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Title: The Junior Classics — Volume 5: Stories that never grow old
Author: Edited by William Patten, - To be updated
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Junior Classics — Volume 5: Stories that never grow old" ***

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[Illustration: "AND I WILL WIND THEE IN MY ARMS" _From the
painting by Arthur Rackham_]






_Stories That Never Grow Old_

Acknowledgments of permissions given by authors and publishers
for the use of copyright material appear in Volume 10.




Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

The Story of Aladdin; or the Wonderful Lamp

Sindbad the Sailor


Robinson Crusoe is Shipwrecked _Daniel Defoe_

Alone on a Desolate Island _Daniel Defoe_

The Building of the Boat _Daniel Defoe_

Finds the Print of a Man's Foot on the Sand _Daniel Defoe_

Friday Rescued from the Cannibals _Daniel Defoe_

Robinson Crusoe Rescued _Daniel Defoe_


Gulliver is Shipwrecked and Swims for His Life _Jonathan

Gulliver at the Court of Lilliput _Jonathan Swift_

Gulliver Captures Fifty of the Enemy's Ships _Jonathan

Gulliver Leaves Lilliput _Jonathan Swift_

Gulliver in the Land of the Giants _Jonathan Swift_

Some of Gulliver's Adventures _Jonathan Swift_

Gulliver Escapes from the Eagle _Jonathan Swift_


A Midsummer-Night's Dream _E. Nesbit_

The Tempest _E. Nesbit_

As You Like It _E. Nesbit_

The Merchant of Venice _E. Nesbit_


Christian Starts on His Journey _John Bunyan_

The Interpreter Shows Christian Many Excellent Things _John

Christian's Fight With the Monster Apollyon _John Bunyan_

Christian and Hopeful are Captives in Doubting Castle _John

Christian and Hopeful Arrive at the Coelestial City
_John Bunyan_


Ivanhoe _Sir Edward Sullivan_

Guy Mannering _Sir Edward Sullivan_


An Adventure With a Lion and a Crocodile _R. E. Raspe_
Crossing the Thames Without the Aid of Bridge, Boat or Balloon
_R. E. Raspe_

Two Strange Adventures in Russia _R. E. Raspe_

Shooting a Stag With Cherrystones _R. E. Raspe_

The Baron's Wonderful Dog _R. E. Raspe_



A Midsummer-Night's Dream

_Frontispiece illustration in color from the painting by Arthur
Rackham _


Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves

_From the painting by Edmund Dulac_


Gulliver at the Court of Lilliput

_From the painting by Arthur Rackham _


As You Like It

_From the painting by Charles Folkard _


Christian's Fight with the Monster Apollyon

_From the etching by William Strang _


Consciously or unconsciously we are influenced by the characters
we admire. A book that exerts a deep as well as a wide influence
must produce changes in the reader's way of thinking, and excite
him to activity; the world for him can never be quite the same
that it was before. Such books have an important part in moulding
the character of a people.

It is because the books represented in this volume have been doing
just that for many years that they have become so prized. In the
characters of Crusoe, Gulliver and Christian, to mention only
three, English-speaking people recognize pictures of the
independent, self-reliant men, often self-educated (at least in
many important particulars), adventurous and daring by nature,
dependent upon themselves and the use of their faculties for
happiness, who made England great among nations, and wrote the
Constitution of the United States.

With the passage of time the books have lost nothing of the charm
and fascination which they have ever possessed for young and old.
"Was there ever yet anything written by mere man," said Dr. Samuel
Johnson, "that was wished longer by its readers, excepting
Robinson Crusoe, Pilgrim's Progress, and Don Quixote?"

At this time, when the subject of vocational training is receiving
so much attention, and public school instruction is being
criticized because, its critics say, it does not prepare boys and
girls to meet the demands which life makes upon them, it is
interesting to read what was said almost a hundred years ago by a
man whose influence on education has been both deep and lasting in

They have just been celebrating in France the centenary of Jean
Jacques Rousseau. In the early chapters of "Emile" we read: "Since
we must have books, there is one which, to my mind, furnishes the
finest treatise on Education according to nature. My Emile shall
read this book before any other. It shall for a long time be his
entire library. It shall be a test for all we meet during our
progress toward a ripened judgment, and so long as our taste is
unspoiled we shall enjoy reading it. What wonderful book is this?
Aristotle? Pliny? Buffon? No; it is Robinson Crusoe."

There is no more useful talent than the ability to think and speak
(or write) clearly and simply, no matter what our vocation in
life. None know better how difficult it is to find writers with a
good narrative style than those editors whose training and
experience have made them realize its value and importance. If we
examine the experience of those who, in comparatively recent days,
have stirred men with the force and directness of their simple
speech, as Lincoln, for example, we find that as boys they were
great readers of the Bible, and Robinson Crusoe, Gulliver's
Travels, Shakespeare, Bunyan, and Scott. As examples of English
these books stand preeminent.

Lord Brougham relates that one of his friends, a professor in a
university, consulted one of the ablest historians of his time as
to what would be the best discipline for acquiring a good
narrative style, as a prelude to writing a book of travels through
Asia. The advice given him was to read Robinson Crusoe carefully.
When the professor expressed astonishment, supposing it to be a
jest, the historian said he was quite serious, but that if
Robinson Crusoe would not help him, for any reason, he recommended
Gulliver's Travels. The late Donald G. Mitchell once said: "If you
should ever have any story of your own to tell, and want to tell
it well, I advise you to take Robinson Crusoe for a model!"

Parents and teachers who do not read aloud to young children, or
who do not practise telling stories to children, probably do not
realize what simple but extraordinarily valuable opportunities for
self-education they are ignoring, to say nothing of the help they
can be to children. In order to be successful we have to try and
put ourselves in the child's place.

The average reader does not concentrate sufficiently to get the
thought clearly from the text, and does not imagine himself to be
actually in the midst of the scene he is describing. The
consequence is that his voice and actions are not, except perhaps
in a slight degree, affected by the emotions he is supposed to be
experiencing. Dramatic rendering of dramatic passages is worth
striving for, and should be encouraged on the part of children.

The story-teller who roars with the lion and bleats with the lamb
is sure to be rewarded with shouts of enthusiastic delight from
the audience.


_All nations have their fairy tales, but India seems to have
been the country from which they all started, carried on their
travels by the professional story-tellers who kept the tales alive
throughout Asia. In Bagdad and Cairo to-day, that cafe never lacks
customers where the blind storyteller relates to the spell-bound
Arabs some chapter from the immortal Arabian Nights, the King of
all Wonder Books.

No one knows where the tales were written, except that they came
out of the Far East, India, Arabia and Persia. Haroun Al Raschid,
who was called The Just, was a real Eastern monarch who lived in
Bagdad over eleven hundred years ago, about the same time that
Charlemagne was King of France. We can believe that the tales are
very old, but the most we know is that they were translated from
Arabic into French in 1704-17 by a Frenchman named Galland, and
that the manuscript of his translation is preserved in the French
National Library. American boys first had the chance to read the
notes in English about the time President Monroe was elected._


There once lived in a town of Persia two brothers, one named
Cassim, and the other Ali Baba. Their father divided a small
inheritance equally between them. Cassim married a very rich wife,
and became a wealthy merchant. Ali Baba married a woman as poor as
himself, and lived by cutting wood, and bringing it upon three
asses into the town to sell.

One day, when Ali Baba was in the forest, and had just cut wood
enough to load his asses, he saw at a distance a great cloud of
dust, which seemed to approach him. He observed it with attention,
and distinguished soon after a body of horsemen, whom he suspected
might be robbers. He determined to leave his asses to save
himself. He climbed up a large tree, planted on a high rock, whose
branches were thick enough to conceal him, and yet enabled him to
see all that passed without being discovered.

The troop, who were to the number of forty, all well mounted and
armed, came to the foot of the rock on which the tree stood, and
there dismounted. Every man unbridled his horse, tied him to some
shrub, and hung about his neck a bag of corn which they brought
behind them. Then each of them took off his saddle-bag, which
seemed to Ali Baba to be full of gold and silver from its weight.
One, whom he took to be their captain, came under the tree in
which Ali Baba was concealed; and, making his way through some
shrubs, pronounced these words--"Open, Sesame!" As soon as the
captain of the robbers had thus spoken, a door opened in the rock;
and after he had made all his troop enter before him, he followed
them, when the door shut again of itself.

The robbers stayed some time within the rock, during which Ali
Baba, fearful of being caught, remained in the tree.

At last the door opened again, and as the captain went in last, so
he came out first, and stood to see them all pass by him; when Ali
Baba heard him make the door close by pronouncing these words,
"Shut, Sesame!" Every man at once went and bridled his horse,
fastened his wallet, and mounted again. When the captain saw them
all ready, he put himself at their head, and they returned the way
they had come.

Ali Baba followed them with his eyes as far as he could see them,
and afterward stayed a considerable time before he descended.
Remembering the words the captain of the robbers used to cause the
door to open and shut, he had the curiosity to try if his
pronouncing them would have the same effect. Accordingly, he went
among the shrubs, and perceiving the door concealed behind them,
stood before it and said, "Open, Sesame!" The door instantly flew
wide open.

Ali Baba, who expected a dark, dismal cavern, was surprised to see
a well-lighted and spacious chamber, which received the light from
an opening at the top of the rock, and in which were all sorts of
provisions, rich bales of silk, stuff, brocade, and valuable
carpeting, piled upon one another, gold and silver ingots in great
heaps, and money in bags. The sight of all these riches made him
suppose that this cave must have been occupied for ages by
robbers, who had succeeded one another.

Ali Baba went boldly into the cave, and collected as much of the
gold coin, which was in bags, as he thought his three asses could
carry. When he had loaded them with the bags, he laid wood over
them in such a manner that they could not be seen. When he had
passed in and out as often as he wished, he stood before the door,
and pronouncing the words, "Shut, Sesame!" the door closed of
itself. He then made the best of his way to town.

When Ali Baba got home, he drove his asses into a little yard,
shut the gates very carefully, threw off the wood that covered the
panniers, carried the bags into the house, and ranged them in
order before his wife. He then emptied the bags, which raised such
a great heap of gold as dazzled his wife's eyes, and then he told
her the whole adventure from beginning to end, and, above all,
recommended her to keep it secret.

The wife rejoiced greatly at their good-fortune, and would count
all the gold piece by piece. "Wife," replied Ali Baba, "you do not
know what you undertake, when you pretend to count the money; you
will never have done. I will dig a hole and bury it. There is no
time to be lost." "You are in the right, husband," replied she;
"but let us know, as nigh as possible, how much we have. I will
borrow a small measure, and measure it while you dig the hole."

Away the wife ran to her brother-in-law Cassim, who lived just by,
and, addressing herself to his wife, desired her to lend her a
measure for a little while. Her sister-in-law asked her whether
she would have a great or a small one. The other asked for a small
one. She bade her stay a little, and she would readily fetch one.

The sister-in-law did so, but as she knew Ali Baba's poverty, she
was curious to know what sort of grain his wife wanted to measure,
and, artfully putting some suet at the bottom of the measure,
brought it to her, with the excuse that she was sorry that she had
made her stay so long, but that she could not find it sooner.

Ali Baba's wife went home, set the measure upon the heap of gold,
filled it, and emptied it often upon the sofa, till she had done,
when she was very well satisfied to find the number of measures
amounted to so many as they did, and went to tell her husband, who
had almost finished digging the hole. While Ali Baba was burying
the gold, his wife, to show her exactness and diligence to her
sister-in-law, carried the measure back again, but without taking
notice that a piece of gold had stuck to the bottom. "Sister,"
said she, giving it to her again, "you see that I have not kept
your measure long. I am obliged to you for it, and return it with

As soon as Ali Baba's wife was gone, Cassim's wife looked at the
bottom of the measure, and was in inexpressible surprise to find a
piece of gold sticking to it. Envy immediately possessed her
breast. "What!" said she, "has Ali Baba gold so plentiful as to
measure it? Whence has he all this wealth?"

Cassim, her husband, was at his counting-house. When he came home
his wife said to him, "Cassim, I know you think yourself rich, but
Ali Baba is infinitely richer than you. He does not count his
money, but measures it." Cassim desired her to explain the riddle,
which she did by telling him the stratagem she had used to make
the discovery, and showed him the piece of money, which was so old
that they could not tell in what prince's reign it was coined.

Cassim, after he had married the rich widow, had never treated Ali
Baba as a brother, but neglected him; and now, instead of being
pleased, he conceived a base envy at his brother's prosperity. He
could not sleep all that night, and went to him in the morning
before sunrise. "Ali Baba," said he, "I am surprised at you! you
pretend to be miserably poor, and yet you measure gold. My wife
found this at the bottom of the measure you borrowed yesterday."

By this discourse, Ali Baba perceived that Cassim and his wife,
through his own wife's folly, knew what they had so much reason to
conceal; but what was done could not be undone. Therefore, without
showing the least surprise or trouble, he confessed all, and
offered his brother part of his treasure to keep the secret.

"I expect as much," replied Cassim haughtily; "but I must know
exactly where this treasure is, and how I may visit it myself
when I choose; otherwise, I will go and inform against you, and
then you will not only get no more, but will lose all you have,
and I shall have a share for my information."

Ali Baba told him all he desired, even to the very words he was to
use to gain admission into the cave.

Cassim rose the next morning long before the sun, and set out for
the forest with ten mules bearing great chests, which he designed
to fill, and followed the road which Ali Baba had pointed out to
him. It was not long before he reached the rock, and found out the
place, by the tree and other marks which his brother had given
him. When he reached the entrance of the cavern, he pronounced the
words, "Open, Sesame!" The door immediately opened, and when he
was in, closed upon him. On examining the cave, he was in great
admiration to find much more riches than he had expected from Ali
Baba's relation. He quickly laid as many bags of gold as he could
carry at the door of the cavern; but his thoughts were so full of
the great riches he should possess, that he could not think of the
necessary word to make it open, and instead of "Sesame" said,
"Open, Barley!" and was much amazed to find that the door remained
fast shut. He named several sorts of grain, but still the door
would not open.

Cassim had never expected such an incident, and was so alarmed at
the danger he was in, that the more he endeavored to remember the
word "Sesame," the more his memory was confounded, and he had as
much forgotten it as if he had never heard it mentioned, He threw
down the bags he had loaded himself with, and walked distractedly
up and down the cave, without having the least regard to the
riches that were round him.

About noon the robbers visited their cave. At some distance they
saw Cassim's mules straggling about the rock, with great chests on
their backs. Alarmed at this, they galloped full speed to the
cave. They drove away the mules, who strayed through the forest so
far that they were soon out of sight, and went directly, with
their naked sabres in their hands, to the door, which, on their
captain pronouncing the proper words, immediately opened.

Cassim, who heard the noise of the horses' feet, at once guessed
the arrival of the robbers, and resolved to make one effort for
his life. He rushed to the door, and no sooner saw the door open,
than he ran out and threw the leader down, but could not escape
the other robbers, who with their cimeters soon deprived him of

The first care of the robbers after this was to examine the cave.
They found all the bags which Cassim had brought to the door, to
be ready to load his mules, and carried them again to their
places, but they did not miss what Ali Baba had taken away before.
Then holding a council, and deliberating upon this occurrence,
they guessed that Cassim, when he was in, could not get out again,
but could not imagine how he had learned the secret words by which
alone he could enter. They could not deny the fact of his being
there; and to terrify any person or accomplice who should attempt
the same thing, they agreed to cut Cassim's body into four
quarters--to hang two on one side, and two on the other, within
the door of the cave. They had no sooner taken this resolution
than they put it in execution; and when they had nothing more to
detain them, left the place of their hoards well closed. They
mounted their horses, went to beat the roads again, and to attack
the caravans they might meet.

In the meantime, Cassim's wife was very uneasy when night came,
and her husband was not returned. She ran to Ali Baba in great
alarm, and said: "I believe, brother-in-law, that you know Cassim
is gone to the forest, and upon what account; it is now night, and
he has not returned; I am afraid some misfortune has happened to
him." Ali Baba told her that she need not frighten herself, for
that certainly Cassim would not think it proper to come into the
town till the night should be pretty far advanced.

Cassim's wife, considering how much it concerned her husband to
keep the business secret, was the more easily persuaded to believe
her brother-in-law. She went home again, and waited patiently till
midnight. Then her fear redoubled, and her grief was the more
sensible because she was forced to keep it to herself. She
repented of her foolish curiosity, and cursed her desire of prying
into the affairs of her brother and sister-in-law. She spent all
the night in weeping; and, as soon as it was day, went to them,
telling them, by her tears, the cause of her coming.

Ali Baba did not wait for his sister-in-law to desire him to go to
see what was become of Cassim, but departed immediately with his
three asses, begging of her first to moderate her affliction. He
went to the forest, and when he came near the rock, having seen
neither his brother nor the mules in his way, was seriously
alarmed at finding some blood spilled near the door, which he took
for an ill omen; but when he had pronounced the word, and the door
had opened, he was struck with horror at the dismal sight of his
brother's body. He was not long in determining how he should pay
the last dues to his brother; but without adverting to the little
fraternal affection he had shown for him, went into the cave to
find something to enshroud his remains; and having loaded one of
his asses with them, covered them over with wood. The other two
asses he loaded with bags of gold, covering them with wood also as
before; and then bidding the door shut, came away; but was so
cautious as to stop some time at the end of the forest, that he
might not go into the town before night. When he came home, he
drove the two asses loaded with gold into his little yard, and
left the care of unloading them to his wife, while he led the
other to his sister-in-law's house.

Ali Baba knocked at the door, which was opened by Morgiana, a
clever, intelligent slave, who was fruitful in inventions to meet
the most difficult circumstances. When he came into the court, he
unloaded the ass, and taking Morgiana aside, said to her: "You
must observe an inviolable secrecy. Your master's body is
contained in these two panniers. We must bury him as if he had
died a natural death. Go now and tell your mistress. I leave the
matter to your wit and skilful devices."

Ali Baba helped to place the body in Cassim's house, again
recommended to Morgiana to act her part well, and then returned
with his ass.

Morgiana went out, early the next morning to a druggist, and asked
for a sort of lozenge which was considered efficacious in the most
dangerous disorders. The apothecary inquired who was ill. She
replied, with a sigh, Her good master, Cassim himself, and that he
could neither eat nor speak. In the evening Morgiana went to the
same druggist's again, and with tears in her eyes, asked for an
essence which they used to give to sick people only when at the
last extremity. "Alas!" said she, taking it from the apothecary,
"I am afraid that this remedy will have no better effect than the
lozenges; and that I shall lose my good master."

On the other hand, as Ali Baba and his wife were often seen to go
between Cassim's and their own house all that day, and to seem
melancholy, nobody was surprised in the evening to hear the
lamentable shrieks and cries of Cassim's wife and Morgiana, who
gave out everywhere that her master was dead. The next morning at
daybreak, Morgiana went to an old cobbler whom she knew to be
always early at his stall, and bidding him good-morrow, put a
piece of gold into his hand, saying, "Baba Mustapha, you must
bring with you your sewing tackle, and come with me; but I must
tell you, I shall blindfold you when you come to such a place."

Baba Mustapha seemed to hesitate a little at these words. "Oh!
oh!" replied he, "you must have me do something against my
conscience, or against my honor?" "God forbid," said Morgiana,
putting another piece of gold into his hand, "that I should ask
anything that is contrary to your honor! only come along with me
and fear nothing."

Baba Mustapha went with Morgiana, who, after she had bound his
eyes with a handkerchief at the place she had mentioned, conveyed
him to her deceased master's house, and never unloosed his eyes
till he had entered the room where she had put the corpse

"Baba Mustapha," said she, "you must make haste and sew the parts
of this body together; and when you have done, I will give you
another piece of gold."

After Baba Mustapha had finished his task, she blindfolded him
again, gave him the third piece of gold as she had promised, and
recommending secrecy to him, carried him back to the place where
she first bound his eyes, pulled off the bandage, and let him go
home, but watched him that he returned toward his stall, till he
was quite out of sight, for fear he should have the curiosity to
return and dodge her; she then went home. Morgiana, on her return,
warmed some water to wash the body, and at the same time Ali Baba
perfumed it with incense, and wrapped it in the burying clothes
with the accustomed ceremonies. Not long after, the proper officer
brought the bier, and when the attendants of the mosque, whose
business it was to wash the dead, offered to perform their duty,
she told them that it was done already. Shortly after this the
imaun and the other ministers of the mosque arrived. Four
neighbors carried the corpse to the burying ground, following the
imaun, who recited some prayers. Ali Baba came after with some
neighbors, who often relieved the others in carrying the bier to
the burying ground. Morgiana, a slave to the deceased, followed in
the procession, weeping, beating her breast, and tearing her hair.
Cassim's wife stayed at home mourning, uttering lamentable cries
with the women of the neighborhood, who came, according to custom,
during the funeral, and, joining their lamentations with hers,
filled the quarter far and near with sounds of sorrow.

In this manner Cassim's melancholy death was concealed, and hushed
up between Ali Baba, his widow, and Morgiana, his slave, with so
much contrivance that nobody in the city had the least knowledge
or suspicion of the cause of it. Three or four days after the
funeral, Ali Baba removed his few goods openly to his sister-in-
law's house, in which it was agreed that he should in future live;
but the money he had taken from the robbers he conveyed thither by
night. As for Cassim's warehouse, he intrusted it entirely to the
management of his eldest son.

While these things were being done, the forty robbers again
visited their retreat in the forest. Great, then, was their
surprise to find Cassim's body taken away, with some of their bags
of gold. "We are certainly discovered," said the captain. "The
removal of the body and the loss of some of our money plainly show
that the man whom we killed had an accomplice; and for our own
lives' sake we must try and find him. What say you, my lads?"

All the robbers unanimously approved of the captain's proposal.

"Well," said the captain, "one of you, the boldest and most
skilful among you, must go into the town, disguised as a traveller
and a stranger, to try if he can hear any talk of the man whom we
have killed, and endeavor to find out who he was, and where he
lived. This is a matter of the first importance, and for fear of
any treachery, I propose that whoever undertakes this business
without success, even though the failure arises only from an error
of judgment, shall suffer death."

Without waiting for the sentiments of his companions, one of the
robbers started up, and said, "I submit to this condition, and
think it an honor to expose my life to serve the troop."

After this robber had received great commendations from the
captain and his comrades, he disguised himself so that nobody
would take him for what he was; and taking his leave of the troop
that night, went into the town just at daybreak, and walked up and
down, till accidentally he came to Baba Mustapha's stall, which
was always open before any of the shops.

Baba Mustapha was seated with an awl in his hand, just going to

The robber saluted him, bidding him good-morrow; and, perceiving
that he was old, said, "Honest man, you begin to work very early:
is it possible that one of your age can see so well? I question,
even if it were somewhat lighter, whether you could see to

"You do not know me," replied Baba Mustapha; "for old as I am, I
have extraordinary good eyes; and you will not doubt it when I
tell you that I sewed the body of a dead man together in a place
where I had not so much light as I have now."

"A dead body!" exclaimed the robber, with affected amazement.
"Yes, yes," answered Baba Mustapha; "I see you want to have me
speak out, but you shall know no more."

The robber felt sure that he had discovered what he sought. He
pulled out a piece of gold, and putting it into Baba Mustapha's
hand, said to him, "I do not want to learn your secret, though I
can assume you you might safely trust me with it. The only thing I
desire of you is to show me the house where you stitched up the
dead body."

"If I were disposed to do you that favor," replied Baba Mustapha,
"I assure you I cannot. I was taken to a certain place, whence I
was led blindfold to the house, and afterward brought back again
in the same manner; you see, therefore, the impossibility of my
doing what you desire."

"Well," replied the robber, "you may, however, remember a little
of the way that you were led blindfold. Come, let me blind your
eyes at the same place. We will walk together; perhaps you may
recognize some part; and as everybody ought to be paid for their
trouble, there is another piece of gold for you; gratify me in
what I ask you." So saying, he put another piece of gold into his

The two pieces of gold were great temptations to Baba Mustapha. He
looked at them a long time in his hand without saying a word, but
at last he pulled out his purse and put them in. "I cannot
promise," said he to the robber, "that I can remember the way
exactly; but since you desire, I will try what I can do." At these
words Baba Mustapha rose up, to the great joy of the robber, and
led him to the place where Morgiana had bound his eyes. "It was
here," said Baba Mustapha, "I was blindfolded; and I turned this
way." The robber tied his handkerchief over his eyes, and walked
by him till they stopped directly at Cassim's house, where Ali
Baba then lived. The thief, before he pulled off the band, marked
the door with a piece of chalk, which he had ready in his hand,
and then asked him if he knew whose house that was; to which Baba
Mustapha replied, that as he did not live in that neighborhood he
could not tell.

The robber, finding he could discover no more from Baba Mustapha,
thanked him for the trouble he had taken, and left him to go back
to his stall, while he returned to the forest, persuaded that he
should be very well received.

A little after the robber and Baba Mustapha had parted, Morgiana
went out of Ali Baba's house upon some errand, and upon her
return, seeing the mark the robber had made, stopped to observe
it. "What can be the meaning of this mark?" said she to herself;
"somebody intends my master no good: however, with whatever
intention it was done, it is advisable to guard against the
worst." Accordingly, she fetched a piece of chalk, and marked two
or three doors on each side, in the same manner, without saying a
word to her master or mistress.

In the meantime, the robber rejoined his troop in the forest, and
recounted to them his success, expatiating upon his good fortune
in meeting so soon with the only person who could inform him of
what he wanted to know. All the robbers listened to him with the
utmost satisfaction; when the captain, after commending his
diligence, addressing himself to them all, said, "Comrades, we
have no time to lose: let us set off well armed, without its
appearing who we are; but that we may not excite any suspicion,
let only one or two go into the town together, and join at our
rendezvous, which shall be the great square. In the meantime, our
comrade who brought us the good news and I will go and find out
the house, that we may consult what had best be done."

This speech and plan were approved of by all, and they were soon
ready. They filed off in parties of two each, after some interval
of time, and got into the town without being in the least
suspected. The captain, and he who had visited the town in the
morning as spy, came in the last. He led the captain into the
street where he had marked Ali Baba's residence; and when they
came to the first of the houses which Morgiana had marked, he
pointed it out. But the captain observed that the next door was
chalked in the same manner, and in the same place; and showing it
to his guide, asked him which house it was, that, or the first.
The guide was so confounded that he knew not what answer to make,
but still more puzzled when he and the captain saw five or six
houses similarly marked. He assured the captain, with an oath,
that he had marked but one, and could not tell who had chalked the
rest, so that he could not distinguish the house which the cobbler
had stopped at.

The captain, finding that their design had proved abortive, went
directly to the place of rendezvous, and told his troop that they
had lost their labor, and must return to their cave. He himself
set them the example, and they all returned as they had come.

When the troop was all got together, the captain told them the
reason of their returning; and presently the conductor was
declared by all worthy of death. He condemned himself, acknowledging
that he ought to have taken better precaution, and prepared
to receive the stroke from him who was appointed to cut off
his head. But as the safety of the troop required the discovery
of the second intruder into the cave, another of the gang,
who promised himself that he should succeed better, presented
himself, and his offer being accepted, he went and corrupted
Baba Mustapha, as the other had done; and, being shown the
house, marked it in a place more remote from sight with red chalk.

Not long after, Morgiana, whose eyes nothing could escape, went
out, and seeing the red chalk, and arguing with herself as she had
done before, marked the other neighbors' houses in the same place
and manner.

The robber, at his return to his company, valued himself much on
the precaution he had taken, which he looked upon as an infallible
way of distinguishing Ali Baba's house from the others; and the
captain and all of them thought it must succeed. They conveyed
themselves into the town with the same precaution as before; but
when the robber and his captain came to the street they found the
same difficulty; at which the captain was enraged, and the robber
in as great confusion as his predecessor.

Thus the captain and his troop were forced to retire a second
time, and much more dissatisfied; while the robber, who had been
the author of the mistake, underwent the same punishment, which he
willingly submitted to.

The captain, having lost two brave fellows of his troop, was
afraid of diminishing it too much by pursuing this plan to get
information of the residence of their plunderer. He found by their
example that their heads were not so good as their hands on such
occasions, and therefore resolved to take upon himself the
important commission.

Accordingly, he went and addressed himself to Baba Mustapha, who
did him the same service he had done to the other robbers. He did
not set any particular mark on the house, but examined and
observed it so carefully, by passing often by it, that it was
impossible for him to mistake it.

The captain, well satisfied with his attempt, and informed of what
he wanted to know, returned to the forest; and when he came into
the cave, where the troop waited for him, said, "Now, comrades,
nothing can prevent our full revenge, as I am certain of the
house; and in my way hither I have thought how to put it into
execution, but if any one can form a better expedient, let him
communicate it." He then told them his contrivance; and as they
approved of it, ordered them to go into the villages about, and
buy nineteen mules, with thirty-eight large leather jars, one full
of oil, and the others empty.

In two or three days' time the robbers had purchased the mules and
jars, and as the mouths of the jars were rather too narrow for his
purpose, the captain caused them to be widened; and after having
put one of his men into each, with the weapons which he thought
fit, leaving open the seam which had been undone to leave them
room to breathe, he rubbed the jars on the outside with oil from
the full vessel.

Things being thus prepared, when the nineteen mules were loaded
with thirty-seven robbers in jars, and the jar of oil, the
captain, as their driver, set out with them, and reached the town
by the dusk of the evening, as he had intended. He led them
through the streets till he came to Ali Baba's, at whose door he
designed to have knocked; but was prevented by his sitting there
after supper to take a little fresh air. He stopped his mules,
addressed himself to him, and said, "I have brought some oil a
great way to sell at to-morrow's market; and it is now so late
that I do not know where to lodge. If I should not be troublesome
to you, do me the favor to let me pass the night with you, and I
shall be very much obliged by your hospitality."

Though Ali Baba had seen the captain of the robbers in the forest,
and had heard him speak, it was impossible to know him in the
disguise of an oil merchant. He told him he should be welcome, and
immediately opened his gates for the mules to go into the yard. At
the same time he called to a slave, and ordered him, when the
mules were unloaded, to put them into the stable, and to feed
them; and then went to Morgiana to bid her to get a good supper
for his guest. After they had finished supper, Ali Baba, charging
Morgiana afresh to take care of his guest, said to her, "To-morrow
morning I design to go to the bath before day; take care my
bathing linen be ready, give them to Abdalla (which was the
slave's name) and make me some good broth against I return." After
this he went to bed.

In the meantime the captain of the robbers went into the yard,
took off the lid of each jar, and gave his people orders what to
do. Beginning at the first jar, and so on to the last, he said to
each man: "As soon as I throw some stones out of the chamber
window where I lie, do not fail to come out, and I will
immediately join you." After this he returned into the house, when
Morgiana, taking up a light, conducted him to his chamber, where
she left him; and he, to avoid any suspicion, put the light out
soon after, and laid himself down in his clothes, that he might be
the more ready to rise.

Morgiana, remembering Ali Baba's orders, got his bathing linen
ready, and ordered Abdalla to set on the pot for the broth; but
while she was preparing it the lamp went out, and there was no
more oil in the house, nor any candles. What to do she did not
know, for the broth must be made. Abdalla, seeing her very uneasy,
said, "Do not fret and tease yourself, but go into the yard, and
take some oil out of one of the jars."

Morgiana thanked Abdalla for his advice, took the oil-pot, and
went into the yard; when, as she came nigh the first jar, the
robber within said softly, "Is it time?"

Though naturally much surprised at finding a man in the jar
instead of the oil she wanted, she immediately felt the importance
of keeping silence, as Ali Baba, his family, and herself were in
great danger; and, collecting herself, without showing the least
emotion, she answered, "Not yet, but presently." She went quietly
in this manner to all the jars, giving the same answer, till she
came to the jar of oil.

By this means Morgiana found that her master Ali Baba had admitted
thirty-eight robbers into his house, and that this pretended oil
merchant was their captain. She made what haste she could to fill
her oil-pot, and returned into the kitchen, where, as soon as she
had lighted her lamp, she took a great kettle, went again to the
oil-jar, filled the kettle, set it on a large wood fire, and as
soon as it boiled, went and poured enough into every jar to stifle
and destroy the robber within.

When this action, worthy of the courage of Morgiana, was executed
without any noise, as she had projected, she returned into the
kitchen with the empty kettle; and having put out the great fire,
she had made to boil the oil, and leaving just enough to make the
broth, put out the lamp also, and remained silent, resolving not
to go to rest till she had observed what might follow through a
window of the kitchen, which opened into the yard.

She had not waited long before the captain of the robbers got up,
opened the window, and finding no light, and hearing no noise, or
any one stirring in the house, gave the appointed signal by
throwing little stones, several of which hit the jars, as he
doubted not by the sound they gave. He then listened, but not
hearing or perceiving anything whereby he could judge that his
companions stirred, he began to grow very uneasy, threw stones a
second and also a third time, and could not comprehend the reason
that none of them should answer his signal. Much alarmed, he went
softly down into the yard, and going to the first jar, while
asking the robber, whom he thought alive, if he was in readiness,
smelled the hot boiled oil, which sent forth a steam out of the
jar. Hence he suspected that his plot to murder Ali Baba, and
plunder his house, was discovered. Examining all the jars, one
after another, he found that all his gang were dead; and, enraged
to despair at having failed in his design, he forced the lock of a
door that led from the yard to the garden, and, climbing over the
walls, made his escape.

When Morgiana saw him depart, she went to bed, satisfied and
pleased to have succeeded so well in saving her master and family.

Ali Baba rose before day, and, followed by his slave, went to the
baths, entirely ignorant of the important event which had happened
at home.

When he returned from the baths, he was very much surprised to see
the oil jars, and that the merchant was not gone with the mules.
He asked Morgiana, who opened the door, the reason of it. "My good
master," answered she, "God preserve you and all your family. You
will be better informed of what you wish to know when you have
seen what I have to show you, if you will follow me."

As soon as Morgiana had shut the door, Ali Baba followed her, when
she requested him to look into the first jar, and see if there was
any oil. Ali Baba did so, and seeing a man, started back in alarm,
and cried out. "Do not be afraid," said Morgiana, "the man you see
there can neither do you nor anybody else any harm. He is dead."
"Ah, Morgiana," said Ali Baba, "what is it you show me? Explain
yourself." "I will," replied Morgiana. "Moderate your astonishment,
and do not excite the curiosity of your neighbors; for it
is of great importance to keep this affair secret. Look into
all the other jars."

Ali Baba examined all the other jars, one after another; and when
he came to that which had the oil in, found it prodigiously sunk,
and stood for some time motionless, sometimes looking at the jars,
and sometimes at Morgiana, without saying a word, so great was his

At last, when he had recovered himself, he said, "And what is
become of the merchant?"

"Merchant!" answered she; "he is as much one as I am. I will tell
you who he is, and what is become of him; but you had better hear
the story in your own chamber; for it is time for your health that
you had your broth after your bathing."

Morgiana then told him all she had done, from the first observing
the mark upon the house, to the destruction of the robbers, and
the flight of their captain.

On hearing of these brave deeds from the lips of Morgiana, Ali
Baba said to her, "God, by your means, has delivered me from the
snares these robbers laid for my destruction. I owe, therefore, my
life to you; and, for the first token of my acknowledgment, give
you your liberty from this moment, till I can complete your
recompense, as I intend."

Ali Baba's garden was very long, and shaded at the further end by
a great number of large trees. Near these he and the slave Abdalla
dug a trench, long and wide enough to hold the bodies of the
robbers; and as the earth was light, they were not long in doing
it. When this was done, Ali Baba hid the jars and weapons; and as
he had no occasion for the mules, he sent them at different times
to be sold in the market by his slave.

While Ali Baba took these measures, the captain of the forty
robbers returned to the forest with inconceivable mortification.
He did not stay long: the loneliness of the gloomy cavern became
frightful to him. He determined, however, to avenge the fate of
his companions, and to accomplish the death of Ali Baba. For this
purpose he returned to the town and took a lodging in a khan, and
disguised himself as a merchant in silks. Under this assumed
character, he gradually conveyed a great many sorts of rich stuffs
and fine linen to his lodging from the cavern, but with all the
necessary precautions to conceal the place whence he brought them.
In order to dispose of the merchandise, when he had thus amassed
them together, he took a warehouse, which happened to be opposite
to Cassim's, which Ali Baba's son had occupied since the death of
his uncle.

He took the name of Cogia Houssain, and, as a newcomer, was,
according to custom, extremely civil and complaisant to all the
merchants his neighbors. Ali Baba's son was, from his vicinity,
one of the first to converse with Cogia Houssain, who strove to
cultivate his friendship more particularly. Two or three days
after he was settled, Ali Baba came to see his son, and the
captain of the robbers recognized him at once, and soon learned
from his son who he was. After this he increased his assiduities,
caressed him in the most engaging manner, made him some small
presents, and often asked him to dine and sup with him, when he
treated him very handsomely.

Ali Baba's son did not choose to lie under such obligation to
Cogia Houssain; but was so much straitened for want of room in his
house that he could not entertain him. He therefore acquainted his
father, Ali Baba, with his wish to invite him in return.

Ali Baba with great pleasure took the treat upon himself. "Son,"
said he, "to-morrow being Friday, which is a day that the shops of
such great merchants as Cogia Houssain and yourself are shut, get
him to accompany you, and as you pass by my door, call in. I will
go and order Morgiana to provide a supper."

The next day Ali Baba's son and Cogia Houssain met by appointment,
took their walk, and as they returned, Ali Baba's son led Cogia
Houssain through the street where his father lived, and when they
came to the house, stopped and knocked at the door. "This, sir,"
said he, "is my father's house, who, from the account I have given
him of your friendship, charged me to procure him the honor of
your acquaintance; and I desire you to add this pleasure to those
for which I am already indebted to you."

Though it was the sole aim of Cogia Houssain to introduce himself
into Ali Baba's house that he might kill him, without hazarding
his own life or making any noise, yet he excused himself and
offered to take his leave; but a slave having opened the door, Ali
Baba's son took him obligingly by the hand, and, in a manner,
forced him in.

Ali Baba received Cogia Houssain with a smiling countenance, and
in the most obliging manner he could wish. He thanked him for all
the favors he had done his son; adding withal, the obligation was
the greater as he was a young man, not much acquainted with the
world, and that he might contribute to his information.

Cogia Houssain returned the compliment by assuring Ali Baba that
though his son might not have acquired the experience of older
men, he had good sense equal to the experience of many others.
After a little more conversation on different subjects, he offered
again to take his leave, when Ali Baba, stopping him, said, "Where
are you going, sir, in so much haste? I beg you would do me the
honor to sup with me, though my entertainment may not be worthy of
your acceptance; such as it is, I heartily offer it." "Sir,"
replied Cogia Houssain, "I am thoroughly persuaded of your good-
will; but the truth is, I can eat no victuals that have any salt
in them; therefore judge how I should feel at your table." "If
that is the only reason," said Ali Baba, "it ought not to deprive
me of the honor of your company; for, in the first place, there
is no salt ever put into my bread, and as to the meat we shall
have to-night, I promise you there shall be none in that.
Therefore you must do me the favor to stay. I will return

Ali Baba went into the kitchen, and ordered Morgiana to put no
salt in the meat that was to be dressed that night; and to make
quickly two or three ragouts besides what he had ordered, but be
sure to put no salt in them.

Morgiana, who was always ready to obey her master, could not help
being surprised at his strange order. "Who is this strange man,"
said she, "who eats no salt with his meat? Your supper will be
spoiled if I keep it back so long." "Do not be angry, Morgiana,"
replied Ali Baba; "he is an honest man, therefore do as I bid

Morgiana obeyed, though with no little reluctance, and had a
curiosity to see this man who ate no salt. To this end, when she
had finished what she had to do in the kitchen, she helped Abdalla
to carry up the dishes; and looking at Cogia Houssain, knew him at
first sight, notwithstanding his disguise, to be the captain of
the robbers, and examining him very carefully, perceived that he
had a dagger under his garment. "I am not in the least amazed,"
said she to herself, "that this wicked man, who is my master's
greatest enemy, would eat no salt with him, since he intends to
assassinate him; but I will prevent him."

Morgiana, while they were at supper, determined in her own mind to
execute one of the boldest acts ever meditated.

When Abdalla came for the dessert or fruit, and had put it with
the wine and glasses before Ali Baba, Morgiana retired, dressed
herself neatly, with a suitable head-dress like a dancer, girded
her waist with a silver-gilt girdle, to which there hung a poniard
with a hilt and guard of the same metal, and put a handsome mask
on her face.

When she had thus disguised herself, she said to Abdalla, "Take
your tabor, and let us go and divert our master and his son's
friend, as we do sometimes when he is alone."

Abdalla took his tabor and played all the way into the hall before
Morgiana, who, when she came to the door, made a low obeisance by
way of asking leave to exhibit her skill, while Abdalla left off
playing. "Come in, Morgiana," said Ali Baba, "and let Cogia
Houssain see what you can do, that he may tell us what he thinks
of your performance."

Cogia Houssain, who did not expect this diversion after supper,
began to fear he should not be able to take advantage of the
opportunity he thought he had found; but hoped, if he now missed
his aim to secure it another time, by keeping up a friendly
correspondence with the father and son; therefore, though he could
have wished Ali Baba would have declined the dance, he pretended
to be obliged to him for it, and had the complaisance to express
his satisfaction at what he saw, which pleased his host.

As soon as Abdalla saw that Ali Baba and Cogia Houssain had done
talking, he began to play on the tabor, and accompanied it with an
air, to which Morgiana, who was an excellent performer, danced in
such a manner as would have created admiration in any company.

After she had danced several dances with much grace, she drew the
poniard, and holding it in her hand, began a dance, in which she
outdid herself, by the many different figures, light movements,
and the surprising leaps and wonderful exertions with which she
accompanied it. Sometimes she presented the poniard to one breast,
sometimes to another, and oftentimes seemed to strike her own. At
last she snatched the tabor from Abdalla with her left hand, and
holding the dagger in her right, presented the other side of the
tabor, after the manner of those who get a livelihood by dancing,
and solicit the liberality of the spectators.

Ali Baba put a piece of gold into the tabor, as did also his son;
and Cogia Houssain, seeing that she was coming to him, had pulled
his purse out of his bosom to make her a present; but while he was
putting his hand into it, Morgiana, with a courage and resolution
worthy of herself, plunged the poniard into his heart.

Ali Baba and his son, shocked at this action, cried out aloud.
"Unhappy woman!" exclaimed Ali Baba, "what have you done, to ruin
me and my family?" "It was to preserve, not to ruin you," answered
Morgiana; "for see here," continued she, opening the pretended
Cogia Houssain's garment, and showing the dagger, "what an enemy
you had entertained! Look well at him, and you will find him to be
both the fictitious oil merchant, and the captain of the gang of
forty robbers. Remember, too, that he would eat no salt with you;
and what would you have more to persuade you of his wicked design?
Before I saw him, I suspected him as soon as you told me you had
such a guest. I knew him, and you now find that my suspicion was
not groundless."

Ali Baba, who immediately felt the new obligation he had to
Morgiana for saving his life a second time, embraced her:
"Morgiana," said he, "I gave you your liberty, and then promised
you that my gratitude should not stop there, but that I would soon
give you higher proofs of its sincerity, which I now do by making
you my daughter-in-law." Then addressing himself to his son, he
said: "I believe you, son, to be so dutiful a child, that you will
not refuse Morgiana for your wife. You see that Cogia Houssain
sought your friendship with a treacherous design to take away my
life; and if he had succeeded, there is no doubt but he would have
sacrificed you also to his revenge. Consider, that by marrying
Morgiana you marry the preserver of my family and your own."

The son, far from showing any dislike, readily consented to the
marriage; not only because he would not disobey his father, but
also because it was agreeable to his inclination. After this they
thought of burying the captain of the robbers with his comrades,
and did it so privately that nobody discovered their bones till
many years after, when no one had any concern in the publication
of this remarkable history. A few days afterward Ali Baba
celebrated the nuptials of his son and Morgiana with great
solemnity, a sumptuous feast, and the usual dancing and
spectacles; and had the satisfaction to see that his friends and
neighbors, whom he invited, had no knowledge of the true motives
of the marriage; but that those who were not unacquainted with
Morgiana's good qualities, commended his generosity and goodness
of heart. Ali Baba did not visit the robbers' cave for a whole
year, as he supposed the other two might be alive.

At the year's end, when he found they had not made any attempt to
disturb him, he had the curiosity to make another journey. He
mounted his horse, and when he came to the cave he alighted, tied
his horse to a tree, then approaching the entrance, and
pronouncing the words, "Open, Sesame!" the door opened. He entered
the cavern and by the condition he found things in, judged that
nobody had been there since the captain had fetched the goods for
his shop. From this time he believed he was the only person in the
world who had the secret of opening the cave, and that all the
treasure was at his sole disposal. He put as much gold into his
saddle-bag as his horse could carry, and returned to town. Some
years later he carried his son to the cave and taught him the
secret, which descended to his posterity, who, using their good-
fortune with moderation, lived in honor and splendor.


There once lived, in one of the large and rich cities of China, a
tailor, named Mustapha. He was very poor. He could hardly, by his
daily labor, maintain himself and his family, which consisted only
of his wife and a son.

His son, who was called Aladdin, was a very careless and idle
fellow. He was disobedient to his father and mother, and would go
out early in the morning and stay out all day, playing in the
streets and public places with idle children of his own age.

When he was old enough to learn a trade, his father took him into
his own shop, and taught him how to use his needle; but all his
father's endeavors to keep him to his work were vain, for no
sooner was his back turned than he was gone for that day. Mustapha
chastised him; but Aladdin was incorrigible, and his father, to
his great grief, was forced to abandon him to his idleness, and
was so much troubled about him that he fell sick and died in a few

Aladdin, who was now no longer restrained by the fear of a father,
gave himself entirely over to his idle habits, and was never out
of the streets from his companions. This course he followed till
he was fifteen years old, without giving his mind to any useful
pursuit, or the least reflection on what would become of him. As
he was one day playing, according to custom, in the street with
his evil associates, a stranger passing by stood to observe him.

This stranger was a sorcerer, known as the African magician, as he
had been but two days arrived from Africa, his native country.

The African magician, observing in Aladdin's countenance something
which assured him that he was a fit boy for his purpose, inquired
his name and history of some of his companions; and when he had
learned all he desired to know, went up to him, and taking him
aside from his comrades, said, "Child, was not your father called
Mustapha the tailor?" "Yes, sir," answered the boy; "but he has
been dead a long time."

At these words the African magician threw his arms about Aladdin's
neck, and kissed him several times, with tears in his eyes, and
said, "I am your uncle. Your worthy father was my own brother. I
knew you at first sight; you are so like him." Then he gave
Aladdin a handful of small money, saying, "Go, my son, to your
mother, give my love to her, and tell her that I will visit her
to-morrow, that I may see where my good brother lived so long, and
ended his days."

Aladdin ran to his mother, overjoyed at the money his uncle had
given him. "Mother," said he, "have I an uncle?" "No, child,"
replied his mother, "you have no uncle by your father's side or
mine." "I am just now come," said Aladdin, "from a man who says he
is my uncle and my father's brother. He cried and kissed me when I
told him my father was dead, and gave me money, sending his love
to you, and promising to come and pay you a visit, that he may see
the house my father lived and died in." "Indeed, child," replied
the mother, "your father had no brother, nor have you an uncle."

The next day the magician found Aladdin playing in another part of
the town, and embracing him as before, put two pieces of gold into
his hand, and said to him, "Carry this, child, to your mother.
Tell her that I will come and see her to-night, and bid her get us
something for supper; but first show me the house where you live."

Aladdin showed the African magician the house, and carried the two
pieces of gold to his mother, who went out and bought provisions;
and, considering she wanted various utensils, borrowed them of her
neighbors. She spent the whole day in preparing the supper; and at
night, when it was ready, said to her son, "Perhaps the stranger
knows not how to find our house; go and bring him, if you meet
with him."

Aladdin was just ready to go, when the magician knocked at the
door, and came in loaded with wine and all sorts of fruits, which
he brought for a dessert. After he had given what he brought into
Aladdin's hands, he saluted his mother, and desired her to show
him the place where his brother Mustapha used to sit on the sofa;
and when she had done so, he fell down and kissed it several
times, crying out, with tears in his eyes, "My poor brother! how
unhappy am I, not to have come soon enough to give you one last
embrace!" Aladdin's mother desired him to sit down in the same
place, but he declined.

"No," said he, "I shall not do that; but give me leave to sit
opposite to it, that, although I see not the master of a family
so dear to me, I may at least behold the place where he used to

When the magician had made choice of a place, and sat down, he
began to enter into discourse with Aladdin's mother. "My good
sister," said he, "do not be surprised at your never having seen
me all the time you have been married to my brother Mustapha of
happy memory. I have been forty years absent from this country,
which is my native place, as well as my late brother's; and during
that time have travelled into the Indies, Persia, Arabia, Syria,
and Egypt, and afterward crossed over into Africa, where I took up
my abode. At last, as it is natural for a man, I was desirous to
see my native country again, and to embrace my dear brother; and
finding I had strength enough to undertake so long a journey, I
made the necessary preparations, and set out. Nothing ever
afflicted me so much as hearing of my brother's death. But God be
praised for all things! It is a comfort for me to find, as it
were, my brother in a son who has his most remarkable features."

The African magician, perceiving that the widow wept at the
remembrance of her husband, changed the conversation, and turning
toward her son, asked him, "What business do you follow? Are you
of any trade?"

At this question the youth hung down his head, and was not a
little abashed when his mother answered, "Aladdin is an idle
fellow. His father, when alive, strove all he could to teach him
his trade, but could not succeed; and since his death, notwithstanding
all I can say to him, he does nothing but idle away his
time in the streets, as you saw him, without considering
he is no longer a child; and if you do not make him ashamed of it,
I despair of his ever coming to any good. For my part, I am
resolved, one of these days, to turn him out of doors, and let him
provide for himself."

After these words Aladdin's mother burst into tears; and the
magician said, "This is not well, nephew; you must think of
helping yourself, and getting your livelihood. There are many
sorts of trades. Perhaps you do not like your father's, and would
prefer another; I will endeavor to help you. If you have no mind
to learn any handicraft, I will take a shop for you, furnish it
with all sorts of fine stuffs and linens, and then with the money
you make of them you can lay in fresh goods, and live in an
honorable way. Tell me freely what you think of my proposal; you
shall always find me ready to keep my word."

This plan just suited Aladdin, who hated work. He told the
magician he had a greater inclination to that business than to any
other, and that he should be much obliged to him for his kindness.
"Well, then," said the African magician, "I will carry you with me
to-morrow, clothe you as handsomely as the best merchants in the
city, and afterward we will open a shop as I mentioned."

The widow, after his promises of kindness to her son, no longer
doubted that the magician was her husband's brother. She thanked
him for his good intentions; and after having exhorted Aladdin to
render himself worthy of his uncle's favor, served up supper, at
which they talked of several indifferent matters; and then the
magician took his leave and retired.

He came again the next day, as he had promised, and took Aladdin
with him to a merchant, who sold all sorts of clothes for
different ages and ranks ready made, and a variety of fine stuffs,
and bade Aladdin choose those he preferred, which he paid for.

When Aladdin found himself so handsomely equipped, he returned his
uncle thanks, who thus addressed him: "As you are soon to be a
merchant, it is proper you should frequent these shops, and be
acquainted with them." He then showed him the largest and finest
mosques, carried him to the khans or inns where the merchants and
travellers lodged, and afterward to the sultan's palace, where he
had free access; and at last brought him to his own khan, where,
meeting with some merchants he had become acquainted with since
his arrival, he gave them a treat, to make them and his pretended
nephew acquainted.

This entertainment lasted till night, when Aladdin would have
taken leave of his uncle to go home; the magician would not let
him go by himself, but conducted him to his mother, who, as soon
as she saw him so well dressed, was transported with joy, and
bestowed a thousand blessings upon the magician.

Early the next morning, the magician called again for Aladdin, and
said he would take him to spend that day in the country, and on
the next he would purchase the shop. He then led him out at one of
the gates of the city, to some magnificent palaces, to each of
which belonged beautiful gardens, into which anybody might enter.
At every building he came to, he asked Aladdin if he did not think
it fine; and the youth was ready to answer, when any one presented
itself, crying out, "Here is a finer house, uncle, than any we
have yet seen." By this artifice the cunning magician led Aladdin
some way into the country; and as, he meant to carry him further,
to execute his design, he took an opportunity to sit down in one
of the gardens, on the brink of a fountain of clear water, which
discharged itself by a lion's mouth of bronze into a basin,
pretending to be tired. "Come, nephew," said he, "you must be
weary, as well as I; let us rest ourselves, and we shall be better
able to pursue our walk."

The magician next pulled from his girdle a handkerchief with cakes
and fruit, and during this short repast he exhorted his nephew to
leave off bad company, and to seek that of wise and prudent men,
to improve by their conversation; "for," said he, "you will soon
be at man's estate, and you cannot too early begin to imitate
their example." When they had eaten as much as they liked, they
got up, and pursued their walk through gardens separated from one
another only by small ditches, which marked out the limits without
interrupting the communication, so great was the confidence the
inhabitants reposed in each other. By this means the African
magician drew Aladdin insensibly beyond the gardens, and crossed
the country till they nearly reached the mountains.

At last they arrived between two mountains of moderate height,
and equal size, divided by a narrow valley, which was the place
where the magician intended to execute the design that had brought
him from Africa to China. "We will go no further now," said he to
Aladdin; "I will show you here some extraordinary things, which,
when you have seen, you will thank me for; but while I strike a
light, gather up all the loose dry sticks you can see, to kindle a
fire with."

Aladdin found so many dried sticks that he soon collected a great
heap. The magician presently set them on fire; and when they were
in a blaze, threw in some incense, pronouncing several magical
words which Aladdin did not understand.

He had scarcely done so when the earth opened just before the
magician, and discovered a stone with a brass ring fixed in it.
Aladdin was so frightened that he would have run away, but the
magician caught hold of him, and gave him such a box on the ear
that he knocked him down. Aladdin got up trembling, and, with
tears in his eyes, said to the magician: "What have I done, uncle,
to be treated in this severe manner?" "I am your uncle," answered
the magician; "I supply the place of your father, and you ought to
make no reply. But child," added he, softening, "do not be afraid;
for I shall not ask anything of you, but that you obey me
punctually, if you would reap the advantages which I intend you.
Know, then, that under this stone there is hidden a treasure,
destined to be yours, and which will make you richer than the
greatest monarch in the world. No person but yourself is permitted
to lift this stone, or enter the cave; so you must punctually
execute what I may command, for it is a matter of great
consequence both to you and me."

Aladdin, amazed at all he saw and heard, forgot what was past,
and, rising, said: "Well, uncle, what is to be done? Command me, I
am ready to obey." "I am overjoyed, child," said the African
magician, embracing him. "Take hold of the ring, and lift up that
stone." "Indeed, uncle," replied Aladdin, "I am not strong enough;
you must help me." "You have no occasion for my assistance,"
answered the magician; "if I help you, we shall be able to do
nothing. Take hold of the ring and lift it up; you will find it
will come easily." Aladdin did as the magician bade him, raised
the stone with ease, and laid it on one side.

When the stone was pulled up, there appeared a staircase about
three or four feet deep, leading to a door. "Descend, my son,"
said the African magician, "those steps, and open that door. It
will lead you into a palace, divided into three great halls. In
each of these you will see four large brass cisterns placed on
each side, full of gold and silver; but take care you do not
meddle with them. Before you enter the first hall, be sure to tuck
up your robe, wrap it about you, and then pass through the second
into the third without stopping. Above all things, have a care
that you do not touch the walls, so much as with your clothes; for
if you do, you will die instantly. At the end of the third hall,
you will find a door which opens into a garden, planted with fine
trees loaded with fruit. Walk directly across the garden to a
terrace, where you will see a niche before you, and in that niche
a lighted lamp. Take the lamp down, and put it out. When you have
thrown away the wick and poured out the liquor, put it in your
waistband and bring it to me. Do not be afraid that the liquor
will spoil your clothes, for it is not oil, and the lamp will be
dry as soon as it is thrown out."

After these words the magician drew a ring off his finger, and put
it on one of Aladdin's, saying: "It is a talisman against all
evil, so long as you obey me. Go, therefore, boldly, and we shall
both be rich all our lives."

Aladdin descended the steps, and, opening the door, found the
three halls just as the African magician had described. He went
through them with all the precaution the fear of death could
inspire, crossed the garden without stopping, took down the lamp
from the niche, threw out the wick and the liquor, and, as the
magician had desired, put it in his waistband. But as he came down
from the terrace, seeing it was perfectly dry, he stopped in the
garden to observe the trees, which were loaded with extraordinary
fruit, of different colors on each tree. Some bore fruit entirely
white, and some clear and transparent as crystal; some pale red,
and others deeper; some green, blue, and purple, and others
yellow; in short, there was fruit of all colors. The white were
pearls; the clear and transparent, diamonds; the deep red, rubies;
the paler, balas rubies; the green, emeralds; the blue,
turquoises; the purple, amethysts; and the yellow, topazes.
Aladdin, ignorant of their value, would have preferred figs, or
grapes, or pomegranates; but as he had his uncle's permission, he
resolved to gather some of every sort. Having filled the two new
purses his uncle had bought for him with his clothes, he wrapped
some up in the skirts of his vest, and crammed his bosom as full
as it could hold.

Aladdin, having thus loaded himself with riches of which he knew
not the value, returned through the three halls with the utmost
precaution, and soon arrived at the mouth of the cave, where the
African magician awaited him with the utmost impatience. As soon
as Aladdin saw him, he cried out, "Pray, uncle, lend me your hand,
to help me out." "Give me the lamp first," replied the magician;
"it will be troublesome to you." "Indeed, uncle," answered
Aladdin, "I cannot now, but I will as soon as I am up." The
African magician was determined that he would have the lamp before
he would help him up; and Aladdin, who had encumbered himself so
much with his fruit that he could not well get at it, refused to
give it him till he was out of the cave. The African magician,
provoked at this obstinate refusal, flew into a passion, threw a
little of his incense into the fire, and pronounced two magical
words, when the stone which had closed the mouth of the staircase
moved into its place, with the earth over it in the same manner as
it lay at the arrival of the magician and Aladdin.

This action of the magician plainly revealed to Aladdin that he
was no uncle of his, but one who designed him evil. The truth was
that he had learned from his magic books the secret and the value
of this wonderful lamp, the owner of which would be made richer
than any earthly ruler, and hence his journey to China. His art
had also told him that he was not permitted to take it himself,
but must receive it as a voluntary gift from the hands of another
person. Hence he employed young Aladdin, and hoped by a mixture of
kindness and authority to make him obedient to his word and will.
When he found that his attempt had failed, he set out to return to
Africa, but avoided the town, lest any person who had seen him
leave in company with Aladdin should make inquiries after the
youth. Aladdin being suddenly enveloped in darkness, cried, and
called out to his uncle to tell him he was ready to give him the
lamp; but in vain, since his cries could not be heard. He
descended to the bottom of the steps, with a design to get into
the palace, but the door, which was opened before by enchantment,
was now shut by the same means. He then redoubled his cries and
tears, sat down on the steps without any hopes of ever seeing
light again, and in an expectation of passing from the present
darkness to a speedy death. In this great emergency he said,
"There is no strength or power but in the great and high God"; and
in joining his hands to pray he rubbed the ring which the magician
had put on his finger. Immediately a genie of frightful aspect
appeared, and said, "What wouldst thou have? I am ready to obey
thee. I serve him who possesses the ring on thy finger; I and the
other slaves of that ring." At another time Aladdin would
have been frightened at the sight of so extraordinary a figure,
but the danger he was in made him answer without hesitation,
"Whoever thou art, deliver me from this place."

He had no sooner spoken these words than he found himself on the
very spot where the magician had last left him, and no sign of
cave or opening, nor disturbance of the earth. Returning God
thanks to find himself once more in the world, he made the best of
his way home. When he got within his mother's door, the joy to see
her and his weakness for want of sustenance made him so faint that
he remained for a long time as dead. As soon as he recovered he
related to his mother all that had happened to him, and they were
both very vehement in their complaints of the cruel magician.
Aladdin slept very soundly till late the next morning, when the
first thing he said to his mother was that he wanted something to
eat, and wished she would give him his breakfast.

"Alas! child," said she, "I have not a bit of bread to give you:
you ate up all the provisions I had in the house yesterday; but I
have a little cotton, which I have spun; I will go and sell it,
and buy bread and something for our dinner."

"Mother," replied Aladdin, "keep your cotton for another time, and
give me the lamp I brought home with me yesterday; I will go and
sell it, and the money I shall get for it will serve both for
breakfast and dinner, and perhaps supper too."

Aladdin's mother took the lamp, and said to her son, "Here it is,
but it is very dirty; if it was a little cleaner I believe it
would bring something more." She took some fine sand and water to
clean it; but had no sooner begun to rub it than in an instant a
hideous genie of gigantic size appeared before her, and said to
her in a voice of thunder, "What wouldst thou have? I am ready to
obey thee as thy slave, and the slave of all those who have that
lamp in their hands; I and the other slaves of the lamp."

Aladdin's mother, terrified at the sight of the genie, fainted;
when Aladdin, who had seen such a phantom in the cavern, snatched
the lamp out of his mother's hand, and said to the genie boldly,
"I am hungry; bring me something to eat." The genie disappeared
immediately, and in an instant returned with a large silver tray,
holding twelve covered dishes of the same metal, which contained
the most delicious viands; six large white bread cakes on two
plates, two flagons of wine, and two silver cups. All these he
placed upon a carpet, and disappeared; this was done before
Aladdin's mother recovered from her swoon.

Aladdin had fetched some water, and sprinkled it in her face to
recover her. Whether that or the smell of the meat effected her
cure, it was not long before she came to herself. "Mother" said
Aladdin, "be not afraid; get up and eat; here is what will put you
in heart, and at the same time satisfy my extreme hunger."

His mother was much surprised to see the great tray, twelve
dishes, six loaves, the two flagons and cups, and to smell the
savory odor which exhaled from the dishes. "Child," said she, "to
whom are we obliged for this great plenty and liberality? Has the
sultan been made acquainted with our poverty, and had compassion
on us?" "It is no matter, mother," said Aladdin, "let us sit down
and eat; for you have almost as much need of a good breakfast as
myself; when we have done, I will tell you."

Accordingly, both mother and son sat down, and ate with the better
relish as the table was so well furnished. But all the time
Aladdin's mother could not forbear looking at and admiring the
tray and dishes, though she could not judge whether they were
silver or any other metal, and the novelty more than the value
attracted her attention.

The mother and son sat at breakfast till it was dinner time, and
then they thought it would be best to put the two meals together;
yet after this they found they should have enough left for supper,
and two meals for the next day.

When Aladdin's mother had taken away and set by what was left, she
went and sat down by her son on the sofa, saying, "I expect now
that you should satisfy my impatience, and tell me exactly what
passed between the genie and you while I was in a swoon"; which he
readily complied with.

She was in as great amazement at what her son told her as at the
appearance of the genie; and said to him, "But, son, what have we
to do with genies? I never heard that any of my acquaintance had
ever seen one. How came that vile genie to address himself to me,
and not to you, to whom he had appeared before in the cave?"
"Mother," answered Aladdin, "the genie you saw is not the one who
appeared to me. If you remember, he that I first saw called
himself the slave of the ring on my finger; and this you saw
called himself the slave of the lamp you had in your hand; but I
believe you did not hear him, for I think you fainted as soon as
he began to speak."

"What!" cried the mother, "was your lamp, then, the occasion of
that cursed genie's addressing himself rather to me than to you?
Ah! my son, take it out of my sight, and put it where you please.
I had rather you would sell it than run the hazard of being
frightened to death again by touching it; and if you would take my
advice you would part also with the ring, and not have anything to
do with genies, who, as our prophet has told us, are only devils."

"With your leave, mother," replied Aladdin, "I shall now take care
how I sell a lamp which may be so serviceable both to you and me.
That false and wicked magician would not have undertaken so long a
journey to secure this wonderful lamp if he had not known its
value to exceed that of gold and silver. And since we have
honestly come by it, let us make a profitable use of it, without
making any great show, and exciting the envy and jealousy of our
neighbors. However, since the genies frighten you so much I will
take it out of your sight, and put it where I may find it when I
want it. The ring I cannot resolve to part with; for without that
you had never seen me again; and though I am alive now, perhaps,
if it were gone, I might not be so some moments hence; therefore,
I hope you will give me leave to keep it, and to wear it always on
my finger."

Aladdin's mother replied that he might do what he pleased; for
her part she would have nothing to do with genies, and never say
anything more about them.

By the next night they had eaten all the provisions the genie had
brought; and the next day Aladdin, who could not bear the thought
of hunger, putting one of the silver dishes under his vest, went
out early to sell it, and addressing himself to a Jew whom he met
in the streets, took him aside, and pulling out the plate, asked
him if he would buy it. The cunning Jew took the dish, examined
it, and as soon as he found that it was good silver asked Aladdin
at how much he valued it. Aladdin, who had never been used to such
traffic, told him he would trust to his judgment and honor. The
Jew was somewhat confounded at this plain dealing; and doubting
whether Aladdin understood the material or the full value of what
he offered to sell, took a piece of gold out of his purse and gave
it him, though it was but the sixtieth part of the worth of the
plate. Aladdin, taking the money very eagerly, retired with so
much haste that the Jew, not content with the exorbitancy of his
profit, was vexed he had not penetrated into his ignorance, and
was going to run after him, to endeavor to get some change out of
the piece of gold; but he ran so fast, and had got so far, that it
would have been impossible for him to overtake him.

Before Aladdin went home he called at a baker's, bought some cakes
of bread, changed his money, and on his return gave the rest to
his mother, who went and purchased provisions enough to last them
some time. After this manner they lived, till Aladdin had sold the
twelve dishes singly, as necessity pressed, to the Jew, for the
same money; who, after the first time, durst not offer him less
for fear of losing so good a bargain. When he had sold the last
dish he had recourse to the tray, which weighed ten times as much
as the dishes, and would have carried it to his old purchaser, but
that it was too large and cumbersome; therefore he was obliged to
bring him home with him to his mother's, where, after the Jew had
examined the weight of the tray, he laid down ten pieces of gold,
with which Aladdin was very well satisfied.

When all the money was spent, Aladdin had recourse again to the
lamp. He took it in his hand, looked for that part where his
mother had rubbed it with the sand, rubbed it also, when the genie
immediately appeared, and said, "What wouldst thou have? I am
ready to obey thee as thy slave, and the slave of all those who
have that lamp in their hands; I and the other slaves of the
lamp." "I am hungry," said Aladdin; "bring me something to eat."
The genie disappeared, and presently returned with a tray, the
same number of covered dishes as before, set them down, and

As soon as Aladdin found that their provisions were again
expended, he took one of the dishes, and went to look for his Jew
chapman; but passing by a goldsmith's shop, the goldsmith
perceiving him called to him and said, "My lad, I imagine that you
have something to sell to the Jew, whom I often see you visit; but
perhaps you do not know that he is the greatest rogue even among
the Jews.

I will give you the full worth of what you have to sell, or I will
direct you to other merchants who will not cheat you."

This offer induced Aladdin to pull his plate from under his vest
and show it to the goldsmith, who at first sight saw that it was
made of the finest silver, and asked him if he had sold such as
that to the Jew; when Aladdin told him that he had sold him twelve
such, for a piece of gold each. "What a villain!" cried the
goldsmith. "But," added he, "my son, what is past cannot be
recalled. By showing you the value of this plate, which is of the
finest silver we use in our shops, I will let you see how much the
Jew has cheated you."

The goldsmith took a pair of scales, weighed the dish, and assured
him that his plate would fetch by weight sixty pieces of gold,
which he offered to pay down immediately.

Aladdin thanked him for his fair dealing, and never after went to
any other person.

Though Aladdin and his mother had an inexhaustible treasure in
their lamp, and might have had whatever they wished for, yet they
lived with the same frugality as before, and it may easily be
supposed that the money for which Aladdin had sold the dishes and
tray was sufficient to maintain them some time.

During this interval, Aladdin frequented the shops of the
principal merchants, where they sold cloth of gold and silver,
linens, silk stuffs, and jewelry, and oftentimes joining in their
conversation, acquired a knowledge of the world and a desire to
improve himself. By his acquaintance among the jewellers he came
to know that the fruits which he had gathered when he took the
lamp were, instead of colored glass, stones of inestimable value;
but he had the prudence not to mention this to anyone, not even to
his mother.

One day as Aladdin was walking about the town he heard an order
proclaimed commanding the people to shut up their shops and
houses, and keep within doors while the Princess Buddir al
Buddoor, the sultan's daughter, went to the bath and returned.

This proclamation inspired Aladdin with an eager desire to see
the princess's face, which he determined to gratify by placing
himself behind the door of the bath, so that he could not fail to
see her face.

Aladdin had not long concealed himself before the princess came.
She was attended by a great crowd of ladies, slaves, and mutes,
who walked on each side and behind her. When she came within three
or four paces of the door of the bath, she took off her veil, and
gave Aladdin an opportunity of a full view of her face.

The princess was a noted beauty: her eyes were large, lively, and
sparkling; her smile bewitching; her nose faultless; her mouth
small; her lips vermilion. It is not therefore surprising that
Aladdin, who had never before seen such a blaze of charms, was
dazzled and enchanted.

After the princess had passed by, and entered the bath, Aladdin
quitted his hiding-place and went home. His mother perceived him
to be more thoughtful and melancholy than usual, and asked what
had happened to make him so, or if he was ill. He then told his
mother all his adventure, and concluded by declaring, "I love the
princess more than I can express, and am resolved that I will ask
her in marriage of the sultan."

Aladdin's mother listened with surprise to what her son told her;
but when he talked of asking the princess in marriage, she laughed
aloud. "Alas! child," said she, "what are you thinking of? You
must be mad to talk thus."

"I assure you, mother," replied Aladdin, "that I am not mad, but
in my right senses. I foresaw that you would reproach me with
folly and extravagance; but I must tell you once more that I am
resolved to demand the princess of the sultan in marriage, nor do
I despair of success. I have the slaves of the Lamp and of the
Ring to help me, and you know how powerful their aid is. And I
have another secret to tell you: those pieces of glass, which I
got from the trees in the garden of the subterranean palace, are
jewels of inestimable value, and fit for the greatest monarchs.
All the precious stones the jewellers have in Bagdad are not to be
compared to mine for size or beauty; and I am sure that the offer
of them will secure the favor of the sultan. You have a large
porcelain dish fit to hold them; fetch it, and let us see how they
will look, when we have arranged them according to their different

Aladdin's mother brought the china dish, when he took the jewels
out of the two purses in which he had kept them, and placed them
in order according to his fancy. But the brightness and lustre
they emitted in the daytime, and the variety of the colors, so
dazzled the eyes both of mother and son that they were astonished
beyond measure. Aladdin's mother, emboldened by the sight of these
rich jewels, and fearful lest her son should be guilty of greater
extravagance, complied with his request, and promised to go early
in the next morning to the palace of the sultan. Aladdin rose
before daybreak, awakened his mother, pressing her to go to the
sultan's palace, and to get admittance, if possible, before the
grand vizier, the other viziers, and the great officers of state
went in to take their seats in the divan, where the sultan always
attended in person.

page 27 From the painting by Edmund Dulac]

Aladdin's mother took the china dish, in which they had put the
jewels the day before, wrapped it in two fine napkins, and set
forward for the sultan's palace. When she came to the gates, the
grand vizier, the other viziers, and most distinguished lords of
the court were just gone in; but notwithstanding the crowd of
people was great, she got into the divan, a spacious hall, the
entrance into which was very magnificent. She placed herself just
before the sultan, grand vizier, and the great lords, who sat in
council on his right and left hand. Several causes were called,
according to their order, pleaded and adjudged, until the time the
divan generally broke up, when the sultan, rising, returned to his
apartment, attended by the grand vizier; the other viziers and
ministers of state then retired, as also did all those whose
business had called them thither.

Aladdin's mother, seeing the sultan retire, and all the people
depart, judged rightly that he would not sit again that day, and
resolved to go home; and on her arrival said, with much
simplicity, "Son, I have seen the sultan, and am very well
persuaded he has seen me too, for I placed myself just before him;
but he was so much taken up with those who attended on all sides
of him, that I pitied him and wondered at his patience. At last I
believe he was heartily tired, for he rose up suddenly, and would
not hear a great many who were ready prepared to speak to him, but
went away, at which I was well pleased, for indeed I began to lose
all patience, and was extremely fatigued with staying so long. But
there is no harm done: I will go again tomorrow; perhaps the
sultan may not be so busy."

The next morning she repaired to the sultan's palace with the
present, as early as the day before; but when she came there she
found the gates of the divan shut. She went six times afterward on
the days appointed, placed herself always directly before the
sultan, but with as little success as the first morning.

On the sixth day, however, after the divan was broken up, when the
sultan returned to his own apartment, he said to his grand vizier,
"I have for some time observed a certain woman, who attends
constantly every day that I give audience, with something wrapped
up in a napkin; she always stands up from the beginning to the
breaking up of the audience, and affects to place herself just
before me. If this woman comes to our next audience, do not fail
to call her, that I may hear what she has to say." The grand
vizier made answer by lowering his hand, and then lifting it up
above his head, signifying his willingness to lose it if he

On the next audience day, when Aladdin's mother went to the divan,
and placed herself in front of the sultan as usual, the grand
vizier immediately called the chief of the mace-bearers, and,
pointing to her, bade him bring her before the sultan. The old
woman at once followed the mace-bearer, and when she reached the
sultan, bowed her head down to the carpet which covered the
platform of the throne, and remained in that posture till he bade
her rise, which she had no sooner done than he said to her, "Good
woman, I have observed you to stand many days, from the beginning
to the rising of the divan; what business brings you here?"

After these words, Aladdin's mother prostrated herself a second
time, and, when she arose, said, "Monarch of monarchs I beg of you
to pardon the boldness of my petition, and to assure me of your
pardon and forgiveness." "Well,". replied the sultan, "I will
forgive you, be it what it may, and no hurt shall come to you.
Speak boldly."

When Aladdin's mother had taken all these precautions for fear of
the sultan's anger, she told him faithfully the errand on which
her son had sent her, and the event which led to his making so
bold a request in spite of all her remonstrances.

The sultan hearkened to this discourse without showing the least
anger; but, before he gave her any answer, asked her what she had
brought tied up in the napkin. She took the china dish, which she
had set down at the foot of the throne, untied it, and presented
it to the sultan.

The sultan's amazement and surprise were inexpressible when he saw
so many large, beautiful, and valuable jewels collected in the
dish. He remained for some time lost in admiration. At last, when
he had recovered himself, he received the present from Aladdin's
mother's hand, saying, "How rich! how beautiful!" After he had
admired and handled all the jewels one after another, he turned to
his grand vizier, and, showing him the dish, said, "Behold!
admire! wonder! and confess that your eyes never beheld jewels so
rich and beautiful before!" The vizier was charmed. "Well,"
continued the sultan, "what sayest thou to such a present? Is it
not worthy of the princess my daughter? And ought I not to bestow
her on one who values her at so great a price?" "I cannot but
own," replied the grand vizier, "that the present is worthy of the
princess; but I beg of your majesty to grant me three months
before you come to a final resolution. I hope before that time my
son, whom you have regarded with your favor, will be able to make
a nobler present than this Aladdin, who is an entire stranger to
your majesty."

The sultan granted his request, and he said to the old woman,
"Good woman, go home, and tell your son that I agree to the
proposal you have made me; but I cannot marry the princess my
daughter for three months. At the expiration of that time come

Aladdin's mother returned home much more gratified than she had
expected, and told her son with much joy the condescending answer
she had received from the sultan's own mouth; and that she was to
come to the divan again that day three months.

Aladdin thought himself the most happy of all men at hearing this
news, and thanked his mother for the pains she had taken in the
affair, the good success of which was of so great importance to
his peace that he counted every day, week, and even hour as it
passed. When two of the three months were passed, his mother one
evening, having no oil in the house, went out to buy some, and
found a general rejoicing--the houses dressed with foliage, silks,
and carpeting, and every one striving to show their joy according
to their ability. The streets were crowded with officers in habits
of ceremony, mounted on horses richly caparisoned, each attended
by a great many footmen. Aladdin's mother asked the oil merchant
what was the meaning of all this preparation of public festivity.
"Whence came you, good woman," said he, "that you don't know that
the grand vizier's son is to marry the princess Buddir al Buddoor,
the sultan's daughter, to-night? She will presently return from
the bath; and these officers whom you see are to assist at the
cavalcade to the palace, where the ceremony is to be solemnized."

Aladdin's mother on hearing this news ran home very quickly.
"Child," cried she, "you are undone; the sultan's fine promise
will come to naught! This night the grand vizier's son is to marry
the Princess Buddir al Buddoor."

At this account Aladdin was thunderstruck, and he bethought
himself of the lamp, and of the genie who had promised to obey
him; and without indulging in idle words against the sultan, the
vizier, or his son, he determined, if possible, to prevent the

When Aladdin had got into his chamber, he took the lamp, rubbed it
in the same place as before, when immediately the genie appeared,
and said to him, "What wouldst thou have? I am ready to obey thee
as thy slave; I and the other slaves of the lamp." "Hear me," said
Aladdin. "Thou hast hitherto obeyed me; but now I am about to
impose on thee a harder task. The sultan's daughter, who was
promised me as my bride, is this night married to the son of the
grand vizier. Bring them both hither to me immediately they retire
to their bedchamber."

"Master," replied the genie, "I obey you."

Aladdin supped with his mother as was their wont, and then went to
his own apartment, and sat up to await the return of the genie,
according to his commands.

In the meantime, the festivities in honor of the princess's
marriage were conducted in the sultan's palace with great
magnificence. The ceremonies were at last brought to a conclusion,
and the princess and the son of the vizier retired to the
bedchamber prepared for them. No sooner had they entered it and
dismissed their attendants, than the genie, the faithful slave of
the lamp, to the great amazement and alarm of the bride and
bridegroom, took up the bed, and, by an agency invisible to them,
transported it in an instant into Aladdin's chamber, where he set
it down. "Remove the bridegroom," said Aladdin to the genie, "and
keep him a prisoner till to-morrow dawn, and then return with him
here." On Aladdin being left alone with the princess, he
endeavored to assuage her fears, and explained to her the
treachery practised upon him by the sultan her father. He then
laid himself down beside her, putting a drawn scimitar between
them, to show that he was determined to secure her safety, and to
treat her with the utmost possible respect. At break of day the
genie appeared at the appointed hour, bringing back the
bridegroom, whom, by breathing upon, he had left motionless and
entranced at the door of Aladdin's chamber during the night; and,
at Aladdin's command, transported the couch with the bride and
bridegroom on it, by the same invisible agency, into the palace of
the sultan.

At the instant that the genie had set down the couch with the
bride and bridegroom in their own chamber, the sultan came to the
door to offer his good wishes to his daughter.

The grand vizier's son, who was almost perished with cold by
standing in his thin under-garment all night, no sooner heard the
knocking at the door than he got out of bed and ran into the
robing chamber, where he had undressed himself the night before.

The sultan, having opened the door, went to the bedside, kissed
the princess on the forehead, but was extremely surprised to see
her look so melancholy. She only cast at him a sorrowful look,
expressive of great affliction. He suspected there was something
extraordinary in this silence, and thereupon went immediately to
the sultaness's apartment, told her in what a state he found the
princess, and how she had received him. "Sire," said the
sultaness, "I will go and see her; she will not receive me in the
same manner."

The princess received her mother with sighs and tears, and signs
of deep dejection. At last, upon her pressing on her the duty of
telling her all her thoughts, she gave to the sultaness a precise
description of all that happened to her during the night; on which
the sultaness enjoined on her the necessity of silence and
discretion, as no one would give credence to so strange a tale.
The grand vizier's son, elated with the honor of being the
sultan's son-in-law, kept silence on his part, and the events of
the night were not allowed to cast the least gloom on the
festivities on the following day, in continued celebration of the
royal marriage.

When night came the bride and bridegroom were again attended to
their chamber with the same ceremonies as on the preceding
evening. Aladdin, knowing that this would be so, had already given
his commands to the genie of the lamp; and no sooner were they
alone than their bed was removed in the same mysterious manner as
on the preceding evening; and having passed the night in the same
unpleasant way, they were in the morning conveyed to the palace of
the sultan. Scarcely had they been replaced in their apartment
than the sultan came to make his compliments to his daughter, when
the princess could no longer conceal from him the unhappy
treatment she had been subjected to, and told him all that had
happened, as she had already related it to her mother. The sultan,
on hearing these strange tidings, consulted with the grand vizier;
and finding from him that his son had been subjected to even worse
treatment by an invisible agency, he determined to declare the
marriage to be cancelled, and all the festivities, which were yet
to last for several days, to be countermanded and terminated.

This sudden change in the mind of the sultan gave rise to various
speculations and reports. Nobody but Aladdin knew the secret, and
he kept it with the most scrupulous silence; and neither the
sultan nor the grand vizier, who had forgotten Aladdin and his
request, had the least thought that he had any hand in the strange
adventures that befel the bride and bridegroom.

On the very day that the three months contained in the sultan's
promise expired, the mother of Aladdin again went to the palace,
and stood in the same place in the divan. The sultan knew her
again, and directed his vizier to have her brought before him.

After having prostrated herself she made answer, in reply to the
sultan: "Sire, I come at the end of three months to ask of you the
fulfilment of the promise you made to my son." The sultan little
thought the request of Aladdin's mother was made to him in
earnest, or that he would hear any more of the matter. He
therefore took counsel with his vizier, who suggested that the
sultan should attach such conditions to the marriage that no one
in the humble condition of Aladdin could possibly fulfil.

In accordance with this suggestion of the vizier, the sultan
replied to the mother of Aladdin: "Good woman, it is true sultans
ought to abide by their word, and I am ready to keep mine, by
making your son happy in marriage with the princess my daughter.
But as I cannot marry her without some further proof of your son
being able to support her in royal state, you may tell him I will
fulfil my promise as soon as he shall send me forty trays of massy
gold, full of the same sort of jewels you have already made me a
present of, and carried by the like number of black slaves, who
shall be led by as many young and handsome white slaves, all
dressed magnificently. On these conditions I am ready to bestow
the princess my daughter upon him; therefore, good woman, go and
tell him so, and I will wait till you bring me his answer."

Aladdin's mother prostrated herself a second time before the
sultan's throne, and retired. On her way home she laughed within
herself at her son's foolish imagination. "Where," said she, "can
he get so many large gold trays, and such precious stones to fill
them? It is altogether out of his power, and I believe he will not
be much pleased with my embassy this time." When she came home,
full of these thoughts, she told Aladdin all the circumstances of
her interview with the sultan, and the conditions on which he
consented to the marriage. "The sultan expects your answer
immediately," said she; and then added, laughing, "I believe he
may wait long enough!"

"Not so long, mother, as you imagine," replied Aladdin. "This
demand is a mere trifle, and will prove no bar to my marriage
with the princess. I will prepare at once to satisfy his request."

Aladdin retired to his own apartment and summoned the genie of the
lamp, and required him to immediately prepare and present the
gift, before the sultan closed his morning audience, according to
the terms in which it had been prescribed. The genie professed his
obedience to the owner of the lamp, and disappeared. Within a very
short time, a train of forty black slaves, led by the same number
of white slaves, appeared opposite the house in which Aladdin
lived. Each black slave carried on his head a basin of massy gold,
full of pearls, diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. Aladdin then
addressed his mother; "Madam, pray lose no time; before the sultan
and the divan rise, I would have you return to the palace with
this present as the dowry demanded for the princess, that he may
judge by my diligence and exactness of the ardent and sincere
desire I have to procure myself the honor of this alliance."

As soon as this magnificent procession, with Aladdin's mother at
its head, had begun to march from Aladdin's house, the whole city
was filled with the crowds of people desirous to see so grand a
sight. The graceful bearing, elegant form, and wonderful likeness
of each slave; their grave walk at an equal distance from each
other; the lustre of their jewelled girdles, and the brilliancy of
the aigrettes of precious stones in their turbans, excited the
greatest admiration in the spectators. As they had to pass through
several streets to the palace, the whole length of the way was
lined with files of spectators. Nothing, indeed, was ever seen so
beautiful and brilliant in the sultan's palace, and the richest
robes of the emirs of his court were not to be compared to the
costly dresses of these slaves, whom they supposed to be kings.

As the sultan, who had been informed of their approach, had given
orders for them to be admitted, they met with no obstacle, but
went into the divan in regular order, one part turning to the
right, and the other to the left. After they were all entered, and
had formed a semi-circle before the sultan's throne, the black
slaves laid the golden trays on the carpet, prostrated themselves,
touching the carpet with their foreheads, and at the same time the
white slaves did the same. When they rose, the black slaves
uncovered the trays, and then all stood with their arms crossed
over their breasts.

In the meantime, Aladdin's mother advanced to the foot of the
throne, and having prostrated herself, said to the sultan, "Sire,
my son knows this present is much below the notice of Princess
Buddir al Buddoor; but hopes, nevertheless, that your majesty will
accept of it, and make it agreeable to the princess, and with the
greater confidence since he has endeavored to conform to the
conditions you were pleased to impose."

The sultan, overpowered at the sight of such more than royal
magnificence, replied without hesitation to the words of Aladdin's
mother: "Go and tell your son that I wait with open arms to
embrace him; and the more haste he makes to come and receive the
princess my daughter from my hands, the greater pleasure he will
do me." As soon as Aladdin's mother had retired, the sultan put an
end to the audience; and rising from his throne, ordered that the
princess's attendants should come and carry the trays into their
mistress's apartment, whither he went himself to examine them with
her at his leisure. The fourscore slaves were conducted into the
palace; and the sultan, telling the princess of their magnificent
apparel, ordered them to be brought before her apartment, that she
might see through the lattices he had not exaggerated in his
account of them.

In the meantime Aladdin's mother reached home, and showed in her
air and countenance the good news she brought her son. "My son,"
said she, "you may rejoice you are arrived at the height of your
desires. The sultan has declared that you shall marry the Princess
Buddir al Buddoor. He waits for you with impatience."

Aladdin, enraptured with this news, made his mother very little
reply, but retired to his chamber. There he rubbed his lamp, and
the obedient genie appeared. "Genie," said Aladdin, "convey me at
once to a bath, and supply me with the richest and most
magnificent robe ever worn by a monarch."

No sooner were the words out of his mouth than the genie rendered
him, as well as himself, invisible, and transported him into a
hummum of the finest marble of all sorts of colors, where he was
undressed, without seeing by whom, in a magnificent and spacious
hall. He was then well rubbed and washed with various scented
waters. After he had passed through several degrees of heat, he
came out quite a different man from what he was before. His skin
was clear as that of a child, his body lightsome and free; and
when he returned into the hall, he found, instead of his own poor
raiment, a robe the magnificence of which astonished him. The
genie helped him to dress, and when he had done, transported him
back to his own chamber, where he asked him if he had any other
commands. "Yes," answered Aladdin; "bring me a charger that
surpasses in beauty and goodness the best in the sultan's stables,
with a saddle, bridle, and other caparisons to correspond with his
value. Furnish also twenty slaves, as richly clothed as those who
carried the present to the sultan, to walk by my side and follow
me, and twenty more to go before me in two ranks. Besides these,
bring my mother six women slaves to attend her, as richly dressed
at least as any of the Princess Buddir al Buddoor's, each carrying
a complete dress fit for any sultaness. I want also ten thousand
pieces of gold in ten purses; go, and make haste,"

As soon as Aladdin had given these orders, the genie disappeared,
but presently returned with the horse, the forty slaves, ten of
whom carried each a purse containing ten thousand pieces of gold,
and six women slaves, each carrying on her head a different dress
for Aladdin's mother, wrapped up in a piece of silver tissue, and
presented them all to Aladdin.

He presented the six women slaves to his mother, telling her they
were her slaves, and that the dresses they had brought were for
her use. Of the ten purses Aladdin took four, which he gave to his
mother, telling her those were to supply her with necessaries; the
other six he left in the hands of the slaves who brought them,
with an order to throw them by handfuls among the people as they
went to the sultan's palace. The six slaves who carried the purses
he ordered likewise to march before him, three on the right hand
and three on the left.

When Aladdin had thus prepared himself for his first interview
with the sultan, he dismissed the genie, and immediately mounting
his charger, began his march, and though he never was on horseback
before, appeared with a grace the most experienced horseman might
envy. The innumerable concourse of people through whom he passed
made the air echo with their acclamations, especially every time
the six slaves who carried the purses threw handfuls of gold among
the populace.

On Aladdin's arrival at the palace, the sultan was surprised to
find him more richly and magnificently robed than he had ever been
himself, and was impressed with his good looks and dignity of
manner, which were so different from what he expected in the son
of one so humble as Aladdin's mother. He embraced him with all the
demonstrations of joy, and when he would have fallen at his feet,
held him by the hand, and made him sit near his throne. He shortly
after led him, amid the sounds of trumpets, hautboys, and all
kinds of music, to a magnificent entertainment, at which the
sultan and Aladdin ate by themselves, and the great lords of the
court, according to their rank and dignity, sat at different
tables. After the feast the sultan sent for the chief cadi, and
commanded him to draw up a contract of marriage between the
Princess Buddir al Buddoor and Aladdin. When the contract had been
drawn, the sultan asked Aladdin if he would stay in the palace and
complete the ceremonies of the marriage that day.

"Sire," said Aladdin, "though great is my impatience to enter on
the honor granted me by your majesty, yet I beg you to permit me
first to build a palace worthy to receive the princess your
daughter. I pray you to grant me sufficient ground near your
palace, and I will have it completed with the utmost expedition."

The sultan granted Aladdin his request, and again embraced him.
After which he took his leave with as much politeness as if he had
been bred up and had always lived at court.

Aladdin returned home in the order he had come, amid the
acclamations of the people, who wished him all happiness and
prosperity. As soon as he dismounted, he retired to his own
chamber, took the lamp, and summoned the genie as usual, who
professed his allegiance.

"Genie," said Aladdin, "build me a palace fit to receive the
Princess Buddir al Buddoor. Let its materials be made of nothing
less than porphyry, jasper, agate, lapis-lazuli, and the finest
marble. Let its walls be massive gold and silver bricks laid
alternately. Let each front contain six windows, and let the
lattices of these (except one, which must be left unfinished) be
enriched with diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, so that they shall
exceed everything of the kind ever seen in the world. Let there be
an inner and outer court in front of the palace, and a spacious
garden; but, above all things, provide a safe treasure-house, and
fill it with gold and silver. Let there be also kitchens and
storehouses, stables full of the finest horses, with their
equerries and grooms, and hunting equipage, officers, attendants,
and slaves, both men and women, to form a retinue for the princess
and myself. Go and execute my wishes."

When Aladdin gave these commands to the genie the sun was set. The
next morning at daybreak the genie presented himself, and having
obtained Aladdin's consent, transported him in a moment to the
palace he had made. The genie led him through all the apartments,
where he found officers and slaves, habited according to their
rank and the services to which they were appointed. The genie then
showed him the treasury, which was opened by a treasurer, where
Aladdin saw large vases of different sizes, piled up to the top
with money, ranged all round the chamber. The genie thence led him
to the stables, where were some of the finest horses in the world,
and the grooms busy in dressing them; from thence they went to the
storehouses, which were filled with all things necessary, both for
food and ornament.

When Aladdin had examined every portion of the palace, and
particularly the hall with the four-and-twenty windows, and found
it to far exceed his fondest expectations, he said, "Genie, there
is one thing wanting--a fine carpet for the princess to walk upon
from the sultan's palace to mine. Lay one down immediately."

The genie disappeared, and Aladdin saw what he desired executed
in an instant. The genie then returned and carried him to his own

When the sultan's porters came to open the gates they were amazed
to find what had been an unoccupied garden filled up with a
magnificent palace, and a splendid carpet extending to it all the
way from the sultan's palace. They told the strange tidings to the
grand vizier, who informed the sultan, who exclaimed, "It must be
Aladdin's palace, which I gave him leave to build for my daughter.
He has wished to surprise us, and let us see what wonders can be
done in only one night."

Aladdin, on his being conveyed by the genie to his own home,
requested his mother to go to the Princess Buddir al Buddoor, and
tell her that the palace would be ready for her reception in the
evening. She went, attended by her women slaves, in the same order
as on the preceding day. Shortly after her arrival at the
princess's apartment, the sultan himself came in, and was
surprised to find her, whom he knew as his suppliant at his divan
in such humble guise, to be now more richly and sumptuously
attired than his own daughter. This gave him a higher opinion of
Aladdin, who took such care of his mother, and made her share his
wealth and honors. Shortly after her departure Aladdin, mounting
his horse, and attended by his retinue of magnificent attendants,
left his paternal home forever, and went to the palace in the same
pomp as on the day before. Nor did he forget to take with him the
wonderful lamp, to which he owed all his good-fortune, nor to wear
the ring which was given him as a talisman. The sultan entertained
Aladdin with the utmost magnificence, and at night, on the
conclusion of the marriage ceremonies, the princess took leave
of the sultan her father. Bands of music led the procession,
followed by a hundred state ushers, and the like number of black
mutes, in two files, with their officers at their head. Four
hundred of the sultan's young pages carried flambeaux on each
side, which, together with the illuminations of the sultan's and
Aladdin's palaces, made it as light as day. In this order the
princess, conveyed in her litter, and accompanied also by
Aladdin's mother, carried in a superb litter and attended by her
women slaves, proceeded on the carpet which was spread from the
sultan's palace to that of Aladdin. On her arrival Aladdin was
ready to receive her at the entrance, and led her into a large
hall, illuminated with an infinite number of wax candles, where a
noble feast was served up. The dishes were of massy gold, and
contained the most delicate viands. The vases, basins, and goblets
were gold also, and of exquisite workmanship, and all the other
ornaments and embellishments of the hall were answerable to this
display. The princess, dazzled to see so much riches collected in
one place, said to Aladdin: "I thought, prince, that nothing in
the world was so beautiful as the sultan my father's palace, but
the sight of this hall alone is sufficient to show I was

When the supper was ended, there entered a company of female
dancers, who performed, according to the custom of the country,
singing at the same time verses in praise of the bride and

About midnight Aladdin's mother conducted the bride to the nuptial
apartment, and he soon after retired.

The next morning the attendants of Aladdin presented themselves to
dress him, and brought him another habit, as rich and magnificent
as that worn the day before. He then ordered one of the horses to
be got ready, mounted him, and went in the midst of a large troop
of slaves to the sultan's palace, to entreat him to take a repast
in the princess's palace, attended by his grand vizier and all the
lords of his court. The sultan consented with pleasure, rose up
immediately, and, preceded by the principal officers of his
palace, and followed by all the great lords of his court,
accompanied Aladdin.

The nearer the sultan approached Aladdin's palace the more he was
struck with its beauty; but when he entered it, came into the
hall, and saw the windows enriched with diamonds, rubies,
emeralds, all large, perfect stones, he was completely surprised,
and said to his son-in-law: "This palace is one of the wonders of
the world; for where in all the world besides shall we find walls
built of massy gold and silver, and diamonds, rubies, and emeralds
composing the windows? But what most surprises me is that a hall
of this magnificence should be left with one of its windows
incomplete and unfinished." "Sire," answered Aladdin, "the
omission was by design, since I wished that you should have the
glory of finishing this hall." "I take your intention kindly,"
said the sultan, "and will give orders about it immediately."

After the sultan had finished this magnificent entertainment
provided for him and for his court by Aladdin, he was informed
that the jewellers and goldsmiths attended; upon which he returned
to the hall, and showed them the window which was unfinished. "I
sent for you," said he, "to fit up this window in as great
perfection as the rest. Examine them well, and make all the
despatch you can."

The jewellers and goldsmiths examined the three-and-twenty windows
with great attention, and after they had consulted together, to
know what each could furnish, they returned, and presented
themselves before the sultan, whose principal jeweller,
undertaking to speak for the rest, said: "Sire, we are all willing
to exert our utmost care and industry to obey you; but among us
all we cannot furnish jewels enough for so great a work." "I have
more than are necessary," said the sultan; "come to my palace, and
you shall choose what may answer your purpose."

When the sultan returned to his palace, he ordered his jewels to
be brought out, and the jewellers took a great quantity,
particularly those Aladdin had made him a present of, which they
soon used, without making any great advance in their work. They
came again several times for more, and in a month's time had not
finished half their work. In short, they used all the jewels the
sultan had, and borrowed of the vizier, but yet the work was not
half done.

Aladdin, who knew that all the sultan's endeavors to make this
window like the rest were in vain, sent for the jewellers and
goldsmiths, and not only commanded them to desist from their
work, but ordered them to undo what they had begun, and to carry
all their jewels back to the sultan and to the vizier. They undid
in a few hours what they had been six weeks about, and retired,
leaving Aladdin alone in the hall. He took the lamp, which he
carried about him, rubbed it, and presently the genie appeared.
"Genie," said Aladdin, "I ordered thee to leave one of the four-
and-twenty windows of this hall imperfect, and thou hast executed
my commands punctually; now I would have thee make it like the
rest." The genie immediately disappeared. Aladdin went out of the
hall, and returning soon after, found the window, as he wished it
to be, like the others.

In the meantime, the jewellers and goldsmiths repaired to the
palace, and were introduced into the sultan's presence, where the
chief jeweller presented the precious stones which he had brought
back. The sultan asked them if Aladdin had given them any reason
for so doing, and they answering that he had given them none, he
ordered a horse to be brought, which he mounted, and rode to his
son-in-law's palace, with some few attendants on foot, to inquire
why he had ordered the completion of the window to be stopped.
Aladdin met him at the gate, and without giving any reply to his
inquiries conducted him to the grand saloon, where the sultan, to
his great surprise, found the window which was left imperfect to
correspond exactly with the others. He fancied at first that he
was mistaken, and examined the two windows on each side, and
afterward all the four and twenty; but when he was convinced that
the window which several workmen had been so long about was
finished in so short a time, he embraced Aladdin and kissed him
between his eyes. "My son," said he, "what a man you are to do
such surprising things always in the twinkling of an eye! There is
not your fellow in the world; the more I know, the more I admire

The sultan returned to the palace, and after this went frequently
to the window to contemplate and admire the wonderful palace of
his son-in-law.

Aladdin did not confine himself in his palace, but went with much
state, sometimes to one mosque, and sometimes to another, to
prayers, or to visit the grand vizier, or the principal lords of
the court. Every time he went out, he caused two slaves, who
walked by the side of his horse, to throw handfuls of money among
the people as he passed through the streets and squares. This
generosity gained him the love and blessings of the people, and it
was common for them to swear by his head. Thus Aladdin, while he
paid all respect to the sultan, won by his affable behavior and
liberality the affections of the people.

Aladdin had conducted himself in this manner several years, when
the African magician, who had for some years dismissed him from
his recollection, determined to inform himself with certainty
whether he perished, as he supposed, in the subterranean cave or
not. After he had resorted to a long course of magic ceremonies,
and had formed a horoscope by which to ascertain Aladdin's fate,
what was his surprise to find the appearances to declare that
Aladdin, instead of dying in the cave, had made his escape, and
was living in royal splendor, by the aid of the genie of the
wonderful lamp!

On the very next day, the magician set out and travelled with the
utmost haste to the capital of China, where, on his arrival, he
took up his lodging in a khan.

He then quickly learned about the wealth, charities, happiness,
and splendid palace of Prince Aladdin. Directly he saw the
wonderful fabric, he knew that none but the genies, the slaves of
the lamp, could have performed such wonders; and piqued to the
quick at Aladdin's high estate, he returned to the khan.

On his return he had recourse to an operation of geomancy to find
out where the lamp was--whether Aladdin carried it about with
him, or where he left it. The result of his consultation informed
him, to his great joy, that the lamp was in the palace. "Well,"
said he, rubbing his hands in glee, "I shall have the lamp, and I
shall make Aladdin return to his original mean condition."

The next day the magician learned, from the chief superintendent
of the khan where he lodged, that Aladdin had gone on a hunting
expedition, which was to last for eight days, of which only three
had expired. The magician wanted to know no more. He resolved at
once on his plans. He went to a coppersmith, and asked for a dozen
copper lamps: the master of the shop told him he had not so many
by him, but if he would have patience till the next day, he would
have them ready. The magician appointed his time, and desired him
to take care that they should be handsome and well polished.

The next day the magician called for the twelve lamps, paid the
man his full price, put them into a basket hanging on his arm, and
went directly to Aladdin's palace. As he approached, he began
crying, "Who will change old lamps for new ones?" As he went
along, a crowd of children collected, who hooted, and thought him,
as did all who chanced to be passing by, a madman or a fool, to
offer to change new lamps for old ones.

The African magician regarded not their scoffs, hootings, or all
they could say to him, but still continued crying, "Who will
change old lamps for new ones?" He repeated this so often, walking
backward and forward in front of the palace, that the princess,
who was then in the hall with the four-and-twenty windows, hearing
a man cry something, and seeing a great mob crowding about him,
sent one of her women slaves to know what he cried.

The slave returned laughing so heartily that the princess rebuked
her. "Madam," answered the slave, laughing still, "who can forbear
laughing, to see an old man with a basket on his arm, full of fine
new lamps, asking to change them for old ones? The children and
mob crowding about him so that he can hardly stir, make all the
noise they can in derision of him."

Another female slave, hearing this, said: "Now you speak of lamps,
I know not whether the princess may have observed it, but there is
an old one upon a shelf of the Prince Aladdin's robing-room, and
whoever owns it will not be sorry to find a new one in its stead.
If the princess chooses, she may have the pleasure of trying if
this old man is so silly as to give a new lamp for an old one,
without taking anything for the exchange."

The princess, who knew not the value of this lamp, and the
interest that Aladdin had to keep it safe, entered into the
pleasantry, and commanded a slave to take it and make the
exchange. The slave obeyed, went out of the hall, and no sooner
got to the palace gates than he saw the African magician, called
to him, and, showing him the old lamp, said, "Give me a new lamp
for this."

The magician never doubted but this was the lamp he wanted. There
could be no other such in this palace, where every utensil was
gold or silver. He snatched it eagerly out of the slave's hand,
and, thrusting it as far as he could into his breast, offered him
his basket, and bade him choose which he liked best. The slave
picked out one, and carried it to the princess; but the change
was no sooner made than the place rung with the shouts of the
children, deriding the magician's folly.

The African magician stayed no longer near the palace, nor cried
any more, "New lamps for old ones!" but made the best of his way
to his khan. His end was answered; and by his silence he got rid
of the children and the mob.

As soon as he was out of sight of the two palaces, he hastened
down the least frequented streets; and, having no more occasion
for his lamps or basket, set all down in a spot where nobody saw
him. Then going down another street or two, he walked till he
came to one of the city gates, and pursuing his way through the
suburbs, which were very extensive, at length reached a lonely
spot, where he stopped till the darkness of the night, as the most
suitable time for the design he had in contemplation. When it
became quite dark, he pulled the lamp out of his breast and rubbed
it. At that summons the genie appeared, and said, "What wouldst
thou have? I am ready to obey thee as thy slave, and the slave of
all those who have that lamp in their hands; both I and the other
slaves of the lamp." "I command thee," replied the magician, "to
transport me immediately, and the palace which thou and the other
slaves of the lamp have built in this dity, with all the people in
it, to Africa." The genie made no reply, but, with the assistance
of the other genies, the slaves of the lamp, immediately
transported him and the palace entire to the spot whither he had
been desired to convey it.

Early the next morning when the sultan, according to custom, went
to contemplate and admire Aladdin's palace, his amazement was
unbounded to find that it could nowhere be seen. He could not
comprehend how so large a palace, which he had seen plainly every
day for some years, should vanish so soon and not leave the least
remains behind. In his perplexity he ordered the grand vizier to
be sent for with expedition.

The grand vizier, who in secret bore no goodwill to Aladdin,
intimated his suspicion that the palace was built by magic, and
that Aladdin had made his hunting excursion an excuse for the
removal of his palace with the same suddenness with which it had
been erected. He induced the sultan to send a detachment of his
guards and to have Aladdin seized as a prisoner of state. On his
son-in-law being brought before him, he would not hear a word from
him, but ordered him to be put to death. The decree caused so much
discontent among the people, whose affection Aladdin had secured
by his largesses and charities, that the sultan, fearful of an
insurrection, was obliged to grant him his life. When Aladdin
found himself at liberty, he again addressed the sultan: "Sire, I
pray you to let me know the crime by which I have thus lost the
favor of thy countenance." "Your crime," answered the sultan,
"wretched man! do you not know it? Follow me, and I will show
you." The sultan then took Aladdin into the apartment from whence
he was wont to look at and admire his palace, and said, "You ought
to know where your palace stood. Look! mind, and tell me what has
become of it." Aladdin did so, and, being utterly amazed at the
loss of his palace, was speechless. At last, recovering himself,
he said: "It is true, I do not see the palace. It is vanished; but
I had no concern in its removal. I beg you to give me forty days,
and if in that time I cannot restore it, I will offer my head to
be disposed of at your pleasure." "I give you the time you ask,
but at the end of the forty days forget not to present yourself
before me."

Aladdin went out of the sultan's palace in a condition of
exceeding humiliation. The lords who had courted him in the days
of his splendor now declined to have any communication with him.
For three days he wandered about the city, exciting the wonder and
compassion of the multitude, by asking everybody he met if they
had seen his palace, or could tell him anything of it. On the
third day he wandered into the country, and, as he was approaching
a river, he fell down the bank with so much violence that he
rubbed the ring which the magician had given him, so hard, by
holding on the rock to save himself, that immediately the same
genie appeared whom he had seen in the cave where the magician had
left him. "What wouldst thou have?" said the genie. "I am ready to
obey thee as thy slave, and the slave of all those that have that
ring on their finger; both I and the other slaves of the ring."

Aladdin, agreeably surprised at an offer of help so little
expected, replied, "Genie, show me where the palace I caused to be
built now stands, or transport it back where it first stood."
"Your command," answered the genie, "is not wholly in my power; I
am only the slave of the ring, and not of the lamp." "I command
thee, then," replied Aladdin, "by the power of the ring, to
transport me to the spot where my palace stands, in what part of
the world soever it may be." These words were no sooner out of his
mouth, than the genie transported him into Africa, to the midst of
a large plain, where his palace stood, at no great distance from a
city, and, placing him exactly under the window of the princess's
apartment, left him.

Now it so happened that shortly after Aladdin had been transported
by the slave of the ring to the neighborhood of his palace, one
of the Attendants of the Princess Buddir al Buddoor, looking
through the window, perceived him, and instantly told her
mistress. The princess, who could not believe the joyful tidings,
hastened herself to the window, and, seeing Aladdin, immediately
opened it. The noise of opening the window made Aladdin turn his
head that way, and perceiving the princess, he saluted her with an
air that expressed his joy.

"To lose no time," said she to him, "I have sent to have the
private door opened for you. Enter, and come up."

The private door, which was just under the princess's apartment,
was soon opened, and Aladdin conducted up into the chamber. It is
impossible to express the joy of both at seeing each other after
so cruel a separation. After embracing, and shedding tears of joy,
they sat down, and Aladdin said, "I beg of you, princess, to tell
me what is become of an old lamp which stood upon a shelf in my
robing chamber?"

"Alas!" answered the princess, "I was afraid our misfortune might
be owing to that lamp; and What grieves me" most is, that I have
been the cause of it. I was foolish enough to change the old lamp
for a new one, and the next morning I found myself in this unknown
country, which I am told is Africa."

"Princess," said Aladdin, interrupting her, "you have explained
all by telling me we are in Africa. I desire you only to tell me
if you know where the old lamp now is." "The African magician
carries it carefully wrapt up in his bosom," said the princess;
"and this I can assure you, because he pulled it out before me,
and showed it to me in triumph."

"Princess," said Aladdin, "I think I have found the means to
deliver you and to regain possession of the lamp, on which all my
prosperity depends. To execute this design it is necessary for me
to go to the town. I shall return by noon, and will then tell you
what must be done by you to insure success. In the meantime I
shall disguise myself; and I beg that the private door may be
opened at the first knock."

When Aladdin was out of the palace, he looked around him on all
sides, and perceiving a peasant going into the country, hastened
after him; and when he had overtaken him, made a proposal to him
to change clothes, which the man agreed to. When they had made the
exchange, the countryman went about his business, and Aladdin
entered the neighboring city. After traversing several streets, he
came to that part of the town where the merchants and artisans had
their particular streets according to their trades. He went into
that of the druggists, and entering one of the largest and best
furnished shops, asked the druggist if he had a certain powder,
which he named.

The druggist, judging Aladdin by his habit to be very poor, told
him he had it, but that it was very dear. Upon which Aladdin,
penetrating his thoughts, pulled out his purse, and, showing him
some gold, asked for half a dram of the powder, which the druggist
weighed and gave him, telling him the price was a piece of gold.
Aladdin put the money into his hand, and hastened to the palace,
which he entered at once by the private door. When he came into
the princess's apartment, he said to her, "Princess, you must take
your part in the scheme which I propose for our deliverance. You
must overcome your aversion to the magician, and assume a most
friendly manner toward him, and ask him to oblige you by partaking
of an entertainment in your apartments. Before he leaves ask him
to exchange cups with you, which he, gratified at the honor you do
him, will gladly do, when you must give him the cup containing
this powder. On drinking it he will instantly fall asleep, and we
will obtain the lamp, whose slaves will do all our bidding, and
restore us and the palace to the capital of China."

The princess obeyed to the utmost her husband's instructions. She
assumed a look of pleasure on the next visit of the magician, and
asked him to an entertainment, which he most willingly accepted.
At the close of the evening, during which the princess had tried
all she could to please him, she asked him to exchange cups with
her, and, giving the signal, had the drugged cup brought to her,
which she gave to the magician. He drank it out of compliment to
the princess to the very last drop, when he fell backward lifeless
on the sofa.

The princess, in anticipation of the success of her scheme, had so
placed her women from the great hall to the foot of the staircase,
that the word was no sooner given that the African magician was
fallen backward, than the door was opened and Aladdin admitted to
the hall. The princess rose from her seat, and ran overjoyed to
embrace him; but he stopped her, and said, "Princess, retire to
your apartment, and let me be left alone, while I endeavor to
transport you back to China as speedily as you were brought from

When the princess, her women, and slaves were gone out of the
hall, Aladdin shut the door, and going directly to the dead body
of the magician, opened his vest, took out the lamp, which was
carefully wrapped up, and rubbing it, the genie immediately
appeared. "Genie," said Aladdin, "I command thee to transport this
palace instantly to the place from whence it was brought hither."
The genie bowed his head in token of obedience, and disappeared.
Immediately the palace was transported into China, and its removal
was only felt by two little shocks, the one when it was lifted up,
the other when it was set down, and both in a very short interval
of time.

On the morning after the restoration of Aladdin's palace, the
sultan was looking out of his window, and mourning over the fate
of his daughter, when he thought that he saw the vacancy created
by the disappearance of the palace to be again filled up. On
looking more attentively he was convinced beyond the power of
doubt that it was his son-in-law's palace. Joy and gladness
succeeded to sorrow and grief. He at once ordered a horse to be
saddled, which he mounted that instant, thinking he could not make
haste enough to the place.

Aladdin rose that morning by daybreak, put on one of the most
magnificent habits his wardrobe afforded, and went up into the
hall of twenty-four windows, from whence he perceived the sultan
approaching, and received him at the foot of the great staircase,
helping him to dismount.

He led the sultan into the princess's apartment. The happy father
embraced her with tears of joy; and the princess, on her side,
afforded similar testimonies of her extreme pleasure. After a
short interval devoted to mutual explanations of all that had
happened, the sultan restored Aladdin to his favor, and expressed
his regret for the apparent harshness with which he had treated
him. "My son," said he, "be not displeased at my proceedings
against you; they arose from my paternal love, and therefore you
ought to forgive the excesses to which it hurried me." "Sire,"
replied Aladdin, "I have not the least reason to complain of your
conduct, since you did nothing but what your duty required. This
infamous magician, the basest of men, was the sole cause of my

The African magician, who was thus twice foiled in his endeavor to
ruin Aladdin, had a younger brother, who was as skilful a magician
as himself, and exceeded him in wickedness and hatred of mankind.
By mutual agreement they communicated with each other once a year,
however widely separate might be their place of residence from
each other. The younger brother, not having received as usual his
annual communication, prepared to take a horoscope and ascertain
his brother's proceedings. He, as well as his brother, always
carried a geomantic square instrument about him; he prepared the
sand, cast the points, and drew the figures. On examining the
planetary crystal, he found that his brother was no longer living,
but had been poisoned; and by another observation, that he was in
the capital of the kingdom of China; also that the person who had
poisoned him was of mean birth, though married to a princess, a
sultan's daughter.

When the magician had informed himself of his brother's fate, he
resolved immediately to avenge his death, and at once departed for
China; where, after crossing plains, rivers, mountains, deserts,
and a long tract of country without delay, he arrived after
incredible fatigues. When he came to the capital of China, he took
a lodging at a khan. His magic art soon revealed to him that
Aladdin was the person who had been the cause of the death of his
brother. He had heard, too, all the persons of repute in the city
talking of a woman called Fatima, who was retired from the world,
and of the miracles she wrought. As he fancied that this woman
might be serviceable to him in the project he had conceived, he
made more minute inquiries, and requested to be informed more
particularly who that holy woman was, and what sort of miracles
she performed.

"What!" said the person whom he addressed, "have you never seen or
heard of her? She is the admiration of the whole town, for her
fasting, her austerities, and her exemplary life. Except Mondays
and Fridays, she never stirs out of her little cell; and on those
days on which she comes into the town she does an infinite deal of
good; for there is not a person who is diseased but she puts her
hand on them and cures them."

Having ascertained the place where the hermitage of the holy woman
was, the magician went at night, and, plunging a poniard into her
heart--killed this good woman. In the morning he dyed his face of
the same hue as hers, and arraying himself in her garb, taking her
veil, the large necklace she wore round her waist, and her stick,
went straight to the palace of Aladdin.

As soon as the people saw the holy woman, as they imagined him to
be, they presently gathered about him in a great crowd. Some
begged his blessing, some kissed his hand, and others, more
reserved, only the hem of his garment; while others, suffering
from disease, stooped for him to lay his hands upon them, which he
did, muttering some words in form of prayer, and, in short,
counterfeiting so well that everybody took him for the holy woman.
He came at last to the square before Aladdin's palace. The crowd
and the noise was so great that the princess, who was in the hall
of four-and-twenty windows, heard it, and asked what was the
matter. One of her women told her it was a great crowd of people
collected about the holy woman to be cured of diseases by the
imposition of her hands.

The princess, who had long heard of this holy woman, but had never
seen her, was very desirous to have some conversation with her;
which the chief officer perceiving, told her it was an easy matter
to bring her to her, if she desired and commanded it; and the
princess, expressing her wishes, he immediately sent four slaves
for the pretended holy woman.

As soon as the crowd saw the attendants from the palace, they made
way; and the magician, perceiving also that they were coming for
him, advanced to meet them, overjoyed to find his plot succeed so
well. "Holy woman," said one of the slaves, "the princess wants to
see you, and has sent us for you." "The princess does me too great
an honor," replied the false Fatima; "I am ready to obey her
command," and at the same time followed the slaves to the palace.

When the pretended Fatima had made her obeisance, the princess
said, "My good mother, I have one thing to request, which you must
not refuse me: it is, to stay with me, that you may edify me with
your way of living, and that I may learn from your good example."
"Princess," said the counterfeit Fatima, "I beg of you not to ask
what I cannot consent to without neglecting my prayers and
devotion." "That shall be no hindrance to you," answered the
princess; "I have a great many apartments unoccupied; you shall
choose which you like best, and have as much liberty to perform
your devotions as if you were in your own cell."

The magician, who really desired nothing more than to introduce
himself into the palace, where it would be a much easier matter
for him to execute his designs, did not long excuse himself from
accepting the obliging offer which the princess made him.
"Princess," said he, "whatever resolution a poor wretched woman as
I am may have made to renounce the pomp and grandeur of this
world, I dare not presume to oppose the will and commands of so
pious and charitable a princess."

Upon this the princess, rising up, said, "Come with me; I will
show you what vacant apartments I have, that you may make choice
of that you like best." The magician followed the princess, and of
all the apartments she showed him made choice of that which was
the worst, saying that it was too good for him, and that he only
accepted it to please her.

Afterward, the princess would have brought him back again into the
great hall to make him dine with her; but he, considering that he
should then be obliged to show his face, which he had always taken
care to conceal with Fatima's veil, and fearing that the princess
should find out that he was not Fatima, begged of her earnestly to
excuse him, telling her that he never ate anything but bread and
dried fruits, and desiring to eat that slight repast in his own
apartment. The princess granted his request, saying, "You may be
as free here, good mother, as if you were in your own cell: I will
order you a dinner, but remember I expect you as soon as you have
finished your repast."

After the princess had dined, and the false Fatima had been sent
for by one of the attendants, he again waited upon her.

"My good mother," said the princess, "I am overjoyed to see so
holy a woman as yourself, who will confer a blessing upon this
palace. But now I am speaking of the palace, pray how do you like
it? And before I show it all to you, tell me first what you think
of this hall."

Upon this question the counterfeit Fatima surveyed the hall from
one end to the other. When he had examined it well, he said to the
princess, "As far as such a solitary being as I am, who am
unacquainted with what the world calls beautiful, can judge, this
hall is truly admirable; there wants but one thing." "What is
that, good mother?" demanded the princess; "tell me, I conjure
you. For my part, I always believed, and have heard say, it wanted
nothing; but if it does, it shall be supplied."

"Princess," said the false Fatima, with great dissimulation,
"forgive me the liberty I have taken; but my opinion is, if it can
be of any importance, that if a roc's egg were hung up in the
middle of the dome, this hall would have no parallel in the four
quarters of the world, and your palace would be the wonder of the

"My good mother," said the princess, "what is a roc, and where may
one get an egg?" "Princess," replied the pretended Fatima, "it is
a bird of prodigious size, which inhabits the summit of Mount
Caucasus; the architect who built your palace can get you one."

After the princess had thanked the false Fatima for what she
believed her good advice, she conversed with her upon other
matters; but could not forget the roc's egg, which she resolved to
request of Aladdin when next he should visit her apartments. He
did so in the course of that evening, and shortly after he
entered, the princess thus addressed him: "I always believed that
our palace was the most superb, magnificent, and complete in the
world: but I will tell you now what it wants, and that is a roc's
egg hung up in the midst of the dome." "Princess," replied
Aladdin, "it is enough that you think it wants such an ornament;
you shall see by the diligence which I use in obtaining it, that
there is nothing which I would not do for your sake."

Aladdin left the Princess Buddir al Buddoor that moment, and went
up into the hall of four-and-twenty windows, where, pulling out of
his bosom the lamp, which after the danger he had been exposed to
he always carried about him, he rubbed it; upon which the genie
immediately appeared. "Genie," said Aladdin, "I command thee in
the name of this lamp, bring a roc's egg to be hung up in the
middle of the dome of the hall of the palace."

Aladdin had no sooner pronounced these words than the hall shook
as if ready to fall; and the genie said in a loud and terrible
voice, "Is it not enough that I and the other slaves of the lamp
have done everything for you, but you, by an unheard of
ingratitude, must command me to bring my master, and hang him up
in the midst of this dome? This attempt deserves that you, the
princess, and the palace, should be immediately reduced to ashes;
but you are spared because this request does not come from
yourself. Its true author is the brother of the African magician,
your enemy, whom you have destroyed. He is now in your palace,
disguised in the habit of the holy woman Fatima, whom he has
murdered; at his suggestion your wife makes this pernicious
demand. His design is to kill you, therefore take care of
yourself." After these words the genie disappeared.

Aladdin resolved at once what to do. He returned to the princess's
apartment, and, without mentioning a word of what had happened,
sat down, and complained of a great pain which had suddenly
seized his head. On hearing this the princess told him how she had
invited the holy Fatima to stay with her, and that she was now in
the palace; and at the request of the prince, ordered her to be
summoned to her at once.

When the pretended Fatima came, Aladdin said, "Come hither, good
mother; I am glad to see you here at so fortunate a time. I am
tormented with a violent pain in my head, and request your
assistance, and hope you will not refuse me that cure which you
impart to afflicted persons."

So saying, he rose, but held down his head. The counterfeit Fatima
advanced toward him, with his hand all the time on a dagger
concealed in his girdle under his gown; which Aladdin observing,
he snatched the weapon from his hand, pierced him to the heart
with his own dagger, and then pushed him down on the floor.

"My dear prince, what have you done?" cried the princess in
surprise. "You have killed the holy woman!" "No, my princess,"
answered Aladdin with emotion, "I have not killed Fatima, but a
villain, who would have assassinated me if I had not prevented
him. This wicked man," added he, uncovering his face, "is the
brother of the magician who attempted our ruin. He has strangled
the true Fatima, and disguised himself in her clothes with intent
to murder me."

Aladdin then informed her how the genie had told him these facts,
and how narrowly she and the palace had escaped destruction
through his treacherous suggestion which had led to her request.

Thus was Aladdin delivered from the persecution of the two
brothers, who were magicians. Within a few years afterward the
sultan died in a good old age, and as he left no male children,
the Princess Buddir al Buddoor succeeded him, and she and Aladdin
reigned together many years, and left a numerous and illustrious


In the reign of the same caliph, Haroun-al-Raschid, of whom we
have already heard, there lived at Bagdad a poor porter called
Hindbad. One day, when the weather was excessively hot, he was
employed to carry a heavy burden from one end of the town to the
other. Being much fatigued, he took off his load, and sat upon it,
near a large mansion.

He was much pleased that he stopped at this place; for the
agreeable smell of wood of aloes and of pastils that came from the
house, mixing with the scent of the rose-water, completely
perfumed and embalmed the air. Besides, he heard from within a
concert of instrumental music, accompanied with the harmonious
notes of nightingales and other birds. This charming melody, and
the smell of several sorts of savory dishes, made the porter
conclude there was a feast with great rejoicings within. He went
to some of the servants, whom he saw standing at the gate in
magnificent apparel, and asked the name of the proprietor. "How,"
replied one of them, "do you live in Bagdad, and know not that
this is the house of Sindbad the Sailor, that famous voyager who
has sailed round the world?" The porter lifted up his eyes to
heaven, and said, loud enough to be heard, "Almighty Creator of
all things, consider the difference between Sindbad and me! I am
every day exposed to fatigues and calamities, and can scarcely get
coarse barley-bread for myself and my family, while happy Sindbad
expends immense riches, and leads a life of continual pleasure.
What has he done to obtain from Thee a lot so agreeable? And what
have I done to deserve one so wretched?"

While the porter was thus indulging his melancholy, a servant came
out of the house, and taking him by the arm, bade him follow him,
for Sindbad, his master, wanted to speak to him. The servants
brought him into a great hall, where a number of people sat round
a table, covered with all sorts of savory dishes. At the upper end
sat a comely, venerable gentleman, with a long white beard, and
behind him stood a number of officers and domestics, all ready to
attend his pleasure. This person was Sindbad. Hindbad, whose fear
was increased at the sight of so many people, and of a banquet so
sumptuous, saluted the company trembling. Sindbad bade him draw
near, and seating him at his right hand, served him himself, and
gave him excellent wine, of which there was abundance upon the

Now, Sindbad had heard the porter complain through the window, and
this it was that induced him to have him brought in. When the
repast was over, Sindbad addressed his conversation to Hindbad,
and inquired his name and employment, and said: "I wish to hear
from your own mouth what it was you lately said in the street."

At this request Hindbad hung down his head in confusion, and
replied: "My lord, I confess that my fatigue put me out of humor,
and occasioned me to utter some indiscreet words, which I beg you
to pardon." "Do not think I am so unjust," resumed Sindbad, "as to
resent such a complaint. But I must correct your error concerning
myself. You think, no doubt, that I have acquired without labor
and trouble the ease and indulgence which I now enjoy. But do not
mistake; I did not attain to this happy condition without enduring
for several years more trouble of body and mind than can well be
imagined. Yes, gentlemen," he added, speaking to the whole
company, "I assure you that my sufferings have been of a nature so
extraordinary as would deprive the greatest miser of his love of
riches; and as an opportunity now offers, I will, with your leave,
relate the dangers I have encountered, which I think will not be
uninteresting to you."


My father was a rich merchant. He bequeathed me a large estate,
which I wasted in riotous living. I quickly, perceived that I was
misspending my time, which is of all things the most valuable. I
remembered the saying of the great Solomon, which I had frequently
heard from my father, "A good name is better than precious
ointment"; and again, "Wisdom is good with an inheritance." I
resolved to walk in my father's ways, and I entered into a
contract with some merchants, and embarked with them on board a
ship we had fitted out in partnership.

We set sail, and steered our course toward the Indies, through the
Persian Gulf. At first I was troubled with sea-sickness, but
speedily recovered my health. In our voyage we touched at several
islands, where we sold or exchanged our goods. One day we were
becalmed near a small island, but little elevated above the level
of the water, and resembling a green meadow. The captain ordered
his sails to be furled, and permitted such persons as were so
inclined to land. While we were enjoying ourselves eating and
drinking, and recovering from the fatigue of the sea, the island
of a sudden trembled and shook us terribly.

The trembling of the island was noticed on board ship, and we were
called upon to re-embark speedily, lest we should all be lost; for
what we took for an island proved to be the back of a sea monster.

The nimblest got into the sloop, others betook themselves to
swimming; but as for myself, I was still upon the island when it
disappeared into the sea, and I had only time to catch hold of a
piece of wood that we had brought out of the ship to make a fire.
Meanwhile, the captain, having received on board those who were in
the sloop, and taken up some of those that swam, resolved to take
advantage of the favorable gale that had just risen, and, hoisting
his sails, pursued his voyage.

Thus was I exposed to the mercy of the waves the rest of that day
and the following night. By this time I found my strength gone,
and despaired of saving my life, when happily a wave threw me on
an island. The bank was high and rugged, so that I could scarcely
have got up had it not been for some roots of trees which I found
within reach. When the sun arose I was very feeble. I found some
herbs fit to eat, and had the good luck to discover a spring of
excellent water. After this I advanced further into the island,
and at last reached a fine plain, where I perceived some horses
feeding. On my way toward them I heard the voice of a man, who
asked me who I was. I related to him my adventure, after which,
taking me by the hand, he led me into a cave, where there were
several other people, no less amazed to see me than I was to see

I partook of some provisions which they offered me, and asked them
what they did in such a desert place; to which they answered that
they were grooms belonging to the sovereign of the island, and
that every year they brought thither the king's horses for
pasturage. They were to return home on the morrow, and had I been
one day later I must have perished, because the inhabited part of
the island was a great distance off, and it would have been
impossible for me to have reached it without a guide.

Next morning they returned to the capital of the island, took me
with them, and presented me to their king. He asked me who I was,
and by what adventure I had come into his dominions. After I had
satisfied him, he ordered that I should want for nothing.

Being a merchant, I frequented men of my own profession, and
particularly inquired for those who were strangers, that perchance
I might hear news from Bagdad, or find an opportunity to return.
For the Maharaja's capital is situated on the sea-coast, and has
a fine harbor, where ships arrive daily from the different
quarters of the world. I frequented also the society of the
learned Indians, and took delight to hear them converse; but
withal, I took care to make my court regularly to the Maharaja,
and conversed with the governors and petty kings, his tributaries,
that were about him. They put a thousand questions respecting my
country; and I, being willing to inform myself as to their laws
and customs, asked them concerning everything which I thought
worth knowing.

There belongs to this king an island named Cassel.

They assured me that every night a noise of drums was heard there,
whence the mariners fancied that it was the residence of Degial. I
determined to visit this wonderful place, and in my way thither
saw fishes of 100 and 200 cubits long that occasion more fear than
hurt; for they are so timorous that they will fly upon the
rattling of two sticks or boards. I saw likewise other fish about
a cubit in length, that had heads like owls.

As I was one day at the port after my return, the ship arrived in
which I had embarked at Bussorah. I at once knew the captain, and
I went and asked him for my bales. "I am Sindbad," said I, "and
those bales marked with his name are mine."

When the captain heard me speak thus, "Heavens!" he exclaimed,
"whom can we trust in these times? I saw Sindbad perish with my
own eyes, as did also the passengers on board, and yet you tell me
you are that Sindbad. What impudence is this! and what a false
tale to tell, in order to possess yourself of what does not belong
to you!" "Have patience," replied I; "do me the favor to hear what
I have to say." The captain was at length persuaded that I was no
cheat; for there came people from his ship who knew me, paid me
great compliments, and expressed much joy at seeing me alive. At
last he recollected me himself, and embracing me, "Heaven be
praised," said he, "for your happy escape! I cannot express the
joy it affords me. There are your goods; take and do with them as
you please."

I took out what was most valuable in my bales, and presented them
to the Maharaja, who, knowing my misfortune, asked me how I came
by such rarities. I acquainted him with the circumstance of their
recovery. He was pleased at my good luck, accepted my present, and
in return gave me one much more considerable. Upon this I took
leave of him, and went aboard the same ship, after I had exchanged
my goods for the commodities of that country. I carried with me
wood of aloes, sandals, camphire, nutmegs, cloves, pepper, and
ginger. We passed by several islands, and at last arrived at
Bussorah, from whence I came to this city, with the value of
100,000 sequins.

Sindbad stopped here, and ordered the musicians to proceed with
their concert, which the story had interrupted. When it was
evening, Sindbad sent for a purse of 100 sequins, and giving it to
the porter, said, "Take this, Hindbad, return to your home, and
come back to-morrow to hear more of my adventures." The porter
went away, astonished at the honor done him and the present made
him. The account of this adventure proved very agreeable to his
wife and children, who did not fail to return thanks for what
Providence had sent them by the hand of Sindbad.

Hindbad put on his best robe next day, and returned to the
bountiful traveller, who received him with a pleasant air, and
welcomed him heartily. When all the guests had arrived, dinner was
served, and continued a long time. When it was ended, Sindbad,
addressing himself to the company, said, "Gentlemen, be pleased to
listen to the adventures of my second voyage. They deserve your
attention even more than those of the first." Upon which every one
held his peace, and Sindbad proceeded.


I designed, after my first voyage, to spend the rest of my days at
Bagdad, but it was not long ere I grew weary of an indolent life,
and I put to sea a second time, with merchants of known probity.
We embarked on board a good ship, and, after recommending
ourselves to God, set sail. We traded from island to island, and
exchanged commodities with great profit. One day we landed on an
island covered with several sorts of fruit-trees, but we could see
neither man nor animal We walked in the meadows, along the streams
that watered them. While some diverted themselves with gathering
flowers, and others fruits, I took my wine and provisions, and sat
down near a stream between two high trees, which formed a thick
shade. I made a good meal, and afterward fell asleep. I cannot
tell how long I slept, but when I awoke the ship was gone.

In this sad condition, I was ready to die with grief.

I cried out in agony, beat my head and breast, and threw myself
upon the ground, where I lay some time in despair. I upbraided
myself a hundred times for not being content with the produce of
my first voyage, that might have sufficed me all my life. But all
this was in vain, and my repentance came too late. At last I
resigned myself to the will of God. Not knowing what to do, I
climbed up to the top of a lofty tree, from which I looked about
on all sides, to see if I could discover anything that could give
me hopes. When I gazed toward the sea I could see nothing but sky
and water; but looking over the land I beheld something white; and
coming down, I took what provision I had left, and went toward it,
the distance being so great that I could not distinguish what it

As I approached, I thought it to be a white dome, of a prodigious
height and extent; and when I came up to it, I touched it, and
found it to be very smooth. I went round to see if it was open on
any side, but saw it was not, and that there was no climbing up to
the top, as it was so smooth. It was at least fifty paces round.

By this time the sun was about to set, and all of a sudden the sky
became as dark as if it had been covered with a thick cloud. I was
much astonished at this sudden darkness, but much more when I
found it occasioned by a bird of a monstrous size, that came
flying toward me. I remembered that I had often heard mariners
speak of a miraculous bird called the roc, and conceived that the
great dome which I so much admired must be its egg. In short, the
bird alighted, and sat over the egg. As I perceived her coming, I
crept close to the egg, so that I had before me one of the legs of
the bird, which was as big as the trunk of a tree. I tied myself
strongly to it with my turban, in hopes that the roc next morning
would carry me with her out of this desert island. After having
passed the night in this condition, the bird flew away as soon as
it was daylight, and carried me so high that I could not discern
the earth; she afterward descended with so much rapidity that I
lost my senses. But when I found myself on the ground, I speedily
untied the knot, and had scarcely done so, when the roc, having
taken up a serpent of monstrous length in her bill, flew away.

The spot where it left me was encompassed on all sides by
mountains, that seemed to reach above the clouds, and so steep
that there was no possibility of getting out of the valley. This
was a new perplexity; so that when I compared this place with the
desert island from which the roc had brought me, I found that I
had gained nothing by the change.

As I walked through this valley, I perceived it was strewn with
diamonds, some of which were of a surprising bigness. I took
pleasure in looking upon them; but shortly saw at a distance such
objects as greatly diminished my satisfaction, and which I could
not view without terror, namely, a great number of serpents, so
monstrous that the least of them was capable of swallowing an
elephant. They retired in the daytime to their dens, where they
hid themselves from the roc, their enemy, and came out only in the

I spent the day in walking about in the valley, resting myself at
times in such places as I thought most convenient. When night came
on I went into a cave, where I thought I might repose in safety. I
secured the entrance, which was low and narrow, with a great
stone, to preserve me from the serpents, but not so far as to
exclude the light. I supped on part of my provisions, but the
serpents, which began hissing round me, put me into such extreme
fear that I did not sleep. When day appeared the serpents retired,
and I came out of the cave trembling. I can justly say that I
walked upon diamonds, without feeling any inclination to touch
them. At last I sat down, and notwithstanding my apprehensions,
not having closed my eyes during the night, fell asleep, after
having eaten a little more of my provisions. But I had scarcely
shut my eyes when something that fell by me with a great noise
awaked me. This was a large piece of raw meat; and at the same
time I saw several others fall down from the rocks in different
places. I had always regarded as fabulous what I had heard sailors
and others relate of the valley of diamonds, and of the stratagems
employed by merchants to obtain jewels from thence; but now I
found that they had stated nothing but the truth. For the fact is,
that the merchants come to the neighborhood of this valley, when
the eagles have young ones, and throwing great joints of meat into
the valley, the diamonds, upon whose points they fall, stick to
them; the eagles, which are stronger in this country than anywhere
else, pounce with great force upon those pieces of meat and carry
them to their nests on the precipices of the rocks to feed their
young: the merchants at this time run to their nests, disturb and
drive off the eagles by their shouts, and take away the diamonds
that stick to the meat.

I perceived in this device the means of my deliverance.

Having collected together the largest diamonds I could find, and
put them into the leather bag in which I used to carry my
provisions, I took the largest of the pieces of meat, tied it
close round me with the cloth of my turban, and then laid myself
upon the ground, with my face downward, the bag of diamonds being
made fast to my girdle.

I had scarcely placed myself in this posture when one of the
eagles, having taken me up with the piece of meat to which I was
fastened, carried me to his nest on the top of the mountain. The
merchants immediately began their shouting to frighten the eagles;
and when they had obliged them to quit their prey, one of them
came to the nest where I was. He was much alarmed when he saw me;
but recovering himself, instead of inquiring how I came thither,
began to quarrel with me, and asked why I stole his goods. "You
will treat me," replied I, "with more civility, when you know me
better. Do not be uneasy; I have diamonds enough for you and
myself, more than all the other merchants together. Whatever they
have they owe to chance; but I selected for myself, in the bottom
of the valley, those which you see in this bag." I had scarcely
done speaking, when the other merchants came crowding about us,
much astonished to see me; but they were much more surprised when
I told them my story.

They conducted me to their encampment; and there, having opened my
bag, they were surprised at the largeness of my diamonds, and
confessed that they had never seen any of such size and
perfection. I prayed the merchant who owned the nest to which I
had been carried (for every merchant had his own), to take as many
for his share as he pleased. He contented himself with one, and
that, too, the least of them; and when I pressed him to take more,
without fear of doing me any injury, "No," said he, "I am very
well satisfied with this, which is valuable enough to save me the
trouble of making any more voyages, and will raise as great a
fortune as I desire."

I spent the night with the merchants, to whom I related my story a
second time, for the satisfaction of those who had not heard it. I
could not moderate my joy when I found myself delivered from the
danger I have mentioned. I thought myself in a dream, and could
scarcely believe myself out of danger.

The merchants had thrown their pieces of meat into the valley for
several days; and each of them being satisfied with the diamonds
that had fallen to his lot, we left the place the next morning,
and travelled near high mountains, where there were serpents of a
prodigious length, which we had the good-fortune to escape. We
took shipping at the first port we reached, and touched at the
isle of Roha, where the trees grow that yield camphire. This tree
is so large, and its branches so thick, that one hundred men may
easily sit under its shade. The juice of which the camphire is
made exudes from a hole bored in the upper part of the tree, is
received in a vessel, where it thickens to a consistency, and
becomes what we call camphire. After the juice is thus drawn out
the tree withers and dies.

In this island is also found the rhinoceros, an animal less than
the elephant, but larger than the buffalo.

It has a horn upon its nose, about a cubit in length; this horn is
solid, and cleft through the middle. The rhinoceros fights with
the elephant, runs his horn into his belly, and carries him off
upon his head; but the blood and the fat of the elephant running
into his eyes and making him blind, he falls to the ground; and
then, strange to relate, the roc comes and carries them both away
in her claws for food for her young ones.

I pass over many other things peculiar to this island, lest I
should weary you. Here I exchanged some of my diamonds for

From hence we went to other islands, and at last, having touched
at several trading towns of the continent, we landed at Bussorah,
from whence I proceeded to Bagdad. There I immediately gave large
presents to the poor, and lived honorably upon the vast riches I
had bought and gained with so much fatigue.

Thus Sindbad ended the relation of the second voyage, gave Hindbad
another hundred sequins, and invited him to come the next day to
hear the account of the third.


I soon again grew weary of living a life of idleness, and
hardening myself against the thought of any danger, I embarked
with some merchants on another long voyage. We touched at several
ports, where we traded. One day we were overtaken by a dreadful
tempest, which drove us from our course.

The storm continued several days, and brought us before the port
of an island, which the captain was very unwilling to enter; but
we were obliged to cast anchor. When we had furled our sails, the
captain told us that this and some other neighboring islands were
inhabited by hairy savages, who would speedily attack us; and
though they were but dwarfs, yet that we must make no resistance,
for they were more in number than the locusts; and if we happened
to kill one, they would all fall upon us and destroy us.

We soon found that what the captain had told us was but too true.
An innumerable multitude of frightful savages, about two feet
high, covered all over with red hair, came swimming toward us and
encompassed our ship. They chattered as they came near, but we
understood not their language. They climbed up the sides of the
ship with such agility as surprised us. They took down our sails,
cut the cable, and, hauling to the shore, made us all get out, and
afterward carried the ship into another island, whence they had
come. As we advanced, we perceived at a distance a vast pile of
building, and made toward it. We found it to be a palace,
elegantly built, and very lofty, with a gate of ebony of two
leaves, which we opened. We saw before us a large apartment, with
a porch, having on one side a heap of human bones, and on the
other a vast number of roasting-spits. We trembled at this
spectacle, and were seized with deadly apprehension, when suddenly
the gate of the apartment opened with a loud crash, and there came
out the horrible figure of a black man, as tall as a lofty palm-
tree. He had but one eye, and that in the middle of his forehead,
where it blazed bright as a burning coal. His fore teeth were very
long and sharp, and stood out of his mouth, which was as deep as
that of a horse. His upper lip hung down upon his breast. His ears
resembled those of an elephant, and covered his shoulders; and his
nails were as long and crooked as the talons of the greatest

At the sight of so frightful a genie, we became insensible, and
lay like dead men.

At last we came to ourselves, and saw him sitting in the porch
looking at us. When he had considered us well, he advanced toward
us, and laying his hand upon me, took me up by the nape of my
neck, and turned me round, as a butcher would do a sheep's head.
After having examined me, and perceiving me to be so lean that I
had nothing but skin and bone, he let me go. He took up all the
rest one by one, and viewed them in the same manner. The captain
being the fattest, he held him with one hand, as I would do a
sparrow, and thrust a spit through him; he then kindled a great
fire, roasted, and ate him in his apartment for his supper. Having
finished his repast, he returned to his porch, where he lay and
fell asleep, snoring louder than thunder. He slept thus till
morning. As to ourselves, it was not possible for us to enjoy any
rest, so that we passed the night in the most painful apprehension
that can be imagined. When day appeared the giant awoke, got up,
went out, and left us in the palace.

The next night we determined to revenge ourselves on the brutish
giant, and did so in the following manner. After he had again
finished his inhuman supper on another of our seamen, he lay down
on his back, and fell asleep. As soon as we heard him snore
according to his custom, nine of the boldest among us, and myself,
took each of us a spit, and putting the points of them into his
fire till they were burning hot, we thrust them into his eye all
at once, and blinded him. The pain made him break out into a
frightful yell: he started up, and stretched out his hands, in
order to sacrifice I some of us to his rage; but we ran to such
places as he could not reach; and after having sought for us in
vain, he groped for the gate, and went out, howling in agony.

We immediately left the palace, and came to the shore, where we
made some rafts, each large enough to carry three men, with some
timber that lay about in great quantities. We waited till day in
order to get upon them, for we hoped if the giant did not appear
by sunrising, and give over his howling, which we still heard,
that he would prove to be dead; and if that happened to be the
case, we resolved to stay in that island, and not to risk our
lives upon the rafts. But day had scarcely appeared when we
perceived our cruel enemy, accompanied by two others, almost of
the same size, leading him; and a great number more coming before
him at a quick pace.

We did not hesitate to take to our rafts, and put to sea with all
the speed we could. The giants, who perceived this, took up great
stones, and, running to the shore, entered the water up to the
middle, and threw so exactly that they sunk all the rafts but that
I was upon; and all my companions except the two with me, were
drowned. We rowed with all our might, and got out of the reach of
the giants. But when we got out to sea, we were exposed to the
mercy of the waves and winds, and spent that day and the following
night under the most painful uncertainty as to our fate; but next
morning we had the good fortune to be thrown upon an island, where
we landed with much joy. We found excellent fruit, which afforded
us great relief, and recruited our strength.

At night we went to sleep on the sea-shore; but were awakened by
the noise of a serpent of surprising length and thickness, whose
scales made a rustling noise as he wound himself along. It
swallowed up one of my comrades, notwithstanding his loud cries,
and the efforts he made to extricate himself from it; dashing him
several times against the ground, it crushed him, and we could
hear it gnaw and tear the poor fellow's bones, though we had fled
to a considerable distance. The following day, to our great
terror, we saw the serpent again, when I exclaimed, "O Heaven, to
what dangers are we exposed! We rejoiced yesterday at having
escaped from the cruelty of a giant and the rage of the waves, now
are we fallen into another danger equally dreadful."

As we walked about we saw a large, tall tree, upon which we
designed to pass the following night for our security; and having
satisfied our hunger with fruit, we mounted it accordingly.
Shortly after the serpent came hissing to the foot of the tree;
raised itself up against the trunk of it, and meeting with my
comrade, who sat lower than I, swallowed him at once, and went

I remained upon the tree till it was day, and then came down, more
like a dead man than one alive, expecting the same fate with my
two companions. This filled me with horror, and I advanced some
steps to throw myself into the sea; but I withstood this dictate
of despair, and submitted myself to the will of God, who disposes
of our lives at His pleasure.

In the meantime I collected together a great quantity of small
wood, brambles, and dry thorns, and making them up into fagots,
made a wide circle with them round the tree, and also tied some of
them to the branches over my head. Having done this, when the
evening came, I shut myself up within this circle, with the
melancholy satisfaction that I had neglected nothing which could
preserve me from the cruel destiny with which I was threatened.
The serpent failed not to come at the usual hour, and went round
the tree seeking for an opportunity to devour me, but was
prevented by the rampart I had made; so that he lay till day, like
a cat watching in vain for a mouse that has fortunately reached a
place of safety.

When day appeared he retired, but I dared not leave my fort until
the sun arose.

God took compassion on my hopeless state; for just as I was going,
in a fit of desperation, to throw myself into the sea, I perceived
a ship in the distance. I called as loud as I could, and,
unfolding the linen of my turban, displayed it that they might
observe me. This had the desired effect; the crew perceived me,
and the captain sent his boat for me. As soon as I came on board,
the merchants and seamen flocked about me to know how I came into
that desert island; and after I had related to them all that had
befallen me, the oldest among them said they had several times
heard of the giants that dwelt in that island, that they were
cannibals; and as to the serpents, they added that there were
abundance in the island; that they hid themselves by day and came
abroad by night. After having testified their joy at my escaping
so many dangers, they brought me the best of their provisions; and
took me before the captain, who, seeing that I was in rags, gave
me one of his own suits. Looking steadfastly upon him, I knew him
to be the person who, in my second voyage, had left me in the
island where I fell asleep, and sailed without me, or sending to
seek for me.

I was not surprised that he, believing me to be dead, did not
recognize me.

"Captain," said I, "look at me, and you may know that I am
Sindbad, whom you left in that desert island."

The captain having considered me attentively recognized me.

"God be praised!" said he, embracing me; "I rejoice that fortune
has rectified my fault. There are your goods, which I always took
care to preserve."

I took them from him, and made him my acknowledgments for his care
of them.

We continued at sea for some time, touched at several islands, and
at last landed at that of Salabat, where sandal-wood is obtained,
which is much used in medicine.

From the isle of Salabat we went to another, where I furnished
myself with cloves, cinnamon, and other spices. As we sailed from
this island we saw a tortoise twenty cubits in length and breadth.
We observed also an amphibious animal like a cow, which gave milk;
its skin is so hard that they usually make bucklers of it. I saw
another, which had the shape and color of a camel.

In short, after a long voyage, I arrived at Bussorah, and thence
returned to Bagdad with so much wealth that I knew not its extent.
I gave a great deal to the poor, and bought another considerable
estate in addition to what I had already.

Thus Sindbad finished the story of his third voyage. He gave
another hundred sequins to Hindbad, and invited him to dinner
again the next day to hear.


After I had rested from the dangers of my third voyage, my passion
for trade and my love of novelty soon again prevailed. I therefore
settled my affairs, and provided a stock of goods fit for the
traffic I designed to engage in. I took the route of Persia,
travelled over several provinces, and then arrived at a port,
where I embarked. On putting out to sea, we were overtaken by such
a sudden gust of wind as obliged the captain to lower his yards
and take all other necessary precautions to prevent the danger
that threatened us. But all was in vain; our endeavors had no
effect; the sails were split into a thousand pieces, and the ship
was stranded; several of the merchants and seamen were drowned,
and the cargo was lost.

I had the good fortune, with several of the merchants and
mariners, to get upon some planks, and we were carried by the
current to an island which lay before us. There we found fruit and
spring water, which preserved our lives. We stayed all night near
the place where we had been cast ashore.

Next morning, as soon as the sun was up, we explored the island,
and saw some houses, which we approached. As soon as we drew near,
we were encompassed by a great number of negroes, who seized us,
shared us among them, and carried us to their respective

I and five of my comrades were carried to one place; here they
made us sit down, and gave us a certain herb, which they made
signs to us to eat. My comrades not taking notice that the blacks
ate none of it themselves, thought only of satisfying their
hunger, and ate with greediness. But I, suspecting some trick,
would not so much as taste it, which happened well for me; for in
a little time after I perceived my companions had lost their
senses, and that when they spoke to me they knew not what they

The negroes fed us afterward with rice, prepared with oil of
cocoanuts; and my comrades, who had lost their reason, ate of it
greedily. I also partook of it, but very sparingly. They gave us
that herb at first on purpose to deprive us of our senses, that we
might not be aware of the sad destiny prepared for us; and they
supplied us with rice to fatten us; for, being cannibals, their
design was to eat us as soon as we grew fat. This accordingly
happened, for they devoured my comrades, who were not sensible of
their condition; but my senses being entire, you may easily guess
that instead of growing fat, as the rest did, I grew leaner every
day. The fear of death under which I labored turned all my food
into poison. I fell into a languishing distemper, which proved my
safety; for the negroes, having killed and eaten my companions,
seeing me to be withered, lean and sick, deferred my death.

Meanwhile I had much liberty, so that scarcely any notice was
taken of what I did, and this gave me an opportunity one day to
get at a distance from the houses and to make my escape. An old
man who saw me, and suspected my design, called to me as loud as
he could to return; but instead of obeying him I redoubled my
speed, and quickly got out of sight. At that time there was none
but the old man about the houses, the rest being abroad, and not
to return till night, which was usual with them. Therefore, being
sure that they could not arrive in time to pursue me, I went on
till night, when I stopped to rest a little, and to eat some of
the provisions I had secured; but I speedily set forward again,
and travelled seven days, avoiding those places which seemed to be
inhabited, and lived for the most part upon cocoanuts, which
served me both for meat and drink. On the eighth day I came near
the sea, and saw some white people like myself gathering pepper,
of which there was great plenty in that place. This I took to be a
good omen, and went to them without any scruple.

The people who gathered pepper came to meet me as soon as they saw
me, and asked me in Arabic who I was, and whence I came. I was
overjoyed to hear them speak in my own language, and satisfied
their curiosity by giving them an account of my shipwreck, and how
I fell into the hands of the negroes. "Those negroes," replied
they, "eat men; and by what miracle did you escape their
cruelty?" I related to them the circumstances I have just
mentioned, at which they were wonderfully surprised.

I stayed with them till they had gathered their quantity of
pepper, and then sailed with them to the island from whence they
had come. They presented me to their king, who was a good prince.
He had the patience to hear the relation of my adventures, which
surprised him, and he afterward gave me clothes, and commanded
care to be taken of me.

The island was very well peopled, plentiful in everything, and the
capital a place of great trade. This agreeable retreat was very
comfortable to me after my misfortunes, and the kindness of this
generous prince completed my satisfaction. In a word, there was
not a person more in favor with him than myself, and consequently
every man in court and city sought to oblige me, so that in a very
little time I was looked upon rather as a native than a stranger.

I observed one thing, which to me appeared very extraordinary. All
the people, the king himself not excepted, rode their horses
without bridle or stirrups. I went one day to a workman, and gave
him a model for making the stock of a saddle. When that was done,
I covered it myself with velvet and leather, and embroidered it
with gold. I afterward went to a smith, who made me a bit,
according to the pattern I showed him, and also some stirrups.
When I had all things completed, I presented them to the king, and
put them upon one of his horses. His majesty mounted immediately,
and was so pleased with them that he testified his satisfaction by
large presents.

I made several others for the ministers and principal officers of
his household, which gained me great reputation and regard.

As I paid my court very constantly to the king, he said to me one
day, "Sindbad, I love thee, I have one thing to demand of thee,
which thou must grant. I have a mind thou shouldst marry, that so
thou mayst stay in my dominions, and think no more of thy own
country." I durst not resist the prince's will, and he gave me one
of the ladies of his court, noble, beautiful, and rich. The
ceremonies of marriage being over, I went and dwelt with my wife
and for some time we lived together in perfect harmony. I was not,
however, satisfied with my banishment; therefore designed to make
my escape the first opportunity, and to return to Bagdad, which my
present settlement, how advantageous soever, could not make me

At this time the wife of one of my neighbors, with whom I had
contracted a very strict friendship, fell sick and died. I went
to see and comfort him in his affliction, and, finding him
absorbed in sorrow, I said to him as soon as I saw him, "God
preserve you and grant you a long life." "Alas!" replied he, "how
do you think I should obtain the favor you wish me? I have not
above an hour to live, for I must be buried this day with my wife.
This is a law in this island. The living husband is interred with
the dead wife, and the living wife with the dead husband."

While he was giving an account of this barbarous custom, the very
relation of which chilled my blood, his kindred, friends, and
neighbors came to assist at the funeral. They dressed the corpse
of the woman in her richest apparel and all her jewels as if it
had been her wedding day; then they placed her on an open bier,
and began their march to the place of burial. The husband walked
first, next to the dead body. They proceeded to a high mountain,
and when they had reached the place of their destination, they
took up a large stone which formed the mouth of a deep pit, and
let down the body with all its apparel and jewels. Then the
husband, embracing his kindred and friends, suffered himself to be
placed on another bier without resistance, with a pot of water and
seven small loaves, and was let down in the same manner. The
ceremony being over, the mouth of the pit was again covered with
the stone, and the company returned.

I mention this ceremony the more particularly, because I was in a
few weeks' time to be the principal actor on a similar occasion.
Alas! my own wife fell sick and died. I made every remonstrance I
could to the king not to expose me, a foreigner, to this inhuman
law. I appealed in vain. The king and all his court, with the most
considerable persons in the city, sought to soften my sorrow by
honoring the funeral ceremony with their presence; and, at the
termination of the ceremony, I was lowered into the pit, with a
vessel full of water and seven loaves. As I approached the bottom,
I discovered, by the aid of the little light that came from
above, the nature of this subterranean place. It seemed an endless
cavern, and might be about fifty fathoms deep. I lived for some
time there upon my bread and water, when one day, just as it was
on the point of exhaustion, I heard something tread, and breathing
or panting as it moved. I followed the sound. The animal seemed to
stop sometimes, but always fled and breathed hard as I approached.
I pursued it for a considerable time, till at last I perceived a
light, resembling a star. I went on, sometimes lost sight of it,
but always found it again, and at last discovered that it came
through a hole in the rock, which I got through, and found myself
upon the seashore, at which I felt exceeding joy. I prostrated
myself on the shore to thank God for this mercy, and shortly
afterward I perceived a ship making for the place where I was. I
made a sign with the linen of my turban, and called to the crew as
loud as I could. They heard me, and sent a boat to bring me on
board. It was fortunate for me that these people did not inspect
the place where they found me, but without hesitation took me on

We passed by several islands, and, among others, that called the
Isle of Bells, about ten days' sail from Serendib with a regular
wind, and six from that of Kela, where we landed. Lead mines are
found in the island; also Indian canes and excellent camphire.

The king of the Isle of Kela is very rich and powerful, and the
Isle of Bells, which is about two days' journey in extent, is also
subject to him.

The inhabitants are so barbarous that they still eat human flesh.
After we had finished our traffic in that island we put to sea
again, and touched at several other ports; at last I arrived
happily at Bagdad. Out of gratitude to God for His mercies, I
contributed liberally toward the support of several mosques and
the subsistence of the poor, and enjoyed myself with friends in
festivities and amusements.

Here Sindbad made a new present of one hundred sequins to Hindbad,
whom he requested to return with the rest next day at the same
hour, to dine with him and hear the story of his fifth voyage.


All the troubles and calamities I had undergone could not cure me
of my inclination to make new voyages. I therefore bought goods,
departed with them for the best seaport; and there, that I might
not be obliged to depend upon a captain, but have a ship at my own
command, I remained till one was built on purpose, at my own
charge. When the ship was ready I went on board with my goods; but
not having enough to load her, I agreed to take with me several
merchants of different nations, with their merchandise.

We sailed with the first fair wind, and, after a long navigation,
the first place we touched at was a desert island, where we found
an egg of a roc, equal in size to that I formerly mentioned. There
was a young roc in it, just ready to be hatched, and its beak had
begun to break the egg. The merchants who landed with me broke the
egg with hatchets, and made a hole in it, pulled out the young
roc, piecemeal, and roasted it. I had in vain entreated them not
to meddle with the egg.

Scarcely had they finished their repast, When there appeared in
the air, at a considerable distance, two great clouds. The captain
of my ship, knowing by experience what they meant, said they were
the male and female parents of the roc, and pressed us to re-
embark with all speed, to prevent the misfortune which he saw
would otherwise befall us.

The two rocs approached with a frightful noise, which they
redoubled when they saw the egg broken and their young one gone.
They flew back in the direction they had come, and disappeared for
some time, while we made all the sail we could to endeavor to
prevent that which unhappily befell us.

They soon returned, and we observed that each of them carried
between its talons an enormous rock. When they came directly over
my ship, they hovered, and one of them let go his rock; but by the
dexterity of the steersman it missed us, and fell into the sea.
The other so exactly hit the middle of the ship as to split it
into pieces. The mariners and passengers were all crushed to
death, or fell into the sea. I myself was of the number of the
latter; but, as I came up again, I fortunately caught hold of a
piece of the wreck, and swimming, sometimes with one hand and
sometimes with the other, but always holding fast the plank, the
wind and the tide favoring me, I came to an island, and got safely

I sat down upon the grass, to recover myself from my fatigue,
after which I went into the island to explore it. It seemed to be
a delicious garden. I found trees everywhere, some of them bearing
green and others ripe fruits, and streams of fresh pure water. I
ate of the fruits, which I found excellent; and drank of the
water, which was very light and good.

When I was a little advanced into the island, I saw an old man,
who appeared very weak and infirm. He was sitting on the bank of a
stream, and at first I took him to be one who had been shipwrecked
like myself. I went toward him and saluted him, but he only
slightly bowed his head. I asked him why he sat so still; but
instead of answering me, he made a sign for me to take him upon my
back, and carry him over the brook.

I believed him really to stand in need of my assistance, took him
upon my back, and having carried him over, bade him get down, and
for that end stooped, that he might get off with ease; but instead
of doing so (which I laugh at every time I think of it), the old
man, who to me appeared quite decrepit, threw his legs nimbly
about my neck. He sat astride upon my shoulders, and held my
throat so tight that I thought he would have strangled me, and I
fainted away.

Notwithstanding my fainting, the ill-natured old fellow still kept
his seat upon my neck. When I had recovered my breath, he thrust
one of his feet against my side, and struck me so rudely with the
other that he forced me to rise up against my will. Having arisen,
he made me carry him under the trees, and forced me now and then
to stop, that he might gather and eat fruit. He never left his
seat all day; and when I lay down to rest at night, he laid
himself down with me, holding still fast about my neck. Every
morning he pinched me to make me awake, and afterward obliged me
to get up and walk, and spurred me with his feet.

One day I found several dry calabashes that had fallen from a
tree. I took a large one, and, after cleaning it, pressed into it
some juice of grapes, which abounded in the island; having filled
the calabash, I put it by in a convenient place, and going thither
again some days after, I tasted it, and found the wine so good
that it gave me new vigor, and so exhilarated my spirits that I
began to sing and dance as I carried my burden.

The old man, perceiving the effect which this had upon me, and
that I carried him with more ease than before, made me a sign to
give him some of it. I handed him the calabash, and the liquor
pleasing his palate, he drank it off. There being a considerable
quantity of it, he soon began to sing, and to move about from side
to side in his seat upon my shoulders, and by degrees to loosen
his legs from about me. Finding that he did not press me as
before, I threw him upon the ground, where he lay without motion;
I then took up a great stone and slew him.

I was extremely glad to be thus freed for ever from this
troublesome fellow. I now walked toward the beach, where I met the
crew of a ship that had cast anchor to take in water; they were
surprised to see me, but more so at hearing the particulars of my
adventures. "You fell," said they, "into the hands of the Old Man
of the Sea, and are the first who ever escaped strangling by his
malicious embraces. He never quitted those he had once made
himself master of till he had destroyed them, and he has made this
island notorious by the number of men he has slain." They carried
me with them to the captain, who received me with great kindness.
He put out again to sea, and, after some days' sail, we arrived at
the harbor of a great city, the houses of which overhung the sea.

One of the merchants who had taken me into his friendship invited
me to go along with him. He gave me a large sack, and having
recommended me to some people of the town, who used to gather
cocoanuts, desired them to take me with them. "Go," said he,
"follow them, and act as you see them do; but do not separate from
them, otherwise you may endanger your life." Having thus spoken,
he gave me provisions for the journey, and I went with them.

We came to a thick forest of cocoa trees, very lofty, with trunks
so smooth that it was not possible to climb to the branches that
bore the fruit. When we entered the forest we saw a great number
of apes of several sizes, who fled as soon as they perceived us,
and climbed to the tops of the trees with amazing swiftness.

The merchants with whom I was gathered stones, and threw them at
the apes on the trees. I did the same; and the apes, out of
revenge, threw coconuts at us so fast, and with such gestures, as
sufficiently testified their anger and resentment. We gathered up
the cocoanuts, and from time to time threw stones to provoke the
apes; so that by this stratagem we filled our bags with cocoanuts.
I thus gradually collected as many cocoanuts as produced me a
considerable sum.

Having laden our vessel with cocoanuts, we set sail, and passed by
the islands where pepper grows in great plenty. From thence we
went to the Isle of Comari, where the best species of wood of
aloes grows. I exchanged my cocoa in those two islands for pepper
and wood of aloes, and went with other merchants a-pearl-fishing,
I hired divers, who brought me up some that were very large and
pure. I embarked in a vessel that happily arrived at Bussorah;
from thence I returned to Bagdad, where I realized vast sums from
my pepper, wood of aloes, and pearls. I gave the tenth of my gains
in alms, as I had done upon my return from my other voyages, and
rested from my fatigues.

Sindbad here ordered one hundred sequins to be given to Hindbad,
and requested him and the other guests to dine with him the next
day, to hear the account of his sixth voyage.


I know, my friends, that you will wish to hear how, after having
been shipwrecked five times, and escaped so many dangers, I could
resolve again to tempt fortune, and expose myself to new
hardships. I am myself astonished at my conduct when I reflect
upon it, and must certainly have been actuated by my destiny, from
which none can escape. Be that as it may, after a year's rest I
prepared for a sixth voyage, notwithstanding the entreaties of my
kindred and friends, who did all in their power to dissuade me.

Instead of taking my way by the Persian Gulf, I travelled once
more through several provinces of Persia and the Indies, and
arrived at a seaport, where I embarked in a ship, the captain of
which was bound on a long voyage, in which he and the pilot lost
their course. Suddenly we saw the captain quit his rudder,
uttering loud lamentations. He threw off his turban, pulled his
beard, and beat his head like a madman. We asked him the reason;
and he answered that we were in the most dangerous place in all
the ocean. "A rapid current carries the ship along with it, and we
shall all perish in less than a quarter of an hour. Pray to God to
deliver us from this peril; we cannot escape if He do not take
pity on us." At these words he ordered the sails to be lowered;
but all the ropes broke, and the ship was carried by the current
to the foot of an inaccessible mountain, where she struck and went
to pieces; yet in such a manner that we saved our lives, our
provisions, and the best of our goods.

The mountain at the foot of which we were was covered with wrecks,
with a vast number of human bones, and with an incredible quantity
of goods and riches of all kinds. These objects served only to
augment our despair. In all other places it is usual for rivers to
run from their channels into the sea; but here a river of fresh
water runs from the sea into a dark cavern, whose entrance is very
high and spacious. What is most remarkable in this place is that
the stones of the mountain are of crystal, rubies, or other
precious stones. Here is also a sort of fountain of pitch or
bitumen, that runs into the sea, which the fish swallow, and
evacuate soon afterward, turned into ambergris; and this the waves
throw up on the beach in great quantities. Trees also grow here,
most of which are of wood of aloes, equal in goodness to those of

To finish the description of this place, it is not possible for
ships to get off when once they approach within a certain
distance. If they be driven thither by a wind from the sea, the
wind and the current impel them; and if they come into it when a
land wind blows, which might seem to favor their getting out
again, the height of the mountain stops the wind, and occasions a
calm, so that the force of the current carries them ashore: and
what completes the misfortune is that there is no possibility of
ascending the mountain, or of escaping by sea.

We continued upon the shore, at the foot of the mountain, in a
state of despair, and expected death every day. On our first
landing we had divided our provisions as equally as we could, and
thus every one lived a longer or shorter time, according to his
temperance, and the use he made of his provisions.

I survived all my companions; and when I buried the last I had so
little provisions remaining that I thought I could not long
survive, and I dug a grave, resolving to lie down in it, because
there was no one left to pay me the last offices of respect. But
it pleased God once more to take compassion on me, and put it in
my mind to go to the bank of the river which ran into the great
cavern. Considering its probable course with great attention, I
said to myself, "This river, which runs thus underground, must
somewhere have an issue. If I make a raft, and leave myself to the
current, it will convey me to some inhabited country, or I shall
perish. If I be drowned I lose nothing, but only change one kind
of death for another."

I immediately went to work upon large pieces of timber and cables,
for I had a choice of them from the wrecks, and tied them together
so strongly that I soon made a very solid raft. When I had
finished, I loaded it with some chests of rubies, emeralds,
ambergris, rock crystal and bales of rich stuffs. Having balanced
my cargo exactly, and fastened it well to the raft, I went on
board with two oars that I had made, and leaving it to the course
of the river, resigned myself to the will of God.

As soon as I entered the cavern I lost all light, and the stream
carried me I knew not whither. Thus I floated on in perfect
darkness, and once, found the arch so low that it very nearly
touched my head, which made me cautious afterward to avoid the
like danger. All this while I ate nothing but what was just
necessary to support nature; yet, notwithstanding my frugality,
all my provisions were spent. Then I became insensible. I cannot
tell how long I continued so; but when I revived, I was surprised
to find myself in an extensive plain on the brink of a river,
where my raft was tied, among a great number of negroes. I got up
as soon as I saw them, and saluted them. They spoke to me, but I
did not understand their language.

I was so transported with joy that I knew not whether I was asleep
or awake; but being persuaded that I was not asleep, I recited the
following words in Arabic aloud:

"Call upon the Almighty, He will help thee; thou needst not
perplex thyself about anything else: shut thy eyes, and while thou
art asleep God will change thy bad fortune into good."

One of the negroes, who understood Arabic, hearing me speak thus,
came toward me, and said: "Brother, be not surprised to see us; we
are inhabitants of this country, and water our fields from this
river, which comes out of the neighboring mountain. We saw your
raft, and one of us swam into the river, and brought it hither,
where we fastened it, as you see, until you should awake. Pray
tell us your history. Whence did you come?"

I begged of them first to give me something to eat, and then I
would satisfy their curiosity. They gave me several sorts of food,
and when I had satisfied my hunger, I related all that had
befallen me, which they listened to with attentive surprise. As
soon as I had finished they told me, by the person who spoke
Arabic and interpreted to them what I said, that I must go along
with them, and tell my story to their king myself; it being too
extraordinary to be related by any other than the person to whom
the events had happened.

They immediately sent for a horse, and having helped me to mount,
some of them walked before to show the way, while the rest took my
raft and cargo and followed.

We marched till we came to the capital of Serendib, for it was in
that island I had landed. The negroes presented me to their king;
I approached his throne, and saluted him as I used to do the kings
of the Indies; that is to say, I prostrated myself at his feet.
The prince ordered me to rise, received me with an obliging air,
and made me sit down near him.

I concealed nothing from the king; but related to him all that I
have told you. At last my raft was brought in, and the bales
opened in his presence: he admired the quantity of wood of aloes
and ambergris; but above all, the rubies and emeralds, for he had
none in his treasury that equalled them.

Observing that he looked on my jewels with pleasure, and viewed
the most remarkable among them, one after another, I fell
prostrate at his feet, and took the liberty to say to him, "Sire,
not only my person is at your majesty's service, but the cargo of
the raft, and I would beg of you to dispose of it as your own."

He answered me with a smile, "Sindbad, I will take nothing of
yours; far from lessening your wealth, I design to augment it, and
will not let you quit my dominions without marks of my liberality."

He then charged one of his officers to take care of me, and
ordered people to serve me at his own expense. The officer was
very faithful in the execution of his commission, and caused all
the goods to be carried to the lodgings provided for me.

I went every day at a set hour to make my court to the king, and
spent the rest of my time in viewing the city, and what was most
worthy of notice.

The capital of Serendib stands at the end of a fine valley, in the
middle of the island, encompassed by high mountains. They are seen
three days' sail off at sea. Rubies and several sorts of minerals
abound. All kinds of rare plants and trees grow there, especially
cedars and cocoanut. There is also a pearl-fishery in the mouth of
its principal river; and in some of its valleys are found
diamonds. I made, by way of devotion, a pilgrimage to the place
where Adam was confined after his banishment from Paradise, and
had the curiosity to go to the top of the mountain.

When I returned to the city I prayed the king to allow me to
return to my own country, and he granted me permission in the most
obliging and honorable manner. He would force a rich present upon
me; and at the same time charged me with a letter for the
Commander of the Faithful, our sovereign, saying to me, "I pray
you give this present from me, and this letter, to the Caliph
Haroun-al-Raschid, and assure him of my friendship."

The letter from the King of Serendib was written on the skin of a
certain animal of great value, very scarce, and of a yellowish
color. The characters of this letter were of azure, and the
contents as follows:

"The King of the Indies, before whom march one hundred elephants,
who lives in a palace that shines with one hundred thousand
rubies, and who has in his treasury twenty thousand crowns
enriched with diamonds, to Caliph Haroun-al-Raschid.

"Though the present we send you be inconsiderable, receive it,
however, as a brother and a friend, in consideration of the hearty
friendship which we bear for you, and of which we are willing to
give you proof. We desire the same part in your friendship,
considering that we believe it to be our merit, as we are both
kings. We send you this letter as from one brother to another.

The present consisted, first, of one single ruby made into a cup,
about half a foot high, an inch thick, and filled with round
pearls of half a drachm each. 2. The skin of a serpent, whose
scales were as bright as an ordinary piece of gold, and had the
virtue to preserve from sickness those who lay upon it. 3. Fifty
thousand drachms of the best wood of aloes, with thirty grains of
camphire as big as pistachios. And 4. A female slave of great
beauty, whose robe was covered over with jewels.

The ship set sail, and after a very successful navigation we
landed at Bussorah, and from thence I went to the city of Bagdad,
where the first thing I did was to acquit myself of my commission.

I took the King of Serendib's letter, and went to present myself
at the gate of the Commander of the Faithful, and was immediately
conducted to the throne of the caliph. I made my obeisance, and
presented the letter and gift. When he had read what the King of
Serendib wrote to him, he asked me if that prince were really so
rich and potent as he represented himself in his letter. I
prostrated myself a second time, and, rising again, said,
"Commander of the Faithful, I can assure your majesty he doth not
exceed the truth. I bear him witness. Nothing is more worthy of
admiration than the magnificence of his palace. When the prince
appears in public he has a throne fixed on the back of an
elephant, and rides between two ranks of his ministers, favorites,
and other people of his court. Before him, upon the same elephant,
an officer carries a golden lance in his hand; and behind him
there is another, who stands with a rod of gold, on the top of
which is an emerald, half a foot long and an inch thick. He is
attended by a guard of one thousand men, clad in cloth of gold and
silk, and mounted on elephants richly caparisoned. The officer who
is before him on the same elephant cries from time to time, with a
loud voice, 'Behold the great monarch, the potent and redoubtable
Sultan of the Indies, the monarch greater than Solomon, and the
powerful Maharaja.'

"After he has pronounced those words, the officer behind the
throne cries in his turn, 'This monarch, so great and so powerful,
must die, must die, must die!' And the officer before replies,
'Praise alone be to Him who liveth for ever and ever.'"

The caliph was much pleased with my account, and sent me home with
a rich present.

Here Sindbad commanded another hundred sequins to be paid to
Hindbad, and begged his return on the morrow to hear his seventh
and last voyage.


On my return home from my sixth voyage, I had entirely given up
all thoughts of again going to sea; for, besides that my age now
required rest, I was resolved no more to expose myself to such
risks as I had encountered, so that I thought of nothing but to
pass the rest of my days in tranquillity. One day, however, an
officer of the caliph's inquired for me. "The caliph," said he,
"has sent me to tell you that he must speak with you." I followed
the officer to the palace, where, being presented to the caliph, I
saluted him by prostrating myself at his feet. "Sindbad," said he
to me, "I stand in need of your services; you must carry my answer
and present to the King of Serendib."

This command of the caliph was to me like a clap of thunder.
"Commander of the Faithful," I replied, "I am ready to do whatever
your majesty shall think fit to command; but I beseech you most
humbly to consider what I have undergone. I have also made a vow
never to leave Bagdad."

Perceiving that the caliph insisted upon my compliance, I
submitted, and told him that I was willing to obey. He was very
well pleased, and ordered me one thousand sequins for the expenses
of my journey.

I prepared for my departure in a few days. As soon as the caliph's
letter and present were delivered to me, I went to Bussorah, where
I embarked, and had a very prosperous voyage. Having arrived at
the Isle of Serendib, I was conducted to the palace with much
pomp, when I prostrated myself on the ground before the king.
"Sindbad," said the king, "you are welcome; I have many times
thought of you; I bless the day on which I see you once more." I
made my compliments to him, and thanked him for his kindness, and
delivered the gifts from my august master.

The caliph's letter was as follows:

"Greeting, in the name of the Sovereign Guide of the Right Way,
from the servant of God, Haroun-al-Raschid, whom God hath set in
the place of vicegerent to His Prophet, after his ancestors of
happy memory, to the potent and esteemed Raja of Serendib.

"We receive your letter with joy, and send you from our imperial
residence, the garden of superior wits. We hope when you look
upon it you will perceive our good intention, and be pleased with
it. Farewell."

The caliph's present was a complete suit of cloth of gold, valued
at one thousand sequins; fifty robes of rich stuff; a hundred of
white cloth, the finest of Cairo, Suez, and Alexandria; a vessel
of agate, more broad than deep, an inch thick, and half a foot
wide, the bottom of which represented in bas-relief a man with one
knee on the ground, who held a bow and an arrow, ready to
discharge at a lion. He sent him also a rich tablet, which,
according to tradition, belonged to the great Solomon.

The King of Serendib was highly gratified at the caliph's
acknowledgment of his friendship. A little time after this
audience I solicited leave to depart, and with much difficulty
obtained it. The king, when he dismissed me, made me a very
considerable present. I embarked immediately to return to Bagdad,
but had not the good-fortune to arrive there so speedily as I had
hoped. God ordered it otherwise.

Three or four days after our departure we were attacked by
pirates, who easily seized upon our ship, because it was not a
vessel of war. Some of the crew offered resistance, which cost
them their lives. But for myself and the rest, who were not so
imprudent, the pirates saved us, and carried us into a remote
island, where they sold us.

I fell into the hands of a rich merchant, who, as soon as he
bought me, took me to his house, treated me well, and clad me
handsomely as a slave. Some days after he asked me if I understood
any trade. I answered that I was no mechanic, but a merchant, and
that the pirates who sold me had robbed me of all I possessed.
"Tell me," replied he, "can you shoot with a bow?" I answered that
the bow was one of my exercises in my youth. He gave me a bow and
arrows, and, taking me behind him on an elephant, carried me to a
thick forest some leagues from the town. We penetrated a great way
into the wood, and when he thought fit to stop, he bade me alight;
then showing me a great tree, "Climb up that," said he, "and shoot
at the elephants as you see them pass by, for there is a
prodigious number of them in this forest, and if any of them fall,
come and give me notice." Having spoken thus, he left me victuals,
and returned to the town, and I continued upon the tree all night.

I saw no elephant during the night, but next morning, at break of
day, I perceived a great number. I shot several arrows among them,
and at last one of the elephants fell, when the rest retired
immediately, and left me at liberty to go and acquaint my patron
with my success. When I had informed him, he commended my
dexterity, and caressed me highly. We went afterward together to
the forest, where we dug a hole for the elephant; my patron
designing to return when it was rotten, and take his teeth to
trade with.

I continued this employment for two months. One morning, as I
looked for the elephants, I perceived with extreme amazement that,
instead of passing by me across the forest as usual, they stopped,
and came to me with a horrible noise, in such numbers that the
plain was covered and shook under them. They surrounded the tree
in which I was concealed, with their trunks uplifted, and all
fixed their eyes upon me. At this alarming spectacle I continued
immovable, and was so much terrified that my bow and arrows fell
out of my hand.

My fears were not without cause; for after the elephants had
stared upon me some time, one of the largest of them put his trunk
round the foot of the tree, plucked it up, and threw it on the
ground. I fell with the tree, and the elephant, taking me up with
his trunk, laid me on his back, where I sat more like one dead
than alive, with my quiver on my shoulder. He put himself at the
head of the rest, who followed him in line, one after the other,
carried me a considerable way, then laid me down on the ground,
and retired with all his companions. After having lain some time,
and seeing the elephants gone, I got up, and found I was upon a
long and broad hill, almost covered with the bones and teeth of
elephants. I doubted not but that this was the burial-place of the
elephants, and that they carried me thither on purpose to tell me
that I should forbear to kill them, as now I knew where to get
their teeth without inflicting injury on them. I did not stay on
the hill, but turned toward the city; and after having travelled a
day and a night, I came to my patron.

As soon as my patron saw me, "Ah, poor Sindbad!" exclaimed he, "I
was in great trouble to know what was become of you. I have been
at the forest, where I found a tree newly pulled up, and your bow
and arrows on the ground, and I despaired of ever seeing you more.
Pray tell me what befell you." I satisfied his curiosity, and we
both of us set out next morning to the hill. We loaded the
elephant which had carried us with as many teeth as he could bear;
and when we were returned, my master thus addressed me: "Hear now
what I shall tell you. The elephants of our forest have every year
killed us a great many slaves, whom we sent to seek ivory. For all
the cautions we could give them, those crafty animals destroyed
them one time or other. God has delivered you from their fury, and
has bestowed that favor upon you only. It is a sign that He loves
you, and has some use for your service in the world. You have
procured me incredible wealth; and now our whole city is enriched
by your means, without any more exposing the lives of our slaves.
After such a discovery, I can treat you no more as a slave, but as
a brother. God bless you with all happiness and prosperity. I
henceforth give you your liberty; I will also give you riches."

To this I replied: "Master, God preserve you. I desire no other
reward for the service I had the good-fortune to do to you and
your city but leave to return to my own country." "Very well,"
said he, "the monsoon will in a little time bring ships for ivory.
I will then send you home." I stayed with him while waiting for
the monsoon; and during that time we made so many journeys to the
hill, that we filled all our warehouses with ivory. The other
merchants who traded in it did the same, for my master made them
partakers of his good-fortune.

The ships arrived at last, and my master himself having made
choice of the ship wherein I was to embark, loaded half of it with
ivory on my account, laid in provisions in abundance for my
passage, and besides obliged me to accept a present of some
curiosities of the country of great value. After I had returned
him a thousand thanks for all his favors I went aboard. We stopped
at some islands to take in fresh provisions. Our vessel being come
to a port on the mainland in the Indies, we touched there, and,
not being willing to venture by sea to Bussorah, I landed my
proportion of the ivory, resolving to proceed on my journey by
land. I realized vast sums by my ivory, bought several rarities,
which I intended for presents, and when my equipage was ready, set
out in company with a large caravan of merchants. I was a long
time on the journey, and suffered much, but was happy in thinking
that I had nothing to fear from the seas, from pirates, from
serpents, or from the other perils to which I had been exposed.

I at last arrived safe at Bagdad, and immediately waited upon the
caliph, to give him an account of my embassy. He loaded me with
honors and rich presents, and I have ever since devoted myself to
my family, kindred, and friends.

Sindbad here finished the relation of his seventh and last voyage,
and then addressing himself to Hindbad, "Well, friend," said he,
"did you ever hear of any person that suffered so much as I have
done? Is it not reasonable that, after all this, I should enjoy a
quiet and pleasant life?" As he said these words, Hindbad kissed
his hand, and said, "Sir, my afflictions are not to be compared
with yours. You not only deserve a quiet life, but are worthy of
all the riches you possess, since you make so good a use of them.
May you live happily for a long time." Sindbad ordered him to be
paid another hundred sequins, and told him to give up carrying
burdens as a porter, and to eat henceforth at his table, for he
wished that he should all his life have reason to remember that he
henceforth had a friend in Sindbad the Sailor.


Although hundreds have tried, both at home and abroad, no one has
been able to write a book that could take the place of Robinson
Crusoe, the story of that sturdy, voyaging Englishman who was
always on the lookout for adventures and was never discouraged by
any circumstances in which he found himself. The picture of the
brave captain in his hairy goatskin clothes, Poll on his shoulder,
his faithful dog by his side, and Friday following along behind,
is one that remains stamped for life on every reader's mind.

Like all great books, it interests people of all ages. To the
child it is a fascinating fairy tale; to the older boys and girls
it is a story of stirring adventure, while to the mature man it is
a picture of civilization. And so it has come to be read again and
again, and admired and cherished the world over.

Robinson Crusoe was written in 1719 by Daniel Defoe, the son of a
butcher, when he was over sixty years of age. His son deserted and
deceived him, as Robinson Crusoe deserted and deceived his father,
and it almost broke the old man's heart.


By Daniel Defoe

Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my
discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of
my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast
for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits
of glass, and the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time, not far entered into.

Being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of things very earnestly, three of them
came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very
much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and
they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining
me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and for
which they needed nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired to
make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his
own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on
as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing, too;
for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing
that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after
my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal
will disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my death,
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before,
my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will, one-half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and ought not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its hazards.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted
out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement,
by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the
lst of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went
from my father and mother at Hull.

Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns, and fourteen
men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and
other trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St.
Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N., and leaving those isles
on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22'
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us
quite out of our knowledge. It blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive; and,
scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and the
fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any
in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men die of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found that
he was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazon,
toward that of the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great River;
and now he began to consult with me what course he should take;
for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to till we came within the circle
of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for
Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of
the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make
our voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to
our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by
W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce
that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather
in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early one morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no sooner run out
of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabout in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon the sand, and in a
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in
such a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were even driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it
was we were driven; whether an island or the main, whether
inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in
pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and
expecting death every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as
preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this; that which was our present comfort, and all
the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to

Now, though we thought the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as
we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but
she was fast staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in
the next place she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off
to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on
board; but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship
would break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over
the ship's side; and getting all into her, we let go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy and
the wild sea: for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called _den wild zee_, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly
that the sea went so high that the boat could not escape, and that
we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none,
nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked
at the oar toward the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near
the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach
of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner; and the wind driving us toward the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could toward land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal,
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation was, if we might happen into some bay or
gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared;
but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the _coup de grace_.
In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us as well from the boat as from one another,
gave us not time hardly to say, "O God!" for we were all swallowed
up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I
sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on toward the
shore, and having spent itself, went back and left me upon the
land, almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself
nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet, and
endeavored to make on toward the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so by
swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself toward the
shore if possible, my greatest concern now being that the wave, as
it would carry me a great way toward the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back toward the

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness toward the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so
long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had farther
toward the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury
of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before, the
shore being very flat. The last time of these two had wellnigh
been fatal to me; for the sea having hurried me along, as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
that with such force as it left me senseless, and, indeed,
helpless as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side
and breast, beat the breath as it were quite out of my body; and
had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in
the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with water, I resolved
to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got
to the mainland; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
clifts and sat upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of
the reach of the water,

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was some
minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the
soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave: and I do not wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to
be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him--I say I do not
wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him bleed that
very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him,

  For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapped up in a contemplation of my
deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterward, or any sign of them,
except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off;
and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I
was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I
was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or
drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me but
that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts:
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that I had no
weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that
for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I
began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if
there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I
could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy;
and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and being excessively fatigued, I fell fast
asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than
I think I ever was on such an occasion.


When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the
night from the sand where she lay by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the
wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to
have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and
the boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the
ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw
evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all safe--
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes--for the weather was hot
to extremity--and took the water. But when I came to the ship my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for, as
she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did
not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low as that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that
she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was free.
And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and, being very well disposed to eat, I
went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate
it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for what was
before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces
of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with a carpenter's
saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of
furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what
I should have been able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long
considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open, and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these I
filled with provisions; viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I
stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the
shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were
only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which
I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use,
for I had other things which my eye was more upon--as, first,
tools to work with on shore. And it was after long searching that
I found out the carpenter's chest, which was, indeed, a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-load of
gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, whole
as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in
general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms.

There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements--1st, a smooth calm sea; 2ndly, the
tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, what little wind
there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat--and, besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer--
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from
the place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to
find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if
I had, I think verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and, not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but, holding up the chests with
all my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher I at length found myself in the mouth
of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river: hoping in time to see some ships at sea, and therefore
resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep--that is to
say sloping--there was no place to land, but where one end of my
float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that
I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping
the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast
to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough--for my raft drew about a foot of water--I thrust her upon
that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near
one end, and one on the other side near the other end; and thus I
lay till the water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for
my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not
above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed I travelled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with
great labor and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction--viz., that I was in an island environed every
way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay
a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew
not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was
fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood.
I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired than from all parts
of the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many
sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, and every one
according to his usual note, but not one of them of any kind that
I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of
hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or
claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way
to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures
like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel,
if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other
things apart till I had got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council--that is to say, in my
thoughts--whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared
impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screwjack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or
three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-
lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship's side.

Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding, and
with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
came back I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a
creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face,
as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun
at her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great: however, I spared her a
bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and
looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more, so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore--though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large casks--I went to work to make me a little tent
with the sail and some poles which I cut for that purpose, and
into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either
with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in
a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the
first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary
and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and had
labored very hard all day to fetch all those things from the ship,
and to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could: so every day at low water I
went on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly the third time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twines I
could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I
brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain
to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was that last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with--I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I
could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-
yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all these heavy goods, and came away. But my good luck began
now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen,
that, after I had entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did
the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the
water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost,
especially the iron, which I expected would have been of great use
to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of
the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought
away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise; however, at
low water I went on board, and, though I thought I had rummaged
the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet I
discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found
two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten
or a dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money--some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "O drug!" said I,
aloud, "what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me--no, not
the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap; I have no manner of use for thee--e'en remain where thou
art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts I took it away; and,
wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour
it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me
that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of
flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at
all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water it
blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in
the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time.


By Daniel Defoe

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship--I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

My habitation was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with
a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it
a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about
two feet thick, on the outside; and after some time (I think it
was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found at some
times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as
they lay in no order, so they took up all my place--I had no room
to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and work
farther into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it; and so, when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the
right hand, into the rock; and then, turning to the right again,
worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of
my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress and
regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but
gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world--
I could not write or eat, or do several things, with so much
pleasure without a table; so I went to work. And here I must
needs observe that, as reason is the substance and origin of the
mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and
by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be,
in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and
contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no more
tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made
that way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it
on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe,
till I brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and
labor which it took me up to make a plank or board; but my time or
labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in
the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up; so that, had my cave
been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that it
was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not
only hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure of mind; and
my journal would have been full of many dull things.

You may be sure my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of
land which I had seen from the other side of the island; and I was
not without secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying
that, seeing the mainland, and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself further, and perhaps at last
find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such an
undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than the
lions and tigers of Africa: that if I once came in their power, I
should run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being
killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the
people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals or man-eaters, and I
knew by the latitude that I could not be far from that shore.
Then, supposing they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me,
as many Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served,
even when they had been ten or twenty together--much more I, that
was but one, and could make little or no defence; all these
things, I say, which I ought to have considered well, and did come
into my thoughts afterwards, yet gave me no apprehensions at
first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over
to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the longboat with shoulder-of-
mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the
coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go
and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast
away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom
upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily
enough; but I might have foreseen that I could no more turn her
and set her upright upon her bottom than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good
boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it
impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to
digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall
down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to
get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over to the mainland increased,
rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not possible to
make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts
of making it, and with my having much more convenience for it than
any of the negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the
particular inconvenience which I lay under more than the Indians
did, viz., want of hands to move it, when it was made, into the
water--a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the
consequences of want of tools could be to them; for what was it to
me if, when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, and with much
trouble cut it down, if I had been able with my tools to hew and
dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut
out the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it--if,
after all this, I must leave it just there where I found it, and
not be able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection
upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat but
I should have immediately thought how I should get it into the
sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over the sea in
it that I never once considered how I should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it
over forty-five miles of sea than about forty-five fathoms of
land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake
it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often
into my head, but I put a stop to my inquiries into it by this
foolish answer which I gave myself--"Let me first make it; I
warrant I will find some way or other to get it along when it is

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy
prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar-tree, and I
question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter
at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened
for a while, and then parted into branches. It was not without
infinite labor that I felled this tree; I was twenty days hacking
and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs and the vast spreading head cut off, which I
hacked and hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible
labor; after this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it
might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months
more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact
boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and
chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to be
a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-
twenty men, and consequently big enough to have carried me and all
my cargo.

When I had gone through this work I was extremely delighted with
it. The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or
periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they
cost me infinite labor, too. It lay about one hundred yards from
the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was
up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouragement,
I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a
declivity: this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains
(but who grudge pains who have their deliverance in view?); but
when this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was
still much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I
could the other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and
resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the
canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well,
I began this work; and when I began to enter upon it, and
calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was
to be thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I had,
being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so
high, that at the upper end it must have been at least twenty feet
deep; so at length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this
attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we
judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as
much comfort as ever before.

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the
world here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of the
eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all
that I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor;
or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the
whole country which I had possession of: there were no rivals; I
had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with me;
I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use for
it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I
had tortoise or turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as
I could put to any use; I had timber enough to have built a fleet
of ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have
cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had
enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was all the rest to
me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it,
or vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be
spoiled; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the
ground; I could make no more use of them but for fuel, and that I
had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are
no farther good to us than they are for our use; and that,
whatever we may heap up to give others, we enjoy just as much as
we can use, and no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the
world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness if he had
been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what
to do with.


By Daniel Defoe

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all my subjects at my
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it
away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then, to see how like a
king I dined, too, all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, as if
he had been my favorite, was the only person permitted to talk to
me. My dog, who was now grown old, sat always at my right hand;
and two cats, one on one side of the table and one on the other,
expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of especial
favor. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived;
neither could I be said to want anything but society; and of that,
some time after this, I was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of
my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards; and therefore
sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and
at other times I sat myself down contented enough without her. But
I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point of
the island: this inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge of
the shore. I did so; but had any one in England met such a man as
I was, it must either have frightened him, or raised a great deal
of laughter; and as I frequently stood still to look at myself, I
could not but smile at the notion of my travelling through
Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased
to take a sketch of my figure, as follows:

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to
shoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing being so
hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under the

I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming down to
about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches
of the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side that, like
pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs; stockings and
shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce
knew what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs, and
lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous
shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew together
with two thongs of the same instead of buckles, and in a kind of a
frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a
little saw and a hatchet, one on one side and one on the other. I
had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat's skin, too, in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried
my basket, and on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great
clumsy, ugly, goat's-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the
most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for my
face, the color of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might
expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine
or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to
grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but, as I had
both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short,
except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large
pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks
at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did;
of these mustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a length and
shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed
for frightful.

But all this is by the by; for as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no
more of that. In this kind of dress I went my new journey, and was
out five or six days. I travelled first along the seashore,
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor
to get upon the rocks; and, having no boat now to take care of, I
went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was upon
before, when, looking forward to the points of the rocks which lay
out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as is said
above, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet--no
rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than in other
places. I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved
to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the
sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced
how it was; viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on the
shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that, according
as the wind blew more forcibly from the west or from the north,
this current came nearer or went farther from the shore; for,
waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock again, and
then, the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current again
as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league
from the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore,
and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another time
it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to
observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very
easily bring my boat about the island again; but when I began to
think of putting it in practice, I had such terror upon my spirits
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I could not
think of it again with any patience, but, on the contrary, I took
up another resolution, which was more safe, though more laborious--
and this was, that I would build, or rather make, me another
perigaua or canoe, and so have one for one side of the island, and
one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island--one my little fortification or tent,
with the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me,
which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments or
caves, one within another. One of these, which was the driest and
largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification--that
is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock--was all filled
up with the large earthen pots of which I have given an account,
and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five
or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provisions,
especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw,
and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those
piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and
spread so very much, that there was not the least appearance, to
any one's view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land,
and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I
kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded me their
harvest in its season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn,
I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country-seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for, first, I had my little bower as I
called it, which I kept in repair--that is to say, I kept the
hedge which encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual
height, the ladder standing always in the inside. I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but were now grown
very firm and tall, always cut, so that they might spread and
grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they
did effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent
always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles, set up
for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or renewing;
and under this I had made me a squab or couch with the skins of
the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a
blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I
had saved; and a great watch-coat to cover me. And there, whenever
I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to
say my goats, and I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to
fence and enclose this ground. I was so anxious to see it kept
entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off
till, with infinite labor, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so
full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was
rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a
hand through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the enclosure
strong like a wall, indeed stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no
pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support, for I considered the keeping up a breed of
tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in the
place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to such a
degree that I might be sure of keeping them together; which by
this method, indeed, I so effectually secured that, when these
little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so very thick that
I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally
depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never
failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most agreeable
dainty of my whole diet; and indeed they were not only agreeable,
but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and
the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay
here in my way thither, for I used frequently to visit my boat;
and I kept all things about or belonging to her in very good
order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more
hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone's cast
or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out
of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any other
accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was
exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on the
shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like
one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I listened,
I looked round me, but I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I
went up to a rising ground to look farther; I went up the shore
and down the shore, but it was all one; I could see no other
impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were
any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but there
was no room for that, for there was exactly the print of a foot--
toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither I knew
not, nor could I in the least imagine; but after innumerable
fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of
myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say,
the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and
tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man. Nor is
it possible to describe how many various shapes my affrighted
imagination represented things to me in, how many wild ideas were
found every moment in my fancy, and what strange, unaccountable
whimsies came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after
this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the
ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock,
which I had called a door, I cannot remember; no, nor could I
remember the next morning, for never frightened hare fled to
cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my
fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which is something
contrary to the nature of such things, and especially to the usual
practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with
my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but
dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great way
off. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil, and reason joined
in with me in this supposition, for how should any other thing in
human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought
them? What marks were there of any other footstep? And how was it
possible a man should come there? But then, to think that Satan
should take human shape upon him in such a place, where there
could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of
his foot behind him, and that even for no purpose, too, for he
could not be sure I should see it--this was an amusement the other
way. I considered that the devil might have found out abundance of
other ways to have terrified me than this of the single print of a
foot; that as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he
would never have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place
where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or
not, and in the sand, too, which the first surge of the sea, upon
a high wind, would have defaced entirely. All this seemed
inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions we
usually entertain of the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all
apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently concluded
then that it must be some more dangerous creature; viz., that it
must be some of the savages of the mainland opposite who had
wandered out to sea in their canoes, and, either driven by the
currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had been
on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as loath,
perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would have
been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very
thankful in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to be
thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by
which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in
the place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found out my
boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers and devour me;
that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet they
would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all
my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful
experience as I had had of His goodness; as if He that had fed me
by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by His power, the
provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I reproached
myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn one year
than would just serve me till the next season, as if no accident
could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the
ground; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for
the future to have two or three years' corn beforehand; so that,
whatever might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man! and
by what secret different springs are the affections hurried about,
as different circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow
we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire
what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of.
This was exemplified in me, at this time, in the most lively
manner imaginable; for I whose only affliction was that I seemed
banished from human society, that I was alone, circumscribed by
the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned to what I
call silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought not worthy
to be numbered among the living, or to appear among the rest of
His creatures; that to have seen one of my own species would have
seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and the greatest
blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of
salvation, could bestow--I say, that I should now tremble at the
very apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the
ground at but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set
his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a great
many curious speculations afterwards, when I had recovered from my
first surprise. I considered that this was the station of life the
infinitely wise and good providence of God had determined for me;
that as I could not foresee what the ends of Divine wisdom might
be in all this, so I was not to dispute His sovereignty; who, as I
was His creature, had an undoubted right, by creation, to govern
and dispose of me absolutely as He thought fit; and who, as I was
a creature that had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to
condemn me to what punishment He thought fit; and that it was my
part to submit to bear His indignation, because I had sinned
against Him. I then reflected, that as God, who was not only
righteous but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to punish and
afflict me, so He was able to deliver me: that if He did not think
fit to do so, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself
absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on the other hand, it
was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to
attend to the dictates and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say weeks
and months: and one particular effect of my cogitations on this
occasion I cannot omit. One morning early, lying in my bed, and
filled with thoughts about my danger from the appearances of
savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon which these
words of the Scripture came into my thoughts, "Call upon Me in the
day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
Me." Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not
only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly
to God for deliverance; when I had done praying I took up my
Bible, and, opening it to read, the first words that presented to
me were, "Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and He shall
strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord." It is impossible
to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid
down the book, and was no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and
reflections, it came into my thoughts one day that all this might,
be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this cheered me
up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a
delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and why might
I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way
to the boat? Again, I considered also that I could by no means
tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had not; and that
if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had played
the part of those fools who try to make stories of spectres and
apparitions, and then are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had
not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights so that I
began to starve for provisions; for I had little or nothing within
doors but some barley-cakes and water; then I knew that my goats
wanted to be milked, too, which usually was my evening diversion,
and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for
want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and
almost dried up their milk. Encouraging myself, therefore, with
the belief that this was nothing but the print of one of my own
feet, and that I might be truly said to start at my own shadow, I
began to go abroad again, and went to my country house to milk my
flock; but to see with what fear I went forward, how often I
looked behind me, how I was ready every now and then to lay down
my basket and run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been
lately most terribly frightened; and so, indeed, I had.

However, I went down thus two or three days, and, having seen
nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was
really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could not
persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and
see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be
assured it was my own foot: but when I came to the place, first,
it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up my boat I could
not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts; secondly, when I
came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great deal. Both these things filled my head with new
imaginations, and gave me the vapors again to the highest degree,
so that I shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men had been on
shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I
might be surprised before I was aware; and what course to take for
my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear!
It deprives them of the use of those means which reason offers for
their relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was, to throw
down my enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild into the
woods, lest the enemy should find them, and then frequent the
island in prospect of the same or the like booty; then the simple
thing of digging up my two corn-fields, lest they should find such
a grain there, and still be prompted to frequent the island; then
to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not see any
vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to look farther, in order
to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subjects of the first night's cogitations after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so overrun
my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full of vapors. Thus,
fear of danger is ten thousand times more terrifying than danger
itself, when apparent to the eyes, and we find the burden of
anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we are anxious
about; and what was worse than all this, I had not that relief in
this trouble that from the resignation I used to practise I hoped
to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not only
that the Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken him;
for I did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to
God in my distress, and resting upon His providence, as I had done
before, for my defence and deliverance; which, if I had done, I
had at least been more cheerfully supported under this new
surprise, and perhaps carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night; but in the
morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amusement of my mind,
been as it were tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very
soundly, and waked much better composed than I had ever been
before. And now I began to think sedately; and, upon debate with
myself, I concluded that this island (which was so exceedingly
pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the mainland than as I had
seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that,
although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot,
yet that there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who,
either with design, or perhaps never but when they were driven by
cross winds, might come to this place; that I had lived there
fifteen years now and had not met with the least shadow or figure
of any people yet; and that, if at any time they should be driven
here, it was probable they went away again as soon as ever they
could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon any
occasion; that the most I could suggest any danger from was from
any casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main,
who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here
against their wills, so they made no stay here, but went off again
with all possible speed; seldom staying one night on shore, lest
they should not have the help of the tides and daylight back
again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but consider of
some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to
bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond
where my fortification joined to the rock; upon maturely
considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second
fortification; in the manner of a semicircle, at a distance from
my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about
twelve years before, of which I made mention; these trees having
been planted so thick before, they wanted but few piles to be
driven between them, that they might be thicker and stronger, and
my wall would be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall;
and my outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables,
and everything I could think of, to make it strong; having in it
seven little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In
the inside of this I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick
with continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at
the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven
holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice
that I had got seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted
like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a
carriage, so that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes'
time; this wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet
never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a
great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the
osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well
stand; insomuch that I believe I might set in near twenty thousand
of them, leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall,
that I might have room to see an enemy, and they might have no
shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to approach my
outer wall.

Thus in two years' time I had a thick grove; and in five or six
years' time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so
monstrously thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly
impassable; and no men, of what kind soever, could ever imagine
that there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for
the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left no
avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down no man
living could come down to me without doing himself mischief; and
if they had come down, they were still on the outside of my outer

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my
own preservation; and it will be seen at length that they were not
altogether without just reason; though I foresaw nothing at that
time more than my mere fear suggested to me.


By Daniel Defoe

I was surprised one morning by seeing no less than five canoes all
on shore together on my side the island, and the people who
belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. The number of
them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing that
they always came four or six or sometimes more in a boat, I could
not tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures to
attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay still in my
castle perplexed and discomforted. However, I put myself into the
same position for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action if anything had presented. Having waited a
good while listening to hear if they made any noise, at length,
being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and
clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual;
standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill,
so that they could not perceive me by any means. Here I observed,
by the help of my perspective glass, that they were no less than
thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that they had
meat dressed. How they had cooked it I knew not, or what it was,
but they were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous
gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective,
two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems,
they were laid by, and were now brought out for the slaughter. I
perceived one of them immediately fall, being knocked down, I
suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for that was their way; and
two or three others were at work immediately, cutting him open for
their cookery, while the other victim was left standing by
himself, till they should be ready for him. In that very moment,
this poor wretch seeing himself a little at liberty and unbound,
nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he started away from
them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands, directly
towards me; I mean towards that part of the coast where my
habitation was.

I was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when I perceived
him run my way, and especially when, as I thought, I saw him
pursued by the whole body; and now I expected that part of my
dream was coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter
in my grove; but I could not depend, by any means, upon my dream
that the other savages would not pursue him thither and find him
there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover
when I found that there was not above three men that followed him;
and still more was I encouraged when I found that he outstripped
them exceedingly in running, and gained ground on them; so that,
if he could but hold out for half an hour, I saw easily he would
fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I mentioned
often in the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out
of the ship, and this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over,
or the poor wretch would be taken there; but when the savage
escaping came thither he made nothing of it, though the tide was
then up, but, plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes,
or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength and

When the three persons came to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the
other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and
soon after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was very
well for him in the end. I observed that the two who swam were yet
more than twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was
that fled from them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and
indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to get me a servant,
and, perhaps, a companion or assistant; and that I was plainly
called by Providence to save this poor creature's life. I
immediately ran down the ladders with all possible expedition,
fetched my two guns, for they were both at the foot of the
ladders, as I observed before, and getting up again with the same
haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and
having a very short cut, and all down hill, placed myself in the
way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him
that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much
frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to
come back and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two
that followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked
him down with the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because
I would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would
not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke,
too, they would not have known what to make of it. Having knocked
this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he had
been frightened, and I advanced towards him; but as I came nearer,
I perceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it
to shoot at me: so I was then obliged to shoot at him first,
which I did, and killed him at the first shot.

The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his
enemies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened
with the fire and noise of my piece that he stood stock still and
neither came forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather
inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him,
and made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and
came a little way; then stopped again, and then a little farther,
and stopped again; and I could then perceive that he stood
trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been
sentenced to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him
again to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement
that I could think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling
down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for
saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly, and
beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length he came close to
me, and then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground and laid his
head upon the ground, and taking me by the foot set my foot upon
his head; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave
forever. I took him up and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could.

But there was more work to do yet, for I perceived the savage whom
I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed him the
savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words to me
and, though I could not understand them, yet I thought they were
pleasant to hear, for they were the first sound of a man's voice
that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years.

But there was no time for such reflections now; the savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up upon the
ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but
when I saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I
would shoot him; upon this my savage, for so I call him now, made
a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by
my side, which I did. He no sooner had it but he runs to his
enemy, and at one blow cut off his head so cleverly no executioner
in Germany could have done it sooner or better; which I thought
very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a
sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords. However,
it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords
so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even
cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow, too.
When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph,
and brought me the sword again, and, with abundance of gestures
which I did not understand, laid it down, with the head of the
savage that he had killed, just before me. But that which
astonished him most was to know how I killed the other Indian so
far off; so, pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to
him; and I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came to him,
he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning him first on
one side, then on the other; looked at the wound the bullet had
made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a
hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled
inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows,
and came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow
me, making sign to him that more might come after them. Upon this
he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they
might not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made
signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and in an instant he
had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands big enough to bury
the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him, and
did so by the other also; I believe he had buried them both in a
quarter of an hour. Then, calling him away, I carried him, not to
my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the
island: so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, that
he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a
bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he
was indeed in great distress for, from his running; and, having
refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep,
showing him a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a
blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes; so
the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large; tall, and well-shaped;
and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very
good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to
have something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance, too,
especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled
like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a great vivacity
and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color of his skin was not
quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous
tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of
America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-color, that had
in it something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe.
His face was round and plump; his nose small, not flat, like the
negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well
set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he
awoke again, and came out of the cave to me--for I had been
milking my goats which I had in the enclosure just by; when he
espied me he came running to me, laying himself down again upon
the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful
disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it. At
last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and
sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before; and after
this made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and
submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so
long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him
know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to
speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and first, I let him
know his name should be Friday, which was the day I saved his
life: I called him so for the memory of the time. I likewise
taught him to say Master, and then let him know that was to be my
name; I likewise taught him to say yes and no, and to know the
meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let
him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave
him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good for him.

I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it was day I
beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would give him
some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two men, he
pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had
made to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig
them up again and eat them. At this I appeared very angry,
expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at the
thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come away,
which he did immediately, with great submission.

I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies
were gone; and pulling out my glass I looked, and saw plainly the
place where they had been, but no appearance of them or their
canoes; so that it was plain they were gone, and had left their
two comrades behind them, without any search after them.

We came back to our castle, and there I fell to work for my man
Friday; and first of all I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which
I had out of the poor gunner's chest I mentioned, which I found in
the wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very
well; and then I made him a jerkin of goat's skin, as well as my
skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor);
and I gave him a cap which I made of hare's skin, very convenient,
and fashionable enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present,
tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself almost
as well clothed as his master. It is true he went awkwardly in
these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very awkward to
him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the
inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained
they hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at
length very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to
consider where I should lodge him; and that I might do well for
him and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him
in the vacant place between my two fortifications, in the inside
of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there was a door
or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-case,
and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in the passage, a
little within the entrance; and, causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too;
so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my
innermost wall without making so much noise in getting over that
it must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a complete roof
over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to the
side of the hill; which was again laid across with smaller sticks,
instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness with
the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or
place which was left to go in or out by the ladder I had placed a
kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the outside,
would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down and made
a great noise. As to weapons, I took them all into my side every
night. But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man had
a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me;
without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like those of a
child to a father, and I dare say he would have sacrificed his
life to save mine upon any occasion whatsoever; the many
testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon
convinced me that I needed to use no precautions for my safety on
his account.

I was greatly delighted with him, and made it my business to teach
him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and
helpful; but especially to make him speak, and understand me when
I spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and
particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me understand him, that
it was very pleasant to me to talk to him.

Now my life began to be so easy that I began to say to myself that
could I but have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was
never to remove from the place where I lived.


By Daniel Defoe

[After having been on his island for twenty-seven years, an
English vessel at last arrives. The crew had mutinied, and brought
the captain and several of the men ashore. Crusoe saves the
captain and two of the crew, and seizes the ship's boat.]

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main
strength, heaved the boat upon the beach so high that the tide
would not float her off at high-water mark, and besides had broke
a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were set
down musing what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and
make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the boat to come on
board-but no boat stirred; and they fired several times, making
other signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals and
firing proved fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we
saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out and
row towards the shore; and we found, as they approached, that
there were no less than ten men in her, and that they had
firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full
view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces;
because, the tide having set them a little to the east of the
other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same place
where the other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this means,
I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew the
persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, be
said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were
led into this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and
frightened; but that as for the boatswain, who it seems was the
chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as
outrageous as any of the ship's crew, and were no doubt made
desperate in their new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive he
was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and
told him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of
fear; that, seeing almost every condition that could be was better
than that which we were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that
the consequence, whether death or life, would be sure to be a
deliverance. I asked him what he thought of the circumstances of
my life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for.

"And where, sir," said I, "is your belief of my being preserved
here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little
while ago? For my part," said I, "there seems to be but one thing
amiss in all the prospect of it."

"What is that?" says he.

"Why," said I, "it is that, as you say, there are three or four
honest fellows among them which should be spared; had they been
all of the wicked part of the crew I should have thought God's
providence had singled them out to deliver them into your hands;
for depend upon it, every man that comes ashore is our own, and
shall die or live as they behave to us."

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I
found it greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously to our

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat's coming from the
ship, considered of separating our prisoners; and we had, indeed,
secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was
less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the
three delivered men, to my cave, where they were remote enough,
and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding
their way out of the woods if they could have delivered
themselves. Here they left them bound, but gave them provisions,
and promised them, if they continued there quietly, to give them
their liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted their
escape they should be put to death without mercy. They promised
faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and were very
thankful that they had such good usage as to have provisions and
light left them; for Friday gave them candles (such as we made
ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not know but that he
stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept
pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not able to trust them;
but the other two were taken into my service, upon the captain's
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live and die
with us; so with them and the three honest men we were seven men,
well armed; and I made no doubt we should be able to deal well
enough with the ten that were coming, considering that the captain
had said there were three or four honest men among them also. As
soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay, they ran
their boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat
up after them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they
would rather have left the boat at an anchor some distance from
the shore, with some hands in her to guard her, and so we should
not be able to seize the boat.

Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their
other boat; and it was easy to see they were under a great
surprise to find her stripped, as above, of all that was in her,
and a great hole in her bottom. After they had mused a while upon
this, they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with all
their might, to try if they could make their companions hear; but
all was to no purpose. Then they came all close in a ring, and
fired a volley of their small arms, which indeed we heard, and the
echoes made the woods ring. But it was all one; those in the cave,
we were sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though
they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They
were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told us
afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to their ship,
and let them know that the men were all murdered, and the long-
boat staved; accordingly, they immediately launched their boat
again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this,
believing they would go on board the ship again and set sail,
giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should still lose
the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered; but he
was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off the boat, when we perceived them
all coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their
conduct, which it seems they consulted together upon, viz., to
leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go
up into the country to look for their fellows. This was a great
disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do, as our
seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if we
let the boat escape; because they would row away to the ship, and
then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so
our recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy
but to wait and see what the issue of things might present. The
seven men came on shore, and the three who remained in the boat
put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an
anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for us to come
at them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching towards the top of the little hill under which my
habitation lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could
not perceive us.

We should have been very glad if they would have come nearer us,
so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have gone
farther off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come to
the brow of the hill where they could see a great way into the
valleys and woods, which lay towards the northeast part, and where
the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together under a tree to
consider it. Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as
the other part of them had done, they had done the job for us; but
they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to
sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was they had to

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation
of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again,
to endeavor to make their fellows hear, and that we should all
sally upon them just at the juncture when their pieces were all
discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should have
them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal, provided it was
done while we were near enough to come up to them before they
could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen; and
we lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take. At
length I told them there would be nothing done, in my opinion,
till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat, perhaps
we might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so
might use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on
shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for their
removing; and were very uneasy when, after long consultation, we
saw them all start up and march down towards the sea; it seems
they had such dreadful apprehension of the danger of the place
that they resolved to go on board the, ship again, give their
companions over for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage
with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to
be as it really was, that they had given over their search, and
were going back again, and the captain, as soon as I told him my
thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it; but I
presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and
which answered my end to a title. I ordered Friday and the
captain's mate to go over the little creek westward, towards the
place where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and
so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a
mile distant, I bid them halloo out, as loud as they could, and
wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever
they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again;
and then, keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering
when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island and
among the woods as possible, and then wheel about again to me by
such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate
hallooed; and they presently heard them, and answering ran along
the shore westward, towards the voice they heard, when they were
stopped by the creek, where, the water being up, they could not
get over, and called for the boat to come up and set them over;
as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I
observed that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, and,
as it were, in a harbor within the land, they took one of the
three men out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in
the boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for, and, immediately leaving Friday
and the captain's mate to their business, I took the rest with me;
and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two
men before they were aware--one of them lying on the shore, and
the other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between
sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain, who was
foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then called
out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man.

They needed very few arguments to persuade a single man to yield
when he saw five men upon him and his comrade knocked down;
besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so
hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and therefore was
easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to join very
sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday and the captain's mate
so well managed their business with the rest that they drew them,
by hallooing and answering from one hill to another, and from one
wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left
them where they were, very sure they could not reach back to the
boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired
themselves also, by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to
fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several
hours after Friday came back to me before they came back to their
boat; and we could hear the foremost of them, long before they
came quite up, calling to those behind to come along, and could
also hear them answer, and complain how lame and tired they were,
and not able to come any faster, which was very welcome news to
us. At length they came up to the boat; but it is impossible to
express their confusion when they found the boat fast aground in
the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We could
hear them call one to another in a most lamentable manner, telling
one another they were got into an enchanted island; that either
there were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or
else there were devils and spirits in it, and they should be all
carried away and devoured. They hallooed, again, and called their
two comrades by their names a great many times; but no answer.
After some time we could see them, by the little light there was,
run about, wringing their hands like men in despair, and sometimes
they would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves, then
come ashore again, and walk about again, and so the same thing
over again.

My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon them at
once in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some
advantage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them as I
could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing of any
of our men, knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to
wait, to see if they did not separate; and therefore, to make sure
of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the
captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the ground
as they could, that they might not be discovered, and get as near
them as they could possibly before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture when the boatswain, who was
the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself
the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking
towards them, with two more of the crew; the captain was so eager
at having this principal rogue so much in his power, that he could
hardly have patience to let him come so near as to be sure of him,
for they only heard his tongue before; but when they came nearer,
the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at
them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man was
shot, in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die
till an hour or two after; and the third ran for it.

At the noise of the fire I immediately advanced with my whole
army, which was now eight men, viz., myself, generalissimo;
Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain and his two men, and
the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came
upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our
number; and I made the man they had left in the boat, who was now
one of us, to call them by name, to try if I could bring them to a
parley, and so perhaps might reduce them to terms; which fell out
just as we desired, for indeed it was easy to think, as their
condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate. So
he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, "Tom Smith! Tom

Tom Smith answered immediately, "Is that Robinson?" for it seems
he knew the voice. The other answered,

"Ay, ay; for God's sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and
yield, or you are all dead men this moment,"

"Who must we yield to? Where are they?" says Smith again.

"Here they are," says he, "here's our captain and fifty men with
him, have been hunting you these two hours; the boatswain is
killed; Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if you do
not yield you are all lost."

"Will they give us quarter, then?" says Tom Smith, "and we will

"I'll go and ask, if you promise to yield," said Robinson: so he
asked the captain, and the captain himself then calls out,

"You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down your arms
immediately and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, "For God's sake, captain, give me
quarter; what have I done? They have all been as bad as I," which,
by the way, was not true, for it seems this Will Atkins was the
first man that laid hold of the captain when they first mutinied,
and used him barbarously in tying his hands and giving him
injurious language. However, the captain told him he must lay down
his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor's mercy: by
which he meant me, for they all called me governor. In a word,
they all laid down their arms and begged their lives; and I sent
the man that had parleyed with them, and two more, who bound them
all; and then my great army of fifty men, which, with those three,
were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon
their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight for
reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the
ship; and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with
them, he expostulated with them upon the villany of their
practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their
design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all appeared
very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that, he
told them they were not his prisoners, but the commander's of the
island; that they thought they had set him on shore in a barren,
uninhabited island, but it had pleased God so to direct them that
it was inhabited, and that the governor was an Englishman; that he
might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given them
all quarter, he supposed he would send them all to England, to be
dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was
commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death, for
that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect; Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged
of him, for God's sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was come,
and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in
to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I retired in
the dark from them, that they might not see what kind of a
governor they had, and called the captain to me; when I called, at
a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again and say
to the captain, "Captain, the commander calls for you;" and
presently the captain replied,

"Tell his excellency I am just coming."

This more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed that the
commander was just by, with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming
to me, I told him my project for seizing the ship, which he liked
wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution the next
morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be
secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and
that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst of
them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay.
This was committed to Friday and the two other men who came on
shore with the captain. They conveyed them to the cave as to a
prison: and it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in
their condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I called
it, of which I have given a full description; and as it was fenced
in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering
they were upon their behavior.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into
a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he
thought they might be trusted or not to go on board and surprise
the ship. He talked to them of the injury done him, of the
condition they were brought to, and that, though the governor had
given them quarter for their lives as to the present action, yet
that if they were sent to England they would all be hanged in
chains; but that if they would join in so just an attempt as to
recover the ship, he would have the governor's engagement for
their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by
men in their condition; they fell down on their knees to the
captain, and promised, with the deepest imprecations, that they
would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that they should
owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the world;
that they would own him as a father to them as long as they lived.

"Well," says the captain, "I must go and tell the governor what
you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to it."

So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in and
that he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that we
might be very secure, I told him he should go back again and
choose out those five, and tell them that they might see he did
not want men, that he would take out those five to be his
assistants, and that the governor would keep the other two, and
the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as
hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in
chains alive on the shore. This looked severe, and convinced them
that the governor was in earnest; however, they had no way left
them but accept it, and it was now the business of the prisoners,
as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first, the
captain, his mate, and passenger; second, the two prisoners of the
first gang, to whom, having their character from the captain, I
had given their liberty, and trusted them with arms; third, the
other two that I had kept till now in my bower, pinioned, but on
the captain's motion had now released; fourth, these five released
at last; so that there were twelve in all, besides five we kept
prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he were willing to venture with these hands
on board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday, I did not
think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left behind;
and it was employment enough for us to keep them asunder, and
supply them with victuals. As to the five in the cave, I resolved
to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a day to them, to
supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages it was with the captain,
who told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look
after them, and that it was the governor's pleasure they should
not stir anywhere but at my direction; that if they did, they
would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons: so that,
as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now appeared as
another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the
castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his
two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his
passenger captain of one, with four of the men; and himself, his
mate, and five more went in the other; and they contrived their
business very well, for they came up to the ship about midnight.
As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson
hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men and the
boat, but that it was a long time before they had found them, and
the like, holding them in a chat till they came to the ship's
side; when the captain and the mate entering first, with their
arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter with
the butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded by
their men; they secured all the rest that were upon the main and
quarter decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them down
that were below; when the other boat and their men, entering at
the forechains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the
scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men they
found there prisoners.

When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered
the mate, with three men, to break into the round-house, where the
new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up,
and with two men and a boy had got fire-arms in their hands; and
when the mate, with a crow, split open the door, the new captain
and his men fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket-ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the men,
but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed, however,
into the round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol,
shot the new captain through the head, the bullet entering at his
mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears, so that he never
spoke a word more; upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was
taken effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered guns to
be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me
notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I was very glad to
hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till near two
o'clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly, I
laid me down; and, it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I
slept sound, till I was surprised with the noise of a gun; and
presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the name of
"Governor! Governor!" and presently I knew the captain's voice;
when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and,
pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms.

"My dear friend and deliverer," says he, "there's your ship; for
she is all yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her."

I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode, within little more
than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as
soon as they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had
brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little
creek; and, the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace
in near the place where I had first landed my rafts, and so landed
just at my door. I was at first ready to sink down with the
surprise; for I saw my deliverance indeed visibly put into my
hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me
away whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not
able to answer him one word; but as he had taken me in his arms, I
held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He
perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of his
pocket and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on
purpose for me. After I had drunk it, I sat down upon the ground;
and, though it brought me to myself, yet it was a good while
before I could speak a word to him. All this time the poor man was
in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under any surprise as I was,
and he said a thousand kind and tender things to me, to compose
and bring me to myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast
that it put all my spirits into confusion: at last it broke out
into tears, and in a little while after I recovered my speech; I
then took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we
rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as a man sent
from Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed
to be a chain of wonders; that such things as these were the
testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence governing the
world, and an evidence that the eye of an infinite Power could
search into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the
miserable whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart
in thankfulness to Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless
Him who had not only in a miraculous manner provided for me in
such a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but from whom
every deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed.

 When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had brought me
some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded, and such as
the wretches that had been so long his masters had not plundered
him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat, and bade his men
bring the things ashore that were for the governor; and, indeed,
it was a present as if I had been one that was not to be carried
away with them, but as if I had been to dwell upon the island
still. First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of
excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the
bottles held two quarts each), two pounds of excellent good
tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship's beef, and six pieces of
pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-weight of biscuit;
he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of
lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of other
things. But besides these, and what was a thousand times more
useful to me, he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good
neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one
pair of stockings, with a very good suit of clothes of his own,
which had been worn but very little: in a word, he clothed me from
head to foot. It was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one
may imagine, to one in my circumstances, but never was anything in
the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it
was to me to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what
was to be done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth
considering whether we might venture to take them with us or no,
especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible and
refractory to the last degree; and the captain said he knew they
were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did
carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be
delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could
come to; and I found that the captain himself was very anxious
about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would
undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island.

"I should be very glad of that," says the captain, "with all my

"Well," says I, "I will send for them up and talk with them for

So I caused Friday and the two hostages--for they were now
discharged, their comrades having performed their promise--I say,
I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the five men,
pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there till I
came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit; and
now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain
with me, I caused the men to be brought before me, and I told them
I had a full account of their villanous behavior to the captain,
and how they had run away with the ship, and were preparing to
commit further robberies, but that Providence had ensnared them in
their own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit which they
had dug for others. I let them know that by my direction the ship
had been seized; that she lay now in the road; and they might see
by and by that their new captain had received the reward of his
villany, and that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm;
that, as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I
should not execute them as pirates taken in the fact, as by my
commission they could not doubt but I had authority so to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But
I told them I knew not what mercy to show them; for as for myself,
I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had taken
passage with the captain to go to England; and as for the captain,
he could not carry them to England other than as prisoners in
irons, to be tried for mutiny and running away with the ship; the
consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the gallows;
so that I could not tell what was best for them, unless they had a
mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired that, as I
had liberty to leave the island, I had some inclination to give
them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They
seemed very thankful for it, and said they would much rather
venture to stay there than be carried to England to be hanged. So
I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if
he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry
with the captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not
his; and that seeing I had offered them so much favor, I would be
as good as my word; and that if he did not think fit to consent to
it I would set them at liberty, as I found them, and if he did not
like it he might take them again if he could catch them. Upon this
they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set them at
liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the place whence
they came, and I would leave them some fire-arms, some ammunition,
and some directions how they should live very well if they thought
fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship; but told the
captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and desired
him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right in the
ship, and send the boat on shore next day for me; ordering him, at
all events, to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be hanged
at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my
apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them on their
circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a right choice;
that if the captain had carried them away they would certainly be
hanged. I showed them the new captain hanging at the yard-arm of
the ship, and told them they had nothing less to expect.

When they bad all declared their willingness to stay, I then told
them I would let them into the story of my living there, and put
them into the way of making it easy to them. Accordingly, I gave
them the whole history of the place, and of my coming to it;
showed them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted my
corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary to
make them easy. I told them the story also of the seventeen
Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
made them promise to treat them in common with themselves. Here it
may be noted that the captain, who had ink on board, was greatly
surprised that I never hit upon a way of making ink of charcoal
and water, or of something else, as I had done things much more

I left them my fire-arms; viz., five muskets, three fowling-
pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of
powder left; for after the first year or two I used but little,
and wasted none. I gave them a description of the way I managed
the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and to make
both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my
own story; and told them I should prevail with the captain to
leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds,
which I told them I would have been very glad of. Also, I gave
them the bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and
bade them be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this I left them the next day and went on board
the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that
night. The next morning early, two of the five men came swimming
to the ship's side, and, making the most lamentable complaint of
the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for God's sake,
for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to take them
on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon this the captain
pretended to have no power without me; but after some difficulty,
and after their solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on
board, and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled;
after which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide
being up, with the things promised to the men; to which the
captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be
added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my power to
send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for relics,
the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my
parrots; also, I forgot not to take the money I formerly
mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless that it was
grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver till it
had been a little rubbed and handled, as also the money I found in
the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the island, the
19th of December, as I found by the ship's account, in the year
1686, after I had been upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months,
and nineteen days; being delivered from this second captivity the
same day of the month that I first made my escape in the long-boat
from among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a long
voyage, I arrived in England the 11th of June, in the year 1687,
having been thirty-five years absent.


When the romance of Lemuel Gulliver appeared in 1727 it was
immediately seized upon by an eager public. The first edition was
gone in a week and was selling at an advanced price before the
second edition could be printed. Many a reader at once got out his
map to try and locate the Island of Lilliput, and the captain of a
ship told Lord Scarborough that he knew Gulliver very well--had
met him several times. Gulliver's Travels was written by
Jonathan Swift, the Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, one
of the most original of writers, whose work was notably brilliant
in the field of politics. From early youth he suffered from some
disease of the body that made him cross and irritable, but he was
much honored by the poor people of Ireland as their friend and
champion. Daniel Defoe, who was about the same age as Swift, and
lived at the same time, said Swift was a walking index of all
books. It is interesting to note that two of the world's wonderful
books, Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver's Travels, appeared when their
authors were sixty years of age, and within three years of each


By Jonathan Swift

My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire; I was the third
of five sons. He sent me to Emmanuel College in Cambridge, at
fourteen years old, where I resided three years, and applied
myself close to my studies; but the charge of maintaining me
(although I had a very scanty allowance) being too great for a
narrow fortune, I was bound apprentice to Mr. James Bates, an
eminent surgeon in London, with whom I continued four years; and
my father now and then sending me small sums of money, I laid them
out in learning navigation, and other parts of the mathematics,
useful to those who intend to travel, as I always believed it
would be some time or other my fortune to do. When I left Mr.
Bates, I went down to my father; where, by the assistance of him
and my uncle John, and some other relations, I got forty pounds,
and a promise of thirty pounds a year to maintain me at Leyden;
there I studied physic two years and seven months, knowing it
would be useful in long voyages. Soon after my return from Leyden,
I was recommended by my good master, Mr. Bates, to be surgeon to
the _Swallow,_ Captain Abraham Pannell, commander; with whom
I continued three years and a half, making a voyage or two into
the Levant, and some other parts. When I came back, I resolved to
settle in London, to which Mr. Bates, my master, encouraged me,
and by him I was recommended to several patients. I took part of a
small house in the Old Jewry; and being advised to alter my
condition, I married Miss Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr.
Edmund Burton, hosier, in Newgate Street, with whom I received
four hundred pounds for a portion.

But, my good master Bates dying in two years after, and I having
few friends, my business began to fail; for my conscience would
not suffer me to imitate the bad practice of too many among my
brethren. Having therefore consulted with my wife, and some of my
acquaintance, I determined to go again to sea. I was surgeon
successively in two ships, and made several voyages for six years
to the East and West Indies, by which I got some addition to my
fortune. My hours of leisure I spent in reading the best authors,
ancient and modern, being always provided with a good number of
books; and when I was ashore, in observing the manners and
dispositions of the people, as well as learning their language,
wherein I had a great facility by the strength of my memory.

The last of these voyages not proving very fortunate, I grew weary
of the sea, and intended to stay at home with my wife and family.
I removed from the Old Jewry to Fetter Lane, and from thence to
Wapping, hoping to get business among the sailors; but it would
not turn to account. After three years' expectation that things
would mend, I accepted an advantageous offer from Captain William
Prichard, master of the _Antelope_, who was making a voyage
to the South Sea. We set sail from Bristol, May 4, 1699, and our
voyage at first was very prosperous.

It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble the reader
with the particulars of our adventures in those seas; let it
suffice to inform him, that, in our passage from thence to the
East Indies, we were driven by a violent storm to the northwest of
Van Diemen's Land. By an observation we found ourselves in the
latitude of 30 degrees 2 minutes south. Twelve of our crew were
dead by immoderate labor, and ill food, the rest were in a very
weak condition. On the fifth of November, which was the beginning
of summer in those parts, the weather being very hazy, the seamen
spied a rock, within half a cable's length of the ship; but the
wind was so strong that we were driven directly upon it, and
immediately split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having let
down the boat into the sea, made a shift to get clear of the ship
and the rock. We rowed, by my computation, about three leagues,
till we were able to work no longer, being already spent with
labor while we were in the ship. We therefore trusted ourselves to
the mercy of the waves, and in about half an hour the boat was
overset by a sudden flurry from the north. What became of my
companions in the boat, as well as of those who escaped on the
rock, or were left in the vessel, I cannot tell; but conclude they
were all lost. For my own part, I swam as fortune directed me, and
was pushed forward by wind and tide. I often let my legs drop, and
could feel no bottom; but when I was almost gone, and able to
struggle no longer, I found myself within my depth; and by this
time the storm was much abated. The declivity was so small, that I
walked near a mile before I got to the shore, which I conjectured
was about eight o'clock in the evening. I then advanced forward
near half a mile, but could not discover any sign of houses or
inhabitants; at least I was in so weak a condition that I did not
observe them. I was extremely tired, and with that, and the heat
of the weather, and about half a pint of brandy that I drank as I
left the ship, I found myself much inclined to sleep. I lay down
on the grass, which was very short and soft, where I slept sounder
than ever I remembered to have done in my life, and, as I
reckoned, about nine hours; for when I awaked it was just
daylight. I attempted to rise but was not able to stir; for as I
happened to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly
fastened on each side to the ground; and my hair, which was long
and thick, tied down in the same manner. I likewise felt several
slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits to my thighs. I
could only look upwards, the sun began to grow hot, and the light
offended my eyes. I heard a confused noise about me, but, in the
posture I lay, could see nothing except the sky. In a little time
I felt something alive moving on my left leg, which advancing
gently forward, over my breast, came almost up to my chin; when
bending my eyes downward as much as I could, I perceived it to be
a human creature not six inches high, with a bow and arrow in his
hands, and a quiver at his back. In the meantime, I felt at least
forty more of the same kind (as I conjectured) following the
first. I was in the utmost astonishment, and roared so loud, that
they all ran back in a fright; and some of them, as I was
afterwards told, were hurt with the falls they got by leaping from
my sides upon the ground. However, they soon returned, and one of
them, who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face,
lifting up his hands and eyes by way of admiration, cried out in a
shrill but distinct voice, Hekinah degul; the others repeated the
same words several times, but I then knew not what they meant. I
lay all this while, as the reader may believe, in great
uneasiness; at length, struggling to get loose, I had the fortune
to break the strings, and wrench out the pegs that fastened my
left arm to the ground; for, by lifting it up to my face, I
discovered the methods they had taken to bind me, and, at the same
time, with a violent pull, which gave me excessive pain, I a
little loosened the strings that tied down my hair on the left
side, so that I was just able to turn my head about two inches.
But the creatures ran off a second time, before I could seize
them; whereupon there was a great shout in a very shrill accent,
and after it ceased, I heard one of them cry-aloud, Tolgo phonac;
when in an instant I felt above an hundred arrows discharged on my
left hand, which pricked me like so many needles; and besides,
they shot another flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe,
whereof many I suppose fell on my body (though I felt them not),
and some on my face, which I immediately covered with my left
hand. When this shower of arrows was over, I fell a-groaning with
grief and pain, and then striving again to get loose, they
discharged another volley larger than the first, and some of them
attempted with spears to stick me in the sides; but, by good luck,
I had on me a buff jerkin, which they could not pierce. I thought
it the most prudent method to lie still, and my design was to
continue so till night, when my left hand being already loose, I
could easily free myself; and as for the inhabitants, I had reason
to believe I might be a match for the greatest army they could
bring against me, if they were all of the same size with him that
I saw. But fortune disposed otherwise of me. When the people
observed I was quiet, they discharged no more arrows; but, by the
noise I heard, I knew their numbers increased; and about four
yards from me, over against my right ear, I heard a knocking for
above an hour, like that of people at work; when turning my head
that way, as well as the pegs and strings would permit me, I saw a
stage erected, about a foot and a half from the ground, capable of
holding four of the inhabitants, with two or three ladders to
mount it; from whence one of them, who seemed to be a person of
quality, made me a long speech, whereof I understood not one
syllable. But I should have mentioned, that before the principal
person began his oration, he cried out three times, _Langro
dehul san_ (these words and the former were afterwards repeated
and explained to me). Whereupon immediately about fifty of the
inhabitants came and cut the strings that fastened the left side
of my head, which gave me the liberty of turning it to the right,
and of observing the person and gesture of him that was to speak.
He appeared to be of a middle age, and taller than any of the
other three who attended him, whereof one was a page that held up
his train, and seemed to be somewhat longer than my middle finger;
the other two stood one on each side to support him. He acted
every part of an orator, and I could observe many periods of
threatenings, and others of promises, pity, arid kindness. I
answered in a few words, but in the most submissive manner,
lifting up my left hand and both my eyes to the sun, as calling
him for a witness; and, being almost famished with hunger, having
not eaten a morsel for some hours before I left the ship, I found
the demands of nature so strong upon me, that I could not forbear
showing my impatience (perhaps against the strict rules of
decency) by putting my finger frequently to my mouth, to signify
that I wanted food. The _Hurgo_ (for so they call a great
lord, as I afterwards learnt) understood me very well. He
descended from the stage, and commanded that several ladders
should be applied to my sides, on which above an hundred of the
inhabitants mounted, and walked towards my mouth, laden with
baskets full of meat, which had been provided and sent thither by
the king's orders, upon the first intelligence he received of me.
I observed there was the flesh of several animals, but could not
distinguish them by the taste. There were shoulders, legs, and
loins, shaped like those of mutton, and very well dressed, but
smaller than the wings of a lark. I ate them by two or three at a
mouthful, and took three loaves at a time, about the bigness of
musket bullets. They supplied me as they could, showing a thousand
marks of wonder and astonishment at my bulk and appetite, I then
made another sign that I wanted drink. They found by my eating,
that a small quantity would not suffice me, and being a most
ingenious people, they flung up with great dexterity one of their
largest hogsheads, then rolled it towards my hand, and beat out
the top; I drank it off at a draught, which I might well do for it
did not hold half a pint, and tasted like a small wine of
Burgundy, but much more delicious. They brought me a second
hogshead, which I drank in the same manner, and made signs for
more; but they had none to give me. When I had performed these
wonders, they shouted for joy, and danced upon my breast,
repeating several times as they did at first, _Hekinah degul._
They made me a sign that I should throw down the two hogsheads,
but first warning the people below to stand out of the way,
crying aloud, _Borach mevolah,_ and when they saw the vessels
in the air, there was a universal shout of _Hekinah degul._
I confess, I was often tempted, while they were passing backwards
and forwards on my body, to seize forty or fifty of the first
that came in my reach, and dash them against the ground. But
the remembrance of what I had felt, which probably might not be
the worst they could do, and the promise of honor I made them,
for so I interpreted my submissive behavior, soon drove out these
imaginations. Besides, I now considered myself as bound by the
laws of hospitality to a people who had treated me with so much
expense and magnificence. However, in my thoughts, I could not
sufficiently wonder at the intrepidity of these diminutive
mortals, who durst venture to mount and walk upon my body, while
one of my hands was at liberty, without trembling at the very
sight of so prodigious a creature, as I must appear to them. After
some time, when they observed that I made no more demands for
meat; there appeared before me a person of high rank from his
Imperial Majesty. His Excellency, having mounted on the small of
my right leg, advanced forwards up to my face, with about a dozen
of his retinue. And producing his credentials under the signet-
royal, which he applied close to my eyes, spoke about ten minutes,
without any signs of anger, but with a kind of determinate
resolution; often pointing forwards, which, as I afterwards found,
was towards the capital city, about half a mile distant, whither,
it was agreed by his Majesty in council, that I must be conveyed.
I answered in few words, but to no purpose, and made a sign with
my hand that was loose, putting it to the other (but over his
Excellency's head, for fear of hurting him or his train) and then
to my own head and body, to signify that I desired my liberty. It
appeared that he understood me well enough, for he shook his head
by way of disapprobation, and held his hand in a posture, to show
that I must be carried as a prisoner. However, he made other signs
to let me understand that I should have meat and drink enough, and
very good treatment. Whereupon I once more thought of attempting
to break my bonds; but again, when I felt the smart of their
arrows, upon my face and hands, which were all in blisters, and
many of the darts still sticking in them; and observing likewise
that the number of my enemies increased, I gave tokens, to let
them know that they might do with me what they pleased. Upon this,
the _Hurgo_ and his train withdrew, with much civility and
cheerful countenances. Soon after, I heard a general shout, with
frequent repetitions of the words, _Peplom selan,_ and I felt
great numbers of people on my left side, relaxing the cords to
such a degree, that I was able to turn upon my right. But before
this, they had daubed my face, and both my hands, with a sort of
ointment very pleasant to the smell, which in a few minutes
removed all the smart of their arrows. These circumstances, added
to the refreshment I had received by their victuals and drink,
which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep. I slept about
eight hours, as I was afterwards assured; and it was no wonder,
for the physicians, by the emperor's order had mingled a sleepy
potion in the hogsheads of wine.

It seems that, upon the first moment I was discovered sleeping on
the ground after my landing, the emperor had early notice of it by
an express; and determined in council that I should be tied in the
manner I have related (which was done in the night while I slept),
that plenty of meat and drink should be sent to me, and a machine
prepared to carry me to the capital city.

This resolution, perhaps, may appear very bold and dangerous, and
I am confident, would not be imitated by any prince in Europe on
the like occasion; however, in my opinion, it was extremely
prudent, as well as generous; for, supposing these people had
endeavored to kill me with their spears and arrows, while
I was asleep, I should certainly have awaked with the first
sense of smart, which might so far have roused my rage and
strength, as to have enabled me to break the strings wherewith
I was tied; after which, as they were not able to make resistance,
so they could expect no mercy.

From the painting by Arthur Rackham]

These people are most excellent mathematicians, and arrived to a
great perfection in mechanics, by the countenance and encouragement
of the emperor, who is a renowned patron of learning. This
prince has several machines fixed on wheels, for the carriage
of trees, and other great weights. He often builds his largest
men-of-war, whereof some are nine feet long, in the woods,
where the timber grows, and has them carried on these engines
three or four hundred yards to the sea. Five hundred carpenters
and engineers were immediately set at work to prepare the
greatest engine they had. It was a frame of wood raised three
inches from the ground, about seven feet long, and four wide,
moving upon twenty-two wheels. The shout I heard was upon the
arrival of this engine, which, it seems, set out in four hours
after my landing. It was brought parallel to me as I lay. But the
principal difficulty was, to raise and place me in this vehicle.
Eighty poles, each of one foot high, were erected for this
purpose, and very strong cords, of the bigness of packthread, were
fastened by hooks to many bandages, which the workmen had girt
round my neck, my hands, my body, and my legs. Nine hundred of the
strongest men were employed to draw up these cords by many pulleys
fastened on the poles, and thus, in less than three hours, I was
raised, and flung into the engine, and there tied fast. All this I
was told, for, while the whole operation was performing, I lay in
a profound sleep, by the force of that soporiferous medicine
infused into my liquor. Fifteen hundred of the emperor's largest
horses, each about four inches and an half high, were employed to
draw me towards the metropolis, which, as I said, was half a mile

About four hours after we began our journey, I awaked by a very
ridiculous accident; for the carriage being stopped a while to
adjust something that was out of order, two or three of the young
natives had the curiosity to see how I looked when I was asleep;
they climbed up into the engine, and advancing very softly to my
face, one of them, an officer in the guards, put the sharp end of
his half-pike a good way up into my left nostril, which tickled my
nose like a straw, and made me sneeze violently; whereupon they
stole off unperceived, and it was three weeks before I knew the
cause of my awaking so suddenly. We made a long march the
remaining part of that day, and rested at night with five hundred
guards on each side of me, half with torches, and half with bows
and arrows, ready to shoot me, if I should offer to stir. The next
morning at sunrise we continued our march, and arrived within two
hundred yards of the city gates about noon. The emperor, and all
his court, came out to meet us, but his great officers would by no
means suffer his Majesty to endanger his person by mounting on my

At the place where the carriage stopped, there stood an ancient
temple, esteemed to be the largest in the whole kingdom, which,
having been polluted some years before by an unnatural murder,
was, according to the zeal of those people, looked on as profane,
and therefore had been applied to common use, and all the
ornaments and furniture carried away. In this edifice it was
determined I should lodge. The great gate fronting to the north,
was about four feet high, and almost two feet wide, through which
I could easily creep. On each side of the gate was a small window,
not above six inches from the ground; into that on the left side,
the king's smith conveyed fourscore and eleven chains, like those
that hang to a lady's watch in Europe, and almost as large, which
were locked to my left leg, with six and thirty padlocks. Over
against this temple, on the other side of the great highway, at
twenty feet distance, there was a turret at least five feet high.
Here the emperor ascended, with many principal lords of his court,
to have an opportunity of viewing me, as I was told, for I could
not see them. It was reckoned, that above an hundred thousand
inhabitants came out of the town upon the same errand; and, in
spite of my guards, I believe there could not be fewer than ten
thousand, at several times, who mounted my body by the help of
ladders. But a proclamation was soon issued to forbid it, upon
pain of death. When the workmen found it was impossible for me to
break loose, they cut all the strings that bound me; whereupon I
rose up with as melancholy a disposition as ever I had in my life.
But the noise and astonishment of the people, at seeing me rise
and walk, are not to be expressed. The chains that held my left
leg were about two yards long, and gave me not only the liberty of
walking backwards and forwards in a semicircle, but, being fixed
within four inches of the gate, allowed me to creep in, and lie at
my full length in the temple.


By Jonathan Swift

My gentleness and good behavior had gained so far on the emperor
and his court, and indeed upon the army and people in general,
that I began to conceive hopes of getting my liberty in a short
time. I took all possible methods to cultivate this favorable
disposition. The natives came, by degrees, to be less apprehensive
of any danger from me. I would sometimes lie down and let five or
six of them dance on my hand; and, at last, the boys and girls
would venture to come and play at hide-and-seek in my hair. I had
now made a good progress in understanding and speaking their
language. The emperor had a mind, one day, to entertain me with
several of the country shows, wherein they exceed all nations I
have known, both for dexterity and magnificence. I was diverted
with none so much as that of the rope-dances, performed upon a
slender white thread, extended about two feet, and twelve inches
from the ground. Upon which I shall desire liberty, with the
reader's patience, to enlarge a little.

This diversion is only practised by those persons who are
candidates for great employments, and high favor at court. They
are trained in this art from their youth, and are not always of
noble birth, or liberal education. When a great office is vacant,
either by death or disgrace (which often happens), five or six of
those candidates petition the emperor to entertain his Majesty and
the court with a dance on the rope, and whoever jumps the highest,
without falling, succeeds in the office. Very often the chief
ministers themselves are commanded to show their skill, and to
convince the emperor that they have not lost their faculty.
Flimnap, the treasurer, is allowed to cut a caper on the strait
rope at least an inch higher than any other lord in the whole
empire. I have seen him do the somerset several times together,
upon a trencher fixed on the rope, which is no thicker than a
common packthread in England. My friend Reldresal, principal
secretary for private affairs, is, in my opinion, if I am not
partial, the second after the treasurer; the rest of the great
officers are much upon a par.

These diversions are often attended with fatal accidents, whereof
great numbers are on record. I myself have seen two or three
candidates break a limb. But the danger is much greater when the
ministers themselves are commanded to show their dexterity; for,
by contending to excel themselves and their fellows, they strain
so far, that there is hardly one of them who has not received a
fall, and some of them two or three. I was assured, that, a year
or two before my arrival, Flimnap would have infallibly broke his
neck, if one of the king's cushions, that accidentally lay on the
ground, had not weakened the force of his fall.

There is likewise another diversion, which is only shown before
the emperor and empress, and first minister, upon particular
occasions. The emperor lays on the table three fine silken threads
of six inches long: one is blue, the other red, and the third
green. These threads are proposed as prizes for those persons whom
the emperor hath a mind to distinguish by a peculiar mark of his
favor. The ceremony is performed in his Majesty's great chamber of
state, where the candidates are to undergo a trial of dexterity
very different from the former, and such as I have not observed
the least resemblance of in any other country of the old or new
world. The emperor holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel
to the horizon, while the candidates advancing, one by one,
sometimes leap over the stick, sometimes creep under it backwards
and forwards several times, according as the stick is advanced or
depressed. Sometimes the emperor holds one end of the stick, and
his first minister the other; sometimes the minister has it
entirely to himself. Whoever performs his part with most agility,
and holds out the longest in leaping and creeping, is rewarded
with the blue-colored silk, the red is given to the next, and the
green to the third, which they all wear girt twice round about the
middle, and you see few great persons about this court who are not
adorned with one of these girdles.

The horses of the army, and those of the royal stables, having
been daily led before me, were no longer shy, but would come up to
my very feet without starting, The riders would leap them over my
hand as I held it on the ground, and one of the emperor's
huntsmen, upon a large courser, took my foot, shoe and all; which
was, indeed, a prodigious leap. I had the good fortune to divert
the emperor, one day, after a very extraordinary manner: I desired
he would order several sticks of two feet high, and the thickness
of an ordinary cane, to be brought me; whereupon his Majesty
commanded the master of his woods to give directions accordingly,
and the next morning six woodmen arrived with as many carriages,
drawn by eight horses to each. I took nine of these sticks, and
fixing them firmly in the ground, in a quadrangular figure, two
feet and a half square, I took four other sticks, and tied them
parallel at each corner, about two feet from the ground; then I
fastened my handkerchief to the nine sticks that stood erect, and
extended it on all sides till it was as tight as the top of a
drum; and the four parallel sticks, rising about five inches
higher than the handkerchief, served as ledges on each side. When
I had finished my work, I desired the emperor to let a troop of
his best horse, twenty-four in number, come and exercise upon this
plain. His Majesty approved of the proposal, and I took them up
one by one in my hands, ready mounted and armed, with the proper
officers to exercise them. As soon as they got in order, they
divided into two parties, performed mock skirmishes, discharged
blunt arrows, drew their swords, fled and pursued, attacked and
retired, and in short discovered the best military discipline I
ever beheld. The parallel sticks secured them and their horses
from falling over the stage; and the emperor was so much
delighted, that he ordered this entertainment to be repeated
several days, and once was pleased to be lifted up, and give the
word of command; and, with great difficulty, persuaded even the
empress herself to let me hold her in her close chair within two
yards of the stage, from whence she was able to take a full view
of the whole performance. It was by good fortune that no ill
accident happened in these entertainments, only once a fiery
horse, that belonged to one of the captains, pawing with his hoof,
struck a hole in my handkerchief, and his foot slipping, he
overthrew his rider and himself; but I immediately relieved them
both, and covering the hole with one hand, I set down the troop
with the other, in the same manner as I took them up. The horse
that fell was strained in the left shoulder, but the rider got no
hurt, and I repaired my handkerchief as well as I could; however,
I would not trust to the strength of it any more in such dangerous

 About two or three days before I was set at liberty, as I was
entertaining the court with this kind of feats, there arrived an
express to inform his Majesty that some of his subjects, riding
near the place where I was first taken up, had seen a great black
substance lying on the ground, very oddly shaped, extending its
edges round as wide as his Majesty's bed-chamber, and rising up in
the middle as high as a man; that it was no living creature, as
they at first apprehended, for it lay on the grass without motion;
and some of them had walked round it several times; that, by
mounting upon each other's shoulders, they had got to the top,
which was flat and even, and, stamping upon it, they found it was
hollow within; that they humbly conceived it might be something
belonging to the Man-Mountain; and if his Majesty pleased, they
would undertake to bring it with only five horses. I presently
knew what they meant, and was glad at heart to receive this
intelligence. It seems upon my first reaching the shore, after our
shipwreck, I was in such confusion, that, before I came to the
place where I went to sleep, my hat, which I had fastened with a
string to my head while I was rowing, and had stuck on all the
time I was swimming, fell off after I came to land; the string, as
I conjecture, breaking by some accident which I never observed,
but thought my hat had been lost at sea. I intreated his Imperial
Majesty to give orders it might be brought to me as soon as
possible, describing to him the use and the nature of it; and the
next day the wagoners arrived with it, but not in a very good
condition; they had bored two holes in the brim, within an inch
and a half of the edge, and fastened two hooks in the holes; these
hooks were tied by a long cord to the harness, and thus my hat was
dragged along for above half an English mile; but, the ground in
that country being extremely smooth and level, it received less
damage than I expected.

Two days after this adventure, the emperor having ordered that
part of his army, which quarters in and about his metropolis, to
be in readiness, took a fancy of diverting himself in a very
singular manner; he desired I would stand like a colossus, with my
legs as far asunder as I conveniently could; he then commanded his
general (who was an old experienced leader, and a great patron of
mine) to draw up the troops in close order, and march them under
me; the foot by twenty-four in a-breast, and the horse by sixteen,
with drums beating, colors flying, and pikes advanced. This body
consisted of three thousand foot, and a thousand horse.

I had sent so many memorials and petitions for my liberty, that
his Majesty at length mentioned the matter first in the cabinet,
and then in a full council; where it was opposed by none, except
Skyresh Bolgolam, who was pleased, without any provocation, to be
my mortal enemy. But it was carried against him by the whole
board, and confirmed by the emperor. That minister was _galbet,_
or admiral of the realm, very much in his master's confidence,
and a person well versed in affairs, but of a morose and
sour complexion. However, he was at length persuaded to
comply; but prevailed that the articles and conditions upon which
I should be set free, and to which I must swear, should be drawn
up by himself. These articles were brought to me by Skyresh
Bolgolam in person, attended by two under-secretaries, and several
persons of distinction. After they were read, I was demanded to
swear to the performance of them; first in the manner of my own
country, and afterwards in the method prescribed by their laws,
which was to hold my right foot in my left hand, and to place the
middle finger of my right hand on the crown of my head, and my
thumb on the tip of my right ear.

But, because the reader may be curious to have some idea of the
style and manner of expression peculiar to that people, as well as
to know the articles upon which I recovered my liberty, I have
made a translation of the whole instrument, word for word, as near
as I was able, which I here offer to the public.

mighty Emperor of Lilliput, delight and terror of the universe,
whose dominions extend five thousand _blustrugs_ (about
twelve miles in circumference), to the extremities of the globe;
monarch of all monarchs, taller than the sons of men; whose feet
press down to the centre, and whose head strikes against the sun;
at whose nod the princes of the earth shake their knees; pleasant
as the spring, comfortable as the summer, fruitful as autumn,
dreadful as winter. His most sublime Majesty proposes to the Man-
Mountain, lately arrived to our celestial dominions, the following
articles, which, by a solemn oath, he shall be obliged to perform:

1st. The Man-Mountain shall not depart from our dominions without
our licence under our great seal.

2d. He shall not presume to come into our metropolis without our
express order; at which time the inhabitants shall have two
hours' warning to keep within their doors.

3d. The said Man-Mountain shall confine his walks to our principal
high roads, and not offer to walk or lie down in a meadow or field
of corn.

4th. As he walks the said roads he shall take the utmost care riot
to trample upon the bodies of any of our loving subjects, their
horses, or carriages, nor take any of our subjects into his hands
without their own consent.

5th. If an express requires extraordinary dispatch, the Man-
Mountain shall be obliged to carry in his pocket the messenger and
horse a six days' journey once in every moon, and return the said
messenger back (if so required) safe to our imperial presence.

6th. He shall be our ally against our enemies in the Island of
Blefuscu, and do his utmost to destroy their fleet, which is now
preparing to invade us.

7th. That the said Man-Mountain shall, at his times of leisure, be
aiding and assisting to our workmen, in helping to raise certain
great stones, towards covering the wall of the principal park, and
other our royal buildings.

8th. That the said Man-Mountain shall, in two moons' time, deliver
in an exact survey of the circumference of our dominions, by a
computation of his own paces round the coast.

Lastly, That, upon his solemn oath to observe all the above
articles, the said Man-Mountain shall have a daily allowance of
meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724 of our subjects,
with free access to our royal person, and other marks of our
favor. Given at our palace at Belfaborac, the twelfth day of the
ninety-first moon of our reign.

I swore and subscribed to these articles with great cheerfulness
and content, although some of them were not so honorable as I
could have wished; which proceeded wholly from the malice of
Skyresh Bolgolam, the high admiral; whereupon my chains were
immediately unlocked, and I was at full liberty; the emperor
himself in person did me the honor to be by at the whole ceremony.
I made my acknowledgments, by prostrating myself at his Majesty's
feet, but he commanded me to rise; and after many gracious
expressions, which, to avoid the censure of vanity, I shall not
repeat, he added that he hoped I should prove a useful servant,
and well deserve all the favors he had already conferred upon me,
or might do for the future.

The reader may please to observe, that, in the last article for
the recovery of my liberty, the emperor stipulates to allow me a
quantity of meat and drink sufficient for the support of 1724
Lilliputians. Some time after, asking a friend at court how they
came to fix on that determinate number; he told me that his
Majesty's mathematicians, having taken the height of my body by
the help of a quadrant, and finding it to exceed theirs in the
proportion of twelve to one, they concluded, from the similarity
of their bodies, that mine must contain, at least, 1724 of theirs,
and, consequently, would require as much food as was necessary to
support that number of Lilliputians. By which, the reader may
conceive an idea of the ingenuity of that people, as well as the
prudent and exact economy of so great a prince.


By Jonathan Swift

The empire of Blefuscu is an island, situated to the northeast
side of Lilliput, from whence it is parted only by a channel of
eight hundred yards wide. I had not yet seen it, and upon this
notice of an intended invasion, I avoided appearing on that side
of the coast, for fear of being discovered by some of the enemy's
ships, who had received no intelligence of me, all intercourse
between the two empires having been strictly forbidden during the
war, upon pain of death, and an embargo laid by our emperor upon
all vessels whatsoever. I communicated to his Majesty a project I
had formed of seizing the enemy's whole fleet; which, as our
scouts assured us, lay at anchor in the harbor ready to sail with
the first fair wind. I consulted the most experienced seamen upon
the depth of the channel, which they had often plumbed, who told
me, that in the middle, at high water, it was seventy _glumgluffs_
deep, which is about six feet of European measure; and the
rest of it fifty _glumgluffs_ at most. I walked towards
the northeast coast, over against Blefuscu; where, lying
down behind a hillock, I took out my small perspective glass,
and viewed the enemy's fleet at anchor, consisting of about
fifty men-of-war, and a great number of transports; I then came
back to my house, and gave order (for which I had a warrant) for a
great quantity of the strongest cable and bars of iron. The cable
was about as thick as packthread, and the bars of the length and
size of a knitting needle. I trebled the cable to make it
stronger, and, for the same reason, I twisted three of the iron
bars together, binding the extremities into a hook. Having thus
fixed fifty hooks to as many cables, I went back to the northeast
coast, and putting off my coat, shoes, and stockings, walked into
the sea, in my leathern jerkin, about an hour before high water. I
waded with what haste I could, and swam in the middle about thirty
yards, till I felt ground; I arrived at the fleet in less than
half an hour. The enemy was so frighted when they saw me, that
they leaped out of their ships, and swam to shore, where there
could not be fewer than thirty thousand souls. I then took my
tackling, and, fastening a hook to the hole at the prow of each, I
tied all the cords together at the end. While I was thus employed,
the enemy discharged several thousand arrows, many of which stuck
in my hands and face; and, besides the excessive smart, gave me
much disturbance in my work. My greatest apprehension was for mine
eyes, which I should have infallibly lost, if I had not suddenly
thought of an expedient. I kept among other little necessaries a
pair of spectacles in a private pocket, which, as I observed
before, had escaped the emperor's searchers. These I took out and
fastened as strongly as I could upon my nose, and, thus armed,
went on boldly with my work in spite of the enemy's arrows, many
of which struck against the glasses of my spectacles, but without
any other effect, further than a little to discompose them. I had
now fastened all the hooks, and, taking the knot in my hand, began
to pull, but not a ship would stir, for they were all too fast
held by their anchors, so that the boldest part of my enterprise
remained. I therefore let go the cord, and leaving the hooks fixed
to the ships, I resolutely cut with my knife the cables that
fastened the anchors, receiving above two hundred shots in my face
and hands; then I took up the knotted end of the cables to which
my hooks were tied, and with great ease drew fifty of the enemy's
largest men-of-war after me.

The Blefuscudians, who had not the least imagination of what I
intended, were at first confounded with astonishment. They had
seen me cut the cables, and thought my design was only to let the
ships run adrift, or fall foul on each other; but when they
perceived the whole fleet moving in order, and saw me pulling at
the end, they set up such a scream of grief and despair that it is
almost impossible to describe or conceive. When I had got out of
danger, I stopped a while to pick out the arrows that stuck in my
hands and face; and rubbed on some of the same ointment that was
given me at my first arrival, as I have formerly mentioned. I then
took off my spectacles, and, waiting about an hour till the tide
was a little fallen, I waded through the middle with my cargo, and
arrived safe at the royal port of Lilliput.

The emperor and his whole court stood on the shore expecting the
issue of this great adventure. They saw the ships move forward in
a large half-moon, but could not discern me, who was up to my
breast in water. When I advanced to the middle of the channel,
they were yet in more pain, because I was under water to my neck.
The emperor concluded me to be drowned, and that the enemy's fleet
was approaching in a hostile manner; but he was soon eased of his
fears, for the channel growing shallower every step I made, I came
in a short time within hearing, and, holding up the end of the
cable by which the fleet was fastened, I cried in a loud voice,
"Long live the most puissant Emperor of Lilliput!" This great
prince received me at my landing with all possible encomiums, and
created me a _nardac_ upon the spot, which is the highest
title of honor among them.

His Majesty desired I would take some other opportunity of
bringing all the rest of his enemy's ships into his ports. And so
unmeasurable is the ambition of princes, that he seemed to think
of nothing less than reducing the whole empire of Blefuscu into a
province, and governing it by a viceroy; of destroying the Bigendian
exiles and compelling that people to break the smaller end
of their eggs, by which he would remain the sole monarch of the
whole world. But I endeavored to divert him from his design, by
many arguments drawn from the topics of policy as well as justice;
and I plainly protested, that I would never be an instrument of
bringing a free and brave people into slavery. And, when the
matter was debated in council, the wisest part of the ministry
were of my opinion.

This open bold declaration of mine was so opposite to the schemes
and politics of his Imperial Majesty, that he could never forgive
me; he mentioned it in a very artful manner at council, where I
was told that some of the wisest appeared, at least, by their
silence, to be of my opinion; but others, who were my secret
enemies, could not forbear some expressions, which by a side-wind
reflected on me. And from this time began an intrigue between his
Majesty and a junto of ministers maliciously bent against me,
which broke out in less than two months, and had like to have
ended in my utter destruction. Of so little weight are the
greatest services to princes, when put into the balance with a
refusal to gratify their passions.

About three weeks after this exploit, there arrived a solemn
embassy from Blefuscu, with humble offers of a peace; which was
soon concluded upon conditions very advantageous to our emperor,
wherewith I shall not trouble the reader. There were six
ambassadors, with a train of about five hundred persons, and their
entry was very magnificent, suitable to the grandeur of their
master, and the importance of their business. When their treaty
was finished, wherein I did them several good offices by the
credit I now had, or at least appeared to have at court, their
Excellencies, who were privately told how much I had been their
friend, made me a visit in form. They began with many compliments
upon my valor and generosity, invited me to that kingdom in the
emperor their master's name, and desired me to show them some
proofs of my prodigious strength, of which they had heard so many
wonders; wherein I readily obliged them, but shall not trouble the
reader with the particulars.

When I had for some time entertained their Excellencies to their
infinite satisfaction and surprise, I desired they would do me the
honor to present my most humble respects to the emperor their
master, the renown of whose virtues had so justly filled the whole
world with admiration, and whose royal person I resolved to attend
before I returned to my own country; accordingly the next time I
had the honor to see our emperor, I desired his general licence to
wait on the Blefuscudian monarch, which he was pleased to grant
me, as I could plainly perceive, in a very cold manner; but could
not guess the reason, till I had a whisper from a certain person,
that Flimnap and Bolgolam had represented my intercourse with
these ambassadors as a mark of disaffection, from which I am sure
my heart was wholly free. And this was the first time I began to
conceive some imperfect idea of courts and ministers.

It is to be observed, that these ambassadors spoke to me by an
interpreter, the languages of both empires differing as much from
each other as any two in Europe, and each nation priding itself
upon the antiquity, beauty, and energy of their own tongues, with
an avowed contempt for that of their neighbor; yet our emperor,
standing upon the advantage he had got by the seizure of their
fleet, obliged them to deliver their credentials and make their
speech in the Lilliputian tongue. And it must be confessed that,
from the great intercourse of trade and commerce between both
realms, from the continual reception of exiles, which is mutual
among them, and from the custom in each empire to send their
young nobility and richer gentry to the other, in order to polish
themselves by seeing the world, and understanding men and manners,
there are few persons of distinction, or merchants, or seamen, who
dwell in the maritime parts, but what can hold conversation in
both tongues; as I found some weeks after, when I went to pay my
respects to the Emperor of Blefuscu, which, in the midst of great
misfortunes through the malice of my enemies, proved a very happy
adventure to me, as I shall relate in its proper place.

The reader may remember, that, when I signed those articles upon
which I recovered my liberty, there were some which I disliked
upon account of their being too servile, neither could anything
but an extreme necessity have forced me to submit. But, being now
a _nardac_ of the highest rank in that empire, such offices
were looked down upon as below my dignity, and the emperor (to do
him justice) never once mentioned them to me.


By Jonathan Swift

Three days after my arrival, walking out of curiosity to the
northeast coast of the island, I observed, about half a league
off, in the sea, somewhat that looked like a boat overturned. I
pulled off my shoes and stockings, and, wading two or three
hundred yards, I found the object to approach nearer by force of
the tide; and then plainly saw it to be a real boat, which I
supposed might, by some tempest, have been driven from a ship.
Whereupon I returned immediately towards the city, and desired his
Imperial Majesty to lend me twenty of the tallest vessels he had
left after the loss of his fleet, and three thousand seamen, under
the command of the vice-admiral. This fleet sailed round, while I
went back the shortest way to the coast, where I first discovered
the boat; I found the tide had driven it still nearer. The seamen
were all provided with cordage, which I had beforehand twisted to
a sufficient strength. When the ships came up, I stripped myself,
and waded till I came within an hundred yards of the boat, after
which I was forced to swim till I got up to it. The seamen threw
me the end of the cord, which I fastened to a hole in the fore-
part of the boat, and the other end to a man-of-war. But I found
all my labor to little purpose; for, being out of my depth, I was
not able to work. In this necessity, I was forced to swim behind,
and push the boat forwards as often as I could, with one of my
hands; and, the tide favoring me, I advanced so far, that I could
just hold up my chin and feel the ground. I rested two or three
minutes, and then gave the boat another shove, and so on, till the
sea was no higher than my arm-pits; and now, the most laborious
part being over, I took out my other cables, which were stowed in
one of the ships, and fastened them first to the boat, and then to
nine of the vessels which attended me; the wind being favorable,
the seamen towed, and I shoved till we arrived within forty yards
of the shore, and, waiting till the tide was out, I got dry to
the boat, and by the assistance of two thousand men, with ropes,
and engines, I made a shift to turn it on its bottom, and found it
was but little damaged.

I shall not trouble the reader with the difficulties I was under,
by the help of certain paddles, which cost me ten days making, to
get my boat to the royal port of Blefuscu, where a mighty
concourse of people appeared upon my arrival, full of wonder at
the sight of so prodigious a vessel. I told the emperor that my
good fortune had thrown this boat in my way, to carry me to some
place from whence I might return into my native country, and
begged his Majesty's orders for getting materials to fit it up,
together with his licence to depart, which, after some kind
expostulations, he was pleased to grant.

I did very much wonder, in all this time, not to have heard of any
express relating to me from our emperor to the court of Blefuscu.
But I was afterwards given privately to understand that his
Imperial Majesty, never imagining I had the least notice of his
designs, believed I was only gone to Blefuscu, in performance of
my promise, according to the licence he had given me, which was
well known at our court, and would return in a few days, when the
ceremony was ended. But he was at last in pain at my long absence;
and, after consulting with the treasurer and the rest of the
cabal, a person of quality was dispatched with the copy of the
articles against me. This envoy had instructions to represent to
the monarch of Blefuscu the great lenity of his master, who was
content to punish me no further than with the loss of my eyes;
that I had fled from justice, and, if I did not return in two
hours, I should be deprived of my title of _nardac_, and
declared a traitor. The envoy further added, that in order to
maintain the peace and amity between both empires, his master
expected that his brother of Blefuscu would give orders to have me
sent back to Lilliput, bound hand and foot, to be punished as a

The Emperor of Blefuscu, having taken three days to consult,
returned an answer, consisting of many civilities and excuses. He
said that as for sending me bound, his brother knew it was
impossible; that although I had deprived him of his fleet, yet he
owed great obligations to me for many good offices I had done him
in making the peace; that, however, both their Majesties would
soon be made easy; for I had found a prodigious vessel on the
shore, able to carry me on the sea, which he had given orders to
fit up with my own assistance and direction; and he hoped, in a
few weeks, both empires would be freed from so insupportable an

With this answer the envoy returned to Lilliput, and the monarch
of Blefuscu related to me all that had passed; offering me at the
same time (but under the strictest confidence) his gracious
protection, if I would continue in his service; wherein, although
I believed him sincere, yet I resolved never more to put any
confidence in princes or ministers, where I could possibly avoid
it, and, therefore, with all due acknowledgments for his favorable
intentions, I humbly begged to be excused. I told him, that since
fortune, whether good or evil, had thrown a vessel in my way, I
was resolved to venture myself on the ocean rather than be an
occasion of difference between two such mighty monarchs. Neither
did I find the emperor at all displeased, and I discovered, by a
certain accident, that he was very glad of my resolution, and so
were most of his ministers. These considerations moved me to
hasten my departure somewhat sooner than I intended; to which the
court, impatient to have me gone, very readily contributed. Five
hundred workmen were employed to make two sails to my boat,
according to my directions, by quilting thirteen folds of their
strongest linen together. I was at the pains of making ropes and
cables by twisting ten, twenty, or thirty of the thickest and
strongest of theirs. A great stone that I happened to find, after
a long search by the sea-shore, served me for an anchor. I had the
tallow of three hundred cows for greasing my boat and other uses.
I was at incredible pains in cutting down some of the largest
timber-trees for oars and masts, wherein I was, however, much
assisted by his Majesty's ship-carpenters, who helped me in
smoothing them after I had done the rough work.

In about a month, when all was prepared, I sent to receive his
Majesty's commands, and to take my leave. The emperor and royal
family came out of the palace; I lay down on my face to kiss his
hand, which he very graciously gave me; so did the empress, and
young princes of the blood. His Majesty presented me with fifty
purses of two hundred _sprugs_ apiece, together with his
picture at full length, which I put immediately into one of my
gloves, to keep it from being hurt. The ceremonies at my
departure were too many to trouble the reader with at this time.

I stored the boat with the carcases of an hundred oxen, and three
hundred sheep, with bread and drink proportionable, and as much
meat ready dressed as four hundred cooks could provide. I took
with me six cows and two bulls alive, with as many ewes and rams,
intending to carry them into my own country and propagate the
breed. And, to feed them on board, I had a good bundle of hay, and
a bag of corn. I would gladly have taken a dozen of the natives,
but this was a thing the emperor would by no means permit; and,
besides a diligent search into my pockets, his Majesty engaged my
honor not to carry away any of his subjects, although with their
own consent and desire.

Having thus prepared all things as well as I was able, I set sail
on the twenty-fourth day of September, 1701, at six in the
morning; and when I had gone about four leagues to the northward,
the wind being at southeast, at six in the evening I descried a
small island about half a league to the northwest. I advanced
forward, and cast anchor on the lee-side of the island, which
seemed to be uninhabited. I then took some refreshment and went to
my rest. I slept well, and I conjecture at least six hours, for I
found the day broke in two hours after I awaked. It was a clear
night. I ate my breakfast before the sun was up; and heaving
anchor, the wind being favorable, I steered the same course that
I had done the day before, wherein I was directed by my pocket-
compass. My intention was to reach, if possible, one of those
islands which I had reason to believe lay on the northeast of Van
Diemen's Land. I discovered nothing all that day; but upon the
next, about three in the afternoon, when I had by my computation
made twenty-four leagues from Blefuscu, I descried a sail steering
to the southeast; my course was due east. I hailed her, but could
get no answer; yet I found I gained upon her, for the wind
slackened. I made all the sail I could, and in half an hour she
spied me, then hung out her ancient, and discharged a gun. It is
not easy to express the joy I was in upon the unexpected hope of
once more seeing my beloved country, and the dear pledges I had
left in it. The ship slackened her sails, and I came up with her
between five and six in the evening, September 26th; but my heart
leaped within me to see her English colors. I put my cows and
sheep into my coat-pockets, and got on board with all my little
cargo of provisions. The vessel was an English merchantman,
returning from Japan by the north and south seas; the captain, Mr.
John Biddel of Deptford, a very civil man, and an excellent
sailor. We were now in the latitude of 30 degrees south; there
were about fifty men in the ship; and here I met an old comrade of
mine, one Peter Williams, who gave me a good character to the
captain. This gentleman treated me with kindness, and desired I
would let him know what place I came from last and whither I was
bound; which I did in few words, but he thought I was raving, and
that the dangers I underwent had disturbed my head; whereupon I
took my black cattle and sheep out of my pocket, which, after
great astonishment, clearly convinced him of my veracity. I then
showed him the gold given me by the Emperor of Blefuscu, together
with his Majesty's picture at full length, and some other rarities of
that country. I gave him two purses of two hundred _sprugs_
each, and promised, when we arrived in England, to make him
a present of a cow and a sheep.

I shall not trouble the reader with a particular account of this
voyage, which was very prosperous for the most part. We arrived in
the Downs on the 13th of April, 1702. I had only one misfortune,
that the rats on board carried away one of my sheep; I found her
bones in a hole, picked clean from the flesh. The rest of my
cattle I got safe ashore, and set them a-grazing in a bowling-
green at Greenwich, where the fineness of the grass made them feed
very heartily, though I had always feared the contrary: neither
could I possibly have preserved them in so long a voyage if the
captain had not allowed me some of his best biscuit, which rubbed
to powder, and mingled with water, was their constant food. The
short time I continued in England, I made a considerable profit by
showing my cattle to many persons of quality and others: and,
before I began my second voyage, I sold them for six hundred
pounds. Since my last return, I find the breed is considerably
increased, especially the sheep, which I hope will prove much to
the advantage of the woollen manufacture, by the fineness of the

I stayed but two months with my wife and family; for my insatiable
desire of seeing foreign countries would suffer me to continue no
longer. I left fifteen hundred pounds with my wife, and fixed her
in a good house at Redriff. My remaining stock I carried with me,
part in money and part in goods, in hopes to improve my fortunes.
My eldest uncle John had left me an estate in land, near Epping,
of about thirty pounds a year; and I had a long lease of the Black
Bull in Fetter Lane, which yielded me as much more: so that I was
not in any danger of leaving my family upon the parish. My son
Johnny, named so after his uncle, was at the grammar school, and a
cowardly child. My daughter Betty (who is now well married, and
has children) was then at her needlework. I took leave of my wife
and boy and girl, with tears on both sides, and went on board the
Adventure, a merchant ship, of three hundred tons, bound for
Surat, Captain John Nicholas of Liverpool, commander.


By Jonathan Swift

The Adventure had a very prosperous gale, till we arrived at the
Cape of Good Hope, where we landed for fresh water; but
discovering a leak, we unshipped our goods, and wintered there;
for the captain falling sick of an ague, we could not leave the
Cape till the end of March.

We then set sail, and had a good voyage till we passed the straits
of Madagascar; but having got northward of that island, and to
about five degrees south latitude, the winds, which in those seas
are observed to blow a constant equal gale between the north and
west, from the beginning of December to the beginning of May, on
the 9th of April began to blow with much greater violence, and
more westerly than usual, continuing so for twenty days together:
during which time, we were driven a little to the east of the
Molucca Islands, and about three degrees northward of the line, as
our captain found by an observation he took the 2d of May, at
which time the wind ceased, and it was a perfect calm, whereat I
was not a little rejoiced. But he being a man well experienced in
the navigation of those seas, bid us all prepare against a storm,
which accordingly happened on the day following; for the southern
wind, called the southern monsoon, began to set in.

Finding it was likely to overblow, we took in our sprit-sail, and
stood by to hand the foresail; but, making foul weather, we looked
the guns were all fast, and handed the mizzen. The ship lay very
broad off, so we thought it better spooning before the sea, than
trying or hulling. We reefed the foresail and set him, and hauled
aft the foresheet; the helm was hard-a-weather. The ship wore
bravely. We belayed the fore downhaul; but the sail was split, and
we hauled down the yard, and got the sail into the ship, and
unbound all the things clear of it. It was a very fierce storm;
the sea broke strange and dangerous. We hauled off upon the
lanyard of the whip-staff, and helped the man at the helm. We
would not get down our topmast, but let all stand, because she
scudded before the sea very well, and we knew that the topmast
being aloft, the ship was the wholesomer, and made better way
through the sea, seeing we had sea-room. When the storm was over,
we set foresail and mainsail, and brought the ship to. Then we set
the mizzen, maintopsail, and the foretopsail. Our course was east-
northeast, the wind was at southwest. We got the starboard tacks
aboard, we cast off our weather braces and lifts; we set in the
lee braces, and hauled forward by the weather-bowlings, and hauled
them tight, and belayed them, and hauled over the mizzen tack to
windward, and kept her full and by as near as she would lie.
During this storm, which was followed by a strong wind west-
southwest, we were carried, by my computation, about five hundred
leagues to the east, so that the oldest sailor on board could not
tell in what part of the world we were. Our provisions held out
well, our ship was stanch, and our crew all in good health; but we
lay in the utmost distress for water. We thought it best to hold
on the same course, rather than turn more northerly, which might
have brought us to the northwest part of Great Tartary, and into
the Frozen Sea.

On the 16th day of June, 1703, a boy on the topmast discovered
land. On the 17th, we came in full view of a great island, or
continent (for we knew not whether); on the south side whereof was
a small neck of land jutting out into the sea, and a creek too
shallow to hold a ship of above one hundred tons. We cast anchor
within a league of the creek, and our captain sent a dozen of his
men well armed in the long-boat, with vessels for water, if any
could be found. I desired his leave to go with them, that I might
see the country, and make what discoveries I could. When we came
to land, we saw no river, or spring, nor any sign of inhabitants.
Our men therefore wandered on the shore to find out some fresh
water near the sea, and I walked alone about a mile on the other
side, where I observed the country all barren and rocky. I now
began to be weary, and seeing nothing to entertain my curiosity, I
returned gently down toward the creek; and the sea being full in
my view, I saw our men already got into the boat, and rowing for
life to the ship. I was going to holla after them, although it had
been to little purpose, when I observed a huge creature walking
after them in the sea, as fast as he could: he waded not much
deeper than his knees, and took prodigious strides: but our men
had the start of him half a league, and the sea thereabout being
full of sharp-pointed rocks, the monster was not able to overtake
the boat. This I was afterward told, for I durst not stay to see
the issue of the adventure, but ran as fast as I could the way I
first went, and then climbed up a steep hill, which gave me some
prospect of the country. I found it fully cultivated; but that
which first surprised me was the length of the grass, which, in
those grounds that seemed to be kept for hay, was about twenty
feet high.

I fell into a highroad, for so I took it to be, though it served
to the inhabitants only as a footpath through a field of barley.
Here I walked on for some time, but could see little on either
side, it being now near harvest, and the corn rising at least
forty feet. I was an hour walking to the end of this field, which
was fenced in with a hedge of at least one hundred and twenty feet
high, and the trees so lofty that I could make no computation of
their altitude. There was a stile to pass from this field into the
next. It had four steps, and a stone to cross over when you come
to the uppermost. It was impossible for me to climb this stile,
because every step was six feet high, and the upper stone about
twenty. I was endeavoring to find some gap in the hedge, when I
discovered one of the inhabitants in the next field, advancing
toward the stile, of the same size with him whom I saw in the sea
pursuing our boat. He appeared as tall as an ordinary spire
steeple, and took about ten yards at every stride, as near as I
could guess. I was struck with the utmost fear and astonishment,
and ran to hide myself in the corn, whence I saw him at the top of
the stile looking back into the next field, on the right hand, and
heard him call in a voice many degrees louder than a speaking-
trumpet; but the noise was so high in the air, that at first I
certainly thought it was thunder. Whereupon seven monsters, like
himself, came toward him, with reaping-hooks in their hands, each
hook about the largeness of six scythes. These people were not so
well clad as the first, whose servants or laborers they seemed to
be; for, upon some words he spoke, they went to reap the corn in
the field where I lay. I kept from them at as great a distance as
I could, but was forced to move with extreme difficulty, for the
stalks of corn were sometimes not above a foot distant, so that I
could hardly squeeze my body between them. However, I made a shift
to go forward, till I came to a part of the field where the corn
had been laid by the rain and wind. Here it was impossible for me
to advance a step; for the stalks were so interwoven, that I could
not creep through, and the beards of the fallen ears so strong and
pointed, that they pierced through my clothes into my flesh. At
the same time I heard the reapers not above a hundred yards behind
me. Being quite dispirited with toil, and wholly overcome by grief
and despair, I lay down between two ridges, and heartily wished I
might there end my days. I bemoaned my desolate widow and
fatherless children. I lamented my own folly and wilfulness, in
attempting a second voyage, against the advice of all my friends
and relations. In this terrible agitation of mind, I could not
forbear thinking of Lilliput, whose inhabitants looked upon me as
the greatest prodigy that ever appeared in the world; where I was
able to draw an imperial fleet in my hand, and perform those other
actions, which will be recorded forever in the chronicles of that
empire, while posterity shall hardly believe them, although
attested by millions. I reflected what a mortification it must
prove to me to appear as inconsiderable in this nation, as one
single Lilliputian would be among us. But this I conceived was to
be the least of my misfortunes; for, as human creatures are
observed to be more savage and cruel in proportion to their bulk,
what could I expect but to be a morsel in the mouth of the first
among these enormous barbarians that should happen to seize me?
Undoubtedly philosophers are in the right when they tell us that
nothing is great or little otherwise than by comparison. It might
have pleased fortune, to have let the Lilliputians find some
nation where the people were as diminutive with respect to them,
as they were to me. And who knows but that even this prodigious
race of mortals might be equally overmatched in some distant part
of the world, whereof we have yet no discovery.

Scared and confounded as I was, I could not forbear going on with
these reflections, when one of the reapers approaching within ten
yards of the ridge where I lay, made me apprehend that with the
next step I should be squashed to death under his foot, or cut in
two with his reaping-hook. And therefore, when he was again about
to move, I screamed as loud as fear could make me; whereupon the
huge creature trod short, and looking round about under him for
some time, at last espied me as I lay on the ground. He considered
awhile, with the caution of one who endeavors to lay hold on a
small dangerous animal in such a manner that it shall not be able
either to scratch or bite him, as I myself have sometimes done
with a weasel in England. At length he ventured to take me behind,
by the middle, between his forefinger and thumb, and brought me
within three yards of his eyes, that he might behold my shape more
perfectly. I guessed his meaning, and my good fortune gave me so
much presence of mind, that I resolved not to struggle in the
least as he held me in the air above sixty feet from the ground,
although he grievously pinched my sides, for fear I should slip
through his fingers. All I ventured was to raise mine eyes toward
the sun, and place my hands together in a supplicating posture,
and to speak some words in an humble melancholy tone, suitable to
the condition I then was in: for I apprehended every moment that
he would dash me against the ground, as we usually do any little
hateful animal which we have a mind to destroy. But my good star
would have it, that he appeared pleased with my voice and
gestures, and began to look upon me as a curiosity, much wondering
to hear me pronounce articulate words, although he could not
understand them. In the meantime I was not able to forbear
groaning and shedding tears, and turning my head toward my sides;
letting him know, as well as I could, how cruelly I was hurt by
the pressure of his thumb and finger. He seemed to apprehend my
meaning; for, lifting up the lappet of his coat, he put me gently
into it, and immediately ran along with me to his master, who was
a substantial farmer, and the same person I had first seen in the

The farmer having (as I suppose by their talk) received such an
account of me as his servant could give him, took a piece of a
small straw, about the size of a walking-staff, and therewith
lifted up the lappets of my coat, which, it seems, he thought to
be some kind of covering that nature had given me. He blew my hair
aside to take a better view of my face. He called his hinds about
him, and asked them, as I afterward learned, whether they had ever
seen in the fields any little creature that resembled me? He then
placed me softly on the ground on all fours, but I immediately got
up, and walked slowly backward and forward, to let those people
see I had no intent to run away. They all sat down in a circle
about me, the better to observe my motions. I pulled off my hat,
and made a low bow toward the farmer. I fell on my knees, and
lifted up my hands and eyes, and spoke several words as loud as I
could; I took a purse of gold out of my pocket, and humbly
presented it to him. He received it on the palm of his hand, and
then applied it close to his eye to see what it was, and afterward
turned it several times with the point of a pin (which he took out
of his sleeve), but could make nothing of it. Whereupon I made a
sign that he should place his hand on the ground. I then took the
purse, and opening it, poured all the gold into his palm. There
were six Spanish pieces of four pistoles each, besides twenty or
thirty smaller coins. I saw him wet the tip of his little finger
upon his tongue, and take up one of my largest pieces, and then
another; but he seemed to be wholly ignorant what they were. He
made me a sign to put them again into my purse, and the purse
again into my pocket, which, after offering it to him several
times, I thought it best to do.

The farmer, by this time, was convinced I must be a rational
creature. He spoke often to me, but the sound of his voice pierced
my ears like that of a watermill, yet his words were articulate

I answered as loud as I could in several languages, and he often
laid his ear within two yards of me; but all in vain, for we were
wholly unintelligible to each other. He then sent his servants to
their work, and taking his handkerchief out of his pocket, he
doubled and spread it on his left hand, which he placed flat on
the ground with the palm upward, making me a sign to step into it,
as I could easily do, for it was not above a foot in thickness. I
thought it my part to obey, and, for fear of falling, laid myself
at full length upon the handkerchief, with the remainder of which
he lapped me up to the head for further security, and in this
manner carried me home to his house. There he called his wife, and
showed me to her; but she screamed and ran back, as women in
England do at the sight of a toad or a spider. However, when she
had awhile seen my behavior, and how well I observed the signs her
husband made, she was soon reconciled, and by degrees grew
extremely tender of me. It was about twelve at noon and a servant
brought in dinner. It was only one substantial dish of meat (fit
for the plain condition of a husbandman), in a dish of about
four-and-twenty feet in diameter. The company were, the farmer and
his wife, three children, and an old grandmother. When they were
sat down, the farmer placed me at some distance from him on the
table, which was thirty feet high from the floor. I was in a
terrible fright, and kept as far as I could from the edge, for
fear of falling. The wife minced a bit of meat, then crumbled some
bread on a trencher, and placed it before me. I made her a low
bow, took out my knife and fork, and fell to eat, which gave them
exceeding delight. The mistress sent her maid for a small dram
cup, which held about two gallons, and filled it with drink; I
took up the vessel with much difficulty in both hands, and in a
most respectful manner drank to her ladyship's health, expressing
the words as loud as I could in English, which made the company
laugh so heartily that I was almost deafened with the noise. This
liquor tasted like a small cider, and was not unpleasant. Then the
master made me a sign to come to his trencher side; but as I
walked on the table, being at great surprise all the time, as the
indulgent reader will easily conceive and excuse, I happened to
stumble against a crust, and fell flat on my face, but received no
hurt. I got up immediately, and observing the good people to be in
much concern, I took my hat (which I held under my arm out of good
manners), and waving it over my head, gave three huzzas, to show I
had got no mischief by my fall. But advancing forward toward my
master, (as I shall henceforth call him), his youngest son, who
sat next to him, an arch boy of about ten years old, took me up by
the legs, and held me so high in the air that I trembled in every
limb; but his father snatched me from him, and at the same time
gave him such a box on the left ear as would have felled an
European troop of horse to the earth, ordering him to be taken
from the table. But being afraid the boy might owe me a spite, and
well remembering how mischievous all children among us naturally
are to sparrows, rabbits, young kittens, and puppy dogs, I fell on
my knees, and pointing to the boy, made my master to understand
as well as I could, that I desired his son might be pardoned. The
father complied, and the lad took his seat again, whereupon I went
to him and kissed his hand, which my master took, and made him
stroke me gently with it.

In the midst of dinner, my mistress's favorite cat leaped into her
lap, I heard a noise behind me like that of a dozen stocking-
weavers at work; and turning my head, I found it proceeded from
the purring of that animal, who seemed to be three times larger
than an ox, as I computed by the view of her head, and one of her
paws, while her mistress was feeding and stroking her. The
fierceness of this creature's countenance altogether discomposed
me; though I stood at the further end of the table, above fifty
feet off; and though my mistress held her fast, for fear she might
give a spring, and seize me in her talons. But it happened there
was no danger, for the cat took not the least notice of me, when
my master placed me within three yards of her. And as I have been
always told, and found true by experience in my travels, that
flying or discovering fear before a fierce animal is a certain way
to make it pursue or attack you, so I resolved, in this dangerous
juncture, to show no manner of concern. I walked with intrepidity
five or six times before the very head of the cat, and came within
half a yard of her; whereupon she drew herself back, as if she
were more afraid of me. I had less apprehension concerning the
dogs, whereof three or four came into the room, as is usual in
farmers? houses; one of which was a mastiff, equal in bulk to
four elephants, and a greyhound somewhat taller than the mastiff,
but not so large.

When dinner was almost done, the nurse came in with a child of a
year old in her arms, who immediately spied me, and began a squall
that you might have heard from London Bridge to Chelsea, after the
usual oratory of infants, to get me for a plaything. The mother,
out of pure indulgence, took me up, and put me toward the child,
who presently seized me by the middle, and got my head into his
mouth, where I roared so loud that the urchin was frighted, and
let me drop, and I should infallibly have broke my neck, if the
mother had not held her apron under me. The nurse, to quiet her
babe, made use of a rattle, which was a kind of hollow vessel
filled with great stones, and fastened by a cable to the child's

I remember, when I was at Lilliput, the complexions of those
diminutive people appeared to me the fairest in the world; and
talking upon the subject with a person of learning there, who was
an intimate friend of mine, he said that my face appeared much
fairer and smoother when he looked on me from the ground, than it
did upon a nearer view, when I took him up in my hand and brought
him close, which he confessed was at first a very shocking sight.
He said "he could discover great holes in my skin; that the stumps
of my beard were ten times stronger than the bristles of a boar,
and my complexion made up of several colors, altogether
disagreeable"; although I must beg leave to say for myself, that I
am as fair as most of my sex and country, and very little
sunburned by all my travels. On the other side, discoursing of
the ladies in that emperor's court, he used to tell me, "one had
freckles, another too wide a mouth, a third too large a nose";
nothing of which I was able to distinguish. I confess this
reflection was obvious enough; which, however, I could not
forbear, lest the reader might think those vast creatures were
actually deformed: for I must do them the justice to say, they are
a comely race of people; and particularly the features of my
master's countenance, although he were but a farmer, when I beheld
him from the height of sixty feet, appeared very well proportioned.

When dinner was done, my master went out to his laborers, and as I
could discover by his voice and gesture gave his wife a strict
charge to take care of me. I was very much tired and disposed to
sleep, which my mistress perceiving, she put me on her own bed,
covered me with a clean white handkerchief, but larger and coarser
than the mainsail of a man-of-war.

I slept about two hours, and dreamed I was at home with my wife
and children, which aggravated my sorrows when I awaked, and found
myself alone, in a vast room, between two and three hundred feet
wide, and about two hundred high, lying in a bed twenty yards
wide. My mistress was gone about her household affairs, and had
locked me in. The bed was eight yards from the floor. I durst not
presume to call; and if I had, it would have been in vain, with
such a voice as mine, at so great a distance as from the room
where I lay to the kitchen where the family kept. While I was
under these circumstances, two rats crept up the curtains, and ran
smelling backward and forward on the bed. One of them came up
almost to my face, whereupon I rose in a fright, and drew out my
hanger to defend myself. These horrible animals had the boldness
to attack me on both sides, and one of them held his forefeet at
my collar; but I had the good fortune to rip up his belly before
he could do me any mischief. He fell down at my feet; and the
other, seeing the fate of his comrade, made his escape, but not
without one good wound on the back, which I gave him as he fled,
and made the blood run trickling from him. After this exploit, I
walked gently to and fro on the bed, to recover my breath and loss
of spirits. These creatures were of the size of a large mastiff,
but infinitely more nimble and fierce; so that if I had taken off
my belt before I went to sleep, I must have infallibly been torn
to pieces and devoured. I measured the tail of the dead rat, and
found it to be two yards long, wanting an inch; but it went
against my stomach to draw the carcass off the bed, where it lay
still bleeding. I observed it had yet some life, but with a strong
slash across the neck, I thoroughly despatched it. Soon after, my
mistress came into the room, who seeing me all bloody, ran and
took me up in her hand. I pointed to the dead rat, smiling, and
making other signs, to show I was not hurt; whereat she was
extremely rejoiced, calling the maid to take up the dead rat with
a pair of tongs, and throw it out of the window. Then she set me
on a table, where I showed her my hanger all bloody, and wiping
it on the lappet of my coat returned it to the scabbard.

I hope the gentle reader will excuse me for dwelling on these and
the like particulars, which, however insignificant they may appear
to grovelling vulgar minds, yet will certainly help a philosopher
to enlarge his thoughts and imagination, and apply them to the
benefit of public as well as private life, which was my sole
design in presenting this, and other accounts of my travels, to
the world; wherein I have been chiefly studious of truth, without
affecting any ornaments of learning or of style. But the whole
scene of this voyage made so strong an impression on my mind, and
is so deeply fixed in my memory, that in committing it to paper I
did not omit one material circumstance; however, upon strict
review, I blotted out several passages of less moment, which were
in my first copy, for fear of being censured as tedious and
trifling, whereof travellers are often, perhaps not without
justice, accused.


By Jonathan Swift

Justly may I say, that I should have lived happy enough in the
country, if my littleness had not exposed me to several ridiculous
and troublesome accidents; some of which I shall venture to
relate. Glumdalclitch often carried me into the gardens of the
court in my smaller box, and would sometimes take me out of it,
and hold me in her hand, or set me down to walk. I remember,
before the dwarf left the queen, he followed us one day into those
gardens, and my nurse having set me down, he and I being close
together, near some dwarf apple-trees, I must needs show my wit,
by a silly allusion between him and the trees, which happens to
hold in their language as it does in ours. Whereupon, the
malicious rogue, watching his opportunity, when I was walking
under one of them, shook it directly over my head, by which a
dozen apples, each of them near as large as a Bristol barrel, came
tumbling about my ears; one of them hit me on the back as I
chanced to stoop, and knocked me down flat on my face; but I
received no other hurt, and the dwarf was pardoned at my desire,
because I had given the provocation.

Another day, Glumdalelitch left me on a smooth grass plot to
divert myself, while she walked at some distance with her
governess. In the meantime, there suddenly fell such a violent
shower of hail, that I was immediately, by the force of it, struck
to the ground; and when I was down, the hailstones gave me such
cruel bangs all over the body, as if I had been pelted with
tennis-balls; however, I made a shift to creep on all fours, and
shelter myself, by lying flat on my face, on the lee-side of a
border of lemon-thyme; but so bruised from head to foot, that I
could not go abroad in ten days. Neither is that at all to be
wondered at, because nature, in that country, observing the same
proportion through all her operations, a hailstone is near
eighteen hundred times as large as one in Europe; which I can
assert upon experience, having been so curious to weigh and
measure them.

But a more dangerous accident happened to me in the same garden,
when my little nurse, believing she had put me in a secure place
(which I often entreated her to do, that I might enjoy my own
thoughts), and having left my box at home, to avoid the trouble of
carrying it, went to another part of the garden with her governess
and some ladies of her acquaintance. While she was absent and out
of hearing, a small white spaniel that belonged to one of the
chief gardeners, having got by accident into the garden, happened
to range near the place where I lay: the dog, following the scent,
came directly up, and taking me in his mouth, ran straight to his
master wagging his tail, and set me gently on the ground. By good
fortune he had been so well taught, that I was carried between his
teeth without the least hurt, or even tearing my clothes. But the
poor gardener, who knew me well, and had a great kindness for me,
was in a terrible fright; he gently took me up in both his hands,
and asked me how I did; but I was so amazed and out of breath,
that I could not speak a word. In a few minutes I came to myself,
and he carried me safe to my little nurse, who, by this time, had
returned to the place where she left me, and was in cruel agonies
when I did not appear, nor answer when she called. She severely
reprimanded the gardener on account of his dog. But the thing was
hushed up, and never known at court, for the girl was afraid of
the queen's anger; and truly, as to myself, I thought it would
not be for my reputation that such a story should go about.

This accident absolutely determined Glumdalclitch never to trust
me abroad for the future out of her sight. I had been long afraid
of this resolution, and therefore concealed from her some little
unlucky adventures, that happened in those times when I was left
by myself. Once a kite, hovering over the garden, made a stoop at
me, and if I had not resolutely drawn my hanger, and run under a
thick espalier, he would have certainly carried me away in his
talons. Another time, walking to the top of a fresh molehill, I
fell to my neck in the hole, through which that animal had cast up
the earth, and coined some lie, not worth remembering, to excuse
myself for spoiling my clothes. I likewise broke my right shin
against the shell of a snail, which I happened to stumble over, as
I was walking alone and thinking of poor England.

I cannot tell whether I were more pleased or mortified to observe,
in those solitary walks, that the smaller birds did not appear to
be at all afraid of me, but would hop about within a yard's
distance, looking for worms and other food, with as much
indifference and security as if no creature at all were near them.
I remember, a thrush had the confidence to snatch out of my hand,
with his bill, a piece of cake that Glumdalclitch had just given
me for my breakfast. When I attempted to catch any of these birds,
they would boldly turn against me, endeavoring to peck my fingers,
which I durst not venture within their reach; and then they would
hop back unconcerned, to hunt for worms or snails, as they did
before. But one day, I took a thick cudgel, and threw it with all
my strength so luckily, at a linnet, that I knocked him down, and
seizing him by the neck with both my hands, ran with him in
triumph to my nurse. However, the bird, who had only been stunned,
recovering himself, gave me so many boxes with his wings, on both
sides of my head and body, though I held him at arm's length, and
was out of the reach of his claws, that I was twenty times
thinking to let him go. But I was soon relieved by one of our
servants, who wrung off the bird's neck, and I had him next day
for dinner, by the queen's command. This linnet, as near as I can
remember, seemed to be somewhat larger than an English swan.

One day, a young gentleman, who was nephew to my nurse's
governess, came and pressed them both to see an execution. It was
of a man who had murdered one of that gentleman's intimate
acquaintance. Glumdalclitch was prevailed on to be of the company,
very much against her inclination, for she was naturally tender-
hearted; and as for myself, although I abhorred such kind of
spectacles, yet my curiosity tempted me to see something that I
thought must be extraordinary. The malefactor was fixed on a chair
upon a scaffold erected for that purpose, and his head cut off at
one blow, with a sword of about forty feet long. The veins and
arteries spouted up such a prodigious quantity of blood, and so
high in the air, that the great fountain at Versailles was not
equal for the time it lasted; and the head, when it fell on the
scaffold floor, gave such a bounce as made me start, although I
were at least half an English mile distant.

The queen, who often used to hear me talk of my sea-voyages, and
took all occasions to divert me when I was melancholy, asked me
whether I understood how to handle a sail or an oar, and whether a
little exercise of rowing might not be convenient for my health? I
answered that I understood both very well: for although my proper
employment had been to be surgeon or doctor to the ship, yet
often, upon a pinch, I was forced to work like a common mariner.
But I could not see how this could be done in their country, where
the smallest wherry was equal to a first-rate man-of-war among us;
and such a boat as I could manage would never live in one of their
rivers. Her Majesty said, if I would contrive a boat, her own
joiner should make it, and she would provide a place for me to
sail in. The fellow was an ingenious workman, and by my
instructions, in ten days, finished a pleasure-boat, with all its
tackling, able conveniently to hold eight Europeans. When it was
finished, the queen was so delighted that she ran with it in her
lap to the king, who ordered it to be put into a cistern full of
water, with me in it, by way of trial; where I could not manage my
two sculls, or little oars, for want of room. But the queen had
before contrived another project. She ordered the joiner to make a
wooden trough of three hundred feet long, fifty broad, and eight
deep; which, being well pitched to prevent leaking, was placed on
the floor along the wall, in an outer room of the palace. It had
a cock near the bottom to let out the water, when it began to
grow stale; and two servants could easily fill it in half an hour.
Here I often used to row for my own diversion, as well as that of
the queen and her ladies, who thought themselves well entertained
with my skill and agility. Sometimes I would put up my sail and
then my business was only to steer, while the ladies gave me a
gale with their fans; and when they were weary, some of their
pages would blow my sail forward with their breath, while I showed
my art by steering starboard or larboard as I pleased. When I had
done, Glumdalclitch always carried back my boat into her closet,
and hung it on a nail to dry.

In this exercise I once met an accident, which had like to have
cost me my life; for, one of the pages having put my boat into the
trough, the governess who attended Glumdalclitch very officiously
lifted me up, to place me in the boat; but I happened to slip
through her fingers, and should infallibly have fallen down forty
feet, upon the floor, if, by the luckiest chance in the world, I
had not been stopped by a corking-pin that stuck in the good
gentlewoman's stomacher; the head of the pin passed between my
shirt and the waistband of my breeches, and thus I was held by the
middle in the air, till Glumdalclitch ran to my relief.

Another time, one of the servants, whose office it was to fill my
trough every third day with fresh water, was so careless to let a
huge frog (not perceiving it) slip out of his pail. The frog lay
concealed till I was put into my boat, but then seeing a resting-
place, climbed up, and made it to lean so much on one side, that I
was forced to balance it with all my weight on the other to
prevent overturning. When the frog was got in, it hopped at once
half the length of the boat, and then over my head, backward and
forward, daubing my face and clothes with its odious slime. The
largeness of its features made it appear the most deformed animal
that can be conceived. However, I desired Glumdalclitch to let me
deal with it alone. I banged it a good while with one of my
sculls, and at last forced it to leap out of the boat.

But the greatest danger I underwent in that kingdom was from a
monkey, who belonged to one of the clerks of the kitchen.
Glumdalclitch had locked me up in her closet, while she went
somewhere upon business, or a visit. The weather being very warm,
the closet window was left open, as well as the windows and door
of my bigger box, in which I usually lived, because of its
largeness and conveniency. As I sat quietly meditating at my
table, I heard something bounce in at the closet-window, and skip
about from one side to the other; whereat, although I was much
alarmed, yet I ventured to look out, but not stirring from my
seat; and then I saw this frolicsome animal frisking and leaping
up and down, till at last he came to my box, which he seemed to
view with great pleasure and curiosity, peeping in at the door and
every window. I retreated to the further corner of my room, or
box; but the monkey, looking in at every side, put me into such a
fright, that I wanted presence of mind to conceal myself under the
bed, as I might easily have done. After some time spent in
peeping, grinning, and chattering, he at last espied me; and
reaching one of his paws in at the door, as a cat does when she
plays with a mouse, although I often shifted place to avoid him,
he at length seized the lappet of my coat (which being made of
that country silk, was very thick and strong), and dragged me out.
He took me up in his right forefoot, and held me as a nurse does a
child; and when I offered to struggle, he squeezed me so hard,
that I thought it more prudent to submit. I have good reason to
believe that he took me for a young one of his own species, by his
often stroking my face very gently with his other paw. In these
diversions he was interrupted by a noise at the closet door, as if
somebody were opening it; whereupon he suddenly leaped up to the
window, at which he had come in, and thence upon the leads and
gutters, walking upon three legs, and holding me in the fourth,
till he clambered up to a roof that was next to ours. I heard
Glumdalclitch give a shriek the moment he was carrying me out. The
poor girl was almost distracted; that quarter of the palace was
all in an uproar; the servants ran for ladders; the monkey was
seen by hundreds in the court, sitting upon the ridge of a
building, holding me like a baby in one of his fore-paws, and
feeding me with the other, by cramming into my mouth some victuals
he had squeezed out of the bag on one side of his chaps, and
patting me when I would not eat; whereat many of the rabble below
could not forbear laughing; neither do I think they justly ought
to be blamed, for, without question, the sight was ridiculous
enough to everybody but myself. Some of the people threw up
stones, hoping to drive the monkey down; but this was strictly
forbidden, or else, very probably, my brains had been dashed out.

The ladders were now applied, and mounted by several men; which
the monkey observing, and finding himself almost encompassed, not
being able to make speed enough with his three legs, let me drop
on a ridge tile, and made his escape. Here I sat for some time,
five hundred yards from the ground, expecting every moment to be
blown down by the wind, or to fall by my own giddiness, and come
tumbling over and over from the ridge to the eaves: but an honest
lad, one of my nurse's footmen, climbed up, and putting me into
his breeches pocket, brought me down--safe.

I was almost choked with the filthy stuff the monkey had crammed
down my throat; but my dear little nurse picked it out of my mouth
with a small needle, and then I fell a-vomiting, which gave me
great relief. Yet I was so weak and bruised in the sides with the
squeezes given me by this odious animal, that I was forced to keep
my bed a fortnight. The king, queen, and all the court, sent every
day to inquire after my health, and her Majesty made me several
visits during my sickness. The monkey was killed, and an order
made that no such animal should be kept about the palace.

When I attended the king after my recovery, to return him thanks
for his favors, he was pleased to rally me a good deal upon this
adventure. He asked me, what my thoughts and speculations were
while I lay in the monkey's paw? how I liked the victuals he gave
me? his manner of feeding? and whether the fresh air on the roof
had sharpened my stomach? He desired to know what I would have
done upon such an occasion in my own country? I told his Majesty,
that in Europe we had no monkeys except such as were brought for
curiosities from other places, and so small that I could deal with
a dozen of them together, if they presumed to attack me. And as
for that monstrous animal, with whom I was so lately engaged (it
was indeed as large as an elephant), if my fears had suffered me
to think so far as to make use of my hanger (looking fiercely, and
clapping my hand upon the hilt, as I spoke) when he poked his paw
into my chamber, perhaps I should have given him such a wound, as
would have made him glad to withdraw it, with more haste than he
put it in. This I delivered in a firm tone, like a person who was
jealous lest his courage should be called in question. However, my
speech produced nothing else beside a loud laughter, which all the
respect due to his Majesty from those about him could not make
them contain. This made me reflect, how vain an attempt it is for
a man to endeavor to do himself honor among those who are out of
all degree of equality or comparison with him. And yet I have seen
the moral of my own behavior very frequently in England since my
return; where a little contemptible varlet, without the least
title to birth, person, wit, or common-sense, shall presume to
look with importance, and put himself upon a foot with the
greatest persons of the kingdom.


By Jonathan Swift

Perilous circumstances, from which I had already escaped, inspired
me with a strong impulse that I should some time recover my
liberty, though it was impossible to conjecture by what means, or
to form any project with the least hope of succeeding. The ship in
which I sailed was the first known to be driven within sight of
that coast, and the king had given strict orders, that if at any
time another appeared, it should be taken ashore, and with all its
crew and passengers brought in a tumbrel to Lorbrulgrud. I was
indeed treated with much kindness: I was the favorite of a great
king and queen, and the delight of the whole court; but it was
upon such a foot as ill became the dignity of human-kind. I could
never forget these domestic pledges I had left behind me. I wanted
to be among people with whom I could converse upon even terms, and
walk about the streets and fields without being afraid of being
trod to death like a frog or a young puppy. But my deliverance
came sooner than I expected, and in a manner not very common: the
whole story and circumstances of which I shall faithfully relate.

I had now been two years in the country: and about the beginning
of the third, Glumdalclitch and I attended the king and queen, in
a progress to the south coast of the kingdom. I was carried as
usual, in my travelling box, which, as I have already described,
was a very convenient closet of twelve feet wide. And I had
ordered a hammock to be fixed, by silken ropes, from the four
corners at the top, to break the jolts when a servant carried me
before him on horseback, as I sometimes desired; and would often
sleep in my hammock, while we were upon the road. On the roof of
my closet, not directly over the middle of the hammock, I ordered
the joiner to cut a hole of a foot square, to give me air in hot
weather as I slept; which hole I shut at pleasure, with a board
that drew backward and forward through a groove.

When we came to our journey's end, the king thought proper to pass
a few days at a palace he has near Flanflasnic, a city within
eighteen English miles of the seaside. Glumdalclitch and I were
much fatigued: I had gotten a small cold, but the poor girl was so
ill as to be confined to her chamber. I longed to see the ocean,
which must be the only scene of my escape, if ever it should
happen. I pretended to be worse than I really was, and desired
leave to take the fresh air of the sea, with a page whom I was
very fond of, and who had sometimes been trusted with me. I shall
never forget with what unwillingness Glumdalclitch consented, nor
the strict charge she gave the page to be careful of me, bursting
at the same time into a flood of tears, as if she had some
foreboding of what was to happen. The boy took me out in my box,
about half an hour's walk from the palace, toward the rocks on the
sea-shore. I ordered him to set me down, and lifting up one of my
sashes, cast many a wistful melancholy look toward the sea. I
found myself not very well, and told the page that I had a mind
to take a nap in my hammock, which I hoped would do me good. I got
in, and the boy shut the window close down to keep out the cold. I
soon fell asleep, and all I can conjecture is that, while I slept,
the page, thinking no danger could happen, went among the rocks to
look for birds' eggs, having before observed him from my window
searching about, and picking up one or two in the clefts. Be that
as it will, I found myself suddenly awakened with a violent pull
upon the ring, which was fastened at the top of my box for the
convenience of carriage. I felt my box raised very high in the
air, and then borne forward with prodigious speed. The first jolt
had like to have shaken me out of my hammock, but afterward the
motion was easy enough. I called out several times as loud as I
could raise my voice, but all to no purpose. I looked toward my
windows, and could see nothing but the clouds and sky. I heard a
noise over my head, like the clapping of wings, and then began to
perceive the woful condition I was in: that some eagle had got the
cord of my box in his beak, with an intent to let it fall on the
rock, like a tortoise in a shell, and then pick out my body and
devour it: for the sagacity and smell of this bird enable him to
discover his quarry at a great distance, though better concealed
than I could be within a two-inch board. In a little time I
observed the noise and flutter of wings to increase very fast, and
my box was tossed up and down, like a sign on a windy day. I heard
several bangs or buffets, as I thought, given to the eagle (for
such I am certain it must have been that held the cord of my box
in his beak), and then, all on a sudden, felt myself falling
perpendicularly down, for above a minute, but with such incredible
swiftness, that I almost lost my breath. My fall was stopped by a
terrible squash, that sounded louder to my ears than the cataract
of Niagara; after which I was quite in the dark for another
minute, and then my box began to rise so high that I could see
light from the tops of the windows. I now perceived I was fallen
into the sea. My box, by the weight of my body, the goods that
were in it, and the broad plates of iron fixed for strength at the
four corners of the top and bottom, floated about five feet deep
in water. I did then, and do now suppose, that the eagle which
flew away with my box was pursued by two or three others, and
forced to let me drop, while he defended himself against the rest,
who hoped to share in the prey. The plates of iron fastened at the
bottom of the box (for those were the strongest) preserved the
balance while it fell, and hindered it from being broken on the
surface of the water. Every joint of it was well grooved; and the
door did not move on hinges, but up and down like a sash, which
kept my closet so tight that very little water came in. I got with
much difficulty out of my hammock, having first ventured to draw
back the slip-board on the roof already mentioned, contrived on
purpose to let in air, for want of which I found myself almost

How often did I then wish myself with my dear Glumdalclitch, from
whom one single hour had so far divided me! And I may say with
truth, that in the midst of my own misfortunes I could not
forbear lamenting my poor nurse, the grief she would suffer for my
loss, the displeasure of the queen, and the ruin of her fortune.
Perhaps many travellers have not been under greater difficulties
and distress than I was at this juncture, expecting every moment
to see my box dashed to pieces, or at least overset by the first
violent blast or rising wave. A breach in one single pane of glass
would have been immediate death: nor could anything have preserved
the windows, but the strong lattice wires placed on the outside,
against accidents in travelling. I saw the water ooze in at
several crannies, although the leaks were not considerable, and I
endeavored to stop them as well as I could. I was not able to lift
up the roof of my closet, which otherwise I certainly should have
done, and sat on the top of it: where I might at least preserve
myself some hours longer, than by being shut up (as I may call it)
in the hold. Or if I escaped these dangers for a day or two, what
could I expect but a miserable death of cold and hunger? I was for
four hours under these circumstances, expecting, and indeed
wishing, every moment to be my last.

I have already told the reader that there were two strong staples
fixed upon that side of my box which had no window; and into which
the servant who used to carry me on horseback would put a leathern
belt, and buckle it about his waist. Being in this disconsolate
state, I heard, or at least thought I heard, some kind of grating
noise on that side of my box where the staples were fixed; and
soon after I began to fancy that the box was pulled or towed
along the sea; for I now and then felt a sort of tugging, which
made the waves rise near the tops of my windows, leaving me almost
in the dark. This gave me some faint hopes of relief, although I
was not able to imagine how it could be brought about. I ventured
to unscrew one of my chairs, which were always fastened to the
floor; and having made a hard shift to screw it down again
directly under the shipping-board that I had lately opened, I
mounted on the chair, and putting my mouth as near as I could to
the hole, I called for help in a loud voice, and in all the
languages I understood. I then fastened my handkerchief to a stick
I usually carried, and thrusting it up the hole, waved it several
times in the air, that if any boat or ship was near, the seamen
might conjecture some unhappy mortal to be shut up in the box.

I found no effect from all I could do, but plainly perceived my
closet to be moved along; and in the space of an hour, or better,
that side of the box where the staples were, and had no windows,
struck against something that was hard. I apprehended it to be a
rock, and found myself tossed more than ever. I plainly heard a
noise upon the cover of my closet, like that of a cable, and the
grating of it as it passed through the ring. I then found myself
hoisted up by degrees, at least three feet higher than I was
before. Whereupon I again thrust up my stick and handkerchief,
calling for help till I was almost hoarse. In return to which I
heard a great shout repeated three times, giving me such
transports of joy as are not to be conceived but by those who
feel them. I now heard a trampling over my head, and somebody
calling through the hole with a loud voice, in the English tongue,
If there be anybody below, let them speak. I answered, I was an
Englishman, drawn by ill fortune into the greatest calamity that
ever any creature underwent, and begged, by all that was moving,
to be delivered out of the dungeon I was in. The voice replied, I
was safe, for my box was fastened to their ship; and the carpenter
should immediately come and saw a hole in the cover, large enough
to pull me out. I answered that was needless, and would take up
too much time; for there was no more to be done, but let one of
the crew put his finger into the ring, and take the box out of the
sea into the ship, and so into the captain's cabin. Some of them,
upon hearing me talk so wildly, thought I was mad; others laughed;
for indeed it never came into my head, that I was now got among
people of my own stature and strength. The carpenter came, and in
a few minutes sawed a passage about four feet square, then let
down a small ladder, upon which I mounted, and thence was taken
into the ship in a very weak condition.

The sailors were all amazement, and asked me a thousand questions,
which I had no inclination to answer, I was equally confounded at
the sight of so many pygmies, for such I took them to be, after
having so long accustomed mine eyes to the monstrous objects I had
left. But the captain, Mr. Thomas Wilcocks, an honest worthy
Shropshire man, observing I was ready to faint, took me into his
cabin, gave me a cordial to comfort me, and made me turn in upon
his own bed, advising me to take a little rest, of which I had
great need. Before I went to sleep I gave him to understand that I
had some valuable furniture in my box, too good to be lost: a fine
hammock, a handsome field-bed, two chairs, a table, and a cabinet;
that my closet was hung on all sides, or rather quilted, with silk
and cotton; that if he would let one of the crew bring my closet
into his cabin I would open it there before him and show him my
goods. The captain, hearing me utter these absurdities, concluded
I was raving; however (I suppose to pacify me), he promised to
give order as I desired, and going upon deck, sent some of his men
down into my closet, whence (as I afterward found) they drew up
all my goods, and stripped off the quilting; but the chairs,
cabinet, and bedstead, being screwed to the floor, were much
damaged by the ignorance of the seamen, who tore them up by force.
Then they knocked off some of the boards for the use of the ship,
and when they had got all they had a mind for, let the hull drop
into the sea, which, by reason of many breaches made in the bottom
and sides, sunk outright. And, indeed, I was glad not to have been
a spectator of the havoc they made; because I am confident it
would have sensibly touched me, by bringing former passages into
my mind which I would rather have forgot.

I slept some hours, but perpetually disturbed with dreams of the
place I had left, and the dangers I had escaped. However, upon
waking, I found myself much recovered. It was now about eight
o'clock at night, and the captain ordered supper immediately,
thinking I had already fasted too long. He entertained me with
great kindness, observing me not to look wildly or talk
inconsistently; and when we were left alone, desired I would give
him a relation of my travels; and by what accident I came to be
set adrift in that monstrous wooden chest. He said that about
twelve o'clock at noon, as he was looking through his glass, he
spied it at a distance, and thought it was a sail, which he had a
mind to make, being not much out of his course, in hopes of buying
some biscuit, his own beginning to fall short. That upon coming
nearer, and finding his error, he sent out his long-boat, to
discover what it was; that his men came back in fright, swearing
they had seen a swimming house. That he laughed at their folly,
and went himself in the boat, ordering his men to take a strong
cable along with them. That the weather being calm, he rowed round
me several times, observed my windows and wire lattices that
defended them. That he discovered two staples upon one side, which
was all of boards, without any passage for light. He then
commanded his men to row up to that side, and fastening a cable to
one of the staples, ordered them to tow my chest, as they called
it, toward the ship. When it was there he gave directions to
fasten another cable to the ring fixed in the cover, and to raise
up my chest with pulleys, which all the sailors were not able to
do above two or three feet. He said they saw my stick and
handkerchief thrust out of the hole, and concluded that some
unhappy man must be shut up in the cavity. I asked whether he or
the crew had seen any prodigious birds in the air about the time
he first discovered me? To which he answered, that discoursing
this matter with the sailors while I was asleep, one of them said
he had observed three eagles flying toward the north, but remarked
nothing of their being larger than the usual size; which I suppose
must be imputed to the great height they were at; and he could not
guess the reason of my question. I then asked the captain how far
he reckoned we might be from land? He said, by the best
computation he could make, we were at least a hundred leagues. I
assured him that he must be mistaken by almost half, for I had not
left the country whence I came above two hours before I dropped
into the sea. Whereupon he began again to think that my brain was
disturbed, of which he gave me a hint, and advised me to go to bed
in a cabin he had provided. I assured him I was well refreshed
with his good entertainment and company, and as much in my senses
as ever I was in my life. He then grew serious, and desired to ask
me freely whether I were not troubled in my mind by the
consciousness of some enormous crime, for which I was punished, at
the command of some prince, by exposing me in that chest; as great
criminals, in other countries, have been forced to sea in a leaky
vessel without provisions: for although he should be sorry to have
taken so ill a man into his ship, yet he would engage his word to
set me safe ashore in the first port where we arrived? He added
that his suspicions were much increased by some very absurd
speeches I had delivered at first to his sailors, and afterward to
himself, in relation to my closet or chest, as well as by my odd
looks and behavior while I was at supper.

I begged his patience to hear me tell my story, which I faithfully
did, from the last time I left England, to the moment he first
discovered me. And as truth always forces its way into rational
minds, so this honest worthy gentleman, who had some tincture of
learning, and very good sense, was immediately convinced of my
candor and veracity. But, further to confirm all I had said, I
entreated him to give order that my cabinet should be brought, of
which I had the key in my pocket; for he had already informed me
how the seamen disposed of my closet. I opened it in his own
presence, and showed him the small collection of rarities I made
in the country from which I had been so strangely delivered. There
was the comb I had contrived out of the stumps of the king's
beard, and another of the same materials, but fixed into a paring
of her Majesty's thumb-nail, which served for the back. There was
a collection of needles and pins, from a foot to half a yard long;
four wasp stings, like joiners' tacks; some combings of the
queen's hair; a gold ring which one day she made me a present of,
in a most obliging manner, taking it from her little finger and
throwing it over my head like a collar. I desired the captain
would please to accept this ring in return of his civilities,
which he absolutely refused. I showed him a corn that I had cut
off, with my own hand, from a maid of honor's toe; it was about
the bigness of a Kentish pippin, and grown so hard that when I
returned to England I got it hollowed into a cup, and set it in
silver. Lastly, I desired him to see the breeches I had then on,
which were made of a mouse's skin.

I could force nothing on him but a footman's tooth, which I
observed him to examine with great curiosity, and found he had a
fancy for it. He received it with abundance of thanks, more than
such a trifle could deserve. It was drawn by an unskilful surgeon,
in a mistake, from one of Glumdalclitch's men, who was afflicted
with the toothache, but it was as sound as any in his head. I got
it cleaned, and put it into my cabinet. It was about a foot long
and four inches in diameter.

The captain was very well satisfied with this plain relation I had
given him, and said he hoped, when we returned to England, I would
oblige the world by putting it on paper, and making it public. My
answer was that I thought we were overstocked with books of
travels; that nothing could now pass which was not extraordinary;
wherein I doubted some authors less consulted truth than their own
vanity, or interest, or the diversion of ignorant readers; that my
story could contain little besides common events, without those
ornamented descriptions of strange plants, trees, birds, and other
animals; or of the barbarous customs and idolatry of savage
people, with which most writers abound. However, I thanked him for
his good opinion, and promised to take the matter into my

He said he wondered at one thing very much, which was to hear me
speak so loud; asking me whether the king and queen of that
country were thick of hearing? I told him it was what I had been
used to for above two years past, and that I admired as much at
the voices of him and his men, who seemed to me only to whisper,
and yet I could hear them well enough. But when I spoke in that
country it was like a man talking in the streets to another
looking out from the top of a steeple, unless when I was placed on
a table or held in any person's hand. I told him I had likewise
observed another thing, that when I first got into the ship, and
the sailors stood all about me, I thought they were the most
contemptible little creatures I had ever beheld. For, indeed,
while I was in that prince's country, I could never endure to look
in a glass after mine eyes had been accustomed to such prodigious
objects, because the comparisons gave me so despicable a conceit
of myself. The captain said that while we were at supper he
observed me to look at everything with a sort of wonder, and that
I often seemed hardly able to contain my laughter, which he knew
not well how to take, but imputed it to some disorder in my brain.
I answered, it was very true; and I wondered how I could forbear,
when I saw his dishes of the size of a silver threepence, a leg of
pork hardly a mouthful, a cup not so big as a nutshell; and so I
went on, describing the rest of his household stuff and provisions
after the same manner. For, although the queen had ordered a
little equipage of all things necessary for me while I was in her
service, yet my ideas were wholly taken up with what I saw on
every side of me, and I winked at my own littleness as people do
at their own faults. The captain understood my raillery very well,
and merrily replied with the old English proverb that he doubted
mine eyes were bigger than my belly, for he did not observe my
stomach so good, although I had fasted all day; and, continuing in
his mirth, protested he would have gladly given a hundred pounds
to have seen my closet in the eagle's bill, and afterward in its
fall from so great a height into the sea: which would certainly
have been a most astonishing object, worthy to have the
description of it transmitted to future ages: and the comparison
of Phaeton was so obvious that he could not forbear applying it,
although I did not much admire the conceit.

The captain having been at Tonquin, was, in his return to England,
driven northeastward to the latitude of 44 degrees and longitude
of 143. But meeting a trade-wind two days after I came on board
him, we sailed southward a long time, and, coasting New Holland,
kept our course west-southwest, and then south-southwest, till we
doubled the Cape of Good Hope. Our voyage was very prosperous, but
I shall not trouble the reader with a journal of it. The captain
called in at one or two ports, and sent in his longboat for
provisions and fresh water; but I never went out of the ship till
we came into the Downs, which was on the third day of June, 1706,
about nine months after my escape. I offered to leave my goods in
security for payment of my freight, but the captain protested he
would not receive one farthing.

We took a kind leave of each other, and I made him promise he
would come to see me at my house in Redriff. I hired a horse and
guide for five shillings, which I borrowed of the captain.

As I was on the road, observing the littleness of the houses, the
trees, the cattle, and the people, I began to think myself in
Lilliput. I was afraid of trampling on every traveller I met, and
often called aloud to them to have them stand out of the way, so
that I had like to have gotten one or two broken heads for my

When I came to my own house, for which I was forced to inquire,
one of my servants opening the door, I bent down to go in (like a
goose under a gate), for fear of striking my head. My wife ran out
to embrace me, but I stooped lower than her knees, thinking she
could otherwise never be able to reach my mouth. My daughter
kneeled to ask my blessing, but I could not see her till she
arose, having been so long used to stand with my head and eyes
erect to above sixty feet; and then I went to take her up with one
hand by the waist. I looked down upon the servants, and one or two
friends who were in the house, as if they had been pygmies, and I
a giant. I told my wife she had been too thrifty, for I found she
had starved herself and daughter to nothing.

In short, I behaved myself so unaccountably that they were all of
the captain's opinion when he first saw me, and concluded I had
lost my wits.

This I mention as an instance of the great power of habit and

In a little time I and my family and friends came to a right
understanding: but my wife protested I should never go to sea any
more; although my evil destiny so ordered, that she had not power
to hinder me, as the reader may know hereafter. In the meantime, I
here conclude the Second Part of my unfortunate Voyages.


_William Shakespeare, the greatest of English writers, was born
in 1564, and was pretty well educated for those days. The free
school of the town was open to all boys, and his father could
afford to send him to it. He early became an actor, and from
correcting plays by other people he came to writing plays himself.

Shakespeare possessed a very unusual combination of two rare
gifts. On the one side he had to a great degree the ability to
understand men and women and read the thoughts that were passing
through their minds.

But his second gift, which was more wonderful still, was his
ability to write down on paper words that, as soon as we read
them, make us feel just as he did, make us see just the pictures
he saw.

Four of his plays are here represented by short stories, in which
the plot of each play is briefly told. To play Shakespeare's plays
is the height of an actor's ambition. To read and enjoy them has
been for over three hundred years one of the greatest pleasures
known to English-speaking people._


Retold by E. Nesbit

HERMIA and Lysander were lovers; but Hermia's father wished her to
marry another man, named Demetrius.

Now, in Athens, where they lived, there was a wicked law, by which
any girl who refused to marry according to her father's wishes,
might be put to death. Hermia's father was so angry with her for
refusing to do as he wished, that he actually brought her before
the Duke of Athens to ask that she might be killed, if she still
refused to obey him.

The duke gave her four days to think about it, and, at the end of
that time, if she still refused to marry Demetrius, she would have
to die.

Lysander of course was nearly mad with grief, and the best thing
to do seemed to him for Hermia to run away to his aunt's house at
a place beyond the reach of that cruel law; and there he would
come to her and marry her. But before she started, she told her
friend, Helena, what she was going to do.

Helena had been Demetrius's sweetheart long before his marriage
with Hermia had been thought of, and being very silly, like all
jealous people, she could not see that it was not poor Hermia's
fault that Demetrius wished to marry her instead of his own lady,
Helena. She knew that if she told Demetrius that Hermia was going,
as she was, to the wood outside Athens, he would follow her, "and
I can follow him, and at least I shall see him," she said to
herself. So she went to him, and betrayed her friend's secret.

Now this wood where Lysander was to meet Hermia, and where the
other two had decided to follow them, was full of fairies, as most
woods are, if one only had the eyes to see them, and in this wood
on this night were the king and queen of the fairies, Oberon and
Titania. Now fairies are very wise people, but now and then they
can be quite as foolish as mortal folk. Oberon and Titania, who
might have been as happy as the days were long, had thrown away
all their joy in a foolish quarrel. They never met without saying
disagreeable things to each other, and scolded each other so
dreadfully that all their little fairy followers, for fear, would
creep into acorn cups and hide them there.

So, instead of keeping one happy court and dancing all night
through in the moonlight, as is fairies' use, the king with his
attendants wandered through one part of the wood, while the queen
with hers kept state in another. And the cause of all this trouble
was a little Indian boy whom Titania had taken to be one of her
followers. Oberon wanted the child to follow him and be one of his
fairy knights; but the queen would not give him up.

On this night, in a mossy moonlit glade, the king and queen of the
fairies met.

"Ill met by moonlight, proud Titania," said the king.

"What! jealous, Oberon?" answered the queen. "You spoil everything
with your quarreling. Come, fairies, let us leave him. I am not
friends with him now."

"It rests with you to make up the quarrel," said the king.

"Give me that little Indian boy, and I will again be your humble
servant and suitor."

"Set your mind at rest," said the queen. "Your whole fairy kingdom
buys not that boy from me. Come, fairies."

And she and her train rode off down the moonbeams.

"Well, go your ways," said Oberon. "But I'll be even with you
before you leave this wood."

Then Oberon called his favorite fairy, Puck. Puck was the spirit
of mischief. He used to slip into the dairies and take the cream
away, and get into the churn so that the butter would not come,
and turn the beer sour, and lead people out of their way on dark
nights and then laugh at them, and tumble people's stools from
under them when they were going to sit down, and upset their hot
ale over their chins when they were going to drink.

"Now," said Oberon to this little sprite, "fetch me the flower
called Love-in-idleness. The juice of that little purple flower
laid on the eyes of those who sleep will make them, when they
wake, to love the first thing they see. I will put some of the
juice of that flower on my Titania's eyes, and when she wakes she
will love the first thing she sees, were it lion, bear, or wolf,
or bull, or meddling monkey, or a busy ape."

While Puck was gone, Demetrius passed through the glade followed
by poor Helena, and still she told him how she loved him and
reminded him of all his promises, and still he told her that he
did not and could not love her, and that his promises were
nothing. Oberon was sorry for poor Helena, and when Puck returned
with the flower, he bade him follow Demetrius and put some of the
juice on his eyes, so that he might love Helena when he woke and
looked on her, as much as she loved him. So Puck set off, and
wandering through the wood found, not Demetrius, but Lysander, on
whose eyes he put the juice; but when Lysander woke, he saw not
his own Hermia, but Helena, who was walking through the wood
looking for the cruel Demetrius; and directly he saw her he loved
her and left his own lady, under the spell of the purple flower.

When Hermia woke she found Lysander gone, and wandered about the
wood trying to find him. Puck went back and told Oberon what he
had done, and Oberon soon found that he had made a mistake, and
set about looking for Demetrius, and having found him, put some of
the juice on his eyes. And the first thing Demetrius saw when he
woke was also Helena. So now Demetrius and Lysander were both
following her through the wood, and it was Hermia's turn to follow
her lover as Helena had done before. The end of it was that Helena
and Hermia began to quarrel, and Demetrius and Lysander went off
to fight.

Oberon was very sorry to see his kind scheme to help these lovers
turn out so badly. So he said to Puck--

"These two young men are going to fight. You must overhang the
night with drooping fog, and lead them so astray, that one will
never find the other. When they are tired out, they will fall
asleep. Then drop this other herb on Lysander's eyes. That will
give him his old sight and his old love. Then each man will have
the lady who loves him, and they will all think that this has been
only a Midsummer-Night's Dream. Then when this is done, all will
be well with them."

So Puck went and did as he was told, and when the two had fallen
asleep without meeting each other, Puck poured the juice on
Lysander's eyes, and said:--

"When thou wakest, Thou takest True delight In the sight Of thy
former lady's eye: Jack shall have Jill; Nought shall go ill."

Meanwhile Oberon found Titania asleep on a bank where grew wild
thyme, oxlips, and violets, and woodbine, musk-roses and
eglantine. There Titania always slept a part of the night, wrapped
in the enameled skin of a snake. Oberon stopped over her and laid
the juice on her eyes, saying:--

"What thou seest when thou wake, Do it for thy true love take;"
Now, it happened that when Titania woke the first thing she saw
was a stupid clown, one of a party of players who had come out
into the wood to rehearse their play. This clown had met with
Puck, who had clapped an ass's head on his shoulders so that it
looked as if it grew there. Directly Titania woke and saw this
dreadful monster, she said, "What angel is this? Are you as wise
as you are beautiful?"

"If I am wise enough to find my way out of this wood, that's
enough for me," said the foolish clown.

"Do not desire to go out of the wood," said Titania. The spell of
the love-juice was on her, and to her the clown seemed the most
beautiful and delightful creature on all the earth. "I love you,"
she went on. "Come with me, and I will give you fairies to attend
on you."

So she called four fairies, whose names were Peaseblossom, Cobweb,
Moth, and Mustardseed.

"You must attend this gentleman," said the queen. "Feed him with
apricots and dewberries, purple grapes, green figs, and
mulberries. Steal honey-bags for him from the humble-bees, and
with the wings of painted butterflies fan the moonbeams from his
sleeping eyes."

"I will," said one of the fairies, and all the others said, "I

"Now, sit down with me," said the queen to the clown, "and let me
stroke your dear cheeks, and stick musk-roses in your smooth,
sleek head, and kiss your fair large ears, my gentle joy."

"Where's Peaseblossom?" asked the clown with the ass's head. He
did not care much about the queen's affection, but he was very
proud of having fairies to wait on him. "Ready," said Peaseblossom.

"Scratch my head, Peaseblossom," said the clown. "Where's Cobweb?"
"Ready," said Cobweb.

"Kill me," said the clown, "the red bumble-bee on the top of the
thistle yonder, and bring me the honey-bag. Where's Mustardseed?"

"Ready," said Mustardseed.

"Oh, I want nothing," said the clown. "Only just help Cobweb to
scratch. I must go to the barber's, for methinks I am marvelous
hairy about the face."

"Would you like anything to eat?" said the fairy queen.

"I should like some good dry oats," said the clown-for his
donkey's head made him desire donkey's food--"and some hay to

"Shall some of my fairies fetch you new nuts from the squirrel's
house?" asked the queen.

"I'd rather have a handful or two of good dried peas," said the
clown. "But please don't let any of your people disturb me; I am
going to sleep."

Then said the queen, "And I will wind thee in my arms."

And so when Oberon came along he found his beautiful queen
lavishing kisses and endearments on a clown with a donkey's head.

And before he released her from the enchantment, he persuaded her
to give him the little Indian boy he so much desired to have. Then
he took pity on her, and threw some juice of the disenchanting
flower on her pretty eyes; and then in a moment she saw plainly
the donkey-headed clown she had been loving, and knew how foolish
she had been.

Oberon took off the ass's head from the clown, and left him to
finish his sleep with his own silly head lying on the thyme and

Thus all was made plain and straight again. Oberon and Titania
loved each other more than ever. Demetrius thought of no one but
Helena, and Helena had never had any thought of anyone but

As for Hermia and Lysander, they were as loving a couple as you
could meet in a day's march, even through a fairy wood.

So the four mortal lovers went back to Athens and were married;
and the fairy king and queen live happily together in that very
wood at this very day.


Retold by E. Nesbit

Prospero, the Duke of Milan, was a learned and studious man, who
lived among his books, leaving the management of his dukedom to
his brother Antonio, in whom indeed he had complete trust. But
that trust was ill-rewarded, for Antonio wanted to wear the duke's
crown himself, and, to gain his ends, would have killed his
brother but for the love the people bore him. However, with the
help of Prospero's great enemy, Alonso, King of Naples, he managed
to get into his hands the dukedom with all its honor, power, and
riches. For they took Prospero to sea, and when they were far away
from land, forced him into a little boat with no tackle, mast, or
sail. In their cruelty and hatred they put his little daughter,
Miranda (not yet three years old), into the boat with him, and
sailed away, leaving them to their fate.

But one among the courtiers with Antonio was true to his rightful
master, Prospero. To save the duke from his enemies was
impossible, but much could be done to remind him of a subject's
love. So this worthy lord, whose name was Gonzalo, secretly placed
in the boat some fresh water, provisions, and clothes, and what
Prospero valued most of all, some of his precious books.

The boat was cast on an island, and Prospero and his little one
landed in safety. Now this island was enchanted, and for years had
lain under the spell of a fell witch, Sycorax, who had imprisoned
in the trunks of trees all the good spirits she found there. She
died shortly before Prospero was cast on those shores, but the
spirits, of whom Ariel was the chief, still remained in their

Prospero was a great magician, for he had devoted himself almost
entirely to the study of magic during the years in which he
allowed his brother to manage the affairs of Milan. By his art he
set free the imprisoned spirits, yet kept them obedient to his
will, and they were more truly his subjects than his people in
Milan had been. For he treated them kindly as long as they did his
bidding, and he exercised his power over them wisely and well. One
creature alone he found it necessary to treat with harshness:
this was Caliban, the son of the wicked old witch, a hideous,
deformed monster, horrible to look on, and vicious and brutal in
all his habits.

When Miranda was grown up into a maiden, sweet and fair to see, it
chanced that Antonio and Alonso, with Sebastian, his brother, and
Ferdinand, his son, were at sea together with old Gonzalo, and
their ship came near Prospero's island. Prospero, knowing they
were there, raised by his art a great storm, so that even the
sailors on board gave themselves up for lost; and first among them
all Prince Ferdinand leaped into the sea, and, as his father
thought in his grief, was drowned. But Ariel brought him safe
ashore; and all the rest of the crew, although they were washed
overboard, were landed unhurt in different parts of the island,
and the good ship herself, which they all thought had been
wrecked, lay at anchor in the harbor whither Ariel had brought
her. Such wonders could Prospero and his spirits perform.

While yet the tempest was raging, Prospero showed his daughter the
brave ship laboring in the trough of the sea, and told her that it
was filled with living human beings like themselves. She, in pity
of their lives, prayed him who had raised this storm to quell it.
Then her father bade her to have no fear, for he intended to save
every one of them.

Then, for the first time, he told her the story of his life and
hers, and that he had caused this storm to rise in order that his
enemies, Antonio and Alonso, who were on board, might be delivered
into his hands.

When he had made an end of his story he charmed her into sleep,
for Ariel was at hand, and he had work for him to do. Ariel, who
longed for his complete freedom, grumbled to be kept in drudgery,
but on being threateningly reminded of all the sufferings he had
undergone when Sycorax ruled in the land, and of the debt of
gratitude he owed to the master who had made those sufferings to
end, he ceased to complain, and promised faithfully to do whatever
Prospero might command.

"Do so," said Prospero, "and in two days I will discharge thee."

Then he bade Ariel take the form of a water nymph and sent him in
search of the young prince. And Ariel, invisible to Ferdinand,
hovered near him, singing the while--

"Come unto these yellow sands And then take hands: Court'sied
when you have, and kiss'd (The wild waves whist), Foot it featly
here and there; And, sweet sprites, the burden bear!"

And Ferdinand followed the magic singing, as the song changed to a
solemn air, and the words brought grief to his heart, and tears to
his eyes, for thus they ran--

"Full fathom five thy father lies; Of his bones are coral made.
Those are pearls that were his eyes Nothing of him that doth
fade, But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and
strange. Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell. Hark! now I hear them,--
ding dong bell!"

And so singing, Ariel led the spell-bound prince into the presence
of Prospero and Miranda. Then, behold! all happened as Prospero
desired. For Miranda, who had never, since she could first
remember, seen any human being save her father, looked on the
youthful prince with reverence in her eyes, and love in her secret

"I might call him," she said, "a thing divine, for nothing natural
I ever saw so noble!"

And Ferdinand, beholding her beauty with wonder and delight,

"Most sure the goddess on whom these airs attend!"

Nor did he attempt to hide the passion which she inspired in him,
for scarcely had they exchanged half a dozen sentences, before he
vowed to make her his queen if she were willing. But Prospero,
though secretly delighted, pretended wrath.

"You come here as a spy," he said to Ferdinand. "I will manacle
your neck and feet together, and you shall feed on fresh water
mussels, withered roots and husk, and have sea-water to drink.

"No," said Ferdinand, and drew his sword. But on the instant
Prospero charmed him so that he stood there like a statue, still
as stone; and Miranda in terror prayed her father to have mercy on
her lover.

But he harshly refused her, and made Ferdinand follow him to his
cell. There he set the prince to work, making him remove thousands
of heavy logs of timber and pile them up; and Ferdinand patiently
obeyed, and thought his toil all too well repaid by the sympathy
of the sweet Miranda.

She in very pity would have helped him in his hard work, but he
would not let her, yet he could not keep from her the secret of
his love, and she, hearing it, rejoiced and promised to be his

Then Prospero released him from his servitude, and glad at heart,
he gave his consent to their marriage.

 "Take her," he said, "she is thine own."

In the meantime, Antonio and Sebastian in another part of the
island were plotting the murder of Alonso, the King of Naples, for
Ferdinand being dead, as they thought, Sebastian would succeed to
the throne on Alonso's death. And they would have carried out
their wicked purpose while their victim was asleep, but that Ariel
woke him in good time.

Many tricks did Ariel play them. Once he set a banquet before
them, and just as they were going to fall to, he appeared to them
amid thunder and lightning in the form of a harpy, and immediately
the banquet disappeared. Then Ariel upbraided them with their sins
and vanished too.

Prospero by his enchantments drew them all to the grove without
his cell, where they waited, trembling and afraid, and now at last
bitterly repenting them of their sins.

Prospero determined to make one last use of his magic power, "And
then," said he, "I'll break my staff and deeper than did ever
plummet sound I'll drown my book."

So he made heavenly music to sound in the air, and appeared to
them in his proper shape as the Duke of Milan. Because they
repented, he forgave them and told them the story of his life
since they had cruelly committed him and his baby daughter to the
mercy of wind and waves. Alonso, who seemed sorriest of them all
for his past crimes, lamented the loss of his heir. But Prospero
drew back a curtain and showed them Ferdinand and Miranda playing
at chess.

Great was Alonso's joy to greet his loved son again, and when he
heard that the fair maid with whom Ferdinand was playing was
Prospero's daughter, and that the young folks had plighted their
troth, he said--

"Give me your hands, let grief and sorrow still embrace his heart
that doth not wish you joy."

So all ended happily. The ship was safe in the harbor, and next
day they all set sail for Naples, where Ferdinand and Miranda were
to be married. Ariel gave them calm seas and auspicious gales; and
many were the rejoicings at the wedding.

Then Prospero, after many years of absence, went back to his own
dukedom, where he was welcomed with great joy by his faithful
subjects. He practiced the arts of magic no more, but his life was
happy, and not only because he had found his own again, but
chiefly because, when his bitterest foes who had done him deadly
wrong lay at his mercy, he took no vengeance on them, but nobly
forgave them.

As for Ariel, Prospero made him free as air, so that he could
wander where he would, and sing with a light heart his sweet song--

"Where the bee sucks, there suck I: In a cowslip's bell I lie;
There I couch when owls do cry. On the bat's back I do fly After
summer, merrily: Merrily, merrily, shall I live now, Under the
blossom that hangs on the bough."


Retold by E. Nesbit

There was once a wicked duke named Frederick, who took the
dukedom that should have belonged to his brother, sending him into
exile. His brother went into the Forest of Arden, where he lived
the life of a bold forester, as Robin Hood did in Sherwood Forest
in merry England.

The banished duke's daughter, Rosalind, remained with Celia,
Frederick's daughter, and the two loved each other more than most
sisters. One day there was a wrestling match at court, and
Rosalind and Celia went to see it. Charles, a celebrated wrestler,
was there, who had killed many men in contests of this kind.
Orlando, the young man he was to wrestle with, was so slender and
youthful, that Rosalind and Celia thought he would surely be
killed, as others had been; so they spoke to him, and asked him
not to attempt so dangerous an adventure; but the only effect of
their words was to make him wish more to come off well in the
encounter, so as to win praise from such sweet ladies.

Orlando, like Rosalind's father, was being kept out of his
inheritance by his brother, and was so sad at his brother's
unkindness that, until he saw Rosalind, he did not care much
whether he lived or died. But now the sight of the fair Rosalind
gave him strength and courage, so that he did marvelously, and at
last, threw Charles to such a tune, that the wrestler had to be
carried off the ground. Duke Frederick was pleased with his
courage, and asked his name.

"My name is Orlando, and I am the youngest son of Sir Rowland de
Boys," said the young man.

Now Sir Rowland de Boys, when he was alive, had been a good friend
to the banished duke, so that Frederick heard with regret whose
son Orlando was, and would not befriend him. But Rosalind was
delighted to hear that this handsome young stranger was the son of
her father's old friend, and as they were going away, she turned
back more than once to say another kind word to the brave young

"Gentleman," she said, giving him a chain from her neck, "wear
this for me. I could give more, but that my hand lacks means."

Rosalind and Celia, when they were alone, began to talk about the
handsome wrestler, and Rosalind confessed that she loved him at
first sight.

"Come, come," said Celia, "wrestle with thy affections."

"Oh," answered Rosalind, "they take the part of a better wrestler
than myself. Look, here comes the duke."

"With his eyes full of anger," said Celia.

"You must leave the court at once," he said to Rosalind. "Why?" she

"Never mind why," answered the duke, "you are banished. If within
ten days you are found within twenty miles of my court, you die."

So Rosalind set out to seek her father, the banished duke, in the
Forest of Arden. Celia loved her too much to let her go alone, and
as it was rather a dangerous journey, Rosalind, being the taller,
dressed up as a young countryman, and her cousin as a country
girl, and Rosalind said that she would be called Ganymede, and
Celia, Aliena. They were very tired when at last they came to the
Forest of Arden, and as they were sitting on the grass a
countryman passed that way, and Ganymede asked him if he could get
them food. He did so, and told them that a shepherd's flocks and
house were to be sold. They bought these and settled down as
shepherd and shepherdess in the forest.

In the meantime, Oliver, having sought to take his brother
Orlando's life, Orlando also wandered into the forest, and there
met with the rightful duke, and being kindly received, stayed with
him. Now, Orlando could think of nothing but Rosalind, and he went
about the forest carving her name on trees, and writing love
sonnets and hanging them on the bushes, and there Rosalind and
Celia found them. One day Orlando met them, but he did not know
Rosalind in her boy's clothes, though he liked the pretty
shepherd youth, because he fancied a likeness in him to her he

"There is a foolish lover," said Rosalind, "who haunts these woods
and hangs sonnets on the trees. If I could find him, I would soon
cure him of his folly."

Orlando confessed that he was the foolish lover, and Rosalind
said--"If you will come and see me every day, I will pretend to be
Rosalind, and I will take her part, and be wayward and contrary,
as is the way of women, till I make you ashamed of your folly in
loving her."

And so every day he went to her house, and took a pleasure in
saying to her all the pretty things he would have said to
Rosalind; and she had the fine and secret joy of knowing that all
his love-words came to the right ears. Thus many days passed
pleasantly away.

One morning, as Orlando was going to visit Ganymede, he saw a man
asleep on the ground, and that there was a lioness crouching near,
waiting for the man who was asleep to wake: for they say that
lions will not prey on anything that is dead or sleeping. Then
Orlando looked at the man, and saw that it was his wicked brother,
Oliver, who had tried to take his life. He fought with the lioness
and killed her, and saved his brother's life.

While Orlando was fighting the lioness, Oliver woke to see his
brother, whom he had treated so badly, saving him from a wild
beast at the risk of his own life. This made him repent of his
wickedness, and he begged Orlando's pardon, and from thenceforth
they were dear brothers. The lioness had wounded Orlando's arm so
much, that he could not go on to see the shepherd, so he sent his
brother to ask Ganymede to come to him.

Oliver went and told the whole story to Ganymede and Aliena, and
Aliena was so charmed with his manly ways of confessing his
faults, that she fell in love with him at once.

But when Ganymede heard of the danger Orlando had been in she
fainted; and when she came to herself, said truly enough, "I
should have been a woman by right."

Oliver went back to his brother and told him all this, saying, "I
love Aliena so well that I will give up my estates to you and
marry her, and live here as a shepherd."

"Let your wedding be to-morrow," said Orlando, "and I will ask the
duke and his friends."

When Orlando told Ganymede how his brother was to be married on
the morrow, he added: "Oh, how bitter a thing it is to look into
happiness through another man's eyes."

Then answered Rosalind, still in Ganymede's dress and speaking
with his voice--"If you do love Rosalind so near the heart, then
when your brother marries Aliena, shall you marry her."

Now the next day the duke and his followers, and Orlando, and
Oliver, and Aliena, were all gathered together for the wedding.

Then Ganymede came in and said to the duke, "If I bring in your
daughter Rosalind, will you give her to Orlando here?" "That I
would," said the duke, "if I had all kingdoms to give with her."

"And you say you will have her when I bring her?" she said to
Orlando. "That would I," he answered, "were I king of all

Then Rosalind and Celia went out, and Rosalind put on her pretty
woman's clothes again, and after a while came back.

She turned to her father--"I give myself to you, for I am yours."
"If there be truth in sight," he said, "you are my daughter."

Then she said to Orlando, "I give myself to you, for I am yours."
"If there be truth in sight," he said, "you are my Rosalind."

"I will have no father if you be not he," she said to the duke,
and to Orlando, "I will have no husband if you be not he."

So Orlando and Rosalind were married, and Oliver and Celia, and
they lived happy ever after, returning with the duke to the
kingdom. For Frederick had been shown by a holy hermit the
wickedness of his ways, and so gave back the dukedom of his
brother, and himself went into a monastery to pray for forgiveness.

The wedding was a merry one, in the mossy glades of the forest. A
shepherd and shepherdess who had been friends with Rosalind, when
she was herself disguised as a shepherd, were married on the same
day, and all with such pretty feastings and merry-makings as could
be nowhere within four walls, but only in the beautiful green


Retold by E. Nesbit

Antonio was a rich and prosperous merchant of Venice. His ships
were on nearly every sea, and he traded with Portugal, with
Mexico, with England, and with India. Although proud of his
riches, he was very generous with them, and delighted to use them
in relieving the wants of his friends, among whom his relation,
Bassanio, held the first place.

Now Bassanio, like many another gay and gallant gentleman, was
reckless and extravagant, and finding that he had not only come to
the end of his fortune, but was also unable to pay his creditors,
he went to Antonio for further help.

"To you, Antonio," he said, "I owe the most in money and in love:
and I have thought of a plan to pay everything I owe if you will
but help, me."

"Say what I can do, and it shall be done," answered his friend.

Then said Bassanio, "In Belmont is a lady richly left, and from
all quarters of the globe renowned suitors come to woo her, not
only because she is rich, but because she is beautiful and good as
well. She looked on me with such favor when last we met, that I
feel sure that I should win her away from all rivals for her love
had I but the means to go to Belmont, where she lives."

"All my fortunes," said Antonio, "are at sea, and so I have no
ready money; but luckily my credit is good in Venice, and I will
borrow for you what you need."

There was living in Venice at this time a rich money-lender, named
Shylock. Antonio despised and disliked this man very much, and
treated him with the greatest harshness and scorn. He would thrust
him, like a cur, over his threshold, and would even spit on him.
Shylock submitted to all these indignities with a patient shrug;
but deep in his heart he cherished a desire for revenge on the
rich, smug merchant. For Antonio both hurt his pride and injured
his business. "But for him," thought Shylock, "I should be richer
by half a million ducats. On the market place, and wherever he
can, he denounces the rate of interest I charge, and--worse than
that--he lends out money freely."

So when Bassanio came to him to ask for a loan of three thousand
ducats to Antonio for three months, Shylock hid his hatred, and
turning to Antonio, said--"Harshly as you have treated me, I would
be friends with you and have your love. So I will lend you the
money and charge you no interest. But, just for fun, you shall
sign a bond in which it shall be agreed that if you do not repay
me in three months' time, then I shall have the right to a pound
of your flesh, to be cut from what part of your body I choose."

"No," cried Bassanio to his friend, "you shall run no such risk
for me."

"Why, fear not," said Antonio, "my ships will be home a month
before the time, I will sign the bond."

Thus Bassanio was furnished with the means to go to Belmont,
there to woo the lovely Portia. The very night he started, the
money-lender's pretty daughter, Jessica, ran away from her
father's house with her lover, and she took with her from her
father's hoards some bags of ducats and precious stones. Shylock's
grief and anger were terrible to see. His love for her changed to
hate. "I would she were dead at my feet and the jewels in her
ear," he cried. His only comfort now was in hearing of the serious
losses which had befallen Antonio, some of whose ships were
wrecked. "Let him look to his bond," said Shylock, "let him look
to his bond."

Meanwhile Bassanio had reached Belmont, and had visited the fair
Portia. He found, as he had told Antonio, that the rumor of her
wealth and beauty had drawn to her suitors from far and near. But
to all of them Portia had but one reply. She would only accept
that suitor who would pledge himself to abide by the terms of her
father's will. These were conditions that frightened away many an
ardent wooer. For he who would win Portia's heart and hand, had to
guess which of three caskets held her portrait. If he guessed
aright, then Portia would be his bride; if wrong, then he was
bound by oath never to reveal which casket he chose, never to
marry, and to go away at once.

The caskets were of gold, silver, and lead. The gold one bore this
inscription:--"Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire";
the silver one had this:--"Who chooseth me shall get as much as he
deserves"; while on the lead one were these words:--"Who chooseth
me must give and hazard all he hath." The Prince of Morocco, as
brave as he was black, was among the first to submit to this test.
He chose the gold casket, for he said neither base lead nor silver
could contain her picture. So he chose the gold casket, and found
inside the likeness of what many men desire--death.

After him came the haughty Prince of Arragon, and saying, "Let me
have what I deserve--surely I deserve the lady," he chose the
silver one, and found inside a fool's head. "Did I deserve no more
than a fool's head?" he cried.

Then at last came Bassanio, and Portia would have delayed him from
making his choice from very fear of his choosing wrong. For she
loved him dearly, even as he loved her. "But," said Bassanio, "let
me choose at once, for, as I am, I live upon the rack."

Then Portia bade her servants to bring music and play while her
gallant lover made his choice. And Bassanio took the oath and
walked up to the caskets--the musicians playing softly the while.
"Mere outward show," he said, "is to be despised. The world is
still deceived with ornament, and so no gaudy gold or shining
silver for me. I choose the lead casket; joy be the consequence!"
And opening it, he found fair Portia's portrait inside, and he
turned to her and asked if it were true that she was his.

"Yes," said Portia, "I am yours, and this house is yours, and with
them I give you this ring, from which you must never part."

And Bassanio, saying that he could hardly


From the painting by Charles Folkard ] speak for joy, found words
to swear that he would never part with the ring while he lived.

Then suddenly all his happiness was dashed with sorrow, for
messengers came from Venice to tell him that Antonio was ruined,
and that Shylock demanded from the Duke of Venice the fulfilment
of the bond, under which he was entitled to a pound of the
merchant's flesh. Portia was as grieved as Bassanio to hear of the
danger which threatened his friend.

"First," she said, "take me to church and make me your wife, and
then go to Venice at once to help your friend. You shall take with
you money enough to pay his debt twenty times over."

But when her newly-made husband had gone, Portia went after him,
and arrived in Venice disguised as a lawyer, and with an
introduction from a celebrated lawyer Bellario, whom the Duke of
Venice had called in to decide the legal questions raised by
Shylock's claim to a pound of Antonio's flesh. When the court met,
Bassanio offered Shylock twice the money borrowed, if he would
withdraw his claim. But the money-lender's only answer was--

"If every ducat in six thousand ducats Were in six parts, and
every part a ducat, I would not draw them,--I would have my bond"

It was then that Portia arrived in her disguise, and not even her
own husband knew her. The duke gave her welcome on account of the
great Bellario's introduction, and left the settlement of the case
to her. Then in noble words she bade Shylock have mercy. But he
was deaf to her entreaties. "I will have the pound of flesh," was
his reply.

"What have you to say?" asked Portia of the merchant.

"But little," he answered; "I am armed and well prepared."

"The court awards you a pound of Antonio's flesh," said Portia to
the money-lender.

"Most righteous judge!" cried Shylock. "A sentence: come,

"Tarry a little. This bond gives you no right to Antonio's blood,
only to his flesh. If, then, you spill a drop of his blood, all
your property will be forfeited to the state. Such is the law."

And Shylock, in his fear, said, "Then I will take Bassanio's

"No," said Portia sternly, "you shall have nothing but your bond.
Take your pound of flesh, but remember, that if you take more or
less, even by the weight of a hair, you will lose your property
and your life."

Shylock now grew very much frightened. "Give me my three thousand
ducats that I lent him, and let him go."

Bassanio would have paid it to him, but said Portia, "No! He shall
have nothing but his bond."

"You, a foreigner," she added, "have sought to take the life of a
Venetian citizen, and thus by the Venetian law, your life and
goods are forfeited. Down, therefore, and beg mercy of the duke."

Thus were the tables turned, and no mercy would have been shown to
Shylock, had it not been for Antonio. As it was, the money-lender
forfeited half his fortune to the state, and he had to settle the
other half on his daughter's husband, and with this he had to be

Bassanio, in his gratitude to the clever lawyer, was induced to
part with the ring his wife had given him, and with which he had
promised never to part, and when on his return to Belmont he
confessed as much to Portia, she seemed very angry, and vowed she
would not be friends with him until she had her ring again. But at
last she told him that it was she who, in the disguise of the
lawyer, had saved his friend's life, and got the ring from him. So
Bassanio was forgiven, and made happier than ever, to know how
rich a prize he had drawn in the lottery of the caskets.

PILGRIM'S PROGRESS _John Bunyan, the son of a man who mended
broken kettles and pans, a tinker, was born in England in 1628.
Though a wild lad, with little education, he married a splendid
wife who changed the evil course of his life and interested him in

This earnest, powerful, fighting Puritan preacher aroused his
congregation so much and so often that the authorities put him in
jail. Eight years before Bunyan's birth 74 Puritan men and 28
women, members of Dr. Robinson's church, escaped persecution by
sailing in the Mayflower and landing at Plymouth Rock. For twelve
years Bunyan was locked up in the little jail at the end of the
bridge at Bedford. He made laces to support his family, and read
the Bible and Fox's Book of Martyrs. Though an ignorant man, he
became deeply religious.

Except the Bible, and possibly Shakespeare, probably no other book
in the English language has been read by more people.

In the version here given the story has been condensed by omitting
the less dramatic passages, but the author's text remains
otherwise unchanged._


By John Bunyan

As I walk'd through the wilderness of this world, I lighted on a
certain place where was a Den, and I laid me down in that place to
sleep; and as I slept, I dreamed a Dream. I dreamed, and behold I
saw a Man cloathed with Rags, standing in a certain place, with
his face from his own house, a Book in his hand, and a great
Burden upon his back.

I looked, and saw him open the Book, and read therein; and as he
read, he wept and trembled; and not being able longer to contain,
he brake out with a lamentable cry, saying, What shall I do?

I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he would
run; yet he stood still, because, as I perceived, he could not
tell which way to go. I looked then, and saw a man named
Evangelist, coming to him, and asked, Wherefore dost thou cry?

He answered, Sir, I perceive by the Book in my hand, that I am
condemned to die, and after that to come to Judgment, and I find
that I am not willing to do the first, nor able to do the second.

Then said Evangelist, If this be thy condition, why standest thou
still? He answered, Because I know not whither to go. Then he gave
him a _Parchment-roll_, and there was written within, _Fly
from the wrath to come_.

The Man therefore read it, and looking upon _Evangelist_ very
carefully, said, Whither must I fly?

Then said _Evangelist_, pointing with his finger over a very
wide field, Do you see yonder _Wicket-gate? The Man said, No.
Then sad the other, Do you see yonder shining Light? He said, I
think I do. then said _Evangelist_, Keep that Light in your
eye, and go up directly thereto: so shalt thou see the Gate; at
which, when thou knockest, it shall be told thee what thou shalt

So I saw in my Dream that the Man began to run.

Now he had not run far from his own door, but his Wife and
Children, perceiving it, began to cry after him to return; but the
Man put his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, _Life!
Life! Eternal Life!_ So he looked not behind him, but fled
towards the middle of the Plain.

The Neighbors also came out to see him run; and as he ran, some
mocked, others threatened, and some cried after him to return; and
among those that did so, there were two that resolved to fetch him
back by force. The name of the one was _Obstinate_, and the
name of the other was _Pliable_. Now by this time the Man was
got a good distance from them; but however they were resolved to
pursue him, which they did, and in a little time they overtook
him. Then said the Man, Neighbors, wherefore are you come? They
said, To persuade you to go back with us. But he said, That can by
no means be; be content, good Neighbors, and go along with me.

OBST. What, said _Obstinate_, and leave our friends and our
comforts behind us!

CHR. Yes, said _Christian_, for that was his name, because
that _all_ which you shall forsake is not worthy to be compared
with a _little_ of that that I am seeking to enjoy; and if
you will go along with me and hold it, you shall fare as I
myself; for there where I go, is enough and to spare: Come away,
and prove my words. Read it so, if you will, in my Book.

OBST. Tush, said _Obstinate_, away with your Book; will you
go back with us or no?

CHR. No, not I, said the other, because I have laid my hand to the

OBST. Come then, Neighbor _Pliable_, let us turn again, and
go home without him.

PLI. Well, Neighbor _Obstinate_, said _Pliable_, I
intend to go along with this good man, and to cast in my lot with

Now I saw in my Dream, that when _Obstinate_ was gone back,
_Christian_ and _Pliable_ went talking over the Plain.

They drew near to a very miry _Slough_, that was in the midst
of the plain; and they, being heedless, did both fall suddenly
into the bog. The name of the slough was _Dispond_. Here they
wallowed for a time, being grievously bedaubed with the dirt; and
_Christian_, because of the Burden that was on his back,
began to sink in the mire.

PLI. Then said _Pliable_, Ah Neighbor _Christian_, where
are you now?

CHR. Truly, said Christian, I do not know.

PLI. At that Pliable began to be offended, and angerly said to his
fellow, Is this the happiness you have told me all this while of?
If we have such ill luck at our first setting out, what may we
expect 'twixt this and our Journey's end? May I get out again with
my life, you shall possess the Country alone. And with that he
gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out of the mire on that
side of the Slough which was next to his own house: so away he
went, and Christian saw him no more.

Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Dispond
alone; he endeavoured to struggle to the side of the Slough, but
could not get out, because of the Burden that was upon his back:
But I beheld in my Dream, that a man came to him, whose name was
Help, who said, Give me thy hand: so he gave him his hand, and he
drew him out, and set him upon sound ground, and bid him go on his

EVAN. What doest thou here, Christian? Art not thou the man that I
found crying without the walls of the City of Destruction?

CHR. Yes, dear Sir, I am the man.

EVAN. Did not I direct thee the way to the little Wicket-gate?

CHR. Yes, dear Sir, said Christian.

EVAN. How is it then that thou art so quickly turned aside? for
thou art now out of the way.

CHR. I met with a Gentleman so soon as I had got over the Slough
of Dispond, who persuaded me that I might, in the village before
me, find a man that could take off my Burden.

EVAN. What was he?

CHR. He looked like a Gentleman, and talked much to me, and got me
at last to yield; so I came hither: but when I beheld this Hill,
and how it hangs over the way, I suddenly made a stand, lest it
should fall on my head.

EVAN. From this little Wicket-gate, and from the way thereto, hath
this wicked man turned thee, to the bringing of thee almost to
destruction; hate therefore his turning thee out of the way, and
abhor thyself for hearkening to him.

CHR. Sir, what think you? Is there hopes? May I now go back and go
up to the Wicket-gate? Shall I not be abandoned for this, and sent
back from thence ashamed? I am sorry I have hearkened to this
man's counsel: But may my sin be forgiven?

EVAN. Then said _Evangelist_ to him, Thy sin is very great,
yet will the man at the Gate receive thee, for he has good-will
for men. So _Christian_ went on with haste, neither spake he
to any man by the way; and in process of time he got up to the
Gate. Now over the Gate there was written, _Knock and it shall
be opened unto you._

He knocked therefore more than once or twice, and at last there
came a grave person to the gate named _Good-will_, who asked
Who was there? and whence he came? and what he would have?

CHR. I come from the City of _Destruction_, but am going to
Mount _Zion_, that I may be delivered from the wrath to come.
I would therefore, Sir, since I am informed that by this Gate is
the way thither, know if you are willing to let me in.

GOOD-WILL. I am willing with all my heart, said he; and with that
he opened the Gate. But how is it that you came alone?

CHR. Because none of my Neighbors saw their danger, as I saw mine.

GOOD-WILL. Did any of them know of your coming?

CHR. Yes, my Wife and Children saw me at the first, and called
after me to turn again; also some of my Neighbors stood crying and
calling after me to return; but I put my fingers in my ears, and
so came on my way.

GOOD-WILL. But did none of them follow you, to persuade you to go

CHR. Yes, both _Obstinate_ and _Pliable_; but when they
saw that they could not prevail, _Obstinate_ went railing
back, but _Pliable_ came with me a little way.

GOOD-WILL. But why did he not come through?

CHR. We indeed came both together, until we came to the Slough of
_Dispond_, into the which we also suddenly fell. And then was
my Neighbor Pliable discouraged, and would not adventure further.
Wherefore getting out again on that side next to his own house, he
told me I should possess the brave country alone for him; so he
went _his_ way, and I came _mine_: he after _Obstinate_,
and I to this Gate.

_Christian_ began to gird up his loins, and to address
himself to his Journey. So the other told him, that some distance
from the Gate, he would come to the house of the _Interpreter_,
at whose door he should knock, and he would shew him excellent
things. Then _Christian_ took his leave of his Friend, and he
again bid him God speed.


By John Bunyan

Christian went on till he came to the house of the
_Interpreter_, where he knocked over and over; at last one
came to the door, and asked Who was there?

CHR. Sir, here is a Traveller, who was bid by an acquaintance of
the good man of this house to call here for my profit; I would
therefore speak with the Master of the house. So he called for the
Master of the house, who after a little time came to _Christian_,
and asked him what he would have?

CHR. Sir, said Christian, I am a man that am come from the City of
_Destruction_, and am going to the Mount _Zion_; and I was
told by the Man that stands at the Gate at the head of this
way, that if I called here, you would shew me excellent things,
such as would be a help to me in my Journey.

INTER. Then said the Interpreter, Come in, I will shew thee that
which will be profitable to thee.

I saw moreover in my Dream, that the _Interpreter_ took him
by the hand, and had him into a little room, where sat two little
Children, each one in his chair. The name of the eldest was
_Passion_, and the name of the other _Patience_. _Passion_
seemed to be much discontent; but _Patience_ was very quiet.
Then _Christian_ asked, What is the reason of the discontent
of _Passion_? The _Interpreter_ answered, The Governor
of them would have him stay for his best things till the
beginning of the next year; but he will have all now; but _Patience_
is willing to wait.

Then I saw that one came to _Passion_, and brought him a bag
of treasure, and poured it down at his feet, the which he took up
and rejoiced therein; and withal, laughed _Patience_ to
scorn. But I beheld but a while, and he had lavished all away, and
had nothing left but Rags.

CHR. Then said _Christian_ to the _Interpreter_, Expound
this matter more fully to me.

INTER. So he said, These two Lads are figures: _Passion_, of
the men of _this_ world; and _Patience_, of the men of _that_
which is to come; for as here thou seest, _Passion_ will
have all now this year, that is to say, in this world; so
are the men of this world: they must have all their good
things now, they cannot stay till next year, that is, until
the next world, for their portion of good. That proverb, _A Bird
in the Hand is worth two in the Bush_, is of more authority
with them than are all the Divine testimonies of the good of the
world to come. But as thou sawest that he had quickly lavished all
away, and had presently left him nothing but Rags; so will it be
with all such men at the end of this world.

CHR. Then said _Christian_, Now I see that _Patience_
has the best wisdom, and that upon many accounts. 1. Because he
stays for the best things. 2. And also because he will have the
Glory of his, when the other has nothing but Rags.

INTER. Nay, you may add another, to wit, the glory of the
_next_ world will never wear out; but _these_ are suddenly
gone, Therefore _Passion_ had not so much reason to laugh
at _Patience_, because he had his good things first, as _Patience_
will have to laugh at _Passion_, because he had his best
things last; for _first_ must give place to _last_, because
_last_ must have his time to come; but last gives place to
nothing; for there is not another to succeed, He therefore
that hath his portion _first_, must needs have a time to
spend it; but he that hath his portion _last_, must have
it lastingly; therefore it is said of Dives, _In thy lifetime
thou receivedst thy good things, and likewise_ Lazartis
_evil things; but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented_.

CHR. Then I perceive 'tis not best to covet things that are now,
but to wait for things to come.

INTER. You say truth: _For the things which are seen are_
Temporal; _but the things that are not seen are_ Eternal. But
though this be so, yet since things present and our fleshly
appetite are such near neighbors one to another; and, again,
because things to come and carnal sense are such strangers one to
another; therefore it is that the first of these so suddenly fell
into _amity_, and that _distance_ is so continued between the second.

Then I saw in my Dream that the _Interpreter_ took
_Christian_ by the hand, and led him into a place where was a
Fire burning against a wall, and one standing by it, always
casting much Water upon it, to quench it; yet did the Fire burn
higher and hotter.

Then said _Christian,_ What means this?

The _Interpreter answered,_ This Fire is the work of Grace
that is wrought in the heart; he that casts Water upon it, to
extinguish and put it out, is the _Devil;_ but in that thou
seest the Fire notwithstanding burn higher and hotter, thou shalt
also see the reason of that. So he had him about to the backside
of the wall, where he saw a man with a Vessel of Oil in his hand,
of the which he did also continually cast (but secretly) into the

Then said _Christian,_ What means this?

The _Interpreter answered,_ This is Christ, who continually,
with the Oil of his Grace, maintains the work already begun in the
heart: by the means of which notwithstanding what the Devil can
do, the souls of his people prove gracious still. And in that thou
sawest that the man stood behind the wall to maintain the Fire,
that is to teach thee that it is hard for the tempted to see how
this work of Grace is maintained in the soul.

I saw also that the _Interpreter_ took him again by the hand,
and led him into a pleasant place, where was builded a stately
Palace, beautiful to behold; at the sight of which _Christian_
was greatly delighted: He saw also upon the top thereof,
certain persons walking, who were cloathed all in gold.

Then said _Christian,_ May we go in thither?

Then the _Interpreter_ took him, and led him up toward the
door of the Palace; and behold, at the door stood a great company
of men, as desirous to go in, but durst not. There also sat a man
at a little distance from the door, at a table-side, with a Book
and his Inkhorn before him, to take the name of him that should
enter therein; He saw also, that in the door-way stood many men in
armour to keep it, being resolved to do the men that would enter
what hurt and mischief they could. Now was _Christian_ somewhat
in a maze. At last, when every man started back for fear of
the armed men, _Christian_ saw a man of a very stout countenance
come up to the man that sat there to write, saying, _Set down
my name, Sir_: the which when he had done, he saw the man
draw his Sword, and put an Helmet upon his head, and rush
toward the door upon the armed men, who laid upon him with deadly
force; but the man, not at all discouraged, fell to cutting and
hacking most fiercely. So after, he had received and given many
wounds to those that attempted to keep him out, he cut his way
through them all, and pressed forward into the Palace, at which
there was a pleasant voice heard from those that were within, even
of those that walked upon the top of the Palace, saying,

  Come in, Come in;
   Eternal Glory thou shalt win.

So he went in, and was cloathed with such garments as they. Then
_Christian_ smiled, and said, I think verily I know the
meaning of this.

Now, said _Christian_, let me go hence. Nay, stay, said the
_Interpreter_, till I have shewed thee a little more, and
after that thou shalt go on thy way. So he took him by the hand
again, and led him into a very dark room, where there sat a man
in an Iron Cage.

Now the Man, to look on, seemed very sad; he sat with his eyes
looking down to the ground, his hands folded together; and he
sighed as if he would break his heart. Then said _Christian_,
_What means this?_ At which the _Interpreter_ bid him talk
with the Man.

Then said _Christian_ to the Man, _What art thou?_ The
Man answered, _I am what I was not once._

CHR. What wast thou once?

MAN. The Man said, I was once a fair and flourishing Professor,
both in mine own eyes, and also in the eyes of others; I once was,
as I thought, fair for the Coelestial City, and had then even joy
at the thoughts that I should get thither.

CHR. Well, but what art thou now?

MAN. I am now a man of _Despair_, and am shut up in it, as in
this Iron Cage. I cannot get out; O _now_ I cannot.

CHR. But how camest thou in this condition?

MAN. I left off to watch and be sober; I laid the reins upon the
neck of my lusts; I sinned against the light of the Word and the
goodness of God; I have grieved the Spirit, and he is gone; I
tempted the Devil, and he is come to me; I have provoked God to
anger, and he has left me; I have so hardened my heart, that I
_cannot_ repent.

Then said _Christian_ to the _Interpreter_, But are
there no hopes for such a man as this? Ask him, said the

CHR. Then said _Christian_, Is there no hope, but you must be
kept in the Iron Cage of Despair?

MAN. No, none at all.

CHR. Why? The Son of the Blessed is very pitiful.

MAN. I have crucified him to myself afresh, I have despised his
Person, I have despised his Righteousness, I have counted his
Blood an unholy thing; I have done despite to the Spirit of Grace:
Therefore I have shut myself out of all the Promises, and there
now remains to me nothing but threatnings, dreadful threatnings,
fearful threatnings of certain Judgment and fiery Indignation,
which shall devour me as an Adversary.

CHR. For what did you bring yourself into this condition?

MAN. For the Lusts, Pleasures, and Profits of this World; in the
enjoyment of which I did then promise myself much delight; but now
every one of those things also bite me, and gnaw me like a burning

CHR. But canst thou not now repent and turn?

MAN. God hath denied me repentance: his Word gives me no
encouragement to believe; yea, himself hath shut me up in this
Iron Cage; nor can all the men in the world let me out. O
Eternity! Eternity! how shall I grapple with the misery that I
must meet with in Eternity!

INTER. Then said the _Interpreter_ to _Christian_, Let
this man's misery be remembered by thee, and be an everlasting
caution to thee.

CHR. Well, said _Christian_, this is fearful; God help me to
watch and be sober, and to pray that I may shun the cause of this
man's misery. Sir, is it not time for me to go on my way now?

INTER. Tarry till I shall shew thee one thing more, and then thou
shalt go thy way.

So he took _Christian_ by the hand again, and led him into a
Chamber, where there was one rising out of bed; and as he put on
his raiment, he shook and trembled. Then said _Christian_,
Why doth this man thus tremble? The _Interpreter_ then bid
him tell to _Christian_ the reason of his so doing. So he
began and said, This night, as I was in my sleep, I dreamed, and
behold the Heavens grew exceeding black; also it thundred and
lightned in most fearful wise, that it put me into an agony; so I
looked up in my Dream, and saw the Clouds rack at an unusual rate,
upon which I heard a great sound of a Trumpet, and saw also a Man
sit upon a Cloud, attended with the thousands of Heaven; they were
all in flaming fire, also the Heavens were in a burning flame. I
heard then a Voice saying, _Arise ye dead, and come to Judgment_;
and with that the Rocks rent, the Graves opened, and the
Dead that were therein came forth. Some of them were exceeding
glad, and looked upward; and some sought to hide themselves under
the Mountains. Then I saw the Man that sat upon the Cloud open the
Book, and bid the World draw near. Yet there was, by reason of a
fierce flame which issued out and came from before him, a
convenient distance betwixt him and them, as betwixt the Judge and
the Prisoners at the bar. I heard it also proclaimed to them that
attended on the Man that sat on the Cloud, _Gather together the
Tares, the Chaff, and Stubble, and cast them into the burning
Lake_. And with that, the bottomless pit opened, just whereabout
I stood; out of the mouth of which there came in an abundant
manner, smoke and coals of fire, with hideous noises. It
was also said to the same persons, _Gather my Wheat into the
Garner_. And with that I saw many catch'd up and carried away
into the Clouds, but I was left behind. I also sought to hide
myselfs but I could not, for the Man that sat upon the Cloud still
kept his eye upon me: my sins also came into my mind; and my
Conscience did accuse me on every side. Upon this I awaked from my

CHR. But what was it that made you so afraid of this sight?

MAN. Why, I thought that the day of Judgment was come, and that I
was not ready for it: but this frighted me most, that the Angels
gathered up several, and left me behind; also the pit of Hell
opened her mouth just where I stood: my Conscience too afflicted
me; and as I thought, the Judge had always his eye upon me,
shewing indignation in his countenance.

Then said the _Interpreter_ to _Christian, Hast thou
considered all these things_?

CHR. Yes, and they put me in _hope_ and _fear_.

INTER. Well, keep all things so in thy mind that they may be as a
Goad in thy sides, to prick thee forward in the way thou must go.
Then _Christian_ began to gird up his loins, and address
himself to his Journey. Then said the _Interpreter_, The
Comforter be always with thee, good _Christian_, to guide
thee in the way that leads to the City. So _Christian_ went
on his way.


By John Bunyan

In the Valley of _Humiliation_, poor _Christian_ was
hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way, before he espied
a foul _Fiend_ coming over the field to meet him; his name is
_Apollyon_. Then did _Christian_ begin to be afraid, and
to cast in his mind whether to go back or to stand his ground: But
he considered again that he had no Armour for his back, and
therefore thought that to turn the back to him might give him the
greater advantage with ease to pierce him with his Darts.
Therefore he resolved to venture and stand his ground; For,
thought he, had I no more in mine eye than the saving of my life,
'twould be the best way to stand.

So he went on, and _Apollyon_ met him. Now the Monster was
hideous to behold; he was cloathed with scales like a Fish (and
they are his pride); he had wings like a Dragon, feet like a Bear,
and out of his belly came Fire and Smoke; and his mouth was as the
mouth of a Lion. When he was come up to _Christian_, he
beheld him with a disdainful countenance, and thus began to
question with him.

APOL. Whence come you? and whither are you bound?

CHR. I am come from the City of _Destruction_, which is the
place of all evil, and am going to the City of _Zion_.

APOL. By this I perceive thou art one of my Subjects, for all that
country is mine, and I am the Prince and God of it. How is it then
that thou hast run away from the King? Were it not that I hope
thou mayest do me more service, I would strike thee now at one
blow to the ground.

CHR. I was born indeed in your dominions, but your service was
hard, and your wages such as a man could not live on, _for the
wages of sin is death_; therefore when I was come to years, I
did as other considerate persons do, look out, if perhaps I might
find something better.

APOL. There is no Prince that will thus lightly lose his Subjects,
neither will I as yet lose thee: but since thou complainest of thy
service and wages, be content to go back; what our country will
afford, I do here promise to give thee.

CHR. But I have let myself to another, even to the King of
Princes, and how can I with fairness go back with thee?

APOL. Thou hast done in this, according to the Proverb, changed a
bad for a worse; but it is ordinary for those that have professed
themselves his Servants, after a while to give him the slip, and
return again to me: Do thou so too, and all shall be well.

CHR. I have given him my faith, and sworn my allegiance to him;
how then can I go back from this, and not be hanged as a Traitor?

APOL. Thou didst the same to me, and yet I am willing to pass by
all, if now thou wilt yet turn again and go back.

CHR. What I promised thee was in my non-age; and besides, I count
that the Prince under whose Banner now I stand is able to absolve
me; yea, and to pardon also what I did as to my compliance with
thee; and besides, O thou destroying _Apollyon_, to speak
truth, I like his Service, his Wages, his Servants, his
Government, his Company and Country, better than thine; and
therefore leave off to persuade me further; I am his Servant, and
I will follow him.

APOL. Consider again when thou art in cool blood, what thou art
like to meet with in the way that thou goest. Thou knowest that
for the most part, his Servants come to an ill end, because they
are transgressors against me and my ways: How many of them have
been put to shameful deaths; and besides, thou countest his
service better than mine, whereas he never came yet from the place
where he is to deliver any that served him out of our hands; but
as for me, how many times, as all the World very well knows, have
I delivered, either by power or fraud, those that have faithfully
served me, from him and his, though taken by them; and so I will
deliver thee.

CHR. His forbearing at present to deliver them is on purpose to
try their love, whether they will cleave to him to the end; and as
for the ill end thou sayest they come to, that is most glorious in
their account; for present deliverance, they do not much
expect it, for they stay for their Glory, and then they shall have
it, when their Prince comes in his and the Glory of the Angels.

APOL. Thou hast already been unfaithful in thy service to him, and
how dost thou think to receive wages of him?

CHR. Wherein, O _Apollyon_, have I been unfaithful to him?

APOL. Thou didst faint at first setting out, when thou wast almost
choked in the Gulf of _Dispond_; thou didst attempt wrong
ways to be rid of thy Burden, whereas thou shouldest have stayed
till thy Prince had taken it off; thou didst sinfully sleep and
lose thy choice thing; thou wast also almost persuaded to go back,
at the sight of the Lions; and when thou talkest of thy Journey,
and of what thou hast heard and seen, thou art inwardly desirous
of vain-glory in all that thou sayest or doest.

CHR. All this is true, and much more which thou hast left out; but
the Prince whom I serve and honor is merciful, and ready to
forgive; but besides, these infirmities possessed me in thy
Country, for there I sucked them in, and I have groaned under
them, been sorry for them, and have obtained Pardon of my Prince.

APOL. Then _Apollyon_ broke out into a grievous rage, saying,
I am an enemy to this Prince; I hate his Person, his Laws, and
People; I am come out on purpose to withstand thee.

CHR. _Apollyon_, beware what you do, for I am in the King's
High-way, the way of Holiness, therefore take heed to yourself.

APOL. Then _Apollyon_ straddled quite over the whole breadth
of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this matter; prepare
thyself to die; for I swear by my infernal Den, that thou shalt go
no further; here will I spill thy soul.

And with that he threw a flaming Dart at his breast, but
_Christian_ had a Shield in his hand, with which he caught
it, and so prevented the danger of that.

Then did _Christian_ draw, for he saw 'twas time to bestir
him: and _Apollyon_ as fast made at him, throwing Darts as
thick as Hail; by the which, notwithstanding all that _Christian_
could do to avoid it, _Apollyon_ wounded him in his _head,_
his _hand,_ and _foot:_ This made _Christian_ give a little
back; _Apollyon_ therefore followed his work amain, and
_Christian_ again took courage, and resisted as manfully
as he could. This sore Combat lasted for above half a day,
even till _Christian_ was almost quite spent; for you must
know that _Christian,_ by reason of his wounds, must needs
grow weaker and weaker.

Then _Apollyon_ espying his opportunity, began to gather up
close to _Christian,_ and wrestling with him, gave him a
dreadful fall; and with that _Christian's_ Sword flew out of
his hand. Then said _Apollyon, I am sure of thee now:_ and
with that he had almost pressed him to death, so that _Christian_
began to despair of life: but as God would have it, while
_Apollyon_ was fetching of his last blow, thereby to make
a full end of this good man, _Christian_ nimbly stretched
out his hand for his Sword, and caught it, saying, _Rejoice
not against me, O mine Enemy! when I fall I shall arise;_
and with that gave him a deadly thrust, which made him give
back, as one that had received his mortal wound: _Christian,_
perceiving that, made at him again, saying, _Nay, in all
these things we are more than Conquerors through him that
loved us._ And with that _Apollyon_ spread forth his Dragon's
wings, and sped him away, that _Christian_ for a season
saw him no more.

In this Combat no man can imagine, unless he had seen and heard as
I did, what yelling and hideous roaring _Apollyon_ made all
the time of the fight, he spake like a Dragon; and on the other
side, what sighs and groans burst from _Christian's_ heart. I
never saw him all the while give so much as one pleasant look,
till he perceived he had wounded _Apollyon_ with his two-
edged Sword; then indeed he did smile, and look upward; but 'twas
the dreadfullest sight that ever I saw.

So when the Battle was over, _Christian_ said, I will here
give thanks to him that hath delivered me out of the mouth of the
Lion, to him that did help me against _Apollyon_. And so he
did, saying, Great _Beelzebub_, the Captain of this Fiend,
Design'd my ruin; therefore to this end He sent him harness'd out:
and he with rage That hellish was, did fiercely me engage: But
blessed _Michael_ helped me, and I By dint of Sword did
quickly make him fly. Therefore to him let me give lasting praise,
And thank and bless his holy name always. Then there came to him a
hand, with some of the leaves of the Tree of Life, the which
_Christian_ took, and applied to the wounds that he had
received in the Battle, and was healed immediately. He also sat
down in that place to eat Bread, and to drink of the Bottle that
was given him a little before; so being refreshed, he addressed
himself to his Journey, with his Sword drawn in his hand; for he
said, I know not but some other Enemy may be at hand. But he met
with no other affront from _Apollyon_ quite through this


By John Bunyan

I saw then that they went on their way to a pleasant River, which
_David_ the King called the _River of God_, but _John_, _the
River of the Water of Life_. Now their way lay just upon
the bank of the River; here therefore _Christian_ and his
Companion walked with great delight; they drank also of the
water of the River, which was pleasant and enlivening to
their weary spirits; besides, on the banks of this River on
either side were _green Trees_, that bore all manner of Fruit;
and the Leaves of the Trees were good for Medicine; with
the Fruit of these Trees they were also much delighted; and the
Leaves they ate to prevent Surfeits, and other Diseases that are
incident to those that heat their blood by Travels. On either side
of the River was also a Meadow, curiously beautified with Lilies;
and it was green all the year long. In this Meadow they lay down
and slept, for here they might _lie down safely._ When they
awoke, they gathered again of the Fruit of the Trees, and drank
again of the water of the River, and then lay down again to sleep.
Thus they did several days and nights, and when they were
disposed to go on they eat and drank, and departed.

Now I beheld in my Dream, that they had not journeyed far, but the
River and the way for a time parted; at which they were not a
little sorry, yet they durst not go out of the way. Now the way
from the River was rough, and their feet tender by reason of their
Travels; _so the soul of the Pilgrims was much discouraged
because of the way._ Now a little before them, there was on the
left hand of the road a _Meadow_, and a Stile to go over into
it, and that Meadow is called _By-path-Meadow_. Then said
_Christian_ to his fellow, If this Meadow lieth along by our
way-side, let's go over into it. Then he went to the Stile to see,
and behold a Path lay along by the way on the other side of the
fence. 'Tis according to my wish, said _Christian_, here is
the easiest going; come good Hopeful, and let us go over.

HOPE. But how if this Path should lead us out of the way?

CHR. That's not like, said the other; look, doth it not go along
by the way-side? So _Hopeful_, being persuaded by his fellow,
went after him over the Stile. When they were gone over, and were
got into the Path, they found it very easy for their feet: and
withal, they looking before them, espied a man walking as they
did, (and his name was _Vain-confidence_) so they called
after him, and asked him whither that way led? He said, To the
Coelestial Gate. Look, said _Christian_, did I not tell you
so? by this you may see we are right. So they followed, and he
went before them. But behold the night came on, and it grew very
dark, so that they that were behind lost the sight of him that
went before.

He therefore that went before (_Vain-confidence_ by name) not
seeing the way before him, fell into a deep Pit, which was on
purpose there made by the Prince of those grounds, to catch
_vain-glorious_ fools withal, and was dashed in pieces with
his fall.

Now _Christian_ and his fellow heard him fall. So they called
to know the matter, but there was none to answer, only they heard
a groaning. Then said _Hopeful_, Where are we now? Then was
his fellow silent, as mistrusting that he had led him out of the
way; and now it began to rain, and thunder, and lighten in a very
dreadful manner, and the water rose amain.

Then _Hopeful_ groaned in himself, saying, _Oh that I had
kept on my way!_

CHR. Who could have thought that this Path should have led us out
of the way?

HOPE. I was afraid on't at the very first, and therefore gave you
that gentle caution. I would have spoken plainer, but that you are
older than I.

CHR. Good Brother be not offended; I am sorry I have brought thee
out of the way, and that I have put thee into such imminent
danger; pray my Brother forgive me, I did not do it of an evil

HOPE. Be comforted my brother, for I forgive thee; and believe too
that this shall be for our good,

CHR. I am glad I have with me a merciful Brother; but we must not
stand thus, let's try to go back again.

HOPE. But good Brother let me go before.

CHE. No, if you please, let me go first, that if there be any
danger, I may be first therein, because by my means we are both
gone out of the way.

HOPE. No, said Hopeful, you shall not go first; for your mind
being troubled may lead you out of the way again. Then for their
encouragement, they heard the voice of one saying, _Let thine
heart be towards the High-way, even the way that thou wentest,
turn again._ But by this time the waters were greatly risen; by
reason of which the way of going back was very dangerous. (Then I
thought that it is easier going out of the way when we are in,
than going in when we are out.) Yet they adventured to go back;
but it was so dark, and the flood was so high, that in their going
back they had like to have been drowned nine or ten times.

Neither could they, with all the skill they had, get again to the
Stile that night. Wherefore at last, lighting under a little
shelter, they sat down there till the day brake; but being weary,
they fell asleep. Now there was not far from the place where they
lay, a Castle called _Doubting Castle_, the owner whereof was
Giant _Despair_, and it was in his grounds they were now
sleeping: wherefore he, getting up in the morning early, and
walking up and down in his fields, caught _Christian_ and
_Hopeful_ asleep in his grounds. Then with a _grim_ and
_surly_ voice he bid them awake, and asked them whence they
were? and what they did in his grounds? They told him they were
Pilgrims, and that they had lost their way. Then said the Giant,
You have this night trespassed on me, by trampling in and lying on
my grounds, and therefore you must go along with me. So they were
forced to go, because he was stronger than they. They also had but
little to say, for they knew themselves in a fault. The Giant
therefore drove them before him, and put them into his Castle,
into a very dark Dungeon, nasty and stinking to the spirits of
these two men. Here then they lay from _Wednesday_ morning
till _Saturday_ night, without one bit of bread, or drop of
drink, or light, or any to ask how they did; they were therefore
here in evil case, and were far from friends and acquaintance. Now
in this place _Christian_ had double sorrow, because 'twas
through his unadvised haste that they were brought into this

Now Giant _Despair_ had a Wife, and her name was
_Diffidence_. So when he was gone to bed, he told his Wife
what he had done, to wit, that he had taken a couple of Prisoners
and cast them into his Dungeon, for trespassing on his grounds.
Then he asked her also what he had best do further to them. So she
asked him what they were, whence they came, and whither they were
bound; and he told her. Then she counselled him that when he arose
in the morning he should beat them without any mercy. So when he
arose, he getteth him a grievous Crab-tree Cudgel, and goes down
into the Dungeon to them, and there first falls to rating of them,
as if they were dogs, although they gave him never a word of
distaste. Then he falls upon them, and beats them fearfully, in
such sort, that they were not able to help themselves, or to turn
them upon the floor. This done, he withdraws and leaves them,
there to condole their misery, and to mourn under their
distress: so all that day they spent the time in nothing but
sighs and bitter lamentations. The next night she talking
with her Husband about them further, and understanding that
they were yet alive, did advise him to counsel them to make away
themselves. So when morning was come, he goes to them in a
surly manner as before, and perceiving them to be very sore with
the stripes that he had given them the day before, he told them,
that since they were never like to come out of that place, their
only way would be forthwith to make an end of themselves, either
with Knife, Halter, or Poison; For why, said he, should you chuse
life, seeing it is attended with so much bitterness? But they
desired him to let them go. With that he looked ugly upon them,
and rushing to them had doubtless made an end of them himself, but
that he fell into one of his Fits, (for he sometimes in Sun-shine
weather fell into Fits) and lost for a time the use of his hand;
wherefore he withdrew, and left them as before, to consider what
to do. Then did the Prisoners consult between themselves, whether
'twas best to take his counsel or no; and thus they began to

_From the etching by William Strang_]

CHR. Brother, said _Christian_, what shall we do? The life
that we now live is miserable: for my part I know not whether is
best, to live thus, or to die out of hand. _My soul chuseth
strangling rather than life,_ and the Grave is more easy for me
than this Dungeon. Shall we be ruled by the Giant?

HOPE. Indeed our present condition is dreadful, and death would be
far more welcome to me than _thus_ for ever to abide; but yet
let us consider, the Lord of the Country to which we are going
hath said, Thou shalt do no murder, no not to another man's
person; much more then are we forbidden to take his counsel to
kill ourselves. And let us consider again, that all the Law is not
in the hand of Giant _Despair_. Others, so far as I can
understand, have been taken by him as well as we, and yet have
escaped out of his hand. Who knows but that God that made the
world may cause that Giant _Despair_ may die? or that at some
time or other he may forget to lock us in? or but he may in short
time have another of his Fits before us, and may lose the use of
his limbs? and if ever that should come to pass again, for my part
I am resolved to pluck up the heart of a man, and to try my utmost
to get from under his hand. I was a fool that I did not try to do
it before; but however, my Brother, let's be patient, and endure a
while; the time may come that may give us a happy release; but let
us not be our own murderers. With these words _Hopeful_ at
present did moderate the mind of his Brother; so they continued
together (in the dark) that day, in their sad and doleful

Well, towards evening the Giant goes down into the Dungeon again,
to see if his prisoners had taken his counsel; but when he came
there he found them alive, and truly, alive was all; for now, what
for want of Bread and Water, and by reason of the Wounds they
received when he beat them, they could do little but breathe: But,
I say, he found them alive; at which he fell into a grievous rage,
and told them that seeing they disobeyed his counsel, it should be
worse with them than if they had never been born.

At this they trembled greatly, and I think that _Christian_
fell into a Swoon; but coming a little to himself again, they
renewed their discourse about the Giant's counsel, and whether yet
they had best to take it or no. Now _Christian_ again seemed
to be for doing it, but _Hopeful_ made his second reply as

HOPE. My Brother, said he, rememberest thou not how valiant thou
hast been heretofore? _Apollyon_ could not crush thee, nor
could all that thou didst hear, or see, or feel in the Valley of
the _Shadow of Death_. What hardship, terror, and amazement
hast thou already gone through, and art thou now nothing but fear?
Thou seest that I am in the Dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by
nature than thou art; also this Giant has wounded me as well as
thee, and hath also cut off the Bread and Water from my mouth; and
with thee I mourn without the light. But let's exercise a little
more patience, remember how thou playedst the man at Vanity Fair,
and wast neither afraid of the Chain, nor Cage, nor yet of bloody
Death: wherefore let us (at least to avoid the shame that becomes
not a Christian to be found in) bear up with patience as well as
we can.

Now night being come again, and the Giant and his Wife being in
bed, she asked him concerning the Prisoners, and if they had taken
his counsel: To which he replied, They are sturdy Rogues, they
chuse rather to bear all hardship, than to make away themselves.
Then said she, Take them into the Castle-yard to-morrow, and shew
them the Bones and Skulls of those that thou hast already
dispatch'd, and make them believe, e'er a week comes to an end,
thou also wilt tear them in pieces, as thou hast done their
fellows before them.

So when the morning was come, the Giant goes to them again, and
takes them into the Castle-yard and shews them as his Wife had
bidden him. These, said he, were Pilgrims as you are, once, and
they trespassed in my grounds, as you have done; and when I
thought fit, I tore them in pieces, and so within ten days I will
do you. Go get you down to your Den again; and with that he beat
them all the way thither. They lay therefore all day on
_Saturday_ in a lamentable case, as before. Now when night
was come, and when Mrs. Diffidence and her Husband the Giant were
got to bed, they began to renew their discourse of their
Prisoners; and withal the old Giant wondered, that he could
neither by his blows nor counsel bring them to an end. And with
that his Wife replied, I fear, said she, that they live in hope
that some will come to relieve them, or that they have pick-locks
about them, by the means of which they hope to escape. And sayest
thou so, my dear? said the Giant, I will therefore search them in
the morning.

Well on _Saturday_ about midnight they began to _pray_,
and continued in Prayer till almost break of day.

Now a little before it was day, good _Christian_, as one half
amazed, brake out in passionate speech: _What a fool_, quoth
he, _am I, thus to lie in a stinking Dungeon, when I may as well
walk at liberty. I_ have a Key in my bosom called Promise, that
will, I am persuaded, open any Lock in _Doubting_ Castle.
Then said _Hopeful_, That's good news; good Brother, pluck it
out of thy bosom and try.

Then _Christian_ pulled it out of his bosom, and began to try
at the Dungeon door, whose bolt (as he turned the Key) gave back,
and the door flew open with ease, and _Christian_ and _Hopeful_
both came out. Then he went to the outward door that leads
into the Castle-yard, and with his Key opened that door also.
After he went to the iron Gate, for that must be opened too,
but that Lock went damnable hard, yet the Key did open it. Then
they thrust open the Gate to make their escape with speed; but
that Gate as it opened made such a creaking, that it waked Giant
_Despair_, who hastily rising to pursue his Prisoners, felt
his limbs to fail, for his Fits took him again, so that he could
by no means go after them. Then they went on, and came to the
King's High-way again, and so were safe, because they were out of
his jurisdiction.

Now when they were gone over the Stile, they began to contrive
with themselves what they should do at that Stile, to prevent
those that should come after from falling into the hands of Giant
_Despair_. So they consented to erect there a Pillar, and to
engrave upon the side thereof this sentence, _Over this Stile is
the way to_ Doubting _Castle, which is kept by Giant_ Despair,
_who despiseth the King of the Coelestial Country, and seeks
to destroy his holy Pilgrims._ Many therefore that followed
after read what was written, and escaped the danger. This
done, they sang as follows:

  Out of the way we went, and then we found
   What 'twas to tread upon forbidden ground;
   And let them that come after have a care,
   Lest heedlessness makes them, as we, to fare.
   Lest they for trespassing his prisoners are,
   Whose Castle's _Doubting, and whose name's Despair_.


By John Bunyan

I saw that as they went on, there met them two men, in Raiment
that shone like Gold, also their faces shone as the light.

These men asked the Pilgrims whence they came? and they told them.
They also asked them where they had lodged, what difficulties and
dangers, what comforts and pleasures they had met in the way? and
they told them. Then said the men that met them, You have but two
difficulties more to meet with, and then you are in the City.

And I slept, and Dreamed again, and saw the same two Pilgrims
going down the Mountains along the High-way towards the City.

Now you must note that the City stood upon a mighty Hill, but the
Pilgrims went up that Hill with ease because they had these two
men to lead them up by the arms; also they had left their
_mortal Garments_ behind them in the River. They therefore
went up here with much agility and speed, though the foundation
upon which the City was framed was higher than the Clouds. They
therefore went up through the Regions of the Air, sweetly talking
as they went, being comforted, because they safely got over the
River, and had such glorious Companions to attend them.

The talk that they had with the Shining Ones was about the glory
of the place, who told them that the beauty and glory of it was
inexpressible. There, said they, is the Mount _Sion_, the
heavenly _Jerusalem_, the innumerable company of Angels, and
the Spirits of just men made perfect. You are going now, said
they, to the Paradise of God, wherein you shall see the Tree of
Life, and eat of the never-fading fruits thereof; and when you
come there, you shall have white Robes given you, and your walk
and talk shall be every day with the King, even all the days of
Eternity. There you shall not see again such things as you saw
when you were in the lower Region upon the earth, to wit, sorrow,
sickness, affliction, and health, _for the former things are
passed away_. You are now going to _Abraham_, to _Isaac_,
and _Jacob_, and to the Prophets, men that God hath taken
away from the evil to come, and that are now resting upon
their beds, each one walking in his righteousness. The men
then asked, What must we do in the holy place? To whom it was
answered, You must there receive the comfort of all your toil, and
have joy for all your sorrow; you must reap what you have sown,
even the fruit of all your Prayers and Tears, and sufferings for
the King by the way. In that place you must wear Crowns of Gold,
and enjoy the perpetual sight and vision of the Holy One, _for
there you shall see him as he is_. There also you shall serve
him continually with praise, with shouting, and thanksgiving, whom
you desired to serve in the World, though with much difficulty,
because of the infirmity of your flesh. There your eyes shall be
delighted with seeing, and your ears with hearing the pleasant
voice of the Mighty One. There you shall enjoy your friends again,
that are gone thither before you; and there you shall with joy
receive even every one that follows into the holy place after you.
There also shall you be cloathed with Glory and Majesty, and put
into an equipage fit to ride out with the King of Glory. When he
shall come with sound of Trumpet in the Clouds, as upon the wings
of the Wind, you shall come with him; and when he shall sit upon
the Throne of Judgment, you shall sit by him; yea, and when he
shall pass sentence upon all the workers of iniquity, let them be
Angels or Men, you also shall have a voice in that Judgment,
because they were his and your Enemies. Also when he shall again
return to the City, you shall go too, with sound of Trumpet, and
be ever with him.

Now while they were thus drawing towards the Gate, behold a
company of the Heavenly Host came out to meet them; to whom it was
said by the other two Shining Ones, These are the men that have
loved our Lord when they were in the World, and that have left all
for his Holy Name, and he hath sent us to fetch them, and we have
brought them thus far on their desired Journey, that they may go
in and look their Redeemer in the face with joy. Then the Heavenly
Host gave a great shout, saying, _Blessed are they that are
called to the Marriage Supper of the Lamb._ There came out also
at this time to meet them, several of the King's Trumpeters,
cloathed in white and shining Raiment, who with melodious noises
and loud, made even the Heavens to echo with their sound. These
Trumpeters saluted _Christian_ and his fellow with ten thousand
welcomes from the World, and this they did with shouting and sound
of Trumpet.

This done, they compassed them round on every side; some went
before, some behind, and some on the right hand, some on the left,
(as 'twere to guard them through the upper Regions) continually
sounding as they went with melodious noise, in notes on high: so
that the very sight was to them that could behold it, as if Heaven
itself was come down to meet them. Thus therefore they walked on
together; and as they walked, ever and anon these Trumpeters, even
with joyful sound, would, by mixing their musick with looks and
gestures, still signify to _Christian_ and his Brother, how
welcome they were into their company, and with what gladness they
came to meet them; and now were these two men as 'twere in Heaven
before they came at it, being swallowed up with the sight of
Angels, and with hearing of their melodious notes. Here also they
had the City itself in view, and they thought they heard all the
Bells therein ring to welcome them thereto. But above all, the
warm and joyful thoughts that they had about their own dwelling
there, with such company, and that for ever and ever. Oh, by what
tongue or pen can their glorious joy be expressed! And thus they
came up to the Gate.

Now when they were come up to the Gate, there was written over it
in Letters of Gold, _Blessed are they that do his Commandments,
that they may have right to the Tree of Life, and may enter in
through the Gates into the City_.

Then I saw in my Dream, that the Shining Men bid them call at the
Gate; the which when they did, some from above looked over the
Gate, to wit, _Enoch_, _Moses_, and _Elijah_, _&c_., to whom
it was said, These Pilgrims are come from the City of _Destruction_
for the love that they bear to the King of this place; and
then the Pilgrims gave in unto them each man his Certificate,
which they had received in the beginning; those therefore
were carried in to the King, who when he had read them, said,
Where are the men? To whom it was answered, They are standing
without the Gate. The King then commanded to open the Gate,
_That the righteous nation_, saith he, _that keepeth Truth may enter in_.

Now I saw in my Dream that these two men went in at the Gate: and
lo, as they entered, they were transfigured, and they had Raiment
put on that shone like Gold. There was also that met them with
Harps and Crowns, and gave them to them, the Harps to praise
withal, and the Crowns in token of honour. Then I heard in my
Dream that all the Bells in the City rang again for joy, and that
it was said unto them, _Enter ye into the joy of your Lord_.
I also heard the men themselves, that they sang with a loud
voice, saying, _Blessing, Honour, Glory, and Power, be to him
that sitteth upon the Throne, and to the Lamb for ever and

Now just as the Gates were opened to let in the men, I looked in
after them, and behold, the City shone like the Sun; the Streets
also were paved with Gold, and in them walked many men, with
Crowns on their heads, Palms in their hands, and golden Harps to
sing praises withal.

There were also of them that had wings, and they answered one
another without intermission, saying, _Holy, Holy, Holy, is the
Lord_. And after that they shut up the Gates. Which when I had
seen, I wished myself among them.

Now while I was gazing upon all these things, I turned my head to
look back, and saw Ignorance come up to the River-side; but he
soon got over, and that without half that difficulty which the
other two men met with. For it happened that there was then in
that place one Vain-hope a Ferry-man, that with his Boat helped
him over; so he, as the other I saw, did ascend the Hill to come
up to the Gate, only he came alone; neither did any man meet him
with the least encouragement. When he was come up to the Gate, he
looked up to the writing that was above, and then began to knock,
supposing that entrance should have been quickly administered to
him; but he was asked by the men that looked over the top of the
Gate, Whence came you? and what would you have? He answered, I
have eat and drank in the presence of the King, and he has taught
in our Streets. Then they asked him for his Certificate, that
they might go in and shew it to the King. So he fumbled in his
bosom for one, and found none. Then said they, Have you none? But
the man answered never a word. So they told the King, but he would
not come down to see him, but commanded the two Shining Ones that
conducted _Christian_ and _Hopeful_ to the City, to go out
and take _Ignorance_, and bind him hand and foot, and have
him away. Then they took him up, and carried him through the
air to the door that I saw in the side of the Hill, and put him in
there. Then I saw that there was a way to Hell even from the Gates
of Heaven, as well as from the City of _Destruction_. So I
awoke, and behold it was a Dream.


_Before we have reached the second
page of what Anthony Trollope called "the most favorite novel in
the English language," the Commander of the Knights Templars and
his followers have reined up their horses outside the old hall of
Rotherwood, and a loud blast from the horn convinces us that they
won't wait very long for an invitation to enter. And there is
Rowena, for whom the Disinherited Knight shall fight against all
comers. We hold our breaths as he rides full-tilt at the Norman
Knight and strikes him full on the visor of his helmet, throwing
horse and rider to the ground. Here are Isaac the Jew and Rebecca
his beautiful daughter; and Wamba the jester, disguised as a monk,
is rescuing Cedric--

Does any boy or girl need to know more of what Ivanhoe is about?

No one who begins to read Guy Mannering will wish to put it down
until he has finished it._


Retold by Sir Edward Sullivan

At the time when King Richard, of the Lion Heart, was absent from
his country, and a prisoner in the power of the perfidious and
cruel Duke of Austria, there lived in England a highborn Saxon,
named Cedric. He was one of the few native princes who still
continued to occupy the home of his fathers; but, like many more
of the conquered English people, he had felt the tyranny and
oppressive insolence of the haughty Norman barons. He was a man of
great personal strength, possessed of a hasty and choleric temper,
but he had shrewdly refrained from showing any open hostility to
the successors of the Conqueror; and so contrived to maintain his
ancient state in his mansion at Rotherwood, while many others in a
similar situation had been compelled to give up their homes and
properties to the supporters of the Norman invader.

He had an only son, Wilfred by name, with whom he had quarrelled;
and the young man, finding himself disinherited, had adopted the
profession of a champion of the Cross, and sailed away to
Palestine with the army of the Crusaders.

One evening, in the autumn of the year, Cedric was about to sit
down to supper in the old hall at Rotherwood, when the blast of a
horn was heard at his gate. In a few minutes after, a warder
announced that the Prior Aymer, of Jorvaulx, and the good knight
Brian de Bois-Guilbert, commander of the valiant order of Knights
Templars, with a small retinue, requested hospitality and lodging
for the night, being on their way to a tournament which was to be
held not far from Ashby-de-la-Zouche.

"Normans both," muttered Cedric; "but they are welcome to the
hospitality of Rotherwood. Admit them."

The noble guests were ushered in shortly after, accompanied by
their attendants, and Cedric bade them welcome to his hall.

When the repast was about to begin, the steward, suddenly raising
his wand, said aloud: "Forbear! Place for the Lady Rowena." As he
spoke a side-door at the upper end of the hall opened, and Rowena,
the fair and stately ward of Cedric, followed by four female
attendants, entered the apartment. All stood up to receive her,
and replying to their courtesy by a mute gesture of salutation,
she moved gracefully forward to assume her place at the board,
while the eyes of Brian de Bois-Guilbert seemed to be riveted by
the striking beauty of her face.

As the banquet went on, conversation was interrupted by the
entrance of a page, who announced that there was a stranger at the
gate imploring admittance and hospitality.

"Admit him," said Cedric, "be he who or what he may."

The page retired; and returning shortly after, whispered into the
ear of his master:

"It is a Jew, who calls himself Isaac of York."

"St. Mary!" said the abbot, crossing himself, "an unbelieving Jew,
and admitted into this presence!"

 "A dog Jew," echoed the Templar, "to approach a defender of the
Holy Sepulchre!"

"Peace, my worthy guests," said Cedric; "my hospitality must not
be bounded by your dislikes. Let him have a board and a morsel

Introduced with little ceremony, and advancing with fear and
hesitation, and many a bow of deep humility, a tall thin old man,
with an aquiline nose and piercing black eyes, approached the
lower end of the board. Cedric nodded coldly in answer to his
repeated salutations, and signed to him to take a place at the
lower end of the table, where, however, no one offered to make
room for him.

A pilgrim, at length, who sat by the chimney, took compassion upon
him, and resigned his seat, saying briefly, "Old man, my garments
are dried, my hunger is appeased, thou art both wet and fasting."
And, so saying, he placed some food before the Jew on the small
table at which he had himself supped, and, without waiting for the
old man's thanks, went to the other side of the hall.

As the feast proceeded, a discussion arose amongst the banqueters
as to which knights had borne them best in Palestine among the
champions of the Cross. De Bois-Guilbert seemed to speak
slightingly of the English warriors, while giving the place of
honour to the Knights of the Temple.

"The English chivalry were second to NONE" said the pilgrim, who
had listened to this conversation with marked impatience. "SECOND
to NONE, I say, who ever drew sword in defence of the Holy Land. I
say, besides, for I saw it, that King Richard himself and five of
his knights held a tournament after the taking of St. John-de-
Acre, as challengers, and proved themselves superior to all

The swarthy countenance of the Templar grew darker with a bitter
scowl of rage as he listened to these words; but his angry
confusion became only more marked as the pilgrim went on to give
the names of the English knights who had so distinguished
themselves. He paused as he came to the name of the sixth.

"His name dwells not in my memory," he said; "but he was a young
knight of lesser renown and lower rank."

"Sir palmer," said Brian de Bois-Guilbert scornfully, "this
assumed forgetfulness, after so much has been remembered, comes
too late to serve your purpose. I will myself tell the name of the
knight before whose lance I fell: it was the Knight of Ivanhoe;
nor was there one of the six that, for his years, had more renown
in arms. Yet this will I say, and loudly, that, were he in
England, I would gladly meet him in this week's tournament,
mounted and armed as I now am."

"If Ivanhoe ever returns from Palestine I will be his surety that
he meets you," replied the palmer.

Not long after, the grace-cup was served round, and the guests,
after making deep obeisance to their landlord and the Lady
Rowena, arose, and retired with their attendants for the night.

As the palmer was being guided to his chamber he was met by the
waiting-maid of Rowena, who informed him that her mistress desired
to speak with him.

A short passage and an ascent of some steps led him to the lady's

As the pilgrim entered she ordered her attendants, excepting only
one, to retire.

"Pilgrim," said the lady, after a moment's pause, during which she
seemed uncertain how to address him, "you this night mentioned a
name--I mean the name of Ivanhoe--I would gladly hear news of him.
Where and in what condition did you leave him?"

"I know little of the Knight of Ivanhoe," answered the palmer with
a troubled voice. "He hath, I believe, surmounted the persecution
of his enemies in Palestine, and is on the eve of returning to

The Lady Rowena sighed deeply.

"Would to God," she then said, "he were here safely arrived, and
able to bear arms in the approaching tourney. Should Athelstane of
Coningsburgh obtain the prize, Ivanhoe is like to hear evil
tidings when he reaches England."

Finding that there was no further information to be obtained about
the knight, in whose fate she seemed to take so deep an interest,
she bade her maidens to offer the sleeping-cup to the holy man,
and having presented him with a piece of gold, wished him good-

As the palmer was being conducted to his room he inquired of his
attendant where Isaac the Jew was sleeping, and learned that he
occupied the room next to his own.

As soon as it was dawn the pilgrim entered the small apartment
where the Jew was still asleep. Stirring him with his pilgrim's
staff, he told him that he should rise without delay, and leave
the mansion. "When the Templar crossed the hall yesternight," he
continued, "I heard him speak to his Mussulman slaves in the
Saracen language, which I well understand, and he charged them to
watch the journey of the Jew, to seize upon him when at a
convenient distance from the mansion, and to conduct him to the
castle of Philip de Malvoisin, or to that of Reginald Front-de-

It is impossible to describe the extremity of terror which seized
upon the Jew at this information. He knew only too well of the
relentless persecution to which his kindred were subjected at this
period, and how, upon the slightest and most unreasonable
pretences, their persons and their property were exposed to every
turn of popular fury.

He rose, accordingly, in haste.

It was not, however, such an easy matter to make their exit from
the mansion. Gurth, the swineherd, a servant of much importance at
that time, when appealed to open the gate, refused to let the
visitors out at such an unseasonable hour.

"Nevertheless," said the pilgrim, "you will not, I think, refuse
_me_ that favour."

So saying, he whispered something in his ear in Saxon. Gurth
started as if electrified, and hastened at once to procure their
mules for the travellers, and to open the postern gate to let them

As the pilgrim mounted, he reached his hand to Gurth, who kissed
it with the utmost possible veneration. The two travellers were
soon lost under the boughs of the forest path.

They continued their journey at great speed; and the Jew noticed
with amazement that the palmer appeared to be familiar with every
path and outlet of the wood. When they had travelled some distance
from Rotherwood, and were approaching the town of Sheffield, the
Jew expressed a wish to recompense the palmer for the interest he
had taken in his affairs.

"I desire no recompense," answered his fellow traveller.

"Yet I can tell thee something thou lackest," said Isaac, "and, it
may be, supply it too. Thy wish even now is for a horse and

The palmer started.

"What fiend prompted that guess?" said he hastily.

"Under that palmer's gown," replied the Jew, "is hidden a knight's
chain and spurs of gold. I saw them as you stooped over my bed
this morning."

Without waiting to hear his companion's reply, he wrote some words
in Hebrew on a piece of paper, and handed it to the pilgrim,

"In the town of Leicester all men know the rich Jew, Kirjath
Jairam of Lombardy; give him this scroll, and he will give thee
everything that can furnish thee forth for the tournament; when it
is over thou wilt return them safely. But hark thee, good youth,
thrust thyself not too forward in this vain hurly-burly. I speak
not for endangering the steed and coat of armour, but for the sake
of thine own life and limbs."

"Gramercy for thy caution," said the palmer, smiling; "I will use
thy courtesy frankly--and it will go hard with me but I will
requite it."

They then parted, and took different roads for the town of

When the morning of the tournament arrived the field of contest at
Ashby-de-la-Zouche presented a brilliant and romantic scene. On
the verge of a wood was an extensive meadow, of the finest and
most beautiful green turf, surrounded on one side by the forest,
and fringed on the other by straggling oak-trees. The ground, as
if fashioned on purpose for the martial display which was
intended, sloped gradually down on all sides to a level bottom,
which was enclosed for the lists with strong palisades. At each
end of the enclosure two heralds were stationed, and a strong body
of men-at-arms, for maintaining order and ascertaining the quality
of the knights who proposed to engage in the contest.

On a platform beyond the southern entrance were pitched five
magnificent pavilions, adorned with pennons of russet and black--
the chosen colours of the five knights challengers. That in the
centre, as the place of honour, had been assigned to Brian de
Bois-Guilbert, whose renown in all games of chivalry had
occasioned him to be adopted as the chief and leader of the

Outside the lists were galleries, spread with tapestry and
carpets, for the convenience of the ladies and nobles who were
expected to attend the tournament. Another gallery raised higher
than the rest, and opposite to the spot where the shock of combat
was to take place, was decorated with much magnificence, and
graced by a sort of throne and canopy, on which the royal arms
were emblazoned. Squires, pages, and yeomen, in rich liveries,
waited around the place of honour, which was designed for Prince
John, the brother of the absent king, and his attendants. Opposite
to this royal gallery was another, even more gaily decorated,
reserved as the seat of honour for the Queen of Beauty and of
Love. But who was to fill the place on the present occasion no one
was prepared to guess.

Gradually the galleries became filled with knights, nobles and
ladies, while the lower space was crowded with yeomen and

Amongst the latter was Isaac the Jew, richly and magnificently
dressed, and accompanied by his daughter, the beautiful Rebecca,
whose exquisite form, shown to advantage by a becoming Eastern
dress, did not escape the quick eye of the prince himself, as he
rode by at the head of his numerous and gaily-dressed train.

As the prince assumed his throne, he gave signal to the heralds to
proclaim the laws of the tournament, which were briefly as

First: The five challengers were to undertake all comers.

Secondly: Any knight might select any antagonist for combat by
touching his shield. If he did so with the reverse of his lance,
the trial of skill was made with what were called the arms of
courtesy, that is, with lances at whose extremity a piece of round
flat board was fixed, so that no danger was encountered, save from
the shock of the horses and riders. But if the shield was touched
with the sharp end of the lance, the knights were to fight as in
actual battle.

Thirdly: The knight whom the prince should declare to be the
victor was to receive as prize a war-horse of exquisite beauty and
matchless strength, and in addition to this reward, he should have
the peculiar honour of naming the Queen of Love and Beauty.

When the proclamation was made the heralds retired, and through
the open barriers five knights advanced slowly into the arena.
Approaching the challengers, each touched slightly, and with the
reverse of his lance, the shield of the antagonist to whom he
wished to oppose himself, and then retreated to the extremity of
the lists, where all remained drawn up in a line.

At the flourish of clarions and trumpets they started out against
each other at full gallop; and such was the superior skill or good
fortune of the challengers, that those opposed to Bois-Guilbert,
Malvoisin, and Front-de-Boeuf rolled on the ground. The antagonist
of Grantmesnil broke his spear; while the fifth knight alone
maintained the honour of his party.

A second and third party of knights took the field, and although
they had various success, yet, upon the whole, the advantage
decidedly remained with the challengers, not one of whom lost his
seat. A fourth combat followed; and here, too, the challengers
came off victorious.

Prince John now began to talk of awarding the prize to Brian de
Bois-Guilbert, who had proved himself to be the best of the Norman
knights; but his attention, and that of the other spectators, was
arrested by the sound of a solitary trumpet, which breathed a note
of defiance from the northern end of the enclosure.

All eyes were turned to see the new champion, and no sooner were
the barriers opened than he paced into the lists. His suit of
armour was formed of steel, richly inlaid with gold, and the
device on his shield was a young oak-tree pulled up by the roots,
with the word "Disinherited" inscribed upon it. Riding straight up
to Brian de Bois-Guilbert, he struck with the sharp end of his
spear the shield of the victorious Norman until it rang again. All
stood astonished at his presumption, but none more than the
redoubted knight whom he had thus defied to mortal combat.

When the two champions stood opposed to each other at the two
extremities of the lists the public expectation was strained to
highest pitch.

The trumpets had no sooner given the signal than the combatants
vanished from their posts with the speed of lightning, and closed
in the centre of the lists with the shock of a thunderbolt. The
lances burst into shivers, both the knights being almost unhorsed.
Retiring to the extremity of the lists, each received a fresh
lance from the attendants; and again, amidst a breathless silence,
they sprung from their stations, and closed in the centre of the
open space, with the same speed, the same dexterity, the same
violence, but not the same equal fortune, as before.

The Norman's spear, striking the centre of his antagonist's
shield, went to shivers, and the Disinherited Knight reeled in his
saddle. On the other hand, the unknown champion had aimed his
spear's point at the helmet of his opponent. Fair and true he hit
the Norman on the visor, and saddle, horse, and man rolled on the
ground under a cloud of dust.

"We shall meet again, I trust," said the defeated champion, as he
extricated himself from the stirrups and fallen steed.

"If we do not," said the Disinherited Knight, "the fault will not
be mine. On foot or horseback, with spear, with axe, or with
sword, I am alike ready to encounter thee."

Without alighting from his horse, the conqueror called for a bowl
of wine, and, opening the beaver of his helmet, announced that he
quaffed it "To all true English hearts, and to the confusion of
foreign tyrants."

He then desired a herald to proclaim that he was willing to
encounter the rest of the challengers in the order in which they
pleased to advance against him.

The gigantic Front-de-Boeuf, armed in sable armour, was the first
who took the field. But he was soon defeated.

Sir Philip Malvoisin next advanced; and against him the stranger
was equally successful. De Grantmesnil soon after avowed himself
vanquished; and Ralph de Vipont summed up the list of the
stranger's triumphs, being hurled to the ground with such force
that he was borne senseless from the lists.

The acclamations of thousands applauded the award of the prince,
announcing that day's honours to the Disinherited Knight.

The marshal of the field now approached the victor, praying him to
suffer his helmet to be unlaced, ere they conducted him to receive
the prize of the day's tourney from the hands of Prince John. But
the Disinherited Knight, with all courtesy, declined their
request. The prince himself made many inquiries of those in his
company about the unknown stranger; but none could guess who he
might be. Someone suggested that it might, perhaps, be King
Richard himself; and John turned deadly pale as he heard the
words, for he had been plotting to seize the throne during his
brother's absence.

The victorious knight received his prize, speaking not a word in
reply to the complimentary expressions of the prince, which he
only acknowledged with a low bow. Leaping into the saddle of the
richly-accoutred steed which had been presented to him, he rode up
to where the Lady Rowena was seated, and, heedless of the many
Norman beauties who graced the contest with their presence,
gracefully sinking the point of his lance he deposited the coronet
which it supported at the feet of the fair Saxon. The trumpets
instantly sounded, while the heralds proclaimed the Lady Rowena
the Queen of Beauty and of Love for the ensuing day.

Soon after the vast multitude had retired from the deserted field
and lights began to glimmer through the twilight, announcing the
toil of the armourers, which was to continue through the whole
night in order to repair or alter the suits of armour to be used
again on the morrow.

The next day dawned in unclouded splendour, and at ten o'clock the
whole plain was crowded with horsemen, horsewomen, and foot-
passengers, hastening to the tournament; and shortly after a grand
flourish of trumpets announced the arrival of Prince John and his
gorgeous retinue.

About the same time arrived Cedric the Saxon with the Lady Rowena.
He had been accompanied on the previous day by another noble
Saxon, Athelstane, Lord of Coningsburgh, a suitor for the hand of
Rowena, and one who considered his union with that lady as a
matter already fixed beyond doubt, by the assent of Cedric and her
other friends. Rowena herself, however, had never given her
consent to such an alliance; and entertained but a poor opinion of
her would-be lover, whose pretensions for her hand she had
received with marked disdain. Her Saxon lover was not one of her
party at the tourney on the second day. He had observed with
displeasure that Rowena was selected by the victor on the
preceding day as the object of that honour which it became his
privilege to confer, and Athelstane, confident of his own strength
and skill, had himself donned his armour with a determination to
make his rival feel the weight of his battle-axe.

The combat on the second day of the tournament was on a much more
extended scale than that of the previous one; and when the signal
for battle was given some fifty knights, at the same moment,
charged wildly at each other in the lists. The champions
encountered each other with the utmost fury, and with alternate
success; the tide of battle seeming to flow now toward the
southern, now toward the northern extremity of the lists as the
one or the other party prevailed. The clang of the blows, and the
shouts of the combatants, mixed fearfully with the sound of the
trumpets, and drowned the groans of those who fell, and lay
rolling beneath the feet of the horses. The splendid armour of the
knights was now defaced with dust and blood, and gave way at every
stroke of the sword and battle-axe; while the gay plumage, shorn
from the crests, drifted upon the breeze like snowflakes.

In the thick of the press and turmoil of the fight Bois-Guilbert
and the Disinherited Knight repeatedly endeavoured to single out
each other, spurred by mutual animosity. Such, however, was the
crowd and confusion that, during the earlier part of the conflict,
their efforts to meet were unavailing. But when the field became
thin, by the numbers on either side who had yielded themselves
vanquished or had been rendered incapable of continuing the
strife, the Templar and the unknown knight at length encountered,
hand to hand, with all the fury that mortal animosity, joined to
rivalry of honour, could inspire. Such was the skill of each in
parrying and striking that the spectators broke forth into a
unanimous and involuntary shout of delight and admiration.

But at this moment the party of the Disinherited Knight had the
worst. Front-de-Boeuf and Athelstane, having defeated those
immediately opposed to them, were now free to come to the aid of
their friend the Templar; and, turning their horses at the same
moment, the two spurred against the Disinherited Knight.

This champion, exposed as he was to the furious assaults of three
opponents each of whom was almost a match for him single-handed,
must now have soon been overpowered when an unexpected incident
changed the fortunes of the day.

Amongst the ranks of the Disinherited Knight was a champion in
black armour, mounted on a black horse, whose shield bore no
device of any kind. He had engaged with some few combatants, and
had easily defeated them during the earlier stages of the contest,
but seemed to take no further interest in the event of the fight,
acting the part rather of a spectator than of a party in the

The moment, however, he saw his leader so hard bestead he seemed
to throw aside his apathy, and setting spurs to his horse he came
to his assistance like a thunderbolt, exclaiming, in a voice like
a trumpet call, "Disinherited to the rescue!"

Under the fury of his first stroke, Front-de-Boeuf, horse and all,
rolled stunned to the ground. He then turned his steed upon
Athelstane, and, wrenching from the hand of the bulky Saxon the
battle-axe which he wielded, bestowed him such a blow upon the
crest, that the Lord of Coningsburgh also lay senseless on the
field. Having achieved this double feat, he returned calmly to the
extremity of the lists, leaving his leader to cope as best he
could with Brian de Bois-Guilbert. This was no longer matter of so
much difficulty as formerly. The Templar's horse had bled much,
and gave way under the shock of the Disinherited Knight's charge.
As Bois-Guilbert rolled on the field, his antagonist sprung from
horseback, and was in the act of commanding his adversary to yield
or die, when Prince John gave the signal that the conflict was at
an end.

It being now the duty of the prince to name the knight who had
done best, he determined, although contrary to the advice of those
about him, that the honour of the day remained with the Black

To the surprise of all present, however, the knight thus preferred
was nowhere to be found. He had left the lists immediately when
the conflict ceased, and had been observed by some spectators to
move slowly down one of the forest glades. After he had been
summoned twice by sound of trumpet, it became necessary to name
another; and the Disinherited Knight was for the second time named
champion of the day.

As the victor was led towards the throne of the Lady Rowena, it
was observed that he tottered. Rowena was about to place the
chaplet which she held in her hand upon the helmet of the champion
who kneeled before her, when the marshals exclaimed, "It must not
be thus, his head must be bare;" and at once removed his helmet.
The features which were exposed were those of a young man of
twenty-five; but his countenance was as pale as death, and marked
in one or two places with streaks of blood.

Rowena had no sooner beheld him than she uttered a faint shriek;
but at once summoning up all her energies, she placed upon the
drooping head of the victor the splendid chaplet which was the
destined reward of the day.

The knight bent low, and kissed the hand of the lovely Sovereign
by whom his valour had been rewarded; and then, sinking yet
farther forward, lay prostrate at her feet.

There was a general consternation. Cedric, who had been struck
mute by the sudden appearance of his banished son, now rushed
forward, as if to separate him from Rowena. But this had been
already accomplished by the marshals of the field, who, guessing
the cause of Ivanhoe's swoon, had hastened to undo his armour, and
found that the head of a lance had penetrated his breast-plate and
inflicted a wound in his side.

The name of Ivanhoe was no sooner pronounced than it flew from
mouth to mouth throughout the vast assembly. It was not long ere
it reached the circle of the prince, whose brow darkened as he
heard the news. He knew that Ivanhoe had been a close attendant on
his brother King Richard in the Holy Land; and as such he looked
upon him as his own enemy. He was about to give the signal for
retiring from the lists, when a small billet was put into his
hand. He broke the seal with apparent agitation, and read the
words, "Take heed to yourself, for the devil is unchained."

He turned as pale as death; and taking two of his courtiers aside,
he put the billet into their hands. "It means," he said in a
faltering voice, "that my brother Richard has obtained his

"It is time, then," said Fitzurse, his confidential attendant, "to
draw our party to a head, and prepare our forces to meet him."

In sullen ill-humour the prince left the place of tournament to
hold high festival at the Castle of Ashby; but it was more than
his courtiers could do to rouse him from the overpowering gloom
which seemed to agitate his mind throughout the evening. On the
next day it was settled that the prince and all those who were
ready to support him should attend a meeting at York for the
purpose of making general arrangements for placing the crown upon
the head of the usurper, and ousting King Richard from his
sovereign rights.

Meanwhile, Cedric the Saxon, when he saw his son drop down
senseless in the lists at Ashby, had given orders, half in pity,
half in anger, to his attendants to convey Ivanhoe to a place
where his wound might be dressed as soon as the crowd had
dispersed. The attendants were, however, anticipated in this good
office. The crowd dispersed, indeed, but the knight was nowhere to
be seen. The only information which could be collected from the
bystanders was, that he had been raised with care by certain well-
attired grooms, and placed in a litter belonging to a lady among
the spectators, in which he had immediately been transported out
of the press.

Cedric and his friends, having seen the last of the tournament and
the festivities which followed it, now set out on their return to
Rotherwood. Their way lay through a thickly-wooded country, which
was at the time held to be dangerous to travellers from the number
of outlaws whom oppression and poverty had driven to despair, and
who occupied the forests in large bands. From these rovers,
however, Cedric and Athelstane accounted themselves secure, as
they had in attendance ten servants. They knew, besides, that the
outlaws were chiefly peasants and yeomen of Saxon descent, and
were generally supposed to respect the persons and property of
their countrymen.

As the travellers journeyed on their way, they were alarmed by
repeated cries for assistance; and when they rode up to the place
from whence they came, they were surprised to find a horse-litter
placed upon the ground, beside which sat a young woman, richly
dressed in the Jewish fashion, while an old man, whose yellow cap
proclaimed him to belong to the same nation, walked up and down,
wringing his hands, as if affected by some strange disaster.

It was some time before Isaac of York, for it was he, could
explain the nature of his trouble. When at length he began to come
to himself out of his agony of terror, he said that he had hired a
body-guard of six men at Ashby, together with mules for carrying
the litter of a sick friend; but that they all had fled away from
him, having heard that there was a strong band of outlaws lying
in wait in the woods before them. When he implored permission to
continue his journey under the protection of Cedric and his party,
Athelstane was strongly opposed to allowing the "dog of a Jew," as
he called him, to travel in their company. The Lady Rowena,
however, had at the same time been approached by the old man's
daughter, who, kissing the hem of her garment, implored her to
have compassion on them. "It is not for myself that I pray this
favour," said Rebecca; "nor is it even for that poor old man; but
it is in the name of one dear to many, and dear even to you, that
I beseech you to let this sick person be transported with care and
tenderness under your protection."

So noble and solemn was the air with which Rebecca made this
appeal, that on the intercession of Rowena Cedric readily
consented to allow the Jew and his daughter, together with their
sick friend, to attach themselves to his party.

Twilight was already coming on as the company proceeded on their
journey. The path upon which the party travelled was now so narrow
as not to admit above two riders abreast. They accordingly
quickened their pace, in order to get as rapidly as possible out
of the dangerous neighborhood which they were traversing. They had
just crossed a' brook, whose banks were broken, swampy, and
overgrown with dwarf willows, when they were assailed in front,
flank and rear by a large body of men in the dress of outlaws, and
with an impetuosity to which, in their confused and ill-prepared
condition, it was impossible to offer effectual resistance. Both
the Saxon chiefs were made prisoners at the same moment, while the
attendants, embarrassed with baggage, surprised and terrified at
the fate of their masters, fell an easy prey to the assailants;
and the Lady Rowena, the Jew and his daughter experienced the same
misfortune. Wamba, the jester, alone escaped, showing upon the
occasion much more courage than those who pretended to greater
sense. As he wandered through the forest, a dog, which he
recognised, jumped up and fawned upon him, and Gurth, the
swineherd, shortly after made his appearance. He was horrified to
hear from his fellow-servant of the misfortune which had befallen
their master and his party; and the two were about to hasten away
for the purpose of procuring aid, when a third person suddenly
appeared, and commanded them both to halt. Notwithstanding the
twilight, and although his dress and arms showed him to be an
outlaw, Wamba recognised him to be Locksley, the yeoman, a man who
had carried off the prize for archery at the tournament a day or
two before.

"What is the meaning of all this," he said; "or who is it that
rifle and ransom and make prisoners in these forests?"

The yeoman then left, bidding Gurth and Wamba, on the peril of
their lives, not to stir until he returned.

He was not long away, and on returning said that he had found out
who the attacking party were and whither they were bound.

"Cedric the Saxon," he said, "the friend of the rights of
Englishmen, shall not want English hands to help him in this
extremity. Come, then, with me, until I gather more aid."

So saying, he walked through the wood at a great pace, followed by
the jester and the swineherd.

It was after three hours' good walking that the servants of
Cedric, with their mysterious guide, arrived at a small opening in
the forest. Beneath an enormous oak-tree several yeomen lay
stretched on the ground, while another, as sentinel, walked to and
fro in the moonlight shade. Locksley, on being recognised, was
welcomed with every token of respect and attachment; and he at
once gave orders to collect what force they could.

"A set of gallants," he said, "who have been masquerading in such
guise as our own, are carrying a band of prisoners to Torquilstone,
the castle of Front-de-Boeuf. Our honour is concerned to punish
them, and we will find means to do so."

In the meantime Cedric and the other prisoners had been hurried
along by Bois-Guilbert and De Bracy, and safely lodged in the
strong and ancient castle of Reginald Front-de-Boeuf. Once within
the castle, the prisoners were separated. Cedric and Athelstane
were confined in one apartment, the Lady Rowena in another, while
the poor Jew was hastily thrust into a dungeon-vault, the floor of
which was deep beneath the level of the ground, and his daughter
Rebecca was locked into a cell in a distant and sequestered

The dungeon occupied by Isaac of York was dark and damp. Chains
and shackles, which had been the portion of former captives, hung
rusted on the gloomy walls, and in the rings of one of those sets
of fetters there remained the mouldering bones of some unhappy
prisoner who had been left to perish there in other days. At one
end of this ghastly apartment was a large fire-grate, over the top
of which were stretched some transverse bars of iron, half
devoured with rust.

For nearly three hours the wretched Jew remained sitting in a
corner of his dungeon, when steps were heard on the stair by which
it was approached. The bolts were withdrawn, the hinges creaked as
the wicket opened, and Reginald Front-de-Boeuf, followed by two
Saracen slaves of the Templar, entered the prison.

"Most cursed dog of an accursed race!" he said to Isaac, "see'st
thou these scales? In these shalt thou weigh me out a thousand
silver pounds."

"Holy Abraham!" returned the Jew, "heard man ever such a demand?
Not within the walls of York, ransack my house and that of all my
tribe, wilt thou find the tithe of that huge sum of silver."

"Prepare, then," said the Norman, "for a long and lingering

And he ordered the slave to make ready the fire.

"See'st thou, Isaac," he said, "the range of bars above that
glowing charcoal? On that warm couch shalt thou lie, stripped of
thy clothes. One of these slaves shall maintain the fire beneath
thee, while another shall anoint thy wretched limbs with oil, lest
the roast should burn. Now, choose between such a scorching bed
and the payment of a thousand pounds of silver; for, by the head
of my father, thou hast no other option."

"So may Abraham, Jacob, and all the fathers of our people assist
me," said Isaac; "I cannot make the choice, because I have not the
means of satisfying your exorbitant demand."

"Seize him, and strip him, slaves!" said the knight, "and let the
fathers of his race assist him if they can."

The assistants stepped forward, and laying hands on the
unfortunate man, waited the hardhearted baron's further signal.

The unhappy Jew eyed their savage countenances and that of Front-
de-Boeuf, in hope of discovering some symptoms of relenting; and
as he looked again at the glowing furnace his resolution at length
gave way.

"I will pay!" he said. "That is," he added, after a moment's
pause, "I will pay it with the help of my brethren. Let my
daughter Rebecca go forth to York, and she will bring the treasure

"Thy daughter!" said Front-de-Boeuf, as if surprised. "By heavens!
Isaac, I would I had known of this; I gave the black-browed girl
to be a handmaiden to Sir Brian de Bois-Guilbert, to do as it
might please him with her. My word is passed to my comrade in
arms; nor would I break it for ten Jews and Jewesses to boot."

The yell which Isaac raised at this unfeeling communication made
the vault ring.

"Robber and villain!" he exclaimed, "I will pay thee nothing--not
one silver penny will I pay thee--unless my daughter is delivered
to me in safety and honour. Do thy worst. Take my life if thou
wilt, and say the Jew, amidst his tortures, knew how to disappoint
the Christian."

"Strip him, slaves! and chain him down upon the bars," said Front-

The Saracens, in obedience to this savage order, had already torn
from the feeble and struggling old man his upper garment, and were
proceeding totally to disrobe him, when the sound of a bugle,
twice winded without the castle, penetrated even to the recesses
of the dungeon; and immediately after, loud voices were heard
calling for Sir Reginald Front-de-Boeuf. Unwilling to be found
engaged in his hellish occupation, the savage baron gave the
slaves a signal to restore Isaac's garment, and hastily quitted
the dungeon with his attendants.

During the time the unhappy Jew was undergoing his terrible ordeal
in the gloomy dungeon, his daughter Rebecca, in her lonely turret,
had been exposed to attentions no less unpleasant.

On being left in the secluded cell, she found herself in the
presence of an old hag, who kept murmuring to herself a Saxon
rhyme, as if to beat time to the spindle at which she was engaged.
As soon as they were alone the old woman addressed the Jewess,
telling her that she was once as young and fair as herself, when
Front-de-Boeuf, the father of the man who now lorded it in the
castle, attacked the place and slew her father and his seven sons,
and she became the prey and scorn of the conqueror.

"Is there no help? Are there no means of escape?" said Rebecca.
"Richly, richly would I requite thine aid."

"Think not of it," said the hag, "from hence there is no escape
but through the gates of death; and it is late, late," she added
shaking her gray head, "ere these open to us. Fare thee well,
Jewess!--thou hast to do with them that have neither scruple nor
pity." And so saying she left the room, locking the door behind

Before long a step was heard on the stair, and the door of the
turret-chamber slowly opened, and Brian de Bois-Guilbert entered
the room. He commenced to address the Jewess with flattering
speeches, saying that he loved her, and that she must now be his.
But Rebecca rejected his proffered love with scorn, protesting
that she would proclaim his villainy from one end of Europe to the
other. "At least," she said, "those who tremble not at thy crime
will hold thee accursed for having so far dishonoured the cross
thou wearest as to follow a daughter of my people."

"Thou art keen-witted, Jewess," replied the Templar, well aware of
the truth of what she spoke; "but loud must be thy voice of
complaint, if it is heard beyond the iron walls of this castle.
One thing only can save thee, Rebecca. Submit to thy fate, embrace
our religion, and thou shalt go forth in such state that many a
Norman lady shall envy thee thy lot."

"Submit to my fate!" said Rebecca, "and, sacred Heaven! to what
fate? Embrace thy religion, and what religion can it be that
harbours such a villain? Craven knight! forsworn priest! I spit at
thee and I defy thee. The God of Abraham's promise hath opened an
escape to His daughter, even from this abyss of infamy!"

As she spoke she threw open the latticed window, and in an instant
after stood on the very verge of the parapet outside, with not the
slightest screen between her and the tremendous depth below.
Unprepared for such a desperate effort, Bois-Guilbert had time
neither to intercept nor to stop her. As he offered to advance,
she exclaimed, "Remain where thou art, proud Templar, or at thy
choice advance! One foot nearer, and I plunge myself from the
precipice; my body shall be crushed out of the very form of
humanity upon the stones below ere it become the victim of thy

The Templar hesitated, and a resolution which would have never
yielded to pity or distress gave way to his admiration for her
fortitude. "Come down," he said, "rash girl! I swear by earth, and
sea, and sky, I will offer thee no offence. Many a law, many a
commandment have I broken, but my word never."

"Thus far," said Rebecca, "I will trust thee;" and she descended
from the verge of the battlement, but remained standing close by
one of the embrasures. "Here," she said, "I take my stand. If thou
shalt attempt to diminish by one step the distance now between us,
thou shalt see that the Jewish maiden will rather trust her soul
with God than her honour to the Templar."

As she spoke, the bugle was heard to sound, announcing that the
presence of the knight was required in another part of the castle;
and as he instantly obeyed the summons, Rebecca found herself once
more alone.

When the Templar reached the hall of the castle, he found De Bracy
there already. They were soon after joined by Front-de-Boeuf.

"Let us see the cause of this cursed clamour," said Front-de-
Boeuf. "Here is a letter, and if I mistake not, it is in Saxon."

The Templar took the paper from his hand and read it. It was a
demand to surrender the prisoners within one hour, failing which
the castle would be instantly besieged; and it was signed at the
end by Wamba and Gurth, by the Black Knight and Locksley.

The answer which was returned from the castle to this missive
announced that the prisoners would not be given up; but that
permission would be given to a man of religion to come to receive
their dying confession, as it had been determined to execute them
before noon.

When this reply was brought back to the party of the Black Knight,
a hurried consultation was held as to what they should do. There
being no churchman amongst them, and as no one else seemed willing
to undertake the risk of trusting himself within the castle,
Wamba, the jester, was selected for the office. He was soon
muffled in his religious disguise; and imitating the solemn and
stately deportment of a friar, he departed to execute his mission.

As he approached the castle gate, he was at once admitted, and
shortly after was ushered into the apartment where Cedric and
Athelstane were confined; and the three were left alone. It was
not long before Cedric recognised the voice of his jester. The
faithful servant at once suggested that his master should change
garments with him, and so make his escape. But it required the
strong pressure of both Wamba and Athelstane before Cedric would
consent. At length he yielded, and the exchange of dress was
accomplished. He left the apartment saying that he would rescue
his friends, or return and die along with them.

In a low-arched and dusky passage by which Cedric endeavoured to
work his way to the hall, he was met by Urfried, the old crone of
the tower.

"Come this way, father," she said to him; "thou art a stranger,
and canst not leave the castle without a guide. Come hither, for I
would speak with thee."

So saying, she proceeded to conduct the unwilling Cedric into a
small apartment, the door of which she heedfully secured. "Thou
art a Saxon, father," she said to him; "the sounds of my native
language are sweet to mine ears, though seldom heard for many

She then told him the story of her unhappy and degraded life, and
how she was once the daughter of the noble thane of Torquilstone.

"Thou the daughter of Torquil Wolfganger!" said Cedric; "thou--
thou, the daughter of my father's friend and companion in arms!"

"Thy father's friend!" echoed Urfried; "then Cedric, called the
Saxon, stands before me. But why this religious dress?"

"It matters not who I am," said Cedric; "proceed, unhappy woman,
unhappy Ulrica, I should say, for thou canst be none other, with
thy tale of horror and guilt. Wretched woman!" he exclaimed, as
she concluded her miserable history, "so thou hast lived, when all
believed thee murdered; hast lived to merit our hate and
execration; lived to unite thyself with the vile tyrant who slew
thy nearest and dearest!"

"I hated him with all my soul," replied Ulrica; "I also have had
my hours of vengeance; I have fomented the quarrels of our foes; I
have seen their blood flow, and heard their dying groans; I have
seen my oppressor fall at his own board by the hand of his own
son. Yet here I dwelt, till age, premature age, has stamped its
ghastly features on my countenance, scorned and insulted where I
was once obeyed. Thou art the first I have seen for twenty years
by whom God was feared or man regarded; and dost thou bid me

"I bid thee repent," said Cedric; "but I cannot, I will not,
longer abide with thee."

"Stay yet a moment!" said Ulrica. "Revenge henceforth shall
possess me wholly, and thou thyself shalt say that, whatever was
the life of Ulrica, her death well became the daughter of the
noble Torquil. Hasten to lead your forces to the attack, and when
thou shalt see a red flag wave from the eastern turret, press the
Normans hard; they will have enough to do within. Begone, I pray
thee; follow thine own fate, and leave me to mine."

As she spoke she vanished through a private door, and Front-de-
Boeuf entered the apartment.

"Thy penitents, father," he said, "have made a long shrift; but
come, follow me through this passage, that I may dismiss thee by
the postern."

As Cedric was leaving the castle, the Norman gave him a note to
carry to Philip de Malvoisin, begging him to send assistance with
all the speed he could. He promised the friar a large reward for
doing the errand, and as they parted at the postern door he thrust
into Cedric's reluctant hand a piece of gold, adding, "Remember, I
will flay off thy cowl and skin if thou failest in thy purpose."

When Front-de-Boeuf rejoined his friends and found out the trick
which had been played upon him, and that Cedric had escaped, his
rage was unbounded, and it was only on De Bracy interceding for
him that he consented to spare the life of the poor jester.

Before long the inmates of the castle had other things to occupy
them. The enemy was announced to be under their very walls; and
each knight repaired hastily to his post, and at the head of the
few followers whom they were able to muster they awaited with calm
determination the threatened assault.

When at length the attack upon the castle was commenced all was at
once bustle and clamour within its gloomy walls. The heavy step of
men-at-arms traversed the battlements, or resounded on the narrow
and winding passages and the stairs which led to the various
bartizans and points of defence. The voices of the knights were
heard animating their followers, or directing means of defence;
while their commands were often drowned in the clashing of armour
or the clamourous shouts of those whom they addressed. The shrill
bugle without was answered by a flourish of Norman trumpets from
the battlements, while the cries of both parties augmented the
fearful din. Showers of well-directed arrows came pouring against
each embrasure and opening in the parapets, as well as every
window where a defender might be suspected to be stationed; and
these were answered by a furious discharge of whizzing shafts and
missiles from the walls.

And so for some time the fight went on; many combatants falling on
either side. But soon the conflict became even more desperate when
the Black Knight, at the head of a body of his followers, led an
attack upon the outer barrier of the barbican. Down came the piles
and palisades before their irresistible onslaught; but their
headlong rush through the broken barriers was met by Front-de-
Boeuf himself and a number of the defenders.

The two leaders came face to face, and fought hand to hand on the
breach amid the roar of their followers who watched the progress
of the strife. Hot and fierce was the combat that ensued between
them; but ere many minutes had passed the giant form of Front-de-
Boeuf tottered like an oak under the steel of the woodman, and
dropped to the ground.

His followers rushed forward to where he lay, and their united
force compelling the Black Knight to pause, they dragged their
wounded leader within the walls.

An interval of quiet now succeeded, the besiegers remaining in
possession of the outer defences of the castle, and the besieged
retiring for the time within the walls of the fortress.

During the confusion which reigned amongst the followers of Front-
de-Boeuf when the attack had commenced, Rebecca had been allowed
to take the place of the old crone, Ulrica, who was in close
attendance on the wounded man who had been brought into the castle
in company with Isaac of York and the other captives. The sufferer
was Ivanhoe himself, who had so mysteriously disappeared on the
conclusion of the tournament, when his father, Cedric, had sent
his servants to attend him to a place of safety. The gallant young
warrior, who, as he fell fainting to the ground, seemed to be
abandoned by all the world, had been transported from the lists at
the entreaty of Rebecca, to the house at Ashby then occupied by
Isaac of York, where his wounds were dressed and tended by the
Jewish maiden herself. So great was her skill and knowledge of
medicine, that she undertook to restore the injured knight to
health in eight days' time; but she informed him of the necessity
they were under of removing to York, and of her father's
resolution to transport him thither, and tend him in his own house
until his wound should be healed. It was on their journey to that
town that they were overtaken on the road by Cedric and his party,
in whose company they were afterwards carried captive to the
Castle of Torquilstone.

But to return to the assault. When Front-de-Boeuf, deeply wounded,
was rescued by his followers from the fury of the Black Knight, he
was conveyed to his chamber. As he lay upon his bed, racked with
pain and mental agony, and filled with the fear of rapidly
approaching death, he heard a voice address him.

"Think on thy sins," it said, "Reginald Front-de-Boeuf; on
rebellion, on rapine, on murder."

"Who is there? What art thou?" he exclaimed in terror. "Depart,
and haunt my couch no more; let me die in peace."

"In peace thou shalt NOT die," repeated the voice; "even in death
shalt thou think on the groans which this castle has echoed, on
the blood that is engrained in its floors."

"Go, leave me, fiend!" replied the wounded Norman. "Leave me and
seek the Saxon witch, Ulrica, who was my temptress; let her, as
well as I, taste the tortures which anticipate hell."

"She already tastes them," said Ulrica, stepping before the couch
of Front-de-Boeuf; "she hath long drunken of this cup, and its
bitterness is now sweetened to see that thou dost partake it."

"Detestable fury!" exclaimed the Norman. "Ho! Giles, Clement,
Eustace, seize this witch, and hurl her from the battlements; she
has betrayed us to the Saxon."

"Call on them again, valiant baron," said the hag, with a smile of
grisly mockery; "but know, mighty chief, thou shalt have neither
answer nor aid. Listen to these horrid sounds," for the din of the
recommenced assault and defence now rung fearfully loud from the
battlements of the castle; "in that war-cry is the downfall of thy
house. And know, too, even now, the doom which all thy power and
strength is unable to avoid, though it is prepared for thee by
this feeble hand. Markest thou the smouldering and suffocating
vapour which already eddies in sable folds through the chamber?
Rememberest thou the magazine of fuel that is stored beneath these

"Woman!" exclaimed the wounded man with fury, "thou hast not set
fire to it? By heaven thou hast, and the castle is in flames!"

"They are fast rising, at least," said Ulrica; "and a signal shall
soon wave to warn the besiegers to press hard upon those who would
extinguish them. Farewell, Front-de-Boeuf; farewell for ever."

So saying, she left the apartment; and Front-de-Boeuf could hear
the crash of the ponderous key, as she locked and double-locked
the door behind her.

Meanwhile, the Black Knight had led his forces again to the
attack; and so vigorous was their assault, that before long the
gate of the castle alone separated them from those within. At this
moment the besiegers caught sight of the red flag upon the tower
which Ulrica had described to Cedric; and, as she had bade them
do, the assailants at once redoubled their efforts to break in the
postern gate.

The defenders, finding the castle to be on fire, now determined to
sell their lives as dearly as they could; and, headed by De Bracy,
they threw open the gate, and were at once involved in a terrific
conflict with those outside. The Black Knight, with portentous
strength, forced his way inward in despite of De Bracy and his
followers. Two of the foremost instantly fell, and the rest gave
way, notwithstanding all their leaders' efforts to stop them. The
Black Knight was soon engaged in desperate combat with the Norman
chief, and the vaulted roof of the hall rung with their furious
blows. At length De Bracy fell.

"Yield thee, De Bracy," said the Black Champion, stooping over
him, and holding against the bars of his helmet the fatal poniard
with which the knights despatched their enemies. "Yield thee,
rescue or no rescue, or thou art but a dead man."

"I will not yield," replied the Norman faintly, "to an unknown
conqueror. Tell me thy name, or work thy pleasure on me."

The Black Knight whispered something into the ear of the

"I yield me to be true prisoner, rescue or no rescue," then
answered De Bracy, in a tone of sullen submission.

"Go to the barbican," said the victor in a tone of authority, "and
wait there my further orders."

"Yet first let me say," said De Bracy, "what it imports thee to
know. Wilfred of Ivanhoe is wounded and a prisoner, and will
perish in the burning castle without present help."

"Wilfred of Ivanhoe!" exclaimed the Black Knight--"prisoner, and
perish! The life of every man in the castle shall answer it if a
hair of his head be singed. Show me his chamber!"

When the Black Knight reached the room, Ivanhoe was alone.
Rebecca, who had remained with him until a few moments before, had
just been carried off forcibly by Bois-Guilbert. Raising the
wounded man with ease, the Black Knight rushed with him to the
postern gate, and having there delivered his burden to the care of
two yeomen, he again entered the castle to assist in the rescue of
the other prisoners.

One turret was now in bright flames, which flashed out furiously
from window and shot-hole. But in other parts the besiegers
pursued the defenders of the castle from chamber to chamber, and
satiated in their blood the vengeance which had long animated them
against the soldiers of the tyrant, Front-de Boeuf. Most of the
garrison resisted to the uttermost; few of them asked quarter,
none received it.

As the fire commenced to spread rapidly through all parts of the
castle, Ulrica appeared on one of the turrets. Her long
dishevelled gray hair flew back from her uncovered head, while the
delight of gratified vengeance contended in her eyes with the fire
of insanity. Before long the towering flames had surmounted every
obstruction, and rose to the evening skies one huge and burning
beacon, seen far and wide through the adjacent country; tower
after tower crashed down, with blazing roof and rafter. The
vanquished, of whom very few remained, scattered and escaped into
the neighbouring wood. The maniac figure of Ulrica was for a long
time visible on the lofty stand she had chosen, tossing her arms
abroad with wild exultation. At length, with a terrific crash, the
whole turret gave way, and she perished in the flames which had
consumed her tyrant.

When day dawned the outlaws and their rescued prisoners assembled
around the trysting-tree in the oak forest, beside the now ruined
castle. Two only of Front-de-Boeuf's captives were missing:
Athelstane and the Jewish maiden, the former being reported as
amongst the slain, and Rebecca having been carried off by Bois-
Guilbert before her friends could effect her rescue.

When the outlaws had divided the spoils which they had taken from
the Castle of Torquilstone, Cedric prepared to take his departure.
He left the gallant band of foresters sorrowing deeply for his
lost friend, the Lord of Coningsburgh; and he and his followers
had scarce departed, when a procession moved slowly from under the
greenwood branches in the direction which he had taken, in the
centre of which was the car in which the body of Athelstane was

When the funeral train had passed out of sight, Locksley addressed
the Black Knight, and asked him if he had any request to make, as
his reward for the gallantry he had displayed.

"I accept the offer," said the knight; "and I ask permission to
dispose of Sir Maurice de Bracy at my own pleasure."

"He is already thine," said Locksley, "and well for him!"

"De Bracy," said the knight, "thou art free; depart. He whose
prisoner thou art scorns to take mean revenge for what is past.
But beware of the future, lest a worse thing befall thee. Maurice
de Bracy, I say, BEWARE!" De Bracy bowed low and in silence, threw
himself upon a horse, and galloped off through the wood.

"Noble knight," then said Locksley, "I would fain beg your
acceptance of another gift. Here is a bugle, which an English
yeoman has once worn; I pray you to keep it as a memorial of your
gallant bearing. If ye should chance to be hard bestead in any
forest between Trent and Tees, wind three notes upon it, and ye
shall find helpers and rescue."

"Gramercy for the gift, bold yeoman," said the knight; "and better
help than thine and thy rangers would I never seek, were it at my
utmost need."

So saying, he mounted his strong war-horse, and rode off through
the forest.

During all this time Isaac of York sat mournfully apart, grieving
for the loss of his dearly-loved daughter Rebecca. He was assured
that she was still alive, but that there was no hope of rescuing
her from the clutches of Bois-Guilbert, except by the payment of a
ransom of six hundred crowns. On consenting to pay this amount to
the Prior of Jorvaulx, who had just then joined the party in the
wood, the Jew was given a letter, written by the prior himself,
directed to Bois-Guilbert at the Preceptory of Templestowe,
whither the maiden had been carried off, commanding that Rebecca
should be set at liberty. And with this epistle the unhappy old
man set out to procure his daughter's liberation.

Meanwhile there was brave feasting in the Castle of York to which
Prince John had invited those nobles, prelates, and leaders by
whose assistance he hoped to carry through his ambitious projects
upon his brother's throne. Deep was the prince's disappointment
when he learnt of the fall of Torquilstone, and the defeat of the
knights who failed to defend it, and on whose support he strongly
relied. The rumoured intelligence had scarcely reached him, when
De Bracy was ushered into his presence, his armour still bearing
the marks of the late fray, and covered with clay and dust from
crest to spur.

"The Templar is fled," said De Bracy, in answer to the prince's
eager questions; "Front-de-Boeuf you will never see more; and," he
added in a low and emphatic tone, "Richard is in England; I have
seen him and spoken with him."

Prince John turned pale, tottered, and caught at the back of an
oaken bench to support himself.

On awakening from the stupor into which he had been thrown by the
unexpected intelligence, he determined to endeavour to seize his
brother, and hold him a prisoner. He appealed to De Bracy to
assist him in this project, and became at once deeply suspicious
of the knight's loyalty towards him when he declined to lift hand
against the man who had spared his own life.

Driven almost to desperation, and with bitter complaints against
those who had promised to support him, John now treacherously
directed Waldemar Fitzurse, one of his most intimate attendants,
to depart at once, with a chosen band of followers, for the
purpose of overtaking King Richard, and, if possible, securing him
as a prisoner.

In the meantime, Isaac of York, though suffering much from the
ill-treatment he had received at Torquilstone, made his way to the
Preceptory of Templestowe, for the purpose of negotiating his
daughter's redemption. Before reaching his destination he was told
that Lucas de Beaumanoir, the Grand Master of the Order of the
Templars, was then on visit to the preceptory. He had come, the
Jew was informed, for the purpose of correcting and punishing many
of the members of the body whose conduct had of late been open to
severe censure; and he was recognised, besides, as the most
tyrannical oppressor of the Jewish people.

In spite of this ominous intelligence, Isaac pursued his way, and
on arriving at Templestowe was at once shown into the presence of
the Grand Master himself. With fear and trembling he produced the
letter of the Prior of Jorvaulx to Bois-Guilbert. Beaumanoir tore
open the seal and perused the letter in haste, with an expression
of surprise and horror. He had not until then been informed of the
presence of the Jewish maiden in the abode of the Templars, and
great was his fury and indignation on learning that she was
amongst them. He denounced Rebecca as a witch, by whose
enchantment Bois-Guilbert had been led to offend against the rules
of the Holy Order, and in tones of passion and scorn he refused to
listen to Isaac's protestations of her innocence.

"Spurn this Jew from the gate," he said to one of his attendants,
"and shoot him dead if he oppose or turn again. With his daughter
we will deal as the Christian law and our own high office

Poor Isaac was hurried off accordingly, and expelled from the
preceptory, all his entreaties, and even his offers, unheard and
disregarded. He had hitherto feared for his daughter's honour; he
was now to tremble for her life.

Orders were at once given by the Grand Master to prepare the great
hall of the preceptory for the trial of Rebecca as a sorceress;
and even the president of the establishment did not hesitate to
aid in procuring false evidence against the unfortunate Jewess,
for the purpose of ingratiating himself with Beaumanoir, from whom
he had kept secret the presence of Rebecca in the holy precincts.

When the ponderous castle bell had tolled the point of noon, the
Jewess was led from her secluded chamber into the great hall in
which the Grand Master had for the time established his court of
justice. As she passed through the crowd of squires and yeomen,
who already filled the lower end of the vast apartment, a scrap of
paper was thrust into her hand, which she received almost
unconsciously, and continued to hold without examining its
contents. The assurance that she possessed some friend in this
awful assembly gave her courage to look around, and to mark into
whose presence she had been conducted. She gazed accordingly upon
a scene which might well have struck terror into a bolder heart
than hers.

On an elevated seat at the upper end of the great hall, directly
before the accused, sat the Grand Master of the Temple, in full
and ample robes of flowing white, holding in his hand the mystic
staff, which bore the symbol of the Order. At his feet was placed
a table, occupied by two scribes, whose duty it was to record the
proceedings of the day. Their chairs were black and formed a
marked contrast to the warlike appearance of the knights who
attended the solemn gathering. The preceptors, of whom there were
four present, occupied seats behind their superiors; and behind
them stood the esquires of the Order, robed in white.

The whole assembly wore an aspect of the most profound gravity--
the reflection, as it were, of the sombre countenance of the
austere and relentless Grand Master. The lower part of the hall
was filled with guards and others whom curiosity had drawn
together to witness the important and impressive ceremony.

The Grand Master himself, in a short speech, announced the charge
against the Jewess; and, on its conclusion, several witnesses were
called to prove the risks to which Bois-Guilbert exposed himself
in endeavouring to save Rebecca from the blazing castle; while
other witnesses testified to the apparent madness of the Templar
in bringing the Jewess to the preceptory. A poor Saxon peasant was
next dragged forward to the bar, who had been cured of a palsy by
the accused. Most unwilling was his testimony, and given with many
tears; but he admitted that two years since he had been unable to
stir from his bed until the remedies applied by Rebecca's
directions had in some degree restored the use of his limbs. With
a trembling hand he produced from his bosom a small box of
ointment, bearing some Hebrew characters upon the lid, which was,
with most of the audience, a sure proof that the devil had stood

Witnesses skilled in medicine were then brought forward to prove
that they knew nothing of the materials of which the unguent was
compounded, and who suggested that it must have been manufactured
by means both unlawful and magical. Other witnesses came forward
to prove that Rebecca's cures were accomplished by means of
mutterings in an unknown tongue, and songs of a sweet, strange
sound, which made the ears of the hearer tingle and his heart
throb, adding that her garments were of a strange and mystic form,
and that she had rings impressed with cabalistic devices, all
which were, in those ignorant and superstitious times, easily
credited as proofs of guilt.

On the conclusion of this weighty evidence the Grand Master in a
solemn tone demanded of Rebecca what she had to say against the
sentence of condemnation which he was about to pronounce.

"To invoke your pity," said the lovely Jewess, with a voice
somewhat tremulous with emotion, "would, I am aware, be as useless
as I should hold it mean. To state that to relieve the sick and
wounded of another religion cannot be displeasing to God were also
unavailing; to plead that many things which these men (whom may
Heaven pardon!) have spoken against me are impossible would avail
me but little, since you believe in their possibility, and still
less would it advantage me to explain that the peculiarities of my
dress, language, and manners are those of my people. I am
friendless, defenceless, and the prisoner of my accuser there. He
is of your own faith; his lightest word would weigh down the most
solemn protestations of the distressed Jewess, and yet to himself,
yes, Brian de Bois-Guilbert, to thyself I appeal, whether these
accusations are not false?"

There was a pause; all eyes turned to the Templar. He was silent.

"Speak," she said, "if thou art a man; if thou art a Christian,
speak! I conjure thee, by the habit which thou dost wear, by the
name thou dost inherit, by the honour of thy mother, I conjure
thee to say, are these things true?"

"Answer her, brother," said the Grand Master.

"The scroll, the scroll!" was all that Bois-Guilbert uttered in
reply, looking to Rebecca.

The Jewess instantly remembered the slip of paper which she
continued to hold in her hand, and, looking at it without being
observed, she read the words, _"Demand a champion!"_

"Rebecca," said the Grand Master, who believed the words of Bois-
Guilbert had reference to some other writing, "hast thou aught
else to say?"

"There is yet one chance of life left to me," said the Jewess,
"even by your own fierce laws. I deny this charge; I maintain my
innocence. I challenge the privilege of trial by combat, and will
appear by my champion. There lies my gage."

She took her embroidered glove from her hand and flung it down
before the Grand Master, with an air of mingled simplicity and
dignity which excited universal surprise and admiration.

A short consultation then took place between Beaumanoir and the
preceptors, in which it was decided that Brian de Bois-Guilbert
was the fittest knight to do battle for the Holy Order. To him,
accordingly, the glove of Rebecca was handed; and the Jewess was
commanded to find a champion by the third day following. It was
further intimated to her that should she fail to do so, or if her
champion should be discomfited, she should die the death of a
sorceress, according to doom.

Being granted permission to communicate with her father, she
hastily wrote a few lines in Hebrew to him, imploring him to seek
out Wilfred, the son of Cedric, and let him know that she was in
sore need of a champion. As it fortuned, the messenger who did her
errand had not far to go before he met Isaac of York.

The poor old man, on learning his daughter's terrible condition,
was quite overcome; but, cheered in some measure by the kindly
words of a rabbi who was with him, he determined, weak and
feverish though he was, to make a last effort for the child he
loved so dearly. And having said farewell the two Jews parted,
Isaac to seek out Ivanhoe, and the rabbi to go to York to look for
other assistance.

In the twilight of the day of her trial, if it could be called
such, a low knock was heard at the door of Rebecca's prison-
chamber; and shortly after Brian de Bois-Guilbert entered the

She drew back in terror at the sight of the man who had been the
cause of all her misfortunes; but he bade her not to be afraid. He
had come, he said, to tell her that he was prepared to refuse to
do battle for the Templars against her and sacrifice his name and
honour as a member of the Holy Order, and that he would leave the
preceptory, appear in three days in disguise, and himself be her
champion against any knight who should confront him, on one
condition: that she should accept him as a lover.

Rebecca listened to his words, and then with scorn refused his

"So be it then, proud damsel," said Bois-Guilbert; "thou hast
thyself decided thine own fate. I shall appear in the lists
against thy champion, and know that there lives not the knight who
may cope with me alone save Richard Coeur-de-Lion and his minion
Ivanhoe. Ivanhoe, as thou well knowest, is unable to bear his
corslet, and Richard is in a foreign prison. Farewell." And so
saying the Templar left the apartment.

Pending this time, so full of terror and anxiety for poor Rebecca,
the Black Knight, having left the company of the generous outlaw,
held his way to a neighbouring religious house to which the
wounded Ivanhoe had been removed when the castle was taken. Here
he remained for the night; and the following day he set out for
Coningsburgh to attend the obsequies of the deceased Athelstane,
Wamba alone being his companion.

They had ridden together for some distance when the quick eye of
the jester caught sight of some men in armour concealed in a brake
not far from where they were.

Almost immediately after three arrows were discharged from the
suspected spot, one of which glanced off the visor of the Black

"Let us close with them," said the knight, and he rode straight to
the thicket. He was met by six or seven men-at-arms, who ran
against him with their lances at full career. Three of the weapons
struck against him, and splintered with as little effect as if
they had been driven against a tower of steel.

The attacking party then drew their swords and assailed him on
every side. But many as they were to one they had met their
match; and a man reeled and fell at every blow delivered by the
Black Knight. His opponents, desperate as they were, now bore
back from his deadly blows, and it seemed as if the terror of his
single strength was about to gain the battle against such odds
when a knight in blue armour, who had kept himself behind the
other assailants, spurred forward with his lance, and taking aim,
not at the rider but at the steed, wounded the noble animal

"That was a felon stroke!" exclaimed the Black Knight, as the
horse fell to the earth bearing his rider along with him.

At this moment Wamba winded the outlaw's bugle, which he had been
given to carry. The sudden sound made the murderers bear back once
more, and Wamba did not hesitate to rush in and assist his knight
to rise.

"Shame on ye, false cowards!" exclaimed he in the blue harness;
"do ye fly from the empty blast of a horn blown by a jester?"

Animated by his words, they attacked the Black Knight anew, whose
best refuge was now to place his back against an oak, and defend
himself with his sword. The felon knight, who had taken another
spear, watching the moment when his formidable antagonist was most
closely pressed, galloped against him in hopes to nail him with
his lance against the tree; but Wamba, springing forward in good
time, checked the fatal career of the Blue Knight, by hamstringing
his horse with a stroke of his sword; and horse and man went
heavily to the ground. Almost immediately after, a band of yeomen,
headed by Locksley, broke forth from the glade, who, joining
manfully in the fray, soon disposed of the ruffians, all of whom
lay on the spot dead, or mortally wounded.

The visor of the Blue Knight, who still lay entangled under his
wounded steed, was now opened, and the features of Waldemar
Fitzurse were disclosed.

"Stand back, my masters," said the Black Knight to those about
him; "I would speak with this man alone. And now, Waldemar
Fitzurse, say me the truth: confess who set thee on this
traitorous deed."

"Richard," answered the fallen knight, "it was thy father's son."

Richard's eyes sparkled with indignation, but his better nature
overcame it. "Take thy life unasked," he said; "but, on this
condition, that in three days thou shalt leave England, and that
thou wilt never mention the name of John of Anjou as connected
with thy felony." Then, turning to where the yeomen stood apart,
he said, "Let this knight have a steed, Locksley, and let him
depart unharmed. Thou bearest an English heart, and must needs
obey me. I am Richard of England!"

At these words the yeomen kneeled down before him, tendering their
allegiance, while they implored pardon for their offences.

"Rise, my friends," said Richard. "Your misdemeanours have been
atoned by the loyal services you rendered my distressed subjects
before the walls of Torquilstone, and the rescue you have this
day afforded your sovereign. Arise, my liegemen, and be good
subjects in future. And thou, brave Locksley--"

"Call me no longer Locksley, my liege," said the outlaw; "I am
Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest."

Before many more minutes had gone a sylvan repast was hastily
prepared beneath a huge oak-tree for the King of England. Amongst
those who partook of the forest hospitality of the outlaws were
Ivanhoe and Gurth, who just then came on the scene, the former now
all but cured of his wound, thanks to the healing balsam with
which he had been provided by Rebecca the Jewess.

When the feast was concluded, the king, attended by Ivanhoe,
Wamba, and Gurth, proceeded on his way to Coningsburgh. As the
travellers approached the ancient Saxon fortress, they could see
the huge black banner floating from the top of the tower, which
announced that the obsequies of the late owner were still in the
act of being solemnized. All around the castle was a scene of busy
commotion, the whole countryside being gathered from far and near
to partake of the funeral banquet. Cooks and mendicants,
strolling soldiers from Palestine, pedlars, mechanics, wandering
palmers, hedge-priests, Saxon minstrels and Welsh bards, together
with jesters and jugglers, formed a motley and hungry gathering,
such as could only be seen on the occasion which now brought them
together; and through this riotous crowd Richard and his followers
with difficulty made their way.

As they entered the apartment where Cedric sat, Ivanhoe muffled
his face in his mantle. Upon the entrance of Richard, the Saxon
arose gravely to bid him welcome. Having greeted him and his
friends with the mournful ceremony suited to the occasion, Cedric
led his knightly guest to another apartment, where he was about to
leave him, when the Black Knight took his hand.

"I crave to remind you, noble thane," he said, "that when we last
parted you promised to grant me a boon."

"It is granted ere named, noble knight," said Cedric, still
unaware that he was speaking to the king.

"Know me, then, from henceforth," said the Black Knight, "as
Richard Plantagenet; the boon I crave is that thou wilt forgive
and receive to thy paternal affection this good knight here,
Wilfred of Ivanhoe."

"And this is Wilfred!" said Cedric, pointing to his son.

"My father! my father!" said Ivanhoe, prostrating himself at
Cedric's feet, "grant me thy forgiveness!"

"Thou hast it, my son," said Cedric, raising him up. But he had
scarce uttered the words when the door flew open, and Athelstane,
arrayed in the garments of the grave, stood before them, pale,
haggard, and like something arisen from the dead.

The effect of this apparition on the persons present was utterly
appalling. Cedric started back in amazement. Ivanhoe crossed
himself, repeating prayers in Saxon, Latin, and Norman-French,
while Richard alternately said "_Benedicite_" and swore,
"_Mort de ma vie!_"

"In the name of God," said Cedric, starting back, "if thou art
mortal, speak! Living or dead, noble Athelstane, speak to Cedric!"

"I will," said the spectre, "when I have collected breath. Alive,
saidst thou? I am as much alive as he can be who has fed on bread
and water for three days. I went down under the Templar's sword,
stunned, indeed, but unwounded, for the blade struck me flatlings,
being averted by the good mace with which I warded the blow.
Others, of both sides, were beaten down and slaughtered above me,
so that I never recovered my senses until I found myself in a
coffin--an open one, by good luck--placed before the altar in

Having concluded his story, still breathless with excitement, he
looked about him. He had caught a glimpse of Ivanhoe as he first
came into the apartment, but had lost sight of him owing to the
crowd of eager listeners by which the room was now thronged.
Filled with a spirit of generosity to his rival, he took the hand
of Rowena, who stood beside him, and was about to place it in that
of Ivanhoe, when it was found that Wilfred had vanished from the

It was at length discovered that a Jew had been to seek the
knight, and that, after a very brief conference, he had called for
Gurth and his armour, and had left the castle. King Richard was
also gone, and no one knew whither.

Meanwhile, the tiltyard of the Preceptory of Templestowe was
prepared for the combat which should decide the life or death of
Rebecca. As the hour approached which was to determine the fate of
the unfortunate Jewess, a vast multitude had gathered to witness a
spectacle even in that age but seldom seen.

At one end of the lists arose the throne of the Grand Master,
surrounded with seats for the preceptors and the knights of the
Order, over which floated the sacred standard of the Templars.

At the opposite end was a pile of faggots, so arranged around a
stake, deeply fixed in the ground, as to leave a space for the
victim whom they were destined to consume. Close by stood four
black slaves, whose colour and African features, then so little
known in England, appalled the multitude, who gazed on them as

Soon the slow and sullen sounds of the great church bell chilled
with awe the hearts of the assembled crowd; and before long the
Grand Master, preceded by a stately retinue, approached his
throne. Behind him came Brian de Bois-Guilbert, armed cap-a-pie in
bright armour, but looking ghastly pale. A long procession
followed, and next a guard of warders on foot, in sable livery,
amidst whom might be seen the pale form of the accused maiden. All
her ornaments had been removed, and a coarse white dress, of the
simplest form, had been substituted for her Oriental garments; yet
there was such an exquisite mixture of courage and resignation in
her look that even in this garb, and with no other ornament than
her long black tresses, each eye wept that looked upon her.

The unfortunate Jewess was conducted to a black chair placed
near the pile; and soon after a loud and long flourish of trumpets
announced that the court were seated for judgment.

There was a dead pause of many minutes.

"No champion appears for the appellant," said the Grand Master.

Another pause succeeded; and then the knights whispered to each
other that it was time to declare the pledge of Rebecca forfeited.
At this instant a knight, urging his horse to speed, appeared on
the plain advancing towards the lists. A hundred voices exclaimed,
"A champion! A champion!" and amidst a ringing cheer the knight
rode into the tilt-yard, although his horse appeared to reel from

To the summons of the herald, who demanded his rank, his name, and
purpose, the stranger answered, raising his helmet as he spoke, "I
am Wilfred of Ivanhoe."

"I will not fight with thee at present," said Bois-Guilbert. "Get
thy wounds healed."

"Ha! proud Templar," said Ivanhoe, "hast thou forgotten that twice
didst thou fall before this lance? I will proclaim thee a coward
in every court in Europe unless thou do battle without farther

"Dog of a Saxon!" said the Templar, "take thy lance, and prepare
for the death thou hast drawn upon thee!"

At once each champion took his place, the trumpets sounded, and
the knights charged each other in full career. The wearied horse
of Ivanhoe, and its no less exhausted rider, went down, as all
had expected, before the well-aimed lance and vigorous steed of
the Templar. But although the spear of Ivanhoe did but touch the
shield of Bois-Guilbert, that champion, to the astonishment of all
who beheld it, reeled in his saddle, lost his stirrups, and fell
in the lists.

Ivanhoe was soon on foot, hastening to mend his fortune with his
sword; but his antagonist arose not. Wilfred, placing his foot on
his breast, and the sword's point to his throat, commanded him to
yield him, or die on the spot. Bois-Guilbert returned no answer.

"Slay him not, sir knight," cried the Grand Master. "We allow him

He descended into the lists, and commanded them to unhelm the
conquered champion. His eyes were closed; the dark red flush was
still on his brow. As they looked on him in astonishment the eyes
opened, but they were fixed and glazed. The flush passed from his
brow, and gave way to the pallid hue of death.

Unscathed by the lance of his enemy, he had died a victim to the
violence of his own contending passions.

"This is indeed the judgment of God," said the Grand Master,
looking upwards; "Thy will be done!"

Turning then to Wilfred of Ivanhoe, he said, "I pronounce the
maiden free and guiltless. The arms and the body of the deceased
knight are at the will of the victor."

His further speech was interrupted by a clattering of horses'
feet, and the Black Knight, followed by a numerous band of men-
at-arms, galloped into the lists.

At a glance he saw how matters stood. "Bohun," he said, addressing
one of his attendant knights, "do thine office."

The officer stepped forward, and, laying his hand on the shoulder
of Albert de Malvoisin, said, "I arrest thee of high treason."

"Who dares to arrest a Knight of the Temple in my presence?" said
the Grand Master; "and by whose authority is this bold outrage

"By my authority," said the king, raising his visor, "and by the
order of Richard Plantagenet who stands before you."

While he spoke the royal standard of England was seen to float
over the towers of the preceptory instead of the Temple banner;
and before long the followers of the king were in complete
possession of the entire castle.

Meanwhile Rebecca, giddy and almost senseless at the rapid change
of circumstances, was locked in the arms of her aged father; and
shortly after the two retreated hurriedly from the lists.

Not many days passed before the nuptials of Wilfred and the fair
Rowena were celebrated in the noble minster of York, attended by
the king in person.

On the second morning after this happy bridal Rebecca was shown
into the apartment of the Lady of Ivanhoe. She had come, she said,
to pay the debt of gratitude which she owed to Wilfred, and to ask
his wife to transmit to him her grateful farewell. She prayed that
God might bless their union, and, as she rose to leave, she
handed Rowena a casket filled with most precious jewels. "Accept
them, lady," she said; "to me they are valueless; I will never
wear jewels more. My father and I, we are going to a far country
where at least we shall dwell in liberty. He to whom I dedicate my
future life will be my Comforter if I do His will. Say this to thy
lord should he chance to inquire after the fate of her whose life
he saved." She then hastened to bid Rowena adieu, and glided from
the apartment.

Wilfred lived long and happily with his bride, for they were
attached to each other by the bonds of early affection, and they
loved each other the more from the recollection of the obstacles
which had so long impeded their union.


Retold by Sir Edward Sullivan

The Castle of Ellangowan was an old and massive structure,
situated by the seashore in the southwestern part of Scotland. It
had been for many years the dwelling-place of a family named
Bertram, each of whom had in succession borne the title of the
Laird of Ellangowan. They had once been people of wealth and
importance in the neighbourhood; but through lack of prudence and
other misfortunes, they had, one after another, lost much of the
greatness and prosperity which had belonged to them in better
days. One of their number became at last so poor that he could no
longer maintain the old family residence; so he contented himself
with occupying a much smaller house which he had himself built,
from the windows of which he could still look out on the ancient
abode of his forefathers, as it dwindled year by year to the
condition of a neglected ruin.

At the time that our story commences, one Godfrey Bertram was the
Laird of Ellangowan, and the owner of the now diminished estates.
He was a good-tempered, easy-going kind of man, and became, in
consequence, very popular with all the poorer people of the
district, and especially with the gipsies, a large number of whom
were at all times to be found in the neighbourhood.

His wife had brought him a little money when he married; and he
and she continued to lead a quiet and not unhappy life in their
new home. Amongst Mr. Bertram's most intimate companions in his
retirement was one Abel Sampson, a tall and awkward-looking man,
with a harsh voice and huge feet, who was known to the people
around as "the dominie." He was a man who spoke but little, and
generally used very long words when he did; but he had a kindly
and good-natured heart. He was for a time the parish schoolmaster
at the village of Kippletringan, which was close to Ellangowan,
and was employed now and then as a kind of clerk by the laird.

The village of Kippletringan was situated a little distance from
the sea; and although the neighbourhood was dignified by the
possession of a customhouse, the place was still the favourite
haunt of a large body of desperate and determined smugglers, who,
it was supposed, were assisted by many of the small shopkeepers of
the locality in disposing of the contraband goods which were
surreptitiously brought from foreign parts.

One cloudy November evening, a young traveller, Guy Mannering by
name, just come from the University of Oxford, was making his way
with difficulty over the wild and lonely moorland which extended
for many miles on the outskirts of the village. He had lost the
road to Kippletringan, whither he was bound, but was lucky enough
to find a guide to conduct him there before he had gone completely
astray; and late at night he arrived at Godfrey Bertram's house,
where he was hospitably welcomed by the owner. Supper was got
ready, a good bottle of wine was opened, and the laird and the
dominic and Guy Mannering were enjoying themselves comfortably,
when the conversation was interrupted by the shrill voice of
someone coming upstairs.

"It's Meg Merrilies, the gipsy, as sure as I'm a sinner," said Mr.
Bertram; and, as the door opened, a tall woman, full six feet
high, with weather-beaten features and hair as black as midnight,
stepped into the room.

Her appearance was altogether of so strange a kind, that it made
Mannering start. After some conversation with the laird, the gipsy
woman informed him that she had come to tell the fortune of his
little son, who was born that night, and asked to be told the
exact hour of his birth.

Now Guy Mannering himself, amongst other accomplishments,
possessed a knowledge of the stars; and on learning the time at
which young Bertram was born, he went outside to study the
heavens, with a view to foretelling what the future of the child
would be.

The sky had become beautifully clear, for the rising wind had
swept away the clouds with which it had been previously overcast,
and the observer was enabled to note carefully the positions of
the principal planets, from which he made out that three periods
of the infant's life would be attended by great danger to him,
namely, his fifth, his tenth, and his twenty-first year.

On the morning following, Mannering strolled out towards the old
castle, thinking to himself whether he should tell Mr. Bertram
what he had learned from the stars respecting his young son's
future life. The castle was merely a ruin at this time, and as he
wandered amidst the gloomy remnants of the ancient structure, his
attention was arrested by the voice of the gipsy whom he had seen
the night before. He soon found an opening in one of the walls
through which he could observe Meg Merrilies without himself being

She was sitting on a broken stone, in a strange, wild dress, and
engaged in spinning a thread drawn from wool of three different
colours. She was at the same time half singing and half muttering
a kind of charm, which seemed to have reference to the child which
had been born the night before; and as she finished, Mannering
heard her murmur something about the thread of life being three
times broken and three times mended, and distinctly heard her
say: "He'll be a lucky lad an he win through wi't." [Footnote: "He
will be a lucky lad if he lives through it."]

He was about to speak to the gipsy, when he heard a hoarse voice
calling to her in angry tones from outside, and in a moment after,
a man, who was apparently a sea-captain, came in to where Meg
Merrilies was seated.

He was short in height, but prodigiously muscular, strong, and
thick-set, with a surly and savage scowl upon his unpleasant
features. He spoke with a foreign accent, and upbraided the gipsy
for keeping him waiting so long, ordering her, with a curse, to
come and bless his ship before it set out on its voyage. While
still addressing the gipsy, he caught sight of Guy Mannering, and
was about to draw a weapon against him, when she told him that he
was a friend of Mr. Bertram's. He then introduced himself to
Mannering, and said his name was Dirck Hatteraick, the captain of
the vessel that was lying off the shore. Mannering wished him
good-day shortly after, and as he saw him embarking in a small
boat, he was convinced, from his conversation and appearance, that
the captain was a smuggler.

On returning to the new house at Ellangowan, Mannering learned
from Mr. Bertram that this Dirck Hatteraick was the terror of all
the excise and custom-house cruisers, with which he had had many a
fierce fight.

Before Guy Mannering took his departure from Ellangowan, Mr.
Bertram asked him the result of his studying the stars on the
preceding night, and, in reply, was handed a paper by Mannering,
which he was told he should keep in a sealed envelope for five
whole years.

When the visitor had gone, Mrs. Bertram, the mother of the baby
boy, was very anxious to read the paper, for she was a superstitious
lady; but after a struggle with her curiosity, she contented
herself with making a small velvet bag, into which she sewed
the paper, and the whole was then hung as a charm round the
neck of her young child.

Time rolled on, and when little Harry Bertram grew to be four
years old, he was already a great favourite with Dominie Sampson,
who had acted as his tutor and was his constant companion. But
just about this time the Laird of Ellangowan was appointed one of
the magistrates of the county; and shortly after his appointment
he began, little by little, to become very unpopular with the
gipsies, with whom he had before been such a favourite. He thought
it his duty now to punish and exterminate all amongst them who
were poachers and trespassers, and caused even the poor beggars at
his door to be sent to the workhouse.

One tribe of these gipsies, amongst whom Meg Merrilies was a kind
of queen, had lived for a long time unmolested in a few huts in a
glen upon the estate of Ellangowan, at a place called Derncleugh.
It was a miserable and squalid village, but for all that Mr.
Bertram was determined to evict them and all their poor
belongings. He was no doubt doing as the law directed him, but, as
far as concerned the inhabitants of Derncleugh, he was acting with
great harshness, for Meg Merrilies had all along shown a strong
affection for his boy, little Harry Bertram.

The day of eviction came at length, and a large body of men under
the direction of Frank Kennedy, a custom-house officer, made their
way to the miserable village, and on the gipsies refusing to leave
peaceably, proceeded to unroof their cottages and pull down the
wretched doors and windows. There was no resistance, and when the
work was ended, the now homeless tribe gathered together the
remnants of their property, and set forth with sullen and
revengeful thoughts to look for a new settlement.

Mr. Bertram had been some distance from home on the day of the
eviction; but on returning in the evening he met the troop of
gipsies. Some of the men muttered angry remarks as he passed them
on the road, but he thought it best to make no answer. Meg
Merrilies had, however, lagged behind the rest, and was standing
alone on a high bank above the road as the laird went by. Her
dress was even stranger than usual, and her black hair hung loose
about her, while her dark eyes flashed angrily. She had a light
sapling in her hand, and as the laird looked up to where she
stood, she said to him:

"Ride your ways, Laird of Ellangowan! ride your ways, Godfrey
Bertram! This day have ye quenched seven smoking hearths--see if
your own fire burn the blither for that. Ye have riven the roof
off seven cottar houses--look if your own roof-tree stand the
faster. Ride your ways, Godfrey Bertram! what do ye glower after
our folk for? There's thirty hearts there that would have spent
their life-blood ere ye had scratched your finger. Yes, there's
thirty yonder, from the old wife of an hundred to the babe that
was born last week, that ye have turned out o' their houses, to
sleep with the black-cock in the moors! Ride your ways, Ellan-
gowan! Our bairns are hanging at our weary backs; look that your
braw cradle at home be the fairer spread up. Not that I am wishing
ill to little Harry, God forbid! So ride your way, for these are
the last words ye'll ever hear Meg Merrilies speak, and this is
the last twig that I'll ever cut in the bonny woods of Ellangowan."

And having uttered this dark and threatening speech, she turned
contemptuously from him, to join her comrades in misfortune.

Meanwhile, the smugglers under their captain, Dirck Hatteraick,
had been carrying on their lawless trade as usual, and the Laird
of Ellangowan was as determined to put them down as he had been to
get rid of the gipsies. He was actively assisted in his endeavours
against them by the same Frank Kennedy who had carried out the
eviction of Meg Merrilies and her companions, and the smugglers
had sworn to be revenged upon their enemy.

On the day that young Harry Bertram was five years old, Dirck
Hatteraick's ship was in the bay outside the village of
Kippletringan. A sloop of war in the king's service was pursuing
it in order to seize the smuggled goods which were on board, when
Frank Kennedy, looking out, saw that Hatteraick was likely to
escape, as he had got his vessel round a headland called Warroch
Point, where it was concealed from the sloop, unless someone went
down to the Point and made a signal to the pursuers.

He accordingly mounted his horse and galloped off. On his way he
happened to meet little Bertram, who was walking with the dominie,
and as he had often promised to give the child a ride, he took him
up on his nag, and rode off towards the Point.

Shortly afterwards the discharges of several cannon were heard,
and after an interval a still louder explosion, as of a vessel
blown up.

As evening came on, Mr. and Mrs. Bertram were expecting little
Harry to come home, and as he did not return, became very uneasy
about him. After waiting for him in anxiety for some time, the
news came in that Kennedy's horse had come back riderless to its

All was now bustle at Ellangowan. The laird and his servants
rushed away to the wood of Warroch; but they searched long and in
vain for any trace of Kennedy or the boy. It was already growing
dark, when a shrill and piercing shout was heard from the sea-
shore under the wood, and on hurrying to the place, Mr. Bertram
was horrified to see the dead body of Frank Kennedy lying on the
beach, right under a high precipice of rocks.

In his wild dismay and terror for his child, and remembering the
words of Meg Merrilies, the laird hurried away to Derncleugh,
hoping to get some news of him from any of the gipsies who might
still be lingering round the place. He wandered amongst the ruins
of the cottages, where he found no one, although he noticed the
remains of a fire in one of the huts. After a little, one of his
servants came running to him and told him to come home at once--
that Mrs. Bertram was dying. Half stupefied, he went back; but
only to find that his wife was dead, that a little daughter had
been born to him, and that his boy was gone.

The sheriff of the county arrived next morning and opened an
inquiry. The wood was again searched, with the result that traces
of a struggle were found near the top of the cliff, over the place
where Kennedy's body was found lying. Footprints of men and of a
small boy were seen here and there. Witnesses who were examined
said that they had seen the smuggler's ship grounding, and taking
fire, and finally blowing up with a great explosion; but no one
could say what had become of its crew. The gipsies were suspected,
and Meg Merrilies was arrested; but when questioned she denied
that she had been at the place. They found, however, a cut upon
her arm; and on removing the handkerchief with which she had it
bounda it was found to be marked with the name of Harry Bertram.

No further evidence could be procured of her guilt, and she was at
length set free, under sentence of banishment from the county.

For many years after this Mr. Bertram continued to live a solitary
and mournful life at Ellangowan. The poor dominie never ceased to
blame himself for the loss of the boy, as Harry was in his charge
on the day on which he had disappeared; but he still lived with
the laird as before, and was chiefly employed in teaching
Bertram's daughter, little Lucy, who was now growing up into a
gentle and bonny girl.

The laird had been always a bad man of business, and after his
wife's death he got into the hands of a scheming and dishonest
attorney named Glossin, who in the end craftily succeeded in
making himself rich at the expense of his employer.

The debts of the laird became at length so many that the property
at Ellangowan had to be mortgaged, and things ultimately went so
badly with the poor owner, that the men to whom he owed so much
money determined to insist on the estate being sold, together with
the house and all the furniture.

It was rumoured, too, amongst the country-folk that Glossin was
the man, of all others, who was most eager to turn the Bertrams
out of their house, in order that he might buy the property
himself, and become the Laird of Ellangowan.

Now the property in Ellangowan had been what is called "settled"
in such a way that it could not be sold if Mr. Bertram had a son
living. It was therefore likely to be disposed of very cheap, as
no one knew for certain that young Bertram was dead; while if he
should happen to be alive, there was still a chance of his coming
back and claiming the estates.

When Glossin, the attorney, found that there was no more to be got
out of his client in the way of money, he commenced openly to show
the wickedness of his bad and cruel nature; and the very sight of
him became hateful to the unhappy Godfrey Bertram.

So things went on until Lucy Bertram was seventeen years old, and
her father had become a weak and poor old man, and then Glossin
determined to play his last card.

The estates of Ellangowan were advertised to be sold to the
highest bidder, and a day was fixed for the auction.

Before describing how the sale took place, it will be necessary to
tell something of Guy Mannering, who, as will be remembered, had
left Ellangowan shortly after the day that young Harry Bertram was

He became a soldier; and having served for a long time in India,
was appointed colonel of his regiment. His wife and daughter were
with him there, and they had become very intimate with a young
officer in the same regiment, called Vanbeest Brown, who, it was
supposed, had came from Holland, where he had previously been
engaged in trade of some kind. Colonel Mannering, for some reason,
never cared for Brown, but chiefly because he had foolishly
listened to the dishonourable suggestions of a friend, who, for
reasons of his own, had secretly poisoned his mind against the
young officer. The dislike ripened after some time into an open
quarrel, followed by a duel between the colonel and his subaltern,
in which, after exchanging shots, Mannering believed he killed his
adversary. Mrs. Mannering died shortly after, and the colonel and
his daughter returned to England.

Now it so happened that Colonel Mannering arrived at the village
of Kippletringan a day or two before the time at which the sale of
Ellangowan was to take place. He was much distressed at hearing
the pitiable account that was given to him of his old friend,
Godfrey Bertram; and the idea at once occurred to him that he
would buy the property himself, and by doing so help the laird.

Accordingly, on the day of the auction, he made his way to
Ellangowan House, where he was told, on inquiry, that the old
laird was dangerously ill, and was to be found up at the ruined
castle in company with his daughter. Thither Colonel Mannering
went to look for him. He found old Mr. Bertram sitting in an easy-
chair on the slope beside the castle with his feet wrapped in
blankets, and beside him his daughter and the dominie, and a
handsome young man whom he did not recognise, but who, he
afterwards learned, was a gentleman called Charles Hazlewood, who
was deeply in love with Miss Bertram.

Mannering was much affected when the old laird failed to remember
him, for he had not forgotten his hospitable kindness many years
before, on the night when little Harry was born. While he was
engaged in conversation with Miss Bertram and her companion, a
voice was heard close by, which Lucy at once recognised as that of
her father's enemy, Glossin, and she sent the dominie to keep him
away. The sound of the voice had, however, also reached the old
man's ears. He started up on hearing it, and turning towards
Glossin, he addressed him in tones of passion and indignation.

"Out of my sight, ye viper," he said; "ye frozen viper that I
warmed till ye stung me! Are ye not afraid that the walls of my
father's dwelling should fall and crush ye, limb and bone? Were ye
not friendless, houseless, penniless, when I took ye by the hand;
and are ye not expelling me--me, and that innocent girl--
friendless, houseless, and penniless, from the house that has
sheltered us and ours for a thousand years?"

A few moments after, the carriage was announced, in which Lucy
Bertram and her father were to leave their home; but it was no
longer necessary. The old Laird of Ellangowan was so exhausted by
his last effort of indignant anger, that when he sunk upon his
chair, he expired almost without a struggle or a groan.

The sale of the property was then postponed until after the
funeral; and Colonel Mannering, having done what he could for Miss
Bertram in her unhappy condition, left the neighbourhood with the
intention of returning in time for the adjourned sale, for the
purpose of buying the estate.

The appointed hour for the auction at length arrived, but Colonel
Mannering had not come back. No one had even received a letter
from him; and in his absence, as there was no other bidder, the
infamous Glossin was declared to be the lawful purchaser, and a
new Laird of Ellangowan.

At six o'clock that night a drunken post-boy reached the village
with a letter from the colonel, containing instructions to buy the
property. It had been delayed on its way, and was now no longer of
any use.

Poor Lucy Bertram now found herself an orphan without house or
home; but the kindness of some neighbours named Mac-Morlan, to
some extent, assuaged the misery of her position. They insisted on
her coming to live with them and Mr. Mac-Morlan even offered the
dominie a clerkship in his establishment, where he might still be
near his lady pupil, to whom, in spite of his strange and awkward
ways, he was devotedly attached for her father's sake.

When Colonel Mannering, after the death of Mr. Bertram, left
Ellangowan with the intention of coming back to buy the property,
he travelled some distance, and after a while came to a post-town
where he expected some letters. He received one letter, which
displeased him very much, from a great friend of his who was
living in the north of England, Mr. Mervyn by name, in whose care
he had left his daughter, Julia Mannering, when he was starting
for Kippletringan. This letter informed him that Miss Mannering
was being serenaded at night from the lake beside the house by
some unknown stranger, who had, however, disappeared before the
letter was written.

On reading this intelligence the colonel hastened at once to Mr.
Mervyn's residence, having first sent off the instructions in
reference to the purchase of the Ellangowan estate which, as
already said, arrived too late.

The lover who had been serenading Julia Mannering was in reality,
the same Vanbeest Brown whom she had known in India, and with whom
her father had fought the duel. Colonel Mannering had, however, no
idea that Brown was still alive, and the daughter was afraid to
tell her father that he was. Captain Brown, as he was now known,
was a handsome and gallant young fellow; and, having returned to
England with his regiment, and being still deeply devoted to Miss
Mannering, he had lost no time in making his way to where she was
staying in the house of Mr. Mervyn, her father's friend.

When Mannering arrived at Mr. Mervyn's, he said very little about
the information which had been the cause of his return; but he
told his daughter that he had taken a place near Kippletringan,
called Woodbourne, where he meant to reside for some time. He also
told her that she would have a pleasant companion in Lucy Bertram,
the daughter of an old friend of his, who was going to stay with
them in his new house.

Accordingly, as soon as Woodbourne was made ready to receive them,
the colonel and his daughter Julia took up their residence there,
and Lucy Bertram became their guest. Another inmate of the new
house was the dominie, for whom Colonel Mannering had a liking,
and who, he knew, could not bear to be parted altogether from Miss
Bertram, whose tutor he had been from her earliest days. When the
poor half-cracked dominie heard that he was to be employed as
Colonel Mannering's librarian, his joy knew no bounds; and on
seeing the large number of old books which were committed to his
charge he became almost crazy with delight, and shouted his
favourite word, "Pro-di-gi-ous!" till the roof rung to his

After a little time Lucy Bertram and Miss Mannering became fast
friends, but the latter was careful never to say anything to her
new companion about her lover, Captain Brown.

Now, Brown, when he found that Julia Mannering had gone to
Woodbourne, determined to follow her, with the purpose of resuming
his addresses, and he accordingly set out on foot towards the

It was a fine clear frosty winter's day when he found himself in
the wilds of Cumberland on his way to his destination in Scotland.
He had walked for some distance, when he stopped at a small
public-house to procure refreshment. He here fell in with a farmer
named Dandie Dinmont, a big, rollicking fellow, with an honest
face and kindly ways, with whom he became friends in a very little

There was another person, however, in the inn on whom Brown could
not avoid repeatedly fixing his eyes--a tall, witch-like woman. It
was Meg Merrilies the gipsy; but time had grizzled her raven
locks, and added many wrinkles to her wild features. As he looked
at her, he could not help saying to himself: "Have I dreamed of
such a figure?"

As he was asking himself the question, the gipsy suddenly made two
strides towards him and seized his hand, at the same time saying
to him:

"In God's name, young man, tell me your name, and whence you

"My name is Brown, mother, and I come from the East Indies," he

On hearing his answer she dropped his hand with a sigh, and said:

"It cannot be, then--it cannot be; but be what ye will, ye have a
face and a tongue that puts me in mind of old times." As Brown
took his departure on foot, the gipsy looked after him and
muttered to herself: "I maun [Footnote: I must.] see that lad

The traveller had gone a considerable distance across the lonely
moorland through which his road lay, when his little dog Wasp
began to bark furiously at something in front of them. Brown
quickened his pace, and soon caught sight of the subject of the
terrier's alarm. In a hollow, a little below him, was his late
companion Dandie Dinmont, engaged with two other men in a
desperate struggle. In a moment Brown, who was both strong and
active, came to the rescue; and, after a short fight, the two
would-be murderers of the farmer were flying for their own lives
across the heath, pursued by Wasp. Dinmont then took his friend
upon his pony, and they succeeded after some time in reaching
Charlie's Hope, the farmer's home, where they were welcomed by his
wife and a large troop of children.

The next few days were spent salmon spearing, and hunting otters
on the hills in the neighbourhood. One of the huntsmen, of whom
there were a large number out, was a dark-featured man, resembling
a gipsy in his appearance; and Brown noticed that whenever he
approached him he endeavoured to hide his face. He could not
remember, however, having ever seen the man before; but he
learned, on asking about him, that he was a stranger in those
parts, who had come from the south-west of Scotland, and that his
name was Gabriel. Nothing further was known about him at Charlie's

Brown's visit to Dandie Dinmont was now at an end, and he again
took the road for Woodbourne, the residence of Julia Mannering.

He had hired a chaise and horses, but had not gone far on the wild
road to Kippletringan when night came on and the snow fell
heavily; and shortly after, to make matters worse, the driver
missed the way. When the horses were unable to proceed any
further, Brown dismounted from the carriage in order to look for a
house where he could ask the way; and as he wandered through the
plantations which skirted the road, he saw a light in the distance
amongst the trees. After traversing a deep and dangerous glen, he
reached the house from which the light shone. It was an old and
ruinous building. Before approaching the door, he peeped in
through an aperture in the ruined wall, and saw in the room inside
the figure of a man, stretched on a straw bed, with a blanket
thrown over it. He could see that the man was dying. A woman clad
in a long cloak was sitting by the bedside, and moistening at
times the lips of the man with some liquid. She was singing a low
monotonous strain.

She paused in her singing, and Brown heard a few deep groans come
from the dying man.

"It will not be," she muttered to herself. "He cannot pass away
with that on his mind; I must open the door."

Brown stood before her as she opened the door, and he at once
recognised the same gipsy woman whom he had met in the inn a few
days before. He noticed, too, that there was a roll of linen about
the dying man's head, which was deeply stained with blood.

"Wretched woman, who has done this?" exclaimed Brown.

And the gipsy answered: "They that were permitted;" and she added
after a few moments, "He's dead now."

Sounds of voices at a distance were now heard. "They are coming,"
said she to Brown; "you are a dead man." He was about to rush out,
when the gipsy seized him with a strong grasp. "Here," she said,
"here, be still, and you are safe; stir not, whatever you see or
hear, and nothing shall befall you!"

She made him lie down among a parcel of straw, and covered him
carefully; and then resumed her song.

Brown, though a soldier and a brave one, was terrified as he lay
in his hiding-place. Peeping out through the straw, he saw five
rough-looking men come in who seemed to be gipsies and sailors.
They closed round the fire and commenced to drink, holding
consultation together in a strange gibberish which he could not
altogether understand. Whenever the gipsy woman addressed them,
she spoke angrily to them; and more than once she called them
murderers; they, however, did not seem to mind her.

They continued drinking and talking for a considerable time, but
all that Brown could make out was that there was someone whom they
were going to murder. They also referred to a murder committed
some twenty years before, in which their dead companion had had a

After some time spent in this way, one of the party went out and
brought in a portmanteau, which Brown at once recognised as the
one he had left in the chaise. They ripped it open, and after
examining the contents, which included all the owner's ready
money, with the exception of a trifling sum in his pocket, they
divided the whole amongst them. Then they drank more; and it was
not until morning that they left the building. When they left,
they carried the dead body with them.

No sooner were they well outside, than Meg Merrilies got up from
where she had been pretending to be asleep, and told Brown to
follow her instantly. Brown obeyed with alacrity, feeling that he
was already out of reach of danger when the villains had gone out;
but before leaving he took up a cutlass belonging to one of the
five, and brought it with him in the belief that he might yet have
to fight with them for his life. The snow lay on the ground as he
and the gipsy came out, and as he followed her he noticed that she
chose the track the men had taken, so that her footprints might
not be seen.

After a while, however, she turned from the track, and led the way
up a steep and rugged path under the snow-laden trees, and on
reaching a place some distance farther on, she pointed out the
direction of Kippletringan, and told her companion to make what
speed he could. Brown was entirely at a loss to make out the
reason the gipsy had for taking such an interest in preserving his
life from her comrades; and was even more puzzled by her conduct
when she took an old purse from her pocket before parting, and
gave it to him.

She said as she handed it to him: "Many's the alms your house has
given Meg and hers." And Brown, as he thanked her for her
kindness, asked her how he could repay the money she had given

"I have two boons to crave," answered the gipsy, speaking low and
hastily: "one is that you will never speak of what you have seen
this night; the other, that when I next call for you, be it in
church or market, at wedding or at burial, meal-time or fasting,
that ye leave everything else and come with me."

"That will do you little good, mother," answered Brown.

"But 'twill do yourself much good," replied Meg Merrilies. "I know
what I am asking, and I know it has been the will of God to
preserve you in strange dangers, and that I shall be the means to
set you in your father's seat again. So give your promise, and
mind that you owe your life to me this blessed night."

When Brown had promised, she parted from him, and was soon out of

The young soldier could come to no other conclusion but that the
woman was mad; and having in this way solved the mystery to his
own satisfaction, he strode quickly on through the wood in search
of the highroad to Kippletringan.

He reached the village at length, and engaged a room at the Gordon
Arms, a comfortable inn kept by a Mrs. Mac-Candlish. On opening
the purse which the gipsy had given him, he was astonished to find
that it contained money and jewels worth about a hundred pounds.
He accordingly entrusted it to the landlady of the inn for safe

The day after his arrival at the village of Kippletringan, he
determined to see Miss Mannering; and learning that she was
likely to be found with a party of skaters on a lake in the
neighbourhood, he proceeded in that direction.

The skating party, of whom Julia Mannering was one, consisted of
herself and Lucy Bertram, and young Charles Hazlewood, who, as
before mentioned, was Miss Bertram's lover. Having spent some time
upon the ice, they were returning to Woodbourne through the
plantation. Hazlewood, who had a gun with him, had offered his arm
to Miss Mannering, who was tired after skating, as they walked
towards home. When they had proceeded some little distance in this
way, Brown happened to meet them. He was wearing the rough suit in
which he had spent the night in the gipsy's house, having been
unable to procure a change on account of his portmanteau having
been stolen.

Julia Mannering, who had had no intimation that her old lover was
in the district, uttered a scream when she suddenly saw him
standing before her; and Hazlewood, fancying from the rough
appearance of the stranger that he was either a gipsy or a tramp,
pointed his gun towards him, and ordered him to keep off.

Brown, in a fit of jealousy, and fearing that the gun might go
off, rushed upon Hazlewood and seized the fowling-piece. But in
the struggle which ensued between them it was discharged by
accident, and young Hazlewood fell to the ground, wounded in the

Brown, when he saw what had occurred, became frightened at the
thought of the dangers of his position. He bounded over a hedge
which divided the footpath from the plantation, and was not heard
of again for a considerable time.

On the news of Hazlewood's being wounded getting abroad, the
neighbourhood was thrown into a ferment of indignation. All the
circumstances of the occurrence were exaggerated. It was
universally believed that the attacking party was a smuggler or a
gipsy, and that he had attempted in broad daylight to murder the
young man. It was stated that the assailant had been seen earlier
in the day wearing a smuggler's cutlass; and the purse which had
been left at the inn was opened and found to contain property
which had been previously stolen. Charles Hazlewood himself,
however, continued to protest that the wounding was accidental;
while the only person who could give any real account of the
mysterious stranger, namely Julia Mannering, for reasons best
known to herself, never pretended that she had any idea who he

Amongst those who were most active in their endeavours to capture
the missing Brown was Glossin, the new Laird of Ellangowan. It was
plain, too, that he had some other motive for apprehending him
than merely the desire to do his duty as a magistrate of the
county, which he had now become.

On returning to his house one day, he was informed that Mac-
Guffog, the thief-taker, had made a prisoner, and that he was
waiting with him in the kitchen. When the prisoner was introduced
to the magistrate's room, Glossin at once recognised that it was
Dirck Hatteraick, the smuggler captain.

In the interview which took place between them, no one else being
present, it transpired that Glossin had been a kind of partner
with the smuggler at the time of Kennedy's murder and the
disappearance of young Harry Bertram. Dirck Hatteraick told him,
too, very plainly, that if he was to be condemned he would let the
secret out and ruin Glossin. Glossin, who was much terrified at
the thought of being discovered, then arranged, like a villain
that he was, to imprison Hatteraick for that night in a room in
the old castle of Ellangowan, and at the same time give him a
small file with which he might rid himself of his handcuffs and
escape. During the interview between them, Hatteraick also told
the attorney that young Bertram was still alive, and at
Kippletringan. Glossin's situation was therefore perilous in the
extreme, for the schemes of a life of villainy seemed at once to
be crumbling around and about him.

Hatteraick was accordingly then sent to his place of confinement
in the old castle.

At midnight Glossin looked out from his bedroom towards the
castle, and after watching for some time in an agony of guilty
suspense, he saw the dark form of a man, whom he knew to be
Hatteraick, drop from the prison window and make his way to the
beach, where he succeeded in shoving out a boat which was lying
there. In a few minutes after, he had hoisted the sail, and soon
disappeared round the Point of Warroch.

Great was the alarm and confusion the next morning when it was
discovered that the smuggler had escaped from prison. Constables
were sent out in every direction to search for him, and Glossin
took care to send them to places where they would be least likely
to find him.

In the meantime he himself made his way to a cave by the seashore
near the Point of Warroch, where he had arranged with Hatteraick
to meet him the day after his escape.

Glossin had never been near this spot since the day on which the
unfortunate Kennedy was murdered; and the terrible scene came back
to his mind with all its accompaniments of horror as he stealthily
approached the cavern. When he reached it and went in, he found
Hatteraick in the dark and shivering with cold.

During the conversation that ensued between them he learned from
the smuggler what had become of young Bertram after Kennedy's
murder. He had been taken to Holland, Hatteraick said, and left
with an old merchant named Vanbeest Brown, who took a fancy to the
boy and called him by his own name. He had afterwards been sent to
India; but the smuggler knew nothing of him from the time he went
there. Bertram had, however, been seen, he said, a few days
before, among the hills by a gipsy named Gabriel.

Glossin then discovered for the first time that it was young
Bertram, in reality, who had wounded Hazlewood. In his terror at
the thought of losing his property at Ellangowan if it came to be
known that Harry Bertram was alive, yet at all times fertile in
every kind of villainous device, Glossin now hit upon a new plan
to get rid of the man who stood between him and his peace of mind.
By making large promises to Hatteraick he induced the smuggler to
agree to come by night, with a large body of his men, to the
prison where Bertram would be confined for his attack on
Hazlewood, and to break open the doors and carry him off. He said
he would have the soldiers withdrawn on some pretence or other, so
as to make the rescue more certain; and having completed the
details of this desperate and lawless piece of villainy, he went
back to Ellangowan.

But it is time to return to Brown, who was now a fugitive from
justice in consequence of the unlucky accident of which his
rashness had been the cause. He determined to make his way to
England, and to wait there until he received letters from friends
in his regiment establishing his identity, in possession of which
he could again show himself at Kippletringan, and offer to young
Hazlewood any explanation or satisfaction he might require. He
accordingly took ship for Cumberland. He chanced on board to meet
a man whose daughter was at the time in Colonel Mannering's
service at Woodbourne and by his means contrived to get a letter
delivered to Miss Mannering, in which he begged of her to forgive
him for his rash conduct towards Hazlewood. Having landed on the
English coast, he wrote to the colonel of his regiment for such
testimony of his rank in the army as should place his character as
a gentleman and an officer beyond question; and, as he was now
reduced to great straits for want of funds, he wrote to his sturdy
farmer friend, Dandie Dinmont, for the loan of a little money.

After a delay of some days, he received a short letter from Miss
Mannering, in which she upbraided him for his thoughtless conduct,
and bade him good-bye, telling him on no account to come back to

On reading it over, he came somehow to the conclusion that Miss
Mannering meant the opposite of all she had written, and in this
belief he set sail at once for Kippletringan.

After a rough and dangerous voyage by night, he found himself in
the morning off the Scottish coast. The weather had now cleared. A
woody cape, that stretched into the sea, lay some little distance
from the vessel; and, in answer to Brown's inquiries, the boatman
told him that it was Warroch Point. Close beside it was the old
castle of Ellangowan; and Brown felt a strange longing, as he
looked at it, to be put ashore for the purpose of examining it
more closely. The boatman readily acceded to his wishes, and
landed him on the beach beneath the ruins.

And thus, in complete ignorance of his own real identity,
surrounded by dangers, and without the assistance of a friend
within the circle of several hundred miles, accused of a heavy
crime, and almost penniless, did the weary wanderer, for the first
time after an interval of many eventful years, approach the
remains of the castle where his ancestors had once dwelt in lordly

It will have dawned upon the reader before now that the young
soldier known to him as Brown was in reality no other than the
Harry Bertram who had disappeared on the day when Kennedy was
murdered. The name of Brown will consequently be dropped during
the remainder of the story, and our hero will be called by his
proper appellation--Bertram.

After wandering for some time through the ruined apartments of the
castle, he stepped outside, and happened by chance to stand on the
very spot where his father--the old Laird of Ellangowan--had

Glossin at that moment chanced to be engaged close by with a
surveyor, in reference to some building plans connected with an
intended addition to his house; and he was just saying to his
companion that the whole ruin should be pulled down, when Bertram
met him, and said:

"Would you destroy this fine old castle, sir?"

His face, person, and voice were so exactly like those of his
father when alive, that Glossin almost believed that the grave had
given up its dead.

But after a time he recovered his self-possession, and then set
himself to discover if Bertram, whom he recognised, had any
knowledge of his own identity. He was much terrified when he heard
him repeat some lines of an old song, which he said he had learnt
in his childhood:

  "The dark shall be light,
   And the wrong made right,
   When Bertram's right and Bertram's might
   Shall meet on ...;"

but, although he could not recall the end of the last line,
Glossin thought he knew already a good deal too much about it.

A few of Glossin's men were now seen approaching up the slope,
whereupon he immediately assumed a different attitude and tone
towards Bertram.

"I believe your name is Brown, sir?" said Glossin.

"And what of that, sir?" replied Bertram.

"Why in that case," said Glossin, "you are my prisoner in the
king's name."

After a slight resistance the prisoner was secured, and shortly
after was brought before Sir Robert Hazlewood, one of the county
magistrates, and accused of maliciously wounding Charles
Hazlewood, his son.

In reply to the questions put to him, the prisoner said that he
was a captain in a regiment of horse in his Majesty's service, and
in a frank, manly way described how the wounding of Charles
Hazlewood was merely an accident, for which he expressed a sincere
sorrow. When required to give some proof of his rank in the army,
he stated that his luggage had been stolen. When asked to say
where he had spent the night on which it was taken, his promise
to Meg Merrilies came to his mind, and he replied that he must
refuse to answer the question. He was then pressed to account for
his having worn a smuggler's cutlass; but he also declined to
explain that matter. And his answers were equally unsatisfactory
when questioned on the subject of the purse which the gipsy had
given him.

Having failed to give any explanation of so many suspicious
circumstances, the warrant for his committal to gaol was made out,
although he stated that Colonel Mannering, whom he had known in
India, could, if sent for, give evidence of his character and

The colonel was, however, away from home at the time, and the
friendless and unfortunate Bertram was removed to prison, pending
Mannering's return.

"And now," said Glossin to himself, "to find Dirck Hatteraick and
his people--to get the guard sent off--and then for the grand cast
of the dice." And so saying he hastened away to complete with the
smuggler captain the villainous plan on which they had previously

The prison in which Bertram now found himself was a building which
adjoined the custom-house, and both were close beside the sea.
Mac-Guffog, who has been already mentioned, was at the time the
keeper; and a gruff and surly custodian he was, too. Bertram,
however, succeeded in procuring from him the luxury of a separate
room by promising the keeper a large sum of money. He was
accordingly ushered into a small ill-furnished apartment, through
the barred windows of which he could get a glimpse of the sea
which was dashing sullenly against the outer walls.

As he was reflecting on his miserable situation, his attention was
attracted by a loud knocking at the gate of the gaol; and shortly
after his little dog Wasp, which he had left in the care of Dandie
Dinmont, and Dinmont himself were shown into his room.

Bertram was delighted to have his old friend with him, and in
answer to his eager inquiries as to how he came to be in prison,
told him about the accident to young Hazlewood, and that he had
been mistaken for a smuggler.

Dinmont, on his part, then related how he had come to know of
Bertram's being locked up. Gabriel, the huntsman on the moors, he
said, had informed him in a mysterious way that Bertram was in
gaol, and that he was badly in need of a good friend to stay with
him night and day for a day or two. Dinmont added that he had
ridden sixty miles that day to come to his assistance.

They were interrupted in their conversation by Mac-Guffog, who
told them that it was time for the visitor to leave; but by means
of further promises he was induced to allow Dinmont to spend the
night in the same room with his friend; and in no longtime after
the two occupants of the wretched apartment were fast asleep.

Colonel Mannering, who had been from home for some days, returned
to Woodbourne the night of the day on which Bertram had been sent
to prison. The morning after his arrival, the dominie, who even
after so many years continued to blame himself for the loss of
little Harry, made his way, in a spirit of curiosity, to Warroch
Point, a place he had never approached since the child had
disappeared. As he wandered home again, filled with gloomy
recollections of the day of Kennedy's murder, his steps bore him
to the neighbourhood of Derncleugh, with its ruined remains of the
old gipsy village. The place had for many years had the reputation
of being haunted; more especially the tower, or Kaim, of
Derncleugh. As he was passing by it, the door suddenly opened, and
Meg Merrilies stepped out and stood before him. The dominie,
believing she was some sorceress, addressed her in Latin, but the
gipsy queen angrily interrupted him.

"Listen, ye fool, to what I tell ye," she said, "or ye'll rue it
while there's a limb o' ye hangs together. Tell Colonel Mannering
that I know he's seeking me. He knows, and I know, that the blood
will be wiped out, and the lost will be found--

  And Bertram's right, and Bertram's might,
   Shall meet on Ellangowan height.

Give him this letter, don't fail, and tell him the time's coming
now. Bid him to look at the stars as he looked at them before, and
to do what I desire him in the letter."

She then led the frightened dominie by a short cut through the
woods for about a quarter of a mile, and on reaching the common
told him to stand still.

"Look," she said, "how the setting sun breaks through the cloud
that's been darkening the sky all day. See the stream o' light
that falls on the old tower of Ellangowan; that's not for nothing.
Here I stood," she went on, stretching out her long sinewy arm
and clenched hand--"here I stood when I told the last Laird of
Ellangowan what was coming on his house, and did that fall to the
ground? And here I stand again to bid God prosper the just heir of
Ellangowan that will soon be brought to his own. I'll no live to
see it, maybe; but there will be many a blithe eye see it though
mine be closed. And now, Abel Sampson, as ever ye loved the house
of Ellangowan, away with my message to the English colonel as if
life and death were upon your haste."

So saying, she turned suddenly from the amazed dominie, who
hurried back to Woodbourne, exclaiming as he went, "Prodigious!
prodigious! pro-di-gi-ous!"

The kindly interest of Meg Merrilies in the fate of Bertram did
not, however, end here.

Shortly after quitting the dominie she met young Hazlewood on the
road, and told him, in a mysterious way, that the guard of
soldiers had been drawn off from the custom-house, and brought to
his father's house, in the expectation of an attack being made
upon it that night.

"Nobody means to touch his house," she added; "so send the
horsemen back to their post quietly. They will have work to-night;
the guns will flash and the swords will glitter in the moonlight."

She then asked him if he bore any malice to the man that wounded
him, and on Hazlewood assuring her that he had always thought it
was an accident, she said: "Then do what I bid ye, for if he was
left to his ill wishers he would be a bloody corpse ere
morn." And she then disappeared into the wood.

Charles Hazlewood, who now felt certain some diabolical plot was
on foot for the murder of the man who had accidentally wounded
him, rode back at once to his father's house.

He found the place occupied with dragoons, and instantly
endeavoured to persuade his father to send them back to the

Glossin had, however, impressed the old man with a fixed idea of
the impending danger to his house, and he refused to allow the
soldiers to go. While his son was still arguing with him, the
sheriff of the country came in hurriedly, and told him that he had
had information that the removal of the troops from the custom-
house was only part of a plan, and that they should at once
return. Orders were accordingly given without delay, and the
dragoons were shortly after on their way again to the place from
which they came.

But we must return to Bertram and his companion in their
unpleasant abode, in the prison.

Towards midnight Bertram woke after his first sleep. The air of
the small apartment had become close and confined, and he got up
for the purpose, if possible, of opening the window. His failure
to open it reminded him painfully that he was now a prisoner. He
was no longer inclined to sleep, so he continued for some time to
gaze out on the troubled sea, as it rolled under the indistinct
light of a hazy and often overclouded moon. As he looked he
fancied he saw in the distance a boat being rowed towards the
shore; and before long he found that he had not been mistaken.
The boat, which was a large one, drew nearer and nearer, and as it
reached the land some twenty men jumped on shore, and disappeared
up a dark passage which divided the prison from the custom-house.
Almost immediately after, Bertram could hear a tumult in the outer
yard of the bridewell, and, being unable to guess what its meaning
was, he awoke Dinmont.

The smell of fire now commenced to reach the room, and, on Dinmont
looking out of the window, he exclaimed: "Lord's sake, captain!
come here; they have broken in the custom-house!"

Looking from the prison window they could see the gang of
smugglers hurrying here and there, some with lighted torches,
others carrying barrels towards the shore. It was plain, too, from
the thick clouds of smoke that rolled past the window that the
prison was itself on fire.

Dinmont roared loudly for Mac-Guffog to let them out, but all was
silent in the gaol. Outside, the shouts of the smugglers and the
mob resounded far and wide, and it seemed as if the keeper had
himself escaped, and left his prisoners to perish in the flames.

But now a new and fierce attack was heard at the outer gate. It
was soon forced in with sledgehammers and crows, and, before long,
some three or four of the principal smugglers hurried to the
apartment of Bertram with lighted torches, and armed with
cutlasses and pistols. Two of them seized on Bertram, but one of
them whispered in his ear, "Make no resistance till you are
outside." They dragged him roughly to the gate, but amid the riot
and confusion which prevailed, the sound as of a body of horse
advancing was heard. A few moments after, the dragoons were
engaged with the rioters. Shots were fired, and the glittering
broadswords of the soldiers began to flash in the air. "Now,"
whispered the man at Bertram's left, "shake off that fellow and
follow me."

Bertram, with a violent and sudden effort, burst away from the man
on his right, and closely following his mysterious friend,
attended by the faithful Dinmont, who never left him, ran quickly
down a narrow lane which led from the main street.

No pursuit took place, as the smugglers had enough to do to defend
themselves against the dragoons. At the end of the lane there was
a post-chaise and horses waiting.

"Are you here in God's name?" said the guide to the driver.

"Ay, troth I am," said he.

"Open the carriage, then. You, gentlemen, get into it; in a short
time you'll be in a place of safety, and remember your promise to
the gipsy wife."

Bertram and Dinmont got in at once, followed by little Wasp, and
in a moment found themselves travelling at a breakneck pace,
neither of them knowing where on earth they were going to.

They were, in fact, on the way to Woodbourne, for the carriage had
been sent by Colonel Mannering, after he had read the letter which
the dominie brought him from Meg Merrilies. The note had given him
no intimation, however, of the persons who were to be conveyed in
the chaise to Woodbourne, merely telling him that it should bring
the folk that should ask if it were there in God's name.

As the colonel's clock was striking one that night the sound of
carriage wheels was heard in the distance, and in no long space
after, Bertram and Dinmont found themselves at Woodbourne.
Bewilderment and astonishment were depicted on the faces of all as
Bertram stepped into the parlour. The colonel saw before him the
man whom he supposed he had killed in India; Julia beheld her
lover; and Lucy Bertram at once recognised the person who had
fired upon young Hazlewood. Each one remained silent, not knowing
what to say, when the absent-minded dominie, looking up from a
book he had been studying in a corner, exclaimed:

"If the grave can give up the dead, that is my dear and honoured

A lawyer friend of the colonel's, a Mr. Pleydall, was staying at
Woodbourne that night, and he at once set about endeavouring to
solve the mystery. He questioned Bertram as to his recollections
of childhood, and elicited from him some of the incidents of his
early life, with which the reader is already acquainted. Amongst
the persons whom Bertram recalled, "there was," he said, "a tall,
thin, kind-tempered man, who used to teach me my letters and walk
with me."

On hearing this, the poor dominie could contain his feelings no
longer, and rising hastily from his chair, with clasped hands,
trembling limbs and streaming eyes, he called out aloud:

"Harry Bertram, look at me! Was I not the man?"

"Yes," said Bertram, starting from his seat as if a sudden light
had burst in upon his mind. "Yes, that was my very name, and that
is the voice and the figure of my kind old master!"

The following day Colonel Mannering and Mr. Pleydall succeeded in
getting Sir Robert Hazlewood to accept bail for Bertram. While
they were so engaged, Bertram, with his newly-found sister and
Miss Mannering, went walking to the castle of Ellangowan.

Close by the ruin they were suddenly confronted by Meg Merrilies,
who addressed Bertram, saying:

"Remember your promise, and follow me."

It was in vain that his sister and her companion urged him not to
go with the gipsy. He told them he must obey. Then, bidding them
good-bye, he started to follow Meg Merrilies, accompanied by
Dinmont, who had come up a few minutes before.

With quick, long strides the gipsy proceeded straight across the
wintry heath. She turned neither to the left nor the right, and
moved more like a ghost than a human being. On reaching the wood,
she plunged into it, moving still rapidly in the direction of
Derncleugh. After travelling thus for some time, she came at
length to the ruined tower where Bertram had previously spent the
night in concealment from the smugglers. Producing a key from her
pocket, the gipsy opened the door and led the way in. She offered
Bertram and Dinmont food and drink, and fearing to offend her,
they took a little.

"And now," she said, "ye must have arms; but use them not rashly;
take captive, but save life; let the law have its own--he must
speak ere he die."

She then supplied the two with loaded pistols, and started afresh
through the wood in the direction of Warroch Point. She led them
by a long and winding passage almost overgrown with brushwood,
until they suddenly found themselves by the seashore. They were
soon outside the secret cave.

"Follow me as I creep in," she said. "I have placed the firewood
so as to screen you. Bide behind it for a space, till I say--
_The hour and the man are both come_. Then run in on him,
take his arms and bind him tight."

And having said so, she crept in upon her hands and knees,
followed by Bertram and his friend.

As they were creeping in, Dinmont, who was last of the party, felt
his leg caught by someone from behind. He with difficulty
suppressed a shout, and was much relieved when he heard a voice
behind him say: "Be still, I am a friend--Charles Hazlewood."

He had been sent after the others by Lucy Bertram and Miss
Mannering, and had only overtaken them as they were making their
way into the cavern.

Meg Merrilies, on reaching the interior, was greeted by Dirck
Hatteraick with a curse in his old fashion--the smuggler had been
expecting her, and was waiting with anxiety for news of his band.
The only light within the cave was from a charcoal fire, the dark-
red glow from which gave a dismal and unearthly appearance to the
smuggler's hiding place.

Bertram and his friends had advanced far enough to enable them to
stand upright, and concealed from the view of Hatteraick, they
listened to his conversation with the gipsy.

"Have you seen Glossin?" he said to her.

"No," replied Meg Merrilies; "you've missed your blow, ye blood-
spiller! and ye have nothing to expect from the tempter."

"What am I to do, then?" said the smuggler, with a Dutch oath.

"Do?" answered the gipsy. "Die like a man, or be hanged like a
dog. Didn't I tell ye, when ye took away the boy Harry Bertram, in
spite of my prayers, that he would come back again in his twenty-
first year? You'll never need to leave this."

"What makes you say that?" asked Hatteraick.

And Meg, who now threw some flax upon the fire, which rose in a
bright flame, answered: "_Because the hour and the man are both

At the appointed signal, Bertram and his companions rushed upon
Hatteraick. The ruffian, who instantly saw he was betrayed, turned
his first vengeance on Meg Merrilies, at whom he discharged a

She fell, with a piercing shriek, muttering, "I knew it would be
this way."

A terrific struggle ensued between the smuggler and his
assailants, in which Hatteraick contrived to discharge a second
bullet at Bertram, which only missed its mark by a lucky accident.
Strong, however, as the ruffian was, he was not equal to the joint
efforts of the three men, and at length he was fairly mastered,
disarmed, and tightly bound.

Hazlewood, whose horse was outside the cave, then rode off for
assistance, and after some time returned with several others. The
prisoner was carried out, still firmly bound, and also Meg
Merrilies, who was still living, though desperately wounded in the

They wished to take her to the nearest cottage, but she refused to
be moved anywhere but to the Kaim of Derncleugh. Accordingly they
bore her to the vault in the ruined tower.

The alarm had now spread through the countryside that Kennedy's
murderer had been taken on the very spot where the murder had been
committed years before; and a crowd of people, with a clergyman
and a surgeon, had flocked to the place where the dying gipsy lay.
She, however, refused all offers of assistance, and called for
Harry Bertram.

When Bertram approached the wretched bed on which she lay, she
took his hand.

"Look at him," she said to those about her, "the image of his dead
father. And hear me now--let that man," pointing to Hatteraick,
"deny what I say if he can." And then she told the story of how
the young boy had been carried off from Warroch Wood; how she
saved his life from smugglers who would have murdered him; and how
she swore an oath to keep the secret till he was one-and-twenty,
and vowed that if she lived to see the day of his return she would
set him again in his father's seat, though every step was on a
dead man. "Dirck Hatteraick," she said, "you and I will never
meet again until we are before the Judgment-seat--will ye dare
deny it?"

And as Hatteraick refused to open his lips, she added: "Farewell!
and God forgive you! your hand has sealed my evidence."

And shortly after, as she heard the crowd about her greet Bertram
with enthusiastic cheers as the true Laird of Ellangowan, her
troubled spirit passed peacefully away.

The following day, Hatteraick was brought before the magistrates
at Kippletringan. The dying declaration of Meg Merrilies was
proved by the surgeon and the clergyman who had heard it. Bertram
again told his recollections of early childhood. Gabriel, the
gipsy, the same man who had avoided meeting Bertram's eye when out
hunting with Dandie Dinmont, told the whole story of Kennedy's
murder, as he was at Warroch Point on the day of its occurrence.
He stated that Glossin was present and accepted a bribe to keep
the matter a secret. This witness also stated that it was he that
had told his aunt, Meg Merrilies, that Bertram had returned to the
country; and that it was by her orders that three or four of the
gipsies had mingled in the crowd when the custom-house was
attacked, for the purpose of helping Bertram to escape. He also
added that Meg Merrilies had often said that Harry Bertram carried
the proof of his birth hung round his neck.

Bertram here produced the velvet bag which had been worked by his
mother, and which he said he had always continued to wear. On its
being opened, Colonel Mannering instantly recognised his own
writing on the paper it enclosed, proving to everyone's
satisfaction that the wearer was the real heir of Ellangowan.

The investigation was concluded by both Hatteraick and Glossin
being sent to gaol.

The smuggler, whose violence and strength were well known, was
secured in what was called the condemned ward. In this apartment,
which was near the top of the prison, his feet were chained to an
iron bar firmly fixed at the height of about six inches from the
floor. The chain enabled him to move a distance of about four feet
from the bar, and when thus secured his handcuffs were removed.

Glossin was confined in another room, his mind still teeming with
schemes of future deceit to cover his former villainies. As he
reflected on his position, he came to a determination to see
Hatteraick, if possible, and to induce him by a tempting bribe to
give evidence in his favour when his trial came on.

Accordingly, when Mac-Guffog, the keeper, appeared at night time,
he gave him some gold pieces, and so obtained his consent to an
interview with his fellow prisoner.

The keeper, however, told him that as the prison rules were now
much stricter than before, his seeing Hatteraick would be only on
condition that he should spend the whole night with him.

As the prison clock tolled ten, Glossin slipped off his shoes, and
silently followed Mac-Guffog to the smuggler's room. As he
entered, the door was locked on the outside; and he found himself
alone with the former partner of his guilt. The cell was so dark
that it was some time before he could detect the form of the
smuggler, who was lying on a pallet-bed beside the bar.

"Dirck Hatteraick," he whispered. And the smuggler, recognising
his voice, told him with a curse to begone.

"Speak to me no more. I'm dangerous."

"Then," said Glossin, losing his temper, "at least get up, for an
obstinate Dutch brute!" But he had barely uttered the words when
Hatteraick sprang from where he lay and grappled with him. So
sudden and irresistible was the attack, that Glossin fell, the
back part of his neck coming full upon the iron bar with stunning
violence. Nor did the ruffian release the deadly grip upon his
throat until the last remnant of life had left his victim's
miserable corpse.

On the day following the death of Glossin, Dirck Hatteraick was
himself found dead in the cell, having hanged himself by means of
a cord taken from his bed, which he had cunningly contrived to
attach to the prison wall.

Little more remains to be told. Bertram was before long restored
to the possession of his father's house and property, and Julia
Mannering became his wife.

His sister Lucy found a husband in her old lover Charles
Hazlewood, and the dominie was raised once again to a condition of
ecstatic happiness, seeing "his little Harry"--as he still
continued to call him--now Laird of Ellangowan, and himself
librarian in the house to which he had been so long a stranger.


_Although the short book from which these stories are taken was
written in 1785 by Rudolf Erich Raspe, a German of many talents
who took up his residence in England, there really was a Baron
Munchausen who served the author as a model. His whole name was
Hieronymus Karl Friedrich von Munchausen, a German, of course, but
serving in the Russian army. After several campaigns against the
Turks, he retired from the army and amused himself by telling
awful whoppers about his bravery as a soldier and huntsman.

A German editor who visited the baron two years before he died was
told by the baron's neighbors that he really did tell wonderful
stories in his younger days._


By R. E. Raspe

Some years before my beard announced approaching manhood, or, in
other words, when I was neither man nor boy, but between both, I
expressed in repeated conversations a strong desire of seeing the
world, from which I was discouraged by my parents, though my
father had been no inconsiderable traveller himself. A cousin by
my mother's side took a liking to me, often said I was a fine
forward youth, and was much inclined to gratify my curiosity. His
eloquence had more effect than mine, for my father consented to my
accompanying him in a voyage to the island of Ceylon, where his
uncle had resided as governor many years.

We sailed from Amsterdam with despatches from their High
Mightinesses the States of Holland, and in about six weeks we
arrived at Ceylon, where we were received with great marks of
friendship and true politeness.

After we had resided at Ceylon about a fortnight I accompanied one
of the governor's brothers upon a shooting party.

Near the banks of a large piece of water, which had engaged my
attention, I thought I heard a rustling noise behind; on turning
about I was almost petrified (as who would not be?) at the sight
of a lion, which was evidently approaching with the intention of
satisfying his appetite with my poor carcass, and that without
asking my consent.

What was to be done in this horrible dilemma? I had not even a
moment for reflection; my piece was only charged with swan-shot,
and I had no other about me. However, though I could have no idea
of killing such an animal with that weak kind of ammunition, yet I
had some hopes of frightening him by the report, and perhaps of
wounding him also. I immediately let fly, without waiting till he
was within reach; and the report did but enrage him, for he now
quickened his pace and seemed to approach me full speed. I
attempted to escape, but that only added (if an addition could be
made) to my distress; for the moment I turned about I found a
large crocodile, with his mouth extended almost ready to receive
me. On my right hand was the piece of water before mentioned, and
on my left a deep precipice, said to have, as I have since
learned, a receptacle at the bottom for venomous creatures; in
short, I gave myself up as lost, for the lion was now upon his
hind legs, just in the act of seizing me. I fell involuntarily to
the ground with fear, and, as it afterward appeared, he sprang
over me. I lay some time in a situation which no language can
describe, expecting to feel his teeth or talons in some part of me
every moment. After waiting in this prostrate situation a few
seconds, I heard a violent but unusual noise, differing from any
sound that had ever before assailed my ears; nor is it at all to
be wondered at, when I inform you from whence it proceeded.
After listening for some time, I ventured to raise my head and
look round, when, to my unspeakable joy, I perceived the lion had,
by the eagerness with which he sprang at me, jumped forward, as I
fell, into the crocodile's mouth! which, as before observed, was
wide open; the head of the one stuck in the throat of the other,
and they were struggling to extricate themselves. I fortunately
recollected my hunting knife which was by my side; with this
instrument I severed the lion's head at one blow, and the body
fell at my feet! I then, with the butt-end of my fowling-piece,
rammed the head farther into the throat of the crocodile, and
destroyed him, by suffocation, for he could neither gorge nor
eject it.

Soon after I had thus gained a complete victory over my two
powerful adversaries, my companion arrived in search of me; for
finding I did not follow him into the wood, he returned,
apprehending I had lost my way or met with some accident.

After mutual congratulations we measured the crocodile, which was
just forty feet in length.


By R. E. Raspe

My first visit to England was about the beginning of George the
Third's reign. I had occasion to go down to Wapping to see some
goods shipped, which I was sending to some friends at Hamburgh:
after that business was over, I took the Tower Wharf in my way
back. Here I found the sun very powerful, and I was so much
fatigued that I stepped into one of the cannon to compose me,
where I fell fast asleep.

This was about noon; it was the fourth of June, the king's
birthday. Exactly at one o'clock these cannon were all discharged
in memory of the day they had been all charged that morning, and
having no suspicion of my situation, I was shot over the houses on
the opposite side of the river, into a farmer's yard, between
Bermondsey and Deptford, where I fell upon a large haystack
without waking, and continued there in a sound sleep till hay
became so extravagantly dear (which was about three months after),
that the farmer found it to his interest to send his whole stock
to market. The stack I was reposing on was the largest in the
yard, containing about five hundred load; they began to cut that
first. I waked (with the voices of the people who had ascended the
ladders to begin at the top) and got up, totally ignorant of my
situation. In attempting to run away, I fell upon the farmer to
whom the hay belonged, and broke his neck, yet received no injury
myself! I afterwards found, to my great consolation, that this
fellow was a most detestable character, always keeping the produce
of his grounds for extravagant markets.


By R. E. Raspe

I set off from Rome on a journey to Russia, in the midst of
winter, from a just notion that frost and snow must, of course,
mend the roads, which every traveller had described as uncommonly
bad through the northern parts of Germany, Poland, Courland, and
Livonia. I went on horseback as the most convenient manner of
travelling; I was but lightly clothed, and of this I felt the
inconvenience the more I advanced northeast. What must not a poor
old man have suffered in that severe weather and climate, whom I
saw on a bleak common in Poland, lying on the road, helpless,
shivering and hardly having wherewithal to cover his nakedness? I
pitied the poor soul; though I felt the severity of the air
myself, I threw my mantle over him, and immediately I heard a
voice from the heavens, blessing me for that piece of charity,
saying: "You will be rewarded, my son, in time."

I went on: night and darkness overtook me. No village was to be
seen. The country was covered with snow and I was unacquainted
with the road.

Tired, I alighted and fastened my horse to something, like a
pointed stump of a tree, which appeared above the snow. For the
sake of safety, I placed my pistols under my arm and lay down on
the snow, where I slept so soundly that I did not open my eyes
till full daylight. It is not easy to conceive my astonishment to
find myself in the midst of a village, lying in a church-yard, nor
was my horse to be seen, but I heard him soon after neigh
somewhere above me. On looking upwards, I beheld him hanging by
his bridle to the weathercock of the steeple. Matters were now
very plain to me: the village had been covered with snow
overnight; a sudden change of weather had taken place; I had sunk
down to the church-yard whilst asleep, gently, and in the same
proportion as the snow had melted away; and what in the dark I had
taken to be a stump of a little tree appearing above the snow, to
which I had tied my horse, proved to have been the cross or
weathercock of the steeple!

Without long consideration I took one of my pistols, shot the
bridle in two, brought down the horse, and proceeded on my
journey. He carried me well. Advancing into the interior parts of
Russia, I found travelling on horseback rather unfashionable in
winter, so I submitted, as I always do, to the custom of the
country, took a single horse sledge, and drove towards St.

I do not exactly recollect whether it was Eastland or Jugemanland,
but I remember that in the midst of a dreary forest I spied a
terrible wolf making after me with all the speed of ravenous
winter hunger. He soon overtook me; there was no possibility of
escape. Mechanically I laid myself down flat in the sledge, and
let my horse run for our safety. What I wished, but hardly hoped
or expected, happened immediately after. The wolf did not mind me
in the least, but took a leap over me, and falling furiously on
the horse, began instantly to tear and devour the hind part of the
poor animal, which ran the faster for his pain and terror. Thus
unnoticed and safe myself, I lifted my head slyly up, and with
horror I beheld that the wolf had ate his way into the horse's
body. It was not long before he had fairly forced himself into it,
when I took my advantage and fell upon him with the butt-end of my
whip. This unexpected attack in his rear frightened him so much
that he leapt forward with all his might, the horse's carcass
dropped on the ground, but in his place the wolf was in the
harness, and I on my part whipping him continually, we both
arrived in full career safe at St. Petersburg, contrary to our
respective expectations, and very much to the astonishment of the


By R. E. Raspe

You have heard, I dare say, of the hunter and sportsman's saint
and protector, St. Hubert, and of the noble stag which appeared to
him in the forest with the holy cross between his antlers. I have
paid my homage to that saint every year in good fellowship, and
seen this stag a thousand times, either painted in churches or
embroidered in the stars of his knights; so that, upon the honor
and conscience of a good sportsman, I hardly know whether there
may not have been formerly, or whether there are not such crossed
stags even at this present day. But let me now relate that which
happened to myself some little time ago.

I had been out shooting all day, and had quite expended my powder
and shot, when I found myself unexpectedly in presence of a
stately stag, looking at me as unconcernedly as if he had known of
my empty pouches. I charged immediately with powder, and upon it a
good handful of cherrystones, for I had sucked the fruit as far as
the hurry would permit. Thus I let fly at him, and hit him just on
the middle of the forehead, between his antlers; it stunned him--
he staggered--yet he made off, and I lost sight of him, to my

This happened to me in France. Afterwards I visited Russia, and
remained there for about a year.

At length, there being no immediate prospect of war with Turkey, I
returned to France on leave for a few months, and was staying in
the same chateau as I had been when I had fired off this
remarkable charge.

We hunted again in the fine forest I had then traversed, with a
gay party of French nobles and sportsmen. I had separated myself
somewhat from my companions, when, in the opening of a beautiful
glade, I beheld a noble stag, with a fine full-grown cherry-tree
above ten feet high between his antlers.

I immediately recollected my former adventure, looked upon him as
my property, and brought him to the ground by one shot, which at
once gave me the haunch and cherry sauce, for the tree was covered
with the richest fruit, the like of which I had never tasted


By R. E. Raspe

I had married a lady of great beauty, who, having heard of my
sporting exploits, desired, a short time after our marriage, to go
out with me on a shooting expedition. I went on in front to start
something, and I soon saw my dog stop before several hundred
coveys of partridges. I waited for my wife, who was following me
with my lieutenant and a servant. I waited a long time; nobody

At length, very uneasy, I went back, and, when I was half-way to
the place where I had left my wife, I heard lamentable groans.
They seemed quite near, and yet I could see no trace of a human
being. I jumped off my horse; I put my ear to the ground, and not
only heard the groans distinctly rising from beneath, but my
wife's voice and those of my lieutenant and servant.

I remarked at the same time, not far from the spot, the shaft of a
coal-pit, and I had no doubt that my wife and her unfortunate
companions had been swallowed up in it. I rode full speed to the
nearest village to fetch the miners, who after great efforts
succeeded in drawing the unfortunate individuals buried in the
pit--which measured ninety feet--to the surface.

They first drew up the man-servant; then his horse; next the
lieutenant; next his horse; and at length my wife on her little
palfrey. The most curious part of this affair was that, in spite
of the awful depth to which they had fallen, no one was hurt, not
even the horses, if we except a few slight contusions. But they
had had a terrible fright, and were quite unable to pursue our
intended sport.

In all this confusion I quite forgot my setter, as no doubt you
also have.

The next day I was obliged to go away on duty, and did not return
home for a fortnight. On my return I asked for Diana, my setter.
No one knew anything about her. My servants thought she had
followed me. She was certainly lost, and I never hoped to see her
again! At length a bright idea occurred to me:

"She is perhaps still watching the partridges."

I hastened, full of hope and joy, to the spot, and actually there
she was!--my noble Diana--on the very place where I had left her a
fortnight before.

"Hi, Diana!" I cried. "Seize them!"

She instantly sprang the partridges; they rose, and I killed
twenty-five at one shot. But the poor beast had scarcely strength
enough to follow me, she was so thin and famished. I was obliged
to carry her back to the house on my horse, where rest, feeding,
and great care soon restored her to health.

I was thoroughly glad to get her back again.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Junior Classics — Volume 5: Stories that never grow old" ***

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