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´╗┐Title: The Earth as Modified by Human Action
Author: Marsh, George P. (George Perkins)
Language: English
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THE EARTH AS MODIFIED BY HUMAN ACTION.

A NEW EDITION OF MAN AND NATURE.

BY

GEORGE P. MARSH.


"Not all the winds, and storms, and earthquakes, and seas, and seasons
of the world, have done so much to revolutionize the earth as MAN, the
power of an endless life, has done since the day he came forth upon it,
and received dominion over it."--H. Bushnell, Sermon on the Power of an
Endless Life.

1874.



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The object of the present volume is: to indicate the character and,
physical conditions of the globe we inhabit; to point out the dangers of
imprudence and the necessity of caution in all operations which, on a
large scale, interfere with the spontaneous arrangements of the organic
or the inorganic world; to suggest the possibility and the importance of
the restoration of disturbed harmonies and the material improvement of
waste and exhausted regions; and, incidentally, to illustrate the
doctrine that man is, in both kind and degree, a power of a higher order
than any of the other forms of animated life, which, like him, are
nourished at the table of bounteous nature.

In the rudest stages of life, man depends upon spontaneous animal and
vegetable growth for food and clothing, and his consumption of such
products consequently diminishes the numerical abundance of the species
which serve his uses. At more advanced periods, he protects and
propagates certain esculent vegetables and certain fowls and quadrupeds,
and, at the same time, wars upon rival organisms which prey upon these
objects of his care or obstruct the increase of their numbers. Hence the
action of man upon the organic world tends to derange its original
balances, and while it reduces the numbers of some species, or even
extirpates them altogether, it multiplies other forms of animal and
vegetable life.

The extension of agricultural and pastoral industry involves an
enlargement of the sphere of man's domain, by encroachment upon the
forests which once covered the greater part of the earth's surface
otherwise adapted to his occupation. The felling of the woods has been
attended with momentous consequences to the drainage of the soil, to the
external configuration of its surface, and probably, also, to local
climate; and the importance of human life as a transforming power is,
perhaps, more clearly demonstrable in the influence man has thus exerted
upon superficial geography than in any other result of his material
effort.

Lands won from the woods must be both drained and irrigated; river-banks
and maritime coasts must be secured by means of artificial bulwarks
against inundation by inland and by ocean floods; and the needs of
commerce require the improvement of natural and the construction of
artificial channels of navigation. Thus man is compelled to extend over
the unstable waters the empire he had already founded upon the solid
land.

The upheaval of the bed of seas and the movements of water and of wind
expose vast deposits of sand, which occupy space required for the
convenience of man, and often, by the drifting of their particles,
overwhelm the fields of human industry with invasions as disastrous as
the incursions of the ocean. On the other hand, on many coasts,
sand-hills both protect the shores from erosion by the waves and
currents, and shelter valuable grounds from blasting sea-winds. Man,
therefore, must sometimes resist, sometimes promote, the formation and
growth of dunes, and subject the barren and flying sands to the same
obedience to his will to which he has reduced other forms of terrestrial
surface.

Besides these old and comparatively familiar methods of material
improvement, modern ambition aspires to yet grander achievements in the
conquest of physical nature, and projects are meditated which quite
eclipse the boldest enterprises hitherto undertaken for the modification
of geographical surface.

The natural character of the various fields where human industry has
effected revolutions so important, and where the multiplying population
and the impoverished resources of the globe demand new triumphs of mind
over matter, suggests a corresponding division of the general subject,
and I have conformed the distribution of the several topics to the
chronological succession in which man must be supposed to have extended
his sway over the different provinces of his material kingdom. I have,
then, in the introductory chapter, stated, in a comprehensive way, the
general effects and the prospective consequences of human action upon
the earth's surface and the life which peoples it. This chapter is
followed by four others in which I have traced the history of man's
industry as exerted upon Animal and Vegetable Life, upon the Woods, upon
the Waters, and upon the Sands; and to these I have added a concluding
chapter upon Man.

It is perhaps superfluous to add, what indeed sufficiently appears upon
every page of the volume, that I address myself not to professed
physicists, but to the general intelligence of observing and thinking
men; and that my purpose is rather to make practical suggestions than to
indulge in theoretical speculations more properly suited to a different
class from that for which I write.

GEORGE P. MARSH.

December 1, 1868.



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION.


In preparing for the press an Italian translation of this work,
published at Florence in 1870, I made numerous corrections in the
statement of both facts and opinions; I incorporated into the text and
introduced in notes a large amount of new data and other illustrative
matter; I attempted to improve the method by differently arranging many
of the minor subdivisions of the chapters; and I suppressed a few
passages which teemed to me superfluous. In the present edition, which
is based on the Italian translation, I have made many further
corrections and changes of arrangement of the original matter; I have
rewritten a considerable portion of the work, and have made, in the text
and in notes, numerous and important additions, founded partly on
observations of my own, partly on those of other students of Physical
Geography, and though my general conclusions remain substantially the
same as those I first announced, yet I think I may claim to have given
greater completeness and a more consequent and logical form to the whole
argument

Since the publication of the original edition, Mr. Elisee Reclus, in the
second volume of his admirable work, La Terre (Paris, 1868), lately made
accessible to English-reading students, has treated, in a general way,
the subject I have undertaken to discuss. He has, however, occupied
himself with the conservative and restorative, rather than with the
destructive, effects of human industry, and he has drawn an attractive
and encouraging picture of the ameliorating influences of the action of
man, and of the compensations by which he, consciously or unconsciously,
makes amends for the deterioration which he has produced in the medium
he inhabits. The labors of Mr. Reclus, therefore, though aiming at a
much higher and wider scope than I have had in view, are, in this
particular point, a complement to my own. I earnestly recommend the work
of this able writer to the attention of my readers.

George P. Marsh

Rome, May 1, 1878.



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TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY

Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire--Physical Decay
of that Territory--Causes of the Decay--Reaction of Man on
Nature--Observation of Nature--Uncertainty of Our Historical Knowledge
of Ancient Climates--Uncertainty of Modern Meteorology--Stability of
Nature--Formation of Bogs--Natural Conditions Favorable to Geographical
Change--Destructiveness of Man--Human and Brute Action Compared--Limits
of Human Power--Importance of Physical Conservation and
Restoration--Uncertainty as to Effects of Human Action

CHAPTER II.

TRANSFER, MODIFICATION, AND EXTIRPATION OF VEGETABLE AND OF ANIMAL
SPECIES.

Modern Geography takes Account of Organic Life--Geographical Importance
of Plants--Origin of Domestic Vegetables--Transfer of Vegetable
Life--Objects of Modern Commerce--Foreign Plants, how
Introduced--Vegetable Power of Accommodation--Agricultural Products of
the United States--Useful American Plants Grown in Europe--Extirpation
of Vegetables--Animal Life as a Geological and Geographical
Agency--Origin and Transfer of Domestic Quadrupeds--Extirpation of Wild
Quadrupeds--Large Marine Animals Relatively Unimportant in
Geography--Introduction and Breeding of Fish--Destruction of
Fish--Geographical Importance of Birds--Introduction of
Birds--Destruction of Birds--Utility and Destruction of
Reptiles--Utility of Insects and Worms--Injury to the Forest by
Insects--Introduction of Insects--Destruction of Insects--Minute
Organisms

CHAPTER III.

THE WOODS.

The Habitable Earth Originally Wooded--General Meteorological Influence
of the Forest--Electrical Action of Trees--Chemical Influence of
Woods--Trees as Protection against Malaria--Trees as Shelter to Ground
to the Leeward--Influence of the Forest as Inorganic on
Temperature--Thermometrical Action of Trees as Organic--Total Influence
of the Forest on Temperature--Influence of Forests as Inorganic on
Humidity of Air and Earth--Influence as Organic--Balance of Conflicting
Influences--Influence of Woods on Precipitation--Total Climatic Action
of the Forest--Influence of the Forest on Humidity of Soil--The Forest
in Winter--Summer Rain, Importance of--Influence of the Forest on the
Flow of Springs--Influence of the Forest on Inundations and
Torrents--Destructive Action of Torrents--Floods of the
Ardeche--Excavation by Torrents--Extinction of Torrents--Crushing Force
of Torrents--Transporting Power of Water--The Po and its
Deposits--Mountain Slides--Forest as Protection against
Avalanches--Minor Uses of the Forest--Small Forest Plants and Vitality
of Seeds--Locusts do not Breed in Forests--General Functions of
Forest--General Consequences of Destruction of--Due Proportion of
Woodland--Proportion of Woodland in European Countries--Forests of Great
Britain--Forests of France--Forests of Italy--Forests of
Germany--Forests of United States--American Forest Trees--European and
American Forest Trees Compared--The Forest does not furnish Food for
Man--First Removal of the Forest--Principal Causes of Destruction of
Forest--Destruction and Protection of Forests by Governments--Royal
Forests and Game-laws--Effects of the French Revolution--Increased
Demand for Lumber--Effects of Burning Forest--Floating of
Timber--Restoration of the Forest--Economy of the Forest--Forest
Legislation--Plantation of Forests In America--Financial Results of
Forest Plantations--Instability of American Life

CHAPTER IV.

THE WATERS.

Land Artificially Won from the Waters--Great Works of Material
Improvement--Draining of Lincolnshire Fens--Incursions of the Sea in the
Netherlands--Origin of Sea-dikes--Gain and Loss of Land in the
Netherlands--Marine Deposits on the Coast of Netherlands--Draining of
Lake of Haarlem--Draining of the Zuiderzee--Geographical Effects
of--Improvements in the Netherlands--Ancient Hydraulic Works--Draining
of Lake Celano by Prince Torlonia--Incidental Consequences of Draining
Lakes--Draining of Marshes--Agricultural Draining--Meteorological
Effects of Draining--Geographical Effects of Draining--Geographical
Effects of Aqueducts and Canals--Antiquity of Irrigation--Irrigation in
Palestine, India, and Egypt--Irrigation in Europe--Meteorological
Effects of Irrigation--Water withdrawn from Rivers for
Irrigation--Injurious Effects of Rice-culture--Salts Deposited by Water
of Irrigation--Subterranean Waters--Artesian Wells--Artificial
Springs--Economizing Precipitation--Inundations in France--Basins of
Reception--Diversion of Rivers--Glacier Lakes--River Embankments--Other
Remedies against Inundations--Dikes of the Nile--Deposits of Tuscan
Rivers--Improvements in Tuscan Maremma--Improvements in Val di
Chiana--Coast of the Netherlands

CHAPTER V.

THE SANDS.

Origin of Sand--Sand now Carried to the Sea--Beach Sands of Northern
Africa--Sands of Egypt--Sand Dunes and Sand Plains--Coast Dunes--Sand
Banks--Character of Dune Sand--Interior Structure of Dunes--Geological
Importance of Dunes--Dunes on American Coasts--Dunes of Western
Europe--Age, Character, and Permanence of Dunes--Dunes as a Barrier
against the Sea--Encroachments of the Sea--Liimfjord--Coasts of
Schleswig-Holstein, Netherlands, and France--Movement of Dunes--Control
of Dunes by Man--Inland Dunes--Inland Sand Plains

CHAPTER VI.

GREAT PROJECTS OF PHYSICAL CHANGE ACCOMPLISHED OR PROPOSED BY MAN.

Cutting of Isthmuses--Canal of Suez--Maritime Canals in Greece--Canals
to Dead Sea--Canals to Libyan Desert--Maritime Canals in Europe--Cape
Cod Canal--Changes in Caspian--Diversion of the Nile--Diversion of the
Rhine--Improvements in North American Hydrography--Soil below
Rock--Covering Rock with Earth--Desert Valleys--Effects of
Mining--Duponchel's Plans of Improvement--Action of Man on the
Weather--Resistance to Great Natural Forces--Incidental Effects of Human
Action--Nothing Small In Nature



THE EARTH AS MODIFIED BY HUMAN ACTION.


CHAPTER 1.

INTRODUCTORY.

Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire.--Physical Decay
of that Territory.--Causes of the Decay.--Reaction of Man on Nature.--
Observation of Nature.--Uncertainty of Our Historical Knowledge of
Ancient Climates.--Uncertainty of Modern Meteorology.--Stability of
Nature.--Formation of Bogs--Natural Conditions Favorable to Geographical
Change.--Destructiveness of Man--Human and Brute Action
Compared.--Limits of Human Power.--Importance of Physical Conservation
and Restoration--Uncertainty as to Effects of Human Action.

Natural Advantages of the Territory of the Roman Empire.

The Roman Empire, at the period of its greatest expansion, comprised the
regions of the earth most distinguished by a happy combination of
physical conditions. The provinces bordering on the principal and the
secondary basins of the Mediterranean enjoyed in healthfulness and
equability of climate, in fertility of soil, in variety of vegetable and
mineral products, and in natural facilities for the transportation and
distribution of exchangeable commodities, advantages which have not been
possessed in any equal degree by any territory of like extent in the Old
World or the New. The abundance of the land and of the waters adequately
supplied every material want, ministered liberally to every sensuous
enjoyment. Gold and silver, indeed, were not found in the profusion
which has proved so baneful to the industry of lands richer in veins of
the precious metals; but mines and river beds yielded them in the spare
measure most favorable to stability of value in the medium of exchange,
and, consequently, to the regularity of commercial transactions. The
ornaments of the barbaric pride of the East, the pearl, the ruby, the
sapphire, and the diamond--though not unknown to the luxury of a people
whose conquests and whose wealth commanded whatever the habitable world
could contribute to augment the material splendor of their social
life--were scarcely native to the territory of the empire; but the
comparative rarity of these gems in Europe, at somewhat earlier periods,
was, perhaps, the very circumstance that led the cunning artists of
classic antiquity to enrich softer stones with engravings, which invest
the common onyx and cornelian with a worth surpassing, in cultivated
eyes, the lustre of the most brilliant oriental jewels.

Of these manifold blessings the temperature of the air, the distribution
of the rains, the relative disposition of land and water, the plenty of
the sea, the composition of the soil, and the raw material of the
primitive arts, were wholly gratuitous gifts. Yet the spontaneous nature
of Europe, of Western Asia, of Libya, neither fed nor clothed the
civilized inhabitants of those provinces. The luxuriant harvests of
cereals that waved on every field from the shores of the Rhine to the
banks of the Nile, the vines that festooned the hillsides of Syria, of
Italy and of Greece, the olives of Spain, the fruits of the gardens of
the Hesperides, the domestic quadrupeds and fowls known in ancient rural
husbandry--all these were original products of foreign climes,
naturalized in new homes, and gradually ennobled by the art of man,
while centuries of persevering labor were expelling the wild vegetation,
and fitting the earth for the production of more generous growths. Every
loaf was eaten in the sweat of the brow. All must be earned by toil. But
toil was nowhere else rewarded by so generous wages; for nowhere would a
given amount of intelligent labor produce so abundant, and, at the same
time, so varied returns of the good things of material existence.


Physical Decay of the Territory of the Roman Empire.

If we compare the present physical condition of the countries of which I
am speaking, with the descriptions that ancient historians and
geographers have given of their fertility and general capability of
ministering to human uses, we shall find that more than one-half their
whole extent--not excluding the provinces most celebrated for the
profusion and variety of their spontaneous and their cultivated
products, and for the wealth and social advancement of their
inhabitants--is either deserted by civilized man and surrendored to
hopeless desolation, or at least greatly reduced in both productiveness
and population. Vast forests have disappeared from mountain spurs and
ridges; the vegetable earth accumulated beneath the trees by the decay
of leaves and fallen trunks, the soil of the alpine pastures which
skirted and indented the woods, and the mould of the upland fields, are
washed away; meadows, once fertilized by irrigation, are waste and
unproductive because the cisterns and reservoirs that supplied the
ancient canals are broken, or the springs that fed them dried up; rivers
famous in history and song have shrunk to humble brooklets; the willows
that ornamented and protected the banks of the lesser watercourses are
gone, and the rivulets have ceased to exist as perennial currents,
because the little water that finds its way into their old channels is
evaporated by the droughts of summer, or absorbed by the parched earth
before it reaches the lowlands; the beds of the brooks have widened into
broad expanses of pebbles and gravel, over which, though in the hot
season passed dryshod, in winter sealike torrents thunder; the entrances
of navigable streams are obstructed by sandbars; and harbors, once marts
of an extensive commerce, are shoaled by the deposits of the rivers at
whose mouths they lie; the elevation of the beds of estuaries, and the
consequently diminished velocity and increased lateral spread of the
streams which flow into them, have converted thousands of leagues of
shallow sea and fertile lowland into unproductive and miasmatic
morasses.

Besides the direct testimony of history to the ancient fertility of the
now exhausted regions to which I refer--Northern Africa, the greater
Arabian peninsula, Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia and many other provinces
of Asia Minor, Greece, Sicily, and parts of even Italy and Spain--the
multitude and extent of yet remaining architectural ruins, and of
decayed works of internal improvement, show that at former epochs a
dense population inhabited those now lonely districts. Such a population
could have been sustained only by a productiveness of soil of which we
at present discover but slender traces; and the abundance derived from
that fertility serves to explain how large armies, like those of the
ancient Persians, and of the Crusaders and the Tartars in later ages,
could, without an organized commissariat, secure adequate supplies in
long marches through territories which, in our times, would scarcely
afford forage for a single regiment.

It appears then, that the fairest and fruitfulest provinces of the Roman
Empire, precisely that portion of terrestrial surface, in short, which,
about the commencement of the Christian era, was endowed with the
greatest superiority of soil, climate, and position, which had been
carried to the highest pitch of physical improvement, and which thus
combined the natural and artificial conditions best fitting it for the
habitation and enjoyment of a dense and highly refined and cultivated
population, are now completely exhausted of their fertility, or so
diminished in productiveness, as, with the exception of a few favored
oases that have escaped the general ruin, to be no longer capable of
affording sustenance to civilized man. If to this realm of desolation we
add the now wasted and solitary soils of Persia and the remoter East
that once fed their millions with milk and honey, we shall see that a
territory larger than all Europe, the abundance of which sustained in
bygone centuries a population scarcely inferior to that of the whole
Christian world at the present day, has been entirely withdrawn from
human use, or, at best, is thinly inhabited by tribes too few in
numbers, too poor in superfluous products, and too little advanced in
culture and the social arts, to contribute anything to the general moral
or material interests of the great commonwealth of man.



Causes of this Decay.

The decay of these once flourishing countries is partly due, no doubt,
to that class of geological causes whose action we can neither resist
nor guide, and partly also to the direct violence of hostile human
force; but it is, in a far greater proportion, either the result of
man's ignorant disregard of the laws of nature, or an incidental
consequence of war and of civil and ecclesiastical tyranny and misrule.
Next to ignorance of these laws, the primitive source, the causa
causarum, of the acts and neglects which have blasted with sterility and
physical decrepitude the noblest half of the empire of the Caesars, is,
first, the brutal and exhausting despotism which Rome herself exercised
over her conquered kingdoms, and even over her Italian territory; then,
the host of temporal and spiritual tyrannies which she left as her dying
curse to all her wide dominion, and which, in some form of violence or
of fraud, still brood over almost every soil subdued by the Roman
legions. [Footnote: In the Middle Ages, feudalism, and a nominal
Christianity, whose corruptions had converted the most beneficent of
religions into the most baneful of superstitions, perpetuated every
abuse of Roman tyranny, and added new oppressions and new methods of
extortion to those invented by older despotisms. The burdens in question
fell most heavily on the provinces that had been longest colonized by
the Latin race, and those are the portions of Europe which have suffered
the greatest physical degradation. "Feudalism," says Blanqui, "was a
concentration of scourges. The peasant, stripped of the inheritance of
his fathers, became the property of inflexible, ignorant, indolent
masters; he was obliged to travel fifty leagues with their carts
whenever they required it; he labored for them three days in the week,
and surrendered to them half the product of his earnings during the
other three; without their consent he could not change his residence, or
marry. And why, indeed, should he wish to marry, when he could scarcely
save enough to maintain himself The Abbot Alcuin had twenty thousand
slaves, called SERFS, who were forever attached to the soil. This is the
great cauue of the rapid depopulation observed in the Middle Ages, and
of the prodigious multitude of monasteries which sprang up on every
side. It was doubtless a relief to such miserable men to find in the
cloisters a retreat from oppression; but the human race never suffered a
more cruel outrage, industry never received a wound better calculated to
plunge the world again into the darkness of the rudest antiquity. It
suffices to say that the prediction of the approaching end of the world,
industriously spread by the rapacious monks at this time, was received
without terror."--Resume de l'Histoire du Commerce, p. 156.] Man cannot
struggle at once against human oppression and the destructive forces of
inorganic nature. "When both are combined against him, he succumbs after
a shorter or longer struggle, and the fields he has won from the
primeval wood relapse into their original state of wild and luxuriant,
but unprofitable forest growth, or fall into that of a dry and barren
wilderness. The abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, which, in the time of
Charlemagne, had possessed a million of acres, was, down to the
Revolution, still so wealthy, that the personal income of the abbot was
300,000 livres. Theabbey of Saint-Denis was nearly as rich as that of
Saint-Germain-des-Pres.--Lavergne, Economie Rurale de la France, p. 104.

Paul Louis Courier quotes from La Bruyere the following striking picture
of the condition of the French peasantry in his time: "One sees certain
dark, livid, naked, sunburnt, wild animals, male and female, scattered
over the country and attached to the soil, which they root and turn over
with indomitable perseverance. They have, as it were, an articulate
voice, and when they rise to their feet, they show a human face. They
are, in fact, men; they creep at night into dens, where they live on
black bread, water, and roots. They spare other men the labor of
ploughing, Bowing, and harvesting, and therefore deserve some small
share of the bread they have grown." "These are his own words," adds
Courier, "and he is speaking of the fortunate peasants, of those who had
work and bread, and they were then the few."--Petition a la Chambre des
Deputes pour les Villageois l'en empeche ce danser.

Arthur Young, who travelled in France from 1787 to 1789, gives, in the
twenty-first chapter of his Travels, a frightful account of the burdens
of the rural population even at that late period. Besides the regular
governmental taxes, and a multitude of heavy fines imposed for trifling
offense, he enumerates about thirty seignorial rights, the very origin
and nature of some of which are now unknown, while those of some others
are as repulsive to humanity and morality, as the worst abuses ever
practised by heathen despotism. But Young underrates the number of these
oppressive impositions. Moreau de Jonnes, a higher authority, asserts
that in a brief examination he had discovered upwards of three hundred
distinct lights of the feudatory over the person or the property of his
vassal. See Etat Economique et Social de la France, Paris, 1890, p.
389. Most of these, indeed, had been commuted for money payments, and
were levied on the peasantry as pecuniary imposts for the benefit of
prelates and lay lords, who, by virtue of their nobility, were exempt
from taxation. The collection of the taxes was enforced with unrelenting
severity. On one occasion, in the reign of Louis XIV., the troops sent
out against the recreant peasants made more than 3,000 prisoners, of
whom 400 were condemned to the galleys for life, and a number so large
that the government did not dare to disclose it, were hung on trees or
broken on the wheel.--Moreau de Jonnes, Etat Economique et Social de la
France, p. 420. Who can wonder at the hostility of the French plebeian
classes towards the aristocracy in the days of the Revolution?

Rome imposed on the products of agricultural labor in the rural
districts taxes which the sale of the entire harvest would scarcely
discharge; she drained them of their population by military
conscription; she impoverished the peasantry by forced and unpaid labor
on public works; she hampered industry and both foreign and internal
commerce by absurd restrictions and unwise regulations. [Footnote:
Commerce, in common with all gainful occupations except agriculture, was
despised by the Romans, and the exercise of it was forbidden to the
higher ranks. Cicero, however, admits that though retail trade, which
could only prosper by lying and knavery, was contemptible, yet wholesale
commerce was not altogether to be condemned, and might even be laudable,
provided the merchant retired early from trade and invested his gaits in
farm lands.--De Officiis, lib. i.,42.] Hence, large tracts of land were
left uncultivated, or altogether deserted, and exposed to all the
destructive forces which act with such energy on the surface of the
earth when it is deprived of those protections by which nature
originally guarded it, and for which, in well-ordered husbandry, human
ingenuity has contrived more or less efficient substitutes. [Footnote:
The temporary depopulation of an exhausted soil may be, in some cases, a
physical, though, like fallows in agriculture, a dear-bought advantage.
Under favorable circumstances, the withdrawal of man and his flocks
allows the earth to clothe itself again with forests, and in a few
generations to recover its ancient productiveness. In the Middle Ages,
worn-out fields were depopulated, in many parts of the Continent, by
civil and ecclesiastical tyrannies, which insisted on the surrender of
the half of a loaf already too small to sustain its producer. Thus
abandoned, these lands often relapsed into the forest state, and, some
centuries later, were again brought under cultivation with renovated
fertility.] Similar abuses have tended to perpetuate and extend these
evils in later ages, and it is but recently that, even in the most
populous parts of Europe, public attention has been half awakened to the
necessity of restoring the disturbed harmonies of nature, whose
well-balanced influences are so propitious to all her organic offspring,
and of repaying to our great mother the debt which the prodigality and
the thriftlessness of former generations have imposed upon their
successors--thus fulfilling the command of religion and of practical
wisdom, to use this world as not abusing it.


Reaction of Man on Nature.

The revolutions of the seasons, with their alternations of temperature
and of length of day and night, the climates of different zones, and the
general conditions and movements of the atmosphere and the seas, depend
upon causes for the most part cosmical, and, of course, wholly beyond
our control. The elevation, configuration, and composition of the great
masses of terrestrial surface, and the relative extent and distribution
of land and water, are determined by geological influences equally
remote from our jurisdiction. It would hence seem that the physical
adaptation of different portions of the earth to the use and enjoyment
of man is a matter so strictly belonging to mightier than human powers,
that we can only accept geographical nature as we find her, and be
content with such soils and such skies as she spontaneously offers.

But it is certain that man has reacted upon organized and inorganic
nature, and thereby modified, if not determined, the material structure
of his earthly home. The measure of that reaction manifestly constitutes
a very important element in the appreciation of the relations between
mind and matter, as well as in the discussion of many purely physical
problems. But though the subject has been incidentally touched upon by
many geographers, and treated with much fulness of detail in regard to
certain limited fields of human effort and to certain specific effects
of human action, it has not, as a whole, so tar as I know, been made
matter of special observation, or of historical research, by any
scientific inquirer. Indeed, until the influence of geographical
conditions upon human life was recognized as a distinct branch of
philosophical investigation, there was no motive for the pursuit of such
speculations; and it was desirable to inquire how far we have, or can,
become the architects of our own abiding place, only when it was known
how the mode of our physical, moral, and intellectual being is affected
by the character of the home which Providence has appointed, and we have
fashioned, for our material habitation. [Footnote:Gods Almagt wenkte van
den troon, En schiep elk volk een land ter woon: Hier vestte Zij een
grondgebied, Dat Zij ona zelven scheppon llet.] It is still too early to
attempt scientific method in discussing this problem, nor is our present
store of the necessary facts by any means complete enough to warrant me
in promising any approach to fulness of statement respecting them.
Systematic observation in relation to this subject has hardly yet begun,
and the scattered data which have chanced to be recorded have never been
collected. It has now no place in the general scheme of physical
science, and is matter of suggestion and speculation only, not of
established and positive conclusion. At present, then, all that I can
hope is to excite an interest in a topic of much economical importance,
by pointing out the directions and illustrating the modes in which human
action has been, or may be, most injurious or most beneficial in its
influence upon the physical conditions of the earth we inhabit We cannot
always distinguish between the results of man's action and the effects
of purely geological or cosmical causes. The destruction of the forests,
the drainage of lakes and marshes, and the operations of rural husbandry
and industrial art have unquestionably tended to produce great changes
in the hygrometric, thermometric, electric, and chemical condition of
the atmosphere, though we are not yet able to measure the force of the
different elements of disturbance, or to say how far they have been
neutralised by each other, or by still obscurer influences; and it is
equally certain that the myriad forms of animal and vegetable life,
which covered the earth when man first entered upon the theatre of a
nature whose harmonies he was destined to derange, have been, through
his interference, greatly changed in numerical proportion, sometimes
much modified in form and product, and sometimes entirely
extirpated. [Footnote: Man has not only subverted the natural numerical
relations of wild as well as domestic quadrupeds, fish, birds, reptile,
insect, and common plants, and even of still humbler tribes of animal
and vegetable life, but he has effected in the forms, habits, nutriment
and products of the organisms which minister to his wants and his
pleasures, changes which, more than any other manifestaion of human
energy, resemble the exercise of a creative power. Even wild animals
have been compelled by him, through the destruction of plants and
insects which furnished their proper aliment, to resort to food
belonging to a different kingdom of nature. Thus a New Zealand bird,
originally granivorous and insectivorous, has become carnivorous, from
the want of its natural supplies, and now tears the fleeces from the
backs of the sheep, in order to feed on their living flesh. All these
changes have exercised more or less direct or indirect action on the
inorganic surface of the globe; and the history of the geographical
revolutions thus produced would furnish ample material for a volume.

The modification of organic species by domestication is a branch of
philosophic inquiry which we may almost say has been created by Darwin;
but the geographical results of these modifications do not appear to
have yet been made a subject of scientific investigation.

I do not know that the following passage from Pliny has ever been cited
in connection with the Darwinian theories but it is worth a reference:

"But behold a very strange and new fashion of them [cucumbers] in
Campane, for there you shall have abundance of them come up in forme of
a Quince. And as I heare say, one of the channced so to grow first at a
very venture; but afterwards from the seed of it came a whole race and
progenie of the like, which therefore they call Melonopopones, as a man
would say, the Quince-pompions or cucumbers"--Pliny, Nat. Hist.,
Holland's translation, book xix, c.5

The word cucumis used in the original of this passage embraces many of
the cucurbitaceae, but the context shows that here means the cucumber.

The physical revolutions thus wrought by man have not indeed all been
destructive to human interests, and the heaviest blows he has inflicted
upon nature have not been wholly without their compensations. Soils to
which no nutritious vegetable was indigenous, countries which once
brought forth but the fewest products suited for the sustenance and
comfort of man--while the severity of their climates created and
stimulated the greatest number and the most imperious urgency of
physical wants--surfaces the most rugged and intractable, and least
blessed with natural facilities of communication, have been brought in
modern times to yield and distribute all that supplies the material
necessities, all that contributes to the sensuous enjoyments and
conveniences of civilized life. The Scythia, the Thule, the Britain, the
Germany, and the Gaul which the Roman writers describe in such
forbidding terms, have been brought almost to rival the native
luxuriance and easily won plenty of Southern Italy; and, while the
fountains of oil and wine that refreshed old Greece and Syria and
Northern Africa have almost ceased to flow, and the soils of those fair
lands are turned to thirsty and inhospitable deserts, the hyperborean
regions of Europe have learnod to conquer, or rather compensate, the
rigors of climate, and have attained to a material wealth and variety of
product that, with all their natural advantages, the granaries of the
ancient world can hardly be said to have enjoyed.



Observation of Nature.

In these pages it is my aim to stimulate, not to satisfy, curiosity, and
it is no part of my object to save my readers the labor of observation
or of thought. For labor is life, and Death lives where power lives
unused. [Footnote: Verses addressed by G. C. to Sir Walter
Raleigh.--Haklutt, i., p. 608.]

Self is the schoolmaster whose lessons are best worth his wages; and
since the subject I am considering has not yet become a branch of formal
instruction, those whom it may interest can, fortunately, have no
pedagogue but themselves. To the natural philosopher, the descriptive
poet, the painter, the sculptor, and indeed every earnest observer, the
power most important to cultivate, and, at the same time, hardest to
acquire, is that of seeing what is before him. Sight is a faculty;
seeing, an art. The eye is a physical but not a self-acting apparatus,
and in general it sees only what it seeks. Like a mirror, it reflects
objects presented to it; but it may be as insensible as a mirror, and
not consciously perceive what it reflects. [Footnote: --I troer, at
Synets Sands er lagt i Oiet, Mens dette kun er Redskab. Synet strommer
Fra Sjaelens Dyb, og Oiets fine Nerver Gaae ud fra Hjernens hemmelige
Vaerksted. Henrik Hertz, Kong Rene's Datter, sc. ii.

In the material eye, you think, sight lodgeth! The EYE is but an organ.
SEEING streameth from the soul's inmost depths. The fine perceptive
Nerve springeth from the brain's mysterious workshop.]

It has been maintained by high authority, that the natural acuteness of
our sensuous faculties cannot be heightened by use, and hence, that the
minutest details of the image formed on the retina are as perfect in the
most untrained as in the most thoroughly disciplined organ. This may be
questioned, and it is agreed on all hands that the power of multifarious
perception and rapid discrimination may be immensely increased by
well-directed practice. [Footnote: Skill in marksmanship, whether with
firearms or with other projectile weapons, depends more upon the
training of the eye than is generally supposed, and I have often found
particularly good shots to possess an almost telescopic vision. In the
ordinary use of the rifle, the barrel is guided by the eye, but there
are sportemen who fire with the butt of the gun at the hip. In this
case, as in the use of the sling, the lasso, and the bolas, in hurling
the knife (see Babinet, Lectures, vii., p. 84), in throwing the
boomerang, the javelin, or a stone, and in the employment of the
blowpipe and the bow, the movements of the hand and arm are guided by
that mysterious sympathy which exists between the eye and the unseeing
organs of the body. "Some men wonder whye, in casting a man's eye at the
marke, the hand should go streighte. Surely if he considered the nature
of a man's eye he would not wonder at it: for this I am certaine of,
that no servaunt to his maister, no childe to his father, is so
obedient, as every joynte and peece of the bodye is to do whatsover the
eye biddes."--Roger Ascham, Taxophilus, Book ii.

In shooting the tortoises of the Amazon and its tributaries, the Indians
use an arrow with a long twine and a float attached to it. Ave-Lallemant
(Die Benutzung der Palmen am Amazonenstrom, p. 32) thus describes their
mode of aiming: "As the arrow, if aimed directly at the floating
tortoise, would strike it at a small angle and glance from its fiat and
wet shell, the archers have a peculiar method of shooting. They are able
to calculate exactly their own muscular effort, the velocity of the
stream, the distance and size of the tortoise, and they shoot the arrow
directly up into the air, so that it falls almost vertically upon the
shell of the tortoise, and sticks in it." Analogous calculations--if
such physico-mental operations can property be so called--are made in
the use of other missiles; for no projectile flies in a right line to
its mark. But the exact training of the eye lies at the bottom of them
all, and marksmanship depends almost wholly upon the power of that
organ, whose directions the blind muscles implicitly follow. Savages
accustomed only to the use of the bow become good shots with firearms
after very little practice. It is perhaps not out of place to observe
here that our English word aim comes from the Latin aestimo, I calculate
or estimate. See Wedgwood's Dictionary of English Etymology, and the
note to the American edition, under Aim.

Another proof of the control of the limbs by the eye has been observed
in deaf-and-dumb schools, and others where pupils are first taught to
write on large slates or blackboards. The writing is in large
characters, the small letters being an inch or more high. They are
formed with chalk or a slate pencil firmly grasped in the fingers, and
by appropriate motions of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder, not of the
finger joints. Nevertheless, when a pen is put into the hand of a pupil
thus taught, his handwriting, though produced by a totally different set
of muscles and muscular movements, is identical in character with that
which he has practised on the blackboard. For a very remarkable account
of the restoration of vision impaired from age, by judicious training,
see Lessons in Life, by Timothy Titcomb, lesson xi. It has been much
doubted whether the artists of the classic ages possessed a more perfect
light than those of modern times, or whether, in executing their minute
mosaics and gem engravings, they need magnifiers. Glasses ground convex
have been found at Pompeii, but they are too rudely fashioned and too
imperfectly polished to have been of any practical use for optical
purposes. But though the ancient artists may have had a microscopic
vision, their astronomers cannot have had a telescopic power of sight;
for they did not discover the satellites of Jupiter, which are often
seen with the naked eye at Oormeeah, in Persia, and sometimes, as I can
testify by personal observation, at Cairo.]

This exercise of the eye I desire to promote, and, next to moral and
religious doctrine, I know no more important practical lessons in this
earthly life of ours--which, to the wise man, is a school from the
cradle to the grave--than those relating to the employment of the sense
of vision in the study of nature.

The pursuit of physical geography, embracing actual observation of
terrestrial surface, affords to the eye the best general training that
is accessible to all. The majority of even cultivated men have not the
time and means of acquiring anything beyond a very superficial
acquaintance with any branch of physical knowledge.

Natural science has become so vastly extended, its recorded facts and
its unanswered questions so immensely multiplied, that every strictly
scientific man must be a specialist, and confine the researches of a
whole life within a comparatively narrow circle. The study I am
recommending, in the view I propose to take of it, is yet in that
imperfectly developed state which allows its votaries to occupy
themselves with broad and general views attainable by every person of
culture, and it does not now require a knowledge of special details
which only years of application can master. It may be profitably pursued
by all; and every traveller, every lover of rural scenery, every
agriculturist, who will wisely use the gift of sight, may add valuable
contributions to the common stock of knowledge on a subject which, as I
hope to convince my readers, though long neglected, and now
inartificially presented, is not only a very important but a very
interesting field of inquiry.



Measurement of Man's Influence.

The exact measurement of the geographical and climatic changes hitherto
effected by man is impracticable, and we possess, in relation to them,
the means of only qualitative, not quantitative analysis. The fact of
such revolutions is established partly by historical evidence, partly by
analogical deduction from effects produced, in our own time, by
operations similar in character to those which must have taken place in
more or less remote ages of human action. Both sources of information
are alike defective in precision; the latter, for general reasons too
obvious to require specification; the former, because the facts to which
it bears testimony occurred before the habit or the means of rigorously
scientific observation upon any branch of physical research, and
especially upon climatic changes, existed.


UNCERTAINTY OF OUR HISTORICAL CONCLUSIONS ON ANCIENT CLIMATES.

The invention of measures of heat and of atmospheric moisture, pressure,
and precipitation, is extremely recent. Hence, ancient physicists have
left us no thermometric or barometric records, no tables of the fall,
evaporation, and flow of waters, and even no accurate maps of coast
lines and the course of rivers. Their notices of these phenomena are
almost wholly confined to excessive and exceptional instances of high or
of low temperatures, extraordinary falls of rain and snow, and unusual
floods or droughts. Our knowledge of the meteorological condition of the
earth, at any period more than two centuries before our own time, is
derived from these imperfect details, from the vague statements of
ancient historians and geographers in regard to the volume of rivers and
the relative extent of forest and cultivated land, from the indications
furnished by the history of the agriculture and rural economy of past
generations, and from other almost purely casual sources of information.
[Footnote: The subject of climatic change, with and without reference to
human action as a cause, has been much discussed by Moreau de Jonnes,
Dureau de la Malle, Arago, Humboldt, Fuster, Gasparin, Becquerel,
Schleiden, and many other writers in Europe, and by Noah Webster, Forry,
Drake, and others in America. Fraas has endeavored to show, by the
history of vegetation in Greece, not merely that clearing and
cultivation have affected climate, but that change of climate has
essentially modified the character of vegetable life. See his Klima und
Pflansenwelt in der Zeit.]

Among these latter we must rank certain newly laid open fields of
investigation, from which facts bearing on the point now under
consideration have been gathered. I allude to the discovery of
artificial objects in geological formations older than any hitherto
recognized as exhibiting traces of the existence of man; to the ancient
lacustrine habitations of Switzerland and of the terremare of Italy,
[Footnote: See two learned articles by Pigorini, in the Nuova Antologia
for January and October, 1870.] containing the implements of the
occupants, remains of their food, and other relics of human life; to the
curious revelations of the Kjokkenmoddinger, or heaps of kitchen refuse,
in Denmark and elsewhere, and of the peat mosses in the same and other
northern countries; to the dwellings and other evidences of the industry
of man in remote ages sometimes laid bare by the movement of sand dunes
on the coasts of France and of the North Sea; and to the facts disclosed
on the tide-washed flats of the latter shores by excavations in Halligs
or inhabited mounds which were probably raised before the era of the
Roman Empire. [Footnote: For a very picturesque description of the
Halligs, see Pliny, N.H., Book xvi, c. 1.] These remains are memorials
of races which have left no written records, which perished at a period
beyond the reach of even historical tradition. The plants and animals
that furnished the relics found in the deposits were certainly
contemporaneous with man; for they are associated with his works, and
have evidently served his uses. In some cases, the animals belonged to
species well ascertained to be now altogether extinct; in some others,
both the animals and the vegetables, though extant elsewhere, have
ceased to inhabit the regions where their remains are discovered. From
the character of the artificial objects, as compared with others
belonging to known dates, or at least to known periods of civilization,
ingenious inferences have been drawn as to their age; and from the
vegetable remains which accompany them, as to the climates of Central
and Northern Europe at the time of their production.

There are, however, sources of error which have not always been
sufficiently guarded against in making these estimates. When a boat,
composed of several pieces of wood fastened together by pins of the same
material, is dug out of a bog, it is inferred that the vessel, and the
skeletons and implements found with it, belong to an age when the use of
iron was not known to the builders. But this conclusion is not warranted
by the simple fact that metals were not employed in its construction;
for the Nubians at this day build boats large enough to carry half a
dozen persons across the Nile, out of small pieces of acacia wood pinned
together entirely with wooden bolts, and large vessels of similar
construction are used by the islanders of the Malay archipelago. Nor is
the occurrence of flint arrow heads and knives, in conjunction with
other evidences of human life, conclusive proof as to the antiquity of
the latter. Lyell informs us that some Oriental tribes still continue to
use the same stone implements as their ancestors, "after that mighty
empires, where the use of metals in the arts was well known, had
flourished for three thousand years in their neighborhood;" [Footnote:
Antiquity of Man, p. 377.] and the North American Indians now
manufacture weapons of stone, and even of glass, chipping them in the
latter case out of the bottoms of thick bottles, with great facility.
[Footnote: "One of the Indians seated himself near me, and made from a
fragment of quartz, with a simple piece of round bone, one end of which
was hemispherical, with a small crease in it (as if worn by a thread)
the sixteenth of an inch deep, an arrow head which was very sharp and
piercing, and such as they use on all their arrows. The skill and
rapidity with which it was made, without a blow, but by simply breaking
the sharp edges with the creased bone by the strength of his hands--for
the crease merely served to prevent the instrument from slipping,
affording no leverage--was remarkable."--Reports of Explorations and
Surveys for Pacific Railroad, vol. ii., 1855, Lieut. Beckwith'S Report,
p. 43. See also American Naturalist for May, 1870, and especially
Stevens, Flint Chips, London, 1870, pp. 77 et seq.

Mariette Bey lately saw an Egyptian barber shave the head of an Arab
with a flint razor.]

We may also be misled by our ignorance of the commercial relations
existing between savage tribes. Extremely rude nations, in spite of
their jealousies and their perpetual wars, sometimes contrive to
exchange the products of provinces very widely separated from each
other. The mounds of Ohio contain pearls, thought to be marine, which
must have come from the Gulf of Mexico, or perhaps even from California,
and the knives and pipes found in the same graves are often formed of
far-fetched material, that was naturally paid for by some home product
exported to the locality whence the material was derived. The art of
preserving fish, flesh, and fowl by drying and smoking is widely
diffused, and of great antiquity. The Indians of Long Island Sound are
said to have carried on a trade in dried shell fish with tribes residing
very far inland. From the earliest ages, the inhabitants of the Faroe
and Orkney Islands, and of the opposite mainland coasts, have smoked
wild fowl and other flesh. Hence it is possible that the animal and the
vegetable food, the remains of which are found in the ancient deposits I
am speaking of, may sometimes have been brought from climates remote
from that where it was consumed.

The most important, as well as the most trustworthy conclusions with
respect to the climate of ancient Europe and Asia, are those drawn from
the accounts given by the classical writers of the growth of cultivated
plants; but these are by no means free from uncertainty, because we can
seldom be sure of an identity of species, almost never of an identity of
race or variety, between vegetables known to the agriculturists of
Greece and Rome and those of modern times which are thought most nearly
to resemble them. Besides this, there is always room for doubt whether
the habits of plants long grown in different countries may not have been
so changed by domestication or by natural selection, that the conditions
of temperature and humidity which they required twenty centuries ago
were different from those at present demanded for their advantageous
cultivation. [Footnote: Probably no cultivated vegetable affords so good
an opportunity of studying the law of acclimation of plants as maize or
Indian corn. Maize is grown from the tropics to at least lat. 47 degrees
in Northeastern America, and farther north in Europe. Every two or three
degrees of latitude brings you to a new variety with new climatic
adaptations, and the capacity of the plant to accommodate itself to new
conditions of temperature and season seems almost unlimited.

Many persons now living remember that, when the common tomato was first
introduced into Northern New England, it often failed to ripen; but, in
the course of a very few years, it completely adapted itself to the
climate, and now not only matures both its fruit and its seeds with as
much certainty as any cultivated vegetable, but regularly propagates
itself by self-sown seed. Meteorological observations, however, do not
show any amelioration of the summer climate in those States within that
period.

It may be said that these cases--and indeed all cases of a supposed
acclimation consisting in physiological changes--are instances of the
origination of new varieties by natural selection, the hardier maize,
tomato, and other vegetables of the North, being the progeny of seeds of
individuals endowed, exceptionally, with greater power of resisting cold
than belongs in general to the species which produced them. But, so far
as the evidence of change of climate, from a difference in vegetable
growth, is concerned, it is immaterial whether we adopt this view or
maintain the older and more familiar doctrine of a local modification of
character in the plants in question.

Maize and the tomato, if not new to human use, have not been long known
to civilization, and were, very probably, reclaimed and domesticated at
a much more recent period than the plants which form the great staples
of agricultural husbandry in Europe and Asia. Is the great power of
accommodation to climate possessed by them due to this circumstance
There is some reason to suppose that the character of maize has been
sensibly changed by cultivation in South America; for, according to
Tschudi, the ears of this grain found in old Peruvian tombs belong to
varieties not now known in Peru.--Travels in Peru, chap. vii. See
important observations in Schubeler, Die Pflanzenwelt Norwegans
(Allgemeiner Theil), Christinania, 1873, 77 and following pp.] Even if
we suppose an identity of species, of race, and of habit to be
established between a given ancient and modern plant, the negative fact
that the latter will not grow now where it flourished two thousand years
ago does not in all cases prove a change of climate. The same result
might follow from the exhaustion of the soil, [Footnote: The cultivation
of madder is said to have been introduced into Europe by an Oriental in
the year 1765, and it was first planted in the neighborhood of Avignon.
Of course, it has been grown in that district for less than a century;
but upon soils where it has been a frequent crop, it is already losing
much of its coloring properties.--Lavergne, Economic Rurale de la
France, pp. 250-201.

I believe there is no doubt that the cultivation of madder in the
vicinity of Avignon is of recent introduction; but it is certain that it
was grown by the ancient Romans, and throughout nearly all Europe in the
middle ages. The madder brought from Persia to France, may belong to a
different species, or at least variety.] or from a change in the
quantity of moisture it habitually contains. After a district of country
has been completely or even partially cleared of its forest growth, and
brought under cultivation, the drying of the soil, under favorable
circumstances, goes on for generations, perhaps for ages. [Footnote: In
many parts of New England there are tracts, many square miles in extent
and presenting all varieties of surface and exposure, which were
partially cleared sixty or seventy years ago, and where little or no
change in the proportion of cultivated ground, pasturage, and woodland
has taken place since. In some cases, these tracts compose basins
apparently scarcely at all exposed to any local influence in the way of
percolation or infiltration of water towards or from neighboring
valleys. But in such situations, apart from accidental disturbances, the
ground is growing drier and drier from year to year, springs are still
disappearing, and rivulets still diminishing in their summer supply of
water. A probable explanation of this is to be found in the rapid
drainage of the surface of cleared ground, which prevents the
subterranean natural reservoirs, whether cavities or merely strata of
bibulous earth, from filling up. How long this process is to last before
an equilibrium is reached, none can say. It may be, for years; it may
be, for centuries.

Livingstone states facts which strongly favor the supposition that a
secular desiccation is still going on in central Africa, and there is
reason to suspect that a like change is taking place in California. When
the regions where the earth is growing drier were cleared of wood, or,
indeed, whether forests ever grew there, we are unable to say, but the
change appears to have been long in progress. A similar revolution
appears to have occurred in Arabia Petraea. In many of the wadis, and
particularly in the gorges between Wadi Feiran and Wadi Esh Sheikh,
there are water-worn banks showing that, at no very remote period, the
winter floods must have risen fifty feet in channels where the growth of
acacias and tamarisks and the testimony of the Arabs concur to prove
that they have not risen six feet within the memory or tradition of the
present inhabitants. Recent travellers have discovered traces of
extensive ancient cultivation, and of the former existence of large
towns in the Tih desert, in localities where all agriculture is now
impossible for want of water. Is this drought due to the destruction of
ancient forests or to some other cause?

For important observations on supposed changes of climate in our Western
prairie region, from cultivation of the soil and the introduction of
domestic cattle, see Bryant's valuable Forest Trees, 1871, chapter v.,
and Hayden, Preliminary Report on Survey of Wyoming, p. 455. Some
physicists believe that the waters of our earth are, from chemical of
other less known causes, diminishing by entering into new inorganic
combinations, and that this element will finally disappear from the
globe.]

In other cases, from injudicioua husbandry, or the diversion or choking
up of natural water-courses, it may become more highly charged with
humidity. An increase or diminution of the moisture of a soil almost
necessarily supposes an elevation or a depression of its winter or its
summer heat, and of its extreme if not of its mean annual temperature,
though such elevation or depression may be so slight as not sensibly to
raise or lower the mercury in a thermometer exposed to the open air. Any
of these causes, more or less humidity, or more or less warmth of soil,
would affect the growth both of wild and of cultivated vegetation, and
consequently, without any appreciable change in atmospheric temperature,
precipitation, or evaporation, plants of a particular species might
cease to be advantageously cultivated where they had once been easily
reared. [Footnote: The soil of newly subdued countries is generally
highly favorable to the growth of the fruits of the garden and the
orchard, but usually becomes much less so in a very few years. Plums, of
many varieties, were formerly grown, in great perfection and abundance,
in many parts of New England where at present they can scarcely be
reared at all; and the peach, which, a generation or two ago, succeeded
admirably in the southern portion of the same States, has almost ceased
to be cultivated there. The disappearance of these fruits is partly due
to the ravages of insects, which have in later years attacked them; but
this is evidently by no means the sole, or even the principal cause of
their decay. In these cases, it is not to the exhaustion of the
particular acres on which the fruit trees have grown that we are to
ascribe their degeneracy, but to a general change in the condition of
the soil or the air; for it is equally impossible to rear them
successfully on absolutely new land in the neighborhood of grounds
where, not long since, they bore the finest fruit.

I remember being told, many years ago, by intelligent early settlers of
the State of Ohio, that the apple trees raised there from seed sown soon
after the land was cleared, bore fruit in less than half the time
required to bring to bearing those reared from seed gown when the ground
had been twenty years under cultivation. Analogous changes occur slowly
and almost imperceptibly even in spontaneous vegetation. In the peat
mosses of Denmark, Scotch firs and other trees not now growing in the
same localities, are found in abundance. Every generation of trees
leaves the soil in a different state from that in which it found it;
every tree that springs up in a group of trees of another species than
its own, grows under different influences of light and shade and
atmosphere from its predecessors. Hence the succession of crops, which
occurs in all natural forests, seems to be due rather to changes of
condition than of climate. See chapter iii., post.]


Uncertainty of Modern Meteorology.

We are very imperfectly acquainted with the present mean and extreme
temperature, or the precipitation and the evaporation of any extensive
region, even in countries most densely peopled and best supplied with
instruments and observers. The progress of science is constantly
detecting errors of method in older observations, and many laboriously
constructed tables of meteorological phenomena are now thrown aside as
fallacious, and therefore worse than useless, because some condition
necessary to secure accuracy of result was neglected, in obtaining and
recording the data on which they were founded.

To take a familiar instance: it is but recently that attention has been
drawn to the great influence of slight differences in station upon the
results of observations of temperature and precipitation. Two
thermometers hung but a few hundred yards from each other differ not
unfrequently five, sometimes even ten degrees in their readings;
[Footnote: Tyndall, in a lecture on Radiation, expresses the opinion
that from ten to fifteen per cent. of the heat radiated from the earth
is absorbed by aqueous vapor within ten feet of the earth's
surface.--Fragments of Science, 3d edition, London, 1871, p. 203.
Thermometers at most meteorological stations, when not suspended at
points regulated by the mere personal convenience of the observer, are
hung from 20 to 40 feet above the ground. In such positions they are
less exposed to disturbance from the action of surrounding bodies than
at a lower level, and their indications are consequently more uniform;
but according to Tyndall's views they do not mark the temperature of the
atmospheric stratum in which nearly all the vegetables useful to man,
except forest trees, bud and blossom and ripen, and in which a vast
majority of the ordinary operations of material life are performed. They
give the rise and fall of the mercury at heights arbitrarily taken,
without reference to the relations of temperature to human interests, or
to any other scientific consideration than a somewhat less liability to
accidental disturbance.] and when we are told that the annual fall of
rain on the roof of the observatory at Paris is two inches less than on
the ground by the side of it, we may see that the height of the
rain-gauge above the earth is a point of much consequence in making
estimates from its measurements. [Footnote: Careful observations by the
late lamented Dallas Bache appeared to show that there is no such
difference in the quantity of precipitation falling at slightly
different levels as has been generally supposed. The apparent difference
was ascribed by Prof. Bache to the irregular distribution of the drops
of rain and flakes of snow, exposed, as they are, to local disturbances
by the currents of air around the corners of buildings or other
accidents of the surface. This consideration much increases the
importance of great care in the selection of positions for rain-gauges.
But Mr. Bache's conclusions seem not to be accepted by late
experimenters in England. See Quarterly Journal of Science for January,
1871, p. 123.]

The data from which results have been deduced with respect to the
hygrometrical and thermometrical conditions, to the climate in short, of
different countries, have very often been derived from observations at
single points in cities or districts separated by considerable
distances. The tendency of errors and accidents to balance each other
authorizes us, indeed, to entertain greater confidence than we could
otherwise feel in the conclusions drawn from such tables; but it is in
the highest degree probable that they would be much modified by more
numerous series of observations, at different stations within narrow
limits. [Footnote: The nomenclature of meteorology is vague and
sometimes equivocal. Not long since, it was suspected that the observers
reporting to a scientific institution did not agree in their
understanding of the mode of expressing the direction of the wind
prescribed by their instructions. It was found, upon inquiry, that very
many of them used the names of the compass-points to indicate the
quarter FROM which the wind blew, while others employed them to signify
the quarter TOWARDS which the atmospheric currents were moving. In some
instances, the observers were no longer within the reach of inquiry, and
of course their tables of the wind were of no value. "Winds," says Mrs.
Somerville, "are named from the points whence they blow, currents
exactly the reverse. An easterly wind comes from the east; whereas on
easterly current comes from the west, and flows towards the
east."--Physical Geography, p. 229.

There is no philological ground for this distinction, and it probably
originated in a confusion of the terminations -WARDLY and -ERLY, both of
which are modern. The root of the former ending implies the direction TO
or TO-WARDS which motion is supposed. It corresponds to, and is probably
allied with, the Latin VERSUS. The termination -ERLY is a corruption or
softening of -ERNLY, easterly for easternly, and many authors of the
nineteenth century so write it. In Haklnyt (i., p. 2), EASTERLY is
applied to place, "EASTERLY bounds," and means EASTERN. In a passage in
Drayton, "EASTERLY winds" must mean winds FROM the east; but the same
author, in speaking of nations, uses NORTHERLY for NORTHERN. Lakewell
says: "The sonne cannot goe more SOUTHERNLY from us, nor come more
NORTHERNLY towards us." Holland, in his translation of Pliny, referring
to the moon, has: "When shee is NORTHERLY," and "shee is gone
SOUTHERLY." Richardson, to whom I am indebted for the above citations,
quotes a passage from Dampier where WESTERLY is applied to the wind, but
the context does not determine the direction. The only example of the
termination -WARDLY given by this lexicographer is from Donne, where it
means TOWARDS the west.

Shakespeare, in Hamlet(v., ii.), uses NORTHERLY wind for wind FROM the
north. Milton does not employ either of these terminations, nor were
they known to the Anglo-Saxons, who, however, had adjectives of
direction in -AN or -EN, -ern and -weard, the last always meaning the
point TOWARDS which motion in supposed, the others that FROM which it
proceeds. The vocabulary of science has no specific name for one of the
most important phenomena in meteorology--I mean for watery vapor
condensed and rendered visible by cold. The Latins expressed this
condition of water by the word vapor. For INVISIBLE vapor they had no
name, because they did not know that it existed, and Van Helmont was
obliged to invent a word, gas, as a generic name for watery and other
fluids in the invisible state. The moderns have perverted the meaning of
the word vapor, and in science its use is confined to express water in
the gaseous and invisible state. When vapor in rendered visible by
condensation, we call it fog or mist--between which two words there is
no clearly established distinction--if it is lying on or near the
surface of the earth or of water; when it floats in the air we call it
cloud. But these words express the form and position of the humid
aggregation, not the condition of the water-globules which compose it.
The breath from our mouths, the steam from an engine, thrown out into
cold air, become visible, and consist of water in the same state as in
fog or cloud; but we do not apply those terms to these phenomena. It
would be an improvement in meteorological nomenclature to restore vapor
to its original meaning, and to employ a new word, such for example as
hydrogas, to explain the new scientific idea of water in the invisible
state.]

There is one branch of research which is of the utmost importance in
reference to these questions, but which, from the great difficulty of
direct observation upon it, has been less successfully studied than
almost any other problem of physical science. I refer to the proportions
between precipitation, superficial drainage, absorption, and
evaporation. Precise actual measurement of these quantities upon even a
single acre of ground is impossible; and in all cabinet experiments on
the subject, the conditions of the surface observed are so different
from those which occur in nature, that we cannot safely reason from one
case to the other. In nature, the inclination and exposure of the
ground, the degree of freedom or obstruction of the flow of water over
the surface, the composition and density of the soil, the presence or
absence of perforations by worms and small burrowing quadrupeds--upon
which the permeability of the ground by water and its power of absorbing
and retaining or transmitting moisture depend--its temperature, the
dryness or saturation of the subsoil, vary at comparatively short
distances; and though the precipitation upon very small geographical
basins and the superficial flow from them may be estimated with an
approach to precision, yet even here we have no present means of knowing
how much of the water absorbed by the earth is restored to the
atmosphere by evaporation, and how much carried off by infiltration or
other modes of underground discharge. When, therefore, we attempt to use
the phenomena observed on a few square or cubic yards of earth, as a
basis of reasoning upon the meteorology of a province, it is evident
that our data must be insufficient to warrant positive general
conclusions. In discussing the climatology of whole countries, or even
of comparatively small local divisions, we may safely say that none can
tell what percentage of the water they receive from the atmosphere is
evaporated; what absorbed by the ground and conveyed off by subterranean
conduits; what carried down to the sea by superficial channels; what
drawn from the earth or the air by a given extent of forest, of short
pasture vegetation, or of tall meadow-grass; what given out again by
surfaces so covered, or by bare ground of various textures and
composition, under different conditions of atmospheric temperature,
pressure, and humidity; or what is the amount of evaporation from water,
ice, or snow, under the varying exposures to which, in actual nature,
they are constantly subjected. If, then, we are so ignorant of all these
climatic phenomena in the best-known regions inhabited by man, it is
evident that we can rely little upon theoretical deductions applied to
the former more natural state of the same regions--less still to such as
are adopted with respect to distant, strange, and primitive countries.


STABILITY OF NATURE.

Nature, left undisturbed, so fashions her territory as to give it almost
unchanging permanence of form, outline, and proportion, except when
shattered by geologic convulsions; and in these comparatively rare cases
of derangement, she sets herself at once to repair the superficial
damage, and to restore, as nearly as practicable, the former aspect of
her dominion. In new countries, the natural inclination of the ground,
the self-formed slopes and levels, are generally such as best secure the
stability of the soil. They have been graded and lowered or elevated by
frost and chemical forces and gravitation and the flow of water and
vegetable deposit and the action of the winds, until, by a general
compensation of conflicting forces, a condition of equilibrium has been
readied which, without the action of main, would remain, with little
fluctuation, for countless ages. We need not go far back to reach a
period when, in all that portion of the North American continent which
has been occupied by British colonization, the geographical elements
very nearly balanced and compensated each other. At the commencement of
the seventeenth century, the soil, with insignificant exceptions, was
covered with forests; [Footnote: I do not here speak of the vast prairie
region of the Mississippi valley, which cannot properly said ever to
have been a field of British colonization; but of the original colonies,
and their dependencies in the territory of the present United States,
and in Canada. It is, however, equally true of the Western prairies as
of the Eastern forest land, that they had arrived at a state of
equilibrium, though under very different conditions.] and whenever the
Indian, in consequence of war or the exhaustion of the beasts of the
chase, abandoned the narrow fields he had planted and the woods he had
burned over, they speedily returned, by a succession of herbaceous,
arborescent, and arboreal growths, to their original state. Even a
single generation sufficed to restore them almost to their primitive
luxuriance of forest vegetation. [Footnote: The great fire of Miramichi
in 1825, probably the most extensive and terrific conflagration recorded
in authentic history, spread its ravages over nearly six thousand square
miles, chiefly of woodland, and was of such intensity that it seemed to
consume the very soil itself. But so great are the recuperative powers
of nature, that, in twenty-five years, the ground was thickly covered
again with tree of fair dimensions, except where cultivation and
pasturage kept down the forest growth.]

The unbroken forests had attained to their maximum density and strength
of growth, and, as the older trees decayed and fell, they were succeeded
by new shoots or seedlings, so that from century to century no
perceptible change seems to have occurred in the wood, except the slow,
spontaneous succession of crops. This succession involved no
interruption of growth, and but little break in the "boundless
contiguity of shade;" for, in the husbandry of nature, there are no
fallows. Trees fall singly, not by square roods, and the tall pine is
hardly prostrate, before the light and heat, admitted to the ground by
the removal of the dense crown of foliage which had shut them out,
stimulate the germination of the seeds of broad-leaved trees that had
lain, waiting this kindly influence, perhaps for centuries.


FORMATION OF BOGS.

Two natural causes, destructive in character, were, indeed, in operation
in the primitive American forests, though, in the Northern colonies, at
least, there were sufficient compensations; for we do not discover that
any considerable permanent change was produced by them. I refer to the
action of beavers and of fallen trees in producing bogs, [Footnote: The
English nomenclature of this geographical feature does not seem well
settled. We have bog, swamp, marsh, morass, moor, fen, turf-moss,
peat-moss, quagmire, all of which, though sometimes more or less
accurately discriminated, are often used interchangeably, or are perhaps
employed, each exclusively, in a particular district. In Sweden, where,
especially in the Lappish provinces, this terr-aqueous formation is very
extensive and important, the names of its different kinds are more
specific in their application. The general designation of all soils
permanently pervaded with water is Karr. The elder Laestadius divides
the Karr into two genera: Myror (sing. myra), and Mossar (sing. mosse).
"The former," he observes, "are grass-grown, and overflowed with water
through almost the whole summer; the latter are covered with mosses and
always moist, but very seldom overflowed." He enumerates the following
species of Myra, the character of which will perhaps be sufficiently
understood by the Latin terms into which he translates the vernacular
names, for the benefit of strangers not altogether familiar with the
language and the subject: 1. Homyror, paludes graminosae. 2. Dy, paludes
profundae. 3. Flarkmyror, or proper karr, paludes limosae. 4.
Fjalimyror, paludes uliginosae. 5. Tufmyror, paludes caespitosae. 6.
Rismyror, paludes virgatae. 7. Starrangar, prata irrigata, with their
subdivisions, dry starrungar or risangar, wet starrangar and
frakengropar. 8. Polar, lacunae. 9. Golar, fossae inundatae. The Mossar,
paludes turfosae, which are of great extent, have but two species: 1.
Torfmossar, called also Mossmyror and Snottermyror, and, 2. Bjornmossar.

The accumulations of stagnant or stagnating water originating in bogs
are distinguished into Trask, stagna, and Tjernar or Tjarnar (sing.
Tjern or Tjarn), stagnatiles. Trask are pools fed by bogs, or water
emanating from them, and their bottoms are slimy; Tjernar are small
Trask situated within the limits of Mossar.--L.L. Laestadius, om
Mojligheten af Uppodlingar i Lappmarken, pp. 23, 24.

Although the quantity of bog land in New England is less than in many
other regions of equal area, yet there is a considerable extent of this
formation in some of the Northeastern States. Dana (Manual of Geology,
p. 614) states that the quantity of peat in Massachusetts is estimated
at 120,000,000 cords, or nearly 569,000,000 cubic yards, but he does not
give either the area or the depth of the deposits. In any event,
however, bogs cover but a small percentage of the territory in any of
the Northern States, while it is said that one tenth of the whole
surface of Ireland is composed of bogs, and there are still extensive
tracts of undrained marsh in England. The amount of this formation in
Great Britain is estimated at 6,000,000 acres, with an average depth of
twelve feet, which would yield 21,600,000 tons of air-dried
peat.--Asbjornsen, Tore og Torodrift, Christiania, 1868, p. 6. Peat beds
have sometimes a thickness of ten or twelve yards, or even more. A depth
of ten yards would give 48,000 cubic yards to the acre. The greatest
quantity of firewood yielded by the forests of New England to the acre
is 100 cords solid measure, or 474 cubic yards; but this comprises only
the trunks and larger branches. If we add the small branches and twigs,
it is possible that 600 cubic yards might, in some cases, be cut on an
acre. This is only one eightieth part of the quantity of peat sometimes
found on the same area. It is true that a yard of peat and a yard of
wood are not the equivalents of each other, but the fuel on an acre of
deep peat is worth much more than that on an acre of the best woodland.
Besides this, wood is perishable, and the quantity of an acre cannot be
increased beyond the amount just stated; peat is indestructible, and the
beds are always growing. See post, Chap. IV. Cold favors the conversion
of aquatic vegetables into peat. Asbjornsen says some of the best peat
he has met with is from a bog which is frozen for forty weeks in the
year.

The Greeks and Romans were not acquainted with the employment of peat as
fuel, but it appears from a curious passage which I have already cited
from Pliny, N. H., book xvi., chap. 1, that the inhabitants of the North
Sea coast used what is called kneaded turf in his time. This is the
finer and more thoroughly decomposed matter lying at the bottom of the
peat, kneaded by the hands, formed into small blocks and dried. It is
still prepared in precisely the same way by the poorer inhabitants of
those shores.

But though the Low German tribes, including probably the Anglo-Saxons,
have used peat as fuel from time immemorial, it appears not to have been
known to the High Germans until a recent period. At least, I can find
neither in Old nor in Middle High German lexicons and glossaries any
word signifying peat. Zurb indeed is found in Graff as an Old High
German word, but only in the sense of grass-turf, or greensward. Peat
bogs of vast extent occur in many High German localities, but the former
abundance of wood in the same regions rendered the use of peat
unnecessary.] and of smaller animals, insects, and birds, in destroying
the woods. [Footnote: See Chapter II., post.]

Bogs generally originate in the checking of watercourses by the falling
of timber or of earth and rocks, or by artificial obstructions across
their channels. If the impediment is sufficient to retain a permanent
accumulation of water behind it, the trees whose roots are overflowed
soon perish, and then by their fall increase the obstruction, and, of
course, occasion a still wider spread of the stagnating stream. This
process goes on until the water finds a new outlet, at a higher level,
not liable to similar interruption. The fallen trees not completely
covered by water are soon overgrown with mosses; aquatic and semiaquatic
plants propagate themselves, and spread until they more or less
completely fill up the space occupied by the water, and the surface is
gradually converted from a pond to a quaking morass. The morass is
slowly solidified by vegetable production and deposit, then very often
restored to the forest condition by the growth of black ashes, cedars,
or, in southern latitudes, cypresses, and other trees suited to such a
soil, and thus the interrupted harmony of nature is at last
reestablished. [Footnote: "Aquatic plants have a utility in raising the
level of marshy grounds, which renders them very valuable, and may well
be called a geological function. The engineer drains ponds at a great
expense by lowering the surface of the water; nature attains the same
end, gratuitously, by raising the level of the soil without depressing
that of the water; but she proceeds more slowly. There are, in the
Landes, marshes where this natural filling has a thickness of four
metres, and some of them, at first lower than the sea, have been thus
raised and drained so as to grow summer crops, such, for example, as
maize."--Boitel, Mise en valeur des Terres pauvres, p. 227.

The bogs of Denmark--the examination of which by Steenstrap and Vaupell
has presented such curious results with respect to the natural
succession of forest trees--appear to have gone through this gradual
process of drying, and the birch, which grow freely in very wet soils,
has contributed very effectually by its annual deposits to raise the
surface above the water level, and thus to prepare the ground for the
oak.--Vaupell, Bogens Indvandring, pp. 39, 40.

The growth of the peat not unfrequently raises the surface of bogs
considerably above the level of the surrounding country, and they
sometimes burst and overflow lower grounds with a torrent of mud and
water as destructive as a current of lava.]

In countries somewhat further advanced in civilization than those
occupied by the North American Indians, as in mediaeval Ireland, the
formation of bogs may be commenced by the neglect of man to remove, from
the natural channels of superficial drainage, the tops and branches of
trees felled for the various purposes to which wood is applicable in his
rude industry; and, when the flow of the water is thus checked, nature
goes on with the processes I have already described. In such
half-civilized regions, too, windfalls are more frequent than in those
where the forest is unbroken, because, when openings have been made in
it for agricultural or other purposes, the entrance thus afforded to the
wind occasions the sudden overthrow of hundreds of trees which might
otherwise have stood for generations and have fallen to the ground, only
one by one, as natural decay brought them down. [Footnote: Careful
examination of the peat mosses in North Sjaelland--which are so abundant
in fossil wood that, within thirty years, they have yielded above a
million of trees--shows that the trees have generally fallen from age
and not from wind. They are found in depressions on the declivities of
which they grew, and they lie with the top lowest, always falling
towards the bottom of the valley.--Vaupell, Bogens Indvandring i de
Danske Skove, pp. 10,14.] Besides this, the flocks bred by man in the
pastoral state keep down the incipient growth of trees on the half-dried
bogs, and prevent them from recovering their primitive condition. Young
trees in the native forest are sometimes girdled and killed by the
smaller rodent quadrupeds, and their growth is checked by birds which
feed on the terminal bud; but these animals, as we shall see, are
generally found on the skirts of the wood only, not in its deeper
recesses, and hence the mischief they do is not extensive.

In fine, in countries untrodden by man, the proportions and relative
positions of land and water, the atmospheric precipitation and
evaporation, the thermometric mean, and the distribution of vegetable
and animal life, are maintained by natural compensations, in a state of
approximate equilibrium, and are subject to appreciable change only from
geological influences so slow in their operation that the geographical
conditions may be regarded as substantially constant and immutable.


NATURAL CONDITIONS FAVORABLE TO GEOGRAPHICAL CHANGE.

There are, nevertheless, certain climatic conditions and certain forms
and formations of terrestrial surface, which tend respectively to impede
and to facilitate the physical degradation both of new countries and of
old. If the precipitation, whether great or small in amount, be equally
distributed through the seasons, so that there are neither torrential
rains nor parching droughts, and if, further, the general inclination of
ground be moderate, so that the superficial waters are carried off
without destructive rapidity of flow, and without sudden accumulation in
the channels of natural drainage, there is little danger of the
degradation of the soil in consequence of the removal of forest or other
vegetable covering, and the natural face of the earth may be considered
as virtually permanent. These conditions are well exemplified in
Ireland, in a great part of England, in extensive districts in Germany
and France, and, fortunately, in an immense proportion of the valley of
the Mississippi and the basin of the great American lakes, as well as in
many parts of the continents of South America and of Africa, and it is
partly, though by no means entirely, owing to topographical and climatic
causes that the blight, which has smitten the fairest and most fertile
provinces of Imperial Rome, has spared Britannia, Germania, Pannonia,
and Moesia, the comparatively inhospitable homes of barbarous races,
who, in the days of the Caesars, were too little advanced in civilized
life to possess either the power or the will to wage that war against
the order of nature which seems, hitherto, an almost inseparable
condition precedent of high social culture, and of great progress in
fine and mechanical art. Destructive changes are most frequent in
countries of irregular and mountainous surface, and in climates where
the precipitation is confined chiefly to a single season, and where, of
course, the year is divided into a wet and a dry period, as is the case
throughout a great part of the Ottoman empire, and, indeed, in a large
proportion of the whole Mediterranean basin. In mountainous countries
various causes combine to expose the soil to constant dangers. The rain
and snow usually fall in greater quantity, and with much inequality of
distribution; the snow on the summits accumulates for many months in
succession, and then is not unfrequently almost wholly dissolved in a
single thaw, so that the entire precipitation of months is in a few
hours hurried down the flanks of the mountains, and through the ravines
that furrow them; the natural inclination of the surface promotes the
swiftness of the gathering currents of diluvial rain and of melting
snow, which soon acquire an almost irresistible force and power of
removal and transportation; the soil itself is less compact and
tenacious than that of the plains, and if the sheltering forest has been
destroyed, it is contined by few of the threads and ligaments by which
nature had bound it together, and attached it to the rocky groundwork.
Hence every considerable shower lays bare its roods of rock, and the
torrents sent down by the thaws of spring, and by occasional heavy
discharges of the summer and autumnal rains, are seas of mud and rolling
stones that sometimes lay waste and bury beneath them acres, and even
miles, of pasture and field and vineyard. [Footnote: The character of
geological formation is an element of very great importance in
determining the amount of erosion produced by running water, and, of
course, in measuring the consequences of clearing off the forests. The
soil of the French Alps yields very readily to the force of currents,
and the declivities of the northern Apennines, as well as of many minor
mountain ridges in Tuscany and other parts or Italy, are covered with
earth which becomes itself almost a fluid when saturated with water.
Hence the erosion of such surfaces is vastly greater than on many other
mountains of equal steepness of inclination. The traveller who passes
over the route between Bologna and Florence, and the Perugia and the
Siena roads from the latter city to Rome, will have many opportunities
of observing such localities.]


Destructiveness of Man.

Man has too long forgotten that the earth was given to him for usufruct
alone, not for consumption, still less for profligate waste. Nature has
provided against the absolute destruction of any of her elementary
matter, the raw material of her works; the thunderbolt and the tornado,
the most convulsive throes of even the volcano and the earthquake, being
only phenomena of decomposition and recomposition. But she has left it
within the power of man irreparably to derange the combinations of
inorganic matter and of organic life, which through the night of aeons
she had been proportioning and balancing, to prepare the earth for his
habitation, when in the fulness of time his Creator should call him
forth to enter into its possession.

Apart from the hostile influence of man, the organic and the inorganic
world are, as I have remarked, bound together by such mutual relations
and adaptations as secure, if not the absolute permanence and
equilibrium of both, a long continuance of the established conditions of
each at any given time and place, or at least, a very slow and gradual
succession of changes in those conditions. But man is everywhere a
disturbing agent. Wherever he plants his foot, the harmonies of nature
are turned to discords. The proportions and accommodations which insured
the stability of existing arrangements are overthrown. Indigenous
vegetable and animal species are extirpated, and supplanted by others of
foreign origin, spontaneous production is forbidden or restricted, and
the face of the earth is either laid bare or covered with a new and
reluctant growth of vegetable forms, and with alien tribes of animal
life. These intentional changes and substitutions constitute, indeed,
great revolutions; but vast as is their magnitude and importance, they
are, as we shall see, insignificant in comparison with the contingent
and unsought results which have flowed from them.

The fact that, of all organic beings, man alone is to be regarded as
essentially a destructive power, and that he wields energies to resist
which Nature--that nature whom all material life and all inorganic
substance obey--is wholly impotent, tends to prove that, though living
in physical nature, he is not of her, that he is of more exalted
parentage, and belongs to a higher order of existences, than those which
are born of her womb and live in blind submission to her dictates.

There are, indeed, brute destroyers, beasts and birds and insects of
prey--all animal life feeds upon, and, of course, destroys other
life,--but this destruction is balanced by compensations. It is, in
fact, the very means by which the existence of one tribe of animals or
of vegetables is secured against being smothered by the encroachments of
another; and the reproductive powers of species, which serve as the food
of others, are always proportioned to the demand they are destined to
supply. Man pursues his victims with reckless destructiveness; and,
while the sacrifice of life by the lower animals is limited by the
cravings of appetite, he unsparingly persecutes, even to extirpation,
thousands of organic forms which he cannot consume. [Footnote: The
terrible destructiveness of man is remarkably exemplified in the chase
of large mammalia and birds for single products, attended with the
entire waste of enormous quantities of flesh, and of other parts of the
animal which are capable of valuable uses. The wild cattle of South
America are slaughtered by millions for their hides and hairs; the
buffalo of North America for his skin or his tongue; the elephant, the
walrus, and the narwhal for their tusks; the cetacen, and some other
marine animals, for their whalebone and oil; the ostrich and other large
birds, for their plumage. Within a few years, sheep have been killed in
New England, by whole flocks, for their pelts and suet alone, the flesh
being thrown away; and it is even said that the bodies of the same
quadrupeds have been used in Australia as fuel for limekilns. What a
vast amount of human nutriment, of bone, and of other animal products
valuable in the arts, is thus recklessly squandered! In nearly all these
cases, the part which constitutes the motive for this wholesale
destruction, and is alone saved, is essentially of insignificant value
as compared with what is thrown away. The horns and hide of an ox are
not economically worth a tenth part as much as the entire carcass.
During the present year, large quantities of Indian corn have been used
as domestic fuel, and even for burning lime, in Iowa and other Western
States. Corn at from fifteen to eighteen cents per bushel is found
cheaper than wood at from five to seven dollars per cord, or coal at six
or seven dollars per ton.-Rep. Agric. Dept., Nov. and Dec., 1872, p.
487.

One of the greatest benefits to be expected from the improvement
civilization is, that increased facilities of communication will render
it possible to transport to places of consumption much valuable material
that is now wasted because the price at the nearest market will not pay
freight. The cattle slaughtered in South America for their hides would
feed millions of the starving population of the Old World, if their
flesh could be economically preserved and transported across the ocean.
This, indeed, is already done, but on a scale which, though absolutely
considerable, is relatively insignificant. South America sends to Europe
a certain quantity of nutriment in the form of meat extracts, Liebig's
and others; and preserved flesh from Australia is beginning to figure in
the English market. We are beginning to learn a better economy in
dealing with the inorganic world. The utilization--or, as the Germans
more happily call it, the Verwerthung, the BEWORTHING--of waste from
metallurgical, chemical, and manufacturing establishments, is among the
most important results of the application of science to industrial
purposes. The incidental products from the laboratories of manufacturing
chemists often become more valuable than those for the preparation of
which they were erected. The slags front silver refineries, and even
from smelting houses of the coarser metals, have not unfrequently
yielded to a second operator a better return than the first had derived
from dealing with the natural ore; and the saving of lead carried off in
the smoke of furnaces has, of itself, given a large profit on the
capital invested in the works. According to Ure's Dictionary of Arts,
see vol. ii., p. 832, an English miner has constructed flues five miles
in length for the condensation of the smoke from his lead-works, and
makes thereby an annual saving of metal to the value of ten thousand
pounds sterling. A few years ago, an officer of an American mint was
charged with embezzling gold committed to him for coinage. He insisted,
in his defence, that much of the metal was volatilized and lost in
refining and melting, and upon scraping the chimneys of the melting
furnaces and the roofs of the adjacent houses, gold enough was found in
the soot to account for no small part of the deficiency.

The substitution of expensive machinery for manual labor, even in
agriculture--not to speak of older and more familiar applications--besides
being highly remunerative, has better secured the harvests, and it is
computed that the 230,000 threshing machines used in the United States
in 1870 obtained five per cent. more grain from the sheaves which passed
through them than could have been secured by the use of the flail.

The cotton growing States in America produce annually nearly three
million tons of cotton seed. This, until very recently, has been thrown
away as a useless incumbrance, but it is now valued at ten or twelve
dollars per ton for the cotton fibre which adheres to it, for the oil
extracted from it, and for the feed which the refuse furnishes to
cattle. The oil--which may be described as neutral--is used very largely
for mixing with other oils, many of which bear a large proportion of it
without injury to their special properties.

There are still, however, cases of enormous waste in many mineral and
mechanical industries. Thus, while in many European countries common
salt is a government monopoly, and consequently so dear that the poor do
not use as much or it as health requires, in others, as in Transylvania,
where it is quarried like stone, the large blocks only are saved, the
fragments, to the amount of millions of hundred weights, being thrown
away.--Bonar, Transylvania, p. 455, 6.

One of the most interesting and important branches of economy at the
present day is the recovery of agents such as ammonia and ethers which
had been utilized in chemical manufactures, and re-employing them
indefinitely afterwards in repeating the same process.

Among the supplemental exhibitions which will be formed in connection
with the Vienna Universal Exhibition is to be one showing what steps
have been taken since 1851 (the date of the first London Exhibition) in
the utilization of substances previously regarded as waste. On the one
hand will be shown the waste products in all the industrial processes
included in the forthcoming Exhibition; on the other hand, the useful
products which have been obtained from such wastes since 1851. This is
intended to serve as an incentive to further researches in the same
important direction.]

The earth was not, in its natural condition, completely adapted to the
use of man, but only to the sustenance of wild animals and wild
vegetation. These live, multiply their kind in just proportion, and
attain their perfect measure of strength and beauty, without producing
or requiring any important change in the natural arrangements of
surface, or in each other's spontaneous tendencies, except such mutual
repression of excessive increase as may prevent the extirpation of one
species by the encroachments of another. In short, without man, lower
animal and spontaneous vegetable life would have been practically
constant in type, distribution, and proportion, and the physical
geography of the earth would have remained undisturbed for indefinite
periods, and been subject to revolution only from slow development, from
possible, unknown cosmical causes, or from geological action.

But man, the domestic animals that serve him, the field and garden
plants the products of which supply him with food and clothing, cannot
subsist and rise to the full development of their higher properties,
unless brute and unconscious nature be effectually combated, and, in a
great degree, vanquished by human art. Hence, a certain measure of
transformation of terrestrial surface, of suppression of natural, and
stimulation of artificially modified productivity becomes necessary.
This measure man has unfortunately exceeded. He has felled the forests
whose network of fibrous roots bound the mould to the rocky skeleton of
the earth; but had he allowed here and there a belt of woodland to
reproduce itself by spontaneous propagation, most of the mischiefs which
his reckless destruction of the natural protection of the soil has
occasioned would have been averted. He has broken up the mountain
reservoirs, the percolation of whose waters through unseen channels
supplied the fountains that refreshed his cattle and fertilized his
fields; but he has neglected to maintain the cisterns and the canals of
irrigation which a wise antiquity had constructed to neutralize the
consequences of its own imprudence. While he has torn the thin glebe
which confined the light earth of extensive plains, and has destroyed
the fringe of semi-aquatic plants which skirted the coast and checked
the drifting of the sea sand, he has failed to prevent the spreading of
the dunes by clothing them with artificially propagated vegetation. He
has ruthlessly warred on all the tribes of animated nature whose spoil
he could convert to his own uses, and he has not protected the birds
which prey on the insects most destructive to his own harvests.

Purely untutored humanity, it is true, interferes comparatively little
with the arrangements of nature, [Footnote: It is an interesting and not
hitherto sufficiently noticed fact, that the domestication of the
organic world, so far as it has yet been achieved, belongs, not indeed
to the savage state, but to the earliest dawn of civilization, the
conquest of inorganic nature almost as exclusively to the most advanced
stages of artificial culture. Civilization has added little to the
number of vegetable or animal species grown in our fields or bred in our
folds--the cranberry and the wild grape being almost the only plants
which the Anglo-American has reclaimed out of our most native flora and
added to his harvests--while, on the contrary, the subjugation of the
inorganic forces, and the consequent extension of man's sway over, not
the annual products of the earth only, but her substance and her springs
of action, is almost entirely the work of highly refined and cultivated
ages. The employment of the elasticity of wood and of horn, as a
projectile power in the bow, is nearly universal among the rudest
savages. The application of compressed air to the same purpose, in the
blowpipe, is more restricted, and the use of the mechanical powers, the
inclined plane, the wheel and axle, and even the wedge and lever, seems
almost unknown except to civilized man. I have myself seen European
peasants to whom one of the simplest applications of this latter power
was a revelation.

It is familiarly known to all who have occupied themselves with the
psychology and habits of the ruder races, and of persons with
imperfectly developed intellects in civilized life, that although these
humble tribes and individuals sacrifice, without scruple, the lives of
the lower animals to the gratification of their appetites and the supply
of their other physical wants, yet they nevertheless seem to cherish
with brutes, and even with vegetable life, sympathies which are much
more feebly felt by civilized men. The popular traditions of the simpler
peoples recognize a certain community of nature between man, brute
animals, and even plants; and this serves to explain why the apologue or
fable, which ascribes the power of speech and the faculty of reason to
birds, quadrupeds, insects, flowers, and trees, is one of the earliest
forms of literary composition.

In almost every wild tribe, some particular quadruped or bird, though
persecuted as a destroyer of other animals more useful to man, or hunted
for food, is regarded with peculiar respect, one might almost say,
affection. Some of the North American aboriginal nations celebrate a
propitiatory feast to the manes of the intended victim before they
commence a bear hunt; and the Norwegian peasantry have not only retained
an old proverb which ascribes to the same animal "ti Maends Styrke og
tolo Maends Vid," ten men's strength and twelve men's cunning, but they
still pay to him something of the reverence with which ancient
superstition invested him. The student of Icelandic literature will find
in the saga of Finnbogi hinn rami a curious illustration of this
feeling, in an account of a dialogue between a Norwegian bear and an
Icelandic champion--dumb show on the part of Bruin, and chivalric words
on that of Finnbogi--followed by a duel, in which the latter, who had
thrown away his arms and armor in order that the combatants might meet
on equal terms, was victorious. See also Friis, Lappisk Mythologi,
Christiania, 1871, section 37, and the earlier authors there cited.
Drummond Hay's very interesting work on Morocco contains many amusing
notices of a similar feeling entertained by the Moors towards the
redoubtable enemy of their flocks--the lion.

This sympathy helps us to understand how it is that most if not all the
domestic animals--if indeed they ever existed in a wild state--were
appropriated, reclaimed and trained before men had been gathered into
organized and fixed communities, that almost every known esculent plant
had acquired substantially its present artificial character, and that
the properties of nearly all vegetable drugs and poisons were known at
the remotest period to which historical records reach. Did nature bestow
upon primitive man some instinct akin to that by which she has been
supposed to teach the brute to select the nutritious and to reject the
noxious vegetables indiscriminately mixed in forest and pasture?

This instinct, it must be admitted, is far from infallible, and, as has
been hundreds of times remarked by naturalists, it is in many cases not
an original faculty but an acquired and transmitted habit. It is a fact
familiar to persons engaged in sheep husbandry in New England--and I
have seen it confirmed by personal observation--that sheep bred where
the common laurel, as it is called, Kalmia angustifolia, abounds, almost
always avoid browsing upon the leaves of that plant, while those brought
from districts where laurel is unknown, and turned into pastures where
it grows, very often feed upon it and are poisoned by it. A curious
acquired and hereditary instinct, of a different character, may not
improperly be noticed here. I refer to that by which horses bred in
provinces where quicksands are common avoid their dangers or extricate
themsleves from them. See Bremontier, Memoire sur les Dunes, Annales des
Ponts et Chaussees, 1833; premier semestre, pp. 155-157.

It is commonly said in New England, and I believe with reason, that the
crows of this generation are wiser than their ancestors. Scarecrows
which were effectual fifty yeara ago are no longer respected by the
plunderers of the cornfield, and new terrors must from time to time be
invented for its protection.

Schroeder van der Kolk, in Het Verschil tusschen den Psychischen, Aanleg
van het Dier en van den Mensch, cites many interesting facts respecting
instincts lost, or newly developed and become hereditary, in the lower
animals, and he quotes Aristotle and Pliny as evidence that the common
quadrupeds and fowls of our fields and our poultry yards were much less
perfectly domesticated in their times than long, long ages of servitude
have now made them.

Among other inntances of obliterated instincts, this author states that
in Holland, where, for centuries, the young of the cow has been usually
taken from the dam at birth and fed by hand, calves, even if left with
the mother, make no attempt to suck; while in England, where calves are
not weaned until several weeks old, they resort to the udder as
naturally as the young of wild quadrupeds.-Ziel en Ligchaam, p. 128. n.

Perhaps the half-wild character ascribed by P. Laestadius and other
Swedish writers to the reindeer of Lapland, may be in some degree due to
the comparative shortness of the period during which he has been
partially tamed. The domestic swine bred in the woods of Hungary and the
buffalo of Southern Italy are so wild and savage as to be very dangerous
to all but their keepers. The former have relapsed into their original
condition, the latter, perhaps, have never been fully reclaimed from
it.] and the destructive agency of man becomes more and more energetic
and unsparing as he advances in civilization, until the impoverishment
with which his exhaustion of the natural resources of the soil is
threatening him, at last awakens him to the necessity of preserving what
is left, if not of restoring what has been wantonly wasted. The
wandering savage grows no cultivated vegetable, fells no forest, and
extirpates no useful plant, no noxious weed. If his skill in the chase
enables him to entrap numbers of the animals on which he feeds, he
compensates this loss by destroying also the lion, the tiger, the wolf,
the otter, the seal, and the eagle, thus indirectly protecting the
feebler quadrupeds and fish and fowls, which would otherwise become the
booty of beasts and birds of prey. But with stationary life, or at
latest with the pastoral state, man at once commences an almost
indiscriminate warfare upon all the forms of animal and vegetable
existence around him, and as he advances in civilization, he gradually
eradicates or transforms every spontaneous product of the soil he
occupies. [Footnote: The difference between the relations of savage
life, and of incipient civilization, to nature, is well seen in that
part of the valley of the Mississippi which was once occupied by the
mound builders and afterwards by the far less developed Indian tribes.
When the tillers of the fields, which must have been cultivated to
sustain the large population that once inhabited those regions,
perished, or were driven out, the soil fell back to the normal forest
state, and the savages who succeeded the more advanced race interfered
very little, if at all, with the ordinary course of spontaneous nature.]


Human and Brute Action Compared.

It is maintained by authorities as high as any known to modern science,
that the action of man upon nature, though greater in DEGREE, does not
differ in KIND from that of wild animals. It is perhaps impossible to
establish a radical distinction in genere between the two classes of
effects, but there is an essential difference between the motive of
action which calls out the energies of civilized man and the mere
appetite which controls the life of the beast. The action of man,
indeed, is frequently followed by unforeseen and undesired results, yet
it is nevertheless guided by a self-conscious will aiming as often at
secondary and remote as at immediate objects. The wild animal, on the
other hand, acts instinctively, and, so far as we are able to perceive,
always with a view to single and direct purposes. The backwoodsman and
the beaver alike fell trees; the man that he may convert the forest into
an olive grove that will mature its fruit only for a succeeding
generation, the beaver that he may feed upon the bark of the trees or
use them in the construction of his habitation. The action of brutes
upon the material world is slow and gradual, and usually limited, in any
given case, to a narrow extent of territory. Nature is allowed time and
opportunity to set her restorative powers at work, and the destructive
animal has hardly retired from the field of his ravages before nature
has repaired the damages occasioned by his operations. In fact, he is
expelled from the scene by the very efforts which she makes for the
restoration of her dominion. Man, on the contrary, extends his action
over vast spaces, his revolutions are swift and radical, and his
devastations are, for an almost incalculable time after he has withdrawn
the arm that gave the blow, irreparable. The form of geographical
surface, and very probably the climate of a given country, depend much
on the character of the vegetable life belonging to it. Man has, by
domestication, greatly changed the habits and properties of the plants
he rears; he has, by voluntary selection, immensely modified the forms
and qualities of the animated creatures that serve him; and he has, at
the same time, completely rooted out many forms of animal if not of
vegetable being. [Footnote: Whatever may be thought of the modification
of organic species by natural selection, there is certainly no evidence
that animals have exerted upon any form of life an influence analogous
to that of domestication upon plants, quadrupeds, and birds reared
artificially by man; and this is as true of unforeseen as of purposely
effected improvements accomplished by voluntary selection of breeding
animals.

It is true that nature employs birds and quadrupeds for the
dissemination of vegetable and even of animal species. But when the bird
drops the seed of a fruit it has swallowed, and when the sheep
transports in its fleece the seed-vessel of a burdock from the plain to
the mountain, its action is purely mechanical and unconscious, and does
not differ from that of the wind in producing the same effect.] What is
there, in the influence of brute life, that corresponds to this We have
no reason to believe that, in that portion of the American continent
which, though peopled by many tribes of quadruped and fowl, remained
uninhabited by man or only thinly occupied by purely, savage tribes, any
sensible geographical change had occurred within twenty centuries before
the epoch of discovery and colonization, while, during the same period,
man had changed millions of square miles, in the fairest and most
fertile regions of the Old World, into the barrenest deserts. The
ravages committed by man subvert the relations and destroy the balance
which nature had established between her organized and her inorganic
creations, and she avenges herself upon the intruder, by letting loose
upon her defaced provinces destructive energies hitherto kept in check
by organic forces destined to be his best auxiliaries, but which he has
unwisely dispersed and driven from the field of action. When the forest
is gone, the great reservoir of moisture stored up in its vegetable
mould is evaporated, and returns only in deluges of rain to wash away
the parched dust into which that mould has been converted. The
well-wooded and humid hills are turned to ridges of dry rock, which
encumbers the low grounds and chokes the watercourses with its debris,
and--except in countries favored with an equable distribution of rain
through the seasons, and a moderate and regular inclination of
surface--the whole earth, unless rescued by human art from the physical
degradation to which it tends, becomes an assemblage of bald mountains,
of barren, turfless hills, and of swampy and malarious plains. There are
parts of Asia Minor, of Northern Africa, of Greece, and even of Alpine
Europe, where the operation of causes set in action by man has brought
the face of the earth to a desolation almost as complete as that of the
moon; and though, within that brief space of time which we call "the
historical period," they are known to have been covered with luxuriant
woods, verdant pastures, and fertile meadows, they are now too far
deteriorated to be reclaimable by man, nor can they become again fitted
for human use, except through great geological changes, or other
mysterious influences or agencies of which we have no present knowledge,
and over which we have no prospective control. The earth is fast
becoming an unfit home for its noblest inhabitant, and another era of
equal human crime and human improvidence, and of like duration with that
through which traces of that crime and that improvidence extend, would
reduce it to such a condition of impoverished productiveness, of
shattered surface, of climatic excess, as to threaten the depravation,
barbarism, and perhaps even extinction of the species. [Footnote:
---"And it may be remarked that, as the world has passed through these
several stages of strife to produce a Christendom, so by relaxing in the
enterprises it has learnt, does it tend downwards, through inverted
steps, to wildness and the waste again. Let a people give up their
contest with moral evil; disregard the injustice, the ignorance, the
greediness, that may prevail among them, and part more and more with the
Christian element of their civilization; and in declining this battle
with sin, they will inevitably get embroiled with men. Threats of war
and revolution punish their unfaithfulness; and if then, instead of
retracing their steps, they yield again, and are driven before the
storm, the very arts they had created, the structures they had raised,
the usages they had established, are swept away; 'in that very day their
thoughts perish.' The portion they had reclaimed from the young earth's
ruggedness is lost; and failing to stand fast against man, they finally
get embroiled with nature, and are thrust down beneath her ever-living
hand .-Martineau's Sermon, "The Good Soldier of Jesus Christ."]


Physical Improvement.

True, there is a partial reverse to this picture. On narrow theatres,
new forests have been planted; inundations of flowing streams restrained
by heavy walls of masonry and other constructions; torrents compelled to
aid, by depositing the slime with which they are charged, in filling up
lowlands, and raising the level of morasses which their own overflows
had created; ground submerged by the encroachments of the ocean, or
exposed to be covered by its tides, has been rescued from its dominion
by diking; swamps and even lakes have been drained, and their beds
brought within the domain of agricultural industry; drifting coast dunes
have been checked and made productive by plantation; seas and inland
waters have been repeopled with fish, and even the sands of the Sahara
have been fertilized by artesian fountains. These achievements are more
glorious than the proudest triumphs of war, but, thus far, they give but
faint hope that we shall yet make full atonement for our spendthrift
waste of the bounties of nature. [Footnote: The wonderful success which
has attended the measures for subduing torrents and preventing
inundations employed in Southern France since 1863 and described in
Chapter III., post, ought to be here noticed as a splendid and most
encouraging example of well-directed effort in the way of physical
restoration.]


Limits Of Human Power.

It is on the one hand, rash and unphilosophical to attempt to set limits
to the ultimate power of man over inorganic nature, and it is
unprofitable, on the other, to speculate on what may be accomplished by
the discovery of now unknown and unimagined natural forces, or even by
the invention of new arts and new processes. But since we have seen
aerostation, the motive power of elastic vapors, the wonders of modern
telegraphy, the destructive explosiveness of gunpowder, of
nitro-glycerine, and even of a substance so harmless, unresisting, and
inert as cotton, there is little in the way of mechanical achievement
which seems hopelessly impossible, and it is hard to restrain the
imagination from wandering forward a couple of generations to an epoch
when our descendants shall have advanced as far beyond us in physical
conquest, as we have marched beyond the trophies erected by our
grandfathers. There are, nevertheless, in actual practice, limits to the
efficiency of the forces which we are now able to bring into the field,
and we must admit that, for the present, the agencies known to man and
controlled by him are inadequate to the reducing of great Alpine
precipices to such slopes as would enable them to support a vegetable
clothing, or to the covering of large extents of denuded rock with
earth, and planting upon them a forest growth. Yet among the mysteries
which science is hereafter to reveal, there may be still undiscovered
methods of accomplishing even grander wonders than these. Mechanical
philosophers have suggested the possibility of accumulating and
treasuring up for human use some of the greater natural forces, which
the action of the elements puts forth with such astonishing energy.
Could we gather, and bind, and make subservient to our control, the
power which a West Indian hurricane exerts through a small area in one
continuous blast, or the momentum expended by the waves in a tempestuous
winter, upon the breakwater at Cherbourg, [Footnote: In heavy storms,
the force of the waves as they strike against a sea-wall is from one and
a half to two tons to the square foot, and Stevenson, in one instance at
Skerryvore and in another at the Bell Rock lighthouse, found this force
equal to nearly three tons per foot. The seaward front of the breakwater
at Cherbourg exposes a surface about 2,500,000 square feet. In rough
weather the waves beat against this whole face, though at the depth of
twenty-two yards, which is the height of the breakwater, they exert a
very much less violent motive force than at and near the surface of the
sea, because this force diminishes in geometrical, and the distance
below the surface increases in arithmetical, proportion. The shock of
the waves is received several thousand times in the course of twenty
four hours, and hence the sum of impulse which the breakwater resists in
one stormy day amounts to many thousands of millions of tons. The
breakwater is entirely an artificial construction. If then man could
accumulate and control the forces which he is able effectually to
resist, he might be said to be physically speaking, omnipotent.] or the
lifting power of the tide, for a month, at the head of the Bay of Fundy,
or the pressure of a square mile of sea water at the depth of five
thousand fathoms, or a moment of the might of an earthquake or a
volcano, our age--which moves no mountains and casts them into the sea
by faith alone--might hope to scarp the ragged walls of the Alps and
Pyrenees and Mount Taurus, robe them once more in a vegetation as rich
as that of their pristine woods, and turn their wasting torrents into
refreshing streams. [Footnote: Some well-known experiments show that it
is quite possible to accumulate the solar heat by a simple apparatus,
and thus to obtain a temperature which might be economically important
even in the climate of Switzerland. Saussure, by receiving the sun's
rays in a nest of boxes blackened within and covered with glass, raised
a thermometer enclosed in the inner box to the boiling point; and under
the more powerful sun of the Cape of Good Hope, Sir John Hershel cooked
the materials for a family dinner by a similar process, using however,
but at single box, surrounded with dry sand and covered with two
glasses. Why should not so easy a method of economizing fuel be resorted
to in Italy, in Spain, and even in more northerly climate The
unfortunate John Davidson records in his journal that he saved fuel in
Morocco by exposing his teakettle to the sun on the roof of his house,
where the water rose to the temperature of one hundred and forty
degrees, and, of course, needed little fire to bring it to boil. But
this was the direct and simple, not the concentrated or accumulated heat
of the sun.

On the utilizing of the solar heat, simply as heat, see the work of
Mouchot, La Chaleur solaire et ses applications industrielles. Paris,
1860.

The reciprocal convertibility of the natural forces has suggested the
possibility of advantageously converting the heat of the sun into
mechanical power. Ericsson calculates that in all latitudes between the
equator and 45 degrees, a hundred square feet of surface exposed to the
solar rays develop continuously, for nine hours a day on an average,
eight and one fifth horse-power.

I do not know that any attempts have been made to accumulate and store
up, for use at pleasure, force derived from this powerful source.] Could
this old world, which man has overthrown, be rebuilded, could human
cunning rescue its wasted hillsides and its deserted plains from
solitude or mere nomade occupation, from barrenness, from nakedness, and
from insalubrity, and restore the ancient fertility and healthfulness of
the Etruscan sea coast, the Campagna and the Pontine marshes, of
Calabria, of Sicily, of the Peloponnesus and insular and continental
Greece, of Asia Minor, of the slopes of Lebanon and Hermon, of
Palestine, of the Syrian desert, of Mesopotamia and the delta of the
Euphrates, of the Cyrenaica, of Africa proper, Numidia, and Mauritania,
the thronging millions of Europe might still find room on the Eastern
continent, and the main current of emigration be turned towards the
rising instead of the setting sun.

But changes like these must await not only great political and moral
revolutions in the governments and peoples by whom these regions are now
possessed, but, especially, a command of pecuniary and of mechanical
means not at present enjoyed by these nations, and a more advanced and
generally diffused knowledge of the processes by which the amelioration
of soil and climate is possible than now anywhere exists. Until such
circumstances shall conspire to favor the work of geographical
regeneration, the countries I have mentioned, with here and there a
local exception, will continue to sink into yet deeper desolation, and
in the meantime the American continent, Southern Africa, Australia, New
Zealand, and the smaller oceanic islands, will be almost the only
theatres where man is engaged, on a great scale, in transforming the
face of nature.


IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL CONSERVATION, AND RESTORATION.

Comparatively short as is the period through which the colonization of
foreign lands by European emigrants extends, great and, it is to be
feared, sometimes irreparable injury has already been done in the
various processes by which man seeks to subjugate the virgin earth; and
many provinces, first trodden by the homo sapiens Europae within the
last two centuries, begin to show signs of that melancholy dilapidation
which is now driving so many of the peasantry of Europe from their
native hearths. It is evidently a matter of great moment, not only to
the population of the states where these symptoms are manifesting
themselves, but to the general interests of humanity, that this decay
should be arrested, and that the future operations of rural husbandry
and of forest industry, in districts yet remaining substantially in
their native condition, should be so conducted as to prevent the
widespread mischiefs which have been elsewhere produced by thoughtless
or wanton destruction of the natural safeguards of the soil. This can be
done only by the diffusion of knowledge on this subject among the
classes that, in earlier days, subdued and tilled ground in which they
had no vested rights, but who, in our time, own their woods, their
pastures, and their ploughlands as a perpetual possession for them and
theirs, and have, therefore, a strong interest in the protection of
their domain against deterioration.


PHYSICAL RESTORATION.

Many circumstances conspire to invest with great present interest the
questions: how far man can permanently modify and ameliorate those
physical conditions of terrestrial surface and climate on which his
material welfare depends; how far he can compensate, arrest, or retard
the deterioration which many of his agricultural and industrial
processes tend to produce; and how far he can restore fertility and
salubrity to soil which his follies or his crimes have made barren or
pestilential. Among these circumstances, the most prominent, perhaps, is
the necessity of providing new homes for a European population which is
increasing more rapidly than its means of subsistence, new physical
comforts for classes of the people that have now become too much
enlightened and have imbibed too much culture to submit to a longer
deprivation of a share in the material enjoyments which the privileged
ranks have hitherto monopolized.

To supply new hives for the emigrant swarms, there are, first, the vast
unoccupied prairies and forests of America, of Australia, and of many
other great oceanic islands, the sparsely inhabited and still
unexhausted soils of Southern and even Central Africa, and, finally, the
impoverished and half-depopulated shores of the Mediterranean, and the
interior of Asia Minor and the farther East. To furnish to those who
shall remain after emigration shall have conveniently reduced the too
dense population of many European states, those means of sensuous and of
intellectual well-being which are styled "artificial wants" when
demanded by the humble and the poor, but are admitted to be
"necessaries" when claimed by the noble and the rich, the soil must be
stimulated to its highest powers of production, and man's utmost
ingenuity and energy must be tasked to renovate a nature drained, by his
improvidence, of fountains which a wise economy would have made
plenteous and perennial sources of beauty, health, and wealth.

In those yet virgin lands which the progress of modern discovery in both
hemispheres has brought and is still bringing to the knowledge and
control of civilized man, not much improvement of great physical
conditions is to be looked for. The proportion of forest is indeed to be
considerably reduced, superfluous waters to be drawn off, and routes of
internal communication to be constructed; but the primitive geographical
and climatic features of these countries ought to be, as far as
possible, retained.

In reclaiming and reoccupying lands laid waste by human improvidence or
malice, and abandoned by man, or occupied only by a nomade or thinly
scattered population, the task of the pioneer settler is of a very
different character. He is to become a co-worker with nature in the
reconstruction of the damaged fabric which the negligence or the
wantonness of former lodgers has rendered untenantable. He must aid her
in reclothing the mountain slopes with forests and vegetable mould,
thereby restoring the fountains which she provided to water them; in
checking the devastating fury of torrents, and bringing back the surface
drainage to its primitive narrow channels; and in drying deadly morasses
by opening the natural sluices which have been choked up, and cutting
new canals for drawing off their stagnant waters. He must thus, on the
one hand, create new reservoirs, and, on the other, remove mischievous
accumulations of moisture, thereby equalizing and regulating the sources
of atmospheric humidity and of flowing water, both which are so
essential to all vegetable growth, and, of course, to human and lower
animal life.

I have remarked that the effects of human action on the forms of the
earth's surface could not always be distinguished from those resulting
from geological causes, and there is also much uncertainty in respect to
the precise influence of the clearing and cultivating of the ground, and
of other rural operations, upon climate. It is disputed whether either
the mean or the extremes of temperature, the periods of the seasons, or
the amount or distribution of precipitation and of evaporation, in any
country whose annals are known, have undergone any change during the
historical period. It is, indeed, as has been already observed,
impossible to doubt that many of the operations of the pioneer settler
TEND to produce great modifications in atmospheric humidity,
temperature, and electricity; but we are at present unable to determine
how far one set of effects is neutralized by another, or compensated by
unknown agencies. This question scientific research is inadequate to
solve, for want of the necessary data; but well conducted observation,
in regions now first brought under the occupation of man, combined with
such historical evidence as still exists, may be expected at no distant
period to throw much light on this subject.

Australia and New Zealand are, perhaps, the countries from which we have
a right to expect the fullest elucidation of these difficult and
disputable problems. Their colonization did not commence until the
physical sciences had become matter of utmost universal attention, and
is, indeed, so recent that the memory of living men embraces the
principal epochs of their history; the peculiarities of their fauna,
their flora, and their geology are such as to have excited for them the
liveliest interest of the votaries of natural science; their mines have
given their people the necessary wealth for procuring the means of
instrumental observation, and the leisure required for the pursuit of
scientific research; and large tracts of virgin forest and natural
meadows are rapidly passing under the control of civilized man. Here,
then, exist greater facilities and stronger motives for the careful
study of the topics in question than have ever been found combined in
any other theatre of European colonization.

In North America, the change from the natural to the artificial
condition of terrestrial surface began about the period when the most
important instruments of meteorological observation were invented. The
first settlers in the territory now constituting the United States and
the British American provinces had other things to do than to tabulate
barometrical and thermometrical readings, but there remain some
interesting physical records from the early days of the colonies,
[Footnote: The Travels of Dr. Dwight, president of Yale College, which
embody the results of his personal observations, and of his inquiries
among the early settlers, in his vacation excursions in the Northern
States of the American Union, though presenting few instrumental
measurements or tabulated results, are of value for the powers of
observation they exhibit, and for the sound common sense with which many
natural phenomena, such for instance as the formation of the river
meadows, called "intervales," in New England, are explained. They
present a true and interesting picture of physical conditions, many of
which have long ceased to exist in the theatre of his researches, and of
which few other records are extant.] and there is still an immense
extent of North American soil where the industry and the folly of man
have as yet produced little appreciable change. Here, too, with the
present increased facilities for scientific observation, the future
effects, direct a contingent, of man's labors, can be measured, and such
precautions taken in those rural processes which we call improvements,
as to mitigate evils, perhaps, in some degree, inseparable from every
attempt to control the action of natural laws.

In order to arrive at safe conclusions, we must first obtain a more
exact knowledge of the topography, and of the present superficial and
climatic condition of countries where the natural surface is as yet more
or less unbroken. This can only be accomplished by accurate surveys, and
by a great mutiplication of the points of meteorological registry,
[Footnote: The general law of tempeture is that it decreases as we
ascend. But in hilly areas the law is reversed in cold, still weather,
the cold air descending, by reason of its greater gravity, into the
valleys. If there be wind enough however, to produce a disturbance and
intermixture of higher and lower atmospheric strata, this exception to
the general law does not take place. These facts have long been familiar
to the common people of Switzerland and of New England, but their
importance has not been sufficiently taken into account in the
discussion of meterological observations. The descent of the cold air
and the rise of the warm effect the relative temperatures of hills and
valleys to a much greater extent that has been usually supposed. A
gentleman well known to me kept a thermometrical record for nearly a
half century in a New England county town, at an elevation of at least
1,5000 feet above the sea. During these years his thermometer never fell
lower that 26 degrees Farrenheit, while at the shire town of the county,
situated in a basin thousand feet lower, and only tem miles distant, as
well as at other points in similar positions, the mercury froze several
times in the same period] already so numerous; and as, moreover,
considerable changes in the proportion of forest and of cultivated land,
or of dry and wholly or partially submerged surface, will often take
place within brief periods, it is highly desirable that the attention of
observers, in whose neighborhood the clearing of the soil, of the
drainage of lakes and swamps, or other great works of rural improvement,
are going on or meditated, should be especially drawn not only to
revolutions in atmospheric tempeture and precipitation, but to the more
easily ascertained and perhaps more important local changes produced by
these operations in the temperature and the hygrometric state of the
superficial strata of the earth, and in its spontaneous vegetable and
animal products.

The rapid extension of railroads, which now everywhere keep pace with,
and sometimes even precede, the occupation of new soil for agricultural
purposes, furnishes great facilities for enlarging our knowledge of the
topography of the territory they traverse, because their cuttings reveal
the composition and general structure of surface, and the inclination
and elevation of their lines constitute known hypsometrical sections,
which give numerous points of departure for the measurement of higher
and lower stations, and of course for determining the relief and
depression of surface, the slope of the beds of watercourses, and many
other not less important questions. [Footnote: Railroad surveys must be
received with great caution where any motive exists for COOKING them.
Capitalists are shy of investments in roads with steep grades, and of
course it is important to make a fair show of facilities in obtaining
funds for new routes. Joint-stock companies have no souls; their
managers, in general, no consciences. Cases can be cited where engineers
and directors of railroads, with long grades above one hundred foot to
the mile, have regularly sworn in their annual reports, for years in
succession, that there were no grades upon their routes exceeding half
that elevation. In fact, every person conversant with the history of
these enterprises knows that in their public statements falsehood is the
rule, truth the exception.

What I am about to remark is not exactly relevant to my subject; but it
is hard to "get the floor" in the world's great debating society, and
when a speaker who has anything to say once finds access to the public
ear, he must make the must of his opportunity, without inquiring too
nicely whether his observations are "in order." I shall harm no honest
man by endeavoring, as I have often done elsewhere, to excite the
attention of thinking and conscientious men to the dangers which
threaten the great moral and even political interests of Christendom,
from the unscrupulousness of the private associations that now control
the monetary affairs, and regulate the transit of persons and property,
in almost every civilized country. More than one American State is
literally governed by unprincipled corporations, which not only defy the
legislative power, but have, too often, corrupted even the
administration of justice. The tremendous power of these associations is
due not merely to pecuniary corruption, but partly to an old legal
superstition--fostered by the decision of the Supreme Court of the
United States in the famous Dartmouth College case--in regard to the
sacredness of corporate prerogatives. There is no good reason why
private rights derived from God and the very constitution of society
should be less respected than privileges granted by legislatures. It
should never be forgotten that no privilege can be a right, and
legislative bodies ought never to make a grant to a corporation, without
express reservation of what many sound jurists now hold to be involved
in the very nature of such grants, the power of revocation. Similar
evils have become almost equally rife in England, and on the Continent;
and I believe the decay of commercial morality, and of the sense of all
higher obligations than those of a pecuniary nature, on both sides of
the Atlantic, is to be ascribed more to the influence of joint-stock
banks and manufacturing and railway companies, to the workings, in
short, of what is called the principle of "associate action," than to
any other one cause of demoralization.

The apophthegm, "the world is governed too much," though unhappily too
truly spoken of many countries--and perhaps, in some aspects, true of
all--has done much mischief whenever it has been too unconditionally
accepted as a political axiom. The popular apprehension of being
over-governed, and, I am afraid, more emphatically the fear of being
over-taxed, has had much to do with the general abandonment of certain
governmental duties by the ruling powers of most modern states. It is
theoretically the duty of government to provide all those public
facilities of intercommunication and commerce, which are essential to
the prosperity of civilized commonwealths, but which individual means
are inadequate to furnish, and for the due administration of which
individual guarantees are insufficient. Hence public roads, canals,
railroads, postal communications, the circulating medium of exchange
whether metallic or representative, armies, navies, being all matters in
which the nation at large has a vastly deeper interest than any private
association can have, ought legitimately to be constructed and provided
only by that which is the visible personification and embodiment of the
nation, namely, its legislative head. No doubt the organization and
management of those insitutions by government are liable, as are all
things human, to great abuses. The multiplication of public
placeholders, which they imply, is a serious evil. But the corruption
thus engendered, foul as it is, does not strike so deep as the
rottenness of private corporations; and official rank, position, and
duty have, in practice, proved better securities for fidelity and
pecuniary integrity in the conduct of the interests in question, than
the suretyships of private corporate agents, whose bondsmen so often
fail or abscond before their principal is detected. Many theoretical
statesmen have thought that voluntary associations for strictly
pecuniary and industrial purposes, and for the construction and control
of public works, might furnish, in democratic countries, a compensation
for the small and doubtful advantages, and at the same time secure an
exemption from the great and certain evils, of aristocratic
institutions. The example of the American States shows that private
corporations--whose rule of action is the interest of the association,
not the conscience of the individual--though composed of
ultra-democratic elements, may become most dangerous enemies to rational
liberty, to the moral interests of the commonwealth, to the purity of
legislation and of judicial action, and to the sacredness of private
rights.]

The geological, hydrographical, and topographical surveys, which almost
every general and even local government of the civilized world is
carrying on, are making yet more important contributions to our stock of
geographical and general physical knowledge, and, within a comparatively
short space, there will be an accumulation of well established constant
and historical facts, from which we can safely reason upon all the
relations of action and reaction between man and external nature.

But we are, even now, breaking up the floor and wainscoting and doors
and window frames of our dwelling, for fuel to warm our bodies and to
seethe our pottage, and the world cannot afford to wait till the slow
and sure progress of exact science has taught it a better economy. Many
practical lessons have been learned by the common observation of
unschooled men; and the teachings of simple experience, on topics where
natural philosophy has scarcely yet spoken, are not to be despised.

In these humble pages, which do not in the least aspire to rank among
scientific expositions of the laws of nature, I shall attempt to give
the most important practical conclusions suggested by the history of
man's efforts to replenish the earth and subdue it; and I shall aim to
support those conclusions by such facts and illustrations only as
address themselves to the understanding of every intelligent reader, and
as are to be found recorded in works capable of profitable perusal, or
at least consultation, by persons who have not enjoyed a special
scientific training.



CHAPTER II.

TRANSFER, MODIFICATION, AND EXTIRPATION OF VEGETABLE AND OF ANIMAL
SPECIES.

Modern geography takes account of organic life--Geographical importance
of plants--Origin of domestic vegetables-Transfer of vegetable
life--Objects of modern commerce-Foreign plants, how
introduced--Vegetable power of accommodation--Agricultural products of
the United States--Useful American plants grown in Europe--Extirpation
of vegetables--Animal life as a geological and geographical
agency--Origin and transfer of domestic quadrupeds--Extirpation of wild
quadrupeds--Large marine animals relatively unimportant in
geography--Introduction and breeding of fish--Destruction of
fish--Geographical importance of birds--Introduction of
birds--Destruction of birds--Utility and destruction of
reptiles--Utility of insects and worms--Injury to the forest by
insects--Introduction of insects--Destruction of insects--Minute
organisms.


MODERN GEOGRAPHY EMBRACES ORGANIC LIFE.

It was a narrow view of geography which confined that science to
delineation of terrestrial surface and outline, and to description of
the relative position and magnitude of land and water. In its improved
form it embraces not only the globe itself and the atmosphere which
bathes it, but the living things which vegetate or move upon it, the
varied influences they exert upon each other, the reciprocal action and
reaction between them and the earth they inhabit. Even if the end of
geographical studies were only to obtain a knowledge of the external
forms of the mineral and fluid masses which constitute the globe, it
would still be necessary to take into account the element of life; for
every plant, every animal, is a geographical agency, man a destructive,
vegetables, and in some cases even wild beasts, restorative powers. The
rushing waters sweep down earth from the uplands; in the first moment of
repose, vegetation seeks to reestablish itself on the bared surface,
and, by the slow deposit of its decaying products, to raise again the
soil which the torrent lhad lowered. So important an element of
reconstruction in this, that it has been seriously questioned whether,
upon the whole, vegetation does not contribute as much to elevate, as
the waters to depress, the level of the surface.

Whenever man has transported a plant from its native habitat to a new
soil, he has introduced a new geographical force to act upon it, and
this generally at the expense of some indigenous growth which the
foreign vegetable has supplanted. The new and the old plants are rarely
the equivalents of each other, and the substitution of an exotic for a
native tree, shrub, or grass, increases or diminishes the relative
importance of the vegetable element in thegeography of the country to
which it is removed. Further, man sows that he may reap. The products of
agricultural industry are not suffered to rot upon the ground, and thus
raise it by an annual stratum of new mould. They are gathered,
transported to greater or less distances, and after they have served
their uses in human economy, they enter, on the final decomposition of
their elements, into new combinations, and are only in smnall proportion
returned to the soil on which they grew. The roots of the grasses, and
of many other cultivated plants, however, usually remain and decay in
the earth, and contribute to raise its surface, though certainly not in
the same degree as the forest.

The smaller vegetables which have taken the place of trees
unquestionably perform many of the same functions. They radiate heat,
they absorb gases, and exhale uncombined gases and watery vapor, and
consequently act upon the chemical constitution and hygrometrical
condition of the air, their roots penetrate the earth to greater depths
than is commonly supposed, and form an inextricable labyrinth of
filaments which bind the soil together and prevent its erosion by water.
The broad-leaved annuals and perennials, too, shade the ground, and
prevent the evaporation of moisture from its surface by wind and sun.
[Footnote: It is impossible to say how far the abstraction of water from
the earth by broad-leaved field and garden plants--such as maize, the
gourd family, the cabbage, &c.--is compensated by the condensation of
dew, which sometimes pours from them in a stream, by the exhalation of
aqueous vapor from their leaves, which is directly absorbed by the
ground, and by the shelter they afford the soil from sun and wind, thus
preventing evaporation. American farmers often say that after the leaves
of Indian corn are large enough to "shade the ground," there is little
danger that the plants will suffer from drought; but it is probable that
the comparative security of the fields from this evil is in port due to
the fact that, at thin period of growth, the roots penetrate down to a
permanently humid stratum of soil, and draw from it the moisture they
require. Stirring the ground between the rows of maize with a light
harrow or cultivator, in very dry seasons, is often recommended as a
preventive of injury by drought. It would seem, indeed, that loosening
and turning over the surface earth might aggravate the evil by promoting
the evaporation of the little remaining moisture; but the practice is
founded partly on the belief that the hygroscopicity of the soil is
increased by it to such a degree that it gains more by absorption than
it loses by evaporation, and partly on the doctrine that to admit air to
the rootlets, or at least to the earth near them, is to supply directly
elements of vegetable growth.] At a certain stage of growth, grass land
is probably a more energetic evaporator and refrigerator than even the
forest, but this powerful action is exerted, in its full intensity, for
a comparatively short time only, while trees continue such functions,
with unabated vigor, for many months in succession. Upon the whole, it
seems quite certain, that no cultivated ground is as efficient in
tempering climatic extremes, or in conservation of geographical surface
and outline, as is the soil which nature herself has planted.


ORIGIN OF DOMESTIC PLANTS.

One of the most important questions connected with our subject is: how
far we are to regard our cereal grains, our esculent bulbs and roots,
and the multiplied tree fruits of our gardens, as artificially modified
and improved forms of wild, self-propagating vegetation. The narratives
of botanical travellers have often announced the discovery of the
original form and habitat of domesticated plants, and scientific
journals have described the experiments by which the identity of
particular wild and cultivated vegetables has been thought to be
established. It is confidently affirmed that maize and the potato--which
we must suppose to have been first cultivated at a much later period
than the breadstuffs and most other esculent vegetables of Europe and
the East--are found wild and self-propagating in Spanish America, though
in forms not recognizable by the common observer as identical with the
familiar corn and tuber of modern agriculture. It was lately asserted,
upon what seemed very strong evidence, that the Aegilops ovata, a plant
growing wild in Southern France, had been actually converted into common
wheat; but, upon a repetition of the experiments, later observers have
declared that the apparent change was only a case of temporary
hybridation or fecundation by the pollen of true wheat, and that the
grass alleged to be transformed into wheat could not be perpetuated as
such from its own seed.

The very great modifications which cultivated plants are constantly
undergoing under our eyes, and the numerous varieties and races which
spring up among them, certainly countenance the doctrine, that every
domesticated vegetable, however dependent upon human care for growth and
propagation in its present form, may have been really derived, by a long
Succession of changes, from some wild plant not now perhaps much
resembling it. [Footnote: What is the possible limit of such changes, we
do not know, but they may doubtless be carriad vastly beyond what
experience has yet shown to be practicable. Civilized man has
experimented little on wild plants, and especially on forest trees. He
has indeed improved the fruit, and developed new varieties, of the
chestnut, by cultivation, and it is observed that our American
forest-tree nuts and berries, such as the butternut and thewild
mulberry, become larger and better flavored in a single generation by
planting and training. (Bryant, Forest Trees, 1871, pp. 99, 115.) Why
should not the industry and ingenuity which have wrought such wonders in
our horticulture produce analogous results when applied to the
cultivation and amelioration of larger vegetables Might not, for
instance, the ivory nut, the fruit of the Phytelephas macrocarpa,
possibly be so increased in size as to serve nearly all the purposes of
animal ivory now becoming so scarce Might not the various milk-producing
trees become, by cultivation, a really important source of nutriment to
the inhabitants of warm climates In short, there is room to hope
incalculable advantage from the exercise of human skill in the
improvement of yet untamed forms of vegetable life.] But it is, in every
case, a question of evidence.

The only satisfactory proof that a given wild plant is identical with a
given garden or field vegetable, is the test of experiment, the actual
growing of the one from the seed of the other, or the conversion of the
one into the other by transplantation and change of conditions.
[Footnote: The poisonous wild parsnip of New England has been often
asserted to be convertible into the common garden parsnip by
cultivation, or rather to be the same vegetable growing under different
conditions, and it is said to be deprived of its deleterious qualities
simply by an increased luxuriance of growth in rich, tilled earth. Wild
medicinal plants, so important in the rustic materia medica of New
England--such as pennyroyal, for example--are generally much less
aromatic and powerful when cultivated in gardens than when self-sown on
meagre soils. On the other hand, the cinchona, lately introduced from
South America into British India and carefully cultivated there, is
found to be richer in quinine than the American tree.]

It is hardly contended that any of the cereals or other plants important
as human aliment, or as objects of agricultural industry, exist and
propagate themselves uncultivated in the same form and with the same
properties as when sown and reared by human art. [Footnote: Some recent
observations of Wetzatein are worthy of special notice. "The soil of the
Hauran," he remarks, "produces, in its primitive condition, much wild
rye, which is not known as a cultivated plant in Syria, and much wild
barley and oats. These cereals precisely resemble the corresponding
cultivated plants in leaf, ear, size, and height of straw, but their
grains are sensibly flatter and poorer in flour."--Reisebericht uber
Hauran und die Trachenen, p. 40.

Some of the cereals are, to a certain extent, self-propagating in the
soil and climate of California. "VOLUNTEER crops are grown from the seed
which falls out in harvesting. Barley has been known to volunteer five
crops in succession."--Prayer-Frowd, Six Months in California, p. 189.]
In fact, the cases are rare where the identity of a wild with a
domesticated plant is considered by the best authorities as conclusively
established, and we are warranted in affirming of but few of the latter,
as a historically known or experimentally proved fact, that they ever
did exist, or could exist, independently of man. [Footnote: This remark
is much less applicable to fruit trees than to garden vegetables and the
cerealia. The wild orange of Florida, though once considered indigenous,
is now generally thought by botanists to be descended from the European
orange introduced by the early colonists. On the wild apple trees of
Massachusetts see an interesting chapter in Thoreau, Excursions. The fig
and the olive are found growing wild in every country where those trees
are cultivated The wild fig differs from the domesticated in its habits,
its season of fructification, and its insect population, but is, I
believe, not specifically distinguishable from the garden fig, though I
do not know that it is reclaimable by cultivation. The wild olive, which
is so abundant in the Tuscan Maremma, produces good fruit without
further care, when thinned out and freed from the shade of other trees,
and is particularly suited for grafting. See Salvagnoli, Memorie sulle
Maremme, pp. 63-73. The olive is indigenous in Syria and in the Punjaub,
and forms vast forests in the Himalayas at from 1,400 to 2,100 feet
above the level of the sea.--Cleghorn, Memoir on the Timber procured
from the Indus, etc., pp. 8-15. Fraas, Klima und Pfanzenwelt in der
Zeit, pp. 35-38, gives, upon the authority of Link and other botanical
writers, a lift of the native habitats of most cereals and of many
fruits, or at least of localities where those plants are said to be now
found wild; but the data do not appear to rest, in general, upon very
trustworthy evidence. Theoretically, there can be little doubt that all
our cultivated plants are modified forms of spontaneous vegetation,
though the connection is not historically shown, nor are we able to say
that the originals of some domesticated vegetables may not be now
extinct and unrepresented in the existing wild flora. See, on this
subject, Humboldt, Ansichten der Natur, i., pp. 208, 209.

The Adams of modern botany and zoology have been put to hard shifts in
finding names for the multiplied organisms which the Creator has brought
before them, "to see what they would call them;" and naturalists and
philosophers have shown much moral courage in setting at naught the law
of philology in the coinage of uncouth words to express scientific
Ideas. It is much to be wished that some bold neologist would devise
English technical equivalents for the German verwildert, run-wild, and
veredelt, improved by cultivation.]


Transfer of Vegetable Life.

It belongs to vegetable and animal geography, which are almost sciences
of themselves, to point out in detail what man has done to change the
distribution of plants and of animated life and to revolutionize the
aspect of organic nature; but some of the more important facts bearing
on the first branch of this subject may pertinently be introduced here.
Most of the cereal grains, the pulse, the edible roots, the tree fruits,
and other important forms of esculent vegetation grown in Europe and the
United States are believed, and--if the testimony of Pliny and other
ancient naturalists is to be depended upon--many of them are
historically known, to have originated in the temperate climates of
Asia. The agriculture of even so old a country as Egypt has been almost
completely revolutionized by the introduction of foreign plants, within
the historical period. "With the exception of wheat," says Hehn, "the
Nile valley now yields only new products, cotton, rice, sugar, indigo,
sorghum, dates," being all unknown to its most ancient rural husbandry.
[Footnote: On these points see the learned work of Hehn, Kultur.
Pflanzen und Thiere in ihrem Uebergang aus Asien, 1870. On the migration
of plants generally, see Lyell, Principles of Geology, 10th ed., vol.
ii., c.] The wine grape has been thought to be truly indigenous only in
the regions bordering on the eastern end of the Black Sea, where it now,
particularly on the banks of the Rion, the ancient Phasis, propagates
itself spontaneously, and grows with unexampled luxuriance. [Footnote:
The vine-wood planks of the ancient great door of the cathedral at
Ravenna, which measured thirteen feet in length by a foot and a quarter
in width, are traditionally said to have boon brought from the Black
Sea, by way of Constantinople, about the eleventh or twelfth century.
Vines of such dimension are now very rarely found in any other part of
the East, and, though I have taken some pains on the subject, I never
found in Syria or in Turkey a vine stock exceeding six inches in
diameter, bark excluded. Schulz, however, saw at Beitschin, near
Ptolemais, a vine measuring eighteen inches in diameter. Strabo speaks
of vine-stocks in Margiana (Khorasan) of such dimension that two men,
with outstretched arms, could scarcely embrace them. See Strabo, ed.
Casaubon, pp. 78, 516, 826. Statues of vine wood are mentioned by
ancient writers. Very large vine-stems are not common in Italy, but the
vine-wood panels of the door of the chapter-hall of the church of St.
John at Saluzzo are not less than ten inches in width, and I observed
not long since, in a garden at Pie di Mulera, a vine stock with a
circumference of thirty inches.] But some species of the vine seem
native to Europe, and many varieties of grape have been too long known
as common to every part of the United States to admit of the supposition
that they were introduced by European colonists. [Footnote: The Northmen
who--as I think it has been indisputably established by Professor Rafn
of Copenhagen--visited the coast of Massachusetts about theyear 1000,
found grapes growing there in profusion, and the wild vine still
flourishes in great variety and abundance in the southeastern counties
of that State. The townships in the vicinity of the Dighton rock,
supposed by many--with whom, however, I am sorry I cannot agree--to bear
a Scandinavian inscription, abound in wild vines. According to
Laudonniere, Histoire Notable de la Florida, reprint, Paris, 1853, p 5,
the French navigators in 1562 found in that peninsula "wild vines which
climb the trees and produce good grapes."]


OBJECTS OF MODERN COMMERCE.

It is an interesting fact that the commerce--or at least the maritime
carrying trade--and the agricultural and mechanical industry of the
world are, in very large proportion, dependent on vegetable and animal
products little or not at all known to ancient Greek, Roman, and Jewish
civilization. In many instances, the chief supply of these articles
comes from countries to which they are probably indigenous, and where
they are still almost exclusively grown; but in most cases, the plants
or animals from which they are derived have been introduced by man into
regions now remarkable for their successful cultivation, and that, too,
in comparatively recent times, or, in other words, within two or three
centuries.

Something of detail on this subject cannot, I think, fail to prove
interesting. Pliny mentions about thirty or forty oils as known to the
ancients, of which only olive, sesame, rape seed and walnut oil--for
except in one or two doubtful passages I find in this author no notice
of linseed oil--appear to have been used in such quantities as to have
had any serious importance in the carrying trade. At the present time,
the new oils, linseed oil, the oil of the whale and other largeo marine
animals, petroleum--of which the total consumption of the world in 1871
is estimated at 6,000,000 barrels, the port of Philadelphia alone
exporting 56,000,000 gallons in that year--palm-oil recently introduced
into commerce, and now imported into England from the coast of Africa at
the rate of forty or fifty thousand tuns a year, these alone undoubtedly
give employment to more shipping than the whole commerce of Italy--with
the exception of wheat--at the most flourishing period of the Roman
empire. [Footnote: A very few years since, the United States had more
than six hundred large ships engaged in the whale fishery, and the
number of American whalers, in spite of the introduction of many now
sources of oils, still amounts to two hundred and fifty.

The city of Rome imported from Sicily, from Africa, and from the Levant,
enormous quantities of grain for gratuitous distribution among the lower
classes of the capital. The pecuniary value of the gems, the spices, the
unguents, the perfumes, the cosmetics and the tissues, which came
principally from the East, was great, but these articles were neither
heavy nor bulky and their transportation required but a small amount of
shipping. The marbles, the obelisks, the statuary and other objects of
art plundered in conquered provinces by Roman generals and governors,
the wild animals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotami,
camelopards and the larger beasts of prey imported for slaughter at the
public games, and the prisoners captured in foreign wars and brought to
Italy for sale as slaves or butchery as gladiators, furnished employment
for much more tonnage than all the legitimate commerce of the empire,
with the possible exception of wheat. Independently of the direct
testimony of Latin authors, the Greek statuary, the Egyptian obelisks,
and the vast quantities of foreign marbles, granite, parphyry, basalt,
and other stones used in sculpture and in architecture, which have been
found in the remains of ancient Rome, show that the Imperial capital
must have employed an immense amount of tonnage in the importation of
heavy articles for which there could have been no return freight, unless
in the way of military transportation. Some of the Egyptian obelisks at
Rome weigh upwards of four hundred tons, and many of the red granite
columns from the same country must have exceeded one hundred tons. Greek
and African marbles were largely used not only for columns,
contablatures, and solid walls, but for casing the exterior and
veneering the interior of public and private buildings. Scaurus
imported, for the scene alone of a temporary theatre designed to stand
scarcely for a month, three hundred and sixty columns, which were
disposed in three tiers, the lower range being forty-two feet in
height--See Pliny, Nat. Hist., Lib. xxxvi. Italy produced very little
for export, and her importations, when not consisting of booty, were
chiefly paid for in coin which was principally either the spoil of war
or the fruit of official extortion.]

England imports annually about 600,000 tons of sugar, 100,000 tons of
jute, and about the same quantity of esparto, six million tons of
cotton, of which the value of $30,000,000 is exported again in the form
of manufactured, goods--including, by a strange industrial revolution, a
large amount of cotton yarn and cotton tissues sent to India and
directly or indirectly paid for by raw cotton to be manufactured in
England--30,000 tons of tobacco, from 100,000 to 350,000 tons of guano,
hundreds of thousands of tons of tea, coffee, cacao, caoutchone,
gutta-percha and numerous other important articles of trade wholly
unknown, as objects of commerce, to the ancient European world; and this
immense importation is balanced by a corresponding amount of
exportation, not consisting, however, by any means, exclusively of
articles new to commerce. [Footnote: Many of these articles would
undoubtedly have been made known to the Greeks and Romans and have
figured in their commerce, but for the slowness and costliness of
ancient navigation, which, in the seas familiar to them, was suspended
for a full third of the year from the inability of their vessels to cope
with winter weather. The present speed and economy of transportation
have wrought and are still working strange commercial and industrial
revolutions. Algeria now supplies Northern Germany with fresh
cauliflowers, and in the early spring the market-gardeners of Naples
find it more profitable to send their first fruits to St. Petersburg
than to furnish them to Florence and Rome.]


FOREIGN PLANTS, HOW INTRODUCED.

Besides the vegetables I have mentioned, we know that many plants of
smaller economical value have been the subjects of international
exchange in very recent times. Busbequius, Austrian ambassador at
Constantinople about the middle of the sixteenth century--whose letters
contain one of the best accounts of Turkish life which have appeared
down to the present day--brought home from the Ottoman capital the lilac
and the tulip. The Belgian Clusius about the same time introduced from
the East the horse chestnut, which has since wandered to America. The
weeping willows of Europe and the United States are said to have sprung
from a slip received from Smyrna by the poet Pope; and planted by him in
an English garden; Drouyn de l'IIuys, in a discourse delivered before
the French Societe d'Acclimatation, in 1860, claims for Rabelais the
introduction of the melon, the artichoke and the Alexandria pink into
France; and the Portuguese declare that the progenitor of all the
European and American oranges was an Oriental tree transplanted to
Lisbon, and still living in the last generation. [Footnote: The name
portogallo, so generally applied to the orange in Italy, seems to favor
this claim. The orange, however, was known in Europe before the
discovery of the Cape of Good Hope, and therefore, before the
establishment of direct relations between Portugal and the East.--See
Amari, Storia del Musulmani in Sicilia, vol ii., p. 445.

The date-palms of eastern and southern Spain were certainly introduced
by the Moors. Leo Von Rozmital, who visited Barcelona in 1476, says that
the date-tree grew in great abundance in the environs of that city and
ripened its fruit well. It is now scarcely cultivated further north than
Valencia. It is singular that Ritter in his very full monograph on the
palm does not mention those of Spain.

On the introduction of conifera into England see an interesting article
in the Edinburgh Review of October, 1864.

Muller, Das Buch der Pfianzenrodt, p. 86, asserts that in 1802 the
ancestor of all the mulberries in France, planted in 1500, was still
standing in a garden in the village of Allan-Montelimart.] The present
favorite flowers of the parterres of Europe have been imported from
America, Japan and other remote Oriental countries, within a century and
a half, and, in fine, there are few vegetables of any agricultural
importance, few ornamental trees or decorative plants, which are not now
common to the three civilized continents.

The statistics of vegetable emigration exhibit numerical results quite
surprising to those not familiar with the subject. The lonely island of
St. Helena is described as producing, at the time of its discovery in
the year 1501, about sixty vegetable species, including some three or
four known to grow elsewhere also. [Footnote: It may be considered very
highly probable, if not certain, that the undiscriminating herbalists of
the sixteenth century must have overlooked many plants native to this
island. An English botanist, in an hour's visit to Aden, discovered
several species of plants on rocks always reported, even by scientific
travellers, as absolutely barren. But after all, it appears to be well
established that the original flora of St. Helena was extremely limited,
though now counting hundreds of species.] At the present time its flora
numbers seven hundred and fifty species--a natural result of the
position of the island as the half-way house on the great ocean highway
between Europe and the East. Humboldt and Bonpland found, among the
unquestionably indigenous plants of tropical America, monocotyledons
only, all the dicotyledons of those extensive regions having been
probably introduced after the colonization of the New World by Spain.

The seven hundred new species which have found their way to St. Helena
within three centuries and a half, were certainly not all, or ever in
the largest proportion, designedly planted there by human art, and if we
were well acquainted with vegetable emigration, we should probably be
able to show that man has intentionally transferred fewer plants than he
has accidentally introduced into countries foreign to them. After the
wheat, follow the tares that infest it. The woods that grow among the
cereal grains, the pests of the kitchen garden, are the same in America
as in Europe. [Footnote: Some years ago I made a collection of weeds in
the wheatfields of Upper Egypt, and another in the gardens on the
Bosphorus. Nearly all the plants were identical with those which grow
under the same conditions in New England. I do not remember to have seen
in America the scarlet wild poppy so common in European grainfields. I
have heard, however, that it has lately crossed the Atlantic, and I am
not sorry for it. With our abundant harvests of wheat, we can well
afford to pay now and then a loaf of bread for the cheerful radiance of
this brilliant flower.] The overturning of a wagon, or any of the
thousand accidents which befall the emigrant in his journey across the
Western plains, may scatter upon the ground the seeds he designed for
his garden, and the herbs which fill so important a place in the rustic
materia medica of the Eastern States, spring up along the prairie paths
but just opened by the caravan of the settler. [Footnote: Josselyn, who
wrote about fifty years after the foundation of the first British colony
in New England, says that the settlers at Plymouth had observed more
than twenty English plants springing up spontaneously near their
improvements.

Every country has many plants not now, if ever, made use of by man, and
therefore not designedly propagated by him, but which cluster around his
dwelling, and continue to grow luxuriantly on the ruins of his rural
habitation after he has abandoned it. The site of a cottage, the very
foundation stones of which have been carried off, may often be
recognized, years afterwards, by the rank weeds which cover it, though
no others of the same species are found for miles.

"Mediaeval Catholicism," says Vaupell, "brought us the red
horsehoof--whose reddish-brown flower buds shoot up from the ground when
the snow melts, and are followed by the large leaves--comfrey and
snake-root, which grow only where there were convents and other
dwellings in the Middle Ages."--Bogens Indvandring & de Daneke Skove,
pp. 1, 2. ]


Introduction of Foreign Plants.

"A negro slave of the great Cortez," says Humboldt, "was the first who
sowed wheat in New Spain. He found three grains of it among the rice
which had been brought from Spain as food for the soldiers."

About twenty years ago, a Japanese forage plant, the Lesperadeza striata,
whose seeds had been brought to the United States by some unknown
accident made its appearance in one of the Southern States. It spread
spontaneously in various directions, and in a few years was widely
diffused. It grows upon poor and exhausted soils, where the formation of
a turf or sward by the ordinary grasses would be impossible, and where
consequently no regular pastures or meadows can exist. It makes
excellent fodder for stock, and though its value is contested, it is
nevertheless generally thought a very important addition to the
agricultural resources of the South. [Footnote: Accidents sometimes
limit, as well as promote the propagation of foreign vegetables in
countries new to them. The Lombardy poplar is a deciduous tree, and is
very easily grown from cuttings. In most of the countries into which it
has been introduced the cuttings hare been taken from the male, and as,
consequently, males only have grown from them, the poplar does not
produce seed in those regions. This is a fortunate circumstance, for
otherwise this most worthless and least ornamental of trees would spread
with a rapidity that would make it an annoyance to the agriculturist.]

In most of the Southern countries of Europe, the sheep and horned cattle
winter on the plains, but in the summer are driven, sometimes many days'
journey, to mountain pastures. Their coats and fleeces transport seeds
in both directions. Hence we see Alpine plants in champaign districts,
the plants of the plains on the borders of the glaciers, though in
neither case do these vegetables ripen their seeds and propagate
themselves. This explains the occurrence of tufts of common red clover
with pallid and sickly flowers, on the flanks of the Alps at heights
exceeding seven thousand feet.

The hortus siccus of a botanist may accidentally sow seeds from the foot
of the Himalayas on the plains that skirt the Alps; and it is a fact of
very familiar observation, that exotics, transplanted to foreign
climates suited to their growth, often escape from the flower garden and
naturalize themselves among the spontaneous vegetation of the pastures.
When the cases containing the artistic treasures of Thorvaldsen wore
opened in the court of the museum where they are deposited, the straw
and grass employed in packing them were scattered upon the ground, and
the next season there sprang up from the seeds no less than twenty-five
species of plants belonging to the Roman campagna, some of which were
preserved and cultivated as a new tribute to the memory of the great
Scandinavian sculptor, and at least four are said to have spontaneously
naturalized themselves about Copenhagen. [Footnote: Vaupell, Bogens
Indvandring i de Danske Skove, p. 2.]

The Turkish armies, in their incursions into Europe, brought Eastern
vegetables in their train, and left the seeds of Oriental wall plants to
grow upon the ramparts of Buda and Vienna. [Footnote: I believe it is
certain that the Turks introduced tobacco into Hungary, and probable
that they in some measure compensated, the injury by introducing maize
also, which, as well as tobacco, has been claimed as Hungarian by
patriotic Magyars.]

In the campaign of 1814, the Russian troops brought, in the stuffing of
their saddles and by other accidental means, seeds from the banks of the
Dnieper to the valley of the Rhine, and even introduced the plants of
the steppes into the environs of Paris.

The forage imported for the French army in the war of 1870-1871 has
introduced numerous plants from Northern Africa and other countries into
France, and this vegetable emigration is so extensive and so varied in
character, that it will probably have an important botanical, and even
economical, effect on the flora of that country. [Footnote: In a
communication lately made to the French Academy, M. Vibraye gives
numerous interesting details on this subject, and says the appearance of
the many new plants observed in France in 1871, "results from forage
supplied from abroad, the seeds of which had fallen upon the ground. At
the present time, several Mediterranean plants, chiefly Algerian, having
braved the cold of an exceptionally severe winter, are being largely
propagated, forming extensive meadows, and changing soil that was
formerly arid and produced no vegetable of importance into veritable
oases." See Nature, Aug. 1, 1872, p. 263. We shall see on a following
page that canals are efficient agencies in the unintentional interchange
of organic life, vegetable as well as animal, between regions connected
by such channels.]

The Canada thistle, Erigeron Canadense, which is said to have
accompanied the early French voyagers to Canada from Normandy, is
reported to have been introduced into other parts of Europe two hundred
years ago by a seed which dropped out of the stuffed skin of an American
bird.


VEGETABLE POWER OF ACCOMMODATION.

The vegetables which, so far as we know their history, seem to have been
longest objects of human care, can, by painstaking industry, be made to
grow under a great variety of circumstances, and some of them prosper
nearly equally well when planted and tended on soils of almost any
geological character; but the seeds of most of them vegetate only in
artificially prepared ground, they have little self-sustaining power,
and they soon perish when the nursing hand of man is withdrawn from
them.

The vine genus is very catholic and cosmopolite in its habits, but
particular varieties are extremely fastidious and exclusive in their
requirements as to soil and climate. The stocks of many celebrated
vineyards lose their peculiar qualities by transplantation, and the most
famous wines are capable of production only in certain well-defined and
for the most part narrow districts. The Ionian vine which bears the
little stoneless grape known in commerce as the Zante currant, has
resisted almost all efforts to naturalize it elsewhere, and is scarcely
grown except in two or three of the Ionian islands and in a narrow
territory on the northern shores of the Morea.

The attempts to introduce European varieties of the vine into the United
States have not been successful except in California, [Footnote: In
1869, a vine of a European variety planted in Sta. Barbara county in
1833 measured a foot in diameter four foot above the ground. Its
ramifications covered ten thousand square feet of surface and it
annually produces twelve thousand pounds of grapes. The bunches are
sixteen or eighteen inches long, and weigh six or seven pounds.-Letter
from Commissioner of Land-Office, dated May 13, 1860.] and it may be
stated as a general rule that European forest and ornamental trees are
not suited to the climate of North America, and that, at the same time,
American garden vegetables are less luxuriant, productive and tasteful
in Europe than in the United States.

The saline atmosphere of the sea is specially injurious both to seeds
and to very many young plants, and it is only recently that the
transportation of some very important vegetables across the ocean lines
been made practicable, through the invention of Ward's air-tight glass
cases. By this means large numbers of the trees which produce the
Jesuit's bark were successfully transplanted from America to the British
possessions in the East, where this valuable plant may now be said to
have become fully naturalized. [Footnote: See Cleghorn, Forests and
Gardens of South India, Edinburgh, 1861, and The British Parliamentary
return on the Chinchona Plant, 1866. It has been found that the seeds of
several species of CINCHONA preserve their vitality long enough to be
transported to distant regions. The swiftness of steam navigation render
it possible to transport to foreign countries not only seeds but
delicate living plants which could not have borne a long voyage by
sailing vessels.]

Vegetables, naturalized abroad either by accident or design, sometimes
exhibit a greatly increased luxuriance of growth.

The European cardoon, an esculent thistle, has broken out from the
gardens of the Spanish colonies on the La Plata, acquired a gigantic
stature, and propagated itself, in impenetrable thickets, over hundreds
of leagues of the Pampas; and the Anacharis alsinastrum, a water plant
not much inclined to spread in its native American habitat, has found
its way into English rivers, and extended itself to such a degree as to
form a serious obstruction to the flow of the current, and even to
navigation.

Not only do many wild plants exhibit a remarkable facility of
accommodation, but their seeds usually possess great tenacity of life,
and their germinating power resists very severe trials. Hence, while the
seeds of many cultivated vegetables lose their vitality in two or three
years, and can be transported safely to distant countries only with
great precautions, the weeds that infest those vegetables, though not
cared for by man, continue to accompany him in his migrations, and find
a new home on every soil he colonizes. Nature fights in defence of her
free children, but wars upon them when they have deserted her banners
and tamely submitted to the domination of man. [Footnote: Tempests,
violent enough to destroy all cultivated plants, frequently spare those
of spontaneous growth. I have often seen in Northern Italy, vineyards,
maize fields, mulberry and fruit trees completely stripped of their
foliage by hail, while the forest trees scattered through the meadows,
and the shrubs and brambles which sprang up by the wayslde, passed
through the ordeal with scarcely the loss of a leaflet.]

Indeed, the faculty of spontaneous reproduction and perpetuation
necessarily supposes a greater power of accommodation, within a certain
range, than we find in most domesticated plants, for it would rarely
happen that the seed of a wild plant would fall into ground as nearly
similar, in composition and condition, to that where its parent grew, as
the soils of different fields artificially prepared for growing a
particular vegetable are to each other. Accordingly, though every wild
species affects a habitat of a particular character, it is found that,
if accidentally or designedly sown elsewhere, it will grow under
conditions extremely unlike those of its birthplace. Cooper says: "We
cannot say positively that any plant is uncultivable ANYWHERE until it
has been tried;" and this seems to be even more true of wild than of
domesticated vegetation.

The wild plant is much hardier than the domesticated vegetable, and the
same law prevails in animated brute and even human life. The beasts of
the chase are more capable of endurance and privation and more tenacious
of life, than the domesticated animals which most nearly resemble them.
The savage fights on, after he has received half a dozen mortal wounds,
the least of which would have instantly paralyzed the strength of his
civilized enemy, and, like the wild boar, he has been known to press
forward along the shaft of the spear which was trans-piercing his
vitals, and to deal a deathblow on the soldier who wielded it.

True, domesticated plants can be gradually acclimatized to bear a degree
of heat or of cold, which, in their wild state, they would not have
supported; the trained English racer out-strips the swiftest horse of
the pampas or prairies, perhaps even the less systematically educated
courser of the Arab; the strength of the European, as tested by the
dynamometer, is greater than that of the New Zealander. But all these
are instances of excessive development of particular capacities and
faculties at the expense of general vital power. Expose untamed and
domesticated forms of life, together, to an entire set of physical
conditions equally alien to the former habits of both, so that every
power of resistance and accommodation shall be called into action, and
the wild plant or animal will live, while the domesticated will perish.


AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF THE UNITED STATES.

According to the census of 1870, the United States had, on the first of
June in that year, in round numbers, 189,000,000 acres of improved land,
the quantity having been increased by 16,000,000 acres within the ten
years next preceding. [Footnote: Ninth Census of the United States,
1872, p. 841. By "improved" land, in the reports on the census of the
United States, is meant "cleared land" used for grazing, grass, or
tillage, or which is now fallow, connected with or belonging to a
farm."--Instructions to Marshals and Assistants, Census of 1870.] Not to
mention less important crops, this land produced, in the year ending on
the day last mentioned, in round numbers, 288,000,000 bushels of wheat,
17,000,000 bushels of rye, 282,000,000 bushels of oats, 6,000,000
bushels of peas and beans, 30,000,000 bushels of barley, orchard fruits
to the value of $47,000,000, 640,000 bushels of cloverseed, 580,000
bushels of other grass seed, 13,000 tons of hemp, 27,000,000 pounds of
flax, and 1,730,000 bushels of flaxseed. These vegetable growths were
familiar to ancient European agriculture, but they were all introduced
into North America after the close of the sixteenth century.

Of the fruits of agricultural industry unknown to the Greeks and Romans,
or too little employed by them to be of any commercial importance, the
United States produced, in the same year, 74,000,000 pounds of rice,
10,000,000 bushels of buckwheat, 3,000,000 bales of cotton, [Footnote:
Cotton, though cultivated in Asia from the remotest antiquity, and known
as a rare and costly product to the Latins and the Greeks, was not used
by them except as an article of luxury, nor did it enter into their
commerce to any considerable extent as a regular object of importation.
The early voyagers found it in common use in the West Indies and in the
provinces first colonized by the Spaniards; but it was introduced into
the territory of the United States by European settlers, and did not
become of any importance until after the Revolution. Cottonseed was sown
in Virginia as early as 1621, but was not cultivated with a view to
profit for more than a century afterwards. Sea-island cotton was first
grown on the coast of Georgia in 1786, the seed having been brought from
the Bahamas, when it had been introduced from Anguilla--BIGELOW, Les
Etats-Unis en 1868, p. 370]. 87,000 hogsheads of cane sugar, 6,600,000
gallons of cane molasses, 16,000,000 gallons of sorghum molasses, all
yielded by vegetables introduced into that country within two hundred
years, and--with the exception of buckwheat, the origin of which is
uncertain, and of cotton--all, directly or indirectly, from the East
Indies; besides, from indigenous plants unknown to ancient agriculture,
761,000,000 bushels of Indian corn, 263,000,000 pounds of tobacco,
143,000,000 bushels of potatoes, 22,000,000 bushels of sweet potatoes,
28,000,000 pounds of maple sugar, and 925,000 gallons of maple molasses.
[Footnote: There is a falling off since 1860 of 11,000,000 pounds in the
quantity of maple sugar and of more than a million gallons of maple
molasses. The high price of cane sugar during and since the late civil
war must have increased the product of maple sugar and molasses beyond
what it otherwise would have been, but the domestic warfare on the woods
has more than compensated this cause of increase.] To all this we are to
add 27,000,000 tons of hay,--produced partly by new, partly by long
known, partly by exotic and partly by native herbs and grasses, the
value of $21,000,000 in garden vegetables chiefly of European or Asiatic
origin, 3,000,000 gallons of wine, and many minor agricultural products.
[Footnote: Raenie, Bochmeria tenacissima, a species of Chinese nettle
producing a fibre which may be spun and woven, and which unites many of
the properties of silk and of linen, has been completely naturalized in
the United States, and results important to the industry of the country
are expected from it.]

The weight of this harvest of a year would be many times the tonnage of
all the shipping of the United States at the close of the year
1870--and, with the exception of the maple sugar, the maple molasses,
and the products of the Western prairie lands and of some small Indian
clearings, it was all grown upon lands wrested from the forest by the
European race within little more than two hundred years. The wants of
Europe have introduced into the colonies of tropical America the sugar
cane, [Footnote: The sugar cane was introduced by the Arabs into Sicily
and Spain as early as the ninth century, and though it is now scarcely
grown in those localities, I am not aware of any reason to doubt that
its cultivation might be revived with advantage. From Spain it was
carried to the West Indies, though different varieties have since been
introduced into those Islands from other sources.] the coffee plant, the
orange and the lemon, all of Oriental origin, have immensely stimulated
the cultivation of the former two in the countries of which they are
natives, and, of course, promoted agricultural operations which must
have affected the geography of those regions to an extent proportionate
to the scale on which they have been pursued.


USEFUL AMERICAN PLANTS GROWN IN EUROPE.

America has partially repaid her debt to the Eastern continent. Maize
and the potato are very valuable additions to the field agriculture of
Europe and the East, and the tomato is no mean gift to the kitchen
gardens of the Old World, though certainly not an adequate return for
the multitude of esculent roots and leguminous plants which the European
colonists carried with them. [Footnote: John Smith mentions, In his
Historie of Virginia, 1624, pease and beans as having been cultivated by
the natives before the arrival of the whites, and there is no doubt, I
believe, that several common cucurbitaceous plants are of American
origin; but most, if not all the varieties of pease, beans, and other
pod fruits now grown in American gardens, are from European and other
foreign seed.

Cartier, A.D. 1535-'6, mentions "vines, great melons, cucumbers, gourds
[courges], pease, beans of various colors, but not like ours," as common
among the Indians of the banks of the St. Lawrence--Bref Recit, etc.,
reprint. Paris, 1863, pp. 13, a; 14, b; 20, b; 31, a.] I wish I could
believe, with some, that America is not alone responsible for the
introduction of the filthy weed, tobacco, the use of which is the most
vulgar and pernicious habit engrafted by the semi-barbarism of modern
civilization upon the less multifarious sensualism of ancient life; but
the alleged occurrence of pipe-like objects in old Sclavonic, and, it
has been said, in Hungarian sepulchres, is hardly sufficient evidence to
convict those races of complicity in this grave offence against the
temperance and the refinement of modern society.


EXTIRPATION OF VEGETABLES.

Lamentable as are the evils produced by the too general felling of the
woods in the Old World, I believe it does not appear that any species of
native forest tree has yet been extirpated by man on the Eastern
continent. The roots, stumps, trunks, and foliage found in bogs are
recognized as belonging to still extant species. Except in some few
cases where there is historical evidence that foreign material was
employed, the timber of the oldest European buildings, and even of the
lacustrine habitations of Switzerland, is evidently the product of trees
still common in or near the countries where such architectural remains
are found; nor have the Egyptian catacombs themselves revealed to us the
former existence of any woods not now familiar to us as the growth of
still living trees. [Footnote: Some botanists think that a species of
water lily represented in many Egyptian tombs has become extinct, and
the papyrus, which must have once been abundant in Egypt, is now found
only in a very few localities near the mouth of the Nile. It grows very
well and ripens its seeds in the waters of the Anapus near Syracuse, and
I have seen it in garden ponds at Messina and in Malta. There is no
apparent reason for believing that it could not be easily cultivated in
Egypt, to any extent, if there were any special motive for encouraging
its growth.

Silphium, a famous medicinal plant of Lybia and of Persia, seems to have
disappeared entirely. At any rate there is no proof that it now exists
in either of those regions. The Silphium of Greek and Roman commerce
appears to have come wholly from Cyrene, that from the Asiatic deserts
being generally of less value, or, as Strabo says, perhaps of an
inferior variety. The province near Cyrene which produced it was very
limited, and according to Strabo (ed. Casaubon, p. 837), it was at one
time almost entirely extirpated by the nomade Africans who invaded the
province and rooted out the plant.

The vegetable which produced the Balm of Gilead has not been found in
modern times, although the localities in which it anciently grew have
been carefully explored.] It is, however, said that the yew tree, Taxus
baccata, formerly very common in England, Germany, and--as we are
authorized to infer from Theophrastus--in Greece, has almost wholly
disappeared from the latter country, and seems to be dying out in
Germany. The wood of the yew surpasses that of almost any other European
tree in closeness and fineness of grain, and it is well known for the
elasticity which of old made it so great a favorite with the English
archer. It is much in request among wood carvers and turners, and the
demand for it explains, in part, its increasing scarcity.

It is also asserted that no insect depends upon it for food or shelter,
or aids in its fructification, and birds very rarely feed upon its
berries: these are circumstances of no small importance, because the
tree hence wants means of propagation or diffusion common to so many
other plants. But it is alleged that the reproductive power of the yew
is exhausted, and that it can no longer be readily propagated by the
natural sowing of its seeds, or by artificial methods. If further
investigation and careful experiment should establish this fact, it will
go far to show that a climatic change, of a character unfavorable to the
growth of the yew, has really taken place in Germany, though not yet
proved by instrumental observation, and the most probable cause of such
change would be found in the diminution of the area covered by the
forests. The industry of man is said to have been so successful in the
local extirpation of noxious or useless vegetables in China, that, with
the exception of a few water plants in the rice grounds, it is sometimes
impossible to find a single weed in an extensive district; and the late
eminent agriculturist, Mr. Coke, is reported to have offered in vain a
considerable reward for the detection of a weed in a large wheatfield on
his estate in England. In these cases, however, there is no reason to
suppose that diligent husbandry has done more than to eradicate the
pests of agriculture within a comparatively limited area, and the cockle
and the darnel will probably remain to plague the slovenly cultivator as
long as the cereal grains continue to bless him. [Footnote: Although it
is not known that man has absolutely extirpated any vegetable, the
mysterious diseases which have, for the last twenty years, so
injuriously affected the potato, the vine, the orange, the olive, and
silk husbandry, are ascribed by some to a climatic deterioration
produced by excessive destruction of the woods. As will be seen in the
next chapter, a retardation in the period of spring has been observed in
numerous localities in Southern Europe, as well as in the United States,
and this change has been thought to favor the multiplication of the
obscure parasites which causee the injury to the vegetables mentioned.
Babinet supposes the parasites which attack the grape and the potato to
be animal, not vegetable, and he ascribes their multiplication to
excessive manuring and stimulation of the growth of the plants on which
they live. They are now generally, it not universally, regarded as
vegetable, and if they are so, Babinet's theory would be even more
plausible than on his own supposition.--Etudes et lectures, ii, p. 269.

It is a fact of some interest in agricultural economy, that the oidium,
which is so destructive to the grape, has produced no pecuniary loss to
the proprietors of the vineyards in France. "The price of wine," says
Lavergne, "has quintupled, and as the product of the vintage has not
diminished in the same proportion, the crisis has been, on the whole,
rather advantageous than detrimental to the country."--Economie rurale
de la France, pp. 263, 264.

France produces a large surplus of wines for exportation, and the sales
to foreign consumers are the principal source of profit to French
vinegrowers. In Northern Italy, on the contrary, which exports little
wine, there has been no such increase in the price of wine as to
compensate the great diminution in the yield of the vines, and the loss
of this harvest is severely felt. In Sicily, however, which exports much
wine, prices have risen as rapidly as in France. Waltershausen informs
us that in the years 1838-'42, the red wine of Mount Etna sold at the
rate of one kreuzer and a half, or one cent the bottle, and sometimes
even at but two thirds that price, but that at present it commands five
or six times as much.

The grape disease has operated severely on small cultivators whose
vineyards only furnished a supply for domestic use, but Sicily has
received a compensation in the immense increase which it has occasioned
in both the product and the profits of the sulphur mines. Flour of
sulphur is applied to the vine as a remedy against the disease, and the
operation is repeated from two to three or four--and sometimes even
eight or ten--times in a season. Hence there is a great demand for
sulphur in all the vine-growing countries of Europe, and

Waltershausen estimates the annual consumption of that mineral for this
single purpose at 850,000 centner, or more than forty thousand tons. The
price of sulphur has risen in about the same proportion as that of the
wine.--Waltershausen, Ueber den Sicilianischen Ackerbau, pp. 19, 20.]

All the operations of rural husbandry are destructive to spontaneous
vegetation by the voluntary substitution of domestic for wild plants,
and, as we have seen, the armies of the colonist are attended by troops
of irregular and unrecognized camp-followers, which soon establish and
propagate themselves over the new conquests. These unbidden and hungry
guests--the gipsies of the vegetable world--often have great aptitude
for accommodation and acclimation, and sometimes even crowd out the
native growth to make room for themselves. The botanist Latham informs
us that indigenous flowering plants, once abundant on the North-Western
prairies, have been so nearly extirpated by the inroads of half-wild
vegetables which have come in the train of the Eastern immigrant, that
there is reason to fear that, in a few years, his herbarium will
constitute the only evidence of their former existence. [Footnote:
Report of Commissioner of Agriculture of the United States for 1870.]

There are plants--themselves perhaps sometimes stragglers from their
proper habitat--which are found only in small numbers and in few
localities. These are eagerly sought by the botanist, and some such
species are believed to be on the very verge of extinction, from the
zeal of collectors.


ANIMAL LIFE AS A GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL AGENCY.

The quantitative value of animated life, as a geological agency, seems
to be inversely as the volume of the individual organism; for nature
supplies by numbers what is wanting in the bulk of the animal out of
whose remains or structures she forms strata covering whole provinces,
and builds up from the depths of the sea large islands, if not
continents. There are, it is true, near the mouths of the great Siberian
rivers which empty themselves into the Polar Sea, drift islands
composed, in an incredibly large proportion, of the bones and tusks of
elephants, mastodons, and other huge pachyderms, and many extensive
caves in various parts of the world are half filled with the skeletons
of quadrupeds, sometimes lying loose in the earth, sometimes cemented
together into an osseous breccia by a calcareous deposit or other
binding material. These remains of large animals, though found in
comparatively late formations, generally belong to extinct species, and
their modern congeners or representatives do not exist in sufficient
numbers to be of sensible importance in geology or in geography by the
mere mass of their skeletons. [Footnote: Could the bones and other
relics of the domestic quadrupeds destroyed by disease or slaughtered
for human use in civilized countries be collected into large deposits,
as obscure causes have gathered together those of extinct animals, they
would soon form aggregations which might almost be called mountains.
There were in the United States, in 1870, as we shall see hereafter,
nearly one hundred millions of horses, black cattle, sheep, and swine.
There are great numbers of all the same animals in the British American
Provinces and in Mexico, and there are large herds of wild horses on the
plains, and of tamed among the independent Indian tribes of North
America. It would perhaps not be extravagant to suppose that all these
cattle may amount to two thirds as many as those of the United States,
and thus we have in North America a total of 160,000,000 domestic
quadrupeds belonging to species introduced by European colonization,
besides dogs, cats, and other four-footed household pets and pests, also
of foreign origin.

If we allow half a solid foot to the skeleton and other slowly
destructible parts of each animal, the remains of these herds would form
a cubical mass measuring not much short of four hundred and fifty feet
to the side, or a pyramid equal in dimensions to that of Cheops, and as
the average life of these animals does not exceed six or seven years,
the accumulations of their bones, horns, hoofs, and other durable
remains would amount to at least fifteen times as great a volume in a
single century. It is true that the actual mass of solid matter, left by
the decay of dead domestic quadrupeds and permanently added to the crust
of the earth, is not so great as this calculation makes it. The greatest
proportion of the soft parts of domestic animals, and even of the bones,
is soon decomposed, through direct consumption by man and other
carnivora, industrial use, and employment as manure, and enters into new
combinations in which its animal origin is scarcely traceable; there is,
nevertheless, a large annual residuum, which, like decayed vegetable
matter, becomes a part of the superficial mould; and in any event, brute
life immensely changes the form and character of the superficial strata,
if it does not sensibly augment the quantity of the matter composing
them. The remains of man, too, add to the earthy coating that covers the
face of the globe. The human bodies deposited in the catacombs during
the long, long ages of Egyptian history, would perhaps build as large a
pile as one generation of the quadrupeds of the United States. In the
barbarous days of old Moslem warfare, the conquerors erected large
pyramids of human skulls. The soil of cemeteries in the great cities of
Europe has sometimes been raised several feet by the deposit of the dead
during a few generations. In the East, Turks and Christians alike bury
bodies but a cople of feet beneath the sculptures of the ignoble poor,
and of those whose monuments time or accident has removed, are opened
again and again to receive fresh occupants. Hence the ground in Oriental
cemeteries is pervaded with relics of humanity, of not wholly composed
of them; and an examination of the soil of the lower part of the Petit
Champ des Morts, at Pera, by the naked eye alone, shows the observer
that it consists almost exclusively of the comminuted bones of his
fellow-man.] But the vegetable products found with them, and, in rare
cases, in the stomachs of some of them, are those of yet extant plants;
and besides this evidence, the discovery of works of human art,
deposited in juxtaposition with fossil bones, and evidently at the same
time and by the same agency which buried these latter--not to speak of
human bones found in the same strata--proves that the animals whose
former existence they testify were contemporaneous with man, and
possibly even extirpated by him. [Footnote: The bones of mammoths and
mastodons, in many instances, appear to have been grazed or cut by flint
arrow-heads or other stone weapons, and the bones of animals now extinct
are often wrought into arms and utensils, or split to extract the
marrow. These accounts have often been discredited, because it has been
assumed that the extinction of these animals was more ancient than the
existence of man. Recent discoveries render it certain that this
conclusion has been too hastily adopted.

On page 143 of the Antiquity of Man, Lyell remarks that man "no doubt
played his part in hastening the era of the extincion" of the large
pachyderms and beasts of prey; but, as contemporaneous species of other
animals, which man cannot be supposed to have extirpated, have also
become extinct, he argues that the disappearance of the quadrupeds in
question cannot be ascribed to human action alone.

On this point it may be observed that, as we cannot know what precise
physical conditions were necessary to the existence of a given extinct
organism, we cannot say how far such conditions may have been modified
by the action of man, and he may therefore have influenced the life of
such organisms in ways, and to an extent, of which we can form no just
idea.] I do not propose to enter upon the thorny question, whether the
existing races of man are genealogically connected with these ancient
types of humanity, and I advert to these facts only for the sake of the
suggestion, that man, in his earliest known stages of existence, was
probably a destructive power upon the earth, though perhaps not so
emphatically as his present representatives. The larger wild animals are
not now numerous enough in any one region to form extensive deposits by
their remains; but they have, nevertheless, a certain geographical
importance. If the myriads of large browsing and grazing quadrupeds
which wander over the plains of Southern Africa--and the slaughter of
which by thousands is the source of a ferocious pleasure and a brutal
triumph to professedly civilized hunters--if the herds of the American
bison, which are numbered by hundreds of thousands, do not produce
visible changes in the forms of terrestrial surface, they have at least
an immense influence on the growth and distribution of vegetable life,
and, of course, indirectly upon all the physical conditions of soil and
climate between which and vegetation a mutual interdependence exists. In
the preceding chapter I referred to the agency of the beaver in the
formation of bogs as producing sensible geographical effects.

I am disposed to think that more bogs in the Northern States owe their
origin to beavers than to accidental obstructions of rivulets by
wind-fallen or naturally decayed trees; for there are few swamps in
those States, at the outlets of which we may not, by careful search,
find the remains of a beaver dam. The beaver sometimes inhabits natural
lakelets and even large rivers like the Upper Mississippi, when the
current is not too rapid, but he prefers to owe his pond to his own
ingenuity and toil. The reservoir once constructed, its inhabitants
rapidly multiply so long as the trees, and the harvests of pond lilies
and other aquatic plants on which this quadruped feeds in winter,
suffice for the supply of the growing population. But the extension of
the water causes the death of the neighboring trees, and the annual
growth of those which could be reached by canals and floated to the pond
soon becomes insufficient for the wants of the community, and the beaver
metropolis now sends out expeditions of discovery and colonization. The
pond gradually fills up, by the operation of the same causes as when it
owes its existence to an accidental obstruction, and when, at last, the
original settlement is converted into a bog by the usual processes of
vegetable life, the remaining inhabitants abandon it and build on some
virgin brooklet a new city of the waters. [Footnote: I find confirmation
of my own observations on this point (published in 1863) in the
North-West Passage by Land of Milton and Cheadle, London, 1865. These
travellers observed "a long chain of marshes formed by the damming up of
a stream which had now ceased to exist," Chap. X. In Chap. XII, they
state that "nearly every stream between the Pembina and the
Athabasca--except the large river McLeod--appeared to have been
destroyed by the agency of the beaver," and they question whether the
vast extent of swampy ground in that region "has not been brought to
this condition by the work of beavers who have thus destroyed, by their
own labor, the streams necessary to their own existence."

But even here nature provides a remedy, for when the process of
"consolidation" referred to in treating of bogs in the first chapter
shall have been completed, and the forest re-established upon the
marshes, the water now diffused through them will be collected in the
lower or more yielding portions, cut new channels for their flow, become
running brooks, and thus restore the ancient aspect of the surface.

The authors add the curious observation that the beavers of the present
day seem to be a degenerate race, as they neither fell huge trees not
construct great dams, while their progenitors cut down trees two feet in
diameter and dammed up rivers a hundred feet in width. The change in the
habits of the beaver is probably due to the diminution of their numbers
since the introduction of fire-arms, and to the tact that their
hydraulic operations are more frequently interrupted by the
encroachments of man. In the valley of the Yellowstone, which has but
lately been much visited by the white man, Hayden saw stumps of trees
thirty inches in diameter which had been cut down by beavers.
--Geological Survey of Wyoming, p. 135.

The American beaver closely resembles his European congener, and I
believe most naturalists now regard them as identical. A difference of
speceies has been inferred from a difference in their modes of life, the
European animal being solitary and not a builder, the American
gregarious and constructive. But late careful researches in Germany have
shown the former existence of numerous beaver dams in that country,
though the animal, having becaome rare to form colonies, has of course
ceased to attempt works which require the co-operation of numerous
individuals.--Schleiden, Fur Baum und Wald Leipzig, 1870, p. 68.

On the question of identity and on all others relating to this
interesting animal, see L.H. Morgan's important monograph, The American
Beaver and his Works, Philadelphia, 1868. Among the many new facts
observed by this investigator is the construction of canals by the
beaver to float trunks and branches of trees to his ponds. These canals
are sometimes 600 to 700 feet long, with a width of two or three feet
and a depth of one to one and a half.]


INFLUENCE OF ANIMAL LIFE ON VEGETATION

The influence of wild quadrupeds upon vegetable life have been little
studied, and not many facts bearing upon it have been recorded, but, so
far as it is known, it appears to be conservative rather than
pernicious. Few wild animals depend for their subsistence on vegetable
products obtainable only by the destruction of the plant, and they seem
to confine their consumption almost exclusively to the annual harvest of
leaf or twig, or at least of parts of the vegetable easily reproduced.
If there are exceptions to this rule, they are in cases where the
numbers of the animal are so proportioned to the abundance of the
vegetable that there is no danger of the extermination of the plant from
the voracity of the quadruped, or of the extinction of the quadruped
from the scarcity of the plant. [Footnote: European foresters speak of
the action of the squirrel as injurious to trees. Doubtless this is
sometimes true in the case of artificial forests, but in woods of
spontaneous growth, ordered and governed by nature, the squirrel does
not attack trees, or at least the injury he may do is too trifling to be
perceptible, but he is a formidable enemy to the plantation. "The
squirrels bite the cones of the pine and consume the seed which might
serve to restock the wood; they do still more mischief by gnawing off,
near the leading shoot, a strip of bark, and thus often completely
girdling the tree. Trees so injured must be felled, as they would never
acquire a vigorous growth. The squirrel is especially destructive to the
pine in Sologne, where he gnaws the bark of trees twenty or twenty-five
years old." But even here, nature sometimes provides a compensation, by
making the appetite of this quadruped serve to prevent an excessive
production of seed cones, which tends to obstruct the due growth of the
leading shoot. "In some of the pineries of Brittany which produce cones
so abundantly as to strangle the development of the leading shoot of the
maritime pine, it has been observed that the pines are most vigorous
where the squirrels are most numerous, a result attributed to the
repression of the cones by this rodent."--Boitel, Mise en valeur des
Terres pauvres, p. 50.

Very interesting observations, on the agency of the squirrel and other
small animals in planting and in destroying nuts and other seeds of
trees, may be found in a paper on the Succession of Forests in Thoreau's
Excursions, pp. 135 et seqq.

I once saw several quarts of beech-nuts taken from the winter quarters
of a family of flying squirrels in a hollow tree. The kernels were
neatly stripped of the shells and carefully stored in a dry cavity.] In
diet and natural wants the bison resembles the ox, the ibex and the
chamois assimilate themselves to the goat and the sheep; but while the
wild animal does not appear to be a destructive agency in the garden of
nature, his domestic congeners are eminently so. [Footnote: Evelyn
thought the depasturing of grass by cattle serviceable to its growth.
"The biting of cattle," he remarks, "gives a gentle loosening to the
roots of the herbage, and makes it to grow fine and sweet, and their
very breath and treading as well as soil, and the comfort of their warm
bodies, is wholesome and marvellously cherishing."--Terra, or
Philosophical Discourses of Earth, p. 86.

In a note upon this passage, Hunter observes: "Nice farmers consider the
lying of a beast upon the ground, for one night only, as a sufficient
tilth for the year. The breath of graminivorous quadrupeds does
certainly enrich the roots of grass; a circumstance worthy of the
attention of the philosophical farmer."--Terra, same page.

The "philosophical farmer" of the present day will not adopt these
opinions without some qualification, and they certainly are not
sustained by American observation.

The Report of the Department of Agriculture for March and April, 1872,
states that the native grasses are disappearing from the prairies of
Texas, especially on the bottom-lands, depasturing of cattle being
destructive to them.] This is partly from the change of habits resulting
from domestication and association with man, partly from the fact that
the number of reclaimed animals is not determined by the natural
relation of demand and spontaneous supply which regulates the
multiplication of wild creatures, but by the convenience of man, who is,
in comparatively few things, amenable to the control of the merely
physical arrangements of nature. When the domesticated animal escapes
from human jurisdiction, as in the case of the ox, the horse, the goat,
and perhaps the ass--which, so far as I know, are the only
well-authenticated instances of the complete emancipation of household
quadrupeds--he becomes again an unresisting subject of nature, and all
his economy is governed by the same laws as that of his fellows which
have never been enslaved by man; but, so long as he obeys a human lord,
he is an auxiliary in the warfare his master is ever waging against all
existences except those which he can tame to a willing servitude.


ORIGIN AND TRANSFER OF DOMESTIC QUADRUPEDS.

Civilization is so intimately associated with certain inferior forms of
animal life, if not dependent on them, that cultivated man has never
failed to accompany himself, in all his migrations, with some of these
humble attendants. The ox, the horse, the sheep, and even the
comparatively useless dog and cat, as well as several species of
poultry, are voluntarily transferred by every emigrant colony, and they
soon multiply to numbers far exceeding those of the wild genera most
nearly corresponding to them. [Footnote: The rat and the mouse, though
not voluntarily transported, are passengers by every ship that sails for
a foreign port, and several species of these quadrupeds have,
consequently, much extended their range and increased their numbers in
modern times. From a story of Heliogabalus related by Lampridius, Hist.
Aug. Scriptores, ed. Casaubon, 1690, p. 110, it would seem that mice at
least were not very common in ancient Rome. Among the capricious freaks
of that emperor, it is said that he undertook to investigate the
statistics of the arachnoid population of the capital, and that 10,000
pounds of spiders (or spiders' webs--for aranea is equivocal) were
readily collected; but when he got up a mouse-show, he thought ten
thousand mice a very fair number. Rats are not less numerous in all
great cities; and in Paris, where their skins are used for gloves, and
their flesh, it is whispered, in some very complex and equivocal dishes,
they are caught by legions. I have read of a manufacturer who contracted
to buy of the rat-catchers, at a high price, all the rat-skins they
could furnish before a certain date, and failed, within a week, for want
of capital, when the stock of peltry had run up to 600,000.

Civilization has not contented itself with the introduction of domestic
animals alone. The English sportsman imports foxes from the continent,
and Grimalkin-like turns them loose in order that he may have the
pleasure of chasing them afterwards.]

Of the origin of our domestic animals, we know historically nothing,
because their domestication belongs to the ages which preceded written
annals; but though they cannot all be specifically identified with now
extant wild animals, it is presumable that they have been reclaimed from
an originally wild state. Ancient writers have preserved to us fewer
data respecting the introduction of domestic animals into new countries
than respecting the transplantation of domestic vegetables. Ritter, in
his learned essay on the camel, has shown that this animal was not
employed by the Egyptians until a comparatively late period in their
history; [Footnote: The horse and the ass were equally unknown to
ancient Egypt, and do not appear in the sculptures before the XV. and
XVI. dynasties. But even then, the horse was only known as a draught
animal, and the only representation of a horseman yet found in the
Egyptian tombs is on the blade of a battle axe of uncertain origin and
period.] that he was unknown to the Carthaginians until after the
downfall of their commonwealth; and that his first appearance in Western
Africa is more recent still. The Bactrian camel was certainly brought
from Asia Minor to the Northern shores of the Black Sea, by the Goths,
in the third or fourth century, and the buffalo first appeared in Italy
about A.D. 600, though it is unknown whence or by whom he was
introduced. [Footnote: Erdkunde, viii., Asien, 1ste Abtheuung, pp.
660,758. Hehn, Kuttonpflanzen, p. 845.] The Arabian single-humped camel,
or dromedary, has been carried to the Canary Islands, partially
introduced into Australia, Greece, Spain, and even Tuscany, experimented
upon to little purpose in Venezuela, and finally imported by the
American Government into Texas and New Mexico, where it finds the
climate and the vegetable products best suited to its wants, and
promises to become a very useful agent in the promotion of the special
civilization for which those regions are adapted.

Quadrupeds, both domestic and wild, bear the privations and discomforts
of long voyages better than would be supposed. The elephant, the
giraffe, the rhinoceros, and even the hippopotamus, do not seem to
suffer much at sea. Some of the camels imported by the U.S. government
into Texas from the Crimea and Northern Africa were a whole year on
shipboard. On the other hand, George Sand, in Un Hiver au Midi, gives an
amusing description of the sea-sickness of swine in the short passage
from the Baleares to Barcelona. America had no domestic quadruped but a
species of dog, the lama tribe, and, to a certain extent, the bison or
buffalo. [Footnote: See Chapter III., post; also Humboldt, Ansichten der
Natur, i., p. 71. From the anatomical character of the bones of the
urus, or auerochs, found among the relics of the lacustrine population
of ancient Switzerland, and from other circumstances, it is inferred
that this animal had been domesticated by that people; and it is stated,
I know not upon what authority, in Le Alpi che cingono l'Italia, that it
had been tamed by the Veneti also. See Lyell, Antiquity of Man, pp. 24,
25, and the last-named work, p. 480. This is a fact of much interest,
because it is one of the very few HISTORICALLY known instances of the
extinction of a domestic quadruped, and the extreme improbability of
such an event gives some countenance to the theory of the identity of
the domestic ox with, and its descent from, the urus.]Of course, it owes
the horse, the ass, the ox, the sheep, the goat, and the swine, as does
also Australia, to European colonization. Modern Europe has, thus far,
not accomplished much in the way of importation of new animals, though
some interesting essays have been made. The reindeer was successfully
introduced into Iceland about a century ago, while similar attempts
failed, about the same time, in Scotland. The Cashmere or Thibet goat
was brought to France a generation since, and succeeds well. The same or
an allied species and the Asiatic buffalo were carried to South Carolina
about the year 1850, and the former, at least, is thought likely to
prove of permanent value in the United States. [Footnote: The goat
introduced into South Carolina was brought from the district of Angora,
in Asia Minor, which has long been celebrated for flocks of this
valuable animal. It is calculated that more than a million of these
goats are raised in that district, and it is commonly believed that the
Angora goat and its wool degenerate when transported. Probably this is
only an invention of the shepherds to prevent rivals from attempting to
interfere with so profitable a monopoly. But if the popular prejudice
has any foundation, the degeneracy is doubtless to be attributed to
ignorance of the special treatment which long experience has taught the
Angora shepherds, and the consequent neglect of such precautions as are
necessary to the proper care of the animal. Throughout nearly the whole
territory of the United States the success of the Angora goat is
perfect, and it would undoubtedly thrive equally well in Italy, though
it is very doubtful whether in either country the value of its fleece
would compensate the damage it would do to the woods.] The yak, or
Tartary ox, seems to thrive in France, and it is hoped that success will
attend the present efforts to introduce the South American alpaca into
Europe. [Footnote: The reproductive powers of animals, as well as of
plants, seem to be sometimes stimulated in an extraordinary way by
transfer to a foreign clime. The common warren rabbit introduced by the
early colonists into the island of Madeira multiplied to such a degree
as to threaten the extirpation of vegetation, and in Australia the same
quadruped has become so numerous as to be a very serious evil. The
colonists are obliged to employ professional rabbit-hunters, and one
planter has enclosed his grounds by four miles of solid wall, at an
expense of $6,000, to protect his crops against those ravagers.--Revue
des Eaux et Forets, 1870, p. 38.]

According to the census of the United States for 1870, [Footnote: In the
enumeration of farm stock, "sucking pigs, spring lambs, and calves," are
omitted. I believe they are included in the numbers reported by the
census of 1860. Horses and horned cattle in towns and cities were
excluded from both enumerations, the law providing for returns on these
points from rural districts only. On the whole, there is a diminution in
the number of all farm stock, except sheep, since 1860. This is ascribed
by the Report to the destruction of domestic quadrupeds during the civil
war, but this hardly explains the reduction in the number of swine from
39,000,000 in 1800 to 25,000,000 in 1870.] the total number of horses in
all the States of the American Union, was, in round numbers, 7,100,000;
of asses and mules, 1,100,000; of the ox tribe, 25,000,000; of sheep,
28,000,000; and of swine, 25,000,000. The only indigenous North American
quadruped sufficiently gregarious in habits, and sufficiently multiplied
in numbers, to form really large herds, is the bison, or, as he is
commonly called in America, the buffalo; and this animal is confined to
the prairie region of the Mississippi basin, a small part of British
America, and Northern Mexico. The engineers sent out to survey railroad
routes to the Pacific estimated the number of a single herd of bisons
seen within the last fifteen years on the great plains near the Upper
Missouri, at not less than 200,000, and yet the range occupied by this
animal is now very much smaller in area than it was when the whites
first established themselves on the prairies. [Footnote: "About five
miles from camp we ascended to the top of a high hill, and for a great
distance ahead every square mile seemed to have a herd of buffalo upon
it. Their number was variously estimated by the members of the party; by
some as high as half a million. I do not think it any exaggeration to
set it down at 200,000." Steven's Narrative and Final Report. Reports of
Explorations and Surveys for Railroad to Pacific, vol xii, book i.,
1860.

The next day the party fell in with a "buffalo trail," where at least
100,000 were thought to have crossed a slough.

As late as 1868, Sheridan's party estimated the number of bisons seen by
them in a single day at 200,000.--Sheridan's Troopers on the Border,
1868, p. 41.] But it must be remarked that the American buffalo is a
migratory animal, and that, at the season of his annual journeys, the
whole stock of a vast extent of pasture-ground is collected into a
single army, which is seen at or very near any one point only for a few
days during the entire season. Hence there is risk of great error in
estimating the numbers of the bison in a given district from the
magnitude of the herds seen at or about the same time at a single place
of observation; and, upon the whole, it is neither proved nor probable
that the bison was ever, at any one time, as numerous in North America
as the domestic bovine species is at present. The elk, the moose, the
musk ox, the caribou, and the smaller quadrupeds popularly embraced
under the general name of deer, though sufficient for the wants of a
sparse savage population, were never numerically very abundant, and the
carnivora which fed upon them were still less so. It is almost needless
to add that the Rocky Mountain sheep and goat must always have been very
rare.

Summing up the whole, then, it is evident that the wild quadrupeds of
North America, even when most numerous, were few compared with their
domestic successors, that they required a much less supply of vegetable
food, and consequently were far less important as geographical elements
than the many millions of hoofed and horned cattle now fed by civilized
man on the same continent.


EXTIRPATION OF WILD QUADRUPEDS.

Although man never fails greatly to diminish, and is perhaps destined
ultimately to exterminate, such of the larger wild quadrupeds as he
cannot profitably domesticate, yet their numbers often fluctuate, and
oven after they seem almost extinct, they sometimes suddenly increase,
without any intentional steps to promote such a result on his part.
During the wars which followed the French Revolution, the wolf
multiplied in many parts of Europe, partly because the hunters were
withdrawn from the woods to chase a nobler game, and partly because the
bodies of slain men and horses supplied this voracious quadraped with
more abundant food. [Footnote: During the late civil war in America,
deer and other animals of the chase multiplied rapidly in the regions of
the Southern States which were partly depopulated and deprived of their
sportsmen by the military operations of the contest, and the bear is
said to have reappeared in districts where he had not been seen in the
memory of living man.] The same animal became again more numerous in
Poland after the general disarming of the rural population by the
Russian Government. On the other hand, when the hunters pursue the wolf,
the graminivorous wild quadrupeds increase, and thus in turn promote the
multiplication of their great four-footed destroyer by augmenting the
supply of his nourishment. So long as the fur of the beaver was
extensively employed as a material for hats, it bore a very high price,
and the chase of this quadruped was so keen that naturalists feared its
speedy extinction. When a Parisian manufacturer invented the silk hat,
which soon came into almost universal use, the demand for beavers' fur
fell off, and the animal--whose habits are an important agency in the
formation of bogs and other modifications of forest nature--immediately
began to increase, reappeared in haunts which he had long abandoned, and
can no longer be regarded as rare enough to be in immediate danger of
extirpation. Thus the convenience or the caprice of Parisian fashion has
unconsciously exercised an influence which may sensibly affect the
physical geography of a distant continent.

Since the invention of gunpowder, gome quadrupeds have completely
disappeared from many European and Asiatic countries where they were
formerly numerous. The last wolf was killed in Great Britain two hundred
years ago, and the bear was extirpated from that island still earlier.
The lion is believed to have inhabited Asia Minor and Syria, and
probably Greece and Sicily also, long after the commencement of the
historical period, and he is even said to have been not yet extinct in
the first-named two of these countries at the time of the first Crusade.
[Footnote: In maintaining the recent existence of the lion in the
countries named in the text, naturalists have, perhaps, laid. too much
weight on the frequent occurrence of representations of this animal in
sculptures apparently of a historical character. It will not do to
argue, twenty centuries hence, that the lion and the unicorn were common
in Great Britain in Queen Victoria's time because they are often seen
"fighting for the crown" in the carvings and paintings of that period.
Many paleontolgists, however, identify the great cat-like animal, whose
skeletons are frequently found in British bone-caves, with the lion of
our times.

The leopard (panthera), though already growing scarce, was found in
Cilicia in Cicero's time. See his letter to Coelius, Epist. ad Diversos,
Lib. II., Ep. 11.

The British wild ox is extinct except in a few English and Scottish
parks, while in Irish bogs of no great apparent antiquity are found
antlers which testify to the former existence of a stag much larger than
any extant European species. Two large graminivorous or browsing
quadrupeds, the ur and the schelk, once common in Germany, have been
utterly extirpated, the eland and the auerochs nearly so. The
Nibelungen-Lied, which, in the oldest form preserved to us, dates from
about the year 1200, though its original composition no doubt belongs to
an earlier period, thus sings:

Then slowe the dowghtie Sigfrid a wisent and an elk, he smote four
stoute uroxen and a grim and sturdie schelk. [Footnote: Dar nach sluoger
schiere, einen wisent unde elch. Starker ure viere, unt einen grimmen
schelch. XVI. Aventiure.

The testimony of the Nibelungen-Lied is not conclusive evidence that
these quadrupeds existed in Germany at the time of the composition of
that poem. It proves too much; for, a few lines above those just quoted,
Sigfrid is said to have killed a lion, an animal which the most
patriotic Teuton will hardly claim as a denizen of mediaeval Germany.]

Modern naturalists identify the elk with the eland, the wisent with the
auerochs. The period when the ur and the schelk became extinct is not
known. The auerochs survived in Prussia until the middle of the last
century, but unless it is identical with a similar quadruped said to be
found on the Caucasus, it now exists only in the Russian imperial forest
of Bialowitz where about a thousand are still preserved, and in some
great menageries, as for example that at Schonbrunn, near Vienna, which,
in 1852, had four specimens. The eland, which is closely allied to the
American wapiti if not specifically the same animal, is still kept in
the royal preserves of Prussia, to the number of four or five hundred
individuals. The chamois is becoming rare, and the ibex or steinbock,
once common in all the high Alps, is now believed to be confined to the
Cogne mountains in Piedmont, between the valleys of the Dora Baltea and
the Orco, though it is said that a few still linger about the Grandes
Jorasses near Cormayeur.

The chase, which in early stages of human life was a necessity, has
become with advancing civilization not merely a passion but a
dilettanteism, and the cruel records of this pastime are among the most
discreditable pages in modern literature. It is true that in India and
other tropical countries, the number and ferocity of the wild beasts not
only justify but command a war of extermination against them, but the
indiscriminate slaughter of many quadrupeds which are favorite objects
of the chase can urge no such apology. Late official reports from India
state the number of human victims of the tiger, the leopard, the wolf
and other beasts of prey, in ten "districts," at more then twelve
thousand within three years, and we are informed on like authority that
within the last six years more than ten thousand men, women, and
children have perished in the same way in the Presidency of Bengal
alone. One tiger, we are told, had killed more than a hundred people,
and finally stopped the travel on an important road, and another had
caused the desertion of thirteen villages and thrown 250 square miles
out of cultivation. In such facts we find abundant justification of the
slaying of seven thousand tigers, nearly six thousand leopards, and
twenty-five hundred other ravenous beasts in the Bengal Presidency, in
the space of half a dozen years. But the humane reader will not think
the value of the flesh, the skin, and other less important products of
inoffensive quadrupeds a satisfactory excuse for the ravages committed
upon them by amateur sportsmen as well as by professional hunters. In
1861, it was computed that the supply of the English market with ivory
cost the lives of 8,000 elephants. Others make the number much larger
and it is said that half as much ivory is consumed in the United States
as in Great Britain. In Ceylon, where the elephants are numerous and
destructive to the crops, as well as dangerous to travellers, while
their tusks are small and of comparatively little value, the government
pays a small reward for killing them. According to Sir Emerson Tennant,
[Footnote: Natural History of Ceylon, chap. iv.] in three years prior to
1848, the premium was paid for 3,500 elephants in a part of the northern
district, and between 1851 and 1856 for 2,000 in the southern district.
Major Rogers, famous as an elephant shooter in Ceylon, ceased to count
his victims after he had slain 1,300, and Cumming in South Africa
sacrificed his hecatombs every month.

In spite of the rarity of the chamois, his cautious shyness, and the
comparative inaccessibility of his favorite haunts, Colani of
Pontresina, who died in 1837, had killed not less than 2,000 of these
animals; Kung, who is still living in the Upper Engadine, 1,500; Hitz,
1,300, and Zwichi an equal number; Soldani shot 1,100 or 1,200 in the
mountains which enclose the Val Bregaglia, and there are many living
hunters who can boast of having killed from 500 to 800 of these
interesting quadrupeds. [Footnote: Although it is only in the severest
cold of winter that the chamois descends to the vicinity of grounds
occupied by man, its organization does not confine it to the mountains.
In the royal park of Racconigi, on the plain a few miles from Turin, at
a height of less than 1,000 feet, is kept a herd of thirty or forty
chamois, which thrive and breed apparently as well as in the Alps.]

In America, the chase of the larger quadrupeds is not less destructive.
In a late number of the American Naturalist, the present annual
slaughter of the bison is calculated at the enormous number of 500,000,
and the elk, the moose, the caribou, and the more familiar species of
deer furnish, perhaps, as many victims. The most fortunate deer-hunter I
have personally known in New England had killed but 960; but in the
northern part of the State of New York, a single sportsman is said to
have shot 1,500, and this number has been doubtless exceeded by zealous
Nimrods of the West.

But so far as numbers are concerned, the statistics of the furtrade
furnish the most surprising results. Russia sends annually to foreign
markets not less than 20,000,000 squirrel skins, Great Britain has
sometimes imported from South America 600,000 nutria skins in a year.
The Leipzig market receives annually nearly 200,000 ermine, and the
Hudson Bay Company is said to have occasionally burnt 20,000 ermine
skins in order that the market might not be overstocked. Of course
natural reproduction cannot keep pace with this enormous destruction,
and many animals of much interest to natural science are in imminent
danger of final extirpation. [Footnote: Objectionable as game laws are,
they have done something to prevent the extinction of many quadrupeds,
which naturalists would be loth to lose, and, as in the case of the
British ox, private parks and preserves have saved other species from
destruction. Some few wild aminals, such as the American mink, for
example, have been protected and bred with profit, and in Pennsylvania
an association of gentlemen has set apart, and is about enclosing, a
park of 16,000 acres for the breeding of indigenous quadrupeds and
fowls.]


LARGE MARINE ANIMALS RELATIVELY UNIMPORTANT IN GEOGRAPHY.

Vast as is the bulk of some of the higher orders of aquatic animals,
their remains are generally so perishable that, even where most
abundant, they do not appear to be now forming permanent deposits of any
considerable magnitude; but it is quite otherwise with shell-fish, and,
as we shall see hereafter, with many of the minute limeworkers of the
sea. There are, on the southern coast of the United States, beds of
shells so extensive that they were formerly supposed to have been
naturally accumulated, and were appealed to as proofs of an elevation of
the coast by geological causes; but they are now ascertained to have
been derived chiefly from oysters and other shell-fish, consumed in the
course of long ages by the inhabitants of Indian towns. The planting of
a bed of oysters in a new locality might very probably lead, in time, to
the formation of a bank, which, in connection with other deposits, might
perceptibly affect the line of a coast, or, by changing the course of
marine currents, or the outlet of a river, produce geographical changes
of no small importance.


INTRODUCTION AND BREEDING OF FISH.

The introduction and successful breeding of fish or foreign species
appears to have been long practised in China, and was not unknown to the
Greeks and Romans. [Footnote: The observations of COLUMELLA, de Re
Rustica, lib. viii., sixteenth and following chapters, on fish-breeding,
are interesting. The Romans not only stocked natural but constructed
artificial ponds, of both fresh and salt water, and cut off bays of the
sea for this purpose. They also naturalized various species of sea-fish
in fresh water.] This art has been revived in modern times, but thus far
without any important results, economical or physical, though there
seems to be good reason to believe it may be employed with advantage on
an extended scale. As in the case of plants, man has sometimes
undesignedly introduced now species of aquatic animals into countries
distant from their birthplace. The accidental escape of the Chinese
goldfish from ponds where they were bred as a garden ornament, has
peopled some European, and it is said American streams with this
species. Canals of navigation and irrigation interchange the fish of
lakes and rivers widely separated by natural barriers, as well as the
plants which drop their seeds into the waters. The Erie Canal, as
measured by its own channel, has a length of about three hundred and
sixty miles, and it has ascending and descending locks in both
directions. By this route, the fresh-water fish of the Hudson and the
Upper Lakes, and some of the indigenous vegetables of these respective
basins, have intermixed, and the fauna and flora of the two regions have
now more species common to both than before the canal was opened.
[Footnote: The opening or rather the reconstruction of the Claudian
emissary by Prince Torlonia, designed to drain the Lake Fucinus, or
Celano, has introduced the fish of that lake into the Liri or Garigliano
which received the discharge from the lake.--Dorotea, Sommario storico
dell' Alieutica, p. 60.]The opening of the Suez Canal will, no doubt,
produce very interesting revolutions in the animal and vegetable
population of both basins. The Mediterranean, with some local
exceptions--such as the bays of Calabria, and the coast of Sicily so
picturesquely described by Quatrefages [Footnote: Souvenire d'un
Naturaliste, i., pp. 204 et seqq.]-is comparatively poor in marine
vegetation, and in shell as well as in fin fish. The scarcity of fish in
some of its gulfs is proverbial, and you may scrutinize long stretches
of beach on its northern shores, after every south wind for a whole
winter, without finding a dozen shells to reward your search. But no one
who has not looked down into tropical or subtropical seas can conceive
the amazing wealth of the Red Sea in organic life. Its bottom is
carpeted or paved with marine plants, with zoophytes and with shells,
while its waters are teeming with infinitely varied forms of moving
life. Most of its vegetables and its animals, no doubt, are confined by
the laws of their organization to a warmer temperature than that of the
Mediterranean, but among them there must be many whose habitat is of a
wider range, many whose powers of accommodation would enable them to
acclimate themselves in a colder sea.

We may suppose the less numerous aquatic fauna and flora of the
Mediterranean to be equally capable of climatic adaptation, and hence
there will be a partial interchange of the organic population not
already common to both seas. Destructive species, thus newly introduced,
may diminish the numbers of their proper prey in either basin, and, on
the other hand, the increased supply of appropriate food may greatly
multiply the abundance of others, and at the same time add important
contributions to the aliment of man in the countries bordering on the
Mediterranean. [Footnote: The dissolution of the salts in the bed of the
Bitter Lake impregnated the water admitted from the Red Sea so highly
that for some time fish were not seen in that basin. The flow of the
current through the canal has now reduced the proportion of saline
matter to five per cent, and late travellers speak of fish as abundant
in its waters.]

Some accidental attraction not unfrequently induces fish to follow a
vessel for days in succession, and they may thus be enticed into zones
very distant from their native habitat. Several years ago, I was told at
Constantinople, upon good authority, that a couple of fish, of a species
wholly unknown to the natives had just been taken in the Bosphorus. They
were alleged to have followed an English ship from the Thames, and to
have been frequently observed by the crew during the passage; but I was
unable to learn their specific character. [Footnote: Seven or eight
years ago, the Italian government imported from France a dredging
machine for use in the harbor of La Spezia. The dredge brought attached
to its hull a shell-fish not known in Italian waters. The mollusk,
finding the local circumstances favorable, established itself in this
new habitat, multiplied rapidly, and is now found almost everywhere on
the west coast of the Peninsula.] Many of the fish which pass the
greater part of the year in salt water spawn in fresh, and some
fresh-water species, the common brook-trout of New England for instance,
which under ordinary circumstances never visit the sea, will, if
transferred to brooks emptying directly into the ocean, go down into the
salt water after spawning-time, and return again the next season. Some
sea fish have been naturalized in fresh water, and naturalists have
argued from the character of the fish of Lake Baikal, and especially
from the existence of the seal in that locality, that all its
inhabitants were originally marine species, and have changed their
habits with the gradual conversion of the saline waters of the
lake-once, as is assumed, a maritime bay-into fresh. [Footnote: Babinet,
Etudes et Lectures, ii, pp. 108,110.] The presence of the seal is hardly
conclusive on this point, for it is sometimes seen in Lake Champlain at
the distance of some hundreds of miles from even brackish water. One of
these animals was killed on the ice in that lake in February, 1810,
another in February, 1846, [Footnote: Thompson, Natural History of
Vermont, p. 38, and Appendix, p. 18. There is no reason to believe that
the seal breeds in Lake Champlain, but the individual last taken there
must have been some weeks, at least, in its waters. It was killed on the
ice in the widest part of the lake, on the 23d of February, thirteen
days after the surface was entirely frozen, except the usual small
cracks, and a month or two after the ice closed at all points north of
the place where the seal was found.] and remains of the seal have been
found at other times in the same waters.

The intentional naturalization of foreign fish, as I have said, has not
thus far yielded important fruits; but though this particular branch of
what is called, not very happily, pisciculture, has not yet established
its claims to the attention of the physical geographer or the political
economist, the artificial breeding of domestic fish, of the lobster and
other crustacea, has already produced very valuable results, and is
apparently destined to occupy an extremely conspicuous place in the
history of man's efforts to compensate his prodigal waste of the gifts
of nature. The arrangements for breeding fish in the Venetian lagoon of
Comacchio date far back in the Middle Ages, but the example does not
seem to have been followed elsewhere in Europe at that period, except in
small ponds where the propagation of the fish was left to nature without
much artificial aid. The transplantation of oysters to artificial ponds
has long been common, and it appears to have recently succeeded well on
a large scale in the open sea on the French coast. A great extension of
this fishery is hoped for, and it is now proposed to introduce upon the
same coast the American soft clam, which is so abundant in the
tide-washed beach sands of Long Island Sound as to form an important
article in the diet of the neighboring population. Experimental
pisciculture has been highly successful in the United States, and will
probably soon become a regular branch of rural industry, especially as
Congress, at the session of 1871-2, made liberal provision for its
promotion.

The restoration of the primitive abundance of salt and fresh water fish,
is perhaps the greatest material benefit that, with our present physical
resources, governments can hope to confer upon their subjects. The
rivers, lakes, and seacoasts once restocked, and protected by law from
exhaustion by taking fish at improper seasons, by destructive methods,
and in extravagant quantities, would continue indefinitely to furnish a
very large supply of most healthful food, which, unlike all domestic and
agricultural products, would spontaneously renew itself and cost nothing
but the taking. There are many sterile or wornout soils in Europe so
situated that they might, at no very formidable cost, be converted into
permanent lakes, which would serve not only as reservoirs to retain the
water of winter rains and snow, and give it out in the dry season for
irrigation, but as breeding ponds for fish, and would thus, without
further cost, yield a larger supply of human food than can at present be
obtained from them even at a great expenditure of capital and labor in
agricultural operations. [Footnote: See Ackerhof, Die Nutzung der Seiche
und Gewasser. Quedlinburg, 1860.] The additions which might be made to
the nutriment of the civilized world by a judicious administration of
the resources of the waters, would allow some restriction of the amount
of soil at present employed for agricultural purposes, and a
corresponding extension of the area of the forest, and would thus
facilitate a return to primitive geographical arrangements which it is
important partially to restore.


Destruction of Fish.

The inhabitants of the waters seem comparatively secure from human
pursuit or interference by the inaccessibility of their retreats, and by
our ignorance of their habits--a natural result of the difficulty of
observing the ways of creatures living in a medium in which we cannot
exist. Human agency has, nevertheless, both directly and incidentally,
produced great changes in the population of the sea, the lakes, and the
rivers, and if the effects of such revolutions in aquatic life are
apparently of small importance in general geography, they are still not
wholly inappreciable. The great diminution in the abundance of the
larger fish employed for food or pursued for products useful in the arts
is familiar, and when we consider how the vegetable and animal life on
which they feed must be effected by the reduction of their numbers, it
is easy to see that their destruction may involve considerable
modifications in many of the material arrangements of nature. The
whale [Footnote: I use WHALE not in a technical sense, but as a generic
term for all the large inhabitants of the sea popularly grouped under
that name. The Greek kaetos and Latin Balaena, though sometimes,
especially in later classical writers, specifically applied to true
cetaceans, were generally much more comprehensive in their signification
than the modern word whale. This appears abundantly from the enumeration
of the marine animals embraced by Oppian under the name ,
in the first book of the Halieutica.

There is some confusion in Oppian's account of the fishery of the
 in the fifth book of the Halieutica. Part of it is
probably to be understood of cetaceans which have GROUNDED, as some
species often do; but in general it evidently applies to the taking of
large fish--sharks, for example, as appear by the description of the
teeth--with hook and bait.] does not appear to have been an object of
pursuit by the ancients, for any purpose, nor do we know when the whale
fishery first commenced. It was, however, very actively prosecuted in
the Middle Ages, and the Biscayans seem to have been particularly
successful in this as indeed in other branches of nautical
industry. [Footnote: From the narrative of Ohther, introduced by King
Alfred into his translation of Orosius, it is clear that the Northmen
pursued the whale fishery in the ninth century, and it appears, both
from the poem called The Whale, in the Codex Exoniensis, and from the
dialogue with the fisherman in the Colloquies of Aelfric, that the
Anglo-Saxons followed this dangerous chore at a period not much later. I
am not aware of any evidence to show that any of the Latin nationals
engaged in this fishery until a century or two afterward, though it may
not be easy to disprove their earlier participation in it. In mediaeval
literature, Latin and Romance, very frequent mention is made of a
species of vessel called in Latin baleneria, balenerium, balenerius,
balaneria, etc.; in Catalan, balener; in French, balenier; all of which
words occur the many other forms. The most obvious etymology of these
words would suggest the meaning, whaler, baleinier; but some have
supposed that the name was descriptive of the great size of the ships,
and others have referred it to a different root. From the fourteenth
century, the word occurs oftener, perhaps, in old Catalan, than in any
other language; but Capmany does not notice the whale fishery as one of
the maritime pursuits of the very enterprising Catalan people, nor do I
find any of the products of the whale mentioned in the old Catalan
tariffs. The WHALEBONE of the mediaeval writers, which is described as
very white, is doubtless the ivory of the walrus or of the narwhale.]
Five hundred years ago, whales abounded in every sea. They long since
became so rare in the Mediterranean as not to afford encouragement for
the fishery as a regular occupation; and the great demand for oil and
whalebone for mechanical and manufacturing purposes, in the present
century, has stimulated the pursuit of the "hugest of living creatures"
to such activity, that he has now almost wholly disappeared from many
favorite fishing grounds, and in others is greatly diminished in
numbers.

What special functions, besides his uses to man, are assigned to the
whale in the economy of nature, wo do not know; but some considerations,
suggested by the character of the food upon which certain species
subsist, deserve to be specially noticed. None of the great mammals
grouped under the general name of whale are rapacious. They all live
upon small organisms, and the most numerous species feed almost wholly
upon thesoft gelatinous mollusks in which the sea abounds in all
latitudes. We cannot calculate even approximately the number of the
whales, or the quantity of organic nutriment consumed by an individual,
and of course we can form no estimate of the total amount of animal
matter withdrawn by them, in a given period, from the waters of the sea.
It is certain, however, that it must have been enormous when they were
more abundant, and that it is still very considerable. In 1846 the
United States had six hundred and seventy-eight whaling ships chiefly
employed in the Pacific, and the product of the American whale fishery
for the year ending June 1st, 1860, was seven millions and a half of
dollars. [Footnote: In consequence of the great scarcity of the whale,
the use of coal-gas for illumination, the substitution of other fatty
and oleaginous substances, such as lard, palm-oil, and petroleum for
right-whale oil and spermaceti, the whale fishery has rapidly fallen off
within a few years. The great supply of petroleum, which is much used
for lubricating machinery as well as for numerous other purposes, has
produced a more perceptible effect on the whale fishery than any other
single circumstance. According to Bigelow, Les Etats-Unis en 1863, p.
346, the American whaling fleet was diminished by 29 in 1858, 57 in
1860, 94 in 1861, and 65 in 1862. The number of American ships employed
in that fishery in 1862 was 353. In 1868, the American whaling fleet was
reduced to 223. The product of the whale fishery in that year was
1,485,000 gallons of sperm oil, 2,065,612 gallons of train oil, and
901,000 pounds of whalebone. The yield of the two species of whale is
about the same, being estimated at from 4,000 to 5,000 gallons for each
fish. Taking the average at 4,500 gallons, the American whalers must
have captured 789 whales, besides, doubtless, many which were killed or
mortally wounded and not secured. The returns for the year are valued at
about five million and a half dollars. Mr. Cutts, from a report by whom
most of the above facts are taken, estimates the annual value of the
"products of the sea" at $90,000,000.

According to the New Bedford Standard, the American whalers numbered
722, measuring 230,218 tons, in 1846. On the 31st December, 1872, the
number was reduced to 204, with a tonnage of 47,787 tons, and the
importation of whale and sperm oil amounted in that year to 79,000
barrels. Svend Foyn, an energetic Norwegian, now carries on the whale
fishery in the Arctic Ocean in a steamer of 20 horse-power, accompanied
by freight-ships for the oil. The whales are killed by explosive shells
fired from a small cannon. The number usually killed by Foyn is from 35
to 45 per year.--The Commerce in the Products of the Sea, a report by
Col. R. D. Cutts, communicated to the U. S. Senate. Washington, 1872.]
The mere bulk of the whales destroyed in a single year by the American
and the European vessels engaged in this fishery would form an island of
no inconsiderable dimensions, and each one of those taken must have
consumed, in the course of his growth, many times his own weight of
mollusks. The destruction of the whales must have been followed by a
proportional increase of the organisms they feed upon, and if we had the
means of comparing the statistics of these humble forms of life, for
even so short a period as that between the years 1760 and 1860, we
should find a difference possibly sufficient to suggest an explanation
of some phenomena at present unaccounted for. For instance, as I have
observed in another work, [Footnote: The Origin and History of the
English Language, &c., pp. 423, 424.] the phosphorescence of the sea was
unknown to ancient writers, or at least scarcely noticed by them, and
even Homer--who, blind as tradition makes him when he composed his
epics, had seen, and marked, in earlier life, all that the glorious
nature of the Mediterranean and its coasts discloses to unscientific
observation--nowhere alludes to this most beautiful and striking of
maritime wonders. In the passage just referred to, I have endeavored to
explain the silence of ancient writers with respect to this as well as
other remarkable phenomena on psychological grounds; but is it not
possible that, in modern times, the animalculae which produce it may
have immensely multiplied, from the destruction of their natural enemies
by man, and hence that the gleam shot forth by their decomposition, or
by their living processes, is both more frequent and more brilliant than
in the days of classic antiquity?

Although the whale does not prey upon smaller creatures resembling
himself in form and habits, yet true fishes are extremely voracious, and
almost every tribe devours unsparingly the feebler species, and even the
spawn and young of its own. [Footnote: Two young pickerel, Gystes
fasciatus, five inches long, ate 128 minnows, an inch long, the first
day they were fed, 132 the second, and 150 the third.--Fifth Report of
Commissioners of Massachusetts for Introduction of Fish. 1871. p. 17.]
The enormous destruction of the shark [Footnote: The shark is pursued in
all the tropical and subtropical seas for its fins--for which there is a
great demand in China as an article of diet--its oil and other products.
About 40,000 are taken annually in the Indian Ocean and the contiguous
seas. In the North Sea and the Arctic Ocean large numbers are annually
caught. See MERK. Waarenlexikon--a work of great accuracy and value
(Leipzig, 1870), article Haifisch.] the pike, the trout family, and
other ravenous fish, as well as of the fishing birds, the seal, and the
otter, by man, would naturally have occasioned a great increase in the
weaker and more defenceless fish on which they feed, had he not been as
hostile to them also as to their persecutors.


Destruction of Aquatic Animals.

It does not seem probable that man, with all his rapacity and all his
enginery, will succeed in totally extirpating any salt-water fish, but
he has already exterminated at least one marine warm-blooded
animal--Steller's sea cow--and the walrus, the sea lion, and other large
amphibia, as well as the principal fishing quadrupeds, are in imminent
danger of extinction. Steller's sea cow, Rhytina Stelleri, was first
seen by Europeans in the year 1741, on Bering's Island. It was a huge
amphibious mammal, weighing not less than eight thousand pounds, and
appears to have been confined exclusively to the islands and coasts in
the neighborhood of Bering's Strait. Its flesh was very palatable, and
the localities it frequented were easily accessible from the Russian
establishments in Kamtschatka. As soon as its existence and character,
and the abundance of fur animals in the same waters, were made known to
the occupants of those posts by the return of the survivors of Bering's
expedition, so active a chase was commenced against the amphibia of that
region, that, in the course of twenty-seven years, the sea cow,
described by Steller as extremely numerous in 1741, is believed to have
been completely extirpated, not a single individual having been seen
since the year 1768. The various tribes of seals [Footnote: The most
valuable variety of fur seal, formerly abundant in all cold latitudes,
is stated to have been completely exterminated in the Southern
hemisphere, and to be now found only on one or two small islands of the
Aleutian group. In 1867 more than 700,000 seal skins were imported into
Great Britain, and at least 600,000 seals are estimated to have been
taken in 1870. These numbers do not include the seals killed by the
Esquimaux and other rude tribes.] in the Northern and Southern Pacific,
the walrus [Footnote: In 1868, a few American ships engaged in the North
Pacific whale fishery turned their attention to the walrus, and took
from 200 to 600 each. In 1869 other whalers engaged in the same pursuit,
and in 1870 the American fleet is believed to have destroyed not less
than fifty thousand of these animals. They yield about twenty gallons of
oil and four or five pounds of ivory each.] and the sea otter, are
already so reduced in numbers that they seem destined soon to follow the
sea cow, unless protected by legislation stringent enough, and a police
energetic enough, to repress the ardent cupidity of their pursuers. The
seals, the otter tribe, and many other amphibia which feed almost
exclusively upon fish, are extremely voracious, and of course their
destruction or numerical reduction must have favored the multiplication
of the species of fish principally preyed upon by them. I have been
assured by the keeper of several young seals that, if supplied at
frequent intervals, each seal would devour not less than fourteen pounds
of fish, or about a quarter of his own weight, in a day. A very
intelligent and observing hunter, who has passed a great part of his
life in the forest, after carefully watching the habits of the
fresh-water otter of the North American States, estimates their
consumption of fish at about four pounds per day. Man has promoted the
multiplication of fish by making war on their brute enemies, but he has
by no means thereby compensated his own greater destructiveness.
[Footnote: According to Hartwig, the United Provinces of Holland had, in
1618, three thousand herring busses, and nine thousand vessels engaged
in the transport of these fish to market. The whole number of persons
employed in the Dutch herring fishery was computed at 200,000.

In the latter part of the eighteenth century, this fishery was most
successfully prosecuted by the Swedes, and in 1781, the town of
Gottenburg alone exported 136,649 barrels, each containing 1,200
herrings, making a total of about 164,000,000; but so rapid was the
exhaustion of the fish, from this keen pursuit, that in 1799 it was
found necessary to prohibit the exportation of them altogether.--Das
Leben des Meeres, p. 182.

In 1855, the British fisheries produced 900,000 barrels, or almost
enough to supply a fish to every human inhabitant of the globe.

On the shores of Long Island Sound, the white fish, a species of herring
too bony to be easily eaten, is used as manure in very great quantities.
Ten thousand are employed as a dressing for an acre, and a single net
has sometimes taken 200,000 in a day.--Dwight's Travels, ii. pp. 512,
515. The London Times of May 11, 1872, informs us that 1,100 tons of
mackerel estimated to weigh one pound each had recently been taken in a
single night at a fishing station on the British coast.

About ten million eels are sold annually in Billingsgate market, but
vastly greater numbers of the young fry, when but three or four inches
long, are taken. So abundant are they at the mouths of many French and
English rivers, that they are carried into the country by cart-loads,
and not only eaten, but given to swine or used as manure.] The bird and
beast of prey, whether on land or in the water, hunt only as long as
they feel the stimulus of hunger, their ravages are limited by the
demands of present appetite, and they do not wastefully destroy what
they cannot consume. Man, on the contrary, angles to-day that he may
dine to-morrow; he takes and dries millions of fish on the banks of
Newfoundland and the coast of Norway, that the fervent Catholic of the
shores of the Mediterranean may have wherewithal to satisfy the cravings
of the stomach during next year's Lent, without violating the discipline
of the papal church; [Footnote: The fisheries of Sicily alone are said to
yield 20,000 tons of tunny a year. The tunny is principally consumed in
Italy during Lent, and a large proportion of the twenty millions of
codfish taken annually at the Lofoden fishery on the coast of Norway is
exported to the Mediterranean.] and all the arrangements of his
fisheries are so organized as to involve the destruction of many more
fish than are secured for human use, and the loss of a large proportion
of the annual harvest of the sea in the process of curing, or in
transportation to the places of its consumption. [Footnote According to
Berthelote, in the Gulf of Lyons, between Marseilles and the easternmost
spur of the Pyrenees, about 5,000,000 small fish ate taken annually with
the drag-net, and not lees than twice as many more, not to spekak of
spawn, are destroyed by the use of this act.

Between 1861 and 1865 France imported from Norway, for use as bait in
the Sardine fishery, cod-roes to the value of three million
francs.--Cutts, Report on Commerce in the Products of the Sea, 1872, p.
82.

The most reckless waste of aquatic life I remember to have seen noticed,
if we except the destruction of herring and other fish with upawn, is
that of the eggs of the turtle in the Amazon for the sake of the oil
extracted from then. Bates estimates the eggs thus annually sacrificed
at 48,000,000.-Naturalits inthe Amazon, 2d edition, 1864, p. 805.] Fish
are more affected than quadrupeds by slight and even imperceptible
differences in their breeding places and feeding grounds. Every river,
every brook, every lake stamps a special character upon its salmon, its
shad, and its trout, which is at once recognized by those who deal in or
consume them. No skill can give the fish fattened by food selected and
prepared by man the flavor of those which are nourished at the table of
nature, and the trout of the artificial pouds in Germany and Switzerland
are so inferior to the brook-fish of the same species and climate, that
it is hard to believe them identical. The superior sapidity of the
American trout and other fresh-water fishes to the most nearly
corresponding European species, which is familiar to every one
acquainted with both continents, is probably due less to specific
difference than to the fact that, even in the parts of the New World
which have been longest cultivated, wild nature is not yet tamed down to
the character it has assumed in the Old, and which it will acquire in
America also when her civilization shall be as ancient as is now that of
Europe. [Footnote: It is possible that time may modify the habits of the
fresh-water fish the North American States, and accommodate them to the
new physical conditions of their native waters. Hence it may be hoped
that nature, even unaided by art, will do something towards restoring
the ancient plenty of our lakes and rivers. The decrease of our
fresh-water fish cannot be alone to exhaustion by fishing, for in the
waters of the valleys and flanks of the Alps, which have been inhabited
and fished ten times as long by a denser population, fish are still very
abundant, and they thrive and multiply under circumstances where no
American species could live at all. On the southern slope of those
mountains, trout are caught in great numbers, in the swift streams which
rush from the glaciers, and where the water is of icy coldness, and so
turbid with particles of fine-ground rock, that you cannot see an inch
below the surface. The glacier streams of Switzerland, however, are less
abundant in fish.]

Man has hitherto hardly anywhere produced such climatic or other changes
as would suffice of themselves totally to banish the wild inhabitants of
the dry land, and thedisappearance of the native birds and quadrupeds
from particular localities is to be ascribed quite as much to his direct
persecutions as to the want of forest shelter, of appropriate food, or
of other conditions indispensable to their existence. But almost all the
processes of agriculture, and of mechanical and chemical industry, are
fatally destructive to aquatic animals within reach of their influence.
When, in consequence of clearing the woods, the changes already
described as thereby produced in the beds and currents of rivers, are in
progress, the spawning grounds of fish, are exposed from year to year to
a succession of mechanical disturbances; the temperature of the water is
higher in summer, colder in winter, than when it was shaded and
protected by wood; the smaller organisms, which formed the sustenance of
the young fry, disappear or are reduced in numbers, and new enemies are
added to the old foes that preyed upon them; the increased turbidness of
the water in the annual inundations chokes the fish; and, finally, the
quickened velocity of its current sweeps them down into the larger
rivers or into the sea, before they are yet strong enough to support so
great a change of circumstances. [Footnote: A fact mentioned by
Schubert--and which in its causes and many of its results corresponds
almost precisely with those connected with the escape of Barton Pond in
Vermont, so well known to geological students--is important, as showing
that the diminution of the fish in rivers exposed to inundations is
chiefly to be ascribed to the mechanical action of the current, and not
mainly, as some have supposed, to changes of temperature occasioned by
clearing.

Our author states that, in 1796, a terrible inundation was produced in
the Indalself, which rises in the Storsjo in Jemtland, by drawing off
into it the waters of another lake near Ragunda. The flood destroyed
houses and fields; much earth was swept into the channel, and the water
made turbid and muddy; the salmon and the smaller fish forsook the river
altogether, and never returned. The banks of the river have never
regained their former solidity, and portions of their soil are still
continually falling into the water and destroying its purity.--Resa
genom Sverge, ii, p. 61.] Industrial operations are not less destructive
to fish which live or spawn in fresh water. Mill-dams impede their
migrations, if they do not absolutely prevent them, the sawdust from
lumber mills clogs their gills, and the thousand deleterious mineral
substances, discharged into rivers from metallurgical, chemical, and
manufacturing establishments, poison them by shoals. [Footnote: The
mineral water discharged from a colliery on the river Doon in Scotland
discolored the stones in the bed of the river, and killed the fish for
twenty miles below. The fish of the streams in which hemp is macerated
in Italy are often poisoned by the juices thus extracted from the
plant.-Dorotea, Sommario della storia dell' Alieutica, pp. 64, 65.] We
have little evidence that any fish employed as human food has naturally
multiplied in modern times, while all the more valuable tribes have been
immensely reduced in numbers. This reduction must have affected the more
voracious species not used as food by man, and accordingly the shark,
and other fish of similar habits, even when not objects of systematic
pursuit, are now comparatively rare in many waters where they formerly
abounded. The result is, that man has greatly reduced thenumbers of all
larger marine animals, and consequently indirectly favored the
multiplication of the smaller aquatic organisms which entered into their
nutriment. This change in the relations of the organic and inorganic
matter of the sea must have excercised an influence on the latter. What
that influence has been we cannot say, still less can we predict what it
will be hereafter; but its action is not for that reason the less
certain. [Footnote: Among the unexpected results of human action, the
destruction or multiplication of fish, as well as of other animals, is a
not unfrequent occurrence. Footnote: Williams, in his History of
Vermont, i., p. 140, records such a case of the increase of trout. In a
pond formed by damming a small stream to obtain water power for a
sawmill, and covering one thousand acres of primitive forest, the
increased supply of food brought within reach of the fish multiplied
them to that degree, that, at the head of the pond, where, in the
spring, they crowded together in the brook which supplied it, they were
taken by the hands at pleasure, and swine caught them without
difficulty. A single sweep of a small scoopnet would bring up half a
bushel, carts were filled with them as fast as if picked up on dry land,
and in the fishing season they were commonly sold at a shilling
(eightpence halfpenny, or about seventeen cents) a bushel. The increase
in the size of the trout was as remarkable as the multiplication of
their numbers.

The construction of dams and mills is destructive to many fish, but
operates as a protection to their prey. The mills on Connecticut River
greatly diminished the number of the salmon, but the striped bass, on
which the salmon feeds, multiplied in proportion.--Dr. Dwight, Travels,
vol. ii., p. 323.]


Geographical Importance of Birds.

Wild birds form of themselves a very conspicuous and interesting feature
in the staffage, as painters call it, of the natural landscape, and they
are important elements in the view we are taking of geography, whether
we consider their immediate or their incidental influence. Birds affect
vegetation directly by sowing seeds and by consuming them; they affect
it indirectly by destroying insects injurious, or, in some cases,
beneficial to vegetable life. Hence, when we kill a seed-sowing bird, we
check the dissemination of a plant; when we kill a bird which digests
the seed it swallows, we promote the increase of a vegetable. Nature
protects the seeds of wild, much more effectually than those of
domesticated plants. The cereal grains are completely digested when
consumed by birds, but the germ of the smaller stone fruits and of very
many other wild vegetables is uninjured, perhaps even stimulated to more
vigorous growth, by the natural chemistry of the bird's stomach. The
power of flight and the restless habits of the bird enable it to
transport heavy seeds to far greater distances than they could be
carried by the wind. A swift-winged bird may drop cherry stones a
thousand miles from the tree they grow on; a hawk, in tearing a pigeon,
may scatter from its crop the still fresh rice it had swallowed at a
distance of ten degrees of latitude, and thus the occurrence of isolated
plants in situations where their presence cannot otherwise well be
explained, is easily accounted for. [Footnote: Pigeons were shot near
Albany, in New York, a few years ago, with green rice in their crops,
which it was thought must have been growing, a very few hours before, at
the distance of seven or eight hundred miles. The efforts of the Dutch
to confine the cultivation of the nutmeg to the island of Banda are said
to have been defeated by the birds, which transported this heavy fruit
to other islands.] There is a large class of seeds apparently specially
fitted by nature for dissemination by animals. I refer to those which
attach themselves, by means of hooks, or by viscous juices, to the coats
of quadrupeds and the feathers of birds, and are thus transported
wherever their living vehicles may chance to wander. Some birds, too,
deliberately bury seeds in the earth, or in holes excavated by them in
the bark of trees, not indeed with a foresight aiming directly at the
propagation of the plant, but from apparently purposeless secretiveness,
or as a mode of preserving food for future use.

The tame fowls play a much less conspicuous part in rural life than the
quadrupeds, and, in their relations to the economy of nature, they are
of very much less moment than four-footed animals, or than the
undomesticated birds. The domestic turkey [Footnote: The wild turkey
takes readily to the water, and is able to cross rivers of very
considerable width by swimming. By way of giving me an idea of the
former abundance of this bird, an old and highly respectable gentleman
who was among the early white settlers of the West, told me that he once
counted, in walking down the northern bank of the Ohio River, within a
distance of four miles, eighty-four turkeys as they landed singly, or at
most in pairs, after swimming over from the Kentucky side.] is probably
more numerous in the territory of the United States than the wild bird
of the same species ever was, and the grouse cannot, at the period of
their greatest abundance, have counted as many as we now number of the
common hen. The dove, however, must fall greatly short of the wild
pigeon in multitude, and it is hardly probable that the flocks of
domestic geese and ducks are as numerous as once wore those of their
wild congeners. The pigeon, indeed, seems to have multiplied immensely,
for some years after the first clearings in the woods, because the
settlers warred unsparingly upon the hawk, while the crops of grain and
other vegetable growths increased the supply of food within the reach of
the young birds, at the age when their power of flight is not yet great
enough to enable them to seek it over a wide area. [Footnote: The
wood-pigeon, as well as the domestic dove, has been observed to increase
in numbers in Europe also, when pains have been taken to exterminate the
hawk. The American pigeons, which migrated in flocks so numerous that
they were whole days in passing a given point, were no doubt injurious
to the grain, but probably less so than is generally supposed; for they
did not confine themselves exclusively to the harvests for their
nourishment. ] The pigeon is not described by the earliest white
inhabitants of the American States as filling the air with such clouds
of winged life as astonished naturalists in the descriptions of Audubon,
and, at the present day, the net and the gun have so reduced its
abundance, that its appearance in large numbers is recorded only at long
intervals, and it is never seen in the great flocks remembered by many
still living observers as formerly very common.


INTRODUCTION OF BIRDS.

Man has undesignedly introduced into now districts perhaps fewer species
of birds than of quadrupeds; [Footnote: The first mention I have found
of the naturalization of a wild bird in modern Europe is in the
Menagiana, vol. iii., p. 174, edition of 1715, where it is stated that
Rene, King of Sicily and Duke of Anjou, who died in 1480, introduced the
red-legged partridge into the latter country. Attempts have been made,
and I believe with success, to naturalize the European lark on Long
Island, and the English sparrow has been introduced into various parts
of the Northern States, where he is useful by destroying noxious insects
and worms not preyed upon by native birds. The humming-bird has resisted
all efforts to acclimate him in Europe, though they have not
unfrequently survived the passage across the ocean. In Switzerland and
some other parts of Europe the multiplication of insectivorous birds is
encouraged by building nests for them, and it is alleged that both fruit
and forest trees have been essentially benefited by the protection thus
afforded them.] but the distribution of birds is very much influenced by
the character of his industry, and the transplantation, of every object
of agricultural production is, at a longer or shorter interval, followed
by that of the birds which feed upon its seeds, or more frequently upon
the insects it harbors. The vulture, the crow, and other winged
scavengers, follow the march of armies as regularly as the wolf. Birds
accompany ships on long voyages, for the sake of the offal which is
thrown overboard, and, in such cases, it might often happen that they
would breed and become naturalized in countries where they had been
unknown before. [Footnote: Gulls hover about ships in port, and often
far out at sea, diligently watching for the waste of the caboose. While
the four great fleets, English, French, Turkish, and Egyptian, were
lying in the Bosphorus, in the summer and autumn of 1853, a young lady
of my family called my attention to the fact that the gulls were far
more numerous about the ships of one of the fleets than about the
others. This was verified by repeated observation, and the difference
was owing no doubt to the greater abundance of the refuse from the
cookrooms of the naval squadron most frequented by the birds. Persons
acquainted with the economy of the navies of the states in question,
will be able to conjecture which fleet was most favored with these
delicate attentions. The American gull follows the steamers up the
Mississippi, and has been shot 1,500 miles from the sea.] There is a
familiar story of an English bird which built its nest in an unused
block in the rigging of a ship, and made one or two short voyages with
the vessel while hatching its eggs. Had the young become fledged while
lying in a foreign harbor, they would of course have claimed the rights
of citizenship in the country where they first took to the wing.
[Footnote: Birds do not often voluntarily take passage on board ships
bound for foreign countries, but I can testify to one such case. A
stork, which had nested near one of the palaces on the Bosphorus, had,
by some accident, injured a wing, and was unable to join his fellows
when they commenced their winter migration to the banks of the Nile.
Before he was able to fly again, he was caught, and the flag of the
nation to which the palace belonged was tied to his leg, so that he was
easily identified at a considerable distance. As his wing grew stronger,
he made several unsatisfactory experiments at flight, and at last, by a
vigorous effort, succeeded in reaching a passing ship bound southward,
and perched himself on a topsail-yard. I happened to witness this
movement, and observed him quietly maintaining his position as long as I
could discern him with a spy-glass. I supposed he finished the voyage,
for he certainly did not return to the palace.]

An unfortunate popular error greatly magnifies the injury done to the
crops of grain and leguminous vegetables by wild birds. Very many of
those generally supposed to consume large quantities of the seeds of
cultivated plants really feed almost exclusively upon insects, and
frequent the wheatfields, not for the sake of the grain, but for the
eggs, larvae, and fly of the multiplied tribes of insect life which are
so destructive to the harvests. This fact has been so well established
by the examination of the stomachs of great numbers of birds in Europe
and the United States, at different seasons of the year, that it is no
longer open to doubt, and it appears highly probable that even the
species which consume more or less grain generally make amends by
destroying insects whose ravages would have been still more injurious.
[Footnote: Even the common crow has found apologists, and it has been
asserted that he pays for the Indian corn he consumes by destroying the
worms and larva which infest that plant.

Professor Treadwell, of Massachusetts, found that a half-grown American
robin in confinement ate in one day sixty-eight worms, weighing together
nearly once and a half as much as the bird himself, and another had
previously starved upon a daily allowance of eight or ten worms, or
about twenty per cent. of his own weight. The largest of these numbers
appeared, so far as could be judged by watching parent birds of the same
species, as they brought food to their young, to be much greater than
that supplied to them when fed in the nest; for the old birds did not
return with worms or insects oftener than once in ten minutes on an
average. It we suppose the parents to hunt for food twelve hours in a
day, and a nest to contain four young, we should have seventy-two worms,
or eighteen each, as the daily supply of the brood. It is probable
enough that some of the food collected by the parents may be more
nutritious than the earthworms, and consequently that a smaller quantity
sufficed for the young in the nest than when reared under artificial
conditions.

The supply required by growing birds is not the measure of their wants
after they have arrived at maturity, and it is not by any means certain
that great muscular exertion always increases the demand for
nourishment, either in the lower animals or in man. The members of the
English Alpine Club are not distinguished for appetites which would make
them unwelcome guests to Swiss landlords, and I think every man who has
had the personal charge of field or railway hands, must have observed
that laborers who spare their strength the least are not the most
valiant trencher champions. During the period when imprisonment for debt
was permitted in New England, persons confined in country jails had no
specific allowance, and they were commonly fed without stint. I have
often inquired concerning their diet, and been assured by the jailers
that their prisoners, who were not provided with work or other means of
exercise, consumed a considerably larger supply of food than common
out-door laborers.] On this subject, we have much other evidence besides
that derived from dissection. Direct observation has shown, in many
instances, that the destruction of wild birds has been followed by a
great multiplication of noxious insects, and, on the other hand, that
these latter have been much reduced in numbers by the protection and
increase of the birds that devour them. Many interesting facts of this
nature have been collected by professed naturalists, but I shall content
myself with a few taken from familiar and generally accessible sources.
The following extract is from Michelet, L'Oiseau, pp. 169,170:

"The STINGY farmer--an epithet justly and feelingly bestowed by Virgil.
Avaricious, blind, indeed, who proscribes the birds--those destroyers of
insects, those defenders of his harvests. Not a grain for the creature
which, during the rains of winter, hunts the future insect, finds out
the nests of the larvae, examines, turns over every leaf, and destroys,
every day, thousands of incipient caterpillars. But sacks of corn for
the mature insect, whole fields for the grasshoppers, which the bird
would have made war upon. With eyes fixed upon his furrow, upon the
present moment only, without seeing and without foreseeing, blind to the
great harmony which is never broken with impunity, he has everywhere
demanded or approved laws for the extermination of that necessary ally
of his toil--the insectivorous bird. And the insect has well avenged the
bird. It has become necessary to revoke in haste the proscription. In
the Isle of Bourbon, for instance, a price was set on the head of the
martin; it disappeared, and the grasshopper took possession of the
island, devouring, withering, scorching with a biting drought all that
they did not consume. In North America it has been the same with the
starling, the protector of Indian corn. [Footnote: I hope Michelet has
good authority for this statement, but I am unable to confirm it.] Even
the sparrow, which really does attack grain, but which protects it still
more, the pilferer, the outlaw, loaded with abuse and smitten with
curses--it has been found in Hungary that they were likely to perish
without him, that he alone could sustain the mighty war against the
beetles and the thousand winged enemies that swarm in the lowlands; they
have revoked the decree of banishment, recalled in haste this valiant
militia, which, though deficient in discipline, is nevertheless the
salvation of the country. [Footnote: Apropos of the sparrow--a single
pair of which, according to Michelet, p. 315, carries to the nest four
thousand and three hundred caterpillar or coleoptera in a week--I find
in an English newspaper a report of a meeting of a "Sparrow Club,"
stating that the member who took the first prize had destroyed 1,467 of
these birds within the year, and that the prowess of the other members
had brought the total number up to 11,944 birds, besides 2,553 eggs.
Every one of the fourteen thousand hatched and unhatched birds, thus
sacrificed to puerile vanity and ignorant prejudice, would have saved
his bushel of wheat by preying upon insects that destroy the grain.]

"Not long since, in the neighborhood of Ronen and in the valley of
Monville, the blackbird was for some time proscribed. The beetles
profited well by this proscription; their larvae, infinitely multiplied,
carried on their subterranean labors with such success, that a meadow
was shown me, the surface of which was completely dried up, every
herbaceous root was consumed, and the whole grassy mantle, easily
loosened, might have been rolled up and carried away like a carpet."

The general hostility of the European populace to the smaller birds is,
in part, the remote effect of the reaction created by the game laws.
When the restrictions imposed upon the chase by those laws were suddenly
removed in France, the whole people at once commenced a destructive
campaign against every species of wild animal. Arthur Young, writing in
Provence, on the 30th of August, 1789, soon after the National Assembly
had declared the chase free, thus complains of the annoyance he
experienced from the use made by the peasantry of their newly-won
liberty. "One would think that every rusty firelock in all Provence was
at work in the indiscriminate destruction of all the birds. The wadding
buzzed by my ears, or fell into my carriage, five or six times in the
course of the day." ... "The declaration of the Assembly that every man
is free to hunt on his own land ... has filled all France with an
intolerable cloud of sportsmen. ... The declaration speaks of
compensations and indemnities [to the seigneurs], but the ungovernable
populace takes advantage of the abolition of the game laws and laughs at
the obligation imposed by the decree."

The contagious influence of the French Revolution occasioned the removal
of similar restrictions, with similar results, in other countries. The
habits then formed have become hereditary on the Continent, and though
game laws still exist in England, there is little doubt that the blind
prejudices of the ignorant and half-educated classes in that country
against birds are, in some degree, at least, due to a legislation,
which, by restricting the chase of game worth killing, drives the
unprivileged sportsman to indemnify himself by slaughtering all wild
life which is not reserved for the amusement of his betters. Hence the
lord of the manor buys his partridges and his hares by sacrificing the
bread of his tenants, and so long as the members of "Sparrow Clubs" are
forbidden to follow higher game, they will suicidally revenge themselves
by destroying the birds which protect their wheatfields.

On the Continent, and especially in Italy, the comparative scarcity and
dearness of animal food combine with the feeling I have just mentioned
to stimulate still further the destructive passions of the fowler. In
the Tuscan province of Grosseto, containing less than 2,000 square
miles, nearly 300,000 thrushes and other small birds are annually
brought to market. [Footnote: Salvagnoli, Memorie sulle Maremme Toscane,
p. 143. The country about Naples is filled with slender towers fifteen
or twenty feet high, which are a standing puzzle to strangers. They are
the stations of the fowlers who watch from them the flocks of small
birds and drive them down into the nets by throwing stones over them.

In Northern and Central Italy, one often sees hillocks crowned with
grove-like plantations of small trees, much resembling large arbors.
These serve to collect birds, which are entrapped in nets in great
numbers. These plantatious are called ragnaje, and the reader will find,
in Bindi's edition of Davanzati, a very pleasant description of a
ragnaja, though its authorship is not now ascribed to that eminent
writer. Tschudi has collected in his little work, Ueber die
Landwirthschaftliche Bedeutung der Vogel, many interesting facts
respecting the utility of birds, and, the wanton destruction of them in
Italy and elsewhere. Not only the owl, but many other birds more
familiarly known as predacious in their habits, are useful by destroying
great numbers of mice and moles. The importance of this last service
becomes strikingly apparent when it is known that the burrows of the
moles are among the most frequent causes of rupture in the dikes of the
Po, and, consequently, of inundations which lay many square miles of
land under water. See Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, 1847, 1 semestre,
p. 150; VOGT, Nutzliche und schadliche Thiere; and particularly articles
in the Giornale del Club Alpino, vol. iv., no. 15, and vol. v., no. 16.
See also in Aus der Natur, vol. 54, p. 707, an article entitled Nutzen
der Vogel fur die Landwirthschaft, where it is affirmed that "without
birds no agriculture or even vegetation would be possible." In an
interesting memoir by Rondani, published in the Bolletino del Comizio
agrario di Parma for December, 1868, it is maintained that birds are
often injurious to the agriculturist, by preying not only on noxious
insects, but sometimes exclusively, or at least by preference, on
entomophagous tribes which would otherwise destroy those injurious to
cultivated plants. See also articles by Prof. Sabbioni in the Giornale
di Agricoltura di Bologna, November and December, 1870, and other
articles in the same journal of 15th and 30th April, 1870.]

Birds are less hardy in constitution, they possess less facility of
accommodation, [Footnote: Wild birds are very tenacious in their habits.
The extension of particular branches of agriculture introduces new
birds; but unless in the case of such changes in physical conditions,
particular species seem indissolubly attached to particular localities.
The migrating tribes follow almost undeviatingly the same precise line
of flight in their annual journeys, and establish themselves in the same
breeding-places from year to year. The stork is a strong-winged bird and
roves far for food, but very rarely establishes new colonies. He is
common in Holland, but unknown in England. Not above five or six pairs
of storks commonly breed in the suburbs of Constantinople along the
European shore of the narrow Bosphorous, while--much to the satisfaction
of the Moslems, who are justly proud of the marked partiality of so
orthodox a bird--dozens of chimneys of the true believers on the Asiatic
side are crowned with his nests. The appearance of the dove-like grouse,
Tetrao paradoxus, or Syrrhaptus Pallassi, in various parts of Europe, in
1850 and the following years, is a noticable exception to the law of
regularity which seems to govern the movements and determine the habitat
of birds. The proper home of this bird is the Steppes of Tartary, and it
is no recorded to have been observed in Europe, or at least west of
Russia, until the year above mentioned, when many flocks of twenty or
thirty, and even a hundred individuals, were seen in Bohemia, Germany,
Holland, Denmark, England, Ireland, and France. A considerable flock
frequented the Frisian island of Borkum for more than five months. It
was hoped that they would breed and remain permanently in the island but
this expectation has now been disappointed, and the steppe-grouse seems
to have disappeared again altogether.] and they are more severely
affected by climatic excess than quadrupeds. Besides, they generally
want the special means of shelter against the inclemency of the weather
and against pursuit by their enemies, which holes and dens afford to
burrowing animals and to some larger beasts of prey. The egg is exposed
to many dangers before hatching, and the young bird is especially
tender, defenceless, and helpless. Every cold rain, every violent wind,
every hailstorm during the breeding season, destroys hundreds of
nestlings, and the parent often perishes with her progeny while brooding
over it in the vain effort to protect it. [Footnote: It is not the
unfledged and the nursing bird alone that are exposed to destruction by
severe weather. Whole flocks of adult and strong-winged tribes are
killed by hail. Severe winters are usually followed by a sensible
diminution in the numbers of the non-migrating birds, and a cold storm
in summer often proves fatal to the more delicate species. On the 10th
of June, 184-, five or six inches of snow fell in Northern Vermont. The
next morning I found a hummingbird killed by the cold, and hanging by
its claws just below a loose clapboard on the wall of a small wooden
building where it had sought shelter.] The great proportional numbers of
birds, their migratory habits, and the ease with which, by their power
of flight they may escape most dangers that beset them, would seem to
secure them from extirpation, and even from very great numerical
reduction. But experience shows that when not protected by law, by
popular favor or superstition, or by other special circumstances, they
yield very readily to the hostile influences of civilization, and,
though the first operations of the settler are favorable to the increase
of many species, the great extension of rural and of mechanical industry
is, in a variety of ways, destructive even to tribes not directly warred
upon by man. [Footnote: Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. 400, observes: "Of
birds it is estimated that the number of those which die every year
equals the aggregate number by which the species to which they
respectively belong is, on the average, permanently represented." A
remarkable instance of the influence of new circumstances upon birds was
observed upon the establishment of a light-house on Cape Cod some years
since. The morning after the lamps were lighted for the first time, more
than a hundred dead birds of several different species, chiefly
water-fowl, were found at the foot of the tower. They had been killed in
the course of the night by flying against the thick glass or grating of
the lantern. From an article by A. Esquiros, in the Revue des Deux
Mondes for Sept. 1, 1864, entitled, La vie Anglaise, p. 110, it appears
that such occurrences as that stated in the note have been not
unfrequent on the British coast. Are the birds thus attracted by new
lights, flocks in migration?

Migrating birds, whether for greater security from eagles, hawks, and
other enemies, or for some unknown reason, perform a great part of their
annual journeys by night; and it is observed in the Alps that they
follow the high roads in their passage across the mountains. This is
partly because the food in search of which they must sometimes descend
is principally found near the roads. It is, however, not altogether for
the sake of consorting with man, or of profiting by his labors, that
their line of flight conforms to the paths he has traced, but rather
because the great roads are carried through the natural depressions in
the chain, and hence the birds can cross the summit by these routes
without rising to a height where at the seasons of migration the cold
would be excessive. The instinct which guides migratory birds in their
course is not in all cases infallible, and it seems to be confounded by
changes in the condition of the surface. I am familiar with a village in
New England, at the junction of two valleys, each drained by a
mill-stream, where the flocks of wild geese which formerly passed, every
spring and autumn, were very frequently lost, as it was popularly
phrased, and I have often heard their screams in the night as they flew
wildly about in perplexity as to the proper course. Perhaps the village
lights embarrassed them, or perhaps the constant changes in the face of
the country, from the clearings then going on, introduced into the
landscape features not according with the ideal map handed down in the
anserine family, and thus deranged its traditional geography.]

Nature sets bounds to the disproportionate increase of birds, while at
the same time, by the multitude of their resources, she secures them
from extinction through her own spontaneous agencies. Man both preys
upon them and wantonly destroys them. The delicious flavor of
game-birds, and the skill implied in the various arts of the sportsman
who devotes himself to fowling, make them favorite objects of the chase,
while the beauty of their plumage, as a military and feminine
decoration, threatens to involve the sacrifice of the last survivor of
many once numerous species. Thus far, but few birds described by ancient
or modern naturalists are known to have become absolutely extinct,
though there are some cases in which they are ascertained to have
utterly disappeared from the face of the earth in very recent times. The
most familiar instances are those of the dodo, a large bird peculiar to
the Mauritius or Isle of France, exterminated about the year 1690, and
now known only by more or less fragmentary skeletons, and the solitary,
which inhabited the islands of Bourbon and Rodriguez, but has not been
seen for more than a century. A parrot and some other birds of the
Norfolk Island group are said to have lately become extinct. The
wingless auk, Alca impennis, a bird remarkable for its excessive
fatness, was very abundant two or three hundred years ago in the Faroe
Islands, and on the whole Scandinavian seaboard. The early voyagers
found either the same or a closely allied species, in immense numbers,
on all the coasts and islands of Newfoundland. The value of its flesh
and its oil made it one of the most important resources of the
inhabitants of those sterile regions, and it was naturally an object of
keen pursuit. It is supposed to be now completely extinct, and few
museums can show even its skeleton. There seems to be strong reason to
believe that modern civilization is guiltless of one or two sins of
extermination which have been committed in recent ages. Now Zealand
formerly possessed several species of dinornis, one of which, called moa
by the islanders, was larger than the ostrich. The condition in which
the bones of these birds have been found and the traditions of the
natives concur to prove that, though the aborigines had probably
extirpated them before the discovery of New Zealand by the whites, they
still existed at a comparatively late period. The same remarks apply to
a winged giant the eggs of which have been brought from Madagascar. This
bird must have much exceeded the dimensions of the moa, at least so far
as we can judge from the egg, which is eight times as large as the
average size of the ostrich egg, or about one hundred and fifty times
that of the hen.

But though we have no evidence that man has exterminated many species of
birds, we know that his persecutions have caused their disappearance
from many localities where they once were common, and greatly diminished
their numbers in others. The cappercailzie, Tetrao urogallus, the finest
of the grouse family, formerly abundant in Scotland, had become extinct
in Great Britain, but has been reintroduced from Sweden. [Footnote:
Thecappercailzie, or tjader, as he is called in Sweden, is a bird of
singular habits, and seems to want some of the protective instincts
which secure most other wild birds from destruction. The younger
Laestadius frequently notices the tjader, in his very remarkable account
of the Swedish Laplanders. The tjader, though not a bird of passage, is
migratory, or rather wandering in domicile, and appears to undertake
very purposeless and absurd journeys. "When he flits," says Laestadius,
"he follows a straight course, and sometimes pursues it quite out of the
country. It is said that, in foggy weather, he sometimes flies out to
sea, and, when tired, falls into the water and is drowned. It is
accordingly observed that, when he flies westwardly, towards the
mountains, he soon comes back again; but when he takes an eastwardly
course, he returns no more, and for a long time is very scarce in
Lapland. From this it would seem that he turns back from the bald
mountains, when he discovers that he has strayed from his proper home,
the wood; but when he finds himself over the Baltic, where he cannot
alight to rest and collect himself, he flies on until he is exhausted
and falls into the sea."--Petrus Laestadius, Journal of forsta aret,
etc., p. 325.]

The ostrich is mentioned, by many old travellers, as common on the
Isthmus of Suez down to the middle of the seventeenth century. It
appears to have frequented Palestine, Syria, and even Asia Minor at
earlier periods, but is now rarely found except in the seclusion of
remoter deserts. [Footnote: Frescobaldi saw ostriches between Suez and
Mt. Sinai. Viaggio in Terra Santa, p. 65. See also Vansler, Voyage
d'Egypte, p. 103, and an article in Petermann, Mittheilungen, 1870, p.
880, entitled Die Verbreitung des Straussee in Asien.]

The modern increased facilities of transportation have brought distant
markets within reach of the professional hunter, and thereby given a new
impulse to his destructive propensities. Not only do all Great Britain
and Ireland contribute to the supply of game for the British capital,
but the canvas-back duck of the Potomac, and even the prairie hen from
the basin of the Mississippi, may be found at the stalls of the London
poulterer. Kohl [Footnote: Die Herzogthumer Schleswig und Holstein, i.,
p. 203.] informs us that, on the coasts of the North Sea, twenty
thousand wild ducks are usually taken in the course of the season in a
single decoy, and sent to the large maritime towns for sale. The
statistics of the great European cities show a prodigious consumption of
game-birds, but the official returns fall far below the truth, because
they do not include the rural districts, and because neither the poacher
nor his customers report the number of his victims. Reproduction, in
cultivated countries, cannot keep pace with this excessive destruction,
and there is no doubt that all the wild birds which are chased for their
flesh or their plumage are diminishing with a rapidity which justifies
the fear that the last of them will soon follow the dodo and the
wingless auk.

Fortunately the larger birds which are pursued for their flesh or for
their feathers, and those the eggs of which are used as food, are, so
far as we know the functions appointed to them by nature, not otherwise
specially useful to man, and, therefore, their wholesale destruction is
an economical evil only in the same sense in which all waste of
productive capital is an evil. [Footnote: The increased demand for
animal oils for the use of the leather-dresses is now threatening the
penguin with the fate of the wingless auk. According to the Report of
the Agricultural Department of the U. S. for August and September, 1871,
p. 840, small vessels are fitted out for the chase of this bird, and
return from a six week's cruise with 25,000 or 30,000 gallons of oil.
About eleven birds are required for a gallon, and consequently the
vessels take upon an average 800,000 penguins each.]

If it were possible to confine the consumption of game-fowl to a number
equal to the annual increase, the world would be a gainer, but not to
the same extent as it would be by checking the wanton sacrifice of
millions of the smaller birds, which are of no real value as food, but
which, as we have seen, render a most important service by battling, in
our behalf, as well as in their own, against the countless legions of
humming and of creeping things, with which the prolific powers of insect
life would otherwise cover the earth.


Utility and Destruction of Reptiles.

The disgust and fear with which the serpent is so universally regarded
expose him to constant persecution by man, and perhaps no other animal
is so relentlessly sacrificed by him. Nevertheless, snakes as well as
lizards and other reptiles are not wholly useless to their great enemy.
The most formidable foes of the insect, and even of the small rodents,
are the reptiles. The chameleon approaches the insect perched upon the
twig of a tree, with an almost imperceptible slowness of motion, until,
at the distance of a foot, he shoots out his long, slimy tongue, and
rarely fails to secure the victim. Even the slow toad catches the swift
and wary housefly in the same manner; and in the warm countries of
Europe, the numerous lizards contribute very essentially to the
reduction of the insect population, which they both surprise in the
winged state upon walls and trees, and consume as egg, worm, and
chrysalis, in their earlier metamorphoses. The serpents feed much upon
insects, as well as upon mice, moles, and small reptiles, including also
other snakes.

In temperate climates, snakes are consumed by scarcely any beast or bird
of prey except the stork, and they have few dangerous enemies but man,
though in the tropics other animals prey upon them. [Footnote: It is
very questionable whether there is any foundation for the popular belief
in the hostility of swine and of deer to the rattlesnake, and careful
experiments as to the former quadruped seem to show that the supposed
enmity is wholly imaginary. It is however affirmed in an article in
Nature, June 11, 1872, p. 215, that the pigs have exterminated the
rattlesnake in some parts of Oregon, and that swine are destructive to
the cobra de capello in India. Observing that the starlings, stornelli,
which bred in an old tower in Piedmont, carried something from their
nests and dropped it upon the ground about as often they brought food to
their young, I watched their proceedings, and found every day lying near
the tower numbers of dead or dying slowworms, and, in a few cases, small
lizards, which had, in every Instance, lost about two inches of the
tail. This part I believe the starlings gave to their nestlings, and
threw away the remainder.] It is doubtful whether any species of serpent
has been exterminated within the human period, and even the dense
population of China has not been able completely to rid itself of the
viper. They have, however, almost entirely disappeared from particular
localities. The rattlesnake is now wholly unknown in many large
districts where it was extremely common half a century ago, and
Palestine has long been, if not absolutely free from venomous serpents,
at least very nearly so. [Footnote: Russell denies the existence of
poisonous snakes in Northern Syria, and states that the last instance of
death known to have occurred from the bite of a serpent near Aleppo took
place a hundred years before his time. In Palestine, the climate, the
thinness of population, the multitude of insects and of lizards, all
circumstances, in fact, seem very favorable to the multiplication of
serpents, but the venomous species, at least, are extremely rare, if at
all known, in that country. I have, however, been assured by persons
very familiar with Mount Lebanon, that cases of poisoning from the bite
of snakes had occurred within a few years, near Hasbeiyeh, and at other
places on the southern declivities of Lebanon and Hermon. In Egypt, on
the other hand, the cobra, the asp, and the cerastes are as numerous as
ever, and are much dreaded by all the natives except the professional
snake charmers.

The recent great multiplication of vipers in some parts of France is a
singular and startling fact. Toussenel, quoting from official documents,
states, that upon the offer of a reward of fifty centimes, or ten cents,
a head, TWELVE THOUSAND vipers were brought to the prefect of a single
department, and that in 1850 fifteen hundred snakes and twenty quarts of
snakes' eggs were found under a farm-house hearthstone. The granary, the
stables, the roof, the very beds swarmed with serpents, and the family
were obliged to abandon its habitation. Dr. Viaugrandmarais, of Nantes,
reported to the prefect of his department more than two hundred recent
cases of viper bites, twenty-four of which proved fatal.--Tristia, p.
176 et seqq. According to the Journal del Debats for Oct. 1st, 1867, the
Department of the Cote d'Or paid in the year 1866 eighteen thousand
francs for the destruction of vipers. The reward was thirty centimes a
head, and consequently the number killed was about sixty thousand. A
friend residing in that department informs me that it was strongly
suspected that many of these snakes were imported from other departments
for the sake of the premium.

In Nature for 1870 and 1871 we are told that the number of deaths from
the bites of venomous serpents in the Bengal Presidency, in the year
1869, was 11,416, and that in the whole of British India not less than
40,000 human lives are annually lost from this cause. In one small
department, a reward of from three to six pence a head for poisonous
serpents brought in 1,200 a day, and in two months the government paid
L10,000 sterling for their destruction.] The serpent does not appear to
have any natural limit of growth, and we are therefore not authorized
wholly to discredit the evidence of ancient naturalists in regard to the
extraordinary dimensions which those reptiles are said by them to have
sometimes attained. The use of firearms has enabled man to reduce the
numbers of the larger serpents, and they do not often escape him long
enough to arrive at the size ascribed to them by travellers a century or
two ago. Captain Speke, however, shot a serpent in Africa which measured
fifty-one and a half feet in length.

Some enthusiastic entomologist will, perhaps, by and by discover that
insects and worms are as essential as the larger organisms to the proper
working of the great terraqueous machine, and we shall have as eloquent
pleas in defence of the mosquito, and perhaps oven of the tzetze-fly, as
Toussenel and Michelet have framed in behalf of the bird. The silkworm,
the lac insect, and the bee need no apologist; a gallnut produced by the
puncture of a cynips on a Syrian oak is a necessary ingredient in the
ink I am writing with, and from my windows I recognize the grain of the
kermes and the cochineal in the gay habiliments of the holiday groups
beneath them.

These humble forms of being are seldom conspicuous by more mass, and
though the winds and the waters sometimes sweep together large heaps of
locusts and even of may-flies, their remains are speedily decomposed,
their exuviae and their structures form no strata, and still less does
nature use them, as she does the calcareous and silicious cases and
dwellings of animalcular species, to build reefs and spread out
submarine deposits, which subsequent geological action may convert into
islands and even mountains. [Footnote: Although the remains of extant
animals are rarely, if ever, gathered In sufficient quantities to
possess any geographical importance by their mere mass, the decayed
exuviae of even the smaller and humbler forms of life are sometimes
abundant enough to exercise a perceptible influence on soil and
atmosphere. "The plain of Cumana," saya Humboldt, "presents a remarkable
phenomenon, after heavy rains. The moistened earth, when heated by the
rays of the sun, diffuses the musky odor common in the torrid zone to
animals of very different classes, to the jaguar, the small species of
tiger-cat, the cabiai, the gallinazo vulture, the crocodile, the viper,
and the rattlesnake. The gaseous emanations, the vehicles of this aroma,
appear to be disengaged in proportion as the soil, which contains the
remains of an innumerable multitude of reptiles, worms, and insects,
begins to be impregnated with water. Wherever we stir the earth, we are
struck with the mass of organic substances which in turn are developed
and become transformed or decomposed. Nature in these climes seems more
active, more prolific, and, so to speak, more prodigal of life."]

But the action of the creeping and swarming things of the earth, though
often passed unnoticed, is not without important effects in the general
economy of nature. The geographical importance of insects proper, as
well as of worms, depends principally on their connection with vegetable
life as agents of its fecundation, and of its destruction. We learn from
Darwin, "On Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids
are Fertilized by Insects," that some six thousand species of orchids
are absolutely dependent upon the agency of insects for their
fertilization, and that consequently, were those plants unvisited by
insects, they would all rapidly disappear. What is true of the orchids
is more or less true of many other vegetable families. [Footnote: Later
observations of Darwin and other naturalists have greatly raised former
estimates of the importance of insect life in the fecundation of plants,
and among other remarkable discoveries it has been found that, in many
cases at least, insects are necessary even to monoecious vegetables,
because the male flower does not impregnate the female growing on the
same stem, and the latter can be fecundated only by pollen supplied to
it by insects from another plant of the same species.

"Who would ever have thought," says Preyer, "that the abundance and
beauty of the pansy and of the clover were dependent upon the number of
cats and owls But so it is. The clover and the pansy cannot exist
without the bumble-bee, which, in search of his vegetable nectar,
transports unconciously the pollen from the masculine to the feminine
flower, a service which other insects perform only partially for these
plants. Their existence therefore depends upon that of the bumble-bee.
The mice make war upon this bee. In their fondness for honey they
destroy the nest and at the same time the bee. The principal enemies of
mice are cats and owls, and therefore the finest clovers and the most
beautiful pansies are found near villages where cats and owls
abound."--Preyer, Der Kampf um daas Dasein, p. 22. See also Delpino,
Pensieri sulla biologia vegetale, and other works of the same able
observer on vegetable physiology.]

We do not know the limits of this agency, and many of the insects
habitually regarded as unqualified pests, may directly or indirectly
perform functions as important to the most valuable plants as the
services rendered by certain tribes to the orchids. I say directly or
indirectly, because, besides the other arrangements of nature for
chocking the undue multiplication of particular species, she has
established a police among insects themselves, by which some of them
keep down or promote the increase of others; for there are insects, as
well as birds and beasts, of prey. The existence of an insect which
fertilizes a useful vegetable may depend on that of another insect which
constitutes his food in some stage of his life, and this other again may
be as injurious to some plant as his destroyer is to a different
species.

The ancients, according to Pliny, were accustomed to hang branches of
the wild fig upon the domestic tree, in order that the insects which
frequented the former might hasten the ripening of the cultivated fig by
their punctures--or, as others suppose, might fructify it by
transporting to it the pollen of the wild fruit--and this process,
called caprification, is not yet entirely obsolete. [Footnote: The
utility of caprification has been a good deal disputed, and it has, I
believe, been generally abandoned in Italy, though still practised in
Greece. See Browne, The Trees of America, p. 475, and on caprification
in Kabylia, N. Bibesco, Les Kabyles du Djardjura, in Revue des Deux
Mondes for April 1st, 1805, p. 580; also, Aus der Natur, vol. xxx., p.
684, and Phipson,

Utilization of Minute Life, p. 50. In some parts of Sicily, sprigs of
mint, mentha pulegium, are used instead of branches of the wild for
caprification. Pitre, Usi popolari Siciliani, 1871, p. 18.]

The perforations of the earthworms and of many insect larvae
mechanically affect the texture of the soil and its permeability by
water, and they therefore have a certain influence on the form and
character of terrestrial surface. The earthworms long ago made good
their title to the respect and gratitude of the farmer as well as of the
angler. Their utility has been pointed out in many scientific as well as
in many agricultural treatises. The following extract from an essay on
this subject will answer my present purpose:

"Worms are great assistants to the drainer, and valuable aids to the
fanner in keeping up the fertility of the soil. They love moist, but not
wet soils; they will bore down to, but not into water; they multiply
rapidly on land after drainage, and prefer a deeply-dried soil. On
examining part of a field which had been deeply drained, after
long-previous shallow drainage, it was found that the worms had greatly
increased in number, and that their bores descended quite to the level
of the pipes. Many worm-bores were large enough to receive the little
finger. A piece of land near the sea, in Lincolnshire, over which the
sea had broken and killed all the worms, remained sterile until the
worms again inhabited it. A piece of pasture land, in which worms were
in such numbers that it was thought their casts interfered too much with
its produce, was rolled at night in order to destroy the worms. The
result was, that the fertility of the field greatly declined, nor was it
restored until they had recruited their numbers, which was aided by
collecting and transporting multitudes of worms from the fields.

"The great depth into which worms will bore, and from which they push up
fine fertile soil, and cast it on the surface, have been well shown by
the fact that in a few years they have actually elevated the surface of
fields by a largo layer of rich mould, several inches thick, thus
affording nourishment to the roots of grasses, and increasing the
productiveness of the soil."

It should be added that the writer quoted, and all others who have
discussed the subject, have, so far as I know, overlooked one very
important element in the fertilization produced by earthworms. I refer
to the enrichment of the soil by their excreta during life, and by the
decomposition of their remains when they die. Themanure thus furnished
is as valuable as the like amount of similar animal products derived
from higher organisms, and when we consider the prodigious numbers of
these worms found on a single square yard of some soils, we may easily
see that they furnish no insignificant contribution to the nutritive
material required for the growth of plants. [Footnote: I believe there
is no foundation for the supposition that earthworms attack the tuber of
the potato. Some of them, especially one or two species employed by
anglers as bait, if natives of the woods, are at least rare in shaded
grounds, but multiply very rapidly after the soil is brought under
cultivation. Forty or fifty years ago they were so scarce in the newer
parts of New England, that the rustic fishermen of every village kept
secret the few places where they were to be found in their neighborhood,
as a professional mystery, but at present one can hardly turn over a
shovelfull of rich moist soil anywhere, without unearthing several of
them. A very intelligent lady, born in the woods of Northern New
England, told me that, in her childhood, these worms were almost unknown
in that region, though anxiously sought for by the anglers, but that
they increased as the country was cleared, and at last became so
numerous in some places, that the water of springs, and even of shallow
wells, which had formerly been excellent, was rendered undrinkable by
the quantity of dead worms that fell into them. The increase of the
robin and other small birds which follow the settler when he has
prepared a suitable home for them, at last checked the excessive
multiplication of the worms, and abated the nuisance.]

The carnivorous and often herbivorous insects render another important
service to man by consuming dead and decaying animal and vegetable
matter, the decomposition of which would otherwise fill the air with
effluvia noxious to health. Some of them, the grave-digger beetle, for
instance, bury the small animals in which they lay their eggs, and
thereby prevent the escape of the gases disengaged by putrefaction. The
prodigious rapidity of development in insect life, the great numbers of
the individuals in many species, and the voracity of most of them while
in the larva state, justify the appellation of nature's scavengers which
has been bestowed upon them, and there is very little doubt that, in
warm countries, they consume a larger quantity of putrescent organic
matter than the quadrupeds and birds which feed upon such aliment.


INJURY TO THE FOREST BY INSECTS.

The action of the insect on vegetation, as we have thus far described
it, is principally exerted on smaller and less conspicuous plants, and
it is therefore matter rather of agricultural than of geographical
interest. But in the economy of the forest European writers ascribe to
insect life an importance which it has not reached in America, where the
spontaneous woods are protected by safeguards of nature's own devising.

The insects which damage primitive forests by feeding upon products of
trees essential to their growth, are not numerous, nor is their
appearance, in destructive numbers, frequent, and those which perforate
the stems and branches, to deposit and hatch their eggs, more commonly
select dead trees for that purpose, though, unhappily, there are
important exceptions to this latter remark. [Footnote: The locust
Insect, Clitus pictus, which deposits its eggs in the American locust,
Robinia pseudacacia, is one of these, and its ravages have been and
still are more destructive to that very valuable tree, so remarkable for
combining rapidity of growth with strength and durability of wood. This
insect, I believe, has not yet appeared in Europe, where, since the so
general employment of the Robinia to clothe and protect embankments and
the scarps of deep cuts on railroads, it would do incalculable mischief.
As a traveller, however, I should find some compensation for this evil
in the destruction of these acacia hedges, which as completely obstruct
the view on hundreds of miles of French and Italian railways, as do the
garden walls of the same countries on the ordinary roads.

The lignivorous insects that attack living trees almost uniformly
confine their ravages to trees already unsound or diseased in growth
from the depredations of leaf-eaters, such as caterpillars and the like,
or from other causes. The decay of the tree, therefore, is the cause not
the consequence of the invasions of the borer. This subject has been
discussed by Perris in the Annales de la Societe Entomologique de la
France for 1852, and his conclusions are confirmed by the observations
of Samanos, who quotes, at some length, the views of Perris. "Having,
for fifteen years," says the latter author, "incessantly studied the
habits of lignivorous insects in one of the best wooded regions of
France, I have observed facts enough to feel myself warranted in
expressing my conclusions, which are: that insects in general--I am
trees in sound health, and they assail those only whose normal
conditions and functions have been by some cause impaired."

See, more fully, Samanos, Traite de la Culture du Pin Maritime, Paris,
1864, pp. 140-145, and Siemoni, Manuale dell' Arte Forestale. 2d
edition. Florence, 1872.]

I do not know that we have any evidence of the destruction or serious
injury of American forests by insects before or even soon after the
period of colonization; but since the white man has laid bare a vast
proportion of the earth's surface, and thereby produced changes
favorable, perhaps, to the multiplication of these pests, they have
greatly increased in numbers, and, apparently, in voracity also. Not
many years ago, the pines on thousands of acres of land in North
Carolina were destroyed by insects not known to have ever done serious
injury to that tree before. In such cases as this and others of the like
sort, there is good reason to believe that man is the indirect cause of
an evil for which he pays so heavy a penalty. Insects increase whenever
the birds which feed upon them disappear. Hence, in the wanton
destruction of the robin and other insectivorous birds, the bipes
implumis, the featherless biped, man, is not only exchanging the vocal
orchestra which greets the rising sun for the drowny beetle's evening
drone, and depriving his groves and his fields of their fairest
ornament, but he is waging a treacherous warfare on his natural allies.
[Footnote: In the artificial woods of Europe, insects are far more
numerous and destructive to trees than in the primitive forests of
America, and the same remark may be made of the smaller rodents, such as
moles, mice, and squirrels. In the dense native wood, the ground and the
air are too humid, the depth of shade too great, for many tribes of
these creatures, while near the natural meadows and other open grounds,
where circumstances are otherwise more favorable for their existence and
multiplication, their numbers are kept down by birds, serpents, foxes,
and smaller predacious quadrupeds. In civilized countries these natural
enemies of the worm, the beetle, and the mole, are persecuted, sometimes
almost exterminated, by man, who also removes from his plantations the
decayed or wind-fallen trcea, the shrubs and underwood, which, in a
state of nature, furnished food and shelter to the borer and the rodent,
and often also to the animals that preyed upon them. Hence the insect
and the gnawing quadruped are allowed to increase, from the expulsion of
the police which, in the natural wood, prevent their excessive
multiplication, and they become destructive to the forest because they
are driven to the living tree for nutriment and cover. The forest of
Fontainebleau is almost wholly without birds, and their absence is
ascribed by some writers to the want of water, which, in the thirsty
sands of that wood, does not gather into running brooks; but the want of
undergrowth is perhaps an equally good reason for their scarcity.

On the other hand, the thinning out of the forest and the removal of
underwood and decayed timber, by which it is brought more nearly to the
condition of an artificial wood, is often destructive to insect tribes
which, though not injurious to trees, are noxious to man. Thus the
troublesome woodtick, formerly very abundant in the North Eastern, as it
unhappily still is in native forests in the Southern and Western States,
has become nearly or quite extinct in the former region since the woods
have been reduced in extent and laid more open to the sun and air.--Asa
Fitch, in Report of New York Agricultural Society for 1870, pp.
868,864.]


Introduction of Insects.

The general tendency of man's encroachments upon spontaneous nature has
been to increase insect life at the expense of vegetation and of the
smaller quadrupeds and birds. Doubtless there are insects in all woods,
but in temperate climates they are comparatively few and harmless, and
the most numerous tribes which breed in the forest, or rather in its
waters, and indeed in all solitudes, are those which little injure
vegetation, such as mosquitoes, gnats, and the like. With the cultivated
plants of man come the myriad tribes which feed or breed upon them, and
agriculture not only introduces new speciss, but so multiplies the
number of individuals as to defy calculation. Newly introduced
vegetables frequently escape for years the insect plagues which had
infested them in their native habitat; but the importation of other
varieties of the plant, the exchange of seed, or some more accident, is
sure in the long run to carry the egg, the larva, or the chrysalis to
the most distant shores where the plant assigned to it by nature as its
possession has preceded it. For many years after the colonization of the
United States, few or none of the insects which attack wheat in its
different stages of growth, were known in America. During the
Revolutionary war, the Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructrix, made its
appearance, and it was so called because it was first observed in the
year when the Hessian troops were brought over, and was popularly
supposed to have been accidentally imported by those unwelcome
strangers. Other destroyers of cereal grains have since found their way
across the Atlantic, and a noxious European aphis has first attacked the
American wheatfields within the last fifteen years. Unhappily, in these
cases of migration, the natural corrective of excessive multiplication,
the parasitic or voracious enemy of the noxious insect, does not always
accompany the wanderings of its prey, and the bane long precedes the
antidote. Hence, in the United States, the ravages of imported insects
injurious to cultivated crops, not being checked by the counteracting
influences which nature had provided to limit their devastations in the
Old World, are more destructive than in Europe. It is not known that the
wheat midge is preyed upon in America by any other insect, and in
seasons favorable to it, it multiplies to a degree which would prove
almost fatal to the entire harvest, were it not that, in the great
territorial extent of the United States, there is room for such
differences of soil and climate as, in a given year, to present in one
State all the conditions favorable to the increase of a particular
insect, while in another, the natural influences are hostile to it. The
only apparent remedy for this evil is, to balance the disproportionate
development of noxious foreign species by bringing from their native
country the tribes which prey upon them. This, it seems, has been
attempted. The United States Census Report for 1860, p. 82, states that
the New York Agricultural Society "has introduced into this country from
abroad certain parasites which Providence has created to counteract the
destructive powers of some of these depredators." [Footnote: On
parasitic and entomophagous insects, see a paper by Rondani referred to
p. 119 ante.]

This is, however, not the only purpose for which man has designedly
introduced foreign forms of insect life. The eggs of the silkworm are
known to have been brought from the farther East to Europe in the sixth
century, and new silk-spinners which feed on the castor-oil bean and the
ailanthus, have recently been reared in France and in South America with
promising success. [Footnote: The silkworm which feeds on the ailanthus
has naturalized itself in the United States, but also the promises of
its utility have not been realized.] The cochineal, long regularly bred
in aboriginal America, has been transplanted to Spain, and both the
kermes insect and the cantharides have been transferred to other
climates than their own. The honey--bee must be ranked next to the
silkworm in economical importance. This useful creature was carried to
the United States by European colonists, in the latter part of
theseventeenth century; it did not cross the Mississippi till the close
of the eighteenth, and it is only in 1853 that it was transported to
California, where it was previously unknown. The Italian bee, which
seldom stings, has lately been introduced into the United States.
[Footnote: Bee husbandry, now very general in Switzerland and other
Alpine regions, was formerly an important branch of industry in Italy.
It has lately been revived and is now extensively prosecuted it that
country. It is interesting to observe that many of the methods recently
introduced into this art in England and United States, such for example
as the removable honey--boxes, are reinventions of Italian systeams at
least three hundred years old. See Gallo, Le Venti Giornate dell'
Agricultura, cap. XV. The temporary decline of this industry in Italy
was doubtless in great measure due to the use of sugar which had taken
the place of honed, but perhaps also in part to the decrease of the wild
vegetation from which the bee draws more or less of his nutriment. A new
was-producing insect, a species of coccus, very abundant in China, where
its annual produce is said to amount to the value of ten millions of
francs, has recently attracted notice in France. The wax is white,
resembling spermaceti, and is said to be superior to that of the bee.]

The insects and worms intentionally transplanted by man bear but a small
portion to those accidentally introduced by him. Plants and animals
often carry their parasites with them, and the traffic of commercial
countries, which exchange their products with every zone and every stage
of social existence, cannot fail to transfer in both directions the
minute organisms that are, in one way or another associated with almost
every object important to the material interests of man. [Footnote: A
few years ago, a laborer, employed at a North American port in
discharging a cargo of hides from the opposite extremity of the
continent, was fatally poisoned by the bite or the sting of an unknown
insect, which ran out from a hide he was handling.

The Phylloxera vastatrix, the most destructive pest which has ever
attacked European vineyards--for its ravages are fatal not merely to the
fruit, but to the vine itself--in said by many entomologists to be of
American origin, but I have seen no account of the mode of its
introduction.]

The tenacity of life possessed by many insects, their prodigious
fecundity, the length of time they often remain in the different phases
of their existence, [Footnote: In many insects, some of the stages of
life regularly continue for several years, and they may, under peculiar
circumstances, be almost indefinitely prolonged. Dr. Dwight mentions the
following remarkable case of this sort: "I saw here an insect, about an
inch in length, of a brown color tinged with orange, with two antennae,
not unlike a rosebug. This insect came out of a tea-table made of the
boards of an apple-tree." Dr. Dwight found the "cavity whence the insect
had emerged into the light," to be "about two inches in length. Between
the hole, and the outside of the leaf of the table, there were forty
grains of the wood." It was supposed that the sawyer and the
cabinet-maker must have removed at least thirteen grains more, and the
table had been in the possession of its proprietor for twenty years.]
the security of the retreats into which their small dimensions enable
them to retire, are all circumstances very favorable not only to the
perpetuity of their species, but to their transportation to distant
climates and their multiplication in their new homes. The teredo, so
destructive to shipping, has been carried by the vessels whose wooden
walls it mines to almost every part of the globe. The termite, or white
ant, is said to have been brought to Rochefort by the commerce of that
port a hundred years ago. [Footnote: It does not appear to be quite
settled whether the termites of France are indigenous or imported. See
Quatrefaces, Souvenirs d'un naturaliste, ii., pp. 400, 542, 543.

The white ant has lately appeared at St. Helena and is in a high degree
destructive, no wood but teak, and even that not always, resisting
it.--Nature for March 2d, 1871, p. 362.] This creature is more injurious
to wooden structures and implements than any other known insect. It eats
out almost the entire substance of the wood, leaving only thin
partitions between the galleries it excavates in it; but as it never
gnaws through the surface to the air, a stick of timber may be almost
wholly consumed without showing any external sign of the damage it has
sustained. The termite is found also in other parts of France, and
particularly at Rochelle, where, thus far, its ravages are confined to a
single quarter of the city. A borer, of similar habits, is not uncommon
in Italy, and you may see in that country handsome chairs and other
furniture which have been reduced by this insect to a framework of
powder of post, covered, and apparently held together, by nothing but
the varnish.


DESTRUCTION OF INSECTS.

It is well known to naturalists, but less familiarly to common
observers, that the aquatic larvae of some insects which in other stages
of their existence inhabit the land, constitute, at certain seasons, a
large part of the food of fresh-water fish, while other larvae, in their
turn, prey upon the spawn and even the young of their persecutors.
[Footnote: I have seen the larva of the dragon-fly in an aquarium bite
off the head of a young fish as long as itself.] The larvae of the
mosquito and the gnat are the favorite food of the trout in the wooded
regions where those insects abound. [Footnote: Insects and fish--which
prey upon and feed each other--are the only forms of animal life that
are numerous in the native woods, and their range is, of course, limited
by the extent of the waters. The great abundance of the trout, and of
other more or less allied genera in the lakes of Lapland, seems to be
due to the supply of food provided for them by the swarms of insects
which in the larva state inhabit the waters, or, in other stages of
their life, are accidentally swept into them. All travellers in the
north of Europe speak of the gnat and the mosquito as very serious
drawbacks upon the enjoyments of the summer tourist, who visits the head
of the Gulf of Bothnia to see the midnight sun, and the brothers
Laestadius regard them as one of the great plagues of sub-arctic life.
"The persecutions of these insects," says Lars Levi Laestadius [Culex
pipiens, Culex reptans, and Culex pulicaris], "leave not a moment's
peace, by day or night, to any living creature. Not only man, but
cattle, and even birds and wild beasts, suffer intolerably from their
bite." He adds in a note, "I will not affirm that they have ever
devoured a living man, but many young cattle, such as lambs and calves,
have been worried out of their lives by them. All the people of Lapland
declare that young birds are killed by them, and this is not improbable,
for birds are scarce after seasons when the midge, the gnlat, and the
mosquito are numerous."--Om Uppodlingar i Lappmarken, p. 50.

Petrus Laestadius makes similar statements in his Journal for forsta
urst, p. 283.]

Earlier in the year the trout feeds on the larvae of the May fly, which
is itself very destructive to the spawn of the salmon, and hence, by a
sort of house-that-Jack-built, the destruction of the mosquito, that
feeds the trout that preys on the May fly that destroys the eggs that
hatch the salmon that pampers the epicure, may occasion a scarcity of
this latter fish in waters where he would otherwise be abundant. Thus
all nature is linked together by invisible bonds, and every organic
creature, however low, however feeble, however dependent, is necessary
to the well-being of some other among the myriad forms of life with
which the Creator has peopled the earth.

I have said that man has promoted the increase of the insect and the
worm, by destroying the bird and the fish which feed upon them. Many
insects, in the four different stages of their growth, inhabit in
succession the earth, the water, and the air. In each of these elements
they have their special enemies, and, deep and dark as are the minute
recesses in which they hide themselves, they are pursued to the
remotest, obscurest corners by the executioners that nature has
appointed to punish their delinquencies, and furnished with cunning
contrivances for ferreting out the offenders and dragging them into the
light of day. One tribe of birds, the woodpeckers, seems to depend for
subsistence almost wholly on those insects which breed in dead or dying
trees, and it is, perhaps, needless to say that the injury these birds
do the forest is imaginary. They do not cut holes in the trunk of the
tree to prepare a lodgment for a future colony of boring larvae, but to
extract the worm which has already begun his mining labors. Hence these
birds are not found where the forester removes trees as fast as they
become fit habitations for such insects. In clearing new lands in the
United States, dead trees, especially of the spike-leaved kinds, too
much decayed to serve for timber, and which, in that state, are worth
little for fuel, are often allowed to stand until they fall of
themselves. Such stubs, as they are popularly called, are filled with
borers, and often deeply cut by the woodpeckers, whose strong bills
enable them to penetrate to the very heart of the tree and drag out the
lurking larvae. After a few years, the stubs fall, or, as wood becomes
valuable, are cut and carried off for firewood, and, at the same time,
the farmer selects for felling, in the forest he has reserved as a
permanent source of supply of fuel and timber, the decaying trees which,
like the dead stems in the fields, serve as a home for both the worm and
his pursuer. We thus gradually extirpate this tribe of insects, and,
with them, the species of birds which subsist principally upon them.
Thus the fine, large, red-headed woodpecker, Picus erythrocephalus,
formerly very common in New England, has almost entirely disappeared
from those States, since the dead trees are gone, and the apples, his
favorite vegetable food, are less abundant.

There are even large quadrupeds which feed almost exclusively upon
insects. The ant-bear is strong enough to pull down the clay houses
built by the species of termites that constitute his ordinary diet, and
the curious ai-ai, a climbing quadruped of Madagascar, is provided with
a very slender, hook-nailed finger, long enough to reach far into a
hole in the trunk of a tree, and extract the worm which bored it.
[Footnote: On the destruction of insects by reptiles, see page 125
ante.]


Minute Organisms.

Besides the larger inhabitants of the land and of the sea, the
quadrupeds, the reptiles, the birds, the amphibia, the crustacea, the
fish, the insects, and the worms, there are other countless forms of
vital being. Earth, water, the ducts and fluids of vegetable and of
animal life, the very air we breathe, are peopled by minute organisms
which perform most important functionsin both the living and the
inanimate kingdoms of nature. Of the offices assigned to these
creatures, the most familiar to common observation is the extraction of
lime, and, more rarely, of silex, from the waters inhabited by them, and
the deposit of these minerals in a solid form, either as the material of
their habitations or as the exuviae of their bodies. The microscope and
other means of scientific observation assure us that the chalk-beds of
England and of France, the coral reefs of marine waters in warm
climates, vast calcareous and silicious deposits in the sea and in many
fresh-water ponds, the common polishing earths and slates, and many
species of apparently dense and solid rock, are the work of the humble
organisms of which I speak, often, indeed, of animaculae so small as to
become visible only by the aid of lenses magnifying thousands of times
the linear measures. It is popularly supposed that animalculae, or what
are commonly embraced under the vague name of infusoria, inhabit the
water alone, but naturalists have long known that the atmospheric dust
transported by every wind and deposited by every calm is full of
microscopic life or of its relics. The soil on which the city of Berlin
stands, contains, at the depth of ten or fifteen feet below the surface,
living elaborators of silex; [Footnote: Wittwer, Physikalische
Geographie, p. 142.] and a microscopic examination of a handful of earth
connected with the material evidences of guilt has enabled the
naturalist to point out the very spot where a crime was committed. It
has been computed that one-sixth part of the solid matter let fall by
great rivers at their outlets consists of still recognizable infusory
shells and shields, and, as the friction of rolling water must reduce
many of these fragile structures to a state of comminution which even
the microscope cannot resolve into distinct particles and identify as
relics of animal or of vegetable life, we must conclude that a
considerably larger proportion of river deposits is really the product
of animalcules. [Footnote: To vary the phrase, I make occasional use of
animaloule, which, as a popular designation, embraces all microscopic
organisms. The name is founded on the now exploded supposition that all
of them are animated, which was the general belief of naturalists when
attention was first drawn to them. It was soon discovered that many of
them were unquestionably vegetable, and there are numerous genera the
true classification of which is a matter of dispute among the ablest
observers. There are cases in which objects formerly taken for living
animalcules turn out to be products of the decomposition of matter once
animated, and it is admitted that neither spontaneous motion nor even
apparent irritability are sure signs of animal life.]

It is evident that the chemical, and in many cases mechanical, character
of a great number of the objects important in the material economy of
human life, must be affected by the presence of so large an organic
element in their substance, and it is equally obvious that all
agricultural and all industrial operations tend to disturb the natural
arrangements of this element, to increase or to diminish the special
adaptation of every medium in which it lives to the particular orders of
being inhabited by it. The conversion of woodland into pasturage, of
pasture into plough land, of swamp or of shallow sea into dry ground,
the rotations of cultivated crops, must prove fatal to millions of
living things upon every rood of surface thus deranged by man, and must,
at the same time, more or less fully compensate this destruction of life
by promoting the growth and multiplication of other tribes equally
minute in dimensions. I do not know that man has yet endeavored to avail
himself, by artificial contrivances, of the agency of these wonderful
architects and manufacturers. We are hardly well enough acquainted with
their natural economy to devise means to turn their industry to
profitable account, and they are in very many cases too slow in
producing visible results for an age so impatient as ours. The
over-civilization of the nineteenth century cannot wait for wealth to be
amassed by infinitesimal gains, and we are in haste to SPECULATE upon
the powers of nature, as we do upon objects of bargain and sale in our
trafficking one with another. But there are still some cases where the
little we know of a life, whose workings are invisible to the naked eye,
suggests the possibility of advantageously directing the efforts of
troops of artisans that we cannot see. Upon coasts occupied by the
corallines, the reef-building animalcule does not work near the mouth of
rivers. Hence the change of the outlet of a stream, often a very busy
matter, may promote the construction of a barrier to coast navigation at
one point, and check the formation of a reef at another, by diverting a
current of fresh water from the former and pouring it into the sea at
the latter. Cases may probably be found, in tropical seas, where rivers
have prevented the working of the coral animalcules in straits
separating islands from each other or from the mainland. The diversion
of such streams might remove this obstacle, and reefs consequently be
formed which should convert an archipelago into a single large island,
and finally join that to the neighboring continent. Quatrefages proposed
to destroy the teredo in harbors by impregnating the water with a
mineral solution fatal to them. Perhaps the labors of the coralline
animals might be arrested over a considerable extent of sea-coast by
similar means. The reef-builders are leisurely architects, but the
precious coral is formed so rapidly that the beds may be refished
advantageously as often as once in ten years. [Footnote: The smallest
twig of the precious coral thrown back into the sea attaches itself to
the bottom or a rock, and grows as well as on its native stem. See an
interesting report on the coral fishery, by Sant' Agabio, Italian
Consul-General at Algiers, in the Bollettino Consolare, published by the
Department of Foreign Affairs, 1862, pp. 139, 151, and in the Annali di
Agricoltura Industria e Commercio, No. ii., pp. 300, 373.]

It does not seem impossible that branches of this coral might be
attached to the keel of a ship and transplanted to the American coast,
where the Gulf stream would furnish a suitable temperature beyond the
climatic limits that otherwise confine its growth; and thus a new source
of profit might perhaps be added to the scanty returns of the hardy
fisherman. In certain geological formations, the diatomaceae deposit, at
the bottom of fresh-water ponds, beds of silicious shields, valuable as
a material for a species of very light firebrick, in the manufacture of
water-glass and of hydraulic cement, and ultimately, doubtless, in many
yet undiscovered industrial processes. An attentive study of the
conditions favorable to the propagation of the diatomaceae might perhaps
help us to profit directly by the productivity of this organism, and, at
the same time, disclose secrets of nature capable of being turned to
valuable account in dealing with silicious rocks, and the metal which is
the base of them.

Our acquaintance with the obscure and infinitesimal life of which I have
now been treating is very recent, and still very imperfect. We know that
it is of vast importance in geology, but we are so ambitious to grasp
the great, so little accustomed to occupy ourselves with the minute,
that we are not yet prepared to enter seriously upon the question how
far we can control and utilize the operations, not of unembodied
physical forces merely, but of beings, in popular apprehension, almost
as immaterial as they.


Disturbance of Natural Balances.

It is highly probable that the reef-builders and other yet unstudied
minute forms of vital existence have other functions in the economy of
nature besides aiding in the architecture of the globe, and stand in
important relations not only to man but to the plants and the larger
sentient creatures over which he has dominion. The diminution or
multiplication of these unseen friends or foes may be attended with the
gravest consequences to all his material interests, and he is dealing
with dangerous weapons whenever he interferes with arrangements
pre-established by a power higher than his own. The equation of animal
and vegetable life is too complicated a problem for human intelligence
to solve, and we can never know how wide a circle of disturbance we
produce in the harmonics of nature when we throw the smallest pebble
into the ocean of organic being. This much, however, the facts I have
hitherto presented authorize us to conclude: as often as we destroy the
balance by deranging the original proportions between different orders
of spontaneous life, the law of self-preservation requires us to restore
the equilibrium, by either directly returning the weight abstracted from
one scale, or removing a corresponding quantity from the other. In other
words, destruction must be either repaired by reproduction, or
compensated by new destruction in an opposite quarter. The parlor
aquarium has taught even those to whom it is but an amusing toy, that
the balance of animal and vegetable life must be preserved, and that the
excess of either is fatal to the other, in the artificial tank as well
as in natural waters. A few years ago, the water of the Cochituato
aqueduct at Boston became so offensive in smell and taste as to be quite
unfit for use. Scientific investigation found the cause in the too
scrupulous care with which aquatic vegetation had been excluded from the
reservoir, and the consequent death and decay of the animalculae, which
could not be shut out, nor live in the water without the vegetable
element. [Footnote: It is remarkable that Pulisay, to whose great merits
as an acute observer I am happy to have frequent occasion to bear
testimony, had noticed that vegetation was necessary to maintain the
purity of water in artificial reservoirs, though he mistook the
rationale of its influence, which he ascribed to the elemental "salt"
supposed by him to play an important part in all the operations of
nature. In his treatise upon Waters and Fountains, p. 174, of the
reprint of 1844, he says: "And in special, thou shalt note one point,
the which is understood of few: that is to say, that the leaves of the
trees which fall upon the parterre, and the herbs growing beneath, and
singularly the fruits, if any there be upon the trees, being decayed,
the waters of the parterre shall draw onto them the salt of the said
fruits, leaves, and herbs, the which shall greatly better the water of
thy fountains, and hinder the putrefaction thereof."]


Animalcular Life.

Nature has no unit of magnitude by which she measures her works. Man
takes his standards of dimension from himself. The hair's breadth was
his minimum until the microscope told him that there are animated
creatures to which one of the hairs of his head is a larger cylinder
than is the trunk of the giant California sequoia to him. He borrows his
inch from the breadth of his thumb, his palm and span from the width of
his hand and the spread of his fingers, his foot from the length of the
organ so named; his cubit is the distance from the tip of his middle
finger to his elbow, and his fathom is the space he can measure with his
outstretched arms. [Footnote: The French metrical system seems destined
to be adopted throughout the civilized world. It is indeed recommended
by great advantages, but it is very doubtful whether they are not more
than counterbalanced by the selection of too large a unit of measure,
and by the inherent intractability of all decimal systems with reference
to fractional divisions. The experience of the whole world has
established the superior convenience of a smaller unit, such as the
braccio, the cubit, the foot, and the palm or span, and in practical
life every man finds that he haa much more frequent occasion to use a
fraction than a multiple of the metre. Of course, he must constantly
employ numbers expressive of several centimetres or millimetres instend
of the name of a single smaller unit than the metre. Besides, the metre
is not divisible into twelfths, eighths, sixths, or thirds, or the
multiples of any of these proportions, two of which at least--the eighth
and the third--are of as frequent use as any other fractions. The
adoption of a fourth of the earth's circumference as a base for the new
measures was itself a departure from the decimal system. Had the
Commissioners taken the entire circumference as a base, and divided it
into 100,000,000 instead of 10,000,000 parts, we should have had a unit
of about sixteen inches, which, as a compromise between the foot and the
cubit, would have been much better adapted to universal use than so
large a unit as the metre.] To a being who instinctively finds the
standard of all magnitudes in his own material frame, all objects
exceeding his own dimensions are absolutely great, all falling short of
them absolutely small. Hence we habitually regard the whale and the
elephant as essentially large and therefore important creatures, the
animalcule as an essentially small and therefore unimportant organism.
But no geological formation owes its origin to the labors or the remains
of the huge mammal, while the animalcule composes, or has furnished, the
substance of strata thousands of feet in thickness, and extending, in
unbroken beds, over many degrees of terrestrial surface. If man is
destined to inhabit the earth much longer, and to advance in natural
knowledge with the rapidity which has marked his progress in physical
science for the last two or three centuries, he will learn to put a
wiser estimate on the works of creation, and will derive not only great
instruction from studying the ways of nature in her obscurest, humblest
walks, but great material advantage from stimulating her productive
energies in provinces of her empire hitherto regarded as forever
inaccessible, utterly barren. [Footnote: The fermentation of liquids,
and in many cases the decomposition of semi-solids, formerly supposed to
be owing purely to chemical action, are now ascribed by many chemists to
vital processes of living minute organisms, both vegetable and animal,
and consequently to physiological as well as to chemical forces. Even
alcohol is stated to be an animal product. The whole subject of
animalcular, or rather minute organic, life, has assumed a now and
startling importance from the recent researches of naturalists and
physiologists, in the agency of such life, vegetable or animal, in
exciting and communicating contagious diseases, and it is extremely
probable that what are vaguely called germs, to whichever of the organic
kingdoms they may be assigned, creatures inhabiting various media, and
capable of propagating their kind and rapidly multiplying, are the true
seeds of infection and death in the maladies now called zymotic, as well
perhaps as in many others.

The literature of this subject is now very voluminous. For observations
with high microscopic power on this subject, see Beale, Disease Germs,
their supposed Nature, and Disease Germs, their real Nature, both
published in London in 1870.

The increased frequency of typhoidal, zymotic, and malarious diseases in
some parts of the United States, and the now common occurrence of some
of them in districts where they were unknown forty years ago, are
startling facts, and it is a very interesting question how far man's
acts or neglects may have occasioned the change. See Third Anual Report
of Massachusetts State Board of Health for 1873. The causes and remedies
of the insalubrity of Rome and its environs have been for some time the
object of careful investigation, and many valuable reports have been
published on the subject. Among the most recent of these are: Relazione
sulle condizioni agrarie ed igieniche della Campagna di Roma, per
Raffaele Pareto; Cenni Storici sulla questione dell' Agro Romano di G.
Guerzoni; Cenni sulle condizioni Fisico-economiche di Roma per F.
Giordano; and a very important paper in the journal Lo Sperimentale for
1870, by Dr. D. Pantaleoni.

There are climates, parts of California, for instance, where the flesh
of dead animals, freely exposed, shows no tendency to putrefaction but
dries up and may be almost indefinitely preserved in this condition. Is
this owing to the absence of destructive animalcular life in such
localities, and has man any agency in the introduction and
naturalization of these organisms in regions previously not infested by
them ]



CHAPTER III.

THE WOODS.

The habitable earth originally wooded--General meteorological influence
of the forest--Electrical action of trees--Chemical influence of
woods--Trees as protection against malaria--Trees as shelter to ground
to the leeward--Influence of the forest as inorganic on
temperature--Thermometrical action of trees as organic--Total influence
of the forest on temperature--Influence of forests as inorganic on
humidity of air and earth--Influence as organic--Balance of conflicting
influences--Influence of woods on precipitation--Total climatic action
of the forest--Influence of the forest on humidity of soil--The forest
in winter--Summer rain, importance of--Influence of the forest on the
flow of springs--Influence of the forest on inundations and
torrents--Destructive action of torrents--Floods of the
Ardeche--Excavation by torrents--Extinction of torrents--Crushing force
of torrents--Transporting power of water--The Po and its
deposits--Mountain slides--Forest as protection against
avalanches--Minor uses of the forest--Small forest plants and vitality
of seeds--Locusts do not breed in forests--General functions of
forest--General consequences of destruction of--Due proportion of
woodland--Proportion of woodland in European countries--Forests of Great
Britain--Forests of France--Forests of Italy--Forests of
Germany--Forests of United States--American forest trees--European and
American forest trees compared--The forest does not furnish food for
man--First removal of the forest--Principal causes of destruction of
forest--Destruction and protection of forests by governments--Royal
forests and game-laws--Effects of the French revolution--Increased
demand for lumber--Effects of burning forest--Floating of
timber--Restoration of the forest--Economy of the forest--Forest
legislation--Plantation of forests in America--Financial results of
forest plantations--Instability of American life.


The Habitable Earth originally Wooded.

There is good reason to believe that the surface of the habitable earth,
in all the climates and regions which have been the abodes of dense and
civilized populations, was, with few exceptions, already covered with a
forest growth when it first became the home of man. This we infer from
the extensive vegetable remains--trunks, branches, roots, fruits, seeds,
and leaves of trees--so often found in conjunction with works of
primitive art, in the boggy soil of districts where no forests appear to
have existed within the eras through which written annals reach; from
ancient historical records, which prove that large provinces, where the
earth has long been wholly bare of trees, were clothed with vast and
almost unbroken woods when first made known to Greek and Roman
civilization; [Footnote: The recorded evidence in support of the
proposition in the text has been collected by L. F. Alfred Maury, in his
Histoire des grandes Forets de la Gauls et de l'ancienne France, and by
Becquerel, in his important work, Des climats et de l'Influence
qu'exercent les Sols boises et non boises, livre ii., chap. i. to iv.

We may rank among historical evidences on this point, if not technically
among historical records, old geographical names and terminations
etymologically indicating forest or grove, which are so common in many
parts of the Eastern Continent now entirely stripped of woods--such as,
in Southern Europe, Breuil, Broglio, Brolio, Brolo; in Northern, Bruhl,
and the endings -dean, -den, -don, -ham, -holt, -horst, -hurst, -lund,
-shaw, -shot, -skog, -skov, -wald, -weald, -wold, -wood.] and from the
state of much of North and of South America, as well as of many islands,
when they were discovered and colonized by the European race. [Footnote:
The island of Madeira, whose noble forests wore devastated by fire not
Iong after its colonization by European settlors, takes its name from
the Portuguese word tor wood.]

These evidences are strengthened by observation of the natural economy
of our time; for, whenever a tract of country once inhabited and
cultivated by man, is abandoned by him and by domestic animals, and
surrendered to the undisturbed influences of spontaneous nature, its
soil sooner of later clothes itself with herbaceous and arborescent
plants, and, at no long interval, with a dense forest growth. Indeed,
upon surfaces of a certain stability and not absolutely precipitous
inclination the special conditions required for the spontaneous
propagation of trees may all be negatively expressed and reduced to
these three: exemption from defect or excess of moisture, from perpetual
frost, and from the depredations of man and browsing quadrupeds. Where
these requisites are secured, the hardest rock is as certain to be
overgrown with wood as the most fertile plain, though, for obvious
reasons, the process is slower in the former than in the latter case.
Lichens and mosses first prepare the way for a more highly organized
vegetation. They retain the moisture of rains and dews, and bring it to
act, in combination with the gases evolved by their organic processes,
in decomposing the surface of the rocks they cover; they arrest and
confine the dust which the wind scatters over them, and their final
decay adds new material to the soil already half formed beneath and upon
them. A very thin stratum of mould is sufficient for the germination of
seeds of the hardy evergreens and birches, the roots of which are often
found in immediate contact with the rock, supplying their trees with
nourishment from a soil deepened and enriched by the decomposition of
their own foliage, or sending out long rootlets into the surrounding
earth in search of juices to feed them.

The eruptive matter of volcanoes, forbidding as is its aspect, does not
refuse nutriment to the woods. The refractory lava of Etna, it is true,
remains long barren, and that of the great eruption of 1669 is still
almost wholly devoid of vegetation.

[Footnote: Even the volcanic dust of Etna remains very long
unproductive. Near Nicolosi is a great extent of coarse black sand,
thrown out in 1669, which, for almost two centuries, lay entirely bare,
and can be made to grow plants only by artificial mixtures and much
labor.

The increase in the price of wines, in consequence of the diminution of
the product from the grape disease, however, has brought even these
ashes under cultivation. "I found," says Waltershausen, referring to the
years 1861-62, "plains of volcanic sand and half-subdued lava streams,
which twenty years ago lay utterly waste, now covered with fine
vineyards. The ashfield of ten square miles above Nicolosi, created by
the eruption of 1669, which was entirely barren in 1835, is now planted
with vines almost to the summits of Monte Rosso, at a height of three
thousand feet" Ueber den Sicilianischen Ackerbau, p. 19.] But the cactus
is making inroads even here, while the volcanic sand and molten rock
thrown out by Vesuvius soon become productive. Before the great eruption
of 1631 even the interior of the crater was covered with vegetation.
George Sandys, who visited Vesuvius in 1611, after it had reposed for
several centuries, found the throat of the volcano at the bottom of the
crater "almost choked with broken rocks and trees that are falne
therein." "Next to this," he continues, "the matter thrown up is ruddy,
light, and soft: more removed, blacke and ponderous: the uttermost brow,
that declineth like the seates in a theater, flourishing with trees and
excellent pasturage. The midst of the hill is shaded with chestnut
trees, and others bearing sundry fruits." [Footnote: A Relation of a
Journey Begun An. Dom. 1610, lib. 4, p. 260, edition of 1615. The
testimony of Sandys on this point is confirmed by that of Pighio,
Braccini, Magliocco, Salimbeni, and Nicola di Rubco, all cited by Roth,
Der Vesuv., p. 9. There is some uncertainty about the date of the last
eruption previous to the great one of 163l. Ashes, though not lava,
appear to have been thrown out about the year 1500, and some chroniclers
have recorded an eruption in the year 1306; but this seems to be an
error for 1036, when a great quantity of lava was ejected. In 1130,
ashes were thrown out for many days. I take these dates from the work of
Roth just cited.] I am convinced that forests would soon cover many
parts of the Arabian and African deserts, if man and domestic animals,
especially the goat and the camel, were banished from them. The hard
palate and tongue and strong teeth and jaws of this latter quadruped
enable him to break off and masticate tough and thorny branches as large
as the finger. He is particularly fond of the smaller twigs, leaves, and
seed-pods of the sont and other acacias, which, like the American
Robinia, thrive well on dry and sandy soils, and he spares no tree the
branches of which are within his reach, except, if I remember right, the
tamarisk that produces manna. Young trees sprout plentifully around the
springs and along the winter water-courses of the desert, and these are
just the halting stations of the caravans and their routes of travel. In
the shade of these trees, annual grasses and perennial shrubs shoot up,
but are mown down by the hungry cattle of the Bedouin, as fast as they
grow. A few years of undisturbed vegetation would suffice to cover such
points with groves, and these would gradually extend themselves over
soils where now scarcely any green thing but the bitter colocynth and
the poisonous foxglove is ever seen.



General Meteorological Influence of the Forest.

The physico-geographical influence of forests may be divided into two
great classes, each having an important influence on vegetable and on
animal life in all their manifestations, as well as on every branch of
rural economy and productive industry, and, therefore, on all the
material interests of man. The first respects the meteorology of the
countries exposed to the action of these influences; the second, their
superficial geography, or, in other words, the configuration,
consistence, and clothing of their surface.

For reasons assigned in the first chapter, and for others that will
appear hereafter, the meteorological or climatic branch of the subject
is the most obscure, and the conclusions of physicists respecting it
are, in a great degree, inferential only, not founded on experiment or
direct observation. They are, as might be expected, somewhat discordant,
though one general result is almost universally accepted, and seems
indeed too well supported to admit of serious question, and it may be
considered as established that forests tend to mitigate, at least within
their own precincts, extremes of temperature, humidity, and drought. By
what precise agencies the meteorological effects of the forest are
produced we cannot say, because elements of totally unknown value enter
into its action, and because the relative intensity of better understood
causes cannot be measured or compared. I shall not occupy much space in
discussing questions which at present admit of no solution, but I
propose to notice all the known forces whose concurrent or conflicting
energies contribute to the general result, and to point out, in some
detail, the value of those influeuces whose mode of action has been
ascertained. Electrical Influence of Trees. The properties of trees,
singly and in groups, as exciters or conductors of electricity, and
their consequent influence upon the electrical state of the atmosphere,
do not appear to have been much investigated; and the conditions of the
forest itself are so variable and so complicated, that the solution of
any general problem respecting its electrical influence would be a
matter of extreme difficulty. It is, indeed, impossible to suppose that
a dense cloud, a sea of vapor, can pass over miles of surface bristling
with good conductors, without undergoing and producing some change of
electrical condition. Hypothetical cases may be put in which the
character of the change could be deduced from the known laws of
electrical action. But in actual nature, the elements are too numerous
for us to seize. The true electrical condition of neither cloud nor
forest could be known, and it could seldom be predicted whether the
vapors would be dissolved as they floated over the wood, or discharged
upon it in a deluge of rain. With regard to possible electrical
influences of the forest, wider still in their range of action, the
uncertainty is even greater. The data which alone could lead to
positive, or even probable, conclusions are wanting, and we should,
therefore, only embarrass our argument by any attempt to discuss this
meteorological element, important as it may be, in its relations of
cause and effect to more familiar and bettor understood meteoric
phenomena. It may, however, be observed that hail-storms--which were
once generally supposed, and are still held by many, to be produced by a
specific electrical action, and which, at least, appear to be always
accompanied by electrical disturbances--are believed, in all countries
particularly exposed to that scourge, to have become more frequent and
destructive in proportion as the forests have been cleared. Caimi
observes: "When the chains of the Alps and the Apennines had not yet
been stripped of their magnificent crown of woods, the May hail, which
now desolates the fertile plains of Lombardy, was much less frequent;
but since the general prostration of the forest, these tempests are
laying waste even the mountain-soils whose older inhabitants scarcely
knew this plague. [Footnote: There are, in Northern Italy and in
Switzerland, joint-stock companies which insure against damage by hail,
as well as by fire and lightning. Between the years 1854 and 1861, a
single one of these companies, La Riunione Adriatica, paid, for damage
by hail in Piedmont, Venetian Lombardy, and the Duchy of Parma, above
6,500,000 francs, or nearly $200,000 per year.] The paragrandini,
[Footnote: The paragrandine, or, as it is called in French, the
paragrele, is a species of conductor by which it has been hoped to
protect the harvests in countries particularly exposed to damage by
hail. It was at first proposed to employ for this purpose poles
supporting sheaves of straw connected with the ground by the same
material; but the experiment was afterwards tried in Lombardy on a large
scale, with more perfect electrical conductors, consisting of poles
secured to the top of tall trees and provided with a pointed wire
entering the ground and reaching above the top of the pole. It was at
first thought that this apparatus, erected at numerous points over an
extent of several miles, was of some service as a protection against
hail, but this opinion was soon disputed, and does not appear to be
supported by well-ascertained facts. The question of a repetition of the
experiment over a wide area has been again agitated within a very few
years in Lombardy; but the doubts expressed by very able physicists as
to its efficacy, and as to the point whether hail is an electrical
phenomenon, have discouraged its advocates from attempting it.] which
the learned curate of Rivolta advised to erect, with sheaves of straw
set up vertically, over a great extent of cultivated country, are but a
Liliputian imago of the vast paragrandini, pines, larches, and fire,
which nature had planted by millions on the crests and ridges of the
Alps and the Apennines." [Footnote: Cenni sulla Importansa e Coltura dei
Boschi, p. 6.] "Electrical action being diminished," says Meguscher,
"and the rapid congelation of vapors by the abstraction of heat being
impeded by the influence of the woods, it is rare that hail or
waterspouts are produced within the precincts of a large forest when it
is assailed by the tempest." [Footnote: Memoria sui Boschi, etc., p.
44.] Arthur Young was told that since the forests which covered the
mountains between the Riviera and the county of Montferrat had
disappeared, hail had become more destructive in the district of Acqui,
[Footnote: Travels in Italy, chap. iii.] and a similar increase in the
frequency and violence of hail-storms in the neighborhood of Saluzzo and
Mondovi, the lower part of the Valtelline, and the territory of Verona
and Vicenza, is probably to be ascribed to a similar cause. [Footnote:
Le Alpi che cingono l'Italia, i., p. 377. See "On the Influence of the
Forest in Preventing Hail-storms," a paper by Becquerel, in the Memoires
de l'Academie des Sciences, vol. xxxv. The conclusion of this eminent
physicist is, that woods do excercise, both within their own limits and
in their vicinity, the influence popularly ascribed to them in this
respect, and that the effect is probably produced partly by mechanical
and partly by electrical action.] Chemical Influence of the Forest. We
know that the air in a close apartment is appreciably affected through
the inspiration and expiration of gases by plants growing in it. The
same operations are performed on a gigantic scale by the forest, and it
has even been supposed that the absorption of carbon, by the rank
vegetation of earlier geological periods, occasioned a permanent change
in the constitution of the terrestrial atmosphere. [Footnote: "Long
before the appearance of man, ... they [the forests] had robbed the
atmosphere of the enormous quantity of carbonic acid it contained, and
thereby transformed it into respirable air. Trees heaped upon trees had
already filled up the ponds and marshes, and buried with them in the
bowels of the earth--to restore it to us, after thousands of ages, in
the form of bituminous coal and of anthracite--the carbon which was
destined to become, by this wonderful condensation, a precious store of
future wealth."--Clave, Etudes sur l'Economie Forestiere, p. 13.

This opinion of the modification of the atmosphere by vegetation is
contested.

Mossman ascribes the great luxuriance and special character of the
Australian and New Zealand forests, as well as other peculiarities of
the vegetation of the Southern hemisphere, to a supposed larger
proportion of carbon in the atmosphere of that hemisphere, though the
fact of such excess does not appear to have been established by chemical
analysis. Mossman, Origin of the Seasons. Edinburgh, 1869. Chaps. xvi.
and xvil.] To the effects thus produced are to be added those of the
ultimate gaseous decomposition of the vast vegetable mass annually shed
by trees, and of their trunks and branches when they fall a prey to
time. But the quantity of gases thus abstracted from and restored to the
atmosphere is inconsiderable--infinitesimal, one might almost say--in
comparison with the ocean of air from which they are drawn and to which
they return; and though the exhalations from bogs, and other low grounds
covered with decaying vegetable matter, are highly deleterious to human
health, yet, in general, the air of the forest is hardly chemically
distinguishable from that of the sand plains, and we can as little trace
the influence of the woods in the analysis of the atmosphere, as we can
prove that the mineral ingredients of landsprings sensibly affect the
chemistry of the sea. I may, then, properly dismiss the chemical, as I
have done the electrical, influences of the forest, and treat them both
alike, if not as unimportant agencies, at least as quantities of unknown
value in our meteorological equation. [Footnote: Schacht ascribes to the
forest a specific, if not a measurable, influence upon the constitution
of the atmosphere. "Plants imbibe from the air carbonic acid and other
gaseous or volatile products exhaled by animals or developed by the
natural phenomena of decomposition. On the other hand, the vegetable
pours into the atmosphere oxygen, which is taken up by animals and
appropriated by them. The tree, by means of its leaves and its young
herbaceous twigs, presents a considerable surface for absorption and
evaporation; it abstracts the carbon of carbonic acid, and solidifies it
in wood, fecula, and a multitude of other compounds. The result is that
a forest withdraws from the air, by its great absorbent surface, much
more gas than meadows or cultivated fields, and exhales proportionally a
considerably greater quantity of oxygen. The influence of the forests on
the chemical composition of the atmosphere is, in a word, of the highest
importance."--Les Arbres, p. 111.

See on this subject a paper by J. Jamin, in the Revue des Deux Mondes
for Sept. 15, 1864; and, on the effects of human industry on the
atmosphere, an article in Aus der Natur, vol. 29, 1864, pp. 443, 449,
465, et seq. See also Alfred Maury, Les Forete de la Gaule, p. 107.] Our
inquiries upon this branch of the subject will accordingly be limited to
the thermometrical and hygrometrical influences of the woods. There is,
however, a special protective function of the forest, perhaps, in part,
of a chemical nature, which may be noticed here.

Trees as a Protection against Malaria.

The influence of forests in preventing the diffusion of miasmatic vapors
is not a matter of familiar observation, and perhaps it does not come
strictly within the sphere of the present inquiry, but its importance
will justify me in devoting some space to the subject. "It has been
observed" (I quote from Becquerel) "that humid air, charged with
miasmata, is deprived of them in passing through the forest. Rigaud de
Lille observed localities in Italy where the interposition of a screen
of trees preserved everything beyond it, while the unprotected grounds
were subject to fevers." [Footnote: Becquerel, Des Climats, etc., p. 9.]
Few European countries present better opportunities for observation on
this point than Italy, because in that kingdom the localities exposed to
miasmatic exhalations are numerous, and belts of trees, if not forests,
are of so frequent occurrence that their efficacy in this respect can be
easily tested. The belief that rows of trees afford an important
protection against malarious influences is very general among Italians
best qualified by intelligence and professional experience to judge upon
the subject. The commissioners, appointed to report on the measures to
be adopted for the improvement of the Tuscan Maremme, advised the
planting of three or four rows of poplars, Populus alla, in such
directions as to obstruct the currents of air from malarious localities,
and thus intercept a great proportion of the pernicious
exhalations." [Footnote: Salvagnoli, Rapporto sul Bonificamento delle
Maremme Toscane, pp. xii., 124.] Maury believed that a few rows of
sunflowers, planted between the Washington Observatory and the marshy
banks of the Potomac, had saved the inmates of that establishment from
the intermittent fevers to which they had been formerly liable. Maury's
experiments have been repeated in Italy. Large plantations of sunflowers
have been made upon the alluvial deposits of the Oglio, above its
entrance into the Lake of Iseo, near Pisogne, and it is said with
favorable results to the health of the neighborhood. [Footnote: Il
Politecnico, Milano, Aprile e Maggio, 1863, p. 35.] In fact, the
generally beneficial effects of a forest wall or other vegetable screen,
as a protection against noxious exhalations from marshes or other
sources of disease, situated to the windward of them, are very commonly
admitted.

It is argued that, in these cases, the foliage of trees and of other
vegetables exercises a chemical as well as a mechanical effect upon the
atmosphere, and some, who allow that forests may intercept the
circulation of the miasmatic effluvia of swampy soils, or even render
them harmless by decomposing them, contend, nevertheless, that they are
themselves active causes of the production of malaria. The subject has
been a good deal discussed in Italy, and there is some reason to think
that under special circumstances the influence of the forest in this
respect may be prejudicial rather than salutary, though this does not
appear to be generally the case. [Footnote: Salvagnoli, Memorie sulle
Maremme Toscane, pp. 213, 214. The sanitary action of the forest has
been lately matter of much attention in Italy. See Rendiconti del
Congresso Medico del 1869 a Firenze, and especially the important
observations of Selmi, Il Miasma Palustre, Padua, 1870, pp. 100 et seq.
This action is held by this able writer to be almost wholly chemical,
and he earnestly recommends the plantation of groves, at least of belts
of trees, as an effectual protection against the miasmatic influence of
marshes. Very interesting observations on this point will be found in
Ebermayer, Die Physikalischen Einwirkungen des Waldes, Aschaffenburg,
1873, B. I., pp. 237 et seq., where great importance is ascribed to the
development of ozone by the chemical action of the forest. The
beneficial influence of the ozone of the forest atmosphere on the human
system is, however, questioned by some observers. See also the able
memoir: Del Miasma vegetale e delle Malattis Miasmatiche of Dr D.
Pantaleoni in Lo Sperimentale, vol. xxii., 1870.

The necessity of such hygienic improvements as shall render the new
capital of Italy a salubrious residence gives great present importance
to this question, and it is much to be hoped that the Agro Romano, as
well as more distant parts of the Campagna, will soon be dotted with
groves and traversed by files of rapidly growing trees. Many forest
trees grow with great luxuriance in Italy, and a moderate expense in
plantation would in a very few years determine whether any amelioration
of the sanitary condition of Rome can be expected from this measure.

It is said by recent writers that in India the villages of the natives
and the encampments of European troops, situated in the midst or in the
neighborhood of groves and of forests, are exempt from cholera. Similar
observations were also made in 18S4 in Germany when this terrible
disease was raging there. It is hence inferred that forests prevent the
spreading of this malady, or rather the development of those unknown
influences of which cholera is the result. These influences, if we may
believe certain able writers on medical subjects, are telluric rather
than meteoric; and they regard it as probable that the uniform moisture
of soil in forests may be the immediate cause of the immunity enjoyed by
such localities. See an article by Pettenkofer in the Sud-Deutsche
Presse, August, 1869; and the observations of Ebermayer in the work
above quoted, pp. 246 et seq.

In Australia and New Zealand, as well as generally in the Southern
Hemisphere, the indigenous trees are all evergreens, and even deciduous
trees introduced from the other side of the equator become evergreen. In
those regions, even in the most swampy localities, malarious diseases
are nearly, if not altogether, unknown. Is this most important fact due
to the persistence of the foliage Mossman, Origin of Climates, pp. 374,
393, 410, 425, et seq.] It is, at all events, well known that the great
swamps of Virginia and the Carolinas, in climates nearly similar to that
of Italy, are healthy even to the white man, so long as the forests in
and around them remain, but become very insalubrious when the woods are
felled. [Footnote: Except in the seething marshes of northern tropical
and subtropical regions, where vegetable decay is extremely rapid, the
uniformity of temperature and of atmospheric humidity renders all
forests eminently healthful. See Hohensten's observations on this
subject, Der Wald, p. 41; also A. Maury, Les Forets de la Gaule, p. 7.

The flat and marshy district of the Sologne in France was salubrious
until its woods were felled. It then became pestilential, but within the
last few years its healthfulness has been restored by forest
plantations. Jules Clave in Revue des Deux Mondes for 1st March, 1866,
p. 209. There is no question that open squares and parks conduce to the
salubrity of cities, and many observers are of opinion that the trees
and other vegetables with which such grounds are planted contribute
essentially to their beneficial influence. See an article in Aus der
Natur, xxii, p. 813.]


Trees as Shelter to Ground to the Leeward.

As a mechanical obstruction, trees impede the passage of air-currents
over the ground, which, as is well known, is one of the most efficient
agents in promoting evaporation and the refrigeration resulting from
it. [Footnote: It is perhaps too much to say that the influence of trees
upon the wind is strictly limited to the mechanical resistance of their
trunks, branches, and foliage. So far as the forest, by dead or by
living action, raises or lowers the temperature of the air within it, so
far it creates upward or downward currents in the atmosphere above it,
and, consequently, a flow of air towards or from itself. These
air-streams have a certain, though doubtless a very small, influence on
the force and direction of greater atmospheric movements.] In the
forest, the air is almost quiescent, and moves only as local changes of
temperature affect the specific gravity of its particles. Hence there is
often a dead calm in the woods when a furious blast is raging in the
open country at a few yards' distance. The denser the forest--as, for
example, where it consists of spike-leaved trees, or is thickly
intermixed with them--the more obvious is its effect, and no one can
have passed from the field to the wood in cold, windy weather, without
having remarked it. [Footnote: As a familiar illustration of the
influence of the forest in checking the movement of winds, I may mention
the well-known fact, that the sensible cold is never extreme in thick
woods, where the motion of the air is little felt. The lumbermen in
Canada and the Northern United States labor in the woods, without
inconvenience, when the mercury stands many degrees below the zero of
Fahrenheit, while in the open grounds, with only a moderate breeze, the
same temperature is almost insupportable. The engineers and firemen of
locomotives, employed on railways running through forests of any
considerable extent, observe that, in very cold weather, it is much
easier to keep up the steam while the engine is passing through the
woods than in the open ground. As soon as the train emerges from the
shelter of the trees the steam-gauge falls, and the stoker is obliged to
throw in a liberal supply of fuel to bring it up again.

Another less frequently noticed fact, due, no doubt, in a great measure
to the immobility of the air, is, that sounds are transmitted to
incredible distances in the unbroken forest. Many instances of this have
fallen under my own observation, and others, yet more striking, have
been related to me by credible and competent witnesses familiar with a
more primitive condition of the Anglo-American world. An acute observer
of natural phenomena, whose childhood and youth were spent in the
interior of one of the newer New England States, has often told me that
when he established his home in the forest, he always distinctly heard,
in still weather, the plash of horses' feet, when they forded a small
brook nearly seven-eighths of a mile from his house, though a portion of
the wood that intervened consisted of a ridge seventy or eighty feet
higher than either the house or the ford.

I have no doubt that, in such cases, the stillness of the air is the
most important element in the extraordinary transmissibilty of sound;
but it must be admitted that the absence of the multiplied, and confused
noises, which accompany human industry in countries thickly peopled by
man, contributes to the same result. We become, by habit, almost
insensible to the familiar and never-resting voices of civilization in
cities and towns; but the indistinguishable drone, which sometimes
escapes even the ear of him who listens for it, deadens and often quite
obstructs the transmission of sounds which would otherwise be clearly
audible. An observer, who wishes to appreciate that hum of civic life
which he cannot analyze, will find an excellent opportunity by placing
himself on the hill of Capo di Monte at Naples, in the line of
prolongation of the street called Spaccanapoli.

It is probably to the stillness of which I have spoken that we are to
ascribe the transmission of sound to great distances at sea in calm
weather. In June, 1853, I and my family were passengers on board a
ship-of-war bound up the Aegean. On the evening of the 27th of that
month, as we were discussing, at the tea-table, some observations of
Humboldt on this subject, the captain of the ship told us that he had
once heard a single gun at sea at the distance of ninety nautical miles.
The next morning, though a light breeze had sprung up from the north,
the sea was of glassy smoothness when we went on deck. As we came up, an
officer told us that he had heard a gun at sunrise, and the conversation
of the previous evening suggested the inquiry whether it could have been
fired from the combined French and English fleet then lying at Beshika
Bay. Upon examination of our position we were found to have been, at
sunrise, ninety sea miles from that point. We continued beating up
northwards, and between sunrise and twelve o'clock meridian of the 28th,
we had made twelve miles northing, reducing our distance from Beshika
Bay to seventy-eight sea miles. At noon we heard several guns so
distinctly that we were able to count the number. On the 29th we came up
with the fleet, and learned from an officer who came on board that a
royal salute had been fired at noon on the 28th, in honor of the day as
the anniversary of the Queen of England's coronation. The report at
sunrise was evidently the morning gun, those at noon the salute.

Such cases are rare, because the sea is seldom still, and the [word in
Greek] rarely silent, over so great a space as ninety or even
seventy-eight nautical miles. I apply the epithet silent to [word in
Greek] advisedly. I am convinced that Aeschylus meant the audible laugh
of the waves, which is indeed of COUNTLESS multiplicity, not the visible
smile of the sea, which, belonging to the great expanse as one
impersonation, is single, though, like the human smile, made up of the
play of many features.] The action of the forest, considered merely as a
mechanical shelter to grounds lying to the leeward of it, might seem to
be an influence of too restricted a character to deserve much notice;
but many facts concur to allow that it is a most important element in
local climate.

It is evident that the effect of the forest, as a mechanical impediment
to the passage of the wind, would extend to a very considerable distance
above its own height, and hence protect while standing, or lay open when
felled, a much larger surface than might at first thought be supposed.
The atmosphere, movable as are its particles, and light and elastic as
are its masses, is nevertheless held together as a continuous whole by
the gravitation of its atoms and their consequent pressure on each
other, if not by attraction between them, and, therefore, an obstruction
which mechanically impedes the movement of a given stratum of air will
retard the passage of the strata above and below it. To this effect may
often be added that of an ascending current from the forest itself,
which must always exist when the atmosphere within the wood is warmer
than the stratum of air above it, and must be of almost constant
occurrence in the case of cold winds, from whatever quarter, because the
still air in the forest is slow in taking up the temperature of the
moving columns and currents around and above it. Experience, in fact,
has shown that mere rows of trees, and even much lower obstructions, are
of essential service in defending vegetation against the action of the
wind. Hardy proposes planting, in Algeria, belts of trees at the
distance of one hundred metres from each other, as a shelter which
experience had proved to be useful in France. [Footnote: Becquerel, Des
Climats, etc., p. 179.] "In the valley of the Rhone," says Becquerel, "a
simple hedge, two metres in height, is a sufficient protection for a
distance of twenty-two metres." [Footnote: Ibid., p. 116. Becquerel's
views have been amply confirmed by recent extensive experiments on the
bleak, stony, and desolate plain of the Cran in the Department of the
Bouches-du-Rhone, which had remained a naked waste from the earliest
ages of history. Belts of trees prove a secure protection even against
the furious and chilly blasts of the Mistral, and in this shelter
plantations of fruit-trees and vegetables, fertilized by the waters and
the slime of the Durance, which are conducted and distributed over the
Cran, thrive with the greatest luxuriance. [Footnote: Surrell, Etude sur
les Torrents, 2d edition, 1872, ii, p. 85.] The mechanical shelter acts,
no doubt, chiefly as a defence against the mechanical force of the wind,
but its uses are by no means limited to this effect. If the current of
air which it resists moves horizontally, it would prevent the access of
cold or parching blasts to the ground for a great distance; and did the
wind even descend at a large angle with the surface, still a
considerable extent of ground would be protected by a forest to the
windward of it.

In the report of a committee appointed in 1836 to examine an article of
the forest code of France, Arago observes; "If a curtain of forest on
the coasts of Normandy and of Brittany were destroyed, these two
provinces would become accessible to the winds from the west, to the
mild breezes of the sea. Hence a decrease of the cold of winter. If a
similar forest were to be cleared on the eastern border of France, the
glacial east wind would prevail with greater strength, and the winters
would become more severe. Thus the removal of a belt of wood would
produce opposite effects in the two regions." [Footnote: Becquerel, Des
Climats, etc., Discours Prelim., vi.]

This opinion receives confirmation from an observation of Dr. Dwight,
who remarks, in reference to the woods of New England: "Another effect
of removing the forest will be the free passage of the winds, and among
them of the southern winds, over the surface. This, I think, has been an
increasing fact within my own remembrance. As the cultivation of the
country has extended further to the north, the winds from the south have
reached distances more remote from the ocean, and imparted their warmth
frequently, and in such degrees as, forty years since, were in the same
places very little known. This fact, also, contributes to lengthen the
summer and to shorten the winter half of the year." [Footnote: Travels,
i., p. 61.]

It is thought in Italy that the clearing of the Apennines has very
materially affected the climate of the valley of the Po. It is asserted
in Le Alpi che cingono l'Italia that: "In consequence of the felling of
the woods on the Apennines, the sirocco prevails greatly on the right
bank of the Po, in the Parmesan territory, and in a part of Lombardy; it
injures the harvests and the vineyards, and sometimes ruins the crops of
the season. To the same cause many ascribe the meteorological changes in
the precincts of Modena and of Reggio. In the communes of these
districts, where formerly straw roofs resisted the force of the winds,
tiles are now hardly sufficient; in others, where tiles answered for
roofs, large slabs of stone are now ineffectual; and in many neighboring
communes the grapes and the grain are swept off by the blasts of the
south and south-west winds."

According to the same authority, the pinery of Porto, near
Ravenna--which is twenty miles long, and is one of the oldest pine woods
in Italy--having been replanted with resinous trees after it was
unfortunately cut, has relieved the city from the sirocco to which it
had become exposed, and in a great degree restored its ancient climate.
[Footnote: Le Alpi che cingono l'Italia, pp. 370, 371.]

The felling of the woods on the Atlantic coast of Jutland has exposed
the soil not only to drifting sands, but to sharp sea-winds, that have
exerted a sensible deteriorating effect on the climate of that
peninsula, which has no mountains to serve at once as a barrier to the
force of the winds, and as a storehouse of moisture received by
precipitation or condensed from atmospheric vapors. [Footnote: Bergsoe,
Reventlovs Virksomhed, ii., p. 125.

The following well-attested instance of a local change of climate is
probably to be referred to the influence of the forest as a shelter
against cold winds. To supply the extraordinary demand for Italian iron
occasioned by the exclusion of English iron in the time of Napoleon I.,
the furnaces of the valleys of Bergamo were stimulated to great
activity. "The ordinary production of charcoal not sufficing to feed the
furnaces and the forges, the woods were felled, the copses cut before
their time, and the whole economy of the forest was deranged. At
Piazzatorre there was such a devastation of the woods, and consequently
such an increased severity of climate, that maize no longer ripened. An
association, formed for the purpose, effected the restoration of the
forest, and maize flourishes again in the fields of Piazzatorre."
--Report by G. Rosa, in Il Politecnico, Dicembre, 1861, p. 614.

Similar ameliorations have been produced by plantations in Belgium. In
an interesting series of articles by Bande, entitled, "Les Cotes de la
Manche," in the Revue des Deux Mondes, I find this statement: "A
spectator, placed on the famous bell-tower of the cathedral of Antwerp,
saw, not long since, on the opposite side of the Schelde, only a vast
desert plain; now he sees a forest, the limits of which are confounded
with the horizon. Let him enter within its shade. The supposed forest is
but a system of regular rows of trees, the oldest of which is not forty
years of age. These plantations have ameliorated the climate which had
doomed to sterility the soil where they are planted. While the tempest
is violently agitating their tops, the air a little below is still, and
sands far more barren than the plateau of La Hague have been
transformed, under their protection, into fertile fields."--Revue des
Deux Mondes, January, 1859, p. 277.] The local retardation of spring, so
much complained of in Italy, France, and Switzerland, and the increased
frequency of late frosts at that season, appear to be ascribable to the
admission of cold blasts to the surface, by the felling of the forests
which formerly both screened it as by a wall, and communicated the
warmth of their soil to the air and earth to the leeward.

Caimi states that since the cutting down of the woods of the Apennines,
the cold winds destroy or stunt the vegetation, and that, in consequence
of "the usurpation of winter on the domain of spring," the district of
Mugello has lost all its mulberries, except the few which find in the
lee of buildings a protection like that once furnished by the forest.
[Footnote: Cenni sulla Importanza e Coltura dei Boschi, p. 31.]

The department of Ardeche, which now contains not a single considerable
wood, has experienced within thirty years a climatic disturbance, of
which the late frosts, formerly unknown in the country, are one of the
most melancholy effects. Similar results have been observed in the plain
of Alsace, in consequence of the denudation of several of the crests of
the Vosges. [Footnote: Clave, Etudes, p. 44.] [Footnote It has been
observed in Sweden that the spring, in many districts where the forests
have been cleared off, now comes on a fortnight later than in the last
century.--Asbjornsen, Om Skovene i norge, p. 101.] Dussard, as quoted by
Ribbe, [Footnote: La Provence au point de vue des Torrents et des
Inondations, p. 10.

Dussard is doubtless historically inaccurate in making the origin of the
mistral so late as the time of Augustus. Diodorus Siculus, who was a
contemporary of Julius Caesar, describes the north-west winds in Gaul as
violent enough to hurl along stones as large as the fist with clouds of
sand and gravel, to strip travellers of their arms and clothing, and to
throw mounted men from their horses. Bibliotheca Historica, lib. v., c.
xxvi. Diodorus, it is true, is speaking of the climate of Gaul in
general, but his description can hardly refer to anything but the
mistral of South-eastern France.] maintains that even the MISTRAL, or
north-west wind, whose chilling blasts are so fatal to tender vegetation
in the spring, "is the child of man, the result of his devastations."
"Under the reign of Augustus," continues he, "the forests which
protected the Cevennes were felled, or destroyed by fire, in mass. A
vast country, before covered with impenetrable woods--powerful obstacles
to the movement and even to the formation of hurricanes--was suddenly
denuded, swept bare, stripped, and soon after, a scourge hitherto
unknown, struck terror over the land from Avignon to the
Bouches-du-Rhone, thence to Marseilles, and then extended its ravages,
diminished indeed by a long career which had partially exhausted its
force, over the whole maritime frontier. The people thought this wind a
curse sent of God. They raised altars to it and offered sacrifices to
appease its rage." It seems, however, that this plague was less
destructive than at present, until the close of the sixteenth century,
when further clearings had removed most of the remaining barriers to its
course. Up to that time, the north-west wind appears not to have
attained to the maximum of specific effect which now characterizes it as
a local phenomenon. Extensive districts, from which the rigor of the
seasons has now banished valuable crops, were not then exposed to the
loss of their harvests by tempests, cold, or drought. The deterioration
was rapid in its progress. Under the Consulate, the clearings had
exerted so injurious an effect upon the climate, that the cultivation of
the olive had retreated several leagues, and since the winters and
springs of 1820 and 1836, this branch of rural industry has been
abandoned in a great number of localities where it was advantageously
pursued before. The orange now flourishes only at a few sheltered points
of the coast, and it is threatened even at Hyeres, where the clearing of
the hills near the town has proved very prejudicial to this valuable
tree.

Marchand informs us that, since the felling of the woods, late spring
frosts are more frequent in many localities north of the Alps; that
fruit-trees thrive no longer, and that it is difficult even to raise
young fruit-trees. [Footnote: Ueber die Entwaldung der Gebirge, p. 28.
Interesting facts and observations on this point will be found in the
valuable Report on the Effects of the Destruction of the Forests in
Wisconsin, by LAPHAM and others, pp. 6, 18, 20.]

Influence of the Forest, considered as Inorganic Matter, on Temperature.
The evaporation of fluids, and the condensation and expansion of vapors
and gases, are attended with changes of temperature; and the quantity of
moisture which the air is capable of containing, and of course, other
things being equal, the evaporation, rise and fall with the thermometer.
The hygroscopical and the thermoscopical conditions of the atmosphere
are, therefore, inseparably connected as reciprocally dependent
quantities, and neither can be fully discussed without taking notice of
the other. The leaves of living trees exhale enormous quantities of gas
and of aqueous vapor, and they largely absorb gases, and, under certain
conditions, probably also water. Hence they affect more or less
powerfully the temperature as well as the humidity of the air. But the
forest, regarded purely as inorganic matter, and without reference to
its living processes of absorption and exhalation of gases and of water,
has, as an absorbent, a radiator and a conductor of heat, and as a mere
covering of the ground, an influence on the temperature of the air and
the earth, which may be considered by itself.


Absorbing and Emitting Surface.

A given area of ground, as estimated by the every-day rule of
measurement in yards or acres, presents always the same apparent
quantity of absorbing, radiating, and reflecting surface; but the real
extent of that surface is very variable, depending, as it does, upon its
configuration, and the bulk and form of the adventitious objects it
bears upon it; and, besides, the true superficies remaining the same,
its power of absorption, radiation, reflection, and conduction of heat
will be much affected by its consistence, its greater or less humidity,
and its color, as well as by its inclination of plane and exposure. An
acre of clay, rolled hard and smooth, would have great reflecting power,
but its radiation would be much increased by breaking it up into clods,
because the actually exposed surface would be greater, though the
outline of the field remained the same. The inequalities, natural or
artificial, which always occur in the surface of ordinary earth, affect
in the same way its quantity of superficies acting upon the temperature
of the atmosphere, and acted on by it, though the amount of this action
and reaction is not susceptible of measurement.

Analogous effects are produced by other objects, of whatever form or
character, standing or lying upon the earth, and no solid can be placed
upon a flat piece of ground, without itself exposing a greater surface
than it covers. This applies, of course, to forest trees and their
leaves, and indeed to all vegetables, as well as to other prominent
bodies. If we suppose forty trees to be planted on an acre, one being
situated in the centre of every square of two rods the side, and to grow
until their branches and leaves everywhere meet, it is evident that,
when in full foliage, the trunks, branches, and leaves would present an
amount of thermoscopic surface much greater than that of an acre of bare
earth; and besides this, the fallen leaves lying scattered on the
ground, would somewhat augment the sum-total. [Footnote: "The Washington
elm at Cambridge--a tree of no extraordinary size--was some years ago
estimated to produce a crop of seven millions of leaves, exposing a
surface of two hundred thousand square feet, or about five acres of
foliage."--Gray, First Lessons in Botany and Vegetable Physiology.] On
the other hand, the growing leaves of trees generally form a succession
of stages, or, loosely speaking, layers, corresponding to the annual
growth of the branches, and more or less overlying each other. This
disposition of the foliage interferes with that free communication
between sun and sky above, and leaf-surface below, on which the amount
of radiation and absorption of light depends. From all these
considerations, it appears that though the effective thermoscopic
surface of a forest in full leaf does not exceed that of bare ground in
the same proportion as does its measured superficies, yet the actual
quantity of area capable of receiving and emitting heat must be greater
in the former than in the latter case. [Footnote: See, on this particular
point, and on the general influence of the forest on temperature,
Humboldt, Ansichten der Natur, i., 158.]

It must further be remembered that the form and texture of a given
surface are important elements in determining its thermoscopic
character. Leaves are porous, and admit air and light more or less
freely into their substance; they are generally smooth and even glazed
on one surface; they are usually covered on one or both sides with
spicula, and they very commonly present one or more acuminated points in
their outline--all circumstances which tend to augment their power of
emitting heat by reflection or radiation. Direct experiment on growing
trees is very difficult, nor is it in any case practicable to
distinguish how far a reduction of temperature produced by vegetation is
due to radiation, and how far to exhalation of the gaseous and watery
fluids of the plant; for both processes usually go on together. But the
frigorific effect of leafy structure is well observed in the deposit of
dew and the occurrence of hoarfrost on the foliage of grasses and other
small vegetables, and on other objects of similar form and consistence,
when the temperature of the air a few feet above has not been brought
down to the dew-point, still less to 32 degrees, the degree of cold
required to congeal dew to frost. [Footnote: The leaves and twigs of
plants may be reduced by radiation to a temperature lower than that of
the ambient atmosphere, and even be frozen when the air in contact with
them is above 32 degrees. Their temperature may be communicated to the
dew deposited on them and thus this dew be converted into frost when
globules of watery fluid floating in the atmosphere near them, in the
condition of fog or vapor, do not become congealed.

It has long been known that vegetables can be protected against frost by
diffusing smoke through the atmosphere above them. This method has been
lately practised in France on a large scale: vineyards of forty or fifty
acres have been protected by placing one or two rows of pots of burning
coal-tar, or of naphtha, along the north side of the vineyard, and thus
keeping up a cloud of smoke for two or three hours before and after
sunrise. The expense is said to be small, and probably it might be
reduced by mixing some less combustible substance, as earth, with the
fluid, and thus checking its too rapid burning.

The radiating and refrigerating power of objects by no means depends on
their form alone. Melloni cut sheets of metal into the shape of leaves
and grasses, and found that they produced little cooling effect, and
were not moistened under atmospheric conditions which determined a
plentiful deposit of dew on the leaves of vegetables.]

We are also to take into account the action of the forest as a conductor
of heat between the atmosphere and the earth. In the most important
countries of America and Europe, and especially in those which have
suffered most from the destruction of the woods, the superficial strata
of the earth are colder in winter, and warmer in summer, than those a
few inches lower, and their shifting temperature approximates to the
atmospheric mean of the respective seasons. The roots of large trees
penetrate beneath the superficial strata, and reach earth of a nearly
constant temperature, corresponding to the mean for the entire year. As
conductors, they convey the heat of the atmosphere to the earth when the
earth is colder than the air, and transmit it in the contrary direction
when the temperature of the earth is higher than that of the atmosphere.
Of course, then, as conductors, they tend to equalize the temperature of
the earth and the air.

In countries where the questions I am considering have the greatest
practical importance, a very large proportion, if not a majority, of the
trees are of deciduous foliage, and their radiating as well as their
shading surface is very much greater in summer than in winter. In the
latter season, they little obstruct the reception of heat by the ground
or the radiation from it; whereas, in the former, they often interpose a
complete canopy between the ground and the sky, and materially interfere
with both processes.


Dead Products of Trees.

Besides this various action of standing trees, considered as inorganic
matter, the forest exercises, by the annual moulting of its foliage,
still another influence on the temperature of the earth, and,
consequently, of the atmosphere which rests upon it. If we examine the
constitution of the superficial soil in a primitive or an old and
undisturbed artificially planted wood, we find, first, a deposit of
undecayed leaves, twigs, and seeds, lying in loose layers on the
surface; then, more compact beds of the same materials in incipient,
and, as we descend, more and more advanced, stages of decomposition;
then, a mass of black mould, in which traces of organic structure are
hardly discoverable except by microscopic examination; then, a stratum
of mineral soil, more or less mixed with vegetable matter carried down
into it by water, or resulting from the decay of roots; and, finally,
the inorganic earth or rock itself. Without this deposit of the dead
products of trees, this latter would be the superficial stratum, and as
its powers of absorption, radiation, and conduction of heat would differ
essentially from those of the layers with which it has been covered by
the droppings of the forest, it would act upon the temperature of the
atmosphere, and be acted on by it, in a very different way from the
leaves and mould which rest upon it. Dead leaves, still entire, or
partially decayed, are very indifferent conductors of light, and,
therefore, though they diminish the warming influence of the summer sun
on the soil below them, they, on the other hand, prevent the escape of
heat from that soil in winter, and, consequently, in cold climates, even
when the ground is not covered by a protecting mantle of snow, the earth
does not freeze to as great a depth in the wood as in the open field.


Specific Heat.

Trees, considered as organisms, produce in themselves, or in the air, a
certain amount of heat, by absorbing and condensing atmospheric gases,
and they exert an opposite influence by absorbing water and exhaling it
in the form of vapor; but there is still another mode by which their
living processes may warm the air around them, independently of the
thermometric effects of condensation and evaporation. The vital heat of
a dozen persons raises the temperature of a room. If trees possess a
specific temperature of their own, an organic power of generating heat
like that with which the warm-blooded animals are gifted, though by a
different process, a certain amount of weight is to be ascribed to this
element in estimating the action of the forest upon atmospheric
temperature.

Boussingault remarks: "In many flowers there has been observed a very
considerable evolution of heat, at the approach of fecundation. In
certain arums the temperature rises to 40 degrees or 50 degrees Cent. [=
104 degrees or 122 degrees Fahr.] It is very probable that this
phenomenon in general, and varies only in the intensity which it is
manifested." [Footnote: Economie Rurale, i., p. 22.]

If we suppose the fecundation of the flowers of forest trees to be
attended with a tenth only of this calorific power, they could not fail
to exert an important influence on the warmth of the atmospheric strata
in contact with them.

Experiments by Meguscher, in Lombardy, led that observer to conclude
"that the wood of a living tree maintains a temperature of + 12 degrees
or 18 degrees Cent. [= 54 degrees, 56 degrees Fahr.] when the
temperature of the air stands at 3 degrees, 7 degrees, and 8 degrees [=
37 degrees, 46 degrees, 47 degrees F.] above zero, and that the internal
warmth of the tree does not rise and fall in proportion to that of the
atmosphere. So long as the latter is below 18 degrees [= 67 degrees
Fahr.], that of the tree is always the highest; but if the temperature
of the air rises to 18 degrees, that of the vegetable growth is the
lowest. Since then, trees maintain at all seasons a constant mean
temperature of 12 degrees [= 54 degrees Fahr.], it is easy to see why
the air in contact with the forest must be warmer in winter, cooler in
summer than in situations where it is deprived of that influence."
[Footnote: Memoria Sur Boschi Della Lombardia, p. 45. The results of
recent experiments by Becquerel do not accord with those obtained by
Meguscher, and the former eminent physicist holds that "a tree is warmed
in the air like any inert body." At the same time he asserts, as a fact
well ascertained by experiment, that "vegetables possess in themselves
the power or resisting extreme cold for a certain length of time,....
and hence it is believed that there may exist in the organism of plants
a force, independent of the conduction of caloric, which resists a
degree of cold above the freezing-point." In a following page he cites
observations made by Bugeaud, under the parallel of 58 degrees N. L.,
between the months of November and June, during most of which time, of
course, vegetable life was in its deepest lethargy. Bugeaud found that
when the temperature of the air was at -34.60 degrees, that of a poplar
was only at -29.70 degrees, which certainly confirms the doctrine that
trees exercise a certain internal resistance against cold.]

Professor Henry says: "As a general deduction from chemical and
mechanical principles, we think no change of temperature is ever
produced where the actions belonging to one or both of these principles
are not present. Hence, in midwinter, when all vegetable functions are
dormant, we do not believe that any heat is developed by a tree, or that
its interior differs in temperature from its exterior further than it is
protected from the external air. The experiments which have been made on
this point, we think, have been directed by a false analogy. During the
active circulation of the sap and the production of new tissue,
variations of temperature belonging exclusively to the plant may be
observed; but it is inconsistent with general principles that heat
should be generated where no change is taking place." [Footnote: United
States Patent Office Report for 1857, p. 504.]

There can be no doubt that moisture is given, out by trees and
evaporated in extremely cold winter weather, and unless new fluid were
supplied from the roots by the exercise of some vital function, the tree
would be exhausted of its juices before winter was over. But this is not
observed to be the fact, and, though the point is disputed, respectable
authorities declare that "wood felled in the depth of winter is the
heaviest and fullest of sap." [Footnote: Rossmassler, Der Wald, p. 158.]
Warm weather in winter, of too short continuance to affect the
temperature of the ground sensibly, stimulates a free flow of sap in the
maple. Thus, in the last week of December, 1862, and the first week of
January, 1863, sugar was made from that tree in various parts of New
England. "A single branch of a tree, admitted into a warm room in winter
through an aperture in a window, opened its buds and developed its
leaves, while the rest of the tree in the external air remained in its
winter sleep." [Footnote: Ibid., p. 160.] Like facts are matter of
every-day observation in graperies where the vine is often planted
outside the wall, the stem passing through an aperture into the warm
interior. The roots, of course, stand in ground of the ordinary winter
temperature, but vegetation is developed in the branches at the pleasure
of the gardener. The roots of forest trees in temperate climates remain,
for the most part, in a moist soil, of a temperature not much below the
annual mean, through the whole winter; and we cannot account for the
uninterrupted moisture of the tree, unless we suppose that the roots
furnish a constant supply of water. Atkinson describes a ravine in a
valley in Siberia, which was filled with ice to the depth of twenty-five
feet. Poplars were growing in this ice, which was thawed to the distance
of some inches from the stem. But the surface of the soil beneath it
must have remained still frozen, for the holes around the trees were
full of water resulting from its melting, and this would have escaped
below if the ground had been thawed. In this case, although the roots
had not thawed the thick covering of earth above them, the trunks must
have melted the ice in contact with them. The trees, when observed by
Atkinson, were in full leaf, but it does not appear at what period the
ice around their stems had melted.

From these facts, and others of the like sort, it would seem that "all
vegetable functions are" not absolutely "dormant in winter, and,
therefore, that trees may give out SOME heat even at that season."
[Footnote: All evergreens, even the broad-leaved trees, resist frosts of
extraordinary severity better than the deciduous trees of the same
climates. Is not this because the vital processes of trees of persistent
foliage are less interrupted during winter than those of trees which
annually shed their leaves, and that therefore more organic heat is
developed?

In crossing Mont Cenis in October, 1869, when the leaves of the larches
on the northern slope and near the top of the mountain were entirely
dead and turned brown, I observed that these trees were completely white
with hoar-frost. It was a wonderful sight to see how every leaf was
covered with a delicate deposit of frozen aqueous vapor, which gave the
effect of the most brilliant silver. On the other band, the evergreen
coniferae, which were growing among the larches, and therefore in the
same conditions of exposure, were almost entirely free from frost. The
contrast between the verdure of the leaves of the evergreens and the
crystalline splendor of those of the larches was strikingly beautiful.
Was this fact due to a difference in the color and structure of the
leaves, or rather is it a proof of a vital force of resistance to cold
in the living foliage of the evergreen tree The low temperature of air
and soil at which, in the frigid zone, as well as in warmer latitudes
under special circumstances, the processes of vegetation go on, seems to
necessitate the supposition that all the manifestations of vegetable
life are attended with an evolution of heat. In the United States it is
common to protect ice, in ice-houses, by a covering of straw, which
naturally sometimes contains kernels of grain. These often sprout, and
even throw out roots and leaves to a considerable length, in a
temperature very little above the freezing-point. Three or four years
since I saw a lump of very clear and apparently solid ice, about eight
inches long by six thick, on which a kernel of grain had sprouted in an
ice-house, and sent half a dozen or more very slender roots into the
pores of the ice and through the whole length of the lump. The young
plant must have thrown out a considerable quantity of heat; for though
the ice was, as I have said, otherwise solid, the pores through which
the roots passed were enlarged to perhaps double the diameter of the
fibres, but still not so much as to prevent the retention of water in
them by capillary attraction.]

It does not appear that observations have been made on the special point
of the development of heat in forest trees during florification, or at
any other period of intense vital action; and hence an important element
in the argument remains undetermined. The "circulation of the sap"
commences at a very early period in the spring, and the temperature of
the air in contact with trees may then be sufficiently affected by heat
evolved in the vital processes of vegetation, to raise the thermometric
mean of wooded countries for that season, and, of course, for the year.
The determination of this point is of much greater importance to
vegetable physiology than the question of the winter temperature of
trees, because a slight increment of heat in the trees of a forest might
so affect the atmosphere in contact with them as to make possible the
growing of many plants in or near the wood which could not otherwise he
reared in that climate.

The evaporation of the juices of trees and other plants is doubtless
their most important thermoscopic function, and as recent observations
lead to the conclusion that the quantity of moisture exhaled by
vegetables has been hitherto underrated, we must ascribe to this element
a higher value than has been usually assigned to it as a meteorological
influence.

The exhalation and evaporation of the juices of trees, by whatever
process effected, take up atmospheric heat and produce a proportional
refrigeration. This effect is not less real, though to common
observation less sensible, in the forest than in meadow or pasture land,
and it cannot be doubted that the local temperature is considerably
affected by it. But the evaporation that cools the air diffuses through
it, at the same time, a medium which powerfully resists the escape of
heat from the earth by radiation. Visible vapors, fogs and clouds, it is
well known, prevent frosts by obstructing radiation, or rather by
reflecting back again the heat radiated by the earth, just as any
mechanical screen would do. On the other hand, fogs and clouds intercept
the rays of the sun also, and hinder its heat from reaching the earth.
The invisible vapors given out by leaves impede the passage of heat
reflected and radiated by the earth and by all terrestrial objects, bat
oppose much less resistance to the transmission of direct solar heat,
and indeed the beams of the sun seem more scorching when received
through clear air charged with uncondensed moisture than after passing
through a dry atmosphere. Hence the reduction of temperature by the
evaporation of moisture from vegetation, though sensible, is less than
it would be if water in the gaseous state were as impervious to heat
given out by the sun as to that emitted by terrestrial objects.


Total Influence of the Forest on Temperature.

It has not yet been found practicable to measure, sum up, and equate the
total influence of the forest, its processes and its products, dead and
living, upon temperature, and investigators differ much in their
conclusions on this subject. It seems probable that in every particular
case the result is, if not determined, at least so much modified by
local conditions which are infinitely varied, that no general formula is
applicable to the question. In the report to which I referred on page
163, Gay-Lussac says; "In my opinion we have not yet any positive proof
that the forest has, in itself, any real influence on the climate of a
great country, or of a particular locality. By closely examining the
effects of clearing off the woods, we should perhaps find that, far from
being an evil, it is an advantage; but these questions are so
complicated when they are examined in a climatological point of view,
that the solution of them is very difficult, not to say impossible."
Becquerel, on the other hand, considers it certain that in tropical
climates the destruction of the forests is accompanied with an elevation
of the mean temperature, and he thinks it highly probable that it has
the same effect in the temperate zones. The following is the substance
of his remarks on this subject: "Forests act as frigorific causes in
three ways:

"1. They shelter the ground against solar irradiation and maintain a
greater humidity.

"2. They produce a cutaneous transpiration by the leaves.

"3. They multiply, by the expansion of their branches, the surfaces
which are cooled by radiation.

"These three causes acting with greater or less force, we must, in the
study of the climatology of a country, take into account the proportion
between the area of the forests and the surface which is bared of trees
and covered with herbs and grasses.

"We should be inclined to believe, a priori, according to the foregoing
considerations, that the clearing of the woods, by raising the
temperature and increasing the dryness of the air, ought to react on
climate. There is no doubt that, if the vast desert of the Sahara were
to become wooded in the course of ages, the sands would cease to be
heated as much as at the present epoch, when the mean temperature is
twenty-nine degrees [Centigrade, = 85 degrees Fahr.]. In that case, the
ascending currents of warm air would cease, or be less warm, and would
not contribute, by descending in our latitudes, to soften the climate of
Western Europe. Thus the clearing of a great country may react on the
climates of regions more or less remote from it.

"The observations by Boussingault leave no doubt on this point. This
writer determined the mean temperature of wooded and of cleared points,
under the same latitude, and at the same elevation above the sea, in
localities comprised between the eleventh degree of north and the fifth
degree of south latitude, that is to say, in the portion of the tropics
nearest to the equator, and where radiation tends powerfully during the
night to lower the temperature under a sky without clouds." [Footnote:
Becquerel, Des Climats, etc., pp. 139-141.]

The result of these observations, which has been pretty generally
adopted by physicists, is that the mean temperature of cleared land in
the tropics appears to be about one degree Centigrade, or a little less
than two degrees of Fahrenheit, above that of the forest. On page 147 of
the volume just cited, Becquerel argues that, inasmuch as the same and
sometimes a greater difference is found in favor of the open ground, at
points within the tropics so elevated as to have a temperate or even a
polar climate, we must conclude that theforests in Northern America
exert a refrigerating influence equally powerful. But the conditions of
the soil are so different in the two regions compared, that I think we
cannot, with entire confidence, reason from the one to the other, and it
is much to be desired that observations be made on the summer and winter
temperature of both the air and the ground in the depths of the North
American forests, before it is too late.

Recent inquiries have introduced a new element into the problem of the
influence of the forest on temperature, or rather into the question of
the thermometrical effects of its destruction. I refer to the
composition of the soil in respect to its hygroscopicity or aptitude to
absorb humidity, whether in a liquid or a gaseous form, and to the
conducting power of the particles of which it is composed. [Footnote:
Composition, texture, and color of soil are important elements to be
considered in estimating the effects of the removal of the forest upon
its thermoscopic action. "Experience has proved," says Becquerel, "that
when the soil is bared, it becomes more or less heated [by the rays of
the sun] according to the nature and the color of the particles which
compose it, and according to its humidity, and that, in the
refrigeration resulting from radiation, we must take into the account
the conducting power of those particles also. Other things being equal,
siliceous and calcareous sands, compared in equal volumes with different
argillaceous earths, with calcareous powder or dust, with humus, with
arable and with garden earth, are the soils which least conduct heat. It
is for this reason that sandy ground, in summer, maintains a high
temperature even during the night. We may hence conclude that when a
sandy soil is stripped of wood, the local temperature will be raised.
After the sands follow successively argillaceous, arable, and garden
ground, then humus, which occupies the lowest rank.

"The retentive power of humus is but half as great as that of calcareous
sand. We will add that the power or retaining heat is proportional to
the density. It has also a relation to the magnitude of the particles.
It is for this reason that ground covered with siliceous pebbles cools
more slowly than siliceous sand, and that pebbly soils are best suited
to the cultivation of the vine, because they advance the ripening of the
grape more rapidly than chalky and clayey earths, which cool quickly.
Hence we see that in examining the calorific effects of clearing
forests, it is important to take into account the properties of the soil
laid bare."--Becquerel, Des Climats et des Sols boises, p. 137.]

The hygroscopicity of humus or vegetable earth is much greater than that
of any mineral soil, and consequently forest ground, where humus
abounds, absorbs the moisture of the atmosphere more rapidly and in
larger proportion than common earth. The condensation of vapor by
absorption develops heat, and consequently elevates the temperature of
the soil which absorbs it, together with that of air in contact with the
surface. Von Babo found the temperature of sandy ground thus raised from
68 degrees to 80 degrees F., that of soil rich in humus from 68 degrees
to 88 degrees. The question of the influence of the woods on temperature
does not, in the present state of our knowledge, admit of precise
solution, and, unhappily, the primitive forests are disappearing so
rapidly before the axe of the woodman, that we shall never be able to
estimate with accuracy the climatological action of the natural wood,
though all the physical functions of artificial plantations will,
doubtless, one day be approximately known.

But the value of trees as a mechanical screen to the soil they cover,
and often to ground far to the leeward of them, is most abundantly
established, and this agency alone is important enough to justify
extensive plantation in all countries which do not enjoy this
indispensable protection.



Influence of Forests as Inorganic on the Humidity of the Air and the
Earth.

The most important hygroscopic as well as thermoscopic influence of the
forest is, no doubt, that which it exercises on the humidity of the air
and the earth, and this climatic action it exerts partly as dead, partly
as living matter. By its interposition as a curtain between the sky and
the ground it both checks evaporation from the earth, and mechanically
intercepts a certain proportion of the dew and the lighter showers,
which would otherwise moisten the surface of the soil, and restores it
to the atmosphere by exhalation; [Footnote: Mangotti had observed and
described, in his usual picturesque way, the retention of rain-water by
the foliage and bark of trees, but I do not know that any attempts were
made to measure the quantity thus intercepted before the experiments of
Becquerel, communicated to the Academy of Sciences in 1866. These
experiments embraced three series of observations continued respectively
for periods of a year, a month, and two days. According to Becquerel's
measurements, the quantity falling on bare and on wooded soil
respectively was as 1 to 0.07; 1 to 0.5; and 1 to 0.6, or, in other
words, he found that only from five-tenths to sixty-seven hundredths of
the precipitation reached the ground.--Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des
Sciences, 1866. It seemed, indeed, improbable that in rain-storms which
last not hours but whole days in succession, so large a proportion of
the downfall should continue to be intercepted by forest vegetation
after the leaves, the bark, and the whole framework of the trees were
thoroughly wet, but the conclusions of this eminent physicist appear to
have been generally accepted until the very careful experiments of
Mathieu at the Forest-School of Nancy were made known. The observations
of Mathieu were made in a plantation of deciduous trees forty-two years
old, and were continued through the entire years 1866, 1867, and 1868.
The result was that the precipitation in the wood was to that in an open
glade of several acres near the forest station as 043 to 1,000, and the
proportion in each of the three years was nearly identical. According to
Mathieu, then, only 57 thousandths or 5.7 per cent of the precipitation
is intercepted by trees.--Surrell, Etude sur les Torrents, 2d ed., ii.,
p. 98.

By order of the Direction of the Forests of the Canton of Berne, a
series of experiments on this subject was commenced at the beginning of
the year 1869. During the first seven months of the year (the reports
for which alone I have seen), including, of course, the season when the
foliage is most abundant, as well as that when it is thinnest, the
pluviometers in the woods received only fifteen per cent less than those
in the open grounds in the vicinity.--Risler, in Revue des Eaux et
Forets, of 10th January, 1870.] while in heavier rains, the large drops
which fall upon the leaves and branches are broken into smaller ones,
and consequently strike the ground with less mechanical force, or are
perhaps even dispersed into vapor without reaching it. [Footnote: We are
not, indeed, to suppose that the condensation of vapor and the
evaporation of water are going on in the same stratum of air at the same
time, or, in other words, that vapor is condensed into rain-drops, and
rain-drops evaporated, under the same conditions; but rain formed in one
stratum may fall through another, where vapor would not be condensed.
Two saturated strata of different temperatures may be brought into
contact in the higher regions, and discharge large rain-drops, which, it
not divided by some obstruction, will reach the ground, though passing
through strata which would vaporize them if they were in a state of more
minute division.]

The vegetable mould, resulting from the decomposition of leaves and of
wood, serves as a perpetual mulch to forest-soil by carpeting the ground
with a spongy covering which obstructs the evaporation from the mineral
earth below, [Footnote: The only direct experiments known to me on the
evaporation from the SURFACE of the forest are those of
Mathieu.--Surrell, Etude sur les Torrents, 2d ed., ii, p. 99.

These experiments were continued from March to December, inclusive, of
the year 1868. It was found that during those months the evaporation
from a recipient placed on the ground in a plantation of deciduous trees
sixty-two years old, was less than one-fifth of that from a recipient of
like form and dimensions placed in the open country.] drinks up the
rains and melting snows that would otherwise flow rapidly over the
surface and perhaps be conveyed to the distant sea, and then slowly
gives out, by evaporation, infiltration, and percolation, the moisture
thus imbibed. The roots, too, penetrate far below the superficial soil,
conduct water along their surface to the lower depths to which they
reach, and thus by partially draining the superior strata, remove a
certain quantity of moisture out of the reach of evaporation. The Forest
as Organic.

These are the principal modes in which the humidity of the atmosphere is
affected by the forest regarded as lifeless matter. Let us inquire how
its organic processes act upon this meteorological element. The
commonest observation shows that the wood and bark of living trees are
always more or less pervaded with watery and other fluids, one of which,
the sap, is very abundant in trees of deciduous foliage when the buds
begin to swell and the leaves to develop themselves in the spring. This
fluid is drawn principally, if not entirely, from the ground by the
absorbent action of the roots, for though Schacht and some other eminent
botanical physiologists have maintained that water is absorbed by the
leaves and bark of trees, yet most experiments lead to the contrary
result, and it is now generally held that no water is taken in by the
pores of vegetables. Late observations by Cailletet, in France, however,
tend to the establishment of a new doctrine on this subject which solves
many difficulties and will probably be accepted by botanists as
definitive. Cailletet finds that under normal conditions, that is, when
the soil is humid enough to supply sufficient moisture through the
roots, no water is absorbed by the leaves, buds, or bark of plants, but
when the roots are unable to draw from the earth the requisite quantity
of this fluid, the vegetable pores in contact with the atmosphere absorb
it from that source.

Popular opinion, indeed, supposes that all the vegetable fluids, during
the entire period of growth, are drawn from the bosom of the earth, and
that the wood and other products of the tree are wholly formed from
matter held in solution in the water abstracted by the roots from the
ground. This is an error, for the solid matter of the tree, in a certain
proportion not important to our present inquiry, is received from the
atmosphere in a gaseous form, through the pores of the leaves and of the
young shoots, and, as we have just seen, moisture is sometimes supplied
to trees by the atmosphere. The amount of water taken up by the roots,
however, is vastly greater than that imbibed through the leaves and
bark, especially at the season when the sap is most abundant, and when
the leaves are yet in embryo. The quantity of water thus received from
the air and the earth, in a single year, even by a wood of only a
hundred acres, is very great, though experiments are wanting to furnish
the data for even an approximate estimate of its measure; for only the
vaguest conclusions can be drawn from the observations which have been
made on the imbibition and exhalation of water by trees and other plants
reared in artificial conditions diverse from those of the natural
forest. [Footnote: The experiments of Hales and others on the absorption
and exhalation of vegetables are of high physiological interest; but
observations on sunflowers, cabbages, hops, and single branches of
isolated trees, growing in artificially prepared soils and under
artificial conditions, furnish no trustworthy data for computing the
quantity of water received and given off by the natural wood.]


Flow of Sap.

The amount of sap which can be withdrawn from living trees furnishes,
not indeed a measure of the quantity of water sucked up by their roots
from the ground--for we cannot extract from a tree its whole
moisture--but numerical data which may aid the imagination to form a
general notion of the powerful action of the forest as an absorbent of
humidity from the earth.

The only forest-tree known to Europe and North America, the sap of which
is largely enough applied to economical uses to have made the amount of
its flow a matter of practical importance and popular observation, is
the sugar maple, Acer saccharinum, of the Anglo-American Provinces and
States. In the course of a single "sugar season," which lasts ordinarily
from twenty-five to thirty days, a sugar maple two feet in diameter will
yield not less than twenty gallons of sap, and sometimes much more.
[Footnote: Emerson (Trees of Massachusetts. p. 403) mentions a maple six
feet in diameter, as having yielded a barrel, or thirty-one and a half
gallons, of sap in twenty-four hours, and another, the dimensions of
which are not stated, as having yielded one hundred and seventy-five
gallons in the course of the season.

The Cultivator, an American agricultural journal, for June, 1842, states
that twenty gallons of sap were drawn in eighteen hours from a single
maple, two and a half feet in diameter, in the town of Warner, New
Hampshire, and the truth of this account has been verified by personal
inquiry made in my behalf. This tree was of the original forest growth,
and had been left standing when the ground around it was cleared. It was
tapped only every other year, and then with six or eight incisions. Dr.
Williams (History of Vermont, i., p. 01) says: "A man much employed in
milking maple sugar, found that, for twenty-one days together, a
maple-tree discharged seven and a half gallons per day."

An intelligent correspondent, of much experience in the manufacture of
maple sugar, writes me that a second-growth maple, of about two feet in
diameter, standing in open ground, tapped with four incisions, has, for
several seasons, generally run eight gallons per day in fair weather. He
speaks of a very large tree, from which sixty gallons were drawn in the
course of a season, and of another, something more than three feet
through, which made forty-two pounds of wet sugar, and must have yielded
not less than one hundred and fifty gallons.] This, however, is but a
trifling proportion of the water abstracted from the earth by the roots
during this season; for all this fluid runs from two or three incisions
or auger-holes, so narrow as to intercept the current of comparatively
few sap vessels, and besides, experience shows that large as is the
quantity withdrawn from the circulation, it is relatively too small to
affect very sensibly the growth of the tree. [Footnote: Tapping does not
check the growth, but does injure the quality of the wood of maples. The
wood of trees often tapped is lighter and less dense than that of trees
which have not been tapped, and gives less heat in burning. No
difference has been observed in the bursting of the buds of tapped and
untapped trees.] The number of large maple-trees on an acre is
frequently not less than fifty, [Footnote: Dr. Rush, in a letter to
Jefferson, states the number of maples fit for tapping on an acre at
from thirty to fifty. "This," observes my correspondent, "is correct
with regard to the original growth, which is always more or less
intermixed with other trees; but in second growth, composed of maples
alone, the number greatly exceeds this. I have had the maples on a
quarter of an acre, which I thought about an average of second-growth
'maple orchards,' counted. The number was found to be fifty-two, of
which thirty-two were ten inches or more in diameter, and, of course,
large enough to tap. This gives two hundred and eight trees to the acre,
one hundred and twenty-eight of which were of proper size for tapping."]
and of course the quantity of moisture abstracted from the soil by this
tree alone is measured by thousands of gallons to the acre. The sugar
orchards, as they are called, contain also many young maples too small
for tapping, and numerous other trees--two of which, at least, the black
birch, Betula lenta, and yellow birch, Betula excelsa, both very common
in the same climate, are far more abundant in sap than the maple
[Footnote: The correspondent already referred to informs me that a black
birch, tapped about noon with two incisions, was found the next morning
to have yielded sixteen gallons. Dr. Williams (History of Vermont, i.,
p. 91) says: "A large birch, tapped in the spring, ran at the rate of
five gallons an hour when first tapped. Eight or nine days after, it was
found to run at the rate of about two and a half gallons an hour, and at
the end of fifteen days the discharge continued in nearly the same
quantity. The sap continued to flow for four or five weeks, and it was
the opinion of the observers that it must have yielded as much as sixty
barrels [l,800 gallons]."]--are scattered among the sugar-trees; for the
North American native forests are remarkable for the mixture of their
crops. The sap of the maple, and of other trees with deciduous leaves
which grow in the same climate, flows most freely in the early spring,
and especially in clear weather, when the nights are frosty and the days
warm; for it is then that the melting snows supply the earth with
moisture in the justest proportion, and that the absorbent power of the
roots is stimulated to its highest activity.

When the buds are ready to burst, and the green leaves begin to show
themselves beneath their scaly covering, the ground has become drier,
the absorption by the roots is diminished, and the sap, being
immediately employed in the formation of the foliage, can be extracted
from the stem in only small quantities.


Absorption and Exhalation by Foliage.

The leaves now commence the process of absorption, and imbibe both
uncombined gases and an unascertained but probably inconsiderable
quantity of aqueous vapor from the humid atmosphere of spring which
bathes them.

The organic action of the tree, as thus far described, tends to the
desiccation of air and earth; but when we consider what volumes of water
are daily absorbed by a large tree, and how small a proportion of the
weight of this fluid consists of matter which, at the period when the
flow of sap is freest, enters into new combinations, and becomes a part
of the solid framework of the vegetable, or a component of its deciduous
products, it becomes evident that the superfluous moisture must somehow
be carried back again almost as rapidly as it flows into the tree. At
the very commencement of vegetation in spring, some of this fluid
certainly escapes through the buds, the nascent foliage, and the pores
of the bark, and vegetable physiology tells us that there is a current
of sap towards the roots as well as from them. [Footnote: "The
elaborated sap, passing out of the leaves, is received into the inner
bark, . . . and a part of what descends finds its way even to the ends
of the roots, and is all along diffused laterally into the stem, where
it meets and mingles with the ascending crude sap or raw material. So
there is no separate circulation of the two kinds of sap; and no crude
sap exists separately in any part of the plant. Even in the root, where
it enters, this mingles at once with some elaborated sap already
there."--Gray, How Plants Grow, Section 273.]

I do not know that the exudation of water into the earth, through the
bark or at the extremities of these latter organs, has been proved, but
the other known modes of carrying off the surplus do not seem adequate
to dispose of it at the almost leafless period when it is most
abundantly received, and it is possible that the roots may, to some
extent, drain as well as flood the water-courses of their stem. Later in
the season the roots absorb less, and the now developed leaves exhale an
increased quantity of moisture into the air. In any event, all the water
derived by the growing tree from the atmosphere and the ground is parted
with by transpiration or exudation, after having surrendered to the
plant the small proportion of matter required for vegetable growth which
it held in solution or suspension. [Footnote: Ward's tight glazed cases
for raising and especially for transporting plants, go far to prove that
water only circulates through vegetables, and is again and again
absorbed and transpired by organs appropriated to these functions.

Seeds, growing grasses, shrubs, or trees planted in proper earth,
moderately watered and covered with a glass bell or close frame of
glass, live for months, and even years, with only the original store of
air and water. In one of Ward's early experiments, a spire of grass and
a fern, which sprang up in a corked bottle containing a little moist
earth introduced as a bed for a snail, lived and flourished for eighteen
years without a new supply of either fluid. In these boxes the plants
grow till the enclosed air is exhausted of the gaseous constituents of
vegetation, and till the water has yielded up the assimilable matter it
held in solution, and dissolved and supplied to the roots the nutriment
contained in the earth in which they are planted. After this, they
continue for a long time in a state of vegetable sleep, but if fresh air
and water be introduced into the cases, or the plants be transplanted
into open ground, they rouse themselves to renewed life, and grow
vigorously, without appearing to have suffered from their long
imprisonment. The water transpired by the leaves is partly absorbed by
the earth directly from the air, partly condensed on the glass, along
which it trickles down to the earth, enters the roots again, and thus
continually repeats the circuit. See Aus der Natur, 21, B. S. 537.] The
hygrometrical equilibrium is then restored, so far as this: the tree
yields up again the moisture it had drawn from the earth and the air,
though it does not return it each to each; for the vapor carried off by
transpiration greatly exceeds the quantity of water absorbed by the
foliage from the atmosphere, and the amount, if any, carried back to the
ground by the roots.

The present estimates of some eminent vegetable physiologists in regard
to the quantity of aqueous vapor exhaled by trees and taken up by the
atmosphere are much greater than those of former inquirers. Direct and
satisfactory experiments on this point are wanting, and it is not easy
to imagine how they could be made on a sufficiently extensive and
comprehensive scale. Our conclusions must therefore be drawn from
observations on small plants, or separate branches of trees, and of
course are subject to much uncertainty. Nevertheless, Schleiden, arguing
from such analogies, comes to the surprising result, that a wood
evaporates ten times as much water as it receives from atmospheric
precipitation. [Footnote: Fur Baum und Wald, pp. 46, 47, notes. Pfaff,
too, experimenting on branches of a living oak, weighed immediately
after being cut from the tree, and again after an exposure to the air
for three minutes, and computing the superficial measure of all the
leaves of the tree, concludes that an oak-tree evaporates, during the
season of growth, eight and a half times the mean amount of rain-fall on
an area equal to that shaded by the tree.] In the Northern and Eastern
States of the Union, the mean precipitation during the period of forest
growth, that is from the swelling of the buds in the spring to the
ripening of the fruit, the hardening of the young shoots, and the full
perfection of the other annual products of the tree, exceeds on the
average twenty-four inches. Taking this estimate, the evaporation from
the forest would be equal to a precipitation of two hundred and forty
inches, or very nearly one hundred and fifty standard gallons to the
square foot of surface.

The first questions which suggest themselves upon this statement are:
what becomes of this immense quantity of water and from what source does
the tree derive it We are told in reply that it is absorbed from the air
by the humus and mineral soil of the wood, and supplied again to the
tree through its roots, by a circulation analogous to that observed in
Ward's air-tight cases. When we recall the effect produced on the soil
even of a thick wood by a rain-fall of one inch, we find it hard to
believe that two hundred and forty times that quantity, received by the
ground between early spring and autumn, would not keep it in a state of
perpetual saturation, and speedily convert the forest into a bog.

No such power of absorption of moisture by the earth from the
atmosphere, or anything approaching it, has ever been shown by
experiment, and all scientific observation contradicts the supposition.
Schubler found that in seventy-two hours thoroughly dried humus, which
is capable of taking up twice its own weight of water in the liquid
state, absorbed from the atmosphere only twelve per cent. of its weight
of humidity; garden-earth five and one-fifth per cent. and ordinary
cultivated soil two and one-third per cent. After seventy-two hours,
and, in most of his experiments with thirteen different earths, after
forty-eight hours, no further absorption took place. Wilhelm,
experimenting with air-dried field-earth, exposed to air in contact with
water and protected by a bell-glass, found that the absorption amounted
in seventy-two hours to two per cent. and a very small fraction, nearly
the whole of which was taken up in the first forty-eight hours. In other
experiments with carefully heat-dried field-soil, the absorption was
five per cent. in eighty-four hours, and when the water was first warmed
to secure the complete saturation of the air, air-dried garden-earth
absorbed five and one-tenth per cent. in seventy-two hours.

In nature, the conditions are never so favorable to the absorption of
vapor as in those experiments. The ground is more compact and of course
offers less surface to the air, and, especially in the wood, it is
already in a state approaching saturation. Hence, both these physicists
conclude that the quantity of aqueous vapor absorbed by the earth from
the air is so inconsiderable "that we can ascribe to it no important
influence on vegetation." [Footnote: Wilhelm, Der Boden und das Wasser,
pp. 14,20.] Besides this, trees often grow luxuriantly on narrow ridges,
on steep declivities, on partially decayed stumps many feet above the
ground, on walls of high buildings, and on rocks, in situations where
the earth within reach of their roots could not possibly contain the
tenth part of the water which, according to Schleiden and Pfaff, they
evaporate in a day. There are, too, forests of great extent on high
bluffs and well-drained table-lands, where there can exist, neither in
the subsoil nor in infiltration from neighboring regions, an adequate
source of supply for such consumption. It must be remembered, also, that
in the wood the leaves of the trees shade each other, and only the
highest stratum of foliage receives the full influence of heat and
light; and besides, the air in the forest is almost stagnant, while in
the experiments of Unger, Marshal, Vaillant, Pfaff and others, the
branches were freely exposed to light, sun, and atmospheric currents.
Such observations can authorize no conclusions respecting the
quantitative action of leaves of forest trees in normal conditions.

Further, allowing two hundred days for the period of forest vital
action, the wood must, according to Schleiden's position, exhale a
quantity of moisture equal to an inch and one-fifth of precipitation per
day, and it is hardly conceivable that so large a volume of aqueous
vapor, in addition to the supply from other sources, could be diffused
through the ambient atmosphere without manifesting its presence by
ordinary hygrometrical tests much more energetically than it has been
proved to do, and in fact, the observations recorded by Ebermayer show
that though the RELATIVE humidity of the atmosphere is considerably
greater in the cooler temperature of the wood, its ABSOLUTE humidity
does not sensibly differ from that of the air in open ground. [Footnote:
Ebermeyer, Die Physikalischen, Einwirkungen des Waldes, i., pp. 150 et
seqq. It may be well here to guard my readers against the common error
which supposes that a humid condition of the AIR is necessarily
indicated by the presence of fog or visible vapor. The air is rendered
humid by containing INVISIBLE vapor, and it becomes drier by the
condensation of such vapor into fog, composed of solid globules or of
hollow vesicles of water--for it is a disputed point whether the
particles of fog are solid or vesicular. Hence, though the ambient
atmosphere may hold in suspension, in the form of fog, water enough to
obscure its transparency, and to produce the sensation of moisture on
the skin, the air, in which the finely divided water floats, may be
charged with even less than an average proportion of humidity.]

The daily discharge of a quantity of aqueous vapor corresponding to a
rain-fall of one inch and a fifth into the cool air of the forest would
produce a perpetual shower, or at least drizzle, unless, indeed, we
suppose a rapidity of absorption and condensation by the ground, and of
transmission through the soil to the roots and through them and the
vessels of the tree to the leaves, much greater than has been shown by
direct observation. Notwithstanding the high authority of Schleiden,
therefore, it seems impossible to reconcile his estimates with facts
commonly observed and well established by competent investigators. Hence
the important question of the supply, demand, and expenditure of water
by forest vegetation must remain undecided, until it can be determined
by something approaching to satisfactory direct experiment. [Footnote:
According to Cezanne, Surrell, Etude sur les Torrents, 2e edition, ii.,
p. 100, experiments reported in the Revue des Eaux et Forets for August,
1868, showed the evaporation from a living tree to be "almost
insignificant." Details are not given.]


Balance of Conflicting Influences of Forest on Atmospheric Heat and
Humidity.

We have shown that the forest, considered as dead matter, tends to
diminish the moisture of the air, by preventing the sun's rays from
reaching the ground and evaporating the water that falls upon the
surface, and also by spreading over the earth a spongy mantle which
sucks up and retains the humidity it receives from the atmosphere,
while, at the same time, this covering acts in the contrary direction by
accumulating, in a reservoir not wholly inaccessible to vaporizing
influences, the water of precipitation which might otherwise suddenly
sink deep into the bowels of the earth, or flow by superficial channels
to other climatic regions. We now see that, as a living organism, it
tends, on the one hand, to diminish the humidity of the air by sometimes
absorbing moisture from it, and, on the other, to increase that humidity
by pouring out into the atmosphere, in a vaporous form, the water it
draws up through its roots. This last operation, at the same time,
lowers the temperature of the air in contact with or proximity to the
wood, by the same law as in other cases of the conversion of water into
vapor.

As I have repeatedly said, we cannot measure the value of any one of
those elements of climatic disturbance, raising or lowering of
temperature, increase or diminution of humidity, nor can we say that in
any one season, any one year, or any one fixed cycle, however long or
short, they balance and compensate each other. They are sometimes, but
certainly not always, contemporaneous in their action, whether their
tendency is in the same or in opposite directions, and, therefore, their
influence is sometimes cumulative, sometimes conflicting; but, upon the
whole, their general effect is to mitigate extremes of atmospheric heat
and cold, moisture and drought. They serve as equalizers of temperature
and humidity, and it is highly probable that, in analogy with most other
works and workings of nature, they, at certain or uncertain periods,
restore the equilibrium which, whether as lifeless masses or as living
organisms, they may have temporarily disturbed. [Footnote: There is one
fact which I have nowhere seen noticed, but which seems to me to have an
important bearing on the question whether forests tend to maintain an
equilibrium between the various causes of hygroscopic action, and
consequently to keep the air within their precincts in an approximately
constant condition, so far as this meteorological element is concerned.
I refer to the absence of fog or visible vapor in thick woods in full
leaf, even when the air of the neighboring open grounds is so heavily
charged with condensed vapor as completely to obscure the sun. The
temperature of the atmosphere in the forest is not subject to so sudden
and extreme variations as that of cleared ground, but at the same time
it is far from constant, and so large a supply of vapor as is poured out
by the foliage of the trees could not fail to be sometimes condensed
into fog by the same causes as in the case of the adjacent meadows,
which are often covered with a dense mist while the forest-air remains
clear, were there not some potent counteracting influence always in
action. This influence, I believe, is to be found partly in the
equalization of the temperature of the forest, and partly in the balance
between the humidity exhaled by the trees and that absorbed and
condensed invisibly by the earth.] When, therefore, man destroys these
natural harmonizors of climatic discords, he sacrifices an important
conservative power, though it is far from certain that he has thereby
affected the mean, however much he may have exaggerated the extremes of
atmospheric temperature and humidity, or, in other words, may have
increased the range and lengthened the scale of thermometric and
hygrometric variation.


Special Influence of Woods on Precipitation.

With the question of the action of forests upon temperature and upon
atmospheric humidity is intimately connected that of their influence
upon precipitation, which they may affect by increasing or diminishing
the warmth of the air and by absorbing or exhaling uncombincd gas and
aqueous vapor. The forest being a natural arrangement, the presumption
is that it exercises a conservative action, or at least a compensating
one, and consequently that its destruction must tend to produce
pluviometrical disturbances as well as thermometrical variations. And
this is the opinion of perhaps the greatest number of observers. Indeed,
it is almost impossible to suppose that, under certain conditions of
time and place, the quantity and the periods of rain should not depend,
more or less, upon the presence or absence of forests; and without
insisting that the removal of the forest has diminished the sum-total
of snow and rain, we may well admit that it has lessened the quantity
which annually falls within particular limits. Various theoretical
considerations make this probable, the most obvious argument, perhaps,
being that drawn from the generally admitted fact, that the summer and
even the mean temperature of the forest is below that of the open
country in the same latitude. If the air in a wood is cooler than that
around it, it must reduce the temperature of the atmospheric stratum
immediately above it, and, of course, whenever a saturated current
sweeps over it, it must produce precipitation which would fall upon it,
or at a greater or less distance from it.

We must here take into the account a very important consideration. It is
not universally or even generally true, that the atmosphere returns its
condensed humidity to the local source from which it receives it. The
air is constantly in motion,

    --howling tempests scour amain
    From sea to land, from land to sea;

    [Footnote: Und Sturme brausen um die Wette
    Vom Meer aufs Land, vom Land aufs Meer.
    Goethe, Faust, Song of the Archangels.]

and, therefore, it is always probable that the evaporation drawn up by
the atmosphere from a given river, or sea, or forest, or meadow, will be
discharged by precipitation, not at or near the point where it rose, but
at a distance of miles, leagues, or even degrees. The currents of the
upper air are invisible, and they leave behind them no landmark to
record their track. We know not whence they come, or whither they go. We
have a certain rapidly increasing acquaintance with the laws of general
atmospheric motion, but of the origin and limits, the beginning and end
of that motion, as it manifests itself at any particular time and place,
we know nothing. We cannot say where or when the vapor, exhaled to-day
from the lake on which we float, will be condensed and fall; whether it
will waste itself on a barren desert, refresh upland pastures, descend
in snow on Alpine heights, or contribute to swell a distant torrent
which shall lay waste square miles of fertile corn-land; nor do we know
whether the rain which feeds our brooklets is due to the transpiration
from a neighboring forest, or to the evaporation from a far-off sea. If,
therefore, it were proved that the annual quantity of rain and dew is
now as great on the plains of Castile, for example, as it was when they
were covered with the native forest, it would by no means follow that
those woods did not augment the amount of precipitation elsewhere. The
whole problem of the pluviometrical influence of the forest, general or
local, is so exceedingly complex and difficult that it cannot, with our
present means of knowledge, be decided upon a priori grounds. It must
now be regarded as a question of fact which would probably admit of
scientific explanation if it were once established what the actual fact
is.

Unfortunately, the evidence is conflicting in tendency, and sometimes
equivocal in interpretation, but I believe that a majority of the
foresters and physicists who have studied the question are of opinion
that in many, if not in all cases, the destruction of the woods has been
followed by a diminution in the annual quantity of rain and dew. Indeed,
it has long been a popularly settled belief that vegetation and the
condensation and fall of atmospheric moisture are reciprocally necessary
to each other, and even the poets sing of

Afric's barren sand,
Where nought can grow, because it raineth not,
And where no rain can fall to bless the land,
Because nought grows there.

[Footnote: Det golde Strog i Afrika,
Der Intet voxe kan, da ei det regner,
Og, omvendt, ingen Regn kan falde, da
Der Intet voxer.
Paudan-Muller, Adam Hamo, ii., 408.]

Before going further with the discussion, however, it is well to remark
that the comparative rarity or frequency of inundations in earlier or
later centuries is not necessarily, in most cases not probably, entitled
to any weight whatever, as a proof that more or less rain fell formerly
than now; because the accumulation of water in the channel of a river
depends far less upon the quantity of precipitation in its valley, than
upon the rapidity with which it is conducted, on or under the surface of
the ground, to the central artery that drains the basin. But this point
will be more fully discussed in a subsequent chapter.

In writers on the subject we are discussing, we find many positive
assertions about the diminution of rain in countries which have been
stripped of wood within the historic period, but these assertions very
rarely rest upon any other proof than the doubtful recollection of
unscientific observers, and I am unable to refer to a single instance
where the records of the rain-gauge, for a considerable period before
and after the felling or planting of extensive woods, can be appealed to
in support of either side of the question. The scientific reputation of
many writers who have maintained that precipitation has been diminished
in particular localities by the destruction of forests, or augmented by
planting them, has led the public to suppose that their assertions
rested on sufficient proof. We cannot affirm that in none of these cases
did such proof exist, but I am not aware that it has ever been produced.
[Footnote: Among recent writers, Clave, Schacht, Sir John F. W.
Herschel, Hohenstein, Barth, Asbjornsen, Boussingault, and others,
maintain that forests tend to produce rain and clearings to diminish it,
and they refer to numerous facts of observation in support of this
doctrine; but in none of these does it appear that these observations
are supported by actual pluviometrical measure. So far as I know, the
earliest expression of the opinion that forests promote precipitation is
that attributed to Christopher Columbus, in the Historie del S. D.
Fernando Colombo, Venetia, 157l, cap. lviii., where it is said that the
Admiral ascribed the daily showers which fell in the West Indies about
vespers to "the great forests and trees of those countries," and
remarked that the same effect was formerly produced by the same cause in
the Canary and Madeira Islands and in the Azores, but that "now that the
many woods and trees that covered them have been felled, there are not
produced so many clouds and rains as before."

Mr. H. Harrisse, in his very learned and able critical essay, Fernand
Colomb, sa Vie et ses Oeuvres, Paris, 1872, has made it at least
extremely probable that the Historie is a spurious work. The compiler
may have found this observation in some of the writings of Columbus now
lost, but however that may be, the fact, which Humboldt mentions in
Cosmos with much interest, still remains, that the doctrine in question
was held, if not by the great discoverer himself, at least by one of his
pretended biographers, as early as the year 1571.]

The effect of the forest on precipitation, then, is by no means free
from doubt, and we cannot positively affirm that the total annual
quantity of rain is even locally diminished or increased by the
destruction of the woods, though both theoretical considerations and the
balance of testimony strongly favor the opinion that more rain falls in
wooded than in open countries. One important conclusion, at least, upon
the meteorological influence of forests is certain and undisputed: the
proposition, namely, that, within their own limits, and near their own
borders, they maintain a more uniform degree of humidity in the
atmosphere than is observed in cleared grounds. Scarcely less can it be
questioned that they tend to promote the frequency of showers, and, if
they do not augment the amount of precipitation, they probably equalize
its distribution through the different seasons. [Footnote: The strongest
direct evidence which I am able to refer to in support of the
proposition that the woods produce even a local augmentation of
precipitation is furnished by the observations of Mathieu, sub-director
of the Forest-School at Nancy. His pluviometrical measurements,
continued for three years, 1866-1868, show that during that period the
annual mean of rain-fall in the centre of the wooded district of
Cinq-Tranchees, at Belle Fontaine on the borders of the forest, and at
Amance, in an open cultivated territory in the same vicinity, was
respectively as the numbers 1,000, 957, and 853.

The alleged augmentation of rain-fall in Lower Egypt, in consequence of
large plantations by Mehemet Ali, is very frequently appealed to as a
proof of this influence of the forest, and this case has become a
regular common-place in all discussions of the question. It is, however,
open to the same objection as the alleged instances of the diminution of
precipitation in consequence of the felling of the forest.

This supposed increase in the frequency and quantity of rain in Lower
Egypt is, I think, an error, or at least not an established fact. I have
heard it disputed on the spot by intelligent Franks, whose residence in
that country began before the plantations of Mehemet Ali and Ibrahim
Pacha, and I have been assured by them that meterological observations,
made at Alexandria about the begiuning of this century, show an annual
fall of rain as great as is usual at this day. The mere fact that it did
not rain during the French occupation is not conclusive. Having
experienced a gentle shower of nearly twenty-four hours' duration in
Upper Egypt, I inquired of the local governor in relation to the
frequency of this phenomenon, and was told by him that not of drop of
rain had fallen at that point for more than two years previous.

The belief in the increase of rain in Egypt rests almost entirely on the
observations of Marshal Marmont, and the evidence collected by him in
1836. His conclusions have been disputed, if not confuted, by Joinard
and others, and are probably erroneous. See Foissac, Meteorologie,
German translation, pp. 634-639.

It certainly sometimes rains briskly at Cairo, but evaporation is
exceedingly rapid in Egypt--as any one who ever saw a Fellah woman wash
a napkin in the Nile, and dry it by shaking it a few moments in the air,
can testify; and a heap of grain, wet a few inches below the surface,
would probably dry again without injury. At any rate, the Egyptian
Government often has vast quantities of wheat stored at Boulak in
uncovered yards through the winter, though it must be admitted that the
slovenliness and want of foresight in Oriental life, public and private,
are such that we cannot infer the safety of any practice followed in the
East merely from its long continuance.

Grain, however, may be long kept in the open air in climates much less
dry than that of Egypt, without injury, except to the superficial
layers; for moisture does not penetrate to a great depth in a heap of
grain once well dried and kept well aired. When Louis IX. was making his
preparations for his campaign in the East, he had large quantities of
wine and grain purchased in the Island of Cyprus, and stored up for two
years to await his arrival. "When we were come to Cyprus," says
Joinville, Histoire de Saint Louis, Section 72, 73, "we found there
greate foison of the Kynge's purveyance. . . The wheate and the barley
they had piled up in greate heapes in the feeldes, and to looke vpon,
they were like vnto mountaynes; for the raine, the whyche hadde beaten
vpon the wheate now a longe whyle, had made it to sproute on the toppe,
so that it seemed as greene grasse. And whanne they were mynded to
carrie it to Egypte, they brake that sod of greene herbe, and dyd finde
under the same the wheate and the barley, as freshe as yf menne hadde
but nowe thrashed it."]


Total Climatic Influence of the Forest.

Aside from the question of local disturbances and their compensations,
it does not seem probable that the forests sensibly affect the general
mean of atmospheric temperature of the globe, or the total quantity of
precipitation, or even that they had this influence when their extent
was vastly greater than at present. The waters cover about three-fourths
of the face of the earth, and if we deduct the frozen zones, the peaks
and crests of lofty mountains and their craggy slopes, the Sahara and
other great African and Asiatic deserts, and all such other portions of
the solid surface as are permanently unfit for the growth of wood, we
shall find that probably not one-tenth of the total superficies of our
planet was ever, at any one time in the present geological period,
covered with forests. Besides this, the distribution of forest land, of
desert, and of water, is such as to reduce the possible influence of the
woods to a low expression; for the forests are, in large proportion,
situated in cold or temperate climates, where the action of the sun is
comparatively feeble both in elevating temperature and in promoting
evaporation; while, in the torrid zone, the desert and the sea--the
latter of which always presents an evaporable surface--enormously
preponderate. It is, upon the whole, not probable that so small an
extent of forest, so situated, could produce a sensible influence on the
general climate of the globe, though it might appreciably affect the
local action of all climatic elements. The total annual amount of solar
heat absorbed and radiated by the earth, and the sum of terrestrial
evaporation and atmospheric precipitation, must be supposed constant;
but the distribution of heat and of humidity is exposed to disturbance
in both time and place by a multitude of local causes, among which the
presence or absence of the forest is doubtless one.

So far as we are able to sum up the results, it would appear that, in
countries in the temperate zone still chiefly covered with wood, the
summers would be cooler, moister, shorter, the winters milder, drier,
longer, than in the same regions after the removal of the forest, and
that the condensation and precipitation of atmospheric moisture would
be, if not greater in total quantity, more frequent and less violent in
discharge. The slender historical evidence we possess seems to point to
the same conclusion, though there is some conflict of testimony and of
opinion on this point.

Among the many causes which, as we have seen, tend to influence the
general result, the mechanical action of the forest, if not more
important, is certainly more obvious and direct than the immediate
effects of its organic processes. The felling of the woods involves the
sacrifice of a valuable protection against the violence of chilling
winds and the loss of the shelter afforded to the ground by the thick
coating of leaves which the forest sheds upon it and by the snow which
the woods prevent from blowing away, or from melting in the brief thaws
of winter. I have already remarked that bare ground freezes much deeper
than that which is covered by beds of leaves, and when the earth is
thickly coated with snow, the strata frozen before it fell begin to
thaw. It is not uncommon to find the ground in the woods, where the snow
lies two or three feet deep, entirely free from frost, when the
atmospheric temperature has been for several weeks below the
freezing-point, and for some days even below the zero of Fahrenheit.
When the ground is cleared and brought under cultivation, the leaves are
ploughed into the soil and decomposed, and the snow, especially upon
knolls and eminences, is blown off, or perhaps half thawed, several
times during the winter. The water from the melting snow runs into the
depressions, and when, after a day or two of warm sunshine or tepid
rain, the cold returns, it is consolidated to ice, and the bared ridges
and swells of earth are deeply frozen. [Footnote: I have seen, in
Northern New England, the surface of the open ground frozen to the depth
of twenty-two inches, in the month of November, when in the forest-earth
no frost was discoverable; and later in the winter, I have known an
exposed sand-knoll to remain frozen six feet deep, after the ground in
the woods was completely thawed.] It requires many days of mild weather
to raise the temperature of soil in this condition, and of the air in
contact with it, to that of the earth in the forests of the same
climatic region. Flora is already plaiting her sylvan wreath before the
corn-flowers which are to deck the garland of Ceres have waked from
their winter's sleep; and it is probably not a popular error to believe
that, where man has substituted his artificial crops for the spontaneous
harvest of nature, spring delays her coming. [Footnote: The conclusion
arrived at by Noah Webster, in his very learned and able paper on the
supposed change in the temperature of winter, read before the
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1799, was as follows: "From
a careful comparison of these facts, it appears that the weather, in
modern winters, in the United States, is more inconstant than when the
earth was covered with woods, at the first settlement of Europeans in
the country; that the warm weather of autumn extends further into the
winter months, and the cold weather of winter and spring encroaches upon
the summer; that, the wind being more variable, snow is less permanent,
and perhaps the same remark may be applicable to the ice of the rivers.
These effects seem to result necessarily from the greater quantity of
heat accumulated in the earth in summer since the ground has been
cleared of wood and exposed to the rays of the sun, and to the greater
depth of frost in the earth in winter by the exposure of its uncovered
surface to the cold atmosphere."--Collection of Papers by Noah Webster,
p. 162.]

There are, in the constitution and action of the forest, many forces,
organic and inorganic, which unquestionably tend powerfully to produce
meteorological effects, and it may, therefore, be assumed as certain
that they must and do produce such effects, UNLESS they compensate and
balance each other, and herein lies the difficulty of solving the
question. To some of these elements late observations give a new
importance. For example, the exhalation of aqueous vapor by plants is
now believed to be much greater, and the absorption of aqueous vapor by
them much less, than was formerly supposed, and Tyndall's views on the
relations of vapor to atmospheric heat give immense value to this factor
in the problem. In like manner the low temperature of the surface of
snow and the comparatively high temperature of its lower strata, and its
consequent action on the soil beneath, and the great condensation of
moisture by snow, are facts which seem to show that the forest, by
protecting great surfaces of snow from melting, must inevitably exercise
a great climatic influence. If to these influences we add the mechanical
action of the woods in obstructing currents of wind, and diminishing the
evaporation and refrigeration which such currents produce, we have an
accumulation of forces which MUST manifest great climatic effects,
unless--which is not proved and cannot be presumed--they neutralize each
other. These are points hitherto little considered in the discussion,
and it seems difficult to deny that as a question of ARGUMENT, the
probabilities are strongly in favor of the meteorological influence of
the woods. The EVIDENCE, indeed, is not satisfactory, or, to speak more
accurately, it is non-existent, for there really is next to no
trustworthy proof on the subject, but it appears to me a case where the
burden of proof must be taken by those who maintain that, as a
meteorological agent, the forest is inert.

The question of a change in the climate of the Northern American States
is examined in the able Meteorological Report of Mr. Draper, Director of
the New York Central Park Observatory, for 1871. The result arrived at
by Mr. Draper is, that there is no satisfactory evidence of a diminution
in the rainfall, or of any other climatic change in the winter season,
in consequence of clearing of the forests or other human action. The
proof from meteorological registers is certainly insufficient to
establish the fact of a change of climate, but, on the other hand, it is
equally insufficient to establish the contrary. Meteorological stations
are too few, their observations, in many cases, extend over a very short
period, and, for reasons I have already given, the great majority of
their records are entitled to little or no confidence. [Footnote: Since
these pages were written, the subject of forest meteorology has received
the most important contribution ever made to it, in several series of
observations at numerous stations in Bavaria, from the year 1866 to
1871, published by Ebermayer, at Aschaffenburg, in 1873, under the
title: Die Physikalischen Einwirkungen des Waldes auf Luft und Boden,
und seine Klimatologische und Hygienische Bedeutung. I. Band. So far as
observations of only five years' duration can prove anything, the
following propositions, not to speak of many collateral and subsidiary
conclusions, seem to be established, at least for the localities where
the observations were made:

1. The yearly mean temperature of wooded soils, at all depths, is lower
than that of open grounds, p. 85.

This conclusion, it may be remarked, is of doubtful applicability in
regions of excessive climate like the Northern United States and Canada,
where the snow keeps the temperature of the soil in the forest above the
freezing-point, for a large part and sometimes the whole of the winter,
while in unwooded ground the earth remains deeply frozen.

2. The yearly mean atmospheric temperature, other things being equal, is
lower in the forest than in cleared grounds, p. 84.

3. Climates become excessive in consequence of extensive clearings, p.
117.

4. The ABSOLUTE humidity of the air in the forest is about the same as
in open ground, while the RELATIVE humidity is greater in the former
than in the latter case, on account of the lower temperature of the
atmosphere in the wood, p. 150.

5. The evaporation from an exposed surface of water in the forest is
sixty-four per cent. less than in unwooded grounds, pp. 159,161.

6. About twenty-six per cent. of the precipitation is interrupted and
prevented from reaching the ground by the foliage and branches of forest
trees, p. 194.

7. In the interior of thick woods, the evaporation from water and from
earth is much less than the precipitation, p. 210.

8. The loss of the water of precipitation intercepted by the trees in
the forest is compensated by the smaller evaporation from the ground, p.
219.

9. In elevated regions and during the summer half of the year, woods
tend to increase the precipitation, p. 202.]


Influence of the Forest on the Humidity of the Soil.

I have hitherto confined myself to the influence of the forest on
meteorological conditions, a subject, as has been seen, full of
difficulty and uncertainty. Its comparative effects on the temperature,
the humidity, the texture and consistence, the configuration and
distribution of the mould or arable soil, and, very often, of the
mineral strata below, and on the permanence and regularity of springs
and greater superficial water-courses, are much less disputable as well
as more easily estimated and more important, than its possible value as
a cause of strictly climatic equilibrium or disturbance.

The action of the forest on the earth is chiefly mechanical, but the
organic process of absorption of moisture by its roots affects the
quantity of water contained in the vegetable mould and in the mineral
strata near the surface, and, consequently, the consistency of the soil.
In treating of the effects of trees on the moisture of the atmosphere, I
have said that the forest, by interposing a canopy between the sky and
the ground, and by covering the surface with a thick mantle of fallen
leaves, at once obstructed insulation and prevented the radiation of
heat from the earth. These influences go far to balance each other; but
familiar observation shows that, in summer, the forest-soil is not
raised to so high a temperature as open grounds exposed to irradiation.
For this reason, and in consequence of the mechanical resistance opposed
by the bed of dead leaves to the escape of moisture, we should expect
that, except after recent rains, the superficial strata of woodland-soil
would be more humid than that of cleared land. This agrees with
experience. The soil of the natural forest is always moist, except in
the extremest droughts, and it is exceedingly rare that a primitive wood
suffers from want of humidity. How far this accumulation of water
affects the condition of neighboring grounds by lateral infiltration, we
do not know, but we shall see, in a subsequent chapter, that water is
conveyed to great distances by this process, and we may hence infer that
the influence in question is an important one.

It is undoubtedly true that loose soils, stripped of vegetation and
broken up by the plough or other processes of cultivation, may, until
again carpeted by grasses or other plants, absorb more rain and
snow-water than when they were covered by a natural growth; but it is
also true that the evaporation from such soils is augmented in a still
greater proportion. Rain scarcely penetrates beneath the sod of
grass-ground, but runs off over the surface; and after the heaviest
showers a ploughed field will often be dried by evaporation before the
water can be carried off by infiltration, while the soil of a
neighboring grove will remain half saturated for weeks together. Sandy
soils frequently rest on a tenacious subsoil, at a moderate depth, as is
usually seen in the pine plains of the United States, where pools of
rain-water collect in slight depressions on the surface of earth the
upper stratum of which is as porous as a sponge. In the open grounds
such pools are very soon dried up by the sun and wind; in the woods they
remain unevaporated long enough for the water to diffuse itself
laterally until it finds, in the subsoil, crevices through which it may
escape, or slopes which it may follow to their outcrop or descend along
them to lower strata.


Drainage by Roots of Trees.

Becquerel notices a special function of the forest to which I have
already alluded, but to which sufficient importance has not, until very
recently, been generally ascribed. I refer to the mechanical action of
the roots as conductors of the superfluous humidity of the superficial
earth to lower strata. The roots of trees often penetrate through
subsoil almost impervious to water, and in such cases the moisture,
which would otherwise remain above the subsoil and convert the
surface-earth into a bog, follows the roots downwards and escapes into
more porous strata or is received by subterranean canals or reservoirs.
[Footnote: "The roots of vegetables," says d'Hericourt, "perform the
office of draining in a manner analogous to that artificially practised
in parts of Holland and the British islands. This method consists in
driving deeply down into the soil several hundred stakes to the acre;
the water filters down along the stakes, and in some cases as favorable
results have been obtained by this means as by horizontal
drains."-Annales Forestieres, 1837, p. 312.] When the forest is felled,
the roots perish and decay, the orifices opened by them are soon
obstructed, and the water, after having saturated the vegetable earth,
stagnates on the surface and transforms it into ponds and morasses. Thus
in La Brenne, a tract of 200,000 acres resting on an impermeable subsoil
of argillaceous earth, which ten centuries ago was covered with forests
interspersed with fertile and salubrious meadows and pastures, has been
converted, by the destruction of the woods, into a vast expanse of
pestilential pools and marshes. In Sologne the same cause has withdrawn
from cultivation and human inhabitation not less than 1,100,000 acres of
ground once well wooded, well drained, and productive.

It is an important observation that the desiccating action of trees, by
way of drainage or external conduction by the roots, is greater in the
artificial than in the natural wood, and hence that the surface of the
ground in the former is not characterized by that approach to a state of
saturation which it so generally manifests in the latter. In the
spontaneous wood, the leaves, fruits, bark, branches, and dead trunks,
by their decayed material and by the conversion of rock into loose earth
through the solvent power of the gases they develop in decomposition,
cover the ground with an easily penetrable stratum of mixed vegetable
and mineral matter extremely favorable to the growth of trees, and at
the same time too retentive of moisture to part with it readily to the
capillary attraction of the roots.

The trees, finding abundant nutriment near the surface, and so sheltered
against the action of the wind by each other as not to need the support
of deep and firmly fixed stays, send their roots but a moderate distance
downwards, and indeed often spread them out like a horizontal network
almost on the surface of the ground. In the artificial wood, on the
contrary, the spaces between the trees are greater; they are obliged to
send their roots deeper both for mechanical support and in search of
nutriment, and they consequently serve much more effectually as conduits
for perpendicular drainage.

It is only under special circumstances, however, that this function of
the forest is so essential a conservative agent as in the two cases just
cited. In a champaign region insufficiently provided with natural
channels for the discharge of the waters, and with a subsoil which,
though penetrable by the roots of trees, is otherwise impervious to
water, it is of cardinal importance; but though trees everywhere tend to
carry off the moisture of the superficial strata by this mode of
conduction, yet the precise condition of soil which I have described is
not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to have drawn much attention to
this office of the wood. In fact, in most soils, there are counteracting
influences which neutralize, more or less effectually, the desiccative
action of roots, and in general it is as true as it was in Seneca's
time, that "the shadiest grounds are the moistest." [Footnote: Seneca,
Questiones Naturales, iii. 11, 2.]

It is always observed in the American States, that clearing the ground
not only causes running springs to disappear, but dries up the stagnant
pools and the spongy soils of the low grounds. The first roads in those
States ran along the ridges, when practicable, because there only was
the earth dry enough to allow of their construction, and, for the same
reason, the cabins of the first settlers were perched upon the hills. As
the forests have been from time to time removed, and the face of the
earth laid open to the air and sun, the moisture has been evaporated,
and the removal of the highways and of human habitations from the bleak
hills to the sheltered valleys, is one of the most agreeable among the
many improvements which later generations have witnessed in the interior
of the Northern States. [Footnote: The Tuscan poet Ginati, who hod
certainly had little opportunity of observing primitive conditions of
nature and of man, was aware that such must have been the course of
things in new countries. "You know," says he in a letter to a friend,
"that the hills were first occupied by man, because stagnant waters, and
afterwards continual wars, excluded men from the plains. But when
tranquillity was established and means provided for the discharge of the
waters, the low grounds were soon covered with human habitations."--
Letters, Firenze, 1864, p. 98.]

Recent observers in France affirm that evergreen trees exercise a
special desiccating action on the soil, and cases are cited where large
tracts of land lately planted with pines have been almost completely
drained of moisture by some unknown action of the trees. It is argued
that the alleged drainage is not due to the conducting power of the
roots, inasmuch as the roots of the pine do not descend lower than those
of the oak and other deciduous trees which produce no such effect, and
it is suggested that the foliage of the pine continues to exhale through
the winter a sufficient quantity of moisture to account for the drying
up of the soil. This explanation is improbable, and I know nothing in
American experience of the forest which accords with the alleged facts.
It is true that the pines, the firs, the hemlock, and all the
spike-leaved evergreens prefer a dry soil, but it has not been observed
that such soils become less dry after the felling of their trees. The
cedars and other trees of allied families grow naturally in moist
ground, and the white cedar of the Northern States, Thuya occidentalis,
is chiefly found in swamps. The roots of this tree do not penetrate
deeply into the earth, but are spread out near the surface, and of
course do not carry off the waters of the swamp by perpendicular
conduction. On the contrary, by their shade, the trees prevent the
evaporation of the superficial water; but when the cedars are felled,
the swamp--which sometimes rather resembles a pool filled with aquatic
trees than a grove upon solid ground--often dries up so completely as to
be fit for cultivation without any other artificial drainage than, in
the ordinary course of cultivation, is given to other new soils.
[Footnote: A special dessicative influence has long been ascribed to the
maritime pine, which has been extensively planted on the dunes and
sand-plains of western France, and it is well established that, under
certain conditions, all trees, whether evergreen or deciduous, exercise
this function, but there is no convincing proof that in the cases now
referred to there is any difference in the mode of action of the two
classes of trees. An article by D'Arbois de Jubainville in the Revue des
Eaux et Forets for April, 1869, ascribing the same action to the Pinus
sylvestris, has excited much attention in Europe, and the facts stated
by this writer constitute the strongest evidence known to me in support
of the alleged influence of evergreen trees, as distinguished from the
draining by downward conduction, which is a function exercised by all
trees, under ordinary circumstances, in proportion to their penetration
of a bibulous subsoil by tap or other descending roots. The question has
been ably discussed by Beraud in the Revue des Deux Mondes for April,
1870, the result being that the drying of the soil by pines is due
simply to conduction by the roots, whatever may be the foliage of the
tree. See post: Influence of the Forest on Flow of Springs. It is
however certain, I believe, that evergreens exhale more moisture in
winter than leafless deciduous trees, and consequently some weight is to
be ascribed to this element.]


The Forest in Winter.

The influence of the woods on the flow of springs, and consequently on
the supply for the larger water-courses, naturally connects itself with
the general question of the action of the forest on the humidity of the
ground. But the special condition of the woodlands, as affected by snow
and frost in the winter of excessive climates, like that of the United
States, has not been so much studied as it deserves; and as it has a
most important bearing on the superficial hydrology of the earth, I
shall make some observations upon it before I proceed to the direct
discussion of the influence of the forest on the flow of springs.

To estimate rightly the importance of the forest in our climate as a
natural apparatus for accumulating the water that falls upon the surface
and transmitting it to the subjacent strata, we must compare the
condition and properties of its soil with those of cleared and
cultivated earth, and examine the consequently different action of these
soils at different seasons of the year. The disparity between them is
greatest in climates where, as in the Northern American States and in
the extreme North of Europe, the open ground freezes and remains
impervious to water during a considerable part of the winter; though,
even in climates where the earth does not freeze at all, the woods have
still an important influence of the same character. The difference is
yet greater in countries which have regular wet and dry seasons, rain
being very frequent in the former period, while, in the latter, it
scarcely occurs at all. These countries lie chiefly in or near the
tropics, but they are not wanting in higher latitudes; for a large part
of Asiatic and even of European Turkey is almost wholly deprived of
summer rains. In the principal regions occupied by European cultivation,
and where alone the questions discussed in this volume are recognized as
having, at present, any practical importance, more or less rain falls at
all seasons, and it is to these regions that, on this point as well as
others, I chiefly confine my attention.


Importance of Snow.

Recent observations in Switzerland give a new importance to the
hygrometrical functions of snow, and of course to the forest as its
accumulator and protector. I refer to statements of the condensation of
atmospheric vapor by the snows and glaciers of the Rhone basin, where it
is estimated to be nearly equal to the entire precipitation of the
valley. Whenever the humidity of the atmosphere in contact with snow is
above the point of saturation at the temperature to which the air is
cooled by such contact, the superfluous moisture is absorbed by the snow
or condensed and frozen upon its surface, and of course adds so much to
the winter supply of water received from the snow by the ground. This
quantity, in all probability, much exceeds the loss by evaporation, for
during the period when the ground is covered with snow, the proportion
of clear dry weather favorable to evaporation is less than that of humid
days with an atmosphere in a condition to yield up its moisture to any
bibulous substance cold enough to condense it. [Footnote: The hard
snow-crust, which in the early spring is a source of such keen enjoyment
to the children and youth of the North--and to many older persons in
whom the love of nature has kept awake a relish for the simple pleasures
of rural life--is doubtless due to the congelation of the vapor
condensed by the snow rather than to the thawing and freezing of the
superficial stratum; for when the surface is melted by the sun, the
water is taken up by the absorbent mass beneath before the temperature
falls low enough to freeze it.]

In our Northern States, irregular as is the climate, the first autumnal
snows pretty constantly fall before the ground is frozen at all, or when
the frost extends at most to the depth of only a few inches. [Footnote:
The hard autumnal frosts are usually preceded by heavy rains which
thoroughly moisten the soil, and it is a common saying in the North that
"the ground will not freeze till the swamps are full."] In the woods,
especially those situated upon the elevated ridges which supply the
natural irrigation of the soil and feed the perennial fountains and
streams, the ground remains covered with snow during the winter; for the
trees protect the snow from blowing from the general surface into the
depressions, and new accessions are received before the covering
deposited by the first fall is melted. Snow is of a color unfavorable
for radiation, but, even when it is of considerable thickness, it is not
wholly impervious to the rays of the sun, and for this reason, as well
as from the warmth of lower strata, the frozen crust of the soil, if one
has been formed, is soon thawed, and does not again fall below the
freezing-point during the winter. [Footnote: Dr. Williams, of Vermont,
made some observations on the comparative temperature of the soil in
open and in wooded ground In the years 1789 and 1791, but they generally
belonged to the warmer months, and I do not know that any extensive
series of comparisons between the temperature of the ground in the woods
and in the fields has been attempted in America. Dr. Williams's
thermometer was sunk to the depth of ten inches, and gave the following
results:

----
 | Temperature | Temperature |
 Time.              | of ground in| of ground in| Difference.
 |  pasture.   |  woods.     |
----
 May  23......................|    52       |    46       |     6
 "    28......................|    57       |    48       |     9

 June 15......................|    64       |    51       |    13
 "    27......................|    62       |    51       |    11
 July 16......................|    62       |    51       |    11
 "    30......................|    65 1/2   |    55 1/2   |    10
 Aug. 15......................|    68       |    58       |    10
 "    31......................|    59 1/2   |    55       |    4 1/2
 Sept.15......................|    59 1/2   |    55       |    4 1/2
 Oct.  1......................|    59 1/2   |    55       |    4 1/2
 "    15......................|    49       |    49       |     0
 Nov.  1......................|    43       |    43       |     0
 "    16......................|    43 1/2   |    43 1/2   |     0


On the 14th of January, 1791, in a winter remarkable for its extreme
severity, he found the ground, on a plain open field where the snow had
been blown away, frozen to the depth of three feet and five inches; in
the woods where the snow was three feet deep, and where the soil had
frozen to the depth of six inches before the snow fell, the thermometer,
at six inches below the surface of the ground, stood at 39 degrees. In
consequence of the covering of the snow, therefore, the previously
frozen ground had been thawed and raised to seven degrees above the
freezing-point.--William's Vermont, i., p. 74.

  Boussingault's observations are important. Employing three
  thermometers, one with the bulb an inch below the surface of powdery
  snow; one on the surface of the ground beneath the snow, then four
  inches deep; and one in the open air, forty feet above the ground, on
  the north side of a building, he found, at 5 P.M., the FIRST
  thermometer at -1.5 degrees Centigrade, the second at 0 degrees, and
  the THIRD at + 2.5 degrees; at 7 A.M. the next morning, the first stood
  at -12 degrees, the second at -3.5 degrees and the third at -3 degrees;
  at 5.30 the same evening No. 1 stood at -1.4 degrees, No. 2 at 0
  degrees, and No. 3 at + 3 degrees. Other experiments were tried, and
  though the temperature was affected by the radiation, which varied with
  the hour of the day and the state of the sky, the upper surface of the
  snow was uniformly colder than the lower, or than the open air.

According to the Report of the Department of Agriculture for May and
June, 1872, Mr. C. G. Prindle, of Vermont, in the preceding winter,
found, for four successive days, the temperature immediately above the
snow at 13 degrees below zero; beneath the snow, which was but four
inches deep, at 19 degrees above zero; and under a drift two feet deep,
at 27 degrees above.

On the borders and in the glades of the American forest, violets and
other small plants begin to vegetate as soon as the snow has thawed the
soil around their roots, and they are not unfrequently found in full
flower under two or three feet of snow.--American Naturalist, May, 1869,
pp. 155, 156.

In very cold weather, when the ground is covered with light snow, flocks
of the grouse of the Eastern States often plunge into the snow about
sunset, and pass the night in this warm shelter. If the weather
moderates before morning, a frozen crust is sometimes formed on the
surface too strong to be broken by the birds, which consequently
perish.] The snow in contact with the earth now begins to melt, with
greater or less rapidity, according to the relative temperature of the
earth and the air, while the water resulting from its dissolution is
imbibed by the vegetable mould, and carried off by infiltration so fast
that both the snow and the layers of leaves in contact with it often
seem comparatively dry, when, in fact, the under-surface of the former
is in a state of perpetual thaw. No doubt a certain proportion of the
snow is given off to the atmosphere by direct evaporation, but in the
woods, the protection against the sun by even leafless trees prevents
much loss in this way, and besides, the snow receives much moisture from
the air by absorption and condensation. Very little water runs off in
the winter by superficial water-courses, except in rare cases of sudden
thaw, and there can be no question that much the greater part of the
snow deposited in the forest is slowly melted and absorbed by the earth.

The immense importance of the forest, as a reservoir of this stock of
moisture, becomes apparent, when we consider that a large proportion of
the summer rain either flows into the valleys and the rivers, because it
falls faster than the ground can imbibe it; or, if absorbed by the warm
superficial strata, is evaporated from them without sinking deep enough
to reach wells and springs, which, of course, depend much on winter
rains and snows for their entire supply. This observation, though
specially true of cleared and cultivated grounds, is not wholly
inapplicable to the forest, particularly when, as is too often the case
in Europe, the underwood and the decaying leaves are removed.

The quantity of snow that falls in extensive forests, far from the open
country, has seldom been ascertained by direct observation, because
there are few meteorological stations in or near the forest. According
to Thompson, [Footnote: Thompson's Vermont, Appendix, p. 8.] the
proportion of water which falls in snow in the Northern States does not
exceed one-fifth of the total precipitation, but the moisture derived
from it is doubtless considerably increased by the atmospheric vapor
absorbed by it, or condensed and frozen on its surface. I think I can
say from experience--and I am confirmed in this opinion by the testimony
of competent observers whose attention has been directed specially to
the point--that though much snow is intercepted by the trees, and the
quantity on the ground in the woods is consequently less than in open
land in the first part of the winter, yet most of what reaches the
ground at that season remains under the protection of the wood until
melted, and as it occasionally receives new supplies the depth of snow
in the forest in the latter half of winter is considerably greater than
in the cleared fields. Careful measurements in a snowy region in New
England, in the month of February, gave a mean of 38 inches in the open
ground and 44 inches in the woods. [Footnote: As the loss of snow by
evaporation has been probably exaggerated by popular opinion, an
observation or two on the subject may not be amiss in this place. It is
true that in the open grounds, in clear weather and with a dry
atmosphere, snow and ice are evaporated with great rapidity even when
the thermometer is much below the freezing-point; and Darwin informs us
that the snow on the summit of Aconcagua, 23,000 feet high, and of
course in a temperature of perpetual frost, is sometimes carried off by
evaporation. The surface of the snow in our woods, however, does not
indicate much loss in this way. Very small deposits of snow-flakes
remain unevaporated in the forest, for many days after snow which fell
at the same time in the cleared field has disappeared without either a
thaw to melt it or a wind powerful enough to drift it away. Even when
bared of their leaven, the trees of a wood obstruct, in an important
degree, both the direct action of the sun's rays on the snow and the
movement of drying and thawing winds.

Dr. Piper (Trees of America, p. 48) records the following observations:
"A body of snow, one foot in depth and sixteen feet square, was
protected from the wind by a tight board fence about five feet high,
while another body of snow, much more sheltered from the sun than the
first, six feet in depth, and about sixteen feet square, was fully
exposed to the wind. When the thaw came on, which lasted about a
fortnight, the larger body of snow was entirely dissolved in less than a
week, while the smaller body was not wholly gone at the end of the
second week. "Equal quantities of snow were placed in vessels of the
samekind and capacity, the temperature of the air being seventy degrees.
In the one case, a constant current of air was kept passing over the
open vessel, while the other was protected by a cover. The snow in the
first was dissolved in sixteen minutes, while the latter had a small
unthawed proportion remaining at the end of eighty-five minutes." The
snow in the woods is protected in the same way, though not literally to
the same extent, as by the fence in one of these cases and the cover in
the other.]

The general effect of the forest in cold climates is to assimilate the
winter state of the ground to that of wooded regions under softer skies;
and it is a circumstance well worth noting, that in Southern Europe,
where Nature has denied to the earth a warm winter-garment of flocculent
snow, she has, by one of those compensations in which her empire is so
rich, clothed the hillsides with umbrella and other pines, ilexes,
cork-oaks, bays and other trees of persistent foliage, whose evergreen
leaves afford to the soil a protection analogous to that which it
derives from snow in more northern climates.

The water imbibed by the soil in winter sinks until it meets a more or
less impermeable or a saturated stratum, and then, by unseen conduits,
slowly finds its way to the channels springs, or oozes out of the ground
in drops which unite in rills, and so all is conveyed to the larger
streams, and by them finally to the sea. The water, in percolating
through the vegetable and mineral layers, acquires their temperature,
and is chemically affected by their action, but it carries very little
matter in mechanical suspension.

The process I have described is a slow one, and the supply of moisture
derived from the snow, augmented by the rains of the following seasons,
keeps the forest-ground, where the surface is level or but moderately
inclined, in a state of approximate saturation throughout almost the
whole year. [Footnote: The statements I have made, here and elsewhere,
respecting the humidity of the soil in natural forests, have been, I
understand, denied by Mr. T. Meehan, a distinguished American
naturalist, in a paper which I have not seen He is quoted as
maintaining, among other highly questionable propositions that no ground
is "so dry in its subsoil as that which sustains a forest on its
surface." In open, artificially planted woods, with a smooth and regular
surface, and especially in forests where the fallen leaves and branches
are annually burnt or carried off, both the superficial and the
subjacent strata may under certain circumstances, become dry, but this
rarely, if ever, happens in a wood of spontaneous growth, undeprived of
the protection afforded by its own droppings, and of the natural
accidents of surface which tend to the retention of water. See, on this
point, a very able article by Mr. Henry Stewart, in the New York Tribune
of November 23, 1873.] It may be proper to observe here that in Italy,
and in many parts of Spain and France, the Alps, the Apennines, and the
Pyrenees, not to speak of less important mountains, perform the
functions which provident nature has in other regions assigned to the
forest, that is, they act as reservoirs wherein is accumulated in winter
a supply of moisture to nourish the parched plains during the droughts
of summer. Hence, however enormous may be the evils which have accrued
to the above-mentioned countries from the destruction of the woods, the
absolute desolation which would otherwise have smitten them through the
folly of man, has been partially prevented by those natural
dispositions, by means of which there are stored up in the glaciers, in
the snow-fields, and in the basins of mountains and valleys, vast
deposits of condensed moisture which are afterwards distributed in a
liquid form during the season in which the atmosphere furnishes a
slender supply of the beneficent fluid so indispensable to vegetable and
animal life. [Footnote: The accumulation of snow and ice upon the Alps
and other mountains--which often fills up valleys to the height of
hundreds of feet--is due not only to the fall or congealed and
crystallized vapor in the form of snow, to the condensation of
atmospheric vapor on the surface of snow-fields and glaciers, and to a
temperature which prevents the rapid melting of snow, but also to the
well-known fact that, at least up to the height of 10,000 feet, rain and
snow are more abundant on the mountains than at lower levels.

But another reason may be suggested for the increase of atmospheric
humidity, and consequently of the precipitation of aqueous vapor on
mountain chains. In discussing the influence of mountains on
precipitation, meteorologists have generally treated the popular belief,
that mountains "attract" to them clouds floating within a certain
distance from them, as an ignorant prejudice, and they ascribe the
appearance of clouds about high peaks solely to the condensation of the
humidity of the air carried by atmospheric currents up the slopes of the
mountain to a colder temperature. But if mountains do not really draw
clouds and invisible vapors to them, they are an exception to the
universal law of attraction. The attraction of the small Mount
Shehallien was found sufficient to deflect from the perpendicular, by a
measurable quantity, a plummet weighing but a few ounces. Why, then,
should not greater masses attract to them volumes of vapor weighing many
tons, and floating freely in the atmosphere within moderate distances of
the mountains ]


Summer Rains, Importance of.

Babinet quotes a French proverb: "Summer rain wets nothing," and
explains it by saying that at that season the rainwater is "almost
entirely carried off by evaporation." "The rains of summer," he adds,
"however abundant they may be, do not penetrate the soil beyond the
depth of six or eight inches. In summer the evaporating power of the
heat is five or six times greater than in winter, and this force is
exerted by an atmosphere capable of containing five or six times as much
vapor as in winter." "A stratum of snow which prevents evaporation [from
the ground], causes almost all the water that composes it to filter into
the earth, and forms a provision for fountains, wells, and streams which
could not be furnished by any quantity whatever of summer rain. This
latter, useful to vegetation like the dew, neither penetrates the soil
nor accumulates a store to supply the springs and to be given out again
into the open air." [Footnote: Etudes et Lectures, vol. vi., p. 118. The
experiments or Johnstrup in the vicinity of Copenhagen, where the mean
annual precipitation is 23 1/2 inches, and where the evaporation must be
less than in the warmer and drier atmosphere of France, form the most
careful series of observations on this subject which I have met with.
Johnstrup found that at the depth at a metre and a half (50 inches) the
effects of rain and evaporation were almost imperceptible, and became
completely so at a depth of from two to three metres (6 1/2 to 10 feet).
During the summer half of the year the evaporation rather exceeded the
rainfall; during the winter half the entire precipitation was absorbed
by the soil and transmitted to lower strata by infiltration. The stratum
between one metre and a half (50 inches) and three metres (10 feet) from
the surface was then permanently in the condition of a saturated sponge,
neither receiving nor losing humidity during the summer half of the
year, but receiving from superior, and giving off to lower, strata an
equal amount of moisture during the winter half.--Johnstrup, Om
Fugtighedens Bezagelse i den naturlige Jordbund. Kjobenhavn, 1866.]

This conclusion, however applicable to the climate and to the soil of
France, is too broadly stated to be received as a general truth; and in
countries like the United States, where rain is comparatively rare
during the winter and abundant during the summer half of the year,
common observation shows that the quantity of water furnished by deep
wells and by natural springs depends almost as much upon the rains of
summer as upon those of the rest of the year, and consequently that a
large portion of the rain of that season must find its way into strata
too deep for the water to be wasted by evaporation.

[Footnote: According to observations at one hundred military stations in
the United States, the precipitation ranges from three and a quarter
inches at Fort Yuma in California to about seventy-two inches at Fort
Pike, Louisiana, the mean for the entire territory, not including
Alaska, being thirty-six inches. In the different sections of the Union
it is as follows:

North-eastern States.................. 41 inches,
New York.............................. 36     "
Middle States......................... 40 1/2 "
Ohio.................................. 40     "
Southern States....................... 51     "
S. W. States and Indian Territories... 39 1/2 "
Western States and Territories........ 30     "
Texas and New Mexico.................. 24 1/2 "
California............................ 18 1/2 "
Oregon and Washington Territory....... 50     "

The mountainous regions, it appears, do not recieve the greatest amount
of precipitation. The avenge downfall of the Southern States bordering
on the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico exceeds the mean of the whole
United States, being no less than fifty-one inches, while on the Pacific
coast it ranges from fifty to fifty-six inches.

As a general rule, it may be stated that at the stations on or near the
sea-coast the precipitation is greatest in the spring months, though
there are several exceptions to this remark, and at a large majority of
the stations the downfall is considerably greater in the summer months
than at any other season.]

Dalton's experiments in the years 1796, 1797, and 1798 appeared to show
that the mean absorption of the downfall by the earth in those years was
twenty-nine per cent.

Dickinson, employing the same apparatus for eight years, found the
absorption to vary widely in different years, the mean being forty-seven
per cent.

Charnock's experiments in two years show an absorption of from seventeen
to twenty-seven per cent.] Besides, even admitting that the water from
summer rains is so completely evaporated as to contribute nothing
directly to the supply of springs, it at least tends indirectly to
maintain their flow, because it saturates in part the atmosphere, and at
the same time it prevents the heat of the sun from drying the earth to
still greater depths, and bringing within the reach of evaporation the
moisture of strata which ordinarily do not feel the effects of solar
irradiation.


Influence of the Forest on the Flow of Springs.

It is an almost universal and, I believe, well-founded opinion, that the
protection afforded by the forest against the escape of moisture from
its soil by superficial flow and evaporation insures the permanence and
regularity of natural springs, not only within the limits of the wood,
but at some distance beyond its borders, and thus contributes to the
supply of an element essential to both vegetable and animal life. As the
forests are destroyed, the springs which flowed from the woods, and,
consequently, the greater water-courses fed by them, diminish both in
number and in volume. This fact is so familiar throughout the American
States and the British Provinces, that there are few old residents of
the interior of those districts who are not able to testify to its truth
as a matter of personal observation. My own recollection suggests to me
many instances of this sort, and I remember one case where a small
mountain spring, which disappeared soon after the clearing of the ground
where it rose, was recovered about twenty years ago, by simply allowing
the bushes and young trees to grow up on a rocky knoll, not more than
half an acre in extent, immediately above the spring. The ground was
hardly shaded before the water reappeared, and it has ever since
continued to flow without interruption. The hills in the Atlantic States
formerly abounded in springs and brooks, but in many parts of these
States which were cleared a generation or two ago, the hill-pastures now
suffer severely from drought, and in dry seasons furnish to cattle
neither grass nor water.

Almost every treatise on the economy of the forest adduces facts in
support of the doctrine that the clearing of the woods tends to diminish
the flow of springs and the humidity of the soil, and it might seem
unnecessary to bring forward further evidence on this point. [Footnote:
"Why go so far for the proof of a phenomenon that is repeated every day
under our own eyes, and of which every Parisian may convince himself,
without venturing beyond the Bois de Boulogne or the forest of Meudon
Let him, after a few rainy days, pass alone the Chevreuse road, which is
bordered on the right by the wood, on the left by cultivated fields. The
fall of water and the continuance of the rain have been the same on both
sides; but the ditch on the side of the forest will remain filled with
water proceeding from the infiltration through the wooded soil, long
after the other, contiguous to the open ground, has performed its office
of drainage and become dry. The ditch on the left will have discharged
in a few hours a quantity of water, which the ditch on the right
requires several days to receive and carry down to the valley."--Clave,
Etudes, etc., pp. 53, 54.] But the subject is of too much practical
importance and of too great philosophical interest to be summarily
disposed of; and it ought to be noticed that there is at least one
case--that of some loose sandy soils which, as observed by
Valles, [Footnote: Valles, Etudes sur les Inondations, p. 472.] when
bared of wood very rapidly absorb and transmit to lower strata the water
they receive from the atmosphere--where the removal of the forest may
increase the flow of springs at levels below it, by exposing to the rain
and melted snow a surface more bibulous, and at the same time less
retentive, than its original covering. Under such circumstances, the
water of precipitation, which had formerly been absorbed by the
vegetable mould and retained until it was evaporated, might descend
through porous earth until it meets an impermeable stratum, and then be
conducted along it, until, finally, at the outcropping of this stratum,
it bursts from a hillside as a running spring. But such instances are
doubtless too rare to form a frequent or an important exception to the
general law, because it is very seldom the case that such a soil as has
just been supposed is covered by a layer of vegetable earth thick enough
to retain, until it is evaporated, all the rain that falls upon it,
without imparting any water to the strata below it.

If we look at the point under discussion as purely a question of fact,
to be determined by positive evidence and not by argument, the
observations of Boussingault are, both in the circumstances they detail
and in the weight to be attached to the testimony, among the most
important yet recorded. The interest of the question will justify me in
giving, nearly in Boussingault's own words, the facts and some of the
remarks with which he accompanies the detail of them. "In many
localities," he observes, [Footnote: Economie Rurale t. ii, p. 780.] "it
has been thought that, within a certain number of years, a sensible
diminution has been perceived in the volume of water of streams utilized
as a motive-power; at other points, there are grounds for believing that
rivers have become shallower, and the increasing breadth of the belt of
pebbles along their banks seems to prove the loss of a part of their
water; and, finally, abundant springs have almost dried up. These
observations have been principally made in valleys bounded by high
mountains, and it has been noticed that this diminution of the waters
has immediately followed the epoch when the inhabitants have begun to
destroy, unsparingly, the woods which were spread over the face of the
land. "And here lies the practical point of the question; for if it is
once established that clearing diminishes the volume of streams, it is
less important to know to what special cause this effect is due. The
rivers which rise within the valley of Aragua, having no outlet to the
ocean, form, by their union, the Lake of Tacarigua or Valencia, having a
length of about two leagues and a half [= 7 English miles].

  At the time of Humboldt's visit to the valley of Aragua, the
  inhabitants were struck by the gradual diminution which the lake had
  been undergoing for thirty years. In fact, by comparing the
  descriptions given by historians with its actual condition, even making
  large allowance for exaggeration, it was easy to see that the level was
  considerably depressed. The facts spoke for themselves. Oviedo, who,
  toward the close of the sixteenth century, had often traversed the
  valley of Aragua, says positively that New Valencia was founded, in
  1555, at half a league from the Lake of Tacarigua; in 1800, Humboldt
  found this city 5,260 metres [= 3 1/2 English miles] from the shore.

"The aspect of the soil furnished new proofs. Many hillocks on the plain
retain the name of islands, which they more justly bore when they were
surrounded by water. The ground laid bare by the retreat of the lake was
converted into admirable plantations; and buildings erected near the
lake showed the sinking of the water from year to year. In 1796, new
islands made their appearance. A fortress built in 1740 on the island of
Cabrera, was now on a peninsula; and, finally, on two granitic islands,
those of Cura and Cabo Blanco, Humboldt observed among the shrubs, somo
metres above the water, fine sand filled with helicites.

"These clear and positive facts suggested numerous explanations, all
assuming a subterranean outlet, which permitted the discharge of the
water to the ocean. Humboldt disposed of these hypotheses, and did not
hesitate to ascribe the diminution of the waters of the lake to the
numerous clearings which had been made in the valley of Aragua within
half a century."

Twenty-two years later, Boussingault explored the valley of Aragua. For
some years previous, the inhabitants had observed that the waters of the
lake were no longer retiring, but, on the contrary, were sensibly
rising. Grounds, not long before occupied by plantations, were
submerged. The islands of Nuevas Aparecidas, which appeared above the
surface in 1796, had again become shoals dangerous to navigation.
Cabrera, a tongue of land on the north side of the valley, was so narrow
that the least rise of the water completely inundated it. A protracted
north wind sufficed to flood the road between Maracay and New Valencia.
The fears which the inhabitants of the shores had so long entertained
were reversed. Those who had explained the diminution of the lake by the
supposition of subterranean channels were suspected of blocking them up,
to prove themselves in the right.

During the twenty-two years which had elapsed, the valley of Aragua had
been the theatre of bloody struggles, and war had desolated these
smiling lands and decimated their population. At the first cry of
independence a great number of slaves found their liberty by enlisting
under the banners of the new republic; the great plantations were
abandoned, and the forest, which in the tropics so rapidly encroaches,
had soon recovered a large proportion of the soil which man had wrested
from it by more than a century of constant and painful labor.

Boussingault proceeds to state that two lakes near Ubate, in New
Granada, had formed but one, a century before his visit; that the waters
were gradually retiring, and the plantations extending over the
abandoned bed; that, by inquiry of old hunters and by examination of
parish records, he found that extensive clearings had been made and were
still going on.

He found, also, that the length of the Lake of Fuquene, in the same
valley, had, within two centuries, been reduced from ten leagues to one
and a half, its breadth from three leagues to one. At the former period,
the neighboring mountains were well wooded, but at the time of his visit
the mountains had been almost entirely stripped of their wood. Our
author adds that other cases, similar to those already detailed, might
be cited, and he proceeds to show, by several examples, that the waters
of other lakes in the same regions, where the valleys had always been
bare of wood, or where the forests had not been disturbed, had undergone
no change of level.

Boussingault further states that the lakes of Switzerland have sustained
a depression of level since the too prevalent destruction of the woods,
and arrives at the general conclusion that, "in countries where great
clearings have been made, there has most probably been a diminution in
the living waters which flow upon the surface of theground." This
conclusion he further supports by two examples: one, where a fine
spring, at the foot of a wooded mountain in the Island of Ascension,
dried up when the mountain was cleared, but reappeared when the wood was
replanted; the other at Marmato, in the province of Popayan, where the
streams employed to drive machinery were much diminished in volume,
within two years after the clearing of the heights from which they
derived their supplies. This latter is an interesting case, because,
although the rain-gauges, established as soon as the decrease of water
began to excite alarm, showed a greater fall of rain for the second year
of observation than the first, yet there was no appreciable increase in
the flow of the mill-streams. From these cases, the distinguished
physicist infers that very restricted local clearings may diminish and
even suppress springs and brooks, without any reduction in the total
quantity of rain.

It will have been noticed that these observations, with the exception of
the last two cases, do not bear directly upon the question of the
diminution of springs by clearings, but they logically infer it from the
subsidence of the natural reservoirs which springs once filled. There
is, however, no want of positive evidence on this subject. Marchand
cites the following instances: "Before the felling of the woods, within
the last few years, in the valley of the Soulce, the Combe-es-Monnin and
the Little Valley, the Sorne furnished a regular and sufficient supply
of water for the ironworks of Unterwyl, which was almost unaffected by
drought or by heavy rains. The Sorne has now become a torrent, every
shower occasions a flood, and after a few days of fine weather, the
current falls so low that it has been necessary to change the
water-wheels, because those of the old construction are no longer able
to drive the machinery, and at last to introduce a steam-engine to
prevent the stoppage of the works for want of water.

"When the factory of St. Ursanne was established, the river that
furnished its power was abundant, and had, from time immemorial,
sufficed for the machinery of a previous factory. Afterwards, the woods
near its sources were cut. The supply of water fell off in consequence,
the factory wanted water for half the year, and was at last obliged to
stop altogether.

"The spring of Combefoulat, in the commune of Seleate, was well known as
one of the best in the country; it was remarkably abundant, and
sufficient, in the severest droughts, to supply all the fountains of the
town; but as soon as considerable forests were felled in Combe-de-pre
Martin and in the valley of Combefoulat, the famous spring, which lies
below these woods, has become a mere thread of water, and disappears
altogether in times of drought.

"The spring of Varieux, which formerly supplied the castle of Pruntrut,
lost more than half its water after the clearing of Varieux and
Rougeoles. These woods have been replanted, the young trees are growing
well, and, with the woods, the waters of the spring are increasing.

"The Dog Spring between Pruntrut and Bressancourt has entirely vanished
since the surrounding forest-grounds were brought under cultivation.

"The Wolf Spring, in the commune of Soubey, furnishes a remarkable
example of the influence of the woods upon fountains. A few years ago
this spring did not exist. At the place where it now rises, a small
thread of water was observed after very long rains, but the stream
disappeared with the rain. The spot is in the middle of a very steep
pasture inclining to the south. Eighty years ago, the owner of the land,
perceiving that young firs were shooting up in the upper part of it,
determined to let them grow, and they soon formed a flourishing grove.
As soon as they were well grown, a fine spring appeared in place of the
occasional rill, and furnished abundant water in the longest droughts.
For forty or fifty years this spring was considered the best in the Clos
du Doubs. A few years since, the grove was felled, and the ground turned
again to a pasture. The spring disappeared with the wood, and is now as
dry as it was ninety years ago." [Footnote: Ueber Die Entwaldung Der
Gebirge, pp. 20 et seqq.]

Siemoni gives the following remarkable facts from his own personal
observation:

"In a rocky nook near the crest of a mountain in the Tuscan Apennines,
there flowed a clear, cool, and perennial fountain, uniting three
distinct springs in a single current. The ancient beeches around and
particularly above the springs were felled. On the disappearance of the
wood, the springs ceased to flow, except in a thread of water in rainy
weather, greatly inferior in quality to that of the old fountain. The
beeches were succeeded by firs, and as soon as they had grown
sufficiently to shade the soil, the springs begun again to flow, and
they gradually returned to their former abundance and quality."
[Footnote: Manuale D'arte Forestale. 2me editione, p. 492.]

This and the next preceding case are of great importance both as to the
action of the wood in maintaining springs, and particularly as tending
to prove that evergreens do not exercise the desiccative influence
ascribed to them in France. The latter instance shows, too, that the
protective influence of the wood extends far below the surface, for the
quality of the water was determined, no doubt, by the depth from which
it was drawn. The slender occasional supply after the beeches were cut
was rain-water which soaked through the superficial humus and oozed out
at the old orifices, carrying the taste and temperature of the vegetable
soil with it; the more abundant and grateful water which flowed before
the beeches were cut, and after the firs were well grown, came from a
deeper source and had been purified, and cooled to the mean temperature
of the locality, by filtering through strata of mineral earth. "The
influence of the forest on springs," says Hummel, "is strikingly shown
by an instance at Heilbronn. The woods on the hills surrounding the town
are cut in regular succession every twentieth year. As the annual
cuttings approach a certain point, the springs yield less water, some of
them none at all; but as the young growth shoots up, they flow more and
more freely, and at length bubble up again in all their original
abundance." [Footnote: Physische Geographie, p. 32.] Dr. Piper states
the following case: "Within about half a mile of my residence there is
a pond upon which mills have been standing for a long time, dating back,
I believe, to the first settlement of the town. These have been kept in
constant operation until within some twenty or thirty years, when the
supply of water began to fail. The pond owes its existence to a stream
that has its source in the hills which stretch some miles to the south.
Within the time mentioned, these hills, which were clothed with a dense
forest, have been almost entirely stripped of trees; and to the wonder
and loss of the mill-owners, the water in the pond has failed, except in
the season of freshets; and, what was never heard of before, the stream
itself has been entirely dry. Within the last ten years a new growth of
wood has sprung up on most of the land formerly occupied by the old
forest; and now the water runs through the year, notwithstanding the
great droughts of the last few years, going back from 1856."

Dr. Piper quotes from a letter of William C. Bryant the following
remarks: "It is a common observation that our summers are becoming drier
and our streams smaller. Take the Cuyahoga as an illustration. Fifty
years ago large barges loaded with goods went up and down that river,
and one of the vessels engaged in the battle of Lake Erie, in which the
gallant Perry was victorious, was built at Old Portage, six miles north
of Albion, and floated down to the lake. Now, in an ordinary stage of
the water, a canoe or skiff can hardly pass down the stream. Many a boat
of fifty tons burden has been built and loaded in the Tuscarawas, at New
Portage, and sailed to New Orleans without breaking bulk. Now, the river
hardly affords a supply of water at New Portage for the canal. The same
may be said of other streams--they are drying up. And from the same
cause--the destruction of our forests--our summers are growing drier and
our winters colder." [Footnote: The Trees of America, pp. 50, 51.]

No observer has more carefully studied the influence of the forest upon
the flow of the waters, or reasoned more ably on the ascertained
phenomena, than Cantegril. The facts presented in the following case,
communicated by him to the Ami des Sciences for December, 1859, are as
nearly conclusive as any single instance well can be:

"In the territory of the commune of Labruguiere there is a forest of
1,834 hectares [4,530 acres], known by the name of the Forest of
Montaut, and belonging to that commune. It extends along thenorthern
slope of the Black Mountains. The soil is granitic, the maximum altitude
1,243 metres [4,140 feet], and the inclination ranges between 15 and 60
to 100.

"A small current of water, the brook of Caunan, takes its rise in this
forest, and receives the waters of two-thirds of its surface. At the
lower extremity of the wood and on the stream are several fulleries,
each requiring a force of eight horse-power to drive the water-wheels
which work the stampers. The commune of Labruguiere had been for a long
time famous for its opposition to forest laws. Trespasses and abuses of
the right of pasturage had converted the wood into an immense waste, so
that this vast property now scarcely sufficed to pay the expense of
protecting it, and to furnish the inhabitants with a meagre supply of
fuel. While the forest was thus ruined, and the soil thus bared, the
water, after every abundant rain, made an eruption into the valley,
bringing down a great quantity of pebbles which still clog the current
of the Caunan. The violence of the floods was sometimes such that they
were obliged to stop the machinery for some time. During the summer
another inconvenience was felt. If the dry weather continued a little
longer than usual, the delivery of water became insignificant. Each
fullery could for the most part only employ a single set of stampers,
and it was not unusual to see the work entirely suspended.

"After 1840, the municipal authority succeeded in enlightening the
population as to their true interests. Protected by a more watchful
supervision, aided by well-managed replantation, the forest has
continued to improve to the present day. In proportion to the
restoration of the forest, the condition of the manufactories has become
less and less precarious, and the action of the water is completely
modified. For example, sudden and violent floods, which formerly made it
necessary to stop the machinery, no longer occur. There is no increase
in the delivery until six or eight hours after the beginning of the
rain; the floods follow a regular progression till they reach their
maximum, and decrease in the same manner. Finally, the fulleries are no
longer forced to suspend work in summer; the water is always
sufficiently abundant to allow the employment of two sets of stampere at
least, and often even of three.

"This example is remarkable in this respect, that, all other
circumstances having remained the same, the changes in the action of the
stream can be attributed only to the restoration of the forest--changes
which may be thus summed up: diminution of flood-water during
rains--increase of delivery at other seasons."

Becquerel and other European writers adduce numerous other cases where
the destruction of forests has caused the disappearance of springs, a
diminution in the volume of rivers, and a lowering of the level of
lakes, and in fact, the evidence in support of the doctrine I have been
maintaining on this subject seems to be as conclusive as the nature of
the case admits. [Footnote: See, in the Revue des Eaux et Forets for
April, 1867, an article entitled De l'influence des Forets sur le Regime
des Eaux, and the papers in previous numbers of the same journal therein
referred to.] We cannot, it is true, arrive at the same certainty and
precision of result in these inquiries as in those branches of physical
research where exact quantitative appreciation is possible, and we must
content ourselves with probabilities and approximations. We cannot
positively affirm that the precipitation in a given locality is
increased by the presence, or lessened by the destruction, of the
forest, and from our ignorance of the subterranean circulation of the
waters, we cannot predict, with certainty, the drying up of a particular
spring as a consequence of the felling of the wood which shelters it;
but the general truth, that the flow of springs and the normal volume of
rivers rise and fall with the extension and the diminution of the woods
where they originate and through which they run, is as well established
as any proposition in the science of physical geography. [Footnote: Some
years ago it was popularly believed that the volume of the Mississippi,
like that of the Volga and other rivers of the Eastern Hemisphere, was
diminished by the increased evaporation from its basin and the drying up
of the springs in consequence of the felling of the forests in the
vicinity of the source of its eastern affluents. The boatmen of this
great river and other intelligent observers now assure us, however, that
the mean and normal level of the Mississippi has risen within a few
years, and that in consequence the river is navigable at low water for
boats of greater draught and at higher points in its course than was the
case twenty-five years ago. This supposed increase of volume has been
attributed by some to the recent re-wooding of the prairies, but the
plantations thus far made are not yet sufficiently extensive to produce
an appreciable effect of this nature; and besides, while young trees
have covered some of the prairies, the destruction of the forest has
been continued perhaps in a greater proportion in other parts of the
basin of the river. A more plausible opinion is that the substitution of
ground that is cultivated, and consequently spongy and absorbent, for
the natural soil of the prairies, has furnished a reservoir for the
rains which are absorbed by the earth and carried gradually to the river
by subterranean flow, instead of running off rapidly from the surface,
or, as is more probable, instead of evaporating or being taken up by the
vigorous herbaceous vegetation which covers the natural prairie.

A phenomenon so contrary to common experience, as would be a permanent
increase in the waters of a great river, will not be accepted without
the most convincing proofs. The present greater facility of navigation
may be attributed to improvements in the model of the boats, to the
removing of sand-banks and other impediments to the flow of the waters,
or to the confining of these waters in a narrower channel, by extending
the embankments of the river, or to yet other causes. So remarkable a
change could not have escaped the notice of Humphreys and Abbot, whose
most able labors comprise the years 1850-1861, had it occurred during
that period or at any former time within the knowledge of the many
observers they consulted; but no such fact is noticed in their
exhaustive report. However, even if an increase in the volume of the
Mississippi, for a period of ten or twenty years, were certain, it would
still be premature to consider this increase as normal and constant,
since it might very well be produced by causes yet unknown and analogous
to those which influence the mysterious advance and retreat of those
Alpine ice-rivers, the glaciers. Among such causes we may suppose a long
series of rainy seasons in regions where important tributaries have
their far-off and almost unknown sources; and with no less probability,
we may conceive of the opening of communications with great subterranean
reservoirs, which may from year to year empty large quantities of water
into the bed of the stream; or the closing up of orifices through which
a considerable portion of the water of the river once made its way for
the supply of such reservoirs.--See upon this point, Chap. IV., Of
Subterranean Waters; post.]

Of the converse proposition, namely, that the planting of new forests
gives rise to new springs and restores the regular flow of rivers, I
find less of positive proof, however probable it may be that such
effects would follow. [Footnote: According to the Report of the
Department of Agriculture for February, 1872, it is thought in the Far
West that the young plantations have already influenced the
water-courses in that region, and it is alleged that ancient river-beds,
never known to contain water since the settlement of the country, have
begun to flow since these plantations were commenced. See also Hayden,
Report on Geological Survey of Wyoming, 1870, p. 104, and Bryant. Forest
Trees, 1871, chap. iv.

In the Voyage autour du Monde of the Comte da Beauvoir, chap. x., this
passage occurs: Dr. Muller, Director of the Botanic Garden at Melbourne,
"has distributed through the interior of Australia millions of seedling
trees from his nursuries. Small rivulets are soon formed under the young
wood; the results are superb, and the observation of every successive
year confirms them. On bare soils he has created, at more than a hundred
points, forests and water-courses."] A reason for the want of evidence
on the subject may be, that, under ordinary circumstances, the process
of conversion of bare ground to soil with a well-wooded surface is so
gradual and slow, and the time required for a fair experiment is
consequently so long, that many changes produced by the action of the
new geographical element escape the notice and the memory of ordinary
observers. The growth of a forest, including the formation of a thick
stratum of vegetable mould beneath it, is the work of a generation, its
destruction may be accomplished in a day; and hence, while the results
of the one process may, for a considerable time, be doubtful if not
imperceptible, those of the other are immediate and readily appreciable.
Fortunately, the plantation of a wood produces other beneficial
consequences which are both sooner realized and more easily estimated;
and though he who drops the seed is sowing for a future generation as
well as for his own, the planter of a grove may hope himself to reap a
fair return for his expenditure and his labor.


Influence of the Forest on Inundations and Torrents.

Inasmuch as it is not yet proved that the forests augment or diminish
the precipitation in the regions they principally cover, we cannot
positively affirm that their presence or absence increases or lessens
the total volume of the water annually delivered by great rivers or by
mountain torrents. It is nevertheless certain that they exercise an
action on the discharge of the water of rain and snow into the valleys,
ravines, and other depressions of the surface, where it is gathered into
brooks and finally larger currents, and consequently influence the
character of floods, both in rivers and in torrents. For this reason,
river inundations and the devastations of torrents, and the geographical
effects resulting from them, so far as they are occasioned or modified
by the action of forests or of the destruction of the woods, may
properly be discussed in this chapter, though they might seem otherwise
to belong more appropriately to another division of this work.

Besides the climatic question, which I have already sufficiently
discussed, and the obvious inconveniences of a scanty supply of
charcoal, of fuel, and of timber for architectural and naval
construction and for the thousand other uses to which wood is applied in
rural and domestic economy, and in the various industrial processes of
civilized life, the attention of European foresters and public
economists has been specially drawn to three points, namely: the
influence of the forests on the permanence and regular flow of springs
or natural fountains; on inundations by the overflow of rivers; and on
the abrasion of soil and the transportation of earth, gravel, pebbles,
and even of considerable masses of rock, from higher to lower levels, by
torrents. There are, however, connected with this general subject,
several other topics of minor or strictly local interest, or of more
uncertain character, which I shall have occasion more fully to speak of
hereafter.

The first of these three principal subjects--the influence of the woods
on springs and other living waters--has been already considered; and if
the facts stated in that discussion are well established, and the
conclusions I have drawn from them are logically sound, it would seem to
follow, as a necessary corollary, that the action of the forest is as
important in diminishing the frequency and violence of river-floods as
in securing the permanence and equability of natural fountains; for any
cause which promotes the absorption and accumulation of the water of
precipitation by the superficial strata of the soil, to be slowly given
out by infiltration and percolation, must, by preventing the rapid flow
of surface-water into the natural channels of drainage, tend to check
the sudden rise of rivers, and, consequently, the overflow of their
banks, which constitutes what is called inundation.

The surface of a forest, in its natural condition, can never pour forth
such deluges of water as flow from cultivated soil. Humus, or vegetable
mould, is capable of absorbing almost twice its own weight of water. The
soil in a forest of deciduous foliage is composed of humus, more or less
unmixed, to the depth of several inches, sometimes even of feet, and
this stratum is usually able to imbibe all the water possibly resulting
from the snow which at any one time covers, or the rain which in any one
shower falls upon it. But the vegetable mould does not cease to absorb
water when it becomes saturated, for it then gives off a portion of its
moisture to the mineral earth below, and thus is ready to receive a new
supply; and, besides, the bed of leaves not yet converted to mould takes
up and retains a very considerable proportion of snow-water, as well as
of rain.

The stems of trees, too, and of underwood, the trunks and stumps and
roots of fallen timber, the mosses and fungi and the numerous
inequalities of the ground observed in all forests, oppose a mechanical
resistance to the flow of water over the surface, which sensibly retards
the rapidity of its descent down declivities, and diverts and divides
streams which may have already accumulated from smaller threads of
water. [Footnote: In a letter addressed to the Minister of Public Works,
after the terrible inundations of 1857, the late Emperor of France thus
happily expressed himself: "Before we seek the remedy for an evil, we
inquire into its cause. Whence come the sudden floods of our rivers From
the water which falls on the mountains, not from that which falls on the
plains. The waters which fall on our fields produce but few rivulets,
but these which fall on our roofs and are collected in the gutters, form
small streams at once. Now, the roofs are mountains--the gutters are
valleys."

"To continue the comparison," observes D'Hericourt, "roofs are smooth
and impermeable, and the rain-water pours rapidly off from their
surfaces; but this rapidity of flow would be greatly diminished if the
roofs were carpeted with mosses and grasses; more still, if they were
covered with dry leaves, little shrubs, strewn branches, and other
impediments--in short, if they were wooded."--Annales Forestieres, Dec.
1857, p. 311.

The mosses and fungi play a more important part in regulating the
humidity of the air and of the soil than writers on the forest have
usually assigned to them. They perish with the trees they grow on; but,
in many situations, nature provides a compensation for the tree-mosses
and fungi in ground species, which, on cold soils, especially those with
a northern exposure, spring up abundantly both before the woods are
felled, and when the land is cleared and employed for pasturage, or
deserted. These humble plants discharge a portion of the functions
appropriated to the wood, and while they render the soil of improved
lands much less fit for agricultural use, they, at the same time,
prepare it for the growth of a new harvest of trees, when the
infertility they produce shall have driven man to abandon it and suffer
it to relapse into the hands of nature.

In primitive forests, when the ground is not too moist to admit of a
dense growth of trees, the soil is generally so thickly covered with
leaves that there is little room for ground mosses and mushrooms. In the
more open artificial woods of Europe these forms of vegetation, as well
as many more attractive plants, are more frequent than in the native
groves of America. See, on cryptogamic and other wood plants,
Rossmassler, Der Wald, pp. 82 et seqq., and on the importance of such
vegetables in checking the flow of water, Mengotti, Idraulica Fisica e
Sperimentale, chapters xvi. and xvii. No writer known to me has so well
illustrated this function of forest vegetation as Mengotti, though both
he and Rossmassler ascribe to plants a power of absorbing water from the
atmosphere which they do not possess, or rather can only rarely
exercise.]

The value of the forest as a mechanical check to a too rapid discharge
of rain-water was exemplified in numerous instances in the great floods
of 1866 and 1868, in France and Switzerland, and I refer to the
observations made on those occasions as of special importance because no
previous inundations in those countries had been so carefully watched
and so well described by competent investigators. In the French
Department of Lozere, which was among those most severely injured by the
inundation of 1866--an inundation caused by diluvial rains, not by
melted snow--it was everywhere remarked that "grounds covered with wood
sustained no damage even on the steepest slopes, while in cleared and
cultivated fields the very soil was washed away and the rocks laid bare
by the pouring rain." [Footnote: See, for other like observations, an
article entitled Le Reboisement et les Inondations, in the Revue des
Eaux et Forets of September, 1868]

The Italian journals of the day state that the province of Brescia and a
part of that of Bergamo, which have heretofore been exposed to enormous
injury, after every heavy rain, from floods of the four principal
streams which traverse them, in a great degree escaped damage in the
terrible inundation of October, 1872, and their immunity is ascribed to
the forestal improvements executed by the former province, within ten or
twelve years, in the Val Camonica and in the upper basins of the other
rivers which drain that territory. Similar facts were noticed in the
extraordinary floods of September and October, 1868, in the valley of
the Upper Rhine, and Coaz makes the interesting observation that not
even dense greensward was so efficient a protection to the earth as
trees, because the water soaked through the sod and burst it up by
hydrostatic pressure. [Footnote: Die Hochwasser in 1868 im Bandnerischen
Rheingebiet, pp. 12, 68.

Observations of Forster, cited by Cezanne from the Annales Forestieres
for 1859, p. 358, are not less important than those adduced in the text.
The field of these observations was a slope of 45 degrees divided into
three sections, one luxuriantly wooded from summit to base with oak and
beech, one completely cleared through its whole extent, and one cleared
in its upper portion, but retaining a wooded belt for a quarter of the
height of the slope, which was from 1,360 to 1,800 feet above the brook
at its foot.

In the first section, comprising six-sevenths of the whole surface, the
rains had not produced a single ravine; in the second, occupying about a
tenth of the ground, were three ravines, increasing in width from the
summit to the valley beneath, where they had, all together, a
cross-section of 600 square feet; in the third section, of about the
same extent as the second, four ravines had been formed, widening from
the crest of the slope to the belt of wood, where they gradually
narrowed and finally disappeared.

For important observations to the same purpose, see Marchand, Les
Torrents des Alpes, in Revue des Eaux et Forets for September, 1871.]

The importance of the mechanical resistance of the wood to the flow of
water OVER THE SURFACE has, however, been exaggerated by some writers.
Rain-water is generally absorbed by the forest-soil as fast as it falls,
and it is only in extreme cases that it gathers itself into a
superficial sheet or current overflowing the ground. There is,
nevertheless, besides the absorbent power of the soil, a very
considerable mechanical resistance to the transmission of water BENEATH
the surface through and along the superior strata of the ground. This
resistance is exerted by the roots, which both convey the water along
their surface downwards, and oppose a closely wattled barrier to its
descent along the slope of the permeable strata which have absorbed it.
[Footnote: In a valuable report on a bill for compelling the sale of
waste communal lands, now pending in the Parliament of Italy, Senator
Torelli, an eminent man of science, calculates that four-fifths of the
precipitation in the forest are absorbed by the soil, or detained by the
obstructions of the surface, only one-fifth being delivered to the
rivers rapidly enough to create danger of floods, while in open grounds,
in heavy rains, the proportions are reversed. Supposing a rain-fall of
four inches, an area measuring 100,000 acres, or a little more than four
American townships, would receive 53,777,777 cubic yards of water. Of
this quantity it would retain, or rather detain, if wooded, 41,000,000
yards, if bare, only 11,000,000. The difference of discharge from wooded
and unwooded soils is perhaps exaggerated in Col. Torelli's report, but
there is no doubt that in very many cases it is great enough to prevent,
or to cause, destructive inundations.] Rivers fed by springs and shaded
by woods are comparatively uniform in volume, in temperature, and in
chemical composition. [Footnote: Dumont gives an interesting extract
from the Misopogon of the Emperor Julian, showing that, in the fourth
century, the Seine--the level of which now varies to the extent of
thirty feet between extreme high and extreme low water mark--was almost
wholly exempt from inundations, and flowed with a uniform current
through the whole year. "Ego olim eram in hibernis apud curam Lutetiam,
[sic] enim Galli Parisiorum oppidum appellant, quae insula est non
magna, in fluvio sita, qui eam omni ex parte cingit. Pontes sublicii
utrinque ad eam ferunt, raroque fluvius minuitur ac crescit; sed qualis
aestate talis esse solet hyeme."--Des Travaux Publics dans leur Rapports
avec l'Agriculture, p. 361, note.

As Julian was six years in Gaul, and his principal residence was at
Paris, his testimony as to the habitual condition of the Seine, at a
period when the provinces where its sources originate were well wooded,
is very valuable.] Their banks are little abraded, nor are their courses
much obstructed by fallen timber, or by earth and gravel washed down
from the highlands. Their channels are subject only to slow and gradual
changes, and they carry down to the lakes and the sea no accumulation of
sand or silt to fill up their outlets, and, by raising their beds, to
force them to spread over the low grounds near their mouth. [Footnote:
Forest rivers seldom if ever form large sedimentary deposits at their
points of discharge into lakes or larger streams, such accumulations
beginning or at least advancing far more rapidly, after the valleys are
cleared.]


Causes of Inundations.

The immediate cause of river inundations is the flow of superficial and
subterranean waters into the beds of rivers faster than those channels
can discharge them. The insufficiency of the channels is occasioned
partly by their narrowness and partly by obstructions to their currents,
the most frequent of which is the deposit of sand, gravel, and pebbles
in their beds by torrential tributaries during the floods. [Footnote:
The extent of the overflow and the violence of the current in river-
floods are much affected by the amount of sedimentary matter let fall in
their channels by their affluents, which have usually a swifter flow
than the main stream, and consequently deposit more or less of their
transported material when they join its more slowly-moving waters. Such
deposits constitute barriers which at first check the current and raise
its level, and of course its violence at lower points is augmented, both
by increased volume and by the solid material it carries with it, when
it acquires force enough to sweep away the obstruction.--Risler, Sur L
influence des Forets sur les Cours d eau, in Revue des Eaux et Forets,
10th January, 1870.

In the flood of 1868 the torrent Illgraben, which had formerly spread
its water and its sediment over the surface of a vast cone of dejection,
having been forced, by the injudicious confinement of its current to a
single channel, to discharge itself more directly into the Rhone,
carried down a quantity of gravel, sand, and mud, sufficient to dam that
river for a whole hour, and in the same great inundation the flow of the
Rhine at Thusis was completely arrested for twenty minutes by a similar
discharge from the Nolla. Of course, when the dam yielded to the
pressure of the accumulated water, the damage to the country below was
far greater than it would have ben had the currents of the rivers not
been thus obstructed.--Marchand, Les Torrents des Alpes, in Revue des
Eaux et Forets, Sept., 1871.]

In accordance with the usual economy of nature, we should presume that
she had everywhere provided the means of discharging, without
disturbance of her general arrangements or abnormal destruction of her
products, the precipitation which she sheds upon the face of the earth.
Observation confirms this presumption, at least in the countries to
which I confine my inquiries; for, so far as we know the primitive
conditions of the regions brought under human occupation within the
historical period, it appears that the overflow of river-banks was much
less frequent and destructive than at the present day, or, at least,
that rivers rose and fell less suddenly, before man had removed the
natural checks to the too rapid drainage of the basins in which their
tributaries originate. The affluents of rivers draining wooded basins
generally transport, and of course let fall, little or no sediment, and
hence in such regions the special obstruction to the currents of
water-courses to which I have just alluded does not occur. The banks of
the rivers and smaller streams in the North American colonies were
formerly little abraded by the currents. [Footnote: In primitive
countries, running streams are very generally fringed by groves, for
almost every river is, as Pliny, Nat. Hist., v. 10, says of the Upper
Nile, an opifex silvarum, or, to use the quaint and picturesque language
of Holland's translation, "makes shade of woods as he goeth."] Even now
the trees come down almost to the water's edge along the rivers, in the
larger forests of the United States, and the surface of the streams
seems liable to no great change in level or in rapidity of current.
[Footnote: A valuable memoir by G. Doni, in the Rivista Forestale for
October, 1863, p. 438, is one of the best illustrations I can cite of
the influence of forests in regulating and equalizing the flow of
running water, and of the comparative action of water-courses which
drain wooded valleys and valleys bared of trees, with regard to the
erosion of their banks and the transportation of sediment.

"The Sestajone," remarks this writer, "and the Lima, are two
considerable torrents which collect the waters of two great valleys of
the Tuscan Apennines, and empty them into the Serchio. At the junction
of these two torrents, from which point the combined current takes the
name of Lima, a curious phenomenon is observed, which is in part easily
explained. In rainy weather the waters of the Sestajone are in volume
only about one-half those of the Lima, and while the current of the Lima
is turbid and muddy, that of the Sestajone appears limpid and I might
almost say drinkable. In clear weather, on the contrary, the waters of
the Sestajone are abundant and about double those of the Lima. Now the
extent of the two valleys is nearly equal, but the Sestajone winds down
between banks clothed with firs and beeches, while the Lima flows
through a valley that has been stripped of trees, and in great part
brought under cultivation."

The Sestajone and the Lima are neither of them what is technically
termed a torrent--a name strictly applicable only to streams whose
current is not derived from springs and perennial, but is the temporary
effect of a sudden accumulation of water from heavy rains or from a
rapid melting of the snows, while their beds are dry, or nearly so, at
other times. The Lima, however, in a large proportion of its course, has
the erosive character of a torrent, for the amount of sediment which it
carries down, even when it is only moderately swollen by rains,
surpasses almost everything of the kind which I have observed, under
analogous circumstances, in Italy.

Still more striking is the contrast in the regime of the Saint-Phalez
and the Combe-d'Yeuse in the Department of Vancluse, the latter of which
became subject to the most violent torrential floods after the
destruction of the woods of its basin between 1823 and 1833, but has now
been completely subdued, and its waters brought to a peaceful flow, by
replanting its valley. See Labussiere, Revue Agric. et Forestiere de
Provence, 1866, and Revue des Eaux et Forets, 1866.]


Inundations in Winter.

In the Northern United States, although inundations are not very
unfrequently produced by heavy rains in the height of summer, it will be
found generally true that the most rapid rise of the waters, and, of
course, the most destructive "freshets," as they are called in America,
are occasioned by the sudden dissolution of the snow before the open
ground is thawed in the spring. It frequently happens that a powerful
thaw sets in after a long period of frost, and the snow which had been
months in accumulating is dissolved and carried off in a few hours. When
the snow is deep, it, to use a popular expression, "takes the frost out
of the ground" in the woods, and, if it lies long enough, in the fields
also. But the heaviest snows usually fall after midwinter, and are
succeeded by warm rains or sunshine, which dissolve the snow on the
cleared land before it has had time to act upon the frost-bound soil
beneath it. In this case, the snow in the woods is absorbed as fast as
it melts, by the soil it has protected from freezing, and does not
materially contribute to swell the current of the rivers. If the mild
weather, in which great snow-storms usually occur, does not continue and
become a regular thaw, it is almost sure to be followed by drifting
winds, and the inequality with which they distribute the snow over the
cleared ground leaves the ridges of the surface-soil comparatively bare,
while the depressions are often filled with drifts to the height of many
feet. The knolls become frozen to a great depth; succeeding partial
thaws melt the surface-snow, and the water runs down into the furrows of
ploughed fields, and other artificial and natural hollows, and then
often freezes to solid ice. In this state of things, almost the entire
surface of the cleared land is impervious to water, and from the absence
of trees and the general smoothness of the ground, it offers little
mechanical resistance to superficial currents. If, under these
circumstances, warm weather accompanied by rain occurs, the rain and
melted snow are swiftly hurried to the bottom of the valleys and
gathered to raging torrents. It ought further to be considered that,
though the lighter ploughed soils readily imbibe a great deal of water,
yet grass-lands, and all the heavy and tenacious earths, absorb it in
much smaller quantities, and less rapidly than the vegetable mould of
the forest. Pasture, meadow, and clayey soils, taken together, greatly
predominate over sandy ploughed fields, in all large agricultural
districts, and hence, even if, in the case we are supposing, the open
ground chance to have boon thawed before the melting of the snow which
covers it, it is already saturated with moisture, or very soon becomes
so, and, of course, cannot relieve the pressure by absorbing more water.
The consequence is that the face of the country is suddenly flooded with
a quantity of melted snow and rain equivalent to a fall of six or eight
inches of the latter, or even more. This runs unobstructed to rivers
often still-bound with thick ice, and thus inundations of a fearfully
devastating character are produced. The ice bursts, from the hydrostatic
pressure from below, or is violently torn up by the current, and is
swept by the impetuous stream, in large masses and with resistless fury,
against banks, bridges, dams, and mills erected near them. The bark of
the trees along the rivers is often abraded, at a height of many feet
above the ordinary water-level, by cakes of floating ice, which are at
last stranded by the receding flood on meadow or ploughland, to delay,
by their chilling influence, the advent of the tardy spring.

Another important effect of the removal of the forest shelter in cold
climates may be noticed here. We have observed that the ground in the
woods either does not freeze at all, or that if frozen it is thawed by
the first considerable snow-fall. On the contrary, the open ground is
usually frozen when the first spring freshet occurs, but is soon thawed
by the warm rain and melting snow. Nothing more effectually
disintegrates a cohesive soil than freezing and thawing, and the surface
of earth which has just undergone those processes is more subject to
erosion by running water than under any other circumstances. Hence more
vegetable mould is washed away from cultivated grounds in such climates
by the spring floods than by the heaviest rain at other seasons.

In the warm climates of Southern Europe, as I have already said, the
functions of the forest, so far as the disposal of the water of
precipitation is concerned, are essentially the same at all seasons, and
are analogous to those which it performs in the Northern United States
in summer. Hence, in the former countries, the winter floods have not
the characteristics which mark them in the latter, nor is the
conservative influence of the woods in winter relatively so important,
though it is equally unquestionable.

If the summer floods in the United States are attended with less
pecuniary damage than those of the Loire and other rivers of France, the
Po and its tributaries in Italy, the Emme and her sister torrents which
devastate the valleys of Switzerland, it is partly because the banks of
American rivers are not yet lined with towns, their shores and the
bottoms which skirt them not yet covered with improvements whose cost is
counted by millions, and, consequently, a smaller amount of property is
exposed to injury by inundation. But the comparative exemption of the
American people from the terrible calamities which the overflow of
rivers has brought on some of the fairest portions of the Old World, is,
in a still greater degree, to be ascribed to the fact that, with all our
thoughtless improvidence, we have not yet bared all the sources of our
streams, not yet overthrown all the barriers which nature has erected to
restrain her own destructive energies. Let us be wise in time, and
profit by the errors of our older brethren!

The influence of the forest in preventing inundations has been very
generally recognized, both as a theoretical inference and as a fact of
observation; but the eminent engineer Belgrand and his commentator
Valles have deduced an opposite result from various facts of experience
and from scientific considerations. They contend that the superficial
drainage is more regular from cleared than from wooded ground, and that
clearing diminishes rather than augments the intensity of inundations.
Neither of these conclusions appears to be warranted by their data or
their reasoning, and they rest partly upon facts, which, truly
interpreted, are not inconsistent with the received opinions on these
subjects, partly upon assumptions which are contradicted by experience.
Two of these latter are, first, that the fallen leaves in the forest
constitute an impermeable covering of the soil over, not through, which
the water of rains and of melting snows flows off, and secondly, that
the roots of trees penetrate and choke up the fissures in the rocks, so
as to impede the passage of water through channels which nature has
provided for its descent to lower strata.

As to the first of those, we may appeal to familiar facts within the
personal knowledge of every man acquainted with the operations of sylvan
nature. Rain-water never, except in very trifling quantities, flows over
the leaves in the woods in summer or autumn. Water runs over them only
in the spring, in the rare cases when they have been pressed down
smoothly and compactly by the weight of the snow--a state in which they
remain only until they are dry, when shrinkage and the action of the
wind soon roughen the surface so as effectually to stop, by absorption,
all flow of water. I have observed that when a sudden frost succeeds a
thaw at the close of the winter, after the snow has principally
disappeared, the water in and between the layers of leaves sometimes
freezes into a solid crust, which allows the flow of water over it. But
this occurs only in depressions and on a very small scale; and the ice
thus formed is so soon dissolved that no sensible effect is produced on
the escape of water from the general surface.

As to the influence of roots upon drainage, we have seen that there is
no doubt that they, independently of their action as absorbents,
mechanically promote it. Not only does the water of the soil follow them
downwards, but their swelling growth powerfully tends to enlarge, not to
obstruct, the crevices of rock into which they enter; and as the
fissures in rocks are longitudinal, not mere circular orifices, every
line of additional width gained by the growth of roots within them
increases the area of the crevice in proportion to its length.
Consequently, the widening of a fissure to the extent of one inch might
give an additional drainage equal to a square foot of open tubing.

The observations and reasonings of Belgrand and Valles, though their
conclusions have not been accepted by many, are very important in one
point of view. There writers insist much on the necessity of taking into
account, in estimating the relations between precipitation and
evaporation, the abstraction of water from the surface and
surface-currents, by absorption and infiltration--an element
unquestionably of great value, but hitherto much neglected by
meteorological inquirers, who have very often reasoned as if the
surface-earth were either impermeable to water or already saturated with
it; whereas, in fact, it is a sponge, always imbibing humidity and
always giving it off, not by evaporation only, but by infiltration and
percolation.

The remarkable historical notices of inundations in France in the Middle
Ages collected by Champion [Footnote: Les Inondations en France depuis
le VIe siecle jusqu'a nos jours, 6 vols, 8vo. Paris, 1858-64. See a very
able review of this learned and important work by Prof. Messedaglia,
read before the Academy of Agriculture at Verona in 1864.] are
considered by many as furnishing proof, that when that country was much
more generally covered with wood than it now is, destructive inundations
of the French rivers were not less frequent than they are in modern
days. But this evidence is subject to this among other objections: we
know, it is true, that the forests of certain departments of France were
anciently much more extensive than at the present day; but we know also
that in many portions of that country the soil has been bared of its
forests, and then, in consequence of the depopulation of great
provinces, left to reclothe itself spontaneously with trees, many times
during the historic period; and our acquaintance with the forest
topography of ancient Gaul or of mediaeval France is neither
sufficiently extensive nor sufficiently minute to permit us to say, with
certainty, that the sources of this or that particular river were more
or less sheltered by wood at any given time, ancient or mediaeval, than
at present. [Footnote: Alfred Maury has, nevertheless, collected, in his
erudite and able work, Les Forets de la Gaule et de l'ancienne France,
Paris, 1867, an immense amount of statistical detail on the extent, the
distribution, and the destruction of the forests of France, but it still
remains true that we can very seldom pronounce on the forestal condition
of the upper valley of a particular river at the time of a given
inundation in the ancient or the mediaeval period.] I say the sources of
the rivers, because the floods of great rivers are occasioned by heavy
rains and snows which fall in the more elevated regions around the
primal springs, and not by precipitation in the main valleys or on the
plains bordering on the lower course.

The destructive effects of inundations, considered simply as a
mechanical power by which life is endangered, crops destroyed, and the
artificial constructions of man overthrown, are very terrible. Thus far,
however, the flood is a temporary and by no means an irreparable evil,
for if its ravages end here, the prolific powers of nature and the
industry of man soon restore what had been lost, and the face of the
earth no longer shows traces of the deluge that had overwhelmed it.
Inundations have even their compensations. The structures they destroy
are replaced by better and more secure erections, and if they sweep off
a crop of corn, they not unfrequently leave behind them, as they
subside, a fertilizing deposit which enriches the exhausted field for a
succession of seasons. [Footnote: The productiveness of Egypt has been
attributed too exclusively to the fertilizing effects of the slime
deposited by the inundations of the Nile; for in that climate a liberal
supply of water would produce good crops on almost any ordinary sand,
while, without water, the richest soil would yield nothing. The sediment
deposited annually is but a very small fraction of an inch in thickness.
It is alleged that in quantity it would be hardly sufficient for a good
top-dressing, and that in quality it is not chemically distinguishable
from the soil inches or feet below the surface. But to deny, as some
writers have done, that the slime has any fertilizing properties at all,
is as great a error as the opposite one of ascribing all the
agricultural wealth of Egypt to that single cause of productiveness.
Fine soils deposited by water are almost uniformly rich in all climates;
those brought down by rivers, carried out into salt-water, and then
returned again by the tide, seem to be more permanently fertile than any
others. The polders of the Netherland coast are of this character, and
the meadows in Lincolnshire, which have been covered with slime by
warping, as it is called, or admitting water over them at high tide, are
remarkably productive.

Recent analysis is said to have detected in the water of the Nile a
quantity of organic matter--derived mainly, no doubt, from the decayed
vegetation it bears down from its tropical course--sufficiently large to
furnish an important supply of fertilizing ingredients to the soil.

It is computed that the Durance--a river fed chiefly by torrents, of
great erosive power--carries down annually solid material enough to
cover 272,000 acres of soil with a deposit of two-fifths of an inch in
thickness, and that this deposit contains, in the combination most
favorable to vegetation, more azote than 110,000 tons of guano, and more
carbon than 121,000 acres of woodland would assimilate in a year. Elisee
Reclus, La Terre, vol. i., p. 467. On the chemical composition,
quantity, and value of the solid matter transported by river, see Herve
Magnon, Sur l'Emploi des Eaux dans les Irrigations, 8vo. Paris, 1869,
pp. 132 et seqq. Duponchel, Traite d'Hydraulique et de Geologie
Agricoles. Paris, 1868, chap. i., xii., and xiii.]

If, then, the too rapid flow of the surface-waters occasioned no other
evil than to produce, once in ten years upon the average, an inundation
which should destroy the harvest of the low grounds along the rivers,
the damage would be too inconsiderable, and of too transitory a
character, to warrant the inconveniences and the expense involved in the
measures which the most competent judges in many parts of Europe believe
the respective governments ought to take to obviate it.


Destructive Action of Torrents.

But the great, the irreparable, the appalling mischiefs which have
already resulted, and which threaten to ensue on a still more extensive
scale hereafter, from too rapid superficial drainage, are of a properly
geographical, we may almost say geological, character, and consist
primarily in erosion, displacement, and transportation of the
superficial strata, vegetable and mineral--of the integuments, so to
speak, with which nature has clothed the skeleton frame-work of the
globe. It is difficult to convey by description an idea of the
desolation of the regions most exposed to the ravages of torrent and of
flood; and the thousands who, in these days of swift travel, are whirled
by steam near or even through the theatres of these calamities, have but
rare and imperfect opportunities of observing the destructive causes in
action. Still more rarely can they compare the past with the actual
condition of the provinces in question, and trace the progress of their
conversion from forest-crowned hills, luxuriant pasture grounds, and
abundant cornfields and vineyards well watered by springs and
fertilizing rivulets, to bald mountain ridges, rocky declivities, and
steep earth-banks furrowed by deep ravines with beds now dry, now filled
by torrents of fluid mud and gravel hurrying down to spread themselves
over the plain, and dooming to everlasting barrenness the once
productive fields. In surveying such scenes, it is difficult to resist
the impression that nature pronounced a primal curse of perpetual
sterility and desolation upon these sublime but fearful wastes,
difficult to believe that they wore once, and but for the folly of man
might still be, blessed with all the natural advantages which Providence
has bestowed upon the most favored climes. But the historical evidence
is conclusive as to the destructive changes occasioned by the agency of
man upon the flanks of the Alps, the Apennines, the Pyrenees, and other
mountain ranges in Central and Southern Europe, and the progress of
physical deterioration has been so rapid that, in some localities, a
single generation has witnessed the beginning and the end of the
melancholy revolution.

I have stated, in a general way, the nature of the evils in question,
and of the processes by which they are produced; but I shall make their
precise character and magnitude better understood by presenting some
descriptive and statistical details of facts of actual occurrence. I
select for this purpose the south-eastern portion of France, not because
that territory has suffered more severely than some others, but because
its deterioration is comparatively recent, and has been watched and
described by very competent and trustworthy observers, whose reports are
more easily accessible than those published in other countries.
[Footnote: Streffleur (Ueber die Natur und die Wirkungen der Wildbuche,
p. 3) maintains that all the observations and speculations of French
authors on the nature of torrents had been anticipated by Austrian
writers. In proof of this assertion he refers to the works of Franz von
Zallinger, 1778, Von Arretin, 1808, Franz Duile, 1826, all published at
Innsbruck, and Hagenus Beschreibung neuerer Wasserbauwerke, Konigsberg,
1826, none of which works are known to me. It is evident, however, that
the conclusions of Surell and other French writers whom I cite, are
original results of personal investigation, and not borrowed opinions.]

The provinces of Dauphiny and Provence comprise a territory of fourteen
or fifteen thousand square miles, bounded north-west by the Isere,
north-east and east by the Alps, south by the Mediterranean, west by the
Rhone, and extending from 42 degrees to about 45 degrees of north
latitude. The surface is generally hilly and even mountainous, and
several of the peaks in Dauphiny rise above the limit of perpetual snow.
Except upon the mountain ridges, the climate, as compared with that of
the United States in the same latitude, is extremely mild. Little snow
falls, except upon the higher mountains, the frosts are light, and the
summers long, as might, indeed, be inferred from the vegetation; for in
the cultivated districts, the vine and the fig everywhere flourish; the
olive thrives as far north as 43 and one half degrees, and upon the
coast grow the orange, the lemon, and the date-palm. The forest trees,
too, are of southern type, umbrella pines, various species of evergreen
oaks, and many other trees and shrubs of persistent broad-leaved
foliage, characterizing the landscape.

The rapid slope of the mountains naturally exposed these provinces to
damage by torrents, and the Romans diminished their injurious effects by
erecting, in the beds of ravines, barriers of rocks loosely piled up,
which permitted a slow escape of the water, but compelled it to deposit
above the dikes the earth and gravel with which it was charged.
[Footnote: Whether Palissy was acquainted with this ancient practice, or
whether it was one of those original suggestions of which his works are
so full, I know not, but in his treatise, Des Eaux et Fontaines, he thus
recommends it, by way of reply to the objections of "Theorique," who had
expressed the fear that "the waters which rush violently down from the
heights of the mountain would bring with them much earth, sand, and
other things," and thus spoil the artificial fountain that "Practique"
was teaching him to make: "And for hindrance of the mischiefs of great
waters which may be gathered in a few hours by great storms, when thou
shalt have made ready thy parterre to receive the water, thou must lay
great atones athwart the deep channels which lead to thy parterre. And
so the force of the rushing currents shall be deadened, and thy water
shall flow peacefully into his cisterns."--Oeuvres Completes, p. 178.]
At a later period the Crusaders brought home from Palestine, with much
other knowledge gathered from the wiser Moslems, the art of securing the
hillsides and making them productive by terracing and irrigation. The
forests which covered the mountains secured an abundant flow of springs,
and the process of clearing the soil went on so slowly that, for
centuries, neither the want of timber and fuel, nor the other evils
about to be depicted, were seriously felt. Indeed, throughout the Middle
Ages, these provinces were well wooded, and famous for the fertility and
abundance, not only of the low grounds, but of the hills.

Such was the state of things at the close of the fifteenth century. The
statistics of the seventeenth show that while there had been an increase
of prosperity and population in Lower Provence, as well as in the
correspondingly situated parts of the other two provinces I have
mentioned, there was an alarming decrease both in the wealth and in the
population of Upper Provence and Dauphiny, although, by the clearing of
the forests, a great extent of plough-land and pasturage had been added
to the soil before reduced to cultivation. It was found, in fact, that
the augmented violence of the torrents had swept away, or buried in sand
and gravel, more land than had been reclaimed by clearing; and the taxes
computed by fires or habitations underwent several successive reductions
in consequence of the gradual abandonment of the wasted soil by its
starving occupants. The growth of the large towns on and near the Rhone
and the coast, their advance in commerce and industry, and the
consequently enlarged demand for agricultural products, ought naturally
to have increased the rural population and the value of their lands; but
the physical decay of the uplands was such that considerable tracts were
deserted altogether, and in Upper Provence, the fires which, in 1471
counted 897, were reduced to 747 in 1699, to 728 in 1733, and to 635 in
1776. [Footnote: These facts I take from the La Provence au point de vue
des Bois, des Torrents et des Inondations, of Charles de Ribbe, one of
the highest authorities.]

Surell--whose admirable work, Etude sur les Torrents des Hautes Alpes,
first published in 1841, [Footnote: A second edition of this work, with
an additional volume of great value by Ernest Cezanne, was published at
Paris, in two 8vo volumes, in 1871-72.] presents a most appalling
picture of the desolations of the torrent, and, at the same time, the
most careful studies of the history and essential character of this
great evil--in speaking of the valley of Devoluy, on page 152, says:
"Everything concurs to show that it was anciently wooded. In its
peat-bogs are found buried trunks of trees, monuments of its former
vegetation. In the framework of old houses, one sees enormous timber,
which is no longer to be found in the district. Many localities, now
completely bare, still retain the name of 'wood,' and one of them is
called, in old deeds, Comba nigra [Black forest or dell], on account of
its dense woods. These and many other proofs confirm the local
traditions which are unanimous on this point.

"There, as everywhere in the Upper Alps, the clearings began on the
flanks of the mountains, and were gradually extended into the valleys
and then to the highest accessible peaks. Then followed the Revolution,
and caused the destruction of the remainder of the trees which had thus
far escaped the woodman's axe."

In a note to this passage the writer says: "Several persons have told me
that they had lost flocks of sheep, by straying, in the forests of Mont
Auroux, which covered the flanks of the mountain from La Cluse to
Agneres. These declivities are now as bare as the palm of the hand."

The ground upon the steep mountains being once bared of trees, and the
underwood killed by the grazing of horned cattle, sheep, and goats,
every depression becomes a water-course. "Every storm," says Surell,
page 153, "gives rise to a new torrent. [Footnote: No attentive observer
can frequent the southern flank of the Piedmontese Alps or the French
province of Dauphiny, for half a dozen years, without witnessing with
his own eyes the formation and increase of new torrents. I can bear
personal testimony to the conversion of more than one grassy slope into
the bed of a furious torrent by baring the hills above of their woods.]
Examples of such are shown, which, though not yet three years old, have
laid waste the finest fields of their valleys, and whole villages have
narrowly escaped being swept into ravines formed in the course of a few
hours. Sometimes the flood pours in a sheet over the surface, without
ravine or even bed, and ruins extensive grounds, which are abandoned
forever."

I cannot follow Surell in his description and classification of
torrents, and I must refer the reader to his instructive work for a full
exposition of the theory of the subject. In order, however, to show what
a concentration of destructive energies may be effected by felling the
woods that clothe and support the sides of mountain abysses, I cite his
description of a valley descending from the Col Isoard, which he calls
"a complete type of a basin of reception," that is, a gorge which serves
as a common point of accumulation and discharge for the waters of
several lateral torrents. "The aspect of the monstrous channel," says
he, "is frightful. Within a distance of less than two English miles,
more than sixty torrents hurl into the depths of the gorge the debris
torn from its two flanks. The smallest of these secondary torrents, if
transferred to a fertile valley, would be enough to ruin it."

The eminent political economist Blanqui, in a memoir read before the
Academy of Moral and Political Science on the 25th of November, 1843,
thus expresses himself: "Important as are the causes of impoverishment
already described, they are not to be compared to the consequences which
have followed from the two inveterate evils of the Alpine provinces of
France, the extension of clearing and the ravages of torrents. ... The
most important result of this destruction is this; that the agricultural
capital, or rather the ground itself--which, in a rapidly increasing
degree, is daily swept away by the waters--is totally lost. Signs of
unparalleled destitution are visible in all the mountain zone, and the
solitudes of those districts are assuming an indescribable character of
sterility and desolation. The gradual destruction of the woods has, in a
thousand localities, annihilated at once the springs and the fuel.
Between Grenoble and Briancon, in the valley of the Romanche, many
villages are so destitute of wood that they are reduced to the necessity
of baking their bread with sun-dried cow-dung, and even this they can
afford to do but once a year.

"Whoever has visited the valley of Barcelonette, those of Embrun, and of
Verdun, and that Arabia Petraea of the department of the Upper Alps,
called Devoluy, knows that there is no time to lose--that in fifty years
from this date France will be separated from Savoy, as Egypt from Syria,
by a desert." [Footnote: Ladoucette says the peasant of Devoluy "often
goes a distance of five hours over rocks and precipices for a single
[man's] load of wood;" and he remarks on another page, that "the justice
of peace of that canton had, in the course of forty-three years, but
once heard the voice of the nightingale."--Histoire, etc, des Hautes
Alpes, pp. 220, 434.]

It deserves to be specially noticed that the district here referred to,
though now among the most hopelessly waste in France, was very
productive even down to so late a period as the commencement of the
French Revolution. Arthur Young, writing in 1789, says: "About
Barcelonette and in the highest parts of the mountains, the
hill-pastures feed a million of sheep, besides large herds of other
cattle;" and he adds: "With such a soil and in such a climate, we are
not to suppose a country barren because it is mountainous. The valleys I
have visited are, in general, beautiful." [Footnote: The valley of
Embrun, now almost completely devastated, was once remarkable for its
fertility. In 1800, Hericart de Thury said of it: "In this magnificent
valley nature had been prodigal of her gifts. Its inhabitants have
blindly revelled in her favors, and fallen asleep in the midst of her
profusion."--Becquerel, Des Climats, etc., p. 314.] He ascribes the same
character to the provinces of Dauphiny, Provence, and Auvergne, and,
though he visited, with the eye of an attentive and practised observer,
many of the scenes since blasted with the wild desolation described by
Blanqui, the Durance and a part of the course of the Loire are the only
streams he mentions as inflicting serious injury by their floods. The
ravages of the torrents had, indeed, as we have seen, commenced earlier
in some other localities, but we are authorized to infer that they were,
in Young's time, too limited in range, and relatively too insignificant,
to require notice in a general view of the provinces where they have now
ruined so large a proportion of the soil.

But I resume my citations.

"I do not exaggerate," says Blanqui. "When I shall have finished my
description and designated localities by their names, there will rise, I
am sure, more than one voice from the spots themselves, to attest the
rigorous exactness of this picture of their wretchedness. I have never
seen its equal even in the Kabyle villages of the province of
Constantine; for there you can travel on horseback, and you find grass
in the spring, whereas in more than fifty communes in the Alps there is
absolutely nothing.

"The clear, brilliant, Alpine sky of Embrun, of Gap, of Barcelonette,
and of Digne, which for months is without a cloud, produces droughts
interrupted only by diluvial rains like those of the tropics. The abuse
of the right of pasturage and the felling of the woods have stripped the
soil of all its grass and all its trees, and the scorching sun bakes it
to the consistence of porphyry. When moistened by the rain, as it has
neither support nor cohesion, it rolls down to the valleys, sometimes in
floods resembling black, yellow, or reddish lava, sometimes in streams
of pebbles, and over huge blocks of stone, which pour down with a
frightful roar, and in their swift course exhibit the most convulsive
movements. If you overlook from an eminence one of these landscapes
furrowed with so many ravines, it presents only images of desolation and
of death. Vast deposits of flinty pebbles, many feet in thickness, which
have rolled down and spread far over the plain, surround large trees,
bury even their tops, and rise above them, leaving to the husbandman no
longer a ray of hope. One can imagine no sadder spectacle than the deep
fissures in the flanks of the mountains, which seem to have burst forth
in eruption to cover the plains with their ruins. Those gorges, under
the influence of the sun which cracks and shivers to fragments the very
rocks, and of the rain which sweeps them down, penetrate deeper and
deeper into the heart of the mountain, while the beds of the torrents
issuing from them are sometimes raised several feet in a single year, by
the debris, so that they reach the level of the bridges, which, of
course, are then carried off. The torrent-beds are recognized at a great
distance, as they issue from the mountains, and they spread themselves
over the low grounds, in fan-shaped expansions, like a mantle of stone,
sometimes ten thousand feet wide, rising high at the centre, and curving
towards the circumference till their lower edges meet the plain.

"Such is their aspect in dry weather. But no tongue can give an adequate
description of their devastations in one of those sudden floods winch
resemble, in almost none of their phenomena, the action of ordinary
river-water. They are now no longer overflowing brooks, but real seas,
tumbling down in cataracts, and rolling before them blocks of stone,
which are hurled forwards by the shock of the waves like balls shot out
by the explosion of gunpowder. Sometimes ridges of pebbles are driven
down when the transporting torrent does not rise high enough to show
itself, and then the movement is accompanied with a roar louder than the
crash of thunder. A furious wind precedes the rushing water and
announces its approach. Then comes a violent eruption, followed by a
flow of muddy waves, and after a few hours all returns to the dreary
silence which at periods of rest marks these abodes of desolation.
[Footnote: These explosive gushes of mud and rock appear to be
occasioned by the caving-in of large masses of earth from the banks of
the torrent, which dam up the stream and check its flow until it has
acquired volume enough to burst the barrier and carry all before it. In
1827, such a sudden eruption of a torrent, after the current had
appeared to have ceased, swept off forty-two houses and drowned
twenty-eight persons in the village of Goncelin, near Grenoble, and
buried with rubbish a great part of the remainder of the village."

The French traveller, D'Abbadie, relates precisely similar occurrences
as not unfrequent in the mountains of Abyssinia.--Surrell, Etudes, etc;
2d edition, pp. 224, 295.]

"The elements of destruction are increasing in violence. The devastation
advances in geometrical progression as the higher slopes are bared of
their wood, and 'the ruin from above,' to use the words of a peasant,
'helps to hasten the desolation below.'

"The Alps of Provence present a terrible aspect. In the more equable
climate of Northern France, one can form no conception of those parched
mountain gorges where not even a bush can be found to shelter a bird,
where, at most, the wanderer sees in summer here and there a withered
lavender, where all the springs are dried up, and where a dead silence,
hardly broken by even the hum of an insect, prevails. But if a storm
bursts forth, masses of water suddenly shoot from the mountain heights
into the shattered gulfs, waste without irrigating, deluge without
refreshing the soil they overflow in their swift descent, and leave it
even more seared than it was from want of moisture. Man at last retires
from the fearful desert, and I have, the present season, found not a
living soul in districts where I remember to have enjoyed hospitality
thirty years ago."

In 1853, ten years after the date of Blanqui's memoir, M. de Bonville,
prefect of the Lower Alps, addressed to the Government a report in which
the following passages occur:

"It is certain that the productive mould of the Alps, swept off by the
increasing violence of that curse of the mountains, the torrents, is
daily diminishing with fearful rapidity. All our Alps are wholly, or in
large proportion, bared of wood. Their soil, scorched by the sun of
Provence, cut up by the hoofs of the sheep, which, not finding on the
surface the grass they require for their sustenance, gnaw and scratch
the ground in search of roots to satisfy their hunger, is periodically
washed and carried off by melting snows and summer storms.

"I will not dwell on the effects of the torrents. For sixty years they
have been too often depicted to require to be further discussed, but it
is important to show that their ravages are daily extending the range of
devastation. The bed of the Durance, which now in some places exceeds a
mile and a quarter in width, and, at ordinary times, has a current of
water less than eleven yards wide, shows something of the extent of the
damage." [Footnote: In the days of the Roman Empire the Durance was a
navigable, or at least a boatable, river, with a commerce so important
that the boatmen upon it formed a distinct corporation.--Ladoucette,
Histoire, etc., des Hautes Alpes, p. 354.

Even as early as 1789 the Durance was computed to have already covered
with gravel and pebbles not less than 130,000 acres, "which, but for its
inundations, would have been the finest land in the province."--Arthur
Young, Travels in France, vol i., ch. i.] Where, ten years ago, there
were still woods and cultivated grounds to be seen, there is now but a
vast torrent; there is not one of our mountains which has not at least
one torrent, and new ones are daily forming.

"An indirect proof of the diminution of the soil is to be found in the
depopulation of the country. In 1852 I reported to the General Council
that, according to the census of that year, the population of the
department of the Lower Alps had fallen off no less than 5,000 souls in
the five years between 1846 and 1851.

"Unless prompt and energetic measures are taken, it is easy to fix the
epoch when the French Alps will be but a desert. The interval between
1851 and 1856 will show a further decrease of population. In 1862 the
ministry will announce a continued and progressive reduction, in the
number of acres devoted to agriculture; every year will aggravate the
evil and in half a century France will count more ruins, and a
department the less."

Time has verified the predictions of De Bonville. The later census
returns show a progressive diminution in the population of the
departments of the Lower Alps, the Isere, Drome, Ariege, the Upper and
the Lower Pyrenees, Lozere, the Ardennes, Doubs, the Vosges, and, in
short, in all the provinces formerly remarkable for their forests. This
diminution is not to be ascribed to a passion for foreign emigration, as
in Ireland, and in parts of Germany and of Italy; it is simply a
transfer of population from one part of the empire to another, from
soils which human folly has rendered uninhabitable, by ruthlessly
depriving them of their natural advantages and securities, to provinces
where the face of the earth was so formed by nature as to need no such
safeguards, and where, consequently, she preserves her outlines in spite
of the wasteful improvidence of man. [Footnote: Between 1851 and 1856
the population of Languedoc and Provence had increased by 101,000 souls.
The augmentation, however, was wholly in the provinces of the plains,
where all the principal cities are found. In these provinces the
increase was 204,000, while in the mountain provinces there was a
diminution of 103,000. The reduction of the area of arable land is
perhaps even more striking. In 1842 the department of the Lower Alps
possessed 90,000 hectares, or nearly 245,000 acres, of cultivated soil.
In 1852 it had but 74,000 hectares. In other words, in ten years 25,000
hectares, or 61,000 acres, had been washed away, or rendered worthless
for cultivation, by torrents and the abuses of pasturage.--Clave,
Etudes, pp. 66, 67.]


Floods of the Ardeche.

The River Ardeche, in the French department of that name, has a
perennial current in a considerable part of its course, and therefore is
not, technically speaking, a torrent; but the peculiar character and
violence of its floods is due to the action of the torrents which
discharge themselves into it in its upper valley, and to the rapidity of
the flow of the water of precipitation from the surface of a basin now
almost bared of its once luxuriant woods. [Footnote: The original
forests in which the basin of the Ardeche was rich have been rapidly
disappearing for many years, and the terrific violence of the
inundations which are now laying it waste is ascribed, by the ablest
investigators, to that cause. In an article inserted in the Annales
Forestieres for 1843, quoted by Hohenstein, Der Wald, p. 177, it is said
that about one-third of the area of the department had already become
absolutely barren, in consequence of clearing, and that the destruction
of the woods was still going on with great rapidity. New torrents were
constantly forming, and they were estimated to have covered more than
70,000 acres of good land, or one-eighth of the surface of the
department, with sand and gravel.] A notice of these floods may
therefore not inappropriately be introduced in this place.

The floods of the Ardeche and other mountain streams are attended with
greater immediate danger to life and property than those of rivers of
less rapid flow, because their currents are more impetuous, and they
rise more suddenly and with less previous warning. At the same time,
their ravages are confined within narrower limits, the waters retire
sooner to their accustomed channel, and the danger is more quickly over,
than in the case of inundations of larger rivers. The Ardeche drains a
basin of 600,238 acres, or a little less than nine hundred and
thirty-eight square miles. Its remotest source is about seventy-five
miles, in a straight line, from its junction with the Rhone, and springs
at an elevation of four thousand feet above that point. At the lowest
stage of the river, the bed of the Chassezac, its largest and longest
tributary, is in many places completely dry on the surface--the water
being sufficient only to supply the subterranean channels of
infiltration--and the Ardeche itself is almost everywhere fordable, even
below the mouth of the Chassezac. But in floods, the river has sometimes
risen more than sixty feet at the Pont d'Arc, a natural arch of two
hundred feet chord, which spans the stream below its junction with all
its important affluents. At the height of the inundation of 1857, the
quantity of water passing this point--after deducting thirty per cent.
for material transported with the current and for irregularity of
flow--was estimated at 8,845 cubic yards to the second, and between
twelve o'clock at noon on the 10th of September of that year and ten
o'clock the next morning, the water discharged through the passage in
question amounted to more than 450,000,000 cubic yards. This quantity,
distributed equally through the basin of the river, would cover its
entire area to a depth of more than five inches.

The Ardeche rises so suddenly that, in the inundation of 1846, the women
who were washing in the bed of the river had not time to save their
linen, and barely escaped with their lives, though they instantly fled
upon hearing the roar of the approaching flood. Its waters and those of
its affluents fall almost as rapidly, for in less than twenty-four hours
after the rain has ceased in the Cevennes, where it rises, the Ardeche
returns within its ordinary channel, even at its junction with the
Rhone. In the flood of 1772, the water at La Beaume de Ruoms, on the
Beaume, a tributary of the Ardeche, rose thirty-five feet above low
water but the stream was again fordable on the evening of the same day.
The inundation of 1827 was, in this respect, exceptional, for it
continued three days, during which period the Ardeche poured into the
Rhone 1,305,000,000 cubic yards of water.

The Nile delivers into the sea 101,000 cubic feet or 3,741 cubic yards
per second, on an average of the whole year. [Footnote: Sir John F.
Herschel, citing Talabot as his authority, Physical Geography (24).

In an elaborate paper on "Irrigation," printed in the United States
Patent Report for 1860, p. 169, it is stated that the volume of water
poured into the Mediterranean by the Nile in twenty-four hours, at low
water, is 150,566,392,368 cubic meters; at high water, 705,514,667,440
cubic metres. Taking the mean of these two numbers, the average daily
delivery of the Nile would be 428,081,059,808 cubic metres, or more than
550,000,000,000 cubic yards. There is some enormous mistake, probably a
typographical error, in this statement, which makes the delivery of the
Nile seventeen hundred times as great as computed by Talabot, and more
than physical geographers have estimated the quantity supplied by all
the rivers on the face of the globe.] This is equal to 323,222,400 cubic
yards per day. In a single day of flood, then, the Ardeche, a river too
insignificant to be known except in the local topography of France,
contributed to the Rhone once and a half, and for three consecutive days
once and one third, as much as the average delivery of the Nile during
the same periods, though the basin of the latter river probably contains
1,000,000 square miles of surface, or more than one thousand times as
much as that of the former.

The average annual precipitation in the basin of the Ardeche is not
greater titan in many other parts of Europe, but excessive quantities of
rain frequently fall in that valley in the autumn. On the 9th. of
October, 1827, there fell at Joyeuse, on the Beaume, no less than
thirty-one inches between three o'clock in the morning and midnight.
Such facts as this explain the extraordinary suddenness and violence of
the floods of the Ardeche, and the basins of many other tributaries of
the Rhone exhibit meteorological phenomena not less remarkable.
[Footnote: The Drac, a torrent emptying into the Isere a little below
Grenoble, has discharged 5,200, the Isere, which receives it, 7,800
cubic yards, and the Durance, above its junction with the Isere, an
equal quantity, per second.--Montluisant, Note sur les Dessechements,
etc., Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, 1833, 2me semestre p. 288.

The Upper Rhone, which drains a basin of about 1,900 square miles,
including seventy-one glaciers, receives many torrential affluents, and
rain-storms and thaws are sometimes extensive enough to affect the whole
tributary system of its narrow valley. In such cases its current swells
to a great volume, but previously to the floods of the autumn of 1868 it
was never known to reach a discharge of 2,600 cubic yards to the second.
On the 28th of September in that year, however, its delivery amounted to
3,700 cubic yards to the second, which is about equal to the mean
discharge of the Nile.--Berichte der Experten-Commission uber die
Ueberschaeemmungen im Jahr 1868, pp. 174,175.

The floods of some other French rivers, which have a more or less
torrential character, scarcely fall behind those of the Rhone. The
Loire, above Roanne, has a basin of 2,471 square miles, or about twice
and a half the area of that of the Ardeche. In some of its inundations
it has delivered above 9,500 cubic yards per second, or 400 times its
low-water discharge.--Belgrand, De l'Influence des Forets, etc., Annales
des Ponts et Chaussees, 1854, 1er semestre, p.15, note.

The ordinary low-water discharge of the Seine at Paris is nearly 100
cubic yards per second. Belgrand gives a list of eight floods of that
river within the last two centuries, in which it has delivered thirty
times that quantity.]

The Rhone, therefore, is naturally subject to great and sudden
inundations, and the same remark may be applied to most of the principal
rivers of France, because the geographical character of all of them is
approximately the same.

The volume of water in the floods of most great rivers is determined by
the degree in which the inundations of the different tributaries are
coincident in time. Were all the affluents of the Lower Rhone to pour
their highest annual floods into its channel at once--as the smaller
tributaries of the Upper Rhone sometimes do--were a dozen Niles to empty
themselves into its bed at the same moment, its water would rise to a
height and rush with an impetus that would sweep into the Mediterranean
the entire population of its banks, and all the works that man has
erected upon the plains which border it. But such a coincidence can
never happen. The tributaries of this river run in very different
directions, and some of them are swollen principally by the melting of
the snows about their sources, others almost exclusively by heavy rains.
When a damp southeast wind blows up the valley of the Ardeche, its
moisture is condensed, and precipitated in a deluge upon the mountains
which embosom the headwaters of that stream, thus producing a flood,
while a neighboring basin, the axis of which lies transversely or
obliquely to that of the Ardeche, is not at all affected. [Footnote:
"There is no example of a coincidence between great floods of the

Ardeche and of the Rhone, all the known inundations of the former having
taken place when the latter was very low."--MARDIGNY, Memoire sur les
Inondations des Rivieres de l'Ardeche, p. 26.

The same observation may be applied to the tributaries of the Po, their
floods being generally successive, not contemporaneous. The swelling of
the affluents of the Amazon, and indeed of most large rivers, is
regulated by a similar law. See Messedaglia, Analisi dell' opera di
Champion, etc., p. 103.

The floods of the affluents of the Tiber form an exception to this law,
being generally coincident, and this is one of the explanations of the
frequency of destructive inundations in that river.--Lombardini, Guida
allo Studio dell' Idrologia, ff. 68; same author, Esame degli studi sul
Tevere.

I take this occasion to acknowledge myself indebted to Mardigny's
interesting memoir just quoted for all the statements I make respecting
the floods of the Ardeche, except the comparison of the volume of its
water with that of the Nile.] It is easy to see that the damage
occasioned by such floods as I have described must be almost
incalculable, and it is by no means confined to the effects produced by
overflow and the mechanical force of the superficial currents. In
treating of the devastations of torrents, I have hitherto confined
myself principally to the erosion of surface and the transportation of
mineral matter to lower grounds by them. The general action of torrents,
as thus fur shown, tends to the ultimate elevation of their beds by the
deposit of the earth, gravel, and stone conveyed by them; but until they
have thus raised their outlets so as sensibly to diminish the
inclination of their channels--and sometimes when extraordinary floods
give the torrents momentum enough to sweep away the accumulations which
they have themselves heaped up--the swift flow of their currents, aided
by the abrasion of the rolling rocks and gravel, scoops their beds
constantly deeper, and they consequently not only undermine their banks,
but frequently sap the most solid foundations which the art of man can
build for the support of bridges and hydraulic structures. [Footnote: In
some cases where the bed of rapid Alpine streams is composed of very
hard rock--as is the case in many of the valleys once filled by ancient
glaciers--and especially where they are fed by glaciers not overhung by
crumbling cliffs, the channel may remain almost unchanged for centuries.
This is observable in many of the tributaries of the Dora Baltea, which
drains the valley of Aosta. Several of these small rivers are spanned by
more or less perfect Roman bridges--one of which, that over the Lys at
Pont St. Martin, is still in good repair and in constant use. An
examination of the rocks on which the abutments of this and some other
similar structures are founded, and of the channels of the rivers they
cross, shows that the beds of the streams cannot have been much elevated
or depressed since the bridges were built. In other cases, as at the
outlet of the Val Tournanche at Chatillon, where a single rib of a Roman
bridge still remains, there is nothing to forbid the supposition that
the deep excavation of the channel may have been partly effected at much
later period.

The Roman aqueduct known as the Pont du Gard, near Nismes, was built, in
all probability, nineteen centuries ago. The bed of the river Gardon, a
rather swift stream, which flows beneath it, can have suffered but
slight depression since the piers of the aqueduct were founded.]

In the inundation of 1857, the Ardeche destroyed a stone bridge near La
Beaume, which had been built about eighty years before. The resistance
of the piers, which were erected on piles, the channel at that point
being of gravel, produced an eddying current that washed away the bed of
the river above them, and the foundation, thus deprived of lateral
support, yielded to the weight of the bridge, and the piles and piers
fell up-stream.

By a curious law of compensation, the stream which, at flood, scoops out
cavities in its bed, often fills them up again as soon as the diminished
velocity of the current allows it to let fall the sand and gravel with
which it is charged, so that when the waters return to their usual
channel, the bottom shows no sign of having been disturbed. In a flood
of the Escontay, a tributary of the Rhone, in 1846, piles driven sixteen
feet into its gravelly bed for the foundation of a pier were torn up and
carried off, and yet, when the river had fallen to low-water mark, the
bottom at that point appeared to have been raised higher than it was
before the flood, by new deposits of sand and gravel, while the cut
stones of the half-built pier were found buried to a great depth in the
excavation which the water had first washed out. The gravel with which
rivers thus restore the level of their beds is principally derived from
the crushing of the rocks brought down by the mountain torrents, and the
destructive effects of inundations are immensely diminished by this
reduction of large stones to minute fragments. If the blocks hurled down
from the cliffs were transported unbroken to the channels of large
rivers, the mechanical force of their movement would be irresistible.
They would overthrow the strongest barriers, spread themselves over a
surface as wide as the flow of the waters, and convert the most smiling
valleys into scenes of the wildest desolation.

As I have before remarked, I have taken my illustrations of the action
of torrents and mountain streams principally from French authorities,
because the facts recorded by them are chiefly of recent occurrence, and
as they have been collected with much care and described with great
fulness of detail, the information furnished by them is not only more
trustworthy, but both more complete and more accessible than that which
can be gathered from any other source. It is not to be supposed,
however, that the countries adjacent to France have escaped the
consequences of a like improvidence. The southern flanks of the Alps,
and, in a less degree, the northern slope of these mountains and the
whole chain of the Pyrenees, afford equally striking examples of the
evils resulting from the wanton sacrifice of nature's safeguards. But I
can afford space for few details, and as an illustration of the extent
of these evils in Italy, I shall barely observe that it was calculated
ten years ago that four-tenths of the area of the Ligurian provinces
had been washed away or rendered incapable of cultivation in consequence
of the felling of the woods. [Footnote: Annali di Agricoltura, Industria
e Commercio, vol. i., p. 77. Similar instances of the erosive power of
running water might be collected by hundreds from the narratives of
travellers in warm countries. The energy of the torrents of the
Himalayas is such that the brothers Schlagintweit believe that they will
cut gorges through that lofty chain wide enough to admit the passage of
currents of warm wind from the south, and thereby modify the climate of
the countries lying to the north of the mountains.]

Highly colored as these pictures seem, they are not exaggerated,
although the hasty tourist through Southern France, Switzerland, the
Tyrol, and Northern Italy, finding little in his high-road experiences
to justify them, might suppose them so. The lines of communication by
locomotive-train and diligence lead generally over safer ground, and it
is only when they ascend the Alpine passes and traverse the mountain
chains, that scenes somewhat resembling those just described fall under
the eye of the ordinary traveller. But the extension of the sphere of
devastation, by the degradation of the mountains and the transportation
of their debris, is producing analogous effects upon the lower ridges of
the Alps and the plains which skirt them; and even now one needs but an
hour's departure from some great thoroughfares to reach sites where the
genius of destruction revels as wildly as in the most frightful of the
abysses which Blanqui has painted. [Footnote: The Skalara-Tobel, for
instance, near Coire. See the description of this and other like scenes
in Berlepsch, Die Alpen, pp. 169 et seqq., or in Stephen's English
translation.

About an hour from Thusis, on the Splagen road, "opens the awful chasm
of the Nolla which a hundred years ago poured its peaceful waters
through smiling meadows protected by the wooded slopes of the mountains.
But the woods were cut down and with them departed the rich pastures,
the pride of the valley, now covered with piles of rock and rubbish
swept down from the mountains. This result is the more to be lamented as
it was entirely compassed by the improvidence of man in thinning the
forests."--Morell, Scientific Guide to Switzerland, p. 100.

The recent change in the character of the Mella--a river anciently so
remarkable for the gentleness of its current that it was specially
noticed by Catullus as flowing molli flumine--deserves more than a
passing remark. This river rises in the mountain-chain east of Lake
Iseo, and traversing the district of Brescia, empties into the Oglio
after a course of about seventy miles. The iron-works in the upper
valley of the Mella had long created a considerable demand for wood, but
their operations were not so extensive as to occasion any very sudden or
general destruction of the forests, and the only evil experienced from
the clearings was the gradual diminution of the volume of the river.
Within the last thirty years, the superior quality of the arms
manufactured at Brescia has greatly enlarged the sale of them, and very
naturally stumulated the activity of both the forges and of the colliers
who supply them, and the hillsides have been rapidly stripped of their
timber. Up to 1850, no destructive inundation of the Mella had been
recorded. Buildings in great numbers had been erected upon its margin,
and its valley was conspicuous for its rural beauty and its fertility.
But when the denudation of the mountains had reached a certain point,
avenging nature began the work of retribution. In the spring and summer
of 1850 several new torrents were suddenly formed in the upper tributary
valleys, and on the 14th and 15th of August in that year a fall of rain,
not heavier than had been often experienced, produced a flood which not
only inundated much ground never before overflowed, but destroyed a
great number of bridges, dams, factories, and other valuable structures,
and, what was a far more serious evil, swept off from the rocks an
incredible extent of soil, and converted one of the most beautiful
valleys of the Italian Alps into a ravine almost us bare and as barren
as the savagest gorge of Southern France. The pecuniary damage was
estimated at many millions of francs, and the violence of the
catastrophe was deemed so extraordinary, even in a country subject to
similar visitations, that the sympathy excited for the sufferers
produced, in five months, voluntary contributions for their relief to
the amount of nearly $200,000.--Delle Inondazioni del Mella, etc., nella
notte del 14 al 15 Agosto, 1850.

The author of this pamphlet has chosen as a motto a passage from the
Vulgate translation of Job, which is interesting as showing accurate
observation of the action of the torrent: "Mons cadens definit, et saxum
transfertur de loco suo; lapides excavant aquae et alluvione paullatim
terra consumitur."--Job xiv. 18, 19.

The English version is much less striking, and gives a different sense.

The recent date of the change in the character of the Mella is
contested, and it is possible that, though the extent of the revolution
is not exaggerated, the rapidity with which it has taken place may have
been.]

There is one effect of the action of torrents which few travellers on
the Continent are heedless enough to pass without notice. I refer to the
elevation of the beds of mountain streams in consequence of the deposit
of the debris with which they are charged. To prevent the spread of sand
and gravel over the fields and the deluging overflow of the raging
waters, the streams are confined by walls and embankments, which are
gradually built higher and higher as the bed of the torrent is raised,
so that, to reach a river, you ascend from the fields beside it; and
sometimes the ordinary level of the stream is above the streets and even
the roofs of the towns through which it passes. [Footnote: Streffleur
quotes from Duile the following observations: "The channel of the
Tyrelese brooks is often raised much above the valleys through which
they flow. The bed of the Fersina is elevated high above the city of
Trent, which lies near it. The Villerbach flows at a much more elevated
level than that of the market-place of Neumarkt and Vill, and threatens
to overwhelm both of them with its waters. The Talfer at Botzen is at
least even with the roofs of the adjacent town, if not above them. The
tower-steeples of the villages of Schlanders, Kortsch, and Laas, are
lower than the surface of the Gadribach. The Saldurbach at Schluderus
menaces the far lower village with destruction, and the chief town,
Schwaz, is in similar danger from the Lahnbach."--Streffleur, Ueber die
Wildbuche, etc., p. 7.] The traveller who visits the depths of an Alpine
ravine, observes the length and width of the gorge and the great height
and apparent solidity of the precipitous walls which bound it, and
calculates the mass of rock required to fill the vacancy, can hardly
believe that the humble brooklet which purls at his feet has been the
principal agent in accomplishing this tremendous erosion. Closer
observation will often teach him, that the seemingly unbroken rock which
overhangs the valley is full of cracks and fissures, and really in such
a state of disintegration that every frost must bring down tons of it.
If he computes the area of the basin which finds here its only
discharge, he will perceive that a sudden thaw of the winter's deposit
of snow, or one of those terrible discharges of rain so common in the
Alps, must send forth a deluge mighty enough to sweep down the largest
masses of gravel and of rock. The simple measurement of the cubical
contents of the semicircular hillock which he climbed before he entered
the gorge, the structure and composition of which conclusively show that
it must have been washed out of this latter by torrential action, will
often account satisfactorily for the disposal of most of the matter
which once filled the ravine. When a torrent escapes from the lateral
confinement of its mountain walls and pours out of the gorge, it spreads
and divides itself into numerous smaller streams which shoot out from
the mouth of the ravine as from a centre, in different directions, like
the ribs of a fan from the pivot, each carrying with it its quota of
stones and gravel. The plain below the point of issue from the mountain
is rapidly raised by newly-formed torrents, the elevation depending on
the inclination of the bed and the form and weight of the matter
transported. Every flood both increases the height of this central point
and extends the entire circumference of the deposit. Other things being
equal, the transporting power of the water is greatest where its flow is
most rapid. This is usually in the direction of the axis of the ravine.
The stream retaining most nearly this direction moves with the greatest
momentum, and consequently transports the solid matter with which it is
charged to the greatest distance.

The untravelled reader will comprehend this the better when he is
informed that the southern slope of the Alps generally rises suddenly
out of the plain, with no intervening hill to break the abruptness of
the transition, except those consisting of comparatively small heaps of
its own debris brought down by ancient glaciers or recent torrents. The
torrents do not wind down valleys gradually widening to the rivers or
the sea, but leap at once from the flanks of the mountains upon the
plains below. This arrangement of surfaces naturally facilitates the
formation of vast deposits at their points of emergence, and the centre
of the accumulation in the case of very small torrents is not
unfrequently a hundred feet high, and sometimes very much more.

The deposits of the torrent which has scooped out the Nantzen Thal, a
couple of miles below Brieg in the Valais, have built up a semicircular
hillock, which most travellers by the Simplon route pass over without
even noticing it, though it is little inferior in dimensions to the
great cones of dejection described by Blanqui. The principal course of
the torrent having been--I know not whether spontaneously or
artificially--diverted towards the west, the eastern part of the hill
has been gradually brought under cultivation, and there are many trees,
fields, and houses upon it; but the larger western part is furrowed with
channels diverging from the summit of the deposit at the outlet of the
Nantzen Thal, which serve as the beds of the water-courses into which
the torrent has divided itself. All this portion of the hillock is
subject to inundation after long and heavy rain, and as I saw it in the
great flood of October, 1866, almost its whole surface seemed covered
with an unbrokun sheet of rushing water.

The semi-conical deposit of detritus at the mouth of the Litznerthal, a
lateral branch of the valley of the Adige, at the point where the
torrent pours out of the gorge, is a thousand feet high and, measuring
along the axis of the principal current, two and a half miles long.
[Footnote: Sonklar, Die Octzthaler Gebirgsgruppe, 1861, p. 231.] The
solid material of this hillock--which it is hardly an exaggeration to
call a mountain, the work of a single insignificant torrent and its
tributaries--including what the river which washes its base has carried
off in a comparatively few years, probably surpasses the mass of the
stupendous pyramid of the Matterhorn. In valleys of ancient geological
formation, which extend into the very heart of the mountains, the
streams, though rapid, have often lost the true torrential character,
if, indeed, they ever possessed it. Their beds have become approximately
constant, and their walls no longer crumble and fall into the waters
that wash their bases. The torrent-worn ravines, of which I have spoken,
are of later date, and belong more properly to what may be called the
crust of the Alps, consisting of loose rocks, of gravel, and of earth,
strewed along the surface of the great declivities of the central ridge,
and accumulated thickly between their solid buttresses. But it is on
this crust that the mountaineer dwells. Here are his forests, here his
pastures, and the ravages of the torrent both destroy his world, and
convert it into a source of overwhelming desolation to the plains below.

I do not mean to assert that all the rocky valleys of the Alps have been
produced by the action of torrents resulting from the destruction of the
forests. The greater, and many of the smaller channels, by which that
chain is drained, owe their origin to higher causes. They are primitive
fissures, ascribable to disruption in upheaval or other geological
convulsion, widened and scarped, and often even polished, so to speak,
by the action of glaciers during the ice period, and but little changed
in form by running water in later eras.

It has been contended that all rivers which take their rise in mountains
originated in torrents. These, it is said, have lowered the summits by
gradual erosion, and, with the material thus derived, have formed shoals
in the sea which once beat against the cliffs; then, by successive
deposits, gradually raised them above the surface, and finally expanded
them into broad plains traversed by gently flowing streams. If we could
get back to earlier geological periods, we should find this theory often
verified, and we cannot fail to see that the torrents go on at the
present hour, depressing still lower the ridges of the Alps and the
Apennines, raising still higher the plains of Lombardy and Provence,
extending the coast still farther into the Adriatic and the
Mediterranean, reducing the inclination of their own beds and the
rapidity of their flow, and thus tending to become river-like in
character.

We cannot measure the share which human action has had in augmenting the
intensity of causes of mountain degradation, and of the formation of
plains and marshes below, but we know that the clearing of the woods
has, in some cases, produced, within two or three generations, effects
as blasting as those generally ascribed to geological convulsions, and
has laid waste the face of the earth more hopelessly than if it had been
buried by a current of lava or a shower of volcanic sand. New torrents
are forming every year in the Alps. Tradition, written records, and
analogy concur to establish the belief that the ruin of most of the now
desolate valleys in those mountains is to be ascribed to the same cause,
and authentic descriptions of the irresistible force of the torrent show
that, aided by frost and heat, it is adequate to level Mont Blanc and
Monte Rosa themselves, unless new upheavals shall maintain their
elevation.

There are cases where torrents cease their ravages of themselves, in
consequence of some change in the condition of the basin where they
originate, or of the face of the mountain at a higher level, while the
plain or the sea below remains in substantially the same state as
before. If a torrent rises in a small valley containing no great amount
of earth and of disintegrated or loose rock, it may, in the course of a
certain period, wash out all the transportable material, and if the
valley is then left with solid walls, it will cease to furnish debris to
be carried down by floods. If, in this state of things, a new channel be
formed at an elevation above the head of the valley, it may divert a
part or even the whole of the rain-water and melted snow which would
otherwise have flowed into it, and the once furious torrent now sinks to
the rank of a humble and harmless brooklet. "In traversing this
department," says Suroll, "one often sees, at the outlet of a gorge, a
flattened hillock, with a fan-shaped outline and regular slopes; it is
the bed of dejection of an ancient torrent. It sometimes requires long
and careful study to detect the primitive form, masked as it is by
groves of trees, by cultivated fields, and often by houses, but, when
examined closely, and from different points of view, its characteristic
figure manifestly appears, and its true history cannot be mistaken.
Along the hillock flows a streamlet, issuing from the ravine, and
quietly watering the fields. This was originally a torrent, and in the
background may be discovered its mountain basin. Such EXTINGUISHED
torrents, if I may use the expression, are numerous." [Footnote: Surrell,
Les Torrents des Hautes Alpes, chap. xxiv. In such cases, the clearing
of the ground, which, in consequence of a temporary diversion of the
waters, or from some other cause, has become rewooded, sometimes renews
the ravages of the torrent. Thus, on the left bank of the Durance, a
wooded declivity had been formed by the debris brought down by torrents,
which had extinguished themselves after having swept off much of the
superficial strata of the mountain of Morgon. "All this district was
covered with woods, which have now been thinned out and are perishing
from day to day; consequently, the torrents have recommenced their
devastations, and if the clearings continue, this declivity, now
fertile, will he ruined, like so many others."--Ibid, p. 155.]

But for the intervention of man and domestic animals, these latter
beneficent revolutions would occur more frequently, proceed more
rapidly. The new scarped mountains, the hillocks of debris, the plains
elevated by sand and gravel spread over them, the shores freshly formed
by fluviatile deposits, would clothe themselves with shrubs and trees,
the intensity of the causes of degradation would be diminished, and
nature would thus regain her ancient equilibrium. But these processes,
under ordinary circumstances, demand, not years, generations, but
centuries; [Footnote: Where a torrent has not been long in operation, and
earth still remains mixed with the rocks and gravel it heaps up at its
point of eruption, vegetation soon starts up and prospers, it protected
from encroachment. In Provence, "several communes determined, about ten
years ago, to reserve the soils thus wasted, that is, to abandon them
for a certain time, to spontaneous vegetation, which was not slow in
making its appearance."-Becquerel, Des Climats, p. 815.] and man, who
even now finds scarce breathing-room on this vast globe, cannot retire
from the Old World to some yet undiscovered continent, and wait for the
slow action of such causes to replace, by a new creation, the Eden he
has wasted.


Crushing Force of Torrents.

I must here notice a mechanical effect of the rapid flow of the torrent,
which is of much importance in relation to the desolating action it
exercises by covering large tracts of cultivated ground with infertile
material. The torrent, as we have seen, shoots or rolls forwards, with
great velocity, masses and fragments of rock, and sometimes rounded
pebbles from more ancient formations. Every inch of this violent
movement is accompanied with crushing concussion, or, at least, with
great abrasion of the mineral material, and, as you follow it along the
course of the waters which transport it, you find the stones gradually
rounding off in form, and diminishing in size, until they pass
successively into gravel, and, in the beds of the rivers to which the
torrents convey it, sand, and lastly impalpable slime.

There are few operations of nature where the effect seems more
disproportioned to the cause than in the crushing and comminution of
rock in the channel of swift waters. Igneous rocks are generally so hard
as to be wrought with great difficulty, and they bear the weight of
enormous superstructures without yielding to the pressure; but to the
torrent they are as wheat to the millstone. The streams which pour down
the southern scarp of the Mediterranean Alps along the Riviera di
Ponente, near Genoa, have short courses, and a brisk walk of a couple of
hours or even less takes you from the sea-beach to the headspring of
many of them. In their heaviest floods, they bring rounded masses of
serpentine quite down to the sea, but at ordinary high water their lower
course is charged only with finely divided particles of that rock.
Hence, while, near their sources, their channels are filled with pebbles
and angular fragments, intermixed with a little gravel, the proportions
are reversed near their months, and, just above the points where their
outlets are partially choked by the rolling shingle of the beach, their
beds are composed of sand and gravel to the almost total exclusion of
pebbles.

Guglielmini argued that the gravel and sand of the beds of running
streams were derived from the trituration of rocks by the action of the
currents, and inferred that this action was generally sufficient to
reduce hard rock to sand in its passage from the source to the outlet of
rivers. Frisi controverted this opinion, and maintained that river-sand
was of more ancient origin, and he inferred from experiments in
artificially grinding stones that the concussion, friction, and
attrition of rock in the channel of running waters were inadequate to
its comminution, though he admitted that these same causes might reduce
silicious sand to a fine powder capable of transportation to the sea by
the currents. [Footnote: Frisi, Del modo di regolare i Fiumi e i
Torrenti, pp. 4-19. See in Lombardini, Sulle Inondazioni in Francia, p.
87, notices of the action of currents transporting only fine material in
wearing down hard rock. In the sluices for gold-washing in California
having a grade of 1 to 14 1/2, and paved with the hardest stones, the
wear of the bottom is at the rate of two inches in three
months.--Raymond, Mineral Statistics, 1870, p. 480.] Frisi's experiments
were tried upon rounded and polished river-pebbles, and prove nothing
with regard to the action of torrents upon the irregular, more or less
weathered, and often cracked and shattered rocks which lie loose in the
ground at the head of mountain valleys. The fury of the waters and of
the wind which accompanies them in the floods of the French Alpine
torrents is such, that large blocks of stone are hurled out of the bed
of the stream to the height of twelve or thirteen feet. [Footnote:
Surrell, Etude sur les Torrents, pp. 81-86.] The impulse of masses
driven with such force overthrows the most solid masonry, and their
concussion cannot fail to be attended with the crushing of the rocks
themselves.

The greatest depth of the basin of the Ardeche is seventy-five miles,
but most of its tributaries have a much shorter course. "These
affluents," says Mardigny, "hurl into the bed of the Ardeche enormous
blocks of rock, which this river, in its turn bears onwards, and grinds
down, at high water, so that its current rolls only gravel at its
confluence with the Rhone." [Footnote: At Rinkenberg, on the right bank
of the Vorder Rhein, in the flood of 1868, a block of stone computed to
weigh nearly 9,000 cwt. was carried bodily forwards, not rolled, by a
torrent, a distance of three-quarter of a mile.--Coaz, die Hochwasser im
1868, p. 54.

Memoire sur les Inondations des Rivieres de l'Ardeche, p. 16. "The
terrific roar, the thunder of the raging torrents proceeds principally
from the stones which are rolled along in the bed of the stream. This
movement is attended with such powerful attrition that, in the Southern
Alps, the atmosphere of valleys where the limestone contains bitumen,
has, at the time of floods, the marked bituminous smell produced by
rubbing pieces of such limestone together."--Wessely, Die
Oesterreichischen Alpenlander, i., p. 113.] Duponchel makes the
following remarkable statement: "The river Herault rises in a granitic
region, but soon reaches calcareous formations, which it traverses for
more than sixty kilometres, rolling through deep and precipitous
ravines, into which the torrents are constantly discharging enormous
masses of pebbles belonging to the hardest rocks of the Jurassian
period. These debris, continually renewed, compose, even below the exit
of the gorge where the river enters into a regular channel cut in a
tertiary deposit, broad beaches, prodigious accumulations of rolled
pebbles, extending several kilometres down the stream, but they diminish
in size and weight so rapidly that above the mouth of the river, which
is at a distance of thirty or thirty-five kilometres from the gorge,
every trace of calcareous matter has disappeared from the sands of the
bottom, which are exclusively silicious." [Footnote: Avant-projet pour
la creation d'un sol fertile, p. 20.]

Similar effects of the rapid flow of water and the concussion of stones
against each other in river-beds may be observed in almost every Alpine
gorge which serves as the channel of a swift stream. The tremendous
cleft through which the well-known Via Mala is carried receives, every
year, from its own crumbling walls and from the Hinter Rhein and its
mild tributaries, enormous quantities of rock, in blocks and boulders.
In fact, the masses hurled into it in a single flood like those of 1868
would probably fill it up, at its narrow points, to the
level of the road 400 feet above its bottom, were not the stones crushed
and carried off by the force of the current. Yet below the outlet at
Thusis only small rounded boulders, pebbles, and gravel, not rock, are
found in the bed of the river. The Swiss glaciers bring down thousands
of cubic yards of hard rock every season. Where the glacier ends in a
plain or wide valley, the rocks are accumulated in a terminal moraine,
but in numerous instances the water which pours from the ice-river has
forces enough to carry down to larger streams the masses delivered by
the glacier, and there they, with other stones washed out from the earth
by the current, are ground down, so that few of the affluents of the
Swiss lakes deliver into them anything but fine sand and slime. Great
rivers carry no boulders to the sea, and, in fact, receive none from
their tributaries. Lombardini found, twenty years ago, that the mineral
matter brought down to the Po by its tributaries was, in general,
comminuted to about the same degree of fineness as the sands of its bed
at their points of discharge. In the case of the Trebbia, which rises
high in the Apennines and empties into the Po at Piacenza, it was
otherwise, that river rolling pebbles and coarse gravel into the channel
of the principal stream. The banks of the other affluents--excepting
some of those which discharge their waters into the great lakes--then
either retained their woods, or had been so long clear of them that the
torrents had removed most of the disintegrated and loose rock in their
upper basins. The valley of the Trebbia had been recently cleared, and
all the forces which tend to the degradation and transportation of rock
were in full activity. [Footnote: Since the date of Lombardini's
observations, many Alpine valleys have been stripped of their woods. It
would be interesting to know whether any sensible change has been
produced in the character or quantity of the matter transported by the
rivers to the Po.--Notice sur les Rivieres de la Lombardie, Annales des
Ponts et Chaussees, 1847, 1er semestre, p. 131.]


Transporting Power of Water.

But the geographical effects of the action of torrents are not confined
to erosion of earth and comminution of rock; for they and the rivers to
which they contribute transport the debris of the mountains to lower
levels and spread them out over the dry land and the bed of the sea,
thus forming alluvial deposits, sometimes of a beneficial, sometimes of
an injurious, character, and of vast extent. [Footnote: Lorentz, in an
official report quoted by Marchand, says: "The felling of the woods
produces torrents which cover the cultivated soil with pebbles and
fragments of rock, and they do not confine their ravages to the vicinity
of the mountains, but extend them into the fertile fields of Provence
and other departments, to the distance of forty or fifty
leagues."--Entwaldung der Gebirge, p. 17.]

A mountain rivulet swollen by rain or melted snow, when it escapes from
its usual channel and floods the adjacent fields, naturally deposits
pebbles and gravel upon them; but even at low water, if its course is
long enough for its grinding action to have full scope, it transports
the solid material with which it is charged to some larger stream, and
there lets it fall in a state of minute division, and at last the spoil
of the mountain is used to raise the level of the plains or carried down
to the sea.

An instance that fell under my own observation, in 1857, will serve to
show something of the eroding and transporting power of streams which,
in these respects, fall incalculably below the torrents of the Alps. In
a flood of the Ottaquechee, a small river which flows through Woodstock,
Vermont, a mill-dam on that stream burst, and the sediment with which
the pond was filled, estimated after careful measurement at 13,000 cubic
yards, was carried down by the current. Between this dam and the
slackwater of another, four miles below, the bed of the stream, which is
composed of pebbles interspersed in a few places with larger stones, is
about sixty-five feet wide, though, at low water, the breadth of the
current is considerably less. The sand and fine gravel were smoothly and
evenly distributed over the bed to a width of fifty-five or sixty feet,
and, for a distance of about two miles, except at two or three
intervening rapids, filled up all the interstices between the stones,
covering them to the depth of nine or ten inches, so as to present a
regularly formed concave channel, lined with sand, and reducing the
depth of water, in some places, from five or six feet to fifteen or
eighteen inches. Observing this deposit after the river had subsided and
become so clear that the bottom could be seen, I supposed that the next
flood would produce an extraordinary erosion of the banks and some
permanent changes in the channel of the stream, in consequence of the
elevation of the bed and the filling up of the spaces between the stones
through which formerly much water had flowed; but no such result
followed. The spring freshet of the next year entirely washed out the
sand its predecessor had left, deposited some of it in ponds and
still-water reaches below, carried the residue beyond the reach of
observation, and left the bed of the river almost precisely in its
former condition, though, of course, with the displacement of the
pebbles which every flood produces in the channels of such streams. The
pond, though often previously discharged by the breakage of the dam, had
then been undisturbed for about twenty-five years, and its contents
consisted almost entirely of sand, the rapidity of the current in floods
being such that it would let fall little lighter sediment, even above an
obstruction like a dam. The quantity I have mentioned evidently bears a
very inconsiderable proportion to the total erosion of the stream during
that period, because the wash of the banks consists chiefly of fine
earth rather than of sand, and after the pond was once filled, or nearly
so, even this material could no longer be deposited in it. The fact of
the complete removal of the deposit I have described between the two
dams in a single freshet, shows that, in spite of considerable
obstruction from roughness of bed, large quantities of sand may be taken
up and carried off by streams of no great rapidity of inclination; for
the whole descent of the bed of the river between the two dams--a
distance of four miles--is but sixty feet, or fifteen feet to the mile.
[Footnote: In a sheet-iron siphon, 1,000 feet long, with a diameter of
four inches, having the entrance 18 feet, the orifice of discharge 40
feet below the summit of the curve, employed in draining a mine In
California, the force of the current was such as to carry through the
tube great quantities of sand and coarse gravel, some of the grains of
which were as large as an English walnut. --Raymond, Mining Statistics,
1870, p. 602.] The facts which I have adduced may aid us in forming an
idea of the origin and mode of transportation of the prodigious deposits
at the mouth of great rivers like the Mississippi, the Nile, the Ganges,
and the Hoang-Ho, the delta of which last river, composed entirely of
river sediment, has a superficial extent of not less than 96,500 square
miles. But we shall obtain a clearer conception of the character of this
important geographical process by measuring, more in detail, the mass of
earth and rock which a well--known river and its tributaries have washed
from the mountains and transported to the plains or the sea, within the
historic period.


The Po and its Deposits.

The current of the River Po, for a considerable distance after its
volume of water is otherwise sufficient for continuous navigation, is
too rapid for that purpose until near Cremona, where its velocity
becomes too much reduced to transport great quantities of mineral
matter, except in a state of minute division. Its southern affluents
bring down from the Apennines a large quantity of fine earth from
various geological formations, while its Alpine tributaries west of the
Ticino are charged chiefly with rock ground down to sand or gravel. The
bed of the river has been somewhat elevated by the deposits in its
channel, though not by any means above the level of the adjacent plains
as has been so often represented. The dikes, which confine the current
at high water, at the same time augment its velocity and compel it to
carry most of its sediment to the Adriatic. It has, therefore, raised
neither its own channel nor its alluvial shores, as it would have done
if it had remained unconfined. But, as the surface of the water in
floods is above the general level of the plains through which it flows,
the Po can, at that period, receive no contributions of earth from the
washing of the fields of Lombardy, and there is no doubt that a large
proportion of the sediment it now deposits at its mouth descended from
the Alps in the form of rock, though reduced by the grinding action of
the waters, in its passage seaward, to the condition of fine sand, and
often of silt.

We know little of the history of the Po, or of the geography of the
coast near the point where it enters the Adriatic, at any period more
than twenty centuries before our own. Still less can we say how much of
the plains of Lombardy had been formed by its action, combined with
other causes, before man accelerated its levelling operations by felling
the first woods on the mountains whence its waters are derived. But we
know that since the Roman conquest of Northern Italy, its deposits have
amounted to a quantity which, if recemented into rock, recombined into
gravel, common earth, and vegetable mould, and restored to the
situations where eruption or upheaval originally placed or vegetation
deposited it, would fill up hundreds of deep ravines in the Alps and
Apennines, change the plan and profile of their chains, and give their
southern and northern faces respectively a geographical aspect very
different from that they now present. Ravenna, forty miles south of the
principal mouth of the Po, was built like Venice, in a lagoon, and the
Adriatic still washed its walls at the commencement of the Christian
era. The mud of the Po has filled up the lagoon, and Ravenna is now four
miles from the sea. The town of Adria, which lies between the Po and the
Adige, at the distance of some four or five miles from each, was once a
harbor famous enough to have given its name to the Adriatic Sea, and it
was still accessible to large vessels, if not by the open sea at least
by lagoons, in the time of Augustus. The combined action of the two
rivers has so advanced the coast-line that Adria is now more than
fourteen miles inland, and, in other places, the deposits made within
the same period by these and other neighboring streams have a width of
twenty miles.

What proportion of the earth with which they are charged these rivers
have borne out into deep water, during the last two thousand years, we
do not know, but as they still transport enormous quantities, as the
North Adriatic appears to have shoaled rapidly, and as long islands,
composed in great part of fluviatile deposits, have formed opposite
their mouths, it must evidently have been very great. The floods of the
Po occur but once, or sometimes twice, in a year. [Footnote: In the
earlier medieval centuries, when the declivities of the mountains still
retained a much larger proportion of their woods, the moderate annual
floods of the Po were occasioned by the melting of the snows on the
lower slopes, and, according to a passage of Tasso quoted by Castellani
(Dell' Influenza delle Selve, i., p. 58, note), they took place in May.
The usually more violent inundations of later ages are due to rains, the
waters of which are no longer retained by a forest-soil, but conveyed at
once to the rivers--and they occur almost uniformly in the autumn or
late summer. Castellani, on the page just quoted, says that even so late
as about 1780, the Po required a heavy rain of a week to overflow its
banks, but that forty years later it was sometimes raised to full flood
in a single day. Pliny says: "The Po, which is inferior to no river in
swiftness of current, is in flood about the rising of the dog-star, the
snow then melting, and though so rapid in flow, it washes nothing from
the soil, but leaves it increased in fertility."--Natural History, Book
iii, 20.

The first terrible inundation of the Po in 1872 took place in May, and
appears to have been occasioned by heavy rains on the southern flank of
the Alps, and to have received little accession from snow. The snow on
the higher Alps does not usually thaw so as to occasion floods before
August, and often considerably later. The more destructive flood of
October, 1872, was caused both by thaws in the high mountains and by an
extraordinary fall of rain. See River Embankments; post. Pliny's remark
as to enrichment of the soil by the floods appear to be verified in the
case of that of October, 1872, for it is found that the water has left
very extensively a thick deposit of slime on the fields. See a list of
the historically known great inundations of the Po by the engineer
Zuccholli in Torelli, Progetto di Legge per la Vendita di Beni incolti.
Roma, 1873.]

At other times, its waters are comparatively limpid and seem to hold no
great amount of mud or fine sand in mechanical suspension; but at high
water it contains a large proportion of solid matter, and, according to
Lombardini, it annually transports to the shores of the Adriatic not
less than 42,760,000 cubic metres, or very nearly 55,000,000 cubic
yards, which carries the coast-line out into the sea at the rate of more
than 200 feet in a year. [Footnote: This change of coast-line cannot be
ascribed to upheaval, for a comparison of the level of old
buildings--as, for instance, the church of San Vitale and the tomb of
Theodoric at Ravenna--with that of the sea, tends to prove a depression
rather than an elevation of their foundations. A computation by a
different method makes the deposits at the mouth of the Po 2,123,000
metres less; but as both of them omit the gravel and silt carried down
at ordinary and low water, we are safe in assuming the larger quantity.]
The depth of the annual deposit is stated at eighteen centimetres, or
rather more than seven inches, and it would cover an area of not much
less than ninety square miles with a layer of that thickness. The Adige,
also, brings every year to the Adriatic many million cubic yards of
Alpine detritus, and the contributions of the Brenta from the same
source are far from inconsiderable. The Adriatic, however, receives but
a small proportion of the soil and rock washed away from the Italian
slope of the Alps and the northern declivity of the Apennines by
torrents. Nearly the whole of the debris thus removed from the southern
face of the Alps between Monte Rosa and the sources of the Adda--a
length of watershed [Footnote: Sir John F. W. Herschel (Physical
Geography, 137, and elsewhere) spells this word water-sched, because he
considers it a translation, or rather an adoption, of the German
"Wasser-scheide, separation of the waters, not water-SHED the slope DOWN
WHICH the waters run." As a point of historical etymology, it is
probable that the word in question was suggested to those who first used
it by the German Wasserscheide; but the spelling WATER-SCHED, proposed
by Herschel, is objectionable, both because SCH is a combination of
letters wholly unknown to modern English orthography, and properly
representing no sound recognized in English orthoepy, and for the still
better reason that WATER-SHED, in the sense of DIVISION-OF-THE-WATERS,
has a legitimate English etymology. The Anglo-Saxon sceadan meant both
to separate or divide, and to shade or shelter. It is the root of the
English verbs TO SHED and TO SHADE, and in the former meaning is the A.
S. equivalent of the German verb scheiden. SHED in Old English had the
meaning to SEPARATE or DISTINGUISH. It is so used in the Owl and the
Nightingale, v. 107. Palsgrave (Lesclarcissement, etc., p. 717) defines
I SHEDE, I departe thinges asonder; and the word still means TO DIVIDE
in several English local dialects. Hence, watershed, the division or
separation of the waters, is good English both in etymology and in
spelling.] not less than one hundred and fifty miles--is arrested by the
still waters of the Lakes Maggiore and Como, and some smaller lacustrine
reservoirs, and never reaches the sea. The Po is not continuously
embanked except for the lower half of its course. Above Cremona,
therefore, it spreads and deposits sediment over a wide surface, and the
water withdrawn from it for irrigation at lower points, as well as its
inundations in the occasional ruptures of its banks, carry over the
adjacent soil a large amount of slime. [Footnote: The quantity of
sediment deposited by the Po on the plains which border it, before the
construction of the continuous dikes and in the floods which
occasionally burst through them, is vast, and the consequent elevation
of those plains is very considerable. I do not know that this latter
point has been made a subject of special investigation, but vineyards,
with the vines still attached to the elms which supported them, have
been found two or three yards below the present surface at various
points on the plains of Lombardy.]

If to the estimated annual deposits of the Po at its mouth, we add the
earth and sand transported to the sea by the Adige, the Brenta, and
other less important streams, the prodigious mass of detritus swept into
Lago Maggioro by the Tosa, the Maggia, and the Ticino, into the lake of
Como by the Maira and the Adda, into the lakes of Garda, Lugano, Iseo,
and Idro, by their affluents, [Footnote: The Po receives about
four-tenths of its waters from these lakes. See Lombardini, Dei
cangiamenti nella condizione del Po, p. 29. All the sediment carried
into the lakes by their tributaries is deposited in them, and the water
which flows out of them is perfectly limpid. From their proximity to the
Alps and the number of torrents which empty into them, they no doubt
receive vastly more transported matter than is contributed to the Po by
the six-tenths of its waters received from other sources.] and the yet
vaster heaps of pebbles, gravel, and earth permanently deposited by the
torrents near their points of eruption from mountain gorges, or spread
over the wide plains at lower levels, we may safely assume that we have
an aggregate of not less than ten times the quantity carried to the
Adriatic by the Po, or 550,000,000 cubic yards of solid matter,
abstracted every year from the Italian Alps and the Apennines, and
removed out of their domain by the force of running water. [Footnote:
Mengotti estimated the mass of solid matter annually "united to the
waters of the Po" at 822,000,000 cubic metres, or nearly twenty times as
much as, according to Lombardini, that river delivers into the Adriatic.
Castellani supposes the computation of Mengotti to fall much below the
truth, and there can be no doubt that a vastly larger quantity of earth
and gravel is washed down from the Alps and the Apennines than is
carried to the sea.--Castellani, Dell Immediata Influenza delle Salce
sul corso delle Acqua, i., pp. 42,43.

I have contented myself with assuming less than one-half of Mengotti's
estimate.] The present rate of deposit at the mouth of the Po has
continued since the year 1600, the previous advance of the coast, after
the year 1200, having been only one-third as rapid. The great increase
of erosion and transport is ascribed by Lombardini chiefly to the
destruction of the forests in the basin of that river and the valleys of
its tributaries, since the beginning of the seventeenth century.
[Footnote: Baumgarten, An. des Ponts et Chaussees, 1847, 1er semestre,
p. 175.] We have no data to show the rate of deposit in any given
century before the year 1200, and it doubtless varied according to the
progress of population and the consequent extension of clearing and
cultivation. The transporting power of torrents is greatest soon after
their formation, because at that time their points of delivery are
lower, and, of course, their general slope and velocity more rapid, than
after years of erosion above, and deposit below, have depressed the beds
of their mountain valleys, and elevated the channels of their lower
course. Their eroding action also is most powerful at the same period,
both because their mechanical force is then greatest, and because the
loose earth and stones of freshly cleared forest-ground are most easily
removed. Many of the Alpine valleys west of the Ticino--that of the Dora
Baltea, for instance--were nearly stripped of their forests in the days
of the Roman Empire, others in the Middle Ages, and, of course, there
must have been, at different periods before the year 1200, epochs when
the erosion and transportation of solid matter from the Alps and the
Apennines were at least as great as since the year 1600.

Upon the whole, we shall not greatly err if we assume that, for a period
of not less than two thousand years, the walls of the basin of the
Po--the Italian slope of the Alps, and the northern and north-eastern
declivities of the Apennines--have annually sent down into the lakes,
the plains, and the Adriatic, not less than 375,000,000 cubic yards of
earth and disintegrated rock. We have, then, an aggregate of
750,000,000,000 cubic yards of such material, which, allowing to the
mountain surface in question an area of 50,000,000,000 square yards,
would cover the whole to the depth of fifteen yards. [Footnote: The total
superficies of the basin of the Po, down to Ponte Lagoscuro [Ferrara]--a
point where it has received all its affluents--is 6,938,200 hectares,
that is, 4,105,600 in mountain lands, 2,832,600 in plain lands.--Dumont,
Travaux Publics, etc., p. 272. These latter two quantities are equal
respectively to 10,145,348, and 6,999,638 acres, or 15,852 and 10,937
square miles.] There are very large portions of this area, where, as we
know from ancient remains--roads, bridges, and the like--from other
direct testimony, and from geological considerations, very little
degradation has taken place within twenty centuries, and hence the
quantity to be assigned to localities where the destructive causes have
been most active is increased in proportion.

If this vast mass of pulverized rock and earth were restored to the
localities from which it was derived, it certainly would not obliterate
valleys and gorges hollowed out by great geological causes, but it would
reduce the length and diminish the depth of ravines of later formation,
modify the inclination of their walls, reclothe with earth many bare
mountain ridges, essentially change the line of junction between plain
and mountain, and carry back a long reach of the Adriatic coast many
miles to the west. [Footnote: I do not use these quantities as factors
the value of which is precisely ascertained; nor, for the purposes of
the present argument, is quantitative exactness important. I employ
numerical statements simply as a means of aiding the imagination to form
a general and certainly not extravagant idea of the extent of
geographical revolutions which man has done much to accelerate, if not,
strictly speaking, to produce.

There is an old proverb, Dolus latet in generalibus, and Arthur Young in
not the only public economist who has warned his readers against the
deceitfulness of round numbers. I think, on the contrary, that vastly
more error has been produced by the affectation of precision in cases
where precision is impossible.

In all the great operations of terrestrial nature, the elements are so
numerous and so difficult of exact appreciation, that, until the means
of scientific observation and measurement are much more perfected than
they now are, we must content ourselves with general approximations. I
say TERRESTRIAL nature, because in cosmical movements we have fewer
elements to deal with, and may therefore arrive at much more rigorous
proportional accuracy in determination of time and place than we can in
fixing and predicting the quantities and the epochs of variable natural
phenomena on the earth's surface.

Travellers are often misled by local habits in the use of what may be
called representative numbers, where a definite is put for an indefinite
quantity. A Greek, who wished to express the notion of a great but
undetermined number, "myriad, or ten thousand;" a Roman, "six hundred;"
an Oriental, "forty," or, at present, very commonly, "fifteen thousand."
Many a tourist has gravely repeated, as an ascertained fact; the vague
statement of the Arabs and the monks of Mount Sinai, that the ascent
from the convent of St. Catherine to the summit of Gebel Moosa counts
"fifteen thousand" steps, though the difference of level is two thousand
feet; and the "Forty" Thieves, the "forty" martyr-monks of the convent
of El Arbain--not to speak of a similar use of this numeral in more
important cases--have often been understood as expressions of a known
number, when in fact they mean simply MANY. The number "fifteen
thousand" has found its way to Rome, and De Quincey seriously informs
us, on the authority of a lady who had been at much pains to ascertain
the EXACT truth, that, including closets large enough for a bed, the
Vatican contains fifteen thousand rooms. Any one who has observed the
vast dimensions of most of the apartments of that structure will admit
that we make a very small allowance of space when we assign a square
rod, sixteen and a half feet square, to each room upon the average. On
an acre, there might be one hundred and sixty such rooms, including
partition walls; and, to contain fifteen thousand of them, a building
must cover more than nine acres, and be ten stories high, or possess
other equivalent dimensions, which, as every traveller knows, many times
exceeds the truth.

The value of a high standard of accuracy in scientific observation can
hardly be overrated; but habits of rigorous exactness will never be
formed by an investigator who allows himself to trust implicitly to the
numerical precision or the results of a few experiments. The wonderful
accuracy of geodetic measurements in modern times is, in general,
attained by taking the mean of a great number of observations at every
station, and this final precision is but the mutual balance and
compensation of numerous errors.

The pretended exactness of statistical tables is too often little better
than an imposture; and those founded not on direct estimation by
competent observers, but on the report of persons who have no particular
interest in knowing the truth, but often have a motive for distorting
it, are commonly to be regarded as but vague guesses at the actual
fact.]

It is, indeed, not to be supposed that all the degradation of the
mountains is due to the destruction of the forests--that the flanks of
every Alpine valley in Central Europe below the snow-line were once
covered with earth and green with woods, but there are not many
particular cases in which we can, with certainty, or even with strong
probability, affirm the contrary.


Mountain Slides.

Terrible as are the ravages of the torrent and the river-flood, the
destruction of the woods exposes human life and industry to calamities
even more appalling than those which I have yet described. The slide in
the Notch of the White Mountains, by which the Willey family lost their
lives, is an instance of the sort I refer to, though I am not able to
say that in this particular case the slip of the earth and rock was
produced by the denudation of the surface. It may have been occasioned
by this cause, or by the construction of the road through the Notch, the
excavations for which, perhaps, cut through the natural buttresses that
supported the sloping strata above.

Not to speak of the fall of earth when the roots which held it together,
and the bed of leaves and mould which sheltered it both from
disintegrating frost and from sudden drenching and dissolution by heavy
showers, are gone, it is easy to see that, in a climate with severe
winters, the removal of the forest, and, consequently, of the soil it
had contributed to form, might cause the displacement and descent of
great masses of rock. The woods, the vegetable mould, and the soil
beneath, protect the rocks they cover from the direct action of heat and
cold, and from the expansion and contraction which accompany them. Most
rocks, while covered with earth, contain a considerable quantity of
water. [Footnote: Rock is permeable by water to a greater extent than is
generally supposed. Freshly quarried marble, and even granite, as well
as most other stones, are sensibly heavier, as well as softer and more
easily wrought, than after they are dried and hardened by air-seasoning.
Many sandstones are porous enough to serve as filters for liquids, and
much of that of Upper Egypt and Nubia hisses audibly when thrown into
water, from the escape of the air forced out of it by hydrostatic
pressure and the capillary attraction of the pores for water. Even the
denser silicious stones are penetrable by fluids and the coloring matter
they contain, to such an extent that agates and other forms of silex may
be artificially stained through their substance. The colors of the
stones cut at Oberstein are generally produced, or at least heightened,
by art. This art was known to and practised by the ancient lapidaries,
and it has been revived in recent times.]

A fragment of rock pervaded with moisture cracks and splits, if thrown
into a furnace, and sometimes with a loud detonation; and it is a
familiar observation that the fire, in burning over newly cleared lands,
breaks up and sometimes almost pulverizes the stones. This effect is due
partly to the unequal expansion of the stone, partly to the action of
heat on the water it contains in its pores. The sun, suddenly let in
upon rock which had been covered with moist earth for centuries,
produces more or less disintegration in the same way, and the stone is
also exposed to chemical influences from which it was sheltered before.
But in the climate of the United States as well as of the Alps, frost is
a still more powerful agent in breaking up mountain masses. The soil
that protects the lime and sandstone, the slate and the granite from the
influence of the sun, also prevents the water which filters into their
crevices and between their strata from freezing in the hardest winters,
and the moisture descends, in a liquid form, until it escapes in
springs, or passes off by deep subterranean channels. But when the
ridges are laid bare, the water of the autumnal rains fills the minutest
pores and veins and fissures and lines of separation of the rocks, then
suddenly freezes, and bursts asunder huge, and apparently solid blocks
of adamantine stone. [Footnote: Palissy had observed the action of frost
in disintegrating rock, and he thus describes it, in his essay on the
formation of ice: "I know that the stones of the mountains of Ardennes
be harder than marble. Nevertheless, the people of that country do not
quarry the said stones in winter, for that they be subject to frost; and
many times the rocks have been seen to fall without being cut, by means
whereof many people have been killed, when the said rocks were thawing."
Palissy was ignorant of the expansion of water in freezing--in fact, he
supposed that the mechanical force exerted by freezing-water was due to
compression, not dilatation--and therefore he ascribes to thawing alone
effects resulting not less from congelation.

Various forces combine to produce the stone avalanches of the higher
Alps, the fall of which is one of the greatest dangers incurred by the
adventurous explorers of those regions--the direct action of the sun
upon the stone, the expansion of freezing-water, and the loosening of
masses of rock by the thawing of the ice which supported them or held
them together.]

Where the strata are inclined at a considerable angle, the freezing of a
thin film of water over a large interstratal area might occasion a slide
that should cover miles with its ruins; and similar results might be
produced by the simple hydrostatic pressure of a column of water,
admitted, by the removal of the covering of earth, to flow into a
crevice faster than it could escape through orifices below. Earth or
rather mountain slides, compared to which the catastrophe that buried
the Willey family in New Hampshire was but a pinch of dust, have often
occurred in the Swiss, Italian, and French Alps. The land-slip, which
overwhelmed, and covered to the depth of seventy feet, the town of Plurs
in the valley of the Maira, on the night of the 4th of September, 1618,
sparing not a soul of a population of 2,430 inhabitants, is one of the
most memorable of these catastrophes, and the fall of the Rossberg or
Rufiberg, which destroyed the little town of Goldan in Switzerland, and
450 of its people, on the 2d of September, 1806, is almost equally
celebrated. In 1771, according to Wessely, the mountain-peak Piz, near
Alleghe in the province of Belluno, slipped into the bed of the
Cordevole, a tributary of the Piave, destroying in its fall three
hamlets and sixty lives. The rubbish filled the valley for a distance of
nearly two miles, and, by damming up the waters of the Cordevole, formed
a lake about three miles long, and a hundred and fifty feet deep, which
still subsists, though reduced to half its original length by the
wearing down of its outlet. [Footnote: Wessely, Die Oesterreichischen
Alpenlander und ihre Forste, pp. 125, 126. Wessely records several other
more or less similar occurrences in the Austrian Alps. Some of them,
certainly, are not to be ascribed to the removal of the woods, but in
most cases they are clearly traceable to that cause. See Revue des Eaux
et Forets for 1860, pp. 182, 205.]

The important provincial town of Veleia, near Piacenza, where many
interesting antiquities have been discovered within a few years, was
buried by a vast land-slip, probably about the time of Probus, but no
historical record of the event has survived to us.

On the 14th of February, 1855, the hill of Belmonte, a little below the
parish of San Stefano, in Tuscany, slid into the valley of the Tiber,
which consequently flooded the village to the depth of fifty feet, and
was finally drained off by a tunnel. The mass of debris is stated to
have been about 3,500 feet long, 1,000 wide, and not less than 600
high. [Footnote: Bianchi, Appendix to the Italian translation of Mrs.
Somerville'S Physical Geography, p. xxxvi.]

Occurrences of this sort have been so numerous in the Alps and
Apennines, that almost every Italian mountain commune has its tradition,
its record, or its still visible traces of a great land-slip within its
own limits. The old chroniclers contain frequent notices of such
calamities, and Giovanni Villani even records the destruction of fifty
houses and the loss of many lives by a slide of what seems to have been
a spur of the hill of San Giorgio in the city of Florence, in the year
1284. [Footnote: Cronica di Giovani Villani, lib. vii., cap. 97. For
descriptions of other slides in Italy, see same author, lib. xi, cap.
26; Fanfani, Antologia Italiana, parte ii., p. 95; Giuliani, Linguaggio
vivente della Toscana, 1865, lettera 63.]

Such displacements of earth and rocky strata rise to the magnitude of
geological convulsions, but they are of so rare occurrence in countries
still covered by the primitive forest, so common where the mountains
have been stripped of their native covering, and, in many cases, so
easily explicable by the drenching of incohesive earth from rain, or the
free admission of water between the strata of rocks--both of which a
coating of vegetation would have prevented--that we are justified in
ascribing them for the most part to the same cause as that to which the
destructive effects of mountain torrents are chiefly due--the felling of
the woods. [Footnote: There is good reason for thinking that many of the
earth and rock slides in the Alps occurred at an earlier period than the
origin of the forest vegetation which, in later ages, covered the flanks
of those mountains. See Bericht uber die Untersuchung der
Schweizerischen Hochgebirgswaldungen, 1862, p. 61.

Where more recent slides have been again clothed with woods, the trees,
shrubs, and smaller plants which spontaneously grow upon them are
usually of different species from those observed upon soil displaced at
remote periods. This difference is so marked that the site of a slide
can often be recognized at a great distance by the general color of the
foliage of its vegetation.]

In nearly every case of this sort the circumstances of which are
known--except the rare instances attributable to earthquakes--the
immediate cause of the slip has been the imbibition of water in large
quantities by bare earth, or its introduction between or beneath solid
strata. If water insinuates itself between the strata, it creates a
sliding surface, or it may, by its expansion in freezing, separate beds
of rock, which had been nearly continuous before, widely enough to allow
the gravitation of the superincumbent mass to overcome the resistance
afforded by inequalities of face and by friction; if it finds its way
beneath hard earth or rock reposing on clay or other bedding of similar
properties, it converts the supporting layer into a semi-fluid mud,
which opposes no obstacle to the sliding of the strata above.

The upper part of the mountain which buried Goldau was composed of a
hard but brittle conglomerate, called nagelflue, resting on unctuous
clay, and inclining rapidly towards the village. Much earth remained
upon the rock, in irregular masses, but the woods had been felled, and
the water had free access to the surface, and to the crevices which sun
and frost had already produced in the rock, and, of course, to the slimy
stratum beneath. The whole summer of 1806 had been very wet, and an
almost incessant deluge of rain had fallen the day preceding the
catastrophe, as well as on that of its occurrence. All conditions, then,
were favorable to the sliding of the rock, and, in obedience to the laws
of gravitation, it precipitated itself into the valley as soon as its
adhesion to the earth beneath it was destroyed by the conversion of the
latter into a viscous paste. The mass that fell measured between two and
a half and three miles in length by one thousand feet in width, and its
average thickness is thought to have been about a hundred feet. The
highest portion of the mountain was more than three thousand feet above
the village, and the momentum acquired by the rocks and earth in their
descent carried huge blocks of stone far up the opposite slope of the
Rigi.

The Piz, which fell into the Cordevole, rested on a steeply inclined
stratum of limestone, with a thin layer of calcareous marl intervening,
which, by long exposure to frost and the infiltration of water, had lost
its original consistence, and become a loose and slippery mass instead
of a cohesive and tenacious bed.


Protection against Avalanches.

In Switzerland and other snowy and mountainous countries, forests render
a most important service by preventing the formation and fall of
destructive avalanches, and in many parts of the Alps exposed to this
catastrophe, the woods are protected, though too often ineffectually, by
law. No forest, indeed, could arrest a large avalanche once in full
motion, but the mechanical resistance afforded by the trees prevents
their formation, both by obstructing the wind, which gives to the dry
snow of the Staub-Lawine, or dust-avalanche, its first impulse, and by
checking the disposition of moist snow to gather itself into what is
called the Rutsch-Lawine, or sliding avalanche. Marchand states that,
the very first winter after the felling of the trees on the higher part
of a declivity between Sannen and Gsteig where the snow had never been
known to slide, an avalanche formed itself in the clearing, thundered
down the mountain, and overthrew and carried with it a hitherto
unviolated forest to the amount of nearly a million cubic feet of
timber. [Footnote: Entwaldung der Gebirge, p. 41.] Elisee Reclus informs
us in his remarkable work, La Terre, vol. i., p. 212, that a mountain,
which rises to the south of the Pyrenaean village Araguanet in the upper
valley of the Neste, having been partially stripped of its woods, a
formidable avalanche rushed down from a plateau above in 1846, and swept
off more than 15,000 pine-trees. The path once opened down the flanks of
the mountain, the evil is almost beyond remedy. The snow sometimes
carries off the earth from the face of the rock, or, if the soil is
left, fresh slides every winter destroy the young plantations, and the
restoration of the wood becomes impossible. The track widens with every
new avalanche. Dwellings and their occupants are buried in the snow, or
swept away by the rushing mass, or by the furious blasts it occasions
through the displacement of the air; roads and bridges are destroyed;
rivers blocked up, which swell till they overflow the valley above, and
then, bursting their snowy barrier, flood the fields below with all the
horrors of a winter inundation. [Footnote: The importance of the wood in
preventing avalanches is well illustrated by the fact that, where the
forest is wanting, the inhabitants of localities exposed to snow-slides
often supply the place of the trees by driving stakes through the snow
into the ground, and thus checking its propensity to slip. The woods
themselves are sometimes thus protected against avalanches originating
on slopes above them, and as a further security, small trees are cut
down along the upper line of the forest, and laid against the trunks of
larger trees, transversely to the path of the slide, to serve as a fence
or dam to the motion of an incipient avalanche, which may by this means
be arrested before it acquires a destructive velocity and force.

In the volume cited in the text, Reclus informs us that "the village and
the great thermal establishment of Bareges in the Pyrenees were
threatened yearly by avalanches which precipitated themselves from a
height of 1,200 metres and at an angle of 35 degrees; so that the
inhabitants had been obliged to leave large spaces between the different
quarters of the town for the free passage of the descending masses.
Attempts have been recently made to prevent those avalanches by means
similar to those employed by the Swiss mountaineers. They cut terraces
three or four yards in width across the mountain slopes and supported
these terraces by a row of iron piles. Wattled fences, with here and
there a wall of stone, shelter the young shoots of trees, which grow up
by degrees under the protection of these defences. Until natural trees
are ready to arrest the snows, these artificial supports take their
place and do their duty very well. The only avalanche which swept down
the slope in the year 1860, when these works were completed, did not
amount to 350 cubic yards, while the masses which fell before this work
was undertaken contained from 75,000 to 80,000 cubic yards."--La Terre,
vol. i., p. 233.]


Minor Uses of the Forest.

Besides the important conservative influences of the forest and its
value as the source of supply of a material indispensable to all the
arts and industries of human life, it renders other services of a less
obvious and less generally recognized character.

Woods often subserve a valuable purpose in preventing the fall of rocks,
by mere mechanical resistance. Trees, as well as herbaceous vegetation,
grow in the Alps upon declivities of surprising steepness of
inclination, and the traveller sees both luxuriant grass and flourishing
woods on slopes at which the soil, in the dry air of lower regions,
would crumble and fall by the weight of its own particles. When loose
rocks lie scattered on the face of these declivities, they are held in
place by the trunks of the trees, and it is very common to observe a
stone that weighs hundreds of pounds, perhaps even tons, resting against
a tree which has stopped its progress just as it was beginning to slide
down to a lower level. When a forest in such a position is cut, these
blocks lose their support, and a single wet season is enough not only to
bare the face of a considerable extent of rock, but to cover with earth
and stone many acres of fertile soil below. [Footnote: See in Kohl,
Alpenreisen, i., 120, an account of the ruin of fields and pastures, and
even of the destruction of a broad belt of forest, by the fall of rocks
in consequence of cutting a few large trees. Cattle are very often
killed in Switzerland by rock-avalanches, and their owners secure
themselves from loss by insurance against this risk as against damage by
fire or hail.]

In alluvial plains and on the banks of rivers trees are extremely useful
as a check to the swift flow of the water in inundations, and the spread
of the mineral material it transports; but this will be more
appropriately considered in the chapter on the Waters; and another most
important use of the woods, that of confining the loose sands of dunes
and plains, will be treated of in the chapter on the Sands.


Small Forest Plants, and Vitality of Seed.

Another function of the woods, to which I have barely alluded, deserves
a fuller notice than can be bestowed upon it in a treatise the scope of
which is purely economical. The forest is the native habitat of a large
number of humbler plants, to the growth and perpetuation of which its
shade, its humidity, and its vegetable mould appear to be indispensable
necessities. [Footnote: "A hundred and fifty paces from my house is a
hill of drift-sand, on which stood a few scattered pines (Pinus
sylvestris). Sempervivum tectorum in abundance, Statice armeria, Ammone
vernalis, Dianthus carthusianorum, with other sand-plants, were growing
there. I planted the hill with a few birches, and all the plants I have
mentioned completely disappeared, though there were many naked spots of
sand between the trees. It should be added, however, that the hillock is
more thickly wooded than before. . . . It seems then that Sempervivum
tectorum, etc., will not bear the neighborhood of the birch, though
growing well near the Pinus sylvestris. I have found the large red
variety of Agaricus deliciosus only among the roots of the pine; the
greenish-blue Agaricus deliciosus among alder roots, but not near any
other tree. Birds have their partialities among trees and shrubs. The
Silvioe prefer the Pinus Larix to other trees. In my garden this Pinus
is never without them, but I never saw a bird perch on Thuja
occidentalis or Juniperus sabina, although the thick foliage of these
latter trees affords birds a better shelter than the loose leafage of
other trees. Not even a wren ever finds its way to one of them. Perhaps
the scent of the Thuja and the Juniperus is offensive to them. I have
spoiled one of my meadows by cutting away the bushes. It formerly bore
grass four feet high, because many umbelliferous plants, such as
Heracleum spondylium, Spiraea ulmaria, Laserpitium latifolia, etc., grew
in it. Under the shelter of the bushes these plants ripened and bore
seed, but they gradually disappeared as the shrubs wore extirpated, and
the grass now does not grow to the height of more than two feet, because
it is no longer obliged to keep pace with the umbellifera which
flourished among it." See a paper by J.G. Buttner, of Kurland, in
Berghaus s Geographicsches Jahrbuch, 1852, No. 4, pp. 14, 15.

These facts are interesting as illustrating the multitude of often
obscure conditions upon which the life or vigorous growth of smaller
organisms depends. Particular species of truffles and of mushrooms are
found associated with particular trees, without being, as is popularly
supposed, parasites deriving their nutriment from the dying or dead
roots of those trees. The success of Rousseau's experiments seem
decisive on this point, for he obtains larger crops of truffles from
ground covered with young seedling oaks than from that filled with roots
of old trees. See an article on Mont Ventoux, by Charles Martins, in the
Revue des Deux Mondes, Avril, 1863, p. 626.

It ought to be much more generally known than it is, that most if not
all mushrooms, even of the species reputed poisonous, may be rendered
harmless and healthful as food by soaking them for two hours in
acidulated or salt water. The water requires two or three spoonfuls of
vinegar or two spoonful of gray salt to the quart, and a quart of water
is enough for a pound of sliced mushrooms. After thus soaking, they are
well washed in fresh water, thrown into cold water, which is raised to
the boiling-point, and, after remaining half an hour, taken out and
again washed, Gerard, to prove that "crumpets is wholesome," ate one
hundred and seventy-five pounds of the most poisonous mushrooms thus
prepared, in a single month, fed his family ad libitum with the same,
and finally administered them, in heroic doses, to the members of a
committee appointed by the Council of Health of the city of Paris. See
Figuier, L'Annee Scientifique, 1862, pp. 353, 384. It should be observed
that the venomous principle of poisonous mushrooms is not decomposed and
rendered innocent by the process described in the note. It is merely
extracted by the acidulated or saline water employed for soaking the
plants, and care should be taken that this water be thrown away out of
the reach of mischief.

It has long been known that the Russian peasantry eat, with impunity,
mushrooms of species everywhere else regarded as very poisonous. Is it
not probable that the secret of rendering them harmless--which was known
to Pliny, though since forgotten in Italy--is possessed by the rustic
Muscovites ]

We cannot positively say that the felling of the woods in a given
vegetable province would involve the final extinction of the smaller
plants which are found only within their precincts. Some of these,
though not naturally propagating themselves in the open ground, may
perhaps germinate and grow under artificial stimulation and protection,
and finally become hardy enough to maintain an independent existence in
very different circumstances from those which at present seem essential
to their life.

Besides this, although the accounts of the growth of seeds, which have
lain for ages in the ashy dryness of Egyptian catacombs, are to be
received with great caution, or, more probably, to be rejected
altogether, yet their vitality seems almost imperishable while they
remain in the situations in which nature deposits them. When a forest
old enough to have witnessed the mysteries of the Druids is felled,
trees of other species spring up in its place; and when they, in their
turn, fall before the axe, sometimes even as soon as they have spread
their protecting shade over the surface, the germs which their
predecessors had shed years, perhaps centuries before, sprout up, and in
due time, if not choked by other trees belonging to a later stage in the
order of natural succession, restore again the original wood. In these
cases, the seeds of the new crop may have been brought by the wind, by
birds, by quadrupeds, or by other causes; but, in many instances, this
explanation is not probable.

When newly cleared ground is burnt over in the United States, the ashes
are hardly cold before they are covered with a crop of fire-weed,
Senecio hieracifolius, a tall, herbaceous plant, very seldom seen
growing under other circumstances, and often not to be found for a
distance of many miles from the clearing. Its seeds, whether the fruit
of an ancient vegetation or newly sown by winds or birds, require either
a quickening by a heat which raises to a certain high point the
temperature of the stratum where they lie buried, or a special pabulum
furnished only by the combustion of the vegetable remains that cover the
ground in the woods.

Earth brought up from wells or other excavations soon produces a harvest
of plants often very unlike those of the local flora, and Hayden informs
us that on our great Western desert plains, "wherever the earth is
broken up, the wild sun-flower (Helianthus) and others of the
taller-growing plants, though previously unknown in the vicinity, at
once spring up, almost as if spontaneous generation had taken place."
[Footnote: Geological Survey of Wyoming, p. 455.]

Moritz Wagner, as quoted by Wittwer, [Footnote: Physikalische
Geographie, p. 486.] remarks in his description of Mount Ararat: "A
singular phenomenon to which my guide drew my attention is the
appearance of several plants on the earth-heaps left by the last
catastrophe [an earthquake], which grow nowhere else on the mountain,
and had never been observed in this region before. The seeds of these
plants were probably brought by birds, and found in the loose, clayey
soil remaining from the streams of mud, the conditions of growth which
the other soil of the mountain refused them." This is probable enough,
but it is hardly less so that the flowing mud brought them up to the
influence of air and sun, from depths where a previous convulsion had
buried them ages before.

Seeds of small sylvan plants, too deeply buried by successive layers of
forest foliage and the mould resulting from its decomposition to be
reached by the plough when the trees are gone and the ground brought
under cultivation, may, if a wiser posterity replants the wood which
sheltered their parent stems, germinate and grow, after lying for
generations in a state of suspended animation.

Darwin says: "On the estate of a relation there was a large and
extremely barren heath, which had never been touched by the hand of man,
but several hundred acres of exactly the same nature had been enclosed
twenty-five years previously and planted with Scotch fir. The change in
the native vegetation of the planted part of the heath was most
remarkable--more than is generally seen in passing from one quite
different soil to another; not only the proportional numbers of the
heath-plants were wholly changed, but TWELVE SPECIES of plants (not
counting grasses and sedges) flourished in the plantation which could
not be found on the heath." [Footnote: Origin of Species, American
edition, p. 60.] Had the author informed us that these twelve plants
belonged to species whose seeds enter into the nutriment of the birds
which appeared with the young wood, we could easily account for their
presence in the soil; but he says distinctly that the birds were of
insectivorous species, and it therefore seems more probable that the
seeds had been deposited when an ancient forest protected the growth of
the plants which bore them, and that they sprang up to new life when a
return of favorable conditions awaked them from a sleep of centuries.
Darwin indeed says that the heath "had never been touched by the hand of
man." Perhaps not, after it became a heath; but what evidence is there
to control the general presumption that this heath was preceded by a
forest, in whose shade the vegetables which dropped the seeds in
question might have grown [Footnote: Writers on vegetable physiology
record numerous instances where seeds have grown after lying dormant for
ages. The following cases are mentioned by Dr. Dwight (Travels, ii., pp.
438, 430).

"The lands [in Panton, Vermont], which have here been once cultivated,
and again permitted to lie waste for several years, yield a rich and
fine growth of hickory [Carya Porcina]. Of this wood there is not, I
believe, a single tree in any original forest within fifty miles from
this spot. The native growth was here white pine, of which I did not see
a single stem in a whole grove of hickory."

The hickory is a walnut, bearing a fruit too heavy to be likely to be
carried fifty miles by birds, and besides, I believe it is not eaten by
any bird indigenous to Vermont. We have seen, however, on a former page,
that birds transport the nutmeg, which when fresh is probably as heavy
as the walnut, from one inland of the Indian archipelago to another.

"A field, about five miles from Northampton, on an eminence called Rail
Hill, was cultivated about a century ago. The native growth here, and in
all the surrounding region, was wholly oak, chestnut, etc. As the field
belonged to my grandfather, I had the best opportunity of learning its
history. It contained about five acres, in the form of an irregular
parallelogram. As the savages rendered the cultivation dangerous, it was
given up. On this ground there sprang up a grove of white pines covering
the field and retaining its figure exactly. So far as I remember, there
was not in it a single oak or chestnut tree ... There was not a single
pine whose seeds were, or, probably, had for ages been, sufficiently
near to have been planted on this spot. The fact that these white pines
covered this field exactly, go as to preserve both its extent and its
figure, and that there were none in the neighborhood, are decisive
proofs that cultivation brought up the seeds of a former forest within
the limits of vegetation, and gave them an opportunity to germinate."

See, on the Succession of the Forest, Thoreau, Excursions, p. l35 et
seqq.]

Although, therefore, the destruction of a wood and the reclaiming of the
soil to agricultural uses suppose the death of its smaller dependent
flora, these revolutions do not exclude the possibility of its
resurrection. In a practical view of the subject, however, we must admit
that when the woodman fells a tree he sacrifices the colony of humbler
growths which had vegetated under its protection. Some wood-plants are
known to possess valuable medicinal properties, and experiment may show
that the number of these is greater than we now suppose. Few of them,
however, have any other economical value than that of furnishing a
slender pasturage to cattle allowed to roam in the woods; and even this
small advantage is far more than compensated by the mischief done to the
young trees by browsing animals. Upon the whole, the importance of this
class of vegetables, as physic or as food, is not such as to furnish a
very telling popular argument for the conservation of the forest as a
necessary means of their perpetuation. More potent remedial agents may
supply their place in the materia medica, and an acre of grass-land
yields more nutriment for cattle than a range of a hundred acres of
forest. But he whose sympathies with nature have taught him to feel that
there is a fellowship between all God's creatures; to love the brilliant
ore better than the dull ingot, iodic silver and crystallized red copper
better than the shillings and the pennies forged from them by the
coiner's cunning; a venerable oak-tree than the brandy-cask whose staves
are split out from its heart-wood; a bed of anemones, hepaticas, or wood
violets than the leeks and onions which he may grow on the soil they
have enriched and in the air they made fragrant--he who has enjoyed that
special training of the heart and intellect which can be acquired only
in the unviolated sanctuaries of nature, "where man is distant, but God is
near"--will not rashly assert his right to extirpate a tribe of harmless
vegetables, barely because their products neither tickle his palate nor
fill his pocket; and his regret at the dwindling area of the forest
solitude will be augmented by the reflection that the nurselings of the
woodland perish with the pines, the oaks, and the beeches that sheltered
them. [Footnote: Quaint old Valvasor had observed the subduing influence
of nature's solitudes. In describing the lonely Canker-Thal, which,
though rocky, was in his time well wooded with "fir, larches, beeches
and other trees," he says:

"Gladsomeness and beauty, which dwell in many valleys, may not be looked
for there. The journey through it is cheerless, melancholy, wearisome,
and serveth to temper and mortify orer-joyousness of thought ... In sum
it is a very desert, wherein the wildness of human pride doth grow
tame."--Ehre der Crain, i., p. 186, b.]

Although, as I have said in a former chapter, birds do not frequent the
deeper recesses of the wood, yet a very large proportion of them build
their nests in trees, and find in their foliage and branches a secure
retreat from the inclemencies of the seasons and the pursuit of the
reptiles and quadrupeds which prey upon them. The borders of the forests
are vocal with song; and when the gray and dewy morning calls the
creeping things of the earth out of their night-cells, it summons from
the neighboring wood legions of their winged enemies, which swoop down
upon the fields to save man's harvests by devouring the destroying worm,
and surprising the lagging beetle in his tardy retreat to the dark cover
where he lurks through the hours of daylight.

The insects most injurious to the rural industry of the garden and the
ploughland do not multiply in or near the woods. The locust, which
ravages the East with its voracious armies, is bred in vast open plains
which admit the full heat of the sun to hasten the hatching of the eggs,
gather no moisture to destroy them, and harbor no bird to feed upon
thelarvae. [Footnote: Smela, in the government of Kiew, has, for some
years, not suffered at all from the locusts, which formerly came every
year in vast swarms, and the curculio, so injurious to the turnip crops,
is less destructive there than in other parts of the province. This
improvement is owing partly to the more thorough cultivation of the
soil, partly to the groves which are interspersed among the ploughlands.
... When in the midst of the plains woods shall be planted and filled
with insectivorous birds, the locusts will cease to be a plague and a
terror to the farmer.--Rentzsch, Der Wald, pp. 45, 46.] It is only since
the felling of the forests of Asia Minor and Cyrene that the locust has
become so fearfully destructive in those countries; and the grasshopper,
which now threatens to be almost as great a pest to the agriculture of
some North American soils, breeds in seriously injurious numbers only
where a wide extent of surface is bare of woods.


General Functions of Forests.

In the preceding pages we have seen that the electrical and chemical
action of the forest, though obscure, exercises probably a beneficial,
certainly not an injurious, influence on the composition and condition
of the atmosphere; that it serves as a protection against the diffusion
of miasmatic exhalations and malarious poisons; that it performs a most
important function as a mechanical shelter from blasting winds to
grounds and crops in the lee of it; that, as a conductor of heat, it
tends to equalize the temperature of the earth and the air; that its
dead products form a mantle over the surface, which protects the earth
from excessive heat and cold; that the evaporation from the leaves of
living trees, while it cools the air around them, diffuses through the
atmosphere a medium which resists the escape of warmth from the earth by
radiation, and hence that its general effect is to equilibrate caloric
influences and moderate extremes of temperature.

We have seen, further, that the forest is equally useful as a regulator
of terrestrial and of atmospheric humidity, preventing by its shade the
drying up of the surface by parching winds and the scorching rays of the
sun, intercepting a part of the precipitation, and pouring out a vast
quantity of aqueous vapor into the atmosphere; that if it does not
increase the amount of rain, it tends to equalize its distribution both
in time and in place; that it preserves a hygrometric equilibrium in the
superior strata of the earth's surface; that it maintains and regulates
the flow of springs and rivulets; that it checks the superficial
discharge of the waters of precipitation and consequently tends to
prevent the sudden rise of rivers, the violence of floods, the formation
of destructive torrents, and the abrasion of the surface by the action
of running water; that it impedes the fall of avalanches and of rocks,
and destructive slides of the superficial strata of mountains; that it
is a safeguard against the breeding of locusts, and finally that it
furnishes nutriment and shelter to many tribes of animal and of
vegetable life which, if not necessary to man's existence, are conducive
to his rational enjoyment. In fine, in well-wooded regions, and in
inhabited countries where a due proportion of soil is devoted to the
growth of judiciously distributed forests, natural destructive
tendencies of all sorts are arrested or compensated, and man, bird,
beast, fish, and vegetable alike find a constant uniformity of condition
most favorable to the regular and harmonious coexistence of them all.



General Consequences of the Destruction of the Forest.

With the extirpation of the forest, all is changed. At one season, the
earth parts with its warmth by radiation to an open sky--receives, at
another, an immoderate heat from the unobstructed rays of the sun. Hence
the climate becomes excessive, and the soil is alternately parched by
the fervors of summer, and seared by the rigors of winter. Bleak winds
sweep unresisted over its surface, drift away the snow that sheltered it
from the frost, and dry up its scanty moisture. The precipitation
becomes as irregular as the temperature; the melting snows and vernal
rains, no longer absorbed by a loose and bibulous vegetable mould, rush
over the frozen surface, and pour down the valleys seawards, instead of
filling a retentive bed of absorbent earth, and storing up a supply of
moisture to feed perennial springs. The soil is bared of its covering of
leaves, broken and loosened by the plough, deprived of the fibrous
rootlets which held it together, dried and pulverized by sun and wind,
and at last exhausted by new combinations. The face of the earth is no
longer a sponge, but a dust-heap, and the floods which the waters of the
sky pour over it hurry swiftly along its slopes, carrying in suspension
vast quantities of earthy particles which increase the abrading power
and mechanical force of the current, and, augmented by the sand and
gravel of falling banks, fill the beds of the streams, divert them into
new channels, and obstruct their outlets. The rivulets, wanting their
former regularity of supply and deprived of the protecting shade of the
woods, are heated, evaporated, and thus reduced in their summer
currents, but swollen to raging torrents in autumn and in spring. From
these causes, there is a constant degradation of the uplands, and a
consequent elevation of the beds of water-courses and of lakes by the
deposition of the mineral and vegetable matter carried down by the
waters. The channels of great rivers become unnavigable, their estuaries
are choked up, and harbors which once sheltered large navies are shoaled
by dangerous sand-bars. The earth, stripped of its vegetable glebe,
grows less and less productive, and, consequently, less able to protect
itself by weaving a new network of roots to bind its particles together,
a new carpeting of turf to shield it from wind and sun and scouring
rain. Gradually it becomes altogether barren. The washing of the soil
from the mountains leaves bare ridges of sterile rock, and the rich
organic mould which covered them, now swept down into the dank low
grounds, promotes a luxuriance of aquatic vegetation, that breeds fever,
and more insidious forms of mortal disease, by its decay, and thus the
earth is rendered no longer fit for the habitation of man. [Footnote:
Almost every narrative of travel in those countries which were the
earliest seats of civilization, contains evidence of the truth of these
general statements, and this evidence is presented with more or less
detail in most of the special works on the forest which I have occasion
to cite. I may refer particularly to Hohenstein, Der Wald, 1860, as
full of important facts on this subject. See also Caimi, Cenni sulla
Importanza dei Boschi, for some statistics, not readily found elsewhere,
on this and other topics connected with the forest.]

To the general truth of this sad picture there are many exceptions, even
in countries of excessive climates. Some of these are due to favorable
conditions of surface, of geological structure, and of the distribution
of rain; in many others, the evil consequences of man's improvidence
have not yet been experienced, only because a sufficient time has not
elapsed, since the felling of the forest, to allow them to develop
themselves. But the vengeance of nature for the violation of her
harmonies, though slow, is sure, and the gradual deterioration of soil
and climate in such exceptional regions is as certain to result from the
destruction of the woods as is any natural effect to follow its cause.


Due Proportion of Woodland.

The proportion of woodland that ought to be permanently maintained for
its geographical and atmospheric influences varies according to the
character of soil, surface, and climate. In countries with a humid sky,
or moderately undulating surface and an equable temperature, a small
extent of forest, enough to serve as a mechanical screen against the
action of the wind in localities where such protection is needed,
suffices. But most of the territory occupied by civilized man is
exposed, by the character of its surface and its climate, to a physical
degradation which cannot be averted except by devoting a large amount of
soil to the growth of the woods.

From an economical point of view, the question of the due proportion of
forest is not less complicated or less important than in its purely
physical aspects. Of all the raw materials which nature supplies for
elaboration by human art, wood is undoubtedly the most useful, and at
the same time the most indispensable to social progress. [Footnote: In
an imaginary dialogue in the Recepte Veritable, the author, Palissy,
having expressed his indignation at the folly of men in destroying the
woods, his interlocutor defends the policy of felling them, by citing
the example of "divers bishops, cardinals, priors, abbots, monkeries and
chapters, which, by cutting their woods, have made three profits, "the
sale of the timber, the rent of the ground, and the "good portion" they
received of the grain grown by the peasants upon it. To this argument
Palissy replies: "I cannot enough detest this thing, and I call it not
an error, but a curse and a calamity to all France; for when forests
shall be cut, all arts shall cease, and they which practise them shall
be driven out to eat grass with Nebuchadnezzar and the beasts of the
field. I have divers times thought to set down in writing the arts which
shall perish when there shall be no more wood; but when I had written
down a great number, I did perceive that there could be no end of my
writing, and having diligently considered, I found there was not any
which could be followed without wood." ... "And truly I could well
allege to thee a thousand reasons, but 'tis so cheap a philosophy, that
the very chamber-wenches, it they do but think, may see that without
wood, it is not possible to exercise any manner of human art or
cunning."--Oeuvres de Bernard Pallisy . Paris, 1844, p. 89.]

The demand for wood, and of course the quantity of forest required to
furnish it, depend upon the supply of fuel from other sources, such as
peat and coal, upon the extent to which stone, brick, or metal can
advantageously be substituted for wood in building, upon the development
of arts and industries employing wood and other forest products as
materials, and upon the cost of obtaining them from other countries, or
upon their commercial value as articles of export.

Upon the whole, taking civilized Europe and America together, it is
probable that from twenty to twenty-five per cent. of well-wooded
surface is indispensable for the maintenance of normal physical
conditions, and for the supply of materials so essential to every branch
of human industry and every form of social life as those which compose
the harvest of the woods.

There is probably no country--there are few large farms even--where at
least one-fourth of the soil is not either unfit for agricultural use,
or so unproductive that, as pasture or as ploughland, it yields less
pecuniary return than a thrifty wood. Every prairie has its sloughs
where willows and poplars would find a fitting soil, every Eastern farm
its rocky nooks and its barren hillsides suited to the growth of some
species from our rich forest flora, and everywhere belts of trees might
advantageously be planted along the roadsides and the boundaries and
dividing fences. In most cases, it will be found that trees may be made
to grow well where cultivated crops will not repay the outlay of
tillage, and it is a very plain dictate of sound economy that if trees
produce a better profit than the same ground would return if devoted to
grass or grain, the wood should be substituted for the field.

Woodland in European Countries.

In 1862, Rentzsch calculated the proportions of woodland in different
European countries as follows: [Footnote: Der Wald, pp. 123, 124.]

Norway.................................. 66 per cent.
Sweden.................................. 60 "
Russia.................................. 30.00 "
Germany................................. 26.58 "
Belgium................................. 18.52 "
France.................................. 16.79 "
Switzerland............................. 15 "
Sardinia................................. 12.29
Neapolitan States........................ 9.43 "
Holland.................................. 7.10 "
Spain.................................... 5.52 "
Denmark.................................. 5.50 "
Great Britain............................ 5 "
Portugal................................. 4.40 "

The large proportion of woodland in Norway and Sweden is in a great
measure to be ascribed to the mountainous character of the surface,
which renders the construction of roads difficult and expensive, and
hence the forests are comparatively inaccessible, and transportation is
too costly to tempt the inhabitants to sacrifice their woods for the
sake of supplying distant markets.

The industries which employ wood as a material have only lately been
much developed in these countries, and though the climate requires the
consumption of much wood as a fuel, the population is not numerous
enough to create, for this purpose, a demand exceeding the annually
produced supply, or to need any great extension of cleared ground for
agricultural purposes. Besides this, in many places peat is generally
employed as domestic fuel. Hence, though Norway has long exported a
considerable quantity of lumber, [Footnote: Railway-ties, or, as they
are called in England, sleepers, are largely exported from Norway to
India, and sold at Calcutta at a lower price than timber of equal
quality can be obtained from the native woods.--Reports on Forest
Conservancy, vol. i., pt. ii., p. 1533.

From 1861 to 1870 Norway exported annually, on the average, more than
60,000,000 cubic feet of lumber.--Wulfsberg, Norges Velstandskilder.
Christiania, 1872.] and the iron and copper works of Sweden consume
charcoal very largely, the forests have not diminished rapidly enough to
produce very sensible climatic or even economic evils.

At the opposite end of the scale we find Holland, Denmark, Great
Britain, Spain, and Portugal. In the three first-named countries a cold
and humid climate renders the almost constant maintenance of domestic
fires a necessity, while in Great Britain especially the demand of the
various industries which depend on wood as a material, or on mechanical
power derived from heat, are very great. Coal and peat serve as a
combustible instead of wood in them all, and England imports an immense
quantity of timber from her foreign possessions. Fortunately, the
character of soil, surface, and climate renders the forest of less
importance as a geographical agent in these northern regions than in
Spain and Portugal, where all physical conditions concur to make a large
extent of forest an almost indispensable means of industrial progress
and social advancement.

Rentzsch, in fact, ascribes the political decadence of Spain almost
wholly to the destruction of the forest. "Spain," observes he, "seemed
destined by her position to hold dominion over the world, and this in
fact she once possessed. But she has lost her political ascendancy,
because, during the feeble administration of the successors of Philip
II., her exhausted treasury could not furnish the means of creating new
fleets, the destruction of the woods having raised the price of timber
above the means of the state." [Footnote: Der Wald, p. 63. Antonio Ponz
(Viage de Espana, i., prologo, p. lxiii.), says: "Nor would this be so
great an evil, were not some of them declaimers against TREES, thereby
proclaiming themselves, in some sort, enemies of the works of God, who
gave us the leafy abode of Paradise to dwell in, where we should be even
now sojourning, but for the first sin, which expelled us from it."

I do not know at what period the two Castiles were bared of their woods,
but the Spaniard's proverbial "hatred of a tree" is of long standing.
Herrera combats this foolish prejudice; and Ponz, in the prologue to the
ninth volume of his journey, says that many carried it so far as
wantonly to destroy the shade and ornamental trees planted by the
municipal authorities. "Trees," they contended, and still believe,
"breed birds, and birds eat up the grain." Our author argues against the
supposition of the "breeding of birds by trees," which, he says, is as
absurd as to believe that an elm-tree can yield pears; and he charitably
suggests that the expression is, perhaps, a maniere de dire, a popular
phrase, signifying simply that trees harbor birds.] On the other hand,
the same writer argues that the wealth and prosperity of modern England
are in great part due to the supply of lumber, as well as of other
material for ship-building, which she imports from her colonies and
other countries with which she maintains commercial relations.


Forests of Great Britain.

The proportion of forest is very small in Great Britain, where, as I
have said, on the one hand, a prodigious industrial activity requires a
vast supply of ligneous material, but where, on the other, the abundance
of coal, which furnishes a sufficiency of fuel, the facility of
importation of timber from abroad, and the conditions of climate and
surface combine to reduce the necessary quantity of woodland to its
lowest expression.

With the exception of Russia, Denmark, and parts of Germany, no European
countries can so well dispense with the forests, in their capacity of
conservative influences, as England and Ireland. Their insular position
and latitude secure an abundance of atmospheric moisture; the general
inclination of surface is not such as to expose it to special injury
from torrents, and it is probable that the most important climatic
action exercised by the forest in these portions of the British empire,
is in its character of a mechanical screen against the effects of wind.
The due proportion of woodland in England and Ireland is, therefore, a
question not of geographical, but almost purely of economical,
expediency, to be decided by the comparative direct pecuniary return
from forest-growth, pasturage, and ploughland.

Contrivances for economizing fuel came later into use in the British
Islands than on the Continent. Before the introduction of a system of
drainage, the soil, like the sky, was, in general, charged with
humidity; its natural condition was unfavorable for the construction and
maintenance of substantial common roads, and the transportation of so
heavy a material as coal, by land, from the remote counties where alone
it was mined in the Middle Ages, was costly and difficult. For all these
reasons, the consumption of wood was large, and apprehensions of the
exhaustion of the forests were excited at an early period. Legislation
there, as elsewhere, proved ineffectual to protect them, and many
authors of the sixteenth century express fears of serious evils from the
wasteful economy of the people in this respect. Harrison, in his curious
chapter "Of Woods and Marishes" in Holinshed's compilation, complains of
the rapid decrease of the forests, and adds: "Howbeit thus much I dare
affirme, that if woods go so fast to decaie in the next hundred yeere of
Grace, as they haue doone and are like to doo in this, . . . it is to be
feared that the fennie bote, broome, turfe, gall, heath, firze, brakes,
whinnes, ling, dies, hassacks, flags, straw, sedge, reed, rush, and also
seacole, will be good merchandize euen in the citie of London, whereunto
some of them euen now haue gotten readie passage, and taken up their
innes in the greatest merchants' parlours . . . . I would wish that I
might liue no longer than to see foure things in this land reformed,
that is: the want of discipline in the church: the couetous dealing of
most of our merchants in the preferment of the commodities of other
countries, and hinderance of their owne: the holding of faires and
markets vpon the sundaie to be abolished and referred to the
wednesdaies: and that euerie man, in whatsoeuer part of the champaine
soile enioieth fortie acres of land, and vpwards, after that rate,
either by free deed, copie hold, or fee farme, might plant one acre of
wood, or sowe the same with oke mast, hasell, beech, and sufficient
prouision be made that it may be cherished and kept. But I feare me that
I should then liue too long, and so long, that I should either be wearie
of the world, or the world of me." [Footnote: Holinshed, reprint of
1807, i., pp. 357, 358. It is evident from this passage, and from
another on page 397 of the same volume, that, though seacoal was largely
exported to the Continent, it had not yet come into general use in
England. It is a question of much interest, when mineral coal was first
employed in England for fuel. I can find no evidence that it was used as
a combustible until more than a century after the Norman conquest. It
has been said that it was known to the Anglo-Saxon population, but I am
acquainted with no passage in the literature of that people which proves
this. The dictionaries explain the Anglo-Saxon word grofa by sea-coal. I
have met with this word in no Anglo-Saxon work, except in the Chronicle,
A.D. 852, from a manuscript certainly not older than the 12th century,
and in two citations from Anglo-Saxon charters, one published by Kemble
in Codex Diplomaticus, the other by Thorpe in Diplomatarium Anglicum, in
all which passages it more probably means peat than mineral coal.
According to Way, Promptorium Parrulorum, p. 506, note, the Catholicon
Anglicanum has "A turfe grafte, turbarium." Grafte is here evidently the
same word as the A.-S. grafa, and the Danish Torvegraf, a turf-pit,
confirms this opinion. Coal is not mentioned in King Alfred's Bede, in
Neckam, in Glanville or in Robert of Gloucester, though the two latter
writers speak of the allied mineral, jet, and are very full in their
enumeration of the mineral productions of the island. In a Latin poem
ascribed to Giraldus Cambrensis, who died after the year 1220, but found
also in the manuesripts of Walter Mapes (see Camden Society edition, pp.
131 and 350), and introduced into Higden's Polychronicon (London, 1865,
pp. 398, 399), carbo sub terra cortice, which can mean nothing but
pit-coal, is enumerated among the natural commodities of England. Some
of the translations of the 13th and 14th century render carbo by cool or
col, some by gold, and some omit this line, as well as others
unintelligible to the translators. Hence, although Giraldus was
acquainted with coal, it certainly was not generally known to English
writers until at least a century after the time of that author.

The earliest mediaeval notice of mineral coal I have met with is in a
passage cited by Ducange from a document of the year 1198, and it is an
etymological observation of some interest, that carbones ferrei, as
sea-coal is called in the document, are said by Ducange to have been
known in France by the popular name of hulla, a word evidently identical
with the modern French houille and the Cornish Huel, which in the form
wheal is an element in the name of many mining localities.

England was anciently remarkable for its forests, but Caesar says it
wanted the fagus and the abies. There can be no doubt that fagus means
the beech, which, as the remains in the Danish peat-mosses show, is a
tree of late introduction into Denmark, where it succeeded the fir, a
tree not now native to that country. The succession of forest crops
seems to have been the same in England; for Harrison, p. 359, speaks of
the "great store of firre" found lying "at their whole lengths" in the
"fens and marises" of Lancashire and other counties, where not even
bushes grew in his time. We cannot be sure what species of evergreen
Caesar intended by abies. The popular designations of spike-leaved trees
are always more vague and uncertain in their application than those of
broad-leaved trees. PINUS, PINE, has been very loosely employed even in
botanical nomenclature, and KIEFER, FICHTE, and TANNE are often
confounded in German.--Rossmassler, Der Wald, pp. 256, 289, 324. A
similar confusion in the names of this family of trees exists in India.
Dr. Cleghorn, Inspector-General of the Indian Forests, informs us in his
official Circular No. 2, that the name of deodar is applied in some
provinces to a cypress, in some to a cedar, and in others to a juniper.
If it were certain that the abies of Caesar was the fir formerly and
still found in peat-mosses, and that he was right in denying the
existence of the beech in England in his time, the observation would be
very important, because it would fix a date at which the fir had become
extinct, and the beech had not yet appeared in the island.

The English oak, though strong and durable, was not considered generally
suitable for finer work in the sixteenth century. There were, however,
exceptions. "Of all in Essex," observes Harrison, Holinshed, i., p.
357, "that growing in Bardfield parke is the finest for ioiners craft;
for oftentimes haue I seene of their workes made of that oke so fine and
faire, as most of the wainescot that is brought hither out of Danske
[Danzig]; for our wainescot is not made in England. Yet diuerse haue
assaied to deale with our okes to that end, but not with so good
successe as they haue hoped, bicause the ab or iuice will not so soone
be removed and cleane drawne out, which some attribute to want of time
in the salt water." This passage is also of interest as showing that
soaking in salt-water, as a mode of seasoning, was practised in
Harrison's time.

But the importation of wainscot, or boards for ceiling, panelling, and
otherwise finishing rooms, which was generally of oak, commenced at
least three centuries before the time of Harrison. On page 204 of the
Liber Albus mention is made of "squared oak timber," brought in from the
country by carts, and of course of domestic growth, as free of city duty
or octroi, and of "planks of oak" coming in in the same way as paying
one plank a cart-load. But in the chapter on the "Customs of
Billyngesgate," pp. 208, 209, relating to goods imported from foreign
countries, an import duty of one halfpenny is imposed on every hundred
of boards called "weynscotte"--a term formerly applied only to oak--and
of one penny on every hundred of boards called "Rygholt." The editor
explains "Rygholt" as "wood of Riga." This was doubtless pine or fir.
The year in which these provisions were made does not appear, but they
belong to the reign of Henry III.]

Evelyn's "Silva," the first edition of which appeared in 1664, rendered
an extremely important service to the cause of the woods, and there is
no doubt that the ornamental plantations in which England far surpasses
all other countries, are, in some measure, the fruit of Evelyn's
enthusiasm. In England, however, arboriculture, the planting and nursing
of single trees, has, until comparatively recent times, been better
understood than sylviculture, the sowing and training of the forest. But
this latter branch of rural improvement now receives great attention
from private individuals, though, so far as I know, not from the
National Government, except in the East Indian provinces, where the
forestal department has assumed great importance. [Footnote: The
improvidence of the population under the native and early foreign
governments has produced great devastations in the forests of the
British East Indian provinces, and the demands of the railways for fuel
and timber have greatly augmented the consumption of lumber, and of
course contributed to the destruction of the woods. The forests of
British India are now, and for several years have been, under the
control of an efficient governmental organization, with great advantage
both to the government and to the general private interests of the
people.

The official Reports on Forest Conservancy from May, 1862, to August,
1871, in 4 vols. folio, contain much statistical and practical
information on all subjects connected with the administration of the
forest.]

In fact, England is, I believe, the only European country where private
enterprise has pursued sylviculture on a really great scale, though
admirable examples have been set in many others. In England the law of
primogeniture, and other institutions and national customs which tend to
keep large estates long undivided and in the same line of inheritance,
the wealth of the landholders, the special adaptation of the climate to
the growth of forest-trees, and the difficulty of finding safe and
profitable investments of capital, combine to afford encouragements for
the plantation of forests, which scarcely exist elsewhere in the same
degree.

In Scotland, where the country is for the most part broken and
mountainous, the general destruction of the forests has been attended
with very serious evils, and it is in Scotland that many of the most
extensive British forest plantations have now been formed. But although
the inclination of surface in Scotland is rapid, the geological
constitution of the soil is not of a character to promote such
destructive degradation by running water as in Southern France, and it
has not to contend with the parching droughts by which the devastations
of the torrents are rendered more injurious in those provinces.

It is difficult to understand how either law or public opinion, in a
country occupied by a dense and intelligent population, and,
comparatively speaking, with an infertile soil, can tolerate the
continued withdrawal of a great portion of the territory from the
cultivation of trees and from other kinds of rural economy, merely to
allow wealthy individuals to amuse themselves with field-sports. In
Scotland, 2,000,000 acres, as well suited to the growth of forests and
for pasture as is the soil generally, are withheld from agriculture,
that they may be given up to herds of deer protected by the game laws. A
single nobleman, for example, thus appropriates for his own pleasures
not less than 100,000 acres. [Footnote: Robertson, Our Deer Forests.
London, 1867.] In this way one-tenth of all the land of Scotland is
rendered valueless in an economical point of view--for the returns from
the sale of the venison and other game scarcely suffice to pay the
game-keepers and other incidental expenses--and in these so-called
FORESTS there grows neither building timber nor fire-wood worth the
cutting, as the animals destroy the young shoots.


Forests of France.

The preservation of the woods was one of the wise measures recommended
to France by Sully, in the time of Henry IV., but the advice was little
heeded, and the destruction of the forests went on with such alarming
rapidity, that, two generations later, Colbert uttered the prediction:
"France will perish for want of wood." Still, the extent of wooded soil
was very great, and the evils attending its diminution were not so
sensibly felt, that either the government or public opinion saw the
necessity of authoritative interference, and in 1750 Mirabeau estimated
the remaining forests of the kingdom at seventeen millions of hectares
[42,000,000 acres]. In 1860 they were reduced to eight millions
[19,769,000 acres], or at the rate of 82,000 hectares [202,600 acres]
per year. Troy, from whose valuable pamphlet, Etude sur le Reboisement
des Montagnes, I take these statistical details, supposes that
Mirabeau's statement may have been an extravagant one, but it still
remains certain that the waste has been enormous; for it is known that,
in some departments, that of Ariege, for instance, clearing has gone on
during the last half-century at the rate of three thousand acres a year,
and in all parts of the empire trees have been felled faster than they
have grown. [Footnote: Among the indirect proofs of the comparatively
recent existence of extensive forests in France, may be mentioned the
fact that wolves were abundant, not very long since, in parts of the
empire where there are now neither wolves nor woods to shelter them.
Arthur Young more than once speaks of the "innumerable multitudes" of
these animals which infested France in 1789, and George Sand states, in
the Histoire de ma Vie, that some years after the restoration of the
Bourbons, they chased travellers on horseback in the southern provinces,
and literally knocked at the doors of her father-in-law's country seat.
Eugenie de Guerin, writing from Rayssac in Languedoc in 1831 speaks of
hearing the wolves fighting with dogs in the night under her very
windows. Lettres, 2d ed., p. 6.

There seems to have been a tendency to excessive clearing in Central and
Western, earlier than in South-eastern, France. Bernard Palissy, in the
Recepte Veritable, first printed in 1563, thus complains: "When I
consider the value of the least clump of trees, or even of thorns, I
much marvel at the great ignorance of men, who, as it seemeth, do
nowadays study only to break down, fell, and waste the fair forests
which their forefathers did guard so choicely. I would think no evil of
them for cutting down the woods, did they but replant again some part of
them; but they care nought for the time to come, neither reck they of
the great damage they do to their children which shall come after
them."--Oeuvres Completes de Bernard Pallisy, 1844, p. 88.] The total
area of France in Mirabeau's time, excluding Savoy, but including Alsace
and Lorraine, was about one hundred and thirty-one millions of acres.
The extent of forest supposed by Mirabeau would be about thirty-two per
cent. of the whole territory. In a country and a climate where the
conservative influences of the forest are so necessary as in France,
trees must cover a large surface and be grouped in large masses, in
order to discharge to the best advantage the various functions assigned
to them by nature. The consumption of wood is rapidly increasing in that
empire, and a large part of its territory is mountainous, sterile, and
otherwise such in character or situation that it can be more profitably
devoted to the growth of wood than to any agricultural use. Hence it is
evident that the proportion of forest in 1750, taking even Mirabeau's
large estimate, was not very much too great for permanent maintenance,
though doubtless the distribution was so unequal that it would have been
sound policy to fell the woods and clear land in some provinces, while
large forests should have been planted in others. [Footnote: The view I
have taken of this point is confirmed by the careful investigation of
Rentzsch, who estimates the proper proportion of woodland to entire
surface at twenty-three per cent. for the interior of Germany, and
supposes that near the coast, where the air is supplied with humidity by
evaporation from the sea, it might safely be reduced to twenty per cent.
See Rentzsch's very valuable prize essay, Der Wald im Haushalt der Natur
und der Volkswirthschaft. cap. viii.

The due proportion in France would considerably exceed that for the
German States, because France has relatively more surface unfit for any
growth but that of wood, because the form and geological character of
her mountains expose her territory to much greater injury from torrents,
and beause at least her southern provinces are more frequently visited
both by extreme droughts and by deluging rains.] During the period in
question France neither exported manufactured wood or rough timber, nor
derived important collateral advantages of any sort from the destruction
of her forests. She is consequently impoverished and crippled to the
extent of the difference between what she actually possesses of wooded
surface and what she ought to have retained. [Footnote: In 1863, France
imported lumber to the value of twenty-five and a half millions of
dollars, and exported to the amount of six and a half millions of
dollars. The annual consumption of France was estimated in 1866 at
212,000,000 cubic feet for building and manufacturing, and 1,588,300,000
for firewood and charcoal. The annual product of the forest-soil of
France does not exceed 70,000,000 cubic feet of wood fit for industrial
use, and 1,300,000,000 cubic feet consumed as fuel. This estimate does
not include the product of scattered trees on private grounds, but the
consumption is estimated to exceed the production of the forests by the
amount of about twenty millions of dollars. It is worth noticing that
the timber for building and manufacturing produced in France comes
almost wholly from the forests of the state or of the communes.--Jules
Clave, in Revue des Deux Mondes for March 1, 1866, p. 207.]

The force of the various considerations which have been suggested in
regard to the importance of the forest has been generally felt in
France, and the subject has been amply debated special treatises, in
scientific journals, and by the public press, as well as in the
legislative body of that country. Perhaps no one point has been more
prominent in the discussions than the influence of the forest in
equalizing and regulating the flow of the water of precipitation.
Opinion is still somewhat divided on this subject, but the value of the
woods as a safeguard against the ravages of torrents is universally
acknowledged, and it is hardly disputed that the rise of river-floods
is, even if as great, at least less sudden in streams having their
sources in well-wooded territory.

Upon the whole, the conservative action of the woods in regard to
torrents and to inundations has ben generally recognized by the public
of France as a matter of prime importance, and the Government of the
empire has made this principle the basis of a special system of
legislation for the protection of existing forests, and for the
formation of new. The clearing of woodland, and the organization and
functions of a police for its protection, are regulated by a law bearing
date June 18th, 1859, and provision was made for promoting the
restoration of private woods by a statute adopted on the 28th of July,
1860. The former of these laws passed the legislative body by a vote of
246 against 4, the latter with but a single negative voice. The
influence of the Government, in a country where the throne is as potent
as in France, would account for a large majority, but when it is
considered that both laws, the former especially, interfere very
materially with the rights of private domain, the almost entire
unanimity with which they were adopted is proof of a very general
popular conviction, that the protection and extension of the forests is
a measure more likely than any other to arrest the devastations of the
torrents and check the violence, if not to prevent the recurrence, of
destructive river inundations. The law of July 28th, 1860, appropriated
10,000,000 francs, to be expended, at the rate of 1,000,000 francs per
year, in executing or aiding the replanting of woods. It is computed
that this appropriation--which, considering the vast importance of the
subject, does not seem extravagant for a nation rich enough to be able
to expend annually six hundred times that sum in the maintenance of its
military establishments in times of peace--will secure the creation of
new forest to the extent of about 200,000 acres, or one fourteenth part
of the soil, where the restoration of the woods is thought feasible,
and, at the same time, specially important as a security against the
evils ascribed, in a great measure, to its destruction. [Footnote: In
1848 the Government of the so-called French Republic sold to the Bank of
France 187,000 acres of public forests, and notwithstanding the zeal
with which the Imperial Government had pressed the protective
Iegislation of 1860, it introduced, into the Legislative Assembly in
1865 a bill for the sale, and consequently destruction, of the forests
of the state to the amount of one hundred million francs. The question
was much debated in the Assembly, and public opinion manifested itself
so energetically against the measure that the ministry felt itself
compelled to withdraw it. See the discussions in D'Alienation des Forets
de l'Etat. Paris, 1865. The late Imperial Government sold about 170,000
acres of woodland between 1852 and 1866, both inclusive. The other
Governments, since the restoration of the Bourbons in 1814, alienated
more than 700,000 acres of the public forests, exclusive of sales
between 1836 and 1857, which are not reported.--Annuaire des Eaux et
Forets, 1872, p. 9.]

In 1865 the Legislative Assembly passed a bill amendatory of the law of
1860, providing, among other things, for securing the soil in exposed
localities by grading, and by promoting the growth of grass and the
formation of greensward over the surface. This has proved a most
beneficial measure, and its adoption under corresponding conditions in
the United States is most highly to be recommended. The leading features
of the system are:

1. Marking out and securing from pasturage and all other encroachments a
zone along the banks and around the head of ravines.

2. Turfing this zone, which in France accomplishes itself, if not
spontaneously, at least with little aid from art.

3. Consolidation of the scarps of the ravines by grading and wattling
and establishing barriers, sometimes of solid masonry, but generally of
fascines or any other simple materials at hand, across the bed of the
stream.

4. Cutting banquettes or narrow terraces along the scarps, and planting
rows of small deciduous trees and arborescent shrubs upon them,
alternating with belts of grass obtained by turfing with sods or sowing
grass-seeds. Planting the banquettes and slopes with bushes, and sowing
any other vegetables with tenacious roots, is also earnestly
recommended. [Footnote: See a description of similar processes
recommended and adopted by Mengotti, in his Idraulica, vol. ii., chap.
xvii.]


Remedies against Torrents.

The rural population, which in France is generally hostile to all forest
laws, soon acquiesced in the adoption of this system, and its success
has far surpassed all expectation. At the end of the year 1868 about
190,000 acres had been planted with trees, [Footnote: Travellers
spending the winter at Nice may have a good opportunity of studying the
methods of forming and conducting the rewooding of mountain slopes,
under the most unfavorable conditions, by visiting Mont Boron, in the
immediate vicinity of that city, and other coast plantations in that
province, where great difficulties have been completely overcome by the
skill and perseverance of French foresters. See Les Forets des Maures,
Revue des Eaux et Forets, January, 1869.] and nearly 7,000 acres well
turfed over in the Department of the Hautes Alpes. Many hundred ravines,
several of which had been the channels of formidable torrents, had been
secured by barriers, grading and planting, and according to official
reports the aspect of the mountains in the Department, wherever these
methods were employed, had rapidly changed. The soil had acquired such
stability that the violent rains of 1868, so destructive elsewhere,
produced no damage in the districts which had been subjected to these
operations, and numerous growing torrents which threatened irreparable
mischief had been completely extinguished, or at least rendered
altogether harmless. [Footnote: For ample details of processes and
results, see the second volume of Surrell, Etudes sur les Torrents,
Paris, 1872, and a Report by De La Grye, in the Revue des Eaux et Forets
for January, 1869.]

Besides the processes directed by the Government of France, various
subsidiary measures of an easily and economically practicable character
have been suggested. Among them is one which has long been favorably
known in our Southern States under the name of circling, and the
adoption of which in hilly regions in other States is to be strongly
recommended.

It is simply a method of preventing the wash of surface by rains, and at
the same time of providing a substitute for irrigation of steep
pasture-grounds, consisting in little more than in running horizontal
furrows along the hillsides, thus converting the scarp of the hills into
a succession of small terraces which, when once turfed over, are very
permanent. Experience is said to have demonstrated that this simple
process at least partially checks the too rapid flow of surface-water
into the valleys, and, consequently, in a great measure obviates one of
the most prominent causes of inundations, and that it suffices to retain
the water of rains, of snows, and of small springs, long enough for the
irrigation of the soil, thus increasing its product of herbage in a
fivefold proportion. [Footnote: Troy, Etude sur le Reboisement des
Montagnes, sections 6, 7, 21.]

As a further recommendation, it may be observed that this process is an
admirable preparation of the ground for forest plantations, as young
trees planted on the terraces would derive a useful protection from the
form of the surface and the coating of turf, and would also find a soil
moist enough to secure their growth.


Forests of Italy.

According to the most recent statistics, Italy has 17.64 per cent. of
woodland, [Footnote: Siemoni, Manuale d'Arte Forestale, 2 ediz.,
Firenze, 1872, p. 542.] a proportion which, considering the character of
climate and surface, the great amount of soil which is fit for no other
purpose than the growth of trees, and the fact that much of the land
classed as forest is either very imperfectly wooded, or covered with
groves badly administered, and not in a state of progressive
improvement, might advantageously be doubled. Taking Italy as a whole,
we may say that she is eminently fitted by climate, soil, and
superficial formation, to the growth of a varied and luxuriant arboreal
vegetation, and that in the interests of self-protection, the promotion
of forestal industry is among the first duties of her people. There are
in Western Piedmont valleys where the felling of the woods has produced
consequences geographically and economically as disastrous as in
South-eastern France, and there are many other districts in the Alps and
the Apennines where human improvidence has been almost equally
destructive. Some of these regions must be abandoned to absolute
desolation, and for others the opportunity of physical restoration is
rapidly passing away. But there are still millions of square miles which
might profitably be planted with forest-trees, and thousands of acres of
parched and barren hillside, within sight of almost every Italian
provincial capital, which might easily and shortly be reclothed with
verdant woods. [Footnote: To one accustomed to the slow vegetation of
less favored climes, the rapidity of growth in young plantations in
Italy seems almost magical. The trees planted along the new drives and
avenues in Florence have attained in three or four years a development
which would require at least ten in our Northern States. This, it is
true, is a special case, for the trees have been planted and tended with
a skill and care which cannot be bestowed upon a forest; but the growth
of trees little cared for is still very rapid in Italy. According to
Toscanelli, Economia rurale nella Provincia di Pisa, p. 8, note--one of
the most complete, curious, and instructive pictures of rural life which
exists in any literature--the white poplar, Populus alba, attains in the
valley of the Serchio a great height, with a mean diameter of two feet,
in twenty years. Solmi states in his Miasma Palustre, p. 115, that the
linden reaches a diameter of sixteen inches in the same period. The
growth of foreign trees is sometimes extremely luxuriant in Italy. Two
Atlas cedars, at the well-known villa of Careggi, near Florence, grown
from seed sown in 1850, measure twenty inches in diameter, above the
swell of the roots, with an estimated height of sixty feet.]

The denudation of the Central and Southern Apennines and of the Italian
declivity of the Western Alps began at a period of unknown antiquity,
but it does not seem to have been carried to a very dangerous length
until the foreign conquests and extended commerce of Rome created a
greatly increased demand for wood for the construction of ships and for
military material. [Footnote: An interesting example of the collateral
effects of the destruction of the forests in ancient Italy may be found
in old Roman architecture. In the oldest brick constructions of Rome the
bricks are very thin, very thoroughly burnt, and laid with a thick
stratum of mortar between the courses. A few centuries later the bricks
were thicker and less well burnt, and the layers of mortar were thinner.
In the Imperial period the bricks were still thicker, generally
soft-burnt, and with little mortar between the courses. This fact, I
think, is due to the abundance and cheapness of fuel in earlier, and its
growing scarceness and dearness in later, ages. When wood cost little,
constructors could afford to burn their brick thoroughly, and to burn
and use a great quantity of lime. As the price of fire-wood advanced,
they were able to consume less fuel in brick- and lime-kilns, and the
quality and quantity of brick and lime used in building were gradually
reversed in proportion.

The multitude of geographical designations in Italy which indicate the
former existence of forests show that even in the Middle Ages there were
woods where no forest-trees are now to be found. There are hundreds of
names of mediaeval towns derived from abete, acero, carpino, castagno,
faggio, frassino, pino, quercia, and other names of trees.] The Eastern
Alps, the Western Apennines, and the Maritime Alps retained their
forests much later; but even here the want of wood, and the injury to
the plains and the nagivation of the rivers by sediment brought down by
the torrents, led to legislation for the protection of the forests, by
the Republic of Venice, at various periods between the fifteenth and the
nineteenth centuries, [Footnote: See A. de Bereuger's valuable Saggio
Storico della Legislazione Veneta Forestale. Venezia, 1863.

We do not find in the Venetian forestal legislation much evidence that
geographical arguments were taken into account by the lawgivers, who
seem to have had an eye only to economical considerations.

According to Hummel, the desolation of the Karst, the high plateau lying
north of Trieste, now one of the most parched and barren districts in
Europe, is owing to the felling of the woods, centuries ago, to build
the navies of Venice. "Where the miserable peasant of the Karst now sees
nothing but bare rock swept and scoured by the raging Bora, the fury of
this wind was once subdued by mighty firs, which Venice recklessly cut
down to build her fleets."--Physische Geographie, p. 32.] by that of
Genoa as early at least as the seventeenth; and both these Governments,
as well as several others, passed laws requiring the proprietors of
mountain-lands to replant the woods. These, however, seem to have been
little observed, and it is generally true that the present condition of
the forest in Italy is much less due to the want of wise legislation for
its protection than to the laxity of the Governments in enforcing their
laws.

It is very common in Italy to ascribe to the French occupation under the
first Empire all the improvements and all the abuses of recent times,
according to the political sympathies of the individual; and the French
are often said to have prostrated every forest which has disappeared
within this century. But, however this may be, no energetic system of
repression or restoration was adopted by any of the Italian States after
the downfall of the Empire, and the taxes on forest property in some of
them were so burdensome that rural municipalities sometimes proposed to
cede their common woods to the Government, without any other
compensation than the remission of the taxes imposed on forest-lands.
[Footnote: See the Politecnico for the month of May, 1862, p. 234.]
Under such circumstances, woodlands would soon become disafforested, and
where facilities of transportation and a good demand for timber have
increased the inducements to fell it, as upon the borders of the
Mediterranean, the destruction of the forest and all the evils which
attend it have gone on at a seriously alarming rate.

Gallenga gives a striking account of the wanton destruction of the
forests in Northern Italy within his personal recollection, [Footnote:
"Far away in the darkest recesses of the mountains a kind of universal
conspiracy seems to have been got up among these Alpine people,--a
destructive mania to hew and sweep down everything that stands on
roots."--Country Life in Piedmont, p. 134.

"There are huge pyramids of mountains now bare and bleak from base to
summit, which men still living and still young remember seeing richly
mantled with all but primeval forests."--Ibid., p. 135.] and there are
few Italians past middle life whose own memory will not supply similar
reminiscences. The clearing of the mountain valleys of the provinces of
Bergamo and of Bescia is recent, and Lombardini informs us the felling
of the woods in the Valtelline commenced little more than forty years
ago.

Although no country has produced more able writers on the value of the
forest and the general consequences of its destruction than Italy, yet
the specific geographical importance of the woods, except as a
protection against inundations, has not been so clearly recognized in
that country as in the States bordering it on the north and west. It is
true that the face of nature has been as completely revolutionized by
man, and that the action of torrents has created almost as wide and as
hopeless devastation in Italy as in France; but in the French Empire the
recent desolation produced by clearing the forests is more extensive,
has been more suddenly effected, has occurred in less remote and obscure
localities, and therefore, excites a livelier and more general interest
than in Italy, where public opinion does not so readily connect the
effect with its true cause. Italy, too, from ancient habit, employs
little wood in architectural construction; for generations she has
maintained no military or commercial marine large enough to require
exhaustive quantities of timber, [Footnote: The great naval and
commercial marines of Venice and of Genoa must have occasioned an
immense consumption of lumber in the Middle Ages, and the centuries
immediately succeeding those commonly embraced in that designation. The
marine construction of that period employed larger timbers than the
modern naval architecture of most commercial countries, but apparently
without a proportional increase of strength. The old modes of
ship-building have been, to a considerable extent, handed down to very
recent times in the Mediterranean, and though better models and modes of
construction are now employed in Italian shipyards, an American or an
Englishman looks with astonishment at the huge beams and thick planks so
often employed in the construction of very small vessels navigating that
sea, and not yet old enough to be broken up as unseaworthy.] and the
mildness of her climate makes small demands on the woods for fuel.
Besides these circumstances, it must be remembered that the sciences of
observation did not become knowledges of practical application till
after the mischief was already mainly done and even forgotten in Alpine
Italy, while its evils were just beginning to be sensibly felt in France
when the claims of natural philosophy as a liberal study were first
acknowledged in modern Europe. The former political condition of the
Italian Peninsula would have effectually prevented the adoption of a
general system of forest economy, however clearly the importance of a
wise administration of this great public interest might have been
understood. The woods which controlled and regulated the flow of the
river-sources were very often in one jurisdiction, the plains to be
irrigated, or to be inundated by floods and desolated by torrents, in
another. Concert of action, on such a subject, between a multitude of
jealous petty sovereignties, was obviously impossible, and nothing but
the permanent union of all the Italian States under a single government
can render practicable the establishment of such arrangements for the
conservation and restoration of the forests, and the regulation of the
flow of the waters, as are necessary for the full development of the yet
unexhausted resources of that fairest of lands, and even for the
maintenance of the present condition of its physical geography.


The Forests of Germany.

Germany, including a considerable part of the Austrian Empire, from
character of surface and climate, and from the attention which has long
been paid in all the German States to sylviculture, is in a far better
condition in this respect than its more southern neighbors; and though
in the Alpine provinces of Bavaria and Austria the corresponding
districts of Switzerland, Italy, and France, has produced effects hardly
less disastrous, [Footnote: As an instance of the scarcity of fuel in
some parts of the territory of Bavaria, where, not long since, wood
abounded, I may mention the fact that the water of salt-springs is, in
some instances, conveyed to the distance of sixty miles, in iron pipes,
to reach a supply of fuel for boiling it down.

In France, the juice of the sugar-beet is sometimes carried three or
four miles in pipes for the same reason.

Many of my readers may remember that it was not long ago proposed to
manufacture the gas for the supply of London at the mouths of the coal-
mines, and convey it to the city in pipes, thus saving the
transportation of the coal; but as the coke and mineral tar would still
have remained to be disposed of, the operation would probably not have
proved advantageous.

Great economy in the production of petroleum has resulted from the
application of cast-iron tubes to the wells instead of barrels; the oil
is thus carried over the various inequalities of surface for three or
four miles to the tanks on the railroads, and forced into them by
steam-engines. The price of transport is thus reduced one-fifth.] yet,
as a whole, the German States, as Siemoni well observes, must be
considered as in this respect the model countries of Europe. Not only is
the forest area in general maintained without diminution, but new woods
are planted where they are specially needed, [Footnote: The Austrian
Government is making energetic efforts for the propagation of forests on
the desolate waste of the Karst. The difficulties from drought and from
the violence of the winds, which might prove fatal to young and even to
somewhat advanced plantations, are very serious, but in 1866 upwards of
400,000 trees had been planted and great quantities of seeds sown. Thus
far, the results of this important experiment are said to be
encouraging. See the Chronique Forestiere in the Revue des Eaux et
Forets, Feb. 1870.] and, though the slow growth of forest-trees in those
climates reduces the direct pecuniary returns of woodlands to a minimum,
the governments wisely persevere in encouraging this industry. The
exportation of sawn lumber from Trieste is large, and in fact the
Turkish and Egyptian markets are in great part supplied from this
source. [Footnote: For information respecting the forests of Germany, as
well as other European countries, see, besides the works already cited,
the very valuable Manuale d'Arts Forestale of Siemoni, 2de edizione,
Firenze, 1872.]


Forests of Russia.

Russia, which we habitually consider as substantially a forest
country--which has in fact a large proportion of woodland--is beginning
to suffer seriously for want of wood. Jourdier observes: "Instead of a
vast territory with immense forests, which we expect to meet, one sees
only scattered groves thinned by the wind or by the axe of the moujik,
grounds cut over and more or less recently cleared for cultivation.
There is probably not a single district in Russia which has not to
deplore the ravages of man or of fire, those two great enemies of
Muscovite sylviculture. This is so true, that clear-sighted men already
foresee a crisis which will become terrible, unless the discovery of
great deposits of some new combustible, as pit-coal or anthracite, shall
diminish its evils." [Footnote: Clave, Etudes sur l'Economie Forestiere,
p. 261. Clave adds (p. 262): "The Russian forests are very unequally
distributed through the territory of this vast empire. In the north they
form immense masses, and cover whole provinces, while in the south they
are so completely wanting that the inhabitants have no other fuel than
straw, dung, rushes, and heath." ... "At Moscow, firewood costs thirty
per cent. more than at Paris, while, at the distance of a few leagues,
it sells for a tenth of that price."

This state of things is partly due to the want of facilities of
transportation, and some parts of the United States are in a similar
condition. During a severe winter, ten or twelve years ago, the sudden
freezing of the canals and rivers, before a large American town had
received its usual supply of fuel, occasioned an enormous rise in the
price of wood and coal, and the poor suffered severely for want of it.
Within a few hours of the city were large forests and an abundant stock
of firewood felled and prepared for burning.

This might easily have been carried to town by the railroads which
passed through the woods; but the managers of the roads refused to
receive it as freight, because a rival market for wood might raise the
price of the fuel they employed for their locomotives. Truly, our
railways "want a master."

Hohenstein, who was long professionally employed as a forester in
Russia, describes the consequences of the general war upon the woods in
that country as already most disastrous, and as threatening still more
ruinous evils. The river Volga, the life artery of Russian internal
commerce, is drying up from this cause, and the great Muscovite plains
are fast advancing to a desolation like that of Persia.--Der Wald, p.
223.

The level of the Caspian Sea is eighty-three feet lower than that of the
Sea of Azoff, and the surface of Lake Aral is fast sinking. Von Baer
maintains that the depression of the Caspian was produced by a sudden
subsidence, from ecological causes, and not gradually by excess of
evaporation over supply. See Kaspische Studien, p. 25. But this
subsidence diminished the area and consequently the evaporation of that
sea, and the rivers which once maintained its ancient equilibrium ought
to have raised it to its former level, if their own flow had not been
diminished. It is, indeed, not proved that the laying bare of a wooded
country diminishes the total annual precipitation upon it; but it is
certain that the summer delivery of water from the surface of a
champaign region, like that through which the Volga, its tributaries,
and the feeders of Lake Aral, flow, is lessened by the removal of its
woods. Hence, though as much rain may still fall in the valleys of those
rivers as when their whole surface was covered with forests, more
moisture may be carried off by evaporation, and a less quantity of water
be discharged by the rivers since their basins were cleared, and
therefore the present condition of the inland waters in question may be
due to the removal of the forests in their valleys and the adjacent
plains.]


Forests of United States.

I greatly doubt whether any one of the American States, except, perhaps,
Oregon, has, at this moment, more woodland than it ought permanently to
preserve, though, no doubt, a different distribution of the forests in
all of them might be highly advantageous. It is, perhaps, a misfortune
to the American Union that the State Governments have so generally
disposed of their original domain to private citizens. It is true that
public property is not sufficiently respected in the United States; and
within the memory of almost every man of mature age, timber was of so
little value in the northernmost States that the owners of private
woodlands submitted, almost without complaint, to what would be regarded
elsewhere as very aggravated trespasses upon them. [Footnote: According
to the maxims of English jurisprudence, the common law consists of
general customs so long established that "the memory of man runneth not
to the contrary." In other words, long custom makes law. In new
countries, the change of circumstances creates new customs, and, in
time, new law, without the aid of legislation. Had the American
colonists observed a more sparing economy in the treatment of their
woods, a new code of customary forest-law would have sprung up and
acquired the force of a statute. Popular habit was fast elaborating the
fundamental principles of such a code, when the rapid increase in the
value of timber, in consequence of the reckless devastation of the
woodlands, made it the interest of the proprietors to interfere with
this incipient system of forest jurisprudence, and appeal to the rules
of English law for the protection of their woods. The courts have
sustained these appeals, and forest property is now legally as
inviolable as any other, though common opinion still combats the course
of judicial decision on such questions.] Persons in want of timber
helped themselves to it wherever they could find it, and a claim for
damages, for so insignificant a wrong as cutting down and carrying off a
few pine or oak trees, was regarded as a mean-spirited act in a
proprietor. The habits formed at this period are not altogether
obsolete, and even now the notion of a common right of property in the
woods still lingers, if not as an opinion at least as a sentiment. Under
such circumstances it has been difficult to protect the forest, whether
it belong to the State or to individuals. Property of this kind is
subject to plunder, as well as to frequent damage by fire. The
destruction from these causes would, indeed, considerably lessen, but
would by no means wholly annihilate the climatic and geographical
influences of the forest, or ruinously diminish its value as a regular
source of supply of fuel and timber.

It is evidently a matter of the utmost importance that the public, and
especially land-owners, be roused to a sense of the dangers to which the
indiscriminate clearing of the woods may expose not only future
generations, but the very soil itself. Some of the American States, as
well as the Governments of many European colonies, still retain the
ownership of great tracts of primitive woodland. The State of New York,
for example, has, in its north-eastern counties, a vast extent of
territory in which the lumberman has only here and there established his
camp, and where the forest, though interspersed with permanent
settlements, robbed of some of its finest pine groves, and often ravaged
by devastating fires, still covers far the largest proportion of the
surface. Through this territory the soil is generally poor, and even the
new clearings have little of the luxuriance of harvest which
distinguishes them elsewhere. The value of the land for agricultural
uses is therefore very small, and few purchases are made for any other
purpose than to strip the soil of its timber. It has been often proposed
that the State should declare the remaining forest the inalienable
property of the commonwealth, but I believe the motive of the suggestion
has originated rather in poetical than in economical views of the
subject. Both these classes of considerations have a real worth. It is
desirable that some large and easily accessible region of American soil
should remain, as far as possible, in its primitive condition, at once a
museum for the instruction of the student, a garden for the recreation
of the lover of nature, and an asylum where indigenous tree, and humble
plant that loves the shade, and fish and fowl and four-footed beast, may
dwell and perpetuate their kind, in the enjoyment of such imperfect
protection as the laws of a people jealous of restraint can afford them.
The immediate loss to the public treasury from the adoption of this
policy would be inconsiderable, for these lands are sold at low rates.
The forest alone, economically managed, would, without injury, and even
with benefit to its permanence and growth, soon yield a regular income
larger than the present value of the fee.

The collateral advantages of the preservation of these forests would be
far greater. Nature threw up those mountains and clothed them with lofty
woods, that they might serve as a reservoir to supply with perennial
waters the thousand rivers and rills that are fed by the rains and snows
of the Adirondacks, and as a screen for the fertile plains of the
central counties against the chilling blasts of the north wind, which
meet no other barrier in their sweep from the Arctic pole. The climate
of Northern New York even now presents greater extremes of temperature
than that of Southern France. The long-continued cold of winter is more
intense, the short heats of summer even fiercer than in Provence, and
hence the preservation of every influence that tends to maintain an
equilibrium of temperature and humidity is of cardinal importance. The
felling of the Adirondack woods would ultimately involve for Northern
and Central New York consequences similar to those which have resulted
from the laying bare of the southern and western declivities of the
French Alps and the spurs, ridges, and detached peaks in front of them.

It is true that the evils to be apprehended from the clearing of the
mountains of New York may be less in degree than those which a similar
cause has produced in Southern France, where the intensity of its action
has been increased by the inclination of the mountain declivities, and
by the peculiar geological constitution of the earth. The degradation of
the soil is, perhaps, not equally promoted by a combination of the same
circumstances, in any of the American Atlantic States, but still they
have rapid slopes and loose and friable soils enough to render
widespread desolation certain, if the further destruction of the woods
is not soon arrested. The effects of clearing are already perceptible in
the comparatively unviolated region of which I am speaking. The rivers
which rise in it flow with diminished currents in dry seasons, and with
augmented volumes of water after heavy rains. They bring down larger
quantities of sediment, and the increasing obstructions to the
navigation of the Hudson, which are extending themselves down the
channel in proportion as the fields are encroaching upon the forest,
give good grounds for the fear of irreparable injury to the commerce of
the important towns on the upper waters of that river, unless measures
are taken to prevent the expansion of "improvements" which have already
been carried beyond the demands of a wise economy.

In the Eastern United States the general character of the climate, soil,
and surface is such, that for the formation of very destructive torrents
a much longer time is required than would be necessary in the
mountainous provinces of Italy or of France. But the work of desolation
has begun even there, and wherever a rapid mountain-slope has been
stripped of wood, incipient ravines already plough the surface, and
collect the precipitation in channels which threaten serious mischief in
the future. There is a peculiar action of this sort on the sandy surface
of pine-forests and in other soils that unite readily with water, which
has excited the attention of geographers and geologists. Soils of the
first kind are found in all the Eastern States; those of the second are
more frequent in the exhausted counties of Maryland, where tobacco is
cultivated, and in the more southern territories of Georgia and Alabama.
In these localities the ravines which appear after the cutting of the
forest, through some accidental disturbance of the surface, or, in some
formations, through the cracking of the soil in consequence of great
drought or heat, enlarge and extend themselves with fearful rapidity.

In Georgia and in Alabama, Lyell saw "the beginning of the formation of
hundreds of valleys in places where the primitive forest had been
recently cut down." One of these, in Georgia, in a soil composed of clay
and sand produced by the decomposition in situ of hornblendic gneiss
with layers and veins of quartz, "and which did not exist before the
felling of the forest twenty years previous," he describes as more than
55 feet in depth, 300 yards in length, and from 20 to 180 feet in
breadth. Our author refers to other cases in the same States, "where the
cutting down of the trees, which had prevented the rain from collecting
into torrents and running off in sudden land-floods, has given rise to
ravines from 70 to 80 feet deep." [Footnote: Lyell, Principles of
Geology, 10th ed., vol i., 345-6.] Similar results often follow in the
North-eastern States from cutting the timber on the "pine plains," where
the soil is usually of a sandy composition and loose texture.


American Forest-Trees.

The remaining forests of the Northern States and of Canada no longer
boast the mighty pines which almost rivalled the gigantic sequoia and
redwood of California; and the growth of the larger forest-trees is so
slow, after they have attained to a certain size, that if every pine and
oak were spared for two centuries, the largest now standing would not
reach the stature of hundreds recorded to have been cut within two or
three generations. [Footnote: The growth of the white pine, on good soil
and in open ground, is rather rapid until it reaches the diameter of a
couple of feet, after which it is much slower. The favorite habitat of
this tree is light, sandy earth. On this soil, and in a dense wood, it
requires a century to attain the diameter of a yard. Emerson (Trees of
Massachusetts, p. 65), says that a pine of this species, near Paris,
"thirty years planted, is eighty feet high, with a diameter of three
feet." He also states that ten white pines planted at Cambridge,
Massachusetts in 1809 or 1810, exhibited, in the winter of 1841 and
1842, an average of twenty inches diameter at the ground, the two
largest measuring, at the height of three feet, four feet eight inches
in circumference; and he mentions another pine growing in a rocky swamp,
which at the age of thirty-two years, "gave seven feet in circumference
at the but, with a height of sixty-two feet six inches." This latter I
suppose to be a seedling, the others TRANSPLANTED trees, which might
have been some years old when placed where they finally grew.

The following case came under my own observation: In 1824 a pine-tree,
so small that a young lady, with the help of a lad, took it up from the
ground and carried it a quarter of a mile, was planted near a house in a
town in Vermont. It was occasionally watered, but received no other
special treatment. I measured this tree in 1860, and found it, at four
feet from the ground, and entirely above the spread of the roots, two
feet and four inches in diameter. A new measurement in 1871 gave a
diameter of two feet eight inches, being an increase of four inches in
eleven years, a slower rate than that of preceding years. It could not
have been more than three inches through when transplanted, and up to
1860 must have increased its diameter at the rate of about seven-tenths
of an inch per year, almost double its later growth. In 1871 the crown
had a diameter of 63 feet.

In the same neighborhood, elms transplanted in 1803, when they were not
above three or four inches through, had attained, in 1871, a diameter of
from four feet to four feet two inches, with a spread of crown of from
90 to 112 feet. Sugar-maples, transplanted in 1822, at about the same
size, measured two feet three inches through. This growth undoubtedly
considerably exceeds that of trees of the same species in the natural
forest, though the transplanted trees had received no other fertilizing
application than an unlimited supply of light and air.] Dr. Williams,
who wrote about sixty years ago, states the following as the dimensions
of "such trees as are esteemed large ones of their kind in that part of
America" [Vermont], qualifying his account with the remark that his
measurements "do not denote the greatest which nature has produced of
their particular species, but the greatest which are to be found in most
of our towns."

		    		    Diameter.            Height.
Pine..........  6 feet,              247 feet.
Maple.........  5  "  9 inches      \
Buttonwood....  5  "  6 "           |
Elm...........  5  "                |
Hemlock.......  4  "  9 "           |
Oak...........  4  "                > From 100 to 200 feet.
Basswood......  4  "                |
Ash...........  4  "                |
Birch.........  4  "                /

He adds a note saying that a white pine was cut in Dunstable, New
Hampshire, in the year 1736, the diameter of which was seven feet and
eight inches. Dr. Dwight says that a fallen pine in Connecticut was
found to measure two hundred and forty-seven feet in height, and adds:
"A few years since, such trees were in great numbers along the northern
parts of Connecticut River." In another letter, he speaks of the white
pine as "frequently six feet in diameter, and two hundred and fifty feet
in height," and states that a pine had been cut in Lancaster, New
Hampshire, which measured two hundred and sixty-four feet, Emerson wrote
in 1846: "Fifty years ago, several trees growing on rather dry land in
Blandford, Massachusetts, measured, after they were felled, two hundred
and twenty-three feet." All these trees are surpassed by a pine felled
at Hanover, New Hampshire, about a hundred years ago, and described as
measuring two hundred and seventy-four feet. [Footnote: Williams,
History of Vermont, ii., p. 53. Dwight s Travels, iv., p. 21, and iii,
p. 36. Emerson, Trees of Massachusetts, p. 61. Parish, Life of
President Wheelock, p. 56.] These descriptions, it will be noticed,
apply to trees cut from seventy to one hundred and forty years since.

Persons, whom observation has rendered familiar with the present
character of the American forest, will be struck with the smallness of
the diameter which Dr. Williams and Dr. Dwight ascribe to trees of such
extraordinary height. Individuals of the several species mentioned in
Dr. Williams's table are now hardly to be found in the same climate,
exceeding one-half or at most two-thirds of the height which he assigns
to them; but, except in the case of the oak and the pine, the diameter
stated by him would not be thought very extraordinary in trees of far
less height, now standing. Even in the species I have excepted, those
diameters, with half the heights of Dr. Williams, might perhaps be
paralleled at the present time; and many elms, transplanted, at a
diameter of six inches, within the memory of persons still living,
measure four and sometimes even five feet through. For this change in
the growth of forest-trees there are two reasons: the one is, that the
great commercial value of the pine and the oak have caused the
destruction of all the best--that is, the tallest and straightest--
specimens of both; the other, that the thinning of the woods by the axe
of the lumberman has allowed the access of light and heat and air to
trees of humbler worth and lower stature, which have survived their more
towering brethren. These, consequently, have been able to expand their
crowns and swell their stems to a degree not possible so long as they
were overshadowed and stifled by the lordly oak and pine. While,
therefore, the New England forester must search long before he finds a
pine fit to be the mast Of some great ammiral, beeches and elms and
birches, as sturdy as the mightiest of their progenitors, are still no
rarity.

[Footnote: The forest-trees of the Northern States do not attain to
extreme longevity in the dense woods. Dr. Williams found that none of
the huge pines, the age of which he ascertained, exceeded three hundred
and fifty or four hundred years, though he quotes a friend who thought
he had noticed trees considerably older. The oak lives longer than the
pine, and the hemlock-spruce is perhaps equally long lived. A tree of
this latter species, cut within my knowledge in a thick wood, counted
four hundred and eighty-six, or, according to another observer, five
hundred annual circles. Great luxuriance of animal and vegetable
production is not commonly accompanied by long duration of the
individual. The oldest men are not found in the crowded city; and in the
tropics, where life is prolific and precocious, it is also short. The
most ancient forest-trees of which we have accounts have not been those
growing in thick woods, but isolated specimens, with no taller neighbor
to intercept the light and heat and air, and no rival to share the
nutriment afforded by the soil. The more rapid growth and greater
dimensions of trees standing near the boundary of the forest, are
matters of familiar observation. "Long experience has shown that trees
growing on the confines of the wood may be cut at sixty years of age as
advantageously as others of the same species, reared in the depth of the
forest, at a hundred and twenty. We have often remarked, in our Alps,
that the trunk of trees upon the border of a grove is most developed or
enlarged upon the outer or open side, where the branches extend
themselves farthest, while the concentric circles of growth are most
uniform in those entirely surrounded by other trees, or standing
entirely alone."--A. and G. Villa, Necessita dei Boschi pp. 17, 18.]

California fortunately still preserves her magnificent sequoias, which
rise to the height of three hundred feet, and sometimes, as we are
assured, even to three hundred and sixty and four hundred feet, and she
has also pines and cedars of scarcely inferior dimensions. The public
being now convinced of the importance of preserving these colossal
trees, it is very probable that the fear of their total destruction may
prove groundless, and we may still hope that some of them may survive
even till that distant future when the skill of the forester shall have
raised from their seeds a progeny as lofty and as majestic as those
which now exist. [Footnote: California must surrender to Australia the
glory of possessing the tallest trees. According to Dr. Mueller,
Director of the Government Botanic Garden at Melbourne, a Eucalyptus,
near Healesville, measured 480 feet in height. Later accounts speak of
trees of the same species fully 500 feet in height. See Schleiden, Fur
Baum und Wald, p. 21.

If we may credit late reports, the growth of the eucalyptus is so rapid
in California, that the child is perhaps now born who will see the
tallest sequoia overtopped by this new vegetable emigrant from
Australia.]


European and American Trees compared.

The woods of North America are strikingly distinguished from those of
Europe by the vastly greater variety of species they contain. According
to Clave, there are in "France and in most parts of Europe only about
twenty forest-trees, five or six of which are spike-leaved and resinous,
the remainder broad-leaved." [Footnote: Etudes Forestieres, p. 7.] Our
author, however, doubtless means genera, though he uses the word
especes. Rossmassler enumerates fifty-seven species of forest-trees as
found in Germany, but some of these are mere shrubs, some are fruit and
properly garden trees, and some others are only varieties of familiar
species. The valuable manual of Parade describes about the same number,
including, however, two of American origin--the locust, Robinia
pseudacacia, and the Weymouth or white pine, Pinus Strobus--and the
cedar of Lebanon from Asia, which, or at least a very closely allied
species, is indigenous in Algeria also. We may then safely say that
Europe does not possess above forty or fifty native trees of such
economical value as to be worth the special care of the forester, while
the oak alone numbers more than thirty species in the United
States, [Footnote: For full catalogues of American forest-trees, and
remarks on their geographical distribution, consult papers on the
subject by Dr. J. G. Cooper, in the Report of the Smithsonian
Institution for 1858, and the Report of the United States Patent Office,
Agricultural Division, for 1860.] and some other North American genera
are almost equally diversified. [Footnote: Although Spenser's catalogue
of trees occurs in the first canto of the first book of the "Faery
Queene"--the only canto of that exquisite poem actually read by most
students of English literature--it is not so generally familiar as to
make the quotation of it altogether superfluous:

VII.


Enforst to seeke some covert nigh at hand,
A shadic grove not farr away they spide,
That promist ayde the tempest to withstand;
Whose loftie trees, yclad with sommers pride,
Did spred so broad, that heavens light did hide,
Not perceable with power of any starr:
And all within were pathes and alleies wide,
With footing worne, and leading inward farr;
Faire harbour that them seems; so in they entered ar.


VIII.

And foorth they passe, with pleasure forward led,
Joying to heare the birdes sweete harmony.
Which therein shrouded from the tempest dred,
Seemd in their song to scorne the cruell sky.
Much can they praise the trees so straight and hy,
The sayling pine; the cedar stout and tall;
The vine-propp elm; the poplar never dry;
The builder oake, sole king of forrests all;
The aspine good for staves; the cypresse funerall;


IX.

The laurell, meed of mightie conquerours
And poets sage; the firre that weepeth still;
The willow, worne of forlorn paramours;
The eugh, obedient to the benders will;
The birch for shaftes; the sallow for the mill;
The mirrhe sweete-bleeding in the bitter wound;
The warlike beech; the ash for nothing ill;
The fruitfull olive; and the platane round;
The carver holme; the maple seeldom inward sound.

Although the number of SPECIES of American forest-trees is much larger
than of European, yet the distinguishable VARIETIES are relatively more
numerous in the Old World, even in the case of trees not generally
receiving special care. This multiplication of varieties is no doubt a
result, though not a foreseen or intended one, of human action; for the
ordinary operations of European forest economy expose young trees to
different conditions from those presented by nature, and new conditions
produce new forms. All European woods, except in the remote North, even
if not technically artificial forests, acquire a more or less artificial
character from the governing hand of man, and the effect of this
interference is seen in the constant deviation of trees from the
original type. The holly, for example, even when growing as absolutely
wild as any tree can ever grow in countries long occupied by man,
produces numerous varieties, and twenty or thirty such, not to mention
intermediate shades, are described and named as recognizably different,
in treatises on the forest-trees of Europe.]

While the American forest flora has made large contributions to that of
Europe, comparatively few European trees have been naturalized in the
United States, and as a general rule the indigenous trees of Europe do
not succeed well in our climate. The European mountain-ash--which in
beauty, dimensions, and healthfulness of growth is superior to our own
[Footnote: In the Northern Tyrol mountain-ashes fifteen inches in
diameter are not uncommon. The berries are distilled with grain to
flavor the spirit.]--the horse-chestnut, and the abele, or silver
poplar, are valuable additions to the ornamental trees of North America.
The Swiss arve or zirbelkiefer, Pinus cembra, which yields a
well-flavored edible seed and furnishes excellent wood for carving, the
umbrella-pine, [Footnote: The mountain ranges of our extreme West
produce a pine closely resembling the European umbrella-pine.] which
also bears a seed agreeable to the taste, and which, from the color of
its foliage and the beautiful form of its dome-like crown, is among the
most elegant of trees, the white birch of Central Europe, with its
pendulous branches almost rivalling those of the weeping willow in
length, flexibility, and gracefulness of fall, and, especially, the
"cypresse funerall," might be introduced into the United States with
great advantage to the landscape. The European beech and chestnut
furnish timber of far better quality than that of their American
congeners. The fruit of the European chestnut, though inferior to the
American in sweetness and flavor, is larger, and is an important article
of diet among the French and Italian peasantry. The walnut of Europe,
though not equal to some of the American species in beauty of growth or
of wood, or to others in strength and elasticity of fibre, is valuable
for its timber and its oil. [Footnote: The walnut is a more valuable
tree than is generally supposed. It yields one-third of the oil produced
in France, and in this respect occupies an intermediate position between
the olive of the south and the oleaginous seeds of the north. A hectare
(about two and a half acres) will produce nuts to the value of five
hundred francs a year, which cost nothing but the gathering.
Unfortunately, its maturity must be long waited for, and more nut-trees
are felled than planted. The demand for its wood in cabinet-work is the
principal cause of its destruction. See Lavergne, Economie Rurale de la
France, p. 253.

According to Cosimo Ridolfi (Lezioni Orali, ii., p. 424), France obtains
three times as much oil from the walnut as from the olive, and nearly as
much as from all oleaginous seeds together. He states that the walnut
bears nuts at the age of twenty years, and yields its maximum product at
seventy, and that a hectare of ground, with thirty trees, or twelve to
the acre, is equal to a capital of twenty-five hundred francs.

The nut of this tree is known in the United States as the "English
walnut." The fruit and the wood much resemble those of the American
black walnut, Juglans nigra, but for cabinet-work the American is the
more beautiful material, especially when the large knots are employed.
The timber or the European species, when straight-grained, and clear, or
free from knots, is, for ordinary purposes, better than that of the
American black walnut, but bears no comparison with the wood of the
hickory, when strength combined with elasticity is required, and its nut
is very inferior in taste to that of the shagbark, as well as to the
butternut, which it somewhat resembles.

"The chestnut is more valuable still, for it produces on a sterile soil,
which, without it, would yield only ferns and heaths, an abundant
nutriment for man."--Lavergne, Economie Rurale de la France, p. 253.

I believe the varieties developed by cultivation are less numerous in
the walnut than is the chestnut, which latter tree is often grafted in
Southern Europe.

The chestnut crop of France was estimated in 1848 at 3,478,000
hectolitres, or 9,877,520 Winchester bushels, and valued at 13,528,000
francs, or more than two million and a half dollars. In Tuscany the
annual yield is computed at about 550,000 bushels.

The Tuscan peasants think the flour of the dried chestnut not less
nutritious than Indian cornmeal, and it sells at the same price, or
about three cents per English pound, in the mountains, and four cents in
the towns.] The maritime pine, which has proved of such immense use in
fixing drifting sands in France, may perhaps be better adapted to this
purpose than any of the pines of the New World, and it is of great
importance for its turpentine, resin, and tar. The epicea, or common
fir, Abies picea, Abies excelsa, Picea excelsa, abundant in the
mountains of France and the contiguous country, is known for its
product, Burgundy pitch, and, as it flourishes in a greater variety of
soil and climate than almost any other spike-leaved tree, it might be
well worth transplantation. [Footnote: This fir is remarkable for its
tendency to cicatrize or heal over its stumps, a property which it
possesses in common with some other firs, the maritime pine, and the
European larch. When these trees grow in thick clumps, their roots are
apt to unite by a species of natural grafting, and if one of them be
felled, although its own proper rootlets die, the stump may continue,
sometimes for a century, to receive nourishment from the radicles of the
surrounding trees, and a dome of wood and bark of considerable thickness
be formed over it. The healing is, however, only apparent, for the
entire stump, except the outside ring of annual growth, soon dies, and
even decays within its covering, without sending out new shoots. See
Monthly Report, Department of Agriculture, for October, 1872.] The cork
oak has been introduced into California and some other parts of the
United States, I believe, and would undoubtedly thrive in the Southern
section of the Union. [Footnote: At the age of twelve or fifteen years,
the cork-tree is stripped of its outer bark for the first time. This
first yield is of inferior quality, and it employed for floats for nets
and buoys, or burnt for lampblack. After this, a new layer of cork, an
inch or an inch and a quarter in thickness, is formed about one in ten
years, and is removed in large sheets without injury to the tree, which
lives a hundred and fifty years or more. According to Clave (p. 252),
the annual product of a forest of cork oaks is calculated at about 660
kilogrammes, worth 150 frances, to the hectare, which, deducting
expenses, leaves a profit of 100 francs. This is about equal to 250
pound weight, and eight dollars profit to the acre. The cork oaks of the
national domain in Algeria cover about 500,000 acres, and are let to
individuals at rates which are expected, when the whole is rented, to
yield to the state revenue of about $2,000,000.

George Sand, in the Histoire de ma Vie, speaks of the cork-forests in
Southern France as among the most profitable of rural possessions, and
states, what I do not remember to have seen noticed elsewhere, that
Russia is the best customer for cork. The large sheets taken from the
trees are slit into thin plates, and used to line the walls of
apartments in that cold climate. On the cultivation and management of
the cork oak, see Des Incendies et de la culture du Chene-liege, in
Revue das Eaux et Forets for February, 1869.] the walnut, the chestnut,
the cork oak, the mulberry, the olive, the orange, the lemon, the fig,
and the multitude of other trees which, by their fruit, or by other
products, yield an annual revenue, nature has provided Southern Europe
with a partial compensation for the loss of the native forest. It is
true that these trees, planted as most of them are at such distances as
to admit of cultivation, or of the growth of grass among them, are but
an inadequate substitute for the thick and shady wood; but they perform
to a certain extent the same offices of absorption and transpiration,
they shade the surface of the ground, they serve to break the force of
the wind, and on many a steep declivity, many a bleak and barren
hillside, the chestnut binds the soil together with its roots, and
prevents tons of earth and gravel from washing down upon the fields and
the gardens. Fruit-trees are not wanting, certainly, north of the Alps.
The apple, the pear, and the prune are important in the economy both of
man and of nature, but they are far less numerous in Switzerland and
Northern France than are the trees I have mentioned in Southern Europe,
both because they are in general less remunerative, and because the
climate, in higher latitudes, does not permit the free introduction of
shade trees into grounds occupied for agricultural purposes. [Footnote:
The walnut, the chestnut, the apple, and the pear are common to the
border between the countries I have mentioned, but the range of the
other trees is bounded by the Alps, and by a well-defined and sharply
drawn line to the west of those mountains. From some peculiarity in the
sky of Europe, cultivated plants will thrive, in Northern Italy, in
Southern France, and even in Switzerland, under a depth of shade where
no crop, not even grass, worth harvesting, would grow in the United
States with an equally high summer temperature. Hence the cultivation of
all these trees is practicable in Europe to a greater extent than would
be supposed reconcilable with the interests of agriculture. Some idea of
the importance of the olive orchards may be formed from the fact that
Sicily alone, an island scarcely exceeding 10,000 square miles in area,
of which one-third at least is absolutely barren, has exported to the
single port of Marseilles more than 2,000,000 pounds weight olive-oil
per year, for the last thirty years.

According to Cosimo Ridolfi, Lezioni Orali, vol. ii., p. 340, in a
favorable soil and climate the average yield of oil from poorly manured
trees, which compose the great majority, is six English pounds, while
with the best cultivation it rises to twenty-three pounds. The annual
production of olive-oil in the whole of Italy is estimated at upwards of
850,000,000 pounds, and if we allow twelve pounds to the tree, we have
something more than 70,000,000 trees. The real number of trees is,
however, much greater than this estimate, for in Tuscany and many other
parts of Italy the average yield of oil per tree does not exceed two
pounds, and there are many millions of young trees not yet in bearing.
Probably we shall not exaggerate if we estimate the olive trees of Italy
at 100,000,000, and as there are about a hundred trees to the acre, the
quantity of land devoted to the cultivation of the olive may be taken at
a million acres. Although olive-oil is much used in cookery in Italy,
lard is preferred as more nutritious. Much American lard is exported to
South-eastern Italy, and olive-oil is imported in return.] The
multitude of species, intermixed as they are in their spontaneous
growth, gives the American forest landscape a variety of aspect not
often seen in the woods of Europe, and the gorgeous tints, which nature
repeats from the dying dolphin to paint the falling leaf of the American
maples, oaks, and ash trees, clothe the hillsides and fringe the
water-courses with a rainbow splendor of foliage, unsurpassed by the
brightest groupings of the tropical flora. It must be confessed,
however, that both the northern and the southern declivities of the Alps
exhibit a nearer approximation to this rich and multifarious coloring of
autumnal vegetation than most American travellers in Europe are willing
to allow; and, besides, the small deciduous shrubs which often carpet
the forest-glades of these mountains are dyed with a ruddy and orange
glow, which, in the distant landscape, is no mean substitute for the
scarlet and crimson and gold and amber of the transatlantic woodland.
[Footnote: The most gorgeous autumnal coloring I have observed in the
vegetation of Europe has been in the valleys of the Durance and its
tributaries in Dauphiny. I must admit that neither in variety nor in
purity and brilliancy of tint, does this coloring fall much, if at all,
short of that of the New England woods. But there is this difference: in
Dauphiny, it is only in small shrubs that this rich painting is seen,
while in North America the foliage of large trees is dyed in full
splendor. Hence the American woodland has fewer broken lights and more
of what painters call breadth of coloring. Besides this, the arrangement
of the leafage in large globular or conical masses, affords a wider
scale of light and shade, thus aiding now the gradation now the contrast
of tints, and gives the American October landscape a softer and more
harmonious tone than marks the humble shrubbery of the forest hillsides
of Dauphiny.

Thoreau--who was not, like some very celebrated landscape critics of the
present day, an outside spectator of the action and products of natural
forces, but, in the old religious sense, an OBSERVER of organic nature,
living, more than almost any other descriptive writer, among and with
her children--had a very eloquent paper on the "Autumnal Tints" of the
New England landscape.--See his Excursions, pp. 215 et seqq.

Few men have personally noticed so many facts in natural history
accessible to unscientific observation as Thoreau, and yet he had never
seen that very common and striking spectacle, the phosphorescence of
decaying wood, until, in the latter years of his life, it caught his
attention in a bivouac in the forests of Maine. He seems to have been
more excited by this phenomenon than by any other described in his
works. It must be a capacious eye that takes in all the visible facts in
the history of the most familiar natural object.--The Maine Woods, p.
184.]

I admit, though not without reluctance, that the forest-trees of Central
and Southern Europe have a great advantage over our own in the
corresponding latitudes, in density of foliage as well as in depth of
color and persistence of the leaves in deciduous species. An American,
who, after a long absence from the United States, returns in the full
height of summer, is painfully surprised at the thinness and poverty of
the leafage even of the trees which he had habitually regarded as
specially umbrageous, and he must wait for the autumnal frosts before he
can recover his partiality for the glories of his native woods.

None of our north-eastern evergreens resemble the umbrella pine
sufficiently to be a fair object of comparison with it. A cedar, very
common above the Highlands on the Hudson, and elsewhere, is extremely
like the cypress, straight, slender, with erect, compressed
ramification, and feathered to the ground, but its foliage is neither so
dark nor so dense, the tree does not attain the majestic height of the
cypress, nor has it the lithe flexibility of that tree. [Footnote: The
cold winter, or rather spring, of 1872 proved fatal to many cypresses as
well as olive trees in the Val d'Arno. The cypress, therefore, could be
introduced only into California and our Southern States.] In mere shape,
the Lombardy poplar nearly resembles this latter, but it is almost a
profanation to compare the two, especially when they are agitated by the
wind; for under such circumstances, the one is the most majestic, the
other the most ungraceful, or--if I may apply such an expression to
anything but human affectation of movement--the most awkward of trees.
The poplar trembles before the blast, flutters, struggles wildly,
dishevels its foliage, gropes around with its feeble branches, and
hisses as in impotent passion. The cypress gathers its limbs still more
closely to its stem, bows a gracious salute rather than an humble
obeisance to the tempest, bends to the wind with an elasticity that
assures you of its prompt return to its regal attitude, and sends from
its thick leaflets a murmur like the roar of the far-off ocean.

The cypress and the umbrella-pine are not merely conventional types of
the Italian landscape. They are essential elements in a field of rural
beauty which can be seen in perfection only in the basin of the
Mediterranean, and they are as characteristic of this class of scenery
as is the date-palm of the oases of the Eastern desert. There is
however, this difference: a single cypress or pine is often enough to
shed beauty over a wide area; the palm is a social tree, and its beauty
is not so much that of the individual as of the group. [Footnote:
European poets, whose knowledge of the date-palm is not founded on
personal observation, often describe its trunk as not only slender, but
particularly STRAIGHT. Nothing can be farther from the truth. When the
Orientals compare the form of a beautiful girl to the stem of the palm,
they do not represent it as rigidly straight, but on the contrary as
made up of graceful curves, which seem less like permanent outlines than
like flowing motion. In a palm grove, the trunks, so far from standing
planted upright like the candles of a chandelier, bend in a vast variety
of curves, now leaning towards, now diverging from, now crossing, each
other, and among a hundred you will hardly see two whose axes are
parallel.] The frequency of the cypress and the pine--combined with the
fact that the other trees of Southern Europe which most interest a
stranger from the north, the orange and the lemon, the cork oak, the
ilex, the myrtle, and the laurel, are evergreens--goes far to explain
the beauty of the winter scenery of Italy. Indeed, it is only in the
winter that a tourist who confines himself to wheel-carriages and high
roads can acquire any notion of the face of the earth, and form any
proper geographical image of that country. At other seasons, not high
walls only, but equally impervious hedges, and now, unhappily, acacias
thickly planted along the railway routes, confine the view so
completely, that the arch of a tunnel, or a night-cap over the
traveller's eyes, is scarcely a more effectual obstacle to the
gratification of his curiosity. [Footnote: Besides this, in a country so
diversified in surface as Italy, with the exception of the champaign
region drained by the Po, every new field of view requires either an
extraordinary coup d'oeil in the spectator, or a long study, in order to
master its relief, its plans, its salient and retreating angles. In
summer, except of course in the bare mountains, the universal greenery
confounds light and shade, distance and foreground; and though the
impression upon a traveller, who journeys for the sake of "sensations,"
may be strengthened by the mysterious annihilation of all standards for
the measurement of space, yet the superior intelligibility of the winter
scenery of Italy is more profitable to those who see with a view to
analyze.]


The Forest does not furnish Food for Man.

In a region absolutely covered with trees, human life could not long be
sustained, for want of animal and vegetable food. The depths of the
forest seldom furnish either bulb or fruit suited to the nourishment of
man; and the fowls and beasts on which he feeds are scarcely seen except
upon the margin of the wood, for here only grow the shrubs and grasses,
and here only are found the seeds and insects, which form the sustenance
of the non-carnivorous birds and quadrupeds. [Footnote: Clave, as well as
many earlier writers, supposes that primitive man derived his nutriment
from the spontaneous productions of the wood. "It is to the forests,"
says he, "that man was first indebted for the means of subsistence.
Exposed alone, without defence, to the rigor of the seasons, as well as
to the attacks of animals stronger and swifter than himself, he found in
them his first shelter, drew from them his first weapons. In the first
period of humanity, they provided for all his wants: they furnished him
wood for warmth, fruits for food, garments to cover his nakedness, arms
for his defence."--Etudes sur l'Economie Forestiere, p. 13.

But the history of savage life, as far as it is known to us, presents
man in that condition as inhabiting only the borders of the forest and
the open grounds that skirt the waters and the woods, and as finding
only there the aliments which make up his daily bread. The villages of
the North American Indians were upon the shores of rivers and lakes, and
their weapons and other relics are found only in the narrow open grounds
which they had burned over and cultivated, or in the margin of the woods
around their hamlets.

Except upon the banks of rivers or of lakes, the woods of the interior
of North America, far from the habitations of man, are almost destitute
of animal life. Dr. Newberry, describing the vast forests of the yellow
pine of the West, Pinus ponderosa, remarks: "In the arid and desert
regions of the interior basin, we made whole days' marches in forests of
yellow pine, of which neither the monotony was broken by other forms of
vegetation, nor its stillness by the flutter of a bird or the hum of an
insect."--Pacific Railroad Report, vol. vi., 1857. Dr. Newberry's Report
on Botany, p. 37.

Cheadle and Milton's North-west Passage confirms these statements.
Valvasor says, in a paragraph already quoted, "In my many journeys
through this valley, I did never have sight of so much as a single
bird."

The wild fruit and nut trees, the Canada plum, the cherries, the many
species of walnut, the butternut, the hazel, yield very little,
frequently nothing, so long as they grow in the woods; and it is only
when the trees around them are cut down, or when they grow in pastures,
that they become productive. The berries, too--the strawberry, the
blackberry, the raspberry, the whortleberry, scarcely bear fruit at all
except in cleared ground.

The rank forests of the tropics are as unproductive of human aliment as
the less luxuriant woods of the temperate zone. In Strain's unfortunate
expedition across the great American isthmus, where the journey lay
principally through thick woods, several of the party died of
starvation, and for many days the survivors were forced to subsist on
the scantiest supplies of unnutritious vegetables perhaps never before
employed for food by man. See the interesting account of that expedition
in Harper's Magazine for March, April, and May, 1855.]


First Removal of the Forest.

When multiplying man had filled the open grounds along the margin of the
rivers, the lakes, and the sea, and sufficiently peopled the natural
meadows and savannas of the interior, where such existed, he could find
room for expansion and further growth only by the removal of a portion
of the forest that hemmed him in. The destruction of the woods, then,
was man's first geographical conquest, his first violation of the
harmonies of inanimate nature.

Primitive man had little occasion to fell trees for fuel, or for the
construction of dwellings, boats, and the implements of his rude
agriculture and handicrafts. Windfalls would furnish a thin population
with a sufficient supply of such material, and if occasionally a growing
tree was cut, the injury to the forest would be too insignificant to be
at all appreciable.

The accidental escape and spread of fire or possibly, the combustion of
forests by lightning, must have first suggested the advantages to be
derived from the removal of too abundant and extensive woods, and at the
same time, have pointed out a means by which a large tract of surface
could readily be cleared of much of this natural incumbrance. As soon as
agriculture had commenced at all, it would be observed that the growth
of cultivated plants, as well as of many species of wild vegetation, was
particularly rapid and luxuriant on soils which had been burned over,
and thus a new stimulus would be given to the practice of destroying the
woods by fire, as a means of both extending the open grounds, and making
the acquisition of a yet more productive soil. After a few harvests had
exhausted the first rank fertility of this virgin mould, or when weeds
and briers and the sprouting roots of the trees had begun to choke the
crops of the half-subdued soil, the ground would be abandoned for new
fields won from the forest by the same means, and the deserted plain or
hillock would soon clothe itself anew with shrubs and trees, to be again
subjected to the same destructive process, and again surrendered to the
restorative powers of vegetable nature. [Footnote: In many parts of the
North American States, the first white settlers found extensive tracts
of thin woods, of a very park-like character, called "oak-openings,"
from the predominance of different species of that tree upon them. These
were the semi-artificial pasture-grounds of the Indians, brought into
that state, and so kept, by partial clearing, and by the annual burning
of the grass. The object of this operation was to attract the deer to
the fresh herbage which sprang up after the fire. The oaks bore the
annual scorching at least for a certain time; but if it had been
indefinitely continued, they would very probably have been destroyed at
last. The soil would have then been much in the prairie condition, and
would have needed nothing but grazing for a long succession of years to
make the resemblance perfect. That the annual fires alone occasioned the
peculiar character of the oak-openings, is proved by the fact that as
soon as the Indians had left the country, young trees of many species
sprang up and grew luxuriantly upon them. See a very interesting account
of the oak-openings in Dwight s Travels, iv., pp. 58-63. This rude
economy would be continued for generations, and, wasteful as it is, is
still largely pursued in Northern Sweden, Swedish Lapland, and sometimes
even in France and the United States. [Footnote: The practice of burning
over woodland, at once to clear and manure the ground, is called in
Swedieh svedjande, a participial noun from the verb att svedja, to burn
over. Though used in Sweden as a preparation for crops of rye or other
grain, it is employed in Lapland more frequently to secure an abundant
growth of pasturage, which follows in two or three years after the fire;
and it is sometimes resorted to as a mode of driving the Laplanders and
their reindeer from the vicinity of the Swedish backwoodsman's
grass-grounds and hay-stacks, to which they are dangerous neighbors. The
forest, indeed, rapidly recovers itself, but it is a generation or more
before the reindeer-moss grows again. When the forest consists of pine,
tall, the ground, instead of being rendered fertile by this process,
becomes hopelessly barren, and for a long time afterwards produces
nothing but weeds and briers.--Laestadius, Om Uppodlingar i Lappmarken,
p. 15. See also Schubert, Resa i Sverge, ii., p. 375.

In some parts of France this practice is so general that Clave says: "In
the department of Ardennes it (le sartage) is the basis of agriculture."]


Principal Causes of the Destruction of the Forest.

The needs of agriculture are the most familiar cause of the destruction
of the forest in new countries; for not only does an increasing
population demand additional acres to grow the vegetables which feed it
and its domestic animals, but the slovenly husbandry of the border
settler soon exhausts the luxuriance of his first fields, and compels
him to remove his household gods to a fresher soil. The extent of
cleared ground required for agricultural use depends very much on the
number and kinds of the cattle bred. We have seen, in a former chapter,
that, in the United States, the domestic quadrupeds amount to more than
a hundred millions, or nearly three times the number of the human
population of the Union. In many of the Western States, the swine
subsist more or less on acorns, nuts, and other products of the woods,
and the prairies, or natural meadows of the Mississippi valley, yield a
large amount of food for beast, as well as for man. With these
exceptions, all this vast army of quadrupeds is fed wholly on grass,
grain, pulse, and roots grown on soil reclaimed from the forest by
European settlers. It is true that the flesh of domestic quadrupeds
enters very largely into the aliment of the American people, and greatly
reduces the quantity of vegetable nutriment which they would otherwise
consume, so that a smaller amount of agricultural product is required
for immediate human food, and, of course, a smaller extent of cleared
land is needed for the growth of that product, than if no domestic
animals existed. But the flesh of the horse, the ass, and the mule is
not consumed by man, and the sheep is reared rather for its fleece than
for food. Besides this, the ground required to produce the grass and
grain consumed in rearing and fattening a grazing quadruped, would yield
a far larger amount of nutriment, if devoted to the growing of
breadstuffs, than is furnished by his flesh; and, upon the whole,
whatever advantages may be reaped from the breeding of domestic cattle,
it is plain that the cleared land devoted to their sustenance in the
originally wooded part of the United States, after deducting a quantity
sufficient to produce an amount of aliment equal to their flesh, still
greatly exceeds that cultivated for vegetables, directly consumed by the
people of the same regions; or, to express a nearly equivalent idea in
other words, the meadow and the pasture, taken together, much exceed the
ploughland. [Footnote: The two ideas expressed in the text are not
exactly equivalent, because, though the consumption of animal food
diminishes the amount of vegetable aliment required for human use, yet
the animals themselves consume a great quantity of grain and roots grown
on ground ploughed and cultivated as regularly and as laboriously as any
other.

The 280,000,000 bushels of oats raised in the United States in 1870, and
fed to the 7,000,000 horses, the potatoes, the turnips, and the maize
employed in fattening the oxen, the sheep, and the swine slaughtered the
same year, occupied an extent of ground which, cultivated by hand-labor
and with Chinese industry and skill, would probably have produced a
quantity of vegetable food equal in alimentary power to the flesh of the
quadrupeds killed for domestic use. Hence, so far as the naked question
of AMOUNT of aliment is concerned, the meadows and the pastures might as
well have remained in the forest condition. It must, however, be borne
in mind that animal labor, if not a necessary, is probably an
economical, force in agricultural occupations, and that without animal
manure many branches of husbandry could hardly be carried on at all. At
the same time, the introduction of machinery into rural industry, and of
artificial, mineral, and fossil manures, is working great revolutions,
and we may find at some future day that the ox is no longer necessary as
a help to the farmer.]

Governments and military commanders have at different periods
deliberately destroyed forests by fire or the axe, because they afforded
a retreat to robbers, outlaws, or enemies, and this was one of the
hostile measures practised by both Julius Caesar and the Gauls in the
Roman war of conquest against that people. It was also resorted to in
the Mediterranean provinces of France, then much infested by robbers and
deserters, as late as the reign of Napoleon I., and is said to have been
employed by the early American colonists in their exterminating wars
with the native Indians. [Footnote: For many instances of this sort, see
Maury, Les Forets de la Gaule, pp. 3-5, and Becquerel, Des Climats,
etc., pp. 301-303. In 1664 the Swedes made an incursion into Jutland and
felled a considerable extent of forest. After they retired, a survey of
the damage was had, and the report is still extant. The number of trees
cut was found to be 120,000, and as an account was taken of the numbers
of each species of tree, the document is of much interest in the history
of the forest, as showing the relative proportions between the different
trees which at that time composed the wood. See Vaupell, Bogens
Indvandring, p. 35, and Notes, p. 55.]

In the Middle Ages, as well as in earlier and later centuries, attempts
have been made to protect the woods by law, [Footnote: Stanley, quoting
Selden, De Jure Naturali, lib. vi., and Fabricius, Cod. Psedap., V. T.,
i. 874, mentions a noteworthy Hebrew tradition of uncertain date, but
unquestionably very ancient, which is one of the oldest proofs of a
public respect for the woods.

"A Hebrew tradition attributes to Joshua ten statutes, containing
precise regulations for the protection of the property of every tribe
and of every head of a family against irregular depredations. Small
quadrupeds were allowed to pasture in dense woods, not in thin ones; but
no animal could feed in any forest without the consent of the proprietor
of the soil. Every Hebrew might pick up fallen boughs and twigs, but was
not permitted to cut them. Trees might be pruned for the trimmings, with
the exception of the olive and other fruit-trees, and provided there was
sufficient shade in the place."--Lectures on the History of the Jewish
Church, part i., p. 271.

Alfred Maury mentions several provisions taken from the laws of the
Indian legislator Manu, on the same subject.--Les Forets de la Gaule, p.
9.

The very ancient Tables of Heracles contain provisions for the
protection of woods, but whether these referred only to sacred groves,
to public forests, or to leased lands, is not clear.] as necessary for
the breeding of deer, wild boars, and other game, or for the more
reasonable purpose of furnishing a supply of building timber and fuel
for future generations. It was reserved for more advanced ages to
appreciate the geographical importance of the woods, and it is only in
the most recent times, only in a few countries of Europe, that the
general destruction of the forests has been recognized as the most
potent among the many causes of the physical deterioration of the earth.
[Footnote: We must perhaps make an exception in favor of the Emperor
Constantine, who commenced the magnificent series of aqueducts and
cisterns which still supply Constantinople with water, and enacted
strict laws for the protection of the forest of Belgrade, in which rise
the springs that feed the aqueducts. See an article by Mr. H. A. Homes
on the Water-Supply of Constantinople in the Albany Argus of June 6,
1872.]


Royal Forests and Game Laws.

The French authors I have quoted, as well as many other writers of the
same nation, refer to the French Revolution as having given a new
impulse to destructive causes which were already threatening the total
extermination of the woods. [Footnote: Religious intolerance had
produced similar effects in France at an earlier period. "The revocation
of the edict of Nantes and the dragonnades occasioned the sale of the
forests of the unhappy Protestants, who fled to seek in foreign lands
the liberty of conscience which was refused to them in France. The
forests were soon felled by the purchasers, and the soil in part brought
under cultivation."--Becquerel, Des Climats, etc, p. 303.] The general
crusade against the forests, which accompanied that important event, is
to be ascribed, in a considerable degree, to political resentments. The
forest codes of the mediaeval kings, and the local "coutumes" of
feudalism, contained many severe and even inhuman provisions, adopted
rather for the preservation of game than from any enlightened views of
the more important functions of the woods. Ordericus Vitalis informs us
that William the Conqueror destroyed sixty parishes and drove out their
inhabitants, in order that he might turn their lands into a forest,
[Footnote: The American reader must be reminded that, in the language of
the chase and of the English law, a "forest" is not necessarily a wood.
Any large extent of ground, withdrawn from cultivation, reserved for the
pleasures of the chase, and allowed to clothe itself with a spontaneous
growth, serving as what is technically called "cover" for wild animals,
is, in the dialects I have mentioned, a forest. When, therefore, the
Norman kings afforested the grounds referred to in the text, it is not
to be supposed that they planted them with trees, though the protection
afforded to them by the game laws would, if cattle had been kept out,
soon have converted them into real woods.] to be reserved as a
hunting-ground for himself and his posterity, and he punished with death
the killing of a deer, wild boar, or even a hare. His successor, William
Rufus, according to the Histoire des Ducs de Normandie et des Rois
d'Angleterre, p. 67, "was hunting one day in a new forest, which he had
caused to be made out of eighteen parishes that he had destroyed, when,
by mischance, he was killed by an arrow wherewith Tyreus de Rois [Sir
Walter Tyrell] thought to slay a beast, but missed the beast, and slew
the king, who was beyond it. And in this very same forest, his brother
Richard ran so hard against a tree that he died of it. And men commonly
said that these things were because they had so laid waste and taken the
said parishes."

These barbarous acts, as Bonnemere observes, [Footnote: Histoire des
Paysans, ii., p. 190. The work of Bonnemere is of great value to those
who study the history of mediaeval Europe from a desire to know its real
character, and not in the hope of finding apparent facts to sustain a
false and dangerous theory. Bonnemere is one of the few writers who,
like Michelet, have been honest enough and bold enough to speak the
truth with regard to the relations between the church and the people in
the Middle Ages.] were simply the transfer of the customs of the French
kings, of their vassals, and even of inferior gentlemen, to conquered
England. "The death of a hare," says our author, "was a hanging matter,
the murder of a plover a capital crime. Death was inflicted on those who
spread nets for pigeons; wretches who had drawn a bow upon a stag were
to be tied to the animal alive; and among the seigniors it was a
standing excuse for having killed game on forbidden ground, that they
aimed at a serf." The feudal lords enforced these codes with unrelenting
rigor, and not unfrequently took the law into their own hands. In the
time of Louis IX., according to William of Nangis, "three noble
children, born in Flanders, who were sojourning at the abbey of St.
Nicholas in the Wood, to learn the speech of France, went out into the
forest of the abbey, with their bows and iron-headed arrows, to disport
them in shooting hares, chased the game, which they had started in the
wood of the abbey, into the forest of Enguerrand, lord of Coucy, and
were taken by the sergeants which kept the wood. When the fell and
pitiless Sir Enguerrand knew this, he had the children straightway
hanged without any manner of trial." [Footnote: It is painful to add
that a similar outrage was perpetrated a very few years ago, in one of
the European states, by a prince of a family now dethroned. In this
case, however, the prince killed the trespasser with his own hand, his
sergeants refusing to execute his mandate.] The matter being brought to
the notice of good King Louis, Sir Enguerrand was summoned to appear,
and, finally, after many feudal shifts and dilatory pleas, brought to
trial before Louis himself and a special council. Notwithstanding the
opposition of the other seigniors, who, it is needless to say, spared no
efforts to save a peer, probably not a greater criminal than themselves,
the king was much inclined to inflict the punishment of death on the
proud baron. "If he believed," said he, "that our Lord would be as well
content with hanging as with pardoning, he would hang Sir Enguerrand in
spite of all his barons;" but noble and clerical interests unfortunately
prevailed. The king was persuaded to inflict a milder retribution, and
the murderer was condemned to pay ten thousand livres in coin, and to
"build for the souls of the three children two chapels wherein mass
should be said every day." [Footnote: Guillame De Nangis, as quoted in
the notes to Joinville, Nouvelle Collection des Memoires, etc., par
Michaud et Poujoulat, premiere serie, i., p. 335. Persons acquainted
with the character and influence of the mediaeval clergy will hardly
need to be informed that the ten thousand livres never found their way
to the royal exchequer. It was easy to prove to the simple-minded king
that, as the profits of sin were a monopoly of the church, he ought not
to derive advantage from the commission of a crime by one of his
subjects; and the priests were cunning enough both to secure to
themselves the amount of the fine, and to extort from Louis large
additional grants to carry out the purposes to which they devoted the
money. "And though the king did take the moneys," says the chronicler,
"he put them not into his treasury, but turned them into good works; for
he builded therewith the maison-Dieu of Pontoise, and endowed the same
with rents and lands; also the schools and the dormitory of the friars
preachers of Paris, and the monastery of the Minorite friars."] The hope
of shortening the purgatorial term of the young persons, by the
religious rites to be celebrated in the chapels, was doubtless the
consideration which operated most powerfully on the mind of the king;
and Europe lost a great example for the sake of a mass.

The desolation and depopulation, resulting from the extension of the
forest and the enforcement of the game laws, induced several of the
French kings to consent to some relaxation of the severity of these
latter. Francis I., however, revived their barbarous provisions, and,
according to Bonnemere, even so good a monarch as Henry IV. re-enacted
them, and "signed the sentence of death upon peasants guilty of having
defended their fields against devastation by wild beasts." "A fine of
twenty livres," he continues, "was imposed on every one shooting at
pigeons, which, at that time, swooped down by thousands upon the
new-sown fields and devoured the seed. But let us count even this a
progress, for we have seen that the murder of a pigeon had been a
capital crime." [Footnote: Histoire des Paysans, ii., p. 200.]

Not only were the slightest trespasses on the forest domain--the cutting
of an oxgoad, for instance--severely punished, but game animals were
still sacred when they had wandered from their native precincts and were
ravaging the fields of the peasantry. A herd of deer or of wild boars
often consumed or trod down a harvest of grain, the sole hope of the
year for a whole family; and the simple driving out of such animals from
this costly pasturage brought dire vengeance on the head of the rustic,
who had endeavored to save his children's bread from their voracity. "At
all times," says Paul Louis Courier, speaking in the name of the
peasants of Chambord, in the "Simple Discours," "the game has made war
upon us. Paris was blockaded eight hundred years by the deer, and its
environs, now so rich, so fertile, did not yield bread enough to support
the gamekeepers." [Footnote: The following details from Bonnemere will
serve to give a more complete idea of the vexatious and irritating
nature of the game laws of France. The officers of the chase went so far
as to forbid the pulling up of thistles and weeds, or the mowing of any
unenclosed ground before St. John's day (24th June), in order that the
nests of game birds might not be disturbed. It was unlawful to fence-in
any grounds in the plains where royal residences were situated; thorns
were ordered to be planted in all fields of wheat, barley, or oats, to
prevent the use of ground-nets for catching the birds which consumed, or
were believed to consume, the grain, and it was forbidden to cut or pull
stubble before the first of October, lest the partridge and the quail
might be deprived of their cover. For destroying the eggs of the quail,
a fine of one hundred livres was imposed for the first offence, double
that amount for the second, and for the third the culprit was flogged
and banished for five years to a distance of six leagues from the
forest.--Histoire des Paysans, ii., p. 202, text and notes.

Neither these severe penalties, nor any provisions devised by the
ingenuity of modern legislation, have been able effectually to repress
poaching. "The game laws," says Clave, "have not delivered us from the
poachers, who kill twenty times as much game as the sportsmen. In the
forest of Fontainebleau, as in all those belonging to the state,
poaching is a very common and a very profitable offence. It is in vain
that the gamekeepers are on the alert night and day, they cannot prevent
it. Those who follow the trade begin by carefully studying the habits of
the game. They will lie motionless on the ground, by the roadside or in
thickets, for whole days, watching the paths most frequented by the
animals," etc.--Revue des Deux Mondes, Mai, 1863, p. 160.

The writer adds many details on this subject, and it appears that, as
there are "beggars on horseback" in South America, there are poachers in
carriages in France.] The Tiers Etat declared, in 1789, "the most
terrible scourge of agriculture is the abundance of wild game, a
consequence of the privileges of the chase; the fields are wasted, the
forests ruined, and the vines gnawed down to the roots."


Effects of the French Revolution.

The abrogation of the game laws and of the harsh provisions of the
forestal code was one of the earliest measures of the revolutionary
government; and the removal of the ancient restrictions on the chase and
of the severe penalties imposed on trespassers upon the public forests,
was immediately followed by unbridled license in the enjoyment of the
newly conceded rights.

In the popular mind the forest was associated with all the abuses of
feudalism, and the evils the peasantry had suffered from the legislation
which protected both it and the game it sheltered, blinded them to the
still greater physical mischiefs which its destruction was to entail
upon them. No longer under the safeguard of the law, the crown forests
and those of the great lords were attacked with relentless fury,
unscrupulously plundered and wantonly laid waste, and even the rights of
property in small private woods ceased to be respected. [Footnote:
"Whole trees were sacrificed for the most insignificant purposes; the
peasants would cut down two firs to make a single pair of wooden
shoes."--Michelet, as quoted by Clave. Etudes, p. 24.

A similar wastefulness formerly prevailed in Russia, though not from the
same cause. In St. Pierre's time, the planks brought to St. Petersburg
were not sawn, but hewn with the axe, and a tree furnished but a single
plank.] Various absurd theories, some of which are not even yet
exploded, were propagated with regard to the economical advantages of
converting the forest into pasture and plough-land, the injurious
effects of the woods upon climate, health, facility of internal
communication, and the like. Thus resentful memory of the wrongs
associated with the forest, popular ignorance, and the cupidity of
speculators cunning enough to turn these circumstances to profitable
account, combined to hasten the sacrifice of the remaining woods, and a
waste was produced which hundreds of years and millions of treasure will
hardly repair.

In the era of savage anarchy which followed the beneficent reforms of
1789, economical science was neglected, and statistical details upon the
amount of the destruction of woods during that period are wanting. But
it is known to have been almost incalculably rapid, and the climatic and
financial evils, which elsewhere have been a more gradual effect of this
cause, began to make themselves felt in France within three or four
years after that memorable epoch. [Footnote: See Becquerel, Memoire sur
les Forets, in the Mem. de l'Academie des Sciences, c. XXXV., p. 411 et
seqq.

Similar circumstances produced a like result, though on a far smaller
scale, in Italy, at a very recent period. Gallenga says: "The
destruction of the majestic timber [between the Vals Sesia and Sessera]
dates no farther back than 1848, when, on the first proclamation of the
Constitution, the ignorant boor had taken it for granted that all the
old social ties would be loosened, and therefore the old forest-laws
should be at once set at naught."--Country Life in Piedmont, p. 136.]


Increased Demand for Lumber.

With increasing population and the development of new industries, come
new drains upon the forest from the many arts for which wood is the
material. The demands of the near and the distant market for this
product excite the cupidity of the hardy forester, and a few years of
that wild industry of which Springer's "Forest Life and Forest Trees" so
vividly depicts the dangers and the triumphs, suffice to rob the most
inaccessible glens of their fairest ornaments. The value of timber
increases with its dimensions in almost geometrical proportion, and the
tallest, most vigorous, and most symmetrical trees fall the first
sacrifice. This is a fortunate circuinritiinco for the remainder of the
wood; for the impatient lumberman contents himself with felling a few of
the best trees, and then hurries on to take his tithe of still virgin
groves.

The vast extension of railroads, of manufactures and the mechanical
arts, of military armaments, and especially of the commercial fleets and
navies of Christendom, within the present century, has incredibly
augmented the demand for wood, [Footnote: Let us take the supply of
timber for railroad-ties. According to Clave (p. 248), France had, in
1862, 9,000 kilometres of railway in operation, 7,000 in construction,
half of which is built with a double track. Adding turn-outs and extra
tracks at stations, the number of ties required for a single track is
stated at 1,200 to the kilometre, or, as Clave computes, for the entire
network of France, 58,000,000. This number is too large, for 16,000 +
8,000 for the double track halfway = 24,000, and 24,000 x 1,200 =
28,800,000. In an article in the Revue des Deux Mondes, July, 1863,
Gandy states that 2,000,000 trees had been felled to furnish the ties
for the French railroads, and as the ties must be occasionally renewed,
and new railways have been constructed since 1863, we may probably
double this number.

The United States had in operation on the first of January, 1872, 61,000
miles, or about 97,000 kilometres, of railroad. Allowing the same
proportion as in France, the American railroads required 116,400,000
ties. The Report of the Agricultural Department of the United States for
November and December, 1869, estimates the number of ties annually
required for our railways at 30,000,000, and supposes that 150,000 acres
of the best woodland must be felled to supply this number. This is
evidently an error, perhaps a misprint for 15,000. The same authority
calculates the annual expenditure of the American railroads for lumber
for buildings, repairs, and cars, at $38,000,000, and for locomotive
fuel, at the rate of 10,000 cords of wood per day, at $50,000,000.

The walnut trees cut in Italy and France to furnish gunstocks to the
American army, during our late civil war, would alone have formed a
considerable forest. A single establishment in Northern Italy used
twenty-eight thousand large walnut trees for that purpose in the years
1862 and 1863.

The consumption of wood for lucifer matches is enormous, and I have
heard of several instances where tracts of pine forest, hundreds and
even thousands of acres in extent, have been purchased and felled,
solely to supply timber for this purpose. The United States government
tax, at one cent per hundred, produces $2,000,000 per year, which shows
a manufacture of 20,000,000,000 matches. Allowing nothing for waste,
there are about fifty matches to the cubic inch of wood, or 86,400 to
the cubic foot, making in all upwards of 230,000 cubic feet, and, as
only straight-grained wood, free from knots, can be used for this
purpose, the sacrifice of not less than three or four thousand
well-grown pines is required for this purpose.

If we add to all this the supply of wood for telegraph-posts, wooden
pavements, wooden wall tapestry-paper, shoe-pegs, and even wooden nails,
which have lately come into use--not to speak of numerous other recent
applications of this material which American ingenuity has devised--we
have an amount of consumption, for entirely new purposes, which is
really appalling.

Wooden field and garden fences are very generally used in America, and
some have estimated the consumption of wood for this purpose as not less
than that for architectural uses.

Fully one-half our vast population is lodged in wooden houses, and barns
and country out-houses of all descriptions are almost universally of the
same material.

The consumption of wood in the United States as fuel for domestic
purposes, for charcoal, for brick and lime kilns, for breweries and
distilleries, for steamboats, and many other uses, defies computation,
and is vastly greater than is employed in Europe for the same ends. For
instance, in rural Switzerland, cold as is the winter climate, the whole
supply of wood for domestic fires, dairies, breweries, distilleries,
brick and lime kilns, fences, furniture, tools, and even house-building
and small smitheries, exclusive of the small quantity derived from the
trimmings of fruit-trees, grape-vines, and hedges, and from decayed
fences and buildings, does not exceed TWO HUNDRED AND THIRTY CUBIC FEET,
or less than two cords a year, per household.--See Bericht uber die
Untersuchung der Schweiz Hochgebirgswaldungen, pp. 85-89. In 1789,
Arthur Young estimated the annual consumption of firewood by single
families in France at from two and a half to ten Paris cords of 134
cubic feet.--Travels, vol. ii., chap. xv.

The report of the Commissioners on the Forests of Wisconsin, 1867,
allows three cords of wood to each person for household fires alone.
Taking families at an average of five persons, we have eight times the
amount consumed by an equal number of persons in Switzerland for this
and all other purposes to which this material in ordinarily applicable.
I do not think the consumption in the North-eastern States is at all
less than the calculation for Wisconsin. Evergreen trees are often
destroyed in immense numbers in the United States for the purpose of
decoration of churches and on other festive occasions. The New York city
papers reported that 113,000 young evergreen trees, besides 20,000 yards
of small branches twirled into festoons, were sold in the markets of
that city, for this use, at Christmas, in 1869. At the Cincinnati
Industrial Exhibition of 1873, three miles of evergreen festoons were
hung upon the beams and rafters of the "Floral Hall."

Important statistics on the consumption and supply of wood in the United
States will be found in a valuable paper by the Rev. Frederick Starr,
Jr., in the Transactions of the Agricultural Society for--.

Of course, there is a vast consumption of ligneous material for all
these uses in Europe, but it is greatly less than at earlier periods.
The waste of wood in European carpentry was formerly enormous, the beams
of houses being both larger and more numerous than permanence or
stability required. In examining the construction of the houses occupied
by the eighty families which inhabit the village of Faucigny, in Savoy,
in 1854, the forest inspector found that FIFTY THOUSAND trees had been
employed in building them. The builders "seemed," says Hudry-Menos, "to
have tried to solve the problem of piling upon the walls the largest
quantity of timber possible without crushing them."--Revue des Deux
Mondes, 1st June, 1864, p. 601.

European statistics present comparatively few facts on this subject, of
special interest to American readers, but it is worth noting that France
employs 1,500,000 cubic feet of oak per year for brandy and wine casks,
which is about half her annual consumption of that material; and it is
not a wholly insignificant fact that, according to Rentzach, the
quantity of wood used in parts of Germany for small carvings and for
children's toys is so largs, that the export of such objects from the
town of Sonneberg alone, amounted, in 1853, to 60,000 centner, or three
thousand tons' weight.--Der Wald, p. 68.

In an article in the Revue des Eaux et Forets for November, 1868, it is
stated that 200,000 dozens of drums for boys aro manufactured per month
in Paris. This is equivalent to 28,800,000 per year, for which
56,000,000 drumsticks are required, and the writer supposes that the
annual growth of 50,000 acres of woodland would not more than supply the
material. In the same article the consumption of matches in France is
given at 7,200,000,000, and the quantity of lumber annually required for
this manufacture is computed at 80,000 steres, or cubic
metres--evidently an erroneous calculation.] and but for improvements in
metallurgy and the working of iron, which have facilitated the
substitution of that metal for wood, the last twenty-five years would
have almost stripped Europe of her last remaining tree fit for these
uses. [Footnote: Besides the substitution of iron for wood, a great
saving of consumption of this latter material has been effected by the
revival of ancient methods of increasing its durability, and the
invention of new processes for the same purpose. The most effectual
preservative yet discovered for wood employed on land, is sulphate of
copper, a solution of which is introduced into the pores of the wood
while green, by soaking, by forcing-pumps, or, most economically, by the
simple pressure of a column of the fluid in a small pipe connected with
the end of the piece of timber subjected to the treatment. Clave (Etudes
Forestieres, pp. 240-249) gives an interesting account of the various
processes employed for rendering wood imperishable, and states that
railroad-ties injected with sulphate of copper in 1846, were found
absolutely unaltered in 1855; and telegraphic posts prepared two years
earlier, are now in a state of perfect preservation.

For many purposes, the method of injection is too expensive, and some
simpler process is much to be desired. The question of the proper time
of felling timber is not settled, and the best modes of air, water, and
steam seasoning are not yet fully ascertained. Experiments on these
subjects would be well worth the patronage of Governments in new
countries, where they can be very easily made, without the necessity of
much waste of valuable material, and without expensive arrangements for
observation.

The practice of stripping living trees of their bark some years before
they are felled, is as old as the time of Vitruvius, but is much less
followed than it deserves, partly because the timber of trees so treated
inclines to crack and split, and partly because it becomes so hard as to
be wrought with considerable difficulty.

In America, economy in the consumption of fuel has been much promoted by
the substitution of coal for wood, the general use of stoves both for
wood and coal, and recently by the employment of anthracite in the
furnaces of stationary and locomotive steam-engines. All the objections
to the use of anthracite for this latter purpose appear to have been
overcome, and the improvements in its combustion have been attended with
a great pecuniary saving, and with much advantage to the preservation of
the woods.

The employment of coal has produced a great reduction in the consumption
of firewood in Paris. In 1815, the supply of firewood for the city
required 1,200,000 steres, or cubic metres; in 1859 it had fallen to
501,805, while, in the meantime, the consumption of coal had risen from
600,000 to 4,320,000 metrical quintals. See Clave, Etudes, p. 212.

In 1869 Paris consumed 951,157 steres of firewood, 4,902,414
hectolitres, or more than 13,000,000 bushels, of charcoal, and 6,872,000
metrical quintals, or more than 7,000,000 tons of mineral
coal.--Annuaire de la Revue des Eaux et Forets for 1872, p. 26.

The increase in the price of firewood at Paris, within a century, has
been comparatively small, while that of timber and of sawed lumber has
increased enormously.] I have spoken of the foreign demand for American
agricultural products as having occasioned an extension of cultivated
ground, which had led to clearing land not required by the necessities
of home consumption. But the forest itself has become, so to speak, an
article of exportation. England, as we have seen, imported oak and pine
from the Baltic ports more than six hundred years ago. She has since
drawn largely on the forests of Norway, and for many years has received
vast quantities of lumber from her American possessions.

The unparalleled facilities for internal navigation, afforded by the
numerous rivers of the present and former British colonial possessions
in North America, have proved very fatal to the forests of that
continent. Quebec became many years ago a centre for a lumber trade,
which, in the bulk of its material, and, consequently, in the tonnage
required for its transportation, rivalled the commerce of the greatest
European cities. Immense rafts were collected at Quebec from the great
Lakes, from the Ottawa, and from all the other tributaries which unite
to swell the current of the St. Lawrence and help it to struggle against
its mighty tides. [Footnote: The tide rises at Quebec to the height of
twenty-five feet, and when it is aided by a north-east wind, it flows
with almost irresistible violence. Rafts containing several hundred
thousand cubic feet of timber are often caught by the flood-tide, torn
to pieces, and dispersed for miles along the shores.] Ships, of burden
formerly undreamed of, have been built to convey the timber to the
markets of Europe, and during the summer months the St. Lawrence is
almost as crowded with shipping as the Thames. [Footnote: One of these,
the Baron of Renfrew--so named from one of the titles of the kings of
England--built forty or fifty years ago, measured 5,000 tons. They were
little else than rafts, being almost solid masses of timber designed to
be taken to pieces and sold as lumber on arriving at their port of
destination.

The lumber trade at Quebec is still very large. According to an article
in the Revue des Deux Mondes, that city exported, in 1860, 30,000,000
cubic feet of squared timber, and 400,000,000 square feet of "planches."
The thickness of the boards is not stated, but I believe they are
generally cut an inch and a quarter thick for the Quebec trade, and as
they shrink somewhat in drying, we may estimate ten square for one cubic
foot of boards. This gives a total of 70,000,000 cubic feet. The
specific gravity of white pine is .554, and the weight of this quantity
of lumber, very little of which is thoroughly seasoned, would exceed a
million of tons, even supposing it to consist wholly of wood as light as
pine.

The London Times of Oct. 10, 1871, states the exportation of lumber from
Canada to Europe, in 1870, at 200,000,000 cubic feet, and adds that more
than three times that quantity was sent from the same province to the
United States. A very large proportion of this latter quantity goes to
Burlington, Vermont, whence it is distributed to other parts of the
Union.

There must, I think, be some error or exaggeration in these figures.
Perhaps instead of cubic feet we should read square feet. Two hundred
millions of cubic feet of timber would require more than half the entire
tonnage of England for its transportation.

I suppose the quantities in the following estimates, from a carefully
prepared article in the St. Louis Republican, must be understood as
meaning square or superficial feet, board measure, allowing a thickness
of one inch:

"The lumber trade of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, for the year
1869, shows the amount cut as being 2,029,372,255 feet for the State of
Michigan, and 317,400,000 feet for the State of Minnesota, and
964,600,000 feet for the State of Wisconsin. This includes the lake
shore and the whole State of Wisconsin, which heretofore has been
difficult to get a report from. The total amount cut in these States was
3,311,372,255 feet, and that to obtain this quantity there have been
shipped 883,032 acres, or 1,380 square miles of pine have been removed.
It is calculated that 4,000,000 acres of land still remain unstripped in
Michigan, which will yield 15,000,000,000 feet of lumber; while
3,000,000 acres arc still standing in Wisconsin, which will yield
11,250,000,000 feet, and that which remains in Minnesota, taking the
estimate of a few years since of that which was surveyed and unexplored,
after deducting the amount cut the past few years, we find 3,630,000
acres to be the proper estimate of trees now standing which will yield
32,362,500,000 feet of lumber. This makes a total of 15,630,000 acres of
pine lands, which remain standing in the above States, that will yield
58,612,500,000 feet of lumber, and it is thought that fifteen or twenty
years will be required to cut and send to market the trees now
standing."

See also Bryant, Forest Trees, chap. iv.]


Effects of Forest Fires.

The operations of the lumberman involve other dangers to the woods
besides the loss of the trees felled by him. The narrow clearings around
his shanties form openings which let in the wind, and thus sometimes
occasion the overthrow of thousands of trees, the fall of which dams up
small streams, and creates bogs by the spreading of the waters, while
the decaying trunks facilitate the multiplication of the insects which
breed in dead wood and are, some of them, injurious to living trees. The
escape and spread of camp-fires, however, is the most devastating of all
the causes of destruction that find their origin in the operations of
the lumberman. The proportion of trees fit for industrial uses is small
in all primitive woods. Only these fall before the forester's axe, but
the fire destroys, almost indiscriminately, every age and every species
of tree. [Footnote: Trees differ in their power of resisting the action
of forest fires. Different woods vary greatly in combustibility, and
even when the bark is scarcely scorched, trees are, partly in
consequence of physiological character, and partly from the greater or
less depth at which their roots habitually lie below the surface,
differently affected by running fires. The white pine, Pinus strobus, as
it is the most valuable, is also perhaps the most delicate tree of the
American forest, while its congener, the Northern pitch-pine, Pinus
rigida, is less injured by fire than any other tree of that country. I
have heard experienced lumbermen maintain that the growth of this pine
was even accelerated by a fire brisk enough to destroy all other trees,
and I have myself seen it still flourishing after a conflagration which
had left not a green leaf but its own in the wood, and actually throwing
out fresh foliage, when the old had been quite burnt off and the bark
almost converted into charcoal. The wood of the pitch-pine is of
comparatively little value for the joiner, but it is useful for very
many purposes. Its rapidity of growth in even poor soils, its hardihood,
and its abundant yield of resinous products, entitle it to much more
consideration, as a plantation tree, than it has hitherto received in
Europe or America.]

While, then, without fatal injury to the younger growths, the native
forest will bear several "cuttings over" in a generation--for the
increasing value of lumber brings into use, every four or five years, a
quality of timber which had been before rejected as unmarketable--a fire
may render the declivity of a mountain unproductive for a century.
[Footnote: Between sixty and seventy years ago, a steep mountain with
which I am familiar, composed of metamorphic rock, and at that time
covered with a thick coating of soil and a dense primeval forest, was
accidentally burnt over. The fire took place in a very dry season, the
slope of the mountain was too rapid to retain much water, and the
conflagration was of an extraordinarily fierce character, consuming the
wood almost entirely, burning the leaves and combustible portion of the
mould, and in the many places cracking and disintegrating the rock
beneath. The rains of the following autumn carried off much of the
remaining soil, and the mountain-side was nearly bare of wood for two or
three years afterwards. At length a new crop of trees sprang up and grew
vigorously, and the mountain is now thickly covered again. But the depth
of mould and earth is too small to allow the trees to reach maturity.
When they attain to the diameter of about six inches, they uniformly
die, and this they will no doubt continue to do until the decay of
leaves and wood on the surface, and the decomposition of the subjacent
rock, shall have formed, perhaps hundreds of years hence, a stratum of
soil thick enough to support a full-grown forest. Under favorable
conditions, however, as in the case of the fire of Miramichi, a burnt
forest renews itself rapidly and permanently.]

Aside from the destruction of the trees and the laying bare of the soil,
and consequently the freer admission of sun, rain, and air to the
ground, the fire of itself exerts an important influence on its texture
and condition. It cracks and sometimes even pulverizes the rocks and
stones upon and near the surface; [Footnote: In the burning over of a
hill-forest in the Lower Engadine, in September, 1865, the fire was
intense as to shatter and calcine the rocks on the slope, and their
fragments were precipitated into the valley below.--Ricista Firrestate
del Regna d'Italia, Ottobro, 1865, 1865, p. 474.] it consumes a portion
of the half-decayed vegetable mould which served to hold its mineral
particles together and to retain the water of precipitation, and thus
loosens, pulverizes, and dries the earth; it destroys reptiles, insects,
and worms, with their eggs, and the seeds of trees and of smaller
plants; it supplies, in the ashes which it deposits on the surface,
important elements for the growth of a new forest clothing, as well as
of the usual objects of agricultural industry; and by the changes thus
produced, it fits the ground for the reception of a vegetation different
in character from that which had spontaneously covered it. These new
conditions help to explain the natural succession of forest crops, so
generally observed in all woods cleared by fire and then abandoned.
There is no doubt, however, that other influences contribute to the same
result, because effects more or less analogous follow when the trees are
destroyed by other causes, as by high winds, by the woodman's axe, and
even by natural decay. [Footnote: The remarkable mounds and other
earthworks constructed in the valley of the Ohio and elsewhere in the
territory of the United States, by a people apparently more advanced in
the culture than the modern Indian, were overgrown with a dense clothing
of forest when first discovered by the whites. But though the ground
where they were erected must have been occupied by a large population
for a considerable leagth of time, and therefore entirely cleared, the
trees which grew upon the ancient fortresses and the adjacent lands were
not distinguishable in species, or even in dimensions and character of
growth, from the neighboring forests, where the soil seemed never to
have been disturbed. This apparent exception to the law of change of
crop in natured forest growth was ingeniously explained by General
Harrison's suggestion, that the lapse of time since the era of the
mound-builders was so great as to have embraced several successive
generations of trees, and occasioned, by their rotation, a return to the
original vegetation.

The succesive changes in the spontaneous growth of the forest, as proved
by the character of the wood found in bogs, are such as to have
suggested the theory of a considerable change of climate during the
human period. But strobus, as it is the most valuable, is also perhaps
the most delicate tree of the American forest, while its congener, the
Northern pitch-pine, Pinus rigida, is less injured by fire than any
other tree of that country. I have heard experienced lumbermen maintain
that the growth of this pine was even accelerated by a fire brisk enough
to destroy all other trees, and I have myself seen it still flourishing
after a conflagration which had left not a green leaf but its own in the
wood, and actually throwing out fresh foliage, when the old had been
quite burnt off and the bark almost converted into charcoal. The wood of
the pitch-pine is of comparatively little value for the joiner, but it
is useful for very many purposes. Its rapidity of growth in even poor
soils, its hardihood, and its abundant yield of resinous products,
entitle it to much more consideration, as a plantation tree, than it has
hitherto received in Europe or America.] without fatal injury to the
younger growths, the native forest will hear several "cuttings over" in
a generation--for the increasing value of lumber brings into use, every
four or five years, a quality of timber which had been before rejected
as unmarketable--a fire may render the declivity of a mountain
unproductive for a century. [Footnote: Between sixty and seventy years
ago, a steep mountain with which I am familiar, composed of metamorphic
rock, and at that time covered with a thick coating of soil and a dense
primeval forest, was accidentally burnt over. The fire took place in a
very dry season, the slope of the mountain was too rapid to retain much
water, and the conflagration was of an extraordinarily fierce character,
consuming the wood almost entirely, burning the leaves and combustible
portion of the mould, and in many places cracking and disintegrating the
rock beneath. The rains of the following autumn carried off much of the
remaining soil, and the mountain-side was nearly bare of wood for two or
three years afterwards. At length a new crop of trees sprang up and grew
vigorously, and the mountain is now thickly covered again. But the depth
of mould and earth is too small to allow the trees to reach maturity.
When they attain to the diameter of about six inches, they uniformly
die, and this they will no doubt continue to do until the decay of
leaves and wood on the surface, and the decomposition of the subjacent
rock, shall have formed, perhaps hundreds of years hence, a stratum of
soil thick enough to support a full-grown forest. Under favorable
conditions, however, as in the case of the fire of Miramichi, a burnt
forest renews itself rapidly and permanently.]

Aside from the destruction of the trees and the laying bare of the soil,
and consequently the freer admission of sun, rain, and air to the
ground, the fire of itself exerts an important influence on its texture
and condition. It cracks and sometimes even pulverizes the rocks and
stones upon and near the surface; [Footnote: In the burning over of a
hill-forest in the Lower Engadine, in September, 1865, the fire was so
intense as to shatter and calcine the rocks on the slope, and their
fragments were precipitated into the valley below.--Rivista Forestale
del Regno d'Italia, Ottobre, 1865, p. 474.] it consumes a portion of the
half-decayed vegetable mould which served to hold its mineral particles
together and to retain the water of precipitation, and thus loosens,
pulverizes, and dries the earth; it destroys reptiles, insects, and
worms, with their eggs, and the seeds of trees and of smaller plants; it
supplies, in the ashes which it deposits on the surface, important
elements for the growth of a new forest clothing, as well as of the
usual objects of agricultural industry; and by the changes thus
produced, it fits the ground for the reception of a vegetation different
in character from that which had spontaneously covered it. These new
conditions help to explain the natural succession of forest crops, so
generally observed in all woods cleared by fire and then abandoned.
There is no doubt, however, that other influences contribute to the same
result, because effects more or less analogous follow when the trees are
destroyed by other causes, as by high winds, by the woodman's axe, and
even by natural decay. [Footnote: The remarkable mounds and other
earthworks constructed in the valley of the Ohio and elsewhere in the
territory of the United States, by a people apparently more advanced in
culture than the modern Indian, were overgrown with a dense clothing of
forest when first discovered by the whites. But though the ground where
they were erected must have been occupied by a large population for a
considerable length of time, and therefore entirely cleared, the trees
which grew upon the ancient fortresses and the adjacent lands were not
distinguishable in species, or even in dimensions and character of
growth, from the neighboring forests, where the soil seemed never to
have been disturbed. This apparent exception to the law of change of
crop in natural forest growth was ingeniously explained by General
Harrison's suggestion, that the lapse of time since the era of the
mound-builders were so great as to have embraced several successive
generations of trees, and occasioned, by their rotation, a return to the
original vegetation.

The successive changes in the spontaneous growth of the forest, as
proved by the character of a wood found in bogs, are such as to have
suggested the theory of a considerable change of the climate during the
human period. But this theory cannot be admitted upon the evidence in
question. In fact, the order of succession--for a rotation or
alternation is neither proved nor probable--may be made to move in
opposite directions in different countries with the same climate and at
the same time. Thus in Denmark and in Holland the spike-leaved firs have
given place to the broad-leaved beech, while in Northern Germany the
process has been reversed, and evergreens have supplanted the oaks and
birches of deciduous foliage. The principal determining cause seems to
be the influence of light upon the germination of the seeds and the
growth of the young tree. In a forest of firs, for instance, the
distribution of the light and shade, to the influence of which seeds and
shoots are exposed, is by no means the same as in a wood of beeches or
of oaks, and hence the growth of different species will be stimulated in
the two forests.

When ground is laid bare both of trees and of vegetable mould, and left
to the action of unaided and unobstructed nature, she first propagates
trees which germinate and grow only under the influence of a full supply
of light and air, and then, in succession, other species, according to
their ability to bear the shade and their demand for more abundant
nutriment. In Northern Europe the large, the white birch, the aspen,
first appear; then follow the maple, the alder, the ash, the fir; then
the oak and the linden; and then the beech. The trees called by these
respective names in the United States are not specifically the same as
their European namesakes, nor are they always even the equivalents of
these latter, and therefore the order of succession in America would not
be precisely as indicated by the foregoing list, but, so far as is
known, it nevertheless very nearly corresponds to it.

It is thought important to encourage the growth of the beech in Denmark
and Northern Germany, because it upon the whole yields better returns
than other trees, and does not exhaust, but on the contrary enriches,
the soil; for by shedding its leaves it returns to it most of the
nutriment it has drawn from it, and at the same time furnishes a solvent
which aids materially in the decomposition of its mineral constituents.

When the forest is left to itself, the order of succession is constant,
and its occasional inversion is always explicable by some human
interference. It is curious that the trees which require most light are
content with the poorest soils, and vice versa. The trees which first
appear are also those which propagate themselves farthest to the north.
The birch, the larch, and the fir bear a severer climate than the oak,
the oak than the beech. "These parallelisms," says Vaupell, "are very
interesting, because, though they are entirely independent of each
other," they all prescribe the same order of succession.--Bogens
Indvandring, p. 42. See alo Berg, Das Verdrangen der Laubralder im
Nordlichen Deutschland, 1844. Heyer, Das Verhalten der Waldbaume gegen
Licht und Schatten, 1852. Staring, De Bodem van Nederland, 1856, i., pp.
120-200. Vaupell, De Danske Skove, 1863. Knorr, Studien uber die
Buchen-Wirthschaft, 1863. A. Maury, Les Forets de la Gaule, pp. 73, 74,
377, 384.]

Another evil, sometimes of serious magnitude, which attends the
operations of the lumberman, is the injury to the banks of rivers from
the practice of floating. I do not here allude to rafts, which, being
under the control of those who navigate them, may be so guided as to
avoid damage to the shore, but to masts, logs, and other pieces of
timber singly entrusted to the streams, to be conveyed by their currents
to sawmill ponds, or to convenient places for collecting them into
rafts. The lumbermen usually haul the timber to the banks of the rivers
in the winter, and when the spring floods swell the streams and break up
the ice, they roll the logs into the water, leaving them to float down
to their destination. If the transporting stream is too small to furnish
a sufficient channel for this rude navigation, it is sometimes dammed
up, and the timber collected in the pond thus formed above the dam. When
the pond is full, a sluice is opened, or the dam is blown up or
otherwise suddenly broken, and the whole mass of lumber above it is
hurried down with the rolling flood. Both of these modes of proceeding
expose the banks of the rivers employed as channels of flotation to
abrasion, [Footnote: Caimi states that "a single flotation in the
Valtelline, in 1830, caused damages appraised at $250,000."--Cenni sulla
Importanza e Coltura dei Boschi, p. 65.] and in some of the American
States it has been found necessary to protect, by special legislation,
the lands through which they flow from the serious injury sometimes
received through the practices I have described. [Footnote: Many
physicists who have investigated the laws of natural hydraulics maintain
that, in consequence of direct obstruction and frictional resistance to
the flow of the water of rivers along their banks, there is both an
increased rapidity of current and an elevation of the water in the
middle of the channel, so that a river presents always a convex surface.
Others have thought that the acknowledged greater swiftness of the
central current must produce a depression in that part of the stream.
The lumbermen affirm that, while rivers are rising, the water is highest
in the middle of the channel, and tends to throw floating objects
shorewards; while they are falling, it is lowest in the middle, and
floating objects incline towards the centre. Logs, they say, rolled into
the water during the rise, are very apt to lodge on the banks, while
those set afloat during the falling of the waters keep in the current,
and are carried without hindrance to their destination, and this law,
which has been a matter of familiar observation among woodmen for
generations, is now admitted as a scientific truth.

Foresters and lumbermen, like sailors and other persons whose daily
occupations bring them into contact, and often into conflict, with great
natural forces, have many peculiar opinions, not to say superstitious.
In one of these categories we must rank the universal belief of
lumbermen, that with a given head of water, and in a given number of
hours, a sawmill cuts more lumber by night than by day. Having been
personally interested in several sawmills, been assured by them that
their uniform experiences established the fact that, other things being
equal, the action of the machinery of sawmills is more rapid by night
than by day. I am sorry--perhaps I ought to be ashamed--to say that my
skepticism has been too strong to allow me to avail myself of my
ooportunites of testing this question by passing a night, watch in hand,
counting the strokes of a millisaw. More unprejudiced, and, I must add,
very intelligent and credible persons have informed me that they have
done so, and found the report of the sawyers abundantly confirmed. A
land surveyor, who was also an experienced lumberman, sawyer, and
machinist, a good mathematician, and an accurate observer, has
repeatedly told me that he had very often "timed" sawmills, and before
the difference in favor of night-work above thirty per cent. Sed
quaere.]


Restoration of the Forest.

In most countries of Europe--and I fear in many parts of the United
States--the woods are already so nearly extirpated, that the mere
protection of those which now exist is by no means an adequate security
against a great increase of the evils which have already resulted from
the diminution of them. Besides this, experience has shown that where
the destruction of the woods has been carried beyond a certain point, no
coercive legislation can absolutely secure the permanence of the
remainder, especially if it is held by private hands. The creation of
new forests, therefore, is generally recognized, wherever the subject
has received the attention it merits, as an indispensable measure of
sound public economy. Enlightened individuals in some European states,
the Governments in others, have made extensive plantations, and France,
particularly, has now set herself energetically at work to restore the
woods in her southern provinces, and thereby to prevent the utter
depopulation and waste with which that once fertile soil and genial
climate are threatened.

The objects of the restoration of the forest are as multifarious as the
motives that have led to its destruction, and as the evils which that
destruction has occasioned. It is hoped that the replanting of the
mountain slopes, and of bleak and infertile plains, will diminish the
frequency and violence of river inundations, prevent the formation of
new torrents and check the violence of those already existing, mitigate
the extremes of atmospheric temperature, humidity, and precipitation,
restore dried-up springs, rivulets, and sources of irrigation, shelter
the fields from chilling and from parching winds, arrest the spread of
miasmatic effluvia, and, finally, furnish a self-renewing and
inexhaustible supply of a material indispensable to so many purposes of
domestic comfort, and to the successful exercise of every art of peace,
every destructive energy of war. [Footnote: The preservation of the woods
on the former eastern frontier of France, as a kind of natural abattis,
was recognized by the Government of that country as an important measure
of military defence, though there have been conflicting opinions on the
subject.]

The Economy of the Forest.

The legislation of European states upon sylviculture, and the practice
of that art, divide themselves into two great branches--the preservation
of existing forests, and the creation of new. Although there are in
Europe many forests neither planted nor regularly trained by man, yet
from the long operation of causes already set forth, what is understood
in America and other new countries by the "primitive forest," no longer
exists in the territories which were the seats of ancient civilization
and empire, except upon a small scale, and in remote and almost
inaccessible glens quite out of the reach of ordinary observation. The
oldest European woods are indeed native, that is, sprung from self-sown
seed, or from the roots of trees which have been felled for human
purposes; but their growth has been controlled, in a variety of ways, by
man and by domestic animals, and they almost uniformly present more or
less of an artificial character and arrangement. Both they and planted
forests--which, though certainly not few, are of comparatively recent
date in Europe--demand, as well for protection as for promotion of
growth, a treatment different in some respects from that which would be
suited to the character and wants of the virgin wood.

On this latter branch of the subject, the management of the primitive
wood, experience and observation have not yet collected a sufficient
stock of facts to serve for the construction of a complete system of
this department of sylviculture; but the government of the forest as it
exists in France--the different zones and climates of which country
present many points of analogy with those of the United States and of
some of the British colonies--has been carefully studied, and several
manuals of practice have been prepared for the foresters of that empire.
I believe the Cours Elementaire de Culture des Bois cree a l'Ecole
Forestiere de Nancy, par M. Lorentz, complete et public par A. Parade,
with a supplement under the title of Cours d'Amenagement des Forets, par
Henri Nanquette, has been generally considered the best of these. The
Etudes sur l'Economie Forestiere, par Jules Clave, which I have often
quoted, presents a great number of interesting views on this subject,
but it is not designed as a practical guide, and it does not profess to
be sufficiently specific in its details to serve that purpose. [Footnote:
Among more recent manuals may be mentioned: in French, Les Etudes de
Maitre Pierre, Paris, 1864, 12mo; Bazelaire, Traite de Roboisement, 2d
edition. Paris 1864; Paston, L'Amenagemend des Forets, Paris, 1867; in
English, Gregor, Arboriculture, Edinburgh, 1868: in Italian, Siemoni 's
very valuable Manuale teorico-pratico d'Arte Forestale, 2d ediz.,
Firenze, 1872; the excellent work of Cerini, Dei Vantaggi di Societe,
por l'Impianto e Conservazione dei Boschi, Milano, 1844, 8vo; and the
prize essay of Meguscher, Memoria sui Boschi, etc., 2d edizione, Milano,
1859, 8vo. Another very important treatise of the uses of the forest,
though not a manual of sylviculture, is Schleiden, Fur Baum und Wald,
Leipzig, 1870.]Notwithstanding the difference of conditions between the
aboriginal and the trained forest, the judicious observer who aims at
the preservation of the former will reap much instruction from the
treatises I have cited, and I believe he will be convinced that the
sooner a natural wood is brought into the state of an artificially
regulated one, the better it is for all the multiplied interests which
depend on the wise administration of this branch of public economy.

One consideration bearing on this subject has received less attention
than it merits, because most persons interested in such questions have
not opportunities for the comparison I refer to. I mean the great
general superiority of cultivated timber to that of strictly spontaneous
growth. I say GENERAL superiority, because there are exceptions to the
rule. The white pine, Pinus strobus, for instance, and other trees of
similar character and uses, require, for their perfect growth and best
ligneous texture, a density of forest vegetation around them, which
protects them from too much agitation by wind, and from the persistence
of the lateral branches which fill the wood with knots. A pine which has
grown under those conditions possesses a tall, straight stem, admirably
fitted for masts and spars, and, at the same time, its wood is almost
wholly free from knots, is regular in annular structure, soft and
uniform in texture, and, consequently, superior to almost all other
timber for joinery. If, while a large pine is spared, the broad-leaved
or other smaller trees around it are felled, the swaying of the tree
from the action of the wind mechanically produces separations between
the layers of annual growth, and greatly diminishes the value of the
timber. The same defect is often observed in pines which, from some
accident of growth, have much overtopped their fellows in the virgin
forest.

The white pine, growing in the fields, or in open glades in the woods,
is totally different from the true forest-tree, both in general aspect
and in quality of wood. Its stem is much shorter, its top less tapering,
its foliage denser and more inclined to gather into tufts, its branches
more numerous and of larger diameter, its wood shows much more
distinctly the divisions of annual growth, is of coarser grain, harder
and more difficult to work into mitre-joints. Intermixed with the most
valuable pines in the American forests, are met many trees of the
character I have just described. The lumbermen call them "saplings," and
generally regard them as different in species from the true white pine,
but botanists are unable to establish a distinction between them, and as
they agree in almost all respects with trees grown in the open grounds
from known white-pine seedlings, I believe their peculiar character is
due to unfavorable circumstances in their early growth. The pine, then,
is an exception to the general rule as to the inferiority of the forest
to the open-ground tree. The pasture oak and pasture beech, on the
contrary, are well known to produce far better timber than those grown
in the woods, and there are few trees to which the remark is not equally
applicable. [Footnote: It is often laid down as a universal law, that the
wood of trees of slow vegetation is superior to that of quick growth.
This is one of those commonplaces by which men love to shield themselves
from the labor of painstaking observation. It has, in fact, so many
exceptions, that it may be doubted in whether it is in any sense true.
Most of the cedars are slow of growth; but while the timber of some of
them is firm and durable, that of others is light, brittle, and
perishable. The hemlock-spruce is slower of growth than the pines, but
its wood is of very little value. The pasture oak and beech show a
breadth of grain--and, of course, an annual increment--twice as great as
trees of the same species grown in the woods; and the American locust,
Robinia pseudacacia, the wood of which is of extreme toughness and
durability, is, of all trees indigenous to North-eastern America, by far
the most rapid in growth. Some of the species of the Australian
Eucalyptus furnish wood of remarkable strength and durability, and yet
the eucalyptus is surpassed by no known tree in rapidity of growth.

As an illustration of the mutual interdependence of the mechanic arts, I
may mention that in Italy, where stone, brick, and plaster are almost
the only materials used in architecture, and where the "hollow ware"
kitchen implements are of copper or of clay, the ordinary tools for
working wood are of a very inferior description, and the locust timber
is found too hard for their temper. At the same time the work of the
Italian stipettai, or cabinet-makers, and carvers in wood, who take
pains to provide themselves with tools of better metal, is wholly
unsurpassed in finish and in accuracy of adjustment as well as in taste.
When a small quantity of mahogany was brought to England, early in the
last century, the cabinet-makers were unable to use it, from the
defective temper of their tools, until the demand for furniture from the
new wood compelled them to improve the quality of their implements. In
America, the cheapness of wood long made it the preferable material for
almost all purposes to which it could by any possibility be applied. The
mechanical cutlery and artisans' tools of the United States are of
admirable temper, finish, and convenience, and no wood is too hard, or
otherwise too refractory, to be wrought with great facility, both by
hand-tools and by the multitude of ingenious machines which the
Americans have invented for this purpose.]

Another advantage of the artificially regulated forest is, that it
admits of such grading of the ground as to favor the retention or
discharge of water at will, while the facilities it affords for
selecting and duly proportioning, as well as properly spacing, and in
felling and removing, from time to time, the trees which compose it, are
too obvious to require to be more than hinted at. In conducting these
operations, we must have a diligent eye to the requirements of nature,
and must remember that a wood is not an arbitrary assemblage of trees to
be selected and disposed according to the caprice of its owner. "A
forest," says Clave, "is not, as is often supposed, a simple collection
of trees succeeding each other in long perspective, without bond of
union, and capable of isolation from each other; it is, on the contrary,
a whole, the different parts of which are interdependent upon each
other, and it constitutes, so to speak, a true individuality. Every
forest has a special character, determined by the form of the surface it
grows upon, the kinds of trees that compose it, and the manner in which
they are grouped." The art, or, as the Continental foresters rather
ambitiously call it, the science of sylviculture has been so little
pursued in England and America, that its nomenclature has not been
introduced into the English vocabulary, and it would not be possible to
describe its processes with technical propriety of language, without
occasionally borrowing a word from the forest literature of France and
Germany. A full discussion of the methods of sylviculture would, indeed,
be out of place in a work like the present, but the want of conveniently
accessible means of information on the subject, in the United States,
will justify me in presenting it with somewhat more of detail than would
otherwise be pertinent.

The two best known methods of treating already existing forests are
those distinguished as the TAILLIS, copse or coppice treatment,
[Footnote: COPSE, or COPPICE, from the French COUPER, to cut,
means properly a wood, the trees of which are cut at certain periods of
immature growth, and allowed to shoot up again from the roots; but it
has come to signify, very commonly, a young wood, grove, or thicket,
without reference to its origin, or to the character of a forest crop.]
and the FUTAIE, for which I find no English equivalent, but which may
not inappropriately be called the FULL-GROWTH system. A TAILLIS, copse,
or coppice, is a wood composed of shoots from the roots of trees
previously cut for fuel and timber. The shoots are thinned out from time
to time, and finally cut, either after a fixed number of years, or after
the young trees have attained to certain dimensions, their roots being
then left to send out a new progeny as before. This is the cheapest
method of management, and therefore the best whenever the price of labor
and of capital bears a high proportion to that of land and of timber;
but it is essentially a wasteful economy. [Footnote: "In America," says
Clave (p. 124, 125), "where there is a vast extent of land almost
without pecuniary value, but where labor is dear and the rate of
interest high, it is profitable to till a large surface at the least
possible cost. EXTENSIVE cultivation is there the most advantageous. In
England, France, and Germany, where every corner of soil is occupied,
and the least bit of ground is sold at a high price, but where labor and
capital are comparatively cheap is wisest to employ INTENSIVE
cultivation. ... All the efforts of the cultivator ought to be directed
to the obtaining of a given result with the least sacrifice, and there
is equally a loss to the commonwealth if the application of improved
agricultural processes be neglected where they are advantageous, or if
they be employed where they are not required. ... In this point of view,
sylviculture must follow the same laws as agriculture, and, like it, be
modified according to the economical conditions of different states. In
countries abounding in good forests, and thinly peopled, elementary and
cheap methods must be pursued; in civilized regions, where a dense
population requires that the soil shall be made to produce all it can
yield, the regular artificial forest, with all the processes that
science teaches, should be cultivated. It would be absurd to apply to
the endless woods of Brazil and of Canada the method of the Spessart by
"double stages," but not less so in our country, where every yard of
ground has a high value, to leave to nature the task of propagating
trees, and to content ourselves with cutting, every twenty or
twenty-five years, the meagre growths that chance may have produced."]
If the woodland is, in the first place, completely cut over as is found
most convenient in practice, the young shoots have neither the shade nor
the protection from wind so important to forest growth, and their
progress is comparatively slow, while at the same time, the thick clumps
they form choke the seedlings that may have sprouted near them.
[Footnote: In ordinary coppices, there are few or no seedlings, because
the young shoots are cut before they are old enough to mature fertile
seed, and this is one of the strongest objections to the system.] The
evergreens, once cut do not shoot up again, [Footnote: It was not long
ago stated, upon the evidence of the Government foresters of Greece, and
of the queen's gardener, that a large wood has been discovered in
Arcadia, consisting of a fir which has the property of sending up both
vertical and lateral shoots from the stump of felled trees and forming a
new crown. It was at first supposed that this forest grew only on the
"mountains," of which the hero of About's most amusing story, Le Roi des
Montagnes, was "king;" but stumps, with the shoots attached, have been
sent to Germany, and recognized by able botanists as true natural
products, and the fact must now be considered as established. Daubeny
refers to Theophrastus as ascribing this faculty of reproduction to the
'Elate [word in greek] or fir, but he does not cite chapter and verse,
and I have not been able to find the passage. The same writer mentions a
case where an entire forest of the common fir in France had been renewed
in this way.--Trees and Shrubs of the Ancients, 1865, pp. 27-28. The
American Northern pitch possesses the same power in a certain degree.

According to Charles Martins, the cedar of Mount Atlas--which, if not
identical with the cedar of Lebanon, is closely allied to it--possesses
the same power.--Revue des Deux Mondes, July 15, 1864, p. 315.] and the
mixed character of the forest--in many respects an important advantage,
if not an indispensable condition of growth--is lost; [Footnote: Natural
forests are rarely, if ever, composed of trees of a single species, and
experience has shown that oaks and other broad-leaved trees, planted as
artificial woods, require to be mixed, or associated with others of
different habits.

In the forest of Fontainebleau, "oaks, mingled with beeches in due
proportion," says Clave, "may arrive at the age of five or six hundred
years in full vigor, and attain dimensions which I have never seen
surpassed; when, however, they are wholly unmixed with other trees, they
begin to decay and die at the top, at the age of forty or fifty years,
like men, old before their time, weary of the world, and longing only to
quit it. This has been observed in most of the oak plantations of which
I have spoken, and they have not been able to attain to full growth.
When the vegetation was perceived to languish, they were cut, in the
hope that this operation would restore their vigor, and that the new
shoots would succeed better than the original trees; and, in fact, they
seemed to be recovering for the first few years. But the shoots were
soon attacked by the same decay, and the operation had to be renewed at
shorter and shorter intervals, until at last it was found necessary to
treat as coppices plantations originally designed for the full-growth
system. Nor was this all: the soil, periodically bared by these
cuttings, became impoverished, and less and less suited to the growth of
the oak. ... It was then proposed to introduce the pine and plant with
it the vacancies and glades.

"... By this means, the forest was saved from the ruin which threatened
it, and now more than 10,000 acres of pines, from fifteen to thirty
years old are disseminated at various points, sometimes intermixed with
broad-leaved trees, sometimes forming groves by themselves"--Revue des
Deux Mondes, Mai, 1863, pp. 153, 154.] and besides this, large wood of
any species cannot be grown in this method because trees which shoot
from decaying stumps and their dying roots, become hollow or otherwise
unsound before they acquire their full dimensions. A more fatal
objection still, is, that the roots of trees will not bear more than two
or three, or at most four cuttings of their shoots before their vitality
is exhausted, and the wood can then be restored only by replanting
entirely.

The period of cutting coppices varies in Europe from fifteen to forty
years, according to soil, species, and rapidity of growth. In the
futaie, or full-growth system, the trees are allowed to stand as long as
they continue in healthy and vigorous growth. This is a shorter period
than would be at first supposed, when we consider the advanced age and
great dimensions to which, under favorable circumstances, many
forest-trees attain in temperate climates. But, as every observing
person familiar with the forest is aware, these are exceptional cases,
just as are instances of great longevity or of gigantic stature among
men. Able vegetable physiologists have maintained that the tree, like
most fish and reptiles, has no natural limit of life or of growth, and
that the only reason why our oaks and our pines do not reach the age of
twenty centuries and the height of a hundred fathoms, is, that in the
multitude of accidents to which they are exposed, the chances of their
attaining to such a length of years and to such dimensions of growth are
millions to one against them. But another explanation of this fact is
possible. In trees affected by no discoverable external cause of death,
decay begins at the topmost branches, which seem to wither and die for
want of nutriment. The mysterious force by which the sap is carried from
the roots to the utmost twigs, cannot be conceived to be unlimited in
power, and it is probable that it differs in different species, so that
while it may suffice to raise the fluid to the height of five hundred
feet in the eucalyptus, it may not be able to carry it beyond one
hundred and fifty in the oak. The limit may be different, too, in
different trees of the same species, not from defective organization in
those of inferior growth, but from more or less favorable conditions of
soil, nourishment, and exposure. Whenever a tree attains to the limit
beyond which its circulating fluids cannot rise, we may suppose that
decay begins, and death follows from want of nutrition at the
extremities, and from the same causes which bring about the same results
in animals of limited size--such, for example, as the interruption of
functions essential to life, in consequence of the clogging up of ducts
by matter assimilable in the stage of growth, but no longer so when
increment has ceased. In the natural woods we observe that, though,
among the myriads of trees which grow upon a square mile, there are
several vegetable giants, yet the great majority of them begin to decay
long before they have attained their maximum of stature, and this seems
to be still more emphatically true of the artificial forest. In France,
according to Clave, "oaks, in a suitable soil, may stand, without
exhibiting any sign of decay, for two or three hundred years; the pines
hardly exceed one hundred and twenty, and the soft or white woods [bois
blancs], in wet soils, languish, and die before reaching the fiftieth
year." [Footnote: Etudes Forestieres, p. 80.] These ages are certainly
below the average of those of American forest-trees, and are greatly
exceeded in very numerous well-attested instances of isolated trees in
Europe.

The former mode of treating the futaie, called the garden system, was to
cut the trees individually as they arrived at maturity, but, in the best
regulated forests, this practice has been abandoned for the German
method, which embraces not only the securing of the largest immediate
profit, but the replanting of the forest, and the care of the young
growth. This is effected in the case of a forest, whether natural or
artificial, which is to be subjected to regular management, by three
operations. The first of these consists in felling about one-third of
the trees, in such way as to leave convenient spaces for the growth of
seedlings. The remaining two-thirds are relied upon to replant the
vacancies, by natural sowing, which they seldom or never fail to do. The
seedlings are watched, are thinned out when too dense, and the
ill-formed and sickly, as well as those of species of inferior value,
and the shrubs and thorns which might otherwise choke or too closely
shade them, are pulled up. When they have attained sufficient strength
and development of foliage to require, or at least to bear, more light
and air, the second step is taken, by removing a suitable proportion of
the old trees which had been spared at the first cutting; and when,
finally, the younger trees are hardened enough to bear frost and sun
without other protection than that which they mutually give to each
other, the remainder of the original forest is felled, and the wood now
consists wholly of young and vigorous trees. This result is obtained
after about twenty years. At convenient periods, the unhealthy stocks
and those injured by wind or other accidents are removed, and in some
instances the growth of the remainder is promoted by irrigation or by
fertilizing applications. [Footnote: The grounds which it is most
important to clothe with wood as a conservative influence, and which,
also, can best be spared from agricultural use, are steep hillsides. But
the performance of all the offices of the forester to the tree--seeding,
planting, thinning, trimming, and finally felling and removing for
consumption--is more laborious upon a rapid declivity than on a level
soil, and at the same time it is difficult to apply irrigation or
manures to trees so situated. Experience has shown that there in great
advantage in terracing the face of a hill before planting it, both as
preventing the wash of the earth by checking the flow of water down its
slope, and as presenting a surface favorable for irrigation, as well as
for manuring and cultivating the tree. But even without so expensive a
process, very important results have been obtained by simply ditching
declivities. "In order to hasten the growth of wood on the flanks of a
mountain, Mr. Eugene Chevandier divided the slope into zones forty or
fifty feet wide, by horizontal ditches closed at both ends, and thereby
obtained, from firs of different ages, shoots double the dimensions of
those which grew on a dry soil of the same character, where the water
was allowed to run off without obstruction."--Dumont, Des Travaux
Publics, etc., pp. 94-96. The ditches were about two feet and a half
deep, and three feet and a half wide, and they cost about forty francs
the hectare, or three dollars the acre. This extraordinary growth was
produced wholly by the retention of the rain-water in the ditches,
whence it filtered through the whole soil and supplied moisture to the
roots of the trees. It may be doubted whether in a climate cold enough
to freeze the entire contents of the ditches in winter, it would not be
expedient to draw off the water in the autumn, as the presence of so
large a quantity of ice in the soil might prove injurious to trees too
young and small to shelter the ground effectually against frost.

Chevandier computes that, if the annual growth of the pine in the marshy
and too humid soil of the Vosges be represented by one, it will equal
two in ordinary dry ground, four or five on slopes so ditched or graded
as to retain the water flowing upon them from roads or steep
declivities, and six where the earth is kept sufficiently moist by
infiltration from running brooks.--Comptes Rendus a l'Academie des
Sciences, t. xix., Juillet, Dec., 1844, p. 167. The effect of accidental
irrigation in well shown in the growth of the trees planted along the
canals of irrigation which traverse the fields in many parts of Italy.
They nourish most luxuriantly, in spite of continual lopping, and yield
a very important contribution to the stock of fuel for domestic use
while trees, situated so far from canals as to be out of the reach of
infiltration from them, are of much slower growth, under circumstances
otherwise equally favorable. In other experiments of Chevandier, under
better conditions, the yield of wood was increased, by judicious
irrigation, in the ratio of seven to one, the profits in that of twelve
to one. At the Exposition of 1855, Chambrelent exhibited young trees,
which, in four years from the seed, had grown to the height of sixteen
and twenty feet, and the circumference of ten and twelve inches.
Chevandier experimented with various manures, and found that some of
them might be profitably applied to young but not to old trees, the
quantity required in the latter case being too great. Wood-ashes and the
refuse of soda factories are particularly recommended. See, on the
manuring of trees, Chevandier, Recherches sur l'emploi de divers
amendements, etc., Paris, 1852, and Koderle, Grundsatze der Kunstlichen
Dungung im Forstculturwesen. Wien, 1865.

I have seen an extraordinary growth produced in fir-trees by the
application of soapsuds; in a young and sickly cherry-tree, by heaping
the chips and dust from a marble-quarry, to the height of two or three
feet, over the roots and around the stem; and cases have come to my
knowledge where like results followed the planting of vines and trees in
holes half filled with fragments of plaster-castings, and mortar from
old buildings. Chevandier's experiments in the irrigation of the forest
would not have been a "new thing under the sun" to wise King Solomon,
for that monarch saya: "I made me pools of water, to water therewith,
the wood that bringeth forth trees." Eccles. ii. 6.]

When the forest is approaching maturity, the original processes already
described are repeated; and as, in different parts of an extensive
forest, they would take place at different times in different zones, it
would afford indefinitely an annual crop of small wood, fuel, and
timber.

The duties of the forester do not end here, for it sometimes happens
that the glades left by felling the older trees are not sufficiently
seeded, or that the species, or essences, as the French oddly call them,
are not duly proportioned in the new crop. In this case, seed must be
artificially sown, or young trees planted in the vacancies. Besides
this, all trees, whether grown for fruit, for fuel, or for timber,
require more or less training in order to yield the best returns. The
experiments of the Vicomte de Courval in sylviculture throw much light
on this subject, and show, in a most interesting way, the importance of
pruning forest-trees. The principal feature of De Courval's very
successful method is a systematical mode of trimming which compels the
tree to develop the stem, by reducing the lateral ramification.
Beginning with young trees, the buds are rubbed off from the stems, and
superfluous lateral shoots are pruned down to the trunk. When large
trees are taken in hand, branches which can be spared, and whose removal
is necessary to obtain a proper length of stem, are very smoothly cut
off quite close to the trunk, and the exposed surface is IMMEDIATELY
brushed over with mineral-coal tar. When thus treated, it is said that
the healing of the wound is perfect, and without any decay of the tree.
Trees trained by De Courval's method, which is now universally approved
and much practised in France, rapidly attained a great height. They grow
with remarkable straightness of stem and of grain, and their timber
commands the highest price. [Footnote: See De Courval, Taille et
conduite des Arbres forestieres et autres arbres de grande dimension.
Paris, 1861.

The most important part of Viscount de Courval's system will be found in
L'Elagage des Arbres, par le Comte A. Des Cars, an admirable little
treatise, of which numerous editions, at the price of one franc, have
been printed since the first, of 1864, and which ought to be translated
and published without delay in the United States.]

A system of plantation, specially though not exclusively suited to very
moist soils, recommended by Duhamel a hundred years ago, has been
revived in Germany, within about twenty years, with much success. It is
called hill-planting, and consists in placing the young tree upright on
the greensward with its roots properly spread out, and then covering the
roots and supporting the trunk by thick sods cut so as to form a
circular hillock around it. [Footnote: See Manteuffel, L'Art de Planter,
traduit par Stumper. Paris, 1868.] By this method it is alleged trees
can be grown advantageously both in dry ground and on humid soils, where
they would not strike root if planted in holes after the usual mauner.
If there is any truth in the theory of a desiccating action in evergreen
trees, plantations of this sort might have a value as drainers of lands
not easily laid dry by other processes. There is much ground on the
great prairies of the West, where experiments with this method of
planting are strongly to be recommended.

It is common in Europe to permit the removal of the fallen leaves and
fragments of bark and branches with which the forest-soil is covered,
and sometimes the cutting of the lower twigs of evergreens. The leaves
and twigs are principally used as litter for cattle, and finally as
manure, the bark and wind-fallen branches as fuel. By long usage,
sometimes by express grant, this privilege has become a vested right of
the population in the neighborhood of many public and even large private
forests; but it is generally regarded as a serious evil. To remove the
leaves and fallen twigs is to withdraw much of the pabulum upon which
the tree was destined to feed. The small branches and leaves are the
parts of the tree which yield the largest proportion of ashes on
combustion, and of course they supply a great amount of nutriment for
the young shoots. "A cubic foot of twigs," says Vaupell, "yields four
times as much ashes as a cubic foot of stem wood. ... For every hundred
weight of dried leaves carried off from a beech forest, we sacrifice a
hundred and sixty cubic feet of wood. The leaves and the mosses are a
substitute, not only for manure, but for ploughing. The carbonic acid
given out by decaying leaves, when taken up by water, serves to dissolve
the mineral constituents of the soil, and is particularly active in
disintegrating feldspar and the clay derived from its decomposition. ...
The leaves belong to the soil. Without them it cannot preserve its
fertility, and cannot furnish nutriment to the beech. The trees
languish, produce seed incapable of germination, and the spontaneous
self-sowing, which is an indispensable element in the best systems of
sylviculture, fails altogether in the bared and impoverished soil."
[Footnote: Vaupell, Bogens Indvandring i de Danske Skove, pp. 29, 46.
Vaupell further observes, on the page last quoted: "The removal of
leaves is injurious to the forest, not only because it retards the
growth of trees, but still more because it disqualifies the soil for the
production of particular species. When the beech languishes, and the
development of its branches is less vigorous and its crown less
spreading, it becomes unable to resist the encroachments of the fir.
This latter tree thrives in an inferior soil, and being no longer
stifled by the thick foliage of the beech, it spreads gradually through
the wood, while the beech retreats before it and finally perishes."

Schleiden confirms the opinion of Vaupell, and adds many important
observations on this subject.--Fur Baum und Wald, pp. 64, 65.]

Besides these evils, the removal of the leaves deprives the soil of much
of that spongy character which gives it such immense value as a
reservoir of moisture and a regulator of the flow of springs; and,
finally, it exposes the surface-roots to the drying influence of sun and
wind, to accidental mechanical injury from the tread of animals or men,
and, in cold climates, to the destructive effects of frost.


Protection against Wild Animals.

It is often necessary to take measures for the protection of young trees
against the rabbit, the mole, and other rodent quadrupeds, and of older
ones against the damage done by the larvae of insects hatched upon the
surface or in the tissues of the bark, or even in the wood itself. The
much greater liability of the artificial than of the natural forest to
injury from this cause is perhaps the only point in which the
superiority of the former to the latter is not as marked as that of any
domesticated vegetable to its wild representative. But the better
quality of the wood and the much more rapid growth of the trained and
regulated forest are abundant compensations for the loss thus
occasioned, and the progress of entomological science will, perhaps,
suggest new methods of preventing the ravages of insects. Thus far,
however, the collection and destruction ofthe eggs, by simple but
expensive means, has proved the most effectual remedy. [Footnote: I have
remarked elsewhere that most insects which deposit and hatch their eggs
in the wood of the natural forest confine themselves to dead trees. Not
only is this the fact, but it is also true that many of the borers
attack only freshly-cut timber. Their season of labor is a short one,
and unless the tree is cut during this period, it is safe from them. In
summer you may hear them plying their augers in the wood of a young pine
with soft, green bark, as you sit upon its trunk, within a week after it
has been felled, but the windfalls of the winter lie uninjured by the
worm and even undecayed for centuries. In the pine woods of New England,
after the regular lumberman has removed the standing trees, these old
trunks are hauled out from the mosses and leaves which half cover them,
and often furnish excellent timber. The slow decay of such timber in the
woods, it may be remarked, furnishes another proof of the uniformity of
temperature and humidity in the forest, for the trunk of a tree lying on
grass or ploughland, and of course exposed to all the alternations of
climate, hardly resists complete decomposition for a generation. The
forests of Europe exhibit similar facts. Wessely, in a description of
the primitive wood of Neuwald in Lower Austria, says that the windfalls
required from 150 to 200 years for entire decay.--Die Oesterreichischen
Alpenlander und ihre Forste, p. 312.

The comparative immunity of the American native forests from attacks by
insects is perhaps in some degree due to the fact that the European
destructive tribes have not yet found their way across the ocean, and
that our native species are less injurious to living trees. On the
European lignivorous insects, see Siemoni, Manuale d'Arte Forestale, 2d
edizione, pp. 369-379.]


Exclusion of Domestic Quadrupeds.

But probably the most important of all rules for the government of the
forest, whether natural or artificial, is that which prescribes the
absolute exclusion of all domestic quadrupeds, except swine, from every
wood which is not destined to be cleared. No growth of young trees is
possible where horned cattle, sheep, or goats, or even horses, are
permitted to pasture at any season of the year, though they are
doubtless most destructive when trees are in leaf. [Footnote: Although
the economy of the forest has received little attention in the United
States, no lover of American nature can have failed to observe a marked
difference between a native wood from which cattle are excluded and one
where they are permitted to browse. A few seasons suffice for the total
extirpation of the "underbrush," including the young trees on which
alone the reproduction of the forest depends, and all the branches of
those of larger growth which hang within reach of the cattle are
stripped of their buds and leaves, and soon wither and fall off. These
effects are observable at a great distance, and a wood-pasture is
recognized, almost as far as it can be seen, by the regularity with
which its lower foliage terminates at what Ruskin somewhere calls the
"cattle-line." This always runs parallel to the surface of the ground,
and is determined by the height to which domestic quadrupeds can reach
to feed upon the leaves. In describing a visit to the grand-ducal farm
of San Rossore near Pisa, where a large herd of camels is kept,
Chateauvieux says: "In passing through a wood of evergreen oaks, I
observed that all the twigs and foliage of the trees were clipped up to
the height of about twelve feet above the ground, without leaving a
single spray below that level. I was informed that the browsing of the
camels had trimmed the trees as high as they could reach." F. Lullin De
Chateuvieux, Lettres sur l'Italie, p. 118.

Browsing animals, and most of all the goat, are considered by foresters
as more injurious to the growth of young trees, and, therefore, to the
reproduction of the forest, than almost any other destructive cause.
According to Beatson's Saint Helena, introductory chapter, and Darwin's
Journal of Researches in Geology and Natural History, pp. 582, 583, it
was the goats which destroyed the beautiful forests that, three hundred
and fifty years ago, covered a continuous surface of not less than two
thousand acres in the interior of the island [of St. Helena], not to
mention scattered groups of trees. Darwin observes: "During our stay at
Valparaiso, I was most positively assured that sandal-wood formerly grew
in abundance on the island of Juan Fernandez, but that this tree had now
become entirely extinct there, having been extirpated by the goats which
early navigators had introduced. The neighboring islands, to which goats
have not been carried, still abound in sandal-wood."

In the winter, the deer tribe, especially the great American moose-deer,
subsists much on the buds and young sprouts of trees; yet--though from
the destruction of the wolves or from some not easily explained cause,
these latter animals have recently multiplied so rapidly in some parts
of North America, that, not long since, four hundred of them are said to
have been killed, in one season, on a territory in Maine not comprising
more than one hundred and fifty square miles--the wild browsing
quadrupeds are rarely, if ever, numerous enough in regions uninhabited
by man to produce any sensible effect on the condition of the forest. A
reason why they are less injurious than the goat to young trees may be
that they resort to this nutriment only in the winter, when the grasses
and shrubs are leafless or covered with snow, whereas the goat feeds
upon buds and young shoots principally in the season of growth. However
this may be, the natural law of consumption and supply keeps the forest
growth, and the wild animals which live on its products, in such a state
of equilibrium as to insure the indefinite continuance of both, and the
perpetuity of neither is endangered until man interferes and destroys
the balance.

When, however, deer are bred and protected in parks, they multiply like
domestic cattle, and become equally injurious to trees. "A few years
ago," says Clave, "there were not less than two thousand deer of
different ages in the forest of Fontainebleau. For want of grass, they
are driven to the trees, and they do not spare them ... It is calculated
that the browsing of these animals, and the consequent retardation of
the growth of the wood, diminishes the annual product of the forest to
the amount of two hundred thousand cubic feet per year, ... and besides
this, the trees thus mutilated are soon exhausted and die. The deer
attack the pines, too, tearing off the bark in long strips, or rubbing
theie heads against them when shedding their horns; and sometimes, in
groves of more than a hundred hectares, not one pine is found uninjured
by them."--Revue des Deux Mondes, Mai, 1863, p. 157.

Vaupell, though agreeing with other writers as to the injury done to the
forest by most domestic animals and by half-tamed deer--which he
illustrates in an interesting way in his posthumous work, The Danish
Woods--thinks, nonetheless, that at the season when the mast is falling,
swine are rather useful than otherwise to forests of beech and oak, by
treading into the ground and thus sowing beechnuts and acorns, and by
destroying moles and mice.--De Danake Skore, p. 12. Meguschor is of the
same opinion, and adds that swine destroy injurious insects and their
larvae.--Memoria, etc., p. 233.

Beckstein computes that a park of 2,500 acres, containing 250 acres of
marsh, 250 of fields and meadows, and the remaining 2,000 of wood, mny
keep 364 deer of different species, 47 wild boars, 200 hares, 100
rabbits, and an indefinite number of pheasants. These animals would
require, in winter, 123,000 pounds of hay, and 22,000 pounds of
potatoes, besides what they would pick up themselves. The natural forest
most thickly peopled with wild animals would not, in temperate climates,
contain, upon the average, one-tenth of these numbers to the same extent
of surface.]

These animals browse upon the terminal buds and the tender branches,
thereby stunting, if they do not kill, the young trees, and depriving
them of all beauty and vigor of growth.


Forest Fires.

The difficulty of protecting the woods against accidental or incendiary
fires is one of the most discouraging circumstances attending the
preservation of natural and the plantation of artificial
forests. [Footnote: The disappearance of the forests of ancient Gaul and
of mediaeval France has been ascribed by some writers as much to
accidental fires as to the felling of the trees. All the treatises on
sylviculture are full of narratives of forest fires. The woods of
Corsica and Sardinia have suffered incalculable injury from this cause,
and notwithstanding the resistance of the cork-tree to injury from
common fires, the government forests of this valuable tree in Algeria
have been lately often set on fire by the natives and have sustained
immense damage. See an article by Ysabeau in the Annales Forestieres, t.
iii., p. 439; Della Marmora, Voyage en Sardaigne, 2d edition, t. i., p.
426; Rivista Forestale del Regno d'Italia, October, 1865, p. 474. Five
or six years ago I saw in Switzerland a considerable forest, chiefly of
young trees, which had recently been burnt over. I was told that the
poor of the commune had long enjoyed a customary privilege of carrying
off dead wood and windfalls, and that they had set the forest on fire to
kill the trees and so increase the supply of their lawful plunder. The
customary rights of herdsmen, shepherds, and peasants in European
forests are often an insuperable obstacle to the success of attempts to
preserve the woods or to improve their condition. See, on this subject,
Alfred Maury, Les anciens Forets de la Gaule, chap. xxix.] In the
spontaneous wood the spread of fire is somewhat retarded by the general
humidity of the soil and of the beds of leaves which cover it. But in
long droughts the superficial layer of leaves and the dry fallen
branches become as inflammable as tinder, and the fire spreads with
fearful rapidity, until its further progress is arrested by want of
material, or, more rarely, by heavy rains, sometimes caused, as many
meteorologists suppose, by the conflagration itself.

In the artificial forest the annual removal of fallen or half-dried
trees and the leaves and other droppings of the wood, though otherwise a
very injurious practice, much diminishes the rapid spread of fires; and
the absence of combustible underwood and the greater distance between
the trees are additional safeguards. But, on the other hand, the
comparative dryness of the soil, and of any leaves or twigs which may
remain upon it, and the greater facility for the passage of
wind-currents through a regularly planted and more open wood, are
circumstances unfavorable to the security of the trees against this
formidable danger. The natural forest, unless isolated and of small
extent, can be protected from fire only by a vigilance too costly to be
systematically practised. But the artificial wood may be secured by a
network of ditches and of paths or occasional open glades, which both
check the running of the fire and furnish the means of approaching and
combating it. [Footnote: It is stated that in the pine woods of the
Landes of Gascony a fire has never been known to cross a railway-track
or a common road. See Des Incendies, etc., dans la Region des Maures in
the Revue des Eaux et Forets for February, 1869. Many other important
articles on this subject will be found in other numbers of the same very
valuable periodical.]

The experience of 1871 ought not to be wholly without value as a lesson.
It is not possible to estimate the damage by forest fires in that
disastrous year, in what were lately the North-western States, and in
Canada, but as the demand for lumber, and consequently, its market
price, are rising at a rate higher than the interest on capital, in a
geometrical ratio, one may almost say it is probable that ten years
hence those fires will be thought to have diminished the national wealth
by a larger amount than even the terrible conflagration at Chicago.

There is no good reason why insurance companies should not guarantee the
proprietor of a wood as well as the owner of a house against damage by
fire. In Europe there is no conceivable liability to pecuniary loss
which may not be insured against. The American companies might at first
be embarrassed in estimating the risk, but the experience of a few years
would suggest safe principles, and all parties would find advantage in
this extension of security.


Forest Legislation.

I have alleged sufficient reasons for believing that a desolation, like
that which has overwhelmed many once beautiful and fertile regions of
Europe, awaits an important part of the territory of the United States,
and of other comparatively new countries over which European
civilization is now extending its sway, unless prompt measures are taken
to check the action of destructive causes already in operation. It is
almost in vain to expect that mere restrictive legislation can do
anything effectual to arrest the progress of the evil in those
countries, except so far as the state is still the proprietor of
extensive forests. Woodlands which have passed into private hands will
everywhere be managed, in spite of legal restrictions, upon the same
economical principles as other possessions, and every proprietor will,
as a general rule, fell his woods, unless he believes that it will be
for his pecuniary interest to preserve them. Few of the new provinces
which the last three centuries have brought under the control of the
European race, would tolerate any interference by the law-making power
with what they regard as the most sacred of civil rights--the right,
namely, of every man to do what he will with his own. In the Old World,
even in France, whose people, of all European nations, love best to be
governed and are least annoyed by bureaucratic supervision, law has been
found impotent to prevent the destruction, or wasteful economy, of
private forests; and in many of the mountainous departments of that
country, man is at this moment so fast laying waste the face of the
earth, that the most serious fears are entertained, not only of the
depopulation of those districts, but of enormous mischiefs to the
provinces contiguous to them. [Footnote: "The laws against clearing have
never been able to prevent these operations when the proprietor found
his advantage in them, and the long series of royal ordinances and
decrees of parliaments, proclaimed from the days of Charlemagne to our
own, with a view of securing forest property against the improvidence of
its owners, have served only to show the impotence of legislative action
on this subject."--Clave, Etudes sur l'Economie Forestiere, p. 32.

"A proprietor can always contrive to clear his woods, whatever may be
done to prevent him; it is a mere question of time, and a few imprudent
cuttings, a few abuses of the right of pasturage, suffice to destry a
forest in spite of all regulations to the contrary."--Dunoyer, De la
Liberte du Travail, ii., p. 452, as quoted by Clave, p. 353.

Both authors agree that the preservation of the forests in France is
practicable only by their transfer to the state, which alone can protect
them and secure their proper treatment. It is much to be feared that
even this measure would be inadequate to preserve the forests of the
American Union. There is little respect for public property in America,
and the Federal Government, certainly, would not be the proper agent of
the nation for this purpose. It proved itself unable to protect the
live-oak woods of Florida, which were intended to be preserved for the
use of the navy, and it more than once paid contractors a high price for
timber stolen from its own forests. The authorities of the individual
States might be more efficient.] The only legal provisions from which
anything is to be hoped, are such as shall make it a matter of private
advantage to the landholder to spare the trees upon his grounds, and
promote the growth of the young wood. Much may be done by exempting
standing forests from taxation, and by imposing taxes on wood felled for
fuel or for timber, something by more stringent provisions against
trespasses on forest property, and something by premiums or honorary
distinctions for judicious management of the woods; and, in short, in
this matter rewards rather than punishments must be the incentives to
obedience even to a policy of enlightened self-interest. It might be
difficult to induce governments, general or local, to make the necessary
appropriations for such purposes, but there can be no doubt that it
would be sound economy in the end.

In countries where there exist municipalities endowed with an
intelligent public spirit, the purchase and control of forests by such
corporations would often prove advantageous; and in some of the
provinces of Northern Lombardy, experience has shown that such
operations may be conducted with great benefit to all the interests
connected with the proper management of the woods. In Switzerland, on
the other hand, except in some few cases where woods have been preserved
as a defence against avalanches, the forests of the communes have been
of little advantage to the public interests, and have very generally
gone to decay. [Footnote: A better economy has been of late introduced
into the management of the forest in Switzerland. Excellent official
reports on the subject have been published and important legal
provisions adopted.] The rights of pasturage, everywhere destructive to
trees, combined with toleration of trespasses, have so reduced their
value, that there is, too often, nothing left that is worth protecting.
In the canton of Ticino, the peasants have very frequently voted to sell
the town-woods and divide the proceeds among the corporators. The
sometimes considerable sums thus received are squandered in wild
revelry, and the sacrifice of the forests brings not even a momentary
benefit to the proprietors. [Footnote: See in Berlepscu, Die Alpen,
chapter Holzschlager und Flosser, a lively account of the sale of a
communal wood.]

Fortunately for the immense economical and sanitary interests involved
in this branch of rural and industrial husbandry, public opinion in many
parts of the United States is thoroughly roused to the importance of the
subject. In the Eastern States, plantations of a certain extent have
been made, and a wiser system is pursued in the treatment of the
remaining native woods. [Footnote: When the census of 1860 was taken,
the States of Maine and New York produced and exported lumber in
abundance. Neither of them now has timber enough for domestic use, and
they are both compelled to draw much of their supply from Canada and the
West.] Important experiments have been tried in Massachusetts on the
propagation of forest-trees on seashore bluffs exposed to strong winds.
This had been generally supposed to be impossible, but the experiments
in question afford a gratifying proof that this is an erroneous opinion.
Piper gives an interesting account of Mr. Tudor's success in planting
trees on the bleak and barren shore of Nahant. "Mr. Tudor," observes he,
"has planted more than ten thousand trees at Nahaut, and, by the results
of his experiments, has fully demonstrated that trees, properly cared
for in the beginning, may be made to grow up to the very bounds of the
ocean, exposed to the biting of the wind and the spray of the sea. The
only shelter they require is, at first, some interruption to break the
current of the wind, such as fences, houses, or other trees." [Footnote:
Trees of America, p. 10.]

Young trees protected against the wind by a fence will somewhat overtop
their shelter, and every tree will serve as a screen to a taller one
behind it. Extensive groves have thus been formed in situations where an
isolated tree would not grow at all.

The people of the Far West have thrown themselves into the work, we
cannot say of restoration, but rather of creation, of woodland, with
much of the passionate energy which marks their action in reference to
other modes of physical improvement. California has appointed a State
forester with a liberal salary, and made such legal provisions and
appropriations as to render the discharge of his duties effectual. The
hands that built the Pacific Railroad at the rate of miles in a day are
now busy in planting belts of trees to shelter the track from snow-
drifts, and to supply, at a future day, timber for ties and fuel for the
locomotives. The settlers on the open plains, too, are not less actively
engaged in the propagation of the woods, and if we can put faith in the
official statistics on the subject, not thousands but millions of trees
are annually planted on the prairies.

These experiments are of much scientific as well as economical interest.
The prairies have never been wooded, so far as we know their history,
and it has been contended that successful sylviculture would be
impracticable in those regions from the want of rain. But we are
acquainted with no soil and climate which favor the production of
herbage and forbid the rearing of trees, and, as Bryant well observes,
"it seems certain that where grass will grow trees may be made to grow
also." [Footnote: The origin of our Western treeless prairies and
plains, as of the Russian steppes, which much resemble them, is obscure,
but the want of forests upon them, seems to be due to climatic
conditions and especially to a want of spring and summer rains, which
prevents the spontaneous formation of forests upon them, though not
necessarily the growth of trees artificially planted and cared for.
Climatic conditions more or less resembling those of our Western
territories produce analogous effects in India. Much valuable
information on the relations between climate and forest vegetation will
be found in an article by Dr. Brandis, On the Distribution of Forests in
India, in Ocean Highways for October, 1872.

In the more eastwardly prairie region fires have done much to prevent
the spread of the native groves, and throughout the whole woodless
plains the pastorage of the buffalo alone would suffice to prevent a
forest growth. The prairies were the proper feeding-grounds of the
bison, and the vast number of those animals is connected, as cause or
consequence, with the existence of these vast pastures. The bison,
indeed, could not convert the forest into a pasture, but he would do
much to prevent the pasture from becoming a forest.

There is positive evidence that some of the American tribes possessed
large herds of domesticated bisons. See Humboldt, Ansichten der Natur,
i., pp. 71-73. What authorizes us to affirm that this was simply the
wild bison reclaimed, and why may we not, with equal probability,
believe that the migratory prairie-buffalo is the progeny of the
domestic animal run wild?

There are, both on the prairies, as in Wisconsin, and in deep forests,
as in Ohio, extensive remains of a primitive people, who must have been
more numerous and more advanced in art than the present Indian tribes.
There can be no doubt that the woods where such earthworks are found in
Ohio were cleared by them, and that the vicinity of these fortresses or
temples was inhabited by a large population. Nothing forbids the
supposition that the prairies were cleared by the same or a similar
people, and that the growth of trees upon them has been prevented by
fires and grazing, while the restoration of the woods in Ohio may be due
to the abandonment of that region by its original inhabitants. The
climatic conditions unfavorable to the spontaneous growth of trees on
the prairies may possibly be an effect of too extensive clearings,
rather than a cause of the want of woods.

It is disputed whether the steppes of Russia were ever wooded. They were
certainly bare of forest growth at a very remote period; for Herodotus
describes the country of the Scythians between the Ister and the Tanais
as woodless, with the exception of the small province of Xylaea between
the Dnieper and the Gulf of Perekop. They are known to have been
occupied by a large nomade and pastoral population down to the sixteenth
century, though these tribes are now much reduced in numbers. The habits
of such races are scarcely less destructive to the forest than those of
civilized life. Pastoral tribes do not employ much wood for fuel or for
construction, but they carelessly or recklessly burn down the forests,
and their cattle effectually check the growth of young trees wherever
their range extends.

At present, the furious winds which sweep over the plains, the droughts
of summer, and the rights and abuses of pasturage, constitute very
formidable obstacles to the employment of measures which have been
attended with so valuable results on the sand-wastes of France and
Germany. The Russian Government has, however, attempted the wooding of
the steppes, and there are thriving plantations in the neighborhood of
Odessa, where the soil is of a particularly loose and sandy character.
The tree best suited to this locality, and, as there is good reason to
suppose, to sand plains in general, is the Ailanthus glandulosa, or
Japan varnish-tree. The remarkable success which has crowned the
experiments with the ailanthus at Odessa, will, no doubt, stimulate to
similar trials elsewhere, and it seems not improbable that the arundo
and the maritime pine, which have fixed so many thousand acres of
drifting sands in Western Europe, will be, partially at leaat,
superseded by the tamarisk and the varnish-tree.

According to Hohenstein, Der Wald, pp. 228, 229, an extensive
plantation of pines--a tree new to Southern Russia--was commenced in
1842, on the barren and sandy banks of the Ingula, near Elisabethgrod,
and has met with very flattering success. Other experiments in
sylviculture at different points on the steppes promise valuable
results.] In any case the question will now be subjected to a practical
test, and the plantations are so extensive, and, as is reported, so
thrifty in growth, that one generation will suffice to determine with
certainty and precision how far climate is affected by clothing with
wood a vast territory naturally destitute of that protection.

I have thus far spoken only of the preservation and training of existing
woods, not of the planting of new forests, because European experience,
to which alone we can appeal, is conversant only with conditions so
different from those of our own climate, soil, and arboreal vegetation,
that precedents drawn from it cannot be relied upon as entirely safe
rules for our guidance in that branch of rural economy. [Footnote: Many
valuable suggestions on this subject will be found in Bryant, Forest
Trees, chap. vi. et seqq.]

I apprehend that one rule, which is certainly alike applicable to both
sides of the Atlantic--that, namely, of the absolute exclusion of
domestic quadrupeds from all woods, old or young, not destined for the
axe--would be least likely to be observed in our practice. The need of
shade for cattle, and our inveterate habits in this respect, are much
more serious obstacles to compliance with this precept than any inherent
difficulty in the thing itself; for there is no good reason why our
cattle may not be kept out of our woods as well as out of our
wheatfields. When forest-planting is earnestly and perseveringly
practised, means of overcoming this difficulty will be found, and our
husbandry will be modified to meet the exigency.

The best general advice that can be offered, in the want of an
experimental code, is to make every plantation consist of a great
variety of trees, and this not only because nature favors a diversified
forest-crop, but because the chances of success among a multitude of
species are far greater than if we confine ourselves to one or two.

It will doubtless be found that in our scorching summer, especially on
bare plains, shade for young plants is even more necessary than in most
parts of Europe, and hence a fair proportion of rapidly growing trees
and shrubs, even if themselves of little intrinsic value, ought to be
regarded as an indispensable feature in every young plantation. These
trees should be of species which bear a full supply of air and light,
and therefore, in the order of nature, precede those which are of
greater value for the permanent wood; and it would be a prudent measure
to seed the ground with a stock of such plants, a year or two before
sowing or transplanting the more valuable varieties.

More specific rules than these cannot at present well be given, but very
brief experiments, even if not in all respects wisely conducted, will
suffice to determine the main question: whether in a given locality this
or that particular tree can advantageously be propagated or introduced.
The special processes of arboriculture suited to the ends of the planter
may be gathered partly from cautious imitation of European practice, and
partly from an experience which, though not pronouncing definitively in
a single season, will, nevertheless, suggest appropriate methods of
planting and training the wood within a period not disproportioned to
the importance of the object. [Footnote: For very judicious suggestions
on experiments in sylviculture, see the Rev. Frederick Starr's
remarkable paper on the American Forests in the Transactions of the
Agricultural Society for -.]

The growth of arboreal vegetation is comparatively slow, and we are
often told that, though he who buries an acorn may hope to see it shoot
up to a miniature resemblance of the majestic tree which shall shade his
remote descendants, yet the longest life hardly embraces the seedtime
and the harvest of a forest. The planter of a wood, it is said, must be
actuated by higher motives than those of an investment, the profits of
which consist in direct pecuniary gain to himself or even to his
posterity; for if, in rare cases, an artificial forest may, in a
generation or two, more than repay its original cost, still, in general,
the value of its timber will not return the capital expended and the
interest accrued. [Footnote: According to Clave (Etudes, p. 159), the
net revenue from the forests of the state in France, making no allowance
for interest on the capital represented by the forest, is two dollars
per acre. In Saxony it is about the same, though the cost of
administration is twice as much as in France; in Wurtemberg it is about
a dollar an acre; and in Prussia, where half the income is consumed in
the expenses of administration, it sinks to less than half a dollar.
This low rate in Prussia and other German states is partly explained by
the fact that a considerable proportion of the annual product of the
wood is either conceded to persons claiming prescriptive rights, or
sold, at a very small price, to the poor. Taking into account the
capital invested in forest-land, and adding interest upon it, Pressler
calculates that a pine wood, managed with a view to felling it when
eighty years old, would yield one-eighth of one per cent. annual profit;
a fir wood, at one hundred years, one-sixth of one per cent.; a beech
wood, at one hundred and twenty years, one-fourth of one per cent. The
same author gives the net income of the New Forest in England, over and
above expenses, interest not computed, at twenty-five cents per acre
only. In America, where no expense is bestowed upon the woods, the value
of the annual growth has generally been estimated much higher.
Forest-trees are often planted in Europe for what may be called an early
crop. Thus in Germany acorns are sown and the young seedlings cultivated
like ordinary field-vegetables, and cut at the age of a very few years
for the sake of the bark and young twigs used by tanners. In England,
trees are grown at the rate of two thousand to the acre, and cut for
props in the mines at the diameter of a few inches. Plantations for
hoop-poles, and other special purposes requiring small timber, would, no
doubt, often prove high remunerative.] But the modern improved methods
of sylviculture show vastly more favorable financial results; and when
we consider the immense collateral advantages derived from the presence
of the forest, the terrible evils necessarily resulting from its
destruction, we cannot but admit that the preservation of existing
woods, and the more costly extension and creation of them where they
have been unduly reduced or have never existed, are among the plainest
dictates of self-interest and most obvious of the duties which this age
owes to those that are to come after it.


Financial Results of Forest Plantation.

Upon the whole, I am persuaded that the financial statistics which are
found in French and German authors, as the results of European
experience in forest economy, present the question under a too
unfavorable aspect; and therefore these calculations ought not to
discourage landed proprietors from making experiments on this subject.
These statistics apply to woods whose present condition is, in an
eminent degree, the effect of previous long-continued mismanagement; and
there is much reason to believe that in the propitious climate of the
United States new plantations, regulated substantially according to the
methods of De Courval, Chambrelent, and Chevandier, and accompanied with
the introduction of exotic trees, as, for example, the Australian
caruarina and eucalyptus [Footnote: Although the eucalyptus thrives
admirably in Algeria--where it attains a height of from fifty to sixty
feet, and a diameter of fifteen or sixteen inches, in six years from the
seed--and in some restricted localities in Southern Europe, it will not
bear the winters even of Florence, and consequently cannot be expected
to flourish in any part of the United States except the extreme South
and California. The writer of a somewhat enthusiastic article on this
latter State, in Harper's Monthly for July, 1872, affirms that he saw a
eucalyptus "eight years from a small cutting, which was seventy-five
feet in height, and two feet and a half in diameter at the base."

The paulownia, which thrives in Northern Italy, has a wood of little
value, but the tree would serve well as a shelter for seedlings and
young plants of more valuable species, and in other cases where a
temporary shade is urgently needed. The young shoots, from a stem polled
the previous season, almost surpass even the eucalyptus in rapidity of
growth. Such a shoot from a tree not six inches in diameter, which I had
an opportunity of daily observing, from the bursting out of the bud from
the bark of the parent stem in April till November of the same year,
acquired in that interval a diameter of between four and five inches and
a height of above twenty feet.] which, latter, it is said, has a growth
at least five, and, according to some, ten times more rapid than that of
the oak--would prove good investments even in an economical aspect.
[Footnote: The economical statistics of Grigor, Arboriculture,
Edinburgh, 1868, are very encouraging. In the preface to that work the
author says: "Having formed several large plantations nearly forty years
ago, which are still standing, in the Highlands of Scotland, I can refer
to them as, after paying every expense, yielding a revenue equal to that
of the finest arable land in the country, where the ground previously to
these formations was not worth a shilling an acre." See also Hartig,
Ueber den Wachsthumsgang und Ertrag der Buche, Eiche und Kiefer, 1869,
and especially Bryant, Forest Trees, chap. ix.]

There is no doubt that they would pay the expenses of their planting at
no distant period, at least in every case where irrigation is possible,
and in very many situations, terraces, ditches, or even horizontal
furrows upon the hillsides, would answer as a substitute for more
artificial irrigation. Large proprietors would receive important
indirect benefits from the shelter and the moisture which forests
furnish for the lands in their neighborhood, and eventually from the
accumulation of vegetable mould in the woods. [Footnote: The fertility
of newly cleared land is by no means due entirely to the accumulation of
decayed vegetable matter on its surface, and to the decomposition of the
mineral constituents of the soil by the gases emitted by the fallen
leaves. Sachs has shown that the roots of living plants exercise a most
powerful solvent action on rocks, and hence stones are disintegrated and
resolved into elements of vegetable nutrition, by the chemical agency of
the forest, more rapidly than by frost, rain, and other meteorological
influences.] The security of the investment, as in the case of all
real-estate, is a strong argument for undertaking such plantations, and
a moderate amount of government patronage and encouragement would be
sufficient to render the creation of new forests an object of private
interest as well as of public advantage, especially in a country where
the necessity is so urgent and the climate so favorable as in the United
States.


Instability of American Life.

All human institutions, associate arrangements, modes of life, have
their characteristic imperfections. The natural, perhaps the necessary
defect of ours, is their instability, their want of fixedness, not in
form only, but even in spirit. The face of physical nature in the United
States shares this incessant fluctuation, and the landscape is as
variable as the habits of the population. It is time for some abatement
in the restless love of change which characterizes us, and makes us
almost a nomade rather than a sedentary people. [Footnote: It is rare
that a middle-aged American dies in the house where he was born, or an
old man even in that which he has built; and this is scarcely less true
of the rural districts, where every man owns his habitation, than of the
city, where the majority live hired houses. This life of incessant
flitting is unfavorable for the execution of permanent improvements of
every sort, and especially of those which, like the forest, are slow in
repaying any part of the capital expended in them. It requires a very
generous spirit in a landholder to plant a wood on a farm he expects to
sell, or which he knows will pass out of the hands of his descendants at
his death. But the very fact of having begun a plantation would attach
the proprietor more strongly to the soil for which he had made such a
sacrifice; and the paternal acres would have a greater value in the eyes
of a succeeding generation, if thus improved and beautified by the
labors of those from whom they were inherited. Landed property,
therefore, the transfer of which is happily free from every legal
impediment or restriction in the United States, would find, in the
feelings thus prompted, a moral check against a too frequent change of
owners, and would tend to remain long enough in one proprietor or one
family to admit of gradual improvements which would increase its value
both to the possessor and to the state.] We have now felled forest
enough everywhere, in many districts far too much. Let us restore this
one element of material life to its normal proportions, and devise means
of maintaining the permanence of its relations to the fields, the
meadows, and the pastures, to the rain and the dews of heaven, to the
springs and rivulets with which it waters the earth. The establishment
of an approximately fixed ratio between the two most broadly
characterized distinctions of rural surface--woodland and
ploughland--would involve a certain persistence of character in all the
branches of industry, all the occupations and habits of life, which
depend upon or are immediately connected with either, without implying a
rigidity that should exclude flexibility of accommodation to the many
changes of external circumstance which human wisdom can neither prevent
nor foresee, and would thus help us to become, more emphatically, a
well-ordered and stable commonwealth, and, not less conspicuously, a
people of progress.



CHAPTER IV.

THE WATERS.

Land Artificially won from the Waters--Great Works of Material
Improvement--Draining of Lincolnshire Fens--Incursions of the Sea in the
Netherlands--Origin of Sea-dikes--Gain and Loss of Land in the
Netherlands--Marine Deposits on the Coast of Netherlands--Draining of
Lake of Haarlem--Draining of the Zuiderzee--Geographical Effects of
Improvements in the Netherlands--Ancient Hydraulic Works--Draining of
Lake Celano by Prince Torlonia--Incidental Consequences of draining
Lakes--Draining of Marshes--Agricultural Draining--Meteorological
Effects of Draining--Geographical Effects of Draining--Geographical
Effects of Aqueducts and Canals--Antiquity of Irrigation--Irrigation in
Palestine, India, and Egypt--Irrigation in Europe--Meteorological
Effects of Irrigation--Water withdrawn from Rivers for
Irrigation--Injurious Effects of Rice-culture--Salts Deposited by Water
of Irrigation--Subterranean Waters--Artesian Wells--Artificial
Springs--Economizing Precipitation--Inundations in France--Basins of
Reception--Diversion of Rivers--Glacier Lakes--River Embankments--Other
Remedies against Inundations--Dikes of the Nile--Deposits of Tuscan
Rivers--Improvements in Tuscan Maremma--Improvements in Val di
Chiana--Coast of the Netherlands.


Land artificially won from the Waters.

Man, as we have seen, has done much to revolutionize the solid surface
of the globe, and to change the distribution and proportions, if not the
essential character, of the organisms which inhabit the land and even
the waters. Besides the influence thus exerted upon the life which
peoples the sea, his action upon the land has involved a certain amount
of indirect encroachment upon the territorial jurisdiction of the ocean.
So far as he has increased the erosion of running waters by the
destruction of the forest or by other operations which lessen the
cohesion of the soil, he has promoted the deposit of solid matter in the
sea, thus reducing the depth of marine estuaries, advancing the
coast-line, and diminishing the area covered by the waters. He has gone
beyond this, and invaded the realm of the ocean by constructing within
its borders wharves, piers, light-houses, breakwaters, fortresses, and
other facilities for his commercial and military operations; and in some
countries he has permanently rescued from tidal overflow, and even from
the very bed of the deep, tracts of ground extensive enough to
constitute valuable additions to his agricultural domain. The quantity
of soil gained from the sea by these different modes of acquisition is,
indeed, too inconsiderable to form an appreciable element in the
comparison of the general proportion between the two great forms of
terrestrial surface, land and water; but the results of such operations,
considered in their physical and their moral bearings, are sufficiently
important to entitle them to special notice in every comprehensive view
of the relations between man and nature.

There are cases, as on the western shores of the Baltic, where, in
consequence of the secular elevation of the coast, the sea appears to be
retiring; others, where, from the slow sinking of the land, it seems to
be advancing. These movements depend upon geological causes wholly out
of our reach, and man can neither advance nor retard them. [Footnote: It
is possible that the weight of the sediment let fall at the mouths of
great rivers, like the Ganges, the Mississippi, and the Po, may cause
the depression of the strata on which they are deposited, and hence if
man promotes the erosion and transport of earthy material by rivers, he
augments the weight of the sediment they convey into their estuaries,
and consequently his action tends to accelerate such depression. There
are, however, cases where, in spite of great deposits of sediment by
rivers, the coast is rising. Further, the manifestation of the internal
heat of the earth at any given point is conditioned by the thickness of
the crust at such point. The deposits of rivers tend to augment that
thickness at their estuaries. The sediment of slowly-flowing rivers
emptying into shallow seas is spread over so great a surface that we can
hardly imagine the foot or two of slime they let fall over a wide area
in a century to form an element among even the infinitesimal quantities
which compose the terms of the equations of nature. But some swift
rivers, rolling mountains of fine earth, discharge themselves into
deeply scooped gulfs or bays, and in such cases the deposit amounts, in
the course of a few years, to a mass the transfer of which from the
surface of a large basin, and its accumulation at a single point, may be
supposed to produce other effects than those measurable by the
sounding-line. Now, almost all the operations of rural life, as I have
abundantly shown, increase the liability of the soil to erosion by
water. Hence, the clearing of the valley of the Ganges, for example, by
man, must have much augmented the quantity of earth transported by that
river to the sea, and of course have strengthened the effects, whatever
they may be, of thickening the crust of the earth in the Bay of Bengal.
In such cases, then, human action must rank among geological influences.

To the geological effects of the thickening of the earth's crust in the
Bay of Bengal, are to be added those of thinning it on the highlands
where the Ganges rises. The same action may, as a learned friend
suggests to me, even have a cosmical influence. The great rivers of the
earth, taken as a whole, transport sediment from the polar regions in an
equatorial direction, and hence tend to increase the equatorial
diameter, and at the same time, by their inequality of action, to a
continual displacement of the centre of gravity, of the earth. The
motion of the globe, and of all bodies affected by its attraction, is
modified by every change of its form, and in this case we are not
authorized to say that such effects are in any way compensated.]

There are also cases where similar apparent effects are produced by
local oceanic currents, by river deposit or erosion, by tidal action, or
by the influence of the wind upon the waves and the sands of the
seabeach. A regular current may drift suspended earth and seaweed along
a coast until they are caught by an eddy and finally deposited out of
the reach of further disturbance, or it may scoop out the bed of the sea
and undermine promontories and headlands; a powerful river, as the wind
changes the direction of its flow at its outlet, may wash away shores
and sandbanks at one point to deposit their material at another; the
tide or waves, stirred to unusual depths by the wind, may gradually wear
down the line of coast, or they may form shoals and coast-dunes by
depositing the sand they have rolled up from the bottom of the ocean.
These latter modes of action are slow in producing effects sufficiently
important to be noticed in general geography, or even to be visible in
the representations of coast-line laid down in ordinary maps; but they
nevertheless form conspicuous features in local topography, and they are
attended with consequences of great moment to the material and the moral
interests of men. The forces which produce these limited results are all
in a considerable degree subject to control, or rather to direction and
resistance, by human power, and it is in guiding, combating, and
compensating them that man has achieved some of his most remarkable and
most honorable conquests over nature. The triumphs in question, or what
we generally call harbor and coast improvements, whether we estimate
their value by the money and labor expended upon them, or by their
bearing upon the interests of commerce and the arts of civilization,
must take a very high rank among the great works of man, and they are
fast assuming a magnitude greatly exceeding their former relative
importance.

The extension of commerce and of the military marine, and especially the
introduction of vessels of increased burden and deeper draught of water,
have imposed upon engineers tasks of a character which a century ago
would have been pronounced, and, in fact, would have been,
impracticable; but necessity has stimulated au ingenuity which has
contrived means of executing them, and which gives promise of yet
greater performance in time to come.

Indeed, although man, detached from the solid earth, is almost powerless
to struggle against the sea, he is fast becoming invincible by it so
long as his foot is planted on the shore, or even on the bottom of the
rolling ocean; and though on some battle-fields between the waters and
the land he is obliged slowly to yield his ground, yet he retreats still
facing the foe, and will finally be able to say to the sea, "Thus far
shalt thou come and no farther, and here shall thy proud waves be
stayed!" [Footnote: It is, nevertheless, remarkable that in the
particular branch of coast engineering where great improvements are
most urgently needed, comparatively little has been accomplished. I
refer to the creation of artificial harbors, and of facilities for
loading and discharging ships. The whole coast of Italy is, one may
almost say, harborless and even, wharfless, and there are many thousands
of miles of coast in rich commercial countries in Europe, where vessels
can neither lie in safety for a single day, nor even, in better
protected heavens, ship or land their passengers or cargoes except by
the help of lighters, and other not less clumsy contrivances. It is
strange that such enormous inconveniences are borne with so little
effort to remove them, and especially that break-waters are rarely
constructed by Governments except for the benefit of the military
marine.]


Great Works of Material Improvement.

Men have ceased to admire the vain exercise of power which heaped up the
great pyramid to gratify the pride of a despot with a giant sepulchre;
for many great harbors, many important lines of internal communication,
in the civilized world, now exhibit works which in volume and weight of
material surpass the vastest remains of ancient architectural art, and
demand the exercise of far greater constructive skill and involve a much
heavier pecuniary expenditure than would now be required for the
building of the tomb of Cheops. It is computed that the great pyramid,
the solid contents of which when complete were about 3,000,000 cubic
yards, could be erected for a million of pounds sterling. The breakwater
at Cherbourg, founded in rough water sixty feet deep, at an average
distance of more than two miles from the shore, contains double the mass
of the pyramid, and many a comparatively unimportant canal has been
constructed at twice the cost which would now build that stupendous
monument.

The description of works of harbor and coast improvement which have only
an economical value, not a true geographical importance, does not come
within the plan of the present volume, and in treating this branch of my
subject, I shall confine myself to such as are designed either to gain
new soil by excluding the waters from grounds which they had permanently
or occasionally covered, or to resist new encroachments of the sea upon
the land. [Footnote: Some notice of great works executed by man in
foreign lands, and probably not generally familiar to my readers, may,
however, prove not uninteresting.

The desaguadero, or canal constructed by the Viceroy Revillagigedo to
prevent the inundation of the city of Mexico by the lakes in its
vicinity, besides subsidiary works of great extent, has a cutting half a
mile long, 1,000 feet wide, and from 150 to 200 feet deep.--Hoffmann,
Encyclopaedie, art. Mexico.

The adit which drains the mines of Gwennap in Cornwall, with its
branches, is thirty miles long. Those of the silver mines of Saxony are
scarcely less extensive, and the Ernst-August-Stollen, or great drain of
the mines of the Harz, is fifteen miles long.

The excavation for the Suez Canal were computed at 75,000,000 cubic
metres, or about 100,000,000 cubic yards, and those of the Ganges Canal,
which, with its branches, had a length of 3,000 miles, amount to nearly
the same quantity.

The quarries at Maestricht have undermined a space of sixteen miles by
six, or more than two American townships, and the catacombs of Rome, in
part, at least, originally quarries, have a lineal extent of five
hundred and fifty miles. The catacombs of Paris required the excavation
of 13,000,000 cubic yards of stone, or more than four times the volume
of the great pyramid.

The excavation for the Mt. Cenis tunnel, eight miles in length, wholly
through solid rock, amounted to more than 900,000 cubic yards, and
16,000,000 of brick were employed for the lining.

In an article on recent internal improvements in England, in the London
Quarterly Review for January, 1858, it is stated that in a single
rock-cutting on the Liverpool and Manchester railway, 480,000 cubic
yards of stone were removed; that the earth excavated in the
construction of English railways up to that date amounted to a hundred
and fifty million cubic yards, and that at the Round Down Cliff, near
Dover, a single blast of nineteen thousand pounds of powder blew down a
thousand million tons of chalk, and covered fifteen acres of land with
the fragments.

In 1869, a mass of marble equal to one and a half times the cubical
contents of the Duomo at Florence, or about 450,000 cubic yards, was
thrown down at Carrara by one blast, and two hours after, another equal
mass, which had been loosened by the explosion, fell of itself.
Zolfanelli, La Lunigiana, p. 43.

The coal yearly extracted from the mines of England averages not less
than 100,000,000 tons. The specific gravity of British coal ranges from
1.20 to 1.35, and consequently we may allow a cubic yard to the ton. If
we add the earth and rock removed in order to reach the coal, we shall
have a yearly amount of excavation for this one object equal to more
than thirty times the volume of the pyramid of Cheops. These are
wonderful achievements of human industry; but the rebuilding of Chicago
within a single year after the great fire--not to speak of the
extraordinary material improvements previously executed at that
city--surpasses them all, and it probably involved the expenditure of a
sum of muscular and of moral energy which has never before been exerted
in the accomplishment of a single material object, within a like
period.]


Draining of Lincolnshire Fens.

The draining of the Lincolnshire fens in England, which has converted
about 400,000 acres of marsh, pool, and tide-washed flat into
ploughland and pasturage, is a work, or rather series of works, of great
magnitude, and it possesses much economical, and, indeed, no trifling
geographical, importance. Its plans and methods were, at least in part,
borrowed from the example of like improvements in Holland, and it is, in
difficulty and extent, inferior to works executed for the same purpose
on the opposite coast of the North Sea, by Dutch, Frisie, and Low German
engineers. The space I can devote to such operations will be better
employed in describing the latter, and I content myself with the simple
statement I have already made of the quantity of worthless and even
pestilential land which has been rendered both productive and salubrious
in Lincolnshire, by diking out the sea, and the rivers which traverse
the fens of that country.

The almost continued prevalence of west winds upon both coasts of the
German Ocean occasions a constant set of the currents of that sea to the
east, and both for this reason and on account of the greater violence of
storms from the former quarter, the English shores of the North Sea are
less exposed to invasion by the waves than those of the Netherlands and
the provinces contiguous to them on the north. The old Netherlandish
chronicles are filled with the most startling accounts of the damage
done by the irruptions of the ocean, from west winds or extraordinarily
high tides, at times long before any considerable extent of seacoast was
diked. Several hundreds of those terrible inundations are recorded, and
in many of them the loss of human lives is estimated as high as one
hundred thousand. It is impossible to doubt that there must be enormous
exaggeration in these numbers; for, with all the reckless hardihood
shown by men in braving the dangers and privations attached by nature to
their birthplace, it is inconceivable that so dense a population as such
wholesale destruction of life supposes could find the means of
subsistence, or content itself to dwell, on a territory liable, a dozen
times in a century, to such fearful devastation. There can be no doubt,
however, that the low continental shores of the German Ocean very
frequently suffered immense injury from inundation by the sea, and it is
natural, therefore, that the various arts of resistance to the
encroachments of the ocean, and, finally, of aggressive warfare upon its
domain, and of permanent conquest of its territory, should have been
earlier studied and carried to higher perfection in the latter
countries, than in England, which had less to lose or to gain by the
incursions or the retreat of the waters.

Indeed, although the confinement of swelling rivers by artificial
embankments is of great antiquity, I do not know that the defence or
acquisition of land from the sea by diking was ever practised on a large
scale until systematically undertaken by the Netherlanders, a few
centuries after the commencement of the Christian era. The silence of
the Roman historians affords a strong presumption that this art was
unknown to the inhabitants of the Netherlands at the time of the Roman
invasion, and the elder Pliny's description of the mode of life along
the coast which has now been long diked in, applies precisely to the
habits of the people who live on the low islands and mainland flats
lying outside of the chain of dikes, and wholly unprotected by
embankments of any sort.


Origin of Sea-dikes.

It has been conjectured, and not without probability, that the causeways
built by the Romans across the marshes of the Low Countries, in their
campaigns against the Germanic tribes, gave the natives the first hint
of the utility which might be derived from similar constructions applied
to a different purpose. [Footnote: It has often been alleged by eminent
writers that a part of the fens in Lincolnshire was reclaimed by
sea-dikes under the government of the Romans. I have found no ancient
authority in support of this assertion, nor can I refer to any passage
in Roman literature in which sea-dikes are expressly mentioned otherwise
than as walls or piers, except that in Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxvi. 24),
where it is said that the Tyrrhenian Sea was excluded from the Lucrino
Lake by dikes. Dugdale, whose enthusiasm for his subject led him to
believe that recovering from the sea land subject to be flooded by it,
was of divine appointment, because God said: "Let the waters under the
heavens be gathered together unto one place and let the dry land
appear," unhesitatingly ascribes the reclamation of the Lincolnshire
fens to the Romans, though he is able to cite but one authority, a
passage in Tacitus's Life of Agricola which certainly has no such
meaning, in support of the assertion.--History of Embankment and
Drainage, 2d edition, 1772.] If this is so, it is one of the most
interesting among the many instances in which the arts and enginery of
war have been so modified as to be eminently promotive of the blessings
of peace, thereby in some measure compensating the wrongs and sufferings
they have inflicted on humanity. [Footnote: It is worth mentioning, as
an illustration of the applicability of military instrumentalities to
pacific art, that the sale of gunpowder in the United States was smaller
during the late rebellion than before, because the war caused the
suspension of many public and private improvements, in the execution of
which great quantities of powder were used for blasting.

The same observation was made in France during the Crimean war, and it
is alleged that, in general, not ten per cent. of the powder
manufactured on either either side of the Atlantic is employed for
military purposes.

The blasting for the Mount Cenis tunnel consumed gunpowder enough to
fill more than 200,000,000 musket cartridges. It is a fact not
creditable to the moral sense of modern civilization, that very many of
the most important improvements in machinery and the working of metals
have originated in the necessities of war, and that man's highest
ingenuity has been shown, and many of his most remarkable triumphs over
natural forces achieved, in the contrivance of engines for the
destruction of his fellow-man. The military material employed by the
first Napoleon has become, in less than two generations, nearly as
obsolete as the sling and stone of the shepherd, and attack and defence
now begin at distances to which, half a century ago, military
reconnaissances hardly extended. Upon a partial view of the subject, the
human race seems destined to become its own executioner--on the one
hand, exhausting the capacity of the earth to furnish sustenance to her
taskmaster; on the other, compensating diminished production by
inventing more efficient methods of exterminating the consumer. At the
present moment, at an epoch of universal peace, the whole civilized
world with the happy exception of our own country, is devoting its
utmost energies, applying the highest exercise of inventive genius, to
the production of new engines of war; and the last extraordinary rise in
the price of iron and copper is in great part due to the consumption of
these metals in the fabrication of arms and armed vessels. The simple
substitution of sheet-copper for paper and other materials in the
manufacture of cartridges has increased the market-price of copper by a
large percentage on its former cost.

But war develops great civil virtues, and brings into action a degree
and kind of physical energy which seldom fails to awaken a new
intellectual life in a people that achieves great moral and political
results through great heroism and endurance and perseverance. Domestic
corruption has destroyed more nations than foreign invasion, and a
people is rarely conquered till it has deserved subjugation.] The
Lowlanders are believed to have secured some coast and bay islands by
ring-dikes and to have embanked some fresh-water channels, as early as
the eighth or ninth century; but it does not appear that sea-dikes,
important enough to be noticed in historical records, were constructed
on the mainland before the thirteenth century. The practice of draining
inland accumulations of water, whether fresh or salt, for the purpose of
bringing under cultivation the ground they cover, is of later origin,
and is said not to have been adopted until after the middle of the
fifteenth century. [Footnote: Staring, Voormaals en Thans, p. 150.]


Gain and Loss of Land in the Netherlands.

The total amount of surface gained to the agriculture of the Netherlands
by diking out the sea and by draining shallow bays and lakes, is
estimated by Staring at three hundred and fifty-five thousand bunder or
hectares, equal to eight hundred and seventy-seven thousand two hundred
and forty acres, which is one-tenth of the area of the kingdom.
[Footnote: Idem, p. 163. Much the largest proportion of the lands so
reclaimed, though for the most part lying above low-water tidemark, are
at a lower level than the Lincolnshire fens, and more subject to
inundation from the irruptions of the sea.] In very many instances the
dikes have been partially, in some particularly exposed localities
totally, destroyed by the violence of the sea, and the drained lands
again flooded. In some cases the soil thus painfully won from the ocean
has been entirely lost; in others it has been recovered by repairing or
rebuilding the dikes and pumping out the water. Besides this, the weight
of the dikes gradually sinks them into the soft soil beneath, and this
loss of elevation must be compensated by raising the surface, while the
increased burden thus added tends to sink them still lower. "Tetens
declares," says Kohl, "that in some places the dikes have gradually sunk
to the depth of sixty or even a hundred feet." [Footnote: Die Inseln und
Marschen der Herzogthamer Schleswig und Holstein, iii., p. 151.] For
these reasons, the processes of dike-building have been almost
everywhere again and again repeated, and thus the total expenditure of
money and of labor upon the works in question is much greater than would
appear from an estimate of the actual cost of diking-in a given extent
of coast-land and draining a given area of water-surface. [Footnote:
The purely agricultural island of Pelworm, off the coast of Schleswig,
containing about 10,000 acres, annually expends for the maintenance of
its dikes not less than L6,000 sterling, or nearly $30,000.--J. G. Kohl,
Inseln und Marschen Schleswig's und Holstein's, ii., p. 394.

The original cost of the dikes of Pelworm is not stated. "The greatest
part of the province of Zeeland is protected by dikes measuring 250
miles in length, the maintenance of which costs, in ordinary years, more
than a million guilders [above $400,000] ... The annual expenditure for
dikes and hydraulic works in Holland is from five to seven million
guilders" [$2,000,000 to $2,800,000].--Wild, Die Niederlande, i., p. 62.

One is not sorry to learn that the Spanish tyranny in the Netherlands
had some compensations. The great chain of ring-dikes which surrounds a
large part of Zeeland is due to the energy of Caspar de Robles, the
Spanish governor of that province, who in 1570 ordered the construction
of these works at the public expense, as a substitute for the private
embankments which had previously partially served the same
purpose.--Wild, Die Niederlande, i., p. 62.]


Loss of Land by Incursions of Sea.

On the other hand, by erosion of the coast-line, the drifting of
sand-dunes into the interior, and the drowning of fens and morasses by
incursions of the sea--all caused, or at least greatly aggravated, by
human improvidence--the Netherlands have lost a far larger area of land
since the commencement of the Christian era than they have gained by
diking and draining. Staring despairs of the possibility of calculating
the loss from the first-mentioned two causes of destruction, but he
estimates that not less than six hundred and forty thousand bunder, or
one million five hundred and eighty-one thousand acres, of fen and marsh
have been washed away, or rather deprived of their vegetable surface and
covered by water; and thirty-seven thousand bunder, or ninety-one
thousand four hundred acres, of recovered