader of
the clan for many  years before his father's death, and especially
at the celebrated battle of  Park, the leading battles and feuds in
which the clan was engaged during this period will be dealt with
in the account of that Baron.

There has been much difference of opinion among the genealogists and
family historians regarding Alexander's two wives.  Both Edmonston in
his Baronagium Genealogicum, and Douglas in his Peerage say that
Alexander's first wife was Agnes, sixth daughter of Colin, first Earl
of  Argyll.  This we shall prove to be absolutely impossible within
the ordinary course of the laws of nature.  Colin, first Earl of
Argyll, succeeded as a minor in 1453, his uncle, Sir Colin Campbell
of Glenurchy, having been appointed his tutor.  Colin of Argyll was
created Earl in 1457, probably on his coming of age.  He married
Isabel Stewart of Lorn, had two sons, and, according to Crawford,
five daughters.  If he had a daughter Agnes she must have been his
sixth daughter and eighth child.  Assuming that Argyll married when
he became of age, about 1457, Agnes, as his eighth surviving child,
could not have been born before 1470.  Her reputed husband, Alexander
of Kintail, was then close upon 70 years of  age, having died in
1488, bordering upon 90, when his alleged wife would barely have
reached a marriageable age, and when her reputed son, Kenneth
a Bhlair, pretty well advanced in years, had already fought the
famous battle of Park.  John of Killin, her alleged grandson,
was born about 1480, when at most the lady said to have been his
grandmother could only have been 10 to 15 years of age, and, in
1513, at the age of 33, he distinguished himself at the battle
of Flodden, where Archibald second Earl of Argyll, the lady's
brother, at least ten years older than Agnes, was slain.  All this
is of course impossible.

A similar difficulty has arisen, from what appears to be a very
simple cause, about Alexander's second marriage.  The authors of
all the family MS. histories are unanimous in stating that his first
wife was Anna, daughter of John Macdougall of Lorn, or Dunollich,
known as John Mac Alan Mac Cowle, fourth in descent from Alexander
de Ergedia and Lord of Lorn (1284), and eighth from Somerled,
Thane of Argyle, who died in 1164.  Though the direct line of the
house of Lorn ended in two heiresses who, in 1388, carried away the
property to their husbands, the Macdougalls of Dunollich became
the male representatives of the ancient and illustrious house of
Lorn; and this fully accounts for the difference and confusion
which has been introduced about the families of Lorn and Dunollich
in some of the Mackenzie family manuscripts.

The same authorities who affirm that Agnes of Argyll was Alexander's
first wife assert that Anna Macdougall, was his second.  There
is ample testimony to show that the latter was his first, although
some confusion has again arisen in this case from a similarity of
names and patronymics.  Some of the family MSS. say that Alexander's
second wife was Margaret, daughter of "M'Couil," "M'Chouile,"
or "Macdougall" of Morir, or Morar, while others, among them the
Allangrange Ancient MS. have it that she was "MacRanald's daughter."
The Ardintoul MS. describes her as "Muidort's daughter."  One
of the Gairloch MSS. says that she was "Margarite, the daughter
of Macdonald of Morar, of the Clan Ranald Race, from the stock
of Donald, Lord of the Aebudae Islands," while in another MS. in
Sir Kenneth  Mackenzie's possession she is designated "Margaret
Macdonald, daughter of Macdonald of Morar."  There is thus an
apparent contradiction, but it can be conclusively shown that the
lady so variously described was one and the same person.  Gregory
in his Highlands and Islands of Scotland, p.158, states that
"Macdougall" was the patronymic of one of the families of Clan
Ranald of Moydart and Morar.  Speaking of Dugald MacRanald, son
and successor to Ranald Ban Ranaldson of Moydart, he says, "Allan
the eldest son of Dougal, and the undoubted male heir of Clan
Ranald, acquired the estate of Morar, which he transmitted to his
descendants.  He and his successors were always styled, in Gaelic,
MacDhughail Mhorair, ie., MacDougal of Morar, from their ancestor,
Dougald MacRanald."  At p.65 he says that "the Clan Ranald of Garmoran
comprehended the families of Moydart, Morar, Knoydart, and
Glengarry."  This family was descended from Ranald, younger son
of John of the Isles, by his marriage with the heiress of the
MacRorys or MacRuaries of Garmoran whose ancestry, from Somerled
of the Isles, is as illustrious as that of any family in the
kingdom.  A district north of Arisaig is still known among the
Western Islanders as "Mor-thir Mhic Dhughail" or the mainland
possession of the son of Dougall.  The MS. histories of the Mackenzies
having been all written after the patronymic of "MacDhughail" was
acquired by the Macdonalds of Moydart and Morar, they naturally
enough described Alexander of Kintail's second wife as a
daughter of Macdougall of Morar, of Muidort, and of Clan Ranald,
indiscriminately.  But in point of fact all these designations
describe one and the same person.

Alexander married first, Anna, daughter of John Macdougall of
Dunolly, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  Duncan, progenitor of the Mackenzies of Hilton, and their
branches, and of whom in their order as the senior cadet family of
the clan.

He married secondly Margaret, daughter of Macdonald of Morar, a
cadet of Clanranald, with issue -

3.  Hector Roy or "Eachainn Ruadh," from whom are descended the
Mackenzies of Gairloch and their various offshoots, of whom in
their proper place.

4. A daughter, who married Allan Macleod, Hector Roy's predecessor
in Gairloch.

He is also said to have had a natural son, Dugal, who became a
priest and was Superior of the Priory of Beauly, which he repaired
about 1478, and in which he is buried.  This ecclesiastic is said
by others to have been Alexander's brother. [Anderson's 'History
of the Frasers,' p.66; and  MS. History of the Mackenzies.]

Alexander died in 1488 at Kinellan, having attained the extreme
old age of 90 years, was buried in the Priory of Beauly, and was
succeeded by his eldest son by the first marriage,

VII.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE,

Better known as "Coinneach a' Bhlair," or Kenneth of the Battle,
from his prowess and success against the Macdonalds at the Battle
of Park during his father's life-time.  He was served heir to his
predecessor and seized in the lands of Kintail at Dingwall on the
2nd of September, 1488.  He secured the cognomen "Of the Battle"
from the distinguished part he took  in "Blar-na-Pairc" fought at
a well-known spot still pointed out near  Kinellan, above Strathpeffer.
His father was advanced in life before Kenneth married, and as
soon as the latter arrived at twenty years of age Alexander thought
it prudent, with the view of establishing peace between the two
families, to match Kenneth, his heir and successor, with Margaret,
daughter of John Lord of the Isles and fourth Earl of Ross, and
for ever extinguish their ancient feuds in that alliance.  The
Island chief willingly consented and the marriage was in due course
solemnised.  About a year after, the Earl's nephew and apparent
heir, Alexander Macdonald of Lochalsh, came to Ross, and, feeling
more secure in consequence of this matrimonial alliance between
the family of Mackenzie and his own, took possession of Balcony
House and the adjoining lands, where, at the following Christmas,
he provided a great feast for his old dependants, inviting to
it also most of the more powerful chiefs and barons north of the
Spey, and among others, Kenneth Mackenzie, his cousin's husband.
The house of Balcony being at the time very much out of repair, he
could not conveniently lodge all his distinguished guests within
it, and had accordingly to arrange for some of them in the outhouses
as best he could.  Kenneth did not arrive until Christmas Eve,
accompanied by a train of forty able bodied men, according to the
custom of the times, but without his lady, which deeply offended
Macdonald.  Maclean of Duart had chief charge of the arrangements in
the house and the disposal of the guests.  Some days previously he
had a disagreement with Kenneth at some games, and, on his arrival,
Maclean told the heir of Kintail that, taking advantage of his
connection with the family, they had taken the liberty of providing
him with lodgings in the kiln.  Kenneth considered this an insult,
and, divining that it proceeded from Maclean's illwill to him, he
instantly struck him a blow on the ear, which threw him to the
ground.   The servants in the house viewed this as a direct insult
to their chief, Macdonald, and at once took to arms.  Kenneth,
though sufficiently bold, soon perceived that he had no chance to
light successfully or to beat a  retreat, and, noticing several
boats lying on the shore, which had been provided for the transport
of the guests, he took as many of them as he required, sank the
rest, and passed with his followers to the opposite shore, where he
remained over night in the house of a tenant, who, like a good many
more in those days, had no surname, but was simply known by a
patronymic.  Kenneth, boiling with passion, was sorely affronted at
the insult which he had received, and at being from his own house
at Christmas, staying with a stranger, and off his own property.
In these circumstances, he requested his host to adopt the name of
Mackenzie, promising him protection in future, so that be might
thus be able to say that he slept under the roof of one of his
own name.  The man at once consented, and his posterity were ever
after known as Mackenzies.

Next morning (Christmas Day) Kenneth went to the hill above
Chanonry, and sent word to the Bishop, who was at the time enjoying
his Christmas with some of his clergy, that he desired to speak
to him.  The Bishop knowing his man's temper and the turbulent
state of the times thought it prudent to comply with this request,
though be considered it very strange to receive such a message on
such a day, and wondered much what his visitors object could be.
He soon found that Kenneth simply wanted a feu of the small piece
of land on which was situated the house in which he had lodged
the previous night, stating, as his reason, "lest Macdonald should
brag that he had forced him on Christmas Day to lodge at another
man's discretion, and not on own heritage."  The Bishop, willing to
oblige him probably afraid to do otherwise, and perceiving him in
such a rage, at once sent for his clerk and there and then granted
him a charter of the township of Cullicudden, whereupon Kenneth
returned to the place and remained in it all day, lording over it
as his own property.  The place was kept by him and his successors
until Colin "Cam" acquired more of the Bishop's lands in the
neighbourhood, and afterwards exchanged the whole with the Sheriff
of Cromarty for lands in Strathpeffer.

Next day Kenneth started for Kinellan, where his father, the old
chief Alexander, resided, and related to him what had taken place.
His father was much grieved, for he well knew that the smallest
difference between the families would revive their old grievances,
and, although there was less danger since Macdonald's interest
in Ross was smaller than in the past, yet he knew the clan to be
a powerful one still, more so than his own, in their number of
able-bodied warriors; but these considerations, strongly impressed
upon the son by the experienced and aged father, only added fuel
to the fire in Kenneth's bosom, which was already fiercely burning
to avenge the insult offered him by Macdonald's servants.  His
natural impetuosity could ill brook any such insult and he considered
himself wronged so much that he felt it his duty personally to
retaliate and avenge it.  While this was the state of his mind
matters were suddenly brought to a crisis by the arrival on the
fourth day of a messenger from Macdonald with a summons requesting
Alexander and his son Kenneth to remove from Kinellan, with all
their families, within twenty-four hours, allowing only that the
young Lady Margaret, Macdonald's own cousin, might remain until
she had more leisure to remove, and threatening war to the knife
in case of noncompliance.

Kenneth's rage now became ungovernable, and, without consulting his
father or waiting his counsel, he bade the messenger tell Macdonald
that his father would remain where he was in spite of him and all
his power. As for himself, he accepted no rules as to his staying
or going, but Macdonald would be sure enough to hear of him wherever
he was.  As for Macdonald's cousin, Lady Margaret, since he had
no desire to keep further peace with his family he would no longer
keep his relative.

Such was the defiant message sent to young Macdonald, and immediately
after its despatch, Kenneth sent away Lady Margaret, in the most
ignominious manner, to Balcony House.  The lady was blind of an
eye, and, to insult her cousin to the utmost, he sent her back to
him  mounted on a one-eyed horse, accompanied by a one-eyed servant,
followed by a one-eyed dog.  She was in a delicate state of health,
and this inhumanity grieved her so much that she never after
wholly recovered.  Her son, recently born, the only issue of the
marriage, was named Kenneth, and to distinguish him from his father
was called "Coinneach Og" or Kenneth the younger.

It appears that Kenneth had no great affection for Lady Margaret,
for a few days after he sent her away he went to Lord Lovat accompanie
by two hundred of his followers and besieged his house.  Lovat was
naturally surprised at his conduct and demanded an explanation,
when he was informed by Kenneth that he came to demand his daughter
Agnes in marriage now that he had no wife, having, as he told
him, disposed of Lady Margaret in the manner already described.
He insisted upon an immediate and favourable reply to his suit on
which condition he promised to be on strict terms of friendship
with the family; but, if his demand was refused he would swear
mortal enmity against Lovat and his house; and, as evidence of his
intention in this respect, he pointed out to his lordship that he
already bad a party of his vassals outside gathering together the
men, women, and goods that were nearest in the vicinity, all of whom,
be declared, should "be made one fyne to evidence his resolution."
Lovat, who had no particularly friendly feelings towards Macdonald
of the Isles, was not at all indisposed to procure Mackenzie's
friendship on the terms proposed, and considering the exigencies
and danger of his retainers, and knowing full well the bold and
determined character of the man he had to deal with, he consented
to the proposed alliance, provided the voting lady herself
was favourable.  She fortunately proved submissive.  Lord Lovat
delivered her up to her suitor, who immediately returned borne
with her, and ever after they lived together as husband and wife.

Macdonald was naturally very much exasperated by Kenneth's defiant
answer to himself and the repeated insults heaped upon his relative,
and through her upon her family.  He therefore dispatched his
great steward, Maclean, to collect his followers in the Isles, as
also to advise and request the aid of his nearest relations on the
mainland - the Macdonalds of Moidart and Clan Jan of Ardnamurchan.
In a short time they mustered a force between them of about fifteen
hundred men - some say three thousand - and arranged with Macdonald
to meet him at Contin.  They assumed that Alexander Mackenzie, now
so old, would not have gone to Kintail, but would stay in Ross,
judging that the Macdonalds, so recently come under obligations
to the King to keep the peace would not venture to collect their
forces and invade the low country.  But Kenneth, foreseeing the
danger from the rebellious temper of Macdonald, went to Kintail at
the commencement of his enemy's preparations, and placed a strong
garrison, with sufficient provisions, in Ellandonnan Castle; and
the cattle and other goods in the district he ordered to be driven
and sent to the most remote hills and secret places.  He took
all the remaining able-bodied men along with him, and on his way
back to Kinellan he was joined by his dependants in Strathconan,
Strathgarve, and other glens in the Braes of Ross, all fully
determined to defend Kenneth and his aged father at the expense,
if need be, of their lives, small as their united forces were in
comparison with that against which they knew they would soon have
to contend.

Macdonald had meanwhile collected his friends, and, at the head
of a large body of Western Highlanders, advanced through Lochaber
into Badenoch, where he was joined by the Clan Chattan; marched
to Inverness, where they were met by the young laird of Kilravock
and some of Lovat's people; reduced the Castle (then a royal
fortress), placed a garrison in it, and proceeded to the north-east,
plundering the lands of Sir  Alexander Urquhart, Sheriff of Cromarty.
They next marched westward to the district of Strathconan, ravaged
the lands of the Mackenzies as they went, and put the inhabitants
and more immediate retainers of the family to the sword, resolutely
determined to punish Mackenzie for his ill-treatment of Lady
Margaret and recover possession of that part of the Earldom of
Ross forfeited by the earls of that name, and now the property of
Mackenzie by Royal charter.  Having wasted Strathconan, Macdonald
arrived on Sunday morning at Contin, where he found the people in
great terror and confusion; and the able-bodied men having already
joined Mackenzie, the aged, the women, and the children took refuge
in the church, thinking themselves secure within its precincts from
any enemy professing Christianity.  They soon, to their horror,
found out their  mistake.  Macdonald, having little or no scruples
on the score of religion, ordered the doors to be closed and
guarded, and then set fire to the  building.  The priest, together
with the hapless crowd of helpless and aged men, women and children,
were all burnt to ashes.

Some of those who were fortunate enough not to have been in Contin
church immediately started for Kinellan, and informed Mackenzie
of the hideous massacre.  Alexander, though deeply grieved at the
cruel destruction of his people, expressed his gratitude that the
enemy, whom he had hitherto considered too numerous to contend with
successfully, had now engaged God against them by their impious
conduct.  Contin was not far from Kinellan, and Macdonald, thinking
that Mackenzie would not remain at the latter place with such
a comparatively small force, ordered Gillespic to draw up his
followers on the large moor, now known as "Blar-na-Pairc," that he
might review them, and send out a detachment to pursue the enemy.
Kenneth Mackenzie, who had received the command of the clan from
the old chief, had meantime posted his men in a strong position
- on ground where he considered he could defend himself against a
superior force, and conveniently situated to attack the enemy if
a favourable opportunity occurred.  His followers only amounted
to six hundred, while his opponent had at least three times that
number, but he had the advantage in another respect inasmuch as he
had sufficient provisions for a much longer period than Macdonald
could possibly procure for his larger force, the country people
having driven their cattle and all the provender that might be of
service to the enemy out of his  reach.  About mid-day the Islesmen
were drawn up on the moor, about a quarter of a mile distant from
the position occupied by the Mackenzies, the opposing forces being
only separated from each other by a peat moss, full of deep pits
and deceitful bogs.  Kenneth, fearing a siege, had shortly before
this prevailed upon his aged father to retire to the Raven's Rock,
above Strathpeffer, to which place, strong and easily defended, he
resolved to follow him in case he were compelled to retreat before
the numerically superior force of his enemy.  This the venerable
Alexander did, recommending his son to the assistance and protection
of a Higher Power, at the same time assuring him of success,
notwithstanding the far more numerous numbers of his adversary.

By the nature of the ground, Kenneth perceived that Macdonald could
not bring all his forces to the attack at once, and he accordingly
resolved to maintain his ground and try the effects of a stratagem
which he correctly calculated would mislead his opponent and
place him at a serious disadvantage.  He acquainted his younger
brother, Duncan, with his resolution and plans, and sent him off,
before the struggle commenced, with a body of archers to be placed
in ambush, while he determined to cross the peat-bog himself and
attack Macdonald in front with the main body, intending to retreat
as soon as his adversary returned the attack, and thus entice the
Islesmen to pursue him.  He informed Duncan of his own intention
to retreat and commanded him to be in readiness with his archers
to charge the enemy whenever they got fairly into the moss and
entangled among the pits and bogs.

Having made these preliminary arrangements, he boldly advanced to
meet the foe, leading his resolute band in the direction of the
intervening moss.  Macdonald, seeing him, cried in derision to
Gillespic to see "Mackenzie's impudent madness, daring thus to
face him at such disadvantage."  Gillespic, being a more experienced
leader than the  youthful and impetuous Alexander, said that "such
extraordinary boldness should be met by more extraordinary wariness
in us, lest we fall into  unexpected inconvenience."  Macdonald,
in a towering passion, replied to this wise counsel - "Go you also
and join with them, and it will not need our care nor move the
least fear in my followers; both of you will not be a breakfast
to me and mine."  Meanwhile Mackenzie advanced a little beyond
the moss, avoiding, from his intimate knowledge of it, all the
dangerous pits and bogs, when Maclean of Lochbuy, who led the van
of the enemy's army, advanced and charged him with great fury.
Mackenzie, according to his pre-arranged plan, at once retreated,
but in so masterly a manner that, in doing so, he inflicted as
much damage on the enemy as he  received.  The Islesmen speedily
got entangled in the moss, and Duncan Mackenzie observing this,
rushed forth from his ambush and furiously attacked them in flank
and rear, killing most of those who had entered the bog.  He then
turned his attention to the main body of the Islesmen, who were
quite unprepared for so sudden an onslaught.  Kenneth, setting
this, charged with his main body, who were all well instructed in
their leader's design, and, before the enemy were able to form in
order of battle, he fell on their right flank with such impetuosity
and did such execution among them that they were compelled to fall
back in confusion before the splendid onset of the small force
which they had so recently sneered at and despised.  Gillespic,
stung by Alexander Macdonald's taunt before the engagement began,
to prove to him that "though he was wary in council he was not
fearful in action," sought out Kenneth Mackenzie, that he might
engage him in single combat, and followed by some of his bravest
followers he, with signal valour, did great execution among the
Mackenzies in course of his approach to Kenneth, who was in the
hottest of the fight, and who, seeing Gillespic coming in his
direction, advanced to meet him, killing, wounding, or scattering
any of the Macdonalds that came in his way.  He made a signal to
Gillespic to advance and meet him hand-to-hand, but, finding him
hesitating, Kenneth, who far exceeded him in strength while he
equalled him in courage, would brook no tedious debate but pressed
on with fearful eagerness, at one blow cut off Gillespic's arm
and passed very far into his body so that he fell down dead on
the spot.

At this moment Kenneth noticed his standard-bearer close by, without
his colours, and fighting desperately to his own hand.  He turned
round to him, and angrily asked what had become of his colours,
when he was coolly answered - "I left Macdonald's standard-bearer,
quite unashamed of himself, and without the slightest concern for
those of his own chief, carefully guarding mine." Kenneth naturally
demanded an explanation of such an extraordinary state of matters,
when the man informed him that he had met Macdonald's standard-bearer
in the conflict, and had been fortunate enough to slay him; that
he had thrust the staff of his own standard through his opponent's
body and as there appeared to be some good work to do among the
enemy, he had left some of his companions to guard the standard,
and devoted himself to do what little he could to aid his master,
and protect him from his adversaries.  Maclean of Lochbuy (Lachlainn
MacThearlaich) was killed by "Duncan mor na  Tuaighe," Mackenzie's
"great scallag," of whom we have the following curious account:

Shortly before the battle, a raw, ungainly, but powerful looking
youth from Kintail was seen staring about, as the Mackenzies were
starting to meet the enemy, in an apparently idiotic manner, as
if looking for something.  He ultimately came across an old rusty
battle-axe, of great size, and, setting off after the others, he
arrived at the scene of strife just as the combatants were closing
with each other.  Duncan Macrae (for such was his name), from his
stupid and ungainly appearance, was taken little notice of, and
was wandering about in an aimless, vacant, half-idiotic manner.
Hector Roy, Alexander's third son, and progenitor of the Gairloch
Mackenzies, observing him, asked why he was not taking part in the
fight, and supporting his chief and clan.  Duncan replied - "Mar a
faigh  mi miabh duine, cha dean mi gniomh duine."  (Unless I get
a man's esteem, I shall not perform a man's work.)  This was in
reference to his  not having been provided with a proper weapon.
Hector answered him - "Deansa gniomh duine 's gheibh thu miabh
duine."  (Perform a man's work and you will get a man's esteem.)
Duncan at once rushed into the  strife, exclaiming - "Buille mhor
bho chul mo laimhe, 's ceum leatha, am fear nach teich rombam,
teicheam roimhe."  (A heavy stroke from the  back of my hand [arm]
and a step to [enforce] it.  He who does not get out of my way,
let me get out of his.)  Duncan soon killed a man, and, drawing
the body aside, he coolly sat upon it.  Hector Roy, noticing this
peculiar proceeding as be was passing by in the heat of the contest,
accosted Duncan, and asked him why he was not still engaged with
his comrades.  Duncan answered - "Mar a faigh mi ach miabh aon duine
cha dean mi ach  gniomh aon duine."  (If I only get one man's due
I shall only do one man's work).  Hector told him to perform two
men's work, and be would get two men's  reward.  Duncan returned
again to the field of carnage, killed another, pulled his body
away, placed it on the top of the first, and sat upon the two.  The
same question was again asked, and the answer given: "I have
killed two men, and earned two men's wages."  Hector answered
- "Do your best, and we shall not be reckoning with you."  Duncan
instantly  replied - "Am  fear nach biodh ag cunntadh rium cha
bhithinn ag cunntadh ris" - (He that would not reckon with me, I
would not reckon with him) - and rushed into the thickest of the
battle, where he mowed down the enemy with his rusty battle-axe
like grass; so much so that Lachlan Maclean of Lochbuy (Lachlainn
MacThearlaich), a most redoubtable warrior, placed himself in
Duncan's way to check him in his murderous career.  The two met
in mortal strife, but, Maclean being a very powerful man, clad
in mail, and well versed in arms, Duncan could make no impression
upon him but, being lighter and more active than his heavily mailed
opponent, he managed to defend himself, watching his opportunity,
and retreating backwards until he arrived at a ditch, where
his opponent, thinking he had him fixed, made a desperate stroke
at him, which Duncan parried, at the same time jumping backwards
across the ditch.  Maclean, to catch his enemy, made a furious
lunge with his weapon, but, instead of entering Duncan's body, it
got fixed in the opposite bank of the ditch.  In withdrawing it,
he bent his head forward, when the helmet, rising, exposed the
back of his neck, upon which Duncan's battle-axe descended with
the velocity of lightning, and with such terrific force as to sever
Maclean's head from his body.  This, it is said, was the turning-point
of the struggle, for the Macdonalds, seeing the brave leader of
their van falling, at once retreated, and gave up all for lost.
The hero was ever afterwards known as "Donnchadh Mor na Tuaighe,"
or Big Duncan of the Axe, and many a story is told in Kintail and
Gairloch of the many other prodigies of valour which he performed
in the after contests of the Mackenzies and the Macraes against
their common enemies.  "Such of Macdonald's men as escaped the
battle fled together, and as they were going homeward began to
spulzie Strathconan, which Mackenzie hearing, followed them with
a party, overtakes them at Invercorran, kills shoals of them and
the rest fled divers ways."

That night, as Mackenzie sat at supper, he missed Duncan Mor, and
said to the company - "I am more vexed for the want of my scallag
mar (big servant) this night than any satisfaction I had of this
day."  One of those present said, "I thought, (as the people fled)
I perceived him following four or five men that ran up the burn."
He had not well spoken the word when Duncan Mor came in with
four heads "bound on a woody" and threw them before his master,
saying - "Tell me now if I have not deserved my supper," to which,
it is said of him, he fell with great gusto.

This reminds me, continues the chronicler, "of a cheat he once
played on an Irishman, being a traveller, withal a strong, lusty
fellow, well-proportioned, but of an extraordinary stomach.  He
resorted into gentlemen's houses, and (was) very oft in Mackenzie's.
Having come on a time to the same Mackenzie's house in Islandonain
two or three years after this battle (of Park), he was cared for
as usual, and when the laird went to dinner, he was set aside,
at a side-table to himself, and a double proportion allowed him,
which this Duncan Mor envying, went on a day and sat side for side
with him, drew his skyn or short dagger and eats with him.  'How
now,' says the Irishman, 'how comes it that you fall in eating
in any manner of way.'  'I cannot tell,' says Duncan, 'but I do
think I have as good will to eat as you can have.'  'Well,' says
the other, 'we shall try that when we have done.'  So when the
laird had done of his dinner, the Irishman went where he was
and said, 'Noble sir, I have travelled now almost among all the
clans in Scotland, and was resorting their houses, as I have been
several times here, where I cannot say but I was sufficiently cared
for, but I never met with such an affront as I have this day.'  The
laird asked what he meant.  So he tells him what injury Duncan had
done him in eating a share of his proportion.  'Well,' says the
laird, 'I hope M'ille Chruimb,' for so the Irishman was called,
'you will take no notice of him that did that; for he is but a fool
that plays the fool now and then.'  'I cannot tell,' says he, 'but he
is no idiot at eating, nor will I let my affront pass so; for I must
have a turn or two of wrestling with him for it in your presence.'
Whereupon a stander-by asks Duncan if he would wrestle with him.  'I
will,' says he, 'for I think I was fit sides with him in eating and
might be so with this.'  They yocks, and Duncan threw him thrice on
his back.  The Irishman was so angry he wist not what to say.  He
invites him to put the stone, and at the second cast he worried him
four feet, but could never reach him.  Then he was like to burst
himself.  Finding this, he invites him to lop so that he outlopped
him as far a length.  The Irishman then said, 'I have travelled as
far as any of my equals, both in Scotland, England, and Ireland, and
tried many hands, but I never met with my equal till this day,
but comrade,' say's he 'let us now go and swim a little in the
laird's presence.'  'With all my heart,' say's Duncan,  'for I never
sought better' (with this Duncan could swim not at all), but down
to the shore they go to the next rock, and being full sea, was at
least three fathoms deep, but before the Irishman had off half of
his clothes Duncan was stark naked, lops over the rocks and ducks
to the bottom and up again.  Looking about him he calls to a boy
that stood by, and said, 'Lad, go where the Lady is, and bid her
send me a butter and four cheese.'  The  Irishman, hearing  this,
asks `what purpose.'  'To what purpose,' says he, 'yons the least we
will need this night and to-morrow wherever we be,' 'Do you intend a
journey,' say's the Irishman.  'Aye, that I do,' answered the other,
'and am in hopes to cross the Kyle ere night.'  Now, this Kyle was
20 leagues off with a very ill stream, as the Irishman very well
knew, so that he said, with a very great oath, lie would not go with
him that length, but if he liked to sport the laird with several
sorts of swimming, he would give a trial.  'Sport here, sport there,
wherever I go you must go.'  With this the cheese and butter come,
and Duncan desires the Irishman to make ready, but all his
persuasions (not against his will) would not prevail with
Mac a Chruimb, whereupon all the company gave over with laughter,
knowing the other could swim none at all, but the fellow thought
they jeered him.  The laird made Duncan forbear him; but Duncan
swore a great oath he would make him swim or he left the town,
otherwise he would want of his will.  So it came to pass for the
Irishman got away that same night, was seen on the morrow in
Lochalsh, but none (was) found that ferried him over.  But never
after resorted Mackenzie's house." [Ancient MS. of the Mackenzies.]

What remained of the Macdonalds after the battle of Park were
completely routed and put to flight, but most of them were killed,
"quarter being no ordinar complement in thos dayes."

The night before the battle young Brodie of Brodie, accompanied by
his accustomed retinue, was on a visit at Kinellan, and as be was
preparing to leave the next morning be noticed Mackenzie's men in
arms, whereupon he asked if the enemy were known to be so near
that for a certainty they would fight before night.  Being informed
that they were close at hand, he determined to wait and take part
in the battle, replying to Kenneth's persuasions to the contrary,
"that be was an ill fellow and worse neighbour that would leave
his friend at such a time,"  He took a distinguished part in the
fight and behaved "to the advantage of his friend and notable loss
of his enemy," and the Earl of Cromarty informs us that immediately
after the battle be went on his journey.  But his conduct produced
a friendship between the Mackenzies and the family of Brodie, which
continued among their posterity, "and even yet remains betwixt
them, being more sacredly observed than the ties of affinity and
consanguinity amongst most others," and a bond of manrent was
entered into between the families.  Some authorities assert that
young Brodie was slain, but of this no early writer makes any mention
and neither in Sir Robert Gordon's 'Earldom of Sutherland,' in the
'Earl of Cromartie' or other MS. 'Histories of the Mackenzies,' nor in
Brown's 'History of the Highland  Clans,' is there any mention made
of his having been killed, though they  all refer to the distinguished
part be took in the battle.  He was, however, seriously wounded.

The morning after the battle Kenneth, fearing that the few of the
Macdonalds who escaped might rally among the hills and commit
cruelties and robberies on those of his people whom they might come
across, marched to Strathconan, where he found, as he had expected,
that about three hundred of the enemy had rallied, and were
destroying everything they had passed over in their eastward march
before the battle.  As soon, however, as they noticed him in pursuit
they took to their heels, but they were overtaken and all killed or
made prisoners.

Kenneth then  returned to Kinellan, carrying with him Alexander
Macdonald of Lochalsh, whom he had taken prisoner, in triumph.  His
aged father, Alastair Ionraic, had now returned from the Raven's
Rock, and warmly congratulated his valiant son upon his splendid
victory; adding, however, with significant emphasis, that he feared
they made two days work of one," since, by sparing Macdonald,
who was also a prisoner, and his apparent heir, they preserved
the lives of those who might yet give them trouble.  But Kenneth,
though a lion in the field, could not, from any such prudential
consideration, be induced to commit such a cowardly and inhuman
act as was here inferred.  He, however, had no great faith in the
forbearance of his followers if an opportunity occurred to them,
and he accordingly sent Macdonald, under a strong guard, to Lord
Lovat, to be kept by him in safety until he should advise him how
to dispose of him.  He kept Alexander of Lochalsh with himself, but,
contrary to the expectations of their friends, he, on the
intercession of old Macdonald, released them both within six months,
having first bound them by oath and honour never to molest him or
his, and never again to claim any right to the Earldom of Ross,
which the Lord of the Isles had in 1475 forfeited to the Crown.

Many of the Macdonalds and their followers who escaped from the
field of battle perished in the River Conon.  Flying from the close
pursuit of the victorious Mackenzies, they took the river, which
in some parts was  very deep, wherever they came up to it, and were
drowned.  Rushing to cross at Moy, they met an old woman - still
smarting under the insults and spoliations inflicted on her and
her neighbours by the Macdonalds on their way north - and asked her
where was the best ford on the river.  "O! ghaolaich," she answered,
"is aon ath an abhuinn; ged tha i dubh, cha 'n  eil i domhain," (Oh!
dear, the river is all one ford together; though it looks  black,
it is not deep).  In their pitiful plight, and on the strength of
this  misleading information, they rushed into the water in hundreds,
and were immediately carried away by the stream, many of them
clutching at the shrubs and bushes which overhung the banks of
the river, and crying loudly for assistance.  This amazon and a
number of her sex who were near at hand had meanwhile procured
their sickles, and now exerted themselves in cutting away the
bushes to which the wretched Macdonalds clung with a death grasp,
the old woman exclaiming in each case, as she applied her sickle,
"As you have taken so much already which did not belong to you,
my friend, you can take that into the bargain.  The instrument
of the old woman's revenge has been for many generations, and
still is by very old people in the district, called "Cailleach na
Maigb," or the Old Wife of Moy.

The Mackenzies then proceeded to ravage the lands of Ardmeanach
and those belonging to William Munro of Fowlis - the former because
the young laird of Kilravock, whose father was governor of that
district, had assisted the Macdonalds; the latter probably because
Munro, who joined neither party, was suspected secretly of favouring
Lochalsh.  So many excesses were committed at this time by the
Mackenzies that the Earl of Huntly, Lieutenant of the North, was
compelled, notwithstanding their services in repelling the invasion
of the Macdonalds, to proceed against them as oppressors of the
lieges.  [Gregory, p.57.  Kilravock Writs, p.170, and Acts of
Council.]

A blacksmith, known as Glaishean Gow or "Gobha," one of Lovat's
people, in whose father's house Agnes Fraser, Mackenzie's wife, was
fostered, hearing of the advance of the Macdonalds to the Mackenzie
territory, started with a few followers in the direction of Conan,
but arrived too late to take part in the fight.  They were, however,
in time to meet those few who managed to ford or swim the river,
and killed every one of them so that they found an opportunity
"to do more service than if they had been at the battle."

This insurrection cost the Macdonalds the Lordship of the Isles,
as others had previously cost them the Earldom of Ross.  In
a Parliament held in Edinburgh in 1493, the possessions of the
Lord of the Isles were declared forfeited to the Crown.  In the
following January the aged Earl appeared before King James IV., and
made a voluntary surrender of everything, after which he remained
for several years in the King's household as a Court pensioner.
By Act of the Lords of Council in 1492 Alexander Urquhart, Sheriff
of Cromarty, had obtained restitution for himself and his tenants
for the depredations committed by Macdonald and his followers.
According to the Kilravock Papers, p.162, the spoil amounted to
600 cows and oxen, each worth 13s 4d, 80 horses, each worth  26s
8d; 1000 sheep, each worth 2s; 200 swine, each worth 3s; with
plenishing to the value of L300 and also 500 bolls of victual and
L300 of the mails of the Sheriff's lands.

The Earl of Cromarty says of Kenneth, "that he raised great
fears in his neighbours by his temper and power, by which he had
overturned so great ane interest as that of Macdonald, yet it
appearit that he did not proceid to such attemptts but on just
resentments and rationall grounds, for dureing his lyfe he not
only protected the country by his power, but he caryed so that
non was esteemed a better neighbour to his friends nor a juster
maister to his dependers.  In that one thing of his caryadge to his
first wife he is justly reprowable; in all things else he merits
justly to be numbered amongst the best of our Scots patriots."
The same writer continues - "The fight at Blairnapark put Mackenzie
in great respect through all the North.  The Earl of Huntly,
George, who was the second Earle, did contract a friendship with
him, and when he was imployed by King James 3d to assist him
against the conspirators in the South, Kenneth came with 500 men
to him in summer 1488; but erre they came the lengthe of Perth,
Mackenzie had nottice of his father Alexander's death, whereupon
Huntly caused him retire to ordor his affaires, least his old
enemies might tack advantage of such a change, and Huntly judgeing
that they were rather too numberous than weak for the conspirators,
by which occasion he (Kenneth) was absent from that vnfortunat
battle wher King James 3d wes kild, yet evir after this, Earl
George, and his son Alexander, the 3d Earl of Huntly, keipt a
great kyndness to Kenneth and his successors.  From the yeir 1489
the kingdom vnder King James 4d wes at great peace, and thereby
Mackenzie toock opportunity to setle his privat affaires, which
for many yeirs befor, yea severall ages, had bein almost still
disturbed by the Earls of Ross and Lords of the Illes, and so he
lived in peace and good correspondences with his neighbours till
the yeir 1491, for in the moneth of February that yeir he died and
wes buried at Bewlie.  All his predecessors wer buried at Icolmkill
(except his father), as wer most of the considerable chieffs in the
Highlands.  But this Kenneth, after his marriage, keipt frequent
devotiones with the Convent of Bewlie, and at his owin desyre wes
buried ther, in the ille on the north syd of the alter, which wes
built by himselfe in his lyftyme or he died; after that he done
pennance for his irregular marieing or Lovit's daughter.  He procured
recommendationes from Thomas Hay (his lady's uncle), Bishop of Ross,
to Pope Alexander the 6, from whom he procured a legittmatione of
all the cheildrein of the mariadge, daited apud St Petri, papatus
nostri primo, anno Cristiano 1491."

Bishop Hay strongly impressed upon Mackenzie the propriety of getting
his marriage with Agnes of Lovat legitimized, and to send for a
commission to the Pope for that purpose.  Donald Dubh MacChreggir,
priest of Kirkhill, was despatched to Rome with that object, and,
according to several of the family manuscripts, procured the
legitimation of the marriage.  "This priest was a native of Kintail,
descended from a clan there called Clan Chreggir, who, being a
hopefull boy in his younger days, was educat in Mackenzie's house,
and afterwards at Beullie be the forementioned Dugall Mackenzie,
pryor yrof.  In end he was made priest of Kirkhill.  His successors
to this day are called Frasers.  Of this priest is descended Mr
William Fraser and Mr Donald Fraser." [Ancient MS.]  Another writer
describes the messengers sent to Rome as Mr Andrew Fraser, priest of
Kintail, a learned and eloquent man, who took in his company Dugal
Mackenzie, natural son to Alexander Inrig, who was a scholar.  The
Pope entertained them kindly and very readily granted them what they
desired and were both made knights to the boot of Pope Clement the
VIII., but when my knights came home, they neglected the decree of
Pope Innocent III. against the marriage and consentrinate of all the
clergy or otherwise they got a dispensation from the then Pope
Clement VIII., for both of them married - Sir Dugall was made priest
of Kintail and married nien (daughter) Dunchy Chaim in Glenmorriston.
Sir Andrew likewise married, whose son was called Donald Du Mac
Intagard, and was priest of Kirkhill and Chaunter of Ross.  His tack
of the vicarage of Kilmorack to John Chisholm of Comar stands to this
day.  The present Mr William Fraser, minister of Kilmorack, is the
fifth minister in lineal and uninterrupted succession."
[Ardintoul MS.]

Anderson, in his 'Account of the Family of Fraser,' also says that
"application was made to the Pope to sanction the second marriage,
which he did, anno 1491."  Sir James D. Mackenzie of Findon (note,
p. 19) however says that he made a close search in the Vatican and
the Roman libraries but was unable to find trace of any document
of legitmation.

Of Roderick, Sir Kenneth's fourth son, who was an exceedingly
powerful man, the following interesting story is told: - He was a
man of great strength and stature, and in a quarrell which took
place between him and Dingwall of Kildun, he killed the latter, and
"that night abode with his wife."  Complaint was made to King James
the Fifth, who commanded the Baron of Kintail to give Rory up to
justice.  His brother, knowing he could not do so openly and by
force without trouble and considerable danger, went to Kintail
professedly to settle his affairs there, and when he was about
returning home he requested Rory to meet him at Glassletter, that
he might privately consult and discourse with him as to his
present state.   Rory duly met him on the appointed day with fifty
men of his "coalds,"  the Macleays, besides ordinary servants and
some Kintail men.  While the two brothers went to discourse, they
passed between the Kintail men and the Macleays, who sat at a good
distance from one another.  When Mackenzie came near the Kintail
men, he clapped Rory on the shoulder, which was the sign between
them, and Rory was immediately seized.  Gillecriost MacFhionnla
instantly ran to the Macleays, who had taken to their arms to
relieve their Coald Rory Mor, and desired them in a friendly manner
to compose themselves, and not be rash, since Rory was seized not
by his enemies, but was in the hands of his own brother, and of
those who had as great a kindness for him, and interest in him as
they had themselves; and further he desired them to consider what
would be the consequences, for if the least drop of blood was
shed, Rory would be immediately put to death, and so all their
pains would be lost.  He thus prevailed upon them to keep quiet.
In the meantime Rory struggled with the Kintail men, and would not
be taken or go along with them, until John Mor, afterwards agnamed
Ian Mor nan Cas, brother to Gillecriost MacFhionnla, took Rory
by the feet and cast him down.  They then bound him and carried
him on their shoulders, until he consented to go along with
them willingly, and without further objection.  They took him to
Ellandonnan, whence shortly after he was sent south to the King,
where he had to take his trial.  He, however, denied the whole
affair, and in the absence of positive proof, the judges declined to
convict him; but the King, quite persuaded of his guilt, ordered
him to be sent a prisoner to the Bass Rock, with strict injunctions
to have him kept in chains.  This order was obeyed, and Rory's hands
and legs were much pained and cut with the irons.  The governor
had unpleasant feuds with one of his neighbours, which occasioned
several encounters and skirmishes between their servants, who
came in repeatedly with wounds and bruises.  Rory, noticing this
to occur frequently, said to one of them, "Would to God that the
laird would take me with him, and I should then be worth my meat to
him and serve for better use than I do with these chains."  This
was communicated to the governor, who sent for Rory and asked him
if he would fight well for him.  "If I do not that," said he, "let
me hang in these chains."  He then took his solemn oath that he
would not run away, and the governor ordered the servants to set
about curing Rory's wounds with ointments.  He soon found himself
in good condition to fight, and an opportunity was not long delayed.
The governor met his adversary accompanied by his prisoner,
who fought to admiration, exhibiting great courage and enormous
strength.  He soon routed the enemy, and the governor became so
enamoured of him that he was never after out of his company whenever
he could secretly have him unknown to the Court.  About this time an
Italian came to Edinburgh, who challenged the whole nation to a
wrestling match for a large sum of money.  One or two grappled with
him, but he disposed of them so easily that no one else could be
found to engage him.  The King was much annoyed at this, and
expressed himself strongly in favour of any one who would defeat the
Italian, promising to give him a suitable reward.  The governor of
the Rock having heard of this, thought it an excellent opportunity
for his prisoner to secure his freedom, and at the same time redeem
the credit of the nation, and he informed the King that a prisoner
committed to the Bass by his Majesty if released of his irons would,
in his opinion, match the Italian.  The King immediately answered,
"His liberty, with reward, shall he have if he do so."  The governor,
so as not to expose his own intimate relations with and treatment of
the prisoner, warily asked that time should be allowed to cure him of
his wounds, lest his own crime and Rory's previous liberty should
become known.  When sufficient time had elapsed for this purpose a
day was appointed, and the governor brought Rory to Holyrood House to
meet the King, who enquired if he "would undertake to cast the
Italian for his liberty?"  "Yes, sir," answered Rory "it will be a
hard task that I will not undertake for that; but, sir, it may be,
it will not be so easy to perform as to undertake, yet I shall give
him a fair trial."  "Well" said the King, "how many days will you
have to fit yourself?"  "Not an hour" replied Rory.  His Majesty was
so pleased with his resolution that he immediately sent to the
Italian to ask if he would accept the challenge at once.  He who had
won so many victories so easily  already did not hesitate to grapple
with Rory, having no fear as to the result.  Five lists were
prepared.  The Italian was first on the ground, and seeing Rory
approaching him, dressed in his rude habit, without any of the
usual dress and accoutrements, laughed loudly.  But no sooner was
he in the Highlander's grasp than the Italian was on his knee.
The King cried with joy; the Italian alleged foul play, and made
other and frivolous excuses, but His Majesty was so glad of the
apparent advantage in his favour that he was unwilling to expose
Rory to a second hazard.  This did not suit the Highlander at all,
and he called out, "No, no, sir; let me try  him again, for now I
think I know his strength."  His Majesty hearing this, consented,
and in the second encounter Rory laid firm hold of the foreigner,
pulled him towards him with all his might, breaking his back, and
disjointing the back-bone.  The poor fellow fell to the ground
groaning with pain, and died two day's after.  The King, delighted
with Rory's prowess, requested him to remain at Court, but this he
refused, excusing himself on the ground that his long imprisonment
quite unfitted him for Court life, but if it pleased his Majesty
he would send him his son, who was better fitted to serve him.  He
was provided with money and suitable clothing by Royal command.  The
King requested him to hasten his son to Court, which he accordingly
did.  This son was named Murdoch, and His Majesty became so fond
of him that he always retained him about his person, and granted
him, as an earnest of greater things to follow, the lands of
Fairburn, Moy, and others adjoining, also the Ferry of Scuideal;
but Murdoch being unfortunately absent from the Court when the
King died, he missed much more which his Majesty had designed for
him. [Ardintoul and Cromartie MS. Histories of the Mackenzies.]

The following, told of Roderick and Kenneth, the fifth son, is also
worth a place: - Kenneth was Chaunter of Ross, and perpetual Curate
of Coinbents, which vicarage he afterwards resigned into the hands
of Pope Paulus in favour of the Priory of Beauly.  Though a priest
and in holy orders he would not abstain from marriage, for which
cause the Bishop decided to have him deposed.  On the appointed
day for his trial he had his brother Rory at Chanonry, when the
trial was to take place, with a  number of his followers.  Kenneth
presented himself before the Bishop in his long gown, but under
it he had a two-edged sword, and drawing near his Lordship,
who sat in his presiding chair, whispered in his ear, "It is
best that you should let me alone, for my brother Rory is in the
churchyard with many ill men, and if you take off my orders he will
take off your head, and I myself will not be your best friend."
He then coolly exposed his penknife, as he called his great sword,
"which sight, with Rory's proximity, and being a person whose
character was well enough known by his Lordship, he was so terrified
that he incontinently absolved and vindicated the good Chaunter,"
who ever after enjoyed his office (and his wife) unchallenged.

Sir Kenneth of Kintail, who was knighted by James IV. "for being
highly instrumental in reducing his fierce countrymen to the
blessings of a  civilized life," was twice married; first, to Lady
Margaret, daughter of John, Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross,
with issue -

I. Kenneth Og, his heir and successor.

He married secondly, Agnes or Anne Fraser, daughter of Hugh, third
Lord Lovat, with issue -

II. John, who succeeded his brother Kenneth Og.

III. Alexander, first of the family of Davochmaluag.

IV. Roderick, progenitor of the families of Achilty, Fairburn,
Ardross, etc.

V. Kenneth, better know as "the Priest of Avoch," from whom the
families of Suddie, Ord, Corryvulzie, Highfield, Inverlaul, Little
Findon, and others of lesser note.

VI. Agnes, who married Roderick Macleod, VII. of Lewis, with issue.

VII. Catherine, who married Hector Munro of Fowlis, with issue.

There has been a considerable difference of opinion among the
family genealogists as to the date of Sir Kenneth's death, but it
is now placed beyond doubt that he died in 1491, having only ruled
as actual chief of the clan for the short space of three years.
This is clearly proved from his tomb in the Priory of Beauly,
where there is a full length recumbent effigy of him, in full
armour, with arms folded across his chest as if in prayer, and on
the arch over it is the following inscription "Hic Jacet, Kanyans,
m. kynch d'us de Kyntayl, q. obiit vii. die Februarii, a. di.
m.cccc.lxxxxi."  Sir William Fraser, in his history of the Earls of
Cromartie, gives, in his genealogy of the Mackenzies of Kintail,
the date of his death as "circa 1506," and ignores his successor
Kenneth Og altogether.  This is incomprehensible to readers of the
work; for in the book itself, in various places, it is indubitably
established that Sir William's genealogy is incorrect in this, as
in other important particulars."  [Sir William Fraser appears to
have adopted Douglas in his genealogies, who, as already shown,
in many instances, cannot be depended upon.]

The following, from the published "Acts of the Lords of Council,"
p. 327, under date 17th  June, 1494, places the question absolutely
beyond  dispute.  "The King's Highness and Lords of Council decree
and deliver that David Ross of Balnagown shall restore and deliver
again to Annas Fresale, the spouse of THE LATE Kenneth Mackenzie
of Kintail, seven  score of cows, price of the piece (each), 20s;
30 horses, price of the piece, 2 merks; 200 sheep and goats, price
of the piece, 2s; and 14 cows, price of the piece, 20s; spuilzied
and taken by the said David and his complices  from the said Annas
out of the lands of Kynlyn (? Killin or Kinellan), as was sufficiently
proved before the Lords; and ordain that letters be written to
distrain the said David, his lands and goods therefor, and he was
present at his action by this procurators."  It is needless to
point out that the man who, by this undoubted authority, was THE
LATE Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, in 1494 could not have died
about or "circa 1506," as Sir William Fraser asserts in his Earls
of Cromartie.  Kenneth died in 1491, and was succeeded by his only
son by his first wife, Margaret of Isla,


VIII.  KENNETH  OG  MACKENZIE,


Or KENNETH THE YOUNGER, who was also known as Sir Kenneth.  He
was fostered in Taagan, Kenlochewe. [Ancient MS.]  When, in 1488,
King James the IV. succeeded to the throne, he determined to attach
to his interest the principal chiefs in the Highlands.  "To overawe
and subdue the petty princes who affected independence, to carry
into their territories, hitherto too exclusively governed by their
own capricious or tyrannical institutions, the same system of a
severe but regular and rapid administration of civil and criminal
justice which had been established in his Lowland dominions was the
laudable object of the King; and for this purpose he succeeded, with
that energy and activity which remarkably distinguished him, in
opening up an intercourse with many of the leading men in the northern
counties.  With the Captain of the Clan Chattan, Duncan Mackintosh
with Ewen, the son of Alan, Captain of the Clan Cameron with Campbell
of Glenurghay; the Macgilleouns of Duart and Lochbuy; Mackane
of Ardnamurchan the Lairds of Mackenzie and Grant; and the Earl
of Huntly, a baron of the most extensive power in these northern
districts, he appears to have been in habits of constant and regular
communication - rewarding them by presents, in the shape either of
money or of grants or land, and securing their services in reducing to
obedience such of their fellow chieftains as proved contumacious,
or actually rose in rebellion." [Tytler, vol. iv., pp. 367-368.]

To carry out this plan he determined to take pledges for their
good behaviour from some of the most powerful clans, and, at the
same time, educate the younger lairds into a more civilized manner
of governing their people.  Amongst others he took a special
interest in Kenneth Og, and Farquhar Mackintosh, the young lairds
of Mackenzie and Mackintosh, who were cousins, their mothers being
sisters, daughters of John, last Lord of the Isles.  They were
both powerful, the leaders of great clans, and  young men of great
spirit and reckless habits.  They were accordingly apprehended in
1495 ["The King having made a progress to the North, was advised
to secure these two gentlemen as hostages for securing the peace of
the Highlands, and accordingly they were apprehended at Inverness
and sent prisoners to Edinburgh in the year 1495, where they
remained two years." - Dr George Mackenzie's MS. History,] and sent
to  Edinburgh, where they were kept in custody in the Castle, until
a favourable opportunity occurring in 1497, they escaped over the
ramparts by the aid of ropes secretly conveyed to them by some of
their friends.  This was the more easily managed, as they had
liberty granted them to roam over the whole bounds of the Castle
within the outer walls; and the young chieftains, getting tired of
restraint, and ashamed to be idle while they considered themselves
fit actors for the stage of their Highland domains, resolved to
attempt an escape by dropping over the walls, when Kenneth injured
his leg, so as to incapacitate him from rapid progress; but
Mackintosh manfully resolved to risk capture himself rather than
leave his fellow-fugitive behind him in such circumstances.  The
result of this accident, however, was that after three days journey
they were only able to reach the Torwood, where, suspecting no
danger, they put up for the night in a private house.

The Laird of Buchanan, who was at the time an outlaw for a murder
he had committed, happened to be in the neighbourhood, and meeting
the Highlanders, entertained them with a show of kindness; by
which means he induced them to divulge their names and quality.  A
proclamation had recently been issued promising remission to any
outlaw who would bring in another similarly circumstanced, and
Buchanan resolved to procure his own freedom at the expense of his
fellow-fugitives; for he knew well that such they were, previously
knowing of them as his Majesty's pledges from their respective
clans.  In the most deceitful manner, he watched until they had
retired to rest, when he surrounded the house with a band of his
followers, and charged them to surrender.  This they declined;
and Mackenzie, being of a violent temper and possessed of more
courage than prudence, rushed out with a drawn sword "refusing
delivery and endeavouring to escape," whereupon he was shot with
an arrow by one of Buchanan's men.  His head was severed from
his body, and forwarded to the King in Edinburgh; while young
Mackintosh, who made no further resistance, was secured and sent
a prisoner to the King.  Buchanan's outlawry was remitted, and
Mackintosh was confined in Dunbar, where he remained until after the
death of James the Fourth at the battle of Flodden Field. [Gregory,
p.93; and MS. History by the Earl of Cromartie.]  Buchanan's base
conduct was universally execrated, while the fate of young Mackenzie
was lamented throughout the whole Highlands, having been accused of
no other crime than the natural forwardness of youth, and having
escaped from his confinement in Edinburgh Castle.

It is admitted on all hands that Kenneth Og was killed, as above, in
1497, and he must, therefore - his father having died in 1491 - have
ruled as one of the Barons of Kintail, though there is no record
of his having been formally served heir.  He was not married, but
left two bastard sons - one, known as Rory Beag, by the daughter of
the Baron of Moniack; and the other by the daughter of a gentleman
in Cromar, of whom are descended the Sliochd Thomais in Cromar and
Glenshiel, Braemar, the  principal families of which were those of
Dalmore and Renoway. ["In his  going to Inverness, as I have said,
to meet the King, he was the night before his coming there in the
Baron of Muniag's house, whose daughter he got with child, who
was called Rory Begg.  Of this Rory descended the parson of Slate;
and on the same journey going along with the King to Edinburgh
he got a son with a gentleman's daughter, and called him Thomas
Mackenzy, of whom descended the Mackenzies - in Braemar called
Slyghk Homash Vic Choinnich.  That is to say Thomas Mackenzie's
Succession.  If he had lived he would be heir to Mackenzie and
Macdonald (Earl of Ross)." - Ancient MS.]  He was succeeded by his
eldest brother by his father's second marriage with Agnes or Anne,
daughter of Hugh, third Lord Lovat,

IX.  JOHN  MACKENZIE  OF  KILLIN,

Known by that designation from his having generally resided at that
place.  He was, as we have seen, the first son of Kenneth, seventh
Baron of Kintail, by his second wife Agnes, or Anne of Lovat, and
his father being never regularly married, the great body of the clan
did not consider John his legitimate heir.  Hector Roy Mackenzie,
his uncle, progenitor of the  House of Gairloch, a man of great
prudence and courage, was by Kenneth a Bhlair appointed tutor
to his eldest son Kenneth Og, then under age, though Duncan, an
elder brother by Alexander's first wife, had, according to custom,
a prior claim to that honourable and important trust.  Duncan is,
however, described as one who was "of better hands than head" -
more brave than prudent.  Hector took charge, and on the death of
Kenneth Og found himself in possession of valuable and extensive
estates.  He had already secured great popularity among the clan,
which in the past he had often led to victory against the common
enemy.  He objected to John's succession on the ground that he was
the illegitimate son of Lovat's daughter, with whom his father,
Kenneth, at first did "so irregularly and unlawfully cohabit," and
John's youth encouraging him, it is said, [MS.  History by the Earl
of Cromartie.]  Hector proposed an arrangement to Duncan, whom he
considered the only legitimate obstacle to his own succession, by
which he would transfer his rights as elder brother in Hector's
favour, in return for which he should receive a considerable portion
of the estates for himself and his successors.  Duncan declined
to enter into the proposed agreement, principally on the ground
that the  Pope, in 1491, the year in which John's father died,
had legitimised Kenneth a Bhlair's marriage with Agnes of Lovat,
and thereby restored the children of that union to the rights of
succession.  Finding Duncan unfavourable to his project, Hector
declared John illegitimate, and held possession of the estates for
himself; and the whole clan, with whom he was a great favourite,
submitted to his rule. [Though we have given this account on the
authority of the MS. histories of the family, it is now generally
believed that Duncan was dead at this period, and that his son Allan,
who would have succeeded, failing John of Killin's legitimacy, was
a minor when his father died.]

It can hardly be supposed that Lord Lovat would be a disinterested
spectator of these proceedings, and in the interest of his sister's
children he procured a precept of clare constat from James Stewart,
Duke of Ross,  [After the forfeiture of the ancient Earls of Ross,
the district furnished  new titles under the old names, to members
of the Royal family.  James Stewart, second son of King James the
Third, was created in 1487 Duke of Ross, Marquis of Ormond, Earl
of Ardmanach, and Lord of Brechin and Navar.  The Duke did not
long hold the territorial Dukedom of Ross.  On the 13th of May
1503, having obtained the rich Abbey of Dunfermline, he resigned
the Dukedom of Ross into the hands of the King.  The Duke reserved
for his life the hill of Dingwall beside that town for the style of
Duke, the hill of Ormond (above Avoch) for the style of Marquis,
the Redcastle of Ardmanach for the style of Earl, and the Castle
of Brechin, with the gardens, &c., for the name of Brechin and
Navar.  The Duke of Ross died in 1504.  It was said of him by
Ariosto, as translated by Hoole - "The title of the Duke of
Ross he bears, No chief like him in dauntless mind compares."  The
next creation of the title of the Duke of Ross was in favour of
Alexander Stewart, the posthumous son of King James the Fourth.
The Duke was born on the 30th April 1514, and died on the 18th
December 1515.  In the reign of Mary Queen of Scots, John, Earl
of Sutherland, acquired from Mary, the Queen Dowager, a certain
right in the Earldom of Ross, which might ultimately have joined
in one family both Sutherland and Ross.  Lord Darnley, on the
prospect of his marriage with Queen Mary, was created Earl of
Ross, a title by which he is little known, as it was only given
to him a short time before he obtained the higher titles of Duke
of Albany and King of Scotland. - Fraser's Earls of Cromartie.] and
Archbishop of St Andrews, in favour of his grandson, John, as heir
to the estates.  The document is "daited the last of Apryle 1500
and seasin thereon 16 Mey 1500 be Sir John Barchaw and William
Monro of Foulls, as Baillie to the Duk." [MS. History by the Earl
of Cromartie.]  This precept included the Barony of Kintail, as
well as the lands held by Mackenzie off the earldom of Ross, for,
the charter chest being in the possession of Hector Roy, Lovat
was not aware that Kintail was held direct from the Crown; but
notwithstanding all these precautions and legal instruments, Hector
kept possession and treated the entire estates as his own.

Sir William Munro of Fowlis, the Duke's Lieutenant for the
forfeited earldom of Ross, was dissatisfied with Hector's conduct,
and resolved to punish him.  Munro was in the habit of doing things
with a high hand, and on this occasion, during Hector's absence
from home, he, accompanied by his Sheriff, Alexander Vass, went to
Kinellan, where Hector usually resided, held a court at the place,
and as a mulct or fine took away the couples of one of Hector's
barns as a token of his power.  When Hector discovered what had
taken place in his absence, he became furious, and sent a messenger
to Fowlis telling him that if he were a man of courage and a "good
fellow" he would come and take away the couples of the other barn
when their owner was at home.

Munro, greatly offended at this message, determined to accept the
bold challenge conveyed in it, and promptly collected his vassals,
including the Dingwalls and the MacCullochs, who were then his
dependants, to the number of nine hundred, and with this force
started for Kinellan, where he arrived much sooner than Hector,
who hurriedly collected all the men he could in the neighbourhood,
anticipated.  Hector had no time to advise his Kintail men nor those
at a distance from Kinellan, and was consequently unable to bring
together more than one hundred and forty men.  With this small
force he wisely deemed it imprudent to venture on a regular battle,
but decided upon a stratagem which if it proved successful, as he
anticipated, would give him an advantage that would more than
counterbalance the enemy's superiority of numbers.  Having supplied
his small but resolute band with provisions for twenty-four
hours, Hector led them secretly, during the night, to the top of
Knock-farrel, a place so situated that Munro must needs pass near
its north or south side in his march to and from Kinellan.  Early
next morning Fowlis marched past on his way to Kinellan, quite
ignorant of Hector's position, and expecting him to have remained
at home to implement the purport of his message.  Sir William was
allowed to pass unmolested, and imagining that Hector had fled,
he proceeded to demolish the barn at Kinellan, ordered its couples
to be carried away.  Broke all the utensils about the place, and
drove out all the cattle, as trophies of his  visit.  In the evening
he returned, as Hector had conjectured, carrying the plunderin
front of his party, accompanied by a strong guard, while he placed
the rest of his picked men in the rear, fearing that Hector might
pursue him, little thinking that he was already between him and his
destination.

On his way to Kinellan, Munro bad marched through Strathpeffer round
the north side of Knock-farrel, but for some cause he returned by the
south side where the highway touched the shoulder of the hill on which
Hector's men were posted.  He had no fear of attack from that quarter,
and his men feeling themselves quite safe, marched loosely and out of
order.  Hector seeing his opportunity, allowed them to pass until the
rear was within musket shot of him.  He then ordered his men to charge,
which they did with such furious impetuosity, that most of the enemy
were cut to pieces before they were properly aware from whence they
were attacked, or could make any effectual attempt to resist the
dashing onset of Hector's followers.  The groans of the dying in the
gloaming, the uncertainty as well as the unexpectedness of the attack,
frightened them so  much that they fled in confusion, in spite of every
attempt on the part of Fowlis, who was in front in charge of the spoil
and its guard, to stop them.  Those from the rear flying in disorder
soon confused the men in front, and  the result was a complete rout.
Hector's men followed, killing every one they met for it was ordered
that no quarter should be given, the number being so large that they
might again turn round, attack and defeat the victors.  In this retreat
almost all the men of the clan Dingwall and MacCullochs capable of
bearing arms were killed, and so many of the Munroes were slain that
for a long time after "there could not be ane secure friendship made
up twixt them and the Mackenzies, till by frequent allyance and
mutuall beneffets at last thes animosities are setled and in ordor
to a reconciliation, Hector, sone to this William of Foulls, wes
maried to John Mackenzie's sister Catherine."

At this conflict, besides that it was notable for its neat contrivance,
the inequality of the forces engaged, and the number of the slain,
there are two minor incidents worth noting.  One is that the pursuit
was so hot that the Munroes not only fled in a crowd, but there
were so many of them killed at a place on the edge of the hill
where a descent fell from each shoulder of it to a well; and most
of Hector's men being armed with battle-axes and two-edged swords,
they had cut off so many heads in that small space, that, tumbling
down the slope to the well, nineteen heads were counted in it and
to this day the well is called "Tobar nan Ceann" or the Fountain
of the Heads.  The other incident is that Suarachan, better known
as "Donnchadh Mor na Tuaighe," or Big Duncan of the Axe,  previously
referred to as one of the heroes of the battle of Park, pursued
one of the enemy into the Church of Dingwall, to which he had fled
for shelter.  As he was entering in at the door, Suarachan caught
him by the arm, when the man exclaimed, "My sanctuary saves me!"
"Aye," returned Suarachan, "but what a man puts in the sanctuary
against his will he can take it out again; and so, pushing him back
from the door, he killed him with one stroke of his broadsword.
[MS. History by the Earl or Cromartie.]

Sir William Munro returned that night to Fowlis, where happened
to be, passing the evening, a harper of the name of MacRa, who,
observing Sir William pensive and dispirited, advised him to be
more cheerful and  submit patiently to the fortunes of war, since
his defeat was not his own fault, nor from want of personal courage
and bravery, but arose from the timorousness of his followers, who
were unacquainted with such severe service.  This led Sir William
to take more particular notice of the harper than he had hitherto
done, and he asked him his name.  On hearing it, Munro replied,
"You surely must have been fortunate, as your name imports, and
I am sure that you have been more so than I have been this day;
but it's fit to take your advice, MacRath."  This was a play on the
minstrel's name - MacRath literally meaning "Son of Fortune" - and
the harper being, like most of his kind, smart and sagacious, made
the following impromptu answer -

Eachainn le sheachd fichead fear,
Agus thusa le d'ochd clad,
Se Mac Rath a mharbh na daoine
Air bathaois Cnoc faireal,

Which may be rendered in English as follows:

Although MacRath doth "fortunate" import,
It's he deserves that name whose brave effort
Eight hundred men did put to flight
With his seven score at Knockfarrel. [Ardintoul MS.]

In 1499, George, Earl of Huntly, then the King's Lieutenant,
granted warrant to Duncan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, John Grant
of Freuchie, and other leaders, with three thousand men, to pass
against the Clan Mackenzie, "the  King's rebels," for the slaughter
of Harold of Chisholm, dwelling in Strathglass, "and for divers
other heirschips, slaughters, spuilzies, committed on the King's
poor lieges and tenants in the Lordship of Ardmeanoch," [Kilravock
Papers, p. 170.] but Hector Roy and his followers gave a good
account of them, and soon defeated and dispersed them.  He seems
to have held undisturbed possession until the year 1507, when
John and his brother Roderick were on a visit in the Aird, at the
house of their uncle, Lord Lovat, when a fire broke out at the
castle.  According to the Earl of Cromartie, when the house took
fire, no one was found bold enough to approach the burning pile
but John, who rushed boldly through the flames and carried away
the Lovat charter chest "a weight even then thought too much for
the strongest man, and that cheist, yett extant, is a load sufficient
for two.  His uncle, bothe obleiged by the actione, and glad to
sie such strength and boldnes in the young man, desyred (him) to
do as much for himself as he haid done for him, and to discover
his (own) charter cheist from his uncle, and that he should have
all the concurrance which he (Lovat) could give to that effect."
Anderson's "History of the Family of Fraser" ascribes this bold
act to Roderick, for which he was "considered amply recompensed
by the gift of a bonnet and a pair of shoes."  It matters little
which is the correct version, but it is not unlikely that Lovat's
valuable charter chest was saved by one or other of them, and it
is by no means improbable that his Lordship's suggestion that
they should procure their own charter chest and his offer to aid
them in doing so was made and determined to be acted upon on this
occasion.

John, who had proved himself most prudent, even in his youth, was
satisfied that his uncle Hector, a man of undoubted valour and
wisdom, in possession of the estates, and highly popular with the
clan, could not be expelled without great difficulty and extreme
danger to himself.  Any such attempt would produce feuds and
slaughter among his people, with the certain result of making
himself personally unpopular with the clan, and his uncle more
popular than ever.  He therefore decided upon a more prudent course
resolving to strike only at Hector's person, judging that, if his
uncle failed, his claims and the personal respect of his followers
would fall with him.  To carry out his resolution, he contrived
a scheme which proved completely successful.  Having secured an
interview with Hector, who then resided at Wester Fairburn, he
pleaded that since he had taken his estates from him, and left
him in such reduced circumstances, it was not in accordance with
his feelings and his ambition for fame to remain any longer in his
native country, where he had neither position nor opportunities
of distinguishing himself.  He therefore begged that his uncle
should give him a galley or birlinn, and as many of the ablest and
most determined youths in the country as should voluntarily follow
him in his adventures for fame and  fortune in a foreign land.
With these he should pass to Ireland, then engaged in war, and
"there purchase a glorious death or a more plentiful fortune than
he was likely to get at home."  The idea pleased Hector exceedingly,
and he not only gave him his own galley, then lying at Torridon,
but furnished him with all the necessary provisions for the
voyage, at the same time assuring him that, if he prosecuted his
intentions, he should annually transmit him a sufficient portion
to keep up his position, until his own personal prowess and fortune
should place him above any such necessity whereas, if he otherwise
resolved or attempted to molest him in what he called his rights,
he would bring sudden and certain ruin upon himself.

Thirty brave and resolute young men joined the supposed adventurer,
after having informed them that he would have none except those
who would do so of their own free will, from their affection for
him, and determination to support him in any emergency; for he well
judged that only such were suitable companions in the desperate
aims which he had laid out for himself to accomplish.  These he
dispatched to the galley then at Torridon, one of the most secluded
glens on the West Coast, and distant from any populated place;
while he himself remained with his uncle, professedly to arrange
the necessary details of his journey, and the transmission
of his portion, but really to notice "his method and manner of
converse."  John soon took farewell of Hector, and departed with
every  appearance of simplicity.  His uncle sent a retinue to convoy
him with becoming respect, but principally to assure himself of
his departure, and to  guard against surprise or design on John's
part.  Accompanied by these, he soon arrived at Torridon, where he
found his thirty fellow adventurers and the galley awaiting him.
They at once set sail, and with a fair wind made for the Isles,
in the direction of, and as if intending to make for, Ireland.
The retinue sent by Hector Roy returned home, and informed their
master that they saw John and his companions started before a
fair wind, with  sails set, in the direction of Ireland when Hector
exclaimed, referring to Anne of Lovat, "We may now sleep without
fear of Anne's children."

John, sailing down Loch Torridon, and judging that Hector's men had
returned home, made for a sheltered and isolated creek, landed in
a wood, and dispersed his men with instructions to go by the most
private and unfrequented paths in the direction of Alit Corrienarnich,
in the braes of Torridon, where he would meet them.  This done,
they followed Hector's men, being quite close up to them by the
time they reached Fairburn.  John halted at some little distance
from Hector's house until about midnight, when, calling his men
together, he feelingly addressed  them thus: "Now, my good friends,
I perceive that you are indeed affectionate to me, and resolute
men, who have freely forsaken your country and relations to share
in my not very promising fortune but my design in seeking only
such as would voluntarily go along with me was that I might be
certain of your affection and resolution, and since you are they
whom I ought only to rely upon in my present circumstances and
danger, I shall now tell you that I was never so faint-hearted as
to quit my inheritance without attempting what is possible for
any man in my capacity.  In order to this I feigned this design
for Ireland for three reasons; first, to put my uncle in security,
whom I have found ever hitherto very circumspect and well guarded;
next, to find out a select, faithful number to whom I might trust
and thirdly, that in case I fail, and that my uncle shall prevail
over my endeavours, that I might have this boat and these provisions
as a safe retreat, both for myself and you, whom I should be loath
to expose to so great a danger without some probability in the
attempt, and some security in the disappointment.  I am resolved
this night to fall on my uncle for he being gone, there is none
of his children who  dare hope to repose themselves to his place.
The countrymen who now, for fear, depend on him and disown me,
will, no doubt, on the same motives, promoved with my just title,
own me against all other injurious pretenders.  One thing I must
require of you, and it is that albeit those on whom we are to
fall are all related both to you and to me, yet since on their
destruction depends the preservation of our lives, and the restitution
of my estate, you must all promise not to give quarter to my uncle
or to any of his company."

To this inhuman resolution they all agreed, disregarding the natural
ties of blood and other obligations, and, marching as quietly as
possible, they arrived at Hector's house, surrounded it, and set
fire to it - guarding it all round so that not a soul could escape.
The house was soon in flames, and the inmates, Hector and his
household, were crying out for mercy.  Their pitiful cries made
an impression on those outside, for many of them had relatives
within, and in spite of their previous resolution to give no
quarter, some of them called out to their nearest friends to come
out and surrender, on assurance of their lives being spared.  John
seeing so many of his followers moved to this merciful conduct,
and being unable to resist them, exclaimed, "My uncle is as near
in blood to me as any in the house are to you, and therefore I
will be as kind to him as you are to them."  He then called upon
Hector to surrender and come forth from the burning pile, assuring
him of his life.  This he did; but Donald Dubh MacGillechriost Mhic
Gillereach, a Kenlochewe man, made for the door with his two-edged
sword drawn, whereupon Hector seeing him called out to John that he
would rather be burned where he was than face Donald Dubh.  John
called the latter away, and Hector rushed out into his nephew's arms
and embraced him.  That same night John and Hector, without "Dysman,"
saving God and such commons as were then present, agreed and
condescended that Hector should have the estate till John was
twenty-one years of age, and that John should live on his own
purchases till then, Hector was to set the whole estate immediately,
as tutor to John, which next day he went about.  "I cannot forget
what passed betwixt him and the foresaid Donald at the set of
Kenlochewe, who was one of the first that sought land from him, which
when he sought, Hector says to him: 'I  wonder, Donald, how you can
ask land this day, that was so forward to kill me the last day.'
Donald answered that 'if he had such a leader this day as he had that
night he should show him no better quarters, for Kenneth's death
(meaning Kenneth Aack) struck nearer my heart than any prejudice you
can do me in denying me land this day.'  Hector said, 'Well Donald, I
doubt ye not if you had such coildghys (coldhaltas - fosterage) to me
as you had to that man but you would act the like for me.  Therefore
you shall have your choice of all the land in the country.'  Hector
having set the whole estate as tutor, all things seemed fair, only
that Allan and his faction in Kintail, who previously urged John
to possess himself of Ellandonnan Castle, were not satisfied with
the arrangement, as John was still kept out of the stronghold,
'which Hector would not grant, not being  condescended on (and as
he alleged) lest John should fail on his part but the factions - the
commons - within that country could not be satisfied herewith,
being, as it was said, moved hereto by an accident that fell out a
year or two before.'" [Ancient MS.]   This "accident" is described
further on, and refers to Hector's alleged attempt to get Allan
assassinated at Invershiel.

Donald Dubh was Kenneth Og's foster-brother, and Imagining that
Hector was accessory in an underhand way to Kenneth's captivity in
Edinburgh Castle, and consequently to his death in the Torwood, he
conceived an inveterate hatred for him, and determined to kill him
in revenge the first opportunity that presented itself.  Hector,
knowing that his resolution proceeded from fidelity and affection
to his foster-brother and master, not only forgave him, but
ultimately took an opportunity of rewarding him and, as we have
seen, afterwards gave him his choice of all the lands in Kenlochewe.

John immediately sent word of what had taken place to his uncle
of Lovat, and next day marched for Kintail, where all the people
there, as well as in the other parts of his property, recognised
him as their chief.  The Castle of Ellandonnan was delivered up to him,
with the charter chest and other evidences of his extensive possessions.

It has been maintained by the family of Gairloch that there is no
truth in the charge against their ancestor, Hector Roy, which we
have just given mainly on the authority of the Earl of Cromartie.
The writer of the Ardintoul MS. of the Mackenzies, [Dr George Mackenzie
gives substantially the same account,] however corroborates his
lordship, and says that John was but young when his father died;
and Hector, his younger uncle (Duncan, Hector's eldest brother,
who should be tutor being dead, and Allan, Duncan's son, not being
able to oppose or grapple with Hector), meddled with the estate.
It is reported that Hector wished Allan out of the way, whom he
thought only to stand in his way from being laird, since he was
resolved not to own my Lord Lovat's daughter's children, being all
bastards and gotten in adultery.  The reason why they entertained
such thoughts of him was partly this: Hector going to Ellandonnan
(where he placed Malcolm Mac Eancharrich constable) called such
of the country people to him as he judged fit, under pretence
of setting and settling the country, but asked not for, nor yet
called his nephew Allan, who lived at Invershiel, within a few miles
of Ellandonnan, but went away.  Allan, suspecting this to have
proceeded from unkindness, sends to one of his familiar friends
to know the result of the meeting, or if there was any spoken
concerning him.  The man, perhaps, not being willing to be an ill
instrument twixt so near relations, sends Allan the following Irish
(Gaelic)  lines:

Inversheala na struth bras,
Tar as, 's fear foul ga d' fheitheamh,
Nineag, ga caol a cas,
Tha leannan aice gun thios,
A tighinn ga'm fhaire a shios,
Tha i, gun fhios, fo mo chrios
Tha 'n sar lann ghuilbneach ghlas, -
Bhehion urchair dha le fios.

Allan put his own construction on them, and thought a friend warned
him to have a care of himself, there being some designs on him
from a near relation; and so that very night, in the beginning
thereof, he removed himself and family and anything he valued within
the house to an bill above the town, where he might see and bear
anything that might befall the house; and that same night about
cock crow he saw bis house and biggings in flames, and found
them consumed to ashes on the morrow.  The perpetrators could not
be found; yet it was generally thought to be Hector his uncle's
contrivance."

The writer then describes the legitimation of Agnes Fraser's
children by the Pope, and continues - "Hector, notwithstanding of
the legitimation, refused to quit the possession of the estate,"
and he then gives the same account of John's feigned expedition
to Ireland, and the burning of Hector's house at Wester Fairburn,
substantially as already given from another source, but adding -
"That very night they both entered upon terms of agreement without
acquainting or sending for any, or to  advise a reconciliation
betwixt them.  The sum of their agreement was, that Hector, as a
man able to rule and govern, should have (allowing John an aliment)
the estate for five or six years, till John should be major, and
that thereafter Hector should render it to John as the right and
lawful undoubted heir, and that Hector should ever afterwards
acknowledge and honour him as his chief, and so they parted, all
being well pleased.  [John  and Hector did condescend that Hector
should have the estate till John were one and twentie years, and
that John should live on his own purchase till then.  Letter from
MS.]  But Allan and the most of the Kintail men were dissatisfied
that John did not get Ellandonnan, his principal house, in his
own possession, and so desired John to come to them and possess
the castle by fair or foul means wherein they promised to assist
him.  John goes to Kintail, desires him to render the place to
him, which he refused, for which cause John ordered bring all his
cattle to those he employed to besiege the castle till Malcolm (the
governor) would be starved out of it.  Yet this did not prevail with
the governor, till he got Hector's consent, who, being acquainted,
came to Lochalsh and met with his nephew, and after concerting the
matter, Hector sends word to Malcolm to render the place to John.
But Malcolm would not till he would be paid of his goods that were
destroyed.  But Hector sending to him the second time, after
considerable negotiation for several days, telling him he was a fool,
that he might remember how himself was used, and that that might be a
means  to take his life also.  Whereupon Malcolm renders the house,
but John was so much offended at him that he would not continue him
governor, but gave the charge to Gillechriost Mac Fhionnla Mhic Rath,
making him Constable of the Isle.  So after that there was little or
no debate twixt John and Hector during the rest of the six years he
was Tutor.' [Ardintoul and Ancient MSS. of the Mackenzies.]

The MS. Histories of the family are borne out by Gregory,  [Highlands
and Isles of Scotland, p. 111] who informs us that "Hector Roy
Mackenzie, progenitor of the House of Gairloch, had, since the
death of Kenneth Og Mackenzie of Kintail, in 1497, and during the
minority of John, the brother and heir of Kenneth, exercised the
command of that clan, nominally as guardian to the young chief.
Under his rule the Clan Mackenzie became involved in feuds with the
Munroes and other clans, and Hector Roy himself became obnoxious
to Government as a disturber of the public peace.  His intentions
towards the young Laird of Kintail were considered very dubious;
and the apprehensions of the latter having been roused, Hector
was compelled by law to yield up the estate and the command of the
tribe to the proper heir."  Gregory gives the "Acts of the Lords
of Council, xxii., fo. 142," as that upon which, among other
autho-rities, he founds.  We give the following extract, except
that the spelling is modernised:

"7th April 1511. - Anent the summons made at the instance of John
Mackenzie of Kintail against Hector Roy Mackenzie for the wrongous
intromitting, uptaking, and withholding from him of the mails
'fermez,' profits, and duties of all and whole the lands of Kintail,
with the pertinents lying in the Sheriffdom of Inverness, for the
space of seven years together, beginning in the year of God 1501,
and also for the space of two years, last bye-past, and for the
masterful withholding from the said John Mackenzie of his house
and Castle of Ellandonnan, and to bring with him his evidence if
(he) any has of the constabulary and keeping thereof, and to hear
the same decerned of none avail, and diverse other points like
as at more length; is contained in the said summons, the said
John Mackenzie being personally present, and the said Hector Roy
being lawfully summoned to this action, oft-times called and not
compearing, the said John's rights, etc.  The Lords of Council
decree and deliver, that the said Hector has forfeited the keeping
and constabulary of the said Castle of Ellandonnan, together with
the fees granted therefor, and decern all evidents, if he any has
made to him thereupon, of none avail, force, nor effect, and the
said John Mackenzie to have free ingress and entry to the said
Castle, because he required the said Hector for deliverance thereof
and to thole him to enter thereunto, howbeit the said Hector
refused and would not give him entry to the said Castle, but if
his servants would have delivered their happinnis from them to
his men or their entries, like as one actentit instrument taken
thereupon shown and produced before the said Lords purported and
bore, and therefore ordains our sovereign Lords' letters (to) be
directed to devode and rid the said Castle and to keep the said
John in possession thereof as effeirs and continues to remanent
points contained in the said summons in form, as they are now,
unto the 20th day of July next to come, with continuation of days,
and ordains that letters be written in form of commission to the
Sheriff of Inverness and his deputies to summon witnesses and take
probations thereupon and to summon the party to heir them sworn
and thereafter send their depositions closed to the Lords again,
the said day, under the said Sheriffs or his Deputy's seal, that
thereafter justice may be ministered thereuntill."

Whatever truth there may be in the accounts given by the family
historians, Hector Roy was undoubtedly at this period possessed of
considerable estates of his own; for, we find a "protocol," by John
Vass, "Burges of Dygvayll, and Shireff in this pairt," by which he
makes known that, by the command of his sovereign lord, letters
and process was directed to him as Sheriff granting him to give
Hector Mackenzie heritable state and possession "of all and syndri
the landis off Gerloch with thar pertinens, after the forme and
tenor off our souerane lordis chartyr maide to the forsaide Hector,"
lying between the waters called Inverew and Torridon.  The letter
is dated "At Alydyll (?Talladale) the xth of the moneth off
December the zher off Gode ane thousande four hundreth nynte an
four zheris."

It is clear that Hector did not long continue under a cloud; for in
1508 the King directed a mandate to the Chamberlain of Ross
requesting him to enter Hector Roy Mackenzie in the "males and
proffitis of our landis of Braane and Moy, with ariage, cariage and
vther pertinence thareof ... for his gude and thankfull service
done and to be done to us ... and this on na wise ye leif vndone,
as ye will incur our indignatioun and displesour.  This our letrez
... efter the forme of our said vther letres past obefor, given
vnder our signet at Edinburgh the fift day of Marche and of Regne
the twenty yere. - (Signed) James R."  In 1513 he received a charter
under the great seal of the lands of Gairloch formerly granted
him, with Glasletter and Coruguellen, with their pertinents. [The
original charter; the "protocol" from John Vass; the mandate to
the Chamberlain of Ross, for copies of which we are indebted to
Sir Kenneth S. Mackenzie, Baronet, are in the Gaitloch Charter
Chest, and the latter two will be found in  extenso in the account
of the Gairloch family later on.]  Hector Roy's conduct towards
John has been unfavourably criticised, but if it is kept in mind
that no regular marriage ever took place between Kenneth a Bhlair
and John's mother, Agnes of Lovat that their union was not recognised
by the Church until 1491, if then, the same year in which Kenneth
died it can easily be understood why Hector should conscientiously
do what he probably held to be his duty-oppose John of Killin in
the interest of those whom he considered the legitimate successors
of Kenneth a Bhlair and his unfortunate son, Kenneth Og, to whom
only, so far as we can discover, Hector Roy was appointed Tutor;
for when his brother, Kenneth a Bhlair, died, there was every
appearance that Hector's ward, Kenneth Og, would succeed when he
came of age.  The succession of John of Killin was at most only
a remote possibility when his father died, and therefore no Tutor
to him would have been appointed.

In terms of an Act passed in 1496, anent the education of young
gentlemen of note, John, when young, was sent by Hector Roy to
Edinburgh to complete his education at Court.  He thus, in early
life, acquired a knowledge of legal principles and practice of great
service and value to him in after life, not only in the management
of his own affairs, but in aiding his friends and countrymen in
their peculiar difficulties by his counsel and guidance, and thus
he secured such universal esteem and confidence as seldom fell
to the lot of a Highland chief in that rude and unruly age.  The
standard of education necessary at Court in those days must have
been very different from that required in ours, for we find that,
with all his opportunities, John of Killin could not write his own
name.  To a bond in favour of the Earl of Huntly he subscribes,
"Jhone M'Kenzie of Kyntaill, with my hand on the pen led by Master
William Gordone, Notar."

Referring to the power of the House of Kintail at this period, and
to the rapid advance made by the family under Alexander and his
successors, we quote the following from a modern MS. history of the
family by the late Captain John Matheson of Bennetsfield: "We must
observe here the rapid advance which the family of Kintail made on
every side.  The turbulent Macdonalds, crushed by the affair of Park,
Munro, sustained by his own clan, and the neighbouring vassals of
Ross humbled at their own door, when a century had not yet passed
since the name of Mackenzie had become familiar to their ears; and it
is gratifying to trace all this to the wise policy of the first James
and his successors.  The judicious education of Alastair Ionraic, and
consequent cultivation of those habits which, by identifying the
people with the monarch through the laws, render a nation securely
great, is equally discernible in John of Killin and his posterity.
The successors of the Earls of Ross were turbulent and tenacious of
their rights, but they were irreclaimable.  The youthful Lord of the
Isles, at the instigation of his haughty mother, deserted the Court
of James I., while young Kintail remained, sedulously improving
himself at school in Perth, till he was called to display his
gratitude to his Royal master in counteracting the evil arising from
the opposite conduct of Macdonald.  Thus, by one happy circumstance,
the attention of the King was called to a chieftain who gave such
early promise of steady attachment, and his future favour was
secured.  The family of Kintail was repeatedly recognised in the
calendar of the Scottish Court, while that of the once proud
Macdonalds frowned in disappointment and barbarous independence
amidst their native wilds, while their territories, extending beyond
the bounds of good government and protection, presented gradually
such defenceless gaps as became inviting and easily penetrable by the
intelligence of Mackenzie, and Alastair Ionraic acquired a great
portion of his estates by this legitimate advantage, afterwards
secured by the intractable arrogance of Macdonald of Lochalsh and the
valour and military capacity of Coinneach a Bhlair."

In 1513 John of Killin is found among those Highland chiefs summoned
to rendezvous with the Royal army at Barrow Moor preparatory to the
fatal advance of James IV. into England, when the Mackenzies, forming
with the Macleans, joined that miserably-arranged and ill-fated
expedition which terminated so fatally to Scotland on the disastrous
field of Flodden, where the killed included the King, with the flower
of his nobility, gentry, and even clergy.  There was scarcely a
Scottish family of distinction that did not lose at least one, and
some of them lost all the male members who were capable of bearing
arms.  The body of the King was found, much disfigured with wounds,
in the thickest of the slain.  Abercromby, on the authority of
Crawford, includes, in a list of those killed at Flodden, "Kenneth
Mackenzie of Kintail, ancestor to the noble family of Seaforth."
This is an undoubted error for it will be seen that John, not Kenneth
was chief at the time of Flodden.  It was he who joined the Royal
army, accompanied by his brave and gallant uncle, Hector Roy of
Gairloch and it is established beyond dispute that though almost
all their followers fell, both John and Hector survived and
returned home.  They, however, narrowly escaped the charge of Sir
Edward Stanley in rear of the Highlanders during the disorderly
pursuit of Sir Edward Howard, who had given way to the furious and
gallant onset of the mountaineers.

John was made prisoner, but afterwards escaped in a very remarkable
manner.  When his captors were carrying him and others of his
followers to the south, they were overtaken by a violent storm
which obliged them to seek shelter in a retired house occupied by
the widow of a  shipmaster.  After taking up their quarters, and,
as they thought, providing for the safe custody of the prisoners,
the woman noticed that the captives were Highlanders; and, in
reference to the boisterous weather raging outside, she, as if
unconsciously, exclaimed, "The Lord help those who are to-night
travelling on Leathad Leacachan."  The prisoners were naturally
astonished to hear an allusion, in such a place, to a mountain so
familiar to them in the North Highlands, and they soon obtained an
opportunity, which their hostess appeared most anxious to afford
them, of questioning her regarding her acquaintance with so
distant a place; when she told them that during a sea voyage she
took with her husband, she had been taken so ill aboard ship that
it was found necessary to send her ashore on the north west coast
of Scotland, where, travelling with only a maid and a single guide,
they were caught in a severe storm, and she was suddenly taken
in labour.  In this distressing and trying position a Highlander
passing by took compassion upon her, and seeing her case so
desperate, with no resources at hand, he, with remarkable presence
of mind, killed one of his horses, ripped open his stomach, and
taking out the bowels, placed her and the newly-born infant in
their place, as the only effectual shelter from the storm.  By this
means he secured sufficient time to procure female assistance, and
ultimately saved the woman and her child.

But the most remarkable part of the story remains to be told.  The
same person to whom she owed her preservation was at that moment one
of the captives under her roof.   He was one of Kintail's followers
on the fatal field of Flodden.  She, informed of his presence and of
the plight he was in, managed to procure a private interview with him,
when he amply proved to her, by more detailed reference to the
incidents of their meeting on Leathad Leacachan, that he was the man
- "Uisdean Mor Mac 'Ille Phadruig" - and in gratitude, she, at the
serious risk of her own personal safety, successfully planned the
escape of Hugh's master and his whole party.  The story is given on
uninterrupted tradition in the country of the Mackenzies; and a
full and independent version in the vernacular of the hero's humane
conduct on Leathad Leacachan will be found in the Celtic Magazine,
vol. ii., pp. 468-9, to which the Gaelic reader is referred.

Gregory, p. 112, says: "Tradition has preserved a curious anecdote
connected with the Mackenzies, whose young chief, John of Kintail,
was taken prisoner at Flodden.  It will be recollected that Kenneth
Og Mackenzie of Kintail, while on his way to the Highlands, after
making his escape from Edinburgh Castle, was killed in the Torwood
by the Laird of Buchanan.  The foster-brother of Kenneth Og was a
man of the district of Kenlochewe, named Donald Dubh MacGillecrist
vic Gillereoch, who with the rest of the clan was at Flodden with
his chief.  In the retreat of the Scottish army this Donald Dubh
heard some one near him exclaiming, 'Alas, Laird! thou hast fallen.'
On enquiry, he was told it was the Laird of Buchanan, who had sunk
from his wounds or exhaustion.  The faithful Highlander, eager to
revenge the death of his chief and foster-brother, drew his sword,
and, saying, 'If he has not fallen he shall fall,' made straight
to Buchanan, whom he killed on the spot."

As to the safe return of John of Kintail and Hector Roy to their
Highland home, after this calamitous event, there is now no question
whatever; for we find John among others, afterwards appointed, by
Act of Council, a Lieutenant or Guardian of Wester Ross, [Gregory,
p. 115. Acts  of Lords of Council, xxvi., fo. 25.] to protect it
from Sir Donald Gallda Macdonald of Lochalsh, when he proclaimed
himself Lord of the Isles.  In 1515, Mackenzie, without legal
warrant, seized the Royal Castle of Dingwall, but professed his
readiness to give it up to any one appointed by the Regent, John,
Duke of Albany. [Acts of Lords of Council, xxvii., fo.  60.]  In
1532 he is included in a commission by James V. for suppressing  a
disorderly tribe of Mackintoshes.  He secured the esteem of this
monarch so much that he appointed him a member of his Privy Council.

To put the question of John's return beyond question, and to show
how the family rose rapidly in influence and power during his
rule, we shall quote the Origines Parochiales Scotia, from which
it will also be seen that Kenneth, John's heir, received considerable
grants for himself during his father's lifetime: "In 1509 King
James IV. granted to John Makkenzie of Keantalle (the brother of
Kenneth Og) the 40 marklands of Keantalle - namely, the davach of
Cumissaig, the davach of Letterfearn, the davach of Gleanselle,
the davach of Glenlik, the davach of Letterchall, the two davachs
of Cro, and three davachs between the water of Keppach and the
water of Lwying, with the castle and fortalice of Eleandonnan, in
the earldom of Ross and sheriffdom of Innernis, with other lands
in Ross, which John had resigned, and which the King then erected
into the barony of Eleandonnan. [Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xv., No.89.
Gregory, p.83.]  In 1530 King James V. granted to James Grant of
Freuchy and Johne Mckinze of Kintale liberty to go to any part of
the realm on their lawful business. [Reg. Sec. Sig., vol. viii.,
fol. 149.]  In 1532, 1538, and 1540, the same John M'Kenich
of Kintaill appears on record. [Reg. Sec. Sig., vol. ix, fol. 3;
vol. xii., fol. 21; vol. xiv., fol. 32.]  In 1542, King James V.
granted to John Mckenzie of Kintaill the waste lands of Monar,
lying between the water of Gleneak on the north, the top or summit
of Landovir on the south, the torrent of Towmuk and Inchclochill
on the east, and the water of Bernis running into the water of Long
on the west; and also the waste lands of lie Ned lying between Loch
Boyne on the north, Loch Tresk on the south, lie Ballach on the
west, and Dawelach on the east, in the earldom of Ross and sheriffdom
of Innernes - lands which were never in the King's rental, and never
yielded any revenue - for the yearly payment of L4 to the King as
Earl of Ross. [Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxviii., No. 417.]  In 1543 Queen
Mary granted to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, and Isabel Stewart, his
wife, the lands of Auchnaceyric, Lakachane, Strome-ne-mowklach,
Kilkinterne, the two Rateganis, Torlousicht, Auchnashellicht,
Auchnagart, Auchewrane, lic Knokfreith, Aucharskelane, and Malegane,
in the lordship of Kintaill and other lands in Ross, extending in all
to 36 marks, which he had resigned. [Reg. Mag. Sig., lib. xxviii.,
No. 524. Reg. Sec. Sig.,vol. xvii., fol. 56.]  In 1551 the same Queen
granted to John M'Kenze of Kintaill, and Kenzeoch M'Kenze, his son
and apparent heir, a remission for the violent taking of John Hectour
M'Kenzesone of Garlouch, Doull Hectoursone, and John Towach
Hectoursone, and for keeping them in prison 'vsurpand thairthrou our
Souerane Ladyis autorite.' [Reg. Sec. Sig., vol. xxiv., fol. 75.]  In
1554 there appear on record John Mackenzie of Kintaile and his son
and heir-apparant, Kenneth Mackenzie of Brahan - apparently the same
persons that appear in 1551. [Reg, Mag. Sig., lib. xxxii., No. 211.]

Donald Gorm Mor Macdonald of Sleat laid waste the country of Macleod
of Dunvegan, an ally of Mackenzie, after which he passed over in
1539 to the mainland and pillaged the lands of Kenlochewe, where
he killed Miles or Maolmuire, son of Finlay Dubh MacGillechriost
MacRath, at the time governor of Ellandonnan Castle.  Finlay was
a very "pretty man," and the writer of the "Genealogy of the Macras"
informs us that "the remains of a monument erected for him, in the
place where he was killed, is still (1704) to be seen."  Kintail
was naturally much exasperated at this unprovoked raid upon his
territory, as also for Macdonald's attack upon his friend and
ally, Macleod of Dunvegan; and to punish Donald Gorm, he dispatched
his son, Kenneth, with a force to Skye, who made ample reprisals
in Macdonald's country, killing many of his followers, and at the
same time exhibiting great intrepidity and sagacity.  Donald Gorm
almost immediately afterwards made an incursion into Mackenzie's
territories of Kintail, where he killed Sir (Rev.) Dougald
Mackenzie, "one of the Pope's knights"; whereupon Kenneth, younger
of Kintail, paid a second visit to the Island, wasted the country;
and on his return, Macdonald learning that Ellandonnan was garrisoned
by a very weak force, under the new governor, John Dubh Matheson
of Fernaig - who had married Sir Dugald Mackenzie's widow - he made
another raid upon it, with fifty birlinns or large boats full of
his followers, with the intention of surprising the small garrison,
and taking the castle by storm.  Its gallant defenders consisted at
the time of the governor, his watchman, and Duncan MacGillechriost
Mac Fhionnladh Mhic Rath, a nephew of Maolmuire killed in the
last incursion of the Island chief.  The advance of the boats was,
however, noticed in time by the sentinel or watchman, who at once
gave the alarm to the country people, but they arrived too late
to prevent the enemy from landing.  Duncan MacGillechriost was
on the mainland at the time; but flying back with all speed he
arrived at the postern of the stronghold in time to kill several
of the Islesmen in the act of landing; and, entering the castle,
he found no one there but the governor and watchman; almost
immediately after, Donald Gorm Mor furiously attacked the gate,
but without success, the brave trio having strongly secured it by
a second barrier of iron within a few steps of the outer defences.
Unable to procure access the Islesmen were driven to the expedient
of shooting their arrows through the embrazures, and in this way
they succeeded in killing the governor.

Duncan now found himself sole defender of the castle except the
watchman; and worse still his ammunition was reduced to a single
barbed arrow, which he determined to husband until an opportunity
occurred by which he could make good use of it.  Macdonald at this
stage ordered his boats round to the point of the Airds, and was
personally reconnoitring with the view of discovering the weakest
part of the wall for effecting a breach.  Duncan considered this
a favourable opportunity, and aiming his arrow at Donald Gorm,
it struck him and penetrated his foot through the master vein.
Macdonald, not having perceived that the arrow was a barbed one,
wrenched it out, and in so doing separated the main artery.
Notwithstanding that all available means were used, it was found
impossible to stop the bleeding, and his men conveyed him out of
the range of the fort to a spot - a sand bank - on which he died,
called to this day, "Larach Tigh Mhic Dhomhnuill," or the site
of Macdonald's house, where the haughty Lord of Sleat ended his
career. ["Genealogy of the Macras" and the Ardintoul MS.  "This
Donald Gorme was son to Donald  Gruamach, son to Donald Gallach,
son to Hugh, natural son to Alexander, Earl of Ross, for which the
elegy made on his death calls him grandchild and great grandchild
to Rhi-Fingal (King Fingal) -

"A Dhonnchaldh Mhic Gillechriost Mhic Fhionnla,
'S mor um beud a thuit le d'aon laimh,
Ogha 's iar-ogha Mhic Righ Fhinghaill,
`Thuiteam le bramag an aon mhic."

- Letterform MS.]  The Islesmen burnt all they could find ashore
in Kintail.  "In 1539 Donald Gorm of Sleat and his allies, after
laying waste Trouterness in Sky and Kenlochew in Ross, attempted to
take the Castle of Eileandonan, but Donald being killed by an arrow
shot from the wall, the attempt failed." [Gregory, pp. 145.146.
Border Minstrelsy.  Anderson, p. 283.  Reg. Sec. Sig., vol. xv.,
fol. 46.]  In 1541 King James V. granted a remission to Donald's
accomplices - namely, Archibald Ilis, alias Archibald the Clerk,
Alexander McConnell Gallich, John Dow Donaldsoun, and twenty-six
others whose names are recorded in Origines Parchiales, p. 394,
vol. ii., for their treasonable fire-raising and burning of the
"Castle of Allanedonnand" and of the boats there, for the "Herschip"
of Kenlochew and Trouterness, etc.

Duncan MacGillechriost now naturally felt that he had some claim
to the governorship of the castle, but being considered "a man
more bold and rash than prudent and politick," Mackenzie decided
to pass him over.  Duncan then put in a claim for his brother
Farquhar, but it was thought best, to avoid local quarrels and
bitterness between the respective claimants, to supersede them both
and appoint another, John MacMhurchaidh Dhuibh, priest of Kintail,
to the Constableship.  Duncan was so much offended at such treatment
in return for his valiant services that he left Kintail in disgust,
and went to the country of Lord Lovat, who received him kindly, and
gave him the lands of Crochel and others in Strathglass, where he
lived for several years, until Lovat's death.  Mackenzie, however,
often visited him and finally prevailed upon him to return to
Kintail, and Duncan, who always retained a lingering affection for
his native country, ultimately became reconciled to the chief, who
gave him the quarterland of Little Inverinate and Dorisduan, where
he lived the remainder of his days, and which his descendants
continued to possess for generations after his death.

For this service against the Macdonalds, James V. gave Mackenzie
Kinchullidrum, Achilty, and Comery in feu, with Meikle Scatwell,
under the Great Seal, in 1528.  The lands of Laggan Achidrom,
being four merks, the three merks of Killianan, and the four merk
lands of Invergarry, being in the King's hands, were disposed by
him to John Mackenzie, after the King's minority and revocation,
in 1540, with a precept, under the  Great Seal, and sasine thereupon
by Sir John Robertson in January 1541.  But before this, in 1521, he
acquired the lands of Fodderty and mill thereof from Mr John Cadell,
which James V. confirmed to him at Linlithgow in September, 1522.
In 1541 he feued Brahan from the King to himself and his heirs male,
which failing, to his eldest daughter.  In 1542 he obtained the
waste lands and forest of Neid and Monar from James V. for which
sasine is granted in the same year by Sir John Robertson.  In
January 1547 he acquired a wadset of the half of Culteleod (Castle
Leod) and Drynie from Denoon of Davidston.  In September of the same
year, old as he was, he went in defence of his Sovereign, young Mary
of Scots, to the Battle of Pinkie, where he was taken prisoner; and
the Laird of Kilravock meeting him advised him that they should own
themselves among the commons, Mackenzie passing off as a bowman.
While Kilravock would pass himself off as a miller, which plan
succeeded so well as to secure Kilravock his release; but the
Earl of Huntly, who was also a prisoner, having been conveyed by
the Duke of Somerset to view the prisoners, espying his old friend
Mackenzie among the common prisoners, and ignorant of the plot,
called him by his name, desiring that he might shake hands with
him, which civility two English officers noticed to Mackenzie's
disadvantage; for thenceforward he was placed and guarded along
with the other prisoners of quality, but afterwards released for
a considerable sum, to which all his people contributed without
burdening his own estate with it, ["He was ransomed by cows that
was raised through all his lands." - Letterform MS.] so returning
home to set himself to arrange his private affairs, and in the
year 1556 he acquired the heritage of Culteleod and Drynie from
Denoon, which was confirmed to him by Queen Mary under the Great
Seal, at Inverness 13th July the same year.  He had previously, in
1544, acquired the other half of  Culteleod and Drynie from Magnus
Mowat, and Patrick Mowat of Bugholly.  In 1543 John Mackenzie
acquired Kildins, part of Lochbroom, to himself and Elizabeth
Grant, his wife, holding blench for a penny, and confirmed in the
same year by Queen Mary. [MS. History by the Earl of Cromartie.]

In 1540 Mackenzie with his followers joined King James at Loch Duich,
while on his way with a large fleet to secure the good government
of the West Highlands and Isles, upon which occasion many of the
suspected and refractory leaders were carried south and placed
in confinement.  His Majesty died soon after, in 1542.  Queen
Mary succeeded, and, being a minor, the country generally, but
particularly the northern parts, was thrown into a state of anarchy
and confusion.

In 1544 the Earl of Huntly, holding a commission as Lieutenant of
the North from the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, commanded Kenneth
Mackenzie, younger of Kintail (his father, from his advanced age,
being unable to take the field), to raise his vassals and lead an
expedition against the Clan Ranald of Moidart, who, at that time,
held lands from Mackenzie on the West Coast; but Kenneth, in these
circumstances, thought it would be much against his personal
interest to attack Donald Glas of Moidart, and refused to comply
with Huntly's orders.  To punish him, the Earl ordered his whole
army, consisting of three thousand men, to proceed against both
Moidart and Mackenzie with fire and sword, but he had not
sufficiently calculated on the constitution of his force, which
was chiefly composed of Grants, Rosses, Mackintoshes, and Chisholms;
and Kenneth's mother being a daughter of John, then laird of Grant,
and three of his daughters having married, respectively, Ross of
Balnagown, Lachlan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, and Alexander Chisholm
of Comar, Huntly found his followers as little disposed to molest
Mackenzie as he had been to attack Donald Glas of Moidart.  In
addition to the friendly feelings of the other chiefs towards young
Kintail, fostered by these family alliances, Huntly was not at all
popular with his own followers, or with the Highlanders generally.
He had incurred such odium for having some time before executed the
Laird of Mackintosh, contrary to his solemn pledge, that it required
little excuse on the part of the exasperated kindred tribes to
counteract his plans, and on the slightest pretext to refuse to
follow him.  He was therefore obliged to retire from the West
without effecting any substantial service; was ultimately disgraced;
committed to Edinburgh Castle; compelled to renounce the Earldom of
Moray and all his other possessions in the north; and sentenced to
banishment in France for five years.

On the 13th of December 1545, at Dingwall, the Earl of Sutherland
entered into a bond of manrent with John Mackenzie of Kintail for
mutual defence against all enemies, reserving only their allegiance
to their youthful Queen, Mary Stuart. [Sir Robert Gordon, p. 112.]
Two years later the Earl of Arran sent the fiery cross over the
nation calling upon all between the ages of sixteen and sixty to
meet him at Musselburgh for the  protection of the infant Queen.
Mackenzie of Kintail, then between sixty and seventy years of age,
when he might fairly consider himself exempt from further military
service, duly appeared with all the followers he could muster,
prudently leaving Kenneth, his only son, at home and when
remonstrated with for taking part in such a perilous journey at
his time of life, especially as he was far past the stipulated
age for active service, the old chief patriotically remarked that
one of his age could not possibly die more decorously than in the
defence of his country.  In the same year (1547) he fought bravely,
at the head of his clan, with all the enthusiasm  and gallantry of
his younger days, at the battle of Pinkie, where he was wounded
in the head and taken prisoner, but was soon afterwards released,
through the influence of the Earl of Huntly, who had meanwhile
again got into favour received a full pardon, and was appointed
Chancellor for Scotland.

The Earl of Huntly some time after this paid a visit to Ross,
intending, if he were kindly received by the great chiefs, to feu
a part of the earldom of Ross, still in the King's hands, and to
live in  the district for some period of the year.  Mackenzie,
although friendly disposed towards the Earl, had no desire to
have him residing in his immediate neighbourhood, and he arranged
a plan which had the effect of deciding Huntly to give up any
idea of remaining or feuing any lands in Ross.  The Earl, having
obtained a commission from the Regent to hold courts in the county,
came to the castle of Dingwall, where he invited the principal
chiefs to meet him.  John of Killin, though very advanced in years,
was the first to arrive, and he was very kindly received by Huntly.
Mackenzie in return made a pretence of heartily welcoming and
congratulating his lordship on his coming to Ross, and trusted that
he would be the means of protecting him and his friends from the
violence of his son, Kenneth, who, taking advantage of his frailty
and advanced years, was behaving most unjustly towards him.  John,
indeed, expressed the hope that the Earl would punish Kenneth for
his illegal and unnatural rebellion against him, his aged father.
While they were thus speaking, a message came in that a large
number of armed men, three or four hundred strong, with banners
flying and pipes playing, were just in sight on the hill above
Dingwall.  The Earl became alarmed, not knowing whom they might be
or what their object was, whereupon Mackenzie said that it could
be no other than Kenneth and his rebellious followers coming to
punish him for paying his lordship this visit without his consent
and he advised the Earl to leave at once, as he was not strong
enough to resist the enemy, and to take him (the old chief) along
with him in order to protect him from his son's violence, which
would now, in consequence of this visit he directed against him
more than ever.  The Earl and his retinue at once withdrew to
Easter Ross. Kenneth ordered his men to pursue them.  He overtook
them  as they were crossing the bridge of Dingwall and killed
several of them; but having attained his object of frightening
Huntly out of Ross, he ordered his men to desist.  This skirmish
is known as the "affair of Dingwall Bridge." [Ardintoul MS.]

In 1556 Y Mackay of Farr, progenitor of the Lords of Reay, refused
to appear before the Queen Regent at Inverness, to answer charges
made against him for depredations committed in Sutherlandshire;
and she  issued a commission to John, fifth Earl of Sutherland,
to lay Mackay's country waste.  Mackay, satisfied that he could
not successfully oppose the Earl's forces in the field, pillaged
and plundered another district of Sutherland.  The Earl conveyed
intelligence of how matters stood to John of Kintail, who, in
terms of the bond of manrent entered into between them in 1545,
despatched his son Kenneth with an able body of the clan to arrest
Mackay's progress, which duty he performed most effectually.  Meeting
at Brora, a severe contest ensued, which terminated in the defeat of
Mackay, with the loss of Angus MacIain Mhoir, one of his chief
commanders, and many of his clan.  Kenneth was thereupon, conjointly
with his father, appointed by the Earl of Sutherland - then the
Queen's Lieutenant north of the Spey, and Chamberlain of the Earldom
of Ross [Sir Robert Gordon, p. 134.] - his deputies in the management
of this vast property, at the same time placing them in possession of
Ardmeanoch, or  Redcastle, which remained ever since, until within a
recent period, in the possession of the family, becoming the property
of Kenneth's third son, Ruairidh Mor, first of the house of Redcastle,
and progenitor of the family of Kincraig and other well-known branches.

After this, Kintail seems to have lived in peace during the
remainder of his long life.  He died at his home at Inverchonan,
in 1561, about eighty years of age.  He was buried in the family
aisle at Beauly.  That he was a man of proved valour is fully
established by the distinguished part he took in the battles of
Flodden and Pinkie.  The Earl of Cromarty informs us that, "in
his time he purchased much of the Brae-lands of Ross, and secured
both what he acquired and what his predecessors had, by well
ordered and legal security, so that it is doubtful whether his
predecessors' courage or his prudence contributed most to the rising
of the family."

In illustration of the latter quality, we quote the following
story: John Mackenzie of Kintail "was a very great courtier and
counsellor of Queen Maries.  Much of the lands of Brae Ross were
acquired by him, which minds me how he entertained the Queen's
Chamberlain who she sent north to learn the state and condition of
the gentry of Ross, minding to feu her interest of that Earldome.
Sir John, hearing of their coming to his house of Killin, he caused
his servants put on a great fyre of ffresh arn wood newly cutt,
which when they came in (sitting on great jests of wood which he
caused sett there a purpose) made such a reek that they were almost
blinded, and were it not the night was so ill they would rather
goe than byde it.  They had not long sitten when his servants came
in with a great bull, which presently they brained on the floor,
and or they well could look about, this fellow with his dirk, and
that fellow with his, were cutting collops of him.  Then comes
in another sturdie lusty fellow with a great calderon in his hand,
and ane axe in the other, and with its shaft stroak each of these
that were cutting the collops, and then made Taylzies of it and
put all in the kettle, sett it on the same tire before them all
and helped the tire with more green wood.  When all was ready as
he had ordered, a long, large table was covered and the beef sett
on in great scaills of dishes instead of pleats.  They had scarcely
sitten to supper when they let loose six or sevin great hounds
to supp the broth, but before they made ane end of it, they made
such a tulzie as made them all start at the table.  The supper
being ended, and longing for their bedds (but much  more for day),
there comes in 5 or 6 lustie women with windlings of strae (and
white plaids) which they spread on each side of the house, whereon
the gentlemen were forced to lye in their cloaths, thinking they
had come to purgatory before hand; but they had no sooner seen day
light than without stayeing dinner they made to the gett, down to
Ross where they were most noblie entertained be Ffowlis, Belnagowin,
Miltoun, and severall other gentlemen.  But when they were come
south the Queen asked who were the ablest men they saw there.  They
answered all they did see lived like princes, except Her Majesty's
great courtier and counsellor Mackenzie.  So tells her all their
usage in his house, and that he slept with his doggs and sat with
his hounds, wherat the Queen leugh mirrily (whatever her thoughts
was of M'Kenzie) and said 'It were a pity of his poverty, ffor he
is the best and honestest among them all.'  The Queen thereafter
having called all the gentry of Ross to hold their lands of the
Crown in feu, Mackenzie got (by her favour and his pretended
poverty) the easiest feu, and for his 1000 merks more than any of
the rest had for three." [Ancient MS.]

John had a natural son named Dugall, who lived in Applecross, and
married a niece of Macleod of Harris, by whom he had a son and
one daughter.  The son, also named Dugall, was a schoolmaster
in Chanonry, and died without issue.  The daughter was married
to Duncan Mackenzie, Reraig, and after his death to Mackintosh
of Strone.  Dugall, the elder, was killed by the Mathesons at
Kishorn.  John had also a natural daughter, Janet, who married
first Mackay of Reay, and secondly, Roderick Macleod, X. of Lewis,
with issue - Torquil Cononach; and afterwards "Ian Mor na Tuaighe,"
brother of John MacGillechallum of Raasay, with whom she eloped.

He married Elizabeth, daughter of John, tenth Laird of Grant, and
by her had an only son and successor,

X.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE,

Commonly known as Coinneach na Cuirc, or Kenneth of the Whittle,
so called from his skill in wood carving and general dexterity
with the Highland "sgian dubh."  He succeeded his father in 1561.
In the following year he was among the chiefs who, at the head
of their followers, met Queen Mary at Inverness, and helped her
to obtain possession of the Castle after Alexander Gordon, the
governor, refused her admission.  In the same year an Act of Privy
Council, dated the 21st of May, bears that he had delivered up
Mary Macleod, the heiress of Harris and Dunvegan, of whom he had
previously by accident obtained the custody, into the hands of
Queen Mary, with whom she afterwards remained for several years
as a maid of honour.  The Act is as follows:

"The same day, in presence of the Queen's Majesty and Lords of
Secret Council, compeared Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, who, being
commanded by letters and also by writings direct from the Queen's
Grace, to exhibit, produce, and present before her Highness Mary
Macleod, daughter and heir of the umquwhile William Macleod of
Harris, conform to the letters and charges direct thereupon:  And
declared that James Macdonald had an action depending the Lords of
Session against him for deliverance of the said Mary to him, and
that therefore he could not gudlie (well) deliver her.  Notwithstanding
the which the Queen's Majesty ordained the said Kenneth to deliver
the said Mary to her Highness and granted that he should incur 'no
scaith thairthrou' at the hands of the said James or any others,
notwithstanding any title or action they had against him therefor;
and the said Kenneth knowing his dutiful obedience to the Queen's
Majesty, and that the Queen had ordained him to deliver the said
Mary to her Highness in manner foresaid which he in no wise could
disobey - and therefore delivered the said Mary to the Queen's
Majesty conform to her ordinance foresaid." ["Transactions of the
Iona Club," pp. 143-4.]

Prior to this Mackenzie refused to give her up to her lawful guardian,
James Macdonald of Dunyveg and the Glens.  In 1563 we find him
on the jury, with James, Earl of Moray, and others, at Inverness,
by whom John Campbell of Cawdor was served heir to the Barony of
Strathnairn. ["Invernessiana," p.229.]  Kenneth was advanced in
years before he came into possession, and took, as we have seen,
an active and distinguished part in all the affairs of his clan
during the life of his long-lived father.  He seems after his return
from Inverness, on the occasion of meeting Queen Mary there, to
have retired very much into private life, for, on Mary's escape
from Lochleven Castle he sent his son Colin, then quite a youth
attending his studies at Aberdeen, at the head of his vassals, to
join the Earl of Huntly, by whom Colin was sent, according to the
Laird of Applecross, "as one whose prudence he confided, to advise
the Queen's retreat to Stirling, where she  might stay in security
till all her friends were convocate, but by an unhappy council
she refused this advice and fought at Langside, where Colin was
present, and when by the Regent's [The Earl of Moray, appointed
to the office after Mary's defeat.] insolence, after that victory,
all the loyal subjects were forced to take remissions for their
duty, as if it were a crime.  Amongst the rest Mackenzie takes one,
the only one that ever any of his family had and this is rather
a mark of his fidelity than evidence of failure, and an honour,
not a task of his posterity."  It would have been already seen
that another remission had been received at an earlier date, for
the imprisonment and murder of John Glassich, son and successor
to Hector Roy Mackenzie of Gairloch, in Ellandonnan Castle.  Dr
George Mackenzie says that Kenneth apprehended John Glassich and
sent him prisoner to the Castle, where he was poisoned by the
constable's lady, [This lady was Nighean Iamhair, and was spouse
to John MacMhurchaidh Dhuibh, the Priest of Kintail, who was then
chosen constable of Ellandonnan for the following reason: A great
debate arose between the Maclennans and the Macraes about this
important and honourable post, and the laird finding them
irreconcilable, lest they should kill one another, and he being a
stranger in the country himself, Mackenzie, on the advice of the
Lord of Fairburn, elected the priest constable of the castle.
This did not suit the Maclennans, and, as soon as Mackenzie left
the country, they, one Sabbath morning, as the priest was coming
home from church, 'e sends a man in ambush in his road who shot
him with an arrow in the buttocks, so that he fell.  The ambusher
thinking him killed, and perceiving others coming after the priest
that road, made his escape, and he (the priest) was carried to
his boat alive.  Of this priest are all the Murchisons in thise
countries descended." - Ancient MS.] whereupon "ane certain female,
foster-sister of his, composed a Gaelic rhyme to commemorate him."
The Earl of Cromartie gives as the reason for this imprisonment
and murder that, according to rumour John Glassich intended to
prosecute his father's claim to the Kintail estates, and Kenneth
hearing of this sent for him to Brahan, John came suspecting nothing,
accompanied only by his ordinary servants.  Kenneth questioned
him regarding the suspicious rumours in circulation, and not being
quite satisfied with the answers, he caused John Glassich to be
at once apprehended.  One of John's servants, named John Gearr,
seeing his master thus inveigled, struck at Kenneth of Kintail a
fearful blow with a two-handed sword, but fortunately Kenneth, who
was standing close to the table, nimbly moved aside, and the blow
missed him, else he would have been cloven to pieces.  The sword
made a deep cut in the table, "so that you could hide your hand
edgeways in it," and the mark remained in the table until Colin,
first Earl of Seaforth, "caused cut that piece off the table,
saying that he loved no such remembrance of the quarrels of his
relations."  Kenneth was a man of good endowments "he carried so
prudently that he had the good-liking of his prince and peace from
his neighbours."  He had a peculiar genius for mechanics, and was
seldom found without his corc - "sgian dubh" - or some other such
tool in his hand, with which he produced excellent specimens of
hand-carving on wood.

He married early, during his father's lifetime, Lady Elizabeth
Stewart, daughter of John, second Earl of Athol, by his wife,
Lady Mary Campbell, daughter of Archibald, second, and sister of
Colin, third Earl of Argyll, and by her had three sons and several
daughters -

I.  Murdoch, who, being fostered in the house of Bayne of Tulloch,
was presented by that gentleman on his being sent home, with a
goodly stock of milch cows and the grazing of Strathvaich, but he
died before he attained majority.

II.  Colin, who succeeded his father.

III.  Roderick, who received the lands of Redcastle and became the
progenitor of the family of that name.

IV.  Janet, who as his third wife married, first, Aeneas Macdonald,

VII. of Glengarry, with issue - a daughter Elizabeth, who married John
Roy Mackenzie, IV. of Gairloch.  She married secondly, Alexander
Chisholm, XIV. of Chisholm, with issue.

V.  Catherine, who, as his second wife, married Alexander Ross, IX.
of Balnagown, with issue - one son Nicholas Alexander, who died on the
21st of October, 1592.

VI.  Agnes, who married Lachlan Mor Mackintosh of Mackintosh, [The
following anecdote is related of this match: Lachlan Mackintosh,
being only an infant when his father, William Mackintosh of that
ilk, was murdered in 1550, was carried for safety by some of his
humble retainers to the county of Ross.  This came to the knowledge
of Colin, younger of Kintail, who took possession of the young
heir of Mackintosh, and carried him to Ellandonnan Castle.  The
old chief retained him, and treated him with great care until
the years of pupilarity had expired, and then married him to his
daughter Agnes, by no means an unsuitable match for either, apart
from the time and manner in which it was consummated.] with issue.

VII.  A daughter who married Walter Urquhart of Cromarty.

VIII.  A daughter who married Robert Munro of Fowlis.

IX.  A daughter who married Innes of Inverbreackie.

By Kenneth's marriage to Lady Elizabeth Stewart, the Royal blood
of the Plantaganets was introduced into the Family of Kintail, and
it was afterwards strengthened and the strain further continued
by the marriage of Kenneth's son, Colin Cam, to Barbara Grant of
Grant, daughter of Lady Marjory Stewart, daughter of John, third
Earl of Athol.

By the inter-marriages of his children Kenneth left his house
singularly powerful in family alliances, and as has been already
seen he in 1554 derived very substantial benefits from them himself.
He died at Killin on the 6th of June, 1568, and was burried at
Beauly.  He was succeeded by his second and eldest surviving son,

XI.  COLIN  CAM  MACKENZIE,

Or COLIN  THE  ONE-EYED, who very early became a special favourite
at Court, particularly with the King himself; so much, the Earl
of Cromartie says, that "there was none in the North for whom he
hade a greater esteem than for this Colin.  He made him one of
his Privie Councillors, and oft tymes invited him to be nobilitate
(ennobled); but Colin always declined it, aiming rather to have
his familie remarkable for power, as it were, above their qualitie
than for titles that equalled their power."  We find that "in 1570
King James VI. granted to Coline Makcainze, the son and apparent
heir of the deceased Canzeoch of Kintaill, permission to be served
heir in his minority to all the lands and rents in the Sheriffdom
of Innerness, in which his father died last vest and seised.  In
1572 the same King confirmed a grant made by Colin Makcanze of
Kintaill to Barbara Graunt, his affianced spouse, in fulfilment
of a contract between him and John Grant of Freuchie, dated 25th
April 1571, of his lands of Climbo, Keppach, and Ballichon, Mekle
Innerennet, Derisduan Beg, Little Innerennet, Derisduan Moir,
Auchadrein, Kirktoun, Ardtulloch, Rovoch, Quhissil, Tullych,
Derewall and Nuik, Inchchro, Morowoch, Glenlik, Innersell and Nuik,
Ackazarge, Kinlochbeancharan, and Innerchonray, in the Earldom
of Ross, and  Sheriffdom of Inverness.  In 1574 the same Colin
was served heir to his father Kenneth M'Keinzie in the davach
of Letterfernane, the davach of  Glenshall, and other lands in the
barony of Ellendonane of the old extent of five marks." [Origines
Parechiales Scotia, p. 393, vol, ii.]

On the 15th of April, 1569, Colin, along with Alexander Ross
of Balnagown, Lachlan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Walter Urquhart
of Cromarty, Robert Munro of Fowlis, Hugh Rose of Kilravock, and
several others, signed a bond of allegiance to James VI. and to
James Earl of  Murray as Regent.  On the 21st of June, in the same
year, before the Lord Regent and the Privy Council, Colin promised
and obliged himself to cause Torquil Macleod of Lewis to obtain
sufficient letters of slams from the master, wife, bairns, and
principal kin and friends of the umquhile John Mac Ian Mhoir, and
on the said letters of slams being obtained Robert Munro of Fowlis
promised and obliged himself to deliver to the said Torquil or
Colin the sum of two hundred merks consigned in Robert Munro's
hands by certain merchants in Edinburgh for the assithment of
slaughters committed at Lochcarron in connection with the fishings
in that Loch.  On the 1st of August, 1569, Colin signs a decree
arbitral between himself and Donald Gormeson Macdonald, sixth
of Sleat, the full text of which will be found at pp. 185-88 of
Mackenzie's "History of the Macdonalds and Lords of the Isles."

In 1570 a quarrel broke out between the Mackenzies and the Munros.
Leslie, the celebrated Bishop of Ross, who had been secretary to
Queen Mary, dreading the effect of public feeling against prelacy
in  the North, and against himself personally, made over to his
cousin Leslie of  Balquhair, his rights and titles to the Chanonry
of Ross, together with the castle lands, in order to divest them
of the character of church property, and so save them to his family
but notwithstanding this grant, the Regent Murray gave the custody
of the castle to Andrew Munro of Milntown, a rigid presbyterian,
and in high favour with Murray, who promised Leslie some of the
lands of the barony of Fintry in Buchan as an equivalent but the
Regent died before this arrangement was carried out - before Munro
obtained titles to the castle and castle lands as he expected.  Yet
he ultimately obtained permission from the Earl of Lennox, during
his regency, and afterwards from the Earl of Mar, his successor
in that office, to get possession of the castle.

The Mackenzies were by no means pleased to see the Munros occupying
the stronghold; and, desirous to obtain possession of it themselves,
they purchased Leslie's right, by virtue of which they demanded
delivery of the castle.  This was at once refused by the Munros.
Kintail raised his vassals, and, joined by a detachment of the
Mackintoshes, [In the year 1573, Lachlan More, Laird of Mackintosh,
favouring Kintail, his brother-in law, required all the people of
Strathnairn to join him against the Munros.  Colin, Lord of Lorn
had at the time the adminstration of that lordship as the jointure
lands of his wife, the Countesa Dowager of Murray, and he wrote to
Hugh Rose of Kilravock: "My Baillie off Strathnarne, for as much
as it is reported to me that Mackintosh has charged all my tenants
west of the water of Naim to pass forward with him to Ross to
enter into this troublous action with Mackenzie against the Laird
of Fowlis, and because I will not that any of mine enter presently
this matter whose service appertains to me, wherefore I will desire
you to make my will known to my tenants at Strathnarne within
your Bailliary, that none of them take upon hand to rise at this
present with Mackintosh to pass to Ross, or at any time hereafter
without my special command and goodwill obtained under such pains,"
etc.  (Dated) Darnoway, 28th of June, 1573. - "Kilravock Writs,"
p.263.] garrisoned the steeple of the Cathedral Church, and laid
siege to Irvine's Tower and the Palace.  The Munros held out for
three years, but one day the garrison becoming short of provisions,
they attempted a sortie to the Ness of Fortrose, where there was at
the time a salmon stell, the contents of which they attempted to
secure.  They were commanded  by John  Munro, grandson of George,
fourth laird of Fowlis, who was killed at the battle of
"Bealach-nam-Brog."  They, were immediately discovered, and
quickly followed by the Mackenzies, under lain Dubh Mac Ruairidh
Mhic Alastair, who fell upon the starving Munros, and, after a
desperate struggle, killed twenty-six of their number, among whom
was their commander, while the victors only sustained a loss of
two men killed and three or four wounded.  The remaining defenders
of the castle immediately capitulated, and it was taken possession
of by the Mackenzies.  Subsequently it was confirmed to the Baron
of Kintail by King James VI. [Sir Robert Gordon, p. 154, and MS.
Histories of the Family.]  Roderick Mor Mackenzie of Redcastle seems
to have been the leading spirit in this affair.  The following
document, dated at Holyrood House, the 12th of September 1573,
referring to the matter will prove interesting -

Anent our Sovereign Lord's letters raised at the instance of
Master George Munro, making mention: that whereas he is lawfully
provided to the Chancellory of Ross by his Highness's presentation,
admission to the Kirk, and the Lords' decree thereupon, and has
obtained letters in all the four forms thereupon and therewith has
caused charge the tenants and intromitters with the teind sheaves
thereof, to make him and his factors payment; and in the meantime
Rory Mackenzie, brother to Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, having
continual residence in the steeple of the Chanonry of Ross, which
he caused to be built not only to oppress the country with masterful
theft, sorning, and daily oppression, but also for suppressing of the
word of God which was always preached in the said Kirk preceding
his entry thereto, which is now become a filthy stye and den
of thieves; has masterfully and violently with a great force of
oppression, come to the tenants indebted in payment of the said Mr
George's benefice aforesaid and has masterfully reft them of all
and whole the fruits thereof; and so he having no other refuge
for obtaining of the said benefice, was compelled to denounce the
said whole tenants rebels and put them to the horn, as the said
letters and execution thereof more fully purports; and further is
compelled for fear of the said Mr George's life to remain from his
vocation whereunto God has called him.  And anent the charge given
to the said Rory Mackenzie to desist and cease from all intromitting,
uptaking, molesting or troubling of the said Mr George's tenants
of his benefice above-written for any fruits or duties thereof,
otherwise than is ordered by law, or else to have compeared  before
my Lord Regent's grace and Lords of Secret Council at a certain
day bypast, and show a reasonable cause why the same should not be
done; under the pain of rebellion and putting him to the horn, with
certification to him, and he failing, letters would be directed
simpliciter to  put him to the horn, like as is at more length
contained in the said letters, execution and endorsement thereof.
Which being called, the said Master George compeared personally,
and the said Rory Mackenzie oftimes called and not compearing, my
Lord Regent's grace, with advise of the Lords of Secret Council,
ordained letters to be directed to officers of arms, Sheriffs in
that part, to denounce the said Rory Mackenzie our Sovereign Lord's
rebel and put him to the horn and to escheat and bring in all his
moveable goods to his Highness's use for his contempt. [Records of
the Privy Council.]

In December of the same year Colin has to provide cautioners, for
things laid to his charge, to the amount of ten thousand pounds,
that he  shall remain within four miles of Edinburgh, and eastward
as far as the town of Dunbar, and that he shall appear before the
Council on a notice of forty-eight hours.  On the 6th of February
following other cautioners bind themselves to enter him in Edinburgh
on the 20th of May, 1574, remaining there until relieved, under
a penalty of ten thousand pounds.  He is entered to keep ward in
Edinburgh on the 1st March, 1575, and is bound to appear before
the Council when required under a similar penalty.   On the 10th
of April following he signs a bond that Alexander Ross shall appear
before the Lords when required to do so.  On the 25th of May, 1575,
at Chanonry, Robert Munro of Fowlis and Walter Urquhart, Sheriff
of Cromarty, bind  themselves their heirs, and successors, under
a penalty of five thousand pounds, that they shall on a month's
notice enter and present Roderick Mor Mackenzie of Redcastle
before the King and the Privy Council and that he shall remain
while lawful entry be taken of him, and that he shall keep good
rule in his country in the meantime.  On the same day Colin, his
brother, "of his own free motive will" binds himself and his heirs
to relieve and keep these gentlemen scaithless of the amount of
this obligation.  He is one of several Highland chiefs charged by
the Regent and the Privy Council on the 19th of February, 1577-78,
to defend Donald Mac Angus of Glengarry from an expected invasion
of his territories by sea and land. [Register of the Privy Council.]

The disturbed state of the country was such, in 1573, that the
Earl of Sutherland petitioned to be served heir to his estates, at
Aberdeen, as he could not get a jury together to sit at Inverness,
"in consequence of the barons, such as Colin Mackenzie of Kintail,
Hugh Lord Lovat, Lachlan Mackintosh of Dunachton, and Robert Munro
of Fowlis, being at deadly feud among themselves." [Antiquarian
Notes, p. 79]

In 1580 a desperate quarrel broke out between the Mackenzies and
Macdonalds of Glengarry.  The Chief of Glengarry inherited part of
Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and Lochbroom, from his grandmother, Margaret,
one of the sisters and co-heiresses of Sir Donald Macdonald of
Lochalsh, and grand-daughter of Celestine of the Isles.  Kenneth,
during his father's life, had acquired the other part by purchase
from Dingwall of Kildun, son of the other co-heiress of Sir
Donald, on the 24th November, 1554, and Queen Mary confirmed the
grant by Royal charter.  Many causes leading to disputes and feuds
can easily be imagined with such men in close proximity.  Glengarry
and his followers "sorned" on Mackenzie's tenants, not only in
the immediate vicinity of his own property of Lochcarron, but also
during their raids from Glengarry, on the outskirts of Kintail,
and thus Mackenzie's dependants were continually harrassed by
Glengarry's cruelty and ill-usage.  His own tenants in Lochalsh
and Lochcarron fared little better, particularly the Mathesons in
the former, and the Clann Ian  Uidhir in the latter, who were the
original possessors of Glengarry's lands in that district.  These
tribes, finding themselves in such abject slavery, though they
regularly paid their rents and other dues, and seeing how kindly
Mackenzie used the neighbouring tenantry, envied their more
comfortable state and "abhorred Glengarry's rascality, who would
lie in their houses (yea, force their women and daughters) so long
as there was any good to be given, which made them keep better
amity and correspondence with Mackenzie and his tenants than with
their own master and his followers.  This may partly teach how
superiors ought always to govern and oversee their tenantry and
followers, especially in the Highlands, who were ordinarily made
up of several clans, and will not readily underlie such slavery as
the Incountry Commons will do."

The first serious outbreak between the Glengarry Macdonalds and
the Mackenzies originated thus: One Duncan Mac Ian Uidhir Mhic
Dhonnachaidh, known as "a very honest gentleman," who, in his early
days, lived under Glengarry, and was a very good deerstalker and
an excellent shot, often resorted to the forest of Glasletter,
then the property of Mackenzie of Gairloch, where he killed many
of the deer.  Some time afterwards, Duncan was, in consequence of
certain troubles in his own country, obliged to leave, and he, with
all his family and goods, took up his quarters in Glen Affrick, close
to the forest.  Soon after, he went, accompanied by a friend, to
the nearest hill, and began his favourite pursuit of deerstalking.
Mackenzie's forester perceiving the stranger, and knowing him as
an old poacher, cautiously walked up, came upon him unawares, and
demanded that he should at once surrender himself and his arms.
Duncan, finding that Gairloch's forester was only accompanied by
one gillie, "thought it an irrecoverable affront that he and his
man should so yield, and refused to do so on any terms, whereupon
the forester being ill-set, and remembering former abuses in their
passages," he and his companion killed the poachers, and buried
them in the hill.  Fionnla Dubh Mac Dhomh'uill Mhoir and Donald
Mac Ian Leith, the latter a native of Gairloch, were suspected of
the crime, but it was never proved against them, though they were
both several times put on their trial by the barons of Kintail
and Gairloch.

About two years after the murder was committed, Duncan's bones
were discovered by one of his friends, who had continued all the
time diligently to search for him.  The Macdonalds always suspected
foul play, and this having now been placed beyond question by the
discovery of the bodies of the victims, a party of them started,
determined to revenge the death of their clansman; and, arriving
at Inchlochell, Glenstrathfarrar, then the property of Rory Mor
Mackenzie of Redcastle, they found Duncan Mac Ian Mhic Dhomh'uill
Mhoir, a brother of the suspected Finlay Dubh, without any fear
of approaching danger, busily engaged ploughing his patch of land,
and they at once attacked and killed him.  The renowned Rory Mor,
hearing of the murder of his tenant, at once despatched a messenger
to Glengarry demanding redress and the punishment of the assassins,
but Glengarry refused.  Rory was, however, determined to have
satisfaction, and he resolved, against the counsel of his friends,
to have retribution for this and previous injuries at once and as
best he could.  Having thus decided, he at once sent for his friend,
Dugall Mackenzie of Applecross, to consult him as to the best mode
of procedure to ensure success.

Glengarry lived at the time in the Castle of Strone, Lochcarron,
and, after consultation, the two Mackenzies resolved to use every
means in their power to capture him, or some of his nearest
relatives.  For this purpose Dugall suggested a plan by which he
thought he would induce the unsuspecting Glengarry to meet him on
a certain day at Kishorn.  Rory Mor, to avoid any suspicion, was
to start at once for Lochbroom, under cloak of attending to his
interests there; and if Macdonald agreed to meet Dugall at Kishorn,
he would immediately send notice of the day to Rory.  No sooner had
Dugall arrived at home than, to carry out this plan, he dispatched a
messenger to Glengarry informing him that he had matters of great
importance to communicate to him, and that he wished, for that
purpose, to meet him on any day which he might deem suitable.

Day and place were soon appointed, and Dugall at once sent
a messenger, as arranged, with full particulars of the proposed
meeting to Rory Mor, who instantly gathered his friends, the Clann
Allan, and marched them to Lochcarron.  On his arrival, he had a
meeting with Donald Mac Ian Mhic Ian Uidhir, and Angus Mac Eachainn,
both of the Clann Ian Uidhir, and closely allied to Glengarry by
blood and marriage, and living on his lands.  "Yet notwithstanding
this alliance, they, fearing  his, and his rascality's further
oppression, were content to join Rory in the plot."  The appointed
day having arrived, Glengarry and his lady (a  daughter of the
Captain of Clan Ranald, he having previously sent away his lawfull
wife, a daughter of the laird of Grant) came by sea to Kishorn.
He and Dugall Mackenzie having conferred together for some time
discussing matters of importance to each as neighbours, Glengarry
took his leave, but while being convoyed to his boat, Dugall
suggested the impropriety of his going home by sea in such a clumsy
boat, when he had only a distance of two miles to walk, and if
he did not suspect his own inability to make the lady comfortable
for the night, he would be glad to provide for her and see her home
safely next morning.  Macdonald declined the proffered hospitality
to his lady.  He sent her home by the boat, accompanied by four
of his followers, and told Dugall that he would not endanger the
boat by overloading, but that he and the remainder of his gentlemen
and followers would go home on foot.

Rory Mor had meanwhile placed his men in ambush in a place still
called Glaic nan Gillean.  Glengarry and his train, on their way
to Strone Castle, came upon them without the slightest suspicion,
when they were suddenly surrounded by Rory's followers, and called
upon to surrender.  Seeing this, one of the Macdonalds shot an
arrow at Redcastle, which fixed in the fringe of his plaid, when
his followers, thinking their leader had been mortally wounded
furiously attacked the Macdonalds; but Rory commanded his friends,
under pain of death, to save the life of Glengarry, who, seeing
he had no chance of escape, and hearing Redcastle's orders to his
men, threw away his sword, and ran into Rory Mor's arms, begging
that his life might be spared.  This was at once granted to him,
but not a single one of his men escaped from Redcastle's infuriated
followers, who started the same night, taking Glengarry along with
him, for Lochbroom.

Even this did not satisfy the cruel disposition of Donald Mac Ian
Mhic Ian Uidhir and Angus Mac Eachainn, who had an old grudge against
their chief, Glengarry, his father having some time previously
evicted their father from Attadale, Lochcarron, to which they
claimed a right.  They, under silence of night, gathered all the
Clann Ian Uidhir, and proceeded to Arinaskaig and Dalmartin, where
lived at the time three uncles of Glengarry - Gorrie, Rorie, and
Ronald - whom they, with all their retainers, killed on the spot.
"This murder was undoubtedly unknown to Rory or any of the
Mackenzies, though alleged otherwise; for as soon as his nephew,
Colin of Kintail, and his friends heard of this accident, they were
much concerned, and would have him (Rory) set Glengarry at liberty
but all their persuasions would not do tell he was secured of him
by writ and oath, that he and his would never pursue this accident
either legally or unlegally, and which, as was said, he never
intended to do, till seventeen years thereafter, when, in 1597,
the children of these three uncles of Glengarry arrived at manhood,"
determined, as will be seen hereafter, to revenge their father's
death. [Ancient and Ardintoul MSS.]

Gregory, however, says (p. 219) that after his liberation, Glengarry
complained to the Privy Council, who, investigating the matter,
caused the Castle of Strone, which Macdonald yielded to Mackenzie
as one of the  conditions of his release, to be placed under the
temporary custody of the Earl of Argyll and Mackenzie of Kintail
was detained at Edinburgh in open ward to answer such charges as
might be brought against him. [Records of Privy Council of date 10th
August and 2d December 1582; 11th January and 8th March 1582-3.]
In 1586 King James VI. granted a remission to "Colin M'Kainzie of
Kintaill and Rodoric M'Kainzie of Auchterfailie" (Redcastle), "his
brother, for being art and part in the cruel murder of Rodoric
M'Allester in  Stroll; Gorie M'Allester, his brother, in Stromcraig;
Ronnald M'Gorie, the son of the latter; John Roy M'Allane v'
Allester, in Pitnean; John Dow M'Allane v' Allester, in Kirktoun
of  Lochcarroun; Alexander M'Allanroy, servitor of the deceased
Rodoric; Sir John Monro in Lochbrume; John Monro, his son; John
Monro Hucheoun, and the rest of their accomplices, under silence
of night, upon the lands of Ardmanichtyke, Dalmartene, Kirktoun
of Lochcarroun, Blahat, and other parts within the baronies
of Lochcarroun, Lochbrume, Ros, and Kessane, in the Sheriffdom
of Innerness," and for all their other past crimes, ["Origines
Parochiales Scotia" and Retours.]

During Colin's reign Huntly obtained a commission of fire and
sword against Mackintosh of Mackintosh, and reduced him to such a
condition that he had to remove with all his family and friends for
better security to the Island of Moy.  Huntly, having determined
to crush him, came to Inverness and prepared a fleet of boats
with which to besiege the island.  These preparations having been
completed, and the boats ready to be drawn across the hills from
Inverness to Moy, Mackenzie, who had been advised of Huntly's
intentions, despatched a messenger - John  Mackenzie of Kinnock -
to Inverness, to ask his Lordship to be as favourable as possible
to his sister, Mackintosh of Mackintosh's wife, and to treat her as
a gentlewoman ought to be treated when he came to Moy, and that
he (Colin) would consider it as an act of personal courtesy to
himself.  The messenger delivered his message, to which Huntly
replied, that if it were his good fortune, as he doubted not it
would be, to apprehend her husband and her, "she would be the worst
used lady in the North; that she was an ill instrument against
his cause, and therefore he would cut her tail above her houghs."
"Well, then," answered Kinnock, "he (Kintail) bade me tell your
Lordship if that were your answer, that perhaps he or his would
be there to have a better care of her."  "I do not value his being
there more than herself" Huntly replied, "and tell him so much
from me."  The messenger departed, when some of Huntly's principal
officers who heard the conversation remonstrated with his Lordship
for sending the Mackenzie chief so uncivil an answer, as he might
have cause to regret it if that gentleman took it amiss.  Kinnock
on his arrival at Brahan, told his master what had occurred,
and delivered Huntly's rude message.  Colin, who was at the time
in delicate health, sent for his brother, Rory Mor of Redcastle,
and sent him next day across the ferry of Ardersier with a force
of four hundred warriors.  These he marched straight through the
hills; and just as Huntly, on his way from Inverness, was coming
in sight, on the west of Moy, Rory and his followers were marching
along the face of the hill on the east side of the Island, when
his Lordship, perceiving such a large force, asked his officers
who they could be.  One of them, present during the interview with
Mackenzie's messenger on the previous day, answered, "Yonder is the
effect of your answer to Mackenzie."  "I wonder," replied Huntly,
"how he could have so many men ready almost in an instant."  The
officer replied, "Their leader is so active and fortunate that his
men will flock to him from all parts on a moment's notice when he
has any ado.  And before you gain Mackintosh or his lady you will
lose more than he is worth, since  now, as it seems, her friends
take part in the quarrel;" whereupon the Earl retired with his
forces to Inverness, "so that it seemed fitter to Huntly to agree
their differs friendly than prosecute the laws further against
Mackintosh."

There is a complaint to the Privy Council by Christian Scrymgeour,
relict of the late Alexander, Bishop of Ross, dated 24th January,
1578-9, in which it is stated that Colin not only stopped and
debarred her late spouse from having fuel and "elding" to his
dwelling house in the Chanonry of Ross, where he made his residence
last summer, but stopped him also from victuals to his house, using
such unhuman and cruel dealings against him that he fell sick and
never recovered "till he departed this life."  During the illness
of the bishop in December preceding, Colin and others "of his
special sending" enclosed the house of the Chanonry and debarred
the complainer and her husband of meat and drink and all other
relief of company or comfort of neighbours and friends, and how
soon he had intelligence of the bishop's approaching his death he
laid ambushes of armed men within the town of Chanonry and in the
neighbourhood and apprehended several of the bishop's and dean's
servants, whom he carried "immediately to the said Colin's house
of the Redcastle," and there detained them for twenty-four hours.
Further, on the 22nd of September preceding, the bishop being at
the extreme point of death, Colin with an armed following in great
numbers, came to the castle and house of the Chanonry and by force
and violence entered therein and put the said Christian Scrymgeour,
the bishop's wife, and his servants, children, and household out
of the same, intromitted with their goods and gear and constrained
them to leave the country by sea, not suffering them to get meat,
drink, or lodging, in the town, nor letting them take away with
them of their own gear as much as a plaid or blanket to protect
the children from cold in the boat, "committing thair throw such
cruel and barbarous oppression upon them as the like has not
been heard of in any realm or country subject to justice or the
authority of a Sovereign  Prince."  Colin did not appear to answer
this complaint, and he and his chief abettors were denounced rebels,
put to the horn and escheated.

On the same day, there is a complaint by Henry Lord Methven, in
which it is stated that although his Lordship "has by gift of His
Highness to him, his heirs and assignees, the gift of all and whole
the temporality of the Bishopric of Ross, and of the castle, house,
and place of the Chanonry of Ross, now vacant in our Sovereign
Lord's hands by the decease of the late Alexander, last Bishop
of Ross, of all years and terms to come, aye and till the lawful
provision of a lawful bishop and pastor to the said  bishopric,"
and although it is "specially provided by Act of Parliament that
whatsoever person or persons takes any bishop's places, castles, or
strengths, or enters by their own authority to hold them without
his Highness' command, letters or charges, shall incur the crimes
of treason and lesemajesty," yet, "Colin Mackenzie of Kintail,
in proud and high contempt of his Majesty's said loveable law and
Act of Parliament, and of his Highness now having the administration
of the Government of the realm in his own person, lately, upon the
22nd day of September last bypast, in the very hour of the death
of the said late Alexander, Bishop of  Ross, or shortly thereafter
beset and enclosed the said castle, house, and place of the Chanonry
of Ross, took the same by force and as yet detains and holds the
same as a house of war and will not render and deliver the same
to the said Lord Methven.'  Mackenzie was duly charged to give up
possession of the castle and place or take the consequences.  Lord
Methven appeared personally, but Colin did not, where-upon their
Lordships ordained letters to be directed to him charging him to
give them up, "with the whole munition and ordnance therein" to
Henry Lord  Methven or to any other having power to receive them,
within twenty-four hours of the charge under the pain of treason.

The following complaint by Donald Mac Angus of Glengarry laid before
the Privy Council at Dalkeith on 10th of August, 1582, is that
gentleman's version of his apprehension by Roderick Mor Mackenzie
of Redcastle and Dugall Mackenzie of Kishorn, as described from
family MSS. at pp. 156-59.  Glengarry's complaint proceeds -

After the great slaughters, herschips, and skaiths, committed upon
him, his kin, friends, and servants upon the last day of February
the year of God 1581 years, estimate worth six score thousand
pounds money of this realm or thereby, and on the first, second,
third, fourth, fifth and sixth days of March last bypast thereafter
by Rory Mackenzie, brother-german to Colin Mackenzie of Kintail,
Dugald Mackenzie, his brother and the remainder of their colleagues
and company, to the number of two hundred persons, armed with
two-handed swords, bows, darlochis, hagbutts, pistols, prohibited
to be worn or used, and other offensive weapons who also upon
the sixteenth day of April last bypast or thereby, came upon the
said complainant he being within his own "rowmes" and country of
Lochcarron having mind of no evil or injury to have been done to
him nor none of his, but thinking to have lived under God's peace
and our Sovereign Lord, and then not only took himself captive,
kept and detained him prisoner in coves, craigs, woods, and other
desert places at their  pleasure wherethrough none of his kin
nor friends had access to him for the space of fourteen days or
thereby, but also in the meantime took and apprehended the late
Rory MacAlister, father's brother to the said  complainant, and
three of their sons and other of his friends and servants  to the
number of 33 persons or thereby, bound their hands with their own
shirts, and cruelly and unmercifully, under promise of safety of
their lives, caused murder and slay them with dirks, appointing
that they should not be buried as Christian men, but cast forth
and eaten by dogs and swine."  Further, "at the end of the said
complainant's captivity and detention in the manner aforesaid,
being delivered by the foresaid person, his takers and detainers,
to Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, both he and they, being armed in
warlike manner as said is, upon the 24th day of the said month of
April, came to the said complainant's town and lands of Strome,
where they also carried him captive with them and theirs, by
hostility and way of deed, spoiled and reft the whole goods, gear,
and plenishing therein and besieged his house and Castle of Strome,
threatening his friends and servants therein that if they rendered
not the same to them they would hang the said complainant in their
sight compelling him and his said friends therefor and for safety
of his life to yield to the said persons' tyrranous desires and
appetites, and render to them the said castle, which they not only
wrongfully detained and withheld from him, but also through occasion
thereof still insists in their cruelty and inhumanity against the
said complainant, his kin and friends.  Like as lately, about the
end of July last, the said Colin Mackenzie Rory Mackenzie, and
others aforesaid, having violently taken Donald MacMoroch Roy, one
of the said complainant's chief kinsmen, and were not content to put
him to a simple death, but to bait them in his blood, and by a
strange example to satisfy their cruel and unnatural hearts, first
cut off his hands, next his feet, and last his head, and having cast
the same in a "peitpott," exposed and laid out his carcase to be a
prey for dogs and ravenous beasts: Tending by such kind of dealing
to undo as many of the said complainant's friends and servants as
they can apprehend, and to lay waste their lands, "rowmes," and
possessions to the said complainant's heavy hurt and skaith, and
dangerous example of wicked persons to attempt the like, if remedy
be not provided."  In consequence of this complaint charges had
gone forth to Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, (1), to have rendered the
said  Castle of Strome with the munition and goods therein to the
complainer or his representatives, within twenty-four hours after
being charged, under pain of rebellion, or else to have appeared
and shown cause to the contrary; (2) to have appeared and found
sufficient surety in the Books of the Council for the safety of
the complainer and his dependants in persons and goods, or else
shown cause to the contrary, under the same pain.  And now, "the
said Angus Mac Angus compeared personally and the said Colin
Mackenzie of Kintail being oftimes called and not compearing, the
Lords (1) repeat their charge for delivery of the castle within
twenty-four hours, and, failing obedience, order Mackenzie of
Kintail to be denounced rebel and put to the horn and to escheat;
(2) repeat their charge to the said Mackenzie to find sufficient
caution for the safety of the complainer and his dependants in person
and goods, with order that if he fail to do so within fifteen days
after being charged, he shall, for that default also, be denounced
rebel and put to the horn."

On the 2nd of December, 1582, Colin finds caution in the sum of two
thousand merks that he shall deliver up Strome Castle, Lochcarron,
to Donald Mac Angus of Glengarry, in  the event of the Privy
Council finding that he should do so.

Shortly after this the aspect of affairs is changed.  On the 11th
of January, 1582-83, the decree against Mackenzie for the surrender
of Strome Castle to Donald Macdonald of Glengarry is reversed.
He petitions the Privy Council and gives an entirely different
complexion to the facts of the case against him to those submitted
by Glengarry to the  Council.  He complains of Donald Mac Angus for
having "upon a certain sinister and malicious narration" obtained
a decree against him charging him upon pain of rebellion to deliver
up the Castle of Strome, and to appear before the Privy Council,
on the 4th of August preceding, to find caution that Glengarry
and his friends should be kept harmless of him in their persons
and goods, and then makes the following statement:

The officer, alleged executor of the said letters (against him),
neither charged thc said Colin personally nor at his dwelling house,
neither yet came any such charge to his knowledge.  Yet he hearing
tell somewhat thereof by the "bruit" of the country, he, for
obedience of the same, directed Alexander Mackenzie, his servant
and procurator, to our Burgh of Perth, where his Majesty was
resident for the time, who from the same fourth of August, being
the peremptory day of compearance, as well there as at Ruthven,
attended continually upon the calling of the said letters till
the Council dissolved, and that his Majesty passed to Dunkeld to
the hunting.  Like as immediately thereafter the said Alexander
repaired to the Burgh of Edinburgh, where he likewise awaited a
certain space thereafter when Council should have been, and the
said letters should have been called but perceiving no number of
Council neither there nor actually with his Majesty, he looked
for no calling of the said letters nor proceeding thereuntil, but
that the same should have (been), deserted, because the day was
peremptory, at the least till he should have been of new warned and
heard in presence of his Highness and his Council to have shown a
reasonable cause why no such letters should be granted  simpliciter
upon the said Colin to the effect above-written.  Not-withstanding
for by his expectation, he being resident for the time in Edinburgh,
where he looked that the said matter should have been called,
the said other letters were upon the tenth day of the said month
of August last, by moyen of the said Donald Mac Angus, called at
the Castle of Dalkeith, and there, for the said Colin's alleged
non-compearance, as he is  surely informed, decree was pronounced
in the said matter and letters ordained to be directed simpliciter
against him."  Had his said servant, then still in Edinburgh, been
made aware of this meeting of Council at Dalkeith, "he would not
have failed to have compeared, and had many good and sufficient
reasons and defences to have staid all giving of the said letters
simpliciter;" such as that "the said Colin received the said castle
and fortalice of Strome by virtue of a contract passed betwixt him
and the said Donald, wherein he was content and consented that the
said castle should remain in the said Colin's hands and keeping
unto the time he had fulfilled certain other articles and clauses
mentioned and contained in the same contract;" also "that the said
Colin was charged, by virtue of letters passed by deliverance of
the Lords of Session, to render and deliver the said castle and
fortalice of Strome to John Grant of Freuchie, as pertaining to
him in heritage, within a certain space after the charge, under
the said pain of horning, so that, he being doubly charged, he
is uncertain  to whom to render the said castle."  Moreover, for
the satisfaction of the King and the Lords of Council, "the said
Colin has found caution to render and deliver the said castle and
fortalice to the said Donald, if it shall be found by his Highness
and the said Lords that he ought to do the same."  For these reasons
it is argued that the said decree and letters issued against him
ought to be suspended.

Charge having been made to the said Donald Mac Angus to appear
to this complaint and demand, "both the said parties compeared
personally," and the Lords after hearing them, "suspended the
foresaid letters purchased by the said Donald Mac Angus, effect
thereof, and process of horning contained therein, and all that
has followed thereupon, upon the said Colin simpliciter in time
coming," the ground for this decision being that "the said Colin
has found security acted in the books of Secret Council that the
said castle and fortalice of Strome, committed to him in keeping by
the King's Majesty and Lords of Secret Council, shall be rendered
and delivered again to such person or persons as shall be appointed
by the King's Majesty to receive the same, as the keepers thereof
shall be required thereto upon six days' warning, under the pain
of ten thousand merks" and meanwhile, under the same pains, that
none of the King's subjects shall be "invaded, troubled, molested,
nor persecuted," by those who keep the castle for him, or by others
resorting thither.  There is, however, this proviso -

That, in case the said Colin shall at any time hereafter sue of
the King's Majesty to be disburdened of the keeping of the said
castle, and that some person may be appointed to receive the same
out of his hands and keeping within the space of twenty days next
after his said Suit, which notwithstanding shall happen to be
refused and not done by his Highness within the said space, that
in that case he nor his cautioner be anywise answerable thereafter
for the said house and keeping thereof, but to be free of the same,
and these presents to annul and to have no further force, effect,
nor execution, against them at any time thereafter except that
the same house shall happen to be kept by the said Colin or his
servants in his  name thereafter, for the which in that respect the
said Colin shall always be answerable in manner aforesaid and no
otherwise.

A bond of caution by Mackenzie, and Lord Lindsay of the Byres as
security for him, for ten thousand merks, subscribed on the 20th
of January, 1582-83, and registered in the Chanonry of Ross, binds
Colin to  surrender the Castle of Strome to any person appointed
by the King for the  purpose, on six days' warning and to fulfil
the other duties imposed upon him by the Act of the Privy Council
dated the 11th of the same month, already given, but with the
proviso in his favour contained in that Act, which is repeated at
length in the bond of caution of this date.

In terms of this bond the King and Council at a meeting held
at Holyrood on the 8th of March following "for certain causes
and considerations moving them," order letters to issue charging
Mackenzie and other keepers of the Castle of Strome to deliver the
same to Colin, Earl of Argyll, Chancellor, or to his servants in
his name within six days after charge under the pains of rebellion,
which being done the King "discharges thereafter the sureties
found by the said Colin Mackenzie of before, either acted in the
books of Secret Council, or by contract, bond, or promise between
him and Donald Mac Angus Mac Alastair of Glengarry," the Acts
referring to the same to be deleted from the books of the Privy
Council.

Colin's name appears again on the 1st of August as surety for
a bond of three thousand merks by David Dunbar of Kilstarry and
Patrick Dunbar of Blairy.

On the 5th of May, 1585, he is denounced a rebel on a complaint by
Hugh Fraser of Guisachan under the following circumstances.  Fraser
says that a certain "John Dow Mac Allan was lawfully denounced his
Highness' rebel and put to the horn at the said Hucheon's instance
for not removing from the half davoch of land of Kilboky pertaining
to him, conform to a decree obtained by the said Hucheon against
the said John Dow Mac Allan."  Upon this decree Hugh Fraser
"raised letters of caption by deliverance of the Lords of Session
to charge the Sheriff of Inverness and other judges in the country
where the said John resorts, to take, apprehend him, and keep him
conform to the order observed in such cases."  In all this process
to obtain the decree, with "letters in the four forms, executions
and denunciations thereof," and then raising of the said letters
of caption thereupon, the complainer has been put to great travel
and expenses, having his habitation by the space of eight score
miles or thereby distant from the Burgh of Edinburgh."  Nevertheless,
Colin Mackenzie, "to whom the said John Dow Mac Allan is tenant,
servant, and special depender," maintains and assists him in his
violent occupation or the complainer's lands, "keeps him in his
company, receives him in his house, and otherwise debates him that
he cannot be apprehended," so that all the proceedings of the
complainer Fraser are frustrated.  Colin was thereupon charged to
present Mac Allan before the Privy Council, under pain of rebellion,
and failing to appear, or present John Dow, and the complainer
having appeared personally, an order was pronounced denouncing
Mackenzie a rebel.

On the 11th of December next, John Gordon of Pitlurg becomes
cautioner in one thousand merks that Colin will not injure Andrew,
Lord Dingwall, his tenants, or servants.  On the 11th of April,
1586, William Cumming of Inverallochy and others become surety in
L1000 that Mackenzie shall "remove his coble, fishers, and nets,
from the fishing of the water of Canon, and desist and cease
therefrom in time coming, conform to the letters raised at the
instance of Andrew, Lord Dingwall, to the same effect, in case it
shall be found and declared that the said Colin  ought to do the
same."  On the 4th of May following, Mackenzie binds himself to
keep his sureties scaithless in the matter of this caution.  On the
16th of the same month, the King and Council "for certain necessary
and weighty considerations moving his Highness, tending to the
furthering and establishing of his Highness' obedience and the
greatness and safety of his peaceable and good subjects from
burnings, riefs, and oppression," ordain Colin to enter in ward
in Blackness Castle within twenty-four hours after being charged
under pain of treason.  Two days later, being then in ward in this
stronghold, he finds caution in ten thousand merks that on being
relieved from ward he will repair to Edinburgh and keep ward there
until set free.  This is deleted by a warrant subscribed by the
King and the Secretary at Falkland on the 6th of the following
August.  His name appears as one of a long list of Highland chiefs
complained against to the Privy Council on the 30th of November,
1586, by the united burghs of the realm for obstructing the
fisheries in the northern parts and making extortionate exactions
from the fishermen, and again on the 16th of September, 1587, when
an order is made to denounce him for his failure to appear before
the Council to enter John Mackenzie of Gairloch and his accomplices,
for whom Colin is held liable "as master and landlord," to answer a
complaint made against them by James Sinclair, Master of Caithness,
on the 10th of August preceding.  On the 5th of March, 1587-88,
John Davidson, burgess of Edinburgh, becomes cautioner in 500
merks  that Colin will, if required, enter such of his men before
the Privy Council as "assegeit" James, Master of Caithness,
within the house of  William Robson, in the Chanonry of Ross.  On
the 27th of July, 1588, he is appointed by a Convention of the
Estates member of a Commission, charged with powers for executing
the laws against Jesuits, Papists, and other delinquents, and with
other extensive powers.  On the 24th of May, 1589, he is named
as the Commissioner for the shire of Inverness who is to convene
the freeholders of the county for choosing the Commissioners to
a Parliament to be held at Edinburgh on the 2nd of October in that
year, and to report his diligence in this matter to the Council
before the 15th of August, under pains of rebellion.  On the 4th
of June following, he appears in a curious position in connection
with a prosecution for witchcraft against several women, and an
abridgement of the document, as recorded  in the Records of the
Privy Council, is of sufficient interest to justify a place here.
It is the complaint of Katherine Ross, relict of Robert Munro of
Fowlis; Margaret Sutherland, spouse of Hector Munro, portioner of
Kiltearn; Bessie Innes, spouse of Neil Munro, in Swordale; Margaret
Ross, spouse of John Neil Mac Donald Roy, in Caull; and Margaret
Mowat, as follows:

Mr Hector Munro, now of Fowlis, son-in-law of the said Katherine
Ross, "seeking all ways and means to possess himself in certain
her tierce and conjunct fee lands of the Barony of Fowlis, and
to dispossess her therefrom" had first "persued certain of her
tenants and servants by way of deed for their bodily harm and
slaughter," and then, "finding that he could not prevail that
way, neither by sundry other indirect means sought by him," had at
last, "upon sinister and wrong information and importunate suit,
purchased a commission of the same to his Majesty, and to Colin
Mackenzie of Kintail, Rory Mackenzie, his brother, John Mackenzie of
Gairloch, Alexander Bain of Tulloch, Angus Mackintosh of Termitt,
James Glas of Gask, William Cuthbert, in Inverness, and some others
specially mentioned therein, for apprehending of the said Margaret
Sutherland, Bessy Innes, Margaret Ross, and Margaret Mowat, and
sundry others, and putting them to the knowledge of an assize
for witchcraft, and  other forged and feinted crimes alleged to be
committed by them."  Further, "the said persons, by virtue of the
same commission, intended to proceed against them most partially
and wilfully, and thereby to drive the said complainers to that
strait that either they shall satisfy his unreasonable desire, or
then to lose their lives, with the sober portion of goods made by
them for the sustenance of themselves and their poor bairns: howbeit
it be of verity that they are honest women of repute and holding
these many years bygone, spotted at no time with any such ungodly
practices, neither any ways having committed any offence, but by all
their actions behaved themselves so discreetly and honestly as none
justly could or can have occasion of complaint - they being ever
ready, like they are yet, to underlie the law for all crimes that
can be laid to their charge," and having to that effect, "presently
found caution for their compearance before the justice and his
deputes, or any judge unsuspected, upon fifteen days' warning."
Their prayer, accordingly, is that the said commission be discharged.
Hector Munro appearing for himself and his colleagues, and the
complainers by Alexander Morrison, their procurator, the Lords
ordain Mr Hector and the other commissioners to desist a from
proceeding against the women, and "remit their trial to be taken
before the Justice-General or his deputes a in the next justice
court appointed to be held after his Majesty's repairing to the north
parts of this realm in the month of July next, at which time, if
his Majesty shall not repair thither, or  being repaired shall not
before his returning cause the same trial to be  taken, "in that
case commission shall be given to Thomas Fraser of  Knocky, tutor
of Lovat, John Urquhart of Cadboll, tutor of Cromarty, and Alexander
Bayne of Tulloch, or any two of them to administer justice conform
to the laws of the realm."

On the 6th of March, 1589-90, Colin is again mentioned as one of
the Commissioners for Inverness and Cromarty for executing the Acts
against the Jesuits and the seminary of priests, with reconstitution
of the Commission of the preceding year for putting the Acts in
force and the appointment of a new Commission of select clergy in
the shires to cooperate in the work and promote submission to the
Confession of Faith and Covenant over the whole Kingdom.  On the
8th of June, 1590, officers  of arms are ordered to arrest in the
hands of David Clapen in Leith, or any other person, any money
consigned in their hands, or due by them to Sir William Keith for
Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, "or remanent gentlemen and tenants of
the Earldom of Ross for their feus thereof" or that rests yet in
the hands of Colin or such tenants, unpaid or not consigned by
them, and to discharge them from paying the same to Sir William
or any other in his name until the King shall further declare his
will, under the penalty of paying his Majesty the same sums over
again.  On the 5th of July in the same year, Colin gives caution
of L2000 that William Ross of Priesthill, when released out of the
tolbooth of Edinburgh, shall keep ward in that city till he find
surety for the entrance of himself and his bastard son, John Ross
and others, to appear before the justice to answer for certain
crimes specified in letters raised against him by David Munro of
Nigg when required upon fifteen days' warning, and satisfy the
Treasurer-depute for his escheat fallen to the King through having
been put to the horn at the instance of the said David Munro.  He
repeats the same caution for the same person on the 15th of August
following.  He is again on record in March, 1591-92, and in June,
1592.  He is, along with Simon Lord Lovat, John Grant of Grant,
Lachlan Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Ross of Balnagown, Hector
Munro of Fowlis, and others, chosen an assistant Commissioner of
justiciary for the counties of Elgin, Nairn, and Inverness, in
March 1592-93.  He was appointed a member of the Privy Council in
June, 1592, but he appears not to have accepted the office on that
occasion, for on the 16th of February following there is an entry
of the admission of Sir William Keith of Delny "in the place
appointed by his Majesty, with the advise of his Estates in his
last Parliament, for Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, by reason he,
being required, has not compeared nor accepted the said place."
He, however, accepted the position soon after, for it is recorded
under date of 5th July, 1593, that "Colin Mackenzie of Kintail
being admitted of the Privy Council gave his oath," in common form.

The great troubles in the Lewis, which ultimately ended in that
extensive principality coming into the possession of the House of
Kintail, commenced about this time, and although the most important
events connected with and leading up to that great result will
principally fall to be treated of later on, the quarrel having
originated in Colin Cam's time, it may be more convenient to
explain its origin under the present.

Roderick Macleod, X. of the Lewis, married, first, Janet, a
natural daughter of John Mackenzie of Killin, by whom he had a son,
Torquil Cononach, so called from his having been brought up with
his mother's relations in Strathconon.  Roderick, by all accounts,
was not so immaculate in his domestic relations as one might wish,
for we find him  having no fewer than five bastard sons, named
respectively, Tormod Uigeach, Murdoch, Neil, Donald, and Rory
Og, all of whom arrived at maturity.  In these circumstances it
can hardly be supposed that his lady's domestic happiness was of
the most felicitous and unmixed description.

It was alleged by this paragon of virtue that she had proved
unfaithful to him, and that she had criminal intimacy with the
Brieve (Breitheamh), or consistorial judge of the Island.  On
the other hand, it was maintained that the Brieve in his capacity
of judge, had been somewhat severe on the Island chief for his
reckless and immoral habits, and for his bad treatment of his lady
and that the unprincipled villain, as throughout his whole career
he proved himself to be, boldly, and in revenge, turned upon and
accused the judge of committing adultery with his wife.  Be that
as it may, the unfortunate woman, attempting to escape from his
cruel treatment, while passing in a large birlinn, from the Lewis
to Coigeach, on the opposite side of the coast, was pursued and
run down by some of her husband's followers, when she, with all
on board, perished.  Roderick thereupon disinherited her son,
Torquil Cononach, grandson of John of Killin, maintaining that
Torquil was not his legitimate son and heir, but the fruit of his
wife's unfaithfulness. [Most of the MS. Histories of the family which
we have perused state that Rory Macleod's wife was a daughter of
Kenneth a Bhlair, but it is impossible that the daughter of a chief
who died in 1491 could have been the wife of one who lived in the
early years of the seventeenth Century. She must have been Kenneth's
granddaughter, as above described, a daughter of John of Kuhn.
This view is corroborated by a decree arbitral in 1554, in which
Torquil Cononach is called the oy (ogha, or grandson) of John
Mackenzie: Acts  and Decreets of Session, X., folio 201.  The
Roderick Macleod who married, probably as his second wife, Agnes,
daughter of Kenneth a  Bhlair, was Roderick Macleod, seventh of
Lewis, who died some time after his father early in the sixteenth
century.]  Roderick Macleod married secondly, in 1541, Barbara
Stewart, daughter of Andrew, Lord Avandale, with issue - Torquil
Oighre or the Heir, who died unmarried before his father, having
been drowned along with a large number of others while on a voyage
in his birlinn, between Lewis and Skye.  Macleod married thirdly
a daughter or Hector Og, XIII., and sister of Sir Lachlan Maclean,
XIV., of  Duart, by whom he had two sons - Torquil Dubh, whom he
named as his  heir and successor, and Tormod, known as Tormod Og.
Torquil Cononach, now designated "of Coigeach," married Margaret,
daughter of Angus Macdonald, VII. of Glengarry, and widow of
Cuthbert of Castlehill, Inverness, who bore him two sons - John
and Neil - and five daughters and, raising as many men as would
accompany him, he, with the assistance of two of his natural
brothers-Tormod and Murdoch-started for the Lewis to vindicate his
rights as legitimate heir to the island.  He defeated his father,
and confined him in the Castle of Stornoway for four years, when he
was finally obliged to acknowledge Torquil Cononach as his lawful
son and successor.  The bastards now quarrelled among themselves.
Donald killed Tormod Uigeach.  Murdoch, in resentment, seized
Donald and carried him to Coigeach; but he afterwards escaped and
complained to old Rory, who was highly offended at Murdoch for
seizing and with Torquil Cononach for detaining Donald.  Roderick
ordered Murdoch to be apprehended and confined to his own
old quarters in the Castle of Stornoway.  Torquil Cononach again
returned to the Lewis, reduced the castle, liberated Murdoch,
again confined his father, and killed many of his followers, at the
same time carrying off all the writs and charters, and depositing
them for safety with his uncle, Mackenzie of Kintail.  He had meanwhile
left his son John (who had been in the service of Huntly, and whom
he now called home) in charge of the castle, and in possession
of the Lewis.  He imprudently banished his natural uncles, Donald
and Rory Og, out of the island.  Rory Og soon after returned with
a considerable number of followers; attacked his nephew, Torquil
Cononach's son John, in Stornoway, killed him, and released his
own father, old Roderick, who was allowed after this to possess
the island in peace during the remainder of his life.  "Thus was
the Siol Torquil weakened, by private dissensions, and exposed to
fall a prey, as it did soon afterwards, to the growing power of
the Mackenzies."

In 1594 Alexander Bayne, younger of Tulloch, granted a charter of
the lands of Rhindoun in favour of Colin Mackenzie of Kintail and
his heirs male, proceeding on a contract of sale between them,
dated 10th of March, 1574.  On the 10th of July in the same year
there is "a contract of  alienation" of these lands by the same
Colin Mackenzie of Kintail in favour of Roderick Mackenzie of
Ardafillie (Redcastle), his brother-german, and his heirs male.  A
charter implementing this contract is dated the 20th of October
following, by which the lands are to be holden blench and for relieving
Kintail of the feu-duty and services payable to his superiors."
These lands are, in 1625, resigned by Murdoch Mackenzie of Redcastle
into the hands of Colin, second Earl of Seaforth, the immediate
lawful superior thereof, for new infeftments to be granted to
Roderick Mackenzie, his second lawful son. [Writs and Evidents of
Lands of Rhindoun. "Antiquarian Notes," pp. 172-73.]

Colin, in addition to his acquisitions in Lochalsh and. Lochcarron,
"feued the Lordship of Ardmeanach, and the Barony of Delnys, Brae
Ross, with the exception of Western Achnacherich, Wester Drynie,
and Tarradale, which Bayne of Tulloch had feued before, but found
it his interest to hold of him as immediate superior, which, with
the former possessions of the lands of Chanonry, greatly enhanced
his influence.  Albeit his predecessors were active both in war and
peace, and precedent in acquiring their estate; yet this man acquired
more than all that went before him, and made such a solid progress in
it, that what he had acquired was with the goodwill of his sovereign,
and clear unquestionable purchase."  He protected his nephew,
Torquil Macleod of the Lewis, when he was oppressed by his unnatural
relations and natural brothers, and from his he acquired a right
to the lands of Assynt. [Earl of Cromartie and other  MS. Histories
of the Family.]

Colin, in April, 1572, married Barbara, daughter of John Grant of
Grant, ancestor of the Earls of Seafield, by Lady Marjory Stewart,
daughter of John, third Earl of Athol (Tocher 2000 merks and the
half lands of Lochbroom, then the property of her father ["Chiefs
of Grant"]), with issue -

I.  Kenneth, who succeeded his father, and was afterwards elevated
to the Peerage by the title of Lord Mackenzie of Kintail.

II.  Roderick, the renowned Sir Roderick Mor Mackenzie of Coigeach,
"Tutor of Kintail" and progenitor of the Earls of Cromarty, of the
families of Scatwell, Tarvie, Ballone, and other minor Mackenzie
septs, of whom in their proper place.

III.  Alexander, first of Kilcoy, now represented by Colonel Burton
Mackenzie.

IV.  Colin of Kinnock and Pitlundie.

V.  Murdoch of Kernsary, whose only lawful son, John, was killed
at the Battle of Auldearn, in 1645, without issue.

VI.  Catherine, who married Simon, eighth Lord Lovat, with issue -
Hugh, his heir and successor, and Elizabeth, who married Dunbar of
Westfield, Sheriff of Moray.

VII.  Janet, who married Hector Maclean, "Eachainn Og," XV. of
Duart, with issue - Hector Mor, who succeeded his father Lachlan,
and Florence, who married John Garbh Maclean, VII. of Coll.

VIII.  Mary, who, as his second wife, married Sir Donald Gorm Mor
Macdonald, VII., of Sleat, without issue.

He had also a natural son,

IX.  Alexander, by Margaret, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie,
second of Davochmaluag, who became the founder of the families of
Applecross and Coul, of whom in their order.

Colin "lived beloved by princes and people, and died, regretted
by all, on the 14th of June, 1594, at Redcastle and was buried at
Bewlie."  He was succeeded by his eldest son,

XII.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE,

FIRST  LORD  MACKENZIE  OF  KINTAIL, who began his rule amidst those
domestic quarrels and dissensions in the Lewis, to which we have
already introduced the reader, and which may, not inappropriately,
be designated the Strife of the Bastards.  He is on record as
"of Kintail" on the 31st of July, 1594, within seven weeks of his
father's death, and again on the 1st of October in the same year.
On the 9th of November he made oath in presence of the King and
the Privy Council that he should "faithfully, loyally, and truly
concur, fortify, and assist his Majesty's Lieutenant of the North
with his advice and force at all times and occasions as he may be
required by proclamations, missive letters, or otherwise."  The
country generally was in such a lawless condition in this year that
an Act of Parliament was passed by which it was ordained "that in
order that there may be a perfect distinction, by names and surnames,
betwixt those that are and desire to be esteemed honest and true
men, and those that are and not ashamed to be esteemed thieves,
sorners, and resetters of them in their wicked and odious crimes
and deeds; that therefore a roll and catalogue be made of all
persons, and the surnames therein mentioned, suspected of slaughter,
etc."  It was also enacted "that such evil disposed persons as
take upon themselves to sell the goods of thieves, and disobedient
persons and clans that dare not come to public markets in
the Lowlands themselves, whereby the execution of the Arts made
against somers, clans, and thieves, is greatly impeded," should be
punished in the manner therein contained.  Another Act provided
"that the inbringer of every robber and thief, after he is
outlawed, and  denounced fugitive, shall have two hundred pounds
Scots for every robber and thief so inbrought." ["Antiquarian
Notes."]

On the 5th of February, 1595-96, it is complained against him by
Alexander Bayne of Tulloch that although upon the 7th of March,
1594, John MacGillechallum, Raasay, had been put to the horn
for non-appearance to a complaint by the said Alexander and his
son Alexander, Fiar of Tulloch, against the Rev. John Mackenzie,
minister of Urray, touching certain oppressions and depredations
committed on him and his tenants, he remained not only unrelaxed
from the horn, but continues in "his wicked and accustomed trade
of rief theft, sorning, and oppression," seeking "all indirect and
shameful means to wreck and destroy him and his bairns."  A short
time before this, MacGillechallum sent to the complainer desiring
him to give over to him his (Bayne's) old heritage called Torridon,
"with assurance if he do not the same to burn his whole corn and
goods."  In these insolencies "he is encouraged and set forward
by the consort, reset, and supply which he receives of Kenneth
Mackenzie of Kintail and his friends, he being near kinsman to
the said Kenneth, viz.: his father's sister's son; who, in that
respect, shows him all good offices of friendship and courtesy,
indirectly assisting him with his men and moyen in all his
enterprises against the said complainer and his bairns, without
whose oversight and allowance and protection it were not able to
him to have a reset in any part of the country."  The complainer,
Alexander Bayne, describes himself as "a decrepit aged man past
eighty years of age and being blind these years he must submit
himself to his Majesty for remedy."  Kintail appeared personally,
and Tulloch by his two sons, Alexander and Ranald, whereupon the
King and Council remitted the complaint to be decided before the
ordinary judges.

The following account from family MSS. and Sir Robert Gordon's
"Earldom of Sutherland," refers no doubt to the same incidents -
John MacCallum, a brother of the Laird of Raasay, annoyed the people
of Torridon, which place at that time belonged to the Baynes of
Tulloch.  He alleged that Tulloch, in whose house he was fostered,
had promised him these lands as a gift of fosterage; but Tulloch,
whether he had made a previous promise to MacGillechallum or not,
left the lands of Torridon to his own second son, Alexander Mor
MacDhonnchaidh Mhic Alastair, alias Bayne.  He afterwards obtained
a decree against MacGillechallum for interfering with his lands
and molesting the people, and, on a Candlemas market, with a
large following of armed men, made up of most of the Baynes, and
a considerable number of Munros, he came to the  market stance,
at that time held at Logie.  John MacGillechallum, ignorant of
Tulloch "getting the laws against him" and in no fear of his life
or liberty, came to the market as usual, and, while standing buying
some article at a chapman's stall, Alastair Mor and his followers
came up behind him unperceived, and, without any warning, struck
him on the  head with a two-edged sword - instantly killing him.  A
gentleman of the Clann Mhurchaidh Riabhaich Mackenzies, Ian Mac
Mhurchaidh Mhic Uilleam, a very active and powerful man, was at
the time standing beside him, and he asked who dared to have spilt
Mackenzie blood in that dastardly manner.  He had no sooner said
the words than he was run through the body by one of the swords
of the enemy; and thus, without an opportunity of drawing their
weapons, fell two of the best swordsmen in the North of Scotland.
The alarm and the news of their death immediately spread through
the market.  "Tulloch Ard," the war cry of the Mackenzies, was
instantly raised; whereupon the Baynes and the Munros took to their
heels - the Munros eastward to the Ferry of Fowlis, and the Baynes
northward to the hills, both followed by a band of the infuriated
Mackenzies, who slaughtered every one they overtook.  Iain Dubh Mac
Choinnich Mhic Mhurchaidh, of the clan Mhurchaidh Riabhaich, and
Iain Gallda Mac Fhionnla Dhuibh, two gentlemen of the Mackenzies,
the latter of whom was a Kintail man, were on their way from Chanonry
to the market, when they met in with a batch of the Munros flying
in confusion and, learning the cause to be the murder of their
friends at Logie market, they instantly pursued the fugitives,
killing no less than thirteen of them between Logie and the wood
of Millechaich.  All the townships in the neighbourhood of the
market joined the Mackenzies in the pursuit, and Alastair Mor Bayne
of Tulloch only saved himself, after all his men were killed, by
taking shelter and hiding for a time in a kiln-logie.  Two of his
followers, who managed to escape from the market people, met with
some Lewismen on their way to the fair, who, noticing the Baynes
flying half naked, immediately stopped them, and insisted upon their
giving a proper account of themselves.  This proving unsatisfactory
they came to high words, and from words to blows, when the Lewismen
attacked and killed them at Ach-an-eilich, near Contin.

The Baynes and the Munros had good cause to regret the cowardly
conduct of their leaders on this occasion at Logie market, for
they lost no less than fifty able-bodied men in return for the two
gentlemen of the Clan Mackenzie whom they had so basely murdered
at the fair.  One lady of the Clan Munro lost her three brothers,
on whom she composed a lament, of which the following is all we
could obtain:--

'S olc a' fhuair mi tus an Earraich,
'S na feill Bride 'chaidh thairis,
Chaill mi mo thriuir bhraithrean geala,
Taobh ri taobh u' sileadh fala.
'Se 'n dithis a rinn mo sharach',
Fear beag dubh a chlaidheamh Iaidir,
'S mac Fhionnla Dhuibh a Cinntaile
Deadh mhearlach nan adh 's nan aigeach.

When night came on, Alastair Mor Bayne escaped from the kiln, and
went to his uncle Lovat, who at once despatched James Fraser of
Phopachy south, with all speed to prevent information from the other
side reaching the King before be had an opportunity of relating his
version of the quarrel.  His Majesty was at the time at Falkland,
and a messenger from Mackenzie reached him before Alastair Mor,
pursuing for the slaughter of Mackenzie's kinsmen.  He got the ear
of his Majesty and would have been successful had not John Dubh
Mac Choinnich Mhic Mhurchaidh meanwhile taken the law into his own
hands by burning, in revenge, all Tulloch's cornyards and barns
at Lemlair, thus giving Bayne an opportunity of presenting another
and counter claim but the matter was ultimately arranged by the
King and Council obliging Kintail and Tulloch mutually to subscribe
a contract of agreement and peaceful behaviour towards each other.

Under date of 18th February, 1395-96, there is an entry in the Privy
Council Records that Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail "being elected
and chosen to be one of the ordinary members" of the Council, and
being personally preset, makes faith and gives oath in the usual
manner.  In a complaint against him, on the 5th of August, 1596,
by Habbakuk Bisset, he is assoilzied in all time coming by a decree
of their Lordships in his favour.

Upon the death of Old Roderick of the Lewis, Torquil Dubh succeeded
him, excluding Torquil Cononach from the succession on the plea
of his being a bastard.  The latter, however, held Coigeach and his
other possessions on the mainland, with a full recognition by the
Government of his rights to the lands of his forefathers in the
Lewis.  His two sons having been killed, and his eldest daughter,
Margaret, having married Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, progenitor
of the Cromarty family, better known as the Tutor of Kintail,
Torquil Cononach threw himself into the hands of Kintail for aid
against the bastards.  By Roderick Mackenzie's marriage with Torquil
Cononach's eldest daughter, he became heir of line to the ancient
family of Macleod, an honour which still remains to his descendants,
the Cromarty family.  Torquil Dubh secured considerable support
by marriage with a daughter of Tormod, XI., and sister of William
Macleod, XII. of Harris and Dunvegan, and, thus strengthened,
made a descent on Coigeach and Lochbroom, desolating the whole
district, aiming at permanent occupation.  Kintail, following the
example of his predecessors - always prudent, and careful to keep
within the laws of the realm - in 1596 laid the following complaint
before King  James VI.:

Please your Majesty, - Torquil Dow of the Lews, not contenting
himself with the avowit misknowledging of your Hieness authority
wherebe he has violat the promises and compromit made before your
Majesty, now lately the 25th day of December last, has ta'n upon
him being accompanied w 7 or 800 men, not only of his own by ylands
neist adjacent, to prosecute with fire and sword by all kind of
gud order, the hail bounds of the Strath Coigach pertaining to
M'Leod his eldest brother, likewise my Strath of Lochbroom, quhilks
Straths, to your Majesty's great dishonour, but any fear of God
ourselves, hurt and skaith that he hath wasted w fire and sword,
in such barbarous and cruel manner, that neither man, wife,
bairn, horse, cattle, corns, nor bigging has been spared, but all
barbarously slain, burnt, and destroyit, quhilk barbarity and
cruelty, seeing he was not able to perform it but by the assistance
and furderance of his neighbouring Ylesmen, therefore beseeches
your Majesty by advice of Council to find some sure remeid wherebe
sick cruel tyrannie may be resisted in the beginning.  Otherway
nothing to be expectit for but dailly increasing of his malicious
forces to our utter ruin, quha possesses your Majesty's obedience,
the consideration quharof and inconveniences quhilk may thereon
ensue.  I remit to your Highness guid consideration of whom taking
my leif with maist humble commendations of service, I commit your
Majesty to the holy protection of God eternal.  At the Canonry of
Ross, the 3d day, Jany. 1596-97.  Your Majesty's most humble and
obt. subject.  			KENNETH  MACKENZIE  of Kintail.

The complaint came before the Privy Council, at Holyrood, on the
11th of February, following, and Torquil Dubh, failing to appear,
was denounced a rebel.  Kenneth thereupon obtained a commission of
fire and sword against him, as also the forfeiture of the Lewis,
upon which Torquil Cononach made over his rights to Mackenzie, on
the plea that he was the next male heir, but reserving the lands
of Coigeach to his own son-in-law.  The Mackenzies did all they
could to obtain the estste for Torquil Cononach, the legitimate
heir, but mainly through his own want of activity and indolent
disposition, they failed with their united efforts to secure
undisturbed possession for him.  They succeeded, however, in
destroying the family of Macleod of the Lewis, and most of the
Siol-Torquil, and ultimately became complete masters of the island.
The Brieve by stratagem captured Torquil Dubh, with some of his
friends, and delivering them up to Torquil Cononach, they were, by
his orders, beheaded in July,  1597.  "It fell out that the Breve
(that is to say, the judge) in the Lewis, who was chief of the Clan
Illevorie (Morrison), being sailing from the Isle of Lewis to Ronay
in a great galley, met with a Dutch ship loaded with wine, which he
took; and advising with his friends, who were all with him there,
what he would do with the ship lest Torqull Du should take her from
him, they resolved to return to Stornoway and call for Torqull Du
to receive the wine, and if he came to the ship, to sail away with
him where Torqull Cononach was, and then they might be sure of the
ship and the wine to be their own, and besides, he would grant them
tacks in the best parts in the Lewis; which accordingly they did,
and called for Torqull to come and receive the wine.  Torqull Du
noways mistrusting them that were formerly so obedient, entered the
ship with seven others in company, where he was welcomed, and he
commended them as good fellows that brought him such a prize.  They
invited him to the quay to take his pleasure of the feast of their
wine.  He goes, but instead of wine they brought cords to tie him,
telling him he had better render himself and his wrongously
possessed estate to his eldest brother; that they resolved to put
him in his mercy, which he was forced to yield to.  So they
presently sail for Coigeach, and delivered him to his brother, who
he had no sooner got but he made him short by the head in the month
of July, 1597.  Immediately he was beheaded there arose a great
earthquake, which astonished the actors and all the inhabitants
about them as a sign of God's judgment." [Ancient MS.]

In 1598 some gentlemen in Fife, afterwards known as the "Fife
Adventurers," obtained a grant of the Lewis with the professed
object of  civilising the inhabitants.  It is not intended here
to detail their proceedings or to describe at much length the
squabbles and constant disorders, murders, and robberies which took
place while they held possession of the Island.  The speculation
proved ruinous to the Adventurers, who in the end lost their
estates, and were obliged to leave the islanders to their fate.
A brief summary of it will suffice, and those who desire more
information on the subject will find a full account of it in the
History of the Macleods. [By the same author.  A. & W. Mackenzie,
Inverness, 1889.]

On the 15th of June, 1599, Sir William Stewart of Houston, Sir James
Spence of Wormistoun, and Thomas Cunningham appeared personally
before the Privy Council "to take a day for the pursuit of Kenneth
Mackenzie of Kintail upon such crimes as criminally they had to lay
to his charge for themselves and in the name of the gentlemen-
ventuaries of their society," and the 26th of September was fixed
for the purpose.

On the 14th of September Kenneth enters into a bond for a thousand
merks that John Dunbar, Fiar of Avoch, and James Dunbar of Little
Suddie, four sons of John of Avoch, and several others, in five
hundred merks each, that they will not harm Roderick Dingwall of
Kildin, Duncan Bayne, apparent heir of Tulloch, Alexander Bayne
of Loggie, and other sons and grandsons of Bayne of Tulloch.

Sir James Stewart of Newton enters into a bond, on the 6th of
October, for six hundred merks that Kenneth will not harm James
Crambie, a burgess of Perth, signed at Dunkeld in presence of Murdo
Mackenzie, apparent heir of Redcastle, John Mackenzie, minister of
Dingwall, and Alexander Mackenzie, writer.

On the 16th of April, 1600, Tormod Macleod complains that Kenneth
had apprehended him and detained him as a prisoner without just
cause, and failing to appear the King and Council, understanding
that Tormod "is a chief and special man of that clan (Macleod),
and that therefore it is necessary that order be taken for his
dutiful obedience and good behaviour," order Kenneth to present
him before the Council on a day to be afterwards fixed.

Kenneth, on the 11th of December, brings under the notice of the
Council a case which places the unlawful practices of the times in
a strong light.  He says that upon the 16th of October preceding,
while Duncan MacGillechallum in Kintail, his man, was bringing
twenty-four cows to the fair of Glammis, three men, whose names
he gives, violently robbed him of the cattle.  Upon the 1st of
November, 1599, the same persons had reft Duncan MacGillechriosd
in Kintail, his tenant, at the fair of Elycht, of twenty-six cows
and four hundred merks of silver, and robbed Murdo Mac Ian Mhic
Mhurchaidh, also his tenant in Kintail, of twenty-six cows at the
same market.  On the 30th of October, 1600, he sent his servants,
John and Dougall MacVanish, in Lochalsh, to the fair of Elycht
with a hundred and fifty-four cows and oxen to be sold, "for outred
and certane the said complenaris adois in thir pairtis," and his
servants being at the foot of Drummuir with his said cattle, two
of the three who robbed his men at Glammis, with Patrick Boll in
Glenshee, and Alexander Galld Macgregor, took from them the whole
of the cattle and "hes sparpellit and disponit" upon the same at
their pleasure.  This violence and rief at free markets and fairs,
he says, is not only hurtful to him, but it "discourages all
peaceable and good subjects to direct or send any goods to the
market and fairs of  the incountry."  Kenneth Mackenzie of Kilchrist
appeared for Kintail, and the defenders, in absence, were denounced
rebels.

He is ordered on the 31st of January, 1602, as one of the leading
Highland chiefs, to hold a general muster and wapinschaw of his
followers each year within his bounds, on the 10th of March, as
the other chiefs are in their respective districts.  On the same
day he is requested to provide a hundred men to aid the Queen of
England "against the rebels in Ireland;" is authorised to raise
this number compulsorily, if need be, and appoint the necessary
officers to command them.  On the 28th of July following, Alexander
Dunbar of Cumnock, Sheriff-Principal of Elgin and Forres, and
David Brodie of Brodie, become cautioners to the amount of three
thousand merks that Kenneth will appear before the King and Council,
when charged with some unnamed offence, upon twenty days warning.
On the 9th of September Mackenzie complains to the Council that
about St Andrews Day, 1601, when he sent eighty cattle to the St.
Andrew market for sale, Campbell of Glenlyon, with a large number
of his men, "all thieves and broken Highland men," had set upon his
servants and spuilzied them of the whole; and that eighty cattle
he had sent to the Michaelmas market had been reft from him in the
same way by the said Campbell, for which Duncan Campbell, younger
of Glenlyon, having failed to produce his father, who "was in his
custody and keeping," was denounced a rebel.

There being some variance and controversy "between Mackenzie and
Donald Mac Angus of Glengarry, they were both ordered at the same
meeting of Council to subscribe, within three hours after being
charged, such forms of mutual assurance as should be presented to
them, to endure till the 1st of May, 1603, under pain of rebellion.

By warrant of the King, Kenneth is admitted a member of the Privy
Council and is sworn in, in common form, on the 9th of December,
1602.  On the following day he gives caution for James Dunbar
of Little Suddie, and John Dunbar, Fiar of Avoch, in two hundred
merks, for their  relaxation by the 1st of February next from
several hornings used against them.

At a meeting of the Privy Council, held at Edinburgh on the 30th
of September, 1605, Kenneth receives a commission to act for the
King against Neil MacNeill of Barra, the Captain of Clanranald,
and several other Highland and Island chiefs, who had "of late
amassed together a force and company of the barbarous and rebellious
thieves and limmers of the Isles," and with them entered the Lewis,
"assailed the camp of his Majesty's good subjects," and "committed
barbarous and detestable murders and slaughters upon them."
Mackenzie is in consequence commissioned to convocate the lieges
in arms and to pursue these offenders with fire and sword by sea
or land, "take and slay them," or present them to their Lordships
for justice, with power also to the said Kenneth to pass to the
Lewis for thc relief of the subjects "distressed and grieved" by
the said rebellious "lymmairis," or of prisoners in their hands,
and to procure their liberty by "force or policy, as he may best
have it."  He is also ordered to charge the lieges within the shires
of Inverness and  Nairn, burgh and landward, to rise and assist him
in the execution of his office, whenever he requires them, "by his
precepts and proclamations."  This was the beginning of Kenneth's
second conquest of the Lewis.

Mackenzie is, on the 2nd of June, 1607, appointed by the Privy Council,
along with the Bishop of Ross, a commissioner to the  Presbyteries
of Tam and Ardmeanach, and on the 14th of July following, he is
summoned before their Lordships to report his diligence in that
matter, under pain of rebellion.  Kenneth does not appear, and he
is denounced a rebel.  On the 30th of July he takes the oath of
allegiance, along with the Earl of Wyntoun and James Bishop of
Orkney, in terms of a Royal letter issued on the 2nd of June preceding
imposing a special oath acknowledging the Royal Supremacy in Church
and state on all Scotsmen holding any civic or ecclesiastical office.

He receives another commission on the 1st of September, 1607.
Understanding that "Neil Macleod and others, the rebellious thieves
and limmers of the Isles, have of late surprised and taken the
Castle of Stornoway in the Lewis, and other houses and biggings,
pertaining to the gentlemen portioners of the Lewis, and have
demolished and cast down some of the said houses, and keep others
of them as houses of war, victualled and fortified with men
and armour, and in the meantime commit barbarous and detestable
insolencies and cruelties upon so many of the poor inhabitants of
that country as gave their obedience to his Majesty," the Lords
give commission to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail to convocate
the lieges in arms  pass to the Lewis, and pursue the said Neil
Macleod with fire and sword, using all kinds of "warlike engines"
for recovering the houses, and having power to keep trysts and
intercommune with the inhabitants of the Isles.  This commission
is to continue in force for six months.

Mackenzie is one of the Highland chiefs to whom missive letters
are ordered to be sent on the 23rd of June, 1608, to attend his
Majesty's service under Lord Ochiltree, at Troternish, in the Isle
of Skye, on the 20th of August following, on which occasion the
soldiers must "furnish themselves with powder and bullets out of
their own pay, and not out of  the King's charges."  It is ordered
at a meeting of the Privy Council held on the 6th of February,
1609, that he, along with Simon Lord Lovat, Grant of Grant, the
Earl of Caithness, Ross of Balnagown, John Mackenzie of Gairloch,
and others, be charged to appear personally before their Lordships
on the 25th of March following, to come under such order as shall
be prescribed to them touching the finding of surety and caution for
the quietness and obedience of their bounds, and that no fugitive
and disobedient Islesmen shall be reset or supplied within the
same, under pain of rebellion and horning.  He appears, with some
of the others, before the Council on the 28th of March, and gives
the necessary bond, but the amount in his case is not named.  On
the 7th of April, however, it appears that he and Grant become
personally bound for each other, in L4000 each, that those for
whom they are answerable shall keep the King's peace and that they
will not reset or favour any fugitives from the Isles.  Kenneth
becomes similarly bound in L3000 for John Mackenzie of Gairloch
and Donald Neilsoun Macleod of Assynt.

He was one of the eight Lesser Barons who constituted the Lords
of the Articles in the Scottish Parliament which met for the first
time on the 17th of June, 1609.

The Privy Council, on the 22nd of the same month, committed to
the Earl of Glencairn and Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail the charge
of conveying Hector Maclean of Duart from the Castle of Dumbarton
to Edinburgh and bringing him before their Lordships, "for order
to be taken with him anent the affairs of the Isles, and they
became bound in L20,000 to produce him on the first Council day
after the end of that year's  Parliament.  On the 28th of the same
month they enter formally into a bond to this amount that Maclean
will appear on the first Thursday of November, he, in turn, binding
himself and his heirs for their relief.  On the 22nd of February,
1610, the bond is renewed for Maclean's appearance on the first
Council day after that date. He appears on the 28th of June
following, and Mackenzie and the Earl of Glencairn are released
from their cautionary obligations.

On the 30th of June, 1609, Kenneth and Sir George become cautioners
for Donald Gorm Macdonald of Sleat to the amount of L10,000 that he
will appear before the Lords Commissioners on the 2nd of February next,
to come under their orders, and Kenneth is charged to keep Donald
Gorm's brother's son, "who is now in his hands," until Macdonald
presents himself before the Lords Commissioners.  On the 22nd of
February, 1610, this caution is repeated for Donald's appearance on
the 8th of March.  He appears and Mackenzie is finally relieved of the
bond on the 28th of June following.

On the 5th of July, 1609, Mackenzie and Sir John Home of Coldenknowes,
undertake, under a penalty of ten thousand merks, that George
Earl of Caithness, shall make a free, peaceable, and sure passage
to all his Majesty's lawful subjects through his country of Caithness,
in their passage to and from Orkney.

At a meeting of the Council held on the 20th of February, 1610,
a commission is granted to Simon Lord Lovat, Kenneth Mackenzie
of Kintail, John Mackenzie of Gairloch, Hugh Mackay of Farr, and
Roderick Mackenzie of Redcastle, to apprehend Allan Mac Donald
Duibh Mhic Rory of Culnacnock, in Troternish, Isle of Skye, and
several others, including  "Murdo Mac Gillechallum, brother of
Gillecallum Raasay, Laird of Raasay, Gillecallum Mac Rory Mhic
Leoid, in Lewis, Norman Mac Ghillechallum Mhoir, there, and Rory Mac
Ghillechallum Mhoir, his brother," all of whom "remain unrelaxed
from a horning of 18th January last, raised against them by
Christian, Nighean Ian Leith, relict of Donald Mac Alastair Roy,
in Dibaig," Murdo, his son, his other kin and friends, tenant and
servants, "for not finding caution to answer before the justice
for the stealing of forty cows and oxen, with all the insight and
plenishing of the said late Donald Mac Alastair's house in Dibaig,
worth œ1000, and for murdering the said Donald," his tenant, and
servants.  The Commissioners are to convocate the lieges in arms
for apprehending the said rebels, and to enter them, when taken,
before the justice to be suitably punished for their crimes.
Another commission is issued in favour of Simon Lord Lovat, Kenneth
Mackenzie of Kintail, Donald Gorm Macdonald of Sleat, and Donald
Mac Allan Mhic Ian of Eilean Tirrim, Captain of Clanranald, against
John Mac Allan Mac Ranald, who is described as "having this long
time been a murderer, common thief, and masterful oppressor" of
the King's subjects.

Although Kenneth had been raised to the Peerage on the 19th of
November, 1609, by the title of Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, he is
not so  designated in the Privy Council Records until the 31st of
May, 1610, when the patent of his creation is read and received by
their Lordships, and he is thereupon acknowledged to be a free
baron in all time coming.  He is one of the Highland chiefs charged
and made answerable for good rule in the North on the 28th of
June of that year and to find caution within fifteen days, under
pain of rebellion, not to reset within their bounds any notorious
thieves, rievers, fugitives, and rebels, for theft and murder, under
a further penalty, in Mackenzie's case, of five thousand merks.

At a meeting of the Privy Council held on the 19th of July, 1610,
the following commission was issued in Kenneth's favour as justiciary
of the Lewis, against Neil Macleod:

Forasmuch as a number of the chieftains and principal men of
the Isles and continent next adjacent are come in and presented
themselves before the Lords of his Majesty's Privy Council, and
have given satisfaction unto the said Lords anent their obedience
and conformity in time coming, so as that now there is no part of
the Isles rebellious and disobedient but the Lewis, which being
possessed and inhabited by a number of thieves, murderers, and
an infamous byke of lawless and insolent limmers under the charge
and command of the traitor Neil Macleod, who has usurped upon him
the authority and possession of the Lewis, and they, concurring
altogether in a rebellious society, do commit many murders,
slaughters, riefs, and villianies, not only among themselves but
upon his Majesty's peaceable and good subjects who resorted among
them in their trade of fishing, and by their barbarous and savage
behaviour against his Majesty's good subjects they have made the
trade of fishing in the Lewis, which was most profitable for the
whole country, to become always unprofitable, to the great hurt
of the commonweal.  And the Lords of Secret Council finding it a
discredit to the country that such a parcel of ground, possessed
by a number of miserable caitiffs, shall be suffered to continue
rebellious, whereas the whole remanent Isles are become peaceable
and obedient, and the said Lords understand the good affection of
Kenneth, Lord Kintail and his willing disposition to undergo all
pains and trouble in his Majesty's service.  Therefore the said
Lords has made and constituted, and by the tenour hereof makes and
constitutes, the said Kenneth Lord Kintail, his Majesty's justice
and commissioner over the whole boundaries of the Lewis, to the
effect under-written, with full power, commission, and authority
to him to convocate his Majesty's lieges in arms, to levy and take
up men of war, to appoint captains and commanders over them, and
with them to pass to the Lewis, and there, with tire and sword, and
all kind of hostility, to search, seek, hunt, follow, and pursue
the said Neil, his accomplices, assistants, and partakers, by sea
and land, wherever they may be apprehended, and to mell, confiscate,
and intromit with their goods and gear, and to dispone thereupon
at their pleasure, and to keep such of their persons as shall
be taken in sure firmance till justice he ministered upon them,
conform to the laws of this  realm, courts of justiciary within the
said bounds to sit, begin, affix, hold, and continue suits to be
made called "absentis to amerchiat," trespasses to punish, all and
sundry persons inhabitants of the Lewis suspected and delayed of
murder, slaughter, fire-raising, theft, and reset of theft, and
other capital crimes, to search, seek, take, apprehend, commit to
prison, and to enter them upon panel by dittay to accuse them, and
to put them to the knowledge of an assize, and as they shall happen
to be found culpable or innocent of the said crimes, or any of
them, to cause justice be administered upon them conform to the
laws of this realm  assize needful to this effect, each person
under the pain of forty pounds, to summon, warn, chase, and cause
be sworn, clerks, serjeants, dempsters, and all other officers and
members of court needful, to make, create, substitute and ordain,
for whom he shall be held to answer with power likewise to our
said justice, for the better execution of this commission to take
the lymphads, galleys, birlinns, and boats, in the next adjacent
Isles, and in the Lewis, for the furtherance of them in their
service, the said justice being always answerable to the owners
of the said lymphads, galleys, birlinns, and bouts for redelivery
of the same at the finishing of his Majesty's service with
power likewise to the said justice and persons assisting him in
the execution of this commission to bear, wear, and use hagbutis,
pistols, and petards.  And if in pursuit of this commission there
shall happen slaughter, mutilation fire-raising, or any other
inconvenience, to follow, the said Lords decern and declare that the
same shall not be imputed as crime or offence to the said justice
nor persons assisting him in the execution of this Commission,
nor that they, nor none of them, shall not be called nor accused
therefore criminally nor civilly by any manner of way in time
coming; exonerating them of all pain, crime, and danger, that
they may incur therethrough for ever.  And generally all and sundry
other things to do, exercise, and use, which for execution of this
commission are requisite and necessary, firm, and stable, holding
and for to hold all and whatsoever things shall be lawfully done
herein.  And that letters of publication be directed hereupon
charging all his Majesty's lieges within the whole boundaries of
the North Isles of this Kingdom and within the bounds of the said
Lord's own lands, heritages, possessions, offices, and baillies,
excepting always the persons of the name of Fraser, Ross, and
Munro, their tenants and servants, to reverance. acknowledge,  and
obey, rise, concur, pass forward, fortify, and assist the said
Kenneth, Lord Kintail, in all things tending to the execution of
his commission, and to convene in arms with him at such times,
days, and places, as he shall please appoint, as they and each one
of them will answer upon their obedience at their highest peril.
This commission for the space of two years after the date hereof,
without revocation, to endure.

Soon after this, Neil apprehended a crew of English pirates who
had been carrying on their nefarious traffic among the fishermen
from the South and other places who frequented the prolific fishing
banks, by which, then as now, the island was surrounded.  This
meritorious public service secured some consideration for him
at Court, as appears from the following letter addressed to Lord
Kintail under date of 29th August, 1610 -

After our very hearty commendations to your good Lordship:  Whereas
Neil Macleod in the Lewis has of late done some good service to his
Majesty and the country by the taking and apprehension of certain
English pirates upon the coast of the Lewis, common enemies to
all lawful traffic, whereby he has merited his Majesty's grace and
pardon in some measure to be shown unto him, and he having made
promise and condition for delivery of the pirates and their ships
to such persons as shall be directed by us to receive them we
have thereupon given an assurance to him to come here to us and
to remain at his pleasure until Whitsunday next, that some good
course may be taken for settling him in quietness; and in this
meantime we have promised that all hostility and persuit of him
and his followers shall rest and cease until the said term, and
also that we shall deal and trouble with your Lordship for some
reasonable ease and condition to be given to him and his followers,
all tenants to your Lordship of the lands and possessions claimed
by them.  And, we being careful that our word and promise made
and given hereupon shall be effectual and valid we have therefore
thought meet to acquaint your Lordship therewith, requesting your
Lordship to forbear all persuit, trouble, and invasion of the said
Neil and his followers until the said term, and that your Lordship
will take some such course with them as upon reasonable conditions
they may be received and acknowledged by your Lordship as tenants
of those lands claimed by them.  Wherein looking to find your
Lordship conformable, we commit you to God.

Neil does not then appear to have gone to Edinburgh, but he gave
up the pirate, the captain, and ten of her crew to Patrick Grieve,
a burgess of Burntisland, who, on the 10th of September, received
a commission "to sail with a hired ship" to the Lewis for that
purpose.  On the 10th of October, Macleod writes to the Council
acknowledging receipt, "from this bearer, Patrick Grieve," of
their Lordships' order upon him to deliver up the pirate and all
her belongings.

On the 19th of July, the same day on which the Commission  against
Neil Macleod was granted to Lord Kintail, the Council "being
careful that the present peace and quietness in the Isles shall be
fostered, kept, and entertained, and all such occasions removed
and taken away whereby any new disorder, trouble, or misrule may
be reinstated within the same, has therefore thought meet that
Rory Macleod, son to the late Torquil Dubh Macleod, who has been
this long time in the keeping of Donald Gorm of Sleat, and (Torquil)
Macleod, another of the said late Torquil's sons, who has been
this long time in keeping of Rory Macleod of Harris, shall be
delivered to Kenneth Lord Kintail, to be kept by him until the
said Lord take order with them for their obedience."  Charges
are thereupon made upon the chiefs of Sleat and Harris "to bring,
present, and deliver" Torquil Dubh's two sons, "in their keeping,"
to the Mackenzie chief, to be kept by him until such order is
taken for their good behaviour.  They are to be delivered within
thirty days, under the usual pains of rebellion and horning.

He is one of the Commissioners of the Peace appointed by the King
on the 6th of November, in 1610, in terms of a newly-passed Act of
Parliament, for Inverness-shire (including Ross) and Cromarty, his
colleagues from among the clan for these counties being Roderick
Mackenzie of Redcastle, Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, and John
Mackenzie of Gairloch.  He was at the same time appointed in a
similar capacity for Elgin, Forres, and Nairn.

Mackenzie had for some time kept Tormod Macleod, the lawful  brother
of Torquil Dubh, a prisoner, but he now released him, correctly
premising that on his appearance in the Lewis all the islanders
would rise in his favour.  In the meantime, early in 1600, Murdoch
Dubh was taken by the Fife Adventurers to St Andrews, and there
put to death; but at his execution he revealed, in his confession,
the designs of Mackenzie, who was in consequence apprehended and
committed to Edinburgh Castle, from which, however, he contrived to
escape without trial, through his influence with the Lord Chancellor.

There is an entry in the Records of the Privy Council under date
of 15th August, 1599, which shows that Kintail must at an earlier
date have been confined in Edinburgh Castle, for some previous
offence, for "it having pleased the King to suffer Kenneth Mackenzie
of Kintail to repair  furth of the Castle of Edinburgh for four
or five miles, when he shall think expedient, for repose, health,
and recreation" on caution being given by himself as principal,
and Robert Lord Seton as surety, that he shall re-enter the Castle
every night, under pain of ten thousand merks.  The bond is signed
on the same date, and is deleted by warrant signed by the King,
and the Treasurer, on the 25th of September following.

After various battles had been fought between the brothers, the
Adventurers returned in strong force to the island, armed with a
commission of fire and sword, and all the Government power at their
back, against Tormod.  The fight between the combatants continued
with varied success and failure on either side; the Adventurers
again relinquished their settlement, and returned to Fife to bewail
their losses, having solemnly promised never again to return to
the Island or molest Mackenzie and his friends.

Kintail now, in virtue of Torquil Cononach's resignation in his
favour, obtained a gift, under the Great Seal, of the Lewis for
himself through the influence of the Lord Chancellor.  This he
had, however,  ultimately to resign into the hands of the King, and
his Majesty, in 1608, vested these rights in the persons of Lord
Balmerino, Sir George Hay, and Sir James Spence, of Wormistoun, who
undertook the colonisation of the  island.  For this purpose they
made great preparations, and, assisted by the  neighbouring tribes,
invaded the Lewis for the double purpose of planting a colony in
it and of subduing and apprehending Neil Macleod, who now alone
defended it.  Mackenzie dispatched his brother Roderick, and
Alexander Mackenzie of Coul, with a party of followers numbering
400, ostensibly to aid the colonists now acting under the King's
commission to whom he promised active friendship.  At the same
time he despatched a vessel from Ross loaded with provisions, but
privately sent word to Neil Macleod to intercept her on the way,
so that the settlers, being disappointed of their supply of the
provisions to which they trusted for maintenance, should be
obliged to abandon the island for want of the necessaries of
life.  Matters turned out exactly as Kintail anticipated.  Sir
George Hay and Sir James Spence (Lord Balmerino having meanwhile
been convicted of high treason, and forfeited) abandoned the Lewis,
leaving a party behind them to hold the garrison, and intending
to send a fresh supply of men and provisions back to the island on
their arrival in Fife.  But Neil Macleod and his followers took and
burnt the fort, apprehended its defenders, and sent them safely
to their homes "on giving their oath that they would never come
on that pretence again, which they never did."  Finding this, the
Adventurers gave up all hope of establishing themselves in the
island, and sold their acquired rights therein, as also their share
of the forfeited districts of Troternish and Waternish in Skye,
to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail, who at the same time obtained a
grant from the King of Balmerino's forfeited share of the Lewis,
thus finally acquiring what he had so long and so anxiously
desired.  In addition to a fixed sum of money, Mackenzie granted
the Adventurers "a lease of the woods of Letterewe, where there
was an iron mine, which they wrought by English miners, casting
guns and other implements till their fuel was exhausted and their
lease expired."  The King confirmed this agreement, and "to encourage
Kintail and his brother Roderick in their work of civilizing the
people of the Lewis," he elevated the former to the peerage as
Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, on the 19th of November, 1609, at the
same time conferring the honour of knighthood on his brother,
Roderick Mor Mackenzie of Coigeach.

Referring to this period Mr Fraser-Tytler, in his "History of Scotland,"
says - "So dreadful indeed was now the state of those portions of
his (the King's) dominions, that, to prevent an utter dissevering
from the Scottish crown, something must be done, and many were
the projects  suggested.  At one time the King resolved to proceed
to the disturbed districts in person, and fix his headquarters
in Kentire; at another, a deputy was to be sent, armed with regal
powers; and twice the Duke of Lennox was nominated to this arduous
office.  The old plan, too, might have been repeated, of granting
a Royal Commission to one or other of the northern "Reguli," who
were ever prepared, under the plea of loyalty, to strengthen their
own hands, and exterminate their brethren; but this, as had been
often felt before, was to abandon the country to utter devastation;
and a more pacific and singular policy was now adopted.  One
association of Lowland barons, chiefly from Fife, took a lease
from the Crown of the Isle of Lewis, for which they agreed, after
seven years' possession, to give the King an annual rent of one
hundred and forty chalders of victual; and came under an obligation
to conquer their farm at their own charges.  Another company of
noble-men and gentlemen in Lothian offered, under a  similar agreement,
to subdue Skye.  And this kind of feudal joint-stock company actually
commenced their operations with a force of six hundred soldiers, and a
motley multitude of farmers, ploughmen, artificers, and pedlars.  But
the Celtic population and their haughty chiefs could not consent to be
handed over, in this wholesale fashion, to the tender mercies and
agricultural lectures of a set of Saxon adventurers.  The Lowland
barons arrived, only to be attacked with the utmost fury, and to have
the leases of their farms, in the old Douglas phrase, written on their
own skins with steel pens and bloody ink.  For a time, however, they
continued the struggle and having entered into alliance with some
of the native chiefs, fought the Celts with their own weapons, and
more than their own ferocity.  Instead of agricultural and pastoral
produce, importations of wool, or samples of grain, from the infant
colony, there was sent to the Scottish Court a ghastly cargo of
twelve human heads in sacks; and it was hoped that, after such an
example of severity, matters might succeed better.  But the settlers
were deceived.  After a feeble and protracted struggle for a few
years, sickness and famine, perils by land and perils by water,
incessant war, and frequent assassinations, destroyed the colony;
and the three great western chiefs, Macdonald of Sleat, Macleod of
Harris,  and Mackenzie of Kintail, enjoyed the delight of seeing
the principal gentlemen adventurers made captive by Tormod Macleod;
who, after extorting from them a renunciation of their titles,
and an oath never to return to the Lewis, dismissed them to carry
to the Scottish Court the melancholy reflection that a Celtic
population, and the islands on which it was scattered, were not
yet the materials or the field for the further operations of the
economists of Fife and Mid-Lothian."

In 1610 his Lordship returned to the Lewis with 700 men, and
finally brought the whole island to submission, with the exception
of Neil Macleod and a few of his followers, who retired to the rock
of Berissay, and took possession of it.  At this period religion
must have been at a very low ebb - almost extinct among the
inhabitants; and, to revive Christianity among them, his Lordship
selected and took along with him the Rev. Farquhar Macrae, a native
of Kintail and minister of Gairloch, [He brought with him Mr
Farquhar Macrae, who was then a young man and minister of Gairloch
and appointed by the Bishop of Ross (Lesley) to stay with Sir George
Hay and the Englishmen that were with him in Letterewe,  being
a peaceful and eloquent preacher. - "Ardintoul MS."] who had been
recommended to the latter charge by the bishop of Ross.  Mr Macrae
found quite enough to do on his arrival in the island, but he appears
to have been very successful among the uncivilised natives; for
he reports having gained many over to Christianity; baptised a
large number in the fortieth year of their age; and, to legitimise
their children, marrying many others to those women with whom they
had been for years cohabiting.   Leaving the reverend gentleman in
the prosecution of his mission, his Lordship returned home, having
established good order in the island, and promising to return
again the following year, to the great satisfaction of the people.

Some time before this Alexander MacGorrie and Ranald MacRory,
sons of Glengarry's uncles murdered in 1580 in Lochcarron, having
arrived at maturity, and being brave and intrepid fellows, determined
to revenge upon Mackenzie the death of their parents.  With this
object they went to Appelcross, where lived one of the murderers,
John Og, son of Angus, MacEachainn, surrounded his house, and set
fire to it, burning to death himself and his whole family.  Kintail
sought redress from Glengarry, who, while he did not absolutely
refuse, did not grant it or punish the wrong-doers; and encouraged
by Glengarry's eldest son, Angus, who had now attained his majority,
the cousins, taking advantage of the absence of Mackenzie, who
had gone on a visit to France, continued their depredations and
insolence wherever they found opportunity.  Besides, they made
a complaint against him to the Privy Council, whereupon he was
charged at the pier of Leith to appear before the Council on an
appointed day under pain of forfeiture.  In this emergency, Mr
John Mackenzie, minister of Dingwall, went privately to France in
search of his chief, whom he found and brought back in the most
secret manner to Edinburgh, fortunately in time to present himself
next day after his arrival before the Council, in terms of the
summons at Glengarry's instance; and, after consulting his legal
adviser and other friends, he appeared quite unexpectedly before
their Lordships.

Meantime, while the gentlemen were on their way from France,
Alexander MacGorrie and Alexander MacRory killed in his bed Donald
Mackenneth Mhic Alastair, a gentleman of the family of Davochmaluag,
who lived at Kishorn.  The shirt, covered with his blood, had been
sent to Edinburgh to await the arrival of Mackenzie, who the same
day presented it before the Privy Council, as evidence of the foul
crime committed by his  accusers.  Glengarry was unable to prove
anything material against Kintail or his followers.  On the
contrary, the Rev. John Mackenzie, of Dingwall, charged Glengarry
with being instrumental in the murder of John Og and his family at
Applecross, as also in that of Donald Mackenzie of Davochmaluag,
and undertook not only to prove this, but also that he was a
sorner, an oppressor of his own and of his neighbours' tenants, an
idolater, who had a man in Lochbroom making images, in testimony
of which he carried south the image of St. Coan, which Glengarry
worshipped, called in Edinburgh Glengarry's god, and which was,
by public order, burnt at the Town Cross that Glengarry was a man
who lived in constant adultery with the Captain of Clan Ranald's
daughter, after he had put away Grant of Grant's daughter, his
lawful wife; whereupon Glengarry was summoned there and then to
appear next day before the  Council, and to lodge defences to this
unexpected charge.  He naturally became alarmed, and fearing the
worst, fled from the city during the night, "took to his heels,"
and gave up further legal proceedings against Mackenzie.  Being
afterwards repeatedly summoned, and failing to put in an appearance,
most of the charges were found proven against him; and in 1602,
[Records of Privy Council, 9th September, 1602; Sir Robert Gordon's
Earldom of Sutherland, p. 248; Letterfearn, Ardintoul, and other
MS. Histories of the Mackenzies.] he was declared outlaw and rebel;
a commission of fire and sword was granted to Mackenzie against
him and all his followers, with a decree of ransom for the loss
of those who were burnt and plundered by him, and for Kintail's
charges and expenses, making altogether a very large sum.  But
while these legal matters were being arranged, Angus Macdonald,
younger of Glengarry, who was of a restless, daring disposition,
went along with some of his followers under silence of night to
Kintail, burnt the township of Cro, killed and burnt several men,
women, and children, and carried away a large spoil of cattle.

Mackenzie, hearing of this sudden raid, became much concerned
about the loss of his Kintail tenants, and decided to requite the
quarrel by at once executing his commission against the Macdonalds
of Glengarry, and immediately set out in pursuit, leaving a sufficient
number of men at home to secure the safety of his property.  He
took along with him a force of seventeen hundred men, at the same
time taking three hundred cows from his farm of Strathbraan to
maintain his followers.  Ross of Balnagowan sent a party of a hundred
and eighty men, under command of Alexander Ross of Invercharron, to
aid his neighbour of Kintail, while John Gordon of Embo commanded
a hundred and twenty men sent to his aid by the Earl of Sutherland,
in virtue of the long standing bond of manrent which existed
between the two families; but Sir John "retired at Monar, growing
faint-hearted before he saw the enemie".  Andrew Munro of Novar also
accompanied Kintail on this, as on several previous expeditions.
The Macdonalds, hearing of Mackenzie's approach, drove all their
cattle to Monar, where they gathered in strong force to guard them.
Kintail, learning this, marched straight where they were; harried
and wasted all the country through which he had to pass; defeated
and routed the Macdonalds, and drove into Kintail the largest
booty ever heard of in the Highlands of Scotland, "both of cows,
horses, small bestial, duinuasals, and plenishing, which he most
generously distributed amongst his soldiers, and especially amongst
such strangers as were with him, so that John Gordon of Embo was at
his repentance for his return." Mackenzie had only two men killed
in this expedition, though a few of the Kintail men, whom he caused
to be carried home on litters, were wounded.

Several instances are recorded of the prowess and intrepidity
of Alexander of Coul on this occasion.  He was, excepting John
MacMhurchaidh Mhic Gillechriost, the fastest runner in the Mackenzie
country.  On his way to Kintail, leading his men and driving the
creach before them, he met three or four hundred Camerons, who sent
Mackenzie a message demanding "a bounty of the booty" for passing
through their  territory.  This Kenneth was about to grant, and
ordered thirty cows and a few of the younger animals to be given,
saying that it "was fit that hungry dogs should get a collop;"
whereupon Alexander of Coul and his brave band of one hundred and
twenty followers started aside and swore with a great oath that if
the Camerons dared to take away a single head, they would, before
night, pay dearly for them, and have to light for their collop;
for he and his men, he said, had already nearly lost their lives
driving them through a wild and narrow pass where eighteen of
the enemy fell to their swords before they were able to get the
cattle through; but he would now let them pass in obedience to
his chief's commands.  The messengers, hearing the ominous threat,
notwithstanding Kenneth's personal persuasion, declined on any
account to take the cattle, and marched away "empty as they came."

Before starting from home on this expedition Kintail drove every
one of Glengarry's followers out of their holdings in Lochalsh
and Lochcarron, except a few of the "Mathewsons and the Clann Jan
Uidhir," and any others who promised to submit to him and engaged
to prove their sincerity by "imbrowing their bands in the enemy's
blood."  The Castle of Strome, however, still continued in possession
of the Macdonalds.

Mackenzie, after his return home, had not well dissolved his camp
when Alexander MacGorrie and Ranald MacRory made an incursion to the
district of Kenlochewe, and there meeting some women and children
who had fled from Lochcarron with their cattle, he attacked them
unexpectedly, killed several of the defenceless women, all the
male children, slaughtered and took away many of the cattle, and
"houghed" all they were not able to carry along with them.

In the following autumn, Alexander MacGorrie made a voyage to  Applecross
in a great galley, contrary to the advice of all his friends, who
looked upon that place as a sanctuary which all Highlanders had
hitherto respected as the property of the Church.  Notwithstanding
that many took refuge in it in the past, he was the first man who
ever pursued a fugitive to the place, "but," says our authority,
"it fared no better with him or he rested, but be being informed
that some Kintail men, whom he thought no sin to kill anywhere,"
bad taken refuge there with their cattle, he determined to kill
them, but on his arrival he found only two poor fellows, tending
their cows.  These he murdered, slaughtered all the cows, and took
away as many of them as his boat would carry.

A few days after this, Glengarry combined with the Clann Alain of
Moydart (whose chief was at the time captain of Clan Ranald's men),
the  Clann Ian Uidhir, and several others of the Macdonalds, who
gathered together amongst them thirty-seven birlinns with the
intention of sailing to Lochbroom, and on their return to burn and
harry the whole of the Mackenzie territories on the west coast.
Coming to an arm of the sea on the east side of Kyleakin called
Loch na Beist, opposite Lochalsh, they sent Alexander MacGorrie
forward with eighty men in a large galley to examine the coast in
advance of the main body.  They first landed i Applecross, in the
same spot where MacGorrie had previously killed the two Kintail
men.  Kenneth was at the time on a visit to Mackenzie of Gairloch,
at his house on Island Rory in Loch-Maree, and hearing of Glengarry's
approach and the object of his visit, he ordered all his coasts to
be placed in readiness, and sent Alexander Mackenzie of Achilty with
sixteen men and eight oarsmen, in an eight oared galley belonging
to John Tolmach Macleod, son of Rory, son of Allan Macleod, who
still possessed a small portion of Gairloch, to watch the enemy
and examine the coast as far as Kylerhea.  John Tolmach himself
accompanied them, in charge of the galley.  On their way south
they landed by the merest chance at Applecross, on the north side
of the point at which MacGorrie landed, where they noticed a woman
gathering shellfish on the shore, and who no sooner saw them than
she came forward and informed them that a great galley had landed
in the morning on the other side of the promontory.  This they at
once suspected to contain an advanced scout of the enemy, and,
ordering their boat round the point, in charge of the oarsmen, they
took the shortest cut across the neck of land, and, when half way
along, they met one of Macdonald's sentries lying sound asleep on
the ground.  He was soon sent to his long rest; and the Mackenzies
blowing up a set of bagpipes found lying beside him, rushed towards
the Macdonalds, who, suddenly surprised and alarmed by the sound of
the Piob mhor, and thinking a strong force was falling down upon them,
fled to their boat, except MacGorrie, who, when he left it, swore a
great oath that he would never return with his back to the enemy; but
finding it impossible single-handed to resist, he retired a little,
closely followed by the Mackenzies who furiously attacked him.  He was
now forced to draw aside to a rock, against which he placed his back,
and fought right manfully, defending  himself with extraordinary
intrepidity, receiving the enemy's arrows in his targe.  He was
ultimately wounded by an arrow which struck him under the belt, yet no
one dared to approach him; but John Dubh Mac Choinnich Mhic Mhurchaidh
noticing his amazing agility, observing that his party had arrived
with the boat, and fearing they would lose Glengarry's galley unless
they at once pursued it, went round to the back of the rock against
which the brave Macdonald stood, carrying a great boulder, which he
dropped straight on to MacGorrie's head, instantly killing him.  Thus
died the most skilful and best chieftain - had he possessed equal wisdom
and discretion - then alive among the Macdonalds of Glengarry.

The Mackenzies immediately took to their boat, pursuing Macdonald's
galley to Loch na Beist, where, noticing the enemy's whole fleet
coming out against them, John Tolmach Macleod recommended his men
to put out to sea; but finding the fleet gaining upon them, they
decided to land in Applecross, where they were nearly overtaken
by the enemy.  They were obliged to leave their boat and run for
their lives, hotly pursued by the Macdonalds; and were it not that
one of Mackenzie's men - John Mac Rory Mhic Mhurchaidh Mathewson -
was so well acquainted with the ground, and led them to a ford on
the river between two rocks, which the Macdonalds missed, and the
night coming on, they would have been unable to escape with their
lives.  The Macdonalds retraced their steps to their boats, and
on the way discovered the body of Alexander MacGorrie, whose death
"put their boasting to mourning," and conceiving his fate ominous
of additional misfortunes, they, carrying him along with them,
prudently returned home, and disbanded all their followers.  In
the flight of the Mackenzies Alexander of Achilty, being so stout
that he fainted on the way, was nearly captured.  John MacChoinnich,
who noticed him falling, threw some water on him, and, drawing
his sword, swore that he would kill him on the spot if he did not
get up at once rather than that the enemy should have the honour
of killing or capturing him.  They soon arrived at Gairloch's
house in the island on Loch-Maree, and gave a full account of their
expedition, whereupon Kintail at once decided upon taking active
measures against the Macdonalds.  In the meantime he was assured
that they had returned to their own country.  He soon returned
home, and found that the people of Kintail and Glengarry, tiring
of those incessant slaughters and mutual injuries, agreed, during
his absence, in the month of May, to cease hostilities until
the following Lammas.  Of this agreement Kintail knew nothing;
and young Glengarry, who was of an exceedingly bold and restless
disposition, against the earnest solicitations of his father, who
became a party to this agreement between his people and those of
Kintail, started with a strong force to Glenshiel and Letterfearn,
while Allan Macdonald of Lundy with another party went to Glenelchaig,
harried those places, took away a large number of cattle, and killed
some of the aged men, several women, and all the male children.  They
found none of the principal and able-bodied men, who had withdrawn
some distance that they might with greater advantage gather together
in a body and defend themselves, except Duncan MacIan Mhic
Ghillechallum in Killichirtorn, whom the enemy apprehended, and would
have killed, had not one of the Macdonalds, formerly his friend and
acquaintance, prevailed upon young Glengarry to save his life, and
send  him to the Castle of Strome, where he still had a garrison,
rather than kill him.

The successful result of this expedition encouraged Angus so much
that he began to think fortune had at last turned in his favour,
and he set out and called personally upon all the chief and leaders
of the various branches of the Macdonalds in the west, soliciting
their assistance against the Mackenzies, which they all agreed to
give him in the following spring.

This soon came to Mackenzie's knowledge, who was at the time
residing in Ellandonnan Castle; and fearing the consequences of such
a powerful combination against him, he went privately to Mull by
sea to consult his brother-in-law, Hector Og Maclean of Duart, to
whom he told that he had a commission of fire and sword against
"the rebels of Glengarry and such as would rise in arms to assist
them, and being informed that the Macdonalds near him (Maclean)
had combined to join them, and to put him to further trouble,
that, therefore, he would, not only as a good subject but as his
fast friend, divert these whenever they should rise in arms against
him." [Ardintoul MS.]  Maclean undertook to prevent the assistance
of the Clan Ranald of Isla and the Macdonalds of Glencoe and
Ardnamurchan, by, if necessary, invading their territories, and
thus compelling them to protect their own interests at home.  It
appears that old Glengarry was still anxious to arrange a permanent
peace with Mackenzie; but his son Angus, restless and turbulent
as ever, would not hear of any peaceful settlement, and determined
to start at once upon an expedition, from which his father told
him at the time he had little hopes of his ever returning alive - a
prediction which turned out only too true.

Angus, taking advantage of Mackenzie's absence in Mull, gathered,
in the latter end of November, as secretly as be could, all the
boats and great galleys within his reach, and, with this large fleet
loaded with his followers passed through the Kyles under silence
of night; and, coming to Lochcarron, he sent his marauders ashore
in the twilight.  The inhabitants perceiving them, escaped to the
hills, but the Macdonalds cruelly slaughtered all the aged men
who could not escape, and many of the women and children seized
all the cattle, and drove them to the Island of Slumbay, where
their boats which they filled with the carcases lay.  Before,
however, they had fully loaded, the alarm having gone through the
districts of Lochalsh and Kintail, some of the natives of those
districts were seen marching in the direction of Lochcarron.  The
Macdonalds deemed it prudent to remain no longer, and set out to
sea pursued by a shower of arrows by way of farewell, which,
however, had little effect upon them, as they were already out of
range.

The Kintail men, by the shortest route, now returned to  Ellandonnan,
sending twelve of the swiftest of their number across country to
Inverinate, where lay, newly built, a twelve-oared galley, which
had never been to sea, belonging to Gillecriost MacDhonnchaidh, one
of  Inverinate's tenants.  These heroes made such rapid progress
that they were back at the castle with the boat before many of
their companions  arrived from Lochcarron.  During the night they
set to work, superintended and encouraged by Lady Mackenzie in
person, to make arrangements to go out and meet the enemy.  The
best men were quickly picked.  The Lady supplied them with all
the materials and necessaries for the journey within her reach,
handed them the lead and powder with her own hands, and gave them
two small pieces of brass ordnance.  She ordered Duncan MacGillechriost,
a powerful handsome fellow, to take command of the galley in his
father's absence, and in eloquent terms charged them all with the
honour of her house and her own protection in her husband's absence.
This was hardly necessary, for the Kintail men had not yet forgotten
the breach of faith which had been committed by Macdonald regarding
the recent agreement to cease hostilities for a stated time, and
other recent sores.  Her ladyship having wished them God-speed,
they started on their way rejoicing and in the best of spirits.
She mounted the castle walls, and stood there encouraging them
until, by the darkness of the night, she could no longer see them.

On their way towards Kylerhea they met a boat from Lochalsh sent
out to inform them of the enemy's arrival at Kyleakin.  Learning
this, they cautiously kept their course close to the south side of
the loch.  It was a calm moonlight night, with occasional slight
showers of snow.  The tide had already begun to flow, and, judging
that the Macdonalds would await the next turning of the tide to
enable them to get through Kylerhea, the Kintail men, longing for
their prey, resolved to advance and meet them.  They had not
proceeded far, rowing very gently, after placing seaweed in the
rowlocks so as not to make a noise, when they noticed a boat, rowing
at the hardest, coming in their direction; but from its small size
they thought it must have been sent by the Macdonalds in advance to
test the passage of Kylerhea.  They therefore allowed it to pass
unmolested, and proceeded northward, looking for Macdonald's own
galley.  As they neared the Cailleach, a low rock midway between
both Kyles, it was observed in the distance covered with snow.  The
night also favoured them, the sea, calm, appearing black and
mournful to the enemy.  Here  they met Macdonald's first galley,
and drawing up near it, they soon discovered it to be no other than
his own great birlinn, some distance ahead of the rest of the fleet.
Macdonald, as soon as he noticed them, called out "Who is there?"
twice in succession, but receiving no answer, and finding the
Kintail men drawing nearer, he called out the third time, when, in
reply, he received a full broadside from Mackenzie's cannon,
which disabled his galley and threw her on the Cailleach Rock.

The men on board Macdonald's galley thought they had been driven
on shore, and flocked to the fore part of the boat, striving to
escape, thus capsizing and filling the birlinn.  Discovering their
position, and seeing a long stretch of sea lying between them and
the mainland, they became quite confused, and were completely at
the mercy of their enemies, who sent some of their men ashore to
despatch any of the poor wretches who might swim ashore, while
others remained in their boat killing and drowning the Macdonalds.
Such of them as managed to reach the land were also killed or
drowned by those of the Kintail men who went ashore, not a soul out
of the sixty men on board the galley having escaped except Angus
Macdonald himself still breathing, though he had been wounded twice
in the head and once in the body.  He was yet alive when they took
him aboard their galley, but he died before morning.  Hearing the
uproar, several of the Lochalsh people went out with all speed in
two small boats, under command of Dugall Mac Mhurchaidh Matthewson,
to take part in the fray; but by the time they arrived at the
scene of action few of Macdonald's followers were alive.  Thus
ended the career of Angus, younger of Glengarry, a chief to whom
his followers looked up, and whom they justly regarded as a bold
and intrepid leader, though deficient in prudence and strategy.

The remainder of Macdonald's fleet, to the number of twenty-one,
following behind his own galley, having heard the uproar, returned
to Kyleakin in such terror and confusion that each thought his
nearest neighbour was pursuing him.  Landing in Strathardale,
they left their boats "and their ill-cooked beef to these hungry
gentlemen," and before they slept they arrived in Sleat, from
whence they were sent across to the mainland in the small boats
of the laird.

The great concern and anxiety of her ladyship of Ellandonnan can
be easily conceived, for all that she had yet learnt was the simple
fact that an engagement of some kind had taken place, and this she
only knew from having heard the sound of cannon during the night.
Early in the morning she noticed her protectors returning with
their birlinn, accompanied by another great galley.  This brightened
her hopes, and going down to the shore to meet them, she heartily
saluted them, and asked if all had gone well with them.  "Yea,
Madam," answered their leader, Duncan MacGillechriost, "we have
brought you a new guest, without the loss of a single man, whom
we hope is welcome to your ladyship."  She looked into the galley,
and at once recognising the body of Angus of Glengarry, she ordered
it to be carried ashore and properly attended to.  The men proposed
that he should be buried in the tomb of his predecessors, "Cnoc nan
Aingeal," in Lochalsh; but this she objected to, observing that,
if he could, her husband would never allow a Macdonald, dead or
alive, any further possession in that locality, at the same time
ordering young Glengarry to be buried with her own children,
and such other children of the predecessors of the Mackenzies of
Kintail as were buried in Kilduich, saying that she considered it
no disparagement for him to be buried with such cousins; and if
it were her own fate to die in Kintail, she would desire to be
interred amongst them.  The proposal was agreed to, and everything
having been got ready suitable for the funeral of a gentleman of
his rank-such as the place could afford in the circumstances-he
was buried next day in Kilduich, in the same tomb as Mackenzie's
own children.  This is not the most generally received account
regarding Angus Macdonald's burial; but we are glad, for the credit
of our common humanity, to find the following conclusive testimony
in an imperfect but excellently written MS. of the seventeenth
century, otherwise remarkably correct and trustworthy: "Some person,
out of what reason I cannot tell, will needs affirm he was buried in
the church door, as men go out and in, which to my certain knowledge
is a malicious lie, for with my very eyes I have seen his head raised
out of the same grave and returned again, wherein there was two
small cuts, noways deep." [Ancient MS.]

The author of the Ardintoul MS. informs us that MacLean had actually
invaded Ardnamurchan, and carried fire and sword into that and the
adjoining territory of the Macdonalds, whereupon the Earl of Argyll,
who claimed the Macdonalds of those districts as his vassals and
dependants, obtained criminal letters against MacLean, who, finding
this, sent for his brother-in-law, Mackenzie of Kintail, at whose
request he had invaded the country of the Macdonalds.  Both started
for Inveraray.  The Earl seemed most determined to punish MacLean,
but Mackenzie informed him that "he should rather be blamed for
it than MacLean, and the King and Council than either of them,
for he having obtained, upon good grounds, a commission of fire
and sword against Glengarry and such as would assist him, and
against these men's rebellious and wicked courses, which frequently
his lordship seemed to own, that he did charge, as he did several
others of the king's loyal subjects, MacLean to assist him."  So
that, if Maclean was to be punished for acting as his friend and
as a loyal subject, he hoped to obtain a hearing before the King
and  Council under whose orders he acted.  After considerable
discussion they parted good friends, Argyll having agreed not
to molest MacLean any further.  Mackenzie and MacLean returned
to Duart, where his lordship was warmly received and sumptuously
entertained by MacLean's immediate friends and kinsmen for the
service which he had just rendered to their chief.  While thus
engaged, a messenger arrived at the castle from Mackenzie's lady
and the Kintail men.

After the funeral of young Angus of Glengarry, she became concerned
about her husband's safe return, and was at the same time most
anxious that he should be advised of the state of matters at home.
She therefore despatched Robert Mac Dhomh'uill Uidhir to arrange the
safest plan for bringing her lord safely home, as the Macdonalds
were still prowling among the creeks and bays further south.
Robert, after the interchange of unimportant preliminaries, on his
arrival in Mull, informed his master of all that had taken place
during his absence.  MacLean, surprised to hear of such gallant
conduct by the Kintail men in the absence of their chief, asked
Mackenzie if any of his own kinsmen were amongst them, and being
informed they were not, Maclean replied, "It was a great and
audacious deed to be done by fellows."  "Truly, MacLean," returned
Mackenzie, "they were not fellows that were there, but prime
gentlemen, and such fellows as would act the enterprise better
than myself and kinsmen."  "You have very great reason to make
the more of them," said Maclean; "he is a happy superior who has
such a following."  Both chiefs then went outside to consult as
to the best and safest means for Mackenzie's homeward journey.
MacLean offered him all his chief and best men to accompany him
by land, but this he declined, saying that he would not put his
friend to such inconvenience, and would return home in his own boat
just as he came; but he was ultimately persuaded to take MacLean's
great galley, his own being only a small one.  He sailed in
his friend's great birlinn, under the command of the Captain of
Cairnburgh, accompanied by several other gentlemen of the MacLeans.

In the meantime, the Macdonalds, aware that Mackenzie had not yet
returned from Mull, "convened all the boats and galleys they could,
to a certain island which lay in his course, and which he could
not avoid passing.  So, coming within sight of the island, having
a good prospect of a number of boats, after they bad ebbed in
a certain harbour, and men also making ready to set out to sea.
This occasioned the captain to use a stratagem, and steer directly
to the harbour, and still as they came forward he caused lower the
sail, which the other party perceiving made them forbear putting
out their boats, persuading themselves that it was a galley they
expected from Ardnamurchan, but they had no sooner come forgainst
the harbour but the captain caused hoist sail, set oars and steers
aside, immediately bangs up a bagpiper and gives them shots.  The
rest, finding the cheat and their own mistake, made such a
hurly-burly setting out their boats, with their haste they broke
some of them, and some of themselves were bruised and bad broken
shins also for their prey, and such as went out whole, perceiving
the galley so far off; thought it was folly to pursue her any
further, they all returned wiser than they came from home.  This is,
notwithstanding other men's reports, the true and real narration of
Glengarrie Younger his progress, of the Kintail men their meeting
him in Kyle Rhea, of my lord's coming from Mull, and of the whole
success, which I have heard verbatim not only from one but from
several that were  present at their actings." [Ancient MS. The
authors of the Letterfearn and Ardintoul MSS. give substantially
the same account, and say that among those who accompanied Mackenzie
to Mull, was "Rory Beg Mackenzie, son to Rory More of Achiglunichan.
Fairburn and Achilty's predecessor, and who afterwards died parson
of Contine, from whom my author had the full account of Mackenzie's
voyage to Mull."]

Mackenzie arrived at Ellandonnan late at night, where he found his
lady still entertaining her brave Kintail men after their return
from Glengarry's funeral.  While not a little concerned about the
death of his troublesome relative, he heartily congratulated his
gallant retainers on the manner in which they had protected his
interests during his absence.  Certain that the Macdonalds would
never rest satisfied until they wiped out and revenged the death of
their leader, Mackenzie determined to drive them out of the district
altogether.  The castle of Strome still in possession of Glengarry,
was the greatest obstacle in carrying out this resolution, for it
was a good and convenient asylum for the Macdonalds when pursued by
Mackenzie and his followers; but he ultimately succeeded in wresting
it from them.

The following account is given in the Ancient MS. of how it was
taken from them: "In the spring of the following year, Lord Kintail
gathered together considerable forces and besieged the castle of
Strone in Lochcarron, which at first held out very manfully, and
would not surrender, though several terms were offered, which he
(Mackenzie) finding not willing to lose his men, resolved to raise
the siege for a time; but the defenders were so unfortunate as to
have their powder damaged by the women they had within.  Having
sent them out by silence of night to draw in water, out of a well
that lay just at the entrance of the castle, the silly women were
in such fear, and the room they brought the water into being so
dark for want of light, when they came in they poured the water
into a vat, missing the right one, wherein the few barrels of
powder they had lay.  And in the morning, when the men came for
more powder, having exhausted the supply of the previous day, they
found the barrels of powder floating in the vat; so they began
to rail and abuse the poor women, which the fore-mentioned Duncan
Mac Ian Mhic Gilliechallum, still a prisoner in the castle, hearing,
as he was at liberty through the house, having promised and made
solemn oath that he would never come out of the door until he was
ransomed or otherwise relieved."  This he was obliged to do to
save his life.  But having discovered the accident which befel the
powder, he accompanied his keepers to the ramparts of the castle,
when he noticed his country men packing up their baggage as if
intending to raise the siege.  Duncan instantly threw his plaid
over the head of the man that stood next to him, and jumped over
the wall on to a large dung heap that stood immediately below.
He was a little stunned, but instantly recovering himself, flew
with the fleetness of a deer to Mackenzie's camp, and informed
his chief of the state of matters within the stronghold.  Kintail
renewed the siege and brought his scaling ladders nearer the
castle.  The defenders seeing this, and knowing that their mishap
and consequent plight had been disclosed by Duncan to the enemy,
they offered to yield up the castle on condition that their lives
would be spared, and that they he allowed to carry away their
baggage.  This was readily granted them, and "my lord caused
presently blow up the  house with powder, which remains there in
heaps to this day.  He lost only but two Kenlochewe men at the
siege.  Andrew Munro of Teannouher (Novar) was wounded, with two
or three others, and so dissolved the camp." [Ardintoul MS.]
Another writer says - "The rooms are to be seen  yet.  It stood
on a high rock, which extended in the midst of a little bay of
the sea westward, which made a harbour or safe port for great
boats or vessels of no great burden, on either side of the castle.
It was a very convenient place for Alexander Mac Gillespick to
dwell in when he had both the countries of Lochalsh and
Lochcarron, standing on the very march between both."

A considerable portion of the walls is still (1893) standing, but
no trace of the apartments.  The sea must have receded many feet
since it was in its glory; for now it barely touches the base of
the rock on which the ruin stands.  We have repeatedly examined
it, and with mixed feelings ruminated upon its past history, and
what its ruined walls, could they only speak, might bear witness
to.

In the following year (1603) the chief of Glengarry Donald
Gruamach having died, and the heir being still under age, the
Macdonalds, under Donald's cousin, Allan Dubh MacRanuil of Lundy,
made an incursion into the country of Mackenzie in Brae Ross,
plundered the lands of Cillechriost, and ferociously set fire
to the church during divine service, when full of men, women,
and children, while Glengarry's piper marched  round the building
cruelly mocking the heartrending wails of the burning women and
children, playing the well-known pibroch, which has been known
ever since by the name of "Cillechriost," as the family tune of the
Macdonalds of Glengarry.  "Some of the Macdonalds chiefly concerned
in this inhuman outrage were afterwards killed by the Mackenzies;
but it is somewhat startling to reflect that this terrible instance
of private vengeance should have occurred in the commencement
of the seventeenth century, without, so far as we can trace, any
public notice being taken of such an enormity.  In the end the
disputes between the chiefs of Glengarry and Kintail were amicably
settled by an arrangement which gave the Ross-shire lands, so long
the subject of dispute, entirely to Mackenzie; and the hard terms
to which Glengarry was obliged to submit in the private quarrel seem
to have formed the only punishment inflicted on this clan for the
cold-blooded atrocity displayed in the memorable raid on Kilchrist."
[Gregory, pp. 302-3.]

Eventually Mackenzie succeeded in obtaining a crown charter to
the disputed districts of Lochalsh, Lochcarron, and others, dated
1607; and the Macdonalds having now lost the three ablest of their
leaders, Donald's successor, his second son, Alexander, considered
it prudent to seek peace with Mackenzie.  This was, after some
negotiation, agreed to, and a day appointed for a final settlement.

In the meantime, Kintail sent for twenty-four of his ablest men in
Kintail and Lochalsh, and took them, along with the best of his
own kinsmen, to Baile Chaisteil (now Grantown), where his uncle
Grant of Grant resided, with the view to purchase from him a
heavy and long-standing claim which he held against Glengarry for
depredations committed on Grant's neighbouring territories in
Glenmoriston and Glen-Urquhart.  Grant was unwilling to sell, but
ultimately, on the persuasion of  mutual friends, he offered to
take thirty thousand merks for his claim.  Mackenzie's kinsmen and
friends from the West were meanwhile lodged in a great kiln in the
neighbourhood, amusing themselves with some of Grant's men who went
to the kiln to keep them company.  Kintail sent a messenger to the
kiln to consult his people as to whether he would give such a large
amount for Grants "comprising" against Glengarry.  The messenger was
patiently listened to until he had finished, when he was told to go
back and tell Grant and Mackenzie, that had they not entertained
great hopes that their chief would "give that paper as a gift to his
nephew after all his trouble," he would not have been allowed to
cross the Ferry of Ardersier; for they would like to know where he
could find such a large sum, unless he intended to harry them and
his other friends, who had already suffered quite enough in the wars
with Glengarry; and, so saying, they took to their arms, and desired
the messenger to tell Mackenzie that they wished him to leave the
paper where it was.  And if he desired to have it, they would sooner
venture their own persons and those of the friends they had left at
home to secure it by force, than give a sum which would probably be
more difficult to procure than to dispossess Glengarry altogether by
their doughty arms.  They then left the kiln, and sent one of their
own number for their chief, who, on arriving, was strongly abused
for entertaining such an extravagant proposal and requested to leave
the place at once.  This he consented to do, and went to inform
Grant that his friends would not hear of his giving such a large
sum, and that he preferred to dispense with the claim against
Glengarry altogether rather than lose the goodwill and friendship of
his retainers, who had so often endangered their lives and fortunes
in his quarrels.  Meanwhile, one of the Grants who had been in the
kiln communicated to his master the nature of the conversation
which had there passed when the price asked by Grant was mentioned
to the followers of Mackenzie.  This made such an impression upon
Grant and his advisers, that he prevailed upon Mackenzie, who was
about starting for home, to remain in the castle for another night.
To this Kintail consented, and before morning he obtained the
"paper" for ten thousand merks - a third of the sum originally
asked for it.  "Such familiar relationship of the chief with his
people," our authority says, "may now-a-days be thought fabulous;
but whoever considers the unity, correspondence, and amity that was
so well kept and entertained betwixt superiors and their followers
and vassals in former ages, besides as it is now-a-days, he need not
think it so; and I may truly say that there was no clan in the
Highlands of Scotland that would compete with the Mackenzies, their
vassals and followers, as to that; and it is sure their superiors
in former times would not grant their daughters in marriage without
their consent.  Nor durst the meanest of them, on the other hand,
give theirs to any stranger without the superior's consent; and I
heard in Earl Colin's time of a Kintail man that gave his daughter
in marriage to a gentleman in a neighbouring country without the
Earl's consent, who never after had kindness for the giver, and,
I may say, is yet the blackest marriage for that country, and others
also, that ever was among their commons.  But it may be objected
that now-a-days their commons advice or consent in any matter of
consequence is not so requisite, whereas there are many substantial
friends to advise with; but its an old Scots phrase, 'A king's
advice may fall from a fool's head.'  I  confess that is true where
friends are real friends, but we ordinarily find, and partly know
by experience, that, where friends or kinsmen become great and
rich in interest, they readily become emulous, and will ordinarily
advise for themselves if in the least it may hinder them from
becoming a chief or head of a family, and forget their former
headship, which was one of the greatest faults, as also the ruin
of Munro of Miltown, whereas a common man will never eye to become
a chief so long as he is in that state, and therefore will advise
his chief or superior the more freely."  What a change in the
relationship between the chiefs and clansmen of to-day!

Sir William Fraser, who quotes the foregoing narrative from the
former edition of this work, says that John Grant, fifth of
Freuchie, in whose time this incident is said to have occurred,
was not "uncle" but  cousin to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail.  But
he adds that the "story is so far corroborated by the fact that
about the time the incident is said to have happened, the young
Chief of Kintail granted a receipt to the laird of Freuchie for
the charter of comprising, granted on 4th May, 1548, to James Grant
of Freuchie, which, with relative papers, was now handed over to
Mackenzie, in terms of a disposition by the Laird to him of lands
in Kessoryne, Lochalsh, Lochcarron, etc."  The original discharge,
dated 1st May, 1606, Sir William says, is at Castle Grant. ["Chiefs
of Grant," vol. i. p. 178.]  A bond of manrent is entered into
between Grant and Mackenzie on the same date, at Inverness.

The day appointed for the meeting of Mackenzie and Glengarry to
arrange terms soon arrived.   The former had meanwhile brought up
several decrees and claims against the latter at the instance of
neighbouring proprietors, for "cost, skaith and damage," which
altogether amounted to a greater sum than the whole of Macdonald's
lands were worth.  The two, however, settled their disputes by an
arrangement which  secured absolutely to Mackenzie all Glengarry's
lands in the county of  Ross, and the superiority of all  his
other possessions, but Glengarry was to hold the latter, paying
Mackenzie a small feu as superior.  In consideration of these
humiliating concessions by Macdonald, Mackenzie agreed to pay
twenty thousand merks Scots, and thus ended for ever the ancient
quarrels which had existed for centuries between the powerful families
of Glengarry and Kintail.  "Thus ended the most of Glengarrie's
troubles tho' there was severall other bloody skirmishes betwixt
ym-such as the taking of the Stank house in Knoidart, where there
was severalls burnt and killed by that stratagem; as also young
Glengarrie's burning and harrying of Croe in Kintail, where there
was but few men killed, yet severall women and children were both
burned and killed.  I cannot forget ane pretty fellow that was
killed there, who went himself and three or four women to ane
outsett in the Croe, where there was a barn (as being more remote),
where they sleept yt night.  But in the morning the breaking of
the dore was their wakening, whereupon the man, (called Patrick
McConochy Chyle) started and finding them about the barn, bad them
leave of and he would open it.  So, getting his bow and arrow, he
opens the door, killed 4 of them there, (before) they took nottice
of him, which made them all hold off.  In end they fires the barn
and surrounds it, which he finding still, started out, and as he
did he still killed one of them, till he had killed 11.  The barn
in end almost consumed and his arrows spent, he took him to his
heels, but was killed by them, and two of the women, the third
having stayed in the reek of the barn, and a rough hide about her."
[Ancient MS.]

On the 18th of July, 1610, Lord Kenneth made over to Sir Roderick
Mor Macleod, XIII. of Dunvegan, the five unciate lands of Waternish,
which his lordship had previously purchased from Sir George Hay
and others, who obtained possession of them on the forfeiture of
the Macleods of Lewis, to whom Waternish formerly belonged.  As
part payment, Sir Roderick Mor Macleod disponed to Mackenzie two
unciates of lands in Troternish, Isle of Skye, which belonged to
him, along with the Bailliary of the old extent of eight merks
which had been united to the Barony of Lewis, and in which William
Macleod, XII. of Dunvegan, had been served heir to his father in
1585.  On the 24th of the same month the Lords of the Privy Council
ordain that Lord Kintail should pay Norman Macleod's expenses in
prison in all time coming.

Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, to quote the Earl
of Cromarty, "was truly of an heroic temper, but of a spirit too
great for his estates, perhaps for his country, yet bounded by
his station, so as he (his father) resolved to seek employment
for him abroad; but no sooner had he gone to France, but Glengarry
most outrageously, without any cause, and against all equity
and law convocates multitudes of people and invades his  estates,
sacking, burning, and destroying all.  Kenneth's friends sent John
Mackenzie of Tollie to inform him of these wrongs, whereupon he
made a speedy return to an affair so urgent, and so suitable to
his genius, for as he never offered wrong so he never suffered
any.  His heat did not overwhelm his wit, for he took a legal
procedure, obtained a commission of fire and sword against Glengarry
and his complices, which he prosecuted so bravely as in a short
time by himself and his brother he soon forced them to retreat
from his lands, and following them to their own  bills, he soon
dissipated and destroyed them, that young Glengarry and many
others of their boldest and most outrageous were killed, and the
rest forced to shelter themselves amongst the other Macdonalds
in the islands and remote Highlands, leaving all their estates to
Kenneth's disposal.  This tribe of the Clan Ranald seem to have
been too barbarous for even those lawless times, while by a strange
contumacy in latter times, a representative of that ancient family
pertinaciously continued to proclaim its infamy and downfall by the
adherence to the wild strain of bagpipe music (their family pibroch
called Cillechriost), at once indicative of its shame and submission.
Kenneth's character and policies were of a higher order, and in
the result he was everywhere the gainer by them."  He was
supported by Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Redcastle; and by his own
brothers - Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, Alexander of Coul,
and Alexander of Kilcoy, all men of more than ordinary
intelligence and intrepidity.

Lord Kenneth married, first, Ann, daughter of George Ross, IX. of
Balnagown, with issue -

I.  Colin Ruadh, his successor, afterwards created first Earl of
Seaforth.

II.  John of Lochslinn, who married Isobel, eldest daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, and died without lawful male
issue.

III.  Kenneth, who died unmarried.

IV.  Barbara, who married Donald, Lord Reay.

V.  Janet, who married Sir Donald Macdonald, VIII. of Sleat,
Baronet, with issue, his heir and successor, and others.

Kenneth married, secondly, Isobel, daughter of Sir Gilbert Ogilvie
of Powrie, by whom he had -

VI.  Alexander, who died without issue.

VII.  George, who afterwards succeeded Colin as second Earl
of Seaforth.

VIII.  Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine, whose male line has been
proved extinct.

IX.  Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn.  Simon was twice married and
left a numerous offspring, who will afterwards be more particularly
referred to, his descendants having since the death of "the Last
of the  Seaforths" in 1815, without surviving male issue, carried
on the male representation of the ancient family of Kintail.

X.  Sibella, who married,, first, John Macleod, XIV. of Harris;
secondly, Alexander Fraser, Tutor of Lovat; and thirdly, Patrick
Grant, Tutor of Grant, second son of Sir John Grant of Freuchie.

He died in February, 1611, in the forty-second year of his age; was
buried "with great triumph" at Chanonry, ["As is proved by an old
MS. record kept by the Kirk Session of Inverness, wherein is this
entry: 'Upon the penult day of February 1611 My Lord Mackenzie died
in the Chanonrie of Ross and was buried 28th  April anno foresaid
in the Chanonrie Kirk with great triumph.'" - "Allangrange Service"]
and was succeeded by his second and eldest  surviving son,


XIII.  COLIN  FIRST  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,


AND  SECOND  LORD  MACKENZIE  OF  KINTAIL, a minor only fourteen
years old when his father died.  On the 16th of July, 1611, a Royal
precept is issued under the Signet to the Sheriff of Inverness
directing him to have all brieves of inquest obtained by Colin,
Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, for serving him nearest and lawful
heir to the late Kenneth Mackenzie, Lord of Kintail, his father,
in all lands and annual-rents wherein his father died, last vested
and seased, proclaimed and put to  the knowledge of an inquest,
notwithstanding the minority of the said Colin, "whereupon we
have dispensed and by these present dispense" with that objection,
providing always that the dispensation be not prejudicial to the
donator of the ward of the said late Kenneth's lands in the matter
of the mails, fermes, and duties of the same during the time of
the ward thereof.

On the 16th of August, 1611, a proclamation is issued to the Highland
chiefs, following upon one granted to Sir Roderick Mackenzie of
Coigeach, as Tutor of Kintail, and four other leaders of the clan,
on the 11th of June preceding, against assisting Neil Macleod and
the other rebels of the Lewis, who had risen in arms against the
Tutor, in the following terms:

Forasmuch as the barbarous and rebellious thieves and limmers of
the Lewis, who have been suppressed and in some measure kept in
subjection and obedience these years bygone, taking new breath and
courage upon occasion of the decease of Kenneth, Lord Kintail, who
was his Majesty's justice and commissioner in these bounds, they
have now of late risen in arms in a professed and avowed rebellion
against the Tutor of Kintail, whom his Majesty and his Council have
authorised and constituted in that place of justiciary possessed
by his deceased brother within the Lewis, and intend, with their
whole power and force, not only to withstand and resist the said
Tutor of Kintail in the advancement of his Majesty's authority
and service within the Lewis, but to prosecute himself and his
Majesty's good subjects attending upon him with all hostility -
wherein they presume of farther backing and assistance, upon some
foolish apprehension that the clansmen of the Isles who have given
their obedience to his Majesty, and now stands under his Majesty's
good grace, shall make shipwreck of their faith, credit, and promised
obedience, and  join with them in their detestable rebellion.
And although his Majesty, in the sincerity of his royal heart,
cannot apprehend any such disloyalty or treachery in the person of
the clansmen of the Isles, who have had so large a proof of his
Majesty's clemency, benignity, and favour, that now, so unworthily
and unnecessarily, they will reject his Majesty's favour, and, to
the inevitable hazard and peril of their estates, join with these
miserable miscreants in their rebellion yet to take away all
pretext of excuse from them, and to make them the more inexcusable
if wilfully, traitorously, and maliciously they will suffer
themselves to be carried in such an imminent danger, the King's
Majesty and Lords of Secret Council ordain letters to be directed
to command, charge, and inhibit all and sundry, the inhabitants
of the Isles and continent next adjacent, namely Donald Macdonald
Gorm of Sleat, Roderick Macleod of Dunvegan, called Macleod of
Harris, Hugh  Mackay of Farr, Mackay his son and apparent heir,
and MacNeill of Barra, that none of them presume or take upon
hand, under whatsoever colour or pretence, to concur, fortify, or
assist the said rebellious thieves and limmers of the Lewis, nor
to intercommune or join with them, supply them with men, victual,
powder, bullets, or any other thing consortable unto them, nor to
show them any kind of protection, consort, countenance, reset or
supply, under the pain to be reputed, held, and esteemed as art
and partakers with them in their rebellion, and to be pursued and
punished for the same, as traitors to his Majesty and his country,
with all vigour.

On the 28th of May, 1612, a commission, apparently first granted
to those named in it on the 11th of June, 1611, but of which the
original is  not given in the published Records of the Privy Council,
"almost expired" at the first-named date, and was renewed to the
same persons - the Tutor of Kintail, Colin Mackenzie of Killin,
Murdo Mackenzie of Kernsary, Alexander Mackenzie of Coul, and
Kenneth Mackenzie of Darochmaluag.  It is to the same effect as and
in almost identical terms with the commission issued in favour of
Kenneth, Lord Kintail, on the 19th of July, 1610 (given at length
at pp. 193-94), and it confers full powers on the Tutor and his
colleagues for the pursuit and apprehension of Neil Macleod and his
fellow rebels in the Lewis.

A complaint is made on the 4th of March, 1613, by Sir William
Oliphant, the King's Advocate, that all the chieftains and principal
men of the Isles and mainland next adjacent having made their
submission to his Majesty, "there only resteth Neil Macleod,
called the Traitor, rebellious and disobedient."  His accomplices
are given as Malcolm Mac Rory MacLeod William Mac Rory Macleod,
his brother, John Dubh Mac Angus Mac Gillemhichell, Gillecallum Mac
Ian Mhic-ant-Sagairt, Murdo and Donald Mac Ian Mhic-an-t-Sagairt,
Donald and Rory, sons to Neil Macleod, and Donald Mac Ian Duibh -
the Brieve.  They are stated to have maintained open rebellion in the
Lewis for some years past, "but after their strength and starting
hoill," called Berissay, had been attacked by the Tutor of Kintail
and others in the King's name they fled to the bounds and country
of Donald Mac Allan of Ellantirrim, where they were received and
supplied by him and several others, whose names are given, "despite
the proclamation of the commission against the resett of rebels made
at Inverness," some time before.  The resetters, to the number of
nine, are denounced rebels and at the born.

At a meeting of the Council held on the 28th of April Roderick
Macleod of Harris is charged to deliver up to the Tutor of Kintail
within twenty days after the charge five of Neil Macleod's accomplices
who had been apprehended by Roderick's brother Alexander.  These
are Malcolm  and William, "sons to the late Neil Macleod, called
the Traitor," Murdo Mac Ian Mhic-an-t-Sagairt, Malcolm Mac Ian
Mhic-an-t-Sagairt, and  Donald Mac Angus, "who were the chief actors
and ringleaders in all the treasonable and rebellious attempts
committed and perpetrated upon his Majesty's peaceable and good
subjects within the Lewis these divers years bygone.

On the 20th of May a commission is issued in favour of the Tutor,
Roderick MacLeod of Dunvegan and Harris, and John Grant of Grant,
for the apprehension of Allan Mac Allaster, in Kilchoan, Knoydart,
and several others of his relatives, for the murder of Ronald
Mac Angus Gearr, and also, at the instance of Donald Mac Angus of
Glengarry, for not finding caution to appear before the Justice
for going by night armed with "daggs and pistolletts" to the lands
of Laggan Achadrom in Glengarry, and setting fire to the houses
there and destroying them with all their  plenishing.  They are
afterwards apprehended, and on the 8th of February, 1614, a commission
to try them is issued in favour of the Sheriff of Inverness and
his deputies.  In the meantime they are lodged in the tolbooth of
that town.

The Tutor must have become responsible for Donald Gorm Macdonald,
for on the 3rd of June, 1613, there is an entry declaring that "in
respect of the personal compearance of Donald Gorm of Sleat" before
the Privy Council their Lordships "exoner and relieve Rory Mackenzie
of Coigeach of the acts" whereby he became acted for the entry of
Macdonald before them on the last Council day of May preceding,
and he is declared "free of said acts in all time coming."  On
the 24th of the same month a commission is issued to Roderick, Mr
Colin Mackenzie of Killin, Murdo Mackenzie of Kernsary, Alexander
Mackenzie of Coul, and Kenneth Mackenzie of Davochmaluag, to pass
to the Lewis and apprehend Roderick and Donald Macleod, sons of
Neil who had been executed at Edinburgh in the preceding April;
William and Roderick Macleod, brothers of Malcolm, son of Rory
Macleod, sometime of the Lewis; Donald Mac Ian Duibh - the Brieve,
Murdo Mac Angus Mhic-an-t-Sagairt, Donald, his brother, Gillecallum
Caogach Mac-an-t-Sagairt, John Dubh Mac Angus Mac Gillemhichell,
Murdo Mac Torquil Blair, John Roy and Norman, sons of Torquil
Blair, Donald Mac Neill Mhic Finlay, Gillecallum Mac Allan Mhic
Finlay, and Donald Mac Dhomhnuill Mac Gillechallum, "actors in
the first rebellion in the Lewis against the gentlemen venturers,"
all of whom bad been denounced as rebels on the 2nd of February
the same year.  This commission is renewed for twelve months on
the 21st of June, 1614, and proclamation is ordered at Inverness
and other places, charging all the inhabitants of the North Isles,
and within the bounds of the lands, heritages, possessions, offices
and  bailliaries pertaining to Colin, Lord Mackenzie of Kintail,
except persons of the name of Fraser, Ross, and Munro, and their
tenants and servants, to assist the commissioners in apprehending
those named in the former commission.

On the 30th of July, 1613, in a long list of 121 persons before the
Council from the County of Inverness, which then included Ross, and
fined for the reset of the Clan Macgregor, Sir Roderick Mackenzie
of Coigeach, as Tutor of Kintail, has L4000 against his name, by
far the largest sum in the list, the next to him being his own
uncle, Roderick Mor Mackenzie I. of Redcastle, with 4000 merks.
There seems to have been some difficulty as to the settlement of
these heavy fines, for on the 27th of October following, there is
a missive before the Council from the King "anent the continuation
granted to the Tutor of Kintail, Mr John and Rory Mackenzies, for
payment of their fines," and directions are given accordingly that
no new continuation be granted.

In 1614, while the Tutor was busily engaged in the island of Lewis,
discussions broke out between different branches of the Camerons,
instigated by the rival claims of the Marquis of Huntly and the Earl
of Argyll.  The latter had won over the aid of Allan MacDhomhnuill
Dubh, chief of the clan, while Huntly secured the support of
Erracht, Kinlochiel, and Glen Nevis, and, by force, placed them
in possession of all the lands belonging to the chief's adherents
who supported Argyll.  Allan, however, managed to deal out severe
retribution to his enemies, who were commanded by Lord Enzie, and,
as is quaintly said, "teaching ane lesson to the rest of kin that
are alqui in what form they shall carry themselves to their chief
hereafter."  The Marquis obtained a commission from the King to
suppress these violent proceedings, in virtue of which he called
out all  his Majesty's loyal vassals to join him.  Kintail and the
Tutor demurred, and submitted the great difficulties and trials
they had experienced in reducing the Lewis to good and peaceable
government as their excuse, and they were exempted from joining
Huntly's forces by a special commission from the King.  Closely
connected as it is with the final possession of the  island by the
House of Kintail, it is here given -

"James Rex, - James, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain,
France, and Ireland, defender of the faith, to all and sundry our
lieges, and  subjects whom it effeirs to whose knowledge this our
letters shall come greeting.  For as much as we have taken great
pains and travails, and  bestown great charge and expense for
reducing the Isles of our kingdom to our obedience:  And the same
Isles being now settled in a reasonable way of quietness, and the
chieftains thereof having come in and rendered their obedience to
us  there rests none of the Isles rebellious, but only the Lewis,
which being inhabitated by a number of godless and lawless people,
trained up from their youth in all kinds of ungodliness:  They can
hardly be reclaimed from their impurities and barbarities, and
induced to embrace a quiet and peaceable form of living so that
we have been constrained from time to time to employ our cousin,
the Lord Kintail, who rests with God, and since his decease the
Tutor of Kintail his brother, and  other friends of that House in
our service against the rebels of the Lewis, with ample commission
and authority to suppress their insolence and to reduce that island
to our obedience, which service has been prosecuted and followed
these divers years by the power, friendship and proper services
of the House of Kintail, without any kind of trouble and charge
or expense to us, or any support or relief from their neighbours
and in the prosecution of that service, they have had such good
and happy success, as divers of the rebels have been apprehended
and executed by justice:  But seeing our said service is not yet
fully accomplished, nor the Isle of the Lewis settled in a solid
and perfect obedience, we have of late renewed our former commission
to our cousin Colin, now Lord of Kintail, and to his Tutor and
some other friends of his house, and they are to employ their whole
power, and service in the execution of the said commission, which
being a service importing highly our honour, and being so necessary
and expedient for the peace and quiet of the whole islands, and
for the good of our subjects, haunting the trade of fishing in
the isles, the same ought not to be interrupted upon any other
intervening occasion, and our commissioners and their friends ought
not to be distracted therefrom for giving of their concurrence
in our services:  Therefore, we, with advice of the Lords of
our Privy Council, have given and granted our licence to our said
cousin Colin. Lord of Kintail, and to his friends, men, tenants and
servants, to remain and bide at home from all osts, raids, wars,
assemblings, and gatherings to be made by George, Marquis of
Huntly, the Earl of Enzie, his son, or any other our Lieutenants,
Justices, or Commissioners, by sea or land either for the pursuit
of Allan Cameron of Lochiel and his rebellious complices, or for
any other cause or occasion whatsoever, during or within the time
of our commission foresaid granted against the Lewis, without pain
or danger to be incurred by our said cousin the Lord of Kintail
and his friends in their persons, lands or goods; notwithstanding
whatsoever our proclamation made or to be made in the contrary
whatever, and all pains contained in it, we dispense by these
presents, discharging hereby our Justices, Justice Clerk, and all
our Judges and Ministers of law, of all calling, accusing, or
any way proceeding  against them, for the cause aforesaid, and of
their officers in that part.  Given under our signet at Edinburgh,
the 14th day of September, 1614, and of our reign the 12th, and 48
years. Read, passed, and allowed in Council.  Alexander,
Chancellor.  Hamilton, Glasgow, Lothian, Binning."

Having procured this commission, the Mackenzies were in a position
to devote their undivided attention to the Lewis and their other
affairs at home; and from this date that island principality
remained in the continuous possession of the family of Kintail
and Seaforth, until in 1844, it was sold to the late Sir James
Matheson.  The people ever after adhered most loyally to the
illustrious house to whom they owed peace and prosperity such as
was never before experienced in the history of the island.

The commission proved otherwise of incalculable benefit to Kintail;
for it not only placed him in a position to pacify and establish
good order in the Lewis with greater ease, but at the same time
provided his Lordship with undisturbed security in his extensive
possessions on the  mainland at a time when the most violent
disorders prevailed over every other district of the West Highlands
and Isles.

On the 2nd of February, 1615, a commission is signetted in favour
of Sir Roderick, Mr Colin Mackenzie of Strathgarve, Mr Alexander
Mackenzie of Kinnock, and Alexander Mackenzie of Coul, to receive
Malcolm Caogach Mac Jan Mhic-an-t-Sagairt, Callum Dubh Mac Allaster,
Donald Mac Angus Mac Gillechallum, Gillecallum Mac Ian Riabhaich,
and James Mac Ian Duibh, from the Magistrates of Edinburgh, to
carry them north, and to keep them in ward until everything is
ready for trying them for murder, mutilation, theft, reset, and
other crimes.

At a meeting of the Council held at Edinburgh on the 9th of
February, 1615, Neil Macleod's two sons, Norman and Roderick, are
set at liberty on condition that they transport themselves out of
the King's dominions and never return.  They appeared personally
"and acted and obliged them that within the space of forty days
after their relief furth of their ward, where they remain within
the Tolbooth of Edinburgh, they shall depart and pass furth of his
Majesty's dominions and never return again within the same during
their lifetimes, under the pain of death; and in the meantime,
till their passing furth of his Majesty's dominions, that they
shall not go benorth the water of Tay, under the said pain, to be
executed upon them without favour if they fail in the premises.
And they gave their great oath to perform the conditions of this
present act; and  further, the said Norman declared that he would
renounce, like as by the tenour of this present act he does
renounce, his Majesty's remission and pardon granted unto him, and
all favour and benefit that he could acclaim by the said remission,
in case he failed in the premises.  In respect whereof the said
Lords ordained the said Norman and Rory to be put to liberty and
fredom furth of the Tolbooth"; and a warrant was issued to the
Provost and Bailies of Edinburgh to give effect to their Lordships'
decision.  The Tutor appeared personally, and in name of Lord
Kintail consented to the liberation of the prisoners.  He at the
same time protested  that neither he nor his chief should be held
any longer responsible for the expenses of maintaining Norman,
now that lie was at liberty, and he was accordingly relieved from
further charge on that account.

On the 26th of April following the Tutor receives a commission
for the pursuit and apprehension of Coll MacGillespic Macdonald,
Malcolm Mac Rory Macleod, and other fugitives, described as "the
Islay rebels," who had fled from justice, should they land in
the Lewis or in any other of the territories belonging to Lord
Mackenzie of Kintail.  In order that he may the better attend
to this duty, along with several other heads of clans named in
the same commission for their respective districts, and as "it is
necessary that the commissioners foresaid remain at home and on
nowise come to this burgh (Edinburgh) to pursue or defend in any
actions or causes concerning them," their Lordships continued all
actions against them until the 1st of November next, ordaining the
said actions "to rest and sleep" till that date.

On the same day, a second dispensation under the signet is addressed
to the Sheriff of Inverness and his deputes in favour of Lord
Colin, requesting that despite his minority he be served heir to
his father, the late Kenneth, Lord Mackenzie of Kintail.  On the
25th of June following he is ordered to provide twenty-five men as
part of an expedition for the pursuit of Sir James Macdonald and
Coll MacGillespick.  In June, 1616, he is appointed a Commissioner
of the Peace for the Sheriffdom of Elgin and Forres.

On the outbreak of a new rebellion in the Lewis another commission,
dated the 28th of August, 1616, to last for twelve months, was
issued by the Privy Council, in favour of the Tutor and other
leading men of the clan, couched in the following terms:

Forasmuch as the King's Majesty having taken great pains and
troubles and bestowed great charges and expenses for reducing of
the Islands of this Kingdom and continent next adjacent to his
Majesty's obedience, and for establishing of religion, peace,
justice, order, and government, within the same, in the which his
Majesty by the force and power of his royal authority has had such
a happy and good success as almost the whole chieftains of clans
and headsmen of the Isles are come in and in all dutiful submission
doth acknowledge his Majesty's obedience, so that now there
is no part of the Isles rebellious but the Lewis - the chieftains
whereof, as from time to time they raise up in credit, power, and
friendship among the barbarous inhabitants thereof, have been
apprehended and by course of justice have suffered their deserved
punishment, and at last the traitor Neil, who was last ringleader
of that rebellious society, being apprehended and executed to the
death, whereby it was presumed that in him all further trouble,
misery, and unquietness in the Lewis should have ceased and rested;
notwithstanding it is of truth that Malcolm Macleod, son to Rory
Macleod, sometime of the Lewis, has embraced that rebellious and
treasonable course wherein his treacherous predecessors miserably
perished, and having associated himself with the persons following
- Rory and Donald Macleod, sons to the said umquhile Neil, and
William and Rory Macleod, brothers to the said Malcolm, Donald Mac
Ian Duibh-the Brieve, Murdo Mac Angus Mhic-an-t-Sagairt, Donald
Mac Angus Mhic-an-t-Sagairt his brother, Gillecallum Caogach
Mac-an-t-Sagairt, John Dubh Mac Angus Mac Gillemichell, Murdo Mac
Torquil Blair, Norman Mac Torquil Blair, John Roy Mac Torquil Blair,
Donald Mac Neil Mac Finlay, Gillecallum Mac Allan Mac Finlay, and
Donald Mac Dhomhuill Mac Gillechallum - who were all actors in the
first rebellion moved and raised in the Lewis against the gentlemen
venturers who were directed by his Majesty there, and did prosecute
that rebellion against them with fire and sword and all kinds of
hostility, for the which and for other thievish and treasonable
crimes committed by them they and every one of them were upon the
second day of February, 1612, orderly denounced rebels and put to
the horn - they have now combined and banded themselves in a most
treacherous, disloyal, and pernicious course and resolution to
maintain a public rebellion in the Lewis, and to oppose themselves
with their whole power and strength against all and whatsoever
courses shall be further taken by his Majesy's direction for
repressing of their insolence; whereby is not only all intercourse
and trade which by his Majesty's good subjects in the Lowlands
would be entertained amongst them, made frustrate and void, but
the preparative of this rebellion in consequence and example is
most dangerous, and if the same be not substantially repressed,
may give further boldness to others who are not yet well settled
in a perfect obedience, to break loose.  Accordingly, as it is "a
discredit to the country that such a parcel of ground possessed
by a number of miserable caitiffs shall be suffered to continue
rebellious, whereas the whole remanent Isles are become peaceable
and obedient; and whereas the said Lords, for repressing of the
insolence of the whole of the rebellious thieves and limmers of
the Lewis and reducing them to his Majesty's obedience, passed
and expede a commission - to Roderick Mackenzie of Coigeach, Tutor
of Kintail, Mr Colin Mackenzie of Killin, Murdo Mackenzie, their
brother, Alexander Mackenzie of Coul, and Kenneth Mackenzie of
Davochmaluag, for reducing of the limmers of the Lewis to obedience,"
which commission "is now expired, and the said thieves, taking
new courage and breath thereupon, are become more insolent than
formerly they were, and have lately made a very open insurrection
and committed slaughter and bloodshed within the said bounds, in
contempt of God and disregard of his Majesty's laws"; therefore
his Majesty and the Lords of Council, understanding of the "good
affection" of the said persons, now reconstitute them commissioners
for the reduction of the said rebels, with full power and authority,
etc. (as in previous commissions granted them) and, "for the
better execution of this commission, to take the lymphads, galleys,
birlinns, and boats in the Lewis and in the next adjacent Isles
for the furtherance of his Majesty's service, - the said justices
being always answerable to the owners of the said lymphads, galleys,
birlinns, and boats  for delivery of the same at the finishing
of his Majesty's said service."  Proclamation was to be made at
Inverness and other places charging the lieges within the bounds
of the North Isles and within the lands of Colin, Lord of Kintail
(except those of the name of Fraser, Ross, and Munro, their tenants
and servants), to assist the said commissioners in the execution
of their duty.

By a commission dated the same day, Sir Roderick, along with Simon
Lord Lovat, and Urquhart of Cromarty, is appointed, for the trial
in the Burgh of Inverness of all resetters within thc Sheriffdom
of the county of any traitors in the Isles, the commission to last
for one year.

In 1618, along with Grant of Grant, he assisted the Mackintosh
against the Marquis of Huntly.  On the 18th of June, 1622, he
is one of the chiefs named in a commission against the Camerons,
among the others being Mackintosh of Mackintosh, Sir Roderick
Macleod, XIII. of Harris, Grant of Grant, Sir John Campbell of
Calder, John Grant of Glenmoriston, Patrick Grant of Ballindalloch,
and John Macdonald, Captain of Clanranald. [See Mackenzie's "History
of the Camerons," p. 86.]

At the death of Kenneth, Lord Kintail, the estates were very heavily
burdened in consequence of the wars with Glengarry and various
family difficulties and debts.  His lordship, in these circumstances,
acted very prudently, as we have seen, in appointing his brother,
Sir Roderick Mackenzie I. of Coigeach - in whose judgment he placed
the utmost confidence - Tutor to his son and successor, Lord Colin.
Knowing the state of affairs - the financial and numberless other
difficulties which stared him in the face, at the same time that
the family were still much involved with the affairs of the Lewis,
and other broils on the mainland - Sir Roderick hesitated to accept
the great responsibilities of the position, but, to quote one of
the family manuscripts, "all others refusing to take the charge he
set resolutely to the work.  The first thing he did was to assault
the rebels in the Lewis, which he did so suddenly, after his
brother's death, and so unexpectedly to them, that what the Fife
Adventurers had spent many years and much treasure in without success,
he, in a few  months, accomplished; for having by his youngest
brother Alexander, chased Neil, the chief commander of all the
rest, from the Isle, pursued him to Glasgow, where, apprehending
him, he delivered him to the Council, who executed him immediately.
He returned to the Lewis, banished those whose deportment he most
doubted, and settled the rest as peaceable tenants to his nephew;
which success he had, with the more facility, because he had the
only title of succession to it by his wife, and they looked on
him as their just master.  From thence he invaded Glengarry, who
was again re-collecting his forces; but at his coming they dissipated
and fled.  He pursued Glengarry to Blairy in Moray, where he took
him; but willing to have his nephew's estate settled with conventional
right rather than legal, he took Low-countrymen as sureties for
Glengarry's peaceable deportment, and then contracted with him for
the reversion of the former wadsets which Colin of Kintail had
acquired of  him, and for a ratification and new disposition of all
his lands, formerly  sold to Colin, and paid him thirty thousand
merks in money for this, and gave him a title to Lagganachindrom,
which, till then, he possessed by  force, so that Glengarry did
ever acknowledge it as a favour to be overcome by such enemies,
who over disobligements did deal both justly and generously.  Rory
employed himself therefore in settling his pupil's estate, which
he did to that advantage that ere his minority passed he freed
his estate, leaving him master of an opulent fortune and of great
superiorities, for be acquired the superiority of Troternish with
the heritable Stewartry of the Isle of Skye, to his pupil, the
superiority of Raasay and  some other Isles.  At this time, Macleod,
partly by law and partly by force, had possessed himself of Sleat
and Troternish, a great part of Macdonald's  estate.  Rory, now
knighted by King James, owned Macdonald's cause as an injured
neighbour, and by the same method that Macleod possessed himself
of Sleat and Troternish he recovered both from him, marrying the
heir thereof Sir Donald Macdonald, to his niece, sister to Lord
Colin, and caused him to take the lands of Troternish holden of
his pupil.  Shortly  after that he took the management of Maclean's
estate, and recovered it from the Earl of Argyll, who had fixed a
number of debts and pretences on it, so by his means all the Isles
were composed and accorded in their debates and settled in their
estates, whence a full peace amongst them, Macneill of Barra
excepted, who had been an hereditary outlaw.  Him, by commission,
Sir Rory reduced, took him in his fort of Kisemull, and carried
him prisoner to Edinburgh, where he procured his remission.  The
King gifted his estate to Sir Rory, who restored it to Macneill
for a sum not exceeding his expenses, and holding it of himself in
feu.  This Sir Rory, as he was beneficial to all his relations,
establishing them in free and secure fortunes, purchased considerable
lands to himself in Ross and Moray, besides the patrimony left him
by his father, the lands of Coigeach and others, which, in lieu
of the Lewis, were given him by his brother.  His death was regretted
as a public calamity, which was in September, 1626, in the 48th year
of his age.  To Sir Rory succeeded Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat; and
to him Sir George Mackenzie, of whom to write might be more honour to
him than of safety to the writer as matters now stand."
[The Applecross Mackenzie MS.]

We shall now draw to some extent on the family manuscripts.
The narrative in this form will add considerable interest to the
information already given under this head from official sources.
Sir Roderick was a most determined man, and extremely fertile
in such schemes as might enable him to gain any object he had in
view.  One of his plans, connected with Mackenzie's possession
of the Lewis, in its barbarous and cruel details, almost equalled
the Raid of Cillechriost.  Neil Macleod, accompanied by his nephews,
Malcolm, William, and Roderick, the three sons of Roderick Og; the
four sons of Torquil Blair; and thirty of their more determined
and desperate followers, retired, when Kintail obtained possession
of the whole of the Lewis, to the impregnable rock of Berrissay,
at the back of the island, to which Neil, as a precautionary measure,
had been for years previously sending food and other necessaries
as a provision for future necessity.  Here they held out for three
years, where they were a source of great annoyance to the Tutor
and his followers.  On a little rock opposite Berrissay, Neil, by
a well-directed shot killed one of the Tutor's followers named Donald
MacDhonnchaidh Mhic Ian Ghlais, and wounded another called Tearlach
MacDhomh'uill Roy Mhic Fhionnlaidh Ghlais.  This exasperated
their leader so much that, all other means having failed to oust
Neil from his impregnable position, the Tutor conceived the inhuman
scheme of gathering together all the wives and children of the
men who were on Berrissay, and all those in the island who were in
any way related to them by blood or marriage, and, having placed
them on a rock exposed only during low water, so near Berrissay
that Neil and his companions could see and hear them, Sir Roderick
and his men avowed that they would leave them - innocent, helpless
women and children - on the rock to be overwhelmed and drowned on
the return of the tide, if Neil and his companions did not at once
surrender the rock.  Macleod knew, by stern experience, that even
to the carrying out such a fiendish crime, the promise of the Tutor,
once given, was as good as his bond.  It is due to the greater
humanity of Neil that the terrible position of the helpless women
and children and their companions appalled him so much that he
decided immediately upon yielding up the rock on condition that
he and his followers should be allowed to leave the Lewis with
their lives.  It cannot be doubted that but for Macleod's more
merciful conduct the ferocious act would have been committed
by Sir Roderick and his followers; and we have to thank the less
barbarous instincts of their opponents for saving the clan Mackenzie
from the commission of a crime which would have secured to its
perpetrators the execration of posterity.

After Neil had left the rock he proceeded privately, during the
night, to his cousin Sir Roderick Mor Macleod, XIII. of Harris.
The Tutor learning this caused Macleod to be charged, under pain
of treason and forfeiture, to deliver him up to the Council.
Realising the danger of his position, Macleod prevailed upon Neil
and his son Donald to accompany him to Edinburgh, and to seek
forgiveness from the King; and under pretence of this he delivered
them both up on arriving in the city, where Neil, in April, 1613,
was at once executed and his son afterwards banished out of the
kingdom.  This treacherous conduct on the part of Macleod of Harris
cannot be excused, but it was a fair return for a similar act of
treachery of which Neil had been guilty against another some little
time before.

When on Berrissay, he met with the captain of a pirate, with whom
he entered into a mutual bond by which they were to help each
other, both being outlaws.  The captain agreed to defend the rock
from the seaward side while Neil made his incursions on shore.
They promised faithfully to live and die together, and to make the
agreement more secure, it was arranged that the stranger should
marry Neil's aunt, a daughter of Torquil Blair.  The day fixed
for the marriage having arrived, and Neil and his adherents having
discovered that the captain had several articles of value aboard
his vessel, he, when the master of the pirate was naturally off
his guard, treacherously seized the ship, and sent the captain and
crew prisoners to Edinburgh, expecting that in this way he might
secure pardon for himself in addition to possession of all the stores
on board.  By order of the Council the sailors were all hanged
at Leith.  Much of the silver and gold taken from the vessel Neil
carried to Harris, where probably it helped to tempt Macleod, as
it previously tempted himself to break faith with  Neil.  The official
account of these incidents has been already given at pages 194-95.

Sir Robert Gordon writing about this period but referring to 1477,
says - "From the ruins of the family of Clandonald, and some of the
neighbouring Highlanders, and also by their own virtue, the surname of
the Clankenzie, from small beginnings, began to flourish in these
bounds; and by the friendship and favour of the house of Sutherland,
chiefly of Earl John, fifth of that name, Earl of Sutherland (whose
Chamberlains they were, in receiving the rents of the Earldom of
Ross to his use) their estate afterwards came to great height,
yea above divers of their more ancient neighbours.  The chief and
head of the family at this day is Colin  Mackenzie, Lord of Kintail,
now created Earl of Seaforth." [Gordon's "Earldom of Sutherland,"
p. 77.]  If the family was so powerful in 1477, what must its
position have been under Lord Colin?  The Earl of Cromarty says
that "This Colin was a noble person of virtuous endowments, beloved
of all good men, especially his Prince.  He acquired and settled
the right of  the superiority of Moidart and Arisaig, the Captain
of Clandonald's lands, which his father, Lord Kenneth, formerly
claimed right to but lived not to accomplish it.  Thus, all the
Highlands and Islands from Ardnamurchan to Strathnaver were either
Mackenzie's property, or under his vassalage, some few excepted,
and all about him were tied to his family by very strict bonds of
friendship or vassalage, which, as it did beget respect from many
it be got envy in others, especially his equals."

It is difficult to discover any substantial aid which the Mackenzies
ever received from the Earls of Sutherland of the kind stated by
Sir Robert  Gordon.  We have carefully perused the whole of the
work from which the above quotation is made, and are unable to
discover a single instance prior to 1477, where the Sutherlands
were of any service whatever to the family of Kintail; and the
assumption is only another instance of that quality of partiality
to his own family," so characteristic of Sir Robert, and for which
even the publishers of his work deemed it necessary to apologise
in the Advertisement prefaced to his "History of the Earldom of
Sutherland."  They "regret the hostile feelings which he expresses
concerning others who were equally entitled to complain of aggression
on the part of those whom he defends," but "strict fidelity to the
letter of the manuscript" would not allow them to omit "the instances
in which this disposition appears."  After Mackenzie's signal victory
over the Macdonalds at Blar-na-Pairc, and Hector Roy's prowess at
Drumchait, the Earl of Sutherland  began to think that the family
of Mackenzie, rapidly growing in power and influence, might be of
some service in the prosecution of his own plans and in extending
his power, and he accordingly entered into the bond of manrent
with him already noticed.  It has been seen that, for a long time
after, the advantages of this arrangement were entirely on the side
of the Sutherlands, as at the battle of Brora and other places
previously mentioned.  The appointment of Kintail as Deputy-
Chamberlain of the Earldom of Ross was due to and in acknowledgment
of these signal and repeated services, and the obligations and
advantages of the office were found to be reciprocal.  The first
and only instance in which the Earl's connection with Mackenzie is
likely to have been of service in the field is on the occasion when,
in 1605, he sent "six score" men to support him against Glengarry,
and these, it has been seen, had fled before they saw the enemy.
So much for the favour and friendship of the House of Sutherland
and its results before and after 1477.

Lord Colin became involved in legal questions with the Earl of Argyll
about the superiority of Moidart and Arisaig, and thus spent most
of the great fortune accumulated for him by his uncle the Tutor;
but he was ultimately successful against Argyll.  He was frequently
at the Court of James VI., with whom he was a great favourite,
and in 1623 he was raised to the peerage by the title of Earl
of Seaforth, and Viscount Fortrose.  From his influence at Court
he was of great service to his followers and friends; while he
exerted himself powerfully and steadily against those who became
his enemies from jealousy of his good fortune and high position.

He imposed high entries and rents upon his Kintail and West Coast
tenants, which they considered a most "grievous imposition."  In
Lord Kenneth's time and that of his predecessors, the people had
their lands at very low rates.  After the wars with Glengarry the
inhabitants of the West Coast properties devoted themselves more
steadily to the improvement of their stock and lands, and accumulated
considerable means.  The Tutor, discovering this, took advantage
of their prosperity and imposed a heavy entry or grassum on their
tacks payable every five years.  "I shall give you  one instance
thereof.  The tack of land called Muchd in Letterfearn, as I was
told by Farquhar Mac Ian Oig, who paid the first entry out of it to
the Tutor, paid of yearly duty before but 40 merks Scots, a cow
and some meal, which cow and meal was usually converted to 20
merks but the Tutor imposed 1000 merks of entry upon it for a
five years' tack.  This made the rent very little for four years
of the tack, but very great and considerable for the first year.
The same method proportionately was taken with the rest of the
lands, and continued so during the Tutor's and Colin's time, but
Earl George, being involved in great troubles, contracted so much
debt that he could not pay his annual rents yearly and support his
own state, but was forced to delay his annual rents to the year of
their entry, and he divided the entry upon the five years with the
people's consent and approbation, so that the said land of Muchd
fell to pay 280 merks yearly and no entry."  From this account,
taken from the contemporary Ardintoul Manuscript, it appears that
the system of charging rent on the tenant's own improvements is an
injustice of considerable antiquity.

Colin "lived most of his time at Chanonry in great state and very
magnificently.  He annually imported his wines from the Continent,
and kept a store for his wines, beers, and other liquors, from which
he replenished his fleet on his voyages round the West Coast and
the Lewis, when he made a circular voyage every year or at least
every two years round his own estates.  I have heard John Beggrie,
who then served Earl Colin, give an account of his voyages after
the bere seed was sown at Allan (where his father and grandfather
had a great mains, which was called Mackenzie's girnel or granary),
took a Journey to the Highlands, taking with him not only his
domestic servants but several young gentlemen of his kin, and
stayed several days at Killin, whither he called all his people
of Strathconan, Strathbran, Strathgarve, and Brae Ross, and did
keep courts upon them and saw all things rectified.  From thence
he went to Inverewe, where all his Lochbroom tenants and others
waited upon him, and got all their complaints heard and rectified.
It is scarcely credible what allowance was made for his table of
Scotch and French wines during these trips amongst his people.
From Inverewe he sailed to the Lewis, with what might be called
a small navy, having as many boats, if not more loaded with
liquors, especially wines and English beer, as he had under men.
He remained in the Lewis for several days, until he settled all
the controversies arising among the people in his absence, and
setting his land.  From thence he went to Sleat in the Isle of Skye,
to Sir Donald Macdonald, who was married to his sister Janet, and
from that he was invited to Harris, to Macleod's house, who was
married to his sister Sybilla.  While he tarried in these places
the lairds, the gentlemen of the Isles, and the inhabitants came
to pay their respects to him, including Maclean, Clanranald,
Raasay, Mackinnon, and other great chiefs.  They then convoyed him
to Islandonain.  I have heard my grandfather, Mr Farquhar MacRa
(then Constable of the Castle), say that the Earl never came to
his house with less than 300 and sometimes 500 men.  The Constable
was bound to furnish them victuals for the first two meals, till
my Lord's officers were acquainted to bring in his own customs.
There they consumed the remains of the wine and other liquors.  When
all these lairds and gentlemen took their leave of him, he called
the principal men of Kintail, Lochalsh, and Lochcarron together,
who accompanied him to his forest of Monar, where they had a great
and most solemn hunting day, and from Monar he would return to
Chanonry about the latter end of  July." [Ardintoul MS.]

He built the Castle of Brahan, which he thought of erecting where
the old castle of Dingwall stood, or on the hill to the west of
Dingwall, either of which would have been very suitable situations;
but the Tutor who had in view to erect a castle where he afterwards
erected Castle Leod, induced the Lord High Chancellor, Seaforth's
father-in-law, to prevail upon him to build his castle upon his
own ancient inheritance, which he subsequently did, and which was
then one of the most stately houses in Scotland.  He also added
greatly to the Castle of Chanonry, and "as be was diligent in
secular affairs, so be and his lady were very pious and religious."
They went yearly to take the Sacraments from the Rev. Thomas
Campbell, minister of Carmichael, a good and religious man, and
staid eight days with him; nor did their religion consist in form
and outward show.  They proved its reality by their good works.
He had  usually more than one chaplain in his house.  He provided
the kirks of the Lewis without being obliged to do so, as also
the five kirks of Kintail, Lochalsh, Lochcarron, Lochbroom, and
Gairloch, all of which he was  patron, with valuable books from
London, the works of the latest and best authors, "whereof many are
yet extant"  He also laid the foundation for a church in Strathconan
and Strathbran, of which the walls are "yet to be seen in Main
in Strathconan, the walls being built above the height of a man
above the foundation, and he had a mind to endow it had he lived
longer."  He mortified 4000 merks for the Grammar School of
Chanonry, and had several works of piety in his view to perform
if his death had not prevented it.  The last time he went to Court
some malicious person, envying his greatness and favour, laboured
to give the King a bad impression of him, as if he were not thoroughly
loyal; but the King himself was the first who told him what was
said about him, which did not a little surprise and trouble the
Earl, but it made no impression on the King, who was conscious
and sufficiently convinced of his loyalty and fidelity.  After his
return from Court his only son, Lord Alexander, died of smallpox
at Chanonry, on the 3d of June, 1629, to the great grief of all
who knew him, but especially his father and mother.  His demise
hastened her death at Edinburgh, on the 20th February, 1631.  She
was buried with her father at Fife on the 4th of March; after
which the Earl contracted a lingering sickness, which, for some
time before his death, confined him to his chamber, during which
"he behaved most Christianly, putting his house in order, giving
donations to his servants, etc."  He died at Chanonry on the 15th
of April, 1633, in the 36th year of his age, and was buried there
with his father on the 18th of May following, much lamented and
regretted by all who knew him.  The King sent a gentleman all the
way to Chanonry to testify his respect and concern for him, and to
attend his funeral, which took place, on the date already stated,
with great pomp and solemnity.  "Before his death he called his
successor, George of Kildene, to his bedside, and charged him with
the protection of his family; but above all to be kind to his men
and followers, for that he valued himself while he lived upon their
account more than upon his great estate and fortune." [Ardintoul,
Letterfearn, and other Family MSS.]  On the occasion of his last
visit to London the King complimented him on being the best archer
in Britain.

Colin married, first, Lady Margaret Seton, daughter of Alexander,
Earl of Dunfermline, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, with issue -

I.  Alexander Lord Kintail, who died young.

II.  Anna, who married Alexander, second Lord Lindsay, who was
created Earl of Balcarres by Charles II. in 1651.  By him Lady Anna
had two sons, Charles and Colin.  Charles succeeded his father,
and died unmarried.  Colin then became third Earl, and married
Jane, daughter of David, Earl of Northesk, by whom he had issue
an only daughter, who married Alexander Erikine, third Earl of
Kellie.  Secondly, the Earl of Balcarres married Jane, daughter of
William, second Earl of Roxburgh, by whom he had an only daughter,
who married John Fleming, sixth Earl of Wigton.  This Earl
of Balcarres married a third time Margaret, daughter of James
Campbell, Earl of Loudon, by whom he had two sons, Alexander and
James.  Alexander succeeded his father, but died without issue,
and  was succeeded by James, fifth Earl of Balcarres, from whom the
present line descends uninterruptedly, carrying along with it, in
right of the said Anna Mackenzie, daughter of Colin, first Earl
of Seaforth, first Countess of Balcarres, the lineal representation
of the ancient House of Kintail.  Anna married, secondly, Archibald,
ninth Earl of Argyll, beheaded in 1685, and died in 1706.

III.  Jean, who married John, Master of Berriedale, with issue,
George, sixth Earl of Caithness, who died without issue in 1676.
She afterwards married Lord Duffus, with issue, and died in 1648.
His lordship died, as already stated, at Chanonry on the 15th of
April, 1633, and was buried in the Cathedral Church of Fortrose
in a spot chosen by himself.  His son, Lord Alexander, having died
before his father, on the 3d of June, 1629, and Colin having had
no other issue male, he was succeeded by his brother,

XIV.  GEORGE,  SECOND  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,

THIRD  LORD  MACKENZIE  OF  KINTAIL, eldest son of Kenneth, the
first Lord, by his second marriage.  During the life of his father
and brother he was known as George Mackenzie of Kildun.  In 1633
he was "served heir male to his brother Colin, Earl of Seaforth,
Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, in the lands and barony of Ellandonnan,
including the barony of Lochalsh, in which was included the barony
of the lands and towns of Lochcarron, namely, the towns and lands
of Auchnaschelloch, Coullin, Edderacharron, Attadill, Ruychichan,
Brecklach, Achachoull, Delmartyne, with fishings in salt water
and fresh, Dalcharlarie, Arrinachteg, Achintie, Slumba, Doune,
Stromcarronach, in the Earldom of Ross, of the old extent of L13
6s 8d, and also the towns of Kisserin, and lands of Strome, with
fishings in salt and fresh water, and the towns and lands of Torridan
with the pertinents of the Castle of Strome; Lochalsh, Lochcarron,
and Kisserin, including the davach of Achvanie, the davach of
Achnatrait, the davach of Stromcastell, Ardnagald, Ardneskan, and
Blaad, and the half davach of Sannachan, Rassoll, Meikle Strome,
and Rerag, in  the Earldom of Ross, together of the old extent of
L8 13s 4d." ["Origines  Parochiales Scotiae", p. 401.]  He was served
heir male to his father Kenneth, Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, in
the lands and barony of Pluscardine, on the 14th of January, 1620;
and had charters of Balmungie and Avoch, on the 18th of July,
1635; of Raasay, on the 18th of February, 1637 and of Lochalsh, on
the 4th of July, 1642.

His high position in the North, and his intimate friendship at
this period with the powerful House of Sutherland, is proved by
the fact that he and Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat, on the 2d of
November, 1633, stood godfathers to George Gordon, second son of
John, Earl of Sutherland; and there cannot be any doubt that to
the influence of the latter must mainly be attributed Seaforth's
vacillating conduct during the earlier years of the great civil
wars which became the curse of Scotland for so many years  after.
In 1635 the Privy Council, with the view of putting down the
irregularities then prevalent in the Highlands, demanded securities
from the chiefs of clans, heads of families, and governors of
counties, in conformity with a general bond, previously agreed
to, that they should be responsible for their clans and surnames,
men-tenants, and servants.  The first called upon to give this
security was the Earl of Huntly; then followed the Earls of
Sutherland and Seaforth, and afterwards Lord Lorn and all the chiefs
in the western and northern parts of the Kingdom.

In the following year the slumbering embers of religious differences
broke out into a general blaze all over the country.  Then began
those contentions about ecclesiastical questions, church discipline
and liturgies, at all times fraught with the seeds of discontent
and danger to the common weal, and which in this case ultimately
led to such sad and momentous consequences as only religious feuds
can.  Charles I. was playing the despot with his subjects, not
only in Scotland, but in England.  He was governing without a
Parliament, defying and trying to crush the desires and aspirations
of a people born to govern themselves and to be free.  His infatuated
attempt to introduce the Liturgy of the Church of England into the
Calvinistic and Presbyterian pulpits of Scotland was as insane as it
was unavailing.  But his English as well as Scottish subjects were at
the same time almost in open rebellion for their liberties.  He tried
to put down the rising in Scotland by the sword, but his means and
military skill were unequal to the task.  He failed to impose the
English Liturgy on his Scottish subjects, but his attempt to do so
proved the deliverance of his English subjects from high-handed
tyranny.  It is only natural that in these circumstances Seaforth,
though personally attached to  the King, should be found on the side
of the Covenant, and that he should have joined the Assembly, the
clergy, and the nobles in the Protest, and in favour of the renewal
of the Confession of Faith previously accepted and confirmed by
James VI. in 1580, 1581, and 1590, at the same time that these
several bodies entered into a covenant or bond of mutual defence
among themselves against all opposition from whatever source.

The principal among the Northern nobles who entered into this
engagement were the Earls of Seaforth and Sutherland, Lord Lovat,
the Rosses, Munroes, Grant of Grant, Mackintosh of Mackintosh,
Innes, the Sheriff of Moray, Kilravock, Cumming of Altyre, and
the Tutor of Duffus.  These, with their followers under command of
the Earl of Seaforth, who was appointed General of the Covenanters
north of the Spey, marched to Morayshire, where they met the Royalists
on the northern banks of the river ready to oppose their advance. [On
May 14, 1639, 4000 men met at Elgin under the command of the Earl of
Seaforth, and the gentlemen following, viz.: The Master of Lovat, the
Master of Ray, George, brother  to the Earl of Sutherland, Sir James
Sinclare of Murkle, Laird of Grant, Young Kilravock, Sheriff of
Murray, Laird of Innes, Tutor of Duffus, Hugh Rose of Achnacloich,
John Munro of Lemlare, etc.  They encamped  at Speyside, to keep the
Gordons and their friends from entering Murray; and they remained
encamped till the pacification, which was signed June 18, was
proclaimed, and intimated to them about June 22. - "Shaw's MS. History
of Kilravock."]  An arrangement was here come to between Thomas
Mackenzie of Pluscardine, Seaforth's brother, on behalf of
the Covenanters, and a representative from the Gordons for their
opponents, that the latter should recross to the south side of the
Spey, and that the  Highlanders should return home.  About the same
time Seaforth received a despatch from Montrose, then at Aberdeen
and fighting for the Covenant, intimating the pacification entered
into on the 20th of June between the King and his subjects at
Berwick, and requesting Seaforth to disband his army - an order which
was at once obeyed.  Shortly after, however, Montrose dissociated
himself from the Covenanters, joined the King's side and raised the
Royal standard.  The Earl of Seaforth soon after this was suspected
of lukewarmness for the Covenant.  In 1640 the King  arrived at
York on his way north to reduce the Covenanting Scots, after they
had resolved to invade England, and, as a precautionary measure, to
imprison or expel all suspected Royalists from the army.  Among
the suspects are found the Earl of Seaforth, Lord Reay, and
several others, who were taken before the Assembly, kept in ward
at Edinburgh for two months; and in 1641, on the King's arrival
in Scotland, the Earl of Traquair, who had been summoned before
Parliament as an opponent to the Lords of the Covenant succeeded
in persuading the Earls of Montrose, Wigton, Athole, Hume, and
Seaforth (who had meanwhile escaped), and several other influential
chiefs, to join in a bond against the Covenanters.

Soon after this Montrose leaves Elgin with the main body of his
army, and marches towards the Bog of Gight, accompanied by the
Earl of Seaforth, Sir Robert Gordon, Grant of Grant, Mackenzie
of Pluscardine, and several other gentlemen who came to him at
Elgin, to support the  King.  After this, however, fearing that
depredations might be committed upon his followers by a garrison
of two regiments then stationed at Inverness, and the other
Covenanters of that district, he permitted Seaforth, Grant of
Grant, and other Morayshire gentlemen, to return home in order to
defend their estates, but before permitting them to depart he made
them swear allegiance to the King and promise that they should never
again under any circumstances take up arms against his Majesty or
any of his loyal subjects, and to rejoin him with all their available
forces  as soon as they were able to do so.  Seaforth, however,
with unaccountable want of decision, disregarded his oath, again
joined the Covenanters, and excused himself in a letter to the
Committee of Estates, saying that he had joined the Royalists
through fear of Montrose, at the same time avowing that he would
abide by "the good cause to his death" - a promise not much to be
trusted.

He is soon again in the field, this time against Montrose.  Wishart
says that "the Earl of Seaforth, a very powerful man in those
parts (and one of whom he entertained a better opinion) with the
garrison of Inver-ness, which were old soldiers, and the whole
strength of Moray, Ross, Sutherland, and Caithness, and the sept
of the Frasers, were ready to meet him with a desperate army of
5000 horse and foot."  Montrose had only 1500 - the Macdonalds
of Glengarry and the Highlanders of Athol having previously gone
home, against the earnest solicitude of Montrose that they should
complete the campaign, according to their usual custom, to deposit
the booty obtained in their repeated victories under their great
chief, but on the plea of repairing their houses and other property
which had been so much injured by their enemies in their absence.
The great commander, however, although he knew many of the garrison
to be old soldiers, decided to attack the superior numbers against
him, correctly surmising that a great many of his opponents were
newly raised recruits "from among husband-men, cowherds, tavern-boys
and kitchen-boys," and would be raw and unserviceable.  Fortunately
for Seaforth and his forces, matters turned out otherwise.  The
gallant Marquis, on his way to Inverness, was informed of Argyll's
descent on Lochaber, and, instantly changing his route, he fell
down upon him at Inverlochy so unexpectedly, that when Argyll, by
an ignominious flight in one of his boats, made himself secure, he
had the well-merited reward of personal cowardice and pusillanimity
of witnessing fifteen hundred of his devoted adherents cut down,
among whom were a great number of the leading gentlemen of the clan,
who deserved to fight under a better and less cowardly commander.
Among those who fell were Campbell of Auchinbreck, Campbell
of Lochnell, his eldest son, and his brother Colin; Macdougall
of Rara, and his eldest son, Major Menzies, brother to the Chief
of Achattens Parbreck, and the Provost of the Church of Kilmuir.
The power of the Campbells was thus broken, and so probably would
that of Seaforth had Montrose attacked him first.

After this brilliant victory at Inverlochy, on the 2d February,
1645, Montrose returned to Moray, by Badenoch, where on his march to
Elgin, he was met by Thomas Mackenzie of Piuscardine and others,
sent by Seaforth and the Covenanters as commissioners to treat
with him.  They received an indignant answer.  The Marquis declined
any negotiation, but offered to accept the services of such as
would join and obey him as the  King's Lieutenant-General.  The
Earl of Seaforth was then sent by the Committee of Ross and
Sutherland, in person, and meeting the Marquis between Elgin and
Forres, he was arrested and for several days detained prisoner.  He
was subsequently released, but all the authorities plead ignorance
of the terms.

When the Royalists marched south, the Laird of Lawers, who was
then Governor of the Castle of Inverness, cited all those who had
communications with Montrose in Moray, and compelled them to give
bonds for their appearance, to answer for their conduct, before
Parliament, if required to do so.  Among them were Thomas Mackenzie of
Pluscardine; and, after the affair at Fettercairn, and the retreat
of Montrose from Dundee, the Earls of Seaforth and Sutherland,
with the whole of the Clan Fraser, and most of the men of Caithness
and Moray, are found assembled at Inverness, where General Hurry,
who had retreated before Montrose, joined them with a force of
Gordons - 1000 foot and 200 horse - the whole amounting to about 3500
of the former and 400 of the latter, which included Sutherlands,
Mackenzies, Frasers, Roses, and Brodies, while the followers of
Montrose consisted of Gordons, Macdonalds, Macphersons, Mackintoshes,
and Irish, to the number of about 3000 foot and 300 horse. [Shaw's
MS. History.]  Montrose halted at the village of Auldearn, and
General Hurry finding such a large force waiting for him at Inverness,
decided to retrace his steps the next morning, and give battle to
the Marquis at that village.

The author of the Ardintoul MS. tells how Seaforth came to take
part in the battle of Auldearn, and gives the following interesting
account of his reasons and of the engagement: "General Hurry sent
for Seaforth to Inverness, and during a long conference informed
him that although he  was serving the States himself he privately
favoured the King's cause.  He advised Seaforth to dismiss his men
and make a pretence that he had only sent for them to give them new
leases of their lands, and in case it was necessary to make an
appearance to fight Montrose, he could bring, when commanded to do so,
two or three companies from Chanonry and Ardmeanach, which the Marquis
would accept.  It was, however, late  before they parted, and Lady
Seaforth, who was waiting for her lord at Kessock, prepared a
sumptuous supper for her husband and his friends.  The Earl and his
guests kept up the festivities so long and so well that he 'forgot
or delayed to advertise his men to dismiss till to-morrow,' and
going to bed very late, before he could stir in the morning all the
lairds and gentlemen of Moray came to him, most earnestly entreating
him by all the laws of friendship and good neighbourhood, and for
the kindness they had for him while he lived among them, and which
they manifested to his brother yet living amongst them, that his
lordship would not see them ruined and destroyed by Montrose and the
Irish, when he might easily prevent it without the least loss to
himself or his men, assuring him that if he should join General
Hurry with what forces he had then under his command, Montrose would
go away with his Irish and decline to fight them.  Seaforth,
believing his visitors, and thinking, as they said, that Montrose
with so small a number would not venture to fight, his opponents
being twice the number, and many of them trained soldiers.  Hurry
told him that he was to march immediately against Montrose and being
of an easy and compassionate nature, Seaforth yielded to their
request, and sent immediately in all haste for his Highlanders,
crossed the ferry of Kessock, and marched straight with the rest of
his forces to Auldearn, where Montrose had his camp; but the Moray
men found themselves mistaken in thinking the Marquis would make off,
for he was not only resolved but glad of the opportunity to fight
them before Baillie, whom he knew was on his march north with
considerable forces, could join General Hurry, and so drawing up his
men with great advantage of ground he placed Alexander Macdonald,
with the Irish, on the right wing  beneath the village of Auldearn,
and Lord Gordon with the horse on the left.  On the south side of
Auldearn, he himself (Montrose) biding in town, and making a show of
a main battle with a few men, which Hurry understanding and making
it his business that Montrose should carry the  victory, and that
Seaforth would come off without great loss, he set his  men, who were
more than double the number of their adversaries, to Montrose's
advantage, for he placed Sutherland, Lovat's men, and some others,
with the horse under Drummond's command, on the right wing, opposite
to my Lord Gordon, and Loudon and Laurie's Regiments, with some
others on the left wing, opposite Alexander Macdonald and the Irish,
and placed Seaforth's men for the most in the midst, opposite
Montrose, where he knew they could not get hurt till the wings were
engaged. Seaforth's men were commanded to retire and make off before
they had occasion or command to fight; but the men hovering, and not
understanding the mystery, were commanded again to make off and
follow Drummond with the horse, who gave only one charge to the
enemy and then fled, which they did by leaving both the wings
and some of their own men to the brunt of the enemy, because they
stood at a distance from them, the right wing being sore put to
by my Lord Gordon, and seeing Drummond with the horse and their
neighbours fly, they began to follow.  Sutherland and Lovat suffered
great loss, while on the left wing, Loudon's Regiment and Lawrie with
his Regiment were both totally cut off betwixt the Irish and the
Gordons, who came to assist them after Sutherland's and Lovat's men
were defeated.  Seaforth's men got no hurt in the pursuit, nor did
they lose many men in the fight, the most considerable being John
Mackenzie of Kernsary, cousin-german to the Earl, and Donald Bain,
brother to Tulloch and Chamberlain to Seaforth in the Lewis, both
being heavy and corpulent men not fit to fly, and being partly
deceived by Seaforth's principal ensign or standard-bearer in the
field, who stood to it with some others of the Lochbroom and Lewis
men, till they were killed, and likewise Captain Bernard Mackenzie,
with the rest of his company, which consisted of Chanonry men and
some others thereabout, being somewhat of a distance from the rest of
Seaforth's men, were killed on the  spot.  There were only four
Kintail men who might make their escape with the rest if they had
looked rightly to themselves, namely, the Bannerman of Kintail,
called Rory Mac Ian Dhomh'uill Bhain, alias Maclennan, who, out of
foolhardiness and indignation, to see that banner, which was wont to
be victorious, fly in his hands, fastens the staff of it in the
ground, and stands to it with his two-handed sword drawn, and would
not accept of quarter, though tendered to him by my Lord Gordon in
person; nor would he suffer any to approach him to take him alive, as
the gentlemen beholders wished, so that they were forced to shoot
him.  The other three were Donald the bannerman's brother, Malcolm
Macrae, and Duncan Mac Ian Oig.  Seaforth and his men, with Colonel
Hurry and the rest, came back that night to Inverness, all the men
laying the blame of the loss of the day upon Drummond, who commanded
the horse, and fled away with them, for which, by a Council of
War, he was sentenced to die; but Hurry assured him that he would
get him absolved, though at the very time of his execution he made
him keep silence, but when Drummond was about to speak, he caused
him to be shot suddenly, fearing, as was thought, that he would
reveal that what was acted was by Hurry's own directions.  This
account of the Battle of Auldearn I had from an honourable gentleman
and experienced soldier, as we were riding by Auldearn, who was
present from first to last at this action, and who asked Hurry,
'Who set the battle with such advantage to Montrose and to the
inevitable loss and overthrow of his own side?' to whom Hurry,
being confident of the gentlemen, said, 'I know what I am doing,
we shall have by-and-bye excellent sport between the Irish and
the States Regiments, and I shall carry off Seaforth's men without
loss;' and that Hurry was more for Montrose than for the States
that day is very probable, because, shortly thereafter when he
found opportunity, he quitted the States service, and is reckoned
as first of Montrose's friends, who, in August next year, embarked
with Montrose to get off the nation, and returned with him again
in his second expedition to Scotland, and was taken prisoner at
Craigchonachan, and sent south and publicly executed with Montrose
as guilty of the same fault."

Montrose gained another engagement at Alford on the 2nd of July,
after which he was joined by a powerful levy of West Highlanders
under Colla Ciotach Macdonald, Clanranald, and Glengarry, the
Macnabs, Macgregors, and the Stewarts of Appin.  In addition to
these some of the Farquharsons of Braemar and small parties of
lesser septs from Badenoch rallied round the standard of Montrose.
Thus, as a contemporary writer says, "he went like a current speat
(spate) through this kingdom." Seeing all this - the great successes
of Montrose and so many Highlanders joining - Seaforth, who had
never been a hearty Covenanter, began to waver.  The Estates sent
a commission to the Earl of Sutherland appointing him as their
Lieutenant north of the Spey, but he refused to accept it.  It was
then offered to Seaforth, who likewise declined it, but instead
"contrived and framed ane band, under the name of an humble
remonstrance, which he perswaded manie and threatened others
to subscryve.  This remonstrance gave so great a distast to both
the Church and State, that the Earl of Seaforth was therefore
excommunicate by the General Assemblie; and all such as did not
disclaim the raid remonstrance within some days thereafter, were,
by the Committee of Estates, declared inimies to the publick.
Hereupon the Earl of Seaforth joined publicly with Montrose in
April, 1646, at the siege of Inverness, though before that time be
had only joined in private councils with him." [Gordon's "Earldom
of Sutherland," p. 529.]

At Inverness, through the action of the Marquis of Huntly and the
treachery of his son, Lord Lewis Gordon, Montrose was surprised by
General Middleton, but he promptly crossed the river Ness in face
of a regiment of cavalry, under Major Bromley, who crossed the
river by a ford above the town, while another detachment crossed
lower down towards the sea with a view to cut off his retreat.  These
he succeeded in beating back with a trifling loss on either side,
whereupon he marched unmolested to Kinmylies, and the following
morning he went round by Beauly and halted at Fairley, where slight
marks of field works are still to be seen; and now, for the first
time, he found himself in the territories of the Mackenzies,
accompanied by Seaforth in person.  Montrose, here finding himself
in a level country, with an army mainly composed of raw levies
newly raised by Seaforth among his own people, and taught by their
chief's vacillating conduct and example to have little interest or
enthusiasm in either cause, did not consider it prudent to engage
Middleton, who pursued him with a disciplined force, including
a considerable following of cavalry, ready to fight with every
advantage on his side in a level country.  He therefore moved rapidly
up through the valley of Strathglass, crossed to Loch-Ness, and
passed through Stratherrick in the direction of the river Spey.
Meanwhile Middleton advanced to Fortrose and laid siege to the
castle, which was at the time under the charge of Lady Seaforth.
She surrendered after a siege of four days; and having removed
a considerable quantity of stores and ammunition, sent by Queen
Henrietta for the use of Montrose on his arrival there, Middleton
gave the Countess, whom he treated with the greatest civility and
respect, possession of the stronghold.

The Committee on Public Affairs, which, throughout the contest,
acted in opposition to the Royal authority, and held sederunts
at Aberdeen and Dundee as well as at Edinburgh, gratified their
malignity, after Montrose gave up the fight in 1646, by fining
the loyalists in enormous amounts of money, and decerning them to
"lend" to the committee such sums - in many cases exorbitant - as
they thought proper.  Sir Robert Farquhar, formerly a Bailie of
Aberdeen, was treasurer, and in the sederunt held in that city,
the committee threw a comprehensive net over the clan Mackenzie.
Sixteen of the name were decerned to lend the large sum of L28,666
13s 4d Scots; but from the other side of the balance sheet it is
found that they declined to lend a penny; and Sir Robert credits
himself as treasurer thus: "Item of the loan moneys above set
down there is yet resting unpaid, and wherefore no payment can
be gotten, as follows - viz. - Be the name of Mackenzie, sixteen
persons, the sum of L28,666 13s 4d Scots."  The following are the
names and sums decerned against each of them: Thomas Mackenzie
of Pluscardine, L2000; Alexander Mackenzie of Kilcoy, L2000;
Roderick Mackenzie of Redcastle, L2000; Alexander Mackenzie of
Coul, L6000; Kenneth Mackenzie of Gairloch,  L3333 6s 8d; Hector
Mackenzie of Scotsburn, L2000; Roderick Mackenzie of Davochmaluag,
L1333 6s 8d; John Mackenzie of Dawach-Cairn, L1333 6s 8d; William
Mackenzie of Multavie, L1000; Kenneth Mackenzie of Scatwell, L2000;
Thomas Mackenzie of Inverlael, L1333 6s 8d; Colin Mackenzie of
Mullochie, L666 13s 4d; Donald Mackenzie of Logie, L666 13s 4d;
Kenneth Mackenzie of Assint, L1000; Colin Mackenzie of Kincraig,
L1000; Alexander Mackenzie of Suddie, L1000.  Among the other
sums decerned is one of L6666 13s 4d against "William Robertson in
Kindeace, and his son Gilbert Robertson," and in Inverness and
Ross the loan amounted to the respectable sum of L44,783 6s 8d, of
which the treasurer was allowed to retain L15,000 in his own hands.
The sum, with large amounts of disbursements by the committee,
show that they were more fortunate with others than with the Clan
Mackenzie. ["Antiquarian Notes," pp. 307-308-309.]

The Earl of Seaforth taking advantage of being on opposite sides
to the Earl of Sutherland, now asserted some old claims against
Donald Ban Mor Macleod, IX. of Assynt, a follower of the house of
Sutherland, who afterwards became notorious as the captor of the
great Montrose himself.  In May, 1646, Mackenzie laid siege to
his castle, on the Isle of Assynt.

A document written by a friend of the family of Assynt, in 1738,
for Norman Macleod, XIX. of Macleod, who, in that year, in virtue
of a disposition of all his estates made by Neil Macleod of Assynt
to John Breac Macleod, XVI. of Macleod, dated the 24th of November,
1681, commenced a process against Mackenzie, gives a most interesting
account of the proceedings, from the Macleod point of view, by
which Seaforth obtained possession of the lands of Assynt.  This
document or "Information" came into the possession of Simon Lord
Lovat, with whose papers it found its way to the Rev. Donald
Fraser, minister of Killearnan, and is now the property of that
gentleman's grandson, the Rev. Hector Fraser, Halkirk. It was
read by Mr William Mackay, solicitor, Inverness, before the Gaelic
Society there on the 19th of March, 1890, and is published at
length in their Transactions for that year, vol. XVI. pp. 197-207.
According to the writer of this paper, Neil Macleod was in
possession of Assynt from 1650 to 1672, when in the latter year
"he was violently dispossessed by Seaforth," and was from 1672
to 1692, when be obtained a "Decree of Spulzie" against Seaforth,
endeavouring to recover his right, but without avail.  He says that
from the time Seaforth got a right, "such as it was," to the Island
of Lewis for a payment of ten thousand merks, "and afterwards,
in lieu of that, for a mile of the wood of Letterew," he and his
family had it in view to make themselves masters of the estate of
Macleod of Assynt, who, he erroneously states, "was lineal heir to
the estates of Lewis."  In order to give effect to this intention
Seaforth purchased several old claims, "some of them very unjust,"
against Assynt, which were made over to Thomas Mackenzie of
Plus-cardine, Seaforth's brother.  In 1637 the two Mackenzies, in
virtue of these claims and the titles founded upon them, gave a
wadset of the lands of Assynt to Kenneth Mackenzie of Scatwell in
security for forty thousand merks.  In 1640 "the Legal of those
claims and apprisings being expired, Seaforth did, with his friends
and clan, to the number of 1000 men, invade Assynt, and did there
commit great outrages.  He being for this pursued at law, was
decerned in 40,000 pounds Scots of damages," which paid a great
part of his claim upon the estate, and it is maintained that the
remainder was afterwards paid by the means, which are set forth
in the same document, along with somewhat intricate statements,
which would  occupy too much space here.  The "Information" proceeds
with the following interesting details, which we give, with very
slight alteration, in his own words.

He says that in 1646 Seaforth having joined Montrose at Inverness,
where were likewise 100 men of Assynt under his Superior's (Seaforth)
command, and Neil of Assynt himself, then a minor, being a friend,
in Seaforth's house at Brahan, Seaforth ordered his men in the
Highlands to fall upon Assynt's estate, where they made fearful
havoc, carried away, as Neil represents, 3000 cows, 2000 horses,
7000 sheep and goats, and burnt the habitations of 180 families.
When complaint was made of this in the South, Seaforth was bought
off by the interest of General Middleton, and by virtue of a
capitulation which he had with Seaforth when in the North.

In the year 1654 Seaforth led a body of his own men, with a part
of the broken army under the command of Middleton, to Assynt and
made great depredations, destroyed a very great quantity of wine
and brandy, which the Laird of Assynt had bought, besides other
commodities, in all to the value of 50,000 merks, out of a ship
then on that coast, carrying off 2400 cows, 1500 horses, about 6000
sheep and goats, besides burning and destroying many families.
Assynt was not liable in law to any such usage from them, having
receipts from Seaforth and Lord Reay for his proportion of the
levy appointed at that time for the King's service.  When Middleton
came to that country he declared that he had given no warrant for
what Seaforth had done, and that in presence of Lord Macdonald and
Sir George Munro, etc.  When Assynt pursued Seaforth before the
English judges of the time, Seaforth defeated his process by proving
that Neil had been in arms against the English, and did then allege
no cause for the injuries done by him to Assynt, except a private
quarrel.  But when Macleod afterwards, at the Restoration, pursued
Seaforth, he alleged in defence that he had acted by a warrant from
Middleton, who was then commissioner for the Parliament.  But Neil
says, if there was any such warrant it was certainly given after the
injuries had been done to him.  However, things stood then in such a
way that Neil was not likely to procure any justice.

There was another claim which seems to have brought matters to a
crisis.  Macleod had become a party to a bond of caution granted
by Ross of Little Tarrel in the sum of L150 sterling, for which,
in 1656, an apprising was laid upon the estate of Assynt, at the
instance of Sinclair of Mey, in Caithness, who subsequently assigned
his claim to Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbat and John Mackenzie,
second son of Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth, afterwards known
as the Hon. John Mackenzie of Assynt.  The matter was contested
for a time, but "in the year 1668 or 1669 or 1670, the legal
apprising being expired, decree of mails and duties was obtained
upon the claim against the estate of Assynt and ejection against
himself.  Upon pursuing this ejection in 1671, several illegal
steps were alleged against Assynt, particularly holding out the
Castle of Ard-Bhreac against the King, and his otherwise violently
opposing the ejection; whereupon Neil of Assynt, who it seems
had been negligent in defending himself against the foresaid
accusations, was denounced rebel, and a commission of fire and
sword was obtained in July, 1672, against him and his people,"
granted to Lord Strathnaver, Lord Lovat, Munro of Fowlis, and
others, who at once invaded his territories with a force of 2300
men "and committed the most horrid barbarities," until all the
country of Assynt was destroyed.

After this raid Neil, "under the benefit of a protection," went to
consult Seaforth, who gave him a certificate of having obeyed the
King's laws, and fifteen days to consider a proposition which his
lordship made to him to dispose of his estates to himself on certain
conditions, and so settle the dispute between them for ever.  But
Macleod, considering that it was not safe for him to return to
his own country, resolved to proceed to Edinburgh by sea, and to
carry his charter chest along with him.  "Seaforth being apprehensive,
it seems, of the con-sequences of Assynt's going to Edinburgh,
immediately entered into correspondence and concert about the matter
with the Laird of Mey, in Caithness.  The consequence was: Assynt
being driven by unfavourable winds to the Orkneys the Laird of Mey,
with a body of men, seized him there, to be sure under the notion of
an outlaw, and, by commission from Seaforth, stripped him to his shirt,
robbed him of everything, particularly of his charter chest, and of all
the writs and evidents belonging to his family and estates, carried
them to the castle of Mey; where he was kept prisoner in a vault.  From
thence he was carried prisoner, under a strong guard, to Tam, and at
last to Brahan, Seaforth's house.  In Brahan (to which place the
charter chest was brought, as was afterwards proved in the Process
of Spoilzie) Neil was many months detained prisoner in a vault, in
most miserable circumstances, still threatened with worse usage if
he would not agree to subscribe a blank paper, probably designed
for a disposition of his estates, which was, it seems, the great
thing designed to be procured from him by all this bad usage.  At
last Neil was brought south to Edinburgh, where he arrived after
being in thirteen or fourteen prisons, and in the end he obtained
the remission formerly mentioned," for the offence of defending
the Castle of Assynt, and all the other crimes that were alleged
against him.

His apologist makes out a strong case for him, if half his allegations
are true.  In any case it is but fair to state them.  Neil was in
prison, according to the "Information," when the ejection proceedings
were carried out against him.  He was ignorant of the legal steps
taken against him until it was too late, and, in consequence of
his great distance from Edinburgh, he was unable to correspond with
his legal advisers there in time for his defence.  His messengers,
carrying his correspondence, were more than once seized, on their
way south, and imprisoned at Chanonry.  When in the south, the
contributions of his friends towards his support and the expenses
of his defence were intercepted, and his people at home were put
to great hardships by their new master, the Hon. John Mackenzie,
"for any inclination to succour him in his distress."  "By all
these means, the unfortunate gentleman was reduced to great poverty
and  misery, and was disabled from procuring the interest or
affording the expense needful in order to obtain justice against
such potent adversaries."  And "it was easy for them (the
Mackenzies), being now possessed of his  estate, to get in old unjust
patched claims from such as had them, and being possessed of his
charter chest and the retired vouchers of debts therein contained, by
all these means, to make additional titles to the estate of Assynt,
while he, poor gentleman, besides his other misfortunes, was deprived
of his writs and of all his evidences needful to be produced in his
defence against the claims of his adversaries."  If a tithe of all
this is true poor Neil deserves to be pitied indeed.  But after
giving such a long catalogue of charges, involving the most cruel and
deceitful acts against the Mackenzies, the author of them is himself
doubtful about their accuracy, for he says that, although the
Mackenzies, after possessing the estates, had all the advantages and
means for doing the unjust things  which he alleges against them of
inventing new claims and additional titles, "it is not pretended to
be now told what additional titles they made" - an admission which
largely discounts and disposes of the other charges made by Macleod's
apologist.  And, notwithstanding all his disadvantages and
difficulties, Neil made another effort "towards obtaining justice
to himself and his family"; and to that end, in 1679 and 1680,
he commenced a new process against Seaforth and all others "whom
he knew to have or  pretended to have" claims against him or his
estate.  It was, however, objected (1) that he had no title in
his own person to the lands of Assynt, and (2) that he was at the
horn and had no personam standi in judices.  Neil made "very
pertinent" answers to these objections in 1682, but he was wisely
advised to stop the proceedings of reduction, and to commence a
Process of Spulzie against the Earl Sinclair, of Mey, the Laird of
Dunbeath, and others.  Seaforth having died while these proceedings
were pending, there appears in process an Oath by his successor,
"who swears that he not then nor formerly had the charter chest, nor
knew what was  become of it; and as he was not charged with having a
hand in the Spulzie he was freed thereof and of the consequences of
it, by their Lordships.  Neil having given in an inventory of the
writs contained in his chest, his oath in litem was taken thereanent,
and he referred his expenses and damages to the judgment of the
Lords," with the result that, in 1692, they decerned in his favour
for the sum of two thousand pounds Scots, in name of damages and
expenses, to be paid to him by the defenders, and at the same time
superseding his further claim until he should give in more
particulars regarding it.  He assigned this decree to his nephew,
Captain Donald Macleod of Geanies, and it remained as the basis of
the process  which was raised by Norman Macleod, XIX. of Macleod, in
1738, already referred to "for what thereof is unpaid."  But Neil,
"being unable by unparalleled bad usage, trouble, and poverty, and at
length by old age, it does not appear that lie went any further
towards obtaining of justice for himself than what is above narrated
in relation to the process of reduction and Spulzie"; and that his
friends failed in their subsequent efforts to punish Mackenzie
or re-possess themselves of the Assynt estates is sufficiently
well-known. [For Neil's connection with the Betrayal of  Montrose
see Mackenzie's "History of the Macleods," pp. 410-419.]

In 1648 Seaforth again raised a body of 4000 men in the Western
Islands and Ross-shire, whom he led south, to aid the King's cause,
but  after joining in a few skirmishes under Lanark, they returned
home to "cut their corn which was now ready for their sickles."
During the whole of this period Seaforth's fidelity to the Royal
cause was open to considerable suspicion, and when Charles I.
threw himself into the hands of the Scots at Newark, and ordered
Montrose to disband his forces, Earl George, always trying to be
on the winning side, came in to Middleton, and made terms with the
Committee of Estates; but the Church, by whom he had previously
been excommunicated, continued implacable, and would only agree to
be satisfied by a public penance in sackcloth within the High Church
of Edinburgh.  The proud Earl consented, underwent this ignominious
and degrading ceremonial, and his sentence of excommunication
was then removed.  Notwithstanding this public humiliation, after
the death of the ill-fated and despotic Charles I., Seaforth, in
1649, went over to Holland, and joined Charles II., by whom he
was made Principal Secretary of State for Scotland, the duties of
which, however, he never had the opportunity of performing.

Charles was proclaimed King on the 5th of February, 1649, in
Edinburgh, and it was decided by him and his friends in exile that
Montrose should make a second attempt to recover Scotland; for, on
the advice of his friends, Charles declined the humiliating terms
offered him by the Scottish faction, and, in connection with the
plans of Montrose, a rising took place in the North, under Thomas
Mackenzie of Pluscardine, brother to the Earl of Seaforth, Sir
Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, Colonel John Munro of Lemlair, and
Colonel Hugh Fraser.  On the 22d February they entered Inverness,
expelled the troops from the garrison, and afterwards demolished
the walls and fortifications.  On the 26th of February a Council
of War was held, present - Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine,
Preses, Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, H. Fraser of Belladrum,
Jo. Cuthbert of Castlehill, R. Mackenzie, of Davochmaluak; Kenneth
Mackenzie of Gairloch, R. Mackenzie of Redcastle, John Munro of
Lumlair, Simon Fraser of Craighouse, and Alex. Mackenzie of Suddie.

This Committee made certain enactments, by which they took the
customs and excise of the six northern counties entirely into their
own hands.  The Provost of Inverness was made accountable "for all
the money which, under the name of excise, has been taken up in
any of the foresaid shires since his intromissions with the office
of excise taking."  Another item is that Duncan Forbes be pleased to
advance money "upon the security which the Committee will grant to
him," to be repaid out of the  readiest of the "maintaince and
excise."  Cromarty House was ordered to  be put in a position of
defence, for which it was "requisite that some faill be cast and
led," and all Sir James Fraser's tenants within the parishes of
Cromarty and Cullicudden, together with those of the laird of
Findrassie, within the parish of Rosemarkie, were ordered "to afford
from six hours in the morning to six hours at night, and one horse
out of every oxengait daily for the space of four days, to lead the
same faill to the House of Cromarty."  By the tenth enactment the
Committee find it expedient for their safety that the works and
forts of Inverness be demolished and levelled to the ground, and they
ordain that each person appointed to this work shall complete his
proportion thereof before the 4th day of March following "under pain
of being quartered upon, aud until the said task be performed."  They
further enact that a garrison be placed in Culloden House, "which the
Committee is not desirous of for any intention of harm towards the
disturbance of the owner, but merely because of the security of the
garrison of Calder, which, if not kept in good order, is like to
infest all the well-affected of the country circumjacent." [For these
minutes see "Antiquarian Notes," pp. 157-8.]  General Leslie having
been sent against them, they retired to the mountains of Ross, when
Leslie advanced to Fortrose and placed a garrison in the castle.  He
made terms with all the other leaders except Pluscardine, who would
not listen to any accommodation, and who, immediately on Leslie's
return south, descended from his mountain fastnesses, attacked
and re-took the Castle of Chanonry.

Pluscardine was then joined by his nephew, Lord Reay, at the head
of three hundred men, which increased his force to eight or nine
hundred.  General Middleton and Lord Ogilvie, having brought up
their forces, Mackenzie advanced into Badenoch, with the view of
raising the people in that and the neighbouring districts, where
he was joined by the Marquis of Huntly, formerly Lord Lewis Gordon,
and they at once attacked and took the Castle of Ruthven.  After
this they were pressed closely by Leslie, and fell down from
Badenoch to Balvenny Castle, whence they sent General Middleton
and Mackenzie to treat with Leslie, but before they reached their
destination, Carr, Halket, and Strachan, who had been in the North,
made a rapid march from Fortrose, and on the 8th of May surprised
Lord Reay with his nine hundred followers at Balvenny, with
considerable loss on both sides.  Eighty Royalists fell in the
defence of the castle.  Carr at once dismissed the Highlanders
to their homes on giving their oath never again to take up arms
against the Parliament, but he detained Lord Reay and some of his
kinsmen, Mackenzie of Redcastle, and a few leaders of that name,
and sent them prisoners to Edinburgh. Having there given security
to keep the peace in future, Lord Reay, Ogilvy, Huntly, and Middleton
were forgiven, and allowed to return home, Roderick Mackenzie of
Redcastle, being the only one kept in prison, until he was some
time after released, through the influence of Argyll, on payment
of a fine of seven thousand merks Scots.

Carr now returned to Ross and laid siege to Redcastle, the only
stronghold in the North which still held out for the Royal cause.
The officer in charge recklessly exposed himself on the ramparts,
and was pulled down by a well-directed shot from the enemy.  The
castle was set on fire by the exasperated soldiers.  Leslie then
placed a garrison in Brahan and Chanonry Castles, and returned south.
The garrisons were then expelled, some of the men hanged, the
walls demolished, and the fortifications razed to the ground.  Thus
ended an insurrection which probably would have had a very different
result had it been delayed until the arrival of Montrose.  The
same year General Leslie himself came to Fortrose with nine troops
of horse, and forwarded detachments to Cromarty and "Seaforth's
strongest hold" of Ellandonnan Castle.

The following account of this period by a contemporary writer
is very interesting: "Immediately after the battle of Auldearn
Seaforth met and communed with Montrose, the result of which
was that Seaforth should join Montrose, for the King against the
Parliament and States, whom they now discovered not to be for the
King as they professed; but in the meantime that Seaforth should not
appear, till he had called upon and prevailed with his neighbours
about him, namely, My Lord Reay, Balnagown, Lovat, Sir James
Macdonald of Sleat, Macleod of Dunvegan, and others, to join him
and follow him as their leader.  Accordingly, Seaforth having
called them together, pointed out to them the condition the King
was in, and how it was their interest to rise and join together
immediately for his Majesty's service and relief.  All of them
consented and approved of the motion, only some of them desired that
the Parliament who professed to be for the King as well as they,
and desired to be rid of Montrose and his bloody Irish, should
first be made acquainted with their resolution.  Seaforth, being
unwilling to lose any of them, condescended, and drew up a declaration,
which was known as Seaforth's Remonstrance, as separate from
Montrose, whereof a double was sent them; but the Parliament was
so far from being pleased therewith that they threatened to proclaim
Seaforth and all who should join him as rebels.  Now, after the
battle of Alford and Kilsyth, wherein Montrose was victorious,
and all in the south professing to submit to him as the King's
Lieutenant, he was by the treachery of Traquair and others of
the Covenanters, surprised and defeated at Philiphaugh.  In the
beginning of the next year, 1646, he came north to recruit his army.
Seaforth raised his men and advertised his foresaid neighbours to
come, but none came except Sir James Macdonald, who, with Seaforth,
joined Montrose at Inverness, which they besieged, but Middleton,
who then served in the Scots armies in England, being sent with
nearly 1000 horse and 800 foot, coming suddenly the length of
Inverness, stopped Montrose's progress.  Montrose was forced to
raise the siege and quit the campaign, and retired with Seaforth
and Sir James Macdonald to the hills of Strathglass, to await the
arrival of the rest of their confederates, Lord Reay, Glengarry,
Maclean, and several others, who, with such as were ready to join
him south, were likely to make a formidable army for the King but,
in the meantime, the King having come to the Scots army, the first
thing they extorted from him was to send a herald to Montrose,
commanding him to disband his forces, and to pass over to France
till his Majesty's further pleasure.  The herald came to him in
the last of May, 1646, while he was at Strathglass waiting the rest
of the King's faithful friends who were to join him.  For this
Montrose was  vexed, not only for the King's condition, but for
those of his faithful subjects who declared themselves for him
and before he would disband he wrote several times to the King,
but received no answer, except some articles from the Parliament
and Covenanters, which after much reluctance, he was forced to
accept, by which he was to depart the Kingdom against the first of
September following, and the Covenanters were obliged to provide
a ship for his transportation, but finding that they neglected to
do so, meeting with a Murray ship in the harbour of Montrose, he
went aboard of her with several of his friends, namely, Sir John
Hurry, who served the States the year before, John Drummond, Henry
Brechin, George Wishart, and several others, leaving Seaforth and
the rest of his friends to the mercy of these implacable enemies;
for the States and Parliament threatened to forfeit him for acting
contrary to their orders, and the Kirk excommunicated him for
joining with the excommunicated traitor, as they called him, James
Graham; for now the Kirk began to rule with a high hand, becoming
more guilty than the bishops, of that of which they charged him
with as great a fault for meddling with civil and secular affairs;
for they not only looked upon them to form the army and to purge
it of such as whom, in their idiom, they called Malignants, but
really such as were loyal to the King; and also would have no
Acts of Parliament to pass without their consent and approbation.
Their proselytes in the laity were also heavy upon and uneasy to
such as they found or conceived to have found with a tincture of
Malignancy, whereof many instances might be given."  But to return
to Seaforth.  "After he was excommunicated by the Kirk he was
obliged to go to Edinburgh, where he was made prisoner and detained
two years, till in the end he was, with much ado, released from
the sentence of excommunication, and the process of forfeiture
against him discharged; for that time he returned home in the
end of the year, 1648, but King Charles I. being before that time
murdered, and King Charles II. being in France, finding that he
would not be for any time on fair terms with the States and Kirk,
he proposed to remove his family to the Island of Lewis, and dwell
there remote from public affairs, and to allocate his rents on
the mainland to pay his most pressing debts, in order to which,
having sent his lady in December to Lochcarron, where boats were
attending to transport himself and children to the Lewis by way of
Lochbroom, wherein his affairs called him, he, without acquainting
his kinsmen and friends, went aboard a ship which he had provided
for that purpose, and sailed to France, where the King was, who
received him most graciously and made him one of his secretaries.
This did incense the States against him, so that they placed a
garrison in his principal house at Brahan, under the command  of
Captain Scott, who (afterwards) broke his neck from a fall from
his horse in the Craigwood of Chanonry, as also another garrison
in the Castle of Ellandonnan, under the command of one William
Johnston, which remained to the great hurt and oppression
of the people till, in the year 1650, some of the Kintail men, not
bearing the insolence of the garrison soldiers, discorded with
them, and in harvest that year killed John Campbell, a leading
person among them, with others, for having wounded several at
little Inverinate, without one drop of blood drawn out of the
Kintail men, who were only 10 in number, while the soldiers numbered
30.  After this the garrison was very uneasy and greatly afraid of
the Kintail men, who threatened them so, that shortly thereafter
they removed to Ross, being commanded then by one James Chambers;
but Argyll, to keep up the face of a garrison there, sent ten men
under the command of John Muir, who lived there civilly without
molesting the people, the States were so incensed against the
Kintail men for this brush and their usage of the garrison, that
they resolved to send a strong party next spring to destroy Kintail
and the inhabitants thereof.  But King Charles II., after the defeat
of Dunbar, being at Stirling recruiting his army against Cromwell, to
which Seaforth's men were called, it proved an act of oblivion and
indemnity to them, so that the Kintail men were never challenged for
their usage of the garrison soldiers.  Though the Earl of Seaforth
was out of the kingdom, he gave orders to his brother Pluscardine to
raise men for the  King's service whenever he saw the King's affairs
required it; and so, in the year 1649, Pluscardine did raise
Seaforth's men and my Lord Reay joining him with his men, marched
through Inverness, went through Moray, and crossed the Spey, being
resolved to join the Gordons, Atholes, and several others who were
ready to rise, and appeared for the King.   Lesley, who was sent
from the Parliament to stop their progress, called Pluscardine to
treat with him, while Seaforth's and my Lord Reay's men encamped at
Balveny, promising a cessation of hostilities.  For some days Colonel
Carr and Strachan, with a strong body of horse, surprised them in
their camp, when they lay secure, and taking my Lord Reay, Rory
Mackenzie of Redcastle, Rory Mackenzie of Fairburn, John Mackenzie of
Ord, and others, prisoners, threatening to kill them unless the men
surrendered and disbanded; and the under officers fearing they
would kill them whom they had taken prisoners, did their utmost to
hinder the Highlanders from fighting, cutting their bowstrings,
etc., so they were forced to disband and dissipate.  Pluscardine,
in the meantime, being absent from them, and fearing to fall into
their hands, turned back to Spey with Kenneth of Coul, William
Mackenzie of Multavie, and Captain Alexander Bain, and swam the
river, being then high by reason of the rainy weather, and so
escaped from their implacable enemies.  My Lord Reay, Red-castle,
and others were sent to Edinburgh as prisoners, as it were to make
a triumph, where a solemn day of thanksgiving was kept for that
glorious victory.  My Lord Reay and the rest were set at liberty,
but Redcastle was still kept prisoner, because when he came from
home he garrisoned his house of Redcastle, giving strict commands
to those he placed in his house not to render or give it until
they had seen an order under his hand, whereupon Colonel Carr and
Strachan coming to Ross, after the defeat of Balvenny, summoned
the garrison to come forth, but all in vain; for they obstinately
defended the house against the besiegers until, on a certain day,
a cousin of Carr's advancing in the ruff of his pride, with his
cocked carbine in his hand, to the very gates of the castle,
bantering and threatening those within to give up the castle under
all highest pain and danger, he was shot from within and killed
outright.  This did so grieve and incense Colonel Carr, that
he began fairly to capitulate with them within, and made use of
Redcastle's own friends to mediate and persuade them, till in the
end, upon promise and assurance of fair terms, and an indemnity of
what passed, they came out, and then Carr and his party kept not
touches with them, but, apprehending several of them, and finding
who it was that killed his cousin, caused him to be killed, and
thereafter, contrary to the promise and articles of capitulation,
rifled the house, taking away what he found useful, and then burnt
the house and all that was within it.  In the meantime Redcastle
was kept prisoner at Edinburgh, none of his friends being in a
condition to plead for him, till Ross of Bridly, his uncle by his
mother, went south, and being in great favour with Argyll, obtained
Redcastle's liberation upon payment of 7000 merks fine." [Ardintoul
MS.]

While these proceedings were taking place in the Highlands, Seaforth
was in Holland at the exiled Court of Charles II., and when Montrose
arrived there Seaforth earnestly supported him in urging on the King
the bold and desperate policy of throwing himself on the loyalty
of his Scottish subjects, and in strongly protesting against the
acceptance by his Majesty and his friends of the arrogant and
humiliating demand made by the commissioners sent over to treat
with him by the Scottish faction.  It is difficult to say whether
Seaforth's zeal for his Royal master or the safety of his own
person influenced him most during the remainder of his life, but
whatever the cause, he adhered steadfastly to the exiled monarch
to the end of a life which, in whatever light it may be viewed,
cannot be commended as a good example to others.  Such vacillating
and time-serving conduct ended in the only manner which it deserved.
He might have been admired for taking a consistent part on either
side, but with Earl George self-preservation and interest appear
to have been the only governing principles throughout the whole of
this trying period of his  country's history.  The Earl of Cromarty
thought differently, and says that "this George, being a nobleman
of excellent qualifications, shared the  fortune of his Prince,
King Charles I., for whom he suffered all the  calamities in his
estate that envious or malicious enemies could inflict.  He was
made secretary to King Charles II. in Holland, but died in that
banishment before he saw an end of his King and his country's
calamities or of his own injuries."  We have seen that his conduct
was by no means steadfast in support of Charles, and it may now
be safely asserted that his calamities were due more to his own
indecision and accommodating character than to any other cause.

Earl George married early in life, Barbara, daughter of Arthur Lord
Forbes (sasine to her in 1637) with issue -

I.  Kenneth Mor, his heir and successor.

II.  Colin, who has a sasine in 1648, but died young and unmarried.

III.  George of Kildun, who married, first, Mary daughter of Skene
of Skene, with issue - (1) Kenneth, who went abroad and was no more
heard of; (2) Isobel; and several others who died young.  He
married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Urquhart of Craighouse,
with issue - Colin of Kildun and several other children of whom
no trace can be found.  All his descendants are said to be extinct.

IV.  Colin, who has a sasine of Kinachulladrum in 1721, as "only
child now in life, and heir of his brother Roderick."  He married
Jean, daughter of Robert Laurie, Dean of Edinburgh, with issue - (1)
Captain Robert Mackenzie, killed in Flanders, without issue, Colin
married,  secondly, Lady Herbertshire, with issue, (2) Dr George
Mackenzie, who, in 1708, wrote a manuscript "History of the
Fitzgeralds and Mackenzies," frequently quoted in this work, and
"Lives of Eminent Scotsmen."  He, with his father sold the estate
of Kinachulladrum to Roderick Mackenzie, IV. of Applecross, in
1721, and died without issue. (3) Barbara, who married Patrick
Oliphant.

V.  Roderick, I. of Kinachulladrum, who married, first, Anna,
daughter of Ogilvie of Glencairn, in 1668 (sasine 1670), with
issue - (1) Alexander, II. of Kinachulladrum, who married Anne,
daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, III. of Applecross (marriage
contract 1707), with  issue - Anne, his only child alive in 1766;
(2) Kenneth, who died without issue; and two daughters.  Roderick
married, secondly, Catherine Scougall, daughter of the Bishop of
Aberdeen, with issue, all of whom died young.

VI.  Jean, who married, first, John Earl of Mar, with issue; and,
secondly, Lord Fraser.

VII.  Margaret, who married Sir William Sinclair of Mey, with
issue.

VIII.  Barbara, who married Sir John Urquhart of Cromarty.

IX.  John, first of Gruinard, a natural son whose illegitimacy is
fully established in the chapter dealing with the Chiefship of
the clan.  When his Lordship received the news of the disastrous
defeat of the King's forces at Worcester he fell into a profound
melancholy and  died in 1651, at Schiedam in Holland - where he
had lived in exile since the beginning of January, 1649 - in the
forty-third year of his age.  He was succeeded by his eldest son,

XV.  KENNETH  MOR,  THIRD  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,

Kenneth was born at Brahan Castle in 1635, and when he was five
or six years old his father placed him under the care of the Rev.
Farquhar Macrae, minister of Kintail, and constable of Ellandonnan
Castle, who had a seminary in his house which was attended by the
sons of the neighbouring gentry, who kept young Kintail company.
One of the manuscript historians of the family, referring to this
practical early training of his Lordship, says - "This might be
thought a preposterous and wrong way to educate a nobleman, but
they who would consider where the  most of his interest lay, and
how he was among his people, followers, and dependants, on which
the family was still valued, perhaps will not think so, for by this
the young lord had several advantages; first, by the wholesome,
though not delicate or too palatable diet he prescribed to him and
used him with, he began to have a wholesome complexion, so nimble
and strong, that he was able to endure Stress and fatigue, labour
and travel, which proved very useful to him in his after life;
secondly, he did not only learn the language but became thoroughly
acquainted with and learned the genius of his several tribes or
clans of his Highlanders, so that afterwards he was reputed to be
the fittest chief or chieftain of all superiors in the Highlands
and Isles of Scotland; and thirdly, the early impressions of
being among them, and acquaint with the bounds, made him delight
and take pleasure to be often among them and to know their
circumstances, which indeed was his interest and part of their
happiness, so that it was better to give him that first step of
education than that which would make him a stranger at home, both
as to his people, estate, and condition but when he was taken
from Mr Farquhar to a public school, he gave great evidence of
his abilities and inclination for learning, and being sent in the
year 1651 to the King's College at Aberdeen, under the discipline
of Mr Patrick Sandylands, before he was well settled or made any
progress in his studies King Charles II., after his army had been
defeated at Dunbar the year before, being then at Stirling recruiting
and making up his army, with which he was resolved to march into
England, the young laird was called home in his father's absence,
who was left in Holland (as already described), to raise his men
for the King's service, and  so went straight to Kintail with the
particular persons of his name, viz., the Lairds of Pluscardine
and Lochslinn, his uncles; young Tarbat, Rory of Davochmaluag,
Kenneth of Coul, Hector of Fairburn, and several others, but the
Kintail men, when called upon, made a demur and declined to rise
with him, because he was but a child, and that his father, their
master, was in life, without whom they would not move, since the
King, if he had use for him and for his followers, might easily
bring him home." [Ardintoul  MS.]

Kenneth, like his father in later years, became identified with
the fate of Charles II., and devoted himself unremittingly to the
services of that monarch during his exile.  From his great stature
he was known among the Highlanders as "Coinneach Mor."  On the
arrival of the King at Garmouth, in June, 1650, his reception
throughout all Scotland was of a  most cheering character, but
the Highlanders, who always favoured the Stuarts, were specially
joyous on the return of their exiled king.  After the defeat by
Oliver Cromwell of the Scottish army at Dunbar - a defeat brought
about by the interference of the Committee of Estates and the Kirk
with the duties of those in charge of the forces, and whose plans,
were they allowed to carry them out, would have saved Scotland
from the first great defeat it had ever received at the hands of
an enemy - the King resolved to come north and throw himself upon
the patriotism and loyalty  or his Highland subjects.  He was,
however, captured and taken back to Perth, and afterwards to
Edinburgh, by the Committee of Estates, on whom, it is said, his
attempted escape to the Highlands "produced a salutary effect;"
and they began to treat him with some respect, going the length
even of admitting him to their deliberations.  A large number
of the Highlanders were already in arms to support him; but the
Committee, having the King in their power, induced him to write
to the Highland chiefs requesting them to lay down their arms.
This they refused, and to enforce the King's orders a regiment,
under Sir John Drown, was despatched to the North, but it was
surprised and defeated on the night of the 21st of October by Sir
David Ogilvy of Airley.  On receiving this intelligence, General
Leslie hastened north with a force of 3000 cavalry.  General
Middleton, who supported the King's friends in the Highlands, and
who was then at Forfar, hearing of Leslie's advance, forwarded him
a letter containing a copy of a bond and oath of engagement which
had been entered into by Huntly, Athole, the Earl of Seaforth, and
other leading Highland chiefs, by which they had pledged themselves
on oath to join firmly and faithfully together, and "neither for
fear, threatening, allurement, nor advantage, to relinquish the
cause of religion, of the king, and of the kingdom, nor to lay down
their arms without a general consent; and as the best undertakings
did not escape censure and malice, they promised and swore, for the
satisfaction of all reasonable persons, that they would maintain
the true religion, as then established in Scotland, the National
Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant, and defend the person
of the King, his prerogative, greatness, and authority, and the
privileges of parliament, and the freedom of the subject."  Middleton
pointed out that the only object of himself and friends was to
unite the Scots in the defence of their common rights, and that,
as would be seen from this bond, the grounds on which they entered
into association were exactly the same as those professed by Leslie
himself.  Considering this, and seeing that the independence of
Scotland was at stake, he urged that all Scotsmen should join for
the preservation of their common liberties.  Middleton proposed to
join Leslie, to place himself under his command, and expressed a
hope that he would not shed the blood of his countrymen nor force
them to shed the blood of their bethren in self-defence.  These
communications ended in a treaty between Leslie and the leading
Royalists at Strathbogie, dated 4th November, by which Middleton
and his  followers received an indemnity, and laid down their arms.
["Balfour," vol, iv., p. 129.  "Highland Clans," p. 285]

Immediately after the battle of Worcester, at which Charles was
defeated by Cromwell in 1651 - where we find among those present
Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine as one of the Colonels of foot
for Inverness and Ross, and Alexander Cam Mackenzie, fourth son
of Alexander, fifth of Gairloch - Charles fled to the Continent,
and, after many severe hardships and narrow escapes, he found
refuge in Flanders, where he continued to reside, often in great
want and distress, until the Restoration, when in May, 1660,
he returned to England "indolent, selfish, unfeeling, faithless,
ungrateful, and insensible to shame or reproach."  The  Earl of
Cromarty says that subsequent to the treaty agreed upon between
Middleton and Leslie at Strathbogie, "Seaforth joined the King at
Stirling.  After the fatal battle of Worcester he continued a close
prisoner until the Restoration of Charles."  He was excepted from
Oliver Cromwell's Act of Grace and Pardon in 1654, and his estates
were forfeited, without any provision being allowed out of it for
his wife and family.  He supported the King's cause as long as there
was an opportunity of fighting for it in the field, and when forced
to submit to the opposing forces of Cromwell and the Commonwealth,
he was committed to prison, where, with "much firmness of mind
and nobility of soul," he endured a tedious captivity for many
years, until Charles II. was recalled, when he ordered his old and
faithful friend Seaforth to be released, after which he became a
great favourite at his licentious and profligate Court.

During the remainder of his life little or nothing of any importance
is known of him, except that he lived in the favour and merited
smiles of his sovereign, in the undisputed possession and enjoyment
of the extensive estates and honours of his noble ancestors, which,
through his faithful adherence to the House of Stuart, had been
nearly lost during the exile of the second Charles and his own
captivity.  Referring to the position of affairs at this period,
the Laird of Applecross says that the "rebels, possessing
the authority, oppressed all the loyal subjects, and him with the
first; his estate was over-burthened to its destruction, but nothing
could deter him so as to bring him to forsake his King or his duty.
Whenever any was in the field for him, he was one, seconding that
falling cause with  all his power, and when he was not in the field
against the enemy, he was in the prison by him until the restoration
of the King."  Restored to liberty, he, on the 23d of April,
1662, received a Commission of the Sheriffship of Ross, which was
afterwards renewed to him and to his eldest son Kenneth, jointly,
on 31st of July, 1675; and when he had set his affairs in order at
Brahan, he re-visited Paris, leaving his Countess Isobel, daughter
of Sir John Mackenzie of Tarbat, and sister to the first Earl of
Cromarty, in charge of his interests in the North.

Kenneth married early in life Isobel, daughter of Sir John Mackenzie
of Tarbat, father of George, first Earl of Cromarty, with issue -

I.  Kenneth Og, his heir and successor.

II.  John Mackenzie of Assynt, who married Sibella, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, III. of Applecross (marriage contract 1697).
He has a sasine in 1695 and 1696.  They had issue, an only son,
Kenneth, who married his cousin Frances, daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie of Assynt and Conansbay, and died in 1723, without issue.

III.  Hugh, who died young and unmarried.  There is a sasine to
him as third son in 1667.

IV.  Colonel Alexander, also designated of Assynt and Conansbay.
He has a sasine as "third lawful son now in life" of the lands of
Kildin, dated October, 1694.  He married Elizabeth, daughter of John
Paterson, Bishop of Ross (marriage contract 1700), with issue - Major
William Mackenzie, who married Mary, daughter and co-heiress of
Mathew Humberston, county Lincoln, whose two sons - Colonel Thomas
Francis Mackenzie, and Francis Humberston Mackenzie, created Lord
Seaforth in 1797, and who died without surviving male issue, the
last of his line in  1815 - succeeded to the family estates.

V.  Margaret, who married James, second Lord Duffus, with issue.

VI.  Anne, who died unmarried.

VII.  Isabel, who married, first, in February, 1694, Roderick
Macleod, XVI I. of Macleod, without issue; and, secondly, Sir Duncan
Campbell of Lochnell, with issue.

VIII.  Mary, who, as his second wife, married Alexander Macdonald,
XI. of Glengarry, with issue - John, who carried on the succession,
and others.  She has a life-rent sasine in 1696.  Kenneth Mor died
in December, 1678, when he was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVI.  KENNETH  OG,  FOURTH  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,

So described by the Highlanders to distinguish him from his father.
At an  early age he began to reap the benefits of his predecessor's
faithful adherence to the fortunes of Charles II.  In 1678, before
his father died, his name is found among the chiefs, who, by a
proclamation dated 10th of October in that year, were called upon
to give their bond and caution for the security of the peace and
quiet of the Highlands, which the leaders were to give, not only
for themselves but for all the members of their respective Clans.
In spite of all the enactments and orders hitherto passed, the
inhabitants and broken men in the Highlands were "inured and
accustomed to liberty and licentiousness" during the late troubles,
and "still presumed to sorn, steal, oppress, and commit other
violences and  disorders."  The great chiefs were commanded to
appear in Edinburgh on the last Tuesday of February, 1679, and
yearly thereafter on the second Thursday of July, to give security
and receive instructions as to the peace of the Highlands.  To
prevent any excuse for non-attendance, they were declared free
from caption for debt or otherwise while journeying to and from
Edinburgh, and other means were to be taken, which might be thought
necessary or expedient until the Highlands were finally quieted,
and "all these wicked, broken, and disorderly men utterly rooted
out and  extirpated."  A second proclamation was issued, in which
the lesser barons - heads of the branches of clans - whose names are
given, were to go to Inverlochy by the 20th of November following,
as they were "by reason of their mean condition," not able to
come in to Edinburgh and find caution, and there to give in bonds
and securities for themselves, their men, tenants, servants, and
indwellers upon their lands, and all of their name descended of their
families, to the Earl of Caithness, Sir James Campbell of Lawers,
James Menzies of Culdarers, or any two of them.  These lists are
interesting, showing, as they do, those who were considered the
greater and lesser barons at the time.  We find four Mackenzies
in the former but not one in the latter. [For the full lists see
"Antiquarian Notes," pp. 184 and 187.]

On the 1st of March, 1681, Kenneth was served heir male to his
great-grandfather, Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, in his lands in the
Lordship of Ardmeanach and in the Earldom of Ross; was made a
member of the Privy Council by James II. on his accession to the
throne in 1685, and chosen a Knight Companion of the Thistle, on
the revival of that ancient Order in 1687.  The year after the
Revolution Seaforth accompanied his Royal master to France, but
when that Prince returned to Ireland in the following year to make
a final effort for the recovery of his kingdom, he was accompanied
thither by the Earl.  There he took part in the siege of Londonderry
and in other engagements, and as an expression of gratitude James
created him Marquis of Seaforth, under which title he repeatedly
appears in various legal documents.  This well-meant and deserved
honour, however, came too late in the falling fortunes and declining
powers of the ex-King, and does little more than mark his Royal
confirmation of the steady adherence of the chiefs of Kintail to
the cause of the unfortunate Stuarts.

Viscount Dundee in a letter to the "Laird of Macleod," dated "Moy,
June 23, 1689" [About this time Viscount Tarbat boasted to General
Mackay of his great influence with his countrymen, especially the
Clan Mackenzie, and assured him "that though Seaforth should come to
his own country and among his friends, he (Tarbat) would overturn
in eight days more than the Earl could advance in six weeks yet
be proved as backward as Seaforth or any other of the Clan.  And
though Redcastle, Coul, and others of the name of Mackenzie came,
they fell not on final methods, but protested a great deal of
affection for the cause." - "Mackay's  Memoirs."] in which he details
his own and the King's prospects, gives a list of those who are
to join him.  "My Lord Seaforth," he says, "will be in a few days
from Ireland to raise his men for the King's service;" but the fatal
shot which closed the career of that brilliant star and champion
of the Stuart dynasty at Killiecrankie, arrested the progress of
the family of Seaforth in the fair course to all the honours which
a grateful dynasty could bestow; nor was the family of Kintail
singular in this respect - seeing its flattering prospects withered
at, perhaps, a fortunate moment for the prosperity of the Empire.
Jealousies have now passed away on that subject, and it is not
our business to discuss or in any way confound the principles of
contending loyalties.

To check the proceedings of the Mackenzies, Mackay placed a garrison
of a hundred Mackays in Brahan Castle, the principal seat of the
Earl, and an equal number of Rosses in Castle Leod, the mansion
of Viscount Tarbat, both places of strength, and advantageously
situated for watching the movements of the Jacobite Mackenzies.
["Life of General Mackay," by John Mackay of Rockfield, pp. 36-37.]

Seaforth seems to have left Ireland immediately after the battle
of the Boyne, and to have returned to the Highlands.  The greater
part of the  North was at the time hostile to the Government, and
General Mackay was obliged to march north, with all haste, before
a general rising could take place under Buchan, who now commanded
the Highlanders who stood out for King James.  Mackay was within
four hours march of Inverness before Buchan, who was then at that
place "waiting for the Earl of Seaforth's and the other Highlanders
whom he expected to join him in attacking the town," knew of his
approach.  Hearing of the proximity of the enemy, Buchan at once
retreated, crossed the River Ness, and retired along the north
side of the Beauly Firth, eastward through the Black Isle.  In this
emergency, Seaforth, fearing the personal consequences of the part
be had acted throughout, sent two of his friends to General Mackay,
offering terms of submission and whatever securities might be
required for his future good behaviour, informing him at the same
time that, although he had been forced to appear on the side of
James, he never entertained any design of molesting the Government
forces or of joining Buchan in his attack on the town of Inverness.
Mackay replied that he could accept no security other than the
surrender of his Lordship's person, at the same time conjuring him
to comply, as he valued his own safety and the preservation of his
family and people, and assuring him that in the case of surrender
he should be detained in civil custody in Inverness, and treated
with the respect due to his rank, until the will of the Government
should become known.  Next day the Earl's mother, the Countess
Dowager of Seaforth, and Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Coul proceeded
to Inverness, to plead with Mackay for a mitigation of the terms
proposed, but finding him inflexible, they told him that Seaforth
would accede to any conditions agreed to by them in his behalf.
It was thereupon stipulated that he should deliver himself up at
once and be kept a prisoner in Inverness until the Privy Council
decided as to his ultimate disposal.  With the view of concealing
his voluntary submission from his own clan and his other Jacobite
friends, it was agreed that the Earl should allow himself to be
siezed at one of his seats by a party of horse under Major Mackay,
as if he were taken by surprise.  He, however, disappointed those
sent to take him, in excuse of which, his mother and he, in letters
to General Mackay, pleaded the delicate state of his health, which,
it was urged, would suffer from imprisonment; and indeed few can
blame him for any unwillingness to place himself absolutely at
the disposal of such a body as the Privy Council of Scotland then
was - many of whom would not hesitate in the slightest to sacrifice
him, if by so doing they could only see any chance of obtaining
a share, however small, of his extensive estates.

General Mackay became so irritated at the deception thus practised
upon him that he resolved to treat Seaforth's vassals "with all the
rigour of military execution," and he sent his Lordship a message
that if he did not surrender forthwith according to his promise, he
should at once carry out his instructions from the Privy Council by
entering his country with fire and sword, and seizing all the
property belonging to himself or to his clan as lawful prize; and,
lest the Earl should have any doubt as to his intention of executing
this terrible treat, he immediately ordered three Dutch regiments
from Aberdeen to Inverness, and decided on leading a competent body
of horse and foot in person from the garrison at the latter place,
to take possession of Brahan Castle.  The General, at the same time
wrote instructing the Earl of Sutherland, Lord Reay, and Ross of
Balnagown, to send a thousand of their men, under Major Wishart an
experienced officer acquainted with the country, to take up their
quarters in the more remote districts of the Seaforth estates,
should that extreme step, as he much feared, become necessary.
Having, however, a friendly disposition towards the followers
of Seaforth, on account of their being "all Protestants and none
of the most dangerous enemies," and being more anxious to get
hold of his Lordship's person than to ruin his friends, he caused
information of his intentions to be sent to Seaforth's camp by some
of his own party, as if from a feeling of friendship for him the
result being that, contrary to Mackay's expectations, Seaforth
surrendered - thus relieving him from a most disagreeable duty,
[Though the General "was not immediately connected with the
Seaforth family himself, some of his near relatives were, both by
the ties of kindred and of ancient friendship.  For these, and
other reasons it may be conceived what joy and thankfulness to
Providence he felt for the result of ibis affair, which at once
relieved him  from a distressing dilemma, and promised to put
a speedy period to his labours in Scotland." - Mackay's "Life of
General Mackay."] - and he was at once committed a prisoner to the
Castle of Inverness.

Writing to the Privy Council about the disaffected chiefs at the
time, General Mackay says - "I believe it shall fare so with the
Earl of Seaforth, that is, that he shall haply submit when his
country is ruined and spoyled, which is the character of a true
Scotsman, wyse behinde the hand." [Letters to the Privy Council,
dated 1st September, 1690.]  By warrant, dated 7th October, 1690,
the Privy Council directs Mackay "to transport the person of
Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth, with safety from Inverness to Edinburgh,
in such way and manner as he should think fit."  This done, he was
on the 6th November following confined within the Castle of
Edinburgh, but, little more than a year afterwards, he was liberated,
on the 7th January, 1692, having found caution to appear when called
upon, and on condition that he should not go ten miles beyond the
walls of Edinburgh.  He appears not to have implemented these
conditions for any length of time, for shortly after he is again in
prison almost immediately makes his escape is apprehended on the 7th
of May, the same year, at Pencaitland and again kept confined in the
Castle of Inverness, from which he is ultimately and finally
liberated on giving sufficient security for his peaceable behaviour,
["Records of the Privy Council," and "Mackay's Memoirs."] the
following being the order for his release:

"William R., Right trusty and right-well-beloved Councillors, &c.,
we greet you well.  Whereas we are informed that Kenneth, Earl of
Seaforth, did surrender himself prisoner to the commander of our
garrison at Inverness, and has thrown himself on our Royal mercy;
it is our will and pleasure, and we hereby authorise and require
you to set the said Earl of Seaforth at liberty, upon his finding
bail and security to live peaceably under our Government and to
compear before you when called.  And that you order our Advocate
not to insist in the process of treason waged against him until
our further pleasure be known therein.  For doing whereof this
shall be your warrant, so we bid you heartily farewell.  Given
at our Court at Kensington, the first day of March, 1696-7, and
of our  reign the eighth year.  By his Majesty's command.
(Signed)
         "TULLIBARDINE."

During the remaining years of his life, Seaforth appears to have
lived mainly in France.  Apart from his necessary absence from his
own country during the long-continued period of political irritation,
the exhausted state of his paternal revenues would have rendered
his residence abroad highly expedient.  We accordingly find several
discharges for feu-duties granted by others in his absence, such
as the following:

"I, Maister Alexander Mackenzie, lawful brother to the Marquis of
Seaforth, grants me to have received from John Mathesone, all and
hail the somme of seaven hundred and twentie merks Scots money and
that in complete payment of his duties and or the lands of both
the Fernacks and Achnakerich, payable Martimass ninety (1690),
dated 22d November,  1694."

There is another by "Isobel, Countess Dowager of Seaforth, in 1696,
tested by 'Rorie Mackenzie, servitor to the Marquis of Seaforth,'"
and an original discharge by "me, Isobell, Countess Dowager of Seaforth,
Lady Superior of the grounds, lands, and oyes under-written," to
Kenneth Mackenzie of Dundonnel, dated at Fortrose, 15th November,
1697, signed, "Isobell Seaforth." [Allangrange Service, on which
occasion thc originals were produced.]  It may fairly be presumed
that, during the whole of this period, Earl Kenneth was in retirement,
and that be took no personal part in the management of his estates
for the remainder of his life.

His clansmen, however, seem to have been determined to protect
his interest as much as they could.  A certain Sir John Dempster
of Pitliver had advanced Seaforth and his mother, the Countess
Dowager, a large sum of money and obtained a decree of Parliament
to have the amount refunded to him.  The cash was not forthcoming,
and Sir John secured letters of horning and arrestment against
them, and employed several officers to serve them, but they returned
the letters unexecuted, not finding notum accessum in the Earl's
country, and they refused altogether to undertake the duty again
without the assistance of the King's forces in the  district.  Sir
John petitioned for this aid, and humbly craved the Privy Council
to allow him "a competent assistance of his Majesty's forces at
Fort-William, Inverness, or where they are lying adjacent to the
places where the said dilligence is to be put in execution, to
support and protect the messengers" in the due enforcement of the
legal dilligence against the Earl and his mother, "by horning,
poinding, arrestment, or otherways," and to recommend to the Governor
at Fort-William, or the commander of the forces at Inverness, to
grant a suitable force for the purpose.  Their Lordships having
considered the petition, recommended Sir Thomas Livingstone,
commander-in-chief of his Majesty's forces, to order some of the
officers already mentioned to furnish the petitioner "with competent
parties of his Majesty's forces" to support and protect the
messengers in the due execution of the "legal dilligence upon the
said decreet of  Parliament." [For this document see "Antiquarian
Notes," pp 118-119.]

The Earl married Lady Frances Herbert, second daughter of William,
Marquis of Powis, an English nobleman, by Lady Elizabeth Somerset,
daughter of Edward, Marquis of Worcester, with issue -

I.  William, his heir and successor.

II.  Mary, who married John Careyl, with issue.

He died at Paris,in 1701, and was succeeded by his only son,

XVII.  WILLIAM,  FIFTH  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,

Generally known among the Highlanders as "Uilleam Dubh."  He
succeeded at a most critical period in the history of Scotland,
just when the country was divided on the great question of Union
with England, which in spite of the fears of most of the Highland
chiefs and nobles of Scotland, ultimately turned out so beneficial
to both.  He would, no doubt, have imbibed strong Jacobite feelings
during his residence with his exiled parents in France.  But little
information of William's proceedings during the first few years
of his rule is obtainable.  He seems to have continued abroad,
for on the 23d of May, 1709, an order is found addressed to the
forester at Letterewe signed by his mother the Dowager, "Frances
Seaforth."  But on the 22d of June, 1713, she addresses a letter
to Colin Mackenzie of Kincraig, in which she says - "I find my son
William is fully inclined to do justice to all.  Within fifteen
days he will be at Brahan." [Original produced at Allangrange
Service in 1829.]

At this period the great majority of the southern nobles were ready
to break out into open rebellion, while the Highland chiefs were
almost to a man prepared to rise in favour of the Stuarts.  This
soon became known to the Government.  Bodies of armed Highlanders
were seen moving about in several districts in the North.  A party
appeared in the neighbourhood of Inverness which was, however, soon
dispersed by the local garrison.  The Government became alarmed,
and the Lords Justices sent a large number of half-pay officers,
chiefly from the Scottish regiments, to officer the militia, under
command of Major General Whitham, commander-in-chief at the time
in Scotland.  These proceedings alarmed the Jacobites, most of
whom returned to their homes.  The Duke of Gordon was confined in
Edinburgh Castle, and the Marquis of Huntly and Lord Drummond in
their respective residences.  The latter fled to the Highlands
and offered bail for his good behaviour.  Captain Campbell of
Glendaruel, who had obtained a commission from the late Administration
to raise an independent company of Highlanders, was apprehended at
Inverlochy and sent prisoner to Edinburgh.  Sir Donald Macdonald,
XI. of Sleat, was also seized and committed to the same place, and
a proclamation was issued offering a reward of L100,000 sterling
for the apprehension of the Chevalier, should he land or attempt
to land in Great Britain.  King George, on his arrival, threw
himself entirely into the arms of the Whigs, who alone shared his
favours.  A spirit of the most violent discontent was excited
throughout the whole kingdom, and the populace, led on by the
Jacobite leaders, raised tumults in different parts of the King's
dominions.  The Chevalier, taking advantage of this excitement,
issued a manifesto to the chief nobility, especially to the Dukes
of Shrewsbury, Marlborough, and Argyll, who at once handed them to
the Secretaries of State.

The King dissolved Parliament in January, 1715, and issued an
extraordinary proclamation calling together a new one.  The Whigs
were successful both in England and Scotland, but particularly in
the latter, where a majority of the peers, and forty out of the
forty-five members then returned to the Commons, were in favour
of his Majesty's Government.  The principal Parliamentary struggle
was in the county of Inverness between Mackenzie of Prestonhall,
strongly supported by Glengarry and the other Jacobite chiefs,
and Forbes of Culloden, brother of the celebrated President, who
carried the election through the influence of Brigadier-General
Grant and the friends of Lord Lovat.

The Earl of Mar, who had rendered himself extremely unpopular
among the Jacobite chiefs, afterwards rewarded some of his former
favourites by advocating the repeal of the Union.  He was again made
Secretary of State for Scotland in 1713, but was unceremoniously
dismissed from office by George I., and he vowed revenge.  He
afterwards found his way to Fife, and subsequently to the Braes
of Mar.  On the 19th of August, 1715, he despatched letters to the
principal Jacobites, among whom was Lord Seaforth, inviting them
to attend a grand hunting match at Braemar on the 27th of the same
month.  This was a ruse meant to cover his intention to raise the
standard of rebellion and that the Jacobites were let into the
secret is evident from the fact that as early as the 6th of August
those of them in Edinburgh and its neighbourhood were aware of his
intentions to come to Scotland.  Under pretence of attending this
grand  match, a considerable number of noblemen and gentlemen arrived
at Aboyne at the appointed time.   Among them were the Marquis of
Huntly, eldest son of the Duke of Gordon the Marquis of Tullibardine,
eldest son of the Duke of Athole; the Earls of Nithsdale, Marischal,
Traquair, Errol, Southesk, Carnwarth, Seaforth, and Linlithgow; the
Viscounts Kilsyth, Kenmure, Kingston, and Stormont Lords Rollo,
Duffus, Drummond, Strathallan, Ogilvie, and Nairne; and about
twenty-six other gentlemen of influence in the Highlands, among
whom were Generals Hamilton and Gordon, Glengarry, Campbell of
Glendaruel, and the lairds of Aucterhouse and Auldbar. ["Rae," p
189; "Annals of King George," pp. 15-16.]  Mar delivered a stirring
address, in which he expressed regret for his past conduct in
favouring the Union, and, now that his eyes were opened, promising
to do all in his power to retrieve the past and help to make his
countrymen again a free people.  He produced a commission from
James appointing him Lieutenant-General and Commander of all the
Jacobite forces in Scotland, and at the same time informed the
meeting that he was supplied with money, and that an arrangement
had been made by which he would be able to pay regularly any forces
that might be raised, so that no gentleman who with his followers
should join his standard would be put to any expense, and that
the country would be entirely relieved of the cost of conducting
the war; after which the meeting unanimously resolved to take up
arms for the purpose of establishing the Chevalier on the Scottish
throne.  They then took the oath of fidelity to Mar as the
representative of James VIII. and to each other, and separated,
each going home after promising to raise his vassals and to be in
readiness to join the Earl whenever summoned to do so.  They had
scarcely arrived at their respective destinations when they were
called upon to meet him at Aboyne on the 3d of September following,
where, with only sixty followers, Mar proclaimed the Chevalier at
Castletown in Braemar, after which he proceeded to Kirkmichael,
and on the 6th of September, raised his standard in presence of
a force of 2000, mostly consisting of cavalry.  When in course of
erection, the ball on the top of the flag-staff fell off.  This was
regarded by the Highlanders as a bad omen, and it cast a gloom over
the proceedings of the day.

Meanwhile Colonel Sir Hector Munro, who bad served as Captain in
the Earl of Orkney's Regiment with reputation in the wars of Queen
Anne, raised his followers, who, along with a body of Rosses,
numbered about 600 men.  With these, in November, 1715, he encamped
at Alness and on the 6th of October following he was joined by
the Earl of Sutherland, accompanied by his son, Lord Strathnaver,
and by Lord Reay, with an additional force of 600, in the interest
of the Whig Government, and to cover their own districts and check
the movements of the Western clans in effecting a junction with
the Earl of Mar, whom Earl William and Sir Donald Macdonald had
publicly espoused, as already stated, at the pretended hunting
match in Braemar.  The meeting at Alness was instrumental in
keeping Seaforth in the North.  If the Earl and his mother's clans
had advanced a month earlier the Duke of Argyll would not have
dared to advance against Mar's united forces, who might have pushed
an army across the Forth sufficient to have paralyzed any exertion
that might have been made to preserve a shadow of the Government.
It may be said that if Dundee had lived to hold the commission of
Mar, such a junction would not have been necessary, which amounts
to no more than saying that the life of Dundee would have been
tantamount to a restoration of the Stuarts Mar was not trained
in camp, nor did he possess the military  genius of Dundee.  Had
Montrose a moiety of his force things would have been otherwise.
Mar, trusting to Seaforth's reinforcement, was inactive, and Seaforth
was for a time kept in by the collocation of Sutherland's levies,
till he was joined by 700 Macdonalds and detachments from other
clans, amounting, with his own followers, to 3000 men, with which
he promptly attacked the Earl of Sutherland, who fled with his
mixed army precipitately to Bonar-Bridge, where they dispersed.
A party of Grants on their way to join them, on being informed of
Sutherland's retreat, thought it prudent to retrace their steps.
Seaforth, thus relieved, levied considerable fines on Munro's
territories, which were fully retaliated for during his absence
with the Jacobite army, to join which he now set out; and Sir John
Mackenzie of Coul, whom he had ordered to occupy Inverness, was,
after a gallant resistance, forced by Lord Lovat, at the head of
a mixed body of Frasers and Grants, to retire with his garrison
to Ross-shire.  "Whether he followed his chief to Perth does not
appear; but on Seaforth's arrival that Mar seems for the first
time to have resolved on the passage of the Firth - a movement
which led to the Battle of Sheriffmuir - is evident and conclusive
as to the different features given to the whole campaign by the
Whig camp at Alness, however creditable to the noble Earl and
his mother's confederates.  But it is not our present province to
enter on a military review of the conduct of either army preceding
this consequential conflict, or to decide to which party the
victory, claimed by both parties, properly belonged suffice it to
say that above 3000 of Seaforth's men formed a considerable part
of the second line, and seem from the general account on that
subject to have done their duty."  [Bennetsfield MS.]  A great
many of Seaforth's followers were slain, among whom were four
Highlanders who appear to have signally distinguished themselves.
They were John Mackenzie of Hilton, who commanded a company of the
Mackenzies, John Mackenzie of  Applecross, John Mac Rae of Conchra,
and John Murchison of Achtertyre.  Their prowess on the field had
been commemorated by one of their followers, John MacRae, who
escaped and returned home, in an excellent Gaelie poem, known as
"Latha Blar an t-Siorra," the " Day of Sheriffmuir."  The fate of
these renowned warriors was keenly regretted by their Highland
countrymen, and they are still remembered and distinguished amongst
them as "Ceithear Ianan na h-Alba," or The four Johns of Scotland.

During the preceding troubles Ellandonnan Castle got into the hands
of the King's troops, but shortly before Sheriffmuir it was again
secured by the following clever stratagem: A neighbouring tenant
applied to the Governor for some of the garrison to cut his corn,
as he feared from the appearance of the sky and the croaking of
ravens that a heavy storm was impending, and that nothing but a
sudden separation of his crop from the ground could save his family
from starvation.  The Governor readily yielded to his solicitations,
and sent the garrison of Government soldiers then in the castle
to his aid, who, on their return, discovered the ruse too late
for the Kintail men were by this time reaping the spoils, and had
possession of the castle.  "The oldest inhabitant of the parish
remembers to have seen the Kintail men under arms, dancing
on the leaden roof, just as they were setting out for the Battle
of Sheriffmuir, where this resolute band was cut to pieces." ["Old
Statistical Account of Kintail," 1792.]

Inverness continued meanwhile in possession of the Mackenzies,
under command of the Governor, Sir John Mackenzie of Coul, and
George Mackenzie of Gruinard.  Macdonald of Keppoch was on the
march to support Sir John at Inverness, and Lord Lovat, learning
this, gathered his men together, and on the 7th of November decided
to throw himself across the river Ness and place his forces directly
between Keppoch and the Governor.  Sir John, on discovering Lovat's
movement, resolved to make a sally out of the garrison and place
the enemy between him and the advancing Keppoch, where he could
attack him with advantage, but Macdonald became alarmed and returned
home through Glen-Urquhart, whereupon Lord Lovat marched straight
upon Inverness, and took up a position about a mile to the west of
the town.  The authorities were summoned to send out the garrison
and the Governor, or the town would be burnt and the inhabitants
put to the sword.  Preparations were made for the attack, but Sir
John Mackenzie, considering that any further defence was hopeless,
on the 10th of November collected together all the boats he could
find and at high water safely effected his escape from the town,
when Lovat marched in without opposition.  His Lordship advised the
Earl of Sutherland that he had secured possession of Inverness,
and on the 15th of November the latter, leaving Colonel Robert
Munro of Fowlis as Governor of Inverness, went with his followers,
accompanied by Lord Lovat with some of his men, to Brahan Castle, and
compelled the responsible men of the Clan Mackenzie who were not
in the South with the Earl of Seaforth to come under an obligation
for their peaceable behaviour, and to return the arms previously
taken from the Munros by Lord Seaforth at Alness; to release the
prisoners in their possession, and promise not to assist Lord
Seaforth directly or indirectly in his efforts against the Government;
that they would grant to the Earl of Sutherland any sum of money
he might require from them upon due notice for the use of the
Government; and, finally, that Brahan Castle, the principal residence
of the Earl of Seaforth, should be turned into a garrison for King
George.

Seaforth returned from Sheriffmuir, and again collected his men
near Brahan, but the Earl of Sutherland with a large number of his
own men, Lord Reay's, the Munros, Rosses, Culloden's men, and the
Frasers, marched to meet him and encamped at Beauly, within a few
miles of Mackenzie's camp, and prepared to give him battle, which,
when my Lord Seaforth saw, he thought it convenient to capitulate,
own the King's authority, disperse his men, and propose the mediation
of these Government friends for his pardon.  Upon his submission
the King was graciously pleased to send down orders that upon
giving up his arms and coming into Inverness, he might expect
his pardon; yet upon the Pretender's Anvil at Perth and my Lord
Huntly's suggestions to him that now was the time for them to
appear for their King and country, and that what honour they lost
at Dunblane might yet be regained; but while he thus insinuated
to my Lord Seaforth, he  privately found that my Lord Seaforth
had by being an early suitor for the King's pardon, by promising
to lay down his arms, and owning the King's authority, claimed in
a great measure to an assurance of his life and fortune, which he
thought proper for himself to purchase at the rate of disappointing
Seaforth, with hopes of standing by the good old cause, till Seaforth,
with that vain hope, lost the King's favour that was promised
him; which Huntly embraced by taking the very first opportunity
of deserting the Chevalier's cause, and surrendering himself upon
terms made with him of safety to his life and  fortune.  This sounded
so sweet to him that he sleeped so secure as never to dream of any
preservation for a great many good gentlemen that made choice to
stand by him and serve under him that many other worthy nobles who
would die or banish rather that not show their personal bravery,
and all other friendly offices to their adherents." [Lord Lovat's
Account of the taking of Inverness.  "Patten's Rebellion."]

In February, 1716, hopeless of attaining his object, the unfortunate
son of James II. left Scotland, the land of his forefathers, never
to visit it again, and Earl William followed him to the common
resort of the exiled Jacobites of the time.  On the 7th of the
following May an Act of attainder was passed against the Earl
and the other chiefs of the Jacobite party.  Their estates were
forfeited, though practically in many cases, and especially in
that of Seaforth, it was found extremely difficult to carry the
forfeiture into effect.  The Master of Sinclair is responsible for
the base and unfounded allegation that the Earl of Seaforth, the
Marquis of Huntly,  and other Jacobites, were in treaty with the
Government to deliver up the Chevalier to the Duke of Argyll, that
they might procure better terms for themselves than  they could
otherwise expect.  This odious charge, which  is not corroborated
by any other writer, must be looked upon as highly  improbable."
[Fullarton's "Highland Clans," p 471.]  If any proof of the
untruthfulness of this charge be required it will be found in the
fact that the Earl returned afterwards to the Island of Lewis,
and re-embodied his vassals there under an experienced officer,
Campbell of Ormundel, who had served with distinction in the
Russian army; and it was not until a large Government force was
sent over against him, which he found it impossible successfully
to oppose, that he recrossed to the mainland and escaped to France.

Among the "gentlemen prisoners" taken to the Castle of Stirling
on the day following the Battle of Sheriffmuir the following are
found in a list published in Patten's Rebellion - Kenneth Mackenzie,
nephew to Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Coul Joh Maclean, adjutant to
Colonel Mackenzie's Regiment Colonel Mackenzie of Kildin, Captain
of Fairburn's Regiment; Hugh MacRae, Donald MacRae, and Christopher
MacRae.

The war declared against Spain in December, 1718, again revived
the hopes of the Jacobites, who, in accordance with a stipulation
between the British Government and the Duke of Orleans, then Regent
of France, had previously, with the Chevalier and the Duke of
Ormont at their head, been ordered out of France.  They repaired
to Madrid, where they held conferences with Cardinal Alberoni, and
concerted an invasion of Great Britain.  On the 10th of March, 1719,
a fleet, consisting of ten men-of-war and twenty-one transports,
having on board five thousand men, a large quantity of ammunition,
and thirty thousand muskets, sailed from Cadiz under the command
of the Duke of Ormond, with instructions to join the rest of the
expedition at Corunna, and to make a descent at once upon England,
Scotland, and Ireland.  The sorry fate of this expedition is well
known.  Only two frigates reached their destination, the rest having
been dispersed and disabled off Cape Finisterre by a violent storm
which lasted  about twelve days.  The two ships which survived the
storm and reached Scotland had on board the Earl of Seaforth and
Earl Marischal, the Marquis of Tullibardine, some field officers,
three hundred Spaniards, and arms and ammunition for two thousand
men.  They entered Lochalsh about the middle of May; effected a
landing in Kintail and were there joined by a body of Seaforth's
vassals, and a party of Macgregors under command of the famous
Rob Roy; but the other Jacobite chiefs, remembering their previous
disappointments and misfortunes, stood aloof until the whole of
Ormond's forces should arrive.  General Wightman, who was stationed
at Inverness, hearing of their arrival, marched to meet them with
2000 Dutch troops and a detachment of the garrison at Inverness.
Seaforth's forces and their allies took possession of the pass of
Glenshiel, but on the approach of the Government forces they retired
to the pass of Strachell, which they decided to defend at all
hazards.  They were there engaged by General Wightman, who, after
a smart skirmish of about three hours duration, and after inflicting
some loss upon the Jacobites, drove them from one eminence to
another, till night came on, when the Highlanders, their chief having
been seriously wounded, and giving up all hopes of a successful
resistance, retired during the night to the mountains, carrying
Seaforth along with them and the Spaniards next morning surrendered
themselves prisoners of war. [The Spaniards kept their powder magazine
and ball behind the manse, but after the battle of Glenshiel they
set fire to it lest it should fall into the hands of the King's
troops.  These balls are still gathered up by sportsmen, and are
found in great abundance upon the glebe. - "Old Statistical Account
of Kintail."]  Seaforth, Marischal, and Tullibardine, with the other
principal officers, managed to effect their escape to the Western
Isles, from which they afterwards found their way to the Continent.
Rob Roy was placed in ambush with the view of attacking the Royal
troops in the rear and it is  said of him that having more zeal than
prudence he attacked the rear of the enemy's column before they
had become engaged in front his small party was routed, and the
intention of placing the King's troops between two fires was thus
defeated. [" New Statistical Account of Glenshiel," by the Rev. John
Macrae, who gives a minute description of the scenes of the battle,
and informs us that in constructing the parliamentary road which
runs through the Glen a few years before he wrote, several bullets
and pieces of musket barrels were found and the green mounds
which covered the graves of the slain, and the ruins of a rude
breast-work which the Highlanders constructed on the crest of
the hill to cover their position still marked the scene of the
conflict.]  General Wightman sent a detachment to Ellandonnan
Castle, which he ordered to be blown up and demolished.

General Wightman advanced from the Highland Capital by Loch-Ness
and a recent writer pertinently asks, "Why he was allowed to pass by
such a route without opposition?  It is alleged that Marischal and
Tullibardine had interrupted the movements of the invaders by ill
timed altercations about command, but we are provoked to observe
that some extraordinary interposition seems evident to frustrate
every scheme towards forwarding the cause of the ill-fated house
of Stuart.  Had the Chevalier St George arrived earlier, as he
might have done; had William Earl of Seaforth joined the Earl of
Mar some time before, as he ought to have done; and strengthened
as Mar would then have been, had he boldly advanced on Stirling,
as it appears he would have done, Argyll's force would have been
annihilated, and James VIII. proclaimed at the Cross of Edinburgh.
Well did the brave Highlanders indignantly demand, 'What did you
call us to arms for?  Was it to run away?  What did our own King
come for?  Was it to see us butchered by hangmen?'  There was a
fatuity that accompanied all their undertakings which neutralised
intrepidity, devotedness, and bravery which the annals of no
other people can exhibit, and paltry jealousies which stultified
exertions, which, independently of political results, astonished
Europe at large." [Bennetsfield MS.]

An Act of Parliament for disarming the Highlanders was passed in
1716, but in some cases to very little purpose for some of the most
disaffected clans were better armed than ever, although by the Act
the collectors of taxes were allowed to pay for the arms given
in, in no case were any delivered except those which were broken,
old, and unfit for use, and these were valued at prices far above
what they were really worth.   Not only so, but a lively trade
in old arms was carried on with Holland and other Continental
countries, and these arms were sold to the commissioners as Highland
weapons, at exorbitant prices.  General Wade afterwards found in
the possession of the Highlanders a large quantity of arms which
they obtained from the Spaniards who took part in the battle of
Glenshiel, and he computed that the Highlanders opposed to the
Government possessed at this time no less than five or six thousand
arms of various kinds.

Wade arrived in Inverness on the 10th of August, 1723, and in virtue
of another Act passed the same year, he was empowered to proceed
to the Highlands and to summon the clans to deliver up their arms,
and to carry several other recommendations of his own into effect.
On his arrival he immediately proceeded to business, went to Brahan
Castle, and called on the Mackenzies to deliver up their weapons.
He took those presented to him on the word of Murchison, factor
on the estate and by the representation of Sir John Mackenzie Lord
Tarbat, Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Cromarty, and Sir Colin Mackenzie
of Coul, at the head of a large deputation of the clan, he
compromised his more rigid instructions and accepted a selection
of worn-out and worthless arms, and at the same time promised that
if the clan exhibited a willing disposition to comply with the
orders of the Government he would use his influence in the next
Parliament to procure a remission for their chief and his followers;
and we find, that "through his means, and the action of other
minions of Court (Tarbat was then in power), Seaforth received a
simple pardon by letters patent in 1726, for himself and his clan,
whose submission was recognised in the sham form of delivering their
arms, a matter of the less consequence as few of that generation
were to have an opportunity of wielding them again in the same
cause."

General Wade made a report to the Government, from which we take
the following extract: "The Laird of the Mackenzies, and other
chiefs of the clans and tribes, tenants to the late Earl of Seaforth,
came to me in a body, to the number of about fifty, and assured
me that both they and their followers were ready to pay a dutiful
obedience to your Majesty's commands, by a peaceable surrender of
their arms; and if your Majesty would be graciously pleased to
procure them an indemnity for the rents that had been misplaced for
the time past, they would for the future become faithful subjects
to your Majesty, and pay them to your Majesty's receiver for the
use of the public.  I assured them of your Majesty's gracious
intentions towards them, and that they might rely on your Majesty's
bounty and clemency, provided they would merit it by their future
good conduct and peaceable behaviour; that I had your Majesty's
commands to send the first summons to the country they inhabited;
which would soon give them an opportunity of showing the sincerity
of their promises, and of having the merit to set the example to
the rest of the Highlands, who in their turns were to be summoned
to deliver up their arms, pursuant to the Disarming Act; that they
might choose the place they themselves thought most convenient to
surrender their arms; and that I would answer that neither their
persons nor their property should be molested by your Majesty's
troops.  They desired they might be permitted to deliver up their
arms at the Castle of Brahan, the principal seat of their late
superior. who, they said, had promoted and encouraged them to this
their submission; but begged that none of the Highland companies
might be present; for, as they had always been reputed the bravest,
as well as the most numerous of the northern clans, they thought
it more consistent with their honour to resign their arms to your
Majesty's veteran troops; to which I readily consented.  Summonses
were accordingly sent to the  several clans and tribes, the inhabitants
of 18 parishes, who were vassals or tenants of the late Earl of
Seaforth, to bring or send in all their arms and  warlike weapons
to the Castle of Brahan, on or before the 28th of August.  On the
25th of August I went to the Castle of Brahan with a detachment of
200 of the regular troops, and was met there by the chiefs of the
several clans and tribes, who assured me they had used their utmost
diligence in collecting all the arms they were possessed of, which
should be brought thither on the Saturday following, pursuant to
the summons they had received; and telling me they were apprehensive
of insults or depredations from the neighbouring clans of the
Camerons and others, who still continued in possession of their
arms.  Parties of the Highland companies were ordered to guard the
passes leading to their country; which parties continued there
for their protection, till the clans in that neighbourhood were
summoned and had surrendered their arms.  On the day appointed
the several clans and tribes assembled in the adjacent villages,
and  marched in good order through the great avenue that leads to
the Castle; and one after the other laid down their arms in the
court-yard in great quiet and decency, amounting to 784 of the
several species mentioned in the Act of Parliament. The solemnity
with which this was performed had undoubtedly a great influence
over the rest of the Highland clans; and disposed them to pay that
obedience to your Majesty's commands, by a peaceable surrender
of their arms, which they had never done to any of your Royal
predecessors, or in compliance with any law either before or since
the Union."

The  following account of Donald Murchison's proceedings and of
Seaforth's vassals during his exile in France is abridged from
an  interesting and valuable work. [Chambers's "Domestic Annals of
Scotland."]  It brings out in a prominent light the state of the
Highlands and the futility of the power of the Government during that
period in the North.  As regards several of the forfeited estates
which lay in inaccessible situations in the Highlands, the
commissioners had up to this time been entirely baffled, never having
been able even to get them surveyed.  This was so in a very special
manner in the case of the immense territory of the Earl of Seaforth,
extending from Brahan Castle, near Dingwall in the east, across to
Kintail in the west, as well as in the large island of the Lewis.
The districts of Lochalsh and Kintail, on the west coast, the scene
of the Spanish invasion of 1719, were peculiarly difficult of access,
there being no approach from the south, east, or north, except by
narrow and difficult paths, while the western access was only
assailable by a naval force.  To all appearance this tract of ground,
the seat of many comparatively opulent tacksmen and cattle farmers,
was as much beyond the control of  the six commissioners assembled at
their office in Edinburgh, as if it had been amongst the mountains
of Tibet or upon the shores of Madagascar.

For several years after the insurrection, the rents of this district
were collected, without the slightest difficulty, for the benefit
of the exiled Earl, and regularly transmitted to him.  At one
time a large sum was sent to him in Spain.  The chief agent in the
business was Donald Murchison, descendant of a line of faithful
adherents of the "High Chief of Kintail."  Some of the later
generations of the family had been entrusted with the keeping of
Ellandonnan Castle, a stronghold dear to the modern artist as a
picturesque ruin, but formerly of serious importance as commanding a
central point from which radiate Loch Alsh and Loch Duich, in the
midst of the best part of the Mackenzie country.  Donald was a man
worthy of a  more prominent place in his country's annals than he
has yet attained; he acted under a sense of right which, though
unfortunately defiant of Acts of Parliament, was still a very pure
sense of right; and in the remarkable actions which he performed he
looked solely to the good of those towards whom he had a feeling of
duty.  A more disinterested hero - and he was one - neverlived.

When Lord Seaforth brought his clan to fight for King James in
1715, Donald Murchison and an elder brother, John, accompanied him
as field officers of the regiment - Donald as Lieutenant-Colonel,
and John as Major.  The late Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, the
distinguished Geologist, great-grandson of John, possessed a large
ivory and silver "mill," which once contained the commission sent
from France to Donald, as Colonel, bearing the inscription: "James
Rex: forward and spare not."  John fell at Sheriffmuir, in the
prime of life; Donald returning with the remains of the clan, was
entrusted by the banished Earl with the management or estates no
longer legally but still virtually his.  And for this task Donald
was in various respects well qualified, for, strange to say, the
son or the castellan of Ellandonnan - the Sheriffmuir Colonel - had
been "bred a writer" in Edinburgh, and was as expert at the business
of a factor or estate-agent as in wielding the claymore. [For a
short time before the insurrection, he had acted as factor to Sir
John Preston of Preston Hall, in Mid-Lothian, then also a forfeited
estate, but of minor value.]

In bold and avowed insubordination to the Government of George the
First, Mackenzie's tenants continued for ten years to pay their
rents to Donald Murchison, setting at nought all fear of ever
being compelled to repeat the payment to the commissioners.

In 1720 his Majesty's representatives made a movement for asserting
their claims upon the property.  In William Ross of Easterfearn
and Robert Ross, a bailie of Tain, they found two men bold enough to
undertake the duty of stewardship in their behalf over the Seaforth
property, the estates of Grant or Glenmoriston, and or Chisholm of
Strathglass.  Little, however, was done that year beyond sending
out notices to the tenants, and preparing for more strenuous
measures for next year.  The stir they made only produced excitement,
not dismay.  Some of the duine-uasals from about Lochcarron, coming
down with their cattle to the south-country fairs, were heard to
declare that the two factors would never get anything but leaden
coin from the Seaforth tenantry.  Donald went over the whole country
showing a letter he had got from the Earl, encouraging the people
to stand out at the same time telling them that the old Countess
was about to come north with a factory for the estate, when she
would allow as paid for any rents which they might hand to him.
The very first use to be made of this money was to bring both the
old and the young Countesses home immediately to Brahan Castle,
where they were to live as they used to do.  Part of the funds
thus acquired, Murchison used in keeping on foot a party of
some sixty armed Highlanders, who, in virtue of his commission as
colonel, he proposed to employ in resisting any troops of George
the First which might be sent to Kintail.  Nor did he wait to
be attacked, but in June, 1720, hearing of a party of excisemen
passing near Dingwall with a large quantity of aqua vitae, he fell
upon them and rescued their prize.  The collector of the district
reported this transaction to the Board of Excise, but no notice
was taken of it.

In February, 1721, the two factors sent officers of their own
into the western districts, to assure the tenants of good usage,
if they would make a peaceable submission but the men were seized,
robbed of their papers, money, and arms, and quietly sent across
the Frith of Attadale, though only after giving their solemn
assurance that they would never attempt to renew their mission.
Resenting this procedure the two factors caused a constable to take
a military party from Bernera Barracks, Glenelg, into Lochalsh,
and, if possible, capture those who had been guilty.  They made a
stealthy night-march, and took two men; but the alarm was given,
the two men escaped, and began to fire down upon their captors
from a hillside; then they set fire to the bothy as a signal, and
such a coronach went over all Kintail and Lochalsh as made the
soldiers glad to beat a quick retreat.

After some further proceedings, all ineffectual, the two factors
were enabled, on the 13th day of September, to set forth from
Inverness with a party of thirty soldiers and some armed servants
of their own, with the design of enforcing submission to their
claims.  Let it be remembered that in those days there were no
roads in the Highlands, nothing but a few horse-tracks along the
principal lines in the country, where not the slightest effort
had ever been made to smooth away the natural difficulties of the
ground.  In two days the factors reached Invermoriston; but here
they were stopped for three days, waiting for their heavy luggage,
which was storm-stayed in Castle Urquhart, and there nearly taken
in a night attack by a partisan warrior bearing the name of Evan
Roy Macgillivray.  The tenantry of Glenmoriston at first fled with
their cattle, but afterwards a number of them came in and made
the appearance of submission.  The party then moved on towards
Strathglass, while Evan Roy respectfully followed, to pick up any
man or piece of baggage that might be left behind.  At Erchless
Castle, and at Invercannich, seats of the Chisholm, they held
courts, and received the submission of a number of the tenants,
whom, however, they subsequently found to be "very deceitful."

There were now forty or fifty miles of the wildest Highland
country before them, where they had reason to believe they should
meet groups of murderous Camerons and Glengarry Macdonalds, and
also encounter the redoubtable Donald Murchison himself, with
his guard of Mackenzies, unless their military force should be
sufficiently strong to render all such opposition hopeless.  An
arrangement having been made that they should receive an addition
of fifty soldiers from Bernera, with whom to pass through the
most difficult part of their journey, it seemed likely that they
would appear too strong for resistance and, indeed, intelligence
was already coming to them, that "the people of Kintail, being a
judicious opulent people, would not expose themselves to the
punishments of law," and that the Camerons were absolutely determined
to give no further provocation to the Government.  Thus assured,
they set out in cheerful mood along the valley of Strathglass, and,
soon after passing a place called Knockfin, they were reinforced
by Lieutenant Brymer with the expected fifty men from Bernera.
There were now about a hundred well armed men in the invading
body.  They spent the next day (Sunday) together in rest, to
gather strength for the ensuing day's march of about thirty arduous
miles, by which they hoped to reach Kintail.

At four in the morning of Monday, the 2d of October, the  party
went forward, the Bernera men first, and the factors in the rear.
They were as yet far from the height of the country, and from its
more difficult passes; but they soon found that all the flattering
tales of non-resistance were groundless, and that the Kintail men
had come a good way out from that district in order to defend
it.  The truth was, that Donald Murchison had assembled not only
his stated band of Mackenzies, but a levy of the Lewis men under
Seaforth's cousin, Mackenzie of Kildun; also an auxiliary corps of
Camerons, Glengarry and Glenmoriston men, and some of those very
Strathglass men who had been making appearances of submission.
Altogether he had, if the factors were rightly informed, three
hundred and fifty men with long Spanish firelocks, under his command,
and all posted in the way most likely to give them an advantage
over the invading force.

The rear-guard, with the factors, had scarcely gone a mile when
they received a platoon of seven shots from a rising ground near
them to the right, which, however, had only the effect of piercing
a soldier's hat.  The Bernera company left the party at eight
o'clock, as they were passing Lochanachlee, and from this time is
heard of no more; how it made its way out of the country does not
appear.  The remainder still advancing, Easterfearn, as he rode
a little before his men, had eight shots levelled at him from a
rude breast-work near by, and was wounded in two places, but was
able to appear as if he had not been touched.  Then calling out
some Highlanders in his service, he desired them to go before the
soldiers and do their best, according to their own mode of warfare,
to clear the ground of such lurking parties, so that the troops
might advance in safety.  They performed this service pretty
effectually, skirmishing as they went on, and the main body
advanced safely about six miles.  They were here arrived at a
place called Ath-na-Mullach, where the waters, descending from the
Cralich and the lofty mountains of Kintail, issue eastwards through
a narrow gorge into Loch Affric.  It was a place remarkably well
adapted for the purpose of a resisting party.  A rocky boss, called
Torr-a-Bheathaich, then densely covered with birch, closes up the
glen as with a gate.  The black mountain stream, "spear-deep,"
sweeps round it.  A narrow path wound up the rock, admitting of
passengers in single file.  Here lay Murchison with the best of his
people, while inferior adherents were ready to make demonstrations
at a little distance.  As the invading party approached, they
received a platoon from a wood on the left, but nevertheless went
on.  When, however, they were all engaged in toiling up the pass,
forty men concealed in the heather close by fired with deadly
effect, inflicting a mortal wound on Walter Ross, Easterfearn's son
while Bailie Ross's son was wounded by a bullet which swept across
his breast.  The Bailie called to his son to retire, and the order
was obeyed; but the two wounded youths and Bailie Ross's servant
were taken prisoners, and carried up the hill, where they were
quickly divested of clothes, arms, money, and papers.
Easterfearn's son died next morning.  The troops faced the
ambuscade manfully and are said to have given their fire thrice,
and to have beaten the Highlanders from the bushes near them; but,
observing at this juncture several parties of the enemy on the
neighbouring heights, and being informed of a party of sixty in
their rear, Easterfearn deemed it best to temporise.

He thereupon sent forward a messenger to ask who they were that
opposed the King's troops, and what they wanted.  The answer was
that, in the first place, they required to have Ross of Easterfearn
delivered up to  them.  This was pointedly refused; but it was at
length arranged that Easterfearn should go forward and converse
with the leader of the opposing party.  The meeting took place
at Beul-ath-na-Mullach, and Easterfearn found himself confronted
with Donald Murchison.  It ended with Easterfearn giving up his
papers, and covenanting, under a penalty of five hundred pounds,
not to officiate in his factory any more; after which he gladly
departed homewards with his associates, under favour of a guard
of Donald's men to conduct them safely past the sixty men who were
lurking in the rear.  It was alleged afterwards that the commander
was much blamed by his own people for letting the factors off
with their lives and baggage, particularly by the Camerons, who
had been five days at their post with hardly anything to eat;
and Murchison only pacified them by sending them a good supply of
meat and drink.  He had in reality given a very effective check
to the two gentlemen-factors, to one of whom he imparted in
conversation that any scheme of Government stewartship in Kintail
was hopeless, for he and sixteen others had sworn that, if any
person calling himself a factor came there, they would take his
life, whether at kirk or at market, and deem it a meritorious
action, though they should be cut to pieces for it the next minute.

A bloody grave for young Easterfearn in Beauly Cathedral concluded
this abortive attempt to take the Seaforth estates within the scope
of a law sanctioned by statesmen, but against which the natural
feelings of nearly a whole people revolted.

A second attempt was then made to obtain possession of the forfeited
Seaforth estates for the Government.  It was calculated that what
the two factors and their attendants with a small military force
had failed to accomplish in the preceding October, when they were
beaten back with fatal loss at Ath-na-Mullach, might now be effected
by a military party alone, if they should make their approach
through a less critical passage.  A hundred and sixty of Colonel
Kirk's regiment left Inverness under Captain M'Neill, who had at one
time been Commander of the Highland Watch.  They proceeded by
Dingwall, Strathgarve, and Loch Carron, an easier, though a longer
way.  Donald Murchison, nothing daunted, got together his followers,
and advanced to the top of Mam Attadale, by a high pass from Loch
Carron to the bead of Loch Long, separating Lochalsh from Kintail.
Here a gallant relative, Kenneth Murchison, and a few others,
volunteered to go forward and plant themselves in ambush in the
defiles of the Coille Bhan (White Wood), while the bulk of the party
should remain where they were.  It would appear that this ambush
party consisted of thirteen men, all peculiarly well armed.

On approaching this dangerous place the Captain of the invading
party went forward with a sergeant and eighteen men to clear the
wood, while the main body came on slowly in the rear.  At a place
called Altanbadubh, in the Coille Bhan, he encountered Kenneth
and his associates, whose fire wounded himself severely, killed
one of his grenadiers, and wounded several others of the party.
He persisted in advancing, and attacking the handful of natives
with sufficient resolution they slowly withdrew, as unable to
resist; but the Captain now obtained intelligence that a large
body of Mackenzies was posted in the mountain pass of Attadale.
It seemed to him as if there was a design to draw him into a fatal
ambuscade.  His own wounded condition probably warned him that a
better opportunity might occur afterwards.  He turned his forces
about, and made the best of his way back to Inverness.  Kenneth
Murchison quickly rejoined Colonel Donald on Mam Attadale, with the
cheering intelligence that one salvo of thirteen guns had repelled
the hundred and sixty red-coats.  After this we hear of no more
attempts to comprise the Seaforth property.

Strange as it may seem, Donald Murchison, two years after this a
second time resisting the Government troops, came down to Edinburgh
with eight hundred pounds of the Earl's rents, that he might get
the money sent abroad for Seaforth's use.  He remained a fortnight
in the city unmolested.  He on this occasion appeared in the garb
of a Lowland gentleman; he mingled with old acquaintances, "doers"
and writers; and appeared at the Cross amongst the crowd of
gentlemen who assembled there every day at noon.  Scores knew all
about his doings at Ath-na-Mullach and the Coille Bhan; but thousands
might have known without the chance of one of them betraying him
to the Government.

General Wade, in his report to the King in 1725, stated that
the Seaforth tenants, formerly reputed the richest of any in the
Highlands, were now become poor, by neglecting their business,
and applying themselves to the use of arms.  "The rents" he says,
"continue to be collected by one Donald Murchison, a servant of
the late Earl's, who annually remits or carries the same to his
master in France.  The tenants, when in a condition, are said to
have sent him free gifts in proportion to their circumstances,
but are now a year and a-half in arrear of rent.  The receipts he
gives to the tenants are as deputy-factor to the Commissioners of the
Forfeited Estates, which pretended power he extorted from the factor
(appointed by the said Commissioners to collect those rents for the
use of the public), whom he attacked with above four hundred armed
men, as he was going to enter upon the said estate, having with him a
party of thirty of your Majesty's troops.  The last year this
Murchison marched in a public manner to Edinburgh, to remit eight
hundred pounds to France for his master's use, and remained fourteen
days there unmolested.  I cannot omit observing to your Majesty that
this national tenderness the subjects of North Britain have one for
the other is a great encouragement for rebels and attainted persons
to return home from their banishment."

Donald went again to Edinburgh about the end of August, 1725.  On the
2d of September, George Lockhart of Carnwath, writing from that city
to the Chevalier St George, states, amongst other information
regarding his party in Scotland, that Daniel Murchison (as he
calls him) "is come to Edinburgh, on his way to France" - doubtless
charged with a sum of rents for Seaforth. "He's been in quest of
me, and I of him," says Lockhart, "these two days, and missed each
other; but in a day or two he's to be at my country house, where
I'll get time to talk fully with him.  In the meantime, I know
from one that saw him that he has taken up and secured all the
arms of value on Seaforth's estate, which he thought better than
to trust them to the care and prudence of the several owners; and
the other chieftains, I hear, have done the same."

The Commissioners on the forfeited estates concluded their final
report in 1725,  by stating that they had not sold the estate
of William, Earl of Seaforth, "not having been able to obtain
possession and  consequently to give the same to a purchaser."
[In a Whig poem on the Highland Roads, written in 1737, Donald
is characteristically spoken of as a sort of cateran, while, in
reality, as every generous person can now well understand, he was
a high-minded gentleman.  The verses, nevertheless, as well as the
appended note, are curious -

Keppoch, Rob Roy, and Daniel Murchison,
Cadets are servants to some chief of clan,
From theft and robberies scarce did ever cease,
Yet 'scaped the halter each, and died in peace.
This last his exiled master's rents collected,
Nor unto king or law would be subjected.
Though veteran troops upon the confines lay,
Sufficient to make lord and tribe a prey,
Yet passes strong through which no roads were cut,
Safe-guarded Seaforth's clan, each in his hu',
Thus in strongholds the rogue securely lay,
Neither could they by force be driven away,
Till his attainted lord and chief of late
By ways and means repurchased his estate.

"Donald Murchison, a kinsman and servant to the Earl of Seaforth,
bred a writer, a man of small stature, but full of spirit and
resolution, fought at Dunblane against the Government, anno 1715,
but continued thereafter to collect Seaforth's rents for his
lord's use, and had some bickerings with the King's forces on that
account, till, about five years ago, the Government was so tender
as to allow Seaforth to repurchase his estate, when the said Murchison
had a principal band in striking the bargain for his master. How
he fell under Seaforth's displeasure, and died thereafter, is not
to the purpose here to mention."]

The end of Donald's career can scarcely now be passed over in
a slighting manner.  The story is most painful.  The Seaforth of
that day - very unlike some of his successors - proved unworthy of the
devotion which this heroic man had shown to him.  When his lordship
took possession of the estates which Donald had in a manner preserved
for him, he discountenanced and neglected him.  Murchison's noble
spirit pined away under this treatment, and he died in the very
prime of his days of a broken heart.  He lies in a remote little
church-yard in the parish of Urray, where his worthy relative,
the late Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, raised a suitable monument
over his grave.  The traditional account of Donald Murchison,
communicated to Chambers by the late Finlay Macdonald, Druidaig,
states that the heroic commissioner had been promised a handsome
reward for his services; but Seaforth proved ungrateful.  "He was
offered only a small farm called Bun-Da-Loch, which pays at this
day to Mr Matheson, the proprietor, no more than L60 a year;
or another place opposite to Inverinate House, of about the same
value.  It is no wonder he refused these paltry offers.  He shortly
afterwards left this country, and died in the prime of life near
Conon.  On his death-bed, Seaforth went to see him, and asked how
he was, when he said, 'Just as you will be in a short time,' and
then turned his back. They never met again."

The death of George I. in 1726, suggested to the Chevalier a
favourable opportunity for attempting a second Rising, and of again
stirring up his adherents in Scotland, whither he was actually
on his way, until strongly remonstrated with on the folly and
hoplessness of such an  undertaking.  It was pointed out to him that
it could only end in the ruin of his family pretentions, and in
that of many of his friends who might be tempted to enter on the
rash scheme more through personal attachment to himself than from
any reasonable prospect they might see of success.  He therefore
retraced his steps to Boulogne; and the Earl of Seaforth having
been pardoned in the same year, [By letters dated 12th July, 1726,
King  George I. was pleased to discharge him from imprisonment or
the execution of his person on his attainder, and King George II.
made him a grant of the arrears of feu-duties due to the Crown
out of his forfeited  estate.  An Act of Parliament was passed in
1733, to enable William Mackenzie, late Earl of Seaforth, to sue
or maintain any action or suit notwithstanding his attainder, and
to remove any disability in him, by reason of his said attainder,
to take or inherit any real or personal estate that may or shall
hereafter descend to him. - "Wood's Douglas' Peerage."] felt free
once more to return to his native land, where, according to Captain
Matheson, he spent the remainder of his life in retirement, and
"with few objects to occupy him or to interest us beyond the due
regard of his personal friends and the uninterrupted loyalty of
his old vassals."  He must, however, have been in tightened
circumstances, for, on the 27th of June, 1728, he writes a letter to
the Lord Advocate, in which he refers to a request he had made to Sir
Robert Walpole, who advised him to put his claim in writing that it
might be submitted to the King.  This was done, but "the King would
neither allow anything of the kind or give orders to be granted what
his Royal father had granted before.  On hearing this, I could
not forbear making appear how ill I was used.  The Government in
possession of the estate, and I in the interim allowed to starve,
though they were conscious of my complying with whatever I promised
to see put in execution."  He makes a strong appeal to his friend
to contribute to an arrangement that would tend to the mutual
satisfaction of all concerned, "for the way I am now in is most
disagreeable, consequently, if not rectified, will choose rather
to seek my bread elsewhere than continue longer in so unworthy a
situation." ["Culloden Papers," pp. 103-4] Notwithstanding the personal
remission granted in his favour for the part he had taken in the
Rising of 1715, the title of Earl of Seaforth, under which alone
he was proscribed, passed under attainder, while the older and
original dignity of Kintail, which only became subordinate by a
future elevation, remained unnoticed, and, consequently unvitiated
in the male descent of Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail,
granted by patent on the 19th of November, 1609, and it has accordingly
been claimed. [This Act (of Attainder) omits all mention of the
subordinate though older title of "Lord Kintail," which he and
all the collateral branches descended of George, the second Earl,
had taken up and assumed in all their deeds and transactions, though
there was no occasion to use it in Parliament, as they appeared
there as "Earls of Seaforth."  It is questionable therefore, if the
Act of Attainder of "William, Earl of Seaforth," by that designation
only could affect the "barony of Kintail;" and as the designation to
the patentee of it, "Suisque heredibus maxulis," seems to render
the grant an entailed fee agreeable to the 7th of Queen Anne, c. 21,
and the protecting clause of 26th Henry VIII. c. 13, the claimant
George Falconer Mackenzie, is entitled to the benefit of such
remainder, and in fact such remainder was given effect to by the
succession of Earl George to his brother Colin's titles as his heir
male collateral. - "Allangrange Service."]

Earl William married in early life, Mary, the only daughter and
co-heir of Nicholas Kenet of Coxhow, Northumberland, with issue,
three sons -

I.  Kenneth, who succeeded his father.

II.  Ronald, who died unmarried.

III.  Nicholas, who was drowned at Douay, without issue.

IV.  Frances, who married the Hon. John Gordon of Kenmure, whose
father was beheaded in 1715.

He died in 1740 in the Island of Lewis, was buried there in the
Chapel of Ui, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

XVIII.  KENNETH,  LORD  FORTROSE,

Which courtesy title he continued to bear as the subordinate title of
his father; and under this designation he is named as a freeholder
of Ross in 1741.  In the same year be was elected as member
of Parliament for the Burgh of Inverness, for his own County of
Ross in 1747, and again  in  1754.  In 1741, the year after Earl
William's death, the Crown sold the Seaforth estates, including
the lands of Kintail, the barony of Ellandonnan, and others, for
L25,109 8s 31/2d, under burden of an annuity of L1000 to Frances,
Countess Dowager of Seaforth.  The purchase was for the benefit
of Kenneth, Lord Fortrose. [Fraser's "Earls of Cromartie."]  He does
not appear to have passed much of his time in the Highlands, but
about a year after his succession, he seems, from a warrant issued
by his authority to have been in the North.  It is signed by Colin
Mackenzie, Baillie," and addressed to Roderick Mackenzie, officer
of Locks, commanding him to summon and warn Donald Mackenzie,
tacksman of Lainbest, and others, to compear before "Kenneth,
Lord Fortrose, heritable proprietor of the Estate of Seaforth, at
Braan Castle, or before his Lordship's Baron Baillies, or other
judges appointed by him there, upon the 10th day of October next,
to come to answer several unwarrantable and illegal things to be
laid to their charge:"  Dated at "Stornoway, 29th September, 1741."
There is no doubt that in early life Lord Fortrose, during the
exile of his  father, held communications with the representative
of the Stuarts.  It is a common tradition in Kintail to this day
that he and Sir Alexander Macdonald of Sleat were school companions
of the Prince in France, and were among those who first imbued
his mind with the idea of attempting to regain possession of his
ancient Kingdom of Scotland, promising him that they would use their
influence with the other northern chiefs to rise in his favour,
although when the time for action came neither of them joined him.

The unfortunate position in which Kenneth found himself by the
Jacobite proclivities of his ancestors, and especially those of
his father, appears to have made a deep impression upon his mind,
and to have induced him to be more cautious in supporting a cause
which seemed certain to land him in final and utter ruin.  But
though he personally held aloof, several of the clan joined the
Prince, mostly under George, third Earl of Cromarty, and a few
under John Mackenzie, III. of Torridon.  Several young and powerful
Macraes, who strongly sympathised with the  Prince, though
unaccompanied by any of their natural leaders, left Kintail never
again to return and, it is said, that several others had to be
bound with ropes by their friends, to keep them at home.  The
influence of Lord President Forbes weighed strongly with Mackenzie
in deciding him to support the Government, and, in return for his
loyalty, the honours of the house of Seaforth were, in part,
afterwards restored to his son.

In 1744 an exciting incident occurred in Inverness in which his
Lordship played a conspicuous part, and which exemplifies the
impetuous character of the Highland chiefs of the day.  A court of
the Freeholders of the county was being held there at Michaelmas
to elect a collector of the land tax, at which were present, among
others, Lord President Forbes, Norman Macleod of Macleod, Lord
Fortrose, Lord Lovat, and many leading members of the Clan Fraser.
A warm debate upon some burning business arose between Lords Lovat
and Fortrose, when the former gave the latter the lie direct.  To
this Mackenzie replied by giving Lovat a smart blow in the face.
Mutual friends at once intervened between the fiery antagonists.  But
the Fraser blood was up, and Fraser of Foyers, who was present,
interfered in the interest of the chief of his clan, but more,
however, it is said, in that capacity than from any personal esteem
in which he held him.  He felt that in his chief's person the
whole clan had been insulted as if it had actually been a personal
blow to every man of the name, and he instantly sprung down from
the gallery and presented a loaded and cocked pistol at Mackenzie's
head, to whom it would undoubtedly have proved fatal had not one
of the gentlemen present, with great presence of mind, thrown his
plaid over the muzzle, and thus arrested and diverted its contents.
In another moment swords and dirks were drawn on both sides, but
the Lord President and Macleod laid hold of Mackenzie and hurried
him from the Court.  Yet he no sooner gained the outside than
one of the Frasers levelled him to the ground with a blow from a
heavy bludgeon, notwithstanding the efforts of his friends to protect
him.  The matter was, however, afterwards, with great difficulty,
arranged by mutual friends, between the great clans and their
respective chiefs, otherwise the social jealousies and personal
irritations which then prevailed throughout the whole Highlands,
fanned by this incident, would have produced a lasting and bloody
feud between the Frasers and the Mackenzies.

In the following year, shortly after the Lord President arrived at
Culloden from the south, he wrote a letter to Mackenzie dated the
11th of October 1745, in which he tells him that the Earl of Loudon
had come the day before to Cromarty, and brought some "credit"
with him, which "will enable us to put the Independent Companies
together for the service of the Government and for our mutual
protection."  He requested Fortrose to give immediate orders to
pick out those who are first to form one of the companies, that
they might receive their commissions and arms.  Alexander Mackenzie
of Fairburn was to command.  There was, the President said, a report
that Barrisdale had gone to Assynt to raise the men of that country,
to be joined to those of Coigeach, who were said to have orders to
be in readiness to join Macdonald, and with instructions to march
through Mackenzie's territories in order to find out how many of
his Lordship's vassals could be persuaded, by fair means or foul,
to join the standard of the Prince.  "I hope this is not true,"
writes the President; "if it is, it is of the greatest consequence
to prevent it.  I wish Fairburn were at home; your Lordship will
let me know when he arrives, as the Lord Cromarty has refused the
company I intended for his son.  Your Lordship will deliberate to
whom you would have it given." ["Culloden Papers," pp. 421-2.]

Exasperated at this time by the exertions made by President Forbes
to obstruct the designs of the disaffected, a plan was formed to
seize him  by some of the Frasers, a party of whom, amounting to
about 200, attacked Culloden House during the night of the 15th of
October, but the President being on his guard they were repulsed.
[Fraser's "Earls of Cromartie."]

On the 13th of October Mackenzie had written to Forbes that he
surmised some young fellows of his name attempted to raise men for
the Prince, but that he sent expresses to the suspected parts,
with orders to the tenants not to stir under pain of death without
his leave, though their respective masters should be imprudent
enough to desire them to do so.  The messengers returned with the
people's blessings for his protection, and with assurances that they
would do nothing without his orders, "so that henceforward your
Lordship need not be concerned about any idle report from benorth
Kessock."  In a letter dated "Brahan Castle, 19th October 1745," Lord
Fortrose refers to the attempt on the President's house, which, he
says, surprised him extremely, and "is as dirty an action as I ever
heard of," and he did not think any gentleman would be capable of
doing such a thing.  He adds, "as I understand your cattle are taken
away, I beg you will order your steward to write to Colin, or anybody
else here, for provisions, as I can be supplied from the Highlands.
I am preparing to act upon the defensive, and I suppose will soon be
provoked to act on the offensive.  I have sent for a strong party to
protect my house and overawe the country.  None of my Kintail men
will be down till Tuesday, but as the river is high, and I have
parties at all boats, nothing can be attempted.  Besides, I shall
have reinforcements every day.  I have ordered my servants to get,
at Inverness, twelve or twenty pounds of powder with a proportionable
quantity of shot.  If that cannot be bought at Inverness, I must
beg you will write a line to Governor Grant to give my servant the
powder, as I can do without the shot ... Barrisdale has come down
from Assynt, and was collared by one of the Maclauchlans there
for offering to force the people to rise, and he has met with no
success there.  I had a message from the Mackenzies in Argyllshire
to know what they should do.  Thirty are gone from Lochiel; the rest,
being about sixty, are at  home.  I advised them to stay at home and
mind their own business."

On the 28th of the same month his Lordship writes to inform the
President that the Earl of Cromarty and his son, Macculloch of
Glastullich, and Ardloch's brother, came to Brahan Castle on the
previous Friday; that it was the most unexpected visit he had
received for some time, that he did not like to turn them out, that
Cromarty was pensive and dull; but that if he had known what he knew
at the date of writing he would have made them prisoners, for Lord
Macleod went since to Lochbroom and Assynt to raise men.  He enclosed
for the President's use the names of the officers appointed to the
two Mackenzie companies, and intimated that he offered the commission
to both Coul and Redcastle, but that both refused it.  It was from
Coul's house, he says, that Lord Macleod started for the North, and
that vexed him.  On the same day Forbes acknowledges receipt of this
letter, and requests that the officers in the two companies should be
appointed according to Mackenzie's recommedations, "without any
further consideration than that you judge it right," and he desires
to see Sir Alexander of Fairburn for an hour next day to carry a
proposal to his Lordship for future operations.  "I think," he  adds,
"it would be right to assemble still more men about Brahan than you
now have; the expense shall be made good and it will tend to make
Caberfey respectable, and to discourage folly among your neighbours."
In a letter of 6th November the President says, "I supposed that your
Lordship was to have marched Hilton's company into town (Inverness)
on Monday or Tuesday; but I dare say there is a good reason why it
has not been done."

On the 8th of November Mackenzie informs the Lord President that
the Earl of Cromarty had crossed the river at Contin, with about a
hundred men on his way to Beauly, "owing to the neglect of my spies,
as there's rogues of all professions."  Lord Macleod, Cromarty's
son came from Assynt and Lochbroom the same day, and followed his
father to the rendezvous, but after traversing the whole of that
northern district he did not get a single volunteer.  "Not a man
started from Ross-shire, except William, Kilcoy's brother, with
seven men, and a tenant of Redcastle with a few more and if Lentran
and Torridon did go off last night, they did not carry between
them a score of men.  I took a ride yesterday to the westward with
two hundred men, but find the bounds so rugged that it's impossible
to keep a single man from going by if he has a mind.  However, I
threatened to burn their cornyards if anybody was from home this
day, and I turned one house into the river for not finding its
master at home.  It's hard the Government gives nobody in the
North power to keep  people in order.  I don't choose to send a
company to Inverness until I hear what they are determined to do
at Lord Lovat's."

The Earl of Loudon writes to Marshal Wade, then Commander-in-Chief
in the North, under date of 16th November, saying that 150 or 160
Mackenzies, seduced by the Earl of Cromarty, marched in the
beginning of that week up the north side of Loch-Ness, expecting to
be followed by 500 or 600 Frasers, under command of the Master of
Lovat, but the Mackenzies had not on that date passed the mountains.
On the 16th of December Fortrose writes asking for L400 expended by
him during two months on his men going to and coming from the
Highlands, for which he would not trouble him only that he bad a
very "melancholy appearance" of getting his Martinmas rent, as the
people would be glad of any excuse for non-payment, and the last
severe winter, and their having to leave home, would afford them a
very good one.  He was told by the President in reply, that his
letter had been submitted to Lord Loudon, that both of them agreed
that his Lordship's expenses must have been far greater than what
he claimed, "but as cash is very low with us at present, all we can
possibly  do is to let your Lordship have the pay of the two
companies from the date  of the letter signifying that they were
ordered to remain at Brahan for the  service of the Government.
The further expense, which we are both  satisfied it must have
cost your Lordship, shall be made good as soon as  any money to
be applied to contingencies, which we expect, shall come to hand,
and if it should not come so soon as we wish, the account shall
be made up and solicited, in the same manner with what we lay
out of our own purses, which is no inconsiderable sums."  This
correspondence will show the confidence which then existed between
the Government and Lord Fortrose.

On the 9th of December the two Mackenzie companies were marched
into Inverness.   Next day, accompanied by a detachment from
Fort-Augustus, they proceeded to Castle Dounie for the purpose of
bringing Lord Lovat to account.  The crafty old Simon agreed to
come in to Inverness and to deliver up his arms on the 14th of the
month, but instead of doing so he of course made good his escape.

After the battle of Prestonpans, the Government, on the recommendation
of the Earl of Stair, forwarded twenty blank  commissions to
President Forbes, with orders to raise as many companies of 100
men each, among the Highlanders.  Eighteen of the twenty were sent
to the Earls of Sutherland and Cromarty, Lords Fortrose and Reay,
the Lairds of Grant and Macleod, and Sir Alexander Macdonald of
Sleat, with instructions to raise the Highland companies in their
respective districts.  The Earl of Cromarty, while pretending to
comply with the instructions of the Lord President, offered the
command of one of the companies to a neighbouring gentleman, whom
he well knew to be a strong Jacobite, and at the same time made
some plausible excuse for his son's refusal of another of the
commissions.

When Lord John Drummond landed with a body of Irish and Scotch
troops, in the service of the French, to aid Prince Charles, he
wrote to Mackenzie announcing his arrival and earnestly requesting
him to declare at once for the Stuart cause, as the only means
by which he could "now expect to retrieve his character."  All the
means at Drummond's disposal proved futile, and the Mackenzies
were thus kept out of the Rising of 1745.

That Prince Charles fully appreciated the importance of having the
Mackenzies led by their natural chief, for or against him, will be
seen from Lord Macleod's Narrative of the Rebellion. [Printed at
length in  Fraser's "Earls of Cromartie."]  "We set out," his Lordship
says, "from Dunblain on the 12th of January, and arrived the same
evening at Glasgow.  I immediately went to pay my respects to the
Prince, and found that he was already set down to supper.  Dr
Cameron told Lord George Murray, who sat by the Prince, who I was,
on which the Lord Murray introduced me to the Prince, whose hand
I had the honour to kiss, after which the Prince ordered me to
take my place at the table.  After supper I followed the Prince to
his apartment to give him an account of his affairs in the North,
and of what had passed in these parts during the time of his
expedition to England.  I found that nothing surprised the Prince
so much as to hear that the Earl of Seaforth had declared against
him, for he heard without emotion the names of the other people
who had joined the Earl of Loudon at Inverness; but when I told him
that Seaforth had likewise sent two hundred men to Inverness for
the service of the Government, and that he had likewise hindered
many gentlemen of his clan from joining my father (the Earl of
Cromarty) for the service of the Stuarts, he turned to the French
Minister and said to him, with some warmth, "Hc! mon Dieu! et
Seaforth est aussi contre moi!""

At this stage a hero named Mackenzie, who had done good service
to the Prince in his wanderings through the Highlands after the
battle of Culloden, may be mentioned.  Such a small tribute is due
to the gallant Roderick Mackenzie, whose intrepidity and presence
of mind in the last agonies of death, saved his Prince from pursuit
at the time, and was consequently the means of his ultimate escape
in safety to France.  Charles had been pursued with the most
persevering assiduity, but Roderick's ruse proved so successful on
this occasion that further search was for a time considered
unnecessary.  Mackenzie was a young man, of respectable family, who
joined the Prince at Edinburgh, and served as one of his life-guards.
Being about the same age as his Royal Highness, and, like him, tall,
somewhat slender, and with features in some degree resembling his, he
might, by ordinary observers not accustomed to see the two together,
have passed for the Prince himself.  As Roderick could not venture
with safety to return to Edinburgh, where still lived his two maiden
sisters, he after the battle of Culloden fled to the Highlands and
lurked among the hills of Glenmoriston, where, about the middle of
July, he was surprised by a party of Government soldiers.  Mackenzie
endeavoured to escape, but, being overtaken, he turned on his
pursuers,  and, drawing his sword, bravely defended himself.  He was
ultimately shot by one of the red-coats, but as he fell, mortally
wounded, he exclaimed,  "You have killed your Prince!  You
have killed your Prince!" whereupon  he immediately expired.  The
soldiers, overjoyed at their supposed good fortune, cut off his
head, and hurried off to Fort-Augustus with their prize.  The Duke
of Cumberland, quite convinced that he had now obtained the head of
his Royal relative, packed it up carefully, ordered a post-chaise,
and at once went off to London, taking the head along with him.
After his  arrival the deception was discovered, but meanwhile it
proved of great  assistance to Prince Charles in his ultimately
successful efforts to escape.

Shortly after the battle of Culloden a fleet of ships appeared off
the coast of Lochbroom, under the command of Captain Fergusson.
They dropped anchor at Loch-Ceannard, when a large party went ashore
and proceeded up the Strath to the residence of Mr Mackenzie of
Langwell, connected by marriage with the Earl of Cromarty.  Langwell
having supported the Prince, fled out of the hated Fergusson's
way; but his lady was obliged to remain at home to attend to a
large family of young children, who were at the time laid up with
smallpox.  The house was ransacked.  A large chest containing the
family and other valuable papers, including a wadset of Langwell
and Inchvannie from her relative, George, Earl of Cromarty, was
burnt before her eyes; and about fifty head of fine Highland cattle
were mangled by the swords and driven to the ships of the spoilers.
Nor did this satisfy them.  They committed similar depredations,
without any discrimination between friend or foe, for eight days
during which they remained in the neighbourhood. ["New Statistical
Account of  Lochbroom."]

It is well known that Mackenzie had strong Jacobite feelings
although his own prudence and the influence of Lord President Forbes
secured his support for the Government.  "Though many respectable
individuals of the Clan Mackenzie had warmly espoused the cause of
Charles, Lord Fortrose seems at no time to have proclaimed openly
for him, whatever hopes he might have countenanced when in personal
communication with the expatriated Sovereign, as indeed there is
cause to infer something of the kind from a letter which, towards
the end of  November, 1745, was addressed by Lord John Drummond to
Kenneth, pressing him instantly to join the Prince, then successfully
penetrating the West of England, and qualifying the invitation by
observing that it was the only mode for his Lordship to retrieve
his character.  Yet so little did Fortrose or his immediate followers
affect the cause, that when Lord Lovat blockaded Fort-Augustus,
two companies of Mackenzies, which bad been stationed at Brahan,
were withdrawn, and posted by Lord Loudon, the commander-in-chief
of the Government forces, at Castle Dounie, the stronghold of
Fraser and, with the exception of these, the Royal party received
no other support from the family of Seaforth, though many gentlemen
of the clan served in the King's army.  Yet it appears that a still
greater number, with others whose ancestors identified themselves
with the fortunes of the House of Kintail, were inclined to espouse
the more venturous steps of the last of the Stuarts.  George, the
last Earl of Cromarty, being then paramount in power, and, probably
so, in influence, even to the chief himself, having been, for
certain reasons, liable to suspicions as to their disinterested
nature, declared for Charles, and under his standard his own levy,
with all the Jacobite adherents of the clan, ranged themselves,
and were mainly instrumental in neutralizing Lord Loudon's and the
Laird of Macleod's forces in the subsequent operations of 1746,
driving them with the Lord President Forbes, to take shelter in
the Isle of Skye." [Bennetsfield MS.]

Kenneth married on the 11th of September, 1741, Lady Mary,  eldest
daughter of Alexander Stewart, sixth Earl of Galloway, with issue -

I.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

II.  Margaret, who on the 4th of June, married William Webb.

III.  Mary, who married Henry Howard, of Effingham, with issue.

IV.  Agnes, who married J. Douglas.

V.  Catherine, who on the 1st of March, 1773, married Thomas Griffin
Tarpley, student of medicine.

VI.  Frances, who married General Joseph Wald.

VII.  Euphemia, who, on the 2nd of April, 1771, married William
Stewart of Castle Stewart, M.P. for the County of Wigton.

His wife died in London on the 18th of April, 1751, and was buried
at Kensington, where a monument was raised to her memory.  Kenneth
died, also in London, on the 19th of October, 1761, and was buried
in Westminster Abbey, when he was succeeded by his only son,

XIX.  KENNETH,  SIXTH  EARL  OF  SEAFORTH,

Viscount Fortrose, and Baron Ardelve, in the Peerage of Ireland.
From his small stature, he was generally known among the Highlanders
as the "Little Lord."  He was born in Edinburgh on the 15th of
January, 1744, and at an early age entered the army.  As a return
for his father's loyalty to the House of Hanovar in 1745, and his
own steady support of the reigning family, George III., in 1764,
raised him to the peerage by the title of Baron Ardelve.  He was
created Viscount Fortrose in 1766, and in 1771, Earl of Seaforth,
all in the peerage of Ireland.  To evince his gratitude for this
magnanimous act, he, in 1778, offered to raise a regiment for general
service.  The offer was accepted by his Majesty, and a fine body
of 1130 men were in a very short time raised by his Lordship,
principally on his own estates in the north and by gentlemen
of his own name.  Of these, five hundred were enlisted among his
immediate vassals, and about four hundred from the estates of the
Mackenzies of Scatwell, Kilcoy, Redcastle, and Applecross.  The
officers from the south to whom he gave commissions in the regiment
brought about two hundred men, of whom forty-three were English
and Irish.  The Macraes of Kintail, always such faithful followers
and able supporters of the House of Seaforth, were so numerous
in the new regiment that it was known more by their name than by
that of Seaforth's own kinsmen, and so much was this the case
that the well-known mutiny which took place in Edinburgh, on the
arrival of the  regiment there, is still known as "the affair of
the Macraes." [The Seaforth  Highlanders were marched to Leith,
where they were quartered for a short interval, though long enough
to produce complaints about the infringement of their engagements,
and some pay and bounty which they said were due them.  Their
disaffection was greatly increased by the activity of emissaries
from Edinburgh, like those just mentioned as having gone down
front London to Portsmouth.  The regiment refused to embark, and
marching out of Leith, with pipes playing and two plaids fixed
on poles instead of colours, took a position on Arthur's Seat,
of which they kept possession for several days, during which time
the inhabitants of Edinburgh amply supplied them with provisions
and ammunition.  After much negotiation, a proper understanding
respecting the cause of their complaint was brought about, and
they marched down the hill in the same manner in which they had
gone up, with pipes playing; and "with the Earls of Seaforth and
Dunmore, and General Skene, at their head, they entered Leith,
and went on board the transports with the greatest readiness, and
cheerfulness."  In this case, as in that of the Athole Highlanders,
none of he men were brought to trial, or even put into confinement
for these acts of open resistance. - "Stewart's Sketches - Appendix"
p. lxvviv.]  The regiment was embodied at Elgin in May, 1778,
and inspected there by General Skene, when it was so effective
that not a single man was rejected.  Seaforth, appointed Colonel
on the 29th of  December, 1777, was now promoted to the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant, and the regiment was called the 78th
(afterwards the 72nd),  or Ross-shire Regiment of Highlanders.

The grievances complained of at Leith being removed, the regiment
embarked at that port, accompanied by their Colonel, and the
intention of sending them to India having been abandoned, one half
of the corps was sent to Guernsey and the other half to Jersey.
Towards the end of April, 1781, the two divisions assembled
at Portsmouth, whence they embarked for India on the 12th of
June following, being then 973 strong, rank and file.  Though in
excellent health, the men suffered so much from scurvy, in consequence
of the change of food, that before their arrival at Madras, on
the 2d of April, 1782, no fewer than 247 of them died. and out of
those who landed alive only 369 were fit for service.  Their Chief
and Colonel died in August, 1781, before they arrived at St Helena,
to the great grief and dismay of his faithful followers, who looked
up to him as their principal source of encouragement and support.
His loss was naturally associated in their minds with recollections
of home, with melancholy remembrances of their absent kindred,
and with forebodings of their own future destiny and so strong
was this feeling impressed upon them that it materially contributed
to that prostration of mind which made them all the more readily
become the victims of disease.  They well knew that it was on
their account alone that he had determined to forego the comforts
of a splendid fortune and high rank to encounter the privations and
inconveniences of a long voyage and the dangers and other fatigues
of  military service in a tropical climate. ["Stewart's Sketches,"
and Fullarton's "History of the Highland Clans and Highland
Regiments."]

His Lordship married on the 7th of October, 1765, Lady Caroline
Stanhope, eldest daughter of William, second Earl of Harrington,
and by her - who died in London from consumption, from which she
suffered for nearly two years, on the 9th of February, 1767, at
the early age of twenty,  ["Scots' Magazine" for 1767, p. 533.] and
was buried at Kensington - he had issue, an only daughter, Lady
Caroline, who was born in London on the 7th of July, 1766.  She
formed an irregular union with Lewis Malcolm Drummond, Count
Melfort, a nobleman of the Kingdom of France, originally of Scottish
extraction, and died in 1547.  She is buried under a flat stone
inscribed with her name in the St Pancras (Old) Burial Ground,
London.

Thus the line of George, second Earl of Seaforth, who died in
1633, became extinct; and the reader must therefore now accompany
us back to Kenneth Mor, the third Earl, to pick up the chain of
legitimate succession.  It has been already shown that the lineal
descent of the original line of Kintail was diverted from heirs
male in the person of Anna, Countess of Balcarres, daughter of
Colin, first Earl of Seaforth.

Kenneth Mor, the third Earl, had four sons - (1)  Kenneth Og, his heir
and successor, whose line terminated in Lady Caroline, as above; (2)
John of Assynt, whose only son, Alexander, had an only son Kenneth,
who  died in 1723 without issue; (3)  Hugh, who died young; and (4)
Colonel Alexander, afterwards designated of Assynt and Conansbay,
who, as his second wife, married Elizabeth, daughter of John
Paterson, Bishop of Ross, and sister of John Paterson, Archbishop of
Glasgow.  Colonel Alexander had no issue by his first wife, but by
the second he had an only son and six daughters.  The daughters were
(1)  Isabella, who married Basil Hamilton of Baldoon, became the
mother of Dunbar, fourth Earl of Selkirk, and died in 1725; (2)
Frances, who married her cousin, Kenneth Mackenzie of Assynt, without
issue; (3)  Jane, who married Dr Mackenzie, a cadet of Coul, and died
at New Tarbat, on the 18th of  September, 1776; (4)  Mary, who married
Captain Dougall Stuart of Blairhall, a Lord of Session and Justiciary,
and brother of the first Earl of Bute, with issue; (5)  Elizabeth,
who died unmarried at Kirkcudbright, on the 12th of March, 1796,
aged 81; and (6)  Maria, who married Nicholas Price of Saintfield,
County Down, Ireland, with issue.  She was maid of honour to
Queen Caroline, and died in 1732.  Colonel Alexander's only son was,

Major William Mackenzie, who died on the 12th of March, 1770.  He
married Mary, daughter and co-heir of Matthew Humberston, Lincoln,
with issue, two sons - (1)  Thomas Frederick Mackenzie, Colonel of the
100th Regiment of foot, who assumed the name of Humberston in addition
to his own on succeeding to his mother's property; and (2)  Francis
Humberston Mackenzie.  Both of Major William's sons ultimately
succeeded to the Seaforth estates.  He had also four daughters - (1)
Frances Cerjat, who married Sir Vicary Gibbs, M.P., his Majesty's
Attorney-General, with issue; (2)  Maria Rebecca, who married
Alexander Mackenzie of Breda, younger son of James Mackenzie, III. of
Highfield, with issue, six sons - William, a Lieutenant in the 78th
Highlanders, who died at Breda, in Holland, from a wound which he
received on the previous day at the taking of Merxein, in 1814 Thomas,
a Midshipman, R.N., drowned at sea; Frederick, R.N., murdered at
Calcutta in 1820; Francis, R.N., drowned at sea in 1828; and Colin,
all without issue; also Captain Alexander, of the 25th Regiment,
subsequently Adjutant of the Ross-shire Militia, who married Lilias
Dunbar, daughter of James Fowler of Raddery, with issue - James Evan
Fowler, who died unmarried; Alexander, now residing at Fortrose, and
three daughters who died unmarried; (3)  Elizabeth, who died without
issue; and (4)  Helen, who married Major-General Alexander
Mackenzie-Fraser of Inverallochy, fourth son of Colin Mackenzie, VI.
of Kilcoy, Colonel of the 78th Regiment, and M.P. for the County of
Ross, with issue.

Major William died on the 12th of March, 1770, at Stafford, Lincolnshire.
His wife died on the 19th of February, 1813, at Hartley, Herts. His
eldest son,

Colonel Thomas Frederick Mackenzie-Humberston, it will be seen, thus
became male heir to his cousin, Earl Kenneth, who died, without male
issue, in 1781.  The Earl, finding his property heavily encumbered
with debts from which he could not extricate himself, conveyed the
estates to his cousin and heir male, Colonel Thomas, in 1779, on
payment of L100,000.  Earl Kenneth died, as already stated, in 1781,
and was succeeded by his cousin,

XX.  COLONEL  THOMAS  FREDERICK  MACKENZIE-HUMBERSTON,

In all his estates, and in the command of the 78th Ross-shire
Highland Regiment, but not in the titles and dignities, which
terminated with his predecessor.  When the 78th was raised, in
1778, Thomas Frederick Mackenzie-Humberston was a captain in the
1st Regiment of Dragoon Guards, but he gave this up and accepted
a captaincy in Seaforth's regiment of Ross-shire Highlanders.
He was afterwards quartered with the latter in Jersey, and took
a prominent share in repelling the attack made on that island by
the French.  On the 2nd of September, 1780, he was appointed from
the 78th as Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant of the 100th Foot.

In 1781 he embarked with this regiment to the East Indies, and was
at Port Preya when the outward bound East India fleet under Commodore
Johnston was attacked by the French.  He happened at the time to
be ashore, but such was his ardour to share in the action that he
swam to one of the ships engaged with the enemy.  Immediately on
his arrival in India he obtained a separate command on the Malabar
Coast, but in its exercise he met with every possible discouragement
from the Council of Bombay.  This, however, only gave a man of his
spirit greater opportunity of distinguishing himself, for, under all
the disadvantages of having funds, stores, and reinforcements
withheld from him, he undertook, with 1000 Europeans and 2500 Sepoys
to wage an offensive war against Calicut.  He was conscious of great
personal resources, and harmony, confidence, and attachment on the
part of his officers and men.  He finally drove the enemy out of the
country, defeated them in three different engagements, took the city
of Calicut, and every other place of strength in the kingdom.  He
concluded a treaty with the King of Travancore, who was reinforced
by  a body of 1200 men.  Tippoo then proceeded against him with
an army of  30,000, more than one-third of them cavalry; Colonel
Mackenzie-Humberston repelled their attack, and by a rapid march
regained the Fort of Panami, which the enemy attempted to carry,
but he defeated them with great loss.  He served under General
Matthews against Hyder Ali in 1782; but during the operations of
that campaign, Matthews gave such proofs of incapacity and injustice,
that Colonels Macleod and Humberston carried their complaints to
the Council of Bombay, where they arrived on the 26th of February,
1783.  The Council ordered General Matthews to be superseded,
appointed Colonel Macleod to succeed him in command of the army,
and desired Colonel Humberston to join him.  They both sailed from
Bombay on the 5th of April, 1783, in the "Ranger" sloop of war; but,
notwithstanding that peace had been concluded with the Mahrattas,
their ship was attacked on the 8th of that month by the Mahratta
fleet, and after a desperate resistance of four hours, captured.
All the officers on board were either killed or wounded, among
them the young and gallant Colonel Mackenzie-Humberston, who was
shot through the body with a four pound ball, and he died of the
wound at Geriah, on the 30th April, 1783, in the 28th year of his
age.  A fine monument is erected to his memory in Fortrose Cathedral.
He had only been Chief of the Clan for two years, and, dying
unmarried, he was succeeded as head of the house and in the family
estates by his next and only lawful brother, ["Douglas' Peerage."
He had a natural son, Captain Humberston Mackenzie, of the 78th,
killed at the storming of Ahmadnugger, on the 8th of August, 1803.]

XXI.  FRANCIS  HUMBERSTON  MACKENZIE,

Raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom as Lord Seaforth and
Baron Mackenzie of Kintail, in 1797.  This nobleman was in many
respects an able and remarkable man, was born in 1754, in full
possession of all his faculties but a severe attack of scarlet
fever, from which he suffered when about twelve years of age,
deprived him of hearing and almost of speech.  As he advanced in
years he again nearly recovered the use of his tongue, but during
the last two years of his life, grieving over the loss of his four
promising sons, all of whom predeceased him, he became unable, or
rather never made the attempt to articulate.  In his youth he was
intended to follow the naval profession, but his physical
misfortunes made such a career impossible.

Little or nothing is known of the history of his early life.  In
1784, and again in 1790, he was elected M.P. for the County of Ross.
In 1787, in the thirty-third year of his age, he offered to raise a
regiment on his own estates for the King's service, to be commanded
by himself.  In the same year the 74th, 75th, 76th, and 77th
Regiments were raised, and the Government declined his patriotic
offer, but agreed to accept his services in procuring recruits
for the 74th and 75th.  This did not satisify him, and he did not
then come prominently to the front.  On the 19th of May 1790, he
renewed his offer, but the Government informed him that the
strength  of the army had been finally fixed at 77 Regiments, and
his services were again declined.  He was still anxious to be of
service to his country, and  when the war broke out in 1793, he for
the third time renewed his offer, and placed  his great influence
at the service of the Crown.  On this occasion a letter of
service is granted in his favour, dated the 7th of March, 1793,
empowering him, as Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant, to raise a Highland
battalion, which, being the first embodied during the war, was to
be numbered the 78th, the original Mackenzie regiment having had
its number previously reduced to the 72d.  The battalion was to
consist of one company of grenadiers, one of light infantry, and
eight battalion companies.  The Mackenzie chief at once appointed
as his Major his own brother-in-law, Alexander Mackenzie, at
that time of Belmaduthy but afterwards of Inverallochy and Castle
Fraser, fourth and younger son of Colin Mackenzie, VI. of Kilcoy,
then a captain in the 73d Regiment, and a man who proved himself
on all future occasions well fitted for the post.  The following
notice, headed by the Royal arms, was immediately posted throughout
the counties of Ross and Cromarty, on the mainland, and in the
Island of Lewis:

"SEAFORTH'S  HIGHLANDERS  to be forthwith raised for the defence
of his Glorious Majesty, King George the Third, and the preservation
of our happy constitution in Church and State.

"All lads of true Highland blood willing to show their loyalty and
spirit, may repair to Seaforth, or the Major, Alexander Mackenzie of
Belmaduthy or the other commanding officers at headquarters at     ,
where they will receive high bounties and soldier-like entertainment.

"The lads of this regiment will live and die together, as they
cannot be draughted into other regiments, and must be reduced in
a body, in their own country.

"Now for a stroke at the Monsieurs, my boys!  King George for ever!
Huzza!"

The machinery once set agoing, applications poured in upon Seaforth
for commissions in the corps from among his more immediate relatives,
and from others who were but slightly acquainted with him.  [Besides
Seaforth himself, and his Major mentioned in the text, the  following,
of the name of Mackenzie, appear among the first list of officers:

Major. - Alexander Mackenzie of Fairburn, General in 1809.

Captains. - John Mackenzie of Gairloch, "Fighting Jack," Major in
1794.  Lieutenant-Colonel the same year and Lieutenant-General in 1814;
died the father of the British Army in 1860; and John Randoll Mackenzie
of Suddie, Major-General in 1804, killed at Talavera in 1809.

Lieutenant. - Colin Mackenzie, Lieutenant-Colonel 91st Regiment.

Ensigns. - Charles Mackenzie, Kilcoy; and J. Mackenzie Scott, Captain
57th Regiment; killed at Albuera.]

The martial spirit of the people soon became thoroughly roused,  and
recruits came in so rapidly that on the 10th of July, 1793, only
four months after the letter of service to Seaforth, the Regiment
was marched to Fort-George, inspected and passed by Lieutenant-General
Sir Hector Munro, when five companies were immediately embarked
for Guernsey and the other five companies were landed in Jersey
in September, 1793, and afterwards sent to Holland.

On the 13th of October, the same year, Mackenzie offered to raise
a second battalion for the 78th, and on the 30th of the same month
the King gave him permission to raise five hundred additional men on
the original letters of service.  But this was not what he wanted,
and on the 28th of December following he submitted to the Government
three alternative proposals for raising a second battalion.  On the
7th of February, 1794, one of these was agreed to.  The battalion
was to be formed of eight battalion and two flank companies,
each to consist of 100 men, with the usual number of officers and
noncommissioned officers.  He was, however, disappointed by the
Government; for while he intended to have raised a second battalion
for his own regiment, an order was issued signed by Lord Amherst,
that it was to be considered a separate corps, whereupon the
Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant addressed the following protest to Mr
Dundas, one of the Secretaries of State:

St Alban Street, 8th February, 1794.

Sir, - I had sincerely hoped I should not be obliged to trouble you
again; but on my going to-day to the War Office about my letter
of service (having yesterday, as I thought, finally agreed with
Lord Amherst), I was, to my amazement, told that Lord Amherst had
ordered that the 1000 men I am to raise were not to be a second
battalion of the 78th, but a separate corps.  It will, I am sure,
occur to you that should I undertake such a thing, it would destroy
my influence among the people of my country entirely and instead
of appearing as a loyal honest chieftain calling out his friends
to support their King and country, I should be gibbeted as a jobber
of the attachment my neighbours bear to me.  Recollecting what
passed between you and me, I barely state the circumstance; and I
am, with great respect and attachment, sir, your most obliged and
obedient servant,

F. H. MACKENZIE.

This had the desired effect the order for a separate corps was
rescinded, and a letter of service was issued in his favour on the
10th of February, 1794, authorising him, as Lieutenant-Colonel-
Commandant, to add the new battalion, the strength of which was to
be one company of  grenadiers, one of light infantry, and eight
battalion companies, to his own  regiment.  The regiment was soon
raised, inspected and passed at Fort-George in June of the same year
by Lieutenant-General Sir Hector Munro; and in July following the
King gave permission to have it named, as a distinctive title,
"The Ross-shire Buffs."  The two battalions were amalgamated in
June, 1796.  Another battalion was raised in 1804 - letter of service,
dated 17th April.  These were again amalgamated in July, 1817.

Although the regiment was not accompanied abroad by its
Lieutenant-Colonel-Commandant, he continued most solicitous for its
reputation and welfare, as we find from the various communications
addressed to him regarding it and the conduct of the men by
Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Mackenzie of Fairburn, appointed its
Lieutenant-Colonel from the first battalion, [John Randoll Mackenzie,
also from the  first battalion, was appointed senior Major.] and
then in actual command; but as the history of the 78th Highlanders
is not our present object, we must here part company with it and
follow the future career of Francis Humberston Mackenzie.

As a reward for his eminent services to the Government he was
appointed Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Ross, and, on the 26th
of October, 1797, raised to the dignity of a peer of the United
Kingdom, by the titles of Lord Seaforth and Baron Mackenzie of
Kintail, the ancient dignities of his house, with limitation to
the heirs male of his body.  His Lordship, having resigned the command
of the 78th, was, in 1798, appointed Colonel of the Ross-shire
Regiment of Militia.  In 1800 he was appointed Governor of Barbadoes,
an office which he retained for six years, after which he held high
office in Demerara and Berbice.  While Governor of Barbadoes he was
for a time extremely popular, and was distinguished for his firmness
and even-handed justice.  He succeeded in putting an end to slavery,
and to the practice of slave-killing in the island, which at that time
was of very common occurrence, and deemed by the  planters a venal
offence punishable only by a small fine of œ15.  In consequence
of his humane proceedings in this matter he became obnoxious to
many of the colonists, and, in 1806, he finally left the island.  In
1808 he was made a Lieutenant-General.

These were singular incidents in the life of a man who may be
said to have been deaf and dumb from his youth but who, in spite
of these physical defects - sufficient to crush any ordinary man -
had been able, by the force of his natural abilities and the favour
of fortune, to overcome them sufficiently to raise himself to such
a high and important position in  the world.  He took a lively
interest in all questions of art and science, especially in natural
history, and displayed at once his liberality and his love of
art by his munificence to Sir Thomas Lawrence, in the youth and
struggles of that great artist and famous painter, and by his
patronage of  others. On this point a recent writer says - "The
last baron of Kintail, Francis. Lord Seaforth, was, as Sir Walter
Scott has said, 'a nobleman of extraordinary talents, who must
have made for himself a lasting reputation had not his political
exertions been checked by painful natural infirmities.'  Though deaf
from his sixteenth year and though labouring under a partial
impediment of speech, he held high and important appointments, and
was distinguished for his intellectual activities and attainments
... His case seems to contradict the opinion held by Kitto and others,
that in all that  relates to the culture of the mind, and the
cheerful exercise of the mental faculties, the blind have the
advantage of the deaf.  The loss of the ear,  that 'vestibule of
the soul,' was to him compensated by gifts and endowments rarely
united in the same individual.  One instance of the  chief's
liberality and love of art may be mentioned.  In 1796 he advanced
a sum of L1000 to Sir Thomas Lawrence to relieve him from pecuniary
difficulties.  Lawrence was then a young man of twenty-seven.  His
career from a boy upwards was one of brilliant success, but he was
careless and generous as to money matters, and some speculations
by his father embarassed and distressed the young artist.  In his
trouble he applied to the Chief of Kintail.  'Will you,' he said
in that theatrical style common to Lawrence, 'will you be the
Antonio to a Bassanio?'  He promised to pay the L1000 in four years,
but the money was given on terms the most agreeable to the feelings
and complimentary to the talents of the artist.  He was to repay it
with his pencil, and the chief sat to him for his portrait.  Lord
Seaforth also commissioned from West one of those immense sheets of
canvas on which the old Academician delighted to work in his latter
years.  The subject of the picture was the traditionary story of the
Royal hunt, in which Alexander the Third was saved from the assault
of a fierce stag by Colin Fitzgerald, a wandering knight unknown to
authentic history.  West considered it one of his best productions,
charged L800 for it, and was willing some years afterwards, with a
view to the exhibition of his works, to purchase back the picture
at its original cost.  In one instance Lord Seaforth did not evince
artistic taste.  He dismantled Brahan Castle removing its
castellated features and completely modernising its general
appearance.  The house, with its large modern additions, is a tall,
massive pile of building, the older portion covered to the roof with
ivy.  It occupies a commanding site on a bank midway between the
river Conon and a range of picturesque rocks.  This bank extends for
miles, sloping in successive terraces, all richly wooded or
cultivated, and commanding a magnificent view that terminates with
the Moray Firth." ["The Seaforth  Papers," in the "North British
Review," 1863, by Robert Carruthers, LL.D.]

The remarkable prediction of the extinction of this highly
distinguished and ancient family is so well known that it need not
be  recapitulated here, and its literal fulfilment is one of the
most curious instances of the kind on record.  There is no doubt
that the "prophecy" was widely known throughout the Highlands
generations before it was fulfilled.  Lockhart, in his "Life of
Sir Walter Scott," says that "it connected the fall of the house of
Seaforth not only with the appearance of a deaf 'Cabarfeidh,'
but with the contemporaneous appearance of various different
physical misfortunes in several of the other Highland chiefs, all
of which are said to have actually occurred within the memory of
the generation that has not yet passed away.  Mr Morrit can testify
thus far, that he heard the prophecy quoted in the Highlands at a
time when Lord Seaforth had two sons alive, and in good health,
and that it certainly was not made after the event," and then he
proceeds to say that Scott and Sir Humphrey Davy were most certainly
convinced of its truth, as also many others who had watched the
latter days of Seaforth in the light of those wonderful predictions.
[Every Highland family has its store of traditionary and romantic
beliefs.  Centuries ago a seer of the Clan Mackenzie, known as
Kenneth Oag (Odhar), predicted that when there should be a deaf
Caberfae the gift land of the estate would be sold, and the male
line  become extinct.  The prophecy was well known in the North,
and it was not, like many similar vaticinations, made after the
event.  At least three unimpeachable Sassenach writers, Sir Humphrey
Davy, Sir Walter Scott, and Mr Morritt of Rokeby, had all heard
the prediction when Lord Seaforth had two sons alive, both in good
health.  The tenantry were, of course, strongly impressed with the
truth of the prophecy, and when their Chief proposed to sell part
of Kintail, they offered to buy in the land for him, that it might
not pass from the family.  One son was then living, and there was
no immediate prospect of the succession expiring; but, in deference
to their clannish prejudice or affection, the sale of any portion
of the estate was deferred for about two years.  The blow came at
last.  Lord Seaforth was involved in West India plantations, which
were mismanaged, and he was forced to dispose of part of the "gift
land."  About the same time the last of his four sons, a young man
of talent and eloquence, and then representing his native county in
Parliament, died suddenly, and thus the prophecy of Kenneth Oag
was fulfilled. -

"Of the name of Fitzgerald remained not a male
To bear the proud name of the Chief of Kintail."

--Robert Carruthers, LL.D., in the "North British Review."]

His Lordship outlived all his four sons, as predicted by the Brahan
Seer.  His name became extinct, and his vast possessions were
inherited  by a stranger, James Alexander Stewart, who married his
eldest daughter, Lady Hood.  The sign by which it would be known
that the prediction was about to be fulfilled was also foretold in
the same remarkable manner, namely, that in the day's of the last
Seaforth there should be four great contemporary lairds, distinguished
by certain physical defects described by the Seer.  Sir Hector
Mackenzie, Bart. of Gairloch, was buck-toothed, and is to this day
spoken of among the Gairloch tenantry as "An Tighearna storach,"
or the buck-toothed laird.  Chisholm of Chisholm was hair-lipped,
Grant of Grant half-witted, and Macleod of Raasay a stammerer.
[For full details of this remarkable instance of family fate, see
"The Prophecies of the Brahan Seer." - A. & W. Mackenzie, Inverness.]

To the testimony of those whose names have been already given  we
shall add the evidence of a living witness when the first edition
of this work was in preparation.  Duncan Davidson of Tulloch,
Lord-Lieutenant of the county of Ross, in a letter addressed to
the author, dated May 21, 1878, says - "Many of these prophecies I
heard of upwards of 70 years  ago, and when many of them were not
fulfilled, such as the late Lord Seaforth surviving his sons, and
Mrs Stewart Mackenzie's accident, near Brahan, by which Miss
Caroline Mackenzie was killed."

It is impossible not to sympathise with the magnificent old Chief
as he mourned over the premature death of his four promising sons,
and saw the honours of his house for ever extinguished in his own
person.

Many instances are related of his magnificent extravagance at home,
while sailing round the West Coast, visiting the great principality
of the Lewis, and calling on his way hither and thither on the
other great chiefs of the  West and Western Islands.  Sir Walter
Scott, in his "Lament for the Last of the Seaforths," adds his
tribute -

In vain the bright course of thy talents to wrong.
Fate deadened thine ear and imprisoned thy tongue,
For brighter o'er all her obstructions arose
The glow of thy genius they could not oppose;
And who, in the land of the Saxon or Gael
Could match with Mackenzie, High Chief of Kintail?

Thy sons rose around thee in light and in love,
All a father could hope, all a friend cou'd approve;
What `vails it the tale of thy sorrows to tell?
In the spring time of youth and of promise they fell!
Of the line of MacKenneth remains not a male,
To bear the proud name of the Chief of Kintail.

This sketch of the great chief cannot better be closed than in the
words of one already repeatedly quoted: "It was said of him by an
acute observer and a leading wit of the age, the late Honourable
Henry Erskine, the Scotch Dean of Faculty, that 'Lord Seaforth's
deafness was a merciful interposition to lower him to the ordinary
rate of capacity in society,' insinuating that otherwise his
perception and intelligence would have been oppressive.  And the
aptness of the remark was duly appreciated by all those who had
the good fortune to be able to form an estimate from personal
observation, while, as a man of the world, none was more capable of
generalizing.  Yet, as a countryman, he never affected to disregard
those local predilections which identified him with the County
of Ross, as the genuine representative of Kintail, possessing an
influence which, being freely ceded and supported, became paramount
and permanent in the county which he represented in the Commons
House of Parliament, till he was called to the peerage on the 26th
October, 1797, by the title of Lord Seaforth and Baron of Kintail,
with limitation to heirs male of his body, and which he presided
over as his Majesty's Lord-Lieutenant.  He was commissioned, in
1793, to reorganise the 78th or Ross-shire Regiment of Highlanders,
which, for so many years, continued to be almost exclusively composed
of his countrymen.  Nor did his extraordinary qualifications and
varied exertions escape the wide ranging eye of the master genius
of the age, who has also contributed, by a tributary effusion, to
transmit the unqualified veneration of our age to many that are
to follow.  He has been duly recognised by Sir Walter Scott, nor
was he passed over in the earlier buddings of Mr Colin Mackenzie;
but while the annalist is indebted to their just encomiums, he may
be allowed to respond to praise worthy of enthusiasm by a splendid
fact which at once exhibits a specimen of reckless imprudence
joined to those qualities which, by their popularity, attest
their genuineness.  Lord Seaforth for a time became emulous of the
society of the most accomplished Prince of his age.  The recreation
of the Court was play; the springs of this indulgence then were
not of the most delicate texture; his faculties, penetrating as
they were, had not the facility of detection which qualified him
for cautious circumspection; he heedlessly ventured and lost.  It
was then to cover his delinquencies elsewhere, he exposed to sale
the estate of Lochalsh; and it was then he was bitterly taught
to feel, when  his people, without an exception, addressed his
Lordship this pithy remonstrance - 'Reside amongst us and we shall
pay your debts.'  A  variety of feelings and facts, unconnected with
a difference, might have interposed to counteract this display of
devotedness besides ingratitude, but these habits, or his Lordship's
reluctance, rendered this expedient so hopeless that certain of the
descendants of the original proprietors of that valuable locality
were combining their respective finances to buy it in, when a
sudden announcement that it was sold under value, smothered  their
amiable endeavours.  Kintail followed, with the fairest portion of
Glenshiel, and the Barony of Callan Fitzgerald ceased to exist, to
the mortification, though not to the unpopularity of this still
patriarchal nobleman among his faithful tenantry and the old
friends of his family."  [Bennetsfield MS.]

He married on the 22d of April, 1782, Mary, daughter of the Rev.
Baptist Proby, D.D., Dean of Lichfield, and brother of John, first
Lord Carysfort, by whom he had issue -

I.  William Frederick, who died young, at Killearnan.

II.  George Leveson Boucherat, who died young at Urquhart.

III.  William Frederick, who represented the County of Ross in
Parliament, in 1812, and died unmarried at Warriston, near Edinburgh,
in 1814.

IV.  Francis John, a midshipman in the Royal Navy, who died unmarried
at Brahan, in 1813.

V.  Mary Frederica Elizabeth, who succeeded her father and of whom
presently.

VI.  Frances Catherine, who died without issue.

VII.  Caroline, who was accidentally killed at Brahan, unmarried.

VIII.  Charlotte Elizabeth, who died unmarried.

IX.  Augusta Anne, who died unmarried.

X.  Helen Ann, who married the Right Hon. Joshua Henry Mackenzie
of the Inverlael family, anciently descended from the Barons  of
Kintail, a Lord of Session and Justiciary by the title of Lord
Mackenzie, with issue - two daughters, Frances Mary and Penuel
Augusta.

Lord Seaforth, having survived all his male issue, died on the
11th of January, 1815, at Warriston, near Edinburgh, the last
male representative of his race.  His lady outlived him, and died
at Edinburgh on the 27th of February, 1829.  The estates, in virtue
of an entail executed by Lord Seaforth, with all their honours,
duties, and embarrassments, devolved upon his eldest daughter,
then a young widowed lady,

XXII.	MARY  ELIZABETH  FREDERICA  MACKENZIE, LADY  HOOD,

Whom Scott commemorated in the well-known lines -

And thou, gentle dame, who must bear to thy grief,
For thy clan and thy country the cares of a Chief,
Whom brief rolling moons in six changes have left
Of thy husband, and father, and brethren bereft;
To thine ear of affection how sad is the hail
That salutes thee the heir of the line of Kintail.

She was born at Tarradale, Ross-shire, on the 27th of March, 1783,
and married, first, at Barbadoes on the 6th of November, 1804, Sir
Samuel Hood, K.B., Vice-Admiral of the White, and afterwards, in
1806, M.P. for Westminster.  Sir Samuel died at Madras, on the
24th of December, 1814, without issue.  Lady Hood then returned
home, and, in 1815, entered into possession of the family estates,
which had devolved upon her by the death of her father without
male issue, when the titles became extinct.

She married secondly, on the 21st of May, 1817, the Right Hon. James
Alexander Stewart of Glasserton, nephew of the seventh Earl of
Galloway, who assumed the name of Mackenzie, was returned M.P.
for the County of Ross, held office under Earl Grey, and was
successively Governor of Ceylon, and Lord High Commissioner to
the Ionian Islands.  He died on the 24th of September, 1843.  Mrs
Sewart-Mackenzie died at Brahan Castle on the 28th of November,
1862, and was buried in the family vault in the Cathedral of
Fortrose.  Her funeral was one of the largest ever witnessed in
the Highlands, many thousands being present on foot, while the
vehicles that followed numbered more than 150.  By her second
marriage she had issue -

I.  Keith William Stewart, her heir and successor.

II.  Francis Pelham Proby, Lieutenant 71st Highlanders. He died
unmarried in 1844.

III.  George Augustus Frederick Wellington, who, born in 1824,
married in November, 1850, Maria Louisa, daughter of General Thomas
Marriot, H.E.IC.S., and died, without issue, in 1852.

IV.  Mary Frances, who married, in 1838, the Hon. Philip Anstruther,
Colonial Secretary of Ceylon, with issue.

V.  Caroline Susan, who, in 1844, married John Berney Petre, and
died in 1867.

VI.  Louisa Caroline, who, on the 17th of November, 1858, married,
as his second wife, William Bingham second Lord Ashburton, who
died on the 23rd of March, 1864, with issue, an only daughter, Mary
Florence, who, in 1884, married the Hon. William George Spencer
Scott, Earl Compton, M.P., eldest surviving son and heir of
William Douglas Compton, fourth Marquis of Northampton, born in
1851, with issue - William Bingham Lord Wilmington, born in 1885;
and Lady Margaret Louisa Lizzie.

Mrs Stewart Mackenzie and her husband, on her death on the 28th of
November, 1862, were succeeded in the estates by their eldest son,

XXIII.  KEITH  WIILLIAM  STEWART  MACKENZIE,

Born on the 9th of May, 1818.  He was an officer in the 90th
Regiment and subsequently Colonel-Commandant of the Ross-shire
Highland Rifle Volunteers.  He sold what remained of Kintail in
1869.  He married first, on the 17th of May, 1844, Hannah Charlotte,
daughter of James Joseph  Hope Vere of Craigie Hall and Blackwood,
Midlothian, with issue -

I.  James Alexander Francis Humberston, his heir.

II.  Susan Mary Elizabeth, who on the 15th of August, 1871, married,
first, the Hon. John Constantine Stanley, Colonel Grenadier Guards,
second son of the Right Hon. Edward Lord Stanley of Alderley.  He
was born on the 30th of September, 1837, and died on the 27th of
April, 1878, leaving issue - two daughters. She married, secondly,
the Right Hon. Sir Francis Henry Jeune, Q.C., President of the
Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division of the High Court of
Justice, with issue - one son.

III.  Julia Charlotte Sophia, who on the 8th of October, 1873,
married, as his second wife, the Right Hon. Arthur, ninth Marquis of
Tweeddale, who died in 1878, without issue.  In 1887 she married,
secondly, as his second wife, the Right Hon. Sir John Rose, Baronet,
G.C.M.G., of Queensgate, London, who died in 1888, without issue.
In 1892 she married, thirdly, Captain William Evans Gordon, without
issue.

IV.  Georgina Henrietta, who died young, on the 15th of October,
1868.

His first wife died in June, 1868.  He married, secondly, on the
2nd of June, 1871, Alicia Almeira Bell, with issue - one daughter.

Keith Stewart Mackenzie died in June, 1881, when he was succeeded
by his only son,

XXIV.   JAMES  ALEXANDER  FRANCIS  HUMBERSTON STEWART  MACKENZIE,

Who was born on the 9th of October, 1847, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding
the 9th Lancers, and now of Seaforth.  He is still unmarried.


THE  CHIEFSHIP.

It has been shown at p. 343 that the male line of Colonel
Alexander Mackenzie of Assynt, fourth son of Kenneth Mor, third
Earl of Seaforth, became extinct on the death, in 1815, of Francis
Humberston Mackenzie, who survived all his male issue.  It has
also been proved that the male line of George, second Earl of
Seaforth, who died in 1651, terminated in Kenneth, XIX. of Kintail
and sixth Earl of Seaforth, whose only child, Lady Caroline
Mackenzie, formed an irregular union with Lewis Drummond, Count
Melfort, a French nobleman.  It was shown earlier, at p. 246,
that the lineal representation of the original line of Kintail
was diverted from heirs male in the person of Anna, Countess of
Balcarres, eldest daughter of Colin, first Earl of Seaforth, who
had no surviving male issue; and the male line of Colonel Mackenzie of
Assynt having terminated in "The Last of the Seaforths," who died
in 1815, we must go back beyond all these to an earlier collateral
branch to pick up the legitimate male succession, and for ever dispose
of the various unfounded claims hitherto made to the Chiefship of
the clan.

Before the appearance of the former edition of this work there had
been several claimants to this highly honourable position; and
this is not to be wondered at, for whoever proves his right to
the Chiefship of the Mackenzies establishes at the same time his
right to the ancient honours of the house and Barons of Kintail.
In an earlier part of the work, at p. 316, it is shown that the
original title of Lord Mackenzie of Kintail did not come under the
attainder of William, the fifth Earl, for the part which he took
in the Rising of 1715, and therefore the Chief of the Mackenzies,
as heir male of the first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, is, in virtue
of that position, we believe, entitled to assume that ancient title.

The first formal claim to the Chiefship is one by a Captain
Murdoch Mackenzie, "of London," who claimed "the titles, honours,
and  dignities of Earl of Seaforth and Baron Mackenzie of Kintail,"
in virtue of a pretended descent and pedigree from the Hon.
John Mackenzie of Assynt, second son of Kenneth Mor, third Earl
of Seaforth.  This pedigree and claim is before us.  According to
that document the Hon. John Mackenzie of Assynt had a son "Murdoch
Mackenzie of Lochbroom, who, having shown a disposition of enterprise
like his kinsman Earl William, left his native parish in 1729 or
1730, first for Aberdeen and afterwards for Northumberland, where,
in consequence of the unsettled state of Scotland, he resided
with his family."  This Murdoch had a son, John Mackenzie, "born
in Beadnall, parish of Bamborough, county of Northumberland, in
1738, who married Miss Isabella Davidson in 1762, and died in 1780,
in his forty-second year."  John had a son, "Captain Murdoch
Mackenzie, the claimant, who was born at Beadnall, county of
Northumberland, in 1763, and married in 1781, Miss Eleanor Brown
of the same place, and has issue.  He commanded the ship Essex,
transport 81, of London, during the late war.  Being desirous to
see his clan in the North, in 1790 he visited the late Francis Lord
Seaforth, who in the true spirit of Scotch sincerity, hospitality,
and nobility received him with demonstrations of pleasure.  After
talking over family matters his Lordship candidly said that Captain
Murdoch ought to have been the peer in point of primogeniture."
A short account of the family accompanies the pedigree and claim,
which concludes in these terms - "In consequence of the death of
the last peer it has been discovered in Scotland that the titles
and family estates have devolved upon Captain Murdoch Mackenzie
of London.  This gentleman is naturally anxious to establish his
rights, but being unable to prosecute so important a claim without
the aid of sufficient funds he has been advised to solicit the
aid of some individuals whose public spirit and liberal feelings
may prompt them to assist him on the principle that such timely
assistance and support will be gratefully and liberally rewarded.
Captain Mackenzie hereby offers to give his bond for L300 (or more
if required) for every L100 that may be lent him to prosecute his
claim - the same to become due and payable within three months after
he shall have recovered his titles and estates."  The result of
this appeal has not been ascertained, but it is certain that Captain
Murdoch Mackenzie did not succeed in establishing any claim either
to the titles or estates of the House of Kintail and Seaforth.

It was, on the contrary, placed absolutely beyond dispute by the
evidence produced at the Allangrange Service in 1829 that the eldest
and only surviving son of the Hon. John Mackenzie of Assynt was
not Murdoch but Kenneth, and there is no trace whatever of his
having had any son but Kenneth.  In an original Precept issued by
the Provost and Magistrates of Fortrose on the 30th of October,
1716, the son of the then late John Mackenzie of Assynt is designated
"Kenneth Mackenzie, now of Assynt, grandchild and apparent heir to
the deceased Isobel, Countess Dowager of Seaforth, his grandmother
on the father's side."  In the same document Kenneth is described
as her Ladyship's "nearest and lawful heir," conclusively showing
that he was her son John's eldest son.  It is thus fully established
that Captain Murdoch Mackenzie's genealogical chain fails at the
very outset - is broken in its initial link.  The Hon. John Mackenzie
of Assynt had only one son.  His name was Kenneth, not Murdoch,
and he died without issue.  If any additional proof be required to
show that the male line of the Hon. John Mackenzie of Assynt has
long been extinct, it will be found in the fact that on the death
of Earl Kenneth, known as "the Little Lord," in 1781, the succession
to the representation and ancient honours of the family of Kintail
and Seaforth, devolved upon the heir male of Colonel Alexander
Mackenzie of Assynt, who was the fourth son of Kenneth Mor, third
earl, and a younger brother of the Hon. John Mackenzie of Assynt,
apart altogether from the conclusive parole evidence given by very
old people at the Allangrange Service in 1829.  This effectually
disposes of Captain Murdo Mackenzie.

Now as to the more plausible but equally baseless claim of Captain
William Mackenzie of Gruinard, and his cousin, the late Major-General
Alexander Mackay Mackenzie of the Indian Army.  Captain Murdoch
Mackenzie's claim having failed, we must go back another step in
the chain to pick up the legitimate succession to the honours of
Kintail and Seaforth.  Here we are met on the way by another claim,
put forward by the late Captain William Mackenzie of Gruinard,
in the following letter addressed to George F. Mackenzie, then of
Allangrange:

11 Margaret Street, Cavendish Square,
London, 24th October 1829.

My Dear Allangrange, - Having observed in the "Courier" of the 21st
inst., at a meeting at Tain, that you were proceeding with the
Seaforth Claims, I take the earliest opportunity of communicating
to you a circumstance which I am sure my agent, Mr Roy, would have
informed you of sooner, did he know that you were proceeding in
this affair; and which, I think probable, he has done ere this;
but lest it might have escaped his notice, I deem it proper to
acquaint you that on Mr Roy having discovered, by authenticated
documents, that I was the lineal descendant of George, Earl of
Seaforth, he authorised an English counsellor to make application
to the Secretary of State to that effect, who made a reference to
the Court of Exchequer in Scotland to examine the evidence - Mr Roy
having satisfied them with having all which he required to establish
my  claim.  I therefore am inclined to address you in order that
you may be saved the trouble and expense attending this affair.
Indeed, had I known you were taking any steps in this business, be
assured I would have written to you sooner.

I had not the pleasure of communicating with you since your marriage,
upon which event I beg leave to congratulate you, and hope I shall
soon have the pleasure of learning of your adding a member to the
Clan Kenneth.  Believe me, my dear Mac, yours most sincerely,

WM. MACKENZIE.

This claim is founded on a Genealogical Tree in possession of the
present representatives of the Gruinard family, by which John
Mackenzie, their progenitor is incorrectly described as the son
of George Mackenzie of Kildun, second son of George, second Earl
of Seaforth.  It is believed that the descendants of this George,
who was the second George designated of Kildun, are long ago
extinct; but whether they are or not, it will be conclusively
shown, by reference to dates, that John, I. of Gruinard, could not
possibly have been a son of his.  And to the indisputable evidence
of dates may be added the testimony of all the Mackenzie MSS. in
existence which make any reference to John of Gruinard.  In every
instance where his name appears in these he is described as a
natural son of George, second Earl of Seaforth.

Before this Earl succeeded he also was known as George  Mackenzie
of Kildun, hence the error in the Gruinard Genealogical Tree.  The
author of the Ancient MS., so often quoted in the course of this
work, was a contemporary of John, I. of Gruinard, and he states
that Earl George "had also "ane naturall" son, called John Mackenzy,
who married Loggie's  daughter."  The author of the Ardintoul
MS., who was the grandson, as mentioned by himself, of the Rev.
Farquhar Macrae, Constable of Ellandonnan Castle in Earl Colin's
time, and who died advanced in years as far back as 1704 - consequently
a contemporary of John of Gruinard - describing the effects of the
disastrous battle of Worcester, says that Earl George, who was
then in Holland, was informed of the result of the battle "by John
of Gruinard, "his natural son," and Captain Hector Mackenzie, who
made their escape from the battle," that the tidings "unraised his
melancholy, and so died in the latter end of September, 1651."  The
Letterfearn MS. is also contemporary, for the author of it speaks
of Earl Kenneth as ""now" Earl of Seaforth," and of George of Kildun
in the present tense, while he speaks of his father in the past
tense, and he say's that "He (Earl George) left "ane natural son,"
who "is" called John, who "is" married  with Logie's daughter."
That John of Gruinard was married to Christina, daughter of Donald
Mackenzie, III. of Loggie, is proved by a sasine dated 1655, in
which that lady is described as his wife.

It may be objected to these MSS. that, however probable it may be
that they are correct, they are not necessarily authentic.  But
there is ample evidence of an official and incontestible character
on the point.  A sasine, dated 6th of February, 1658, is recorded in
the Particular Register of Sasines of Inverness, vol. 7, fol. 316,
from which the following is an extract - "Compearit personally John
Mackenzie, "naturall" broyr to ane noble Erle Kenneth Erle of
Seaforth Lord of Kintail, etc., as bailzie in that part," on behalf
of "the noble Lady, Dame Isobell Mackenzie, Countess of Seaforth,
sister german to Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbat, Knight, future
ladie to the said noble Erle."  Another authentic document having a
most important bearing on this question was recently discovered in
the office of the Sheriff-Clerk of Tain.  It is a discharge by
Patrick Smith of Braco, dated and registered in the Commissary Books
at Fortrose, on the 4th of December, 1668, in which the parties are
described as "Kenneth Erle of Seafort, Lord Kintail, as principal,
and John Mackenzie of Gruinyard, designit in the obligatione
vnder-wrytten his "naturall" brother, as cautioner."  Further, George
of Kildun married, first, Mary Skene, daughter of Skene of Skene, in
1661.  This is proved by a charter to her of  her jointure lands of
Kincardine, etc. (see Particular Register of Sasines  Invss., vol.
ix. fol. 9).  He married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of Urquhart
of Craighouse.  The absolute impossibility is at once obvious of
George of Kildun - who only married his first wife in 1661 - having
had a son, John Mackenzie of Gruinard, in a position to have obtained
a charter in his favour of the lands of Little Gruinard, etc., in
1669 - within eight years of his reputed father's marriage to his
first wife - and who was himself designated in that charter as
of "Meikle Gruinard," while it is proved by undoubted official
documents that John of Gruinard's "wife" had lands disponed to her
as his wife in 1655; that is, six years before the marriage of
George of Kildun, John's alleged father.  And further, how could
John of Gruinard's second son, Kenneth, have married, as be is known
to have done, the widow of Kenneth Og, fourth Earl of Seaforth,
who died in 1701, if John, his father, had been the son by a
second marriage of George of Kildun, who married his first wife
in 1661?  The thing is absolutely impossible.

Kenneth Mor, third Earl of Seaforth, who, according to the Gruinard
Genealogy, was John of Gruinard's uncle, was born at Brahan Castle
in 1635.  In 1651 he is described as "a child" by a contemporary
writer, who says that the Kintail people declined to rise with him
in that year during his father's absence on the Continent, because
"he was but a "child," and his father, their master, was in life."
Colin, first Earl of  Seaforth, died in 1633, and the author of the
Ancient MS. says that "Earl George, being then the Laird of Kildun,
married before his brother's death, the Lord Forbes's daughter."
Thus, George of Kildun could not have been born before 1636 or
1637 at the very earliest; and the date of his first marriage,
twenty-four years later, strongly corroborates this.  How then
could he have had a married son, John Mackenzie of Gruinard, whose
wife undoubtedly obtained lands in 1655; that is, when Kildun
himself was only 18 years of age, and when John, already designated
of Gruinard, was, in 1656, old enough to be cautioner for Kenneth,
Earl of Seaforth?  Proof of the same conclusive character could be
adduced to any extent, but in face of the documents already quoted,
it is obviously superfluous to do so.

John Mackenzie, I. of Gruinard, could not in the nature of things
have been a son of the second George Mackenzie of Kildun.  He was, on
the other hand, undoubtedly, the "natural" son of the first George,
who succeeded his brother Colin as second Earl of Seaforth, and
it necessarily follows that his representatives can have no claim
whatever to the Chiefship of the Clan, or to the ancient honours
of the family of Kintail and Seaforth.  We shall now proceed to show
that these distinctions belong to and are at present possessed by
the male representative of


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  ALLANGRANGE.


HAVING disposed of the only two serious claims made to the Chiefship
of the Clan in later times our next step is to show who the present
Chief is.  To do this we must go back to Kenneth, created Lord
Mackenzie of Kintail in 1609; for there is no male representative of
any later head of the House in existence, so far as can be ascertained,
between that date and this.  Lord Kenneth had seven sons -

1.  Colin Ruadh or "the Red Earl," his heir and successor, who
died, in 1633, without surviving male issue.

2.  John Mackenzie of Lochslinn, who married Isabel, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, and died in 1631, having been
poisoned at Tam, without issue male.  His only daughter, Margaret,
married Sir Norman Macleod, I. of Bernera, with issue.

3.  Kenneth, who died unmarried.

Lord Kenneth, XII. of Kintail, married secondly, Isabel, daughter
of Sir Gilbert Ogilvie of Powrie, with issue -

4.  Alexander, who died unmarried.

5.  George, who succeeded his brother Colin, as second Earl of
Seaforth, and whose line terminated in Lady Caroline Mackenzie, who
died without issue in 1847, her father Kenneth, Baron Ardelve and
Earl of Seaforth in the peerage of Ireland, the last male of his
line, having died at the Cape of Good Hope in 1781.

6.  Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine, whose male issue was proved
extinct at the Allangrange Service in 1829.

7.  SIMON  MACKENZIE, who, after the death of his brother John,
was designated of Lochslinn, and whose representative will be
shown to be the present head and heir male of the ancient family of
Kintail and Seaforth, and Chief of the Clan.  This SIMON married,
first, Elizabeth, daughter of the Rev. Peter Bruce of Ferrar,
D.D., Principal of St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, and son of
Bruce of Fingask, by Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Wedderburn
of Blackness, with issue - five sons and one daughter, Jane, who
married Robert Douglas of Katewell, in the parish of Kiltearn,
Ross-shire, and secondly, Sir James Grant of Moyness.

The eldest of Simon's five sons was the famous SIR  GEORGE  MACKENZIE
of Rosehaugh, Lord Advocate for Scotland, whose history is so
well known that it would serve no good purpose to give only such
a brief account of it as could be given in the space here available.
He wrote several works of admitted literary merit, his "Institutes"
being to this day considered a standard legal authority.  He left an
autobiography in MS. which was published by his widow in 1716.
The estate of Rosehaugh, where he always took up his residence
while in  the Highlands, was, in his time, profusely covered with
the Dog Rose, a fact which first suggested to the famous lawyer
the idea of designating that property by the name of "Vallis
Rosarum," or Rosehaugh.  Sir George married first, Elizabeth,
daughter of John Dickson of Hartree, with issue - (1) John; (2) Simon;
(3) George, all of whom died young and unmarried;  (4) Agnes, who
in 1705 married Sir James Stuart Mackenzie, first Earl of  Bute,
with issue, whose descendants, now represented by the Earl of
Wharncliffe, succeeded to his Ross-shire estates, but since sold
by them, though still retaining the name and arms of the family.
(For the succession see Retour of James Marquis of Bute, January,
1721); (5) Elizabeth, who married, first, Sir Archibald Cockburn
of Langton, with issue, and, secondly, the Hon. Sir James Mackenzie
of Royston, Baronet, with issue -  George (who married but died
before his father, without male issue), and two daughters - Anne,
who married Sir William Dick of Prestonfield; and Elizabeth, who
married Sir John Stuart of Grandtully, with issue.

Sir George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh married, secondly, Margaret,
daughter of Haliburton of Pitcur, with issue, (6) James, who died
young;  (7) George, who succeeded his father as II. of Rosehaugh,
and married - with issue, an only daughter, who died without issue;
(8) Jean, and (9)  Margaret, both of whom died without issue.  From
this it will be seen that the male representation of Sir George
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, eldest son of the Hon. Simon Mackenzie
of Lochslinn, terminated at the death of his only son.  We must
therefore revert to SIMON  MACKENZIE, the immediate younger brother
of Sir George Mackenzie, and second son of the Hon. Simon Mackenzie
of  Lochslinn, from whom JAMES  FOWLER  MACKENZIE  OF  ALLANGRANGE,
present Chief of the Clan, is descended as follows:

SIMON, who died at Lochbroom in 1664, married Jane, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Ballone, brother of Sir John Mackenzie
of Tarbat and uncle to George, first Earl of Cromarty (marriage
contract 1663) with issue - an only and posthumous son,

I.  SIMON  MACKENZIE, first of Allangrange, an Advocate at the
Scottish Bar.  This property he acquired through his wife in the
following  manner.  Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Kilcoy, third son
of Colin, XI. of Kintail, had four sons, of whom the youngest,
Roderick, obtained the lands of Kilmuir, in the Black Isle.  He
became a successful lawyer, Sheriff-Depute, and Member of Parliament,
and was knighted by Charles II.  Sir Roderick, at the same time
proprietor of Findon, acquired several other properties by purchase.
He died in 1692, and on the death of his only son in the following
year, without issue, his unentailed estates, which were not
included in the Barony, and which had become very considerable,
and all his moveable property, were divided equally among his four
daughters, as heirs portioners. Isobel, the third of these ladies,
on the 22nd of August, 1693, married, as his first wife, Simon
Mackenzie, the Advocate, and carried to him in 1699 as her portion,
the estate of Allan - formerly the property and residence of the
Earl of Seaforth - which has  ever since been known as Allangrange.
By Isobel Mackenzie, daughter of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon,
Simon had issue -

1.  Roderick, who died unmarried.

2.  George, who succeeded his father as II. of Allangrange.

3.  Kenneth, of whom there is no trace.

4.  William, a Captain in the Dutch army.  He married a Miss Innes,
with issue, since proved extinct.

5.  Simon, who died, without issue, in the West Indies.

6.  Lilias, who died unmarried.

7.  Elizabeth, who in 1745 married, as his third wife John Matheson,
V. of Fernaig, ancestor of Sir Kenneth James Matheson, Baronet
of Lochalsh, with issue - one son, Captain Alexander Matheson,  of
the 78th Highlanders, who died in India in 1809, without issue.

8.  Eliza, who married Ludovic, son of Roderick Mackenzie, V. of
Redcastle.

9.  Isobel, who married Murdoch Cameron, with issue, at Allangrange.

Simon married, secondly, on the 28th of August, 1718, Susanna,
daughter of Colonel Alexander Fraser of Kinneries, generally known
as  "the Coroner," with issue -

10.  Colin, who married a Miss Macdonald in Lochaber, with
issue - William, who died unmarried in the West Indies; Susanna, who
married a Mr Cameron, with issue; and a daughter, who died unmarried.

11.  Alexander, a Doctor of Medicine, who died without issue, in
Jamaica, in 1780.

12.  Margaret, married Dr John Mackenzie of Newton, who died
in 1759, with issue - Dr Simon of Mullet Hall, Jamaica, who there
married Catherine, daughter of Samuel Gregory from Nairn; George;
Roderick; Kenneth; and Isobel.

13.  Frances, who married Lieutenant James Cumming of the Marines
(marriage contract 1752), without issue.

14.  Susanna, and

15.  Janet, both of whom died unmarried.

Simon was drowned in the River Orrin, in February, 1730, while
returning home from a visit to a friend in Fairburn, when he was
succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

II.  GEORGE  MACKENZIE, second of Allangrange, who in May, 1731,
married Margaret, daughter of John and grand-daughter of Sir Donald
Bayne of Tulloch.  They have a retour in 1732.  The male heirs
of the Baynes of Tulloch--originally a sept of Mackays from
Sutherlandshire, who settled down in the vicinity of Dingwall early
in the sixteenth century - having terminated in John, this lady's
father, she carried the lineal representation of that old and
respectable house to the family of Allangrange.  By Margaret Bayne,
George Mackenzie had issue -

1.  Simon, who died young in 1731.

2.  William, a Captain in the 25th Regiment.  He died before his
father, unmarried, in 1764.

3.  George, who died young.

4.  Alexander, who died unmarried before his father, in 1765.

5.  John, who succeeded his father in Allangrange.

6.  Margaret, who, as his second wife, married Alexander Chisholm,
XXII. of Chisholm, with issue, and carried on the succession of
that family.

7.  Isobell, who married Simon Mackenzie of Langwell, a Captain
in the 4th Regiment (marriage contract 1767), with issue.

8.  Mary, who married Kenneth Chisholm, Fasnakyle, a cadet of
Knockfin, with issue - Margaret, who married John Chisholm, Comar.

George had six other daughters - Anne, Janet, Susanna, Lilias, Ann,
Barbara, and Elizabeth, all of whom died young or unmarried.

He died in 1773, when he was succeeded by his eldest surviving
son,

III.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, third of Allangrange, who at an early age
was appointed Examiner of Customs in Edinburgh.  He married, first,
Catherine, eldest daughter and co-heiress of James Falconer of
Monkton (marriage contract 1781), and grand-daughter of the Right
Hon. Lord Halkerton and the Hon. Jane Falconer.  By the acquisition
of his wife's fortune John was able to devote himself to his favourite
agricultural pursuits, in which he was eminently successful in
his day.  By his wife, who died in 1790, he left issue -

1.  George Falconer, his heir and successor.

2.  Jane Falconer, who married John Gillanders of Highfield, with
issue - (1) Captain George Gillanders, who died without issue; (2)
Captain  John Mackenzie Bowman Gillanders, H.E.I.C.S., of Highfield,
who died, without issue, in 1852; (3) Alexander Gillanders; (4)
James Falconer Gillanders, of Highfield, who in 1852 married Amy,
daughter of the late Major Charles Robertson of Kindeace, with
issue - George Francis Gillanders, late of Highfield, who, on the
21st of December, 1876, married Geraldine Anne Isabella Mary Jane,
daughter of Major James Wardlaw, Belmaduthy, with issue - an only
daughter, Frances Geraldine; (5) Frances Williamina Gillanders,
who died without issue; (6) Margaret Mackenzie  Gillanders; (7)
Catherine, who married William Inglis, of the H.E.I.C.S.

3.  Margaret Bayne, who died young.

4.  Margaret Bayne, who also died young.

John married, secondly, Barbara, daughter of George Gillanders,
first of Highfield, widow of John Bowman, an East India merchant
in London, without issue.  She died in 1823.  He died in 1812,
when he was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV.  GEORGE  FALCONER  MACKENZIE, fourth of Allangrange, who was
in 1829 served heir male to his ancestor, the Hon. Simon Mackenzie
of Lochslinn, and heir male in general to Simon's father, Kenneth,
created first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail in 1609, and to Lord
Kenneth's brother, Colin, created first Earl of Seaforth in 1623.

He matriculated arms accordingly in the Lyon Office of Scotland.
On the 9th of January, 1828, he married Isabella Reid, daughter of
James Fowler of Raddery and Fairburn, in the county of Ross, and
The Grange, Jamaica, with issue -

1.  John Falconer, who succeeded his father, and died unmarried in
1849.

2.  James Fowler, who succeeded his brother John.

3.  George Thomas, who married Ethel Newman, London, without issue
male.

4.  Catherine Sophia, who died young.

5.  Anna Watson.

George Falconer Mackenzie died in  1841, and was succeeded by  his
eldest son,

V.  JOHN  FALCONER  MACKENZIE, fifth of Allangrange, who died
unmarried in 1849, when he was succeeded by his next brother,

VI.  JAMES  FOWLER  MACKENZIE, now of Allangrange, Chief of
the Mackenzies, and heir male to the dormant honours and ancient
titles of the historic family of Kintail and Seaforth.  He is
still unmarried, and it is much to be feared that after his death
and that of his brother, George, who is without issue male, the
Chiefship of this great Clan may go a-begging.  The only member of
the family whose male representation has not been proved extinct
is Kenneth, third son of Simon, I. of Allangrange, born about two
hundred years ago, and of whom or of his descendants, if any,
nothing is known for two centuries.  And trace of them is now
scarcely within the region of possibility, even if in existence,
which is extremely improbable.

The Hon. Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn, seventh son of Kenneth,
first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, had by his first wife, three
other sons - Thomas Mackenzie, I. of Loggie; John Mackenzie, I. of
Inchcoulter or Balcony and Colin Mackenzie, Clerk to the Privy
Council, but the male issue of all three has been proved extinct.
He, however, married again; and it is among the descendants of
the second marriage that the Chiefship of the Clan must be sought
for should the heirs male of Allangrange at any time fail.


THE  OLD  MACKENZIES  OF  DUNDONNEL.

THE  HON. SIMON  MACKENZIE of Lochslinn married, secondly, in 1630
(marriage contract dated at Kingillie on the 12th of January),
Agnes, daughter of William Fraser, V. of Culbokie, and widow of
Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Ballone, brother of Sir John Mackenzie
of Tarbat, with issue -

1.  Kenneth Mor Mackenzie, first of Glenmarkassie and Dundonnel.

2.  Isobel, who, in 1673, married Murdoch Mackenzie, VI. of Fairburn,
with issue.

3.  Elizabeth, who married the Rev. Roderick Mackenzie, minister
and laird of Avoch - the land of which he had purchased - son of John,
Archdean of Ross, natural son of Sir Roderick Mackenzie, Tutor of
Kintail, with issue.  This

I.  KENNETH  MOR  MACKENZIE, first of Glenmarkassie,  acquired the
lands of Dundonnel, or "Achadh-Tigh-Domhnuill," from Roderick
Mackenzie, III. of Redcastle, in 1690, by excambion for Meikle
Scatwell.  In 1681 he is described as Chamberlain of Assynt, and
in 1690 he receives a discharge from the Hon. John Mackenzie, then
designed "of Assynt," for 2448 merks, being the full rent for the
estate crop of 1689.  He married Annabella, daughter of John
Mackenzie, I. of Gruinard, natural son of George, second Earl of
Seaforth, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, of whom nothing is known.

3.  Colin Riabhach of Ardinglash, who married Annabella, daughter
of Simon Mackenzie of Loggie, without surviving issue.

4.  Simon, of whom there is no trace.

5.  Barbara, who married Alexander Mackenzie III. of Ballone (sasine
1727), with issue.

6.  Sibella, who married John Mackenzie, II. of Ardloch, with
issue.

7.  Annabella, who married James Mackenzie of Keppoch, Lochbroom,
brother of John Mackenzie, II. of Ardloch, with issue.

Kenneth Mor was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE,  second of Dundonnel, who  married Jean,
daughter of John Chisholm, XX. of Chisholm, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  Captain Alexander, of the 73rd Regiment, who died in 1783, and
whose issue, if any, is unknown.

3.  John, who married Barbara, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, I.
of Ardloch, with issue, several sons, all of whom died young, and
two daughters - Annabella, who married Alexander Mackenzie, Rivochan,
Kishorn, with issue, twenty-five children; and Isabella.  John's
widow married, as her second husband, Roderick, sixth son of George
Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard, with issue.

Kenneth was succeeded by his eldest son,

III.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, third of Dundonnel, who in 1737, married
Jean, daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, IV. and first Baronet of
Scatwell, with issue -

1.  George, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth, a W.S. who died in 1790, and whose issue, if any, is
unknown.

3.  William, an Episcopalian minister, who married, with issue.
If any male descendants of his exist and can be traced one of them
may, at no distant date, become Chief of the Clan.

4.  Roderick, who was also married, with issue, but of whose
descendants, if any, nothing is known.

5.  Captain Alexander, who died in India, without issue.

6.  Captain Simon, who was married, and died in Nairn in 1812,
whether with or without issue, at present unknown.

7.  Captain Lewis, who died in India, without issue.

8.  Janet, who married Colin Mackenzie, Jamaica brother of George
Mackenzie, Kildonan of Lochbroom without issue.  She died in 1783.

9.  Isabella, who died unmarried.

Kenneth, whose wife predeceased him in 1786, died in 1789, when
he was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV.  GEORGE  MACKENZIE, fourth of Dundonnel, who married Abigail,
daughter of Thomas Mackenzie, V. of Ord, with issue -

1.  Alexander, who died young.

2.  Kenneth, who succeeded his father in the estates.

3.  Thomas, who succeeded his brother Kenneth.

4.  Jane, who married the Rev. Dr Ross, minister of Lochbroom,
with issue.

George was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

V.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, fifth of Dundonnel, who, in 1817, married
Isabella, daughter of Donald Roy of Treeton, without issue.  He
left the estate by will to his brother-in-law, Robert Roy, W.S.,
who, however, lost it after a long and costly litigation with
Kenneth's brother,

VI.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE, sixth of Dundonnel, who was financially
ruined by the litigation in the case, and the property had to
be sold in 1835, to meet the costs of the trial.  It was bought
by Murdo Munro-Mackenzie of Ardross, grandfather of the present
owner, Hugh Mackenzie of Dundonnel, and of Bundanon, Shoulhaven,
New South Wales.  Thomas married his cousin, Anne, eldest daughter
of Alexander, VI. of Ord, with issue -

1.  George Alexander, who became the representative of the family
on the death of his father.

2.  Thomas, who emigrated to California, and of whose issue, if
any, nothing is known.

3.  John Hope, who for some time resided at Tarradale House,
Ross-shire.

4.  Helen, who married the Hon. Justice Charles Henry Stewart of
Ceylon, without issue.

5.  Isabella, who resided in Elgin, unmarried.

Thomas was succeeded as representative of the family by his  eldest
son

VII.  GEORGE  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, who, on the death of his father,
became head of the original Mackenzies of Dundonnel, although
the estates had been sold to another family.  He married Louisa,
daughter of Captain Stewart of the Celyon Rifles, without issue.
If his next brother, who went to California, survived George
Alexander, then, on his death, he -

VIII.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE, would have succeeded as head of his house,
and failing him and his descendants, if any, the representation
of the old Mackenzies of Dundonnel would have fallen to JOHN  HOPE
MACKENZIE, third son of Thomas, VI. of Dundonnel and last proprietor
of the family estates.  He married Louisa, daughter of Captain
Stewart of the Ceylon Rifles, widow of his deceased brother, George
Alexander, without issue, and died in London in 1892.

The only members of this family whose descendants can ever now  by
any possibility succeed to the Chiefship should it pass from the
Mackenzies of Allangrange are (1) Alexander, second son of Kenneth
Mor, first of Dundonnel, but of him there is no trace for more
than two hundred years, and never likely to be.  (2) Simon,
Alexander's youngest brother, of whom nothing has been heard during
the same period.  (3) Captain Alexander, of the 73rd Regiment,
second son of Kenneth Mackenzie, II. of Dundonnel, who died,
probably unmarried, in 1783.  In any case there is nothing known
of any descendants.  (4) Kenneth, W.S., second son of Kenneth
Mackenzie, III. of Dundonnel, who died in 1790, and is not known
to have been married.  (5) William, third son of the same Kenneth, an
Episcopalian minister, who was married, and left issue, of whom,
however, we know nothing.  (6) Roderick, William's immediate younger
brother, and third son of the same Kenneth Mackenzie, III. of
Dundonnel, who was also married, with issue, but whether extinct
or not we cannot say.  (7) Captain Simon, who was married and died
in Nairn in 1812, but of his descendants, if any, we at present
know nothing.  (8)  Captain Lewis, who died in India, probably,
unmarried, but this has not been conclusively established; and
(9) Thomas, second son of Thomas,  VI. of Dundonnel, who in early
life emigrated to California, and regarding whom nothing has since
been heard.  If he is still alive or has left any surviving male
issue the late John Hope Mackenzie could not have succeeded as
head of the family, and Thomas, or his male heir, if now in life,
occupies that position; and on the failure of the Mackenzies of
Allangrange, he or his representative will become Chief of the
Mackenzies.  Failing Thomas, or his male heirs, that honour would
fall to the heirs male, if any, of each of the eight others mentioned,
in the inverse order in which their names are here set forth.


THE  MACKENZIES OF  HILTON.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  HILTON are descended from Alexander Mackenzie,
VI. of Kintail, known among the Highlanders as "Alastair Ionraic,"
by his first wife, Anna, daughter of John Macdougall of Dunolly.

The first of the family was

I.  DUNCAN  MACKENZIE, designated of Hilton, a barony situated in
Strathbraan, bounded on the north by Loch Fannich, on the south
by the ridge of the hills on the north side of Strathconan, on the
east by Achnault, and on the west by Ledgowan.  Duncan married a
daughter of Ewen Cameron, XIII. of Lochiel, with issue - an only
son, his heir and successor -

II.  ALLAN  MACKENZIE, second of Hilton, Loggie or Brea, from
whom the family is known in Gaelic as "Clann Alain."   He married
a daughter of Alexander Dunbar of Conzie and Kilbuyack, third son
of the Sheriff of Moray, with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2.  John, progenitor of the Mackenzies of Loggie.

3.  Roderick, who married, with issue, an only daughter, Agnes,
who married Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Killichrist, with issue.

4.  Alastair, who married, with issue - a daughter, who married
Roderick, son of Murdoch Mackenzie, III. of Achilty, with issue -
the Rev. Murdo Mackenzie, Bishop of Ranfoe, in Ireland.

Allan's wife survived him, and married, as her second husband,
Kenneth Mackenzie of Meikle Allan, now Allangrange, second son of
Hector Roy Mackenzie, I. of Gairloch.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

III.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, third of Hilton, who married a daughter
of Innes of Innerbreakie, now Invergordon, with issue - an only
son,

IV.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, fourth of Hilton, who married Margaret,
daughter of Dunbar of Inchbrook, with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir.

2.  Alexander, who, in 1640, married Margaret, natural daughter
of John Roy Mackenzie, IV. of Gairloch, apparently without issue.
The marriage contract is in the Gairloch charter chest.

3.  Colin, M.A. of Aberdeen University, and minister of Kilearnan,
where he died.  He married Miss Dundas, with issue - Kenneth, well
known in his day as Deacon of the Edinburgh Goldsmiths, who left
no issue.

4.  A daughter who married John Sinclair, Caithness.

5.  A daughter, who married John Matheson, "Ian Og," in Lochalsh,
whose eldest son, Alexander, became the progenitor of the Mathesons
of Lochalsh, Attadale, and Ardross, represented in this country by
Sir Kenneth James Matheson, Baronet, and others.

John was succeeded by his eldest son,

V.  MURDOC   MACKENZIE, fifth of Hilton, who married Mary, eldest
daughter of the Rev. Murdoch Murchison, Auchtertyre, minister of
Kintail, with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir.

2.  Roderick, who married the eldest daughter of Alexander, third
son of Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Redcastle, with issue - a son,
Colin, who died without issue, in 1682.

3.  Colin, who married Isobel, daughter of Donald Simpson, Chamberlain
of Ferintosh, with issue - (1) Alexander, locally called "Sanders,"
who succeeded his grandfather, Donald Simpson, as Chamberlain of
Ferintosh.  He married Helen, daughter of William Munro, Ardullie,
with issue - two sons and two daughters - (a) Colin, who died unmarried,
but left a natural son, of whom are descended several respectable
families in Ferintosh; (b) Donald, who married Jean, legitimate
male succession of his paternal grandfather, Alexander, eldest son
of Colin, third son of Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Hilton.  Donald
had  several daughters; first Mary, who was along with her father
and brother when they were drowned, but she was saved, and married,
as his second wife, the Rev. Colin Mackenzie, minister of Fodderty,
first of the family of Glack, of whom presently second, Jean, who
married Colin Murchison third, Isabel, who married David Ross;
fourth, a daughter, who married Mackenzie of Ussie, with issue - two
sons, Donald and Frank; fifth, Anne, who married Lewis Grant;
and sixth, Helen, who married Alexander Mackenzie of Ardnagrask,
afterwards at Loggie-side, from whom was descended Bailie John
Mackenzie, of Inverness.  Alexander's ("Sanders") eldest daughter,
Mary, in 1723, married Donald, son of John Murchison, Achtertyre;
the second, Elizabeth, married William Martin of Inchfure, with
issue - a daughter, Ann, celebrated for her beauty, who, as his second
wife, married Norman Macleod, XIX. of Macleod, with issue - three
daughters, Elizabeth, Anne, and Rich Mary, for whose marriage and
descendants see Mackenzie's "History of the Macleods," pp. 154-155.
(2)  Roderick, Colin's second son, whose male heir carried on the
representation of the family on the death, without legitimate male
issue, of  Alexander Mackenzie, X. of Hilton, when he was succeeded
by  Roderick's grandson, Alexander, as XI. of Hilton, whose descent
will be  shown presently.  John, a third son of Colin, is on record
in 1730, but nothing more is known of him.

4.  Murdoch, fourth son of Murdoch, V. of Hilton, married Agnes
Helen, daughter of Donald Taylor, a Bailie of Inverness (1665),
with issue - an only son, Alexander, who in early life entered the
service of Kenneth, Earl of Seaforth, and who, in 1709, became
Chamberlain of the Lewis for Earl William.  In the same year
Alexander married Katherine, daughter of Andrew Duncan, factor
for Viscount Stormont, with issue, whose descendants are unknown.
Murdoch had also a daughter, Jean, who daughter of Thomas Forbes
of Raddery and of the lands of Fortrose as far as Ethie, with
issue - an only son, Alexander, who was drowned along with his
father, while fording the Conon, Opposite Dingwall, in 1759, when,
the son being unmarried, perished the married Hector Mackenzie, by
whom she had a son, Kenneth, a Jesuit Priest in Spain, and several
daughters.

5.  Isobel, who married the Rev. Donald Macrae, minister of Kintail,
with issue.

Murdoch was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, sixth of Hilton, who, in  1630, married,
first, Annabella, second daughter of John Mackenzie, I. of Ord,
without issue, and secondly, Sibella, eldest daughter of Roderick
Mackenzie, I. of Applecross, widow in succession of Alexander Macleod,
V. of Raasay, and Thomas Graham of Drynie, with issue - an only son,

VII.  EWEN  MACKENZIE, who succeeded as seventh of Hilton.  He
married, in 1685, Elizabeth, third daughter of Colin Mackenzie,
IV. of Redcastle, with issue -

1.  John, his heir and successor.

2.  Colin, who succeeded his brother John as IX. of Hilton.

3.  Florence, who married her cousin, Alexander Macrae, son of the
Rev. Donald Macrae, minister of Kintail.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VIII.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, eighth of Hilton, who married Margaret,
daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie of Alduinny (marriage contract
1710), without issue.  He joined the Earl of Mar, and was one of
"The four Johns of Scotland," - Ceithear Ianan na h-Alba - killed at
the battle of Sheriff-Muir in November, 1715, where he commanded
a Company of the Mackenzies.  He was succeeded by his brother,

IX.  COLIN  MACKENZIE, ninth of Hilton, who married Catherine,
daughter of Christopher Mackenzie, Arinhugair, with issue -

1.  John, who married Helen, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, VII.
of Fairburn, and died without issue, before his father, in 1751.

2.  Alexander, who succeeded to the estate.

3.  A daughter, who, as his first wife, married John Macdonell,
XII. of Glengarry, with issue - Alastair, who carried on the
representation of that family, and another son.

He died in 1756, aged 65, and was succeeded by his only surviving
son,

X.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, tenth of Hilton, who married Mary,
daughter of George Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard, without issue, when
the direct male line of Murdoch, V. of Hilton, came to an end.
He, however, had a natural son - Alexander, well known in his day
and yet affectionately spoken of by very old people as "Alastair Mor
mac Fhir Bhaile Chnuic," Seaforth's principal and most successful
recruiting serjeant when originally raising the 78th Highland
Regiment.  And many a curious story is still told of Alastair's
successful efforts to procure willing and sometimes hesitating
recruits for the Regiment of his Chief.  He married Annabella
Mackenzie, of the Gruinard family, by whom he had a numerous offspring;
and many of his descendants, one of whom is Major Alexander Colin
Mackenzie, of the 1st V.B. Seaforth Highlanders, Maryburgh, occupy
responsible positions in several parts of the country.

We must now revert, in order to pick up the legitimate male line
of succession, to

RODERICK  MACKENZIE, I. of Brea, Chamberlain of Ferintosh, second
son of Colin, by his wife Mary Simpson, third son of Murdoch, V.
of Hilton, all the intermediate male heirs having, as has been
shown, become extinct.  He acquired Brea in Ferintosh, in wadset
and it remained in his family for two generations.  By marriage he
became possessed of the ruined Castle of Dingwall, and the lands
adjoining, the ancient residence of the Earls of Ross; also the
lands of Longcroft.  Roderick married Una, or Winifred, daughter
of John Cameron, Town Clerk of Dingwall, with issue -

1. John of Brea, commonly known as "John the Laird."  He resided
at Tarradale and married, in 1759, Beatrice, second daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, VIII. of Davochmaluag, by Magdalen, daughter
of Hugh Rose, XIII. of Kilravock, with issue - (1) Roderick, who
died unmarried; (2)  Alexander, who succeeded as XI. of Hilton,
and of whom presently; (3)  Kenneth of Inverinate, who married
Anne, daughter of Thomas Mackenzie, IV. of Highfield and VI. of
Applecross, with issue - (a)  Thomas, who succeeded as X. of Applecross,
in right of his mother, and whose male heirs have died out (see
Applecross genealogy); (b)  Alexander, who married Harriet, daughter
of Newton of Curriehill, with issue - Kenneth, who died unmarried;
Alexander, a Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, who died unmarried;
Marion, who married Charles Holmes, barrister, without issue; and
Harriet, unmarried; (c) Jean, who died unmarried; (d) Elizabeth,
who married her cousin, Major John Mackenzie, XII. of Hilton, with
issue, whose descendants, in Australia, now represent the male
line of the family; (e) Flora, who married the Rev. Charles Downie,
minister of Contin who died in 1852, leaving issue - Kenneth
Mackenzie Downie, a surgeon in Australia, and five daughters, all
dead; (f) Catherine, (g) Mary, and (h) Johanna, all three of whom
died unmarried.  The other sons and daughters of John Mackenzie
of Brea, "the Laird," were (4) Colin, called "the Baron," born at
Tarradale, on the 3rd of December, 1759, and died unmarried; (5)
Peter, who also died unmarried; (6) Duncan, who married Jessie,
daughter of Mackenzie of Strathgarve, without issue; (7) Arthur,
who died unmarried; (8) Magdalen, who died unmarried; (9) Marcella
or Medley, who married the Rev. Dr Downie, in the Lewis; (10)
Mary, who in 1790, married her cousin, the Rev. Donald Mackenzie
minister of Fodderty, with issue - Major Colin, Royal Engineers, who
married Anne, daughter of John Pendrill, of Bath, without issue;
and (11) Elizabeth, who died unmarried.

2.  Colin Mackenzie, minister of Fodderty, who purchased an estate
in Aberdeenshire, and was the first of the Mackenzies of Glack, in
that county, of whom later on.

3.  Sir Peter, M.D., a knight of Nova Scotia, Surgeon-General in
the army, who died unmarried.

Roderick Mackenzie was succeeded in Brea by his eldest son,

JOHN  MACKENZIE, II. of Brea, with surviving issue, among  several
others already mentioned, Alexander, who as nearest male heir
collateral, succeeded to the lands and barony of the family as

XI.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, eleventh of Hilton and Brea, who was,
as has just been shown, the great-grandson of Colin, third son of
Murdoch, V. of Hilton, and his heir of line.  Alexander was born
at Tigh-a-phris of Ferintosh, on the 3rd of July, 1756.  He was
educated at the University of Aberdeen, but was afterwards bred
a millwright to qualify him for the supervision of family estates
and business connections in Jamaica, where he subsequently became a
Colonel of Militia.  On the death of his maternal uncle, Alexander
Mackenzie, VIII. of Davochmaluag, in 1776, and of that gentleman's
grandson, Lieutenant Kenneth Mackenzie, who was killed at Saratoga
in  1777, Alexander of Hilton succeeded also to the Davochmaluag
estate.  The adjoining properties of Davochpollo and Davochcairn
having been previously acquired by his father, John Mackenzie,
second of Brea, Alexander combined the three properties into one,
and gave it the name of Brea, after the former possession of the
family in Ferintosh.  He greatly improved this estate and laid it
out in its present beautiful form.  His land improvements, however,
turned out unremunerative.  His Hilton property was heavily encumbered
in consequence of the part taken by members of the family in the
Risings of 1696, 1715, and 1745, and great losses having been
incurred in connection with his West Indian estates, Alexander
got into pecuniary difficulties, and all his possessions, at home
and abroad, had to be sold either by himself or by his trustees
to meet the demands of his  creditors.  He was a distinguished
agriculturist for his time, and was the first, along with Sir
George Mackenzie, VII. of Coul, and his own cousin, Major Forbes
Mackenzie, to introduce Cheviot sheep to the Highlands for hill
grazings.

He married Mary James, in Jamaica, with issue -

1.  John, his heir.

2.  Alexander, who married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of the
Rev. Dr Downie, with issue - (1) Alexander, who died unmarried; (2)
Downie, who died unmarried; (3) John; (4) Kenneth, who married
Flora, daughter of the Rev. John Macdonald, a native of Inverness,
who emigrated to and was a minister in Australia, by his wife Mary
(who died in 1878), third daughter of Neil Macleod, XI. of Gesto,
Isle of Skye; (5) Charles, who died unmarried; (6) William, who
died unmarried; (7) Mary James, who married her cousin, Kenneth
Mackenzie, XIV. of Hilton, in Australia; and (8) Jessie, who died
unmarried.  Alexander emigrated to Australia, where he died.

3.  Kenneth, W.S., who married Anne Urquhart, Aberdeen, with
issue - an only daughter, who died unmarried.  He married, secondly,
Elizabeth Jones, with issue, and died in Canada, where his widow
and children continued to reside, in the city of Toronto.

4.  Mary, who died unmarried in Australia a few years ago.

Alexander died at Lasswade in 1840, and was succeeded as representative
of the family by his eldest son,

XII.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, Colonel of the 7th Regiment of Bengal
Cavalry, and for many years Superintendent of the Government
breeding stud at Buxar, India.  He married, in 1813, his cousin,
Elizabeth, daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie of Inverinate, W.S., with
issue -

1.  Alexander, who succeeded him as representative of the family.

2.  Kenneth, who succeeded his brother Alexander.

3.  Mary, who married Dr James of the 30th Regiment, without issue.

4.  Anne, who married General Arthur Hall of the 5th Bengal Cavalry,
with issue.

5.  Elizabeth Jane, who died unmarried.

Colonel John died at Simla in 1856, when he was succeeded as
representative of the family by his eldest son,

XIII.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, who emigrated to Australia, and died
unmarried in New South Wales in 1862, when he was succeeded as
representative of the family by his younger brother,

XIV.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, who recently resided at Tyrl-Tyrl, Taralga,
near Sydney, New South Wales.  He married his cousin, Mary James,
daughter of Captain Alexander Mackenzie of Brea, second son of
Alexander, XI. of Hilton, with issue -

1.  John, his heir; (2) Kenneth; (3) Downie; (4) Flora; (5) Jessie,
all in Australia.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  GLACK.

THIS family is descended from Roderick, second son of Colin, third
son of Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Hilton.  The issue of Roderick,
Hilton's second son, by the daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of
Redcastle, and Roderick's eldest brother, has already been proved
extinct.  Colin, Murdoch of Hilton's third son, had - (1) a son,
Alexander, whose male issue died out in 1759; and (2) Roderick,
Chamberlain of the Lewis.  This Roderick had three sons - (1) John
Mackenzie, I. of Brea, who carried on the male line of Hilton, and
whose representative, now in Australia, is head of that family;
(2) Colin; and (3) Sir Peter, a Surgeon-General in the army, who
died unmarried.  Roderick's second son,

I.  THE  REV.  COLIN  MACKENZIE, minister of Fodderty, purchased
the estate of Glack - in Aberdeenshire, and became the first of this
family.  He was born in 1707, educated at the University of Aberdeen,
and in 1734 appointed parish minister of Fodderty.  Subsequently,
for services rendered to the family of the forfeited Earl of
Cromarty, he was appointed by the Earl's eldest son, Lord Macleod,
Chaplain to Macleod's Highlanders, afterwards the 71st Highland
Light Infantry, an office which proved more honorary than lucrative,
for he had to find a substitute, at his own expense, to perform
the duties of the office.  Colin inherited a considerable fortune
in gold from his father, while in right of his mother he succeeded
to the ruined Castle of Dingwall, one of the ancients seats of the
old Earls of Ross, and its lands, as also the lands of Longcroft.
He gave the site of the Castle, at the time valued at L300, to
Henry Davidson of Tulloch as a contribution towards the erection
of a manufactory which that gentleman proposed to erect for the
employment of the surplus male and female labour in Dingwall and
its vicinity, but which was never begun.  He sold the remaining
portion of the Castle lands and those of Longcroft to his nephew,
Alexander Mackenzie, XI. of Hilton, and afterwards bought Glack
in Aberdeenshire, of which he and his descendants have since been
designated.  Colin was on intimate terms with the Lord President
Forbes of Culloden, and maintained a constant correspondence with
his lordship, the result of which was, along with the demands and
influence of his clerical calling, to keep him out of the Rising
of 1745, although all his sympathies were with the Jacobites.  He
is said to have been the first who, in his own district, received
intelligence of the landing of Prince Charles in Scotland.  It
reached him during the night, whereupon he at once crossed
Knockfarrel to Brahan Castle, where, finding his Chief in bed, he
without awakening her ladyship, communicated to his lordship what
had occurred.  Seaforth, having had his estate recently restored
to him, was easily prevailed upon by his clansmen to keep out of
the way in the meantime, and both of them started for the West
Coast of Ross-shire at the same time that the army of the Prince
began its march eastwards.  The two were in retirement at Poolewe,
when two ships laden with his lordship's retainers from the Lewis
sailed into  Lochewe.  They were at once signalled to return to
Stornoway, Seaforth waving them back with the jawbone of a sheep,
which he was in the act of picking for his dinner, and in this
way, it is said, was fulfilled one of the prophecies of the Brahan
Seer, by which it was predicted "That next time the men of Lewis
should go forth to battle, they would be turned back by a weapon
smaller than the jawbone of an ass."  Meanwhile Seaforth's lady (we
shall for greater convenience continue to call him by his former
title, although it was at this time under attainder), not knowing
what had become of her lord or what his real intentions were, is
said to have entertained the Prince at Brahan Castle, and to have
urged upon the Earl of Cromarty and his eldest son, Lord Macleod,
to call out the clan in her husband's absence.  Subsequently, when
that Earl and his son were confined in the Tower of London for
the part which they took on her advice, and when the Countess with
ten children, and bearing another, were suffering the severest
hardships and penury, the Rev. Colin, at great risk to himself and
the interests of his family, collected the rents from the Cromarty
tenants, giving his own receipt against their being required to
pay again to the Forfeited Estates Commissioners, and personally
carried the money to her ladyship in London. It was in acknowledgment
of this service that Lord Macleod afterwards appointed him Chaplain
to his newly raised regiment, Macleod's Highlanders.

It was this Colin who first fully recognised the health-giving
properties of the Strathpeffer mineral springs, and who, by erecting
a covered shed over one of them, placed it, for the first time,
in a condition to benefit the suffering thousands who have since
derived so much advantage from it.  Shortly before his death, in
1801, at the very old age  of ninety-five years, he conducted the
opening services of the parish church of Ferintosh, and contributed
largely to the funds for its erection, to commemorate the saving
of his wife's life, when she was washed ashore on her horse's back,
near the site of the church, when her father and brother perished
by drowning while crossing the River Conon, opposite Dingwall, in
1759.

The Rev. Colin married first, Margaret, daughter of Hugh Rose,  IV.
of Clava, with issue, an only daughter, Margaret, who died young
on the 22nd of September. 1746.  He married, secondly, in 1754,
his cousin, Mary, eldest daughter of Donald Mackenzie, Balnabeen,
who, as has been already shown, carried on, in the female line,
the succession of Alexander (Sanders), eldest son of Colin, third
son of Murdoch, V. of Hilton.  By her, who died in 1828, the Rev.
Colin of Fodderty, and Glack had issue -

1.  Roderick, his heir and successor.

2.  Donald, who was educated at the University of Edinburgh, and
afterwards appointed parish minister of Fodderty and Chaplain to
the 71st Highlanders, his father having resigned both offices in
his favour.  He was a noted humorist and said by those who knew
him best to be much more at heart a soldier than a minister.  He
married first, his cousin, Mary, daughter of John Mackenzie of
Brea, "the Laird," and sister of Alexander, XI. of Hilton, with
issue - (1) Colin, a Colonel of Royal Engineers, who, born in 1793,
married in 1838 Ann Petgrave, daughter of John Pendrill, M.D.,
Bath, and died without issue, in 1869; (2) John, who ultimately
succeeded as IV. of Glack, and of whom presently; (3) Elizabeth,
who married Lieutenant Stewart, R.N., with issue; and (4) Mary,
who died unmarried.  Colin married, secondly, Mary, daughter of
the Rev. Mr Fyers, Fort-George, without issue.

3.  Forbes Mackenzie, a Captain in the North British (Ross-shire)
Militia, afterwards Major in the East of Ross Militia, and for
thirty-seven years a Deputy Lieutenant for the county.  He reclaimed
and laid out the greater part of the valley of the Peffery, where,
on the estate of Fodderty,  be was the first to apply lime to the
land and to grow wheat north of the Moray Firth.  He was also the
first to introduce Clydesdale horses and shorthorn cattle to the
Highlands, and was, as has been already said, along with Sir George
Mackenzie of Coul and his own cousin, Alexander Mackenzie, XI. of
Hilton, the first to import Cheviot sheep to the northern counties.
He married Catherine, daughter of Angus Nicolson, Stornoway, and
grand-daughter of the gentleman of the same name who commanded and
brought to Poolewe, with the intention of joining the standard of
Prince Charles, the three hundred men ordered back to the Lewis,
as already mentioned, by Seaforth, in 1745.  By her Major Forbes
Mackenzie had issue - (1) Nicolson, a surgeon in the army, who was
wrecked near Pictou, Nova Scotia, and there drowned in his noble
attempts to save the lives of others, in 1853, unmarried; (2)
Roderick, heir of entail to the estate of Foveran, and a Colonel
in the Royal Artillery, who, in 1878, married Caroline Sophia,
daughter of J. A. Beamont of Wimbledon Park; (3) Thomas, a Major in
the 78th Highlanders, Ross-shire now retired, and still unmarried;
(4) Mary, who married the late Rev. John Kennedy, D.D., Free Church
minister of Dingwall, with issue - Jessie, unmarried, and Mary, who
married John Matheson, banker, Madras, only surviving son of the
late Rev. Duncan Matheson, late Free Church minister of Gairloch
with issue.  Mrs Kennedy died at Strathpeffer in 1892.  (5) Dorothy
Blair, who died unmarried; and (6) Catherine Eunice, who married
the late Adam Alexander Duncan of Naughton, county of Fife, with
issue - Catherine Henrietta Adamina.

4.  Anne, who married Hector Mackenzie, a Bailie of Dingwall
("Baillidh Eachainn"), to whom Alexander Campbell, the Gaelic bard,
composed the beautiful elegy published in 1893 in the "Scottish
Highlander."  He was the second son of Alexander Mackenzie of
Tollie, Provost of Dingwall (third son of Charles Mackenzie, I.
of Letterewe), by his second wife, Catherine, daughter of Bayne
of Delny, and younger half brother of Alexander Mackenzie, I. of
Portmore.  By his wife, Bailie Hector had issue, Alexander, whose
daughter, Katherine, in 1836, married Major Roderick Mackenzie,
H.E.I.C.S., and VII. of Kincraig, with issue.

5.  Mary, who married Captain John Mackenzie, VI. of Kincraig, whose
descendants, from her, now represent the Mackenzies of Redcastle.

6.  Johanna, who married Dr Millar, Stornoway.

7.  Una, who died unmarried.

8.  Beatrice, who married Peter Hay, a Bailie of Dingwall.

9.  Isabella, who died unmarried, and

10.  Jean, who married the Rev. Colin Mackenzie, Stornoway.

Rev. Colin Mackenzie was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  RODERICK  MACKENZIE, second of Glack.  He married  first,
Margaret, daughter of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, X. of Gairloch,
Baronet, without issue, and secondly, Christina, daughter of John
Niven, Peebles, with issue -

1.  Harry, who died unmarried, in 1828.

2.  John, who succeeded as III. of Glack.

3.  Roderick of Thornton, Aberdeenshire, who died unmarried, in
1858.

4.  James, a Major in the 72nd Highlanders, who died unmarried in
India, in 1857.

5.  Mary, who married the late General Sir Alexander Leith, K.C.B.,
of Freefield and Glenkindie, without issue.

6.  Rachael, who died unmarried.

7.  Christina of Foveran, who died unmarried.

8.  Jane Forbes Unice, who also died unmarried.

Roderick was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

III.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, third of Glack.  He was born in 1810,
succeeded his father in 1842, inherited his brother Roderick's estate
in  1857, and Foveran, on her death, from his sister Christina.
He acquired Inveramsay by purchase.  He died. unmarried, in 1877,
when he was succeeded by his cousin, the second son of his uncle,
the Rev. Donald, minister of Fodderty,

IV.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, fourth of Glack.  He was born on the 21st of
March, 1795, and married first, in 1817, at Malta, Anne, daughter
of Thomas MacGill, without issue; and secondly, on the 21st of
October, 1822, Margaret Campbell, daughter of John Pendrill, M.D.,
Bath, with issue -

1.  The Rev. Duncan Campbell, rector of Shephall, Hertfordshire,
his heir.

2.  John Pendrill, M.A. of Oxford, who was born on the 7th of
February, 1825, and married first, on the 20th of October, 1859, Lucy
Adelaide, daughter of Henry Thornton, with issue - Lucy Eleanor and
Margaret Pendrill.  She died in 1870, and he married, secondly, on
the 25th of July, 1878, Caroline Maria, daughter of J. H. Wottur
of Hamburg.

3.  The Rev. Roderick Bain, M.A. of Exeter College, Oxford, Rector
of Ludbrooke, county of Lincoln.  He was born on the 14th of
September, 1834, and married on the 10th of November, 1868, Josepha
Peyton, eldest daughter of Colonel Richard Ignatius Robertson of
Portland Place, London, without issue.

4.  Margaret Campbell Pendrill, and

5.  Mary, both unmarried.

His second wife died at Sorrento, Naples, on the 7th of June, 1855.

He is succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest son,

V.  THE REV.  DUNCAN  CAMPBELL  MACKENZIE, Vicar of Shephall, Herts,
who was born on the 6th of January, 1824, and married on the 31st
of January, 1854, Louisa, daughter of the late Lieutenant-Colonel
Nicolls, of Chichester, with issue -

1.  Donald, an officer in the Marines.

2.  Allan, an officer in the Ross-shire Militia.

3.  Malcolm; 4, Helen; 5, Edith; 6, Lilian; and 7, Amy.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  LOGGIE.


THE representative of this family, if alive, would succeed to the
Chiefship after the male representative of the family of Glack,
but there is no trace of any heir male of Loggie for two centuries.
Before the Chiefship could come into this family, the descendants
of Kenneth of Inverinate, third son of John Mackenzie of Brea, and
immediate younger brother of Alexander, XI. of Hilton would have
to be disposed of.  Thomas, the eldest son of Inverinate, succeeded
in terms of a disposition by John Mackenzie, VII. of Applecross,
and in right of his mother, to the Applecross estates, but not
to  the male representation of that family.  But the last male
representative of this family failed, a few years ago, in the
person of his third and last surviving son, Thomas Mackenzie,
W.S., Edinburgh, who died unmarried.  It will be remembered that
Allan Mackenzie, II. of Hilton and  Loggie, married a daughter of
Alexander Dunbar of Conzie and Kilbuyack, third son of the Sheriff
of Moray, with issue - (1) Murdoch, who succeeded as III. of Hilton,
and (2) John, who was served heir to and afterwards designated,

I.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, first of Loggie, a barony situated in the old
parish of that name, but now forming the western portion of the
modern parish of Urquhart.  John married a daughter of John Glassich
Mackenzie, II. of Gairloch, with issue, one son, who succeeded him
as

II.  ALLAN  MACKENZIE, second of Loggie.  He married a daughter
of Hector, sixth son of Murdoch Mackenzie, III. of Achilty, with
issue -

1.  Donald, his heir and successor.

2.  Murdoch, who was married and left one daughter, Margaret, who
in 1634 married Murdoch Mackenzie, I. of Little Findon, third son
of Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Killichrist, with issue - a son,
John, who succeeded his father.  Allan was succeeded by his eldest
son,

III.  DONALD  MACKENZIE, third of Loggie, who married first, in
1636, Catherine, daughter of Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Redcastle,
with issue -

1.  Colin, a doctor of medicine, educated at the University of
Aberdeen, and afterwards under the most celebrated professors of
the day  at Leyden, Paris, and Rheims, at the last-named of which
he took his degree of M.D.  He adopted extravagant theological
views, in consequence of which "and his immoral conduct in his
youth" he was disinherited by his father, whereupon he re-visited
the Continent and remained there for several years.  He subsequently
returned to Inverness, where he practised his profession with
considerable success, and had a yearly pension settled upon him
by his father, until his death there, unmarried, in 1708.

Donald married, secondly, Annabella, eldest daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, with issue -

2.  Alexander, who succeeded his father.

3.  John, who was educated for the ministry at the University
of  Aberdeen, and was for several years Chaplain to Major-General
Mackay's Regiment.  After the Revolution he was appointed minister
of Kirkliston, near Edinburgh, but soon removed to London, where
he died unmarried, before his brother Alexander, and was buried
in St. Martin's Church, Westminster.

4.  Murdoch, who succeeded as V. of Loggie.

5.  Margaret, who married first, in 1663, Roderick Mackenzie, V.
of Fairburn, with issue, and secondly, the Rev. Hector Mackenzie of
Bishop-Kinkell, second son of Kenneth Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch,
with issue.

6.  Christian, who married John Mackenzie, I. of Gruinard, with
issue, and

7.  Annabella, who married Mackenzie of Loggie in Lochbroom, with
issue.

He married, thirdly, Anne, daughter of the Rev. Donald Morison,
minister in the Lewis (sasine to her in 1666), with issue - an only
daughter, Anne, who married the Rev. Angus Morison, minister of
Contin.  Donald had also a natural son, Roderick, a Captain in the
Confederate army under King William, who died in Holland, unmarried.

He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

IV.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fourth of Loggie, who married first, in
1667, Jane, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, J. of Ballone, widow
of Simon, second son of the Hon. Simon Mackenzie of Lochslinn,
without issue.  He married, secondly, Catherine, second daughter
of  William Mackenzie, I. of Belmaduthy, also without issue.

He was succeeded by his youngest brother,

V.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, fifth of Loggie, who was educated at the
University of Aberdeen.  He afterwards joined the Earl of Dumbarton's
Regiment, and by his merit and valour soon raised himself to the
rank of Captain.  It is said of him that, at the battle of Sedgmoor,
fought on the 6th of February, 1685, during Monmouth's rebellion,
"the valiant Colonel Murdoch Mackenzie, under the command of Lord
Feversham, signally distinguished himself."  He at the head of his
Company attacked the enemy on that occasion with such bravery and
resolution that, excepting the officers, there were only nine men
who were not either killed or wounded.  Personally he had the
distinguished honour of taking the Duke of Monmouth's standard,
twisting it out of the standard-bearer's hand, and afterwards
presenting it to James II. at Whitehall.  For this gallant exploit
he was promoted at once to the rank of Colonel.  He married an
English lady, with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir.

2.  George, a young man of promising parts, who was killed in
a duel, unmarried; and three daughters of whom nothing has been
ascertained.

Murdoch died in London, was buried in St. Martin's Church,
Westminster, and succeeded by his eldest son,

VI.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, who settled in London, and of whose
representatives nothing whatever is known.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  GAIRLOCH.

THIS family is descended from Alexander Mackenzie, VI. of Kintail, by
his second wife Margaret, daughter of Roderick Macdonald, III. of
Moydart and Clanranald, the famous "Ruairidh MacAlain," by Margaret,
daughter of Donald Balloch of Islay, son of John Mor Tanastair (by
his wife Marjory Bisset, heiress of the Seven Lordships of the
Glens in Antrim), second son of John, first Lord of the Isles, by
his wife Lady Margaret Stewart, daughter of King Robert II. and
brother of Donald, second Lord of the Isles and first Earl of
Ross.  [For Alexander, VI. of  Kintail's first and second wives see
pp. 81-83.]  By this lady the sixth Baron of Kintail had one son -

I.  HECTOR  ROY  MACKENZIE, better known among his countrymen as
"Eachainn Ruadh."  He has been already noticed at considerable
length at pp. 113 to 132 in his capacity as Tutor or Guardian to
his nephew, John of Killin, IX. of Kintail, but he played such a
prominent part in the history of his time that it will be necessary
to give his history at much greater length under this head.  It has
been conclusively shown that Kenneth a' Bhlair, VII. of Kintail,
died in 1491, and that his only son by his first wife, Kenneth Og,
killed in the Torwood by the Laird of Buchanan in 1497, outlived
his father and became one of the Barons of Kintail, although there
is no record of his having been served heir to the family estates.
It has been said that Duncan of Hilton, Kenneth a Bhlair's eldest
brother, predeceased him, and that consequently Hector Roy succeeded,
as a matter of course to the legal guardianship of his nephew,
Kenneth Og, VIII. of Kintail, he being the eldest surviving
brother of the late Chief, who died in 1491.  But this has not been
sufficiently established, although it is quite true that Duncan's
name does not appear after his brother's death in 1491, in any
of the manuscript histories of the clan, or in any known official
document.  The author of the Ardintoul MS. states distinctly that
Duncan was dead, and that Hector, John of Kuhn's younger uncle,
"meddled with the estate."  The Earl of Cromarty says that "Hector
Roy, being a man of courage and prudence, was left Tutor by his
brother to Sir Kenneth, his own brother-uterine, Duncan being of
better hands than head.  This Hector, hearing of Sir Kenneth's
death, and finding himself in possession of an estate, to which
those only now had title whose birthright was debateable, namely,
the children begot by Kenneth the third, on the Lord Lovat's
daughter, with whom he did at first so irregularly and unlawfully
cohabit."  The objection of illegitimacy could not apply to
Duncan, or to his son Allan, and it is difficult to understand on
what ground Hector attempted to obtain personal possession of the
estates, unless it be true, as confirmed to some extent hereafter,
that he was himself joint-heir of Kintail; for it is undoubted
that Allan, Duncan's eldest son, who was entitled to succeed
before Hector, was then alive.  There is no official evidence that
Hector Roy was at any time appointed Tutor to John of Kuhn until an
arrangement was made between themselves, in terms of which Hector
was to act as such, and to keep the estates in his own bands until
his nephew came of age.

There is no doubt that Hector was in possession of extensive estates
of his own at this period.  When the Lords of the Association, a
factious party of the nobility, took up arms against James III.,
Alexander of Kintail despatched his sons, Kenneth and Hector,
with a retinue of 500, to join the Royal standard; but Kenneth,
hearing of the death of his father on his arrival at Perth,
returned home at the request of the Earl of Huntly; and the clan
was led by Hector Roy to the battle of Sauchieburn, near Stirling
but after the defeat of the Royal forces, and the death there in
1488 of the King himself, Hector, who narrowly escaped, returned
to Ross-shire and took the stronghold of Redcastle, then held for
the rebels by Rose of Kilravock, and placed a garrison in it.  He
then joined the Earl of Huntly and the clans in the north who were
rising to avenge the death of His Majesty but meanwhile orders
came from the youthful King James IV., who had been at the head of
the conspirators, ordering the Northern chiefs to lay down their
arms, and to submit to the powers that be.  Thereupon Hector,
yielding to necessity, submitted with the rest, and he was "not
only received with favour, but to reward his previous fidelity and
also to engage him for the future the young King, who at last saw
his error, and wanted to reconcile to him those who had been the
friends of his father, made him a present of the Barony of Gairloch
in the western circuit of Ross-shire by knight-service after the
manner of that age.  He likewise gave him Brahan in the Low Country,
now a seat of the family of Seaforth, the lands of Moy in that
neighbourhood, Glassletter (of Kintail), a Royal forest which was
made a part of the Barony of Gairloch.  In the pleasant valley of
Strathpeffer, Castle Leod, part of Hector's paternal estate,
afterwards a seat of the Earl of Cromarty; Achterneed near adjacent,
also Kinellan, were likewise his, and so was the Barony of Allan,
now Allangrange, a few miles southwards.  In the Chops of the
Highlands he had Fairburn the Wester, and both the Scatwells, the
great and the lesser.  Westward in the height of that country he had
Kenlochewe, a  district adjoining Gairloch on the east, and
southward on the same track he had the half of Kintail, of which he
was left joint-heir with his brother Kenneth, chief of the family."
[Manuscript history of the Gairloch family.  Another MS. says that
Hector's possessions in Kintail were "bounded by the rivers Kilillan
and Cro."]

The original Gairloch charters are lost, but a "protocol" from John
de Vaux, or Vass, Sheriff of Inverness, whose jurisdiction at that
time extended to Ross and the other Northern counties, is conclusive
as to their having existed.  This document, its orthography
modernised, is in the following terms:

To all and sundry to whom it effeirs to whose knowledge these
present letters shall come, John de Vaux, burgess of Dingwall and
Sheriff in this part, sends greeting in God everlasting, to you
universally I make it known that by the commands of our Sovereign
Lords Letters and  "precess" under his white wax directed to
me as Sheriff in that part, and grants me to have given to Hector
MacKennich heritable state and possession of all and sundry
the lands of Gairloch, with their pertinents, after the form and
tenour of our Sovereign Lord's charter made to the foresaid Hector
thereupon, the which lands with their pertinents extends yearly
to twelve merks of old extent, lying between the waters called
Inverewe and Torridon within the Sheriffdom of Inverness, and
I grant me to have given to the foresaid Hector heritable state
and possession of all and sundry the foresaid lands with their
pertinents, saving other men's rights as use and custom is, and
charge in our Sovereign Lord's name, and mine as Sheriff, that no
man vex, unquiet, or trouble the said Hector nor his heirs in the
peaceable brooking and enjoyment of the lands foresaid under all
pain and charges that after may follow:  In witness of the which I
have appended to these my letters of sasine my seal at "Allydyll"
(?  Talladale) in Gairloch, the 10th day of the month of December,
the year of God, 1494, before these witnesses - Sir Dougall Ruryson,
Vicar of Urquhart, Murchy Beg Mac Murchy, John Thomasson, Kenneth
Mac-anleyson, Donald Mac-anleyson, Dugald Ruryson, and Duncan
Lachlanson servant, with others divers.

The next authentic document in Hector's favour is a precept by the
King to the Chamberlain of Ross commanding that functionary to obey
a  former precept granted to Hector of the mails, etc., of Brahan
and Moy, in the following terms:

Chamberlain of Ross we greet you well - Forasmuch as we directed
our special letters of before, making mention that we have given to
our lovite Hector Roy Mackenzie the mails and profits of our lands
of Brahan and Moy, with arriage, carriage, and other pertinents
thereof, lying within our lordship of Ross for his good and thankful
service done and to be done to us, enduring our will, and that it
was our will that he should brook and enjoy the said lands with
all the profits thereof enduring our will, and so the tenants now
inhabitants thereof brook their tacks and not remove therefrom,
the which letters, as, we are surely informed, you disobeyed in
great contemption and littling of our authority Royal;  Herefor
we charge you now as of before that ye suffer the said Hector to
brook and enjoy the same lands and take up and have all mails,
fermes, profits, arriage, carriage, and due service of the said
lands, and that the tenants and inhahitants thereof to answer
and obey to him and to none others till, we give command by our
special letters in the contrary, and this on no wise you leave
undone, as you will incur our indignation and displeasure.  These
our letters seen and understood, deliver them again to the bearer
to be kept and shown by the said Hector upon account of your warrant
before our Comptroller and auditors of our Exchequer at your next
accounting, and after the form of our said letters past of before
given under our Signet, at Edinburgh, the 5th day of March, 1508,
and of our reign the twentieth year.

JAMES  R.

It will be seen from these documents that Hector had at this time
large possessions of his own; and the dispute between him and his
nephew, John of Killin, already fully described, probably arose
in respect of Hector's rights to the half of Kintail, which his
father is said to have left him jointly with his eldest brother,
Kenneth, VII. of Kintail.  Hector kept possession of Ellandonnan
Castle until compelled by an order from the Privy Council to give
it up in 1511 to John of Killin, and it appears from the records
of the Privy Council that from 1501 to 1508 Hector continued to
collect the rents of Kintail without giving any account of them;
that he again in 1509 accounted for them for twelve months, and
for the two succeeding years for the second time retained them,
while he seems to have had undisturbed possession of the stronghold
of Ellandonnan throughout.  No record can be found of his answer
to the summons commanding him to appear before the Privy Council,
if he ever did put in an appearance, but in all probability he
merely kept his hold of that Castle in order to compel his nephew
to come to terms with him regarding his joint rights to Kintail,
without any intention of ultimately keeping him out of possession.
This view is strengthened by the fact that John obtained a charter
under the Great Seal granting him Kintail anew on the 25th of
February, 1508-9 [Reg. of the Great Seal, vol. xv, fol. 89.] - the
same year in which Hector received a grant of Brahan and Moy - probably
following  on an arrangement of their respective rights in those
districts also from the fact that Hector does not appear to have
fallen into any disfavour with the Crown on account of his conduct
towards John of Kintail; for only two years after Kuhn raised the
action against Hector before the Privy Council, the latter receives
a new charter, dated the 8th April, 1513, [The original charter is
in the Gairloch Charter Chest.] under the Great Seal, of Gairloch,
Glasletter, and Coirre-nan-Cuilean "in feu and heritage for ever,"
and he and his nephew appear ever after to have lived on the most
friendly terms.

Gairloch, originally the possession of the Earls of Ross, and
confirmed to them by Robert Bruce in 1306 and 1329 was subsequently
granted by Earl William to Paul MacTire and his heirs by Mary
Graham, for a yearly payment of a penny of silver in the name of
blench ferme in  lieu of every other service except the foreign
service of the King when  required.  In 1372 Robert the II. confirmed
the grant.  In 1430 James I. granted to Nele Nelesoun (Neil son
of Neil Macleod) for his homage and service in the capture of his
deceased brother, Thomas Nelesoun, a rebel, the lands of Gairloch.
["Origines Parochiales Scotiae," vol. ii, p. 406]

Although Hector was in possession of Crown charters to at least
two-thirds of the lands of Gairloch he found it very difficult to
secure possession of them from the Macleods and their chief, Allan
MacRory, the former proprietors.  This Allan had married, as his
first wife, a daughter of Alexander, VI. of Kintail, and sister
of Hector Roy, with issue - three sons.  He married, secondly, a
daughter of Roderick Macleod, VII. of Lewis, with issue - one son,
Roderick, subsequently known as Ruairidh Mac Alain, author of
an atrocious massacre of the Macleods of Raasay and Gairloch at
Island Isay, Waternish, Isle of Skye, erroneously attributed in
the first edition of this work to his grandfather, the above-named
Roderick Macleod of Lewis.  Allan of Gairloch was himself related
to the Macleods of Lewis, but it is impossible to trace the exact
connection.  Two brothers of Macleod of Lewis are said, traditionally,
to have resolved that no Mackenzie blood should flow in the veins of
the future head of the Gairloch Macleods, and determined to put
Allan's children by Hector Roy's sister to death, so that his son by
their own niece should succeed to Gairloch, and they proceeded across
the Minch to the mainland to put their murderous intent into execution.

Allan MacRuairidh, the then Macleod laird of Gairloch, was personally
a peacefully disposed man, and lived at the "Crannag," of which
traces are still to be found on Loch Tolly Island, along with his
second wife, two of his sons by the first marriage, and a daughter.
The brothers, having reached Gairloch, took up their abode at the
old "Tigh Dige," a wattled house, surrounded by a ditch, whose site
is still pointed out in one of the Flowerdale parks, a few hundred
yards above the stone bridge which crosses the Ceann-an-t-Sail river
at the head of Gairloch Bay.  Next day the murderous barbarians
crossed over to Loch Tolly.  On the way they learnt that Allan
was not then on the island, he having gone a-fishing on the Ewe.
They at once proceeded in that direction, found him sound asleep
on the banks of the river, at "Cnoc na Mi-chomhairle," and without
any warning "made him short by the head."  Then retracing their
steps, and ferrying across to the island where Allan's wife, with
two of her three step-children were enjoying themselves, they, in
the most cold-blooded manner, informed her of her husband's fate,
tore the two boys - the third being fortunately absent - from her
knees, took them ashore, and carried them along to a small glen
through which the Poolewe Road now passes, about a mile to the
south of the loch, and there, at a spot still called "Creag Bhadain
an Aisc," the Rock at the place of Burial, stabbed them to the
heart with their daggers, and carried their bloodstained shirts
along with them to the Tigh Dige.  These shirts the stepmother
ultimately secured through the strategy of one of her husband's
retainers, who at once proceeded with them to the boys' grandfather,
Alexander Mackenzie, VI. of Kintail, at Kinellan or Brahan.
Hector Roy started immediately, carrying the bloodstained shirts
along with him as evidence of the atrocious deed, to report the
murder to the King at Edinburgh.  His Majesty on hearing of the
crime granted Hector a commission of fire and sword against the
murderers of his nephews, and gave him a Crown charter to the
lands of Gairloch in his own favour dated 1494.  The assassins
were soon afterwards slain at a hollow still pointed out between
Porthenderson and South Erradale, nearly opposite the northern end
of the Island of Raasay, where their graves are yet to be seen,
quite fresh and green, among the surrounding heather. [Mackenzie's
"History of the Macleods," pp. 342, 343.]

One of the family historians says that this was the first step that
Hector Roy got to Gairloch.  His brother-in-law, Allan Macleod,
gave him  the custody of their rights, but when he found his nephews
were murdered, he took a new gift of it to himself, and going to
Gairloch with a number of Kintail men and others, he took a heirschip
with him, but such as were alive of the Siol 'ille Challum of
Gairloch, followed him and fought him  at a place called Glasleoid,
but they being beat Hector carried away the heirschip.  After this
and several other skirmishes they were content to allow him the
two-thirds of Gairloch, providing he would let themselves possess
the other third in peace, which he did, and they kept possession
till Hector's great-grandchild put them from it." [Ancient MS.]

The Earl of Cromarty, and other MS. historians of the family fully
corroborate this.  The Earl says that Hector, incited to revenge
by the foul murder of his nephews, made some attempts to oust the
Macleods from Gairloch during John of Killin's minority, but was
not willing to engage in war with such a powerful chief as Macleod
of Lewis, while he felt himself insecure in his other possessions,
but after arranging matters amicably with his nephew of Kintail,
and now being master of a fortune and possessions suitable to his
mind and quality, he resolved to avenge the murder and to "make
it productive of his own advantage."  He summoned all those who
were accessory to the assassination of his sister's children before
the Chief Justice.  Their well grounded fears made them absent
themselves from Court.  Hector produced the bloody shirts of the
murdered boys, whereupon the murderers were declared fugitives and
outlaws, and a commission granted in his favour for their pursuit,
"which he did so resolutely manage that in a short time he killed
many, preserved some to justice, and forced the remainder to
a composition advantageous to himself.  His successors, who were
both active and prudent men, did thereafter acquire the rest from
their unthrifty neighbours."  The greatest defeat that Hector
ever gave to the Macleods "was at Bealach Glasleoid, near Kintail,
where most of them were taken or killed."  At this fight Duncan Mor
na Tuaighe, who so signally distinguished himself at Blar-na-Pairc,
was present with Hector, and on being told that four men were
together attacking his son Dugal, he indifferently replied, "Well,
if he be my son there is no hazard for that," a remark which turned
out quite true, for the hero killed the four Macleods, and came
off himself without any serious wounds.  [Duncan in his old days
was very assisting to Hector, Gairloch's predecessor, against the
Macleods of Gairloch, for he, with his son Dugal, who was a strong,
prudent, and courageous man, with ten or twelve other Kintailmen,
were alwise, upon the least advertisement, ready to go and assist
Hector, whenever, wherever, and in whatever he had to do, for which
cause there has been a friendly correspondence betwixt the family
of Gairloch and the MacRas of Kintail, which still continues." -
"Genealogy of the MacRas."]

The massacre of Island Isay followed a considerable time after
this, and its object was very much the same as the murder of Loch
Tolly, although carried out by a different assassin.  Ruairidh
"Nimhneach" Macleod, son of Allan "Mac Ruairdh" of Gairloch, and
nephew of the Loch Tolly assassins, determined not only to remove
the children of John Mor na Tuaighe, brother of Alexander Macleod,
II. of Raasay, by Janet Mackenzie of Kintail, but also to destroy
the direct line of the Macleods of Raasay, and thus open up the
succession to John na Tuaighe's son by his second wife, Roderick
Nimhneach's sister, and failing him, to Roderick's own son Allan.
By this connection it would, he thought, be easier for him to
attain repossession of the lands of Gairloch, from which his family
was driven by the Mackenzies.

Roderick's name appears as "Rory Mac Allan, alias Nevymnauch,"
in a decree-arbitral by the Regent Earl of Murray between Donald
Macdonald, V. of Sleat, and Colin Mackenzie, XI. of Kintail, dated
at Perth, the 1st of August, 1569, in terms of which Macdonald
becomes responsible for Roderick and undertakes that he and his kin
shall "desist and cease troubling, molesting, harming or invasion
of the said Laird of Gairloch's lands and rowmes, possessions,
tenants, servants, and goods, while on the other hand Kintail shall
see to it that Torquil Cononach shall cease to do the same in all
respects to Macdonald's lands."  In 1586 Roderick is described as
"of Lochgair," but another person is named in the same document
as "Macleud, heritor of the lands of Gairloch," which proves that
Roderick Nimhneach was not the actual proprietor of even the small
portion of that district which was still left to his family.  He
was the second son, and one of the objects of the massacre on
Island Isay was to cut off his father's only surviving son and
heir by his first wife - a daughter of Mackenzie of Kintail - who
escaped the previous massacre on the Island of Loch Tolly.

With the view of cutting off the legitimate male representation of
his own Macleod relatives of Gairloch and of Raasay, he invited
all the members of both families, and most of them accepted the
invitation.  Roderick on their arrival feasted them sumptuously
at a great banquet.  In the middle of the festivities he informed
them of his desire to have each man's advice separately, and that he
would after-wards make known to them the important business which
had to be considered, and which closely concerned each of them.  He
then retired into a separate apartment, and called them in one by
one, when they were each, as they entered, stabbed with dirks
through the body by a set of murderous savages whom he had engaged
and posted inside the room for the purpose.  Not one of the family
of Raasay was left alive, except a boy nine years of age, who was
being fostered from home, and who had been sent privately by his
foster-father, when the news of the massacre became known, to the
laird of Calder, who kept him in safety during his minority.  He
afterwards obtained possession of Raasay, and became known as
Gillecallum Garbh MacGillechallum.  Macleod of Gairloch's sons, by
Hector Roy's sister, were all murdered.  Roderick took his own
nephew to the room where, walking with his brutal relative, he
heard one of his half-brothers cry on being stabbed by the
assassin's dirk, and saying "Yon's my brother's cry."  "Hold your
peace," Rory replied, "yonder cry is to make you laird of Gairloch;
he is the son of one of Mackenzie's daughters."  The boy, fearing
that his own life might be sacrificed, held his tongue, "but
afterwards he did what in him lay in revenging the cruel death of
his brothers and kinsmen on the murtherers."  [Ancient MS.]

In acknowledgment of the King's favour, Hector gathered his followers
in the west, joined his nephew, John of Killin, with his vassals,
and fought, in command of the clan, at the disastrous battle
of Flodden, from which both narrowly escaped but most of their
followers were slain.  Some time after his return home he successfully
fought the desperate skirmish at Druim-a-chait, already referred
to, pp. 114-118, with 140 men against 700 of the Munros, Dingwalls,
MacCullochs, and other clans under the command of William Munro
of Fowlis, on which occasion Sheriff Vass of Lochslinn was killed
at a bush near Dingwall, "called to this day Preas Sandy Vass,"
or Alex. Vass's bush, a name assigned to it for that very cause.
[Gairloch MS.]

Hector, during his life, granted to his nephew, John of Killin,
his  own half of Kintail, the lands of Kinellan, Fairburn, Wester
Brahan, and  other possessions situated in the Low Country, which
brought his son John Glassich afterwards into trouble.
[Gairloch MS.]

Hector Roy was betrothed to a daughter of the Laird of Grant
- probably Sir Duncan, who flourished from 1434 to 1485 - but she
died before the marriage was solemnised.  He, however, had a son by
her called Hector Cam, he being blind of an eye, to whom he gave
Achterneed and Culte Leod, now Castle Leod, as his patrimony.  Hector
Cam married a daughter of Mackay of Farr, ancestor of Lord Reay, by
whom he had two sons Alexander Roy and Murdo. ["These were both
succeeded by the son of Alexander, a slothful man, who dotingly
bestowed his estate on his foster child.  Sir Roderick Mackenzie
of Coigeach, in detriment to his own children, though very deserving
of them, Captain Hector Mackenzie, late  of Dumbarton's Regiment,
and also a tribe in the Eastern circuit of Ross, surnamed, from
one of their progenitors, Mac Eanin, i.e., the descendants of John
the Fair." - "Gairloch MS."  Another MS. gives the additional names
of - "Richard Mackenzie, vintner in Edinburgh, grandson of Alexander
Mackenzie of Calder, Midlothian; Duncan Mackenzie, an eminent
gunsmith in London; and James Mackenzie, gunsmith in Dundee."
It also adds that of the successors of the Mac Eanins in Easter
Ross, were "Master Alexander Mackenzie, an Episcopal minister
in Edinburgh; and preceptor to the children of the present noble
family of Cromarty, whose son is Charles Mackenzie, clerk to Mr
David Munro of Meikle Allan."]  Alexander married a daughter of
John Mor na Tuaighe MacGillechallum, a brother of Macleod of Raasay,
by whom she had a son, Hector, who lived at Kinellan, and was
nicknamed the Bishop.  This Hector married a daughter of Macleod of
Raasay, and left a large family, one of the daughters being
afterwards married to Murdo Mackenzie, V. of Achilty, without issue.
Hector Cam's second son, Murdo, married a daughter of Murdoch Buy
Matheson of Lochalsh, with issue - Lachlan, known as  "Lachlainn Mac
Mhurchaidh Mhic Eachainn," who married a daughter of Murdoch
Mackenzie, III. of Achilty, with issue - Murdoch, who married a
daughter of Alexander Ross of Cuilich and Alastair, who married a
daughter of William MacCulloch of Park.

Hector Roy, after the death of Grant of Grant's daughter, married
his cousin Anne, daughter of Ranald MacRanald, generally known as
Ranald Ban Macdonald, V. of Moydart and Clanranald.  Her brother
Dougal was assassinated and his sons formally excluded from the
succession, when the estate and command of the clan were given to
his nephew Alexander, "portioner," of Moydart, whose son, John
Moydartach afterwards succeeded and became the famous Captain of
Clanranald Gregory says, however, that "Allan, the eldest son of
Dougal, and the undoubted heir male of Clanranald, acquired the
estate of Morar, which he transmitted to his descendants.  He and
his successors were always styled 'MacDhughail Mhorair,' that is
MacDougal of Morar, from their ancestor Dougal MacRanald."  This
quite explains the various designations by  which these Moydart
and Clanranald ladies who had married into the Gairloch family
have been handed down to us.  Anne was the widow of William Dubh
Macleod, VII. of Harris, Dunvegan, and Glenelg, by whom she had
an only daughter, who, by Hector Roy's influence at Court, was
married to Rory Mor of Achaghluineachan, ancestor of the Mackenzies
of Fairburn and Achilty, after she bad by her future husband
a natural son, Murdoch, who became progenitor of the family of
Fairburn.  By this  marriage with Anne of Moydart and Clanranald
Hector Roy had issue -

1.  John Glassich, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth of Meikle Allan, now Allangrange, who married a daughter
of Alexander Dunbar of Kilbuyack, and widow of Allan Mackenzie,
II. of Hilton, with issue - (1) Hector, who married an Assynt lady,
with issue - Hector Og, who was killed at Raasay, in 1611, unmarried;
and three daughters, the eldest of whom married, as her second
husband, John, son of Alastair Roy, natural son of John Glassich,
with issue - Bishop Murdoch Mackenzie of Moray and Orkney, and
several other sons.  Hector's second daughter married "Tormod Mac
Ean Lleaye" - Norman, son of John Liath Macrae - who, according to
the traditions of  the country, took such a prominent part against
the Macleods at that period - and a brother of the celebrated archers
Domhull Odhar and lain Odhar mic Ian Leith, of whose prowess the
reader will learn more presently.  The third daughter married
Duncan, son of John, son of Alastair Roy, son of John Glassich,
II. of Gairloch.  (2) Angus, who married, with issue - Kenneth,
who left an only daughter, who married her cousin, Murdo Mac Ian,
son of Alastair Roy.

3.  John Tuach of Davochpollo, who married with issue - a son, John,
who died without lawful issue.

4.  Dougal Roy, who inherited Scatwell, and was killed in a family
feud in 1550, and

Three daughters, who married respectively, Bayne of Tulloch, John
Aberach Mackay, and Hugh Bayne Fraser of Bunchrew, a natural son
of Thomas, fourth Lord Lovat, killed at Blar-na-Leine, ancestor of
the Frasers of Reelick.

He had also a son, John Beg, who was according to some authorities
illegitimate, from whom descended several Mackenzies who settled
in Berwick and Alloa.

Hector Roy died in 1528.  On the 8th of September in that year,
a grant is recorded to Sir John Dingwall, "Provost of Trinity
College, beside Edinburgh, of the ward of the lands of Gairloch,
which pertained to the umquhile Achinroy Mackenzie."  He was
succeeded by his eldest lawful son,

II.  JOHN  GLASSICH  MACKENZIE, who, from the above quoted document,
appears to have been a minor at his father's death.  His retour of
service cannot be found, but an instrument of sasine, dated the
24th of June, 1536, in his favour, is in the Gairloch charter chest,
wherein he is designated  "John  Hector-son," and in which he is
said to be the heir, served and retoured, of his father, Hector
Roy Mackenzie, in the lands of Gairloch, and the grazings of
Glasletter and Coirre-nan-Cuilean.  He is said to have objected
to his father's liberality during his life in granting, at the
expense of his successors, to his nephew, John of Kuhn, so much
of his patrimonial possessions.  According to the Gairloch MS.
already quoted Hector gave him his own half of Kintail, as well as
Kinellan, Fairburn, Wester Brahan, and "other possessions in the Low
Country besides."  John thought these donations far too exorbitant,
and he "sought to retrench them by recovering in part what with
so much profusion his father had given away, and for that, a feud
having ensued betwixt him and his Chief, he was surprised in his
house by night, according to the barbarous manner of the times,
and sent prisoner to Iland Downan, and there taken away by poison
in A.D. l550.  His brother Dugal, who sided with him, and John
(Beg), his natural brother, were both slain in the same quarrel."
[Gairloch MS.  Another MS. says that his other brother, John Tuach,
was assassinated the same night.]

A bond, dated 1544, has been preserved, to which John Glassich's
name, along with others, is adhibited, undertaking to keep the peace,
and promising obedience to Kenneth, younger of Kintail (Kenneth
na Cuirc), as the Queen's Lieutenant. [Spalding Club Miscellany,
vol. iv. p.213.]  John's obedience does not appear, however, to
have been very complete.  Kintail having, according to another
authority, received information of John Glassich's intention to
recover if possible part of the property given away by his father,
sent for him to Brahan, where he went, accompanied by a single
attendant, John Gearr.  The chief charged him with these designs
against him, and John's denials proving unsatisfactory, Kintail
caused him to be apprehended.  John Gearr, seeing this, and feeling
that his master had been treacherously dealt with, drew his two
handed sword and made a fierce onslaught on the chief who sat at
the head of the table, but smartly bowed his head under it, or it
would have been cloven asunder.  John Gearr was instantly seized by
Mackenzie's guards, who threatened to tear him to pieces, but the
chief, admiring his fidelity, charged them not to touch him.  John
Gearr, on being questioned why he had struck at Mackenzie and took
no notice of those who apprehended his master, boldly replied that
he "saw no one else present whose life was a worthy exchange for
that of his own chief."  John's sword made a deep gash in the table,
and the mark, which was deep enough to admit of a hand being placed
edgeways in it, remained until Colin, first Earl of Seaforth,
caused the piece to be cut off, saying that "he loved no such
remembrance of the quarrels of his relations."

John Glassich, it would appear, was not unduly circumspect at
home, or a very dutiful and loyal subject to his King.  In 1547
his estate was forfeited for refusing to join the Royal Standard,
and the escheat thereof granted to the Earl of Sutherland, as will
be seen by the following letter in favour of that nobleman:

"A letter made to John, Earl of Sutherland, his heirs, assigns,
one or more, the gift of all goods moveable and unmoveable, debts,
tacks, steadings, corns, and obligations, sums of money, gold,
silver, coined and uncoined, and other goods whatsoever which
pertained to John Hectors - son of Gairloch, and now pertaining to
our Sovereign Lady by reason of escheat through the said John's
remaining and biding at home from the  'oist' and army devised to
convene at Peebles, the 10th day of July instant, for recovering
of the house of Langholm furth of our enemies' hands of England,
in contrary to the tenour of the letters and proclamations made
thereupon, incurred therethrough the pains contained thereuntil,
or any otherwise shall happen to pertain to us our Sovereign by
reason foresaid with power, etc.  At Saint Andrews the 23rd day
of July, the year of God, 1547 years." [Reg. Sec. Sig., xxi. fol.
316.]

There is no trace of the reversal of this forfeiture.  It does
not, however, appear to have affected the succession.  Indeed it
is not likely that it even affected the actual possession, for it
was not easy even for the Earl of Sutherland, though supported by
the Royal authority to wield any real power in such an out-of-the-way
region in those days as John Glassich's possessions in the west.
It has been already stated that, in 1551, the Queen granted to
John Mackenzie, IX. of Kintail, and his heir, Kenneth na Cuirc,
a remission for the violent taking of John Glassich, Dougal, and
John Tuach, his brothers, and for keeping them in prison, thus
usurping "therethrough our Sovereign Lady's authority."  None of
them is spoken of in this remission as being then deceased, though
tradition and the family MS. history have it that John Glassich
was poisoned or starved to death at Ellandonnan Castle in 1550. [One
of the family MSS. says that by his marriage "he got the lands of
Kinkell, Kilbokie, Badinearb, Pitlundie, Davochcairn, Davochpollo,
and Foynish, with others in the Low Country, for which the family
has been in the use to quarter the arm of Fraser with their own.
This John, becoming considerably rich and powerful by those
different acquisitions, became too odious to and envied by John,
Laird of Mackenzie, and his son Kenneth then married to Stewart,
Earl of Atholes daughter, that they set upon him, having previously
invited him to a Christmas dinner, having got no other pretence
than a fit of jealousy on account of the said Earl's daughter,
bound him with ropes and carried him a prisoner to Islandownan,
where his death was occasioned by poison administered to him in a
mess of milk soup by one MacCalman, a clergyman and Deputy-Constable
of the Fort."]  It is, however, probable that Kintail considered it
wise to conceal John's death until the remission had been already
secured.  Only six weeks after the date of the "respitt" John
Glassich is referred to in the Privy Council Records, under date
of 25th July, 1551, as the "omquhile (or late) John McCanze of
Gairlocht," his lands having then been given in ward to the Earl
of Athole, "Ay and till the lawful entry of the righteous heir or
heirs thereto, being of lawful age." [Reg. Sec. Con., vol. xxiv.,
fol. 84.]

Although Hector obtained a charter of the lands of Gairloch in
1494, the Macleods continued for a time to hold possession of
a considerable part of it.  According to the traditions of the
district they had all to the east and south-east of the Crasg,
a hill situated on the west side of the churchyard of Gairloch,
between the present Free and Established Churches.  At the east
end of the Big Sand, on a high and easily defended rock, stood
the last stronghold occupied by the Macleods in Gairloch - to this
day known as the "Dun" or Fort.  The foundation is still easily
traced.  It must have been a place of consider-able importance,
for it is over 200 feet in circumference.  Various localities are
still pointed out in Gairloch where desperate skirmishes were
fought between the Macleods and the Mackenzies.   Several of these
spots, where the slain were buried, look quite green to this day.
The "Fraoch Eilean," opposite Leac-na-Saighid, where a naval
engagement was fought, is a veritable cemetery of Macleods, ample
evidence of which is yet to  be seen.  Of this engagement, and of
those at Glasleoid, Lochan-an-Fheidh, Leac-na-Saighid, Kirkton,
and many others, thrilling accounts are still recited by a few
old men in the district; especially of the prowess of Domh'ull
Odhar Mac Ian Leith, and the other Kintail heroes who were
mainly instrumental in establishing the Mackenzies of Gairloch
permanently and in undisputed possession of their beautiful and
romantic inheritance.

John Glassich married Janet Agnes, daughter of James Fraser of
Phoineas, brother of Hugh, sixth Lord Lovat (with whom he got the
Barony of Inchlag, etc.), with issue -

1.  Hector, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, who succeeded his brother Hector.

3.  John, who succeeded Alexander.

4.  A daughter, who married John Mackenzie, II. of Loggie, with
issue.

John Glassich's widow married, secondly, Thomas Chisholm, XV. of
Chisholm, without issue male.

He had also two natural sons before his marriage, Alexander Roy
and Hector Caol.

Alexander Roy had a son John, who lived at Coirre Mhic Cromaill
in Torridon, and who had a son, the Rev. Murdoch Mackenzie,
Chaplain to Lord  Reay's Regiment in the Bohemian and Swedish
service, under Gustavus Adolphus.  He was afterwards minister of
Contin, Inverness, and Elgin, and subsequently Bishop of Moray
and  of Orkney in succession.  His family and descendants are
dealt with under a separate heading - MACKENZIES  OF  GROUNDWATER.

Hector Caol left a numerous tribe in Gairloch, still known as Clann
Eachainn Chaoil, and said to be distinguished by their long and
slender legs.

John Glassich, who was assassinated in 1550, as already stated,
at Ellandonnan Castle, was buried in the Priory of Beauly, and
succeeded by his eldest lawful son,

III.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE.  He has a sasine, dated the 6th May, 1563,
[Gairloch Charter Chest,] in which he is described as "Achyne
Johannis MacAchyne," and bearing that the lands had been in non-entry
for 12 years, thus carrying back the date of his succession to 1551,
when the estate was given in ward to John, fourth of the Stewart
Earls of Athole.  Hector died - probably killed, like his brother -
without issue, on the 3rd of September, 1566, and was buried at
Beauly, when he was succeeded by his next lawful brother,

ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, who has a retour, dated the 2nd of December,
1566, [Ing. Retour Reg., vol. i., fol. 22, and "Origines Parochiales
Scotiae,"] as heir to "Hector his brother-german," in the lands of
Gairloch, namely, "Gairloch, Kirktoun, Syldage, Hamgildail, Malefage,
Innerasfidill, Sandecorran, Cryf, Baddichro, Bein-Sanderis, Meall,
Allawdall, with the pasturage of Glaslettir and Cornagullan, in
the Earldom of Ross, of the old extent of L8;" but not to any of
the other lands which Hector Roy left to his descendants.  Alexander
did not long possess the estates, for he died - to all appearance
assassinated - a few weeks after he succeeded, without making up
titles.  It is, therefore, not thought necessary to count him as
one of the Barons of Gairloch.

It is probable that the brothers, Hector and Alexander, met with
the same violent death as their father and uncles, John Glassich,
John Tuach, and John Beg and by the same authors.  This is according
to tradition, and an old MS., which says that their mother Agnes
Fraser fled with John Roy "to Lovat and her Fraser relatives,"
adds as to the fate of his brothers that "In those days many acts
of oppression were committed that could not be brought to fair
tryales befor the Legislator."  "She was afterwards married to
Chisholm of Comar, and heired his family; here she kept him in
as concealed a  manner as possible, and, as is reported, every
night under a brewing kettle, those who, through the barbarity
of the times, destroyed his father and uncles, being in search
of the son, and in possession of his all excepting his mother's
dower.  He was afterwards concealed by the Lairds of Moydart
and of Farr, till he  became a handsome man and could put on his
weapon, when he had the resolution to wait on Colin Cam Mackenzie,
Laird of Kintail, a most worthy gentleman, who established him
in all his lands, excepting those parts of the family estate for
which Hector and his successors had an undoubted right by writs."
Hector was succeeded by his next brother,

IV.  JOHN  ROY  MACKENZIE, John Glassich's third son, who was at
the time a  minor, although his father had been dead for 15 or 16
years; and the estate was given in ward by Queen Mary in 1567.
She "granted in heritage to John Bannerman of Cardeyne, the ward
of the lands and rents belonging to the deceased Hector Makkenych,
of Gairloch, with the relief of the same when it should occur
and the marriage of John Roy Makkenych, the brotherand apparent
heir of Hector."  ["Origines Parochiales Scotiae" p. 406, and Reg.
Sec. Sig., vol. xxxvi. fol. 6.]  In 1569, John, being then of
"lauchful age," is served and retoured heir to his brother-german,
Hector, in the lands of Gairloch [Ing. Retour Reg., vol. i.,
fol. 22, and "Origines Parochiales Scotiae."] as specified in the
service of 1566, passing over Alexander, no doubt because he
never made up titles.  This retour of 1569 gives the date of
Hector's death as 30th September, 1566.  In 1574 John has a sasine
which bears that the lands had been seven and a half years in
non-entry, taking it back to the date of Hector's death, three
months before the gift of the ward to John Bannerman.  He, in the
same year, acquired half the lands of Ardnagrask from Lord Lovat,
partly in exchange for the rights he inherited in Phoineas from his
mother, and he is described by his Lordship in the disposition as
"the son, by her first husband, of his kinswoman Agnes Fraser."
From this it may be assumed that John Glassich's widow had during
her life made over her own rights to her son or that she had in the
meantime died.

It is found from the old inventory, already quoted, that there
was a charter of alienation by Hugh Fraser of Guisachan, dated the
29th of May, 1582, from which it appears that John Roy in 1574,
acquired Davochcairn and Davochpollo, in Strathpeffer, from this
Hugh Fraser, and that in the first-named year he obtained from
him also the lands of Kinkell-Clarsach and Pitlundie, in terms of
a contract of sale dated the 26th of January, 1581.  The charter
is confirmed by James VI. in 1523.  It appears from his daughter's
retour of service [Ing. Retours Reg., vol.  viii., fol. 284b.] that
Gairloch's eldest son, John, died in 1601.  He had been infeft
by his father in Davochpollo and Pitlundie, and married Isabel,
daughter of Alexander Mackenzie II. of Fairburn, by whom he had
a daughter, also named Isabel, who married Colin Mackenzie of
Strathgarve, brother to Kenneth, first Lord Mackenzie of Kintail,
and first of the Mackenzies of Kinnock and Pitlundie.  Colin of
Strathgarve entered into a lawsuit with Alexander V. of Gairloch,
probably in connection with this marriage, "to cut him out of his
Low Country estate." ["Colin of Kinnock, who entered a lawsuit
against Alexander Mackenzie of Gairloch, meaning to cut him out
of his low country estates, and being powerfully supported by
Mackenzie of Fairburn and Mr John Mackenzie of Tolly, minister
of Dingwall, a plodding clergyman, kept him sixteen sessions at
Edinburgh; the last year of which Gairloch and his brother Kenneth
seeing Lord Kintail insulted by the Earl of Glencairn, who was
supported by most of those on the street, put on their armour and
came directly to his assistance, and rescuing him from imminent
danger brought him to their lodging.  No sooner was the tumult
over than they embraced very cordially, and the whole matter in
debate was instantly taken away,  aud Gairloch got a present of
600 merks to finish the Tower of Kinkell, of which his father
(John Roy) only built three storeys." - "Gairloch MS."]  In 1657
she mortgaged Davochpollo and Pitlundie to her cousin, Kenneth VI.
of Gairloch; and her successor, John Mackenzie of Pitlundie,
completed the sale to him, which brought the property back again
to the Gairloch family. [Papers in the Gairloch Charter Chest.]

Under date of 11th August, 1587, the following complaint by James
Sinclair, Master of Caithness, and James Paxtoun, his servant,
against John Mackenzie of Gairloch appears in the Records of the
Privy Council - While they "were in a peaceable and quiet manner,"
in March last, in the Chanonry of Ross, within the house of
William Robson, the following persons, viz.: John Mackenzie of
Gairloch, Hector Mackenzie in Fairburn, Meikle John Mackenzie, his
son, Thomas MacThomais Mac Keanoch's son, Donald Macintagairt,
Mr John Mackenzie, son of Murdo Mackenzie of Fairburn, Mr Murdo
Mackenzie, parson of Lochcarron, Duncan Mackenzie, John Beg
Mackenzie's  son, Duncan MacCulloch of Achanault, David Aytoun,
master stabler to Colin Mackenzie of Kintail, Finlay Roy, Stewart
to the said Colin, William Barbour, burgess in the Chanonry, with
convocation of the lieges, to the number of 300, "bodin in feir
of weir," and hounded on by the said John Mackenzie of Gairloch,
"had come to the said William Robson's house, wherein the said
complainers were, and had without any occasion of offence, assegeit
the said house and used all means and engines for apprehending of
the said James Sinclair and his said servant."  Further, "seeing
they could not goodly recover the said house," they "cried for
fire, and had not failed most treasonably to have risen fire
within the same had not the said complainer delivered the said
James Paxton in their bands, whom they immediately conveyed and
led to the castle of Chanonry pertaining to the said Colin, and
kept and detained him captive therein for the space of two hours
or thereby."  After such detention of the said James "they granted
liberty to him to pass home, and the better to cloak their cruel
and unmerciful decree, which openly they durst not put to execution,
they secretly hounded out a great number of cut-throats to have
beset the same James's way and to have bereft him of his life,
which they not failed to have done had not God otherwise prevented
their doings."  Moreover, "at that same time they reft and took
away from the said complainers their horses, saddles, and other
gear worth five hundred merks."  John Mackenzie of Gairloch,
master and landlord of the foresaid persons, having been charged
to appear personally and enter them this day "to have answered
and underlaid punishment for the premises," according to the
general band, but making no such appearance or entry, while the
complainers appear personally, the Lords order the said Mackenzie
of Gairloch to be denounced rebel.

In 1606 John Roy received a charter of resignation in favour of
himself in life-rent, and of his son, Alexander in fee, erecting
Gairloch into a free barony and in 1619 he obtained another charter,
[These charters are in the Gairloch Charter Chest.] under the Great
Seal, by which Kinkell is included in the barony and constituted
its chief messuage.  He built the first three stories of the Tower
of Kinkell, "where his arms and those of his first wife are parted
per pale above the mantelpiece of the great hall."  [Gairloch MS.]

The son of Roderick MacAllan "Nimhneach" of Gairloch, in the
absence of young MacGillechallum Garbh of Raasay, who, under the
care of the Laird of Calder escaped the massacre of Island Isay,
possessed himself of Raasay and took up his quarters in Castle
Brochail, the ancient residence of the Chiefs of Macleod, of which
the ruins are still to be seen on the east side of the island.
Seeing this, Donald Mac Neill, who previously sent young Macleod
of Raasay to the protection of Calder brought back the rightful
heir, and kept him, in private, until an opportunity occurred
by which he could obtain possession of the castle.  This he soon
managed by coming to terms with the commander of the stronghold,
who  preferred the native heir to his relative of the Gairloch
Macleods.  It was arranged that when Mac Neill should arrive at the
castle with his charge, access should be given to young Raasay.
The commander kept his word, and MacGillechallum Garbh was soon
after proclaimed laird.

In 1610 a severe skirmish was fought at Lochan-an-Fheidh, in Glen
Torridon, between the Mackenzies - led by Alexander, since his
brother's death in 1601, the apparent heir of Gairloch - and the
Macleods under John MacAllan Mhic Rory, then the only surviving
direct male representative of Allan Macleod of Gairloch and grandson
probably of Rory Nimhneach.  John Tolmach, John's uncle was also
present, but he succeeded in effecting his escape, while John MacAllan
and seventeen or eighteen of his followers were taken prisoners.  Many
more were killed and a few who escaped alive with John Tolmach were
pursued out of the district.  The slain were buried where they fell,
and the graves can still be seen, the nettles which continue to grow
over them at the present day indicating the position of the last
resting-place on the field of battle of these Macleod warriors, on
the west side of the Sgura Dubh, above Glen Torridon, a little beyond
the Gairloch estate march.

Shortly after this engagement another attempt was made by the
Macleods to regain the lands of Gairloch, the history of which is
still a prominent and interesting feature in the local traditions
of the parish.  The affair is called "Latha Leac-na-Saighead."
Mr John H. Dixon gives a good version of it, as related to him
by Roderick Mackenzie, locally known as Ruairidh an Torra - an
intelligent man of about ninety who only died two years ago - in
his interesting book on the history and traditions of the parish
of Gairloch.  According to Roderick's version, as given by Mr Dixon,
many of the Macleods, after they had been driven from Gairloch,
settled in Skye.  A considerable number of the younger men were
invited by  their chief to pass Hogmanay night in the Castle of
Dunvegan.  In the kitchen there was an old woman known as Mor Bhan,
who was usually occupied in carding wool, and generally supposed to
be a witch.  After dinner the men began to drink, and when they had
passed some time in this occupation, they sent to the kitchen for
Mor Bhan.  She at once joined them in the hall, and having drunk one
or two glasses along with them, she remarked that it was a very poor
thing for the Macleods to be deprived of their own lands in Gairloch,
and to have to live in comparative poverty in Raasay and the Isle
of Skye.  "But," she said to them, "prepare yourselves and start
to-morrow for Gairloch, sail in the black birlinn, and you shall
regain it.  I shall be a witness of your success when you return."

The men trusted her, believing she had the power of divination.  In
the morning they set sail for Gairloch - the black galley was full
of the Macleods.  It was evening when they entered the loch.  They
were afraid to land on the mainland, for they remembered that
the descendants of Domhnull Greannach (a celebrated Macrae) were
still there, and they knew the prowess of these men only too well.
The Macleods therefore turned to the south side of the loch, and
fastened their birlinn to the Fraoch Eilean, in the well-sheltered
bay opposite Leac-nan-Saighead, between Shieldaig and Badachro.
Here they decided to wait until morning, then disembark, and walk
round the head of the loch.

But all their movements had been well and carefully watched.
Domhnull Odhar Mac lain Leith and his brother Ian, the celebrated
Macrae archers, recognised the birlinn of the Macleods, and
determined to oppose their landing.  They walked round the head
of the loch by Shieldaig and posted themselves before daylight
behind the Leac, a projecting rock overlooking the Fraoch Eilean.
The steps on which they stood at the back of the rock are still
pointed out.  Donald Odhar, being of small stature, took the
higher of the two ledges, and Ian took the lower.  Standing on
these they crouched down behind the rock, completely sheltered
from the enemy, but commanding a full view of the island, while
they were quite invisible to the Macleods, who lay down on the
island.  As soon as the day dawned the two Macraes directed their
arrows on the strangers, of whom a number were killed before
their comrades were even aware of the direction from which the
messengers of death came.  The Macleods endeavoured to answer
their arrows, but not being able to see the foe, their efforts
were of no  effect.  In the heat of the fight one of the Macleods
climbed up the mast of the birlinn to discover the position of
the enemy.  Ian Odhar observing this, took deadly aim at him when
near the top of the mast.  "Oh," says Donald, addressing John,
"you have sent a pin through his broth."  The slaughter continued,
and the remnant of the Macleods hurried aboard their birlinn.
Cutting the rope, they turned her head seawards.  By this time
only two of their number were left alive.  In their hurry to
escape they left all the bodies of their slain companions unburied
on the island.  A rumour of the arrival of the Macleods had during
the night spread through the district, and other warriors, such as
Fionnla Dubh na Saighead, and Fear Shieldaig, were soon at the scene
of action, but all they had to do on their arrival was to assist in
the burial of the dead Macleods.  Pits were dug, into each of
which a number of the bodies were thrown, and mounds were raised
over them which remain to this day, as any one landing on the
island may observe.

In 1611, Murdoch Mackenzie, second surviving son of John Roy
Mackenze, IV. of Gairloch, accompanied by Alexander Bayne, heir
apparent of Tulloch, and several brave men from Gairloch, sailed
to the Isle of Skye in a vessel loaded with wine and provisions.
It is said by some that Murdoch's intention was to apprehend John
Tolmach, while others maintain that his object was to secure in
marriage the daughter and heir of line of Donald Dubh MacRory.
The latter theory is far the more probable, and it is the unbroken
tradition in Gairloch.  John Macleod was a prisoner in  Gairloch, was
unmarried, and  easily secured where he was, in the event of this
marriage taking place.  By such a union, failing issue by John, then
in the power of John Roy, the ancient rights of the Macleods would
revert to the  Gairloch family, and a troublesome dispute would be
for ever settled, if John Tolmach were at the same time captured or
put to death.

It may easily be conceived how both objects would become combined
but whatever the real object of the trip to Skye, it proved disastrous.
The ship found its way - intentionally on the part of the crew, or
forced by a great storm - to the sheltered bay of Kirkton of Raasay,
opposite the present mansion house, where young MacGillechallum
at the time resided.  Anchor was cast, and young Raasay, hearing
that Murdoch Mackenzie was on board, discussed the situation
with his friend MacGillechallum Mor MacDhomhnuill Mhic Neill, who
persuaded him to visit the ship as a friend, and secure Mackenzie's
person by stratagem, with the view of getting him afterwards
exchanged for his own relative, John MacAllan Mhic Rory, then a
prisoner in Gairloch.  Acting on this advice, young Raasay, with
Gillecallum Mor and twelve of their men, started for the ship,
leaving word with his bastard brother, Murdoch, to get ready all
the men he could, to go to their assistance in small boats as soon
as the a]arm was given.

Mackenzie received his visitors in the most hospitable and
unsuspecting manner, and supplied them with as much wine and other
viands as they could consume.  Four of his men, however, feeling
somewhat suspicious, and fearing the worst, abstained from drinking.
Alexander Bayne of Tulloch, and the remainder of Murdoch's men
partook of the good cheer to excess, and ultimately became so drunk
that they had to retire below deck.  Mackenzie, who sat between
Raasay and MacGillechallum Mor, had not the slightest suspicion,
when Macleod, seeing Murdoch alone, jumped up, turned suddenly
round and told him that he must become his prisoner.  Mackenzie
instantly started to his feet, in a violent passion, laid hold of
Raasay by the waist, and threw him down, exclaiming, "I would scorn
to be your prisoner."  One of Raasay's followers, seeing his young
chief  treated thus, stabbed Murdoch through the body with his dirk.
Mackenzie finding himself wounded, stepped back to draw his sword,
and, his foot coming against some obstruction, he stumbled over
it and fell into the sea.

Those on shore observing the row, came out in their small boats
and seeing Mackenzie, who was a dexterous swimmer, manfully making
for Sconsar, on the opposite shore, in Skye, they pelted him with
stones, smashed in his brains and drowned him.  The few of his men
who kept sober, seeing their leader thus perish, resolved to sell
their lives dearly; and fighting like heroes, they killed the
young laird of Raasay, along with MacGillechallum Mor, author of
all the mischief, and his two sons.  Young Bayne of Tulloch and his
six inebriated companions who had followed him below, hearing the
uproar overhead, attempted to come on deck, but they were all killed
by the Macleods as they presente themselves through the hold.  Not a
soul of the Raasay men escaped alive from the swords of the four who
had kept sober, ably supported by the  ship's crew.

The small boats now began to gather round the vessel and the Raasay
men attempted to get on board but they were thrown back, slain,
and pitched into the sea without mercy.  The shot and ammunition
having become exhausted, all the pots and pans, and other articles
of furniture on board were hurled at the Macleods, while the four
abstainers plied their weapons of war with deadly effect.  Having
procured a lull from the attempts of the enemy, they commenced to
pull in their anchor, when a shot from one of the boats killed one
of them - Hector MacKenneth, "a pretty young gentleman."  The other
three seeing him slain, and being themselves more or less seriously
wounded, cut their cable, hoisted sail, and proceeded before a fresh
breeze,  with all the dead bodies still lying  about the deck.  As
soon as they got  out of danger, they threw the bodies of young
Raasay and his men into the sea, that they might have the same
interment which  their own leader had received, and whose body they
were not able to search for.

It is said that none of the bodies were ever found, except that
of MacGillechallum Mor, which afterwards came ashore, and was
buried, in Raasay.  The Gairloch men carried the bodies of Bayne
of Tulloch and his companions to Lochcarron, where they were
decently interred.

The only survivors of the Rausay affair were John MacEachainn
Chaoil, John MacKenneth Mhic Eachainn, and Kenneth MacSheumais.
The first named lived for thirty years after, dying in 1641; the
second died in 1662; and the third in 1663 - all very old men.
Amongst the slain was a son of Mackenzie of Badachro, who is
said to have signally distinguished himself.  The conduct of the
Mackenzies of Gairloch was such on this and previous occasions
that they deemed it wise to secure a remission from the Crown,
which was duly granted to them in 1614, by James VI.  [Mackenzie's
"History of the Macleods," pp. 361-366.]  The document, modernised
in spelling, is as follows:

James R. - Our Sovereign Lord understanding the manifold cruel and
barbarous tyrannies and oppressions so frequent within he Highlands
and Isles, of that (part of) his Highness's Kingdom of Scotland,
before his Majesty's departure furth of the same, that one part
of the inhabitants thereof being altogether void of the true ear
of God, and not regarding that true and loyal obedience they ought
to his Majesty in massing and drawing themselves together n troops
and companies, and after a most savage and insolent form committing
depredations, rieves, "slouthis," and cruel slaughters against
the most honest, godly, and industrious sort of people dwelling
within and bewest the said bounds, who were a ready prey to the
said oppressors, so that the said honest and peaceable subjects
were oft and sundry times, for defence of their own lives, their
wives and children, forced to enter into actions of hostility
against the said limmers and broken men who oft and diverse times
invaded and pursued them with tire and sword, reft and spuilzied
their whole goods, among whom his Majesty, understanding that his
Highness's lovites and true and obedient subjects, John Mackenzie
of Gairloch, Alexander, Kenneth, Duncan, and William Mackenzie,
his sons, dwelling within the Highlands most 'ewest' the Isles
of Skye and Lewis, who many and sundry times before his Majesty's
going to England, has been most cruelly invaded and pursued with
tire and sword by sundry of the said vagabonds and broken men
dwelling and resorting in the Skye and Lewis and other bounds of
the Highlands where they dwell, and has there-through sustained
many and great slaughters, depredations and heirschips, so that
in the very action of the said invasions and hostilities pursued
against them, the said persons in defence of their own lives, their
wives' and children's, and of their goods, have slain sundry of
the said invaders and limmers, taken others of them and thereafter
put them to death, to the great comfort of his Majesty's good,
honest, and true subjects who were subject to the like inroads,
invasions and tyrannies of the said vagabonds and fugitives, and
settling of his Majesty's peace within the bounds and his Majesty
being noways willing that the said John Mackenzie of Gairloch and
his said sons' forawardness in their own defence, and withstanding
of the foresaid open and violent hostilities and tyrannies of the
said broken men which has produced so much and good benefit to his
Majesty's distressed subjects, shall suffer any hurt, prejudice,
or inconvenience against the said John Mackenzie of Gairloch and
his said sons, which his Highness by these letters decrees and
declares to have been good and acceptable service done to his
Highness and the country:  Therefore, his Majesty, of his special
grace, mercy, and favour, ordains a letter to be made under his
Highness's Great Seal in due form to the said John Mackenzie of
Gairloch, Alexander, Kenneth, Duncan, and William Mackenzie, his
sons, remitting and forgiving them and everyone of them all rancour,
hatred, action, and crime whatsoever that his Majesty had, has,
or anywise may lay to the charge of the said John Mackenzie or his
said sons, or any of them, for the alleged taking and apprehending,
slaying or mutilating of the said vagabonds and broken men, or
any of them, or for art and part thereof, or for raising of tire
against them, in the taking and apprehending of them, or any of
them, at any time preceding his Majesty's going to England and
of all that has passed or that may pass thereupon, and of every
circumstance thereanent and suchlike.  His Majesty, of his especial
grace, taking knowledge and proper motive, remits and forgives the
said persons, and everyone of them, all slaughters, mutilations,
and other capital crimes whatsoever, art and part thereof committed
by them, or any of them, preceding the day and date hereof (treason
in our said Sovereign Lord's own most noble person only excepted),
with all pains and executions that ought and should be executed
against them, or any of them for the same, exonerating, absolving,
and relieving the said John and his said sons, and all of them
of all action and challenge criminal and civil that may be moved
thereupon to their prejudice for ever:  Discharging hereby all
judges, officers, magistrates, administrators of his Majesty's laws,
from granting of any proofs, criminal or civil, in any action or
causes to be moved or pursued against the said John Mackenzie or
his sons foresaid for anything concerning the execution of the
premises:  Discharging them thereof and their officers in that
employed by them, and that the said letter he extended in the best
form with ill clauses needful and the precepts he directed orderly
thereupon in form as effeirs.  Given at Theobald's, the second day
of April, the year of God, 1614 years.  [Original in the Gairloch
Charter Chest.]

John Roy purchased or rented the tithes of his lands, which appear
to have led him into no end of disputes.  The Rev. Alexander
Mackenzie was appointed minister at Gairloch - the first after
the Reformation - and in 1583 he obtained a decree from the Lords
of the Privy Council and  Session ordaining the teind revenue to
be paid to him.  At the Reformation Sir John Broik was rector of
the parish; after which it was vacant until, in 1583, James VI.
presented this Alexander Mackenzie to "the parsonage and vicarage
of Garloch vacand in our Souerane Lordis handis contenuallie sen
the reformatioun of the religioun within this realme by the decease
of Sir John Broik." [Reg. Sec. Sig., vol xlix, fol. 62.]  In 1584
the Rev. Alexander Mackenzie let the teinds to John Roy for three
lives and nineteen years more, for an annual payment of L12 Scots.
In 1588 the Crown granted a similar tack for a like payment.  In
1612 the Rev. Farquhar MacGillechriost Macrae raised an action
against John Roy and his eldest surviving son Alexander for
payment of the teind.  A certain Robert Boyd became cautioner for
the teind of 1610; but the action went on for several years, and
was apparently won by the Rev. Farquhar Macrae, who, in 1616, lets
the teind of Gairloch for nineteen years to  Alexander Mackenzie,
Fiar of Gairloch, for L80 Scots yearly.  Alexander thereupon
surrenders the tithes of the lands of Letterewe, Inverewe, Drumchorc,
and others to Colin Lord Mackenzie of Kintail, who on his part,
as patron of the parish, binds himself not to sanction the set of
these tithes to any other than the said Alexander and his heirs.
[Papers in the Gairloch Charter Chest.]

John Roy married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Angus Macdonald,
VII. of Glengarry, by his wife, Janet, daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie,
X. of Kintail, by Lady Elizabeth, daughter of John, second Earl
of Athole, with issue -

1.  John, who married, as already stated, Isabel, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Fairburn, with issu - an only daughter,
also named Isabel, who, as his second wife, married Colin Mackenzie
of  Kinnock, with issue--an only son, who sold back his mother's
jointure lands of Davochpollo and Pitlundie in 1666.  John died
before his father, in 1601, at Kinkell, and was buried at Beauly.

2.  Alexander, who succeeded to the estates.

3.  Murdoch, killed, unmarried, at Raasay in 1611.

4.  Kenneth, I. of Davochcairn, who married, first, Margaret,
daughter of James Cuthbert of Alterlies and Drakies, Inverness,
with issue, whose male representation is extinct.  He married,
secondly, a daughter of Hector Mackenzie, IV. of Fairburn, also
with issue, of whose present representation nothing is known.
Kenneth died at Davochcairn in 1643, and was buried at Beauly.

5.  Duncan of Sand, who  married a daughter of Hugh Fraser of
Belladrum, with issue - (1) Alexander, who succeeded him at
Sand; (2) John, who married a  daughter of the Rev. George Munro,
minister of Urquhart, and resided at Ardnagrask; (3) Katharine,
who married, first, a son of Allan Macranald Macdonald, heir male
of Moydart, at the time residing at Baile Chnuic, or Hiltown of
Beauly, and secondly, William Fraser of Boblanie, with issue.
(4) A daughter, who married Thomas Mackenzie, son of Murdoch
Mackenzie, IV. of  Achilty and (5) a daughter, who married Duncan
MacIan vic Eachainn Chaoil.  Duncan died at Sand, from the bite
of a cat at Inverasdale, in 1635, and is buried at Gairloch.

Alexander, who succeeded  his father at Sand (retour 1647), married
a daughter of Murdo Mackenzie of Kernsary, fifth son of Colin Cam,
XI. of Kintail, by his wife, Barbara, daughter of John Grant, XII.
of Grant.  Murdoch married the eldest daughter of John Mackenzie,
III. of Fairburn, by whom he had, in addition to the daughter who
became the wife of Alexander Mackenzie of Sand, an only lawful
son, John, killed in 1645 at the battle of Auldearn in command
of the Lewis Mackenzie Regiment, whereupon the lineal and sole
representation of the Kernsary family reverted to the descendants
of Alexander Mackenzie of Sand, through Mary, his wife, by whom
he had issue - two sons and two daughters.  He was succeeded, in
1656, by the eldest son, Hector, who also succeeded his uncle
John in Ardnagrask.  He married Janet Fraser, with issue - John
Mackenzie, who died in 1759, and left a son Alexander, who got a
new tack of Ardnagrask for forty years, commencing in May, 1760;
[Gairloch Papers.] and married Helen Mackenzie, daughter of
Donald, great-grandson of Murdo Mackenzie, V. of Hilton (by his
wife, Jean Forbes of Raddery), by whom he had a large family of
five sons and six daughters.  The eldest son, John Mackenzie,
a merchant and Bailie of Inverness, was born at Ardnagrask in
1762, and married Prudence, daughter of Richard Ord, Merkinch,
Inverness, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John, third son
of Alexander, VII. of Davochmaluag, with issue - five sons and
two daughters.  Three of the sons died without issue, one of whom
was John, a merchant in Madras.  Another, Alexander, married
Maria Lascelles of Blackwood, Dumfries, with issue - John Fraser
Mackenzie, who married Julia Linton, with issue; Alexander, who
married Adelaide Brett, Madras, with issue and four daughters,
Margaret, Jane, Frances, and Maria, of whom two married, with
issue.

Bailie John's second surviving son, the Rev. William Mackenzie,
married Elizabeth Maclaren, with issue - John Ord, who married,
without issue; James, who married, with issue; Richard, who married
Lousia Lyall, with issue Henry, of the Oriental Bank Corporation;
Gordon, of the Indian Civil Service; and Alfred, of Townsville,
Queensland; also Louisa, Isabella, Maria, and Williamina, all
married, the first three with issue.

Bailie Mackenzie's daughters were - Elizabeth, who married
Montgomery Young, with issue; and Jane, who married Provost
Ferguson, of Inverness, with issue - John Alexander, who married,
with issue; Mary, who married the late Walter Carruthers of the
Inverness Courier, with issue; and Agnes Prudence, who married the
Rev. G. T. Carruthers, one of Her Majesty's Chaplains in India.

6. William Mackenzie of Shieldaig, who married a daughter of
the Rev. Murdo Mackenzie, minister of Kintail, with issue - (1)
Murdoch, who married Mary, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, I. of
Applecross, with issue - Roderick, who, in 1727, married Margaret
Mackenzie, with issue - William Mackenzie, on record in 1736; (2)
Duncan, who married a daughter, by his second marriage, of Hector
Mackenzie, IV. of Fairburn; (3) John, who married a daughter of
Murdo Mackenzie in Sand; (4) Kenneth, who married a daughter of
Hector MacIan vic Eachainn Mackenzie; (5) Hector; (6) Roderick;
(7) Alexander, the last-named three unmarried in 1669; (8) a
daughter, who married Alexander Fraser of Reelick, with issue;
(9) a daughter, who married Hector "Mac Mhic Alastair Roy";  (10)
a daughter, who married Murdo "Mac Ian Mhic Eachainn Chaoil,"
a son of one of the Raasay  heroes; (11) a daughter, who married
Hector Mackenzie, Chamberlain in Lochcarron; (12) a daughter, who
married the Rev. Donald Macrae, minister of Lochalsh; and (13)
a daughter, unmarried in 1669.  He had also a natural son, John
Mor "Mac Uilleam," who married a natural daughter or Murdoch
Mackenzie, II. of Redcastle.

7.  A daughter, who married Fraser of Foyers.

8.  Katherine, who married Hugh Fraser of Culbokie and Guisachan.

9.  Another Katherine, who married Fraser of Struy.

10.  Janet, who married, first, George Cuthbert of Castlehill,
Inverness (marriage contract 29th June, 1611); and secondly Neil
Munro of Findon marriage contract dated 5th of February, 1627).
[Both marriage contracts are in the Gairloch Charter Chest.]

11.  A daughter, who married Alastair Mor, brother of Chisholm of
Comar.

John Roy married, secondly, Isabel, daughter of Murdoch Mackenzie,
I. of Fairburn, with issue -

12.  Captain Roderick of Pitglassie, who served in the army of the
Prince of Orange, and died, unmarried, in Holland, in 1624.

13.  Hector of Mellan, who married, first, the widow of the Rev. John
Mackenzie of Lochbroom, without issue and secondly, a daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, IV. of Achilty, with issue, five sons - Alexander,
who married a daughter of "Murdo Mc Cowil vic Ean Oig"; Murdo, who
married a daughter of Murdo Mackenzie of Sand and three others
unmarried in 1669.

14.  John, a clergyman, who married a natural daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, I. of Kilcoy, with issue - four sons and two daughters.
He died at Rhynduin in 1666, and is buried at Beauly.

15.  Katherine Og, who married Fraser of Belladrum, with issue - from
whom the Frasers of Achnagairn and Seafield.

16.  Isabel, who married first, Alastair Og Macdonald [The marriage
contract is in the Gairloch  Charter Chest, dated 23rd Jan. 1629.
This gentleman, in the month of November, 1625, killed a man in
Uist named Alexander Mac Ian Mhic Alastair, for which he received a
remission from Charles I., dated at Holyrood, the first of August,
1627, and which Macdonald appears to have deposited in the
Gairloch Charter Chest on his marriage with Isabel of Gairloch.]
of Cuidreach, brother-german to Sir Donald Macdonald of Sleat, and
ancestor of the Macdonalds of Cuidreach and Kingsburgh, Isle of
Skye.  She married, secondly, Hugh Macdonald of Skirmish.

John had also a natural son, Kenneth Buy Mackenzie, by a woman
named Fraser, who married a daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, IV.
of Achilty; and two natural daughters, one of whom married Donald
Bain, Seaforth's Chamberlain in the Lewis, killed in the battle of
Auldearn in 1645; the other, Margaret, in 1640, married Alexander,
"second lawful son" of John Mackenzie, IV. of Hilton.

He died at Talladale in 1628, in the 80th year of his age; was
buried in the old churchyard of Gairloch, and succeeded by his
eldest surviving son,

V.  ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, who was advanced in years at his father's
death.  He was most active in the duties pertaining to the head
of his house during the life of his father, for it was he who led
the Mackenzies of Gairloch against the Macleods in their repeated
incursions to repossess themselves of their estates, "He was a
valiant worthy  gentleman.  It was he who made an end of all the
troubles his predecessors were in the conquering of Gairloch from
the Shiel Vic Gille Challum.  [Applecross MS.]  Very little is
known of him personally, his career having been so much mixed up
with that of his father.  By the charter of 1619 he was infeft in
the barony as fiar, and he immediately succeeded on his father's
decease.   In 1627, while still fiar or feuer of Gairloch, he obtained
from his son-in-law, John Mackenzie of Applecross (afterwards of
Lochslinn), who married his daughter Isobel, a disclamation of
part of the lands of Diobaig, previously in dispute between the
Lairds of Gairloch and Applecross.  In the Gairloch Charter Chest
there is a feu charter of endowment by John Mackenzie of Applecross,
in implement of the contract of marriage with his betrothed spouse,
Isobel, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, younger of Gairloch, dated
6th of June, 1622.  After John of Lochslinn's death, she married,
secondly, Colin Mackenzie of Tarvie and there is a sasine in favour
of Margaret, second lawful daughter of this Colin of Tarvie by
Isobel of Gairloch and spouse of Matthew Robertson of Davoch-carty,
in implement of a marriage contract.

A little piece of scandal seems, from an extract of the Presbytery
Records of Dingwall, of date 3rd of March, 1666, to have arisen in
connection with this pair - Matthew Robertson and Margaret Mackenzie.
"Rorie McKenzie of Dochmaluak, compearing desyred ane answer to his
former supplication requiring that Matthew Robertson of Dochgarty
should be ordained to make satisfaction for slandering the said
Rorie with  alleged miscarriage with Matthew Robertson's wife.  The
brethren considering that by the witness led in the said matter
there was nothing but suspicion and jealousies, and said Matthew
Robertson being called and inquired concerning the said particular,
did openly profess that he was in no wayes jealous of the said
Rorie Mackenzie and his wife, and if any word did escape him upon
which others might put such a construction, he was heartily sorry
for it, and was content to acknowledge so much to Rorie Mackenzie
of Dochmaluak, and crave pardon for the same, which the brethren
taking into their consideration, and the Bishop referring it to them
(as the Moderator reported), they have, according to the Bishop's
appointment, ordered the said Matthew Robertson to acknowledge so
much before the Presbytery to the party, and to crave his pardon in
anything he has given him offence.  The which being done by the
said Matthew Robertson, Rory Mackenzie of Dochmaluak did acquiesce
in it without any furder prosecution of it," and we hear no more
of the subject.

In 1637 Alexander proceeded to acquire part of Loggie-Wester from
Duncan Bayne, but the matter was not arranged until 1640, during
the reign of his successor.

Alexander married, first, Margaret, third daughter of Roderick Mor
Mackenzie, I. of Redcastle, by his wife, Finguala or Florence,
daughter of Robert Munro, XVth Baron of Fowlis, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  Murdo of Sand, "predecessor to Sand and Mungastle," [There is
great confusion about the families of the various Sands which we
have not been able to clear up.  The following is from the public
records: In 1718 on the forfeiture of the Fairburn estate,
"Alexander" Mackenzie of Sand appeared and deponed that "Murdoch"
Mackenzie of Sand, his father, had a wadset of Mungastle and
certain other lands from Fairburn.  In May 1730 "Alexander" Mackenzie
of Sand purchased Mungastle for 3000 merks from  Dundonell, who
had meantime become proprietor of it.  In January 1744 "Alexander"
Mackenzie of Sand, son of the preceding Alexander, was infeft in
Mungastle in place of his father.  In 1741 the above Alexander (the
younger) being then a minor, and John Mackenzie of Lochend being
his curator, got a wadset of Glenarigolach and Ridorch, and in 1745
Alexander being then of full age, apparently purchased these lands
irredeemably.  In March 1765 Alexander Mackenzie of Sand, with consent
of Janet Mackenzie, his wife, sold Mungastle, Glenarigolach, etc.
One of the witnesses to this deed of disposition is Alexander
Mackenzie, eldest son to Alexander Mackenzie, the granter of the
deed.] who married the eldest daughter of John Mackenzie, III.
of Fairburn, with issue - a daughter, Margaret, who married Colin
Mackenzie, I. of Sanachan, brother to John Mackenzie, II. of
Applecross.

3.  Hector, "portioner of Mellan," and a Cornet in Sir George
Munro's regiment, who married a daughter of Donald Maciver, with
issue - three sons and a daughter, Mary - of whom under MACKENZIES
OF  DAILUAINE.

4.  Alexander, from whom the author of this History, and of whose
descendants under "SLIOCHD  ALASTAIR  CHAIM."

5.  Isobel, who married  John Mackenzie of Applecross (afterwards
of Lochslinn), brother-german to Colin, first Earl of Seaforth.
By him she had issue, a  daughter, who married Sir Norman Macleod,
I. of Bernera, with issue - John Macleod of Muiravenside and Bernera,
Advocate.  Isobel, on the death of her husband, who was poisoned
at Tam, married secondly, Colin Mackenzie of Tarvie, third son
of Sir Roderick Mackenzie, I. of Coigach, Tutor of Kintail, with
issue.  She married, thirdly, Murdoch Mackenzie, V. of Achilty,
without issue.

6.  Margaret, who, as his third wife, married Alexander Ross of
Cuilich, from whom the family of Achnacloich.

7.  A daughter, who married Robert Gray of Skibo, with issue.
Alexander married, secondly, Isabel, eldest daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, progenitor of Coul and Applecross, with issue -

8.  William of Multafy and I. of Belmaduthy, of whom in their
order.

9.  Roderick, who married Agnes, second daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, I. of Suddie, without issue.

10.  Angus, who married the eldest daughter of Hector Mackenzie,
IV. of Fairburn, without issue.  Angus "was a brave soldier, and
commanded a considerable body of Highlanders under King Charles the
second at the Torwood.  He, with Scrymgeour of Dudhope and other
Loyalists, marched at a great rate to assist the Macleans, who
were cut to pieces by Cromwell's dragoons at Inverkeithing, but
to their great grief were recalled by the Earl of Argyll, General
of the army." [Gairloch  Manuscript.]

11.  Annabella, who, as his second wife, married Donald Mackenzie,
III. of Loggie, with issue - his heir and successor, and others.

12.  Janet, who married Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Ardross and
Pitglassie, progenitor of the present Mackenzies of Dundonnel, with
issue - his heir and successor.

Alexander had also a natural daughter, who, as his first wife,
married George, fourth son of John Mackenzie, I. of Ord, without
issue.

He died, as appears from his successor's retour of service, on the
4th of January, 1638, [In this service we have "Kirktoun with the
manor and gardens of the same," and after a long list of the
townships, the fishings of half the water of Ewe and the rivers Kerry
and Badachro follows, "the loch of Loch Maroy, with the islands
of the  same, and the manor place and  gardens in the Island of
Illiurory, the loch of Garloch, with the fishings of the same,"
from which it appears that the residence on, Island Rory Beg,
the walls of which  and of the large garden are yet distinctly
traceable, was quite as  early as that on Island Suthain in which
Alexander died.] in the 61st year of his age, at Island Suthain,
in  Loch Maree, where traces of his house still remain.  He was
buried with his wife "in a chapel he caused built near the Church
of Gairloch," during his father's lifetime, and was succeeded by
his eldest son,

VI.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, a strong Loyalist during the wars  of
Montrose and the Covenanters.  He was fined by the Committee
of Estates for his adherence to the King, under the Act of 3rd
February, 1646, entitled Commission for the moneys of Excise and
Process against delinquents," in a forced loan of 500 merks, for
which the receipt, dated 15th March, 1647, signed by Kennedy, Earl
of Cassilis, and Sir William Cochrane, two of the Commissioners
named in the Act, and by two or three others, is still extant.
Seaforth was, at the time, one of the Committee of Estates, and
his influence was probably exercised in favour of leniency to the
Baron of Gairloch; especially as he was himself privately imbued
with strong predilections in favour of the Royalists.  Kenneth
commanded a body of Highlanders at Balvenny under Thomas Mackenzie
of Pluscardine, and his own brother-in-law, the Earl of Huntly; but
when the Royalist army was surprised and disarmed, he was on a
visit to Castle Grant and managed to effect his escape.

In 1640 he completed the purchase of Loggie-Wester, commenced
by his predecessor, but in order to do so he had to have recourse
to the money market.  He granted a bond, dated 20th of October,
1644, for 1000 merks, to Hector Mackenzie, alias MacIan MacAlastair
Mhic Alastair, indweller in Eadill-fuill or South Erradale.  On
the 14th of January, 1649, at Kirkton, he granted to the same
person a bond for 500 merks; but at this date Hector was described
as "indweller in Androry," and again, another dated at Stankhouse
of Gairloch (Tigh Dige), 24th of November, 1662; but the lender
of the money is on this occasion described as living in Diobaig.
For the two first of these sums Murdo Mackenzie of Sand, Kenneth's
brother-german, became security.

In 1657 Kenneth is collateral security to a bond granted by the
same Murdoch Mackenzie of Sand to Colin Mackenzie, I. of Sanachan,
brother-german to John Mackenzie, II. of Applecross, for 2000
merks, borrowed on the 20th of March in that year the one-half of
which was to be paid by the delivery at the feast of Beltane or
Whitsunday, 1658, of 50 cows in milk by calves of that year, and
the other half, with legal interest, at Whitsunday, 1659.  Colin
Mackenzie, I. of Sanachan, married Murdoch's daughter; the contract
of marriage is dated the same day as the bond, and is subscribed
at Dingwall by the same witnesses.

By letters of Tutorie Dative from Oliver Cromwell, he was, in
1658, appointed Tutor to Hector Mackenzie, lawful son of Alexander
Mackenzie, lawful son of Duncan Mackenzie of Sand, Gairloch.  There
is nothing further to show what became of the pupil, Hector,
but it is highly probable that on the death of Alexander, son of
Duncan of Sand, the farm was given by Kenneth to his own brother,
Murdoch, and that the 2000 merks, borrowed from Colin  Mackenzie
of Sanachan, who married Murdoch's only daughter, Margaret, may
have been borrowed for the purpose of stocking the farm.  The dates
of the marriage, of the bond, and of the Tutorie Dative, so near
each other, strongly support this view.

Kenneth married, first, Katharine, daughter of Sir Donald Macdonald,
IX. of Sleat, without issue.  The contract of marriage is dated
5th September, 1635, the marriage portion being the handsome sum
of "6ooo merks, and her endowment 1000 libs Scots yearly."  He
married, secondly, Ann, daughter of Sir John Grant of Grant, by
Ann Ogilvy, daughter of the Earl of Findlater (marriage  contract
dated 17th October, 1640).  There is a charter by Kenneth in
her favour of the lands of Loggie-Wester, the miln and pertinents
thereof, with the  grazings of Tolly, in implement of the marriage
contract, dated 4th of December, 1640, with a sasine of the same
date, and another charter of the lands and manor-place of Kinkell
and Ardnagrask, dated the 15th of August, 1655, with sasine
thereon, dated 5th September following.  By her Kenneth had issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  Hector, of Bishop-Kinkell, who married Margaret, eldest
daughter of Donald Mackenzie, III. of Loggie, and widow of Roderick
Mackenzie, V. of Fairburn, and with her obtained the lands of
Bishop-Kinkell, to which his son John succeeded.

3.  John, who died unmarried.

4.  Mary, who, in 1656, married Alexander Mackenzie, at the time
Younger and afterwards III. of Kilcoy, with issue.

5.  Barbara, who married, first, Fraser of Kinneries, and secondly,
Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Ardloch, with issue by both.

6.  Lilias, who married, as his first wife, Alexander Mackenzie,
II. of Ballone, with issue.

He married, thirdly, Janet, daughter of John Cuthbert of Castlehill
(marriage contract dated 17th December, 1658, the marriage portion
being 3000 merks, and her endowment 5 chalders victual yearly),
with issue -

7.  Charles, I. of Letterewe, who, by his father's marriage
contract, got Loggie-Wester, which had been purchased by Kenneth
in 1640.  In 1696 Charles exchanged it with his eldest half-brother,
Alexander, VII. of Gairloch, for Letterewe.  Charles married Ann,
daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of Applecross, with issue - See
MACKENZIES  OF   LETTEREWE.

8.  Kenneth, who died unmarried.

9.  Colin, I. of Mountgerald, who married Margaret, second daughter
of Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Ballone, and widow of Sir Roderick
Mackenzie of Findon, without issue; and secondly, Katharine,
daughter of James Fraser of Achnagairn, with issue - See MACKENZIES
OF   MOUNTGERALD.

10.  Isabella, who married Roderick Mackenzie, second son of John
Mackenzie, II. of Applecross, with issue, whose descendants now
represent the original Mackenzies of Applecross.

11. Annabella, who married George, third son of Roderick Mackenzie,
V. of Davochmaluag, with issue.

According to the retour of service of his successor, Kenneth died
in 1669, was buried in Beauly Priory, and was succeeded by his
eldest son,

VII.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, who, by a charter of resignation, got
Loggie-Wester included in the barony of Gairloch.  It had, however,
been settled on his stepmother, Janet Cuthbert, in life-rent, and
after her on her eldest son, Charles of Mellan and subsequently of
Letterewe, to whom, after her death, Alexander formally disponed
it.  They afterwards entered into an excambion by which Alexander
reacquired Loggie-Wester in exchange for Letterewe, which then
became the patrimony of the successors of Charles.

A tradition is current in the Gairloch family that when Alexander
sought the hand of his future lady, Barbara, daughter of Sir
John Mackenzie of Tarbat, and  sister-german to the first Earl
of Cromarty and to Isobel Countess of Seaforth, he endeavoured
to make himself appear much wealthier than he really was, by
returning a higher rental than he actually received at the time
of making up the Scots valued rent in 1670, in which year he
married.  This tradition is corroborated by a comparison of the
valuation of the shire of Inverness for 1644, published by Charles
Fraser-Mackintosh in "Antiquarian Notes," and the rental of 1670,
on which the ecclesiastical assessments are  still based.  In the
former year the rental of the parish of Gairloch was L3134 13s
4d, of which L1081 6s  8d was from the lands of the  Barony, equal
to 34 1/2 per cent., while in the latter year the valued  rental
of the parish is put down at L3400, of which L1549 is from the
barony lands, or 45 1/2 per cent.  It  is impossible that such a
rise in the rental could have taken place in the short space of
twenty-six years; and the presumption is in favour of the accuracy
of the tradition which imports that the rental was over-valued for
the special purpose of making the Baron of Gairloch appear more
important in the eyes of his future relatives-in-law than he
really was.  In 1681 he had his rights and titles ratified by Act
of Parliament, printed at length in the Folio edition.

He married, first, in 1670, Barbara, daughter of Sir John Mackenzie,
Baronet of Tarbat, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  Isobel, who married John Macdonald of Balcony, son of Sir James
Macdonald, IX. of Sleat.

He married, secondly, Janet, daughter of William Mackenzie, I.
of Belmaduthy (marriage contract 30th of January 1679), on which
occasion Davochcairn and Ardnagrask were settled upon her in
life-rent, and on her eldest son at her death, as appears from a
precept of date clare constat, by Colin Mackenzie of Davochpollo,
in favour of William, his eldest surviving son.  By her he had
issue -

3.  Alexander, who died unmarried.

4.  William, who acquired the lands of Davochcairn, and married, in
1712, Jean, daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, V. of Redcastle, with
issue - a son, Alexander, of the Stamp Office, London, and several
daughters.  Alexander has a "clare constat" as only son in 1732.
He  died in 1772, leaving a son, Alexander Kenneth, who emigrated
to New South Wales, where several of his descendants now reside;
the representative of the family, in 1878, being Alexander Kenneth
Mac-kenzie, Boonara, Bondi, Sydney.

5.  John, who purchased the lands of Lochend (now Inverewe), with
issue - Alexander Mackenzie, afterwards of Lochend and George,
an officer in Colonel Murray Keith's Highland Regiment also two
daughters, Lilias, who married William Mackenzie, IV. of Gruinard,
and Christy, who married William Maciver of Tournaig, both with
issue - See  MACKENZIES   OF  LOCHEND.

6.  Ann, who, in 1703, married Kenneth Mackenzie, II. of Torridon,
with issue.  She married, secondly, Kenneth Mackenzie, a solicitor
in London.

He died in December 1694, at the age of 42, which appears from
his general retour of sasine, dated 25th February, 1673, in which
he is said to be then of lawful age.  He was buried in Gairloch,
and was succeeded by his only son by his first marriage,

VIII.  SIR  KENNETH MACKENZIE, created a Baronet of Nova Scotia,
by Queen Anne, on  the 2nd of February, 1703.  He was educated at
Oxford, and afterwards  represented his native county of Ross in
the Scottish Parliament.  He strongly opposed the Union, considering
that if it should take place, it would be "the funeral of his
country."  After the succession of Queen Anne he received from her,
in December 1702, a gift of the taxed ward, feu-duties, non-entry,
and marriage dues, and other casualties payable to the Crown, from
the date of his father's death, which, up to 1702, do not appear to
have been paid.  Early in the same year he seems to have been taken
seriously ill, whereupon he executed a holograph will and testament
at Stankhouse, dated the 23rd of May, 1702, which was witnessed
by his uncle, Colin Mackenzie of Findon, and by his brother-in-law,
Simon Mackenzie, I. of Allangrange.  He appoints as trustees
his "dear friends "John, Master of Tarbat, Kenneth Mackenzie
of Cromarty, Kenneth Mackenzie of Scatwell, Hector Mackenzie,
and Colin Mackenzie, his uncles, and George Mackenzie, II. of
Allangrange.  He appointed Colin Mackenzie, then of Findon, and
afterwards of Davochpollo and Mountgerald, as his tutor and factor
at a salary of 200 merks Scots.  In May, 1703, having apparently
to some extent recovered his health, he appears in his place
in Parliament.  In September of the same year he returned to
Stankhouse, Gairloch, where he executed two bonds of provision, one
for his second son George, and the other for his younger daughters.

He married, in 1696, Margaret, youngest daughter, and, as is
commonly said, co-heiress of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon, but
the Barony of Findon went wholly to Lilias, the eldest daughter,
who married Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, 1st Baronet and IV. of Scatwell
another of the daughters, Isobel, married Simon Mackenzie, I. of
Allangrange.  There was a fourth daughter, unmarried at the date
of Margaret's contract of marriage and the four took a fourth part
each of Sir Roderick's moveables and of certain lands not included
in the Barony.  At the date of his marriage Kenneth had not made
up titles to his estates; but by his marriage contract he is taken
bound to do so as soon as he can.  His retour of service was taken
out in the following year.

By Margaret Mackenzie of Findon Kenneth had issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  George, who became a merchant in Glasgow, and died unmarried
in 1739.

3.  Barbara, who, in 1729, married George Beattie, a merchant in
Montrose, without issue.

4.  Margaret, who died young in 1704.

5.  Anne, who, in 1728, married, during his father's life-time,
Murdo Mackenzie, VII. of Achilty, without issue.

6.  Katharine, who died young.

Sir Kenneth had also a natural daughter, Margaret, who married,
in 1723, Donald Macdonald, younger of Cuidreach.  Sir Kenneth's
widow, about a year after his decease, married Bayne of Tulloch.
Notwithstanding the money that Sir Kenneth received with her, he
died deeply in debt, and left his children insufficiently provided
for.  George and Barbara were at first maintained by their
mother, and afterwards by Colin of Findon who had married their
grandmother, widow of Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Findon, while
Alexander and Anne were in even a worse plight.

He died in December 1703, at the early age of 32; was buried in
Gairloch, and succeeded by his eldest son,

IX.  SIR  ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, the second Baronet, a child only
three and a half years old.  His prospects were certainly not
enviable, he and his sister Anne having had for a time, for actual
want of means, to be "settled in tenants' houses."  The rental
of Gairloch and Glasletter at his father's death only amounted to
5954 merks, and his other estates in the Low Country were settled
on his mother, Sir Kenneth's widow, for life while he was left
with debts due amounting to 66,674 merks, equal to eleven years
rental of the whole estates.  During his minority, however, the
large sum of 51,200 merks was paid off, in addition to 27,635
in name of interest on the original debt; and consequently very
little was left for his  education.  In 1708 he, along with
his brother and sisters, were taken to the factor's house - Colin
Mackenzie of Findon - where they remained for four years, and
received the rudiments of their education from a young man, Simon
Urquhart.   In 1712 they were all sent to school at Chanonry,
under Urquhart's charge, where Sir Alexander remained for six
years, after which, having arrived at 18 years of age, he went to
complete his education in Edinburgh.  He afterwards made a tour
of travel, and returning home in 1730 married his cousin, Janet
Mackenzie of Scatwell, on which occasion a fine Gaelic poem was
composed in her praise by John Mackay, the famous blind piper
and poet of Gairloch, whose daughter became the mother of  William
Ross, a Gaelic bard even more celebrated than the blind  piper
himself.  If we believe her eulogist the lady possessed all the
virtues of mind and body but in spite of all these graces the
marriage did not turn out a happy one; for, in 1758, she separated
from her husband on the grounds of incompatibility of temper,
after which she lived alone at Kinkell.

When, in 1721, Sir Alexander came of age, he was obliged to find
means to pay the provision payable to his brother George and to
his sisters, amounting altogether to 16,000 merks, while about
the same amount of his father's debts was still unpaid.  In 1729
he purchased Cruive House and the Ferry of Skudale.  In 1735 he
bought Bishop-Kinkell; in 1742 Loggie-Riach and, in 1743, Kenlochewe,
which latter property was considered equal in value to Glasletter
of Kintail, sold about the same time.  About 1730 he redeemed
Davochcairn and Ardnagrask from the widow of his uncle William,
and Davochpollo from the widow and son James of his grand-uncle,
Colin, I. of Mountgerald.  In 1752 he executed an entail of all
his estates; but leaving debts at his death, amounting to L2679
13s 10d more than his personal estate could meet, Davochcairn,
Davochpollo, and Ardnagrask, had eventually to be sold to make up
the deficiency.

In 1738 he pulled down the old family residence of Stankhouse,
or "Tigh Dige," at Gairloch, which stood in a low, marshy, damp
situation, surrounded by the moat from which it derived its name,
and built the present house on an elevated plateau, surrounded
by magnificent woods and towering  hills, with a southern front
elevation - altogether one of the  most beautiful and best sheltered
situations in the Highlands; and he very appropriately called it
Flowerdale.  He greatly improved his property, and was in all
respects a careful and good man of business.  He kept out of the
Rising of 1745, and afterwards when John Mackenzie of Meddat applied
to  him for aid in favour of Lord Macleod, son of the Earl of
Cromarty, who took so prominent a part in it, and was afterwards in
very tightened circumstances, Sir Alexander replied in a letter
dated  at Gairloch, 17th  May, 1749, in the following somewhat
unsympathetic terms:

Sir,--I am favoured with your letter, and am extreamly sory Lord
Cromartie's circumstances should obliege him to sollicit the aide
of small gentlemen.  I much raither he hade dyed sword in hand
even where he was ingag'd then be necessitate to act such a pairt
I have the honour to be nearly related to him, and to have been
his companion, but will not supply  him at this time, for which I
believe I can give you the best reason in the world, and the only
one possible for me to give, and that is that I cannot.  [Fraser's
"Earls of Cromartie," vol. ii., p. 230.]

The reason stated in this letter may possibly be the true one;
but it is more likely that Sir Alexander had no sympathy whatever
with the cause which brought his kinsman into such an unfortunate
position, and that he would not, on that account, lend him any
assistance.

Some of his leases, preserved in the Gairloch charter chest, contain
some very curious clauses, many of which would now be described
as tyrannical and cruel, but the Laird and his tenants understood
each other, and they got on remarkably well.  The tenants were
bound to sell him all their marketable cattle "at reasonable
rates," and to deliver to him at current prices all the cod and
ling caught by them; and, in some cases, were bound to keep one
or more boats, with a sufficient number of men as sub-tenants,
for the prosecution of the cod and ling fishings.  He kept his own
curer, cured the fish, and sold it at 12s 6d per cwt. delivered in
June at Gairloch, with credit until the following Martinmas, to
Mr Dunbar, merchant, with whom he made a contract binding himself,
for several years, to deliver, at the price named, all the cod
caught in Gairloch.  [See  copy of lease granted by him, in 1760,
of the half of North Erradale, to one of the author's ancestors,
printed at length under the family of "Alastair Cam."]

Sir Alexander married, in  1730, Janet, daughter of Sir Roderick
Mackenzie, second Baronet and V. of Scatwell, with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth, who died in infancy.

3.  Roderick, a captain in the army, who was killed at Quebec
before he attained majority.

4.  William, a writer, who died unmarried.

5.  James, who died in infancy.

6.  Kenneth of Millbank, factor and Tutor to Sir Hector, the fourth
Baronet of Gairloch, during the last few years of his minority.
He married Anne, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Tolly, with
issue - (1) Alexander, County Clerk of Ross-shire, who married, and
had issue - Alexander, in New Zealand; Kenneth, who married twice,
in India, and died in 1877; and Catherine, who married Murdo
Cameron, Leanaig, with surviving issue - one son, Alexander; (2)
Janet, who married the Rev. Dr John Macdonald, of Ferintosh, the
famous "Apostle of the North," with issue; (3) Catherine, who
married Alexander Mackenzie, a merchant in London, and grandson
of Alexander Mackenzie of Tolly, with issue - an only daughter,
Catherine, who married Major Roderick Mackenzie, VII. of Kincraig,
with issue; (4) Jane, who, in 1808, married the Rev. Hector
Bethune, minister of Dingwall, with issue - Colonel Bethune, who died
without issue; the Rev. Angus Bethune, Rector of Seaham; Alexander
Mackenzie Bethune, Secretary of the Peninsular and Oriental Navigation
Company, married, without issue; and a daughter, Jane, who married
the late Francis Harper, Torgorm.  Mrs Bethune died in 1878, aged
91 years.

7 and 8.  Margaret and Janet, both of whom died young.

9.  Janet, who married Colin, eldest son of David, brother of
Murdo Mackenzie, VII. of Achilty.  Murdo leaving no issue, Colin
ultimately succeeded to  Achilty, but he seems afterwards to have
parted with it, for in 1784, he has a tack of Kinkell, and dies
there, in 1813, with his affairs seriously involved, leaving a
son John, who died without issue.

Sir Alexander had also a natural son, Charles Mackenzie, ancestor
of the later Mackenzies of Sand, and two natural daughters, one
of whom, Annabella, by a daughter of Maolmuire, or Miles Macrae,
of the family of Inverinate, married John Ban Mackenzie, by whom
she had a daughter, Marsali or Marjory, who married John Mor Og
Mackenzie (Ian Mor  Aireach), son of John Mor Mackenzie, grandson
of Alexander Cam Mac-kenzie, fourth son of Alexander, V. of Gairloch,
in whose favour Sir Alexander granted the lease of North Erradale,
already referred to.  The other daughter, known as "Kate Gairloch,"
who lived to a very old age, unmarried, was provided for in
comfortable lodgings and with a suitable allowance by the heads
of the family.

He died in 1766, in the 66th year of his age, was buried with his
ancestors in Gairloch, [The old chapel and the burying place of the
Lairds of Gairloch appear to have been roofed almost up to this
date; for in the Tutorial accounts of 1704 there is an item of
30 merks for "harling, pinning, and thatching Gairloch's burial
place."] and succeeded by his eldest son,

X.  SIR  ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, third Baronet, designated "An
Tighearna Ruadh," or the Red-haired Laird.  He built Conon House
between 1758 and 1760, during his father's lifetime.  Lady Mackenzie,
who continued to  reside at Kinkell, where she lived separated from
her husband, on Sir Alexander's decease claimed the new mansion at
Conon built by her son eight years before on the ground that it was
situated on her jointure lands; but Sir Alexander resisted her
pretensions, and ultimately the matter was arranged by the award of
John Forbes of New, Government factor on the forfeited estates of
Lovat, who then resided at Beaufort, and to whom the question in
dispute was  submitted as arbitrator.  Forbes compromised it by
requiring Sir Alexander to expend L300 in making Kinkell Castle more
comfortable, by taking off the top storey, re-rooting it, rebuilding
an addition at the side, and re-flooring, plastering, and papering
all the  rooms.

Sir Alexander, in addition to the debts of the entailed estates,
contracted other liabilities on his own account, and finding himself
much hampered in consequence, he tried, but failed, to break the
entail, although a flaw has been discovered in it since, and Sir
Kenneth, the present Baronet, having called the attention of
the Court to it, the entail was judicially declared invalid.  Sir
Alexander had entered into an agreement to sell the Strathpeffer
and Ardnagrask lands, in  anticipation of which Henry Davidson
of Tulloch bought the greater part of the debts of the entailed
estates, with the view of securing the consent of the Court to the
sale of Davochcairn and Davochpollo afterwards to himself.  But on
the 15th of April, 1770, before the transaction could be completed,
Sir Alexander died suddenly from the effects of a fall from his
horse.  His financial affairs were seriously involved, but having
been placed in the hands of an Edinburgh accountant, his creditors
ultimately received nineteen shillings in the pound.

He married, first, on the 29th of November, 1755, Margaret, eldest
daughter of Roderick Mackenzie, VII. of Redcastle, with issue -

1.  Hector, his heir and successor.

She died on the 1st of December, 1759.

He married, secondly, in 1760, Jean, daughter of John Gorry of
Balblair, and Commissary of Ross, with issue -

2. John, who raised a  company, almost wholly in Gairloch, for the
78th Regiment of Ross-shire Highlanders when first embodied, of
which he himself obtained the Captaincy.  He rose rapidly in rank.
On the 3rd of May, 1794, he attained to his majority; in the
following year he is Lieutenant-Colonel of the Regiment Major-General
in the army in 1813; and full General in 1837.  He served with
distinction and without cessation from 1779 to 1814.  So marked
was his daring and personal valour that he was popularly known
among his companions in arms as "Fighting Jack."  He was at the
Walcheren expedition; at the Cape; in India; in Sicily; Malta;
and the Peninsula and though constantly  exhibiting numberless
instances of personal daring, he was only once wounded, when on
a certain occasion he was struck with a spent ball on the knee,
which made any walking somewhat troublesome to him in after life.
At Tarragona he was so mortified with Sir John Murray's conduct,
that he almost forgot that he himself was only second in command,
and charged Sir John with incapacity and cowardice, for which
the latter was tried by Court Martial - General Mackenzie being
one of the principal witnesses against him.   Full of vigour of
mind and body, he took a lively interest in everything in which
he engaged, from fishing and shooting to farming, gardening,
politics, and fighting.  He never forgot his Gaelic, which he spoke
with fluency and read with ease.   Though a severe disciplinarian,
his men adored him.  He was in the habit of saying that it gave
him more pleasure to meet a dog from Gairloch than a gentleman
from any other place.  When the 78th returned from the Indian
Mutiny the officers and men were feted to a grand banquet by the
town of Inverness, and as the regiment marched through Academy
Street, where the General resided, they halted opposite his
residence, next door above the Station Hotel; and though so frail
that he had to be carried, he was taken out and his chair placed
on the steps at the door, where the regiment saluted and warmly
cheered their old and distinguished veteran commander, who
had so often led their predecessors to victory; and at the time
the oldest officer in and "father" of the British army.  He was
much affected, and wept with joy at again meeting his beloved
78th - the only tears he was known to have shed since the days of
his childhood.  He married Lilias, youngest daughter of Alexander
Chisholm, XXII. of Chisholm, with issue - (1) Alastair, an officer
in the 90th Light Infantry, who afterwards settled down and
became a magistrate in the Bahamas, where, in 1839, he married
an American lady, Wade Ellen, daughter of George Huyler, Consul
General of the United States, and French Consul in the Bahama
Islands, with issue - a son, the Rev. George William Russel
Mackenzie, an Episcopalian minister, who on the 2nd of August,
1876, married Annie Constance, second daughter of Richard, son
of William Congreve of Congreve and Burton, with issue - Dorothy
Lilias; (2) a daughter, Lilias Mary Chisholm, unmarried.  Alastair
subsequently left the Bahamas, went to Melbourne, and became
Treasurer for the Government of Victoria, where he died in 1852.
General Mackenzie died on the 14th of June, 1860, aged 96 years,
and was buried in the Gairloch aisle in Beauly Priory.

3.  Kenneth, who was born on the 14th of February, 1765, was  a
Captain in the army, and served in India, where he was at the
siege of Seringapatam.  He soon after retired from the service,
and settled down as a gentleman farmer at Kerrisdale, Gairloch.
He married Flora, daughter of Farquhar Macrae of Inverinate, with
issue, three sons and four daughters - (1) Alexander, a Captain
in the 58th Regiment, who married a daughter of William Beibly,
M.D., Edinburgh, with issue; (2) Hector, a merchant in Java, where
he died, unmarried; (3) Farquhar, a settler in Victoria, where
he married and left issue - Hector, John, Violet, Mary, and Flora;
(4) Jean, who married William H. Garrett, of the Indian Civil
Service, with issue - two sons, Edward and William, and four
daughters, Eleanor (now Mrs Gourlay, The Gows, Dundee); Flora,
Emily, and Elizabeth; (5) Mary, who married, first, Dr Macleod,
Dingwall, without issue and, secondly, Murdo Mackenzie, a Calcutta
merchant, also without issue; (6) Christian Henderson, who married
John Mackenzie, solicitor, Tam, a son of George Mackenzie, III.
of Pitlundie, with issue--two sons, both dead, one of whom left
a son, Charles; (7) Jessie, who married Dr Kenneth Mackinnon, of
the Corry family, H.E.I.C.S., Calcutta.

4.  Jean, who died young.

5.  Margaret, who married Roderick Mackenzie, II. of Glack, with
issue.

6.  Janet, who married Captain John Mackenzie Woodlands, son of
George Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard, without issue.

Sir Alexander had also a natural daughter, Janet, who married John
Macpherson, Gairloch, with issue.

The second Lady Mackenzie of Gairloch, Jean Gorry, died in 1766,
probably at the birth of her last daughter, Janet, who was born on
the 14th of October in that year, and Sir Alexander himself died
on the 15th of April, 1770.  He was buried in Gairloch, and was
succeeded by his eldest son,

XI.  SIR  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, the fourth  Baronet, generally spoken
of among Highlanders as "An Tighearna Storach," or the Buck-toothed
Laird.  Being a minor, only twelve years of age when he succeeded,
his affairs were managed by the following trustees appointed by his
father - John Gorry; Provost Mackenzie of Dingwall, and Alexander
Mackenzie, W.S., son  and grandson respectively of Charles Mackenzie,
I. of Letterewe; and Alexander Mackenzie, of the Stamp Office,
London, son of William Mackenzie of Davochcairn.  These gentlemen did
not get on so harmoniously as could be wished in the management
of the estate.  The first three opposed the last-named, who was
supported by Sir Hector and by his grandfather and his uncle of
Redcastle.  In the month of March, 1772, in a petition in which Sir
Hector craves the Court for authority to appoint his own factor,
he is described as "being now arrived at the age of fourteen years."
The differences which existed between the trustees finally landed
them in Court, the question specially in dispute being whether
the agreement of the late Sir Alexander to sell the Ardnagrask
and Strathpeffer lands should be carried out?  In opposition to
the majority, the Court decided in favour of Sir Hector that they
should not be sold until he arrived at an age to judge for himself.
Having secured this decision, Sir Hector, thinking that Mr Gorry had
been acting too much in the interest of his own grandchildren - Sir
Alexander's children by the second marriage - now appointed a factor
of his own, Kenneth Mackenzie, his half uncle, the first "Millbank."

In 1789 he obtained authority from the Court to sell the lands
which his father had previously arranged to dispose of to enable
him to pay the debts of the entailed estates.  He sold the lands
of Davochcairn and Davochpollo to Henry Davidson of Tulloch,
and Ardnagrask to Captain Rose, Beauly, who afterwards sold it
to Mackenzie of Ord.

In 1815 he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of his native county.  He
lived generally at home among a devoted tenantry; and only visited
London once during his life.  He regularly dispensed justice among
his Gairloch retainers without any expense to the county, and to
their entire satisfaction.  He was adored by the people, to whom
he acted as a father and friend, and his memory is still green
among the older inhabitants, who never speak of him but in the
warmest terms for his generosity, urbanity, and frankness, and for
the kind and free manner in which he always mixed with and
addressed his tenants.  He was considered by all who knew him the
most sagacious and intelligent man in the county.  He employed no
factor after he came of age, but dealt directly and entirely with
his people, ultimately knowing every man on his estates, so that
he knew from personal knowledge how to treat each case of hardship
and inability to pay that came before him, and to distinguish
feigned from real poverty.  When he grew frail from old age he
employed a clerk to assist him in the management, but he wisely
continued landlord and factor himself to his dying day.  When Sir
Francis, his eldest son, reached a suitable age, instead of
adopting the usual folly of sending elder sons to the army that
they might afterwards succeed to the property entirely ignorant
of everything connected with it, he gave him, instead of a yearly
allowance, several of the farms, with a rental of about L500 a
year, over which he acted as landlord or tenant, until his
father's death, telling him "if you can make more of them, all the
better for you."  Sir Francis thus grew up interested in and
thoroughly acquainted with all property and county business, and
with his future tenants, very much to his own ultimate advantage
and those who afterwards depended upon him.

Sir Hector also patronised the Gaelic poets, and appointed one of
them, Alexander Campbell, better known as "Alastair Buidhe Mac
Iomhair," to be his ground-officer and family bard, and allowed
him to hold his land in Strath all his life rent free.  [The late
Dr John Mackenzie  of Eileanach, Sir Hector's youngest son, makes
the following reference, under date of August 30, 1878, to the
old bard: "I see honest Alastair Buidhe, with his broad bonnet
and blue great coat (summer and winter) clearly before me now,
sitting in the dining room at Flowerdale quite 'raised' - like while
reciting Ossian's poems, such as 'The Brown Boar of Diarmad,' and
others (though he had never heard of Macpherson's collection) to
very interested visitors, though as unacquainted with Gaelic as
Alastair was with English.  This must have been as early as 1812
or so, when I used to come into the room after dinner about nine
years old."  Alastair Buidhe, the bard, was the author's
great-grandfather on the maternal side, and he was himself, on his
mother's side, descended from the Mackenzies of Shieldaig.]  He
gave a great impetus to the Gairloch cod fishing, which he
continued to encourage as long as he lived.

Sir Hector married, in August, 1778, Cochrane, daughter of James
Chalmers of Fingland, without issue; and the marriage was dissolved
by arrangement between the parties on the 22nd of April, 1796.
In the same year, the marriage contract being dated the "9th May,
1796," within a month of his separation from his first wife, Sir
Hector married, secondly, Christian, daughter and only child of
William Henderson, Inverness, a lady who became very popular
with the Gairloch people, and is still affectionately remembered
amongst them as "A Bhantighearna Ruadh," [Dr John, late of
Eileanach, writes of her and her father as follows: His second
wife was only child of William Henderson, from Aberdeenshire
(cousin of Mr Coutts, the London banker, with whom, in consequence
of the relationship, my elder brothers, Francis and William,
were on intimate terms in Stratton Street, Piccadilly, where Lady
Burdett Coutts now lives), who set up a Bleachfield at the Bught,
Inverness, by a daughter of Fraser of Bught.  Henderson followed his
daughter to Conon, as tenant of Riverford, where, till very old,
he lived, and then moved to Conon House, till he died about 1816,
loved by all, aged 97.  I think he is buried in the Chapel-Yard,
Inverness."] with issue -

1.  Francis Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  William, a merchant in lava, and afterwards in Australia.  He
died, unmarried, in 1860, at St. Omer France.

3.  Hector, who married Lydia, eldest daughter of General Sir
Hugh Fraser of Braelangwell; was Captain in H.E.I.C.S., and died
in India, without surviving issue.

4.  Dr John, of Eileanach.  He studied for the medical profession,
and took his degree of M.D.  He was factor for the trustees of Sir
Kenneth, the present Baronet, during his minority, and afterwards
for several years, Provost of Inverness.  He married, on the 28th
of September, 1826, Mary Jane, only daughter of the Rev. Dr Inglis
of Logan Bank and old Greyfriars, Edinburgh, Dean of the Chapel
Royal, and sister of the late distinguished Lord Justice-General
Inglis, President of the Court of Session, with issue - (1) Colonel
Hector, who was born on the 24th of August, 1828, and went to India
in his twentieth year, fought at Chilianwallah and Goojerat, and
was afterwards, until he retired in 1877, in the Civil Service,
chiefly as Judicial Commissioner for Central India at Nagpore.
He married on the 9th of May, 1855, Eliza Ann Theophila, eldest
daughter of General Jamieson, of the H.E.I.C.S., without issue;
(2) John Inglis, who died in 1843, in the 6th year of his age; (3)
Harry Maxwell, who was born on the 16th of May, 1839, a Colonel
in the Royal Artillery.  He married on the 7th of September, 1872,
Caroline Georgina, eldest daughter of Captain Ponsonby, Indian
Staff Corps, Deputy Quarter-Master-General in Scinde, with issue,
six sons and four daughters - Hector Ian Maxwell, born on the 14th
of June, 1875; Harry Ponsonby, born on the 30th of March, 1877;
Kenneth Gordon, born on the 6th of July, 1878; Allan Stewart, born
on the 27th of October, 1881, and died in infancy; Colin Ray,
born on the 7th of May, 1887 Alastair Ponsonby, born on the 25th
of June, 1889 Margaret; Mary; Lillian Kythe; Kythe; and Gladys
Georgina.  Colonel Mackenzie, after retiring from the Service,
resided at Auld Castlehill, Inverness, was Inspector for the Science
and Art Department in the North, and died suddenly, at Wick, on
the 13th of July, 1891; (4) Mary, who as his fourth wife, married
Duncan Davidson of Tulloch, with issue - Eoin Duncan Reginald,
a settler in Queensland; Hector Francis, in New Zealand Alastair
Norman, in Queensland; Lucy Eleonora, who, in 1873, married Sir
Allan R. Mackenzie, Baronet of Glenmuick, with issue, four sons
and a daughter - Allan James Reginald, born in 1880; Victor Audley
Falconer, born in 1882; Allan Keith, born in 1887; Eric Dighton,
born in 1891; and Mary Lucy Victoria.  Tulloch's other daughters
were Mary Macpherson and Victoria Geraldine.  His wife died on the
27th of  October, 1867.  (5) Christina Isabella, who, on the 23rd
of November, 1853, married Charles Addington Hanbury of Strathgarve,
Ross-shire, and Belmont, Herts, with issue, four sons and four
daughters - Harold Charles, of the Carabineers; John Mackenzie;
Basil; David Theophilus; Florence Mary; Kithe Agatha, who on the
10th of April, 1877, married Horace William Kemble, Hon. Major
2nd Cameron Highlanders, of Oakmere, Herts, at present tenant of
Knock, Isle of Skye, with issue - Horace Leonard, born on the 22nd
of April, 1882, Dorothea Lucinda, Hilda Olive, and Kythe Louisa
Elaine; Isabel, who married Major O. F. Annesley, R.A., with
issue - two daughters, Daphne and Myrtle; and Marie Frances Lisette
(6) Kithe Caroline who on the 12th of April, 1865, married Francis
Mackenzie, third son of Thomas Ogilvie of Corriemony, with issue,
seven children; (7) Lisette, who on the 28th of June, 1878, married
Frederick Louis Kindermann, son of Mr Kindermann, founder of the
house of Keith & Co., London and Liverpool, without issue; (8)
Georgina Elizabeth, who on the 26th of January, 1860, married the
late Duncan Henry Caithness Reay Davidson of Tulloch (who died
on the 29th of March, 1889), with issue - Duncan, now of Tulloch,
who on the 15th of November, 1887, married Mary Gwendoline, eldest
daughter of William Dalziel Mackenzie of Fawley Court, Bucks, and
of Farr, County of Inverness; John Francis Barnard Mary; Elizabeth
Diana; Adelaide Lucy; Georgianna Veronnica; and Christina Isabella.
Dr John of Eileanach died on the 18th of December, 1886.  His
widow still survives.

5.  Roderick, a Captain in the army, who sold out and became a
settler in Australia, where he died.  He married an Irish lady,
Meta Day, sister of the Bishop of Cashel, without issue, and died
in 1849.

Sir Hector had also, by his housekeeper, Jean Urquhart, three
natural children, which caused his separation from his first wife.
He made provision for them all.  The first, Catherine, married
John Clark, leather merchant, Inverness, and left issue.  Another
daughter married Mr Murrison, contractor for the Bridge of Conon,
who afterwards settled down, after the death of the last of the
Mackenzies of Achilty, on the farm  of Kinkell, with issue, from
whom the Stewarts, late Windmill, Inverness.  A son, Kenneth who
was for some time in the British Linen Bank, Inverness, afterwards
died in India, in the army, unmarried.

Sir Hector's widow survived him for about twelve years, first
living with her eldest son Sir Francis, and after his marriage
at Ballifeary, now Dunachton, on the banks of the  Ness.  Though
he succeeded to the property under such unfavourable conditions
though his annual rental was under L3000 per annum; and though he
kept open house throughout the year both at Conon and Gairloch,
he was able to leave or pay during his life to each of his younger
sons the handsome sum of L5000.  When pressed, as he often was, to
go to Parliament he invariably asked, "Who will then look after
my people?"

He died on the 26th of April, 1826; was buried in the Priory of
Beauly, and succeeded by his eldest son,

XII.  SIR  FRANCIS  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fifth Baronet, who,
benefitting by his father's example, and his kindly treatment
of his tenants, grew up interested in all county affairs.  He was
passionately fond of all manly sports, shooting, fishing, and
hunting.  He resided during the summer in Gairloch, and for the
rest of the year kept open house at Conon.  During the famine of
1836-37 he sent cargoes of meal and seed potatoes to the Gairloch
tenantry, which, with some heavy bill transactions he had entered
into to aid an old friend, William Grant of Redcastle, at the time
carrying on the Haugh Brewery, Inverness, involved him in financial
difficulties.  This induced him, in 1841, to get his brother, Dr
John Mackenzie of Eileanach, to take charge of his affairs, going
himself along with his second wife for a few years to Brittany,
where his youngest son, Osgood Hanbury Mackenzie, now of Inverewe,
was born.  To get clear of the liability incurred with Grant, Dr
John had ultimately to pay down L7000.

In 1836 Sir Francis published a work on agriculture, entitled
"Hints for the use of Highland Tenants and Cottagers," extending
to 273 pages, with English and Gaelic on opposite pages, which
shows his intimate knowledge of the subject, as well as the
great interest which he took in the welfare of his tenantry - for
whose special benefit the book was  written.  It deals first,
with the proper kind of food and how to cook it; with diseases
and medicine, clothing, houses, furniture, boats, fishing and
agricultural implements; cattle, horses, pigs, and their diseases;
gardens, seeds, fruits, vegetables, education, morals, etc.,
etc., with illustrations and plans of suitable cottages, barns,
outhouses, and farm implements.

He married, first, in the 31st year of his age, on the 10th of
August, 1829, Kythe Caroline, eldest daughter of Smith-Wright of
Rempstone Hall, Nottinghamshire, with issue -

1.  Kenneth Smith, the present Baronet.

2.  Francis Harford, born in 1833, unmarried.

He married, secondly, on the 25th of October, 1836, Mary, daughter
of Osgood Hanbury of Holfield Grange, Essex, the present Dowager
Lady Mackenzie, residing at Letterewe, with issue -

3.  Osgood Hanbury, born on the 13th of May, 1842.  In 1862 he
bought Kernsary from his brother Sir Kenneth, and in 1863 Inverewe
and Tournaig from Sir William Mackenzie, IX. of Coul.  On the
26th of June, 1877, he married Mina Amy, daughter of Sir Thomas
Edwards-Moss, Baronet of Otterspool, Lancashire, with issue, a
daughter, Mary Thyra.

Sir Francis died on the 2nd of June, 1843, from inflammation of the
arm, produced by bleeding--then a common practice for all manner
of complaints - by his intimate personal friend, Robert Liston,
the celebrated surgeon.  He was succeeded by his eldest son,

XIII.  SIR  KENNETH  SMITH  MACKENZIE, sixth and present Baronet,
who was born on the 25th of May, 1832, and has long been considered
one of the best and most enlightened landlords in the Highlands.
Following the example of his father and grandfather he for many
years dealt directly with his people, without any factor, or
other intermediary, except an estate  manager at Gairloch, and,
like his ancestors, took a personal interest in every man on his
property.  He takes an active and intelligent part in all county
matters; is Convener of the Commissioners of Supply and of the
County Council, and is Lord-Lieutenant for Ross and Cromarty.
In 1854 he was appointed Attache to Her Majesty's Legation at
Washington, which, however, he never joined.  In 1855 he received
a commission as Captain in the Highland Rifle (Ross-shire) Militia,
afterwards attained the rank of Major, and ultimately retired.
In 1880 he contested the county of Inverness as a Liberal against
Donald Cameron of Lochiel, the Tory candidate, but was defeated
by a  majority of 28.  In 1883-84 he was a member of the Royal
(Napier) Commission to enquire into the condition and grievances
of the Highland crofters.  In 1885 he again contested the county
of Inverness as the official Liberal candidate against Reginald
Macleod in the Tory interest and Charles Fraser-Mackintosh as the
Independent Land Law Reform candidate, when he was again defeated.
On the 11th of  December, 1860, he married Eila Frederica, daughter
of Walter Frederic Campbell of Islay, with issue -

1.  Kenneth John, Younger of Gairloch, who was born on the 6th of
October, 1861, late Captain in the Rifle Brigade.  On the 8th of
April, 1891, he married the Hon. Marjory Lousia Murray, eldest
daughter of the late William David Viscount Stormont (who died
in 1893), eldest son of the present and fourth Earl of Mansfield,
K.T., by Emily Louisa, daughter of the late Sir John Atholl Macgregor
of Macgregor, Baronet, with issue - Hector David, who was born on
the 6th of June, 1893; and Marjory Kythe.

2.  Francis Granville, who was born on the 31st of August, 1865;
and

3.  Muriel Katharine.

"Arms" - Quarterly: 1st and 4th, azure, a buck's head cabossed or;
2nd and 3rd, asure, three frasers argent.  "Crest" - A Highlander
wielding a sword, proper.  "Mottoes" - Over crest, "Virtute et valore;"
under, "Non sine periculo."


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  LOCHEND.

I.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, first of Lochend, was the third son of Alexander
Mackenzie, VII. of Gairloch, by his second wife, Janet, daughter
of William Mackenzie, I. of Belmaduthy.  He purchased the lands
of Lochend and married Annabella, second daughter and nineteenth
child of George Mackenzie, II. of Gruinard, by his first wife,
Margaret, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Ballone with
issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  George, an officer in Murray Keith's Highland Regiment, afterwards
successively Major and Lieutenant-Colonel of the 78th or Seaforth
Highlanders, and of whose family and descendants presently.

3.  Lilias, who married William Mackenzie, IV. of Gruinard (sasine
1742), with issue - four sons and three daughters.

4.  Christina, who married William Mac Iver of Tournaig, with
issue.

John Mackenzie of Lochend was Guardian or Tutor to his nephew, Sir
Alexander Mackenzie, IX. and second Baronet of Gairloch, in 1728.
He was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, who married, first, Anne, second daughter
of Colin Mackenzie, I. of Mountgerald, with issue -

1.  Lewis, who died before his father, unmarried.

2.  John, who succeeded to the estate of Lochend.

3.  Alexander, who was married, but of whom nothing further is
known.

4.  James, of whom there is no trace.

5.  Annabella, who married John Mac Iver, Stornoway, with issue.

6.  Lilias, who married Iver Mac Iver, Gress, Lewis, with issue.

He married secondly, Annabella, daughter of Sutherland of Little
Torboll, with issue -

7.  Lewis, of whom nothing is known.

8.  Elizabeth, who married a Mr Mackenzie, with issue.

Alexander was succeeded by his eldest surviving son,

III.  CAPTAIN  JOHN  MACKENZIE, third of Lochend, who married
first, a daughter of Mr Morrison, in the Lewis, with issue -

1.  Anne, who married Kenneth Gardiner, Leith.

He married, secondly, a daughter of Roderick Morrison, Island of
Tanera, with issue -

2.  Annabella, who married Neil Morrison, Sailing Master, Royal
Navy, with issue.

3.  Sybella, who married Lieutenant William Ryrie, of the Royal
Marines, with issue.

4.  Ellen, who married John Mackenzie, Ullapool, of the Sand family,
who resided in Tanera, without issue.

Captain John married, thirdly, a daughter of Collector John Reid,
Stornoway, with issue--

5.  Anne, who married Alexander Stewart, Chamberlain of the Lewis,
and afterwards factor for the Duke of Sutherland at Scourie.

6.  Alexander, who died before his father, unmarried.

7.  John Reid, who succeeded to Lochend.

8.  Daniel Lewis, who married Helen Mackay, widow of his cousin,
Donald Macdonald, master mariner, with issue - Aeneas, unmarried,
and Agnes Ann, who married Murdoch Mac Iver, a London merchant,
with issue - a son, Kenneth, and three daughters, one of whom, Helen
Isabella, married Donald MacIver, merchant, Currachee, India.

9.  James Reid, M.D., who married his cousin, a daughter of Captain
Donald Reid, of Eilean Riach, without issue.

10.  Margaret, alive as late as August, 1881, unmarried.

He was succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest son,

IV.  JOHN  REID  MACKENZIE, fourth of Lochend, who married  Miss
Mackenzie Morrison, daughter of Captain John Morrison, RN., and
sister of Mrs Stewart, wife of the Rev. Alexander Stewart, LL.D.,
"Nether-Lochaber."  He died in New Zealand in 1879, and his wife
died in the following year, leaving issue -

1.  John Alexander, his heir.

2.  Daniel Lewis.

3.  Agnes.

4.  Kennethina.

5.  Christina Mary.

He was succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest son,

V.  JOHN  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fifth of Lochend, now at the head
of a large Insurance Company, in the City of New York.

COLONEL  GEORGE  MACKENZIE, second son of John Mackenzie, I. of
Lochend, served first as an officer in Murray Keith's Highland
Regiment, and was subsequently, in September 1780, appointed
Major in the 78th or Seaforth Highlanders.  He was on Sir David
Baird's Staff in India, and was present at the storming of Seringapatam.
In 1783 he was promoted to the rank of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel.
In 1791 he was killed near Inverness, by the upsetting of a coach
in which he was a passenger.  He married Christina, daughter of
Captain Hector Munro of Braemore, with issue -

1.  John, a Captain in the army, who married Miss Fraser, with
issue - George, a Lieutenant in the 2nd or Queen's Regiment, who
died, unmarried, in Madras; and Poyntz, Lieutenant 79th Cameron
Highlanders, who died, unmarried, in North America, in 1843.

2.  Poyntz, Paymaster 72nd Highlanders, who died unmarried, at
Antigua, in the West Indies.

3.  Alexander, who joined the army on the 9th of September, 1795,
as Ensign in the 39th Regiment.  He obtained his Lieutenancy on
the 27th of February, 1796, was in June 1802 exchanged to the 60th
Rifles, and on the 27th of April, 1809, promoted to a Captaincy
in the 81st Regiment.  During this period he saw much service in
the Peninsula, and was subsequently engaged in the expedition to
Flushing, for which he received the war medal with four clasps.
On the 31st of October, 1811, he exchanged to the York Light
Infantry, then serving in Jamaica; was placed on half-pay on the
reduction of that regiment on the 19th of March, 1817; appointed
to the Royal Newfoundland Companies on the formation of that corps
on the 25th of July, 1824, and promoted to the rank of Major in
July, 1830.  He retired from the Army in 1836 and died in Canada
in 1852.  He married, first, Eliza, daughter of Captain John
Sutherland, of Shiberscross, Sutherlandshire, with issue - (1)
Mary Maxwell, who married Garland Crawford Gordon, St. John's,
Newfoundland with issue.  She (Mary Maxwell) died in 1852.  Major
Alexander married, secondly, Eliza Frances, daughter of William
Brown, of Lucea, Jamaica, with issue - (2)  ALEXANDER  WILLIAM
MACKENZIE, Lieutenant-Colonel, who joined the 1st West India
Regiment as Ensign, on the 3rd of February, 1839, and obtained
his Captaincy on the 1st of January, 1847.  He retired from this
regiment in January, 1850, but was re-appointed to the Service as
Regimental Paymaster in December 1854 - a  position in which
he subsequently served in the 48th, 54th, 3rd West India and the
21st and 18th Regiments, until  he was transferred to the Army
Pay Department on the 1st of April, 1878.  He was promoted to
the rank of Major on the 6th of February, 1862, and to that of
Lieutenant-Colonel on the 1st of October, 1882.  He married, first,
Selina Martha, fourth daughter of Captain William Webster late
of the 1st West India and 76th Regiments, by  his wife, Marie
Gabrielle, daughter of Charles Parseille, M.D., of Brittany,
and grand-daughter of the Countess De Mariset, with issue - (a)
Alexander William Webster Mackenzie, Lieutenant in the 100th
Regiment, who married Jessie Glen Rae, daughter of Captain Hector
Munro, 2nd Queen's and Royal Canadian Rifles, son of Captain
John Munro of the Sutherland Militia, without Issue.  He died in
Canada on the 16th of October, 1867, and his wife was lost at sea
in September, 1870, on the passage from Canada to Britain; (b)
Rowland Poyntz Mackenzie, who married Rosalie MacEwen, daughter
of William Wainwright, of Trinidad, with issue - Alexander William,
who went to Columbus, Ohio, United States of America, on the 5th
of May, 1892, and is in the Commercial National Bank there.   The
daughters were Selina Margaret, who married Henneage Goldie Pasea
of Strathearn Lodge, Trinidad; and Rosalie Miriam Gray.  He died
in Trinidad on the 22nd of May, 1877; (c) Charles William Beverley
Mackenzie, late of the 71st Highland Light Infantry, Assistant
Commissary General.  He married Selina Janet, daughter of Alexander
Gray, of Lanark, for many years a resident proprietor in Trinidad,
and a member of the Legislative Council of that island, without
issue.  His wife died in Ireland on the 18th of October, 1880,
and he died at Gibraltar on  the 12th of August, 1884; (d)  George
Ker Mackenzie, of the Agra  Bank, India, now residing in Bedford,
England.  He married Jamesina Greig, daughter of Hugh Fraser,
a native of Kingussie, for many years a resident proprietor in
Calcutta, with issue - George Fraser, who died in infancy; Hugh
Fraser; Charles Fraser Alexander Fraser, who died in childhood;
and  Selina Fraser; (e) Evelina Gray, who married Colonel Charles
Hill Jones, of the 54th Regiment, who died, without issue, on
the 3rd of September, 1876, while in command of the 13th and 14th
Sub-Districts at Liverpool.  Lieutenant Colonel Alexander William
Mackenzie's first wife died at Folkstone, on the 13th of December,
1890, and he married, secondly, Mary Jane, daughter of Thomas
Crawford, coal-owner, Little Town House, Durham.  (3) George John
Poyntz Mackenzie, a  resident proprietor, and for several years a
member of the Legislative Council of Trinidad.  He married Emily,
daughter of a Mr Williams, of that island, with issue; (4) Innes
Munro Mackenzie, who died in infancy; (5) Innes Munro Mackenzie,
who married Sarah  Nicholson, Lewes, Sussex, and latterly of Toronto,
Canada, with issue; (6) Wemyss Erskine Sutherland Mackenzie, who
married Eliza Marache, Trinidad,  with issue.  He died in 1872 at La
Guyra, Spanish Main, South America; (7) Norman Leslie Mackenzie,
who married Catherine Forsyth, Trinidad, with issue.  He was drowned
in the Gulf of Paria, in 1858, by the upsetting of a sailing-boat
in which he was proceeding from Port of Spain to San Fernando;
(8) the Rev. Garland Crawford Mackenzie, Rural Dean of Brant,
Ontario, Canada, who married Helen, daughter of the Rev. Michael
Boomer, Dean of Ontaria, with issue; (9) Eliza Francis Cressy,
who married Henry Lord, M.D., Canada, with issue.  She died in
1851; (10) Lydia, who married Henry Rowland Hanning, Danville,
Canada, without issue.  She died in 1857.

4.  Eliza (eldest daughter of Colonel George Mackenzie), married
her cousin, the distinguished Colonel Alexander Mackenzie, fourth
son of William Mackenzie, IV. of Gruinard, with issue - Captain
George, who was killed in action, unmarried, and Alexanderina,
who married Alexander Grove, M.D., R.N., Greenwich Hospital, with
issue.

5.  Lilias, who married Captain Macgregor of the 18th Regiment,
without issue.

6.  Georgina, who married a Mr Euracht, without issue.

7.  Christina, who married Angus  Macleod, Banff, with issue.

8.  Annabella, who married Captain John Munro of Kirkton, with
issue.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  LETTERWE.

I.  CHARLES  MACKENZIE, first of Letterewe, was the eldest son by
his third wife, Janet, daughter of John Cuthbert of Castle Hill,
Inverness (marriage contract, 17th December, 1658), of Alexander
Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch.  He is originally designed of Mellan
Charles, no doubt so called after himself, but by his father's
marriage contract he got Loggie-Wester, now Conon, which he
afterwards, in 1696, exchanged with his half brother, Alexander
Mackenzie, VII. of Gairloch, for the lands of Letterewe.  He
married, in 1684, Anne, third daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of
Applecross (sasine 1687), with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir and  successor.

2.  The Rev. Hector,  minister of Fodderty, and previous to his
appointment there, Librarian to the University of Aberdeen.  He
married a Miss Baillie, with issue - a daughter, who married
Mackenzie of Park.

3.  Alexander of Tolly,  Provost of Dingwall, who married in 1740,
Annabella, daughter of Sir Donald Bayne of Tulloch, with issue,
among others - Alexander, from whom the Mackenzies of Portmore, and
by his second wife, Katharine, daughter of Bayne of Delny, Bailie
Hector Mackenzie of Dingwall, on whose death Alexander Campbell,
the Gairloch Bard, composed one of the finest elegies in the Gaelic
language.

4.  Anna, who married Murdoch Mackenzie, II. of Kernsary (marriage
contract in 1708), with issue.

5.  A daughter, who married her cousin, Roderick Mackenzie, II.
of Sanachan, son of Colin, second son of Roderick Mackenzie, I.
of Applecross.

6.  Annabella, who married John Maciver of Tournaig, and afterwards
tacksman of Gress, in the Lewis, with issue.

Charles was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, second of Letterewe.  He fought at the
battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715, and at Glenshiel in 1719.  When
a very old man he was determined to be out again in 1745, but
according to a family tradition his wife prevented him by pouring
hot water on his feet, as if by accident, and scalded him so much
that he was unable to walk.  He married his cousin, Catharine,
daughter of Simon Mackenzie, I. of Torridon and Lentran, widow
of John Mackenzie, Dalmartin, who was killed at Sheriffmuir, and,
it is also said, of Roderick Mackenzie of Auldeny, with issue -

1.  John, his heir and successor.

2.  Janet, who married Alexander Mackenzie of Sand.  (Sasine to
her in 1744).

3.  Anne, who married the Rev. James Robertson, the famous "Ministear
Laidir" of Lochbroom, with issue - six sons and two daughters, one
of whom was James Robertson, Collector of Customs at Stornoway.  He
married his cousin, Annabella, eldest daughter of John Mackenzie,
III. of Letterewe, with issue - three sons - (1) Captain James
Robertson-Walker, R.N., late of Gilgarran, Cumberland,
who married his cousin, Katherine, daughter of John Mackenzie,
Sheriff-Substitute of the Lewis, without issue.  He died in 1858.
(2) Murdoch, who married, with issue - James Robertson, who, like
his uncle, took in addition the name of Walker on his succession
as proprietor to the estate of Gilgarran, on the death of his aunt
in 1892.  He is married, with issue - James Austin, Murdo, and two
daughters; (3) John, a noted Captain in the Merchant Service,
celebrated for his quick passages with racing tea clippers between
China and this country.  He was also married with issue - a son,
Francis Shand Robertson, residing at Richmond, Surrey, who married
his cousin, Mary, daughter of Evander MacIver, factor for the
Duke of Sutherland at Scourie and another great-grandson of the
Strong Minister, with issue, and a daughter Annie, who married W.
Napier.

Murdoch, who died at a very old age, was succeeded by his only
son,

III.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, third of Letterewe, who married his cousin,
Katherine, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Tolly, Provost of
Dingwall, with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, who succeeded his brother Murdoch.

3.  John, for many years the popular Sheriff-Substitute of the Lewis
district of Ross-shire, and subsequently tacksman of Shieldaig,
Gairloch.

He married Johanna, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Badachro,
by his wife, a daughter of the Rev. James Robertson of Lochbroom,
with issue - (1) the late John Mackenzie of Auchenstewart, Wishaw,
and subsequently of Ardlair, Edinburgh, who married in Australia,
Anna Baird, who died at Wishaw on the 7th of November, 1885, with
issue - an only son, John Alexander Mackenzie, now of Ardlair,
Edinburgh.  He married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Sinclair,
Newark, U.S.A., formerly of Glasgow, with issue - John Baird;
Alexander Livingston Munro; Elizabeth Margaret, who died young;
Anna Louisa; Elizabeth Louttit; and Katharine May.  John of
Auchenstewart died at Ardlair, Edinburgh, on the 25th of December,
1890.

Sheriff Mackenzie married, secondly, Christina, daughter of the
Rev. Hugh Munro, minister of Uig, Lewis (representative of the
Munroes of Erribol, Sutherlandshire), with issue - (2) John Munro
Mackenzie of Mornish, Mull, who, born in 1819, married in 1846,
Eliza, eldest daughter of the late Patrick Chalmers, Wishaw,
brother of the celebrated Dr Thomas Chalmers of the Disruption,
with issue - (a) John Hugh Munro, who, on the 23rd of June,
1875, married Jeanie Helen, second daughter of Thomas Chalmers,
Longcroft, Linlithgowshire, with issue - John Munro; Thomas
Chalmers; Hugh Munro; Kenneth; Jean Elizabeth; Christina Marion;
and Kathlene Harriet.  (b) Patrick Chalmers, who was born on
the 4th of May, 1862, and on the 31st of October, 1882, married
Mary Kathlene, third daughter of Thomas Chalmers, of Longcroft,
Linlithgowshire, with issue - Patrick Harry, born on the 15th of
March, 1889; Isabel Grace and Mary Mona.  (c) Harriet, who on
the 5th of July, 1870, married James Scott, of Garrion Tower,
Lanarkshire, with issue - Munro Mackenzie, born on the 2nd of March,
1872 James Harry, born on the 27th of September, 1873; William
Patrick, born on the 18th of March, 1880; Elizabeth; and Harriet
Carige, who died in her twelfth year on the 17th of April, 1889.
(d) Christina Marion, who died unmarried at Cannes in January,
1881; and (e) Helen Mary, who, in April, 1883, married Dr John
Aymers Macdougall of Ann, Berwickshire, and Villa Letterewe,
Cannes, France, with issue - Christina Marion Mackenzie; Helen
Mary Mackenzie; and Sheila Aymers.  John Munro of Mornish died at
Garrion Tower, Wishaw, on the 26th of November, 1893.  (3) Hugh
Munro Mackenzie, of Distington, Cumberland, who married Alexa,
daughter of the late Captain Martin Macleod, of Drynoch, Ontario,
Canada, with  issue - Martin Edward; Hugh Munro; Christina; Jeanie;
and Kate.  Hugh Munro, of Distington, died on the 25th of January,
1885.  (4) Katharine, who married her cousin, Captain James
Robertson-Walker, R.N., of Gilgarran, Cumberland.  She died on
the 21st of December, 1892, without issue.

4.  Annabella, who married her cousin, James Robertson, Collector
of Customs at Stornoway, son of the "Ministear Laidir" of Lochbroom,
with issue, among others - Katharine, who married Lewis Mac Iver, of
Gress, representative of the Mac Ivers of Tournaig and Leckmelm, with
issue - (1) Evander MacIver, now factor for the Duke of Sutherland
at Scourie, who married Mary, daughter of Donald Macdonald, then
of Skeabost, Isle of Skye, with issue - (a) James Robertson, M.D.,
who died in India, unmarried; (b) Donald, factor for Lord Falmouth,
who died unmarried; (c) Duncan Davidson, a settler at Ellisdale,
Victoria, who married Florence Eastwood, Ballarat, with issue - Evander
and Mary; (d) Lewis, formerly in the Bank of Madras, and now
of Blackburn, Lancashire, who married Margaret MacAll there; (e)
Evander, who died young; (f) Murdo Robertson, who married, with
issue - two sons, John, Evander, and two daughters, who, with their
mother survive him; (g) John Macdonald, a settler in the Cape
of Good Hope, married, without issue; and (h) Mary, who married
her cousin, Francis Shand Robertson, residing at Chiswick,
with issue - Evander Shand, Duncan, and two daughters; (2) James
Robertson MacIver, merchant, Stornoway, married, but died without
male issue; (3) John MacIver, banker at Dingwall, afterwards Secretary
of the Bank of Madras, in India, and now residing at Dover.  He
married Eliza Doherty of Coleraine, Ireland, with issue - (a) Lewis,
late of the Indian Civil Service, Barrister-at-law, and M.P.
for Torquay during the short Parliament of 1885-86.  He was born
on the 6th of March, 1846, and married on the 11th of September,
1884, Charlotte Rosalind, daughter of  Nathaniel Montefiore,
F.R.S., of Coldeast, Hants, a grand-niece of the late Sir Moses
Montefiore, with issue, two daughters - Marjorie Barabel Ruth and
Nathalie Esther; (b) Iver Ian, a squatter in Queensland, who married
a daughter of George Dill, one of the founders of the "Melbourne
Argus," with issue - four children, the eldest of whom is a boy named
Ian; (4) Lewis Maciver, a Liverpool merchant, who married, with
issue - (a) James Walker, a Civil Engineer, and (b) another son;
(5) William Walker MacIver, who died at Hong Kong, unmarried; (6)
Murdo Robertson MacIver, who also died unmarried; (7) Alexander
MacIver, Agent for the Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company,
first at Madras and afterwards at Hong Kong, who married Marjory,
daughter of Captain Hector Gunn, of the Black Watch, with issue - (a)
Alister, in the London office of the Peninsular and Oriental
Steamship Company; (b) Colin, and several daughters.  Alexander
died in 1892.  (8) Lilias, who married Roderick Macleod, merchant,
Liverpool, with issue - one daughter.

5.  Catherine, who married her cousin, Charles, a younger son of
the Rev. James Robertson, and brother of her sister's husband,
Collector James Robertson, of Stornoway, with issue.

6.  Anne, who married John Macintyre, tacksman of Letterewe,  with
issue.

John was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV.  MURDO  MACKENZIE, fourth of Letterewe, a Captain in the 78th
Highlanders.  He died in India, unmarried, and was succeeded by
his next brother,

V.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fifth of Letterewe, who married Catherine,
daughter of James Macdonald of Skeabost, with issue -

1.  John, his heir and successor.

2.  James, a midshipman, H.E.I.C.S., who died unmarried.

3.  Murdo, a doctor, H.E.I.C.S., who also died unmarried.

4.  Hector, who was an  Officer of Customs at the Cape of Good
Hope, and afterwards succeeded his brother in the estate of Letterewe.

5.  Donald Alexander, who in early life emigrated to the United
States, and of whom presently.

6.  Jessie, who married Donald Macdonald, Lochinver, who afterwards
went to the Cape of Good Hope and died at Southsea in 1888,
leaving issue - (1) Donald, C.E., at the Cape, who married, and has
issue - two sons and a daughter.  (2) Alexander James, of Milland,
Hants, who, in 1866, married Caroline, daughter of John Heugh, of
Port Elizabeth, South Africa, with issue - Ione and Thyra.  (3)
Murdo, who, in 1869, married  Laura, daughter of J. Foley, sculptor,
London, with issue - Flora; Alexander; Charles; Somerled; and
Ronald.  (4) Katherine, who in 1849 married the late James Somers
Kirkwood, merchant at Port Elizabeth, Cape of Good Hope, with
issue - (1) Donald, who married first, in 1866, Helen, daughter of
Thomas Read, of Trouse, Norwich, with issue - Donald.  He married,
secondly, Cornelia, daughter of R. Restall, of Uitenhague, South
Africa, with issue - Hector and Hellen; (2) Charles; (3) Alexander;
(4) Reginald; (5) Annie, who married Archibald Merilees, Moscow; and
(6) Jessie, who married Walter Somerville Lockhart, of Clydesdale,
with issue - Lawrence.

7.  Katherine, who died unmarried.

8.  Emily, who resided in London, unmarried.

Alexander was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, a Writer to the Signet, in Edinburgh, where he
died unmarried, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving brother,

VII.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, seventh of Letterewe.  In 1835 he sold
the estate to Meyrick Bankes of Winstanley Hall, Lancashire.  He
died, unmarried, in 1860 at Algoa Bay, Cape of Good Hope, when he
was succeeded, as representative of the family, by his youngest
and only surviving brother,

VIII.  DONALD  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, a merchant at Dubuque, Iowa,
United States of America, who married, with issue -

1.  Charles, who succeeded as representative of the family.

2.  Alexander, a Captain of Engineers in the United States Army,
who married in 1872, with issue - a son Donald.

Donald Alexander died in 1872, leaving a widow, who subsequently
resided at Dubuque, when he was succeeded as representative of
the family, by his eldest son,

IX.  CHARLES  MACKENZIE, a lawyer, now in good practice in the
United States.

The representative of the Mackenzies of Letterewe in this country
is John Alexander Mackenzie, of Ardlair, Edinburgh, only son of
the late John Mackenzie of Auchenstewart, who died in 1890.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  PORTMORE.

THIS family is descended from Alexander Mackenzie of Tolly, grandson
of Kenneth Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch, and third son of Charles
Mackenzie of Loggie-Wester, and subsequently I. of Letterewe, by
Anne, daughter of John Mackenzie, II. of Applecross.  He married,
first, Annabella, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Donald Bayne of
Tulloch; and their descendants, as representatives of that ancient
family, bear its cognisance on the centre of their shield, a wolf's
head proper.  He was a Bailie and afterwards Provost of Dingwall,
exercised considerable local and political influence, and greatly aided
Lord Macleod, son of George Earl of Cromarty, in his candidature
for the county of Ross, as may be seen from the Cromarty Papers.
During an election riot which occurred in Dingwall in 1751, Mrs
Mackenzie, whilst looking out of a window of her own house, was
accidentally shot.  By her Provost Mackenzie had issue -

1.  Alexander, I. of Portmore.

2.  Katharine, who married her cousin, John Mackenzie, III. of
Letterewe, with issue.

3.  Charlotte, who married the Rev. John Downie, minister of
Gairloch, subsequently of Urray, with issue.

He married, secondly, Katharine, daughter of Bayne of Delny, with
issue -

4.  Ronald, a Captain in the Army, who died in Ireland, without
issue.

5.  Hector, a well-known  and highly-popular Bailie of Dingwall,
who married, first, Anne, daughter of the Rev. Colin Mackenzie,
minister of Fodderty, and I. of Glack, with issue - (1) Alexander,
a merchant in London, who married his cousin, Catherine, daughter
of Kenneth Mackenzie, of Millbank, with issue - two daughters,
Catherine, who married Major Roderick Mackenzie, VII. of Kincraig
and Ann, who married the Rev. John Macdonald of Calcutta, an
eminent divine; (2) Colin, Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, who died
without issue; (3) Henry, who died unmarried; (4) Hectorina, who
died at Dingwall, unmarried, in 1850.  Bailie Mackenzie married
secondly, a daughter of Mackenzie, Ussie, with issue - (5) Jane,
who married John Mackenzie; (6) Annabella, who married William
Kemp, of Comrie; (7) Anne, who married Kenneth Mackenzie, of
Millbank.

Alexander of Tolly died in 1774 and, along with his wife, Annabella,
is interred in the family burying-place at Dingwall.

I.  ALEXANDER   MACKENZIE, his eldest son and heir, who was born
on the 5th of February, 1740, and afterwards became first of
Portmore, settled as a W.S. in Edinburgh; but all his life he
kept up a close connection with his native county, having intimate
business relations with all its principal landowners.  He was a
man of undoubted ability, and the personal friend of many noted
literary men of his day.  He purchased the estate of Seaton, in
East Lothian, but afterwards sold it to the Earl of Wemyss, after
which he purchased the estate of Portmore, Peebleshire, from the
Conyears Earls of Portmore.  He married on the 25th of February,
1766, Anne, eldest daughter of Colin Mackenzie, VI. of Kilcoy,
by Martha, eldest daughter of Charles Fraser of Inverallochy
and Castle Fraser, whose mother was Lady Marjory Erskine, eldest
daughter of James, seventh Earl of Buchan.

Lady Marjory married secondly, Charles, last Lord Fraser of Castle
Fraser, who, dying without issue, left his estate to his step-son,
Simon Fraser of Inverallochy.  On the death, without issue, of
Martha's three brothers, she and her sister Elizabeth became
co-heiresses of Inverallochy and Castle Fraser, and on Elizabeth's
death Martha became sole heiress.   She left the estates to her
distinguished son, Lieutenant-General Alexander Mackenzie, who
assumed the additional name of Fraser.  Thus the families of  Kilcoy
and Portmore deduce descent from the Royal Houses of Stuart and
Plantaganet, as also from the Dukes of Burgundy, and Raymond
Count of Provence.  Alexander had issue -

1.  Alexander, who died in infancy in 1767.

2.  Alexander, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding the 21st Dragoons.
He died before his father at Cape Malo, St. Domingo, West Indies,
in July 1796, aged 27, unmarried.

3.  Colin, who succeeded his father at Portmore.

4.  John, who was born in 1771, and died young.

5.  George Udny, born in 1773, and died young.

6.  Charles, born in 1779, and died in 1783.

7.  WILLIAM   MACKENZIE, I. of Muirton, Ross-shire, W.S. in
Edinburgh, Deputy-Lieutenant for Ross, Sutherland, and Cromarty.
He was born on the 1st of October, 1780, and married first, on the
6th of July, 1805, Mary, daughter of James Mansfield of Midmar,
Aberdeenshire, by Marion, daughter of Dalrymple Horn-Elphinstone
of Horn and Logie-Elphinstone, eldest surviving son of Viscount
(now Earl of) Stair, with issue - (1)  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, II. of
Muirton, and of Meikle Scatwell; a W.S., Edinburgh.   Alexander,
who was born on the 28th of February, 1812, married his cousin,
Maria, second daughter and co-heiress with her three sisters of
John Mansfield of Midmar, with issue - William Garloch, who died
unmarried at Gibraltar, on the 22nd of May, 1876; John Mansfield,
W.S., Edinburgh, who died unmarried - the last of six sons - in 1892;
Alexander James, who died in Natal in 1887, unmarried; Douglas
Hay, who succeeded to the estate of Meikle Scatwell by the will
of his aunt, Mrs Douglas (Jemima Mansfield), and, dying unmarried
at Clifton on the 9th of  June, 1873, bequeathed it to his father;
George Vansittart, a merchant in Leith, who died unmarried in
1891; and James Dalrymple, who died in New Zealand, unmarried,
in 1887.  Alexander Mackenzie, II. of  Muirton, sold that estate
to Colonel Ainslie, and Meikle Scatwell to Sir William James Bell,
LL.D., now of Scatwell.  (2) James Mansfield, who died unmarried
in 1838, aged 25.  (3) William, M.A., in Holy Orders, who married
Isabella Trotter, Natal, with issue - George Charles, born in 1857,
heir of his uncle, John Mansfield; Alexander Frederick, born in
1859 Harry James Mansfield, born in 1863; John, born in 1866;
Mary Marion; Thomas Mansfield, born in 1866; and Grace Isabella.
The Rev William died in Natal in 1887.  (4) Marion, who married
Captain Frederick H. De Lisle, R.N., Guernsey, and died without
issue in 1879.  William Mackenzie, I. of Muirton, married secondly,
Alice, daughter of Andrew Wauchope of Niddry Marischal, County
of Midlothian, without issue.  He died in 1856, and was succeeded
in the lands of Muirton by his eldest son, Alexander, II. of
Muirton, as above.

8.  Sutherland, manager of the Scottish Union Insurance Company,
who was born on the 31st of January, 1785, and died unmarried on
the 26th of March, 1853.

9.  John, who was born on the 13th of October, 1787, died in 1854,
and is interred in the family burying place at Dingwall.  He was
a banker in Inverness and Commissioner for many years for the
Redcastle and Flowerburn estates.  He was a man of great ability,
lavish hospitality and generosity, and a keen sportsman.  He
exercised very considerable social and political influence, and the
Burgh of Inverness presented him with a valuable service of plate
in recognition of his services during Earl Grey's administration
on the passing of the Municipal Reform Bill in 1833.  He was
unanimously elected the first Provost of Inverness after the Act
came into force, and was repeatedly pressed to become a candidate
for Inverness as its representative in Parliament.  He was offered
the Governorship of Ceylon and of the Mauritius, but he declined
to accept either.  He married, on the 4th December, 1817, Mary
Charlotte, only child of Robert Pierson, a merchant prince in
Riga, son of James Pierson of Balmadies, Forfarshire, a very old
Scottish family of Scandinavian origin, recorded as landowners in
Berwickshire in 1296, and described in 1634 as "very ancient."
She was a most beautiful and accomplished woman, could converse
in Russ, German, French, and Italian, and was an admirable musician
and artist.  She died in 1883 and is buried in Dingwall, leaving
issue - (1) Alexander, like his father a banker in Inverness, who
was born on the 18th of March, 1820, and died, unmarried, on the
20th of March, 1860; (2)  JOHN  ROBERT  MACKENZIE, a Major-General in
Her Majesty's Forces, late Colonel of the 2nd Battalion King's
Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.  He was in command in 1873 of
a successful expeditionary force in Arabia.  He was born on the
5th of June, 1822, and on the 28th of August, 1851, married
Amelia Robertson, daughter of James Wilson, banker, Inverness,
by his cousin, Isabella, daughter of Thomas Fraser of Newton,
with issue - (a) Amelia Isabella Margery, who died, aged 17, and
is buried at Inverness (b) John William Sutherland, who was born on
the 17th of July, 1855, and on the 19th of July, 1881, married
Matilda Henrietta, daughter of Colonel Brown-Constable of
Wallace-Craigie, Forfarshire, Lord Lieutenant of the County, by
Mary Christina, daughter of Colonel Francis Kenneth Mackenzie,
fourth son of Captain John Mackenzie, VI. of Kincraig, with
issue - John Fraser, Donald Constable Travers, Mary Amelia, and
Norah Constance (c) Mary Charlotte Pierson, who, on the 13th of
May, 1880, married Alfred Woodhouse, F.R.G.S., with issue - Margery
Amelia Fraser, Coventry William, John Alick Edward, Alfred
Frederick Bell, Hector Roy Mackenzie, and Muriel Mary; (d) Alice
Marion Fraser, who died young in Madras; (e) Elizabeth Margaret
Cumming, who, on the  8th of April, 1885, married Henry Gibbs,
with issue - Ella Margaret; (f) Louisa Constance Harris, who died
young, and is buried at Dingwall; (g) Ella Fraser Magdalene; (h)
James Wilson Alexander, in Holy Orders, MA. of Pembroke College,
Cambridge.  He was born on the 18th of May, 1867, and married
Amy Adela Magee, daughter of the Rev. John N. B. Woodroffe, M.A.,
with issue - John William Wilson; and (i) Hector Colin Udney, who
died young; (3)  COLIN  MACKENZIE, a Major-General, Madras Staff
Corps, who was born on the 18th of October, 1833, and on the
16th of January, 1861, married, first, Victoria Henrietta, eldest
daughter of Charles Mackinnon, M.D., of the  Corry family, Isle of
Skye, with issue - (a) Colin John, Brevet Major, 78th Highlanders,
2nd Battalion Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs), Adjutant
of his Regiment, Aide-de-Camp to Lord Frederick Roberts,
Commander-in-Chief in India, and Deputy Assistant Adjutant General at
Quetta.  He was born on the 26th of November, 1861, and served in
the Egyptian Campaign, medal and clasp, Tel-el-Kebir, the Burmese
Campaign, the Black Mountain Expedition, and the Hunga Nagar
Campaign, in Cashmere, for which he received the Brevet rank of
Major.  He has two medals and four clasps and the Khedive Star.
(b) Charles Alexander, born on the 21st December, 1862, an indigo
planter in Thiroot; (c) Ronald Pierson, M.D., born on the 12th of
January, 1863; (d) Mary Charlotte; (e) Henrietta Studd, who died
young; (f) Victor Herbert, born on the 17th of September, 1867,
of the British East Africa Company.  He died in 1892, aged 25.
(g) Kenneth Lascelles, born on the 27th of November, 1869, an
indigo planter; (h) Frederick William, R.N., born on the 19th of
May, 1870; (i) Henry Studd, who died young; (j) Morna; and (k)
Annie Stuart.  Major-General Colin married, secondly, Stella Adela
Newbigging, with  issue - (l) Isobel.  (4) Charlotte, who married,
first, John Alexander Fraser, Captain 93rd Sutherland Highlanders,
with issue - (a) John Alexander Mackenzie, D.S.O., Commander,
R.N., who married Euphemia Ritchie, daughter of Peacock-Edwards;
(b) William Forbes Mackenzie, Captain 18th Bengal Infantry,
formerly of the 88th Connaught Rangers; (c) Charlotte Amelia
Rose, who married Ernest Duncombe, R.N., with issue - Dorothy
and Estelle Amy, twins, and Beryl; and (d) Mary Eliza Alexia.
Charlotte married, secondly, the Rev. William Duncombe, M.A.,
with issue - (e) Francis Hay.  (5) Mary Ann, who married first,
George  Grogan of Sutton, Dublin, Captain 6th Dragoon Guards (the
Carabineers) with issue - (a) Edward George, Major 42nd Highlanders
(Black Watch), who married, first, Meta, daughter of Sir William
King Hall, K.C.B., Admiral Commanding off the Nore, with
issue - George William  St. George and Edward Harry  John; (b) Meta
Aileen Odetta.  Mary Ann married, secondly, Colonel St. George
Herbert Stepney, C.B., Commanding 2nd Battalion Coldstream Guards,
without issue.  (6) Elizabeth, who, in 1856, married Colonel George
Harkness, Madras Army, with issue - (a) Henry George; Alexander
Charles, M.D.; (b) George Bacon; (c) Mary Kate; and (d) Charlotte
Esmi, who married Captain Carlton Cuthbert Collingwood, with
issue - Ronald George; (7) Catherine, who married Captain Charles
Harkness, Madras Army, and died in 1857, without issue.

10. Martha; 11. Annabella; 12. Jean; 13. Elizabeth; and 14.
Catherine, five daughters of Alexander Mackenzie, I. of Portmore,
all of whom died unmarried.

Alexander died on the 4th of September, 1805, was buried in
the Greyfriars, Edinburgh, and succeeded by his third and eldest
surviving son,

II.  COLIN  MACKENZIE,  second of Portmore, W.S., Edinburgh,
Principal Clerk of Session and Keeper of the Signet, who was
born on the 11th of January, 1770.  He was a very popular man,
and one of the oldest friends of Sir Walter Scott, who alludes to
him in his poems.  He  married on the 13th of May, 1803, Elizabeth,
daughter of Sir William  Forbes, sixth Baronet of Pitsligo, by
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Hay of Hayston, Baronet.  Sir
William was a banker of great eminence in Edinburgh.  He succeeded
Coutts Brothers, the Scotch firm of Coutts & Co., and founded
the bank of Sir William Forbes, Baronet, and Sir William Hunter,
Baronet, & Co., now the National Bank of Scotland.  He died on
the 16th of September, 1830, leaving issue -

1.  Alexander, who died in infancy.

2.  Alexander, who died in 1822, at the age of 17.

3.  William Forbes, who succeeded to Portmore.

4.  Colin, Bengal Civil Service, who was born in June, 1808, and
died, unmarried, on the 14th of January, 1870.

5.  James Hay, W.S., Edinburgh, who married Isabella, daughter of
James Wedderburn, Solicitor-General for Scotland, with issue - (1)
Colin, W.S. in Edinburgh, a man of great ability, who had a
very large business connection with many of the most influential
families in Scotland.  Colin was born on the 24th of April, 1841,
and died, unmarried, at sea, on a return voyage from America in
1883; (2) James Wedderburn, who died young in 1844; (3) George
Wedderburn, who was born on the 9th of April, 1851, now in Ceylon;
(4) Isabella Elizabeth, who married Major-General Kirkland of Wester
Fordel, Perthshire, with issue - one daughter, Isabella Sybella;
(5) Alice, who died young; (6) Louisa Helen; (7) Ann Christina, who
married Edward Bannerman, with issue - Kenneth Mordaunt, D'Arcy,
and Eric Edward; and (8) Jean Charlotte.  James Hay died on the
16th of February, 1865.

6.  John, Treasurer of the Bank of Scotland and Manager of the
Scottish Widows Fund, who was born on the 1st of April, 1812, and
on the 29th of May, 1844, married his cousin, Christina Garioch,
third daughter and co-heiress with her three sisters of John
Mansfield of Midmar, with issue - (9) Colin, Captain in the 78th
Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs), and Major, 3rd Battalion Seaforth
Highlanders (Highland  Rifle Militia), F.R.G.S., and a gentleman
of considerable literary ability and taste.  He was author of
the History of the 78th Highlanders  in Keltie's "History of the
Highland Clans and Highland Regiments," and of a series of articles
in the "Celtic Magazine" on "The Sculptured Stones of Ross
and Cromarty."  He also prepared a most elaborate and complete
Genealogical Table, showing the origin and descent of his own
family of Portmore - and necessarily all the Mackenzies who can
trace connection with any of the leading families of the Clan - from
the earliest times to the present day, printed by his relative,
Major-General John Robert Mackenzie, after Major Colin's death.
He was born on the 10th of  June, 1843, and died of a decline at
St. Moritz, Switzerland, in March, 1890.  He married Jeannette
Sophia, eldest daughter of Baron Gerhard Knut A. Falkenberg of
Trystorp, His Swedish and Norwegian Majesty's Consul-General in
British North America, with issue - Ian Duncan, born on the 15th
of July, 1870; Ulric Knut, born on the 6th of December, 1872;
Colin Mansfield, born on the 3rd of November, 1876; and Christina
Frederica Augusta; (2) Christina Garioch, who died young.

7.  Sutherland, Lieutenant Royal Navy, born on the 15th of January,
1818, and lost on board H.M.S. "Victor," in the Gulf of Mexico,
in 1844, unmarried.

8.  George, Lieutenant in the Indian Army, born on the 23rd of
February, 1819.  He was killed in action on the 14th of October,
1844, unmarried.

9.  Charles Frederick Fraser, a Fellow of Caius and Gonville
College, Cambridge, second Wrangler of his year.  He entered Holy
Orders and was appointed Archdeacon of Natal, in which colony
he laboured successfully for some years among the Zulus.  Coming
home, he was selected as the leader of the Universities Mission
to Central Africa and was afterwards consecrated at Cape Town
as the first Bishop of Central Africa.  He subsequently proceeded
to the Zambesi River, where, acting in concert with Dr Livingstone,
he succeeded in liberating a large number of slaves from the
hands of the drivers who were conducting them to the coast, and
some of these liberated slaves formed the nucleus of the Bishop's
first settlement at Magomero.  While descending the River Ruo to
meet Dr Livingstone, Bishop Mackenzie's canoe was overturned and
his quinine lost.  A short sojourn on a swampy island brought
on a fever, to which he succumbed on the 31st of January, 1862,
without issue.  His Life has been written by his friend, Dr
Goodwin, Bishop of Carlisle.

10.  Elizabeth, who married George Dundas of Ochtertyre, Advocate,
a Judge of the Scottish Bench by the title of Lord Manor, with
issue - (1) James, V.C., Captain in the Royal Engineers.  He obtained
the Victoria Cross for conspicuous gallantry during the expedition
to Bhotan, and died at Cabul, in 1879, unmarried; (2) Colin Mackenzie
of Ochtertyre, Commander Royal Navy, twin brother of James.  He
married Agnes, daughter of Samuel Wauchope, C.B., and sister of
Mrs Mackenzie, Portmore, with issue - James Colin, and David John
Wauchope; (3) George Ralph, who died unmarried; (4) William John,
a W.S. in Edinburgh; (5) David, Advocate in Edinburgh, who married
Helen, daughter of David Wauchope; (6) Elizabeth Christian; (7)
Mary Frances; (8) Helen Anne; and (9) Katharine.

11.  Anne, who accompanied her brother Charles to Natal, where she
remained with him during the whole period of his ministry there.
She afterwards followed him to Central Africa, but hearing of his
death whilst ascending the Zambezi River, she returned to England,
when she started and edited a monthly missionary periodical,
entitled "The Net."  By this, and through her own unaided efforts,
she was the means of inaugurating the Memorial Mission to Zululand
(in memory of her brother) of which the Bishop of Zululand is the
head.  She was the author of a Life of Henrietta Robertson, wife
of the Chaplain of the garrison of Fort-Etchowe; and other works.
She died in 1877, unmarried.

12.  Katharine, who died unmarried on the 20th of March, 1832.

13.  Jane, died unmarried on the 13th of February, 1820.

14.  Louisa, who married William Wilson, C.A., and died on the
20th of January, 1866, without issue.

15.  Alice, who married the Venerable C. S. Grubb, late Archdeacon
of Natal and now Vicar of Mentmore, with issue - Sarah Louisa and
Constance Ann.

Colin died on the 16th of September, 1830, and was succeeded by his
eldest surviving son,

III.  WILLIAM  FORBES  MACKENZIE, who, born on the 18th of  April,
1807, was for many years M.P. for the County of Peebles, and
afterwards for Liverpool.  He was a Lord of the Treasury in Lord
Derby's Government, and is chiefly known as the author of the
"Forbes Mackenzie Act."  He married, on the 16th of March, 1830,
Anne, daughter of Sir James Montgomery of Stanhope, Baronet, by
Lady Elizabeth Douglas, daughter of Dunbar, fourth Earl of Selkirk,
with issue -

1.  Colin James, his heir and successor.

2.  Elizabeth Helen, who died in her ninth year.

William died on the 24th of December, 1862, and was succeeded  by
his only son,

IV.  COLIN  JAMES  MACKENZIE, late of the Bengal Civil Service,
now of Portmore, and Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Peebles.
He was born on the 19th of February, 1835, and married, in 1870,
Katharine Alice, daughter of Samuel Wauchope, C.B., Niddry Marischal,
Midlothian, late of the Bengal Civil Service, with issue -

1.  A son who died young, 26th of September, 1871.

2.  Colin Charles Forbes, born 7th of December, 1879.

3.  John Montalien Hay, born 17th of August, 1885.

4.  Francis Victor Hamilton.

5.  Helen Alice, who died in her 6th year.

6.  Evelyn Mary Hay.

7.  Katharine Maud.

8.  Dorothy Anne Lucy.

9.  Cecil Louise.

10.  Esme Valentine.

11.  Ruth Eleonara, died young.

12.  Rachael Octavia.

13.  Winifred Kersey.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  MOUNTGERALD.

I.  COLIN  MACKENZIE, first of Mountgerald, was the second surviving
son of Kenneth Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch, by his third wife,
Janet, daughter of John Cuthbert of Castlehill, Inverness.  He
was a Lieutenant in the Scotch Fusilier Guards, and fought at
the battle of Stenkirk, after which he retired from the army,
purchased the estate of Mountgerald and, in 1726, built Woodlands
House.  He married, first, Margaret, widow of Roderick Mackenzie
of Findon, daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, I. of  Ballone, without
issue.  He married, secondly, Katharine, daughter of James Fraser
of Achnagairn (marriage contract 1721), with issue -

1.  James, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, who died, without issue, in 1725.

3.  Kenneth, who died in 1727, withoutissue.

4.  Colin, who succeeded his brother James.

5.  Isabel, who married Sir Lewis Mackenzie, VI. and third Baronet
of Scatwell, with issue.

6.  Anne, who married Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Lochend, with
issue.

Colin died in 1727, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  JAMES  MACKENZIE, second of Mountgerald, who has a  sasine as
eldest son dated 15th of April, 1732.  He died withoutissue, and
was succeeded by his eldest surviving brother,

III.  MAJOR  COLIN  MACKENZIE, third of Mountgerald, who in 1759,
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Roderick Mackenzie, V. and
second Baronet of Scatwell, with issue, an only son,

IV.  MAJOR  COLIN  MACKENZIE, fourth of Mountgerald, who, in 1795,
married Emilia, daughter of Colonel James Fraser of Belladrum
with issue -

1.  Colin, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, who succeeded his brother Colin.

3.  Simon  Fraser, who succeeded his brother Alexander.

4.  Hannah, who died unmarried.

5.  Mary, who died unmarried.

6.  Eliza, who married, first, David Dick, of Glenshiel.

7.  Isabella, who married Archibald Dick, with issue.

8.  Sarah, who died unmarried.

9.  Jemima, who died unmarried.

Major Colin died in 1824, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

V.  COLIN  MACKENZIE, fifth of Mountgerald, who died, in Jamaica
without issue, when he was succeeded by his next brother,

VI.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, sixth of Mountgerald, who also died
without issue, and was succeeded by his next brother,

VII.  SIMON  FRASER  MACKENZIE, seventh of Mountgerald,
a  Lieutenant-Colonel in the Madras Cavalry.  He married, first,
a daughter of Colonel Pendergast, with issue - an only daughter,
Mary.  He married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of General Stewart
without issue.  In 1855, he sold Mountgerald to Lewis Mark Mackenzie
of Findon, who died unmarried in 1856.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  DAILUAINE.

THIS family is descended from Hector Mackenzie, Portioner of
Mellan, third son of Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, by his
first wife, Margaret, daughter of Roderick Mor Mackenzie, I. of
Redcastle, by Florence, daughter of Robert Munro, XV of Fowlis.
Hector, who was a Cornet in Sir George Munro's Regiment, married
a daughter of Donald Maciver, of whose issue "a small tribe in
Gairloch."  [Gairloch MS.  Hector, his three sons - John, Murdoch,
and Duncan - and a grandson, Kenneth, are referred to by name in
the Records of the Presbytery of Dingwall under date of 6th August,
1678.]  That Mellan Charles was not a permanent possession of
any member of the Gairloch family is obvious from the fact that
another Hector, the second son, by the second marriage, of John
Roy Mackenzie, IV. of Gairloch, and uncle of Hector, third son of
Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, of whose descendants we now
treat, occupied it in the preceding generation, and from the further
fact that Charles Mackenzie, I. of Letterewe, eldest son by his
third marriage of Kenneth Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch, who would
come of age about 1670, is described as "of Mellan," which he
possessed along with Loggie-Wester, until he exchanged both places
with his eldest half-brother, Alexander Mackenzie, VII. of Gairloch,
in 1696.

The sons of Hector, Portioner of Mellan, joined in the Rising
of 1715, and on that account found it necessary to leave their
native county, crossing in an open boat from the Black Isle to the
town of Nairn, from which they naturally found their way to the
neighbourhood of their kinsmen in the upper districts of Morayshire
and Inverness-shire, a place in which several of their relatives
held influential positions in the Episcopal Church, and in other
situations.  The Rev. Murdoch  Mackenzie, Hector's second cousin,
descended from John Glassich Mackenzie, II. of  Gairloch, and
Episcopal minister successively of Contin, Inverness, and Elgin,
had only very recently, in 1677, been transferred from the Bishopric
of Moray to that of  Orkney, while several of his near relations
were still in the district, among them the Rev. Hector Mackenzie,
the Bishop's nephew, and third cousin of Hector's son John, who
was minister of  Kingussie from 1670 until he was translated to
Inverness in 1688.  There were also several intermarriages between
them and the families of Grant of Freuchy and Grant of Easter
Elchies and Edenvillie.  Some of Hector's sons are found not many
years after in the Strathspey district, John, the eldest, having
two farms on the estate of Edenvillie, in the parish of Aberlour.
Hector of Mellan's descendants continued Episcopalians for some
time after settling there.

I.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, Portioner of Mellan, son of Alexander
Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, married a daughter of Donald MacIver,
Lochbroom, with issue -

1.  John, who engaged in the Rising of 1715.

2.  Murdoch, married, and had a son Kenneth.

3.  Duncan, of whom there is no further trace.

4.  Mary, who married her cousin, Alastair Mor, son of Alexander
Cam Mackenzie, fourth son of Alexander, V. of Gairloch, with issue.

Hector was succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest
son,

II  JOHN  MACKENZIE, the first of the family who settled in
Aberlour.  He married  Margaret Mackenzie, a relative of his own,
died on the 9th of August, 1772, and was buried at Aberlour, leaving
issue - an  only son,

III.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, who, on the 5th of May, 1721, married
Elspet Stronach, with issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  John, born 7th April, 1728, and died without issue.

3.  Alexander, who was born on the 28th of February, 1731, and
died without issue.

4.  Margaret, who died without issue.

On the 3rd of June, 1723, it is recorded in the Session Records
of the parish of Aberlour, that "Hector Mackenzie, in Netherton
of Edenvillie, gave in a boll of meal, which his deceased father
had appointed to be distributed among the poor of the parish."

Hector died on the 9th of March, 1732, was buried at Aberlour, and
succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest son,

IV.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, who was born on the 26th of March, 1725.
He left Edenvillie, and settled at Lyne of Carron, and in 1763
married Grizzel Dean, Knockando, with issue -

1.  John, who was born on the 28th of February, 1764, and died
without issue, in 1838.

2.  William, born on the 2nd of March, 1769, and married, with
issue - one daughter, Grace.

3.  James, born 26th of May, 1771, and died in 1783.

4.  Alexander, born on the 7th of January, 1774, and died in France,
without issue.

5.  Thomas, who on the death of his eldest brother, John, in 1838,
became the representative of the family.

6.  Hector, born on the 8th of May, 1778, and died in 1814, without
issue.

7.  James, a clergyman, born on the 26th of September, 1785, and
died without issue, in 1811.

8.  Elspet, who married John MacConnachie, Tombain, with issue.

9.  Margaret, who died without issue, in 1812.

William died in June, 1813, at Lyne of Carron, was buried at Aberlour,
and succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest son,

V.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, who died without issue in 1838, when  he was
succeeded as representative of the family by his eldest surviving
brother,

VI.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE, who was born on the 12th of April, 1776,
and married on the 26th of July, 1821, Ann Grant, great-grand-daughter
of Ludovick Grant, grandson of Sir John Grant of Freuchy, with
issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  John, born on the 18th of November, 1823.  He is unmarried.

3.  Grace, married John Shand, Rinnachat, without issue.

4.  Penuel, who married Patrick Shaw, Benstaak, with issue - several
sons and daughters.

5.  Margaret, unmarried.

Thomas died at Lyne of Carron, on the 5th of February, 1861, aged
85, when he was succeeded as representative of the family by his
eldest son,

VII.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, who was born on the 3rd of May, 1822.
He founded the Distillery of Dailuaine in 1851, one of the most
extensive malt distilleries in Scotland.  He married on the 5th of
October, 1844, Jean, daughter of William Thomson, Knockando, with
issue -

1.  John, born on the 28th of July, 1845.  He was drowned at sea,
without issue.

2.  William, born on the 9th of October, 1846.  He went to the West
Indies and died there unmarried, on the 10th of December, 1893, at
Paramaribo, Surinam.

3.  Thomas, who succeeded his father in Dailuaine.

4.  Alexander, who was born on the 11th of July, 1851.  He is in
South Africa, and still unmarried.

5.  William Grant, born on the 21st of June, 1859, and still
unmarried.

6.  Lewis Grant, born on the 10th of January, 1862.  He went to
California, and is still unmarried.

7.  Ann.

8.  Jane.

9.  Margaret.

10.  Grace Penuel, who married Dr Robert Cochrane Buist, Dundee,
with issue - a son and daughter.

11.  Mary Forbes.

William died at Dailuaine, on the 17th of May, 1865, and was
succeeded there by his son,

VIII.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE, now of Dailuaine, and since the death
of his elder brother William in December, 1893, heir-male of the
family.  Born on the 18th of March, 1848, he on the 30th of October,
1877, married Emily, daughter of Edwin Holt of Rosehill, Worcestershire.


SLIOCHD  ALASTAIR  CHAIM.

THE progenitor of this family, not one of whom so far as known ever
owned an acre of land until now, was

I.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fourth  son of Alexander Mackenzie,
V. of Gairloch, by his wife Margaret, daughter of Roderick Mor
Mackenzie, I. of Redcastle, by his wife Florence, daughter of Robert
Munro, XVth Baron of Fowlis.  Alexander, like his brother Hector,
was a  Cornet in Sir George Munro's Regiment, and according to
one of the Gairloch manuscript Histories was "an officer under
Cromwell, whom he afterwards left, and was wounded on the King's
side at the battle of  Worcester, leaving a succession in Gairloch
by his wife Janet, daughter of Mackenzie of Ord."  He lost an eye
at Worcester, and was consequently ever after known Alastair Cam.
His descendants are still numerous in Gairloch, where, having had
no land to be designated of, they were always known as "Sliochd
Alastair Chaim" or "The descendants of Alexander the One-Eyed."
He married, in 1652, Janet, third daughter of John Mackenzie, I.
of Ord, [The marriage contract is dated "at Chanonrie, the 21st
of July and 26th of August, 1652," the year after the Battle of
Worcester, and is in the Ord charter chest.] by his wife Isobel,
daughter of Alexander Cuthbert of Drakies, Inverness, with issue -

1.  Roderick, his heir.

2.  Alexander, commonly  called "Alastair Mor Mac Alastair Chaim,"
from whom are descended, among several others in Gairloch, the
late John Mackenzie of the "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry," and Alexander
Mackenzie, the author of this History.  ALEXANDER  married his
cousin, Mary, daughter of Hector Mackenzie, "Portioner of Mellan,"
with issue - John Mackenzie, locally known as "Ian Mor Mac Alastair
Mhic Alastair Chaim."  JOHN  MOR  married Barbara, daughter of
John Roy Mackenzie, of Sand.  He had a tack from Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, second Baronet and IX. of Gairloch, of the half of
North Erradale, in 1760, for twenty years, to begin at Whit-sunday,
1765, and he is described in the lease as then in possession
(see pp. 483-84).  By his wife he had issue - seven sons, known as
"Clann Ian Mhoir," said to have been the biggest and most powerful
men in Gairloch in their day - (1)  JOHN,  "Ian Mor Aireach," who
succeeded his father in a portion of North Erradale, and married
Marsali, or Marjory, daughter of John Ban Mackenzie, Isle of
Ewe,  by his wife, Annabella, natural  daughter of Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, second Baronet and IX.  of Gairloch.  By Marsali Mackenzie,
"Ian Mor Aireach" had issue - four sons, Duncan, Murdoch, John Mor
Og, and William, and two daughters - Annabella, who married her
cousin  four times removed, Alexander Mackenzie, Melvaig, the
male representative of Alastair Cam, with issue; and Margaret,
who married John Mackenzie, also in Melvaig, with issue - several
sons and daughters.  The sons were also married and left numerous
descendants in Gairloch.  Ian Mor Mac Alastair's other sons were
(2) Alexander, who died unmarried; (3) Roderick, who married,
with issue; (4) Colin, married, with issue; (5) Roderick Ban,
unmarried; (6) John Og; and (7) Kenneth, married, with issue.  JOHN
OG,  who was tacksman of Loch-a-Druing, married Jessie, daughter
of Miles Macrae, with issue, among  others - Alastair Og Mackenzie,
tacksman of Mellan Charles, who  married Margaret, daughter of
Alexander Mackenzie, of Badachro, with issue - James Mackenzie,
who died unmarried a few years ago, at Poolewe; John Mackenzie,
of the "Beauties of Gaelic Poetry" and several other works, who
died, unmarried in his father's house at Kirkton, in 1848, and
to whose memory a monument was erected in 1878, by a few of his
Celtic admirers on a projecting rock overlooking his grave in the
"Sliochd Alastair Chaim burying ground, within the ancient Chapel
in the Gairloch Churchyard.  Alastair Og had also several daughters,
married and unmarried, of whom three are still alive.

We shall now revert to Alastair Cam's eldest son, by Janet Mackenzie
of Ord -

I.  RODERICK  MACKENZIE, who married Isabella, daughter of  William
Mackenzie of Sand, with issue, among others, -

II.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, Melvaig, who married Mary,  daughter of
William Mackenzie, of the same place, with issue, along with  a
younger son Murdoch, -

III.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, also in Melvaig, who married Mary,
daughter of Hugh Morrison, Sand, with issue -

IV.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, designated, Highland fashion, as
"Alastair Mac Alastair, Mhic Eachainn, 'ic Alastair, 'ic Ruairidh,
Mhic Alastair Chaim Mac an Tighearna."  He married his third
cousin, Annabella, eldest daughter of John Mor Mackenzie, "Ian
Mor Aireach," great grandson of "Alastair Cam Mac an Tighearna,"
with issue, an only  son -

V.  HECTOR  MACKENZIE, born in April, 1810.  His father died
before Hector was a year old, and the widow soon after married,
as her second husband, Alexander, son of Alexander Grant, "Bard
mor an t-Slagain," with issue - three sons, Roderick, John, Duncan,
and Margaret, who subsequently emigrated with their father and
mother to Cape Breton, where they settled, married, and have large
families, and another daughter, Janet, who married and remained
in Gairloch.  His father left Hector what was considered a
substantial sum of money for those day's, in the hands of Murdo
Mackenzie, tacksman of Melvaig, one of the original Sand family,
and a near relative of Gairloch, but he never received a penny of
it.  He was thus left a penniless orphan and was obliged to fight
his way in the world as best he could as an honest, industrious,
and respected crofter and fisherman.  He married on the 17th of
February, 1838, Catherine, daughter of Roderick, eldest son of
Alexander Campbell, "Alastair Buidhe Mac Iomhair," the well-known
Gairloch Gaelic Bard, by his wife Catherine, daughter of Roderick,
son of William Mackenzie of Shieldaig, a cadet of the Gairloch
family.  By his wife Catherine Campbell (who died at Inverness on
the 20th of January, 1882, and was buried at Gairloch), or more
correctly MacIver (the family having only discarded the older
and better name and adopted the new within living memory), Hector
Mackenzie, who is still alive in his 84th year, had issue -

1.  Alexander, of Park House, Inverness, who was born on Christmas
Day, 1838.  He was for seventeen years an active member of the
Town Council and a Police Commissioner of Inverness four years
Dean of Guild and a Magistrate of the Burgh, as well as a
Commissioner of Supply and Justice of Peace for the County.  He
was also a member of the first Inverness County Council, and took
a prominent part in its proceedings.  In 1875 he founded the
"Celtic Magazine," which he owned and conducted for thirteen years
until it was incorporated with the "Scottish Highlander" newspaper
in 1888.  In 1885 he started the "Scottish Highlander," which he has
managed and edited since, and which now, though still nominally
carried on as a Limited Liability Company, is practically his own
property.  He is the author of several Clan histories - that of
the Mackenzies, the first edition of which appeared in 1879; of
the Macdonalds, in 1881; of the Mathesons, in 1882; of the Camerons,
in 1884; of the Macleods, in 1889; and of the Chisholms, in 1891.
He is also the author of The History of the Highland Clearances,"
which created quite a sensation when it appeared; of the "Social
State of the Isle of Skye;" the "Prophecies of the Brahan Seer;" and
of several other  minor works.  He married, on the 3rd of August,
1865, Emma Sarah Rose (author of Tales of the Heather) only surviving
daughter of Thomas Whittaker Rose, Henrietta Park Villas, Bath
(still living in his eighty-sixth year), by his first wife Sarah
Cole, with issue - Hector Rose Mackenzie, solicitor, Inverness,
who was born in Ipswich, on the 25th of February, 1867, and married
on the 19th of July, 1892, Barbara Sutherland, elder surviving
daughter of John Anderson, late of the 71st Regiment of Foot
(The Highland Light Infantry); Thomas William, born in Inverness
on the 4th of August, 1875; Alastair Ian, born on the 30th of
December, 1880; Kenneth John, born on the 17th of October, 1885;
Catharine Anne, born on the 24th of February, 1868, died on the
1st of August in the same year, and buried in Ipswich Cemetery;
Annie Emma; Catharine, who died in infancy in 1873; Mary Rose;
and Emma Barabel.

2.  Roderick, born on the 13th of July, 1844, a member of the
firm of William Cumming & Co., wholesale woollen warehousemen,
Huddersfield, but residing in London.  He married, first, on the
18th of January, 1871, Julia Catherine, eldest daughter of Thomas
Lewis shipowner, Sunderland, with issue - William Frank, who was
born on the 6th of October, 1874; Hector Dundas, born on the 22nd
of July, 1876; Catherine Louisa, who died in her thirteenth year,
on the 11th of July, 1884, while on a holiday visit, at Inverness;
Ellen Maria; and Mary Josephine.  His first wife having died on
the 14th of June, 1881, Roderick married, secondly, on the 18th
of December, 1889, Mary Lang, daughter of John Sandford, Cambuslang.

3.  William, clothier, Inverness, born on the 12th of November,
1846, and married on the 16th of July, 1873, Annabella Bertrude,
daughter of Alexander Grant, tacks-man of Easter Gallovie,
Strathspey, with issue - Alexander Roderick, C.E., born on the
17th of May, 1874; Hector Donald Grant, born on the 20th of June,
1875; William John Macintyre, born on the 18th of January, 1877;
James Grant, born on the 20th of June, 1878, died on the 23rd of
September, 1889;  Arthur Henderson, born on the 9th of February,
1880; Allan Campbell, born on the 19th of April, 1881; Eneas
Kenneth, born on the 9th of March, 1883; Andrew Duncan, born on
the 7th of January, 1885, died on the 2nd of May, 1888; Harry
Macpherson, born on the 28th of October, 1887; Douglas Mitchell,
born on the 19th of February, 1890; and Ella May, born on the
21st of June, 1886, and died on the 24th, three days after.

4.  Another Alexander, who served for twelve years in the 2nd
Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys) in which he was Troop Sergeant-Major,
and subsequently went abroad.

5.  Catherine, who married John Fraser, shipowner, Inverness,
without issue.

6.  Mary, who married Alexander Fraser, and resides in Cheltenham,
with issue - Hector Alexander John, born on the 4th of May, 1883;
Catherine Campbell; and Lily Mary.

7.  Annabella, who married George Mackenzie, draper, Ipswich,
afterwards at Nairn and Inverness with issue - William Hector, born
on the 9th of January, 1877 Alastair, born on the 5th of March,
1878; George John, born on the 14th of April, 1884; Marion;
and Catherine Campbell, who died in infancy.  Annabella died at
Edinburgh on the 9th of May, 1888, and is buried there.

This is the lease, with its miscellaneous rent, curious and
antiquated conditions, referred to at page 479 -

I, Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Gairloch, Baronet, heritable proprietor
of the lands and others under-written with the pertinents, do
hereby set and in tack and assedation for the full space of twenty
years, lets to John Mackenzie, tacksman of the equal half of the
quarter lands of Erradale-a-phris, or North Erradale, all and
whole the said possession as presently occupied by him, with all
the shielings, mosses, moors, biggings and universal pertinents
thereof, all lying within the parish of Gairloch and Sheriffdom
of Ross.  To him and his lawful heirs whatsoever, to he occupied
and "brooked" by them during the foresaid space of twenty
years, without any hindrance or breach of tack whatever; and it
is hereby provided, nothwithstanding the date hereof, that this
tack commences directly at the term of Whitsunday in the year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty-five years, and
to continue thereafter, aye and until the number of twenty years
complete be expired, and I, the above-named Sir Alexander, do
hereby bind and oblige me, my heirs, and successors, to make this
tack good, valid, and sufficient to the effect foresaid at all
hands and against all deadly, as law will, - For the which cause,
and on the other part, the said John Mackenzie by his acceptance
hereof binds himself, his heirs, and successors, to pay to me,
the above Sir Alexander, and my successors, or our factors having
proper powers thereanent, as a yearly rent furth of the said equal
half of the quarter lands of Erradale foresaid all and whole the
sum of one hundred and thirty-one marks and a half Scots money two
marks three shillings and fourpence money foresaid, crown rent;
ten marks ten shillings and eight pence in lieu of peats, or as
the same shall reasonably be from time to time regulated by the
proprietor a mark of cruive money, twenty marks money foresaid
of stipend, or as the same shall happen to be settled 'twixt the
landlord and minister; two long carriages, two custom wedders,
a fed kid, a stone of cheese, and half a stone weight of butter;
eight hens, or as usual eight men yearly at their own expense to
shear corn or cut hay a davoch of ploughing, and four horses for
mucking.  The above John also obliges himself and his foresaids
to attend road duty yearly four days, with all his servants and
sub-tenants, or pay a yearly capitation optional to the landlord
during this lease under breach of tack, and to sell all the cod
and ling that shall be caught by him and his foresaids at the
current prices to our order and to dispose of all his marketable
cattle to our drover at reasonable rates, also under breach of
tack and further the above John and his successors are, by their
acceptance hereof, become bound to pay to me, the above Sir
Alexander Mackenzie and my foresaids, in the way of a grassum at
the term of Whitsunday, one thousand seven hundred and sixty-five
years foresaid, all and whole the sum of two hundred and fifty
marks Scots money, and the like sum at the end of every five
years of this tack, making in all the sum of one thousand marks
Scots money; and both parties become hereby bound to fulfil the
premises to one another "hinc inde" under the failure or penalty of
ten pounds sterling to be paid by the party failing to the party
performing, or willing to perform, his or their part and for the
more security I consent that these presents be registered for
conservation in the Books of Council and Session, that letters
of horning and all needful executions may pass hereon in form
as effeirs and thereto constitute our procurators.  In testimony
of which these presents, consisting of this and the former two
pages of stamped paper are written and duly signed by me, Sir
Alexander Mackenzie of Gairloch, at Flowerdale, this fifth day
of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred
and sixty years.

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  BELMADUTHY.

I.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, first of Belmaduthy, was the eldest son of
Alexander Mackenzie, V. of Gairloch, by his second wife, Isabel,
eldest daughter of Alexander Mackenzie, natural son of Colin Cam,
XI. of Kintail, and progenitor of the families of Applecross and
Coul.  He married Mary, daughter of James Cuthbert of Alterlies
and Easter Drakies, Inverness (sasine of the lands to them in
1657) with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  Isabel, who married John Munro of Fayres.

3.  Catherine, who, as his second wife, married Alexander Mackenzie,
IV. of Loggie and Inchcoulter, without issue.

4.  Janet, who in 1679, as his second wife, married her cousin,
Alexander Mackenzie, VII. of Gairloch, with issue.

5.  Jean, who married Hugh Baillie of Kinmylies, Sheriff-Clerk of
Ross.

6.  Mary, who married Murdoch Mackenzie of Sand.

William and his wife died in the same week at Belmaduthy, in 1658,
and were buried at Chanonry, when he was succeeded by his only son,

II.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, second of Belmaduthy, who married
Catherine, eldest daughter by the second marriage of Sir Kenneth
Mackenzie, Baronet, I. of Coul (sasine 1693), with issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth, who became first of Pitlundie.

3.  George, who got Culbo (sasine to him in 1721), and married
Mary, daughter of Alexander Forrester of Cullenauld, with
issue--Isabel, who married Fraser of Achnagairn; Anne, who married
Dr John Mackenzie and Catherine, who, in 1713, married, as his
first wife, John Mackenzie, III. of Gruinard, with issue - his
heir and successor.  George, who died in 1765, having left no male
issue, his nephew, William  Mackenzie, II. of Pitlundie, succeeded
to Culbo.

4.  Anna, who married Alexander Mackenzie, M.D., eldest son of
Bernard Mackenzie of Sandylands, on record in 1707.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

III.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, third of Belmaduthy, who married  first,
Margaret, daughter of Alexander Rose of Clava (sasine to her in
1717), with issue -

1.  John, his heir and successor.

2.  George, M.D. in the Queen's Dragoons, who died unmarried.

3.  Hugh, a merchant in Fortrose, who died unmarried.

4.  Alexander, who commanded a ship in the Guinea trade, and died
unmarried.

5.  Catharine, who married William Tolmie, merchant, Fortrose.

6.  Elizabeth, who married John Matheson of Bennetsfield.

7.  Jean, who married Simon Mackenzie, first of Scotsburn, with
issue.

8.  Isabel, who married Lieutenant William Mackenzie, of the 77th
Regiment (Montgomery's Highlanders.)  He was killed at Fort du
Quesne in 1759.

William married, secondly, Elizabeth (who died in 1772), daughter
of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, first Baronet and IV. of Scatwell, with
issue -

9.  Kenneth, M.D., who practised at Reading.

10.  Roderick, first of Flowerburn, of whom presently.

11.  Lilias, who married Roderick Macleod, II. of Cadboll, with
issue - his heir and successor.

12.  A daughter, who married Fraser of Culduthel.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, fourth of Belmaduthy, who married Rebecca,
daughter of John Mackenzie, I. of Delvine, with issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  John, who died young.

3.  Kenneth, a merchant at Patna, who married a Miss Mackenzie,
in the East Indies.

4.  Margaret, who died unmarried.

5.  Rebecca, who married John Aird, merchant, London.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

V.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, fifth of Belmaduthy, Advocate.  He married
Maria, daughter of John Lancaster, of Cambridge, with issue -

1.  John, his heir and successor.

2.  William, who married Miss Hay, Huntingdon, without issue.

3.  George, who married Miss Lynch, without issue.

4.  Cecilia;  5.  Maria;  6.  Rebecca, all unmarried.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI.  JOHN  MACKENZIE, sixth of Belmaduthy, who married Margaret
Hay, Huntingdon, with issue -

1.  John Kenneth;  2.  Anna Maria;  and 3.  Catherine.  The present
representation of the family is unknown.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  PITLUNDIE  AND  CULBO.

I.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, first of Pitlundie, was the second son of
Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Belmaduthy, by his wife, Catherine,
daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, Baronet, I. of Coul.  He married
Anne, daughter of Hector Mackenzie of Bishop-Kinkell, second son
of Alexander Mackenzie, VI. of Gairloch, by his wife, Ann, daughter
of Sir John Grant of Grant by Ann Ogilvy, daughter of the Earl of
Findlater, with  issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Margaret, who, on the 9th of September, 1728, as his second
wife, married John Matheson, first of Attadale, ancestor of Sir
Kenneth James Matheson, Baronet of Lochalsh and Ardross.

Kenneth was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  WILLIAM MACKENZIE, second of Pitlundie and first of Culbo,
succeeding to the latter as heir-male of his uncle George.  He
married a daughter of George Mackenzie of Inchcoulter, with
issue -

1.  George, his heir and successor.

2.  William, of whom there is no trace.

3.  A daughter, who married Alexander Mackenzie of Cleanwaters.

4.  Anne, who married Roderick Mackenzie of Achvannie, with issue.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

III.  GEORGE  MACKENZIE, third  of Pitlundie and second of Culbo,
Sheriff-Substitute of Ross.  He married Anne, daughter of Alexander
Mackenzie, VIII. of Davochmaluag, with issue -

1.  William, his heir and successor.

2.  Alexander, who died unmarried.

3.  Captain Kenneth, of the H.E.I.C.S., who was killed at Java, in
1811, unmarried.

4.  Major Duncan Henry of the Madras Horse Artillery, who married
Mary, daughter of Lachlan Mackinnon of Corry, Isle of Skye, with
issue - George William Mackinnon, who died unmarried, and
Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Mackinnon of the Madras Army, who died
unmarried.  Major Duncan died in 1834.

5.  George of Drynie, a solicitor in Dingwall.  He married Catherine,
daughter of John Macrae, Sheriff of Dingwall, with issue - John, a
surgeon in the Madras Army, who died unmarried in 1872; the Rev.
George William, English Chaplain at Frankfort, who married Fanny
Taylor; Charles, who died unmarried; Duncan Anne, who married Thomas
Ballantine, with issue - a daughter; Elizabeth Proby, who married
the Rev. W. Hutchins, Vicar of Louth, Lincolnshire, with issue;
Isabella, who married the Rev. William Baden Powell, Vicar of
Newick, Sussex; and Margaret, unmarried.  The last-named three
daughters are now dead and their father, George of Drynie, died
in 1865.

6.  John, a solicitor in Tam.  He married Christian, daughter of
Captain Kenneth Mackenzie, of Kerrisdale, third son of Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, third Baronet and N. of Gairloch, with issue - George,
who died young; and Kenneth, who died unmarried.   John died in
1852.

7.  Mary Proby, who married James Macdonell, W.S., without issue.

8.  Elizabeth, who married Thomas Simpson, son of the minister of
Avoch, with issue - two sons and two daughters, all dead.

9.  Anne, who died unmarried.

George died in 1802 (his wife dying in 1832), and was succeeded
by his eldest son,

IV.  WILLIAM  MACKENZIE, M.D., of the H.E.I.C.S., fourth of
Pitlundie and third of Culbo.  He married Margaret (who died in
1841),  daughter of Thomas Allan, with issue -

1.  George Kenneth, who died young.

2.  William Ord, M.D., Deputy-Inspector-General of Army Hospitals,
who became his father's heir.

3.  Thomas Allan, Major 3d Light Cavalry, Bombay, who married
Clara, daughter of J. Birdwood, judge, Bombay Civil Service, with
issue - William, who died unmarried; and Allan Stanley, who died
young.  He died in 1856.

4.  Duncan Proby, who married Cecilia Margaret, daughter of William
Dudgeon, Edinburgh, with issue - three sons and four daughters.  He
died in 1884.

5.  George Richard, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas
Scott, W.S., Edinburgh.

6.  Robert Cleghorn, who married Ellen Maria, daughter of Colonel
Flexman, Tasmania with issue - two daughters.  He died in 1866.

7.  Agnes Helen, who married Charles Garstin, of the Bengal Civil
Service with issue - William Edmund, Under Secretary for State
at Cairo, who married Mary Isabel North, London; Alfred Allan,
Lieutenant-Colonel 77th Regiment; Helen Julia; Alice Margaret;
and Mary Annette, who married the Rev. Gordon Crowdy, Sherfield
Rectory, Basingstoke.  Agnes Helen died in 1871.

8.  Margaret Anne, who died young.

William sold the estate of Pitlundie in 1805 to Graham of Drynie.

He died in 1866, and was succeeded in Culbo by his eldest surviving
son,

V.  WILLIAM  ORD  MACKENZIE, now of Culbo, M.D., Deputy-Inspector-General
of Army Hospitals.  He married Mary Susan, daughter of the late
Henry Holmes, London, with issue -

1.  Montague Allan-Ord, who married Frances Gordon, daughter of
the Rev. James Rennie, Glasgow.

2.  William Henry Allan-Ord, who married Constance Jane, daughter
of Thomas Llewellyn, Shelton, Staffordshire.

3.  Stuart Allan-Ord, who married Isabel, daughter of Edward B.
Cargill, of the Cliffs, Dunedin, New Zealand.

4.  Edith Allan-Holmes.

5.  Gertrude Helen Allan-Holmes, who married Edwin Claud Porter
Scott, of Hampstead.

6.  Margaret Douglas Allan-Holmes.

7.  Mary Susan Allan-Holmes, who died young.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  FLOWERBURN.


I.  RODERICK MACKENZIE, first of Flowerburn, was second son of
William, III. of Belmaduthy, by his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter
of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, IV. of Scatwell, Bart.  He married Grace,
daughter of Alexander Mackenzie of Inchcoulter, with issue -

II.  An only daughter, second of Flowerburn, who married a Mr
Kilgour.  She succeeded to the estate, and may be called second of
Flowerburn.  She had issue -

1.  Roderick Kilgour, her heir.

2.  Elizabeth Townsend.

She was succeeded by her only son,

III.  RODERICK  KILGOUR-MACKENZIE, third of Flowerburn.  He assumed
the name of Mackenzie.  He married Anne, second daughter of John
Grant of Glenmoriston, and died in 1812, leaving an only son,

IV.  RODERICK  MACKENZIE, fourth of Flowerburn, who married Harriet,
daughter of Colonel Grogan of Seafield, County of Dublin, with
issue -

1.  Roderick Grogan, his heir and successor.

2.  Elma, who married Major John Macdonald Smith, Madras Staff
Corps, with issue.

3.  Georgina Adelaide, who married Major Roderick Mackenzie, VIII.
of Kincraig, and died in 1889.

He was succeeded on his death in 1848, by his only son,

V.  RODERICK  GROGAN  MACKENZIE, fifth of Flowerburn.

He was born in 1844, was a Cornet in the 16th Lancers, and for many
years afterwards an officer in the Highland Rifle (Ross-shire)
Militia, in which, at his death he held the rank of Colonel.  He
married on the 22nd of February, 1872, Eva Mary Marjory Erskine,
third daughter of Sir Evan Mackenzie of Kilcoy, Baronet, with
issue - Eva Georgina Lillie, and Alice Maude Harriet.  He died on
the 13th of October, 1892, and was succeeded as representative of
the family by his eldest daughter,

VI.  EVA  GEORGINA  LILLIE  MACKENZIE, who came of age in 1893.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  GROUNDWATER.

THIS family is descended from Alastair Roy Mackenzie, a natural
son of John Glassich Mackenzie, II. of Gairloch.

ALEXANDER  ROY  MACKENZIE married a daughter of John Roy MacRory,
with issue, among several others, a son, John Mackenzie, who
resided at Coirre-Mhic-Cromaill in Torridon, and a daughter Anne,
called in Gaelic "Anna bheag nam mac mora," who married John
Matheson of Fernaig, with issue - John Mor Matheson, who succeeded
who succeeded his father there and afterwards purchased Bennetsfield
in the Black Isle, County of Ross.

JOHN  MACKENZIE, son of Alastair Roy, married first, a daughter of
Hector Cam, natural son of Hector Roy, I. of Gairloch, with issue -

1.  Duncan "Mac Ean Mhic Allister," who married Helen, daughter
of Hector, son of Kenneth of Meikle Allan, son of Hector Roy,
apparently without issue.

2.  Murdoch, progenitor of this family.

3.  Alexander, who settled in Strathnaver, Sutherlandshire, with
issue - one son, the Rev. Hector Mackenzie, A.M., who was ordained
minister of Kingussie on the 30th of November, 1670, and remained
there until 1688, when he was translated to Inverness, and is
said to have been the last Episcopalian minister who officiated
as parish minister there.  He was married and had issue - four
sons, the Rev. James and Alexander, both ministers in Edinburgh;
James of Drumshiuch, M.D., and Fellow of the College of Physicians
of Edinburgh.  He practised in Worcester for many years with
great reputation and success.  He was elected Physician to the
Infirmary of that town in  1745, which once he held until he retired
from his profession in 1750.   He then settled in Kidderminster,
where he was living in 1751.  He was author of a medical work
of high repute in its day - "The History of Health and the Art of
Preserving It," first published in Edinburgh in  1758, followed by
new editions in 1759 and 1760.  He also wrote a volume of "Devout
Meditations" issued shortly before his death, in Scotland, so far
as known, without issue, and probably unmarried; also William,
who was a schoolmaster in Cromarty, afterwards lost on the Coast
of Guinea.

4.  Roderick "Mac Ean Mhic Allister," who lived in Lochbroom and
married a daughter of John Maciver there, with issue - one son.

5.  Donald "Mor Mac Ean Mhic Allister," who died without issue.

6.  John "Gearr Mac Ean Mhic Allister," unmarried at the date of
the Applecross manuscript in 1669.  John married, secondly, his
first cousin, a daughter of Hector Mackenzie, by an Assynt lady,
eldest son of Kenneth Mackenzie, first of Meikle Allan, now
Allangrange, second lawful son of Hector Roy Mackenzie, progenitor
of the family of Gairloch, with issue -

7.  Hector "Mac Ean Mhic Allister."  He married a daughter of Hector
Mackenzie of Mellan, with issue - one son.  He married, thirdly, a
daughter of William Mackenzie of Shieldaig, with issue -

8.  Donald "Og Mac Ean Mhic Allister," who was killed in the Scots
Army in England in 1645.

John was succeeded as representative of the family by his second
son,

I.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, who was born in 1600, and educated for the
ministry.  Referring to this Murdoch's cousin, John Mor Matheson
of Fernaig and subsequently of Bennetsfield, the author of the
"Iomaire" manuscript says, that John "was taken up" by the Bishop
of Moray, who resided at Kinkell (hence no doubt Bishop-Kinkell,
the name by which the place has since been known).  The Bishop
"kept him for some time at school and gave him 500 merks Scots to
traffic therewith.  After following the mercantile line for some
time, in which he was very successful, he began cattle dealing,
by which he became master of a good deal of money."  John, in
consequence cut out a career for himself.  His cousin, the Bishop,
pointed out to him the great source of wealth which might open to
him if he succeeded in driving some of the superfluous herds of
black cattle which at that time abounded in the Highlands to the
southern markets, and which were then of scarcely any value among
his own countrymen, but on the other hand often served as a strong
temptation to spoliations from their southern enemies, and deadly
feuds among themselves.  John Mor had the good sense to act on his
Rev. cousin's advice, and he soon amassed a sufficient fortune to
buy the estate of Bennetsfield and other lands, including Easter
Suddie, in the Black Isle,  County of Ross. [Mackenzie's "History
of the Mathesons," pp. 17-18.]

The Rev. Murdoch was Chaplain of Lord Reay's Regiment, in the army
of Gustavus Adolphus during the Bohemian and Swedish wars, and
subsequently minister of Contin and Inverness in succession.  He
was transferred from Inverness to Elgin, and while there was, in
1662, appointed Bishop of Moray, and afterwards of Orkney, arriving
at Kirkwall on the 28th of August, 1677, where he was the last to
occupy Earl Patrick Stewart's Palace, in which he died.  He married
Margaret, only daughter and heiress of Donald MacLey, Bailie of
Fortrose.  She died in 1676, and is buried in Elgin Cathedral.  He
died in 1688, and was interred in the Session House of St. Magnus
Cathedral, which bad been given to him as a burial place for
himself and his descendants, and used by them as such, until any
further interments in it were, some years ago, prohibited.  He
left issue by his wife -

1.  Sir Alexander Mackenzie of Broomhill (sasine in 1686), and
Pitarrow, in Kincardine.   He was Commissary of Inverness and
Sheriff of the Bishopric of Orkney, his father when appointing him
to the latter office describing him as "Mr Alexander Mackenzie,
Commissary of Inverness, my eldest lawful son."  In 1706 he appears
among the heritors of Caithness for the Nethertoun of Stroma in
the parish of Canisbay.    He is again on record in 1713, in which
year he disponed the Nethertoun of Stroma to his nephew, Murdoch
Kennedy, son of his sister Jane, and her husband, John Kennedy
of Carmunks.  Sir Alexander of Broomhill had an only son, Colonel
Alexander Mackenzie of Hampton, Virginia, who left his English
estates to his nephew, Andrew Young of Castleyards.

2.  George of Pitarrow, of whom nothing is known.

3.  William Mackenzie, Commissary of Orkney, who, in 1679, married
Margaret Stewart of Newark, with issue - Murdoch, born in 1680,
who was invited to become minister of the Episcopal Meeting House
of Kirkwall, but emigrated to New England in 1714, and a daughter
Margaret, who married Andrew Young of Castleyards, Kirkwall also
with issue - a daughter who married Riddoch of Cairston, Provost
of Kirkwall.

4.  The Rev. Thomas Mackenzie, minister of Shapinshay, Orkney.
He was born about 1652, and was appointed minister of Shapinshay
on the 5th of May, 1678.  On the 1st of May, 1679 he married
Elspet, daughter of James Blaikie of Burness with issue - Murdoch,
who succeeded his grandfather, the Bishop, as representative of
the family; James, N.P., who seems to have succeeded his brother
Murdoch; Alexander, of whom there is no trace; Thomas, of whom
also nothing is known; Sibella, who married William, second son of
George Traill of Quendale, with issue - Anna, who, in 1716, married
the Rev. James, Nisbet, Stromness; Margaret; and Anna.  The Rev.
Thomas Mackenzie died, aged 36 years, on the 7th of February,
1688, a few days before his father.

5.  Captain James, of the Dragoons, who married the Hon. Frances,
daughter of Andrew, eighth Lord Gray, with issue - a daughter,
Frances, who married a clergyman in England.

6.  David, who died young, before 1676, and is buried in Elgin
Cathedral.

7.  Jane, who, on the 15th of May, 1678, married her cousin, John
Kennedy of Carmunks, with issue - Murdoch, already referred to as
afterwards of Stroma.

8.  Mary, who, on the 4th of April, 1678, married George Balfour
of Faray.

9.  Jacobina, who settled in Dundee.

The male representation of Bishop Murdoch's three eldest sons -
Sir Alexander of Broomhill, George Mackenzie of Pitarrow,
and William Mackenzie, Commissary of Orkney - having failed, the
representation of the family devolved upon

II.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE, eldest son of the Rev. Thomas Mackenzie,
minister of Shapinshay.  Murdoch was master of the Grammar School
of Kirkwall, and was alive in November, 1739, a receipt given
by him in that month being still extant.  He appears to have died
unmarried when the representation of the family fell to his next
brother,

III.  JAMES  MACKENZIE, N.P., who, on the 14th of March, 1709,
married Marion, third daughter of Thomas Traill of Tirlet, with
issue -

1.  Thomas, merchant in Kirkwall, afterwards of Groundwater.

2.  Murdoch Mackenzie, of Minehead, Somersetshire, Hydropapher to
the Navy, and described in one of the Gairloch MSS., written by
James Mackenzie, a member of this family, as "Navigator to His
Majesty, known by his accurate surveys of the western coast of Great
Britain and Ireland, and whose abilities will render him famous to
posterity."  He went round the world with Captain Cook's second
expedition in 1772, died unmarried in London, and is buried at
Oxford.

3.  James, S.S.C., described in one of the Gairloch MSS. as "once
in the service of the Earl of Morton," in the Orkneys, author of a
treatise on "The General Grievances and Oppressions of the Isles
of Orkney and Shetland," and of another on Security.  He was himself
the author of this Gairloch MS.  He died unmarried in London about
1733.

IV.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE of Groundwater, who married Elizabeth,
daughter of the Rev. William Blaw, Westray, with issue -

1.  Murdoch, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth, who succeeded his brother Murdoch.

3.  Mary, married Thomas Balfour of Huip, with issue.

Thomas died before 1781, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

V.  MURDOCH  MACKENZIE of Groundwater, who married Miss Cox, and
died without issue, when he was succeeded by his brother,

VI.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, who married Anne Wolf, with issue -

1.  Thomas, who succeeded his father.

2.  Elizabeth, who married Louis Lavencie, London.

3.  Barbara, who, as his first wife, married Robert Hodson, London,
with issue.

4.  Mary, who married Richard Bray, London.

5.  Jane, who married John Cramer, London.

6.  Nancy, who died, unmarried, at Kirkwall, May, 1848.

Kenneth was succeeded by his only son,

VII.  CAPTAIN  THOMAS  MACKENZIE, of the H.E.I.C.S., who married
Elizabeth Ayton, London, with issue -

1.  Thomas, his heir and successor.

2.  Elizabeth Anne, who married, in 1831, Alexander Russell
Duguid, M.D., son of the  Rev. John Duguid, minister of Evie,
Orkney, with issue - (1) John, who was born on the 25th of March,
1838, and died unmarried, at Falmouth, on the 7th of October,
1865; (2) Alexander, born on the 26th of November, 1840, and died,
unmarried, at Peckham, London, on the 3rd of January, 1884; (3)
Thomas, born on the 4th of September, 1843, and died in London,
unmarried, on the 19th of May, 1874; (4) Elizabeth, who died in
childhood; (5) Jane, who married, first, on the 11th of September,
1855, Robert Heddle, second son of Robert Heddle of Melsetter,
with issue - Elizabeth, who died in infancy, in Toronto, Canada;
and James Alexander, who was born on the 21st of July, 1856, and
died at Kirkwall, unmarried, on the 25th of September, 1876.  Her
first husband, Robert Heddle, died on the 28th of August, 1860,
and she married, secondly, on the 30th of November, 1874, John
Armit Bruce, Sheriff-Clerk of Orkney, with issue - an only daughter,
Alexandra Esther Heddle.  (6) Mary Hamilton, who on the 5th of
April, 1859 married John Guthrie Iverach, Kirkwall, a cadet of the
Macivers Buidhe of Quoycrook, Caithness, eldest son of William
Iverach of Wideford, Orkney, with issue - Alexander William, who
was born in 1860 and died in infancy; William, born on the 21st
of June, 1865; Mary Elizabeth; and Margaret Guthrie.  Her husband,
John Guthrie Iverach, died at Wideford, on the 31st of October,
1875.  (7) Sarah Anne, who, in May, 1864, married John Thomson,
Codnor, Derbyshire, son of Thomson, Alnwick, Northumberland,
with issue - Alexander Russell Duguid, who died in infancy; Jessie
Elizabeth, who married Percy Clarke, Nottingham, with issue - Mary
Hamilton Iverach, who married Frederick Grimsly, Birmingham, with
issue - Florence Mackenzie; Henrietta; Louisa Sarah, who died in
infancy; and Gwendoline Averill.

Captain Thomas, H.E.I.C.S., died in Jamaica, early in the present
century, and was succeeded by his only son,

VIII.  THOMAS  MACKENZIE of Groundwater, who died unmarried, at
Kirkwall, in November, 1847, when the property was sold to the
Earl of Orkney, and the lineal representation of the family went
into the female line, the nearest male relative at present being
the son of his niece, Mary Hamilton Iverach, who died 3rd May,
1867,

IX.  WILLIAM  IVERACH, Wideford, Orkney, who was born on the 21st
of June, 1865, and is still unmarried.


THE  MACKENZIES  OF  DAVOCHMALUAG.

I.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, first of this family, was the second son
of Kenneth Mackenzie, VII. of Kintail by his second wife, Agnes,
daughter of Hugh, VIth Lord Lovat.  He married Margaret, daughter
of Sir William Munro of Fowlis, with issue -

1.  Roderick, his heir and successor.

2.  Hector, who was married three times, and had numerous issue,
many of whose descendants are well-known and in good positions at
the present day.  From his second son Roderick, by his father's
second wife, a daughter of Urquhart, Sheriff of Cromarty, were
descended the late Rev. John Mackenzie, minister of Resolis; the
late Hector Mackenzie, of Taagan, Kenlochewe; the late Rev. Peter
Mackenzie, D.D., minister of Ferintosh, ex-Moderator of the General
Assembly of the Church of Scotland; the Rev. Colin Mackenzie,
minister of Contin; the Rev Kenneth Alexander Mackenzie, LL.D.,
present minister of Kingussie; Thomas Mackenzie, Sheriff-Substitute
of Sutherlandshire; the late Major-General Alexander Mackenzie,
C.B., Colonel of the 78th Highlanders; the Rev. John Gibson,
ex-minister of Avoch; Mrs Alexander, Bedford, and several others,
all of whom are shown in Sheet 4 of Sir James Dixon Mackenzie's
Genealogical Tables.

3.  A daughter, who married Fraser of Belladrum.

4.  A daughter, married William Ross of Invercharron.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

II.  RODERICK  MACKENZIE, second of Davochmaluag, who married
Anne, daughter of Donald Macdonald of Sleat, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  John Dubh, of whom no trace.

3.  Mary, who had a natural son, Alexander, progenitor of the family
of Applecross and Coul, by Colin Cam Mackenzie, XI. of Kintail.
She afterwards married, first, John Mor Grant, with issue; and,
secondly, Cameron of Glen-Nevis.

Four other daughters married, respectively, Mackenzie of Kildun;
Murdoch Mackenzie, III. of Achilty; Iver MacIver, Lochbroom, and
Donald MacChoinnich Mhic Mhurchaidh.

Roderick was succeeded by his eldest son,

III.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, third of Davochmaluag, who married a
daughter of Ross of Balnagown, with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  John, minister of Lochbroom, who married his cousin, a daughter
of Hector, son of Alexander, I. of Davochmaluag, with issue - William
and Kenneth.

3.  Kenneth, of whom nothing is known.

He had also a natural son, Murdo, Chamberlain of the Lewis, who
married a daughter of George Munro of Katewell, with issue - several
sons.

Kenneth was succeeded by his eldest son,

IV.  ALEXANDER  MACKENZIE, fourth of Davochmaluag, served heir to
his father on the 30th of December, 1611.  He married Margaret,
daughter of Hector Munro of Fowlis, with issue -

1.  Roderick, his heir and successor.

2.  Colin, who married Mary, daughter of the Rev. Mr Mackenzie,
minister of Sleat, with issue.

3.  The eldest daughter married Robert Gray.

4.  Another married Alexander MacRae of Inverinate.

5.  A third married Murdo Matheson, of Balmacarra.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

V.  RODERICK  MACKENZIE, fifth of Davochmaluag, who was a strong
Loyalist.  His estates were confiscated, a garrison was placed
in his house by Oliver Cromwell, and he suffered great hardships
during the Commonwealth.  His friends took the officer who commanded
the garrison in Davochmaluag house by surprise, and, in exchange
for the officer's release, Mackenzie secured his peace.  A sasine
to him is dated 1640.  He married Janet, daughter of Fraser of
Belladrum, with issue -

1.  Kenneth, his heir and successor.

2.  John, a Captain in Colonel Hill's Regiment.

3.  George, who married Annabella, daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie,
VI. of Gairloch, with issue.

4.  Roderick, who married a daughter of Mackenzie of Fairburn,
with issue.

5.  Hector, merchant in Edinburgh, who died unmarried.

6.  Margaret, who married Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Tarvie, with
issue.

7.  A daughter, who married Bain of Knockbain.

8.  Another, who married the Rev. John Mackenzie, minister of
Lochbroom.

He was succeeded by his eldest son,

VI.  KENNETH  MACKENZIE, sixth of Davochmaluag, who married,
first, Mary, daughter of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie, first Baronet of
Coul, with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  Roderick, who married a daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie of
Dundonnel, with issue.

3.  Kenneth, who married a daughter of the Rev. John Mackenzie,
minister of Fodderty and Archdeacon of Ross, with issue.

4.  A daughter, who, in 1689, married Alexander Forrester of
Cullenauld.

5.  A daughter, who married Roderick, a brother of Sir Alexander
Mackenzie, II. of Coul.

6.  A third, who married Donald, son of Roderick Mackenzie, V. of
Fairburn all three with issue.

He married, secondly, the widow of Mackenzie of Gairloch, without
issue.

Kenneth was succeeded by his eldest son,

VII.  ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, seventh of Davochmaluag.  He was
appointed Sheriff-Substitute of Ross in 1698.  He married first,
Janet, daughter of Sir Alexander Mackenzie, II. of Coul, with
issue - an only daughter, Janet, who married Aeneas Macleod of
Camuscurry, with issue; marriage contract 28th April, 1715; tocher,
3000 merks.  She married, secondly, John MacKenzie, chirurgeon,
Fortrose.

He married, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Rose of
Clava (marriage contract 1695), with issue -

1.  Alexander, his heir and successor.

2.  Kenneth, who married a Miss Gordon, with issue - two sons.  He
died in Jamaica.

3.  John, who married his cousin Mary, daughter of his uncle
Roderick, with issue - (1) Alexander, who went to Melbourne,
Australia. and married, with issue, Alexander, now in Brisbane,
Queensland.  (2) Captain John Mackenzie, who married abroad,
with issue - a daughter, Elizabeth, who died at Brighton, in 1856,
without issue.  (3) Elizabeth Mackenzie, who married, first,
Richard Ord, of the Merkinch, Inverness, with issue - (a) William
Ord, M.D. in the H.E.I.C.S., who died without issue; (b) John
Ord, a merchant in London, who married with issue; (c) Richard,
who died young; (d) Mary, who married Donald Fraser, solicitor,
Inverness, with issue among others - the late John Fraser
of Bunchrew, who married Hester Mary Mostyn, daughter of Edmund
Lomax of Netley Park, Surrey, with issue, four sons and five
daughters - Lieutenant-Colonel Edmund Lomax, late of the 60th
Rifles, now of Bunchrew, unmarried; William Francis Mostyn, who
died, unmarried, in 1881; Robert Scarlett, who married Beatrice
Anna, daughter of Captain Alexander Watson Mackenzie, now of
Ord, with issue; and Richard Agnew, late of the 78th Highlanders
(Ross-shire Buffs), now Major 1st V.B. Cameron Highlanders, and
Brigade Major Highland Volunteer Brigade, unmarried.  John Fraser
of Bunchrew's daughters were - Hester Mary, who, on the 4th of May,
1875, married Sir Archibald Douglas Drummond Stewart, Baronet, of
Murthly and Grandtully, who died in 1891, without issue; Eliza,
who died at Cairo, unmarried, in 1889; Frances Cecil Catherine;
Laura, who married Sir Francis William Grant, Baronet of Monymusk,
who died in 1887, without issue; and Georgina Arbuthnot.  John
Fraser of Bunchrew died in 1876.  (e) Prudence, Richard Ord's
second d