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´╗┐Title: Grammar and Vocabulary of the Lau Language, Solomon Islands
Author: Ivens, W. G. (Walter George)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grammar and Vocabulary of the Lau Language, Solomon Islands" ***

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Transcriber's Note: Some umlauts and other fine distinctions
of Sa'a orthography have been lost. The Lau orthography is
correct as given.



GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY OF THE LAU LANGUAGE: SOLOMON ISLANDS

BY

WALTER G. IVENS, M. A., LITT. D.

CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON
PUBLICATION NO. 300

PREFACE.

Lau is the name given to the language spoken by the inhabitants of
the artificial islets which lie off the northeast coast of Big
Malaita, Solomon Islands. The language spoken on the coast from Uru
on the northeast to Langalanga, Alite Harbor, on the northwest of
Big Malaita, is practically Lau. On the west coast there is
considerable admixture of Fiu, which is the language of the bush
behind the Langalanga lagoon. In Dr. Codrington's "Melanesian
Languages," pp. 39 et seq., certain words are given as spoken at
Alite in Langalanga.  These words are probably Fiu rather than Lau.

The purest Lau is spoken at Sulufou, one of the artificial islets
near Atta Cove. The inhabitants of Ai-lali, on the mainland of Big
Malaita opposite the island Aio, are an offshoot of the Lau-speaking
peoples.  In Port Adam (Malau) on Little Malaita, some 12 miles
north of Sa'a, there are two villages, Ramarama and Malede,
inhabited by Lau-speaking peoples, and the inhabitants of these
villages hold as a tradition that their forefathers migrated from
Suraina, near Atta Cove, 80 miles away, along the coast to the
north.

The Lau of this grammar and vocabulary was learned from dealings
with the Port Adam natives and also from a stay of several weeks
with Rev.  A. I. Hopkins, at Mangoniia, on the mainland opposite the
artificial islet Ferasubua.

It is not claimed that the Lau here presented is the same as the Lau
of the northeast coast of Big Malaita. Doubtless owing to the Port
Adam peoples being surrounded by Sa'a-speaking peoples, they have
adopted Sa'a words and methods of speech to some extent. The women
of the hill peoples above Port Adam have largely been procured as
wives for the Port Adam men and thus there has been a tendency for
the distinctiveness of the Lau language to disappear and for the
Sa'a words to be adopted. While this tendency was perhaps not very
great previous to the introduction of Christianity (for the village
children always follow the language of the father rather than that
of the mother), the teachers in the village schools, after
Christianity was introduced, necessarily used the Sa'a books and,
when translations were eventually made into Lau, words and phrases
of Sa'a crept in. So far as lay in the power of the present author,
he has endeavored to eliminate these Sa'a elements from the present
work.

In the translations made into Lau, some use has been made of the
gerundive, following the use in Sa'a; but until we have further
evidence of the validity of this usage it must be regarded as not
belonging to the genius of the Lau language, and it is therefore
omitted here.

It will be seen that Lau is a typical Melanesian language and has
few marked peculiarities. In Sa'a there is a distinctive use of the
shortened forms of the pronouns of the first and second persons,
_au_ and _'o_, suffixed to verbs and prepositions as object; in Lau
the same shortening is not effected and the longer forms _nau_,
_oe_, are used.

It has not been thought proper to represent any break in
pronunciation such as occurs in Sa'a in such words, e. g., as _ia_
fish, Sa'a _i'e_.  Lau shows generally the dropping of such
consonants as are dropped in Sa'a, but it is doubtful if the same
break occurs in pronunciation.

The books already printed in Lau are:

1. A translation of the English Prayer Book comprising matins and
evensong, litany, baptism of adults, certain psalms and hymns,
catechism, Holy Communion with Sunday collects.

2. The four Gospels.

The grammar here given is an alteration of the grammar prepared by
the present writer, and printed at Norfolk Island by the Mission
Press in 1914.

W. G. Ivens.  St. Paul's Vicarage, Malvern, Victoria, 1920.

TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS.

adj., adjective.
adv., adverb.
art., article.
def., definite.
demons., demonstrative.
excl., exclusive (of personal pronouns, excluding the person
       addressed).
exclam., exclamation.
genit., genitive.
_gu_, marks a noun as taking the suffixed pronouns _gu_, _mu_,
      _na_.
incl., inclusive (of personal pronouns, including the person
       addressed).
interj., interjection.
interr., interrogative.
metath., metathesis.
n., noun.
_na_, marks a noun as taking the suffixed pronoun in the third
      singular only.
neg., negative.
neut., neuter.
obj., object.
part., particle.
partic., participle.
pers., person, personal.
pl., plural.
poss., possessive.
pr., pronoun.
pref., prefix.
prep., preposition.
S, Sa'a language. See Sa'a and Ulawa dictionary.
sing., singular.
sub., subject.
suff., suffix, suffixed.
term., termination.
tr., transitive.
U, Ulawa language. See Sa'a and Ulawa dictionary.
v., verb.
v.i., verb intransitive, i.e., a verb which can not take the
      pronoun suffixed.
v.p., verbal particle.
v.tr., verb transitive, i.e., a verb which can take the pronoun
      suffixed.
voc., vocative.
M.L., Codrington's Melanesian Languages.



LAU GRAMMAR.


THE ALPHABET.

The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, with the Italian sounds. All of these
vowels may be long or short, the long sound being represented by a
doubling of the vowel. Closed syllables do not occur, and every word
ends with a vowel. The vowel o in Lau frequently represents a in
Sa'a: _fou_ rock, Sa'a _hau_; _finau_ hook, Sa'a _hinou_; _loulou_
quick, Sa'a _lauleu_.  Where in Sa'a a changes to e in certain words
after a preceding i or u, no such change is made in Lau in the same
words: _ia_ fish, Sa'a _i'e_; _ua_ still, Sa'a _ue_; _i asi_ at sea,
Sa'a i _'esi_.

The diphthongs are ae, ai, ao, eu, ei, ou, as in _sae_, _mai_,
_rao_, _dau_, _mei_, _fou_, pronounced, respectively, as in the
English words eye, iron, hour, how, hey, oh.

The consonants are f, k, g; d, t; b; q, gw; l, r; s; m; mw; n, ng.

The f replaces an h in Sa'a: _fera_ village, Sa'a _hera_ courtyard;
_fuli fera_ village, Sa'a _huli_ bed, _huli nume_ site of house.
The sound represented by f often approximates to v.

Both k and g are hard. The Melanesian g is not heard; as in Sa'a, it
has been dropped in certain words, _ia_ fish, but there is no
noticeable break in the pronunciation. In certain other words this g
is replaced by k: _take_, to stand. Mota _sage_, Sa'a _ta'e_. The g
in Lau may replace a k in Sa'a: _igera_ they, Sa'a _ikire_. A g also
appears in personal pronoun plural 1, excl., where Sa'a has a break:
_igami_ we, Sa'a _i'emi_. A g may also replace an h in Sa'a: _luga_
to loose, Sa'a _luhe_.

There is no preface of n in the sound of d.

In many words a t has been dropped: _angi_ to cry, Oceanic _tangi_;
_asi_ sea, Oceanic _tasi_; _ola_ canoe, Florida _tiola_, Sa'a
_'iola_.

There is no w in Lau. Where it occurs in Sa'a its place is supplied
in Lau by q, the sound of which is kw or ku: _qalu_ eight, Sa'a
_walu_. In Lau the island Ulawa is known as Ulaqa. A q in Lau may
represent an h in Sa'a: _qai_, the reciprocal prefix, is in Sa'a
_hai_. The letter gw may represent a q (pw) in Sa'a: _gwou_ head,
Sa'a _qau_; _gwini_ wet, Sa'a _qini_; _gwou_ deserted, Mota _wou_.
The sound of d is not followed by r, as is the case in Sa'a, nor is
d before i sounded any way differently, as is the case in Sa'a.
Nasal m, i.e., mw, is not so common a sound as it is in Sa'a, but it
is heard in _mwane_ male, _mwela_ child.

There is an interchange between n and l: _nima_ or _lima_ five;
_daluma_ middle, Sa'a _danume_; _inala_ to discern, Sa'a _ilala_.
Both l and r are used and the sounds are distinct; both sounds are
trilled.


ARTICLES.

(a) Demonstrative:
Singular, _na, si; ta, te, ke; maae; fe_.
Plural, _gi; mwai, ote_.

(b) Personal: _a, ni_.

_Na_ denotes a, any, the, and is put to more general use than the
corresponding _nga_ in Sa'a; _na_ is used with both singular and
plural: _na noni_ the body; _na sasigamu_ your brethren. The
conjunction _ma_ (=and) coalesces with _na_; _mana Mwela_ and the
Son. _Na_ is used with the interrogative _taa_ what.

2. _Si_ is more definite and particular in meaning than _na_ and
denotes a part, a piece, any; it is more or less equivalent to
_me'i_ in Sa'a: _si doo ne_ the thing; _gamelu ka ania si taa_ what
are we to eat? _si ere_ a firestick; _si doo gu saea na_ that which
I said; _na_ may be prefixed: _na si baea taa ne_ what words? _si_
can not be used of the plural.

3. _Ta_ means a certain one, every, at all, just, only, and is the
same as the numeral _ta_ one: _ta_ may precede the article _fe_; _ta
fe uo_ every hill, _ni_ may follow _ta_: _tani aiai_ some, other.
_ta_ may mean only: _ta ro ai_ only two people; _ta_ may be used
with the numerals, _ta ro mwane_ two men; _ta ro tangale penny_ 200
pence.

_Te_ has practically the same meanings as _ta_: _te geni sarii_ a
maiden; _te taifilia_ he alone; _te aiai falaete_ one person only.
_Te_ is used of units (as _ata_ in Sa'a), _te fiu fe doo_ only seven
things; _te ai ma te ai_ one by one; _too te ai_ singly. _Si_ may
follow both _ta_ and _te_: _ta si fou_ a certain rock, _te si na
doo_ everything; _te_ may be used as equivalent to the conjunction
and: _te na Mwela_ and the Son.

_Ke_ is used as _te_: _ke si gula iidimani_ a small piece; _ro kesi
kurui bata_ two small pieces of money. _Ke_ and _si_ may be combined
and used with _te_: _e langi asia na teke si doo_ there is nothing
at all.

4. _Maae_ is compounded of _maa_ eye, one, and _e_ the construct
form, and means one, a; _maae_ is used with _fera_ country, _dangi_
day, _rodo_ night, _oru_ wind; _maae fera_ a village, _maaedangi_ a
day, _maaerodo_ darkness.

5. _Qe_ is used with certain nouns: _qe afe_ a widow, _qe ia_ a
fish, _qe oru_ a widow; _na_ may be prefixed: _na qe ia gi_ the
fishes.

6. _Fe_ is used of things spherical in shape and denotes a unit: _fe
bread_ a loaf, _fe bubulu_ a star; also _fe gale bola_ a young
pigeon, _fe rade_ a reed; _fe_ is used of one of a series: _fe rodo_
a night, _fe asua_ a day; _fe_ is also used as a multiplicative: _fe
fiu ade doo taala_ seven cases of wrong-doing; _na or ta or te_ may
precede.

7. _Gi_ denotes plurality and follows the noun: _na mwane gi_ the
males.  It may be separated from the noun: _na doo nia gi_ his
things; _gi_ is used with the forms of the personal pronoun plural
except those ending in _lu_.

8. _Mwai_ is used with nouns of relationship only: _mwai asi nia_
his brethren, _ro mwai sasina_ brethren.

9. In Port Adam _ote_ seems to be employed as a regular plural
article: _ote mwane gi_ you men. But it is a question whether _ote_
is not properly employed of females only: _ote aia nia_ his female
relations, _ote sasina_ his sisters, _ote ai_ you women, _ote ai gi_
you women.

10. _A_ is used as a personal article with the names of males, both
native and foreign: _a Leo_, _a Joe_. It is used also with _doo_
thing: _a doo_ so and so, _a doo na_ the person.

_Ni_ is used as a personal article with the names of females, both
native and foreign: _ni Alida_, _ni Mary_. It is used also with
certain nouns which denote women, where in Sa'a _nga_ or the
personal article _a_ is used: _ni te nau_ my mother, _ni mwaemwane_
a man's sister, a woman's brother, _ni aia_ female relations, _ni
doo_ the woman, _ni mwela ne_ that woman. _Ni_ is not used with
_afe_ wife, nor with _geni_ female; it is not used with the plural.


NOUNS.

1. Nouns to which possessive suffixes may be added:

Certain nouns take the suffixed pronoun denoting the possessor.
These are nouns denoting:

a. Parts of the body: _lima_ hand, _limagu_ my hand, _aba_ arm,
_abamu_ thy arm, _maa_ eye, _maamu_ thy eye.

b. Position, end, middle, top: _buri_ behind, _burigu_ behind me, _i
dalumana_ in the midst, _isingana_ its end, _i kamena lobo_ beside
the lake, _i fafona_ on top of it.

c. Certain states or doings of men: life, death, speech, custom,
goings: _mae_ to die, _maela_ death, _maelana_ his death, _baela_
speech, _baelagu_ my word.

d. The word _sasi_ brother, _sasigu_ my brother, my sister. The
other words denoting relationship employ the personal pronoun to
denote possession.

2. Formation of nouns: Nouns which have a special termination
showing them to be nouns substantive are (a) verbal nouns and (b)
independent nouns.

a. Verbal nouns are formed from verbs by the terminations _a_, _fa_,
_la_, _ta_: _mae_ to die, _maea_ death or sickness, _maela_ death,
_bae_ to speak, _baea_ word, _baela_ speech, _fanga_ to eat,
_fangaa_ feast, food, _fangala_ food, _mae_ to die, _maemaefa_
sickness, _nao_ to lead, _naofa_ first, _naofe mwela_ eldest child,
also with suffixed pronoun _naofana mwela_; _ta_ is seen in the root
_afuta_ all, which is used only with the suffixed pronoun,
_afutagera_ all of them, _afutana na ai gi_ all the people. The
termination _la_ has a more or less gerundival force.

Compound nouns may be formed, _girigiri lifoa_ gnashing of teeth,
_saitama dooa_ wisdom.

Where in the vocabulary _fa_ and _ta_ have a hyphen attached, it is
intended to show that they are used only with the suffixed pronoun
attached.

There are certain adjectives to which the termination _la_ is
attached, _diena_ good, _dienala_ goodness, _baita_ big, _baitala_
bigness, and _tasa_ in excess, _tasala_ excess. It is probable,
however, that these words are really verbs.

b. Independent nouns: The only termination is na, and this is added
(1) to certain nouns which express relation ship or kindred; (2) to
cardinal numerals to form ordinals. 1. Nouns so formed are always
preceded by a prefix which marks reciprocity of relationship or
kindred, _mwai_, and by the numeral _ro_ two; _sasi_ brother, _ro
mwai sasina_ the two brothers, _te_ mother, _ro mwai telana_ wife
and child.

2. Numerals: _olu_ three, _oluna_ third.

3. Construct form: To make a construct form the letter _e_ is added
to the first of two nouns, _toloe fera_ hill, _fuli abae ai_ men's
handwork. When the first member ends in _a_ the _ae_ sometimes
contracts to _e_, _fufue ai_ seed, _aqale mwai_ ten baskets, but
_maae rodo_, a night; also when the first noun ends in _o_ the _oe_
is contracted to _e_: _abole ai_ a log, _abolo_ a piece. This _e_
may be added to words which have not a distinct noun termination:
_naoe gula_ the chief place.

4. Genitive relation: The genitive relation of nouns one to another
is effected by the use of the propositions _ni_ and _i_: _ni_ is
used mainly in construction: _baea ni sugela_ deceitful words, _gwai
ni gwaila_ anointing oil; _ni_ expresses purpose: _si gula ni lea
inia_ a place for him to go to, _rosuli ni manatai gami_ hear us in
mercy. In certain words _li_ replaces _ni_: _maalimaea_ enemy,
_maalitafa_ a channel in a reef; _i_ is used also to denote purpose:
_lea i fasifa_ came to sell it. Location, which also denotes place
whence, is shown by _i_, _geni i Saa_, a Sa'a woman. _Si_ is used in
certain phrases: _ofu si doo_ bundles, _ro tooni si doo_ two
thousand.

The genitive is frequently omitted _olu teu flour_, three measures
of flour, _mumudi fangala_ crumbs of food, _mwane Saa_, a Sa'a man,
_falisi vine_ a vineyard.

The possessive _ana_ may be used to denote the genitive: _luma ana
foaa_ house of prayer, _tala ana fanualama_ way of peace. A genitive
relation is also shown by the use of the suffixed pronoun of the
third person singular or plural in agreement with the idea expressed
in the second noun of the pair: _i tolona fera_ on the tops of the
hills, _gwouda na ai gi_ men's heads.

The ordinary personal pronouns are used as possessive in cases where
the pronoun can not be suffixed: _afe nau_ my wife, _arai nia_ her
husband.

The instrumental prefix i occurs: _kamu_ to eat areca nut, _ikamu_ a
line spatula.

5. Plural: To show plurality _gi_ is used, following the noun _na
mwane gi_ the men. The word _oro_, many, may be attached: _na mwane
oro gi_ many men, _tani ai oro_ many people.

The personal pronoun plural third _gera_ is used to mark plurality:
_gera fiolo_ the hungry, _gera priest da adea urina_ the priests
acted thus.

Totally and completion are shown by _sui_ finished or _sui na_:
_afutada sui_ they all, _gera lea sui na_ they have gone already. To
express totality the suffixed pronoun singular third and all persons
plural are added to a root _afuta_, formed from _afu_ to complete,
with _ta_ noun termination: _afutanafera_ all the land, _afutana
nonigu_ all my whole body. It is a question whether the numeral
_qalu_ eight is used like _walu_ in Sa'a of an indefinite number,
e.g., _qalu fera_ all lands; but _te si nafera_ seems to be the
proper usage.

6. Gender: There is no grammatical gender. The words _mwane_ male,
_geni_ female, are added when the noun does not carry a sex
distinction.

7. Nouns of relationship: With the exception of sasi brother,
sister, nouns of relationship are never used with a suffixed
pronoun: _maa nau_ my father. The prefix _mwai_, denoting
reciprocity of relationship, may precede: _mwai asi nau_ brethren.
In speaking of pairs of people _ro_ is used: _ro mwai sasina_ two
brothers. The _na_ of _sasina_, _telana_, etc., is a noun
termination and is not the suffixed pronoun.

The articles _ni_ for the singular and _ote_ for the plural are used
of women: _ni aia_ a female relation, _ote geni_ women.

The word for father is _maa_; the article _na_ may be prefixed: _na
maa nau_ my father. The Rev. A. I.  Hopkins says that _maaka nau_ is
also commonly used as meaning my father. The word for child is
_mwela_, _mwela na ai_ So-and-So's son, _mwela nia_ his child; _aia_
is used for female relations with _ni_ as singular article and _ote_
as plural: _mwaemwane_ sister, _ni mwaemwane_ a man's sister.

The adjective _gale_ little, is used preceding the noun to describe
something young: _ro fe gale bola_ two young pigeons. The article
used with _te_, mother, is _ni_: _ni te nau_ my mother; _ta ro mwai
telana nau_ my wife and child, _ta ro mwai fungona_ two
relations-at-law; _ai_ person, man, is used as a vocative: _mwela
ai_ hey, you there! _na ai oe_ your people, _ai ni raoa_ a servant,
_ai tou_ the little one, the lesser.


PRONOUNS.

The pronouns may be classified as (A) those used as the subject of a
verb; (B) those suffixed to a verb or a preposition as object; (c)
those suffixed to nouns substantive and denoting possession.

A.   PRONOUNS USED AS THE SUBJECT OF A VERB.

Singular:
  (1) _inau, naut gu_.
  (2) _ioe, oe, o_.
  (3) _inia, niat nit e_.

Plural:
  Inclusive:    (1) _igia, gia; igolu, golu_.
  Exclusive:    (1) _igami, gami, mi; igamelu, gamelu_.
                (2) _igamu, gamu; igamolu, gamolu_.
                (3) _igera, gera, da; idalu, dalu_.

Dual:
  Inclusive:    (1) _igoro, goro_.
  Exclusive:    (1) _igamere, gamere_.
                (2) _igamoro, gamoro_.
                (3) _idarot daro_.

1. The longer forms, those with _i_, are used as possessive pronouns
when the suffixed pronoun can not be added: _geni inau_ my wife.

The forms with _i_ are never used by themselves as the subject, but
are accompanied by one of the shorter forms: _igera da ada ma da si
ada na_ they see but do not see. The three longer forms in the
singular are of more or less infrequent use. The initial _i_ is run
on to the preceding vowel in pronunciation.

2. All the forms without _i_ are used alone as the subject of the
verb. Where there are three forms the second and third are generally
used together as subjects: _gami mi langi si saetamana_ we do not
know; but the short forms _gu_, _o_, _mi_, _mu_, _da_, may be used
alone as subjects: _gu si saea_ I do not know. The forms in _lu_ are
not used as a trial number, but denote a more restricted number of
persons.

3. _Nia_ is used as meaning, there is, it is: _efita fe bread nia
agamolu_, how many loaves have you? It may be used before a proper
name as the equivalent to a genitive: _ana maaedangi nia Abiathar_
in the days of Abiathar. When the meaning is, there is, it is, _nia_
is preceded by _e_: _na liqa gera enia ada_ they have their holes;
_ma te ai enia i luma_ there is only one person in the house; with
_na_ demonstrative added: _nia na_ that is it, that is so.

4. The form _ni_ is seen in _nifai_ what? where? It occurs in
certain phrases as meaning, it is, there is: _e uta ro si lio ni
agamu_ how is it ye are of two minds? _na light fuana noni ni maa_
the light of the body it is the eye.

5. The plural sign _gi_ is used with the forms in the plural but not
with those ending in _lu_: _gia gi fi dao na_ we have just come.

6. The forms in the plural third _igera_ and _gera_ are used as
equivalent to a plural article: _igera na judea_ the Jews.

7. The pronouns of the third person singular and plural may be used
of impersonal or inanimate things.

B.   PRONOUNS SUFFIXED TO VERBS OR TO PREPOSITIONS AS OBJECT.

Singular: (1) _nau_. (2) _oe_. (3) _a_.

Plural:
  Inclusive: (1) _gia_, _golu_.
  Exclusive: (1) _gami_, _gamelu_. (2) _gamu_, _gamolu_.
             (3) _gera_, _da_, _dalu_.

Dual:
  Inclusive: (1) _goro_.
  Exclusive: (1) _gamere_. (2) _gamoro_. (3) _daro_.

1. Examples of usage are, _gera saegera sui_ they were all summoned,
_nia lea fonosia_ he went to get it. A second object of the verb
always appears in the suffixed pronoun singular and plural third:
_gu langi si adasia na ola_ I did not see a canoe, _gera gutafigera
na mwane gi_ they persecuted the men.  All prepositions governing
nouns have the pronoun suffixed as an anticipatory object in
agreement with the noun: _gera lea fonosia fera_ they went to harm
the land, _fafia si doo_ concerning the matter.

2. The verb _dori_ (to wish) has the pronoun suffixed where in Sa'a
none would be used: _nia langi si doria gwou ana_ he would not drink
(it) of it.

3. To _taifili_ (alone) the pronouns are suffixed: _te taifilia_ he
alone, _taifiligera_ they alone.

C.   PRONOUNS SUFFIXED TO NOUNS OR TO VERBAL NOUNS USED AS
PREPOSITIONS.

Singular: (1) _gu_. (2) _mu_. (3) _na_.

Plural:
  Inclusive: (1) _gia_, _golu_.
  Exclusive: (1) _gami_, _gamelu_. (2) _gamu_, _gamolu_. (3) _gera_,
_da_, _dalu_.

Dual:
  Inclusive: (1) _goro_.
  Exclusive: (1) _gamere_. (2) _gamoro_. (3) _dar


1. These are the pronouns denoting possession and they are suffixed
to a certain class of nouns only, those which denote names of parts
of the body, or of family relationship, or of things in close
relationship to the possessor.  In all other cases possession is
denoted by the use of the ordinary personal pronouns.

2. When things and not persons are in question _ni_ is used in place
of _da_ in plural third: _lea alua i fulini_ go and put them in
their places.

3. Of the plural forms those ending in _lu_ denote a restriction in
the number of the persons concerned.

4. These pronouns are also suffixed to the preposition _fua_ to,
used as a dative, to _afuta_ all, and to certain other words which
show a noun termination but which have no independent existence as
nouns: _otofa_ concerning, _oofa_ approaching to, enceinte, _sie_,
at the house of (in the vocabulary all such words are followed by a
hyphen); also to _mara_ of one's own accord, alone, _te taifilia
marana_ he alone; also to the verb _too_ to hit, _toogu_, _toona_,
hit me, etc.


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

These are _na_, _ne_, this; _nena_, _nana_, _nane_, that.

1. These all follow a noun or a pronoun: _a mwela ne_ this person,
_nia nana_ that is it.

2. _Na_ is added after the negative _langi_: _langi na no_, not
that; and after _sui_ finished: _sui na_ that is finished.

3. _Go_ an adverb, there, is used as a demonstrative: _tefe doo go
ana_ only one thing, _inau go agu_ I for my part; _ne_ may be added,
_gone_ that, _inia gone_ that is so. _Ba_ means that, there: _diena
ba_ good! _bago_ is used following a noun or a pronoun: _a doo bago_
that person there.


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

1. The words used are _ati_, who; _taa, tafa_, what. The personal
article _a_ makes _ati_ who, singular, _gerati_ plural.  Both _ti_
and _taa_ are nouns. The adverb _ba_ may be added to _ati_ for the
purpose of emphasis: _ati ba_ who? _Ti_ stands for the name of the
person and _ati_ means, what is the name? _ati mwane_ what man? The
demonstrative _ne_ may be added for emphasis: _ati ne_ who is it
then? _Ati_ has also an indefinite use: _ati susulia_ who knows?

2. With _taa_, _tafa_, the definite article _si_ may be used: _si
taa_ what, that which, _taa_ may follow the noun, _ta si doo taa_
what sort of thing? _si doo taa ne_ what? The adverb _fai_ (where)
may be used as an interrogative pronoun: _nifai_ which, what?


INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

The uses of _ta_, _te__, have been dealt with under "articles."
These two words are used as signifying, any, some, other.

The noun _sai_ place, thing, has an indefinite use: _sai ai_ that
which, what, _sai na_ that which, _ta sai ai_, one, another (of
things), _sai oe_ your place, your duty, _tani oto ni sai ai_ some
people. (The Rev. A. I. Hopkins states in a note that _sai_ in Lau
is used of food only).


RELATIVE PRONOUNS.

There are no relative pronouns. Their place is supplied by various
locutions.

1. By the suffixed pronoun: _inia nane gu bae kekerofana fasi uri_
this is he of whom I spoke. The addition of the demonstrative _ne,
nena_, serves to make the meaning clearer: _inia nena ai garni mi
maasia_ he is the person for whom we are waiting.

2. By making use of a coordinate clause: _igami ne too gera ada
fuada na_ we are the people whom they have chosen.


POSSESSIVES.

Singular: (1) _agu_. (2) _amu_. (3) _ana_.

Plural:
  Inclusive: (1) _aga_, _agolu_.
  Exclusive: (1) _agami_, _agamelu_. (2) _agamu_, _agamolu_.
             (3) _agera_, _ada_, _adalu_.

Dual:
  Inclusive: (1) _agoro_.
  Exclusive: (1) _agamere_. (2) _agamoro_. (3) _adaro_.

The possessive is used:

1. Of things to eat and drink: _si fangala agu_ something for me to
eat, _o ngalia amu_ take it for your eating, _si doo ana gera priest
tafiligera_ food for the priests only.

When the sense relates to food in general and not to a particular
meal the ordinary personal pronouns are employed as possessives: _si
doo ni gwou inau_ a drink for me.

2. As meaning, for me, for my part, etc., belonging to, at, with:
_geni agu_ a wife for me, _nia lea ana_ he went his way, _gu ka gele
dau go agu_ if I but touch, _fuana ngalia fera nia agolu_ to get his
land for ourselves, _si mamana nia ana_ power in himself, his power,
_si doo oro agu_ I have many things, _e langi ana_ not in it, lost,
_nia soe agera_ he questioned them, _soea satana ana a doo bago_ ask
so-and-so his name, _nia ledia tasi doo agu_ he asked me about
something, _ooganga agera_ their debt.

3. As the object of a neuter verb (i. e., a verb which does not take
a transitive suffix): _gera da qele ana_ they marvelled at him, _gu
ingo amu_ I beseech thee, _dau agu_ touch me, _bota ana_ blessed is
he.

4. With verbs when the object is separated from the verb: _nia bubu
tete adalu_ he regarded them fixedly, _ka lugatai saufini ana_ let
him go secretly, _da bae aisile ana_ they spoke scornfully of him:
_ala meme gamu_ to bite and rend you, is a variant.

5. To express, of, from, among: _ati mwane agamu_ what man of you?

6. The forms ending in _lu_ denote a restriction in the number of
the people concerned.

7. The adverb _afoa_ apart is also followed by the possessive: _afoa
ana_ apart from him.

8. It will be seen that the one possessive in Lau does the work of
the three that are used in Sa'a.   A Port Adam man asking for a wife
at Sa'a and saying _geni ana_ (as has happened at times) would be
asked whether he wanted to eat her--the Sa'a use being _keni nana_,
_'ana_ being reserved of things to eat.


ADJECTIVES.

1. Words which are qualifying terms may also be used in the form of
verbs, but some may be used without verbal particles and follow the
qualified word. _Mwane baita_ a big man, _mwela tou_ a little child.

2. Some words have a form which is used only of adjectives, either
of termination or of prefix.

a. Adjectival terminations are: _a_, _la_.

The termination _a_ is suffixed to substantives and verbs: _rodo_
night, _rorodoa_ dark, darkness, cloud; _bulu_ to be black,
_bubulua_ black.

_La_ is suffixed to substantives and verbs: _mwai_ a bag, _mwaila_
rich, _kobu_ to be fat, _kobukobula_ fat, whole, big; _tagalo_ to be
wandering, _tagalola_ matted, thick, of forest.

b. Adjectival prefixes are _a_, _ma_, _tata_, _m_. These are all
prefixed to verbs.

The _a_ is prefixed to verbs to form participles: _luga_ to loose,
_aluga_ loose; _la_ to lift up, _alaa_ upwards, up.

_Ma_ denotes condition: _lingi_ to pour, _malingi_ spilled, _ngi_ to
divide, _mangisingisi_ broken, divided, _matala_ only, merely; _tefe
mwela matala_ an only child.

_Tata_ denotes spontaneity: _tatagwelu_ headlong.

_M_ as a prefix appears to be used in the word _moi_ broken, (Sa'a
_'o'i_ to break, _ma'o'i_ broken).

3. Comparison: Degrees of comparison are shown by the use of
prepositions or adverbs, or by a simple positive statement. The
prepositions used are _fasi_ from, _tasa_ beyond, in excess. The
suffixed pronoun is used with _fasi_, but the possessive is used
with _tasa_: _na boso nia baita fasia na asufe_ a pig is larger than
a rat; _gera baita tasa agera_ these are much larger than those.

The adverbs employed are _gele_ little, somewhat, _asia_ very, too
much: _nia baita asia_ it is very (too) large.

A positive statement carries comparison by implication: _doo ne nia
baita_ that is biggest, _sai ai ne ni diena, sai ai nena ni taa na_
this is good, that is bad; i.e., this is better than that.


VERBS.

Almost any word may be used as a verb by prefixing the verbal
particles, but some words are naturally verbs as being the names of
actions and not of things. There are also verbs which have special
forms as such by means of a prefix or termination. Verbal particles
precede the verb; they have a temporal force.

1. The verbal particles are _ka_, _ko_. The particles are written
apart from the verb, but the speakers like to join them to the
governing pronouns of the first and second persons singular, _gu_,
_o_.

_Ka_ is used both of present and of future time: _nia ka bae uri_ he
speaks thus, _ka urina_ if that be so, _tasi doo taa gera ka odea_
what will they do? _lelea ka rodo_ go till nightfall; the illatives
_fi_, _fe_, may be added.

_Ko_ is used only with the personal pronoun, second singular _o_,
and may express either present or future time: the illative may be
added.

The preposition _fuana_ to him, to it, in order that, is used as a
subjunctive or optative.

2. Time and Moods: A subjunctive is formed by _ana_ if, when,
followed by the particle _ka_, or by the use of _saea_.

Conditional affirmation is expressed by _saumala_.

The illatives are _fi_ and _fe_, and mean, then, in that case,
following upon, just now, for the first time: _ta ka fi uri_ then
said he, _gami mifi saitamana na tala uta_ and how shall we know the
way?

_Fe_ as an illative denotes, in that case, following upon; _fe_ is
also used like _ha'i_ in Sa'a, to denote repetition or continuance
or restoration: _na abana e fe boeboela lau_ his hand was restored
whole again, _gera ka fe dao toona_ they will certainly reach him,
_daro fe lea lau_ go they went on again, _da tefe bae ana tesi
baela_ they all cried out together.

_Na_ is used following the verb to form a preterit: _nia mae na_ he
is dead. Finality is shown by the use of _sui_: _sui na_ it is all
finished, _nia kafi dao sui na_ when he shall have arrived, _sui
nana_ it is finished, _sui ta_ thereupon, after that.

For the imperative the simple verb is used: _o lea amu_ go away;
_fasi_ may be added for politeness: _lea fasi amu_ you go!

3. Negative Particles: The foregoing particles are not used in
negative sentences. The negative particles are _langi_, _e langi_,
_si_. These may be combined: _nia langi si saea_ he does not know
it, _e langi mu si rongoa ma e langi mu si saea_ you have neither
heard it nor seen it, _e langi nau gu si lea_ I am not going, _e
langi uri ta ai e adasia_ no one has seen it, _e langi asia_ not at
all. The verbal particle _ka_ may be used in negative sentences with
the addition of _si_, _kasi bobola_ it is not fitting. The
dehortative and the negative imperative is _fasia_: _fasia oko lea_
do not go! _fasia gera ka adasia_ let them not see it, _o fasia oko
luia_ do not forbid it.

Genitives: _ni_, _i_ are used to express purpose.

4. Suffixes to verbs: There are certain terminations which, when
added to neuter verbs or to verbs active only in a general way, make
them definitely transitive or determine their action upon some
object. These are of two forms:

a. A consonant with _i_: _fi_, _li_, _mi_, _ni_, _ngi_, _si_, or _i_
by itself; e.g. _tau_, _taufi_; _mae_, _maeli_: _ano_, _anomi_;
_mou_, _mouni_; _sau_, _saungi_; _ada_, _adasi_; _manatat_,
_manatai_; to the verb _taa_ to be bad, both _si_ and _li_ are added
and the causative _fa_ is prefixed: _fataasi_, _fataali_, to make
worse. Certain verbs which are active in Lau are neuter in Sa'a:
_angai_ to lift, _angaia_ lift it, Sa'a _angainia_; _faodo_ to
straighten, _faodoa_ straighten it, Sa'a _ha'aodohie_; _famae_ to
kill, _famaea_, Sa'a _ha'amaesie_; _famou_ to frighten, _famoua_,
Sa'a _ ha'ama'usie_.

b. The termination _ai_ is suffixed by itself to nouns to convert
them into verbs, _sato_, _satoai_. When this syllable _ai_ is
suffixed to verbs the genitive _ni_ may be added, and to the form
_aini_ the consonants f, m, ng, t, are prefixed: _oli_ to return,
_olifaini_ to carry back, _ala_ to answer, _alamaini_ to consent,
_sau_ to become, _saungaini_ to make, _tagala_ lost, _tagalangaini_
to drive out, _foaa_ to pray, _foaataini_ to pray for. The forms in
_ai_ are also used intransitively: _tege_ to fall, _tegelai_ lost,
_oli_ to turn, _olitai_ converted.

The genitive _ni_ (cf. M. L., p. 532) is often omitted and is not
invariably used as it is in Sa'a, since the form _ai_ without the
addition of _ni_ is transitive: _gonitai_ to receive, _gwoutai_ or
_gwoutaini_ to be left alone, _oalangai_ to apportion, _fatolamai_
to command.

_Ani_ appears to be used by itself as a transitive suffix: _ui_ to
throw, _uiani_ to throw away, _laga_ to drive, _lagaani_ to drive
away, _taba_ to strike, _tabaani_ to destroy; _ani_ is used also
with _too_ to hit, _tooani_ to understand.

With either class of suffixes there is no difference in meaning
between one suffix and another.

5. Prefixes to verbs: These are causative and reciprocal.

The causative is _fa_: it may be prefixed to almost any word, and it
may be used with words which have a transitive suffix. The use of
_fa_ frequently obviates the use of a transitive suffix and of
itself makes verbs transitive.

The reciprocal is _qai_: generally when _qai_ is prefixed to a verb
the action of the verb is enlarged and the subject is included. The
illative _fe_ also marks repetition or restoration or continuance;
it is followed by the adverb _lau_ again: _na abana e fe boeboela
lau_ his hand was restored whole.

6. Passive: The passive is expressed by the use of the personal
pronoun plural third _gera_ or _da_, with the verb and the adverb
_na_ already: _gera taufia na_ it has been washed; _gera_ and _da_
are used impersonally. The word _saetana_ it is said, _sae_ to say,
is used as a passive: _se doo saetana_ the thing said, _si baela ne
saetana uri_ the word which was said.

7. Auxiliary verbs: _Alu_ to put, is used as meaning, to be, to
become; _talae_, v. tr. to begin, means also to become; _sau_ to
make, with the possessive _ana, sau ana_ to become.

8. Reflexive verb: The word _mara_ with suffixed pronoun is used to
denote reflexive action: _nia saungia marana_.  It also carries the
meaning self, of one's own accord: _i bobongi ka manata tetea ana
marana_ the morrow can take care of itself.

9. Reduplication: Verbs are reduplicated in two ways: (a) by
reduplication of the first syllable: _liu_, _liliu_; _bae_, _babae_;
(b) by repetition of the whole word: _gwou_, _gwougwou_.  There is
no difference between the various forms beyond an intensification in
meaning. In the vocabulary the reduplicated form is presented under
the entry of the stem.


ADVERBS.

There are pure adverbs in Lau, but many words used as adverbs are
truly nouns and others are verbs; adjectives may also occur in this
employment.

1. Adverbs of place: _mai_ here, hither; go there, thither, _ne_ may
be added, gone, also _langi_ go, no. _Lo_ there, is compounded with
_go_ and _gi_, _logo_ north, west; _se_ here, a noun, _i se_,
_isena_, here, in this place, _gula_ place, a noun: _si gula na_
this place, here, _gula i maa_ outside. _bali_ side, a noun, _bali
ne_ here, on this side; _i bali jordan i bali logo_ on the far side
of Jordan; _ifai_ where, _gamu mai ifai_ whence are you? _tau_, a
verb, far off: _alaa_ up, south, east, _ilangi_, _ifafo_, up.

2. Adverbs of time: _kada na_ (_ne_), _manga na_, now; _si manga,
kademanga_, when, _i kademanga na_ (_ne_), at the time when; _i
angita, si manga uta_, when? _inao_ of old, in the past; _ua mai
inao_ from of old; _isingana ne_ henceforth: _alua fasi_, _taraina_,
presently; _urii_ just now; _lau, _lau go_, again; _oli_ back; _na_,
_ua na_, already; _ua_ yet, still, still left; _ua go i uarodo_
while still dark in the early morning; _ua mai ana lua_ from the
flood, _toongi ua inao_ old clothes, _e langi ua_ not yet, still
wanting; _firi_, _tefou_, always; _too ka tau_ forever; _suli
dangifiri_ daily; _taraina_ to-day; _i rogi_ yesterday; _maaedangi i
fafo_ day before yesterday; _bobongi_ to-morrow; _taraina lao rodo_
to-night; _talae_ first; _loulou_ quick; _aliali_ forthwith;
_maasia_, _kade manga_, while.

3. Adverbs of manner: _alafana_ as, like, as if; _uri_, _uria_,
_sae_, _saea_, that (of quotation); _uri_, _urina_, thus; _e uta_
how?  _gele_ somewhat; _asia_ completely, too much; _saumala_
granted that; _falaete, mamaloni_, only; _ooni_ merely; _talai_ for
no reason; _tefou_ together; _afui_ altogether (precedes verb);
_boro_, _oto_, _otomone_, _tamone_, _bota ana_, perhaps; _mone_
gives life, _ba_ gives force, to the narrative; _ba_ also explains
and makes the diction less abrupt; _tasa_, _tasaana_, too much;
_faoroa_ often.


PREPOSITIONS.

1. Simple prepositions.

Locative, _i_.
    Motion to, _fua_, _isuli_, _suli_.
    Motion from, _fasi_, _ita_.
    Causation, _fafi_.
    Position, _fonosi_.

Dative, _fua_.
    Instrumental, _ana_, _ani_.
    Relation, _ana_, _ani_, _fai_, _sai_, _usi_.
    Gentive, _ni_, _i_.

The locative _i_ is seen in _ifai_ where; it is also largely used
with adverbs of place and time and it precedes every name of place.
With the exception of the locative, the instrumental, the genitive,
and also _ana_, _ita_, _usi_, all the foregoing prepositions are
used with a suffixed pronoun; _ita_ is used with the possessive.

_Isuli_ denotes motion after, motion over: _sulia rodo ma na asua_
day and night, _manata suli_ to know.

_Fafi_ means, about, concerning, because of, around, on: _gera ogu
fafia_ they crowded round him, _nia alua abana fafia_ he laid his
hand on him, _lau fafi_ to rescue, _fafi taa_ what about, why;
_fuana_ in order that, _mae fuana_ to die to his disadvantage, _soe
ledia fuana_ question him about it, _bae fuana_ forbid him, _fuana
taa_ wherefore?

Of the two instrumental prepositions _ana_ is the one in more
general use, its meaning is with: _doo gera saungia ana_ the thing
they killed him with. _Ana_ appears to denote the actual instrument,
_ani_ the method of action; _ani_ may be translated withal. When the
noun denoting the instrument is not preceded by an article or when
the noun is used in a general sense, _ani_ is used in the place of
_ana_: _suu fafia ani taa_ to clothe himself with what? _lea ani
ola_ to go by canoe.

The pronoun _a_ may be suffixed to _ani_; _tasi doo gera
qaifamanatai ania_ the thing they taught withal; _ka modea na toongi
ua inao ania_ to mend the old garment withal.

_Ana_ also denotes at, in, place where, among: _luma ana foaa_
(_luma ni foaa_) a house of prayer, _kakao ana ano_ an earthen
vessel, _nia liu ana ta maaedangi_ he went on a certain day, _tani
ai ana aigi_ some of the people, _nia saea ana satana_ he called him
by his name, _o ngalia ana ati_ from whom did you get it? _lea ana
fera_ to go into the country. _Ani_ is used as meaning in, _e langi
ani nau_ there is nothing in me, _gera ote gera ani nau_ they will
have nothing to do with me.

_Fai_ means with: _faioe_ with thee, _qaimani fai_ to help, _oko
gaimani fainau_ you help me. The genitive _ni_ may be added, _lea
fainia_ go with him; _fainia_ moreover, and.

_Sia_ means at, at home, and always has the suffixed pronoun.  By
the ordinary Melanesian idiom place at comes to be used of motion
to: _siagamelu chez nous_, _siena ere_ beside the fire, _lea mai
siegu_ come here to me. _Usi_ means over, on behalf of, for: _gera
ngisu usia_ they spat on him, _na captain usia na too_ a captain
over the people, _na taba olisia usia na aigi_ a redemption for the
people.

The genitives have been dealt with under nouns: _i_ is in most
general use, both are used to express purpose, and _ni_ also denotes
for, belonging to: _fasia muka manata ni bae uri_ think not to say
thus, _gera mou ni oli_ they feared to return, _ka ote nia ni
rosuli_ he is tired of obeying.

2. Compound prepositions.

Some of these are nouns used with the locative; the pronoun is
suffixed as the actual object or as the anticipatory object when a
noun follows: _i fafo_ above, _i fara_ beneath, _i lao_ within. The
locative need not be used with _lao_: _lao rodo_ in the night, _lao
tala_ in the path, _lao salo_ in the sky.  Some are constructed from
verbal nouns to which the suffixed pronoun is always added:
_fonosia_ in front of him, _nia initoo fonosi gera_ he ruled over
them, _fonosi taa_ to meet what? for what purpose? Certain verbs are
used as prepositions: _maasi_ to await, _garangi_ to be near.


CONJUNCTIONS.

Copulative, _ma_.
Adversative, _ta_, _ma ta_
Connective, _ta_.
Disjunctive, _langi_, _langi fa_, _ma langi_, _ma ka langi_.
Conditional, _ana_, _ma ana_, _saea_.
Illative, _fi fe_.

A mark of quotation is _saea_, _uri_. Neither, nor, is expressed by
a negative followed by _ma_. Until is _dao ana_, _lea dao ana_.


NUMERALS.

The numerical system is decimal. All numbers over the tens are
expressed in tens.

1. Cardinals.

1. _eta_, _ta_, _te_.
2. _e rua_, _ro_.
3. _e olu_.
4. _e fai_.
5. _e lima_.
6. _e ono_.
7. _e qalu_.
8. _e fiu_.
9. _e siqa_.
10. _e tangafulu_, _aqala_.

In numbers other than _eta_ the initial _e_ is omitted in quick
counting. In composition one is _ta_, two is _ro_, _te_ generally
means only: _rua_ is reduplicated into _ruarua_, _tau ruarua_
equidistant.

The prefix _too_ forms distributives: _too ro doo_ two things at a
time. _Nima_ is used as well as _lima_ for five. Though _qalu_
eight, appears in the translations as used of an indefinite number
it is doubtful whether such use is correct. _Tangafulu_ is the tenth
of a series; _aqala_ is used for ten denoting a unit, _aqala fono_ a
full ten.

To express units above ten _mana_ is employed: _aqala mana fai_
fourteen.

One hundred is _tangalau_: _tangale doo_ one hundred things. The sum
above the hundred is expressed by _mana_: _tangalau fai aqala mana
fai_ one hundred and forty-four. One thousand is _too_.

2. Ordinals.

The cardinals with a substantival ending _na_ form ordinals.

First, _etana_.		Fourth, _faina_.	Seventh, _fiuna_.
Second, _ruana_.	Fifth, _limana_.	Eighth, _qaluna_.
Third, _oluna_.		Sixth, _onona_.		Ninth, _siqana_.

Ordinals precede the noun: _ruana na mwane_ the second man.

Ordinals are used to express the number of times: _eruana lau nia
lea go_ he went away the second time.

_Ruana_ also means fellow: _na ruana gera_ their fellows.

Tenth is expressed by _tangafulu ana_: _aqala maaedangi mana ruana_
the twelfth day, _tangalau ro aqala mana etana_ one hundred and
twenty-first.

_Efita_ how many, is used with the substantival termination _na_:
_efitana_ what number?

3. Multiplicatives.

The article _fe_ is employed to form multiplicatives: _guka fai fe
olila_ I shall return four times, _sasigu ka fita fe ode doo taala
fuagu_ how often shall my brother harm me? _tafe_ once.

The causative _fa_ does not make multiplicatives except in the case
of _faoroa_ often.


EXCLAMATIONS.

_Iu_, _iuka_, assent. _Oto mone_ is that so? _Ne_ is used in
questions, _ati ne satamu_ what is your name? _na mwela a Joseph e
langi ne_ Is He not the son of Joseph? _Aia_ sums up, so there, well
then! _Oimae_ alas! The noun _ai_, person, is added to proper names
to call attention, _Joe ai_ hey, Joe!



LAU VOCABULARY

A.

_a_ 1, personal article: used with the names of males, both native
and foreign, _a Masuraa_, _a Luke_; is used also with _doo_, thing,
_a doo_ So-and-So, _a doo na_, the person; is seen also in _ati_
who? In usage it corresponds to the _i_ of Mota and Malagasy. Cf.
S. _a_.

_a_ 2, termination of the verbal noun: attached to verb, _angi_ to
cry, _angia_ a cry, _fanga_ to eat, _fangaa_ a feast; added to
compounds _girigiri lifoa_, gnashing of teeth.

_a_ 3, pers. pron. sing. 3. suffixed to verbs as object, and to
prepositions as anticipatory object and used both of persons and
things: him, her, it. S. _a_.

_a_ 4, stem to which the pronouns _gu_, _mu_, _na_, etc. are
suffixed in forming the possessive. S. _a_.

_a_ 5, prefix of condition making participles: _luga_ to loose,
_aluga_ loosened. S. _'a_.

_a_ 6, adj. term, suffixed to nouns and verbs _rodo_, night,
_rorodoa_, belonging to darkness, _bulu_, to be black, _bubulua_,
black. S. _a_.

_a_ 7, exclam. negative; don't

_aba_ (_gu_) n., hand, arm, part, leaf: _fuli abae ai_, men's
handiwork.  S. _apa_.

_abaa_ n., staff. S. _apaa_.

_abalolo_ a banyan tree. S. _'apalolo_.

_abasua_ adj. afraid of, silent out of respect for a person.

_abatoo_ v, i. to be barren, of women.

_abolo_ n., a piece: _abole ai_, a beam. S. _polo_.

_abu_ (_gu_) n., blood: _abu rakaraka_, an issue of blood.
S._'apu_.

   _abua_ adj., red.

_abu_ 2. v. i. to be forbidden, taboo: _abu rongo_, to be unwilling
to hear. S. _'apu_.

_abulo_ partic., turned round: _abulo fasi_, to face towards,

   _abuloa_ v. n. a turning round. S. _apulo_.

_abusu_ v. i. to be filled, satiated.

   _abusua_ v. n. satiety.

_ada_ 1. v. i. to see, to awake.

   _ada filo_ to perceive; _ada fua_, to choose; _ada sae tamana_,
   to recognize; _ada_ too, to succeed in finding.

   _adala_, v. n. sight, seeing.

   _adasi_, v. tr. to see. _faada_.

_ada_ 2. poss. pl. 3, among them, for them, for their part, theirs
(of things to eat), used also as obj. to neut. verb; _tani aiai
ada_, some of them. S._'ada_.

_Adagege_ artificial islet next to Ferasubua going north.

_adalu_ poss. pl. 3, as _ada_, but more restricted in application.

_adaro_ poss. dual. 3. Cf. _ada_ 2.

_ade_ v. tr. to do, to make; of disease, to be prostrated by _si
maea e adea_, he was sick; _ade au_, to play on a bamboo flute;
_ade doo_, to worship; _ade doola_, worship.

_adi_ v. tr. to taboo, to place one's mark upon, S. _adi_.

_ado_, _adomi_, v. tr. to serve, to wait upon, to furnish with
food, to worship.

_ae_ (_gu_) 1. n. foot, leg; _lado ae_, to follow; _aena_, because
of, _aena falisi_, lord of the garden; _ae i fera_, a householder;
_ae mwane_, chief man. S._'ae_.

_ae_ 2. exclam. ah!; used also in summing up.

_afa_ 1. v. i. to cut, to incise, to mark by cutting. S. _aha_.

_afa_ 2. an eagle. S. _hada_.

_afe_ 1. woman, wife; _si afe nau_, my wife.

_afe_ 2. v. tr. to direct, to guide, S. _'ahe_.

_afe_, _afeafe_ 3. n. foam, waves; _na afe_, surf. S. _ahe_.

_afedali_; _matai afedali_, to be in a fever. S. _madali_, wet with
perspiration.

_afetai_ partic., difficult; _bae afetai_, to take an oath.

_afoa_ partic. apart, separate. S. _ahoa_.

_afu_ v. tr. to wrap up, to hide. S. _ahu_.

_afui_ partic. precedes verb, altogether. S. _ahu'i_ 4.

_afuta-_ (_gu_) n. all; _afutana_, all of it; _afutagamere_, both
of us.  S._ahuta_.

_aga_ poss. pl. 1. among us, for us, for our part, ours (of things
to eat), used also as obj. with neuter verbs. S. _aka_.

_agalimae_ a spirit, a ghost.

_agalo_ a ghost; _qaife agalo_, a witch doctor. S._'akalo_.

_agamelu_ poss. pl. 1. excl. for us, for our part, among us, us
(obj).

_agamere_ poss. dual, excl. for us two, among us two, us two (obj.)

_agamolu_ poss. pl. 2. for you, among you, you (obj.).

_agamere_ poss. dual, excl. for us two, among us two, us two
(obj.).

_agamolu_ poss. pl. 2. for you, among you, you (obj.).

_agamu_ poss. pl. 2. for you, among you, for your part, you (obj.);
_ati mwane agamu_, what man among you?

_agani_ v. tr. to pluck out. S. _akani_.

_agau_ to be ready. S. _akau_.

_age_; _age reresi_, a lily. _Crinum asiaticum_.

_agera_ poss. pl. 3. for them, among them, them (obj.).

_ago_, _agoago_, 1. v. i. to be hot, to shrivel up; _manata
agoago_, to be zealous; 2. n. _si agoago_ heat.

_agofi_ v. tr. to cause to be hot.

_agolu_ poss. pl. 1. more restricted in meaning than _aga_.

_agoro_ poss. dual. 1. incl. for us two, of us two, us two (obj.).

_agu_ poss. sing. 1. for me, for my part, me (obj.).

_ai_, _aiai_, 1. n. a person, kindred, you (voc.) _Joe, ai_, I say,
Joe!  _mwela ai_, Hey, you! _ai ana fera nau_, my neighbour; _ai
salaa_, a stranger; _James ai tou_, James the Less; _ogule ai_, a
company; _too te ai_, a few; _te ai gone_, only one, _aiai_ is used
as a relative pronoun, the one, that, or as a plural, _tani aiai_,
everybody; _tani fufue aiai_, some seeds. Compounded with _sai_;
_saiai ne_, that which.  Mota _gai_.

_ai_ 2. n. a tree; _ai rarafolo_, a cross. S. _ai_.

_ai_ 3. _ai lado_, to graft.

_ai_ 4. trans. suffix to verb; _sato_, _satoai_.

_aia_ 1. sister, female relations; used with art. _ni_ for sing.,
_ote_ for pl.

_aia_ 2. exclam. Hey! well then!

_aini_ trans. suffix to verb. S. _aini_.

_ainitalongaini_ v. tr. to proclaim. S. _talonga'ini_.

_ala_ 1. v. i. to answer; _alagwau_, to nod the head in
affirmation.

   _alamai_ v. i. to answer.

   _alamaini_ v. tr. to obey, to take notice of. S. _ala_.

_ala_ 2. v. tr. to bite; _ala meme_, to bite and rend; _ala
tagalaa_, to feed promiscuously (of animals). S. _ala_.

_ala_, _alaala_ 3. v. i. to set a net; _ala fafi_, to surround, to
catch.  _alasi_ v. tr. to lie in wait for. S. _ala_.

_alaa_ adv. up; of direction, southeast S. _'ala'a_.

_alafana_ adv. like, just as. Cf. S. _alihana_.

_alange_; _alange gwou_, to nod the head in affirmation. _ala_. 1.

_aliali_ forthwith.

_aliburi_ (_na_) v. tr. to shorten, curtail.

_alida_ v. i. to journey by sea. S. _alide_.

   _alidea_ v. n.

_alifii_ v. tr. to lament.

_alifooa_ n. blood money.

_alinga_ (_gu_) n. ear; _alinga bungu_, deaf. S. _'alinge_.

_alitafu_ n. a dung heap, refuse. S. _alitehu_.

_alofi_ v. tr. to shake off.

_alu_ v. tr. to put, bury; v. i. to become; _alu ere ana_, to burn;
_alu mwela_, to have children; _salo e alu maraqai_, the sky is
red; _alu fafola_, addition, increase. U. _'alu_.

   _alua_, dehortative, no! don't! _alua fasi_, wait a while!

   _alula_ v. n. putting, becoming.

_alualu_ v. i. _bae alualu_, to promise.

_aluga_ partic. unloosed. _luga_.

_amu_ 1. poss. sing. 2. for thee, thee (obj.). _gera soea amu_,
they asked it of thee. S. _amu_.

_amu_ 2. v i. to be dumb; a _amu_, the deaf mute.   S. _amumu_.

_ana_ 1. poss. sing. 3. for him, her, it; used also as obj. _e soea
ana_, he asked him for it; _e lea ana_, he went on his way; _e ita
ana mai_, from there; _qaifamanatai ana too_, a teacher of the
people; _e baita tasaana_, bigger than it; _bota ana_, perhaps. S.
_ana_.

_ana_ 2. instrumental, with, therewithal; _doo gera saungia ana_,
the thing they killed him with. S. _ana_.

_ana_ 3. belonging to, from, him, her, it; _o ngalia ana ati_, from
whom did you get it?   _tani ai ana aigi_, some of the people. S.
_ana_.

_ana_ 4. time when; _ana ta maedangi_, on a certain day; _ana
koburo_, in the time of the northwest wind, summer. S. _ana_.

_ana_ 5. after, by the name of; _e saea lau ana satana_, he called
him by his name. S. _ana_.

_ana_ 6. of, belonging to; used in composition; _kakao ana ano_, an
earthen vessel; _lea ana fera_, to go to another country.

_ana_ 7. if, for, when, because, used of subjunctive.

_ana_ 8. _tangafulu ana_, tenth in a series. S. _ana_ 8

_ani_ 1. v. tr. to eat. Mota _gana_; Florida _gani_.

   _anila_, v.n. eating.

_ani_ 2. instrumental, with; _suu fafia ani taa_, clothed with
what?  the pronoun a may be added, _ka modea na toongi ua inao
ania_, to mend the old garment withal; _liona kafi too ania_, his
heart shall be glad thereat. S. _ani_.

_ani_ 3. prep. concerning, in; _e langi ani nau_, there is nothing
in me; _gera ote gera ani nau_, they will have nothing of me. S.
_ani_.

_ani_ 4. poss. pl. 3, used of things only, for them; _na doo da soi
amu ani_, the things which they asked you for. S. _ani_.

_ani_ 5. v. suff.; _ui_, to throw, _uiani_ v. tr., to throw a
thing.

_aniramo_, v. tr., to do violence to. _ramo_.

_ano_ 1. n., earth; _si ano lofo_, dust. S. _'ano_. Cf. _gano_.

   _anomi_ v. tr., to bury.

   _iano_ on the ground, down.

_ano_ 2. v. i., to come to naught. S. _'ano_ 2.

_angai_ v. tr., to lift, to carry. S. _anga'i_.

_angi_ v. i., to cry.

   _angisi_ v. tr., to cry over. Mota _tang_.

   _angia_, _angila_ v. n., a cry, crying.

_angita_ adv. with loc. i, i _angita_, when? bye and bye. Mota
_angaisa_.

_anu_, _anuanu_ v. i., to be shaken, to be loose. S. _anu_.

_ao_ v. i., _ao maa ilengi_, to lift the eyes, to look up. S.
_aonga'i_.

_aqaa_ v. i., to be well, whole, convalescent. S. _awaa_.

_aqala_ 1. n. a ten, a tally; _aqale mwai_, ten baskets.

_aqala_ (_na_) 2. n., its noise, the sound of it. S. _awa_ 2.

_aqaoro_ v. i., to stoop. S. _aqa oro_.

_arabuu_ v. i., to reach, arrive at. S. _arapuu_.

_arai_ 1. n., husband; _arai faalu_, bridegroom; _arai na luma_,
master of the house.

_arai_ 2. n., a chief; _inite arai_, the elders.

_arenga-_ (_gu_) n., part, duty. S. _arenga_.

_ariabasi_ v. i., to strive, endeavor, attempt. S. _lapasi_.

_ariri_ v. i., to be shaken. S. _ariri_.

_aro_ v. i., to soar. S. _aro_.

_asi_ 1. n., the sea, salt water, salt; i _toulana asi_, on the
surface of the sea; _asi namo_, a lake; _busu asi_, a whale. S.
_'asi_.

_asi_ 2. man's brother, woman's sister; used only with art. _mwai_;
_mwai asi_, brethren. Cf. _sasi_. S. _'asi_.

_asi_ 3. v. tr., to cast away, to fall down; _daro langi si asidaro
laona kilu_, shall they not both fall into the ditch?

_asia_ 1. adj., scattered; 2. adv., much, excessive, very; _tou
asia na_, very lowly; _elangi asia_, far from it, by no means. S.
_'asi'a_.

_asua_ n. daylight, daytime; _fe asua_, a day. S. _atowa_.

_asufe_ n., a rat. S. _'asuhe_.

_ati_ interrog. pron. sing, who, pl. _gerati_; _ati gera_, who
among them?  _ati susulia_, who knows? (I can't say); _doo ati_,
whose thing, who owns it? _ati satana_, what (who) is his name? S.
_atei_.

_ato_ 1. v. i., to be in motion; _ato buri_, with poss., to turn
the back on; _ato folo_, to cross over; _lua e ato fafigera_, the
flood came upon them; _ato ae_, to move quickly, to hurry. S. _ato_
1.

_ato_ 2. v. i., to be difficult.

_au_ n., the bamboo, flute; musical instrument. S. _au_ 3.

_auau_; _ngidu auau_, to hate.



B

_ba_ adv., gives force, explains, makes the diction less abrupt;
_ai ba_, who then? _a doo ba_, why so-and-so; _go_ may be added, _a
doo_ _bago_, the man there.

_babala_ n., a tempest; _babalai tolo_, a hurricane.

_babali_ (_gu_) n., cheek. Cf. _bali_. S. _papali_.

_babara_ (_gu_) n., side (of persons only), loins. S. _parapara_.

_babaranga_ n., a draught, shoal, of fish; _babarangai ia_, a shoal
of fish.

_babataini_ v. tr., to throw down, break by throwing down,
overthrow.  S. _papa_.

_bae_, _babae_ v. tr., to speak, to say; _bae fua_, to rebuke.

   _baea_, v. n., word; _si baea_, a word; _a si baea_, The Word.

   _baela_ (_gu_) v. n., word, the act of speaking; _si baela
   nana_, that word.

_baita_ big, loud, to grow big; _manata baita ana_, to love a
person; _mala baita_, Big Malaita. It is worth notice that the last
three letters of _baita_, viz, _ita_, are those which the
Spaniards, the original discoverers of Malaita, added to the name
_mala_, by which Malaita is known to the natives of those parts.
The part of the island which the Spaniards saw and named is called
by its inhabitants _mala baita_, and it is conceivable that the
_ba_ of _baita_ may have been lost in transcription. S. _paine_,
Alite _baita_. The root is probably _bai_, and _ta_ a verbal
suffix.

_balafe_ v. tr., to thank, to praise. S. _paalahe_.

   _balafela_ v. n., praise, thanksgiving.

_balala_, _bala_ v. i., used with _fafi_; _balala fafi_, to
despise.

_bali_ n., part, side, of position; _ita bali logo_, from over
there; _i bali jordan i bali logo_, from the other side of the
Jordan; _te bali babali_, one cheek; _te bali maa_, one eye; Cf.
_babali_. S. _papali_, cheek.

_bara_ n., a fence, gate, wall, courtyard; _gule bara_, family
(tribe).  S. _para_.

_baraa_ n., a feast.

_baru_ n., a large sea-going canoe, ship (late use).

_bata_ n., shell money. S. _haa_.

_bebe_ n., moth, butterfly. S. _pepe_.

_bele_ v. i., by mischance, by mistake, in error, of no avail.

   _belengaini_ v. tr., to do a thing by mischance, in error.  S.
   _pele_.

_beli_, _belibeli_ v. tr., to steal, to rob, to steal from a
person.

   _belila_ v. n., theft. S. _peli_.

_beu_ n., a chamber in a house; _kade beu_, inner chamber.

_bibii_ n., mud. S. _qiqi_.

_bibisu_ n., shiny starling, _callornis metallica_. s. _pipisu_.

_bibiu_, _mwela bibiu_, a baby, an infant. ?Mota _piopio_.

_bilage_ v. tr., to shut; _bilage maa_, to shut the door.

_bili_; _fabili_, to make dirty.

   _bilia_ adj., dirty, unclean.

_bilili_ v. tr., to press upon, weigh down. S. _pilingi_.

   _bilingi_ v. tr., to press down.

_binaae_ v. i., to shine, of sun.

_binisi_ v. tr., to bind.

_bito_ 1. v. i., to sprout, to shoot, to begin to grow; 2. n. a
sprout;

   _bitona e bito_, it sprouted. S. _qito_.

_bobola_ to be fitting, meet.

_bobongi_ with loc. i, i _bobongi_, tomorrow. Mota _qong_.

_boe_ v. i., to be whole, big.

   _boeboela_ adj., whole, sound, fat, well.

_bokosi_ v. tr., to hinder.

_bola_ n., a pigeon, _carpophaga rufigula_. Florida _bola_.

_bole_; _teo bole_, to dream; _Teo bolea_, _teo bolela_, a dream.
S.  _qole_, Mota _qore_.

_bona_ v. i., to cease speaking, to be silent.

_bono_ v. i., to close a hole; _toongi bono maa_, sackcloth. S.
_pono_.

_bongara_, _bongangara_, v. i., to succor, nourish; _bongara
fonosi_, to oppose.

_bongi_; 1. _too bongi_, to be sad of face.

_bongi_; 2. _dau bongi_, to take hold of.

_boro_ 1. (_na_, _ni_), _borona aena_, heel.

_boro_ 2. adv., perhaps, probably, possibly.

_boro_ 3. v. i., _boro tafa_, to emerge, come out from. S. _pola_.

_boso_ n., a pig. Bugotu, _botho_, Florida, _bolo_, New Guinea,
_boro_.

_bota_ used with poss., blessed, to receive a thing gratis, to be
well provided with; _bota ana_, haply.

   _fabota_ v. tr., to be of assistance to.

_bouruuru_ v. i., to fall down, to kneel down.

   _bouruurula_ v. n. S. _pouruuru_.

_bubu_ v. i., to look; _bubu tete adalu_, to look earnestly at
them.

   _bubungi_ v. tr., to look at.

_bubulu_ n., a star; _fe bubulu_, a star; a bottle (late use).

_bubulua_ adj., black. S. _pulupulu'e_.

_bubungi_; _bubungi luma_, a village. S. _pungu_.

_bukonu_ v. i., to be grieved; _lio bukonu_, to be sad of heart.

_bulo_, _bulobulo_ v. i. to turn; _afe bulobulo_, a tide rip. S.
_pulo_.

_bulu_ n., gall. S. _pulu_.

_bungu_ 1. a shell trumpet; _ufi bungu_, to blow the trumpet.

_bungu_ 2. v. i., to be deaf; _alinga bungu_, deaf. S. _pungu_.

_buri_ (_gu_) n., back, stern, behind, after, of persons, _buri
mwane_, second son.

   _burina_ after that; _i burimu_, in your absence. S. _puri_.

_buro_; _lio buro_, _manata buro_, to forget. S. _pu'o_.

_burosi_ v. tr., _burosi lio_, to keep in doubt. S. _mahuro_.

_buroburo_ v. i., to bubble, to spring up, of water. S. _hure'i_.

_buru_ v. i., to be narrow; _tala e buru_, narrow is the way.

_buruburu_ v. i., to be frequent; adv. frequently. S. _puru_.

_busu_ v. i., to squirt, to eject spray; _busu asi_, a whale. S.
_pusu_.



D

There is no sound of n in the d. The pronunciation of d in Lau is
much the same as that of d in English.

_da_ 1. pers. pron. pl. 3. they; used by itself as subject, or
follows _igera_; _igera da ada_, they saw.

_da_ 2. pers. pron. sing. 3. suffixed to verb and to prepositions
as an anticipatory object, them.

_dada_ v, i.; _dada fafi_, to leave undone; to pass over.

_dadaola_, _daodaola_ adj., tired; _noni daodaola_, weary.

_dafi_ n., the golden lip pearl shell, a pearl; _fufue dafi_,
pearls.  S. _dahi_.

_dalafa_ v. tr., to strike against, to hit.

_dali_ v. i., to tread upon; _uri dali_, to tread under foot. S.
_pulisi_.

_dalu_ 1. pers. pron. trial 3. they; used by itself as subj., or
follows _idalu_.

_dalu_ 2. pers. pron., trial 3. suffixed to verbs, and
prepositions, as object, and to prepositions as an anticipatory
object, and used of persons only, them.

_daluma_ (_gu_) n., middle, in the midst of; used with loc. _i_.
S.  _danume_.

_dangi_ n., day, e _dangi na_, it is daylight; _dangiliu_,
brightness, glory; _maaedangi_, a day; _suli dangifiri_, daily. S.
_dangi_.

   _dadangi_ v. i., to be daylight.

_dao_ v. i., to arrive; _rodo fi dao_, till nightfall; _dao ana_,
until.  S._dao_.

_dara_ (_gu_) n., forehead. S. _dara_.

_daraa_ n., a young man; _maa ni daraa_, a young man.

_dari_ n., a valley, a creek. S. _da'iderie_.

_daro_ 1. pers. pron. dual 3. they two; used by itself as subj. or
follows _idaro_.

_daro_ 2. pers. pron. dual 3. suffixed to verbs and prepositions as
object, or to prep, as an anticipatory object, the two of them.

_darongai_ v. tr., to scatter, cause to disperse. S. _daro'i_

_dasa_ n., fog, mist.

_dau_, _dadau_ v. i., to hold, catch, take, touch; used with poss.;
_dau agu_, touch me; _dau toogu_, meet me. S. _dau_. 1.

   _daula_ v. n., holding, touching.

_dedengi_ v. tr., to pour out. S. _dede'i_.

_dee_, _deedee_ v. tr., to catch fish; _mwane deedee_, a fisherman.

   _deela_ v. n., _dee ana deela_, to fish.

_didi_ v. tr., to carve, to grave. S. _didi_ 2.

_diena_ adj., good, proper, accurate, beloved; _lio diena fafi_, to
delight in, to love.

   _dienala_ v. n. U. _diena_.

_dila_ v. i., to jump down. S. _dile_.

_dingalu_; _dui dingalu_, completely finished.

_dodoria_ adj., clear, open, of path.

_dole_ v. i., to delay, to be a long time.

_dolofi_ v. tr., to rub in the hands.

_donga_ v. i., to spread, to circulate.

   _dongaa_ adj., consecutive. S. _donga_ 2.

_doo_ n., thing; the noun ending may be added; with the personal
article, _a doo_, the person, so-and-so, such an one; _ni doo ne_,
the woman, woman (Voc.); _doo mamana_, truly; _ade doo_, to
worship; _dooa_, _doola_ v. n., _saitama dooa_, wisdom; _ade
doola_, worship; cf. S.  _ola_.

_dori_ v. tr., to wish for, desire, love.

_dudu_ v. i., to move position; _dudu mai_, come hither; _dudu
oli_, to retire. U. _dudu_.

_dumuli_ v. tr., to lay hold of.

_duqe_ v. tr., to split, burst, wound; _too duqe_, to cause to
burst open; _ofu duqe_, to burst.

_duu_ v. tr., to visit upon, punish, repay, _qaiduu_, to revenge.

   _duulana_, with loc. _i_, _i duulana_, because of.

   _duula_ v. n., recompense.



E

_e_. 1. used to make a construct form, added to the first of two
nouns, _fuli abae ai_, man's handiwork; _toloe fera_, a hill; when
the first noun ends in _a_, _ae_ is contracted into _e_, _aqale
mwae_, ten bags; _fufue ai_, seed; when the first noun ends in _o_,
the _oe_ is contracted into _e_; _abolo_, piece, _abole ai_, log.
Cf. Mota, construct form of nouns, where the ending of the first
noun may be altered to _e_.

_e_. 2. pers. pron. sing. 3. he, she, it, used to precede _nia_
when the meaning is, there is, it is: _na liqa gera enia ada_, they
have their holes; _ma te ai enia i luma_, there is only one person
in the house; generally used of the neuter; _e langi_, no, not; _e
langi ana_, it is lost; _e langi o si sulu isulia_, you must not
follow him; _e sui na_, it is finished; _e uta_, how? S. _e_.

e. 3. v. p., used with numerals and with _fita_; _e rua_. two; _e
fita_, how many? S. _e_.

_eela_ adj., lazy; _noni eela_, lazy.

_eelenga_ (_na_) n., the end of, its end.

_eeo_ v. i., to be crooked.

_ele_ v. i., to desire, used with _uri_; _ele uria_, desirous of
it.

   _elela_ v. n., rejoicing.

   _elea_ adj., joyfully.

_eli_, _elieli_ v. tr., to dig.

   _elila_ v. n., digging. S. _eli_.

_enia_ pers. pro. sing. 3. he, she, it; _enia naane_, that is so;
_gele mwela enia ada_, the small child (he) was with them. Cf. _e_.
2.

_eqetaini_ v. tr., to remit, forego.

_ere_ 1. n., fire; _alu ere ana_, to set fire to; _si ere_, a
firestick.

_ere_ 2. v. tr., to plait.

   _ereere_ v. tr., used as prep., round about.

   _ereila_ adj., round in shape. S. _ere_.

_erisi_ v. tr., to dispatch, send. _qaierisi_.

_eta_ numeral, one; _eta inao fua_, to be in front of, to lead.

   _etana_, ordinal, first, the first time. S. _eta_.



F

_fa_. 1. causative prefix, applied to verbs and less frequently to
nouns, e. g., _famwaela_. S. _ha'a_.

_fa_. 2. termination of verbal nouns: _mae_, to die, _maemaefa_,
sickness; _otofa-_, concerning, _oofa-_, approaching, are always
followed by the suffixed pronoun. S. _ha_.

_faabu_ v. tr., to forbid. S. _'abu_.

   _faabua_ v. n., an oath.

_faabusu_ v. tr., to fill, satiate with food.

_faada_ v. tr., to cause to see, to awaken. _ada_.

_faado_ v. tr., to apportion. S. _ado_.

_faalamaini_ v. tr., to entrust, to permit. _alamai_.

_faalu_, _faolu_, adj., new, fresh, recent; _arai faolu_,
bridegroom.  S. _haalu_.

_fabaita_ v. tr., to make big, to magnify oneself. _baita_.

_fabili_ v. tr., to make dirty, to defile. _bili_.

_fabona_ v. tr., to appease, to cause to be quiet. _bona_.

_fabota_ v. tr., to be of assistance to. _bota_.

_fabulosi_ v. tr., to cause to turn, to turn over. _bulo_.

_fadole_ v. tr., to be a debtor to.

_fafanafi_ v. tr., to covet. _fana_.

_fafanga_ v. tr., to feed. _fanga_.

_fafaraasia_ adj., tasteless.

_fafi_ 1. v. tr., to help; _dau fafi_, to help, to surround; 2.
prep, concerning, causation; _fafia_, because of. S. _haahi_.

_fafo_ (_gu_) n., above, over, used with locative i., i _fafona_,
in addition, on top of it.

   _fafola_ v. n., _alu fafola_, addition. S. _haho_.

_fafolali_ v. tr., to illuminate. _fola_.

_fafolifoli_ v. tr., to signify, to explain. _folifoli_.

_fafou_ v. tr., to proclaim. _fou_.

_fafunu_ v. tr., to destroy, to cause to end. _funu_.

_fafungu_ v. tr., to fill, _fungu_.

_fafurongo_ n., a disciple, _rongo_.

_fafuta_ v. tr., to generate, to beget; said of both parents.

   _fafutala_ v. n., a generation, _futa_.

_fafuu_ used with possessive _ana_; _fafuuana_, real. _fuu_.

_faga_ (_gu_) n., mouth. Niue _fangai_, to feed; Mota _wanga_, to
gape; S. _awanganga_, to gape.

_fagaro_ v. tr., to deceive, to cause to stray. _garo_.

_fagwau_ v. tr., to make desolate. _gwau_.

_fagwoufi_ v. tr., to give drink to. _gwou_.

_fagwourufi_ v. tr., to cause to sit down. _gwouru_.

_fai_ 1. v. tr., used as prep., with, to help; _fai oe_, with thee.

   _faini_ v. tr., to help, to companion with; _fainia_, moreover.

_fai_ 2. adv., where? used with locative i, or with prefix _ni_;
_ifai_, _nifai_. U. _hei_.

_fai_ 3. pref. to verb; _buri_, behind, _faiburi_, to leave behind;
_faigwa_, to spill.

_fai_ 4. numeral, four, _faina_, ordinal, fourth, the fourth time.

_faiburi_ used with poss., to leave behind, _fa_ 1.

_faigwa_ v. tr., to spill, to shed.

_fakukule_ v. tr., to cause to hang down.

_fakulufi_ v. tr., to let sink, to lower, _kulu_.

_falaete_ adv., only. S. _hali'ite_.

_falangi_ 1. n., a house on piles. S. _ha'alangi_. _langi_ 2.

_falangi_ 2. v. tr., to bring to nothing, to destroy. _langi_ 1.

_falauni_ v. tr., to decorate, to adorn, _launi_.

_fale_ v. tr., to give; _fale aba fafi_, to lay hands on.

   _falela_ v. n., a gift.

_fali_, _fafali_ v.i., to walk, tread; _fali folo_, to turn aside.
S.  _palili_.

_falisi_ n., garden, crop, season, year. S. _ha'lisi_.

_falooi_ v. tr., to torment, treat shamefully. _loo_.

_famae_ 1. v. tr., to kill. _mae_.

   _famaesi_ v. tr.

_famae_ 2. v. tr., to quench. _mae_.

_famafo_ v. tr., to heal a sore. _mafo_.

_famamana_ v. tr., to establish, to make true. _mamana_.

_famanatai_ v. tr., to instruct, teach. _manatai_.

_famou_ used with poss., to warn, terrify, hold in honor. _mou_.

_famwaela_ used with poss., to laugh at. _mwaela_.

_fanau_ v. tr., to teach, educate.  S. _ha'ananau_.

_fana_ v. i., to shoot. S. _hana_.

   _fanasi_ v. tr., to shoot, to covet.

_fanina_ v. tr., to be wont, to accustom.

_fanonifi_ v. tr., to torment. _noni_.

_fanualama_ n., peace. S. _hanualama_.

_fanga_ v. tr., to eat, to bite (of fish); _toli fanga_, to fast,
abstain from.

   _fangaa_ v. n., a feast.

   _fangala_ v. n., food; _ade fangala_, to make a feast.

_fangado_ v. tr., to make strong; _fangado rage_, to comfort.
_ngado_.

_fangasi_ v. tr., to harden.

_fao_, _faofao_ v. tr., to weave, to plait. S. _hao_.

_faolo_ v. tr., to make straight.

   _faolofi_ v. tr., to make straight, to justify (late use).

_faolu_ adj., new, recent, fresh. U. _ha'olu_.

_faorai_ v. i., to plot, take counsel, consult, talk together.

_faoro_ v. tr., to multiply.

_faoroa_ adj., often. _oro_.

_faqaqaoa_ v. tr., to make clean. _qaqaoa_.

_faqaqari_ v. tr., _faqaqari lio_, to comfort.

_fara_ (_gu_) n., beneath; with locative _i_, _i farana_, on the
earth.

_fararao_ v. tr., to cause to stick. _rarao_.

_farifari_ n., a scorpion. S. _hariheri_.

_farodo_ v. tr., to darken; _farodo maa_, to blind the eyes.
_rodo_.

_fasaa_; _fasaa fua_, to curse; _bae fasaa ana_, to curse anyone.

_fasi_ (_nau_) 1. prep., from, motion from.

_fasi_ 2. adv., a while; makes the diction less abrupt; _o lea
fasi_, please go; _alua fasi_, put it aside, i.e., wait a while,
presently.

_fasi_ 3. v. tr., to sow, to plant. S. _hasi_.

_fasia_ dehortative, don't! _fasia oko lea go_, do not go; _o fasia
oko luia lau_, do not forbid it any more. _fasi_ 2.

_fasifa_ v. tr., to sell, to hire.

   _fasifala_ v. n., price, hire. _sifa_.

_fasui_ v. tr., to finish; _fasui lio_, to satisfy the mind. _sui_.

_fasusu_ v. tr., to give suck to. _susu_.

_fataali_ v. tr., to do harm to, to spoil. _taa_.

_fatai_ partic., out, clear.

   _fataia_ v. n., a manifestation. S. _ha'atai_.

_fatake_, _fatakesi_ v. v. tr., to cause to stand, to set up;
_fatake qaimani_, to be a peacemaker. _take_.

_fataofai_ v. tr., to cause to stumble, to offend (late use).
_taofai_.

_fatau_ v. tr., to cause to be far off. S. _ha'atau_.

_fatemaea_ n., a wonder, a miracle; _si fatemaea_.

_fateofi_ v. tr., to cause to lie down, to put to sleep. _teo_.

_fateqa_ v. tr., to lengthen. _teqa_.

_fatona_ v. tr., to cause amazement to.

_fatou_ v. tr., to humble. _tou_.

_fe_ 1. article, a; used of things spherical in shape; _fe bread_,
a loaf; _fe bubulu_, a star; _fe gale bola_, a young pigeon; _fe
kakarai kua_, a hen's egg; _fe rade_, a reed; _na_ or _ta_, or
_te_, may precede; _fe uo_, a hill; _tefuana ta fe uo_, every hill;
_na fe uo_, a hill; _te fe mwela matala_, an only son; used of one
of a series; _fe asua_, a day; _fe rodo_, a night; used as a
multiplicative; _ro fe angia_, two cryings; _fita fe ade doo taa
fuagu_, how many sinnings against me? Cf. _qe_.

_fe_ 2. (a) marks repetition or restoration or continuance; is
accompanied by adv. _lau_, again; _na abana e fe boeboela lau_, his
hand was restored whole; _daro fe lea lau go_, they two went on;
(b) used as an illative, in that case, following upon. S. _hei_.

_fera_ n., land, village, habitation; _fera fu_, heritage; _fera
gwou_, a deserted village. S. _hera_.

_Ferasubua_ artificial islet north of _Fuaga_.

_fi_ illative, in that case, then, following upon, just now, for
the first time; follows the verbal particles _ka_, _ko_, but a
particle need not be used; _gami mi fi saitamana na tala_, and how
shall we know the way?

_fi_ 2. trans. suffix to verb; _tau_, to wash; _taufia abana_.

_fidali_ v. tr., to clap the hands, to strike with the hands. S.
_hideli_.

_fii_ v. i., to be in pain, to hurt. S. _hii_.

   _fiila_ v. n., pain. _nonifii_.

_fili_; _tasifili_, alone. S. _hili_.

_filo_; _ada filo_, to choose, to perceive; _too filo_, to
perceive.

_finau_ n., a hook. S. _hinou_.

_fiolo_ v. i., to be hungry.

   _fioloa_ v. n., hunger. S. _hi'olo_.

_firi_ adv., always, lasting; _too firi_, everlasting; _suli
dangifiri_, daily.

_firu_ v. i., to fight with weapons.

   _firula_ v. n., a fight, war; _na firula_.

_fisu_, _fifisu_ v. tr., to pluck.

_fita interrog_. adv., used with _e_ 3; _e fita_, how many? _sasigu
ka fita fe ade doo taa fuagu_, how often shall my brother wrong me?
S.  _nite_.

_fitali_ v. tr., to split; _too fitali_, split in sunder. S.
_hideli_.

_foaa_ v. tr., to pray.

   _foaataini_ v. tr., to pray for.

   _foaala_ v. n., prayer.

_foda_ v. tr., to shut, to close.

_foela_ v. n., division, schism.

_foga_ v. i., to be open, to rend. S. _ho'a_.

_fola_ v. i., to shine, to be clear; _lioda kasi fola_, their minds
shall be clear; _bae fola_, to speak plain.

   _folala_ v. n., light, clear, shining.

_folaa_ n., a calm. S. _holaa_.

_folifoli_ v. tr., to measure, to signify, to exemplify.

   _folifolia_ v. n., a measure.

_folo_, _fofolo_ 1. v. tr., to guard; _folo fonosi_, to protect.

   _folola_ v. n., a guarding.

   _foloa_ v. n., guardian.

_folo_ 2. v. i., to cross over; _fali folo_, to turn aside
_towards_; _ato_ _folo_, to cross the sea. _rarafolo_.

_fono_ v. i., to be full; _agala fono_, a full ten. Mota _wono_.

_fonosi_ (_nau_) verb used as preposition, against, to meet, to
protect.  S. _honosi_.

_fonu_ n., a turtle. S. _honu_.

_foosi_ v. tr., to officiate, conduct service.

_fote_ 1. v. tr., to paddle; 2. n., a paddle; _si fote_. S. _hote_.

_fotoi_ v. tr., to hit, to crucify.

_fou_ 1. rock, stone; _si fou_, a rock. S. _hau_

_fou_ 2. v. i., to proclaim.

   _foulai_ v. tr., to proclaim. S. _hou_.

_founia_, _faunia_ n., a sacrifice.

_fousi_ v. tr., to turn, to reverse.

_fu_ 1. v. i., to be grieved. S. _hu_.

_fu_ 2. adv., real, permanent, for good; _ngali fu ana_, to take it
permanently. S. _hu_.

_fua-_ (_gu_) 1. prep, to, for, dative, motion towards; _falea
fuana_, give it to him; _mae fuana_, die to his disadvantage; _soe
ledia fuana_, question him about it; _bae fua_, forbid anyone; in
order to, _fua qaimani_, in order to help; _ngado fua_, trust (a
person), _fuana_ used as subjunctive or optative.

_fua_ 2. n. ashes.

_Fuaga_ artificial islet inside reef at Ataa Cove.

_fuagalo_ v. i., to be in good time, early afoot in the morning.

_fuasa_, a crocodile. S. _huasa_.

_fualangaa_ n., sin.

_fufua_ (_na_) n., fruit; _fufue ai_, seed; _fufuana_, its seed. S.
_hue_.

_fufusi_ v. tr., to scatter, to sow.

_fulaa_ n., a spring of water. S. _hulaa_.

_fuli_ n., place; _fuli abae ai_, men's handiwork; _fuli fera_,
village; _i fulini_, in their place (neuter). S. _huli_.

_fulo_ 1. v. tr., to wash, to sponge; n., a sponge. S. _hulo_.

_fulo_ 2. v. tr., to prepare; _fuloa na tala_, to make ready a way.

_funu_ v. i., to come to naught, be destroyed; _ani funu_, to eat
up, devour; _doo funu gi_, things of naught, vanities.

_fungo_ (_gu_) n., relations at law; _fungona Peter geni_, Peter's
mother-in-law. S. _hungao_.

_fungu_ 1. v. i. to bear fruit. S. _hungu_.

_fungu_ 2. v. i., to be full. S. _honu_.

_funguli_ v. tr., to oppress, cause sorrow to.

_furai_ n., a net; _furai ana deela_, a fishing net.

_futa_ v. i., to be born.

   _futala_ v. n., generation. S. _hute_.

_fuura_ v. i., to be dropsical. S. _pule_.



G

_gagaro_ (_gu_) n., flank, side, of persons. S. _karokaro_.

_galai_ v. tr., to strike, beat.

_gale_ adj., precedes noun, small, little, of young persons or
children; _ro fe gale bola_, two young pigeons. S. _kele_.

_gali_ (_nau_) verb used as prep., round, around; lea _galia_, go
round it. S. _kali_.

_gamelu_ 1. personal pronoun trial, 1. excl. we; used by itself as
subj.  or follows _igamelu_.

_gamelu_ 2. as _gamelu_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gamere_ 1. pers. pron. dual 1. we two; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igamere_.

_gamere_ 2. as _gamere_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gami_ 1. pers. pron. pi. 1. excl; we; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igami_.

_gami_ 2. as _gami_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gamolu_ 1. pers. pron. trial 2. you; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igamolu_.

_gamolu_ 2. as _gamolu_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gamoro_ 1. pers. pron. dual 2. you two; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igamoro_.

_gamoro_ 2. as _gamoro_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gamu_ 1. pers. pron. pi. 2. you; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igamu_.

_gamu_ 2. as _gamu_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep,

_garangi_ (_nau_) verb used as prep., near; adv., almost. S.
_kara'ini_.

_garo_ v. i., to be astray, loose, to be lost, to wander, to be
wrong; _manata garo_, to think astray, to err.

_garola_ v. n., transgression. S. _takalo_.

_gau_ 1. v. tr., to extract, to pluck.

_gau_ 2. v. tr., to bind.

_gefu_, _gefusi_ v. v. tr., to tear down, to roll away, to remove.

_gege_; _ada gege_, to look behind.

   _Adagege_, name of artificial islet next to _Ferasubua_.  S.
   _keke_ 3.

_gele_ 1. adv., a little, somewhat. 2. adj., little; _gele qe ia
gi_, small fishes. S. _kele_.

_gelogelo_ v. i., to be shaken.

_gelogeloa_ adj., shaken. S. _kidekule_.

_geni_ n., a woman; _ni geni ne_ (Voc), woman; tole _genila_,
marriage.  S. _keni_. Alite _mangeli_.

_gera_ 1. pers. pron. pi. 3. they; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igera_; used to mark plurality; _gera priest_; _gera na
Judea_.  S.  _kire_.

_gera_ 2. as _gera_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gi_ article, denotes plurality, follows the noun; _na mwane gi_,
the men; _na mwane oro gi_, many men; used with the forms of the
pers.  pron. pl. but not with those in _lu_; _gi_ may be separated
from the noun; _na doo nia gi_, his things. S. _'i_ 8.

_gia_ 1. pers. pron. pi. 1. incl. we; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igia_. S. _ki'e_.

_gia_ 2. as _gia_ 1. but suff. as obj. to v. and prep.

_gidigidi_ v. tr., to knock with the knuckles.

_ginigini_ v. tr., to pinch. S. _'ini_.

_girigiri_; _girigiri lifo_, to clench the teeth; _girigiri lifoa_
v. n.

_go_ 1. adv., of place, there, thither, away; added to _lau_; _e
bae lau go_, he said also; _logo_, over there; _sifo go_, come
down, descend. S.  _wau_.

_go_ 2. a demonstrative; _inau go agu_, I for my part; _tefe doo go
ana_, only one thing; _ne_ may be added; _inia_ gone, that is it.
S.  _hou_ 2.

_golu_ 1. pers. pron. trial 1. incl. we; used by itself as subj. or
follows _igolu_. S. _kolu_.

_golu_ 2. as _golu_ I, but is suff. to v. and prep, as obj.

_goni_, _gonitai_ v. v. tr., to receive, to keep, to observe and
do.  S.  _koni_.

_goro_ 1. pers, pro. dual 1. incl. we two; used by itself as subj.
or follows _igoro_. S. _kure_.

_goro_ 2. as _goro_ 1. but is suff. to v. and prep, as obj.

_gougou_ (_na_) n., husk, shell,

_gu_ 1. pers. pron. sing. 1. I, used by itself as sub. or follows
_inau_.  Florida, _ku_.

_gu_ 2. as _gu_ 1. but is suff. to v. and prep, as obj.

_gula_ n., place, part; _gula i maa_, outside; _gule bara_, family.

_gulu_ v. i., to be heavy, to be enceinte,

   _gulufi_ v. tr., to be too heavy for.

   _gulua_ adj., heavy.

_gumu_ v. tr., to strike, to punch. S. _kumu_.

_gutafi_ v. tr., to persecute. S. _kotahi_.

_gwa_; _faigwa_, to shed, to spill.

_gwaa_ v. i., to be open, of ears. S. _wa'a_.

_gwagwaria_ adj., patient, gentle.

_gwai_ 1. v. tr., to anoint; 2. n., ointment.

   _gwaila_ v. n., anointing; _gwai ni gwaila_.

_gwalifoa_ v. tr., to cause to sink.

_gwalu_ 1. v. tr., to promise.

   _gwalua_ v. n., a promise,

   _gwalula_ v. n., a promising.

_gwalu_ 2. v. i., to moor a vessel,

_gwaofa_ n., house, ridge. S. _qaoha_.

_gwaofai_ v. tr., to hide, to cover over,

_gwari_ adj., cold; _kafo gwari_, cold water,

_gwarimabe_ v. i., to be gentle, quiet, sober. _gwagwaria_

_gwau_, _gwou_ (_gu_) n., head. S. _q'au_.

_gwaunga_, _gwounga_ n., a generation; _gwaunge mwane_, a
generation of men. S. _qaunge_.

_gwauru_, _gwouru_ v. i., to kneel, to bend. S. _pouruuru_.

_gwautoli_, _gwoutoli_ v. i., to bow, to bend. S. _qa'utoli_.

_gwegwe_ v. tr., to buffet; _salo_ e _gwegwe gera_, the wind was
contrary to them.

_gwelu_; _tatagwelu_, headlong. S. _tataqelu_.

_gwini_, _gwinigwini_ v. i., to be moist, wet. S. _qini_.

_gwou_, _gwougwou_, _gwoufi_, 1. v. v. tr. to drink.

   _gwoula_ v. n., a drinking.

_gwou_, _gwau_ 2. v. i., to be deserted, overgrown, of gardens; to
be part; to be empty, finished, of a vessel; _fera gwou_, a
deserted village,

   _gwoutai_ v. tr., to be apart, alone; _e gwouiai daro_, they two
   were alone. Mota _won_.

_gwoubusua_ a hill. _gwou_, head,

_gwouru_, _gwauru_ v. i., to kneel, sit.

   _gwourula_ session. S. _pouruuru_.

_gwoutai_, _gwoutaini_ v. v. tr., to bow the head.

_gwou ulunga_ n., a pillow. S. _qa'u ulunge_.



I

_i_ 1. locative; always used before names of places; always with
adverbs of time and direction; _ifai_, where? _i daluma_, in the
midst; _i Ramarama_, at Port Adam; _i kade manga na_, at that time;
_i angita_, when? _i se_, _i sena_, here. Forms the compound
prepositions _ifafo_, _i fara_, _i lao_. S. _i_.

_i_ 2. genitive; _geni i Saa_, a Sa'a woman; _ro kesi kurui bata_,
two pieces of money; used to express purpose, _lea i fasifa_, go to
purchase. S. _i_.

_i_ 3. prefix to personal and demonstrative pronouns; _inau_,
_igoro_, _igia_. S. _i_.

_i_ 4. instrumental prefix forming noun from verb; _kamu_ to eat
areca nut, _ikamu_, a lime spatula.

_i_ 5. verbal suffix; _manata_, to think, _manatai_, to pity. S.
_'i_.

_ian_ a fish, a fish tooth (porpoise); _qe ia_, a fish. S. _i'e_.

_iano_ adv., on the ground, down; _mai iano_, on the earth.

_iangita_ adv., when? at what time?

_ibobongi_ adv., tomorrow. Mota _qong_.

_ida_ v. i., to be ashamed, to reverence; _ida fasi_, to reverence,

   _idala_ v. n., respect, shame.

_idalu_ pers. pron. pl. 3. they; used by itself as subj. or follows
_dalu_, more restricted in application than _igera_.

_idaro_ pers. pron. dual 3, they two; used by itself as subj. or
follows _daro_.

_idu_ 1. v. i., to count.

   _idumi_ v. tr. S. _idu_.

_idu_ 2. v. i., to move position; _lea idu_, to pass by; _lea idu
mai_, to enter.

_idula-_ (_gu_) n., on behalf of.

_ie_ (_gu_) n., stomach, womb. S. _'ie_.

_ifafo_ (_gu_) prep, above; _maaedangi i fafo_, two days ago.

_ifai_ adv., where.

_ifara_ (_na_) n., underneath.

_ifi_ v. i., to open, _ifingi_ v. tr.

_ifitai_ n., a mat, a bed.

   _ifitaini_ v. tr., to spread as a cloth.

_ifu_ (_gu_) n., hair. S. _ihu_.

_ifu_ v. i., to be uprooted. S. _'aihu_.

   _ifula_ v. n., a fall, an uprooting,

_igamelu_ 1. pers. pron. trial excl. 1. we; used as subj.; more
restricted in application than _igami_.

_igamere_ pers. pron. dual 1. excl. we two; used as subj.

_igamolu_ pers. pron. trial 2. you; used as subj.; more restricted
in application than _igamu_.

_igamoro_ pers. pron. dual 2. you two; used as subj.

_igamu_ pers. pron. pi. 2. you; used as subj.

_igera_ pers. pron. pi. 3. they; used as subj.; also as plural
article;

   _igera fiolo_, the hungry. S. _ikire_.

_igia_ pers. pron. pl. 1. inch we; used as subj. S. _iki'e_.

_igolu_ pers. pron. trial. 1. incl. we; used as subj.; more
restricted in application than _igia_. S. _ikolu_.

_igoro_ pers. pron. dual 1. we two; used as subj. S. _ikure_.

_iida_ (_na_) n., pinnacle of house.

_iidimani_ only, just, to be about to; _iidimani si doo_, the
uttermost farthing; _tesi gida iidimani_, the merest piece.

_ikamu_ n., a lime spatula.

_ilangi_ adv., up, above, in the sky.

_ilefou_ n., a precipice; _fou_.

_ili_ v. i., to choose; Hi _doo_, to choose. S. _ilisi_.

   _ilisi_ v. tr.

_ilao_ (_gu_) n., used as prep.; within; _ilaona_, inside. S.
_ila'o_.

_ileli_ v. tr., to judge.

_ilelia_ adj., bruised.

_ilifaini_ v. tr., to give commands to, to signify.

_ilitoo_ v. tr., to tempt; takes _gu_, _mut_, _na_, as pronominal
suffixes; _a ilitooa_ v. n., the tempter.

_imaa_ adv., outside, in the courtyard.

_i moumouli_ (_gu_) on, in, the left hand (late use).

_inakesi_ v. tr., to examine, take account of, beseech, importune;
_inakesi ingola_, to beseech.

_inala_ v. i., to discern by casting lots. S. _ilala_.

_inali_ 1. v. tr., to plait; 2. a rope. S. _i'eli_.

_inao_ (_gu_) n., before, in front of, of old time. S. _ina'o_.

_ini_ v. tr., to pinch, _ini_ i _luana_, to throttle. S. _'ini_.

_inia_ pers. pron. sing. 3. he, she, it; used as subj. and followed
by _nia_. S._inge'ie_.

_inite_; _inite arai_, the elders.

_initoo_ to be glorious; _soe initoo_, to glorify; _too initoo_,
the rulers; _initoo_, _initoola_, majesty.

_inumae_ v. i., to be orphaned, to be poor.

   _inumaea_ v. n., an orphan. S. _inemae_.

_inunufa-_ (_gu_) n., because of. S. _inunuha_.

_ingo_ v. i. to beseech.

   _ingosi_ v. tr., to beseech.

   _ingotaini_ v. tr., to provoke.

   _ingola_ v. n., _inakesi ingola_, to beseech.

_ioe_ pers. pron. sing. 2. thou, used as subj. and followed by _o_.
S.  _i'oe_.

_iqa_ v. 1. to be spoilt, shed, of fluid.

_irogi_ adv., yesterday.

_irori_ v. tr., to mix, mingle, stir up.

_isara_ adv., shore, to the shore.

_ise_, _isegi_, _ise na_ adv., here.

_isi_; _isilana_, the end; _isiburi_, to be last, finally;
_isingana ne_, from henceforth; _sae isingana_, leave off speaking.

_isuli_ prep. motion after, motion over; _isulia rodo mana asua_,
by day and night; _lea isulia_, go after him. S. _isuli_.

_ita_ adv., motion from; _ita ana mai_, up to here; _ita mai ifai_,
whence; _ita na ma inao_, from of old.

_itafu-_ (_gu_) n., on behalf of.

_iu_, _iuka_ affirmative, yes.



K

_ka_ verbal particle, used of present or of future time, or of
consequent action; _nia ka bae uri_, he speaks thus; _gamelu ka
ania si taa_, what shall we eat? _sui ta nia kafi bae uri_,
thereupon he says; _lelea ka rodo_, go till nightfall; may be used
in negative sentences with the addition of _si_, not; _kasi
bobola_, it is not fitting. U.  _'a_.

_kada_ n., a period; _kada na_, _kada ni_, at the time when; _i
kada uta_, when? _kade manga_, while; _kade beu_, inner chamber.

_kafo_ water; _si kafo_, a bamboo water carrier.

_kakalu_ a well of water. S. _kilu_.

_kakamu_ (_na_) n., edge, border.

_kakao_ basin, vessel, coconut shell cut to make a spoon. S.
_kaokao_.

_kakara_ egg; _fe kakarai kua_, hen's egg.

_kakasi_ v. tr., to carve.

_kakau_ (_gu_) n., finger. S. _kau_.

_kame_ (_na_) n., used with locative i, by the side of (of things).

_kamu_ v. i., to eat areca nut. S. _damu_.

_kani_ v. tr., to bind.

   _kanila_ v. n., a binding.

_kanikulu_ v. tr., to hang up, suspend.

_kao_ a bamboo water carrier. Cf. _kafo_.

_kari_ v. tr., to tear, rend, break open, take to pieces.

_kau_, _kakau_, v. tr., to bind, tie.

_kakari_ v. i., to be torn.

_kauraa_ v. tr., to mend, patch.

_ke_ article, followed by _si_ 2.; _ro kesi kurui bata_, two pieces
of money; added to _te_, _teke si gula_, a part.

_kede_, _kekede_ v. tr., to cut, carve, write.

   _kedela_ n., inscription, writing, letter.

_kedekedea_, _kekedea_, adj., gorgeous, bright-colored.

_kekerofa_ (_na_) n., of, _amongst_; _ada kekerofana_, choose from
among; _mou kekerofana_, fearful of.

_keketo_ v. tr., to judge.

   _keketola_ v. n., judgment.

_keo_ v. i., to be blind; _mwane keo_, a blind man.

_kete-_ (_gu_) 1. n., head; i _ketena_, on his head.

_kete_ 2. v. tr., to cut; too _kete_, to cut in pieces.

_ki_ v. i., to be troubled in mind; _liona kafi ki_, his mind was
troubled.

_kiki_ v. tr., to pour,

_kila_ a stone axe. S. _'ile_.

_kilu_ a hole, grave, well; _kilu ni kafo_, a well of water. S.
_kilu_.

_kilugwou_ a tomb. S. _kiliqeu_.

_kirio_ porpoise. Mota _ririgo_. S. _'iri'o_.

_ko_ 1. verbal particle, used only with _o_ pers. pron. sing. 2.
_oko_; denotes consequence of action, used of present or future
time,

_ko-_ (_gu_) 2. n., ancestor; _ko gia gi_, our fathers. S.
_kookoo_.

_kobu_ v. i., to be fat.

   _kobukobula_, adj. fat.

_koburo_ N. W. wind. Florida _komburo_.

_kokomu_ an islet. S. _komukomu_.

_kone_ 1. n. a flood of waters; 2. v. i. to be in flood. S. _kone_.

_kore_; _ruru kore_, an avalanche. S. _kore_.

_kua_ fowl; _kakarai kua_, fowl's egg.

_kubou_ a staff.

_kudo_; _qae kudona_, guiltless,

_kukui_ a dog. Mao. _kuri_.

_kulu_ 1. v. tr., to bury at sea. S. _kulu_.

_kulu_ 2. cf _kanikulu_.

_kuru_ 1. a piece, section, _kurui bata_, a piece of money, _ro
kurui doo_, two sections.

_kuru_ 2. v. i., to be maimed.

_kuru_ 3. v. i., to sink.

_kuta_ v. i., to shake. S. _kute_.



L

_la_ 1. termination of verbal nouns; attached to verbs; _mae_, to
die, _maela_, death; _bae_, to speak, _baela_, speech; the meaning
seems to be gerundival and to denote the act of doing a thing. Cf.
S. _la_ 5.

_la_ 2. termination of the verbal nouns, attached to certain nouns;
_te_, mother, _ro mwai telana_, mother and daughter; attached to
verbs; _tasa_, _ro fe tasala_, twice as much.

_la_ 3. adjectival ending; attached to verbs; _taga_, to be
scattered, _tagala_, promiscuously; _tagalo_, to be lost,
_tagalola_, lost; _teo_, _teteola_; attached to nouns, _mwai_,
_mwaila_.

_labu_ v. tr., to assault. S. _rapu_.

_labua_ n., point, prick, splinter.

_lada_ v. i., to fall down. S. _lada_,

_lade_ deep water, secure anchorage. S. _lade_.

_lado_ v. tr., to join, knit; _lado ae_, to follow.

   _ladola_ v. n., a member.

_lafi_, _lalafi_ v. v. tr., to take up, pull up, draw out, Mota
_lav_.

_lafu_ 1. v. tr., to pull, to wrench, pluck.

_lafu_ 2. to be worn out, old; _lafue toongi_, old clothes. S.
_lahu_.

_lafusi_, _lalafusi_, v. tr., to be ignorant of.

_lai_ transitive suffix to verb; _tege_, _tegelai_. S. _la'i_.

_lala_ v. i., to stretch; _lala fonosi_, protect. S. _lala'i_.

_lalaba_ v. i., to walk about. S. _la'alapa_.

_lalabata_, court yard.

_lalago_ v. i., to cling. S. _nanako_.

_lalano_ the ground immediately above the beach.

_lalanga_ v. i., to be dry, without coconut milk (of yam puddings),
unleavened; _usu lalanga_ to wipe dry. S. _langa_.

_lali_ (_na_) 1. n., root, _lali ngado_, to be firmly rooted.

_lali_ 2. v. tr., to drive.

_lalao_ v. i., to run.

   _lalaoa_ v. n., a herald. Mota _valago_.

_lalifu_ (_na_) n. corner.

_laliqate_ v. i., to make an oration, to preach.

   _laliqatela_ v. n. S. _wale_.

_lamua_ a dove; _fe lamua_; _ta ro fe lamua_, two doves.

_langae_, to throw; _langae fou_, to cast stones.

_langi_ 1. negative, no, not; _e_ may be prefixed; used as negative
particle; _e langi nau gu lea_, I did not go; _si_ may be added,
_nia langi si saea_, he does not know, _e langi nau gu si lea_, I
am not going; _e langi si langi lau_, not again; _langi lau_ no
more; _langi ana_, not existing, lost; _langi ta_, or, if not; _ma
langi_, _ma e langi_, or not, in questions; _lalangi ana_, nothing.

_langi_ 2. sky, heaven; _ilangi_. S. _langi_.

_lao_ (_na_) n, in; _lao rodo_, at night; i _laogamu_, _amongst_
you, in you, _laona maamu_, in your eye. S. _lalo_.

_laongi_ v. tr., to cross, step over; S. _laongi_.

_Lau_ 1. name of the language spoken by the coast peoples of Big
Malaita on the artificial Islets off northeast coast, spoken also
at Port Adam on Little Malaita.

_lau_ 2. adv. again, anew, also; _go_ may be added, _inau lau go_.
S.  _lou_.

_lau_ 3. v. tr., to wrest, abduct; _lau doola_, extortion; _lau
fafi_, to deliver. S. _lau_.

_lausi_ v. tr., _bae lausit_ to compel.

_lea lelea_, v. i., to go; _lea fonosi_, to afflict; _lea isuli_,
to follow.

   _leafi_ v. tr., to cause to move.

   _lelea_ v. n., going.

   _leala_ v. n., a herald. S. _lae_.

_lebelebe_ v. i., to be weak, sick.

   _lebelebela_ v. n., trembling.

_ledi_ 1. v. tr., to ask a question; _aoe ledi_, to question a
person.

   _ledila_ v. n., questioning.

_ledi_ 2. v. tr., to abominate, to renounce; _qatiedi_. S.
_leledi_.

_lelefe_, a dish, bowl, of wood.

_li_ 1. genitive; _maalimaea_, enemy; _maalitafa_, channel; a
variant of _ni_.

_li_ 2. transitive suffix to verbs, _mae_, _maeli_.

_lifo_ (_gu_) n. tooth; _girigiri lifoa_, gnashing of teeth. S.
_niho_.

_liligali_ (_nau_), prep, all around. S. _lilikeli_.

_lima_ 1. (_gu_) n. hand, arm. S. _nime_.

_lima_ 2. numeral, five; _e lima_. S. _lime_.

   _limana_ ordinal, fifth, the fifth time.

_lingisi_ v. tr., to reverse, turn upwards. S. _lingi_.

_liqa_, cave, hole. S. _liwe_.

_liu_, _liliu_ v. i., to ply, come, pass by; _liu idu_, to pass by;
_liliu kali_, to spread; _liu inao fuagamu_, go in front of you.
_liufa_ v. n., an epidemic. S. _liu_.

_lio_ 1. v. i., to look, seem.

   _lio_ (_gu_) n., appearance. S. _lio_.

_lio_ 2.  (_gu_) n., heart, mind; _lio sarofaia_, harmless; _lio
bukonua_, sorrow; _ro si lio_ double mind; _lio too_, to be wise,
_lio tooa_, _lio_ _toola_, wisdom; _alu te si lio_, to be brave.

_lita_ (_gu_) n., waist, loins,

_lo_ adv., there, used with _go_, and _gi_; _ita mai logo_, thence;
_logo_ north west; _na ogule boso logi_, the herd of swine over
there.

_lobo_ v. i., a lake, pond. S. _lopo_.

_lofo_ 1 v. i., to jump, to fly; _lofo laongi_, to jump over; _ano
lofo_,       dust.

   _lofoi_ v. tr., to assault. S. _loho_.

_lofo_ 2. (_na_) n, in the neighborhood of, over against, opposite
to; _i lofona fera_, opposite the village.

_logosi_ v. tr., to incline, bend. S. _lolosi_.

_lola_ v. i., to drown.

_lologu_ v. i., to be palsied, crippled. S. _loku_.

_lolosi_ v. tr., to bend. S. _lolosi_.

_lolou_ v. i., to make a noise, reverberate. S. _lolou_.

_loo_ v. i., to be fierce, wild, suspicious.

   _falooi_, to persecute, cause to be wild. S. _loo_.

_looua_ grass.

_loulou_ 1. v. i., to be quick; 2. adv., quickly, quick. S.
_lauleu_.

_loulou_ 3. adj., whole, entire, in one piece. S. _laku_.

_lu_ contraction for _olu_ three, used to form trial number of
pronoun; _dalu_, _golu_, etc. S. _lu_.

_luga_ v. i., to loose.

   _lugatai_, _lugataini_ v. v. tr.

   _lugala_ v. n., loosing. S. _luhe_.

_lui_ v. tr., to forbid, reserve; _alu lui_ to set a taboo mark on.
S.  _luu'i_

_lukumi_ v. tr., to restrain.

_lulua_ 1. a stranger, guest.

_lulua_ 2. a basket of plaited coconut leaf. S. _luelue_.

_luu_ v. tr., to move, to depart. S. _luu_.



M

_m_ adjectival prefix; _moi_ broken.

_ma_ 1. conjunction; _ma ana_, though; _ma ka langi_, or not, in
questions; _ma ta_, but.

_ma_ 2. adjectival prefix of condition; _madiu_; _matala_. S. _ma_.

_maa_ 1. (_gu_) n., eye, face, aperture, gate; _i maa_, at the
door, in the courtyard; _gula i maa_, outside; _maana bara_, gate;
_maa too_ (_gu_) to visit; _toongi bono maa_, sackcloth: 2. art.
one, a; _maa ni dara gi_, young men; _fai maae oru qailiu_, the
four winds; _maae dangi_, a day, _maae dangi i fafo_, two days
hence; _maae rodo_, darkness; _maae fera_, a village. S. _maa_.

_maa_ 3. voc., father; _maa nau_, father. S. _ma'a_.

_maabala_ to no effect; _rao maabala_, to work unprofitably. S.
_maatala_.

_maabe_ v. i., to be willing; _mu maabe ni elela_, you were willing
to rejoice.

_maadara_ (_gu_) n., forehead. S. _dara_.

_maafu_ v. tr., to cover with wrappings; _maafu maa_, to blindfold.

_maala_ an ulcer, a sore.

_maaligwou_ v. i., to be thirsty, _gwou_ 1.

_maalimaea_ enemy. _mae_.

_maalitafa_ channel in reef. S. _maalitawa_.

_maamana_; _ro maamana_, father and son.

_maasi_ v. tr., to await, expect.

   _maasia_ adj., while.

_maauugala_ to mock at, used with poss.

_mabe_ v. i., to be obedient, willing; _manata mabe_, patient. Cf.
_gwarimabe_.

_mabesi_ v. tr., to correct, rebuke.

_madafi_ v. tr., to perceive, feel.

_madalaba_ oven.

_madiu_ adj., different, other, another, astray; too _madiu gi_,
gentiles,

_madiua_ 1. exclam. well, I never! 2. adj. different. S. _diu_.

_mae_, _mamae_ v. i., to die, to be ill, to be numb, to be
eclipsed, of moon.

   _maeli_ v. tr., to die of; _bae maeli_, to condemn to death.

   _maea_ v. n., death, sickness,

   _maela_ (_gu_) v. n., death, danger,

   _maemaefa_ v. n., sickness. S. _mae_.

_mafo_ v. i., to be healed. Mota _mawo_.

_magu_ n. clothing; _si magu_.

_mai_ 1. adv., here, hither, this way; _ita ana mai_, hither; _ita
mai_ logo, thence. S. _mai_,

_mai_ 2. transitive suffix to verb, ala, _alamai_; _fatola_,
_fatolamai_.  S. _ma'i_.

_makalokalo_ adj., in the early morning, used with locative _i_.

_makeso_ adj., weak, feeble.

_Mala_ 1. Malaita; _Mala baita_, Big Malaita; _Mala Tout_, Little
Malaita.

_mala_ 2. _mala iteite_ v. tr., to wound. Cf. S. _mala masi_.

_malefo_ shell money,

_malengai_ coconut,

_malimali_ adj., sweet. S. _malimeli_.

_malingi_ adj., split, overturned. S. _malingi_.

_mamagu_; v. i. _bae mamagu_, to revile.

_mamagua_ n., weakness,

_mamaloni_ adv., only, merely,

_mamalu_ 1.(_gu_) n., a shadow; 2. v. i., to cast a shadow; _sato e
mamalu_, it is towards evening. S. _mamalu_.

_mamana_ v. i., to be true, real; _doo mamana_, truly; _manata
mamana_, to believe.

   _mamanaa_ truly.

_mamanaa_ n., power. S. _nanama_.

_mana_ used of numerals over ten; _aqala mana fai_. U. _mana_.

_manata_ 1. v. i., to think; _manata suli_ to know; _manata luga_,
to for- give; _manata too_ (_gu_) to remember.

   _manatai_ v. tr. to pity.

   _manataila_ v. n., 1. pity, mercy; 2. thought. S. _manata_.

_manata_ 2. v. i., to be quiet, tame. S. _manata_.

_mani_; _qaimani_, to help; _qaimani fainau_, help me; _fatake
qaimani_, to be a peacemaker.

   _qaimania_, v. n., a company. S. _mani_.

_manu_ bird. S. _manu_.

_manga_ time, occasion, place; _i kade manga_, at the time; _i kade
manga_ _na_, now; _si manga uta_, when?

_mangata_ (_na_) n., midst, middle; used with loc. _i_. S.
_matanga_.

_mangisingisi_ adj., broken in pieces. _ngi_.

_mango_ (_gu_) n. life, breath; _mango fu_, to be sad; _mango suu_,
to faint.

   _mangoli_ v. tr., to breathe upon. S. _mango_.

_mao_ 1. v. i., to dance.  2. n., a dance.

   _maoli_ v. tr., to dance; _maoli mao_. S. _mao_.

_mara-_ (_gu_) n. of own accord, alone. S. _maraa_.

_maraqai_; _alu maraqai_, to become red and glowering, of sky.

_marigo_ (_gu_) n. flesh, body.

_matafa-_ (_na_) n., _too matafana_, to know. S. _mataqa_.

_matai_, _mamatai_ v. i., to have ague; _matai afedali_, fever.

   _mataia_ v. n., disease, a sick person; _si mataia_.

_matala_ adj., lone, alone, merely; _tefe mwela matala_, only son.

_matanga_ (_na_) n., midst, used with locative; _i mangata_.

_me_ for _mai_ hither; _lea fasi me_, come here,

_mea_ 1. (_gu_) n. tongue; 2. v. i., _mea_ too, to taste of.

   _meali_ v. tr., to lick.

   _meafa_ (_na_) v. n., tongue; _meafana ere_, tongues of fire. S.
   _mea_.

_meme_ in pieces; _too meme_ to break in pieces.

_mi_ 1. personal pron. pl. 1. excl. we; used by itself as subj. or
follows _gami_.

_mi_ 2. transitive suffix to verb; _ano_, _anomi_.

_midi_ v. i., to taste; _midi odonga ana_, to taste of.

_mode_ v. tr. to mend, patch.

   _modela_ v. n., a patch.

_moi_ adj., broken. S. _'o'i_.

_moko_, _momoko_ 1. v. i., to be corrupt, to smell; 2. n.,
corruption.

   _mokola_ v. n., corruption;

   _mokofa-_ (_na_) v. n., the smell of.

_molagali_ n., all the islands; the world,

_momoi_ v. tr. to buffet; _afe e momoia na ola_, the wind buffeted
the ship.

_momoko_; _momoko ia_, breast, bosom.

_mone_ adv., gives life to the narrative; _tamone_; _otomone_.

_mori_, _momori_, as _mouri_, to live. Cf. S. _moli_, _walaimoli_,
_mauri_.

_morumoru_ v. i., to be broken in pieces. S. _morumoru_.

_mou_, _momou_, v. i., to fear.

   _mouni_ v. tr.

   _moumoula_ v. n., fear. S. _mau_.

_mouli_ to be left-handed, awkward. S. _mauli_.

   _moumouli_ (_gu_) n., left hand.

_mouri_, _momouri_ v. i., to live.

   _mourisi_ v. tr., to survive, escape from.

   _mouria_ v. n., life.

   _mourila-_ (_gu_) v. n., life. S. _mauri_.

_mousi_ v. tr., to cut off, sever. S. _mousi_.

_mu_. 1. pers. pron. pl. 2. used by itself as subj. or follows
_gamu_; _mu kafi lea mai i angita_, when will you come?

_mu_. 2. pronoun, suff. to nouns, sing. 2., thy.

_mumudi_ crumb, chip, scrap; _mumudi i doo_, scraps.



MW

_mwaa_ snake. S. _mwaa_.

_mwaela_ laughter. _famwaela_.

_mwaemwae_ v. i., to be obedient. S. _mwae_.

_mwai_ 1. a bag;

   _mwaila_ adj., rich. S. _mwa'i_.

_mwai_ 2. prefix marking reciprocity of relationship; _ro mwai
telana_, mother and child; _ro mwai fungona geni_, mother and
daughter-in-law; used as plural article, _mwai asi nau_, brethren.
S. _mwai_.

_mwaimwane_, woman's brother, man's sister, _a mwaimwane nau_.

_mwaluda_ adj., soft, gentle, kind, possible, easy.

_mwane_, a male, man, boy, exclam. you! added to proper nouns and
to certain other words to show sex distinction. S. _mwane_.

_mwaomwao_ v. i., to be weak, feeble.

_mwela_, child, boy, person; used with article _ni_ of women; _ni
mwela ne_, this woman; _mwela bibiu_, little child. S. _mwela_.

_mwemwedua_ honey.



N

_na_ 1. definite article, a, the; used with both sing. and pl.;
_gera na Grekia_, the Greeks. Cf. Florida _na_. M. L. p. 524: _na
noni_, the body; _na sasigamu_, your brethren; is in more frequent
use than the corresponding _nga_ in Sa'a; in many cases nouns are
used without any article when the signification is general. S.
_nga_.

_na_ 2. pronoun suffixed to nouns, sing. 3; _abana_, his hand:
added to the first of two nouns to express a genitive; i _tolona
fera_, on the tops of the hills; _gwauna na ai gi_, head of men:
added to cardinals to form ordinals. S. nd, Mota _na_.

_na_, _nana_ 3. demonstrative pron., there, that, follows noun; _si
doo na_, that thing.

_na_, _nana_ 4. adv. follows the verb and denotes a preterite,
already, finished; _e sui na_, _e sui nana_, it is finished; _sui
na_, thereafter.

_naga_ v. tr., to waste, to spend.

_namo_, inner harbour, lake, pool; _suu i namo_; _asi namo_ a lake.
S.  _namo_.

_nana_, _na_ 3. 4.

_nani_, _nanani_, v. i., to seek for.

   _nanisi_ v. tr.

_nao_ (_gu_) n. face; with locative _i_; in front of, before; _naoe
gula_, first place; _i naogu_, before my face; before my time,
_naonao tolia_, chief portion at a feast.

_nao_ v. i., to lead; _nao tala_, lead the way; _eta inao_, to
lead. S.  _nao_.

   _naofa_ (_na_) n. eldest, first, _naofana mwela_, eldest child,
   _naofe mwela_.

_nare_ 1. v. tr., to roast on the embers.

_nare_ 2. v. tr., to prepare, make ready, serve, wait upon.

_nau_ 1. pers. pron. sing. 1. I, used by itself as subj. or follows
_inau_; _nau gu ote nau ni_ lea, I do not want to go. V. _nau_.

_nau_ 2. as _nau_ 1. but suff. as obj. to verbs and prepositions.

_nau_ 3. _fanau_ educate. S. _nanau_.

_ne_ 1. demonstrative, there, that; _a mwela ne_, that person, he.

_ne_ 2. interrogative pron. follows the interrogative _ati_, who;
_ati ne_?  _e uta ne_, how is it?

_ne_ 3. v. i., to speak, make a sound.

_nee_ v. i., to be still, silent.

_nena_ demonstrative pron., that, follows the noun; _doo nena_,
that thing.

_neneo_ charcoal.

_ni_ 1. genitive, of, belonging to; (a) used mainly in
construction; _fote ni fera_, a native paddle; _baea ni sugela_,
words of deceit, _mwemwedua ni lalano_, wild honey; (b) expressive
of purpose, _si gula ni lea inia_, a place for him to go to; (c)
expressive of condition, _rosuli ni manatai gami_, hear us in
mercy, _gera mou ni oli_, they feared to return; _fasia muka manata
ni bae uri_, think not to say thus; (d) added to verbal suffix
giving transitive force _foaa_, _foaataini_.  S. _ni_. Cf. M. L. p.
532.

_ni_ 2. personal article used with the names of females, both
native and foreign; _ni Alida_, also used with certain nouns which
denote women where in Sa'a _nga_ or _a_ is used, _ni te nau_, my
mother; _ni mwaimwane_, a man's sister or a woman's brother; _ni
aia_, female relations; _ni doo_ the woman; _ni mwela ne_, that
woman; is not used with _afe_ wife, nor with _geni_ female; is not
used with plural. Duke of York _ne_, M. L. p. 566, _Gilb_.  Is.
_nei_, Efate _lei_, S. _kei_.

_ni_ 3. interrogative used to (a) call attention; _ni ai_? I say,
you!  (b) in the sense of, is that so? S. _ni_.

_ni_ 4. demonstrative attached to _ta_, one, a; _tani aiai_, some
people; to _oto_; _tani oto ni saiai_. S. _ni_ 3.

_ni_ 5. a detachable prefix; _doo nifai_, _doo ifai_, what thing?
S.  _ni_ 4.

_ni_ 6. transitive suffix to verbs; _mou_, _mouni_. S. _ni_.

_ni_ 7. pers. pron. sing, 3. it, used in explanation; _na light
fuana noni ni maa_, the light of the body is the eye; _e uta ro si
lio ni amu_, why are you of two minds?

_ni_ 8. suff. pron. pl. 3. neut; _i talani_, in their place. S.
_ni_.

_nia_ personal pronoun sing. 3. he, she, it; used by itself as
subj, or follows _inia_. S. _nge'ie_.

_niania_ v. tr., to deny, repudiate.

_nifai_ interrog. pron. what, follows noun; _doo nifai_, what
thing?

_nima_, _ninima_ 1. (_gu_) n. hand, arm; _ninimana tala_, corner of
the way, beside the way. S. _nime_.

_nima_ 2. for _lima_ five.

_nina_ v. i. to be accustomed to, be able. S. _nina_.

_noabu_ sparrow hawk.

_noni_ (_gu_) n. body, shape, fashion; _noni fii_, to suffer; _noni
fiila_ v. n., suffering; _nonilau_, to be safe and sound. Mao
_tino_.

_nono_ v. i., to place the face against, to sniff, to kiss; _nono
faini_, to kiss.

   _nonoi_ v. tr. S. _nono_.

_nue_ v. i., to be foolish, dumb.

   _nuela_ v. n., folly.

_nui_ (_na_) n. a nest. S. _niui_.

_nuku_ v. i., to be wrinkled. S. _nuku_.

_nunulu_ v. i., to wither. S. _nunulu_.



_NG_

_ngado_ 1. v. i., to be firm; _ngado fua_, to trust, _manata ngado
ana_, to rely on; _too ngado_, to remain firm.

_ngado_ 2. i _aena ngado_, at the very bottom. S. _i ngadona aena_,
at his feet.

_ngae_ (_na_); _adala i ngaena maa_, envy. S. _ngae_.

_ngaini_ transitive suffix to verb; saw, _saungaini_. S. _nga'ini_.

_ngali_ 1. v. tr., to take, to receive.

   _ngalila_ v. n., burden.

_ngali_ 2. canarium nut. S. _ngali_.

_ngangarea_ adj., deep rooted.

_ngasi_ v. i., to be firm, hard; _bae ngasi_, to speak sternly.
Florida _ngasi_, hard.

_ngi_ 1. v. tr., to divide; _mangisingisi_.

_ngi_ 2. transitive suffix to verb; _sau_, _saungi_. S. _ngi_.

_ngidu_ (_gu_) n., lip; _ngidu auau fua_, to hate. S. _ngidu_.

_ngisi_; _fangisi_, to acknowledge.

_ngisu_ 1. v. i., to spit; 2. n. _fe ngisu_, spittle.

   _ngisufi_ v. tr., to spit on. S. _ngisu_.

_ngosa_ v. i., to bud; _ngosa faolu_, just come into bud.

_ngongosa_, a spike, a horn; _ngongose doo_.

_ngu_ 1. v. i., to sing; 2. n. a song.

   _nguli_ v. tr., to sing; _ngulia ngu_, to sing a song.



O

_o_ pers. pron. sing. 2. thou, used by itself as subj. or follows
_ioe_.  S. _o_.

_oa_ v. i. to share in.

   _oalangai_ v. tr., to distribute, to share in. S. _'oa_.

_oba_ v. tr., to take from, separate, divide. S. _opa_. Florida
_sopa_.

   _obala_ v. n. separation.

_odonga_; _midi odonga_, to taste. S. _ohonga_.

_odu_ v. tr., to command, order.

_oe_ 1. an axe.

_oe_ 2. v. i. to commit adultery.

   _oela_ v. n., adultery.

_ofosi_ v. tr., to take down. S. _oohosi_.

_ofu_ 1. v. i., together; _ofu bae_, to witness; 2. n. _ofu si
doo_, a bundle.

_ofu_ 3. v. i., to boil; _ofu duqet_ to burst. S. _ohu_.

_oga_ (_gu_) n., stomach, belly. S. _'oqa_.

_ogi_ (_gu_) 1. n., bone.

_ogi_ (_gu_) 2. n., back, outside,

_ogila_ a bone needle.

_ogo_ a band, a creeper used for binding. S. _oko_.

_ogosi_ v. tr., to destroy, pull down, uproot. S. _ooho'i_.

_ogu_ 1. v. i., to collect, gather together; _ogu malefola_, money
collecting; 2. adv., together, in company.

   _ogua_ v. n., company.

   _ogula_ v. n., _ogule ai_, a company of people.

_oi_ v. tr., to break off. S. _'o'i_.

_oimae_ exclam. alas!

_okasa_ unripe; _maea okasa_, sudden death.

_oku_ summer. S. _oku_.

_ola_ canoe, ship. S. _'iola_.

_ole_ v. tr., to betray; _ole ilalo_ deceit.

_oli_ 1. v. tr., to hold in the arms.

_oli_ 2. v. tr., to return, go back; adv. back. S. _'oli_.

   _olila_ v. n., return.

   _olisi_ v. tr., to answer; _nia kafi olisida_, then he answered
   them.

   _olitai_ partic. converted; _olitai manata lau_, repent.

_olisusu_ v. i., to strive, quarrel, dispute, transgress; _olisusu
marana_, to deny himself.

_olo_ 1. v. i., to be deep.

_olo_ 2. v. i., to cry out.

   _olosi_ v. tr.; _olosia riilana_, cried out.

_olu_ numeral, three, _e olu_.

   _oluna_ ordinal, third, for the third time. S. _'olu_.

_omae_ v. i., to weep.

   _omaea_ v. n., _omaela_ v. n., wailing. Cf. _oimae_.

_onionga_, to mock, used with poss.; _onionga ana_, mocked him.

_ono_ numeral, six; _e ono_.

   _onona_ ordinal, sixth, for the sixth time. S. _ono_.

_ongataini_ v. tr., to vex, annoy,

_ongiongi_ v. tr., to deceive.

_oo_ a drum. S. _'o'o_.

_oobala_ a shed, hut.

_oofa-_ (_na_) approaching to, with child.

_ooga_ v. tr., to be tied together, to incur a debt.

   _ooganga_ v. n., debt.

_oolo_ v. i., to be straight; adj. straight.

   _ooloa_ v. n., straightness.

_ooni_ adv., temporary, empty, idle, naked; _too ooni go_,
fleeting.

_ore_ v. i., to fail, to fall short of, to lack; _ore fanga_, to
abstain from eating, fast; _ore fua_ to be lacking; _ore ana_, to
be lacking; _ani ore_, to eat and leave some over. S. _ore_.

_oro_ v. i., to be many; adj. many. _faoroa_.

_oru_ 1. v. i., to blow; n. wind. S. _ooru_.

_oru_ 2. widow; _qe oru_, a widow.

_oso_ (_gu_) n. food for a journey. S. _oto_.

_ote_ 1. plural article; _ote ai gi_, you women; _ote ruana_ his
fellows; _ote geni_ women.

_ote_ 2. v. tr., to fash, cause ennui to; _gera ote gera_, it
wearied them.

_ote_ 3. valley.

_oto_ adv. perhaps; _oto mone_, is it so? denotes indefiniteness,
used with _ni_ following, _tani oto ni saiai_, certain persons.

_otofa-_ (_na_) because of, on account of.



Q

The sound represented by _q_ is _kw_. In the words from Alite given
by Dr. Codrington in M. L., p. p. 39 ff. the sound which appears in
Lau as _q_ is there written as _ku_; e. g. _kuai_, Lau _qai_, Sa'a
_wai_, water; _q_ in Lau may represent _w_ in _Sa'a qato_, _waato_;
_qalu_, _walu_; _Ulaqa_, _Ulawa_.

_qadangi_ v. tr., to open up.

_qae_ 1. v. tr., to beat, strike; _qae mousi_, to strike and cut
off; _qae maeli_ to kill with blows.

_qae_; 2. _qae tafusi_, to strain.

_qae_; 3. _qae kudona_, guiltless.

_qai_ 1. prefixed to verbs, denotes reciprocity; _sua_, to
encounter, _qaisuasuafi_, to meet; _manata_, to think,
_qaifamanatai_ to instruct; _liu_ to move position, _qailiu_
reciprocally; _mani_, (Sa'a _mani_, altogether), _qaimani_, to
stand together, be of help to. The action of the original verb is
enlarged and the subject included.

_qai_ 2. n., water; _maana qai_, mouth of the stream, a harbor on
the northeast coast, south of Aio.

_qai_ 3. v. tr., to load, to fill up.

_qaiara_ n., a command.

_qaiaraa_ n., reward.

_qaidori_ v. tr., to desire.

   _qaidoria_ v. n., desire. _dori_.

_qaiduu_ v. tr., to revenge.

   _qaiduula_ v. n., vengeance. _duu_.

_qaierisi_ v. tr., to command, importune.

   _qaierisia_ v. n., a command. _erisi_.

_qaifamanatai_ v. tr., to instruct.

   _qaifamanataila_ v. n., instruction. _manata_

_qaife_; _qaife agalo_ to drive out evil spirits; _mwane qaife
agalo_ a witch doctor.

_qailangaini_ v. tr., to wag, nod, waive. _langa_, up.

_qailiu_ adv., reciprocally, used of mutual action; _manata baita
fuagamu_, _qailiu_, love one another; _lea qailiu_, to walk about.
_liu_.

_qailiua_ adj., humble, of low estate.

_qaimaasi_ v. tr., to await, expect. _maasi_.

_qaimanata_ v. tr., to have mercy upon, pity.

   _qaimanataia_ v. n., mercy. _manata_.

_qaimani_ 1. v. tr., to help; _qaimani fai_, _qaimani faini_, to
help; 2. used as prep., together, in company with; 3. v. i., to be
reconciled with.

   _qaimania_ with one accord. S. _mani_.

_qairaofai_ v. i., to agree with. _rao_ to work.

_qaisagali_ v. tr., to revolt, commit insurrection, take up arms,
trouble,vex.

   _qaisagalia_ v. n., an insurrection.

_qaisuasuafi_ v. tr,, to meet, encounter. _sua_.

_qaisusu_ v. tr., to sacrifice.

   _qaisusia_ v. n., a sacrifice.

_qaitaa_ v. i., to be a stranger; _too ni qaitaa_, to be a
stranger.  S.  _awataa_.

_qaitaga_ v. tr., to cause to scatter.

_qaitali_ v. tr., to be disobedient to.

_qala_ v. i., to lay an accusation; _qala fafi_, to accuse a
person.

_qalafi_ v. tr., to be delivered of a child.

_qalu_, 1. numeral, eight; _e qalu_.

   _qaluna_, ordinal, eighth, for the eighth time.

_qalu_ 2. v. i., to emerge; _qalu tafa_, to emerge from. S. _waru_.

_qanga_ n., thunder, a gun.

     _qangafi_ of the lightning; _sinamaaru ka qanagafia_, the
     lightning 'thundered.'

_qangareo_ v. i., to pass by.

_qaqalifola_ v. i., to be pure, clean, _fotoqaqalifola_, a great
calm.

_qaqalila_ adj., cold, of the weather.

_qaqaoa_ adj., white, clean.

_qarao_ a creeper used for tying; an iron nail. S. _wa'arao_.

_qare_ v. tr., to castrate.

_qarela_ adj., stony.

_qate_ v. i., to make an oration, is preceded by _lali_;
_laliqate_, to make an oration; _lali qatela_ v. n., an oration. S.
_wale_.

_qato_ a digging stick. S. _waato_.

_qe_ 1. article; _qe afe_, a woman; _qe oru_, a widow; _qe ia_, a
fish; _na_ may be prefixed; _na qe ia gi_, the fishes. Nengone,
Gaua, _wa_, _we_, M. L., p. 71.

_qe_ 2. a simpleton, fool; _gera qe_, fools,

_qele_, _qeqele_, v. i., used with poss., to wonder at, be
surprised.

   _qelela_ v. n., wonderment, surprise.

_qesu_, _qeqesu_ v. i., 1. to smoulder, burn; 2. to shine. S._'eso_

_qiqi_ n., a drop; _qiqisi abu_, drops of blood.



R

_raa_ v. i., to climb up.;

_raaraa_ n., light, sunlight; _na raaraa_. S. _raaraa_.

_rabu_, _rarabu_, _rabusi_, v. tr., to hit, strike, beat. S. _rapu_

_rade_ n., a reed; _fe rade_. S. _rade_.

_rafai_ v. tr., to exalt, elevate.

_rage_ (_gu_) n., mind, heart, womb; _rage ruarua_, v. i., to
doubt; _rage sasu_, to be angry; _rage sasua_, _rage sasula_,
anger.

_rakaraka_; _abu rakaraka_, a flow of blood.

_ramo_ v. i., to be strong; _ramofua_, to deliver.

   _ramola_ v. n., strength. S. _ramo_.

_rao_, _rarao_ v. tr., to work; _rao ana abana_, his handiwork;
_rao uri_, to do like, to work at, to tend.

   _raoa_ v. n., _raola_ v. n., work.

_rara_ 1. v. i., to be withered, ripe.

   _rarasi_ v. i., to shrivel, dwindle. S. _rara_.

_rara_ 2. n., brightness, glory. S. _rara_.

_rarafolo_, stretched across, a crosspiece; _ai rarafolo_, a cross
(late use). S. _lala'i_.

_rarangia_ adj., glorious.

_raramaa_ v. i., to be excessive. S. _raramaa_.

_rarao_ v. i., to stick, cling, cleave. S. _rarao_.

_rarapu_ v. i., to reach, arrive at. S. _arapu_.

_rarata_ a skull. S. _rarata_.

_rarau_ v. tr., to kindle, light.

_raunga_ weapons.

_rauraua_ adj., soft, pliable.

_rebo_ v. i., to be full grown, adult, old. S. _repo_.

_reqeta_ v. tr., to open.

_rereba_ v. i., to be broad, wide,

_reresi_; _age reresi_, a lily, Crinum asiaticum.

_rigi_ v. tr., to see.

_rigita_ v. i., to be strong, firm. _rigita fasi_, to overcome.

   _rigitangaini_ v. tr., to do powerfully.

_rii_, _riirii_, to cry out; _olosia riilana_, cried out. S. _rii_,
cicada.

_ro_ 1. v. tr., _ro suli_, to obey, listen to.

_ro_ 2. numeral, two, used only in composition; forms part of pers.
pronoun _goro_, etc.; _ro si doo_, two things; _e ro mwane_, two
men. S.  _ro_.

_ro_ 3. numeral, two, used with nouns of relationship; _ro mamana_;
_ro mwai sasina_.

_ro_ 4. ending of pers. pronoun _daro_; _gamoro_. _ro_ 2.

_rodo_ night; _fe rodo_, a night; _rodo fi dao_, till nightfall. S.
_rodo_.

_rogi_ yesterday; used with locative _i_, _i rogi_.

_rongo_; _fafurongo_, v. i., to listen to, to be a disciple; n. a
disciple.  S. _qaarongo_.

_rorodoa_ adj., dark, used also as n., darkness. _rodo_.

_roroi_ v. tr., to strengthen. S. _roro'i_.

_rua_ numeral, two; _e rua_. S. _rua_.

   _ruana_ ordinal, second, second time; _gera ruana gera_, their
   fellows.

   _ruarua_, _tan ruarua_, to be midway.

_ruru_ (_gu_) 1. n. bosom, breast.

_ruru_; 2. _ruru kore_, an avalanche. S. _ruru kore_.

_ruta_ n. dialect.

_ruu_ v. i., to enter.

   _ruula_ v. n., entry.



S

_sae_ 1. v. tr., to say, speak, tell, read; _sae isingana_, to
finish speaking.

   _saetana_, it is said. S. _sae_.

_sae_ 2. adv. that, in reported speech.

_saea_ adv. in order that, that so; _saea o lea mai fuana_, is it
that you have come for this? denotes the subjunctive,

_safali_ v. tr., to be equipped with.

_saga_ v. i., to proceed; _saga tafa_ to proceed out of.

_sagali_, _sasagali_, v. tr., to attack.

_sai_ 1. n., place, duty, piece; _sai i nonigu_, my duty; _sai oe_,
your duty; with _ai_ 1. _sai ai na_, that one I mean; _tani saiai_,
those which, in explanations.

_sai_; 2. _sai gano_, on the ground. S. _hai_. 2.

_saitama_ (_gu_) v. tr., to know; _gu langi si saitamana_, I do not
know; _saitama dooa_, knowledge.

_sako_ v. tr., to catch. Mota _sakau_.

_salo_ n. cloud, storm; _salo uruuru_, white fleecy cloud.

   _saloa_ adj., stormy. S. _salo_.

_salofi_ v. tr., to prepare, clear a path, sweep.

_samai_ v. tr., to fit on, to pair with. S. _sama_.

_samola_ n. pride, overbearing,

_sangoni_ v. tr., to feed, nourish. S. _sangoni_.

_sao_ sago palm, thatch. S. _sa'o_.

_sara_ beach, shore.

_sarii_ a maiden; _geni sarii_; _too ni sarii_, to be unmarried.

_sarofaia_ adj., gentle; harmless, blameless; _too sarofaia_,
quiet,

_sarufi_ v. tr., to burn.

_sasala_ adv., up, upwards; adj. light. S. _sa'asala_.

_sasalu_ v. i., to start, arise.

   _sasalungaini_ v. tr., to collect, make ready.

_sasara_ 1. (_gu_) n., limb, branch, member. S. _sasara_.

_sasara_ 2. v. i., to warm oneself at a fire,

_sasi_ 1. (_gu_) n., brother, sister; _sasigu_, my brother.

   _sasina_ n., of relationship; _ro mwai sasina_, two brothers.
   S.  _'asi_.

_sasi_ 2. to desire, used with _fua_; _sasi fua_, to desire; _sasi
diena fua_, to love a person.

_saso_ sun.

   _sasoai_ v. tr., to expose to the sun, dry. S. _sato_.

_sasu_ 1. v. i., to smoke, of a fire. 2. n., smoke; _rage sasu_, to
be angry; _rage sasua_, anger. S. _sasu_.

_sata_ (_gu_) n., name; _te satana_, his name only; _ati satamu_,
what is your name? with pers. pronoun, friend; _sata nau_, my
friend.

   _sasata_ v. i., to be friendly with. S. _sata_.

_sau_ 1. v. i., to kill; _sau mwane_, to commit murder; _sau
mwanea_, murder.

   _saungi_ v. tr., to kill, to be ill of. S. _sau_.

_sau_ 2. v. i., to become; _sau ana mwane_, to become man.

_saufini_ 1. v. tr., to turn away, to hide. 2. adv. secretly,

_saulafi_ evening. S. _saulehi_.

_saumala_ adv., granted that, even supposing.

_saungaini_ v. tr., to make, construct.

_se_ n., here: used with locative _i_; _i se_, at the place; _i
sena_, at that place, there.

_seka_, _seseka_, v. tr., to rend, tear.

_sesele_ harlot.

_si_ 1. negative, not; _gu si saea_, I do not know; _langi_ may
precede, _gu langi si saea_; _e langi nau gu si lea_, I am not
going; follows the particles _ka_, _ko_.

_si_ 2. article, a part, a piece, any; _si fou_, a stone; _si
mangs_, _uta_, what time? _na_ may be prefixed, _na si baea taa
ne_, what words?  _si doo gu saea na_, the thing (that which) I
said; _a _si Eaea_, the Word; is more definite and particular in
meaning than _na_. U. _masi_.

_si_. 3. trans. suff. to verbs; _ada_, _adasi_.

_si_. 4. genitive; _ofu si doo_, bundles.

_sie-_ (_gu_) n. used as preposition, to, towards, at, at the house
of; _lea go siena_, go to him; _siena ere_, at the fire. S. _sie_.

_sifo_ v. i., to go down; _o sifo go_; you go down. S. _siho_.

_sikeraini_, v. tr., to free from, cast off. S. _sikera'ini_.

_siko_ locust.

_sina_, _sinasina_, v. i., to shine; _fe bubulu sinasina_, a bright
star, n. light; _sinasinana_, its light. Mota _singa_.

_sinali_, moon, month.

   _sinalitaini_, v. tr., to enlighten. S. _sineli_ moonlight,

_sinamaaru_ n., lightning; _sinamaaru ka qangafia_, the lightning
'roared.'

_sinatai_ v. tr., to keep from, beware of, guard.

_siqa_ numeral, eight; _e siqa_.

   _siqana_ ordinal, eighth, the eighth time. S. _siwe_.

_siramo_ used with prep. _fua_, _fonosi_, to resist, compel. S.
_ramo_.

_sisime_ a gnat. S. _sime_.

_siu_ 1. v. i., to wash, bathe; _siu abu_, to baptize.

   _siufi_ v. tr.

   _siula_ v. n., washing, bathing.

_siu_, _sisiu_ 2. v. i,, to be conceived.

_soe_, _sosoe_, v. i., to call out, v. tr., to ask for, name; _soea
satana_, ask his name.

   _soefataia_, ecclesia, church (late use).

_sofi_ v. tr., to find.

   _sofili_ v. tr., to collect, choose. S. _so'ohi_.

_sogoni_ v. tr., to gather, reap.

   _sogonila_ v. n., gather, reap. Mota. _sogon_.

_soi_, _sosoi_, v. tr., to call; _soi ledi_, to question. S. _soi_.

_sua_; 1. _qaisuasuafi_, to meet. S. _su'e_.

_sua_, _suasua_ 2. n., dung; _suasuae ano_, dung,

_subi_ a club. S. _supi_.

_suda_ v. i., to root, of pigs. S. _sude_.

_sufi_ v. tr., to anoint, to rub, to shave with a razor. S. _suhi_.

_suge_, _susuge_ v. tr., to deceive; _suge fafi_, to accuse; _qalaa
susuge_, to accuse falsely.

_suli_ (_nau_) prep., after, according to, used of motion towards;
the locative _i_ may precede. S. _suli_.

_sulitalaa_ adj., safe, free.

_sulu_ n., oil, liquid. S. _sulu_.

_sulufou_ 1. mound of rocks, stone wall; _ui sulufou_, to build a
mound (for a tomb).

_Sulufou_ 2. an artificial islet near Ataa Cove, North Malaita.

_sunga_, _sungaini_, _sungataini_ v. tr., to affirm, maintain,
persuade,

_sungi_ v. i., to make a noise, be glad.

   _sungia_ v. n., a cry, a noise.

_Suraina_ artificial islet South of Ataa Cove; original home of
Lau-speaking people in Port Adam.

_surakena_; _bae surakena_, to prompt, _susu_ (_gu_) 1. n., breast,
2.  v. i., to suck the breast, to have children at the breast. S.
_susu_.

_susu_ 3. v. i., to be firm; _susu too_, to be steadfast. S.
_susu_.

_susu_ 4. v. i., to stretch out; _susu aba_, stretch out the arm.
S.  _susu_.

   _susui_ v. tr., to touch with the fingers, to set on a stick.

_susubi_ n. a dry stick, a horn (late use).

_susuli_ v. tr., to know, understand, be aware of; _ati susulia_,
who knows? I can't say.

_susia_, adj. unfruitful, not bearing fruit.

_suu_ 1. a harbour. S. _su'u_.

_suu_ 2. used with prep, _fafi_; _suu fafi_, to clothe, cover.

   _suula_ v. n., clothing, cloak.

_suu_ 3. v. i., to set, of heavenly bodies, to dive, go down, sink.

   _suula_ v. n., a setting. S. _suu_.



T

_ta_ 1. numeral; one, a certain one, at all; just, only, _eta_ one;
used as article, a, an, _ta si fou_, one rock; _na tasi fou_, one
rock; _ta sala nia_, a friend of his; _ta si doo_, anything; _ta
ola lau_, a different canoe; _ta bali aba_, one hand, the other
hand; _e langi si suu ana ta toongi_, not clothed in any clothing;
_ta sasina ta ai_, a man's brother; _ta ro ai_, only two people;
used with the numerals, _ta ro si lio_, two minds;  _ta ro tangale_
penny, two hundred pence; may precede _fe_, _tefuana ta fe uo_,
every hill; _ta ro fe lamua_, just two doves; _ni_ may be added,
_ta ni aiai_, some other. S. _ta'a_; Rotuma _ta_; cf. Florida,
_sakai_, M. L. p. 524. Wango _ta_ M. L. p. 511.

_ta_ 2. adv. connects, resumes narrative, and, then.

_ta_ 3. ending of verbal noun, seen in root _afuta_ meaning all,
and used only with suff. pron.; _afutagera_, all of them.  S. _ta_.

_ta_ 4. adv. added to _sui_, _sui ta_, thereupon; follows negative
_langi_, _langi ta_, or.

_ta_; 5. _ta mone_, perhaps.

_taa_ 1. interrog. pron. what? _si taa na_, what is it? S. _taa_.

_taa_ 2. v. i., to be bad, evil.

   _taala_ v. n., evil; _ade taala_, evil doing. S. _ta'a_.

_taba_ with suff. _ani_, _tabaani_, v. tr., to destroy, remove. S.
_tapa_.

_tae_ v. tr., to lift up. S. _ta'e_.

_tafa_ adv., out; _bae tafa_, to speak out.

   _tafangaini_ v. tr., _sae tafangaini_, to speak out.  S. _taha_.

   _tafangi_ v. tr., to understand; _liona e tafangia_, he
   understood it.

_tafe_, a bed, bench, barn, bier. S. _tahe_.

_tafi_ v. i., to flee.

   _tafila_ v. n., flight. S. _tahi_.

_tafo_ 1. v. tr., to catch fish; _tafo ge ia_.

_tafo_ 2. v. tr., to purchase;

   _tafoa_ v. n., a bought person, servant. S. _taho_.

_tafua_ dung heap. S. _alilehu_.

_tafusi_ v. tr., to strain; _gae tafusi_.

_taga_ 1. v. i., to scatter, throw away.

   _tagaani_ v. tr.

_taga_ 2. v. tr., to lay out, spread.

_taga_ 3. v. i., to sprout, burst into leaf. S. _taka_.

_tagala_ 1. v. i., to be lost.

   _tagalaini_, _tagalangaini_ v. tr., to drive away, cause to be
   lost.

   _tagalaa_ adj., promiscuously, _ala tagalaa_, feed here and
   there.

_tagala_ 2. adj., irreverent; _soe tagala_, take one's name in
vain, _tataga_.

_tagalo_ v. i., to be wandering.

   _tagalola_ adj., overgrown. S. _takalo_.

_tagaloloa_ n., dust.

_tagesi_ v. tr., to garnish, decorate, adorn.

_tai_ 1. numeral, one; _agala mana tai_, eleven; _taifili_, alone.
Wango. _tai_.

_tai_ 2. v. tr., to mend.

   _taila_ v. n., a patch, seam.

_tai_ 3. trans. suff. to verb; _goni_, _gonitai_; _olitai_
participle.

_taifili_ (_a_) alone; _taifili gera_, they alone. S. _hili_.

_taini_ trans. suff. to verb; _foaa_, _foaalaini_. S. _ta'ini_.

_taingaini_ v. tr., to lay up, store up.

_take_, _tatake_, v. i., to stand; _takefonosi_, to guard. S.
_ta'e_.

_takedila_ v. tr., to cause to hit, knock.

_takufi_ v. tr., to receive. S. _takuhi_.

_tala_ 1. way, path. S. _tala_.

_tala_ 2. (_gu_) n., place, room; _nao talagu_, lead the way for
me; _roo talai fangala_, work for food. S. _tala_.

_tala_ 3. with prefix _ma_, _matala_, only, alone. S. _tala_ 4.

_talaa_ v. i., to shine, of sun.

_talae_ v. i., to begin, to become; _talae na ne_, from this (that)
time forth.

   _talaela_, v. n., beginning. S. _tala'ae_.

_talai_, _talani_, partic., wantonly, for no reason. S. _tale'i_.

_talatala_ v. i., to be diligent.

_talo_, with prefix _aini_; _ainitalongaini_, to proclaim. S.
_talo_.

_talu_ v. i., to sprinkle; _talu fafi_. S. _danu_.

_tama-_ (_gu_), used with _sae_ to know; _nau gu sae tamana_. I
know (it).

_tani_ some; _tani oto ni saiai_, some people.

_tangafulu_, numeral, ten, used only in counting; _e tangafulu_.

   _tangafulu ana_ tenth, for the tenth time. S. _tangahulu_.

_tangalau_ numeral, one hundred; _e tangalau_; _tangale doo_, one
hundred things. S. _tangalau_.

_taofai_, _tataofai_ v. i., to stumble.

_taraina_ today, now, bye and bye.

_tarakaukau_ a bramble. _kakau_.

_tarau_ v. i., to be continuous, traditional.

   _taraungaini_ v. tr., to do continuously. S. _tarau_.

_taru_ a chamber. S. _duru_.

_tasa_ v. i., to be too much, used in comparison; _nia baita tasaa
ana_, it is bigger than it.

   _tasala_ v. n., _ro fe tasala_, twice as much,

   _tasaa_ adj. excessive.

_tasaliu_ v. i., to be in excess, exceedingly.

_tata_ adjectival prefix; _tatagwelu_, headlong. S. _tata_.

_tatabi_; _tatabi i tala_, a bifurcation of the path.

_tatae_ v. i., to rise, arise; _tatae oli_, _tatae olila_,
resurrection.

   _tataea_ v. n., a getting up, a steep place. S. _ta'e_.

_tataga_ v. i., _bae tataga_, to speak blasphemously.

   _tatagala_ adj., _bae tatagala_, to speak blasphemously.

_tatagwelu_ adj., headlong. S. _tataqelu_.

_tatale_ v. tr., to uncover, reveal.

_tatao_ v. i., to be flat, on one's back.

_tau_ 1. v. i., to wash; _tau aba_, to wash hands.

   _taufi_ v. tr.

_tau_ 2. v. i., to be far off; be a long time; _too ka tau_, _too
ka tau_, for ever and ever.  S. _ha'atau_.

_te_ 1. numeral, one, the same, a certain one; _te ni ai_, a
certain person; _da tefe bae ana te si baela_, they all said the
same thing; _te si na doo_, everything; _te taifilia inia_, he
only; used of units (cf.  Sa'a _ata_), _te fiu fe doo_, only seven
things; _te ai ma te ai_, one by one; _too te ai_, singly;
equivalent to and; _te na Mwela_, and the Son. Florida _keha_, one,
Kingsmill _te_, M. L. p. 246.

_te_ 2. n., mother; _ni te nau_, my mother.

   _telana_, n., of relationship, _ro mwai telana_, mother and
   child, wife. S. _teitei_.

_tea_ v. tr., to utter, speak; _e tea tesi baela nena_, speaking
the same words. S. _tea_.

_tefe_, _te_ 1. _fe_ 2.; _da tefe bae ana tesi baela_, they all
(only) said the same thing; _tefe mwela matala_, an only son.

_tefou_ with one accord, together, always.

_tefua_ adj., irreverently, haphazard.

_tefliana_ all, every, _ta tefuana tani_ too, all peoples; _te_ 1.
_fu_

_tegelai_ partic., lost, dropped. S. _tekela'i_.

_teo_, _teteo_ v. i., to lie down, sleep; _teo bole_, to dream;
_teo bolea_, _teo bolela_, v. n., dream.

   _teteola_ adj., sleepy; _maada e teteola_, their eyes were
   sleepy.

_teqa_ v. i., to be tall, high.

   _teqala_ adj.; _take teqala_, to stand erect. S. _tewa_.

_terefi_ v. tr., to move as a fan, to fan. S. _tetere_.

_tero_ v. i., to be ulcerous, lame, halt, withered.

_tete_; 1. _manata tete_, to be anxious.

_tete_; 2. _bubu tete_, to look fixedly.

_teu_ a wooden bowl, a measure.

_ti_ interrogative pronoun, sing, who? pl. _gerati_; _ti gera_, one
of them; with pers. article a, _ati gera_, who of them? _ati
satamu_, what is your name? S. _tei_.

_tobi_ v. tr., to gather, garner; n. a chamber.

_toda_ v. i., to gain, get, collect; _toda bata_, a tax gatherer.

_toe_ v. tr., to strike against, to desire; _liona e toea_, he
desired it.

_tofu_, _totofu_ v. tr., to chop.

   _tofuli_ y. tr., to build, to chop down.S. _tohu_.

_tokekela_ (_gu_) n., judgment.

_tolafa_ (_gu_) n., way, method, custom. S. _tolaha_.

_toli_ down; _ada toli_, look down; _dau tolingi_, to cast down;
_toli fanga_ to fast, _toli fangala_, fasting.

   _tolingi_ v. tr., to apportion, give share to at a feast.

   _tolia_ v. n., a portion at a feast. S. _toli_.

_tolo_ a hill, the hill country; _toloe fera_, a hill. S. _tolo_.

_tona_ v. i.; _liona e tona_, he was pricked at the heart, afraid.

_too_ 1. (_gu_) v. tr., to hit; _sato toona_, the sun struck it;
_too matafana_, to know; _manata toona_, know it; _too ani_,
understand; _too meme_, hit and break in pieces; 2. to possess,
have, _too ai_, to have relations.

   _tooa_ v; n., _lio tooa_, wisdom.

   _toonala_ v. n., _manata toonala_, thought.

_too_ 3. v. i., to live, dwell, be; _too laulau_, to be whole; _too
salaa_, to be a stranger, _too ka tau_, for ever. S. _'o'o_.

   _toola_ (_gu_) v. n., way, fashion.

_too_ 4. people, race; _na too_.

_too_ 5. prefixed to numerals, at a time; _too te ai_, one at a
time. S.  _too_.

_too_ 6. numeral, one thousand. S. _to'o_.

_toongi_ 1. v. i., to clothe; n., clothes. S. _tooni_.

_toongi_ 2. v. tr., to pack, load, place. S. _tooni_.

_toromi_ v. tr., to pierce. S. _toromi_.

_tosi_ v. tr., to throw away. S. _'asi_.

_tosiomelamwane_ a parable, proverb.

_totolo_ v. tr., to raise the voice. S. _totolo_.

_tou_, _totou_, v. i., to be little; _manata tou_, to make little
of; adj.  little; _ni ai tou_, humbly.

   _toula_ v. n., _manata toula_, humility; _toula_ (_gu_) in
   youth.

_toula-_ (_na_), i _toulana asi_, on the surface of the sea.



U

_ua_ adv., still, yet; _ua mai inao_, from of old; _e mae ua na_,
already dead; _ua mai ana lua_, from the time of the flood, _ua
inao_, old, aforetime; _ua go i uarodo_, while still dark; _e langi
ua_, not yet, still wanting. S. _ue_.

_uarodo_ dawn, morning. _rodo_.

_ubuubu_ v. i., to be thick, deep. S. _'upu_.

_uda_ v. i., to be new, fresh.

_udu_, _uduudu_, v. i., to drip, n., a drop. S. _'udu_.

   _udufa_ v. n., a dropping, drops.

_ueli_ v. tr., to happen adversely to.

_ufi_ 1. v. tr., to blow; _ufi bungu_, to blow a conch shell.

   _ufiani_ v. tr., to breathe into, inspire. S. _'uhi_.

_ufi_ 2. a yam. S. _uhi_.

_ufi_ 3. v. tr., to draw water.

_uga_ v. i,, to spill, to be wasted.

_ugani_ v. tr., to grumble at. S. _uqe_.

_ui_, _uiani_ v. tr., to throw, cast. S. _'u'i_.

_ulu_ v. i., to wade.

   _ulufaini_ v. tr., to carry a person over water. S. _ulu_.

_ulufi_ v. tr., to vex, grieve. S. _unuhi_.

_ulunga_, _urunga_, to serve as a pillow; n., a pillow.

_urungai_ v. tr., to recline the head. S. _ulunge_.

_umu_ oven. S. _umu_.

_unua_ n., folk lore, a yarn. S. _unu_.

_unga_ (_gu_) n., skin.

_uo_ hill; _fe uo_. S. _uo_.

_uri_ 1. v. tr., to tread, tread on; _uri sufu_, to tread through.

   _urila_ v. n., tread, step. S. _uri_.

_uri_, _urina_, 2. adv., like, thus; _nia kafi uri_, he spake thus,
_rao uri_, to do like, to tend, _ele uri_, to desire.  S. _uri_.

_uria_ adj., like, used as adv., _toolada ka uria alafana_, their
way shall be like as if.

_urii_ adv., just now.

_uruuru_; _si salo uruuru_, fleecy cloud.

_usi_ (_nau_) prep., over, for, on behalf of.

_usia_ n., a market; _ifuli usia_, in the market place. S. _usie_.

_usu_ v. tr., to wipe, anoint. S. _usu_.

_usungaia_ n., commandment. S. _usunge'i_.

_uta_ 1. n., rain; v. i., to rain; _na uta ka uta_, the rain rains.
Florida _uha_.

_uta_ 2. adv., interrog. how? _si manga uta_, what time? _nia kafi
uta_, what will he do? S. _u'e_.

_uwa_ v. tr., to lift; _uwa maa_, to lift the eye. S. _uwe_.





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