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Title: The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night — Volume 02
Author: Richard F. Burton, - To be updated
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night — Volume 02" ***

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                        THE BOOK OF THE
                A Plain and Literal Translation
              of the Arabian Nights Entertainments

                  Translated and Annotated by
                       Richard F. Burton

                           VOLUME TWO
              Privately Printed By The Burton Club

                      To John Payne, Esq.

My Dear Sir,

     Allow me thus publicly to express my admiration of your
magnum opus, "The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night;" and
to offer you my cordial thanks for honouring me with the
dedication of that scholar-like and admirable version.

                    Ever yours sincerely,

                         Richard F. Burton.

Queen's College, Oxford,
     August 1, 1885.

                 Contents of the Second Volume

7.   Nur Al-Din Ali and the Damsel Anis Al-Jalis
8.   Tale of Ghanim Bin Ayyub, The Distraught, The Thrall O' Love
     a.   Tale of the First Eunuch, Bukhayt
     b.   Tale of the Second Eunuch, Kafur
9.   Tale of King Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman and His Sons Sharrkan and
     Zau Al-Makan
     a.   Tale of Taj Al-Muluk and the Princess Dunya
          aa.  Tale of Aziz and Azizah

                        The Book Of The

          Nur Al-Din Ali and the Damsel Anis Al-Jalis

Quoth Shahrazad [FN#1]:--It hath reached me, O auspicious King of
intelligence penetrating, that there was, amongst the Kings of
Bassorah[FN#2], a King who loved the poor and needy and cherished
his lieges, and gave of his wealth to all who believed in
Mohammed (whom Allah bless and assain!), and he was even as one
of the poets described him,

"A King who when hosts of the foe invade, * Receives them with
     lance-lunge and sabre-sway;
Writes his name on bosoms in thin red lines, * And scatters the
     horsemen in wild dismay."[FN#3]

His name was King Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, and he had two
Wazirs, one called Al-Mu'ín, son of Sáwí and the other Al-Fazl
son of Khákán. Now Al-Fazl was the most generous of the people of
his age, upright of life, so that all hearts united in loving him
and the wise flocked to him for counsel; whilst the subjects used
to pray for his long life, because he was a compendium of the
best qualities, encouraging the good and lief, and preventing
evil and mischief.  But the Wazir Mu'ín bin Sáwí on the contrary
hated folk [FN#4] and loved not the good and was a mere compound
of ill; even as was said of him,

"Hold to nobles, sons of nobles! 'tis ever Nature's test  * That
     nobles born of nobles shall excel in noble deed:
And shun the mean of soul, meanly bred, for 'tis the law, *  Mean
     deeds come of men who are mean of blood and breed."

And as much as the people loved and fondly loved Al-Fazl bin
Khákán, so they hated and thoroughly hated the mean and miserly
Mu'ín bin Sáwí. It befel one day by the decree of the Decreer,
that King Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, being seated on his
throne with his officers of state about him, summoned his Wazir
Al-Fazl and said to him, "I wish to have a slave-girl of passing
beauty, perfect in loveliness, exquisite in symmetry and endowed
with all praiseworthy gifts."  Said the courtiers, "Such a girl
is not to be bought for less than ten thousand gold pieces:"
whereupon the Sultan called out to his treasurer and said, "Carry
ten thousand dinars to the house of Al-Fazl bin Khákán." The
treasurer did the King's bidding; and the Minister went away,
after receiving the royal charge to repair to the slave-bazar
every day, and entrust to brokers the matter aforesaid.  Moreover
the King issued orders that girls worth above a thousand gold
pieces should not be bought or sold without being first displayed
to the Wazir.  Accordingly no broker purchased a slave-girl ere
she had been paraded before the minister; but none pleased him,
till one day a dealer came to the house and found him taking
horse and intending for the palace.  So he caught hold of his
stirrup saying,

"O thou, who givest to royal state sweet savour, * Thou'rt a
     Wazir shalt never fail of favour!
Dead Bounty thou hast raised to life for men;  * Ne'er fail of
     Allah's grace such high endeavour!"

Then quoth he, "O my lord, that surpassing object for whom the
gracious mandate was issued is at last found; [FN#5]" and quoth
the Wazir, "Here with her to me!"  So he went away and returned
after a little, bringing a damsel in richest raiment robed, a
maid spear-straight of stature and five feet tall; budding of
bosom with eyes large and black as by Kohl traced, and dewy lips
sweeter than syrup or the sherbet one sips, a virginette smooth
cheeked and shapely faced, whose slender waist with massive hips
was engraced; a form more pleasing than branchlet waving upon the
top-most trees, and a voice softer and gentler than the morning
breeze, even as saith one of those who have described her,

"Strange is the charm which dights her brows like Luna's disk
     that shine; * O sweeter taste than sweetest Robb[FN#6] or
     raisins of the vine.
A throne th'Empyrean keeps for her in high and glorious state, *
     For wit and wisdom, wandlike form and graceful bending line:
She in the Heaven of her face[FN#7] the seven-fold stars
     displays, * That guard her cheeks as satellites against
     the spy's design:
If man should cast a furtive glance or steal far look at her, *
     His heart is burnt by devil-bolts shot by those piercing

When the Wazir saw her she made him marvel with excess of
admiration, so he turned, perfectly pleased, to the broker and
asked, "What is the price of this girl?"; whereto he answered,
"Her market-value stands at ten thousand dinars, but her owner
swears that this sum will not cover the cost of the chickens she
hath eaten, the wine she hath drunken and the dresses of honour
bestowed upon her instructor: for she hath learned calligraphy
and syntax and etymology; the commentaries of the Koran; the
principles of law and religion; the canons of medicine, and the
calendar and the art of playing on musical instruments."[FN#8]
Said the Wazir, "Bring me her master."  So the broker brought him
at once and, behold, he was a Persian of whom there was left only
what the days had left; for he was as a vulture bald and scald
and a wall trembling to its fall.  Time had buffetted him with
sore smart, yet was he not willing this world to depart; even as
said the poet,

"Time hath shattered all my frame, *  Oh! how time hath
     shattered me.
Time with lordly might can tame    * Manly strength and vigour
Time was in my youth, that none    * Sped their way more fleet
     and fast:
Time is and my strength is gone,   * Youth is sped, and speed
     is past.[FN#9]"

The Wazir asked him, "Art thou content to sell this slave-girl to
the Sultan for ten thousand dinars?"; and the Persian answered,
"By Allah, if I offer her to the King for naught, it were but my
devoir."[FN#10] So the Minister bade bring the monies and saw
them weighed out to the Persian, who stood up before him and
said, "By the leave of our lord the Wazir, I have somewhat to
say;" and the Wazir replied, "Out with all thou hast!"  "It is my
opinion," continued the slave-dealer, "that thou shouldst not
carry the maid to the King this day; for she is newly off a
journey; the change of air[FN#11] hath affected her and the toils
of trouble have fretted her.  But keep her quiet in thy palace
some ten days, that she may recover her looks and become again as
she was.  Then send her to the Hammam and clothe her in the
richest of clothes and go up with her to the Sultan: this will be
more to thy profit."  The Wazir pondered the Persian's words and
approved of their wisdom; so he carried her to his palace, where
he appointed her private rooms, and allowed her every day
whatever she wanted of meat and drink and so forth.  And on this
wise she abode a while.  Now the Wazir Al-Fazl had a son like the
full moon when sheeniest dight, with face radiant in light,
cheeks ruddy bright, and a mole like a dot of ambergris on a
downy site; as said of him the poet and said full right,

"A moon which blights you[FN#12] if you dare behold; * A branch
     which folds you in its waving fold:
Locks of the Zanj[FN#13] and golden glint of hair; * Sweet gait
     and form a spear to have and hold:
Ah! hard of heart with softest slenderest waist, * That evil to
     this weal why not remould?[FN#14]
Were thy form's softness placed in thy heart, * Ne'er would thy
     lover find thee harsh and cold:
Oh thou accuser! be my love's excuser, * Nor chide if love-pangs
     deal me woes untold!
I bear no blame: 'tis all my hear and eyne; * So leave thy
     blaming, let me yearn and pine."

Now the handsome youth knew not the affair of the damsel; and his
father had enjoined her closely, saying, "Know, O my daughter,
that I have bought thee as a bedfellow for our King, Mohammed bin
Sulayman al-Zayni; and I have a son who is a Satan for girls and
leaves no maid in the neighbourhood without taking her
maidenhead; so be on thy guard against him and beware of letting
him see thy face or hear they voice." "Hearkening and obedience,"
said the girl; and he left her and fared forth.  Some days after
this it happened by decree of Destiny, that the damsel repaired
to the baths in the house, where some of the slave women bathed
her; after which she arrayed herself in sumptuous raiment; and
her beauty and loveliness were thereby redoubled.  Then she went
in to the Wazir's wife and kissed her hand; and the dame said to
her, "Naiman!  May it benefit thee,[FN#15] O Anis al-
Jalis![FN#16]  Are not our baths handsome?"  "O my mistress," she
replied, "I lacked naught there save thy gracious presence."
Thereupon the lady said to her slave-women, "Come with us to the
Hammam, for it is some days since we went there:" they answered,
"To hear is to obey!" and rose and all accompanied her. Now she
had set two little slave-girls to keep the door of the private
chamber wherein was Anis al-Jalis and had said to them, "Suffer
none go in to the damsel."  Presently, as the beautiful maiden
sat resting in her rooms, suddenly came in the Wazir's son whose
name was Nur al-Din Ali,[FN#17] and asked after his mother and
her women, to which the two little slave-girls replied, "They are
in the Hammam."  But the damsel, Anis al-Jalis, had heard from
within Nur al-Din Ali's voice and had said to herself, "O would
Heaven I saw what like is this youth against whom the Wazir
warned me, saying that he hath not left a virgin in the
neighbourhood without taking her virginity: by Allah, I do long
to have sight of him!"  So she sprang to her feet with the
freshness of the bath on her and, stepping to the door, looked at
Nur al-Din Ali and saw a youth like the moon in its full and the
sight bequeathed her a thousand sighs. The young man also glanced
at her and the look make him heir to a thousand thoughts of care;
and each fell into Love's ready snare.  Then he stepped up to the
two little slave-girls and cried aloud at them; whereupon both
fled before him and stood afar off to see what he would do.  And
behold, he walked to the door of the damsel's chamber and,
opening it, went in and asked her "Art thou she my father bought
for me?" and she answered "Yes." Thereupon the youth, who was
warm with wine, came up to her and embraced her; then he took her
legs and passed them round his waist and she wound her arms about
his neck, and met him with kisses and murmurs of pleasure and
amorous toyings.  Next he sucked her tongue and she sucked his,
and lastly, he loosed the strings of her petticoat-trousers and
abated her maidenhead.  When the two little slave-girls saw their
young master get in unto the damsel, Anis al-Jalis, they cried
out and shrieked; so as soon as the youth had had his wicked will
of her, he rose and fled forth fearing the consequences of his
ill-doing.  When the Wazir's wife heard the slave-girls' cries,
she sprang up and came out of the baths with the perspiration
pouring from her face, saying, "What is this unseemly clamour in
the house[FN#18]?"  Then she came up to the two little slave-
girls and asked them saying, "Fie upon you! what is the matter?";
and both answered, "Verily our lord Nur al-Din came in and beat
us, so we fled; then he went up to Anis al-Jalis and threw his
arms round her and we know not what he did after that; but when
we cried out to thee he ran away."  Upon this the lady went to
Anis al-Jalis and said to her, "What tidings?"  "O my lady," she
answered, "as I was sitting here lo! a handsome young man came in
and said to me:--Art thou she my father bought for me?; and I
answered Yes; for, by Allah, O mistress mine, I believed that his
words were true; and he instantly came in and embraced me."  "Did
he nought else with thee but this?" quoth the lady, and quoth
she, "Indeed he did!  But he did it only three times." "He did
not leave thee without dishonouring thee!" cried the Wazir's wife
and fell to weeping and buffetting her face, she and the girl and
all the handmaidens, fearing lest Nur al-Din's father should kill
him.[FN#19]  Whilst they were thus, in came the Wazir and asked
what was the matter, and his wife said to him, "Swear that whatso
I tell thee thou wilt attend to it."  "I will," answered he.  So
she related to him what his son had done, whereat he was much
concerned and rent his raiment and smote his face till his nose
bled, and plucked out his beard by the handful. "Do not kill
thyself," said his wife, "I will give thee ten thousand dinars,
her price, of my own money."  But he raised his head and cried,
"Out upon thee!  I have no need of her purchase-money: my fear is
lest life as well as money go."  "O my lord, and how is that?"
"Wottest thou not that yonder standeth our enemy Al Mu'ín bin
Sáwí who, as soon as he shall hear of this matter, will go up to
the Sultan"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Thirty-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir said to his wife, "Wottest thou not that yonder standeth
our enemy Al-Mu'ín bin Sáwí who, as soon as he hears of this
matter will go up to the Sultan and say to him, 'Thy Wazir who,
thou wilt have it loveth thee, took from thee ten thousand ducats
and bought therewith a slave-girl whose like none ever beheld;
but when he saw her, she pleased him and he said to his son,
'Take her: thou art worthier of her than the Sultan.'  So he took
her and did away with her virginity and she is now in his house.'
The King will say, 'Thou liest!' to which he will reply, 'With
thy leave I will fall upon him unawares and bring her to thee.'
The King will give him warranty for this and he will come down
upon the house and will take the girl and present her to the
Sultan, who will question her and she will not be able to deny
the past.  Then mine enemy will say, 'O my lord, thou wottest
that I give thee the best of counsel; but I have not found favour
in thine eyes.'  Thereupon the Sultan will make an example of me,
and I shall be a gazing-stock to all the people and my life will
be lost."  Quoth his wife, "Let none know of this thing which
hath happened privily, and commit thy case to Allah and trust in
Him to save thee from such strait; for He who knoweth the future
shall provide for the future."  With this she brought the Wazir a
cup of wine and his heart was quieted, and he ceased to feel
wrath and fear.  Thus far concerning him; but as regards his son
Nur al-Din Ali, fearing the consequence of his misdeed he abode
his day long in the flower garden and came back only at night to
his mother's apartment where he slept; and, rising before dawn,
returned to the gardens.  He ceased not to do thus for two whole
months without showing his face to his parent, till at last his
mother said to his father, "O my lord, shall we lose our boy as
well as the girl?  If matters continue long in this way he will
flee from us."  "And what to do?" asked he; and she answered, "Do
thou watch this night; and, when he cometh, seize on him and
frighten him: I will rescue him from thee and do thou make peace
with him and give him the damsel to wife, for she loveth him as
he loveth her.  And I will pay thee her price." So the Minister
say up that night and, when his son came, he seized him and
throwing him down knelt on his breast and showed as thou he would
cut his throat; but his mother ran to the youth's succour and
asked her husband, "What wouldest thou do with him?"  He answered
her, "I will split his weasand."  Said the son to the father, "Is
my death, then, so light a matter to thee?"; and his father's
eyes welled with tears, for natural affection moved him, and he
rejoined, "O my son, how light was to thee the loss of my good
and my life!"  Quoth Nur al-Din, "Hear, O my father, what the
poet hath said,

‘Forgive me! thee-ward sinned I, but the wise * Ne'er to the
     sinner shall deny his grace:
Thy foe may pardon sue when lieth he * In lowest, and thou
     holdest highest place!'"

Thereupon the Wazir rose from off his son's breast saying, "I
forgive thee!"; for his heart yearned to him; and the youth
kissed the hand of his sire who said, "O my son, were I sure that
thou wouldest deal justly by Anis al-Jalis, I would give her to
thee."  "O my father, what justice am I to do to her?"  "I enjoin
thee, O my son, not to take another wife or concubine to share
with her, nor sell her."  "O my father! I swear to thee that
verily I will not do her injustice in either way."  Having sworn
to that effect Nur al-Din went in to the damsel and abode with
her a whole year, whilst Allah Almighty caused the King to forget
the matter of the maiden; and Al-Mu'ín, though the affair came to
his ears, dared not divulge it by reason of the high favour in
which his rival stood with the Sultan.  At the end of the year
Al-Fazl went one day to the public baths; and, as he came out
whilst he was still sweating, the air struck him[FN#20] and he
caught a cold which turned to a fever; then he took to his bed.
His malady gained ground and restlessness was longsome upon him
and weakness bound him like a chain; so he called out, "Hither
with my son;" and when Nur al-Din Ali came he said to him, "O my
son, know that man's lot and means are distributed and decreed;
and the end of days by all must be dree'd; and that every soul
drain the cup of death is nature's need."  The he repeated these

"I die my death, but He alone is great who dieth not! * And well
     I wot, soon shall I die, for death was made my lot:
A King there's not that dies and holds his kingdom in his hand, *
     For Sovranty the Kingdom is of Him who dieth not."

Then he continued, "O my son, I have no charge to leave thee save
that thou fear Allah and look to the issues of thine acts and
bear in mind my injunctions anent Anis al-Jalis."  "O my father!"
said Nur al-Din, "who is like unto thee?  Indeed thou art famed
for well doing and preachers offer prayers for thee in their
pulpits!"  Quoth Al-Fazl, "O my son, I hope that Allah Almighty
may grant me acceptance!"  Then he pronounced the Two
Testimonies,[FN#21] or Professions of the Faith, and was recorded
among the blessed.  The palace was filled with crying and
lamentation and the news of his death reached the King, and the
city-people wept, even those at their prayers and women at
household cares and the school-children shed tears for Bin-
Khákán.  Then his son Nur al-Din Ali arose and made ready his
funeral, and the Emirs and Wazirs and high Officers of State and
city-notables were present, amongst them the Wazir al-Mu'ín bin
Sáwí.  And as the bier went forth from the house some one in the
crowd of mourners began to chant these lines,

"On the fifth day I quitted al my friends for evermore, * And
     they laid me out and washed me on a slab without my
They stripped me of the clothes I was ever wont to wear, * And
     they clothed me in the clothes which till then I never wore.
On four men's necks they bore me and carried me from home * To
     chapel; and some prayed for him on neck they bore:
They prayed for me a prayer that no prostration knows;[FN#23] *
     They prayed for me who praised me and were my friends of
And they laid me in a house with a ceiling vaulted o'er, * And
     Time shall be no more ere it ope to me its door."

When they had shovelled in the dust over him and the crowd had
dispersed, Nur al-Din returned home and he lamented with sobs and
tears; and the tongue of the case repeated these couplets,

"On the fifth day at even-tide they went away from me: *
     farewelled them as faring they made farewell my lot:
But my spirit as they went, with them went and so I cried, * 'Ah
     return ye!' but replied she, 'Alas! return is not
To a framework lere and lorn that lacketh blood and life, * A
     frame whereof remaineth naught but bones that rattle and
Mine eyes are blind and cannot see quencht by the flowing tear! *
     Mine ears are dull and lost to sense: they have no power to

He abode a long time sorrowing for his father till, one day, as
he was sitting at home, there came a knocking at the door; so he
rose in haste and opening let in a man, one of his father's
intimates and who had been the Wazir's boon-companion.  The
visitor kissed Nur al-Din's hand and said to him, "O my lord, he
who hath left the like of thee is not dead; and this way went
also the Chief of the Ancients and the Moderns. [FN#24] O my lord
Ali, be comforted and leave sorrowing."  Thereupon Nur al-Din
rose and going to the guest-saloon transported thither all he
needed. Then he assembled his companions and took his handmaid
again; and, collecting round him ten of the sons of the
merchants, began to eat meat and drink wine, giving entertainment
after entertainment and lavishing his presents and his favours.
One day his Steward came to him and said, "O my lord Nur al-Din,
hast thou not heard the saying, Whoso spendeth and reckoneth not,
to poverty wendeth and recketh not?"  And he repeated what the
poet wrote,

"I look to my money and keep it with care, * For right well I wot
     'tis my buckler and brand:
Did I lavish my dirhams on hostilest foes,[FN#25] * I should
     truck my good luck by mine ill luck trepanned:
So I'll eat it and drink it and joy in my wealth; * And no
     spending my pennies on others I'll stand:
I will keep my purse close 'gainst whoever he be; * And a niggard
     in grain a true friend ne'er I fand:
Far better deny him than come to say:--Lend, * And five-fold the
     loan shall return to thy hand!
And he turns face aside and he sidles away, * While I stand like
     a dog disappointed, unmanned,
Oh, the sorry lot his who hath yellow-boys none, * Though his
     genius and virtues shine bright as the sun!

O my master," continued the Steward, "this lavish outlay and
these magnificent gifts waste away wealth."  When Nur al-Din Ali
heard these words he looked at his servant and cried, "Of all
thou hast spoken I will not heed one single word, for I have
heard the saying of the poet who saith,

'An my palm be full of wealth and my wealth I ne'er bestow, * A
     palsy take my hand and my foot ne'er rise again!
Show my niggard who by niggardise e'er rose to high degree, * Or
     the generous gifts generally hath slain.'"

And he pursued, "Know, O Steward, it is my desire that so long as
thou hast money enough for my breakfast, thou trouble me not with
taking thought about my supper."  Thereupon the Steward asked,
"Must it be so?"; and he answered, "It must."  So the honest man
went his way and Nur al-Din Ali devoted himself to extravagance;
and, if any of his cup-companions chanced to say, "This is a
pretty thing;" he would reply, "'Tis a gift to thee!"; or if
another said, "O my lord, such a house is handsome;" he would
answer, "Take it: it is thine!"  After this reckless fashion he
continued to live for a whole year, giving his friends a banquet
in the morning and a banquet in the evening and a banquet at
midnight, till one day, as the company was sitting together, the
damsel Anis al-Jalis repeated these lines,

"Thou deemedst well of Time when days went well, * And feardest
     not what ills might deal thee Fate:
Thy nights so fair and restful cozened thee, *  For peaceful
     nights bring woes of heavy weight."

When she had ended her verse behold, somebody knocked at the
door. So Nur al-Din rose to open it and one of his boon-
companions followed him without being perceived.  At the door he
found his Steward and asked him, "What is the matter?"; and he
answered, "O my lord, what I dreaded for thee hath come to pass!"
"How so?"  "Know that there remains not a dirham's worth, less or
more in my hands.  Here are my Daftars and account books showing
both income and outlay and the registers of thine original
property."  When Nur al-Din heard these words he bowed his head
and said, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in
Allah!"  When the man who had followed him privily to spy on him
heard the Steward's words, he returned to his friends and warned
them saying, "Look ye well to what ye do: Nur al-Din is
penniless;" and, as the young host came back to his guests,
vexation showed itself in his face.  Thereupon one of the
intimates rose; and, looking at the entertainer, said to him, "O
my lord, may be thou wilt give me leave to retire?"  "And why so
early retirement this day?"; asked he and the other answered him,
"My wife is in childbirth and I may not be absent from her:
indeed I must return and see how she does."  So he gave him
leave, whereupon another rose and said, "O my lord Nur al-Din, I
wish now to go to my brother's for he circumciseth his son to-
day."[FN#26]  In short each and every asked permission to retire
on some pretence or other, till all the ten were gone leaving Nur
al-Din alone.  Then he called his slave-girl and said to her, "O
Anis al-Jalis, hast thou seen what case is mine?"  And he related
to her what the Steward had told him.  Then quoth she, "O my
lord, for many nights I had it in my mind to speak with thee of
this matter, but I heard thee repeating,

'When the World heaps favours on thee, pass on * Thy favours to
     friends ere her hand she stay:
Largesse never let her when fain she comes, * Nor niggardise kept
     her from turning away!'

When I heard these verses I held my peace and cared not to
exchange a word with thee."  "O Anis al-Jalis," said Nur al-Din,
"thou knowest that I have not wasted my wealth save on my
friends, especially these ten who have now left me a pauper, and
I think they will not abandon and desert me without relief."  "By
Allah," replied she, "they will not profit thee with aught of
aid."  Said he, "I will rise at once and go to them and knock at
their doors; it may be I shall get from them somewhat wherewith I
may trade and leave pastime and pleasuring."  So he rose without
stay or delay, and repaired to a street wherein all his ten
friends lived.  He went up to the nearest door and knocked;
whereupon a handmaid came out and asked him, "Who art thou?"; and
he answered, "Tell thy master that Nur al-Din Ali standeth at the
door and saith to him, 'Thy slave kisseth thy hand and awaiteth
thy bounty.'"  The girl went in and told her master, who cried at
her, "Go back and say, 'My master is not at home.'"  So she
returned to Nur al-Din, and said to him, "O my lord, my master is
out."  Thereupon he turned away and said to himself, "If this one
be a whoreson knave and deny himself, another may not prove
himself such knave and whoreson."  Then he went up to the next
door and sent in a like message to the house-master, who denied
himself as the first had done, whereupon he began repeating,

"He is gone who when to his gate thou go'st, * Fed thy famisht
     maw with his boiled and roast."

When he had ended his verse he said, "By Allah, there is no help
but that I make trial of them all: perchance there be one amongst
them who will stand me in the stead of all the rest."  So he went
the round of the ten, but not one of them would open his door to
him or show himself or even break a bit of bread before him;
whereupon he recited,

"Like a tree is he who in wealth doth wone, * And while fruits he
     the folk to his fruit shall run:
But when bared the tree of what fruit it bare, * They leave it to
     suffer from dust and sun.
Perdition to all of this age!  I find * Ten rogues for every
     righteous one."

Then he returned to his slave-girl and his grief had grown more
grievous and she said to him, "O my lord, did I not tell thee,
none would profit thee with aught of aid?"  And he replied, "By
Allah, not one of them would show me his face or know me!"  "O my
lord," quoth she, "sell some of the moveables and household
stuff, such as pots and pans, little by little; and expend the
proceeds until Allah Almighty shall provide."  So he sold all of
that was in the house till nothing remained when he turned to
Anis al-Jalis and asked her "What shall we do now?"; and she
answered, "O my lord, it is my advice that thou rise forthwith
and take me down to the bazar and sell me.  Thou knowest that
they father bought me for ten thousand dinars: haply Allah may
open thee a way to get the same price, and if it be His will to
bring us once more together, we shall meet again."  "O Anis al-
Jalis," cried he, "by Allah it is no light matter for me to be
parted from thee for a single hour!"  "By Allah, O my lord," she
replied, "nor is it easy to me either, but Need hath its own law,
as the poet said,

'Need drives a man into devious roads, * And pathways doubtful of
     trend and scope:
No man to a rope[FN#27] will entrust his weight, * Save for cause
     that calleth for case of rope.'"

Thereupon he rose to his feet and took her,[FN#28] whilst the
tears rolled down his cheek like rain; and he recited with the
tongue of the case these lines,

"Stay! grant one parting look before we part, * Nerving my heart
     this severance to sustain:
But, an this parting deal thee pain and bane, * Leave me to die
     of love and spare thee pain!"

Then he went down with her to the bazar and delivered her to the
broker and said to him, "O Hajj Hasan,[FN#29] I pray thee note
the value of her thou hast to cry for sale."  "O my lord Nur al-
Din," quoth the broker, "the fundamentals are remembered;"[FN#30]
adding, "Is not this the Anis al-Jalis whom thy father bought of
me for ten thousand dinars?" "Yes," said Nur al-Din.  Thereupon
the broker went round to the merchants, but found that all had
not yet assembled.  So he waited till the rest had arrived and
the market was crowded with slave-girls of all nations, Turks,
Franks and Circassians; Abyssinians, Nubians and Takruris;[FN#31]
Tartars, Georgians and others; when he came forward and standing
cried aloud, "O merchants! O men of money! every round thing is
not a walnut and every long thing a banana is not; all reds are
not meat nor all whites fat, nor is every brown thing a
date![FN#32]  O merchants, I have here this union-pearl that hath
no price: at what sum shall I cry her?" "Cry her at four thousand
five hundred dinars," quoth one of the traders. The broker opened
the door of sale at the sum named and, as he was yet calling, lo!
the Wazir Al-Mu'ín bin Sáwí passed through the bazar and, seeing
Nur al-Din Ali waiting at one side, said to himself, "Why is
Khákán's son[FN#33] standing about here?  Hath this gallows-bird
aught remaining wherewith to buy slave-girls?"  Then he looked
round and, seeing the broker calling out in the market with all
the merchants around him, said to himself, "I am sure that he is
penniless and hath brought hither the damsel Anis al-Jalis for
sale;" adding, "O how cooling and grateful is this to my heart!"
Then he called the crier, who came up and kissed the ground
before him; and he said to him, "I want this slave-girl whom thou
art calling for sale."  The broker dared not cross him, so he
answered, "O my lord, Bismillah! in Allah's name so be it;" and
led forward the damsel and showed her to him.  She pleased him
much whereat he asked, "O Hasan, what is bidden for this girl?"
and he answered, "Four thousand five hundred dinars to open the
door of sale." Quoth Al-Mu'ín, "Four thousand five hundred is MY
bid."  When the merchants heard this, they held back and dared
not bid another dirham, wotting what they did of the Wazir's
tyranny, violence and treachery. So Al-Mu'ín looked at the broker
and said to him, "Why stand still? Go and offer four thousand
dinars for me and the five hundred shall be for thyself."
Thereupon the broker went to Nur al-Din and said, "O my lord, thy
slave is going for nothing!"  "And how so?" asked he. The broker
answered, "We had opened the biddings for her at four thousand
five hundred dinars; when that tyrant, Al-Mu'ín bin Sáwí, passed
through the bazar and, as he saw the damsel she pleased him, so
he cried to me, 'Call me the buyer at four thousand dinars and
thou shalt have five hundred for thyself.'  I doubt not but that
he knoweth that the damsel if thine, and if he would pay thee
down her price at once it were well; but I know his injustice and
violence; he will give thee a written order upon some of his
agents and will send after thee to say to them, 'Pay him
nothing.'  So as often as though shalt go in quest of the coin
they will say, 'We'll pay thee presently!' and they will put thee
off day after day, and thou art proud of spirit; till at last,
when they are wearied with thine importunity, they will say,
'Show us the cheque.' Then, as soon as they have got hold of it
they will tear it up and so thou wilt lose the girl's price."
When Nur al-Din heard this he looked at the broker and asked him,
"How shall this matter be managed?"; and he answered, "I will
give thee a counsel which, if thou follow, it shall bring thee
complete satisfaction." "And what is that?" quoth Nur al-Din.
Quoth the broker, "Come thou to me anon when I am standing in the
middle of the market and, taking the girl from my hand, give her
a sound cuffing and say to her, 'Thou baggage, I have kept my vow
and brought thee down to the slave-market, because I swore an
oath that I would carry thee from home to the bazar, and make
brokers cry thee for sale.'  If thou do this, perhaps the device
will impose upon the Wazir and the people, and they will believe
that thou broughtest her not to the bazar, but for the quittance
of thine oath." He replied, "Such were the best way." Then the
broker left him and, returning into the midst of the market, took
the damsel by the hand, and signed to the Wazir and said, "O my
lord, here is her owner." With this up came Nur al-Din Ali and,
snatching the girl from the broker's hand, cuffed her soundly and
said to her, "Shame on thee, O thou baggage!  I have brought thee
to the bazar for quittance of mine oath; now get thee home and
thwart me no more as is thy wont.  Woe to thee! do I need thy
price, that I should sell thee? The furniture of my house would
fetch thy value many times over!" When Al-Mu'ín saw this he said
to Nur al-Din, "Out on thee!  Hast thou anything left for selling
or buying?"  And he would have laid violent hands upon him, but
the merchants interposed (for they all loved Nur al-Din), and the
young man said to them, "Here am I in your hands and ye all know
his tyranny."  "By Allah," cried the Wazir, "but for you I had
slain him!"  Then all signed with significant eyes to Nur al-Din
as much as to say, "Take thy wreak of him; not one of us will
come between thee and him."  Thereupon Nur al-Din, who was stout
of heart as he was stalwart of limb, went up to the Wazir and,
dragging him over the pommel of his saddle, threw him to the
ground.  Now there was in that place a puddling- pit for brick-
clay,[FN#34] into the midst of which he fell, and Nur al-Din kept
pummelling and fisti-cuffing him, and one of the blows fell full
on his teeth, and his beard was dyed with his blood.  Also there
were with the minister ten armed slaves who, seeing their master
entreated after this fashion, laid hand on sword-hilt and would
have bared blades and fallen on Nur al-Din to cut him down; but
the merchants and bystanders said to them, "This is a Wazir and
that is the son of a Wazir; haply they will make friends some
time or other, in which case you will forfeit the favour of both.
Or perchance a blow may befal your lord, and you will all die the
vilest of deaths; so it were better for you not to interfere."
Accordingly they held aloof and, when Nur al-Din had made an end
of thrashing the Wazir, he took his handmaid and fared homewards.
Al-Mu'ín also went his ways at once, with his raiment dyed of
three colours, black with mud, red with blood and ash coloured
with brick-clay. When he saw himself in this state, he bound a
bit of matting[FN#35] round his neck and, taking in hand two
bundles of coarse Halfah-grass,[FN#36] went up to the palace and
standing under the Sultan's windows cried aloud, "O King of the
age, I am a wronged man!  I am foully wronged!"  So they brought
him before the King who looked at him; and behold, it was the
chief Minister; whereupon he said, "O Wazir who did this deed by
thee?"  Al-Mu'ín wept and sobbed and repeated these lines,

"Shall the World oppress me when thou art in't? * In the lion's
     presence shall wolves devour?
Shall the dry all drink of thy tanks and I * Under rain-cloud
     thirst for the cooling shower?"

"O my lord," cried he, "the like will befal every one who loveth
and serveth thee well."  "Be quick with thee," quoth the Sultan,
"and tell me how this came to pass and who did this deed by one
whose honour is part of my honour."  Quoth the Wazir, "Know, O my
lord, that I went out this day to the slave-market to buy me a
cookmaid, when I saw there a damsel, never in my life long saw I
a fairer; and I designed to buy her for our lord the Sultan; so I
asked the broker of her and of her owner, and he answered, "She
belongeth to Ali son of Al-Fazl bin Khákán.  Some time ago our
lord the Sultan gave his father ten thousand dinars wherewith to
buy him a handsome slave-girl, and he bought this maiden who
pleased him; so he grudged her to our lord the Sultan and gave
her to his own son. When the father died, the son sold all he had
of houses and gardens and household gear, and squandered the
price till he was penniless.  Then he brought the girl to the
market that he might sell her, and he handed her over to the
broker to cry and the merchants bid higher and higher on her,
until the price reached four thousand dinars; whereupon quoth I
to myself, 'I will buy this damsel for our lord the Sultan, whose
money was paid for her.'  So I said to Nur al-Din, 'O my son,
sell her to me for four thousand dinars.'  When he heard my words
he looked at me and cried, 'O ill-omened oldster, I will sell her
to a Jew or to a Nazarene, but I will not sell her to thee!'  'I
do not buy her for myself,' said I, 'I buy her for our lord and
benefactor the Sultan.'  Hearing my words he was filled with
rage; and, dragging me off my horse (and I a very old man), beat
me unmercifully with his fists and buffeted me with his palms
till he left me as thou seest, and all this hath befallen me only
because I thought to buy this damsel for thee!"  Then the Wazir
threw himself on the ground and lay there weeping and shivering.
When the Sultan saw his condition and heard his story, the vein
of rage started out between his eyes[FN#37] and he turned to his
body-guard who stood before him, forty white slaves, smiters with
the sword, and said to them, "Go down forthright to the house
built by the son of Khákán and sack it and raze it and bring to
me his son Nur al-Din with the damsel; and drag them both on
their faces with their arms pinioned behind them."  They replied,
"To hear is to obey;" and, arming themselves, they set out for
the house of Nur al-Din Ali.  Now about the Sultan was a
Chamerlain, Alam[FN#38] al-Din Sanjar hight, who had aforetime
been Mameluke to Al-Fazl; but he had risen in the world and the
Sultan had advanced him to be one of his Chamberlains.  When he
heard the King's command and saw the enemies make them ready to
slay his old master's son, it was grievous to him: so he went out
from before the Sultan and, mounting his beast, rode to Nur al-
Din's house and knocked at the door.  Nur al-Din came out and
knowing him would have saluted him: but he said, "O my master
this is no time for greeting or treating.  Listen to what the
poet said,

  'Fly, fly with thy life if by ill overtaken!
   Let thy house speak thy death by its builder forsaken!
   For a land else than this land thou may'st reach, my brother,
   But thy life tho'lt ne'er find in this world another.'"[FN#39]

"O Alam al-Din what cheer?" asked Nur al-Din, and he answered,
"Rise quickly and fly for thy life, thou and the damsel; for Al-
Mu'ín hath set a snare for you both; and, if you fall into his
hands, he will slay you.  The Sultan hath despatched forty
sworders against you and I counsel you to flee ere harm can hurt
you."  Then Sanjar put his hand to his purse and finding there
forty gold pieces took them and gave them to Nur al-Din, saying,
"O my lord receive these and journey with them.  Had I more I
would give them to thee, but this is not the time to take
exception." Thereupon Nur al-Din went in to the damsel and told
her what had happened, at which she wrung her hands.  Then they
fared forth at once from the city, and Allah spread over them His
veil of protection, so that they reached the river-bank where
they found a vessel ready for sea.  Her skipper was standing
amidships and crying, "Whoso hath aught to do, whether in the way
of provisioning or taking leave of his people; or whoso hath
forgotten any needful thing, let him do it at once and return,
for we are about to sail"; and all of them saying, "There is
naught left to be done by us, O captain!", he cried to his crew,
"Hallo there! cast off the cable and pull up the mooring-
pole!"[FN#40] Quoth Nur al-Din, "Whither bound, O captain?" and
quoth he, "To the House of Peace, Baghdad,"—-And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Thirty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
skipper answered, "To the House of Peace, Baghdad," Nur al-Din
Ali and the damsel went on board, and they launched the craft and
shook out the sails, and the ship sped forth as though she were a
bird on wing; even as said one of them and said right well,

"Watch some tall ship, she'll joy the sight of thee, * The breeze
     outstripping in her haste to flee;
As when a bird, with widely-spreading wings, * Leaveth the sky to
     settle on the sea."

So the vessel sailed on her fastest and the wind to her was
fairest. Thus far concerning them; but as regards the Mamelukes,
they went to Nur al-Din's mansion and, breaking open the doors,
entered and searched the whole place, but could find no trace of
him and the damsel; so they demolished the house and, returning
to the Sultan, reported their proceedings; whereupon quoth he,
"Make search for them both, wherever they may be;" and they
answered, "Hearing is obeying."  The Wazir Al-Mu'ín had also gone
home after the Sultan had bestowed upon him a robe of honour, and
had set his heart at rest by saying, "None shall take blood-wreak
for thee save I;" and he had blessed the King and prayed for his
long life and prosperity.  Then the Sultan bade proclaim about
the city, "Oyez, O ye lieges one and all!  It is the will of our
lord the Sultan that whoso happeneth on Nur al-Din Ali son of Al-
Fazl bin Khákán, and bringeth him to the Sultan, shall receive a
robe of honour and one thousand gold pieces; and he who hideth
him or knoweth his abiding place and informeth not, deserveth
whatsoever pains and penalties shall befal him."  So all began to
search for Nur al-Din Ali, but they could find neither trace nor
tidings of him.  Meanwhile he and his handmaid sailed on with the
wind right aft, till they arrived in safety at Baghdad, and the
captain said to them, "This is Baghdad and 'tis the city where
security is to be had: Winter with his frosts hath turned away
and Prime hath come his roses to display; and the flowers are a-
glowing and the trees are blowing and the streams are flowing."
So Nur al-Din landed, he and his handmaid and, giving the captain
five dinars, walked on a little way till the decrees of Destiny
brought them among the gardens, and they came to a place swept
and sprinkled, with benches along the walls and hanging jars
filled with water.[FN#41]  Overhead was a trellis of reed-work
and canes shading the whole length of the avenue, and at the
upper end was a garden gate, but this was locked.  "By Allah,"
quoth Nur al-Din to the damsel, "right pleasant is this place!";
and she replied, "O my lord sit with me a while on this bench and
let us take our ease."  So they mounted and sat them down on the
bench, after which they washed their faces and hands; and the
breeze blew cool on them and they fell asleep and glory be to Him
who never sleepeth!  Not this garden was named the Garden of
Gladness[FN#42] and therein stood a belvedere hight the Palace of
Pleasure and the Pavilion of Pictures, the whole belonging to the
Caliph Harun al-Rashid who was wont, when his breast was
straitened with care, to frequent garden and palace and there to
sit.  The palace had eighty latticed windows and fourscore lamps
hanging round a great candelabrum of gold furnished with wax-
candles; and, when the Caliph used to enter, he would order the
handmaids to throw open the lattices and light up the rooms; and
he would bid Ishak bin Ibrahim the cup-companion and the slave-
girls to sing till his breast was broadened and his ailments were
allayed.  Now the keeper of the garden, Shaykh Ibrahim, was a
very old man, and he had found from time to time, when he went
out on any business, people pleasuring about the garden gate with
their bona robas; at which he was angered with exceeding
anger.[FN#43]  But he took patience till one day when the Caliph
came to his garden; and he complained of this to Harun al-Rashid
who said, "Whomsoever thou surprisest about the door of the
garden, deal with him as thou wilt."  Now on this day the
Gardener chanced to be abroad on some occasion and returning
found these two sleeping at the gate covered with a single
mantilla; whereupon said he, "By Allah, good!  These twain know
not that the Caliph hath given me leave to slay anyone I may
catch at the door; but I will give this couple a shrewd whipping,
that none may come near the gate in future."  So he cut a green
palm-frond[FN#44] and went up to them and, raising his arm till
the white of his arm-pit appeared, was about to strike them, when
he bethought himself and said, "O Ibrahim, wilt thou beat them
unknowing their case?  Haply they are strangers or of the Sons of
the Road,[FN#45] and the decrees of Destiny have thrown them
here.  I will uncover their faces and look at them."  So he
lifted up the mantilla from their heads and said, "They are a
handsome couple; it were not fitting that I should beat them."
Then he covered their faces again and, going to Nur al-Din's
feet, began to rub and shampoo them,[FN#46] whereupon the youth
opened his eyes and, seeing an old man of grave and reverend
aspect rubbing his feet, he was ashamed and drawing them in, sat
up.  Then he took Shaykh Ibrahim's hand and kissed it.  Quoth the
old man, "O my son, whence art thou?"; and quoth he, "O my lord,
we two are strangers," and the tears started from his eyes.  "O
my son," said Shaykh Ibrahim, "know that the Prophet (whom Allah
bless and preserve!) hath enjoined honour to the stranger;" and
added, "Wilt not thou arise, O my son, and pass into the garden
and solace thyself by looking at it and gladden thy heart?"  "O
my lord," said Nur al-Din, "to whom doth this garden belong?;"
and the other replied, "O my son, I have inherited it from my
folk."  Now his object in saying this was to set them at their
ease and induce them to enter the garden.  So Nur al-Din thanked
him and rose, he and the damsel, and followed him into the
garden; and lo! it was a garden, and what a garden!  The gate was
arched like a great hall and over walls and roof ramped vines
with grapes of many colours; the red like rubies and the black
like ebonies; and beyond it lay a bower of trelliced boughs
growing fruits single and composite, and small birds on branches
sang with melodious recite, and the thousand-noted nightingale
shrilled with her varied shright; the turtle with her cooing
filled the site; the blackbird whistled like human wight[FN#47]
and the ring-dove moaned like a drinker in grievous plight.  The
trees grew in perfection all edible growths and fruited all
manner fruits which in pairs were bipartite; with the camphor-
apricot, the almond-apricot and the apricot "Khorasani" hight;
the plum, like the face of beauty, smooth and bright; the cherry
that makes teeth shine clear by her sleight, and the fig of three
colours, green, purple and white.  There also blossomed the
violet as it were sulphur on fire by night; the orange with buds
like pink coral and marguerite; the rose whose redness gars the
loveliest cheeks blush with despight; and myrtle and gilliflower
and lavender with the blood-red anemone from Nu'uman hight.  The
leaves were all gemmed with tears the clouds had dight; the
chamomile smiled showing teeth that bite, and Narcissus with his
negro[FN#48] eyes fixed on Rose his sight; the citrons shone with
fruits embowled and the lemons like balls of gold; earth was
carpeted with flowers tinctured infinite; for Spring was come
brightening the place with joy and delight; and the streams ran
ringing, to the birds' gay singing, while the rustling breeze
upspringing attempered the air to temperance exquisite.  Shaykh
Ibrahim carried them up into the pavilion, and they gazed on its
beauty, and on the lamps aforementioned in the latticed windows;
and Nur al-Din, remembering his entertainments of time past,
cried, "By Allah, this is a pleasant place; it hath quenched in
me anguish which burned as a fire of Ghaza-wood.[FN#49]"  Then
they sat down and Shaykh Ibrahim set food before them; and they
ate till they were satisfied and washed their hands: after which
Nur al-Din went up to one of the latticed windows, and, calling
to his handmaid fell to gazing on the trees laden with all manner
fruits.  Presently he turned to the Gardener and said to him, "O
Shaykh Ibrahim hast thou no drink here, for folk are wont to
drink after eating?"  The Shaykh brought him sweet water, cool
and pleasant, but he said, "This is not the kind of drink I
wanted." "Perchance thou wishest for wine?"  "Indeed I do, O
Shaykh!"  "I seek refuge from it with Allah: it is thirteen years
since I did this thing, for the Prophet (Abhak[FN#50]) cursed its
drinker, presser, seller and carrier!"  "Hear two words of me."
"Say on."  "If yon cursed ass[FN#51] which standeth there be
cursed, will aught of his curse alight upon thee?" "By no means!"
"Then take this dinar and these two dirhams and mount yonder ass
and, halting afar from the wine-shop, call the first man thou
seest buying liquor and say to him, 'Take these two dirhams for
thyself, and with this dinar buy me some wine and set it on the
ass.' So shalt thou be neither the presser, nor the buyer, nor
the carrier; and no part of the curse will fall  upon thee."  At
this Shaykh Ibrahim laughed and said, "By Allah, O my son, I
never saw one wilier of wit than thou art, nor heard aught
sweeter than thy speech."  So he did as he was bidden by Nur al-
Din who thanked him and said, "We two are now dependent on thee,
and it is only meet that thou comply with our wishes; so bring us
here what we require."  "O my son," replied he, "this is my
buttery before thee" (and it was the store-room provided for the
Commander of the Faithful); "so go in, and take whatso thou wilt,
for there is over and above what thou wantest."  Nur al-Din then
entered the pantry and found therein vessels of gold and silver
and crystal set with all kinds of gems, and was amazed and
delighted with what he saw.  Then he took out what he needed and
set it on and poured the wine into flagons and glass ewers,
whilst Shaykh Ibrahim brought them fruit and flowers and aromatic
herbs. Then the old man withdrew and sat down at a distance from
them, whilst they drank and made merry, till the wine got the
better of them, so that their cheeks reddened and their eyes
wantoned like the gazelle's; and their locks became dishevelled
and their brightness became yet more beautiful.  Then said Shaykh
Ibrahim to himself, "What aileth me to sit apart from them?  Why
should I not sit with them?  When shall I ever find myself in
company with the like of these two that favour two moons?" So he
stepped forward and sat down on the edge of the dais, and Nur al-
Din said to him, "O my lord, my life on thee, come nearer to us!"
He came and sat by them, when Nur al-Din filled a cup and looked
towards the Shaykh and said to him, "Drink, that thou mayest try
the taste of it!" "I take refuge from it with Allah!" replied he;
"for thirteen years I have not done a thing of the kind."  Nur
al-Din feigned to forget he was there and, drinking off the cup,
threw himself on the ground as if the drink had overcome him;
whereupon Anis al-Jalis glanced at him and said, "O Shaykh
Ibrahim see how this husband of mine treateth me;" and he
answered, "O my lady, what aileth him?"  "This is how he always
serveth me," cried she, "he drinketh awhile, then falleth asleep
and leaveth me alone with none to bear me company over my cup nor
any to whom I may sing when the bowl goeth round."  Quoth the
Shaykh (and his mien unstiffened for that his soul inclined
towards her), "By Allah, this is not well!" Then she crowned a
cup and looking towards him said, "By my life thou must take and
drink it, and not refuse to heal my sick heart!"  So he put forth
his hand and took it and drank it off and she filled a second and
set it on the chandelier and said, "O master mine, there is still
this one left for thee."  "By Allah, I cannot drink it;" cried
he, "what I have already drunk is enough for me;" but she
rejoined, "By Allah, there is no help for it."  So he took the
cup and drank; and she filled him a third which he took and was
about to drink when behold, Nur al-Din rolled round and sat
upright,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

             When it was the Thirty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nur al-Din
sat upright and said, "Ho, Shaykh Ibrahim, what is this?  Did I
not adjure thee a while ago and thou refusedst, saying, 'What I!
'tis thirteen years ago since I have done such a thing!'"  "By
Allah," quoth the Shaykh (and indeed he was abashed), "no sin of
mine this, she forced me to do it." Nur al-Din laughed and they
sat down again to wine and wassail, but the damsel turned to her
master and said in a whisper, "O my lord, drink and do not press
him, that I may show thee some sport with him."  Then she began
to fill her master's cup and he hers and so they did time after
time, till at last Shaykh Ibrahim looked at them and said, "What
fashion of good fellowship is this?  Allah curse the glutton who
keepeth the cup to himself!  Why dost thou not give me to drink,
O my brother? What manners are these, O blessed one?"  At this
the two laughed until they fell on their backs; then they drank
and gave him to drink and ceased not their carousal till a third
part of the night was past.  Then said the damsel, "O Shaykh
Ibrahim, with thy leave I will get up and light one of these
candles."  "Do so," he replied, "but light no more than one." So
she sprang to her feet and, beginning with one candle, lighted
all the eighty and sat down again.  Presently Nur al-Din said, "O
Shaykh Ibrahim, in what favour am I with thee?  May I not light
one of these lamps?" "Light one," replied he, "and bother me no
more in thy turn!"  So he rose and lighted one lamp after
another, till he had lighted the whole eight and the palace
seemed to dance with brilliancy.  Quoth the Shaykh (and indeed
intoxication had overcome him), "Ye two are bolder than I am."
Then he rose to his feet and opened all the lattices and sat down
again; and they fell to carousing and reciting verses till the
place rang with their noisy mirth.  Now Allah, the Decreer who
decreeth all things and who for every effect appointeth a cause,
had so disposed that the Caliph was at that moment sitting in the
light of the moon at one of the windows of his palace overlooking
the Tigris.  He saw the blaze of the lamps and wax candles
reflected in the river and, lifting his eyes, perceived that it
came from the Garden Palace which was all ablaze with brilliancy.
So he cried, "Here to me with Ja'afar the Barmaki!"; and the last
word was hardly spoken ere the Wazir was present before the
Commander of the Faithful, who cried at him, "O dog of a
Minister, hast thou taken from me this city of Baghdad without
saying aught to me?"  "What words are these words?" asked
Ja'afar; and the Caliph answered, "If Baghdad city were not taken
from me, the Palace of Pictures would not be illuminated with
lamps and candles, nor would its windows be thrown open.  Woe to
thee! who durst do a deed like this except the Caliphate had been
taken from me?" Quoth Ja'afar (and indeed his side-muscles
trembled as he spoke), "Who told thee that the Palace of Pictures
was illuminated and the windows thrown open?"  "Come hither and
see," replied the Caliph.  Then Ja'afar came close to the Caliph
and, looking towards the garden, saw the palace blazing with
illumination that rayed through the gloom of the night; and,
thinking that this might have been permitted by the keeper for
some reason of his own, he wished to make an excuse for him; so
quoth he, "O Commander of the Faithful, Shaykh Ibrahim said to me
last week, 'O my lord Ja'afar, I much wish to circumcise my sons
during the life of the Commander of the Faithful and thy life.'
I asked, 'What dost thou want?'; and he answered, 'Get me leave
from the Caliph to hold the festival in the Garden Palace.' So
said I to him, 'Go circumcise them and I will see the Caliph and
tell him.'  Thereupon he went away and I forgot to let thee
know."  "O Ja'afar," said the Caliph, "thou hast committed two
offences against me; first in that thou didst no report to me,
secondly, thou didst not give him what he sought; for he came and
told thee this only as excuse to ask for some small matter of
money, to help him with the outlay; and thou gavest him nothing
nor toldest me."  "O Commander of the Faithful," said Ja'afar, "I
forgot."  "Now by the rights of my forefathers and the tombs of
my forbears," quoth the Caliph, "I will not pass the rest of this
night save in company with him; for truly he is a pious man who
frequenteth the Elders of the Faith and the Fakirs and other
religious mendicants and entertaineth them; doubtless they are
not assembled together and it may be that the prayer of one of
them will work us weal both in this world and in the next.
Besides, my presence may profit and at any rate be pleasing to
Shaykh Ibrahim."  "O Commander of the Faithful," quoth Ja'afar,
"the greater part of the night is passed, and at this time they
will be breaking up."  Quoth the Caliph, "It matters not: I needs
must go to them."  So Ja'afar held his peace, being bewildered
and knowing not what to do.  Then the Caliph rose to his feet
and, taking with him Ja'afar and Masrur the eunuch sworder, the
three disguised themselves in merchants' gear and leaving the
City-palace, kept threading the streets till they reached the
garden. The Caliph went up to the gate and finding it wide open,
was surprised and said, "See, O Ja'afar, how Shaykh Ibrahim hath
left the gate open at this hour contrary to his custom!"  They
went in and walked on till they came under the pavilion, when the
Caliph said, "O Ja'afar, I wish to look in upon them unawares
before I show myself, that I may see what they are about and get
sight of the elders; for hitherto I have heard no sound from
them, nor even a Fakir calling upon the name of Allah.[FN#52]"
Then he looked about and, seeing a tall walnut-tree, said to
Ja'afar, "I will climb this tree, for its branches are near the
lattices and so look in upon them."  Thereupon he mounted the
tree and ceased not climbing from branch to branch, till he
reached a bough which was right opposite one of the windows, and
here he took seat and looked inside the palace. He saw a damsel
and a youth as they were two moons (glory be to Him who created
them and fashioned them!), and by them Shaykh Ibrahim seated cup
in hand and saying, "O Princess of fair ones, drinking without
music is nothing worth; indeed I have heard a poet say,

'Round with bit and little, the bowl and cup, * Take either than
     moon[FN#53] in his sheen hath crowned:
Nor drink without music, for oft I've seen, * The horse drink
     best to the whistle's sound!'"

When the Caliph saw this, the vein of wrath started up between
his eyes and he came down and said to the Wazir, "O Ja'afar,
never beheld I yet men of piety in such case; so do thou mount
this tree and look upon them, lest the blessings of the blest be
lost to thee."  Ja'afar, hearing the words of the Commander of
the Faithful and being confounded by them, climbed to the tree-
top and looking in, saw Nur al-Din and the damsel, and Shaykh
Ibrahim holding in his hand a brimming bowl.  At this sight he
made sure of death and, descending, stood before the Commander of
the Faithful, who said to him, "O Ja'afar, praise be to Allah who
hath made us of those that observe external ordinances of Holy
Law and hath averted from us the sin of disguising ourselves
after the manner of hypocrites!"[FN#54]  But Ja'afar could not
speak a word for excess of confusion; so the Caliph looked at him
and said, "I wonder how they came hither, and who admitted them
into my pavilion!  But aught like the beauty of this youth and
this damsel my eyes never yet saw!"  "Thou sayest sooth, O our
Lord the Sultan!" replied Ja'afar (and he hoped to propitiate the
Caliph Harun al-Rashid).  Then quoth the Caliph, "O Ja'afar, let
us both mount the branch opposite the window, that we may amuse
ourselves with looking at them."  So the two climbed the tree
and, peering in, heard Shaykh Ibrahim say, "O my lady, I have
cast away all gravity mine by the drinking of wine, but 'tis not
sweet save with the soft sounds of the lute-strings it combine."
"By Allah," replied Anis al-Jalis, "O Shaykh Ibrahim, an we had
but some instrument of music our joyance were complete."  Hearing
this he rose to his feet and the Caliph said to Ja'afar, "I
wonder what he is about to do!" and Ja'afar answered, "I know
not."  The Shaykh disappeared and presently reappeared bringing a
lute; and the Caliph took not of it and knew it for that of Abu
Ishak the Cup-companion.[FN#55]  "By Allah," said the Caliph, "if
this damsel sing ill I will crucify all of you; but if she sing
well I will forgive them and only gibbet thee."  "O Allah cause
her to sing vilely!" quoth Ja'afar. Asked the Caliph, "Why so?";
and he answered, "If thou crucify us all together, we shall keep
one another company."  The Caliph laughed at his speech.
Presently the damsel took the lute and, after looking at it and
tuning it, she played a measure which made all hearts yearn to
her; then she sang these lines,

"O ye that can aid me, a wretched lover, * Whom longing burns nor
     can rest restore me!
Though all you have done I have well deserved, * I take refuge
     with you, so exult not o'er me:
True, I am weak and low and vile, * But I'll bear your will and
     whatso you bore me:
My death at your hands what brings it of glory? * I fear but your
     sin which of life forlore me!"

Quoth the Caliph, "By Allah, good!  O Ja'afar, never in my life
have I heard a voice so enchanting as this."  "Then haply the
Caliph's wrath hath passed away," said Ja'afar, and he replied,
"Yes, 'tis gone."  Thereupon they descended from the tree, and
the Caliph said to Ja'afar, "I wish to go in and sit with them
and hear the damsel sing before me." "O Commander of the
Faithful," replied Ja'afar, "if thou go in to them they will be
terribly troubled, and Shaykh Ibrahim will assuredly die of
fright."  But the Caliph answered, "O Ja'afar, thou must teach me
some device wherewith to delude them and whereby I can foregather
with them without their knowing me."  So they walked towards the
Tigris pondering the matter, and presently came upon a fisherman
who stood fishing under the pavilion windows.  Now some time
before this, the Caliph (being in the pavilion) had called to
Shaykh Ibrahim and asked him, "What noise is this I hear under
the windows?" and he had answered, "It is voices of fisher folk
catching fish:" so quoth the Caliph, "Go down and forbid them
this place;" and he forbade them accordingly.  However that night
a fisherman named Karim, happening to pass by and seeing the
garden gate open, said to himself, "This is a time of negligence;
and I will take advantage of it to do a bit of fishing."  So he
took his net and cast it, but he had hardly done so when behold,
the Caliph come up single-handed and, standing hard by, knew him
and called aloud to him, "Ho, Karim!"  The fisherman, hearing
himself named, turned round, and seeing the Caliph, trembled and
his side-muscles quivered, as he cried, "By Allah, O Commander of
the Faithful, I did it not in mockery of the mandate; but poverty
and a large family drove me to what thou seest!"  Quoth the
Caliph, "Make a cast in my name."  At this the fisherman was glad
and going to the bank threw his net, then waiting till it had
spread out at full stretch and settled down, hauled it up and
found in it various kinds of fish.  The Caliph was pleased and
said, "O Karim, doff thy habit."  So he put off a gaberdine of
coarse woollen stuff patched in an hundred places whereon the
lice were rampant, and a turband which had never been untwisted
for three years but to which he had sown every rag he came upon.
The Caliph also pulled off his person two vests of Alexandrian
and Ba'lbak silk, a loose inner robe and a long-sleeved outer
coat, and said to the fisherman, "Take them and put them on,"
while he assumed the foul gaberdine and filthy turband and drew a
corner of the head-cloth as a mouth-veil[FN#56] before his face.
Then said he to the fisherman, "Get thee about thy business!; and
the man kissed the Caliph's feet and thanked him and improvised
the following couplets,

"Thou hast granted more favours than ever I craved; * Thou hast
     satisfied needs which my heart enslaved:
I will thank thee and thank whileas life shall last, * And my
     bones will praise thee in grave engraved!"

Hardly had the fisherman ended his verse, when the lice began to
crawl over the Caliph's skin, and he fell to catching them on his
neck with his right and left and throwing them from him, while he
cried, "O fisherman, woe to thee! what be this abundance of lice
on thy gaberdine." "O my lord," replied he, "they may annoy thee
just at first, but before a week is past thou wilt not feel them
nor think of them."  The Caliph laughed and said to him, "Out on
thee!  Shall I leave this gaberdine of thine so long on my body?"
Quoth the fisherman, "I would say a word to thee but I am ashamed
in presence of the Caliph!"; and quoth he, "Say what thou hast to
say."  "It passed through my thought, O Commander of the
Faithful," said the fisherman, "that, since thou wishest to learn
fishing so thou mayest have in hand an honest trade whereby to
gain thy livelihood, this my gaberdine besitteth thee right
well."[FN#57] The Commander of the Faithful laughed at this
speech, and the fisherman went his way.  Then the Caliph took up
the basket of fish and, strewing a little green grass over it,
carried it to Ja'afar and stood before him. Ja'afar thinking him
to be Karim the fisherman feared for him and said, "O Karim, what
brought thee hither?  Flee for thy life, for the Caliph is in the
garden to-night and, if he see thee, thy neck is gone."  At this
the Caliph laughed and Ja'afar recognized him and asked, "Can it
be thou, our lord the Sultan?"; and he answered, "Yes, O Ja'afar,
and thou art my Wazir and I and thou came hither together; yet
thou knowest me not; so how should Shaykh Ibrahim know me, and he
drunk?  Stay here, till I came back to thee."  "To hear is to
obey," said Ja'afar.  Then the Caliph went up to the door of the
pavilion and knocked a gentle knock, whereupon said Nur al-Din,"
O Shaykh Ibrahim, some one taps at the door." "Who goes there?"
cried the Shaykh and the Caliph replied, "It is I, O Shaykh
Ibrahim!"  "Who art thou," quoth he, and quoth the other, "I am
Karim the fisherman: I hear thou hast a feast, so I have brought
thee some fish, and of a truth 'tis good fish."  When Nur al-Din
heard the mention of fish, he was glad, he and the damsel, and
they both said to the Shaykh, "O our lord, open the door and let
him bring us his fish." So Shaykh Ibrahim opened and the Caliph
came in (and he in fisherman guise), and began by saluting them.
Said Shaykh Ibrahim, "Welcome to the blackguard, the robber, the
dicer!  Let us see thy fish."  So the Caliph showed them his
catch and behold, the fishes were still alive and jumping,
whereupon the damsel exclaimed, "By Allah!  O my lord, these are
indeed fine fish: would they were fried!" and Shaykh Ibrahim
rejoined, "By Allah, O my lady, thou art right."  Then said he to
the Caliph, "O fisherman, why didst thou not bring us the fish
ready fried?  Up now and cook them and bring them back to us."
"On my head be thy commands!" said the Caliph, "I will fry thee a
dish and bring it."  Said they, "Look sharp." Thereupon he went
and ran till he came up to Ja'afar when he called to him, "Hallo,
Ja'afar!"; and he replied, "Here am I, O Commander of the
Faithful, is all well?"  "They want the fish fried," said the
Caliph, and Ja'afar answered, "O Commander of the Faithful, give
it to me and I'll fry it for them."  "By the tombs of my
forbears," quoth the Caliph, "none shall fry it but I, with mine
own hand!"  So he went to the gardener's hut, where he searched
and found all that he required, even to salt and saffron and wild
marjoram and else besides.  Then he turned to the brasier and,
setting on the frying-pan, fried a right good fry.  When it was
done, he laid it on a banana-leaf, and gathering from the garden
wind-fallen fruits, limes and lemons, carried the fish to the
pavilion and set the dish before them.  So the youth and the
damsel and Shaykh Ibrahim came forward and ate; after which they
washed their hands and Nur al-Din said to the Caliph, "By Allah,
O fisherman, thou hast done us a right good deed this night."
Then he put hand in pouch and, taking out three of the dinars
which Sanjar had given him, said, "O fisherman, excuse me.  By
Allah had I known thee before that which hath lately befallen me,
I had done away the bitterness of poverty from thy heart; but
take thou this as the best I can do for thee."  Then he threw the
gold pieces to the Caliph, who took them and kissed them and put
them in pouch. Now his sole object in doing all this was to hear
the damsel sing; so he said to Nur al-Din, "Thou hast rewarded me
most liberally, but I beg of thy boundless bounty that thou let
this damsel sing an air, that I may hear her."[FN#58]  So Nur al-
Din said, "O Anis al-Jalis!" and she answered "Yes!" and he
continued, "By my life, sing us something for the sake of this
fisherman who wisheth so much to hear thee." Thereupon she took
the lute and struck the strings, after she had screwed them tight
and tuned them, and sang these improvised verses,

"The fawn of a maid hent her lute in hand * And her music made us
     right mettlesome:
For her song gave hearing to ears stone-deaf, * While Brava!
     Brava! exclaimed the dumb."

Then she played again and played so ravishingly, that she charmed
their wits and burst out improvising and singing these couplets,

"You have honoured us visiting this our land, * And your
     splendour illumined the glooms that blent:
So 'tis due that for you I perfume my place * With rose-water,
     musk and the camphor-scent!"

Hereupon the Caliph was agitated, and emotion so overpowered him
that he could not command himself for excess of pleasure, and he
exclaimed, "By Allah, good! by Allah, good! by Allah,
good!"[FN#59]  Asked Nur al-Din, "O fisherman, doth this damsel
please thee?" and the Caliph answered, "Ay, by Allah!"  Whereupon
said Nur al-Din, "She is a gift to thee, a gift of the generous
who repenteth him not of his givings and who will never revoke
his gift!"  Then he sprang to his feet and, taking a loose robe,
threw it over the fisherman and bade him receive the damsel and
be gone.  But she looked at him and said, "O my lord, art thou
faring forth without farewell?  If it must be so, at least stay
till I bid thee good-bye and make known my case."  And she began
versifying in these verses,

"When love and longing and regret are mine, * Must not this body
     show of ills a sign?
My love! say not, 'Thou soon shalt be consoled'; * When state
     speaks state none shall allay my pine.
If living man could swim upon his tears, * I first should float
     on waters of these eyne:
O thou, who in my heart infusedst thy love, * As water mingles in
     the cup with wine,
This was the fear I feared, this parting blow. * O thou whose
     love my heart-core ne'er shall tyne!
O Bin Khákán! my sought, my hope, my will, * O thou whose love
     this breast make wholly thine!
Against thy lord the King thou sinn'dst for me, * And winnedst
     exile in lands peregrine:
Allah ne'er make my lord repent my loss * To cream[FN#60] o' men
     thou gavest me, one right digne."

When she had ended her verses, Nur al-Din answered her with these

"She bade me farewell on our parting day, * And she wept in the
     fire of our bane and pains:
'What wilt thou do when fro' thee I'm gone?' * Quoth I, 'say this
     to whom life remains!'"

When the Caliph heard her saying in her verse,

   "To Karim, the cream of men thou gavest me;"

his inclination for her redoubled and it seemed a hard matter and
a grievous to part them; so quoth he to the youth, "O my lord,
truly the damsel said in her verses that thou didst transgress
against her master and him who owned her; so tell me, against
whom didst thou transgress and who is it hath a claim on thee?"
"By Allah, O fisherman," replied Nur al-Din, "there befel me and
this damsel a wondrous tale and a marvellous matter: an 't were
graven with needle-gravers on the eye-corners it would be a
warner to whoso would be warned."  Cried the Caliph, "Wilt thou
not tell me thy story and acquaint me with thy case? Haply it may
bring thee relief, for Allah's aid is ever nearhand." "O
fisherman," said Nur al-Din, "Wilt thou hear our history in verse
or in prose?"  "Prose is a wordy thing, but verses," rejoined the
Caliph, "are pearls on string."  Then Nur al-Din bowed his head,
and made these couplets,

"O my friend! reft of rest no repose I command, * And my grief is
     redoubled in this far land:
Erst I had a father, a kinder ne'er was; * But he died and to
     Death paid the deodand:
When he went from me, every matter went wrong * Till my heart was
     nigh-broken, my nature unmanned:
He bought me a handmaid, a sweeting who shamed * A wand of the
     willow by Zephyr befanned:
I lavisht upon her mine heritage, * And spent like a nobleman
     puissant and grand:
Then to sell her compelled, my sorrow increased; * The parting
     was sore but I mote not gainstand:
Now as soon as the crier had called her, there bid * A wicked old
     fellow, a fiery brand:
So I raged with a rage that I could not restrain, * And snatched
     her from out of his hireling's hand;
When the angry curmudgeon made ready for blows, * And the fire of
     a fight kindled he and his band,
I smote him in fury with right and with left, * And his hide,
     till well satisfied, curried and tanned:
Then in fear I fled forth and lay hid in my house, * To escape
     from the snares which my foeman had spanned:
So the King of the country proclaimed my arrest; * When access to
     me a good Chamberlain fand:
And warned me to flee from the city afar, * Disappear, disappoint
     what my enemies planned:
Then we fled from our home 'neath the wing of the night, * And
     sought us a refuge by Baghdad strand:
Of my riches I've nothing on thee to bestow, * O Fisher, except
     the fair gift thou hast scanned:
The loved of my soul, and when I from her part, * Know for sure
     that I give thee the blood of my heart."[FN#61]

When he had ended his verse, the Caliph said to him, "O my lord
Nur al-Din, explain to me thy case more fully,"  So he told him
the whole story from beginning to end, and the Caliph said to
him, "Whither dost thou now intend?"  "Allah's world is wide,"
replied he.  Quoth the Caliph, "I will write thee a letter to
carry to the Sultan Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, which when he
readeth, he will not hurt nor harm thee in aught."—-And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

             When it was the Thirty-eighth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
the Caliph said to Nur al-Din Ali, "I will write thee a letter to
carry to the Sultan Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, which when he
readeth, he will not hurt nor harm thee in aught," Nur al-Din
asked "What! is there in the world a fisherman who writeth to
Kings?  Such a thing can never be!"; and the Caliph answered,
"Thou sayest sooth, but I will tell thee the reason. Know that I
and he learnt in the same school under one schoolmaster, and that
I was his monitor.  Since that time Fortune befriended him and he
is become a Sultan, while Allah hath abased me and made me a
fisherman; yet I never send to him to ask aught but he doeth my
desire; nay, though I should ask of him a thousand favours every
day, he would comply." When Nur al-Din heard this he said, "Good!
write that I may see." So the Caliph took ink-case and reed-pen
and wrote as follows,--"In the name of Allah, the
Compassionating, the Compassionate!  But after.[FN#62] This
letter is written by Harun al-Rashid, son of Al-Mahdi, to his
highness Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, whom I have encompassed
about with my favour and made my viceroy in certain of my
dominions.  The bearer of these presents is Nur al-Din Ali, son
of Fazl bin Khákán the Wazir. As soon as they come to thy hand
divest thyself forthright of the kingly dignity and invest him
therewith; so oppose not my commandment and peace be with thee."
He gave the letter to Nur al-Din, who took it and kissed it, then
put it in his turband and set out at once on his journey. So far
concerning him; but as regards the Caliph, Shaykh Ibrahim stared
to him (and he still in fisher garb) and said, "O vilest of
fishermen, thou hast brought us a couple of fish worth a score of
half-dirhams,[FN#63] and hast gotten three dinars for them; and
thinkest thou to take the damsel to boot?"  When the Caliph heard
this, he cried out at him, and signed to Masrur who discovered
himself and rushed in upon him. Now Ja'afar had sent one of the
gardener-lads to the doorkeeper of the palace to fetch a suit of
royal raiment for the Prince of the Faithful; so the man went
and, returning with the suit, kissed the ground before the Caliph
and gave it him.  Then he threw of the clothes he had on[FN#64]
and donned kingly apparel.  Shaykh Ibrahim was still sitting upon
his chair and the Caliph tarried to behold what would come next.
But seeing the Fisherman become the Caliph, Shaykh Ibrahim was
utterly confounded and he could do nothing but bite his finger-
ends[FN#65] and say, "Would I knew whether am I asleep or am I
awake!"  At last the Caliph looked at him and cried, "O Shaykh
Ibrahim, what state is this in which I see thee?" Thereupon he
recovered from his drunkenness and, throwing himself upon the
ground, repeated these verses,

"Pardon the sinful ways I did pursue; * Ruth from his lord to
     every slave is due:
Confession pays the fine that sin demands; * Where, then, is that
     which grace and mercy sue?"[FN#66]

The Caliph forgave him and bade carry the damsel to the city-
palace, where he set apart for her an apartment and appointed
slaves to serve her, saying to her, "Know that we have sent thy
lord to be Sultan in Bassorah and, Almighty Allah willing, we
will dispatch him the dress of investiture and thee with it."
Meanwhile, Nur al-Din Ali ceased not travelling till he reached
Bassorah, where he repaired to the Sultan's palace and he shouted
a long shout.[FN#67]  The Sultan heard him and sent for him; and
when he came into his presence, he kissed the ground between his
hands and, producing the letter, presented it to him.  Seeing the
superscription in the writing of the Commander of the Faithful,
the Sultan rose to his feet and kissed it three times; and after
reading it said, "I hear and I obey Allah Almighty and the
Commander of the Faithful!"  Then he summoned the four
Kazis[FN#68] and the Emirs and was about to divest himself of the
rule royal, when behold, in came Al Mu'ín bin Sáwí.  The Sultan
gave him the Caliph's letter and he read it, then tore it to
pieces and putting it into his mouth, chewed it[FN#69] and spat
it out.  "Woe to thee," quoth the Sultan (and indeed he was sore
angered); "what induced thee to do this deed?"  "Now by thy life!
O our lord the Sultan," replied Mu'ín, "this man hath never
foregathered with the Caliph nor with his Wazir; but he is a
gallows-bird, a limb of Satan, a knave who, having come upon a
written paper in the Caliph's hand, some idle scroll, hath made
it serve his own end.  The Caliph would surely not send him to
take the Sultanate from thee without the imperial
autograph[FN#70] and the diploma of investiture, and he certainly
would have despatched with him a Chamberlain or a Minister.  But
he hath come alone and he never came from the Caliph, no, never!
never! never!"  "What is to be done?" asked the Sultan, and the
Minister answered, "Leave him to me and I will take him and keep
him away from thee, and send him in charge of a Chamberlain to
Baghdad-city.  Then, if what he says be sooth, they will bring us
back autograph and investiture; and if not, I will take my due
out of this debtor."  When the Sultan heard the Minister's words
he said, "Hence with thee and him too." Al Mu'ín took trust of
him from the King and, carrying him to his own house, cried out
to his pages who laid him flat and beat him till he fainted.
Then he let put upon his feet heavy shackles and carried him to
the jail, where he called the jailor, one Kutayt,[FN#71] who came
and kissed the ground before him.  Quoth the Wazir, "O Kutayt, I
wish thee to take this fellow and throw him into one of the
underground cells[FN#72] in the prison and torture him night and
day."  "To hear is to obey," replied the jailor and, taking Nur
al-Din into the prison, locked the door upon him.  Then he gave
orders to sweep a bench behind the door and, spreading on it a
sitting-rug and a leather-cloth, seated Nur al-Din thereon and
loosed his shackles and entreated him kindly.  The Wazir sent
every day enjoining the jailor to beat him, but he abstained from
this, and so continued to do for forty days.  On the forty-first
day there came a present from the Caliph; which when the Sultan
saw, it pleased him and he consulted his Ministers on the matter,
when one of them said, "Perchance this present was for the new
Sultan."  Cried Al-Mu'ín, "We should have done well had we put
him to death at his first coming;" and the Sultan cried "By
Allah, thou hast reminded me of him!  Go down to the prison and
fetch him, and I will strike off his head."  "To hear is to
obey," replied Al-Mu'ín: then he stood up and said, "I will make
proclamation in the city:--Whoso would solace himself with seeing
the beheading of Nur al-Din bin al-Fazl bin Khákán, let him
repair to the palace!  So follower and followed, great and small
will flock to the spectacle, and I shall heal my heart and harm
my foe."  "Do as thou wilt," said the Sultan.  The Wazir went off
(and he was glad and gay), and ordered the Chief of Police to
make the afore-mentioned proclamation. When the people heard the
crier, they all sorrowed and wept, even the little ones at school
and the traders in their shops; and some strove to get places for
seeing the sight, whilst others went to the prison with the
object of escorting him thence.  Presently, the Wazir came with
ten Mamelukes to the jail and Kutayt the jailor asked him, "Whom
seekest thou, O our lord the Wazir?"; whereto he answered, "Bring
me out that gallows- bird."  But the jailor said, "He is in the
sorriest of plights for the much beating I have given him."  Then
he went into the prison and found Nur al-Din repeating these

"Who shall support me in calamities, * When fail all cures and
     greater cares arise?
Exile hath worm my heart, my vitals torn;   The World to foes
     hath turned my firm allies.
O folk, will not one friend amidst you all * Wail o'er my woes,
     and cry to hear my cries?
Death and it agonies seem light to me, * Since life has lost all
     joys and jollities:
O Lord of Mustafa,[FN#73] that Science-sea, * Sole Intercessor,
     Guide all-ware, all-wise!
I pray thee free me and my fault forego, * And from me drive mine
     evil and my woe."

The jailor stripped off his clean clothes and, dressing him in
two filthy vests, carried him to the Wazir.  Nur al-Din looked at
him and saw it was his foe that sought to compass his death; so
he wept and said, "Art thou, then, so secure against the World?
Hast thou not heard the saying of the poet,

'Kisras and Caesars in a bygone day * Stored wealth; where it is,
     and ah! where are they?'

O Wazir," he continued, "know that Allah (be He extolled and
exalted!) will do whatso He will!"  "O Ali," replied he,
"thinkest thou to frighten me with such talk?  I mean this very
day to smite thy neck despite the noses of the Bassorah folk and
I care not; let the days do as they please; nor will I turn me to
thy counsel but rather to what the poet saith,

'Leave thou the days to breed their ban and bate, * And make thee
     strong t' upbear the weight of Fate.'

And also how excellently saith another,

'Whoso shall see the death-day of his foe, * One day surviving,
     wins his bestest wish.'"

Then he ordered his attendants to mount Nur al-Din upon the bare
back of a mule; and they said to the youth (for truly it was
irksome to them), "Let us stone him and cut him down thou our
lives go for it."  But Nur al-Din said to them, "Do not so: have
ye not heard the saying of the poet,

'Needs must I bear the term by Fate decreed, * And when that day
     be dead needs must I die:
If lions dragged me to their forest-lair, * Safe should I live
     till draw my death-day nigh.'"

Then they proceeded to proclaim before Nur al-Din, "This is the
least of the retribution for him who imposeth upon Kings with
forgeries."  And they ceased not parading him round about
Bassorah, till they made him stand beneath the palace-windows and
set him upon the leather of blood,[FN#74] and the sworder came up
to him and said, "O my lord, I am but a slave commanded in this
matter: an thou have any desire, tell it me that I may fulfil it,
for now there remaineth of they life only so much as may be till
the Sultan shall put his face out of the lattice."  Thereupon Nur
al-Din looked to the right and to the left, and before him and
behind him and began improvising,

"The sword, the sworder and the blood-skin waiting me I sight, *
     And cry, Alack, mine evil fate! ah, my calamity!
How is't I see no loving friend with eye of sense or soul? *
     What! no one here? I cry to all: will none reply to me?
The time is past that formed my life, my death term draweth nigh,
     * Will no man win the grace of God showing me clemency;
And look with pity on my state, and clear my dark despair, * E'en
     with a draught of water dealt to cool death's agony?"

The people fell to weeping over him; and the headsman rose and
brought him a draught of water; but the Wazir sprang up from his
place and smote the gugglet with his hand and broke it: then he
cried out at the executioner and bade him strike off Nur al-Din's
head.  So he bound the eyes of the doomed man and folk clamoured
at the Wazir and loud wailings were heard and much questioning of
man and man.  At this moment behold, rose a dense dust-cloud
filling sky and wold; and when the Sultan, who was sitting in the
palace, descried this, he said to his suite, "Go and see what yon
cloud bringeth:"  Replied Al Mu'ín, "Not till we have smitten
this fellow's neck;" but the Sultan said, "Wait ye till we see
what this meaneth."  Now the dust-cloud was the dust of J'afar
the Barmecide, Wazir to the Caliph, and his host; and the cause
of his coming was as follows.  The Caliph passed thirty days
without calling to mind the matter of Nur al-Din Ali,[FN#75] and
none reminded him of it, till one night, as he passed by the
chamber of Anis al-Jalis, he heard her weeping and singing with a
soft sweet voice these lines of the poet,

"In thought I see thy form when farthest far or nearest near; *
     And on my tongue there dwells a name which man shall ne'er

Then her weeping redoubled; when lo! the Caliph opened the door
and, entering the chamber, found Anis al-Jalis in tears.  When
she saw him she fell to the ground and kissing his feet three
times repeated these lines,

"O fertile root and noble growth of trunk; * Ripe-fruitful branch
     of never sullied race;
I mind thee of what pact thy bounty made; * Far be 't from thee
     thou should'st forget my case!"

Quoth the Caliph, "Who art thou?" and she replied, "I am she whom
Ali bin Khákán gave thee in gift, and I wish the fulfilment of
thy promise to send me to him with the robe of honour; for I have
now been thirty days without tasting the food of sleep."
Thereupon the Caliph sent for Ja'afar and said to him, "O
Ja'afar, 'tis thirty days since we have had news of Nur al-Din
bin Khákán, and I cannot suppose that the Sultan hath slain him;
but, by the life of my head and by the sepulchres of my
forefathers, if aught of foul play hath befallen him, I will
surely make an end of him who was the cause of it, though he be
the dearest of all men to myself! So I desire that thou set out
for Bassorah within this hour and bring me tidings of my cousin,
King Mohammed bin Sulayman al-Zayni, and how he had dealt with
Nur al-Din Ali bin Khákán;" adding, "If thou tarry longer on the
road than shall suffice for the journey, I will strike off they
head. Furthermore, do thou tell the son of my uncle the whole
story of Nur al-Din, and how I sent him with my written orders;
and if thou find, O my cousin,[FN#76] that the King hath done
otherwise than as I commanded, bring him and the Wazir Al-Mu'ín
bin Sáwí to us in whatsoever guise thou shalt find them."[FN#77]
"Hearing and obedience," replied Ja'afar and, making ready on the
instant, he set out for Bassorah where the news of his coming had
foregone him and had reached to the ears of King Mohammed. When
Ja'afar arrived and saw the crushing and crowding of the lieges,
he asked, "What means all this gathering?" so they told him what
was doing in the matter of Nur al-Din; whereupon he hastened to
go to the Sultan and saluting him, acquainted him with the cause
why he came and the Caliph's resolve, in case of any foul play
having befallen the youth, to put to death whoso should have
brought it about.  Then he took into custody the King and the
Wazir and laid them in ward and, giving order for the release of
Nur al-Din Ali, enthroned him as Sultan in the stead of Mohammed
bin Sulayman.  After this Ja'afar abode three days in Bassorah,
the usual guest-time, and on the morning of the fourth day, Nur
al-Din Ali turned to him and said, "I long for the sight of the
Commander of the Faithful." Then said Ja'afar to Mohammed bin
Sulayman, "Make ready to travel, for we will say the dawn-prayer
and mount Baghdad-wards;" and he replied, "To hear is to obey."
Then they prayed and they took horse and set out, all of them,
carrying with them the Wazir, Al-Mu'ín bin Sáwí, who began to
repent him of what he had done.  Nur al-Din rode by Ja'afar's
side and they stinted not faring on till they arrived at Baghdad,
the House of Peace, and going in to the Caliph told him how they
had found Nur al-Din nigh upon death.  Thereupon the Caliph said
to the youth, "Take this sword and smite with it the neck of
thine enemy."  So he took the sword from his hand and stepped up
to Al-Mu'ín who looked at him and said, "I did according to my
mother's milk, do thou according to thine."[FN#78] Upon this Nur
al-Din cast the sword from his hand and said to the Caliph, "O
Commander of the Faithful, he hath beguiled me with his words;"
and he repeated this couplet,

"By craft and sleight I snared him when he came; * A few fair
     words aye trap the noble-game!"

"Leave him then," cried the Caliph and, turning to Masrur said,
"Rise thou and smite his neck."  So Masrur drew his sword and
struck off his head. Then quoth the Caliph to Nur al-Din Ali,
"Ask a boon of me."  "O my lord," answered he, "I have no need of
the Kingship of Bassorah; my sole desire is to be honoured by
serving thee and by seeing the countenance." "With love and
gladness," said the Caliph.  Then he sent for the damsel, Anis
al-Jalis, and bestowed plentiful favours upon them both and gave
them one of his palaces in Baghdad, and assigned stipends and
allowances, and made Nur al-Din Ali bin Fazl bin Khákán, one of
his cup-companions; and he abode with the Commander of the
Faithful enjoying the pleasantest of lives till death overtook
him.  "Yet (continued Shahrazad) is not his story in any wise
more wondrous than the history of the merchant and his children."
The King asked "And what was that?" and Shahrazad began to relate

Tale of Ghanim bin Ayyub[FN#79], the Distraught, the Thrall o'

It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that in times of yore and
in years and ages long gone before, there lived in Damascus a
merchant among the merchants, a wealthy man who had a son like
the moon on the night of his fulness[FN#80] and withal sweet of
speech, who was named Ghánim bin ‘Ayyúb, surnamed the Distraught,
the Thrall o' Love. He had also a daughter, own sister to Ghanim,
who was called Fitnah, a damsel unique in beauty and loveliness.
Their father died and left them abundant wealth.--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Thirty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
merchant left his two children abundant wealth and amongst other
things an hundred loads[FN#81] of silks and brocades, musk pods
and mother o' pearl; and there was written on every bale, "This
is of the packages intended for Baghdad," it having been his
purpose to make the journey thither, when Almighty Allah took him
to Himself, which was in the time of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.
After a while his son took the loads and, bidding farewell to his
mother and kindred and townsfolk, went forth with a company of
merchants, putting his trust in Allah Almighty, who decreed him
safety, so that he arrived without let or stay at Baghdad. There
he hired for himself a fair dwelling house which he furnished
with carpets and cushions, curtains and hangings; and therein
stored his bales and stabled his mules and camels, after which he
abode a while resting. Presently the merchants and notables of
Baghdad came and saluted him, after which he took a bundle
containing ten pieces of costly stuffs, with the prices written
on them, and carried it to the merchants' bazar, where they
welcomed and saluted him and showed him all honour; and, making
him dismount from his beast, seated him in the shop of the Syndic
of the market, to whom he delivered the package. He opened it
and, drawing out the pieces of stuff, sold them for him at a
profit of two diners on every diner of prime cost. At this Ghanim
rejoiced and kept selling his silks and stuffs one after another,
and ceased not to do on this wise for a full year. On the first
day of the following year he went, as was his wont, to the
Exchange which was in the bazar, but found the gate shut; and
enquiring the reason was told, "One of the merchants is dead and
all the others have gone to follow his bier,[FN#82] and why
shouldst thou not win the meed of good deeds by walking with
them?"[FN#83] He replied "Yes," and asked for the quarter where
the funeral was taking place, and one directed him thereto. So he
purified himself by the Wuzu-ablution[FN#84] and repaired with
the other merchants to the oratory, where they prayed over the
dead, then walked before the bier to the burial place, and
Ghanim, who was a bashful man, followed them being ashamed to
leave them. They presently issued from the city, and passed
through the tombs until they reached the grave where they found
that the deceased's kith and kin had pitched a tent over the tomb
and had brought thither lamps and wax candles. So they buried the
body and sat down while the readers read out and recited the
Koran over the grave; and Ghanim sat with them, being overcome
with bashfulness and saying to himself "I cannot well go away
till they do." They tarried listening to the Koranic perfection
till nightfall, when the servants set supper and
sweetmeats[FN#85] before them and they ate till they were
satisfied; then they washed their hands and again took their
places. But Ghanim's mind was preoccupied with his house and
goods, being in fear of robbers, and he said to himself, "I am a
stranger here and supposed to have money; if I pass the night
abroad the thieves will steal my money bags and my bales to
boot." So when he could no longer control his fear he arose and
left the assembly, having first asked leave to go about some
urgent business; and following the signs of the road he soon came
to the city gate. But it was midnight and he found the doors
locked and saw none going or coming nor heard aught but the
hounds baying and the wolves howling. At this he exclaimed,
"There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah! I was
in fear for my property and came back on its account, but now I
find the gate shut and I am in mortal fear for my life!" Then he
turned back and, looking out for a place where he could sleep
till morning, presently found a Santon's tomb, a square of four
walls with a date-tree in the central court and a granite
gateway. The door was wide open; so he entered and would fain
have slept, but sleep came not to him; and terror and a sense of
desolation oppressed him for that he was alone amidst the tombs.
So he rose to his feet and, opening the door, looked out and lo!
he was ware of a light afar off in the direction of the city
gate; then walking a little way towards it, he saw that it was on
the road whereby he had reached the tomb. This made him fear for
his life, so he hastily shut the door and climbed to the top of
the dale tree where he hid himself in the heart of the fronds.
The light came nearer and nearer till it was close to the tomb;
then it stopped and he saw three slaves, two bearing a chest and
one with a lanthorn, an adze and a basket containing some mortar.
When they reached the tomb, one of those who were carrying the
case said, "What aileth thee O Sawáb?"; and said the other, "What
is the matter O Káfúr?"[FN#86] Quoth he, "Were we not here at
supper tide and did we not leave the door open?" "Yes," replied
the other, "that is true.'' "See," said Kafur, "now it is shut
and barred." "How weak are your wits!" cried the third who bore
the adze and his name was Bukhayt,[FN#87] "know ye not that the
owners of the gardens use to come out from Baghdad and tend them
and, when evening closes upon them, they enter this place and
shut the door, for fear lest the wicked blackmen, like ourselves,
should catch them and roast 'em and eat 'em."[FN#88] "Thou sayest
sooth," said the two others, "but by Allah, however that may be,
none amongst us is weaker of wits than thou." "If ye do not
believe me," said Bukhayt, "let us enter the tomb and I will
rouse the rat for you; for I doubt not but that, when he saw the
light and us making for the place, he ran up the date tree and
hid there for fear of us." When Ghanim heard this, he said in
himself, "O curstest of slaves! May Allah not have thee in His
holy keeping for this thy craft and keenness of wit! There is no
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the
Great! How shall I win free of these blackamoors?" Then said the
two who bore the box to him of the adze, "Swarm up the wall and
open the gate for us, O Bukhayt, for we are tired of carrying the
chest on our necks; and when thou hast opened the gate thou shalt
have one of those we catch inside, a fine fat rat which we will
fry for thee after such excellent fashion that not a speck of his
fat shall be lost." But Bukhayt answered, "I am afraid of
somewhat which my weak wits have suggested to me: we should do
better to throw the chest over the gateway; for it is our
treasure." "If we throw it 'twill break," replied they; and he
said, "I fear lest there be robbers within who murder folk and
plunder their goods, for evening is their time of entering such
places and dividing their spoil." "O thou weak o' wits," said
both the bearers of the box, "how could they ever get in
here!"[FN#89] Then they set down the chest and climbing over the
wall dropped inside and opened the gate, whilst the third slave
(he that was called Bukhayt) stood by them holding the adze, the
lanthorn and the hand basket containing the mortar. After this
they locked the gate and sat down; and presently one of them
said, "O my brethren, we are wearied with walking and with
lifting up and setting down the chest, and with unlocking and
locking the gate; and now 'tis midnight, and we have no breath
left to open a tomb and bury the box: so let us rest here two or
three hours, then rise and do the job. Meanwhile each of us shall
tell how he came to be castrated and all that befel him from
first to last, the better to pass away our time while we take our
rest." Thereupon the first, he of the lanthorn and whose name was
Bukhayt, said, "I'll tell you my tale." "Say on," replied they;
so he began as follows the

Tale of the First Eunuch, Bukhayt.

Know, O my brothers, that when I was a little one, some five
years old, I was taken home from my native country by a slave
driver who sold me to a certain Apparitor.[FN#90] My purchaser
had a daughter three years old, with whom I was brought up; and
they used to make mock of me, letting me play with her and dance
for her[FN#91] and sing to her, till I reached the age of twelve
and she that of ten; and even then they did not forbid me seeing
her. One day I went in to her and found her sitting in an inner
room, and she looked as if she had just come out of the bath
which was in the house; for she was scented with essences and
reek of aromatic woods, and her face shone like a circle of the
moon on the fourteenth night. She began to sport with me, and I
with her. Now I had just reached the age of puberty; so my
prickle stood at point, as it were a huge key. Then she threw me
on my back and, mounting astraddle on my breast, fell a wriggling
and a bucking upon me till she had uncovered my yard. When she
saw it standing with head erect, she hent it in hand and began
rubbing it upon the lips of her little slit[FN#92] outside her
petticoat trousers. Thereat hot lust stirred in me and I threw my
arms round her, while she wound hers about my neck and hugged me
to her with all her might, till, before I knew what I did, my
pizzle split up her trousers and entered her slit and did away
her maiden head. When I saw this, I ran off and took refuge with
one of my comrades. Presently her mother came in to her; and,
seeing her in this case, fainted clean away. However she managed
the matter advisedly and hid it from the girl's father out of
good will to me; nor did they cease to call to me and coax me,
till they took me from where I was. After two months had passed
by, her mother married her to a young man, a barber who used to
shave her papa, and portioned and fitted her out of her own
monies; whilst the father knew nothing of what had passed. On the
night of consummation they cut the throat of a pigeon poult and
sprinkled the blood on her shift.[FN#93] After a while they
seized me unawares and gelded me; and, when they brought her to
her bridegroom, they made me her Agha,[FN#94] her eunuch, to walk
before her wheresoever she went, whether to the bath or to her
father's house. I abode with her a long time enjoying her beauty
and loveliness by way of kissing and clipping and coupling with
her,[FN#95] till she died, and her husband and mother and father
died also; when they seized me for the Royal Treasury as being
the property of an intestate, and I found my way hither, where I
became your comrade. This, then, O my brethren, is the cause of
my cullions being cut off; and peace be with you! He ceased and
his fellow began in these words the

Tale of the Second Eunuch, Kafur.

Know, O my brothers that, when beginning service as a boy of
eight, I used to tell the slave dealers regularly and exactly one
lie every year, so that they fell out with one another, till at
last my master lost patience with me and, carrying me down to the
market, ordered the brokers to cry, "Who will buy this slave,
knowing his blemish and making allowance for it?" He did so and
they asked him, "Pray, what may be his blemish?" and he answered,
"He telleth me one single lie every year." Now a man that was a
merchant came up and said to the broker, "How much do they allow
for him with his blemish?" "They allow six hundred dirhams," he
replied; and said the other, "Thou shalt have twenty dirhams for
thyself." So he arranged between him and the slave dealer who
took the coin from him and the broker carried me to the
merchant's house and departed, after receiving his brokerage. The
trader clothed me with suitable dress, and I stayed in his
service the rest of my twelvemonth, until the new year began
happily. It was a blessed season, plenteous in the produce of the
earth, and the merchants used to feast every day at the house of
some one among them, till it was my master's turn to entertain
them in a flower garden without the city. So he and the other
merchants went to the garden, taking with them all that they
required of provaunt and else beside, and sat eating and
carousing and drinking till mid day, when my master, having need
of some matter from his home, said to me, "O slave, mount the she
mule and hie thee to the house and bring from thy mistress such
and such a thing and return quickly." I obeyed his bidding and
started for the house but, as I drew near it, I began to cry out
and shed tears, whereupon all the people of the quarter
collected, great and small; and my master's wife and daughters,
hearing the noise I was making, opened the door and asked me what
was the matter. Said I, "My master was sitting with his friends
beneath an old wall, and it fell on one and all of them; and when
I saw what had happened to them, I mounted the mule and came
hither in haste to tell you." When my master's daughters and wife
heard this, they screamed and rent their raiment and beat their
faces, whilst the neighbours came around them. Then the wife over
turned the furniture of the house, one thing upon another, and
tore down the shelves and broke the windows and the lattices and
smeared the walls with mud and indigo, saying to me, "Woe to
thee, O Kafur! come help me to tear down these cupboards and
break up these vessels and this china ware,[FN#96] and the rest
of it." So I went to her and aided her to smash all the shelves
in the house with whatever stood upon them, after which I went
round about the terrace roofs and every part of the place,
spoiling all I could and leaving no china in the house unbroken
till I had laid waste the whole, crying out the while "Well away!
my master!" Then my mistress fared forth bare faced wearing a
head kerchief and naught else, and her daughters and the children
sallied out with her, and said to me, "O Kafur, go thou before us
and show us the place where thy master lieth dead, that we may
take him from under the fallen wall and lay him on a bier and
bear him to the house and give him a fine funeral." So I went
forth before them crying out, "Slack, my master!"; and they after
me with faces and heads bare and all shrieking, "Alas! Alas for
the man!" Now there remained none in the quarter, neither man nor
woman, nor epicene, nor youth nor maid, nor child nor old trot,
but went with us smiting their faces and weeping bitterly, and I
led them leisurely through the whole city. The folk asked them
what was the matter, whereupon they told them what they had heard
from me, and all exclaimed, "There is no Majesty and there is no
Might save in Allah!" Then said one of them, "He was a personage
of consequence; so let us go to the Governor and tell him what
hath befallen him." When they told the Governor,--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

             When it was the Fortieth Night,[FN#97]

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when they
told the Governor, he rose and mounted and, taking with him
labourers, with spades and baskets, went on my track, with many
people behind him; and I ran on before them, howling and casting
dust on my head and beating my face, followed by my mistress and
her children keening for the dead. But I got ahead of them and
entered the garden before them, and when my master saw me in this
state, I smiting my face and saying, "Well away! my mistress!
Alas! Alas! Alas! who is left to take pity on me, now that my
mistress is gone? Would I had been a sacrifice for her!", he
stood aghast and his colour waxed yellow and he said to me, "What
aileth thee O Kafur! What is the matter?" "O my lord," I replied,
"when thou sentest me to the house, I found that the saloon wall
had given way and had fallen like a layer upon my mistress and
her children!" "And did not thy mistress escape?" "No, by Allah,
O my master; not one of them was saved; the first to die was my
mistress, thine elder daughter!" "And did not my younger daughter
escape?"; "No, she did not!" "And what became of the mare mule I
use to ride, is she safe?" "No, by Allah, O my master, the house
walls and the stable walls buried every living thing that was
within doors, even to the sheep and geese and poultry, so that
they all became a heap of flesh and the dogs and cats are eating
them and not one of them is left alive." "And hath not thy
master, my elder son, escaped?" "No, by Allah! not one of them
was saved, and now there is naught left of house or household,
nor even a sign of them: and, as for the sheep and geese and
hens, the cats and dogs have devoured them." When my master heard
this the light became night before his sight; his wits were dazed
and he so lost command of his senses that he could not stand firm
on his feet: he was as one struck with a sudden palsy and his
back was like to break. Then he rent his raiment and plucked out
his beard and, casting his turband from off his head, buffeted
his face till the blood ran down and he cried aloud, "Alas, my
children! Alas, my wife! Alas, my calamity! To whom ever befel
that which hath befallen me?" The merchants, his friends, also
cried aloud at his crying and wept for his weeping and tore their
clothes, being moved to pity of his case; and so my master went
out of the garden, smiting his face with such violence that from
excess of pain he staggered like one drunken with wine. As he and
the merchants came forth from the garden gate, behold, they saw a
great cloud of dust and heard a loud noise of crying and
lamentation; so they looked and lo! it was the Governor with his
attendants and the townsfolk, a world of people, who had come out
to look on, and my master's family following them, all screaming
and crying aloud and weeping exceeding sore weeping. The first to
address my owner were his wife and children; and when he saw them
he was confounded and laughed[FN#98] and said to them, "How is it
with all of you and what befel you in the house and what hath
come to pass to you?" When they saw him they exclaimed, "Praise
be to Allah for thy preservation!" and threw themselves upon him
and his children hung about him crying, "Slack, our father!
Thanks to Allah for thy safety, O our father!" And his wife said
to him, "Art thou indeed well! Laud to Allah who hath shown us
thy face in safety!" And indeed she was confounded and her reason
fled when she saw him, and she asked, "O, my lord, how didst thou
escape, thou and thy friends the merchants?"; and he answered
her, "And how fared it with thee in the house?" Quoth they, "We
were all well, whole and healthy, nor hath aught of evil befallen
us in the house, save that thy slave Kafur came to us, bareheaded
with torn garments and howling, 'Alas, the master! Alas the
master!' So we asked him, 'What tidings, O Kafur?' and he
answered 'A wall of the garden hath fallen on my master and his
friends the merchants, and they are all crushed and dead!''' "By
Allah," said my master, "he came to me but now howling, 'Alas, my
mistress! Alas, the children of the mistress!', and said, 'My
mistress and her children are all dead, every one of them!'" Then
he looked round and seeing me with my turband rent in rags round
my neck, howling and weeping with exceeding weeping and throwing
dust upon my head, he cried out at me. So I came to him and he
said, "Woe to thee, O ill omened slave! O whoreson knave! O thou
damned breed! What mischief thou hast wrought? By Allah! I will
flog thy skin from thy flesh and cut thy flesh from thy bones!" I
rejoined, "By Allah, thou canst do nothing of the kind with me, O
my lord, for thou boughtest me with my blemish; and there are
honest men to bear witness against thee that thou didst so
accepting the condition, and that thou knewest of my fault which
is to tell one lie every year. Now this is only a half lie, but
by the end of the year I will tell the other half, then will the
lie stand whole and complete." "O dog, son of a dog!", cried my
master, "O most accursed of slaves, is this all of it but a half
lie? Verily if it be a half lie 'tis a whole calamity! Get thee
from me, thou art free in the face of Allah!" "By Allah,"
rejoined I, if thou free me, I will not free thee till my year is
completed and I have told thee the half lie which is left. When
this is done, go down with me to the slave market and sell me as
thou boughtest me to whoso will buy me with my blemish; but thou
shalt not manumit me, for I have no handicraft whereby to gain my
living;[FN#99] and this my demand is a matter of law which the
doctors have laid down in the Chapter of Emancipation."[FN#100]
While we were at these words, up came the crowd of people, and
the neighbours of the quarter, men, women and children, together
with the Governor and his suite offering condolence. So my master
and the other merchants went up to him and informed him of the
adventure, and how this was but a half lie, at which all
wondered, deeming it a whole lie and a big one. And they cursed
me and reviled me, while I stood laughing and grinning at them,
till at last I asked, "How shall my master slay me when he bought
me with this my blemish?" Then my master returned home and found
his house in ruins, and it was I who had laid waste the greater
part of it,[FN#101] having broken things which were worth much
money, as also had done his wife, who said to him, "'Twas Kafur
who broke the vessels and chinaware." Thereupon his rage
redoubled and he struck hand upon hand exclaiming, "By Allah! in
my life never saw I a whoreson like this slave; and he saith this
is but a half lie! How, then, if he had told me a whole lie? He
would ruin a city, aye or even two." Then in his fury he went to
the Governor, and they gave me a neat thing in the bastinado-line
and made me eat stick till I was lost to the world and a fainting
fit came on me; and, whilst I was yet senseless, they brought the
barber who docked me and gelded me[FN#102] and cauterised the
wound. When I revived I found myself a clean eunuch with nothing
left, and my master said to me, "Even as thou hast burned my
heart for the things I held dearest, so have I burnt thy heart
for that of thy members whereby thou settest most store!" Then he
took me and sold me at a profit, for that I was become an eunuch.
And I ceased not bringing trouble upon all, wherever I was sold,
and was shifted from lord to lord and from notable to notable,
being sold and being bought, till I entered the palace of the
Commander of the Faithful. But now my spirit is broken and my
tricks are gone from me, so alas! are my ballocks. When the two
slaves heard his history, they laughed at him and chaffed him and
said, "Truly thou art skite[FN#103] and skite-son! Thou liedest
an odious lie." Then quoth they to the third slave, "Tell us thy
tale." "O sons of my uncle," quoth he, "all that ye have said is
idle: I will tell you the cause of my losing my testicles, and
indeed I deserved to lose even more, for I futtered both my
mistress and my master's eldest son and heir: but my story is a
long one and this is not the time to tell it; for the dawn, O my
cousins, draweth near and if morning come upon us with this chest
still unburied, we shall get into sore disgrace and our lives
will pay for it. So up with you and open the door and, when we
get back to the palace, I will tell you my story and the cause of
my losing my precious stones." Then he swarmed up and dropped
down from the wall inside and opened the door, so they entered
and, setting down the lantern, dug between four tombs a hole as
long as the chest and of the same breadth. Kafur plied the spade
and Sawab removed the earth by baskets full till they reached the
depth of the stature of a man;[FN#104] when they laid the chest
in the hole and threw back the earth over it: then they went
forth and shutting the door disappeared from Ghanim's eyes. When
all was quiet and he felt sure that he was left alone in the
place, his thought was busied about what the chest contained and
he said to himself, "Would that I knew the contents of that box!"
However, he waited till day broke, when morning shone and showed
her sheen: whereupon he came down from the date tree and scooped
away the earth with his hands, till the box was laid bare and
disengaged from the ground. Then he took a large stone and
hammered at the lock till he broke it and, opening the lid,
behold a young lady, a model of beauty and loveliness, clad in
the richest of garments and jewels of gold and such necklaces of
precious stones that, were the Sultan's country evened with them,
it would not pay their price. She had been drugged with Bhang,
but her bosom, rising and falling, showed that her breath had not
departed. When Ghanim saw her, he knew that some one had played
her false and hocussed her; so he pulled her out of the chest and
laid her on the ground with her face upwards. As soon as she
smelt the breeze and the air entered her nostrils, mouth and
lungs, she sneezed and choked and coughed; when there fell from
out her throat a pill of Cretan Bhang, had an elephant smelt it
he would have slept from night to night. Then she opened her eyes
and glancing around said, in sweet voice and gracious words, "Woe
to thee O wind! there is naught in thee to satisfy the thirsty,
nor aught to gratify one whose thirst is satisfied! Where is Zhar
al-Bostan?" But no one answered her, so she turned her and cried
out, "Ho Sabíhah! Shajarat al-Durr! Núr al-Hudá! Najmat al-Subh!
be ye awake? Shahwah, Nuzhab, Halwá, Zarífah, out on you,
speak![FN#105]'' But no one answered; so she looked all around
and said, "Woe's me! have they entombed me in the tombs? O Thou
who knowest what man's thought enwombs and who givest
compensation on the Day of Doom, who can have brought me from
amid hanging screens and curtains veiling the Harim rooms and set
me down between four tombs?" All this while Ghanim was standing
by: then he said to her, "O my lady, here are neither screened
rooms nor palace Harims nor yet tombs; only the slave henceforth
devoted to thy love, Ghanim bin Ayyub, sent to thee by the
Omniscient One above, that all thy troubles He may remove and win
for thee every wish that cloth behove!" Then he held his peace.
She was reassured by his words and cried, "I testify that there
is no god but the God and I testify that Mohammed is the Apostle
of God!"; then she turned to Ghanim and, placing her hands before
her face, said to him in the sweetest speech, "O blessed youth,
who brought me hither? See, I am now come to myself." "O my
lady," he replied, "three slave eunuchs came here bearing this
chest;" and related to her the whole of what had befallen him,
and how evening having closed upon him had proved the cause of
her preservation, otherwise she had died smothered.[FN#106] Then
he asked her who she was and what was her story, and she
answered, "O youth, thanks be to Allah who hath cast me into the
hands of the like of thee! But now rise and put me back into the
box; then fare forth upon the road and hire the first camel
driver or muleteer thou findest to carry it to thy house. When I
am there, all will be well and I will tell thee my tale and
acquaint thee with my adventures, and great shall be thy gain by
means of me." At this he rejoiced and went outside the tomb. The
day was now dazzling bright and the firmament shone with light
and the folk had begun to circulate; so he hired a man with a
mule and, bringing him to the tomb, lifted the chest wherein he
had put the damsel and set it on the mule. Her love now engrossed
his heart and he fared homeward with her rejoicing, for that she
was a girl worth ten thousand gold pieces and her raiment and
ornaments would fetch a mint of money. As soon as he arrived at
his house he carried in the chest and opening it,--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Forty-first night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Ghanim
son of Ayyub arrived with the chest at his house, he opened it
and took out the young lady, who looked about her and, seeing
that the place was handsome, spread with carpets and dight with
cheerful colours and other deckings; and noting the stuffs up
piled and packed bales and other else than that, knew that he was
a substantial merchant and a man of much money. There upon she
uncovered her face and looked at him, and lo! he was a fair
youth; so when she saw him she loved him and said, "O my lord,
bring us something to eat." "On my head and mine eyes!" replied
he; and, going down to the bazar, bought a roasted lamb and a
dish of sweetmeats and with these dry fruits and wax candles,
besides wine and whatsoever was required of drinking materials,
not forgetting perfumes. With all this gear he returned to the
house; and when the damsel saw him she laughed and kissed him and
clasped his neck. Then she began caressing him, which made his
love wax hotter till it got the mastery of his heart. They ate
and drank and each had conceived the fondest affection; for
indeed the two were one in age and one in loveliness; and when
night came on Ghanim bin Ayyub, the Distraught, the Thrall o'
Love, rose and lit the wax candles and lamps till the place
blazed with light;[FN#107] after which he produced the wine
service and spread the table. Then both sat down again, he and
she, and he kept filling and giving her to drink, and she kept
filling and giving him to drink, and they played and toyed and
laughed and recited verses; whilst their joy increased and they
dove in closer love each to each (glory be to the Uniter of
Hearts!). They ceased not to carouse after this fashion till near
upon dawn when drowsiness overcame them and they slept where they
were, apart each from other, till the morning.[FN#108] Then
Ghanim arose and going to the market, bought all they required of
meat and vegetables and wine and what not, and brought them to
the house; whereupon both sat down to eat and ate their
sufficiency, when he set on wine. They drank and each played with
each, till their cheeks flushed red and their eyes took a darker
hue and Ghanim's soul longed to kiss the girl and to lie with her
and he said, "O my lady, grant me one kiss of that dear mouth:
per chance 't will quench the fire of my heart." "O Ghanim,"
replied she, "wait till I am drunk and dead to the world; then
steal a kiss of me, secretly and on such wise that I may not know
thou hast kissed me." Then she rose and taking off her upper
dress sat; in a thin shift of fine linen and a silken head
kerchief.[FN#109] At this passion inflamed Ghanim and he said to
her, "O my lady, wilt thou not vouchsafe me what I asked of
thee?" "By Allah," she replied, "that may not be thine, for there
is written upon my trouser string[FN#110] a hard word!" Thereupon
Ghanim's heart sank and desire grew on him as its object offered
difficulties; and he improvised these verses,

"I asked the author of mine ills * To heal the wound with one
     sweet kiss:
No! No! she cried,[FN#111] for ever no! * But I, soft whispering,
     urged yes:
Quoth she, Then take it by my leave, * When smiles shall pardon
     thine amiss:
By force, cried I? Nay, she replied * With love and gladness eke
     I wis.
Now ask me not what next occurred * Seek grace of God and whist
     of this!
Deem what thou wilt of us, for love * By calumnies the sweeter is
Nor after this care I one jot * Whether my foe be known or not."

Then his affection increased and love fires rose hotter in his
heart, while she refused herself to him saying, "Thou canst not
possess me." They ceased not to make love and enjoy their wine
and wassail, whilst Ghanim was drowned in the sea of love and
longing; but she redoubled in coyness and cruelty till the night
brought on the darkness and let fall on them the skirts of sleep.
Thereupon Ghanim rose and lit the lamps and wax candles and
refreshed the room and removed the table; then he took her feet
and kissed them and, finding them like fresh cream, pressed his
face[FN#112] on them and said to her, "O my lady, take pity on
one thy love hath ta'en and thine eyes hath slain; for indeed I
were heart whole but for thy bane!" And he wept somewhat. "O my
lord, and light of my eyes," quoth she, "by Allah, I love thee in
very sooth and I trust to thy truth, but I know that I may not be
thine." "And what is the obstacle?" asked he; when she answered,
"Tonight I will tell thee my tale, that thou mayst accept my
excuse." Then she threw herself upon him and winding her arms
like a necklace about his neck, kissed him and caressed him and
promised him her favours; and they ceased not playing and
laughing till love get the firmest hold upon both their hearts.
And so it continued a whole month, both passing the night on a
single carpet bed, but whenever he would enjoy her, she put him
off; whilst mutual love increased upon them and each could hardly
abstain from other. One night, as he lay by her side, and both
were warm with wine Ghanim passed his hand over her breasts and
stroked them; then he slipped it down to her waist as far as her
navel. She awoke and, sitting up, put her hand to her trousers
and finding them fast tied, once more fell asleep. Presently, he
again felt her and sliding his hand down to her trouser string,
began pulling at it, whereupon she awoke and sat upright. Ghanim
also sat up by her side and she asked him, "What dost thou want?"
"I want to lie with thee," he answered, "and that we may deal
openly and frankly with each other." Quoth she, "I must now
declare to thee my case, that thou mayst know my quality; then
will my secret be disclosed to thee and my excuse become manifest
to thee." Quoth he, "So be it!" Thereat she opened the skirt of
her shift and taking up her trouser string, said to him, "O my
lord, read what is worked on the flat of this string:" so he took
it in hand, and saw these words broidered on it in gold, "I AM
he read this, he withdrew his hand and said to her, "Tell me who
thou art!" "So be it," answered she; "know that I am one of the
concubines of the Commander of the Faithful, and my name is Kút
al-Kulúb the Food of Hearts. I was brought up in his palace and,
when I grew to woman's estate, he looked on me and, noting what
share of beauty and loveliness the Creator had given me, loved me
with exceeding love, and assigned me a separate apartment, and
gave me ten slave girls to wait on me and all these ornaments
thou seest me wearing. On a certain day he set out for one of his
provinces, and the Lady Zubaydah came to one of the slave girls
in my service and said to her, 'I have something to require of
thee.' 'What is it, O my lady?' asked she and the Caliph's wife
answered, 'When thy mistress Kut al-Kulub is asleep, put this
piece of Bhang into her nostrils or drop it into her drink, and
thou shalt have of me as much money as will satisfy thee.' 'With
love and gladness;' replied the girl and took the Bhang from her,
being a glad woman because of the money and because aforetime she
had been one of Zubaydah's slaves. So she put the Bhang in my
drink, and when it was night drank, and the drug had no sooner
settled in my stomach than I fell to the ground, my head touching
my feet, and knew naught of my life but that I was in another
world. When her device succeeded, she bade put me in this chest,
and secretly brought in the slaves and the doorkeepers and bribed
them; and, on the night when thou wast perched upon the date
tree, she sent the blacks to do with me as thou sawest. So my
delivery was at thy hands, and thou broughtest me to this house
and hast entreated me honourably and with thy kindest. This is my
story, and I wot not what is become of the Caliph during my
absence. Know then my condition and divulge not my case." When
Ghanim heard her words and knew that she was a concubine of the
Caliph, he drew back, for awe of the Caliphate beset him, and sat
apart from her in one of the corners of the place, blaming
himself and brooding over his affair and patiencing his heart
bewildered for love of one he could not possess. Then he wept for
excess of longing, and plained him of Fortune and her injuries,
and the world and its enmities (and praise be to Him who causeth
generous hearts to be troubled with love and the beloved, and who
endoweth not the minds of the mean and miserly with so much of it
as eveneth a grain-weight!). So he began repeating,

"The lover's heart for his beloved must meet * Sad pain, and from
     her charms bear sore defeat:
What is Love's taste? They asked and answered I, * Sweet is the
     taste but ah! 'tis bitter sweet."

Thereupon Kut al-Kulub arose and took him to her bosom and kissed
him; for the love of him was firm fixed in her heart, so that she
disclosed to him her secret and all the affection she felt; and,
throwing her arms round Ghanim's neck like a collar of pearls,
kissed him again and yet again. But he held off from her in awe
of the Caliph. Then they talked together a long while (and indeed
both were drowned in the sea of their mutual love); and, as the
day broke, Ghanim rose and donned his clothes and going to the
bazar, as was his wont, took what the occasion required and
returned home. He found her weeping; but when she saw him she
checked herself and, smiling through her tears, said, "Thou hast
desolated me, O beloved of my heart. By Allah, this hour of
absence hath been to me like a year![FN#114] I have explained to
thee my condition in the excess of my eager love for thee; so
come now near me, and forget the past and have thy will of me."
But he interrupted her crying, "I seek refuge with Allah! This
thing may never be. How shall the dog sit in the lion's stead?
What is the lord's is unlawful to the slave!" So he with-drew
from her, and sat down on a corner of the mat. Her passion for
him increased with his forbearance; so she seated herself by his
side and caroused and played with him, till the two were flushed
with wine, and she was mad for her own dishonour. Then she sang
these verses,

"The lover's heart is like to break in twain: * Till when these
     coy denials ah! till when?
O thou who fliest me sans fault of mine, * Gazelles are wont at
     times prove tame to men:
Absence, aversion, distance and disdain, * How shall young lover
     all these ills sustain?"

Thereupon Ghanim wept and she wept at his weeping, and they
ceased not drinking till nightfall, when he rose and spread two
beds, each in its place. "For whom is this second bed?" asked
she, and he answered her, "One is for me and the other is for
thee: from this night forth we must not sleep save thus, for that
which is the lord's is unlawful to the thrall." "O my master!"
cried she, "let us have done with this, for all things come to
pass by Fate and Fortune." But he refused, and the fire was
lighted in her heart and, as her longing waxed fiercer, she clung
to him and cried, "By Allah, we will not sleep save side by
side!" "Allah forefend!" he replied and prevailed against her and
lay apart till the morning, when love and longing redoubled on
her and distraction and eager thirst of passion. They abode after
this fashion three full told months, which were long and longsome
indeed, and every time she made advances to him, he would refuse
himself and say, "Whatever belongeth to the master is unlawful to
the man." Now when time waxed tiresome and tedious to her and
anguish and distress grew on her, she burst out from her
oppressed heart with these verses,

"How long, rare beauty! wilt do wrong to me? * Who was it bade
     thee not belong to me?
With outer charms thou weddest inner grace * Comprising every
     point of piquancy:
Passion thou hast infused in every heart, * From eyelids driven
     sleep by deputy:
Erst was (I wet) the spray made thin of leaf. * O Cassia spray!
     Unlief thy sin I see:[FN#115]
The hart erst hunted I: how is 't I spy * The hunter hunted (fair
     my hart!) by thee?
Wondrouser still I tell thee aye that I * Am trapped while never
     up to trap thou be!
Ne'er grant my prayer! For if I grudge thyself * To thee, I
     grudge my me more jealously
And cry so long as life belong to me, * Rare beauty how, how long
     this wrong to me?"

They abode in this state a long time, and fear kept Ghanim aloof
from her. So far concerning these two; but as regards the Lady
Zubaydah, when, in the Caliph's absence she had done this deed by
Kut al-Kulub she became perplexed, saying to herself, "What shall
I tell my cousin when he comes back and asks for her? What
possible answer can I make to him?" Then she called an old woman,
who was about her and discovered her secret to her saying, "How
shall I act seeing that Kut al-Kulub died by such untimely
death?" "O my lady," quoth the old crone, "the time of the
Caliph's return is near; so do thou send for a carpenter and bid
him make thee a figure of wood in the form of a corpse. We will
dig a grave for it midmost the palace and there bury it: then do
thou build an oratory over it and set therein lighted candles and
lamps, and order each and every in the palace to be clad in
black.[FN#116] Furthermore command thy handmaids and eunuchs as
soon as they know of the Caliph's returning from his journey, to
spread straw over the vestibule floors and, when the Commander of
the Faithful enters and asks what is the matter, let them say:--
Kut al-Kulub is dead, and may Allah abundantly compensate thee
for the loss of her![FN#117]; and, for the high esteem in which
she was held of our mistress, she hath buried her in her own
palace. When he hears this he will weep and it shall be grievous
to him; then will he cause perfections of the Koran to be made
for her and he will watch by night at her tomb. Should he say to
himself, 'Verily Zubaydah, the daughter of my uncle, hath
compassed in her jealousy the death of Kut al-Kulub'; or, if love
longing overcome him and he bid her be taken out of her tomb,
fear thou not; for when they dig down and come to the image in
human shape he will see it shrouded in costly grave clothes; and,
if he wish to take off the winding sheet that he may look upon
her, do thou forbid him or let some other forbid him, saying,
'The sight of her nakedness is unlawful.' The fear of the world
to come will restrain him and he will believe that she is dead
and will restore the figure to its place and thank thee for thy
doings; and thus thou shalt escape, please Almighty Allah, from
this slough of despond." When the Lady Zubaydah heard her words,
she commended the counsel and gave her a dress of honour and a
large sum of money, ordering her to do all she had said. So the
old woman set about the business forthright and bade the
carpenter make her the afore said image; and, as soon as it was
finished, she brought it to the Lady Zubaydah, who shrouded it
and buried it and built a sepulchre over it, wherein they lighted
candles and lamps, and laid down carpets about the tomb. Moreover
she put on black and she spread abroad in the Harim that Kut
al-Kulub was dead. After a time the Caliph returned from his
journey and went up to the palace, thinking only of Kut al-Kulub.
He saw all the pages and eunuchs and handmaids habited in black,
at which his heart fluttered with extreme fear; and, when he went
in to the Lady Zubaydah, he found her also garbed in black. So he
asked the cause of this and they gave him tidings of the death of
Kut al-Kulub, whereon he fell a swooning. As soon as he came to
himself, he asked for her tomb, and the Lady Zubaydah said to
him, "Know, O Prince of the Faithful, that for especial honour I
have buried her in my own palace." Then he repaired in his
travelling garb[FN#118] to the tomb that he might wail over her,
and found the carpets spread and the candles and lamps lighted.
When he saw this, he thanked Zubaydah for her good deed and abode
perplexed, halting between belief and unbelief till at last
suspicion overcame him and he gave order to open the grave and
take out the body. When he saw the shroud and would have removed
it to look upon her, the fear of Allah Almighty restrained him,
and the old woman (taking advantage of the delay) said, "Restore
her to her place." Then he sent at once for Fakirs and Koran
readers, and caused perfections to be made over her tomb and sat
by the side of the grave, weeping till he fainted; and he
continued to frequent the tomb and sit there for a whole month,--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

              When it was the Forty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Caliph
ceased not to frequent the tomb for the period of a whole month,
at the end of which time it so happened one day that he entered
the Serraglio, after dismissing the Emirs and Wazirs, and lay
down and slept awhile; and there sat at his head a slave girl
fanning him, and at his feet a second rubbing and shampooing
them. Presently he awoke and, opening his eyes, shut them again
and heard the handmaid at his head saying to her who was at his
feet, "A nice business this, O Khayzarán!" and the other answered
her "Well, O Kazíb al-Bán?"[FN#119] "Verily" said the first, "our
lord knoweth naught of what hath happened and sitteth waking and
watching by a tomb wherein is only a log of wood carved by the
carpenter's art." "And Kut al-Kulub," quoth the other, "what hath
befallen her?" She replied, "Know that the Lady Zubaydah sent a
pellet of Bhang by one of the slave women who was bribed to drug
her; and when sleep overpowered her she let put her in a chest,
and ordered Sawab and Kafur and Bukhayt to throw her amongst the
tombs." "What dost thou say, O Kazib al-Ban;" asked Khayzaran,
"is not the lady Kut al-Kulub dead?" "Nay, by Allah!" she
answered "and long may her youth be saved from death! but I have
heard the Lady Zubaydah say that she is in the house of a young
merchant named Ghanim bin Ayyub of Damascus, highs the
Distraught, the Thrall o' Love; and she hath been with him these
four months, whilst our lord is weeping and watching by night at
a tomb wherein is no corpse." They kept on talking this sort of
talk, and the Caliph gave ear to their words; and, by the time
they had ceased speaking, he knew right well that the tomb was a
feint and a fraud, and that Kut al-Kulub had been in Ghanim's
house for four months. Whereupon he was angered with exceeding
anger and rising up, he summoned the Emirs of his state; and his
Wazir Ja'afar the Barmaki came also and kissed the ground between
his hands. The Caliph said to him in fury, "Go down, O Ja'afar,
with a party of armed men and ask for the house of Ghanim son of
Ayyub: fall upon it and spoil it and bring him to me with my
slave girl, Kut al-Kulub, for there is no help but that I punish
him!" "To hear is to obey," said Ja'afar; and setting out with
the Governor and the guards and a world of people, repaired to
Ghanim's house. Now about that time the youth happened to have
brought back a pot of dressed meat and was about to put forth his
hand to eat of it, he and Kut al-Kulub, when the lady, happening
to look out saw calamity surrounding the house on every side; for
the Wazir and the Governor, the night guard and the Mamelukes
with swords drawn had girt it as the white of the eye girdeth the
black. At this she knew that tidings of her had reached the
Caliph, her lord; and she made sure of ruin, and her colour paled
and her fair features changed and her favour faded. Then she
turned to Ghanim and said to him, "O my love! fly for thy life!"
"What shall I do," asked he, "and whither shall I go, seeing that
my money and means of maintenance are all in this house?"; and
she answered, "Delay not lest thou be slain and lose life as well
as wealth." "O my loved one and light of mine eyes!" he cried,
"how shall I do to get away when they have surrounded the house?"
Quoth she, "Fear not;" and, stripping off his fine clothes,
dressed him in ragged old garments, after which she took the pot
and, putting in it bits of broken bread and a saucer of
meat,[FN#120] placed the whole in a basket and setting it upon
his head said, "Go out in this guise and fear not for me who
wotteth right well what thing is in my hand for the
Caliph."[FN#121] So he went out amongst them, bearing the basket
with its contents, and the Protector vouchsafed him His
protection and he escaped the snares and perils that beset him,
by the blessing of his good conscience and pure conduct.
Meanwhile Ja'afar dismounted and entering the house, saw Kut
al-Kulub who had dressed and decked herself in splendid raiments
and ornaments and filled a chest with gold and jewellery and
precious stones and rarities and what else was light to bear and
of value rare. When she saw Ja'afar come in, she rose and,
kissing the ground before him, said, "O my lord, the Reed hath
written of old the rede which Allah decreed!''[FN#122] "By Allah,
O my lady," answered Ja'afar, "he gave me an order to seize
Ghanim son of Ayyub;" and she rejoined, "O my lord, he made ready
his goods and set out therewith for Damascus and I know nothing
more of him; but I desire thee take charge of this chest and
deliver it to me in the Harim of the Prince of the Faithful."
"Hearing and obedience," said Ja'afar, and bade his men bear it
away to the head quarters of the Caliphate together with Kut
al-Kulub, commanding them to entreat her with honour as one in
high esteem. They did his bidding after they had wrecked and
plundered Ghanim's house. Then Ja'afar went in to the Caliph and
told him all that had happened, and he ordered Kut al-Kulub to be
lodged in a dark chamber and appointed an old women to serve her,
feeling convinced that Ghanim had debauched her and slept with
her. Then he wrote a mandate to the Emir Mohammed bin Sulayman
al-Zayni, his viceroy in Damascus, to this effect: "The instant
thou shalt receive this our letter, seize upon Ghanim bin Ayyub
and send him to us." When the missive came to the viceroy, he
kissed it and laid it on his head; then he let proclaim in the
bazars, "Whoso is desirous to plunder, away with him to the house
of Ghanim son of Ayyub."[FN#123] So they flocked thither, when
they found that Ghanim's mother and sister had built him a
tomb[FN#124] in the midst of the house and sat by it weeping for
him; whereupon they seized the two without telling them the cause
and, after spoiling the house, carried them before the viceroy.
He questioned them concerning Ghanim and both replied, "For a
year or more we have had no news of him." So they restored them
to their place. Thus far concerning them; but as regards Ghanim,
when he saw his wealth spoiled and his ruin utterest he wept over
himself till his heart well nigh brake. Then he fared on at
random till the last of the day, and hunger grew hard on him and
walking wearied him. So coming to a village he entered a
mosque[FN#125] where he sat down upon a mat and propped his back
against the wall; but presently he sank to the ground in his
extremity of famine and fatigue. There he lay till dawn, his
heart fluttering for want of food; and, owing to his sweating,
the lice[FN#126] coursed over his skin; his breath waxed fetid
and his whole condition was changed. When the villagers came to
pray the dawn prayer, they found him prostrate, ailing, hunger
lean, yet showing evident signs of former affluence. As soon as
prayers were over, they drew near him; and, understanding that he
was starved with hunger and cold, they gave him an old robe with
ragged sleeves and said to him, "O stranger, whence art thou and
what sickness is upon thee?" He opened his eyes and wept but
returned no answer; whereupon one of them, who saw that he was
starving, brought him a saucer of honey and two barley scones. He
ate a little and they sat with him till sun rise, when they went
to their work. He abode with them in this state for a month,
whilst sickness and weakliness grew upon him; and they wept for
him and, pitying his condition, took counsel with one another
upon his case and agreed to forward him to the hospital in
Baghdad.[FN#127] Meanwhile behold, two beggar women, who were
none other than Ghanim's mother and sister,[FN#128] came into the
mosque and, when he saw them, he gave them the bread that was at
his head; and they slept by his side that night but he knew them
not. Next day the villagers brought a camel and said to the
cameleer, "Set this sick man on thy beast and carry him to
Baghdad and put him down at the Spital door; so haply he may be
medicined and be healed and thou shalt have thy hire."[FN#129]
"To hear is to comply," said the man. So they brought Ghanim, who
was asleep, out of the mosque and set him, mat and all, on the
camel; and his mother and sister came out among the crowd to gaze
upon him, but they knew him not. However, after looking at him
and considering him carefully they said, "Of a truth he favours
our Ghanim, poor boy!; can this sick man be he?" Presently, he
woke and finding himself bound with ropes on a camel's back, he
began to weep and complain,[FN#130] and the village people saw
his mother and sister weeping over him, albeit they knew him not.
Then they fared forth for Baghdad, but the camel-man forewent
them and, setting Ghanim down at the Spital gate, went away with
his beast. The sick man lay there till dawn and, when the folk
began to go about the streets, they saw him and stood gazing on
him, for he had become as thin as a toothpick, till the Syndic of
the bazar came up and drove them away from him, saying, "I will
gain Paradise through this poor creature; for if they take him
into the Hospital, they will kill him in a single day."[FN#131]
Then he made his young men carry him to his house, where they
spread him a new bed with a new pillow,[FN#132] and he said to
his wife, "Tend him carefully;" and she replied, "Good! on my
head be it!" Thereupon she tucked up her sleeves and warming some
water, washed his hands, feet and body; after which she clothed
him in a robe belonging to one of her slave girls and made him
drink a cup of wine and sprinkled rose wafer over him. So he
revived and complained, and the thought of his beloved Kut
al-Kulub made his grief redouble. Thus far concerning him; but as
regards Kut al-Kulub, when the Caliph was angered against her,--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

               When it was the Forty-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Caliph was angered against Kut al-Kulub, he ordered her to a dark
chamber where she abode eighty days, at the end of which the
Caliph, happening to pass on a certain day the place where she
was, heard her repeating poetry, and after she ceased reciting
her verse, saying, "O my darling, O my Ghanim! how great is thy
goodness and how chaste is thy nature! thou didst well by one who
did ill by thee and thou guardedst his honour who garred thine
become dishonour, and his Harim thou didst protect who to enslave
thee and shine did elect! But thou shalt surely stand, thou and
the Commander of the Faithful, before the Just Judge, and thou
shalt be justified of him on the Day when the Lord (to whom be
honour and glory!) shall be Kazi and the Angels of Heaven shall
be witnesses!" When the Caliph heard her com plaint, he knew that
she had been wronged and, returning to the palace, sent Masrur
the Eunuch for her. She came before him with bowed head and eyes
tearful and heart sorrowful; and he said to her, "O Kut al-Kulub,
I find thou accuses me of tyranny and oppression, and thou
avouches that I have done ill by one who did well by me. Who is
this who hath guarded my honour while I garred his become
dishonour? Who protected my Harim and whose Harim I wrecked?" "He
is Ghanim son of Ayyub," replied she, "for he never approached me
in wantonness or with lewd intent, I swear by thy munificence, O
Commander of the Faithful!" Then said the Caliph, "There is no
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah! Ask what thou wilt
of me, O Kut al-Kulub." "O Prince of the Faithful!", answered
she, "I require of thee only my beloved Ghanim son of Ayyub." He
did as she desired, whereupon she said, "O Lord of the Moslems,
if I bring him to thy presence, wilt thou bestow me on him?"; and
he replied, "If he come into my presence, I will give thee to him
as the gift of the generous who revoketh not his largesse." "O
Prince of True Believers," quoth she, "suffer me to go and seek
him; haply Allah may unite me with him:" and quoth he, "Do even
as thou wilt." So she rejoiced and, taking with her a thousand
diners in gold, went out and visited the elders of the various
faiths and gave alms in Ghanim's name.[FN#133] Next day she
walked to the merchants' bazar and disclosed her object to the
Syndic and gave him money, saying, "Bestow this in charity to the
stranger!" On the following Friday she fared to the bazar (with
other thousand diners) and, entering the goldsmiths' and
jewellers' market street, called the Chief and presented to him a
thousand diners with these words, "Bestow this in charity to the
stranger!" The Chief looked at her (and he was the Syndic who had
taken in Ghanim) and said, "O my lady, wilt thou come to my house
and look upon a youth, a stranger I have there and see how goodly
and graceful he is?" Now the stranger was Ghanim, son of Ayyub,
but the Chief had no knowledge of him and thought him to be some
wandering pauper, some debtor whose wealth had been taken from
him, or some lover parted from his beloved. When she heard his
words her heart fluttered[FN#134] and her vitals yearned, and she
said to him, "Send with me one who shall guide me to thy house."
So he sent a little lad who brought her to the house wherein was
the head man's stranger guest and she thanked him for this. When
she reached the house, she went in and saluted the Syndic's wife,
who rose and kissed the ground between her hands, for she knew
her. Then quoth Kut al-Kulub, "Where is the sick man who is with
thee?" She wept and replied, "Here is he, O my lady; by Allah, he
is come of good folk and he beareth the signs of gentle breeding:
you see him lying on yonder bed." So she turned and looked at
him: and she saw something like him, but he was worn and wasted
till he had become lean as a toothpick, so his identity was
doubtful to her and she could not be certain that it was he. Yet
pity for him possessed her and she wept saying, "Verily the
stranger is unhappy, even though he be a prince in his own
land!"; and his case was grievous to her and her heart ached for
him, yet she knew him not to be Ghanim. Then she furnished him
with wine and medicines and she sat awhile by his head, after
which she mounted and returned to her palace and continued to
visit every bazar in quest of her lover. Meanwhile Ghanim's
mother and sister Fitnah arrived at Baghdad and met the Syndic,
who carried them to Kut al-Kulub and said to her, "O Princess of
beneficent ladies, there came to our city this day a woman and
her daughter, who are fair of favour and signs of good breeding
and dignity are apparent in them, though they be dressed in hair
cloth and have each one a wallet hanging to her neck; and their
eyes are tearful and their hearts are sorrowful. So I have
brought them to thee that thou mayst give them refuge, and rescue
them from beggary, for they are not of asker folk and, if it
please Allah, we shall enter Paradise through them." "By Allah, O
my master," cried she, "thou makest me long to see them! Where
are they?", adding, "Here with them to me!" So he bade the eunuch
bring them in; and, when she looked on them and saw that they
were both of distinguished beauty, she wept for them and said,
"By Allah, these are people of condition and show plain signs of
former opulence." "O my lady," said the Syndic's wife, "we love
the poor and the destitute, more especially as reward in Heaven
will recompense our love; and, as for these persons, haply the
oppressor hath dealt hardly with them and hath plundered their
property and harried their houses." Then Ghanim's mother and
sister wept with sore weeping, remembering their former
prosperity and contrasting it with their present poverty and
miserable condition; and their thoughts dwelt upon son and
brother, whilst Kut al-Kulub wept for their weeping; and they
said, "We beseech Allah to reunite us with him whom we desire,
and he is none other but my son named Ghanim bin Ayyud!" When Kut
al-Kulub heard this, she knew them to be the mother and sister of
her lover and wept till a swoon came over her. When she revived
she turned to them and said, "Have no fear and sorrow not, for
this day is the first of your prosperity and the last of your
adversity!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Forty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Kut
al-Kulub had consoled them she bade the Syndic lead them to his
house and let his wife carry them to the Hammam and dress them in
handsome clothes and take care of them and honour them with all
honour; and she gave him a sufficient sum of money. Next day, she
mounted and, riding to his house, went in to his wife who rose up
and kissed her hands and thanked her for her kindness. There she
saw Ghanim's mother and sister whom the Syndic's wife had taken
to the Hammam and clothed afresh, so that the traces of their
former condition became manifest upon them. She sat talking with
them awhile, after which she asked the wife about the sick youth
who was in her house and she replied, "He is in the same state."
Then said Kut al-Kulub, "Come, let us go and visit him." So she
arose, she and the Chief's wife and Ghanim's mother and sister,
and went in to the room where he lay and sat down near him.
Presently Ghanim bin Ayyub, the Distraught, the Thrall o' Love,
heard them mention the name of Kut al-Kulub; whereupon life
returned to him, emaciated and withered as he was and he raised
his head from the pillow and cried aloud, "O Kut al-Kulub!" She
looked at him and made certain it was he and shrieked rather than
said, "Yes, O my beloved!" "Draw near to me;" said he, and she
replied, "Surely thou art Ghanim bin Ayyub?"; and he rejoined "I
am indeed!" Hereupon a swoon came upon her; and, as soon as
Ghanim's mother and his sister Fitnah heard these words, both
cried out "O our joy'" and fainted clean away. When they all
recovered, Kut al-Kulub exclaimed "Praise be to Allah who hath
brought us together again and who hath reunited thee with thy
mother and thy sister!" And she related to him all that had
befallen her with the Caliph and said "I have made known the
truth to the Commander of the Faithful, who believed my words and
was pleased with thee; and now he desireth to see thee," adding,
"He hath given me to thee." Thereat he rejoiced with extreme joy,
when she said, "Quit not this place till I come back" and, rising
forthwith, betook herself to her palace. There she opened the
chest which she had brought from Ghanim's house and, taking out
some of the diners, gave them to the Syndic saying, "Buy with
this money for each of them four complete suits of the finest
stuffs and twenty kerchiefs, and else beside of whatsoever they
require;" after which she carried all three to the baths and had
them washed and bathed and made ready for them consommés, and
galangale-water and cider against their coming out. When they
left the Hammam, they put on the new clothes, and she abode with
them three days feeding them with chicken meats and bouillis, and
making them drink sherbert of sugar candy. After three days their
spirits returned; and she carried them again to the baths, and
when they came out and had changed their raiment, she led them
back to the Syndic's house and left them there, whilst she
returned to the palace and craved permission to see the Caliph.
When he ordered her to come in, she entered and, kissing the
ground between his hands, told him the whole story and how her
lord, Ghanim bin Ayyub, yclept the Distraught, the Thrall o'
Love, and his mother and sister were now in Baghdad. When the
Caliph heard this, he turned to the eunuchs and said, "Here with
Ghanim to me." So Ja'afar went to fetch him; but Kut al-Kulub
forewent him and told Ghanim, "The Caliph hath sent to fetch thee
before him," and charged him to show readiness of tongue and
firmness of heart and sweetness of speech. Then she robed him in
a sumptuous dress and gave him diners in plenty, saying, "Be
lavish of largesse to the Caliph's household as thou goest in to
him." Presently Ja'afar, mounted on his Nubian mule, came to
fetch him; and Ghanim advanced to welcome the Wazir and, wishing
him long life, kissed the ground before him. Now the star of his
good fortune had risen and shone brightly; and Ja'afar took him;
and they ceased not faring together, he and the Minister, till
they went in to the Commander of the Faithful. When he stood in
the presence, he looked at the Wazirs and Emirs and Chamberlains,
and Viceroys and Grandees and Captains, and then at the Caliph.
Hereupon he sweetened his speech and his eloquence and, bowing
his head to the ground, broke out in these extempore couplets,

"May that Monarch's life span a mighty span, * Whose lavish of
     largesse all Empyrean! lieges scan:
None other but he shall be Kaysar highs, * Lord of lordly hall
     and of haught Divan:
Kings lay their gems on his threshold-dust * As they bow and
     salam to the mighty man;
And his glances foil them and all recoil, * Bowing beards aground
     and with faces wan:
Yet they gain the profit of royal grace, * The rank and station
     of high
Earth's plain is scant for thy world of men, * Camp there in Kay
     wan's[FN#135] Empyrean!
May the King of Kings ever hold thee dear; * Be counsel shine and
     right steadfast plan
Till thy justice spread o'er the wide spread earth * And the near
     and the far be of equal worth."

When he ended his improvisation the Caliph was pleased by it and
marvelled at the eloquence of his tongue and the sweetness of his
speech,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

               When it was the Forty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Caliph,
after marvelling at his eloquence of tongue and sweetness of
speech, said to him, "Draw near to me." So he drew near and quoth
the King, "Tell me thy tale and declare to me thy case." So
Ghanim sat down and related to him what had befallen him in
Baghdad, of his sleeping in the tomb and of his opening the chest
after the three slaves had departed, and informed him, in short,
of everything that had happened to him from commencement to
conclusion none of which we will repeat for interest fails in
twice told tales. The Caliph was convinced that he was a true
man; so he invested him with a dress of honour, and placed him
near himself in token of favour, and said to him, "Acquit me of
the responsibility I have incurred.''[FN#136] And Ghanim so did,
saying, "O our lord the Sultan, of a truth thy slave and all
things his two hands own are his master's." The Caliph was
pleased at this and gave orders to set apart a palace for him and
assigned to him pay and allowances, rations and donations, which
amounted to something immense. So he removed thither with sister
and mother; after which the Caliph, hearing that his sister
Fitnah was in beauty a very "fitnah,"[FN#137] a mere seduction,
demanded her in marriage of Ghanim who replied, "She is thy
handmaid as I am thy slave." The Caliph thanked him and gave him
an hundred thousand diners, then summoned the witnesses and the
Kazi, and on one and the same day they wrote out the two
contracts of marriage between the Caliph and Fitnah and between
Ghanim bin Ayyub and Kut al-Kulub; and the two marriages were
consummated on one and the same night. When it was morning, the
Caliph gave orders to record the history of what had befallen
Ghanim from first to last and to deposit it in the royal muniment
rooms, that those who came after him might read it and marvel at
the dealings of Destiny and put their trust in Him who created
the night and the day. Yet, O auspicious King, this story to
which thou hast deigned give ear is on no wise more wondrous than

     Tale Of King Omar Bin Al-Nu'uman And His Sons Sharrkan
                       And Zau Al-Makan,

 And What Befel Them of Things Seld-Seen and Peregrine.[FN#138]

The King asked her, "And what was their story?" and she answered:
It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that there was in the City
of Safety, Baghdad, before the Caliphate of Abd al-Malik bin
Marwán,[FN#139] a King, Omar bin al-Nu'umán highs, who was of the
mighty giants and had subjected the Chosroës of Persia and the
Kaysars of Eastern Rome; for none could warm himself at his
fire;[FN#140] nor could any avail to meet him in the field of
foray and fray; and, when he was angered, there came forth from
his nostrils sparks of flame.  He had made himself King over all
quarters, and Allah had subjected to him all His creatures; his
word went forth to all great cities and his hosts had harried the
farthest lands.  East and West had come under his command with
whatsoever regions lay interspersed between them, Hind and Sind
and Sin,[FN#141] the Holy Land, Al-Hijaz, the rich mountains of
Al-Yaman and the archipelagos of India and China.  Moreover, he
reigned supreme over the north country and Diyár Bakr, or
Mesopotamia, and over Sudán, the Eastern Negro land and the
Islands of the Ocean, and all the far famed rivers of the earth,
Sayhún and Jayhún,[FN#142] Nile and Euphrates.  He sent envoys
and ambassadors to capitals the most remote, to provide him with
true report; and they would bring back tidings of justice and
peace, with assurance of loyalty and obedience and of prayers in
the pulpits for King Omar bin al-Nu'uman; for he was, O Ruler of
the Age, a right noble King; and there came to him presents of
rarities and toll and tribute from all lands of his governing.
This mighty monarch had a son yclept Sharrkan,[FN#143] who was
likest of all men to his father and who proved himself one of the
prodigies of his time for subduing the brave and bringing his
contemporaries to bane and ban.  For this his father loved him
with love so great none could be greater, and made him heir to
the kingdom after himself.  This Prince grew up till he reached
man's estate and was twenty years old, and Allah subjected His
servants to him, by reason of his great might and prowess in
battle.  Now his father, King Omar, had four wives legally
married, but Allah had vouchsafed him no son by them, save
Sharrkan, whom he had begotten upon one of them, and the rest
were barren.  Moreover he had three hundred and sixty concubines,
after the number of days in the Coptic year, who were of all
nations; and he had furnished for each and every a private
chamber within his own palace.  For he had built twelve
pavilions, after the number of the months, each containing thirty
private chambers, which thus numbered three hundred and three
score, wherein he lodged his handmaids: and he appointed
according to law for each one her night, when he lay with her and
came not again to her for a full year;[FN#144] and on this wise
he abode for a length of time.  Meanwhile his son Sharrkan was
making himself renowned in all quarters of the world and his
father was proud of him and his might waxed and grew mightier; so
that he passed all bounds and bore himself masterfully and took
by storm castles and cities.  Presently, by decree of the
Decreer, a handmaid among the handmaids of Omar bin Nu'uman
became pregnant; and, her pregnancy being announced to the Harim,
the King was informed thereof; whereupon he rejoiced with
exceeding joy and said, "Haply it will be a son, and so all my
offspring will be males!" Then he documented the date of her
conception and entreated her with all manner of kindness.  But
when the tidings came to Sharrkan, he was troubled and the matter
seemed to him a sore one and a grievous; and he said, "Verily one
cometh who shall dispute with me the sovereignty:" so quoth he to
himself, "If this concubine bear a male child I will kill it:"
but he kept that intention hidden in his heart.  Such was the
case with Sharrkan; but what happened in the matter of the damsel
was as follows.  She was a Roumiyah, a Greek girl, by name
Sofiyah or Sophia,[FN#145] whom the King of Roum and Lord of
Cæsarea had sent to King Omar as a present, together with great
store of gifts and of rarities: she was the fairest of favour and
loveliest of all his handmaids and the most regardful of her
honour; and she was gifted with a wit as penetrating as her
presence was fascinating.  Now she had served the King on the
night of his sleeping with her, saying to him, "O King!  I desire
of the God of the Heavens that he bless thee this night with a
male child by me, so I may bring him up with the best of rearing,
and enable him to reach man's estate perfect in intelligence,
good manners and prudent bearing"[FN#146]--a speech which much
pleased the King.  During her pregnancy she was instant in
prayer, fervently supplicating the Lord to bless her with a
goodly male child and make his birth easy to her; and Allah heard
her petition so that after her months were accomplished she sat
safely upon the birth stool.[FN#147]  Now the King had deputed a
eunuch to let him know if the child she should bring forth were
male or female; and in like way his son Sharrkan had sent one to
bring him tidings of the same.  In due time Sophia was delivered
of a child, which the midwives examined and found to be a girl
with a face sheenier than the moon.  So they announced this to
all present in the room, whereupon the King's messenger carried
the news to him; and Sharrkan's eunuch did the like with his
master who rejoiced with exceeding joy.  But, after the two had
departed, quoth Sophia to the midwives, "Wait with me awhile, for
I feel as if there were still somewhat in my womb." Then she
cried out and the pains of child bed again took her; and Allah
made it easy to her and she gave birth to a second child.  The
wise women looked at it and found it a boy like the full moon,
with forehead flower white, and cheek ruddy bright with rosy
light; whereupon the mother rejoiced, as did the eunuchs and
attendants and all the company; and Sophia was delivered of the
after birth whilst all in the palace sent forth the trill of
joy.[FN#148]  The rest of the concubines heard it and envied her
lot; and the tidings reached Omar son of Al- Nu'uman, who was
glad and rejoiced at the excellent news.  Then he rose and went
to her and kissed her head, after which he looked at the boy;
and, bending over him, kissed him, whilst the damsels struck the
tabors and played on instruments of music; and the King gave
order that the boy should be named Zau al-Makán and his sister
Nuzhat al-Zamán.[FN#149]  They answered "Hearing and obedience,"
and did his bidding; so he appointed wet nurses and dry nurses
and eunuchs and attendants to serve them; and assigned them
rations of sugar and diet drinks and unguents and else beside,
beyond the power of tongue to rehearse.  Moreover the people of
Baghdad, hearing that Allah had blessed their King with issue,
decorated the city and made proclamation of the glad tidings with
drum and tom tom; and the Emirs and Wazirs and high dignitaries
came to the palace and wished King Omar bin al-Nu'uman joy of his
son, Zau al-Makan, and of his daughter Nuzhat al-Zaman, wherefore
he thanked them and bestowed on them dresses of honour and
further favoured them with gifts, and dealt largesse to all,
gentle and simple, who were present.  After this fashion he did
for four days full told, and he lavished upon Sophia raiment and
ornaments and great store of wealth; and, every few days he would
send a messenger to ask after her and the new-borns.  And when
four years had gone by, he provided her with the wherewithal to
rear the two children carefully and educate them with the best of
instructions.  All this while his son Sharrkan knew not that a
male child had been born to his father, Omar son of Al-Nu'uman,
having news only that he had been blessed with the birth of
Nuzhat al-Zaman; and they hid the intelligence from him, until
days and years had sped by, whilst he was busied in battling with
the brave and fighting single handed against the knights.  One
day, as King Omar was sitting in his palace, his Chamberlains
came in to him and, kissing the ground before him, said, "O King
there be come Ambassadors from the King of Roum, Lord of
Constantinople the Great, and they desire admission to thee and
submission to thy decree: if the King commend us to introduce
them we will so do; and, if not, there is no disputing his
behest." He bade them enter and, when they came in, he turned to
them and, courteously receiving them, asked them of their case,
and what was the cause of their coming.  They kissed the ground
before him and said, "O King glorious and strong!  O lord of the
arm that is long!  know that he who despatched us to thee is King
Afrídún,[FN#150] Lord of Ionia land[FN#151] and of the Nazarene
armies, the sovereign who is firmly established in the empery of
Constantinople, to acquaint thee that he is now waging fierce war
and fell with a tyrant and a rebel, the Prince of Casarea; and
the cause of this war is as follows.  One of the Kings of the
Arabs in past time, during certain of his conquests, chanced upon
a hoard of the time of Alexander,[FN#152] whence he removed
wealth past compute; and, amongst other things, three round
jewels, big as ostrich eggs, from a mine of pure white gems whose
like was never seen by man.  Upon each were graven characts in
Ionian characters, and they have many virtues and properties,
amongst the rest that if one of these jewels be hung round the
neck of a new-born child, no evil shall befal him and he shall
neither wail, nor shall fever ail him as long as the jewel remain
without fail.[FN#153] When the Arab King laid hands upon them and
learned their secrets, he sent to King Afridun presents of
certain rarities and amongst them the three jewels afore
mentioned; and he equipped for the mission two ships, one bearing
the treasure and the other men of might to guard it from any who
might offer hindrance on the high seas, albeit well assured that
none would dare waylay his vessels, for that he was King of the
Arabs, and more by token that their course lay over waters
subject to the King of Constantinople and they were bound to his
port; nor were there on the shores of that sea any save the
subjects of the Great King, Afridun.  The two ships set out and
voyaged till they drew near our city, when there sallied out on
them certain corsairs from that country and amongst them troops
from the Prince of Caesarea, who took all the treasures and
rarities in the ships, together with the three jewels, and slew
the crews.  When our King heard of this, he sent an army against
them, but they routed it; then he marched a second and a stronger
but they put this also to flight,--whereupon the King waxed wroth
and swore that he would not go forth[FN#154] against them save in
his own person at the head of his whole army; nor would he turn
back from them till he had left Caesarea, of Armenia[FN#155] in
ruins and had laid waste all the lands and cities over which her
Prince held sway.  So he sent us to the Lord of the age and the
time, Sultan Omar bin al-Nu'uman, King of Baghdad and of
Khorasan, desiring that he aid us with an army, so may honour and
glory accrue to him; and he hath also forwarded by us somewhat of
various kinds of presents, and of the King's grace he beggeth
their acceptance and the friendly boon of furtherance." Then the
Ambassadors kissed the ground before him,--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Forty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that, after the
Ambassadors and retinue from the Constantinopolitan King had
kissed the ground before Omar and had delivered their embassage,
they brought out the presents, which were fifty damsels of the
choicest from Graecia-land, and fifty Mamelukes in tunics of
brocade, belted with girdles of gold and silver, each wearing in
his ears hoops of gold with pendants of fine pearls costing a
thousand ducats every one.  The girls were adorned in like
fashion and were clad in stuffs worth a treasury of money.  When
the King saw them, he rejoiced in them and accepted them; then he
bade the Ambassadors be honourably entreated and, summoning his
Wazirs, took counsel with them of what he should do.  Herewith
rose up among them a Wazir, an ancient man, Dandan[FN#156] highs,
who kissed the ground before Omar and said, "O King, there is
nothing better to do in this matter than equip an army valiant
and victorious, and set over it thy son Sharrkan with us as his
lieutenants; and this rede commendeth itself to me on two counts;
first, because the King of Roum hath invoked thine assistance and
hath sent thee gifts which thou hast accepted; and, secondly,
because while no enemy dareth attack our country, thine army may
go forth safely and, should it succour the King of Graecia-land
and defeat his foe, the glory will be thine.  Moreover, the news
of it will be noised abroad in all cities and countries and
especially, when the tidings shall reach the Islands of the Ocean
and the Kings of Mauritania shall hear it, they will send thee
offerings of rarities and pay thee tribute of money." The King
pleased by the Wazir's words and approving his rede, gave him a
dress of honour and said to him, "Of the like of thee should
Kings ask counsel, and it seemeth fit that thou shouldst conduct
the van of our army and our son Sharrkan command the main
battle." Then he sent for his son who came and kissed ground
before him and sat down; and he expounded to him the matter,
telling him what the Ambassadors and the Wazir Dandan had said,
and he charged him to take arms and equip himself for the
campaign, enjoining him not to gainsay Dandan in aught he should
do.  Moreover, he ordered him to pick out of his army ten
thousand horsemen, armed cap-à-pie and inured to onset and stress
of war.  Accordingly, Sharrkan arose on the instant, and chose
out a myriad of horsemen, after which he entered his palace and
mustered his host and distributed largesse to them, saying, "Ye
have delay of three days." They kissed the earth before him in
obedience to his commands and began at once to lay in munitions,
and provide provisions for the occasion; whilst Sharrkan repaired
to the armouries and took therefrom whatsoever he required of
arms and armour, and thence to the stable where he chose horses
of choice blood and others.  When the appointed three days were
ended, the army drew out to the suburbs of Baghdad city;[FN#157]
and King Omar came forth to take leave of his son who kissed the
ground before him and received from the King seven parcels of
money.[FN#158] Then he turned to Danden and commended to his care
the army of his son; and the Wazir kissed the ground before him
and answered, "I hear and I obey;" and lastly he charged Sharrkan
that he should consult the Wazir on all occasions, which he
promised to do.  After this, the King returned to his city and
Sharrkan ordered the officers to muster their troops in battle
array.  So they mustered them and their number was ten thousand
horsemen, besides footmen and camp followers.  Then they loaded
their baggage on their beasts and the war drums beat and the
trumpets blared and the bannerols and standards were unfurled,
whilst Sharrkan mounted horse, with the Wazir Dandan by his side,
and the colours fluttering over their heads.  So the host fared
forth and stinted not faring, with the ambassadors preceding
them, till day departed and night drew nigh, when they alighted
and encamped for the night.  And as soon as Allah caused the morn
tomorrow, they mounted and tried on, guided by the Ambassadors,
for a space of twenty days; and by the night of the twenty first
they came to a fine and spacious Wady well grown with trees and
shrubbery.  Here Sharrkan ordered them to alight and commanded a
three days' halt, so they dismounted and pitched their tents,
spreading their camp over the right and the left slopes of the
extensive valley, whilst the Wazir Dandan and the Ambassadors of
King Afridun pitched in the sole of the Wady.[FN#159]  As for
Sharrkan, he tarried behind them for awhile till all had
dismounted and had dispersed themselves over the valley sides; he
then slacked the reins of his steed, being minded to explore the
Wady and to mount guard in his own person, because of his
father's charge and owing to the fact that they were on the
frontier of Graecia land and in the enemy's country.  So he rode
out alone after ordering his armed slaves and his body guard to
camp near the Wazir Dandan, and he fared on along the side of the
valley till a fourth part of the night was passed, when he felt
tired and drowsiness overcame him, so that he could no longer
urge horse with heel.  Now he was accustomed to take rest on
horseback; so when slumber overpowered him, he slept and the
steed ceased not going on with him till half the night was spent
and entered one of the thickets[FN#160] which was dense with
growth; but Sharrkan awoke not until his horse stumbled over
wooded ground.  Then he started from sleep and found himself
among the trees, and the moon arose and shone brightly over the
two horizons, Eastern and Western.  He was startled when he found
himself alone in this place and said the say which ne'er yet
shamed its sayer, "There is no Majesty and there is no Might save
in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" But as he rode on, in fear of
wild beasts, behold, the moon spread her glad light over a meadow
as if it were of the meads of Paradise; and he heard pleasant
voices and a loud noise of talk and laughter captivating the
senses of men.  So King Sharrkan alighted and, tying his steed to
one of the trees, went over a little way till he came upon a
stream and heard a woman talking in Arabic and saying, "Now by
the crush of the Messiah, this is not well of you! but whose
utters a word, I will throw her and truss her up with her own
girdle[FN#161]!"  He kept walking in the direction of the sound
and when he reached the further side he looked and behold, a
stream was gushing and flowing, and antelopes at large were
frisking and roving, and wild cattle amid the pasture moving, and
birds expressed joy and gladness in their divers tongues, and
that place was purfled with all manner flowers and green herbs,
even as a poet described it in these couplets,

"Most beautiful is earth in budding bloom, * When lucid waters
     course through plain and wood:
No work but His th' All great, th' All glorious, * Giver of all
     gifts, Giver of all good!"

And as Sharrkan considered the place, he saw in it a Christian
Monastery within whose enceinte a castle towered high in air
catching the light of the moon.[FN#162] Through the midst of the
convent passed a stream, the water flowing amongst its gardens;
and upon the bank sat the woman whose voice he had heard, while
before her stood ten handmaids like moons and wearing various
sorts of raiment and ornaments that dazed and dazzled the
beholder, high bosomed virgins, as saith of them the poet in
these couplets,

"The mead is bright with what is on't * Of merry maidens
Double its beauty and its grace * Those trooping damsels slender-
Virgins of graceful swimming gait * Ready with eye and lip to
And like the tendril'd vine they loose * The rich profusion of
     their hair:
Shooting their shafts and arrows from * Beautiful eyes beyond
Overpowering and transpiercing * Every froward adversaire."

Sharrkan gazed upon the ten girls and saw in their midst a lady
like the moon at fullest, with ringleted hair and forehead sheeny
white, and eyes wondrous wide and black and bright, and temple
locks like the scorpion's tail; and she was perfect in essence
and attributes, as the poet said of her in these couplets,

"She beamed on my sight with a wondrous glance, * And her
     straight slender stature enshamed the lance:
She burst on my sight with cheeks rosy red, * Where all manner of
     beauties have habitance:
And the locks on her forehead were lowering as night * Whence
     issues a dawn tide of happiest chance."

Then Sharrkan heard her say to the handmaids, "Come ye on, that I
may wrestle with you and gravel you, ere the moon set and the
dawn break!" So each came up to her in turn and she grounded them
forthright, and pinioned them with their girdles, and ceased not
wrestling and pitching them until she had overthrown one and all.
Then there turned to her an old woman who was before her, and the
beldam said as in wrath, "O strumpet, cost thou glory in
grounding these girls?  Behold I am an old woman, yet have I
thrown them forty times!  So what hast thou to boast of?  But if
thou have the strength to wrestle with me, stand up that I may
grip thee and set thy head between thy heels!" The young lady
smiled at her words, but she was filled with inward wrath, and
she jumped up and asked, "O my lady Zat al-Dawahi,[FN#163] by the
truth of the Messiah, wilt thou wrestle with me in very deed, or
dost thou jest with me?"; and she answered, "Yea,"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Forty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
young lady asked Zat al-Dawahi, "By the truth of the Messiah,
wilt wrestle with me or dost jest?", and she answered, "Yea, I
will wrestle with thee in very deed" (Sharrkan looking on the
while), the damsel cried, "Rise up for the fall an thou have
spunk so to do." When the old woman heard this, she raged with
exceeding rage, and her body hair stood on end like the bristles
of a fretful hedgehog.[FN#164] Then she sprang to her feet,
whilst the damsel stood up to her, and said, "Now by the truth of
the Messiah, I will not wrestle with thee unless I be naked,
Mistress whore!"[FN#165] So she loosed her petticoat trousers
and, putting her hand under her clothes, tore them off her body;
then twisted up a silken kerchief into cord shape, girt it round
her middle and became as she were a scald head If ritah or a
spotted snake.  With this she inclined towards the damsel and
said, "Do thou as I have done." All this time, Sharrkan was
gazing at the twain, and laughing at the beldam's loathly
semblance.  So the damsel leisurely rose and, taking a sash of
Yamani stuff, passed it twice round her waist, then she tucked up
her trousers and displayed two calves of alabaster carrying a
mound of crystal, smooth and rounded, and a stomach which exhaled
musk from its dimples, as it were a bed of Nu'uman's anemones;
and breasts like double pomegranates.  Then the old woman leant
towards her, and the two laid hold either of each, while Sharrkan
raised his head Heavenwards and prayed Allah that the belle might
beat the beldam.  Presently the young woman get beneath the old
woman; and, gripping her waist cloth with the left and circling
her neck with the right hand, hoisted her off the ground with
both; whereupon the old woman strove to free herself and, in so
doing fell on her back arsiversy, with her legs high in air and
her hairy bush between them showed manifest in the moonshine;
furthermore she let fly two great farts[FN#166] one of which blew
up the dust from the earth's face and the other steamed up to the
gate of Heaven.  Sharrkan laughed till he fell back upon the
ground.  Then he arose and, baring his brand looked right and
left, but he saw no one save the old woman sprawling on her back,
and said to himself, "He lied not who named thee Lady of
Calamities!  Verily thou knewest her prowess by her performance
upon the others." So he drew near them to hear what should pass
between them.  Then the young lady went up to the old one and,
throwing a wrapper of thin silk upon her nakedness, helped her to
don her clothes and made excuses saying, "O my lady Zat al-
Dawahi, I intended only to throw thee and not all this, but thou
triedst to twist out of my hands; so laud to Allah for safety!"
She returned her no answer, but rose in her shame and walked away
till out of sight, leaving the handmaids prostrate and pinioned,
with the fair damsel standing amongst them.  Quoth Sharrkan to
himself, "Every luck hath its cause.  Sleep did not fall upon me
nor the war horse bear me hither save for my good fortune; for
doubtless this maid and what is with her shall become booty to
me." So he made towards his steed and mounted and heeled[FN#167]
him on, when he sped as the shaft speeds from the bow and in his
hand he still hent his brand bare of sheath, which he brandished
shouting the while his war cry, "Allah is All mighty[FN#168]!"
When the damsel saw him she sprang to her feet and, taking firm
stand on the bank of the stream, whose breadth was six ells, the
normal cubits, made one bound and landed clear on the farther
side,[FN#169] where she turned and cried out with a loud voice,
"Who art thou, O thou fellow, that breakest in upon our privacy
and pastime, and that too hanger in hand as if charging a host?
Whence camest thou and whither art thou going?  Speak sooth, for
truth will stand thee in good stead, and lie not, for lies come
of villein breed Doubtless thou hast wandered this night from thy
way, that thou chancedst upon this place whence escape were the
greatest of mercies; for thou art now in an open plain and, did
we shout but a single shout, would come to our rescue four
thousand knights.[FN#170] So tell me what thou wantest; and if
thou wouldst only have us set thee on the right road, we will do
so." When Sharrkan heard her words he replied, "I am a stranger
of the Moslems, who fared forth this night single handed, seeking
for spoil; nor could this moonlight show me a fairer booty than
these ten maidens; so I shall seize them and rejoin my comrades
with them." Quoth she, "I would have thee know that as for the
booty thou hast not come at it; and, as for the handmaids, by
Allah, they shall never be thy spoil.  Have I not told thee that
to lie is villein vile?" Quoth he, "The wise man is he who taketh
warning by others." Thereupon quoth she, "By the truth of the
Messiah, did I not fear that thy death would be on my hands, I
would shout a shout should fill the mead for thee with war steeds
and with men of might, but I take pity upon the stranger.  So, if
thou seek booty, I require of thee that thou alight from thy
steed and swear to me, by thy faith, that thou wilt not advance
against me aught like arms in hand, and we will wrestle, I and
thou.  If thou throw me, set me on thy steed and take all of us
to thy booty; but if I throw thee, thou shalt become under my
command.  Swear this to me, for I fear thy treachery: indeed it
hath become a common saw, 'Where Perfidy is innate there Trust is
a weakly mate.' Now an thou wilt swear I will return and draw
near to thee and tackle thee." Answered Sharrkan (and indeed he
lusted to seize her and said in his soul, "Truly she knoweth not
that I am a champion of champions"); "Swear me by what oath thou
wilt and by what thou deemest most binding, and I will not
approach thee with aught till thou hast made thy preparation and
sayest, 'Draw near that I wrestle with thee.' If thou throw me, I
have money where withal to ransom myself; and if I throw thee,
'twill be booty and booty enough for me!" Rejoined the damsel, "I
am content herewith!" and Sharrkan was astounded at her words and
said, "And by the truth of the Apostle (whom Allah bless and
keep!) I too am content on the other part!" Then said she, "Swear
to me by Him who sprite in body dight and dealt laws to rule man
kind aright, that thou wilt not offer me aught of violence save
by way of wrestling; else mayst thou die without the pale of Al-
Islam." Sharrkan replied, "By Allah!  were a Kazi to swear me,
even though he were a Kazi of the Kazis,[FN#171] he would not
impose upon me such an oath as this!" Then he sware to her by all
she named and tied his steed to a tree; but he was drowned in the
sea of thought, saying in himself, "Praise be to Him who
fashioned her from dirty water!"[FN#172] Then he girt himself and
made ready for wrestling, and said to her, "Cross the stream to
me;" but she replied, "It is not for me to come over to thee: if
thou wilt, pass thou over here to me." "I cannot do that," quoth
he, and quoth she, "O boy, I will come across to thee." So she
tucked up her skirts and, leaping, landed on the other side of
the stream by his side; whereupon he drew near to her and bent
him forwards and clapped palms.[FN#173] But he was confounded by
her beauty and loveliness; for he saw a shape which the Hand of
Power had tanned with the dye leaves of the Jann, which had been
fostered by the Hand of Beneficence and fanned by the Zephyrs of
fair fortune and whose birth a propitious ascendant had greeted.
Then she called out to him, "O Moslem, come on and let us wrestle
ere the break of morning," and tucked up her sleeves from a
forearm like fresh curd, which illumined the whole place with its
whiteness; and Sharrkan was dazzled by it.  Then he bent forwards
and clapped his palms by way of challenge, she doing the like,
and caught hold of her, and the two grappled and gripped and
interlocked hands and arms.  Presently he shifted his hands to
her slender waist, when his finger tips sank into the soft folds
of her middle, breeding languishment, and he fell a trembling
like the Persian reed in the roaring gale.  So she lifted him up
and, throwing him to the ground, sat upon his breast with hips
and hinder cheeks like mounds of sand, for his soul had lost
mastery over his senses.  Then she asked him, "O Moslem! the
slaying of Nazarenes is lawful to you folk; what then hast thou
to say about being slain thyself?"; and he answered, "O my lady,
thy speech as regards slaying me is not other than unlawful; for
our prophet Mohammed (whom Allah bless and preserve!) prohibited
the slaying of women and children, old men and monks!" "As it was
thus revealed to your Prophet," she replied, "it behoveth us to
render the equivalent of his mercy; so rise.  I give thee thy
life, for generosity is never lost upon the generous." Then she
got off his breast and he rose and stood shaking the dust from
his head against the owners of the curved rib, even women; and
she said to him, "Be not ashamed; but verily one who entereth the
land of Roum in quest of booty, and cometh to assist Kings
against Kings, how happeneth it that he hath not strength enough
to defend himself from one made out of the curved rib?" "'Twas
not for lack of strength in me," he answered; "nor didst thou
throw me by thy force; it was thy loveliness overthrew me; so if
thou wilt grant me another bout, it will be of thy courtesy." She
laughed and said, "I grant thee thy request: but these handmaids
have long been pinioned and their arms and sides are weary, and
it were only right I should loose them, for haply this next
wrestling bout will be long." Then she went to the slave girls
and, unbinding them, said to them in the tongue of Greece, "Get
ye to some safe place, till I foil this Moslem's lust and longing
for you." So they went away, whilst Sharrkan kept gazing at them
and they kept turning to look at the two.  Then each approached
the adversary and he set his breast against hers, but when he
felt waist touch waist, his strength failed him; and she, waxing
ware of this, lifted him with her hands swiftlier than the
blinding leven-flash, and threw him to the ground.  He fell on
his back,[FN#174] and then she said to him, "Rise: I give thee
thy life a second time.  I spared thee in the first count because
of thy Prophet, for that he made unlawful the slaying of women;
and I do so on the second count because of thy weakliness and the
greenness of thine years and thy strangerhood; but I charge thee,
if there be in the Moslem army sent by Omar bin al-Nu'uman to
succour the King of Constantinople, a stronger than thou, send
him hither and tell him of me: for in wrestling there are shifts
and trips, catches and holds, such as the feint or falsing and
the snap or first grip, the hug, the feet-catch, the thigh
Lite,[FN#175] the jostle and the leg-lock." "By Allah, O my
lady," quoth Sharrkan (and indeed he was highly incensed against
her), "had I been Master al-Safdí, Master Mohammed Kimál or Ibn
al-Saddí,[FN#176] as they were in their prime, I had kept no note
of these shifts thou mentionest; for O my mistress, by Allah,
thou hast not grassed me by thy strength, but by the
blandishments of thy back parts; for we men of Mesopotamia so
love a full formed thigh that nor sense was left me nor
foresight.  But now, an thou wish, thou shalt try a third fall
with me while my wits are about me, and this last match is
allowed me by the laws of the game which sayeth the best of
three: moreover I have regained my presence of mind." When she
heard his words she said to him, "Hast thou not had a belly full
of this wrestling, O vanquished one?  However come on, an thou
wilt; but know that this must be the last round." Then she bent
forward and challenged him and Sharrkan did likewise, setting to
it in real earnest and being right cautious about the throw: so
the two strove awhile and the damsel found in him a strength such
as she had not observed before and said to him, "O Moslem, thou
art now on thy mettle." "Yes," he replied, "thou knowest that
there remaineth to me but this one round, after which each of us
will wend a different way." She laughed and he laughed
too;[FN#177] then she overreached at his thigh and caught firm
hold of it unawares, which made him greet the ground and fall
full on his back.  She laughed at him and said, "Art thou an
eater of bran?  Thou are like a Badawi's bonnet which falleth off
with every touch or else the Father of Winds[FN#178] that
droppeth before a puff of air.  Fie upon thee, O thou poor
thing!" adding, "Get thee back to the Moslem army and send us
other than thyself, for thou fairest of thews; and proclaim for
us, among the Arabs and Persians, the Turks and
Daylamites,[FN#179] whoso hath might in him, let him come to us."
Then she made a spring and landed on the other side of the stream
and said to Sharrkan, laughing, "Parting with thee is right
grievous to me, O my lord; but get thee to thy mates before dawn,
lest the Knights come upon thee and pick thee up on their lance
points.  Thou hast no strength to defend thee against a woman, so
how couldst thou hold thine own amongst men of might and
Knights?" Sharrkan was confounded and called to her (as she
turned from him making towards the convent), "O my lady, wilt
thou go away and leave the miserable stranger, the broken hearted
slave of love?" So she turned to him laughing and said, "What is
thy want?  I will grant thee thy prayer." "Have I set foot in thy
country and tasted the sweetness of thy courtesy," replied he,
"and shall I return without eating of thy victual and tasting thy
hospitality; I who have become one of thy servitors!" "None baulk
kindliness save the base," she rejoined, "honour us in Allah's
name, on my head and eyes be it!  Mount thy steed and ride along
the brink of the stream over against me, for now thou art my
guest." At this Sharrkan was glad and, hastening back to his
horse, mounted and walked him abreast of her, and she kept faring
on till they came to a drawbridge[FN#180] built of beams of the
white poplar, hung by pullies and steel chains and made fast with
hooks and padlocks.  When Sharrkan looked, he saw awaiting her
upon the bridge the same ten handmaids whom she had thrown in the
wrestling bouts; and, as she came up to them, she said to one in
the Greek tongue, "Arise and take the reins of his horse and
conduct him across into the convent." So she went up to Sharrkan
and led him over, much puzzled and perturbed with what he saw,
and saying to himself, "O would that the Wazir Dandan were here
with me that his eyes might look upon these fairest of favours."
Then he turned to the young lady and said to her, "O marvel of
loveliness, now I have two claims upon thee; first the claim of
good fellowship, and secondly for that thou hast carried me to
thy home and offered me thy hospitality.  I am now under thy
commandance and thy guidance; so do me one last favour by
accompanying me to the lands of Al-Islam; where thou shalt look
upon many a lion hearted warrior and thou shalt learn who I am."
When she heard this she was angered and said to him, "By the
truth of the Messiah, thou hast proved thyself with me a man of
keen wit; but now I see what mischief there is in thy heart, and
how thou canst permit thyself a speech which proveth thy
traitorous intent.  How should I do as thou sayest, when I wot
that if I came to that King of yours, Omar bin al- Nu'uman, I
should never get free from him?  For truly he hath not the like
of me or behind his city walls or within his palace halls, Lord
of Baghdad and of Khorasan though he be, who hath built for
himself twelve pavilions, in number as the months of the year,
and in each a concubine after the number of the days; and if I
come to him he would not prove shy of me, for your folk believe I
am lawful to have and to hold as is said in your writ, 'Or those
women whom your right hand shall possess as slaves.'[FN#181] So
how canst thou speak thus to me?  As for thy saying, 'Thou shalt
look upon the braves of the Moslems,' by the truth of the
Messiah, thou sayest that which is not true, for I saw your army
when it reached our land, these two days ago; and I did not see
that your ordinance was the ordinance of Kings, but I beheld only
a rabble of tribesmen gathered together.  And as to thy words,
'Thou shalt know who I am,' I did not do thee kindness because of
thy dignity but out of pride in myself; and the like of thee
should not talk thus to the like of me, even wert thou Sharrkan,
Omar bin al- Nu'uman's son, the prowess name in these days!"
"Knowest thou Sharrkan?" asked he; and she answered Yes! and I
know of his coming with an army numbering ten thousand horsemen;
also that he was sent by his sire with this force to gain
prevalence for the King of Constantinople." "O my lady," said
Sharrkan, "I adjure thee by thy religion, tell me the cause of
all this, that sooth may appear to me clear of untruth, and with
whom the fault lies." "Now by the virtue of thy faith," she
replied, "did I not fear lest the news of me be bruited abroad
that I am of the daughters of Roum, I would adventure myself and
sally forth single handed against the ten thousand horsemen and
slay their leader, the Wazir Dandan and vanquish their champion
Sharrkan.[FN#182] Nor would aught of shame accrue to me thereby,
for I have read books and studied the rules of good breeding in
the language of the Arabs.  But I have no need to vaunt my own
prowess to thee, more by token as thou hast proved in thy proper
person my skill and strength in wrestling; and thou hast learnt
my superiority over other women.  Nor, indeed, had Sharrkan
himself been here this night and it were said to him, 'Clear this
stream,' could he have done it; and I only long and lust that the
Messiah would throw him into my hands in this very convent, that
I might go forth to him in the habit of a man and drag him from
his saddle seat and make him my captive and lay him in bilboes."-
-And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

              When it was the Forty-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Nazarene damsel said to Sharrkan (and he listening impatiently
enow), "Verily if Sharrkan fell into my hands, I would go forth
to him in the habit of a man and drag him from his saddle seat
and make him my captive and lay him in bilboes," pride and
passion and knightly jealousy took possession of him and he
desired to discover and declare himself and to lay on load; but
her loveliness restrained him and he began repeating,

"An faulty of one fault the Beauty prove, * Her charms a thousand
     advocates shall move."

So she went up and Sharrkan after her; and, when he saw the
maiden's back and hinder cheeks that clashed against each other,
like rollers in the rolling sea, he extemporised these couplets:-

"For her sins is a pleader that brow, * And all hearts its fair
     pleading must bow:
When I saw it I cried, "To night * The moon at its fullest doth
Tho' Balkis' own Ifrit[FN#183] try a bout, * Spite his force she
     would deal him a throw."

The two fared on till they reached a gate over which rose a
marble archway.  This she opened and ushered Sharrkan into a long
vestibule, vaulted with ten connected arches, from each of which
hung a crystal lamp glistening like a spark of fire.  The
handmaids met her at the further end bearing wax candles of
goodly perfume, and wearing on their heads golden fillets crusted
with all manner bezel gems,[FN#184] and went on before her
(Sharrkan still following), till they reached the inner convent.
There the Moslem saw couches and sofas ranged all around, one
opposite the other and all over hung with curtains flowered in
gold.  The monastery floor was paved with every kind of vari
coloured marbles and mosaic work, and in the midst stood a basin
that held four and twenty jetting fountains of gold, whence the
water ran like molten silver; whilst at the upper end stood a
throne spread with silks fit only for Kings.  Then said the
damsel, "Ascend, O my lord, this throne." So he went up to it and
sat down and she withdrew to remain absent for some time.
Sharrkan asked of her from one of the servants who answered him,
"She hath gone to her dormitory; but we will serve thee even as
she ordered." So they set before him viands of rare varieties,
and he ate his sufficiency, when they brought him a basin of gold
and an ewer of silver, and he washed his hands.  Then his
thoughts reverted to his army, knowing not what had befallen it
in his absence and calling to mind also how he had forgotten his
father's injunctions: so he was troubled about his case,
repenting of what he had done till the dawn broke and the day
appeared; when he lamented and sighed and became drowned in sea
of sadness and repeated,

"I am not lost to prudence, but indeed * Here I'm bewildered,
     what shall be my rede?
Would any aid me in mine ails of love, * By my own might and
     sleight would I be free'd:
But ah! my heart is lost and passion-shent: * To none save Allah
     can I trust my need!"

When he ended his verse behold, there came up to him a rare show
and a fair, more than twenty maidens like crescents encompassing
the young lady, who shone in their midst as the full moon among
the constellations guarding and girding her.  She was clad in
brocades befitting Kings; her breasts were like twin
pomegranates, a woven zone set with all kinds of jewels tightly
clasped her waist which expanded below into jutting hips; and her
hinder cheeks stood out as a mound of crystal[FN#185] supporting
a silvern shaft.  When Sharrkan looked at her his wits went nigh
to fly away from him with delight; and he forgot army and Wazir
as he gazed on her fair head decked and dight with a net work of
pearls set off by divers sorts of gems.  Handmaids on her right
and handmaids on her left bore her train, as she paced with
dainty graceful gait in all the pride of seemlihead.  He sprang
to his feet seeing such beauty and loveliness, and cried aloud,
"Beware and beware of that zone rarely fair!" and broke out into
these couplets,

"With heavy back parts, high breasts delicate, * And lissome form
     that sways with swimming gait
She deftly hides love longing in her breast; * But I may never
     hide its ban and bate
While hosts of followers her steps precede,[FN#186] * Like pearls
     now necklaced and now separate."

She gazed upon him for a long time and considered him till she
was assured of him, when she came up to him and said, "In very
sooth the place is honoured and illumined by thee, O Sharrkan!
How sped thy night, O hero, after we went away and left thee?";
adding, "Verily lying is a vile thing and a shameful, especially
in great Kings! and thou art Crown Prince Sharrkan, son and heir
of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman; so henceforth make no secret of thy
rank and condition, nor let me hear aught from thee but the
truth; for leasing bequeatheth hate and despite.  And as thou art
pierced by the shaft of Fate, be resignation thine and abide
content to wait." When he heard her words he saw that artifice
availed him naught and he acknowledged the truth, saying, "I am
Sharrkan, bin Omar bin al-Nu'uman, whom fortune hath afflicted
and cast into this place; so whatso thou willest, do it in my
case!" She hung her head groundwards a long while, then turned to
him and said, "Be of good cheer and let thine eyes be cool and
clear;[FN#187] for thou art the guest of my hospitality, and
bread and salt hath made a tie between me and thee; wherefore
thou art in my ward and under my safeguard.  Have no fear for, by
the truth of the Messiah, if all on earth sought to do thee hurt
they should not come at thee, till life had left my body for thy
sake: indeed thou art now under the charge of the Messiah and of
me." Hereat she sat her down by his side and fell to playing with
him, till his alarm subsided and he knew that had she desired to
slay him, she would have done so during the past night.
Presently she bespoke in the Grecian tongue one of her slave
girls, who went away and soon came back bringing a beaker and a
tray of food; but Sharrkan abstained from eating and said to
himself, "Haply she hath put somewhat in this meat." She knew
what was in his thought; so she turned to him and said, "By the
truth of the Messiah, the case is not on such wise, nor is there
aught in this meat of what thou suspectest!  Had my mind been set
on slaying thee, I had slain thee ere now." Then she walked up to
the tray and ate of every dish a mouthful; where upon Sharrkan
came forward and ate too.  She was pleased at this and both ate
till they were satisfied.  They washed their hands and after that
she rose and ordered a handmaid to bring perfumes and herbs of
sweet savour, wines of all colours and kinds and a wine-service
with vessels of gold, silver and crystal.  She filled a first
goblet and drank it off before offering it to him, even as she
had done with the food: then she crowned a second and handed it
to him.  He drank and she said to him, "O Moslem, see how thou
art here in all solace and delight of life!" And she ceased not
to drink and ply him with drink, till he took leave of his wits,-
-And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day, and ceased saying her
permitted say.

               When it was the Forty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the damsel
ceased not to drink and ply Sharrkan with drink till he took
leave of his wits, for the wine and the intoxication of love he
bore her.  Presently she said to the slave girl, "O
Marjanah[FN#188]!  bring us some instruments of music!" "To hear
is to obey," said the hand maid and going out, returned in the
twinkling of an eye with a Damascus lute,[FN#189] a Persian harp,
a Tartar pipe, and an Egyptian dulcimer.  The young lady took the
lute and, after tuning each several string, began in gentle
undersong to sing, softer than zephyr's wing and sweeter than
Tasmin[FN#190] spring, with heart safe and secure from everything
the couplets following,

"Allah assain those eyne!  What streams of blood they shed! * How
     many an arrowy glance those lids of thine have sped.
I love all lovers who to lovers show them cure; * 'Twere wrong to
     rue the love in wrong head born and bred:
Haply fall hapless eye for thee no sleeping kens! * Heaven help
     the hapless heart by force of thee misled!
Thou doomest me to death who art my king, and I * Ransom with
     life the deemster who would doom me dead."

Thereupon each and every of the maidens rose up and taking an
instrument, played and recited couplets in the Roumi tongue; then
their mistress sang also and seeing Sharrkan in ecstasies asked
him, "O Moslem, dost thou understand what I say?"; and he
answered, "Nay, my ecstasy cometh from the beauty of thy finger
sips." She laughed and continued, "If I sing to thee in Arabic
what wouldst thou do?" "I should no longer," quoth he, "be master
of my senses." Then she took an instrument and, changing the
measure, began singing these verses,

"The smack of parting's myrrh to me, * How, then, bear patience'
I'm girt by ills in trinity          * Severance, distance,
My freedom stole that fairest she,   * And parting irks me

When she ended her verse, she looked at Sharrkan and found him
lost to existence, and he lay for a while stretched at full
length and prone among the maidens.[FN#191] Then he revived and,
remembering the songs, again inclined to mirth and merriment; and
the twain returned to their wine and wassail, and continued their
playing and toying, their pastime and pleasure till day ceased
illuminating and night drooped her wing.  Then the damsel went
off to her dormitory and when Sharrkan asked after her they
answered, "She is gone to her sleeping chamber," whereto he
rejoined, "Under Allah's ward and His good guard!" As soon as it
was morning, a handmaid came to him and said to him, "My mistress
biddeth thee to her." So he rose and followed her and, as he drew
near her lodging, the damsels welcomed him with smitten tabrets
and songs of greeting, and led him through a great door of ivory
studded with pearls and jewels.  Thence they passed with him into
a tall and spacious hall, at the upper end of which was a wide
dais carpeted with all kinds of silks, and round it open lattices
commanding a view of trees and streams.  About the saloon were
figures carved in human form, and fashioned on such wise that the
air passed through them and set in motion musical instruments
within, so that the beholder would fancy they spoke.[FN#192] Here
sat the young lady, looking at the figures; but when she saw
Sharrkan, she sprang to her feet and, taking him by the hand,
made him sit down by her side, and asked him how he had passed
the night.  He blessed her and the two sat talking awhile till
she asked him, "Knowest thou aught touching lovers and slaves of
love?"; and he answered "Yes!  I wot somewhat in verse on that
matter." "Let me hear it," quoth she, so he began quoting,

"Pleasure and health, good cheer, good appetite * To Azzah,
     freest with our name and fame!
By Allah!  would I near her off she flies * At tangent, granting
     less the more I claim:
I dote on Azzah, but when clear I off * My rivals, clears me too
     that dearest dame;
Like wandering wight that chose for shade a cloud * Which, ere
     siesta done, thin air became."

When she heard this she said, "Verily Al-Kuthayyir[FN#193] was
conspicuous for sweet speech and chaste, and he was superlative
in his praise of Azzah when he sang" (and she began to recite),

"Did Azzah deal behest to Sun o' noon, * The judge had judged her
     beauty's bestest boon;
And girls who come to me and carp at her, * God make their rosy
     cheeks her sandal-shoon!

And indeed," quoth she, "'twas said that Azzah boasted exceeding
beauty and loveliness." Then she asked Sharrkan saying, "O
Prince, cost thou know aught of Jamil's[FN#194] verses to
Buthaynah?  if so repeat to us somewhat of them;" and he
answered, "Yes, I know them better than any;" whereupon he began
repeating these couplets,

"Jamil, in Holy war go fight!" to me they say: * What war save
     fight for fair ones would I e'er essay?
To me their every word and work are mere delight, * And martyrs
     crepe I all they slay in fight and fray:
An ask I, 'O Buthaynah!  what's this love, I pray, * Which eats
     my heart?' quoth she ' 'Twill stay for ever and aye!'
And when I cry, 'Of wits return some small display * For daily
     use,' quoth she, 'Far, far 'tis fled away!
Thou seekst my death; naught else thy will can satisfy * While I
     no goal espy save thee and thee alway.'"

"Thou hast spoken right well," said she, "O King's son, and Jamil
also spoke excellently well.  But what would Buthaynah have done
with him that he saith in his hemistich,

'Thou seekst my death; naught else thy will can satisfy?'"

"O my lady," quoth Sharrkan, "she willed to do him what thou
willest to do with me, and even that will not satisfy thee." She
laughed at his opportune reply and they ceased not carousing till
Day put out her light and Night came in darkness dight.  Then she
rose and went to her dormitory and slept, while Sharrkan slept in
his place till morning dawned.  As soon as he awoke, the hand
maids came to him with tabrets and other instruments of mirth and
merriment, as wont; and, kissing the ground between his hands,
said to him, "Bismillah!  in Allah's name be so kind as to
come[FN#195]: our mistress biddeth thee to her presence!" So he
rose and accompanied the slave girls who surrounded him, playing
on tabrets and other instruments of music, till they passed from
that saloon into another and a yet more spacious hall, decorated
with pictured likenesses and figures of birds and beasts, passing
all description.  Sharrkan marvelled at the art and artifice of
the place and began reciting,

"He plucks fruits of her necklace in rivalry, * And her breast-
    pearls that bedded in gold mine lie.
Pure water on silvern bars is her brow, * And her cheeks show
     roses with rubies vie:
Meseems in her eyne that the violet's hue * Lies purpling set in
     the Ithmid's[FN#196] dye."

When the lady saw Sharrkan, she stood up to him in honour and,
taking his hand, seated him by her side and asked, "O son of King
Omar bin al-Nu'uman, hast thou any cunning in the game of chess?"
"Yes," he answered, "but do not thou with me as said the poet,

'I speak and longing love upties me and unties me; * Till with
     her honey dew of inner lip she plies me:
I brought the chess board and my liefest lover plays me * With
     white and black,[FN#197] but black cum white ne'er satisfies
'Twas as if King for Castle I were fain to place me * Till wilful
     loss of game atwixt two queens surprise me:
And if I seek to read intent in eyes that eye me * Oh man!  that
     glance askance with hint of wish defies me.'"

Then she brought the chessboard and played with him; but
Sharrkan, instead of looking at her moves, kept gazing at her
fair mouth, and putting knight in place of elephant and
elephant[FN#198] instead of knight.  She laughed and said to him,
"If thy play be after this fashion, thou knowest naught of the
game." "This is only our first," replied he, "judge not by this
bout." When she beat him he replaced the pieces in position and
played again with her; but she beat him a second time, a third, a
fourth and a fifth.  So she turned to him and said, "Thou art
beaten in everything;" and he replied, "O my lady, how should one
playing with the like of thee avoid being beaten?" Then she bade
bring food, and they ate and washed their hands; after which the
wine was set before them and they drank.  Presently, she took the
dulcimer, for her hand was cunning in smiting it, and she began
repeating to an accompaniment these couplets,

"Twixt the close tied and open wide no medium Fortune knoweth, *
     Now ebb and flow then flow and ebb this wise her likeness
Then drink her wine the syne she's thine and smiling thou dost
     find her * Anon she'll fall and fare away when all thy good
     forth goeth."

They ceased not to carouse till nightfall and this day was
pleasanter even than the first.  When darkness set in, the lady
betook her to her dormitory, leaving him alone with the hand
maids; so he threw himself on the ground and slept till dawn,
when the damsels came to him with tambourines and other
instruments according to custom.  Seeing them he roused him
hastily and sat up; and they carried him to their mistress, who
came to meet him and, taking him by the hand, seated him by her
side.  Then she asked him how he had passed his night, whereat he
prayed that her life be prolonged; and she took the lute and sang
to it these verses which she improvised,

"Ne'er incline thee to part * Which embitters the heart
E'en the sun when he sets   * Shall in pallor depart."

While they were solacing themselves after this fashion, behold,
there arose a great and sudden clamour, and a confused crowd of
knights and men rushed in, holding drawn swords that glittered
and gleamed in their hands, and cried aloud in the Grecian tongue
"Thou hast fallen into our hands, O Sharrkan, so make thee sure
of death!" When he heard this, he said to himself, "By Allah, she
hath entrapped me and held me in play, till her men should come.
These are the Knights with whom she threatened me; but 'tis I who
have thrown myself into this strait." Then he turned towards the
young lady to reproach her, but saw that she had changed colour
and her face was pale; and she sprang to her feet and asked the
crowd, "Who are ye?" "O most gracious Princess and peerless onion
pearl," answered the leading Knight, "dost thou weet who is yon
man by thy side?" "Not I," she replied, "who may he be?" Quoth
the Patrician, "This is of towns the highwayman!  This is he who
rideth in the horseman's van!  This is Sharrkan, son of King Omar
bin al-Nu'uman!  This is he that forceth fortalice and
penetrateth every impregnable place!  The news of him reached
King Hardub, thy father, by report of the ancient dame Zat al-
Dawahi; and thy sire, our sovereign, hath made sure that thou
hast rendered good service to the army of the Greeks by taking
captive this ominous lion." When she heard this, she looked at
the Knight and asked him, "What be thy name?" and he answered, "I
am Másúrah, son of thy slave Mausúrah bin Káshardah, Knight of
Knights." "And how?" quoth she, "durst thou enter my presence
without leave?" Quoth he, "O my lady, when I came to the gate,
none forbade me, neither chamberlain nor porter, but all the door
keepers rose and forewent us as of wont; although, when others
come, they leave them standing at the gate while they ask
permission to admit them.  But this is not a time for long
talking, when the King is expecting our return with this Prince,
the scorpion sting[FN#199] of the Islamitic host, that he may
kill him and drive back his men whither they came, without the
bane of battling with them." "These words be ill words," rejoined
the Princess, "and Dame Zat al-Dawahi lied, avouching an idle
thing and a vain, whereof she weeteth not the truth; for by the
virtue of the Messiah, this man who is with me is not Sharrkan,
nor is he a captive, but a stranger who came to us seeking our
hospitality, and I made him my guest.  So even were we assured
that this be Sharrkan and were it proved to us that it is he
beyond a doubt, I say it would ill befit mine honour that I
should deliver into your hands one who hath entered under my
protection.  So make me not a traitor to my guest and a disgrace
among men; but return to the King, my father, and kiss the ground
before him, and inform him that the case is contrariwise to the
report of the Lady Zat al-Dawahi." "O Abrízah," replied Masurah,
the Knight, "I cannot return to the King's majesty without his
debtor and enemy." Quoth she (and indeed she had waxed very
wroth).  "Out on thee!  Return to him with my answer, and no
blame shall befal thee!" Quoth Masurah, "I will not return
without him." Thereupon her colour changed and she exclaimed,
"Exceed not in talk and vain words; for verily this man had not
come in to us, were he not assured that he could of himself and
single handed make head against an hundred riders; and if I said
to him, 'Thou art Sharrkan, son of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman,' he
would answer, 'Yes.' But 'tis not of your competence to let or
hinder him; for if you do so, he will not turn back from you till
he hath slain all that are in this place.  Behold, here he is by
my side, and I will bring him before you sword and targe in
hand." "Albeit I were safe from thy wrath," answered Masurah the
Knight, "I am not safe from that of thy father, and when I see
him, I shall sign to the Knights to take him captive, and we will
carry him to the King bound and in abject sort." When she heard
this, she said, "The matter shall not pass thus, for 'twould be
blazoning mere folly.  This man is but one and ye are an hundred
Knights: so if you would attack him come out against him, one
after one, that it may appear to the King which is the valiant
amongst you."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

                When it was the Fiftieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Princess
Abrizah said to the Knight, "This man is but one, and ye are an
hundred: so if ye would attack him, come out against him, one
after one, that it may appear to the King which is the valiant."
Quoth Masurah, the Knight, "By the truth of the Messiah, thou
sayest sooth, and none but I shall sally out against him first."
Quoth she, "Wait till I go to him and acquaint him with the case
and hear what answer he will make.  If he consent, 'tis well; but
if he refuse, ye shall on no wise come to him, for I and my hand
maids and whosoever is in the convent will be his ransom." So she
went to Sharrkan and told him the news, whereat he smiled and
knew that she had not informed any of the Emirs; but that tidings
of him had been bruited and blazed abroad, till the report
reached the King, against her wish and intent.  So he again began
reproaching himself and said, "How came I to adventure and play
with my life by coming to the country of the Greeks?" But hearing
the young lady's proposal he said to her, "Indeed their onset,
one after one, would be overburdensome to them.  Will they not
come out against me, ten by ten?" "That would be villainy," said
she; "Let one have at one." When he heard this, he sprang to his
feet and made for them with his sword and battle gear; and
Masurah, the Knight, also sprang up and bore down upon him.
Sharrkan met him like a lion and delivered a shoulder cut[FN#200]
which clove him to the middle, and the blade came out gleaming
and glittering from his back and bowels.  When the lady beheld
that swashingblow, Sharrkan's might was magnified in her sight
and she knew that when she overthrew him in the wrestle it was
not by her strength but by her beauty and loveliness.  So she
turned to the Knights and said, "Take wreak for your chief!"
Thereupon out came the slain man's brother, a fierce and furious
Knight, and rushed upon Sharrkan, who delayed not, but smote him
also with the shoulder cut and the sword came out glittering from
his vitals.  Then cried the Princess, "O ye servants of the
Messiah, avenge your comrade!" So they ceased not charging down
upon him, one after one; and Sharrkan also ceased not playing
upon them with the blade, till he had slain fifty Knights, the
lady looking on the while.  And Allah cast a panic into the
hearts of the survivors, so that they held back and dared not
meet him in the duello, but fell upon him in a body; and he laid
on load with heart firmer than a rock, and smote them and trod
them down like straw under the threshing sled,[FN#201] till he
had driven sense and soul out of them.  Then the Princess called
aloud to her damsels, saying, "Who is left in the convent?"; and
they replied, "None but the gate keepers;" whereupon she went up
to Sharrkan and took him to her bosom, he doing the same, and
they returned to the palace, after he had made an end of the
melee.  Now there remained a few of the Knights hiding from him
in the cells of the monastery, and when the Princess saw this she
rose from Sharrkan's side and left him for a while, but presently
came back clad in closely meshed coat of ring mail and holding in
her hand a fine Indian scymitar.  And she said, "Now by the truth
of the Messiah, I will not be a niggard of myself for my guest;
nor will I abandon him though for this I abide a reproach and a
by word in the land of the Greeks." Then she took reckoning of
the dead and found that he had slain fourscore of the Knights,
and other twenty had taken to flight.[FN#202] When she saw what
work he had made with them she said to him, "Allah bless thee, O
Sharrkan!  The Cavaliers may well glory in the like of thee."
Then he rose and wiping his blade clean of the blood of the slain
began reciting these couplets,

"How oft in the mellay I've cleft the array, * And given their
     bravest to lions a prey:
Ask of me and of them when I proved me prow * O'er creation, on
     days of the foray and fray:
When I left in the onslaught their lions to lie * On the sands of
     the low lands[FN#203] in fieriest day."

When he ended his verse, the Princess came up to him with smiles
and kissed his hand; then she doffed her hauberk and he said to
her, "O lady mine, wherefore didst thou don that coat of mail and
bare thy brand?" "To guard thee against these caitiffs,"[FN#204]
she replied.  Then she summoned the gate keepers and asked them,
"How came ye to admit the King's Knights into my dwelling without
leave of me?"; and they answered, "O Princess, it is not our
custom to ask leave of thee for the King's messengers, and
especially for the chief of his Knights." Quoth she, "I think ye
were minded only to disgrace me and murder my guest;" and bade
Sharrkan smite their necks.  He did so and she cried to the rest
of her servants, "Of a truth, they deserved even more than that!"
Then turning to Sharrkan, she said to him, "Now that there hath
become manifest to thee what was concealed, thou shalt be made
acquainted with my history.  Know, then, that I am the daughter
of King Hardub of Roum; my name is Abrizah and the ancient dame,
yclept Zat al-Dawahi, is my grandmother by the sword side.  She
it certainly is who told my father of thee, and as surely she
will compass a sleight to slay me, more by token as thou hast
slain my father's chivalry and it is noised abroad that I have
separated myself from the Nazarenes and have become no better
than I should be with the Moslems.  Wherefore it were wiser that
I leave this dwelling while Zat al-Dawahi is on my track; but I
require of thee the like kindness and courtesy I have shown thee,
for enmity will presently befal between me and my father on thine
account.  So do not thou neglect to do aught that I shall say to
thee, remembering all this betided me not save by reason of
thee." Hearing her words, Sharrkan joyed greatly; his breast
broadened and his wits flew from him for delight, and he said,
"By Allah, none shall come at thee, while life is in my bosom!
But hast thou patience to bear parting from thy parents and thy
people?" "Even so," she answered; and Sharrkan swore to her and
the two plighted their troth.  Then said she, "Now is my heart at
ease; but there remaineth one other condition for thee." "What is
it?" asked he and she answered, "It is that thou return with thy
host to thine own country." Quoth he, "O lady mine, my father,
King Omar bin al- Nu'uman, sent me to wage war upon thy sire, on
account of the treasure he plundered from the King of
Constantinople, and amongst the rest three great jewels, noted
givers of good fortune." Quoth she, "Cheer thy heart and clear
thine eyes: I will tell thee the whole of the tale and the cause
of our feud with the King of Constantinople.  Know that we have a
yearly festival, highs the Convent Feast, whereat Kings from all
quarters and the noblest women are wont to congregate; thither
also come merchants and traders with their wives and families,
and the visitors abide there seven days.  I was wont to be one of
them; but, when there befel enmity between us, my father forbade
me to be present at the festival for the space of seven years.
One year, it chanced that amongst the daughters of the great who
resorted to the patron, as was their custom, came a daughter of
the King of Constantinople, a beautiful girl called Sophia.  They
tarried at the monastery six days and on the seventh the folk
went their ways;[FN#205] but Sophia said, 'I will not return to
Constantinople save by water.' So they equipped for her a ship in
which she embarked with her suite; and making sail they put out
to sea; but as they were voyaging behold, a contrary wind caught
them and drove the vessel from her course till, as Fate and
Fortune would have it, she fell in with a Nazarene craft from the
Camphor Island[FN#206] carrying a crew of five hundred armed
Franks, who had been cruising about a long time.  When they
sighted the sails of the ship, wherein Sophia and her women were,
they gave chase in all haste and in less than an hour they came
up with her, then they laid the grappling irons aboard her and
captured her.  Then taking her in tow they made all sail for
their own island and were but a little distant from it when the
wind veered round and, splitting their sails, drove them on to a
shoal which lies off our coast.  Thereupon we sallied forth and,
looking on them as spoil driven to us by Fate,[FN#207] boarded
and took them; and, slaying the men, made prize of the wreck,
wherein we found the treasures and rarities in question and forty
maidens, amongst whom was the King's daughter, Sophia.  After the
capture we carried the Princess and her women to my father, not
knowing her to be a daughter of King Afridun of Constantinople;
and he chose out for himself ten including her; and divided the
rest among his dependents.  Presently he set apart five damsels,
amongst whom was the King s daughter, and sent them to thy
father, King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, together with other gifts, such
as broadcloth[FN#208] and woollen stuffs and Grecian silks.  Thy
father accepted them and chose out from amongst the five girls
Sophia, daughter of King Afridun; nor did we hear more of her
till the beginning of this year, when her father wrote to my
father in words unfitting for me to repeat, rebuking him with
menaces and saying to him: Two years ago, you plundered a ship of
ours which had been seized by a band of Frankish pirates in which
was my daughter, Sophia, attended by her maidens numbering some
threescore.  Yet ye informed me not thereof by messenger or
otherwise; nor could I make the matter public, lest reproach
befal me amongst the Kings, by reason of my daughter's honour.
So I concealed my case till this year, when I wrote to certain
Frankish corsairs and sought news of my daughter from the Kings
of the Isles.  They replied, 'By Allah we carried her not forth
of thy realm; but we have heard that King Hardub rescued her from
certain pirates.  And they told me the whole tale.' Then he added
in the writing which he writ to my father: 'Except you wish to be
at feud with me and design to disgrace me and dishonour my
daughter, you will, the instant my letter reacheth you, send my
daughter back to me.  But if you slight my letter and disobey my
commandment, I will assuredly make you full return for your foul
dealing and the baseness of your practices.'[FN#209] When my
father read this letter and understood the contents,[FN#210] it
vexed him and he regretted not having known that Sophia, King
Afridun's daughter, was among the captured damsels, that he might
have sent her back to her sire; and he was perplexed about the
case because, after so long a time, he could not send to King
Omar bin al-Nu'uman and demand her back from him, especially as
he had lately heard that Heaven had granted him boon of babe by
this Sophia.  So when we pondered that truth, we knew that this
letter was none other than a grievous calamity; and my father
found nothing for it but to write an answer to King Afridun,
making his excuses and swearing to him by strong oaths that he
knew not his daughter to be among the bevy of damsels in the ship
and setting forth how he had sent her to King Omar bin al
Nu'uman, who had gotten the blessing of issue by her.  When my
father's reply reached King Afridun he rose up and sat
down,[FN#211] and roared and foamed at the mouth crying:--'What!
shall he take captive my daughter and even her with slave girls
and pass her on from hand to hand sending her for a gift to
Kings, and they lie with her without marriage contract?  By the
Messiah and the true Faith,' said he, 'I will not desist till I
have taken my blood vengeance for this and have wiped out my
shame; and indeed I will do a deed which the chroniclers shall
chronicle after me!' So he bided his time till he devised a
device and laid notable toils and snares, when he sent an embassy
to thy father, King Omar, to tell him that which thou hast heard:
accordingly thy father equipped thee and an army with thee and
sent thee to King Afridun, whose object is to seize thee and
thine army to boot.  As for the three jewels whereof he told thy
father when asking his aid, there was not one soothfast word in
that matter, for they were with Sophia, his daughter; and my
father took them from her, when he got possession of her and of
her maidens, and gave them to me in free gift, and they are now
with me.  So go thou to thy host and turn them back ere they be
led deep into, and shut in by, the land of the bevy of damsels in
the ship and setting forth the Franks and the country of the
Greeks; for as soon as you have come far enough into their
interior, they will stop the roads upon you and there will be no
escape for you till the Day of retribution and retaliation.  I
know that thy troops are still halting where thou leftest them,
because thou didst order a three days' rest; withal they have
missed thee all this time and they wot not what to do." When
Sharrkan heard her words, he was absent awhile in thought; then
he kissed Princess Abrizah's hand and said, "Praise be to Allah
who hath bestowed thee on me and appointed thee to be the cause
of my salvation and the salvation of whoso is with me!  But 'tis
grievous to me to part from thee and I know not what will become
of thee after my departure." "Go now to thine army," she replied,
"and turn them back, while ye are yet near your own country.  If
the envoys be still with them, lay hands on them and keep them,
that the case may be made manifest to you; and, after three days,
I will be with you all and we will enter Baghdad together." As he
turned to depart she said, "Forget not the compact which is
between me and thee," then she rose to bid[FN#212] him farewell
and embrace him and quench the fire of desire, so she took leave
of him and, throwing her arms round his neck, wept with exceeding
weeping, and repeated these verses,

"I bade adieu, my right hand wiped my tears away, * The while my
     left hand held her in a close embrace:
'Fearest thou naught,' quoth she, 'of shame?'  I answered 'Nay, *
     The lover's parting day is lover's worst disgrace.'"

Then Sharrkan left her and walked down from the convent.  They
brought his steed, so he mounted and rode down stream to the
drawbridge which he crossed and presently threaded the woodland
paths and passed into the open meadow.  As soon as he was clear
of the trees he was aware of horsemen which made him stand on the
alert, and he bared his brand and rode cautiously, but as they
drew near and exchanged curious looks he recognized them and
behold, it was the Wazir Dandan and two of his Emirs.  When they
saw him and knew him, they dismounted and saluting him, asked the
reason of his absence; whereupon he told them all that had passed
between him and Princess Abrizah from first to last.  The Wazir
returned thanks to Almighty Allah for his safety and
said,[FN#213] "Let us at once leave these lands; for the envoys
who came with us are gone to inform the King of our approach, and
haply he will hasten to fall on us and take us prisoners." So
Sharrkan cried to his men to saddle and mount, which they did
and, setting out at once, they stinted not faring till they
reached the sole of the valley wherein the host lay.  The
Ambassadors meanwhile had reported Sharrkan's approach to their
King, who forthright equipped a host to lay hold of him and those
with him.  But Sharrkan, escorted by the Wazir Dandan and the two
Emirs, had no sooner sighted the army, than he raised the cry
"March!  March!" They took horse on the instant and fared through
the first day and second and third day, nor did they cease faring
for five days; at the end of which time they alighted in a well
wooded valley, where they rested awhile.  Then they again set out
and stayed not riding for five and twenty days which placed them
on the frontiers of their own country.  Here, deeming themselves
safe, they halted to rest; and the country people came out to
them with guest gifts for the men and provender and forage for
the beasts.  They tarried there two days after which, as all
would be making for their homes, Sharrkan put the Wazir Dandan in
command, bidding him lead the host back to Baghdad.  But he
himself remained behind with an hundred riders, till the rest of
the army had made one day's march: then he called "To horse!" and
mounted with his hundred men.  They rode on two
parasangs'[FN#214] space till they arrived at a gorge between two
mountains and lo!  there arose before them a dark cloud of sand
and dust.  So they checked their steeds awhile till the dust
opened and lifted, discovering beneath it an hundred cavaliers,
lion faced and in mail coats cased.  As soon as they drew within
earshot of Sharrkan and his meiny they cried out to them, saying,
"By the virtue of John and Mary, we have won to our wish!  We
have been following you by forced marches, night and day, till we
forewent you to this place.  So dismount and lay down your arms
and yield yourselves, that we may grant you your lives." When
Sharrkan heard this, his eyes stood out from his head and his
cheeks flushed red and he said 'How is it, O.  Nazarene dogs, ye
dare enter our country and overmatch our land?  And doth not this
suffice you, but ye must adventure yourselves and address us in
such unseemly speech?  Do you think to escape out of our hands
and return to your country?" Then he shouted to his hundred
horsemen, "Up and at these hounds, for they even you in number!"
So saying, he bared his sabre and bore down on them, he and his,
but the Franks met them with hearts firmer than rocks, and wight
dashed against wight, and knight dashed upon knight, and hot
waxed the fight, and sore was the affright, and nor parley nor
cries of quarter helped their plight; and they stinted not to
charge and to smite, right hand meeting right, nor to hack and
hew with blades bright white, till day turned to night and gloom
oppressed the sight.  Then they drew apart and Sharrkan mustered
his men and found none wounded save four only, who showed hurts
but not death hurts.  Said he to them, "By Allah, my life long
have I waded in the clashing sea of fight and I have met many a
gallant sprite, but none so unfrightened of the sword that smites
and the shock of men that affrights like these valiant Knights!"
"Know, O King," said they, that there is among them a Frankish
cavalier who is their leader and, indeed, he is a man of valour
and fatal is his spear thrust: but, by Allah, he spares us great
and small; for whoso falls into his hands he lets him go and
forbears to slay him.  By Allah, had he willed he had killed us
all." Sharrkan was astounded when he heard what the Knight had
done and such high report of him, so he said, "When the morn
shall morrow, we will draw out and defy them, for we are an
hundred to their hundred; and we will seek aid against them from
the Lord of the Heavens." So they rested that night in such
intent; whilst the Franks gathered round their Captain and said,
"Verily this day we did not win our will of these;" and he
replied, "At early dawn when the morrow shall morn, we will draw
out and challenge them, one after one." They also rested in that
mind, and both camps kept guard until Almighty Allah sent the
light of day dawn.  Thereupon King Sharrkan and his hundred
riders took horse and rode forth to the plain, where they found
the Franks ranged in line of battle; and Sharrkan said to his
followers, "Our foes have determined like ourselves to do their
devoir; so up and at them and lay on load." Then came forth an
Herald of the Franks and cried out, saying, "Let there be no
general engagement betwixt us this day, save by the duello, a
champion of yours against a champion of ours." Whereupon one of
Sharrkan's riders dashed out from the ranks and crave between the
two lines crying, "Ho!  who is for smiting?  Let no dastard
engage me this day nor niderling!" Hardly had he made an end of
his vaunt, when there sallied forth to him a Frankish cavalier,
armed cap-à-pie and clad in a surcoat of gold stuff, riding on a
grey white steed,[FN#215] and he had no hair on his cheeks.  He
urged his charger on to the midst of the battle plain and the two
fell to derring do of cut and thrust, but it was not long before
the Frank foined the Moslem with the lance point; and, toppling
him from his steed, took him prisoner and led him off
crestfallen.  His folk rejoiced in their comrade and, forbidding
him to go out again to the field, sent forth another, to whom
sallied out another Moslem, brother to the captive, and offered
him battle.  The two fell to, either against other, and fought
for a little while, till the Frank bore down upon the Moslem and,
falsing him with a feint, tumbled him by a thrust of the lance
heel from his destrier and took him prisoner.  After this fashion
the Moslems ceased not dashing forwards, one after one, and the
Franks to unhorse them and take them captive, till day departed
and the night with darkness upstarted.  Now they had captured of
the Moslems twenty cavaliers, and when Sharrken saw this, it was
grievous to him and he mustered his men and said to them, "What
is this thing that hath befallen us?  To- morrow, I myself will
go forth to the field and offer singular combat to their chief
and learn what is the cause of his entering our land and warn him
against doing battle with our band.  If he persist, we will
punish him with death, and if he prove peaceable we will make
peace with him." They righted on this wise till Allah Almighty
caused the morn to dawn, when mounted the twain and drew up for
battle fain; and Sharrkan was going forth to the plain, but
behold, more than one half of the Franks dismounted and remained
on foot before one of them who was mounted, till they reached the
midst of the battle plain.  Sharrken looked at that horseman and
lo!  he was their chief.  He was clad in a surcoat of blue satin
and a close ringed mail shirt; his face was as the moon when it
rises and no hair was upon his cheeks.  He hent in hand an Indian
scymitar and he rode a sable steed with a white blaze on brow,
like a dirham; and he smote the horse with heel till he stood
almost in the midst of the field when, signing to the Moslems, he
cried out in fluent Arab speech "Ho, Sharrkan!  Ho, son of Omar
bin al- Nu'uman!  Ho, thou who forcest fortalice and overthrowest
cities and countries!  up and out to battle bout, and blade
single handed wield with one who halves with thee the field!
Thou art Prince of thy people and I am Prince of mine; and whoso
overcometh his adversary, him let the other's men obey and come
under his sway." Hardly had he ended his speech, when out came
Sharrkan with a heart full of fury, and urging his steed into the
midst of the field, closed like a raging lion with the Frank who
encountered him with wariness and steadfastness and met him with
the meeting of warriors.  Then they fell to foining and hewing,
and they stinted not of onset and offset, and give and take, as
they were two mountains clashing together or two seas together
dashing; nor did they cease fighting until day darkened and night
starkened.  Then they drew apart and each returned to his own
party; but as soon as Sharrkan foregathered with his comrades, he
said, "Never looked I on the like of this cavalier: he hath one
quality I have not yet seen in any and this it is that, when his
foemen uncovereth a place for the death blow, he reverseth his
weapon and smiteth with the lance-heel!  In very deed I know not
what will be the issue 'twixt him and me; but 'tis my wish that
we had in our host his like and the like of his men." Then he
went to his rest for the night and, when morning dawned, the
Frank came forth and rode down to the mid field, where Sharrkan
met him; and they fell to fighting and to wheeling, left and
right; and necks were stretched out to see the sight, nor did
they stint from strife and sword play and lunge of lance with
main and might, till the day turned to night and darkness
overwhelmed the light.  Then the twain drew asunder and returned
each to his own camp, where both related to their comrades what
had befallen them in the duello; and at last the Frank said to
his men, "Tomorrow shall decide the matter!" So they both passed
that night restfully till dawn; and, as soon as it was day, they
mounted and each bore down on other and ceased not to fight till
half the day was done.  Then the Frank bethought him of a ruse;
first urging his steed with heel and then checking him with the
rein, so that he stumbled and fell with his rider; thereupon
Sharrkan threw himself on the foe, and would have smitten him
with the sword fearing lest the strife be prolonged, when the
Frank cried out to him, "O Sharrkan, champions are not wont to do
thus!  This is the act of a man accustomed to be beaten by a
woman."[FN#216] When Sharrkan heard this, he raised his eyes to
the Frank's face and gazing steadfastly at him, recognized in him
Princess Abrizah with whom that pleasant adventure had befallen
him in the convent; whereupon he cast brand from hand and,
kissing the earth before her, asked her, "What moved thee to a
deed like this?"; and she answered, "I desired to prove thy
prowess afield and test thy doughtiness in tilting and jousting.
These that are with me are my handmaids, and they are all clean
maids; yet they have vanquished thy horsemen in fair press and
stress of plain; and had not my steed stumbled with me, thou
shouldst have seen my might and prowess in combat." Sharrkan
smiled at her speech and said, "Praise be to Allah for safety and
for my reunion with thee, O Queen of the age!" Then she cried out
to her damsels to loose the twenty captives of Sharrkan's troop
and dismount.  They did as she bade and came and kissed the earth
before her and Sharrkan who said to them, "It is the like of you
that Kings keep in store for the need hour." Then he signed to
his comrades to salute the Princess; so all alighted and kissed
the earth before her, for they knew the story.  After this, the
whole two hundred took horse, and fared on night and day for six
days' space, till they drew near to Baghdad, when they halted and
Sharrkan bade Abrizah and her handmaids doff the Frankish garb
that was on them,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

               When it was the Fifty-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sharrkan
bade Princess Abrizah and her damsels doff the garb that was on
them and don the garments of daughters of Greece; and thus did
they.  Then he despatched a company of his companions to Baghdad
to acquaint his father Omar bin al-Nu'uman, with his arrival and
report that he was accompanied by Princess Abrizah, daughter of
King Hardub, Lord of Graecia-land.  They halted forthright in the
place they had reached, and Sharrkan also halted and all righted
there; and when Almighty Allah made morning dawn, Sharrkan and
his company and Abrizah and her company took horse and fared on
towards the city; when lo!  on the way they met the Wazir Dandan,
who had come out amongst a thousand horse to honour Abrizah and
Sharrkan, by especial commandment of King Omar Son of Al-
Nu'uman.  When the two drew near, they turned towards them and
kissed ground before them; then they mounted again and escorted
them into the city and went up with them to the palace.  Sharrkan
walked in to his father, who rose and embraced him and questioned
him of his case.  So he told him all that Abrizah had told him,
and what had passed between them and said, "She hath parted from
her sire and departed from her reign and hath chosen to take part
with us and make her abode with us; and indeed," he said to his
father, "the King of Constantinople hath plotted to do us a
mischief, because of his daughter Sophia, for that the King of
Greece had made known to him her story and the cause of her being
given to thee; and he (the Grecian King) not knowing her to be
daughter of King Afridun, Lord of Constantinople; and, had he
known that, he would not have bestowed her upon thee, but he
would have restored her to her parent.  And of a verity," he
continued, "we were saved from these perils only by the Lady
Abrizah, and never saw we a more valiant than she." And he went
on to tell his father all that had passed from first to last of
the wrestling and the single fighting.  When King Omar heard the
story of Sharrkan, Abrizah was exalted in his eyes, and he longed
to see her and question her.  Thereupon Sharrkan went out to her
and said, "The King calleth for thee;" she replied, "I hear and I
obey;" and he took her and brought her in to his father, who was
seated on his throne and who, having dismissed his high officers,
was attended only by his eunuchs.  The Princess entered and
kissing the ground between his hands, saluted him in choice
terms.  He was amazed at her eloquent speech and thanked her for
her dealing with his son Sharrkan and bade her be seated.  So she
sat down and unveiled her face;[FN#217] and, when the King saw
her beauty, his reason fled his head and he made her draw near
and showed her favour, appointing her an especial palace for
herself and her damsels, and assigning them solde and allowances.
Then began he to ask her of the three jewels aforesaid, and she
answered, "Here be they with me, O King of the age!" So saying,
she rose and going to her lodging, unpacked her baggage and from
it brought out a box and from the box a casket of gold.  She
opened the casket and taking out those three jewels, kissed them
and gave them to the King.  Then she went away bearing his heart
with her.  After her going the King sent for his son Sharrkan and
gave him one jewel of the three, and when he enquired of the
other two replied, "O my son!  I mean to give one to thy brother
Zau al-Makan, and the other to thy sister Nuzhat al- Zaman." But
when Sharrkan heard that he had a brother (for to that time he
knew only of his sister) he turned to his sire and said to him,
"O King, hast thou a son other than myself?" He answered, "Yes,
and he is now six years old;" adding that his name was Zau al-
Makan and that he and Nuzhat al-Zaman were twins, born at a
birth.  This news was grievous to Sharrkan, but he kept his
secret and said, "The bless- ing of Allah Most High be upon
them!", and he cast the jewel from his hand and shook the dust
off his clothes.  Quoth the King, "How do I see thee change thy
manner when hearing of this, considering that after me thou
becomes" heir of the kingdom.  Of a truth the troops have sworn
to thee and the Emirs and Grandees have taken the oath of
succession to thee; and this one of the three jewels is thine."
Sharrkan bowed his head to the ground and was ashamed to bandy
words with his parent so he accepted the jewel and went away,
knowing not what to do for exceeding wrath, and stayed not
walking till he had entered Abrizah's palace.  As he approached
she stood up to meet him and thanked him for what he had done and
prayed for blessings on him and his sire.  Then she sat down and
seated him by her side; but when he had taken his place she saw
rage in his face and questioned him, whereupon he told her that
Allah had blessed his father with two children by Sophia, a boy
and a girl, and that he had named the boy Zau al-Makan and the
girl Nuzhat al-Zaman; adding, "He hath kept the other two jewels
for them and hath given me one of thine, so I left it behind; I
knew naught of Zau al-Makan's birth till this day, and the twain
are now six years old.  So when I learnt this, wrath possessed
me; and I tell thee the reason of my rage and hide nothing from
thee.  But now I fear lest my father take thee to wife, for he
loveth thee and I saw in him signs of desire for thee: so what
wilt thou say, if he wish this?" Quoth she, "Know, O Sharrkan,
that thy father hath no dominion over me, nor can he have me
without my consent; and if he prevail over me by force, I will
take my own life.  As for the three jewels, it was not my intent
that he should give any of them to either of his children and I
had no thought but that he would lay them up in his treasury with
his things of price; but now I desire of thy favour that thou
make me a present of the jewel which he gave thee, if thou have
accepted it." "Hearkening and obedience," replied Sharrkan, and
gave it to her.  Then said she, "Fear nothing," and talked with
him awhile and continued, "I fear lest my father hear that I am
with you and sit not patiently under my loss, but do his
endeavours to find me; and to that end he may ally himself with
King Afridun, on account of his daughter Sophia, and both come on
thee with armies and so there befal great turmoil." When Sharrken
heard these words, he said to her, "O my lady, if it please thee
to sojourn with us, take no thought of them; though there gather
together against us all that be on land and on sea." " 'Tis
well," rejoined she; "if ye entreat me fair, I will tarry with
you, and if ye deal evilly by me, I will depart from you." Then
she bade her slave maidens bring food; so they set the tables,
and Sharrkan ate a little and went away to his own house,
disturbed and perturbed.  Such was his case; but regarding the
affairs of his father, Omar bin al-Nu'uman, after dismissing his
son Sharrkan he arose and, taking the other two jewels, betook
himself to the Lady Sophia, who stood up when she saw him and
remained standing till he was seated.  Presently, his two
children, Zau al-Makan and Nuzhat al-Zaman, came to him and he
kissed them and hung a jewel round each one's neck, at which they
rejoiced and kissed his hands.  Then went they to their mother,
who joyed in their joy and wished the King long life; so he asked
her, "Why hast thou not informed me all this time that thou art
the daughter of King Afridun, Lord of Constantinople, that I
might have honoured thee still more and enlarged thee in dignity
and raised thy rank?" "O King," answered Sophia, "and what could
I desire greater or higher than this my standing with thee,
overwhelmed as I am with thy favours and thy benefits?  And,
furthermore, Allah hath blessed me with two children by thee, a
son and a daughter." Her reply pleased the King and after leaving
her, he set apart for her and her children a wondrous fine
palace.  Moreover, he appointed for them eunuchs and attendants
and doctors of law and doctors of philosophy and astrologers and
physicians and surgeons to do them service; and in every way he
redoubled his favour and entreated them with the best of
treatment.  And presently he returned to the palace of his
dominion and to his Court where he distributed justice among the
lieges.  So far concerning him and Sophia and her children; but
in the matter of Abrizah the King was greatly occupied with love
of her and burnt with desire of her night and day; and every
night, he would go in to her and converse with her and pay his
court to her, but she gave him no answer, only saying, "O King of
the age!  I have no desire for men at this present." When he saw
her withdraw from him, his passion waxed hotter and his longing
and pining increased until, when weary of this, he summoned his
Wazir Dandan and, opening his very heart to him, told him of his
love for Princess Abrizah, daughter of Hardub, and informed him
how she refused to yield to his wishes and how desire for her was
doing him to die, for that he could get no grace of her.  The
Wazir, hearing these words, said to the King, "As soon as it is
dark night, take thou a piece of Bhang the measure of a miskal,
about an ounce, and go in to her and drink somewhat of wine with
her.  When the hour of ending the carousel shall draw near, fill
her a last cup and dropping therein the Bhang, give it to her to
drink, and she will not reach her sleeping chamber ere the drug
take effect on her.  Then do thou go in to her and take thy will
of her; and such is my advice."[FN#218] "Thy rede is aright,"
quoth the King, and seeking his treasury, he took thence a piece
of concentrated Bhang, if an elephant smelt it he would sleep
from year to year.  This he put in his bosom pocket and waited
till some little of the night went by, when he betook himself to
the palace of Princess Abrizah, who seeing him stood up to
receive him; but he bade her sit down.  So she sat down, and he
sat by her, and he began to talk with her of wine and wassail,
whereupon she furnished the carousing table[FN#219] and placed it
before him.  Then she set on the drinking vessels and lighted the
candles and ordered to bring dried fruits and sweet meats and all
that pertaineth to drinking.  So they fell to tippling and the
King ceased not to pledge her till drunkenness crept into her
head; and seeing this he took out the bit of Bhang from his
pocket and, holding it between his fingers, filled a cup with his
own hand and drank it off.  Then filling a second he said, "To
thy companionship!"; and dropped the drug into her cup, she
knowing naught of it.  She took it and drank it off; then she
rose and went to her sleeping chamber.  He waited for less than
an hour till he was assured that the dose had taken effect on her
and had robbed her of her senses, when he went in to her and
found her thrown on her back: and she had doffed her petticoat
trousers and the air raised the skirt of her shift and discovered
what was between her thighs.  When the King saw the state of
things and found a lighted candle at her head and another at her
feet, shining upon what her thighs enshrined he took leave of his
five senses for lust and Satan seduced him and he could not
master himself, but put off his trousers and fell upon her and
abated her maiden head.  Then he rose off her and went to one of
her women, by name Marjánah, and said, "Go in to thy lady and
speak with her." So she went in to her mistress and found her
lying on her back insensible, with the blood running down to the
calves of her legs, whereupon she took a kerchief and wiped away
the blood and lay by her that night.  As soon as Almighty Allah
brought the dawn, the handmaid Marjanah washed her mistress's
hands and feet and brought rose water and bathed her face and
mouth with it, where upon she sneezed and yawned and cast up from
her inside that bit of Bhang like a bolus.[FN#220] Then she
revived and washed her hands and mouth and said to Marjanah,
"Tell me what hath befallen me." So she told her what had passed
and how she had found her, lying on her back, with the blood
running down, wherefore she knew that King Omar bin al-Nu'uman
had lain with her and had undone her and taken his will of her.
At this she grieved with exceeding grief and retired into
privacy, saying to her damsels, "Deny me to whoso would come in
to me and say to him that I am ill, till I see what Allah will do
with me." Presently the news of her sickness came to the King; so
he sent her sherbets and sugar electuaries.  Some months she thus
passed in solitude, during which time the King's flame cooled and
his desire for her was quenched, so that he abstained from her.
Now she had conceived by him, and when the months of child
breeding had gone by, her pregnancy appeared and her belly
swelled, and the world was straitened upon her, so she said to
her handmaid Marjanah, "Know that it is not the folk who have
wronged me, but I who sinned against my own self[FN#221] in that
I left my father and mother and country.  Indeed, I abhor life,
for my spirit is broken and neither courage nor strength is left
me.  I used, when I mounted my steed, to have the mastery of him,
but now I am unable to ride.  If I be brought to bed among them I
shall be dishonoured before my hand women and every one in the
palace will know that he hath taken my maidenhead in the way of
shame; and if I return to my father, with what face shall I meet
him or with what face shall I have recourse to him?  How well
quoth the poet,

'Say, what shall solace one who hath nor home nor stable stead *
     Nor cup companion, nor a cup, nor place to house his head?'"

Marjanah answered her, "It is thine to command; I will obey;" and
Abrizah said, "I desire at once to leave this place secretly, so
that none shall know of me but thou; and return to my father and
my mother, for when flesh stinketh, there is naught for it but
its own folk and Allah shall do with me e'en as He will." "O
Princess," Marjanah replied, "what thou wouldest do is well."
Then she made matters ready and kept her secret and waited for
some days till the King went out to chase and hunt, and his son
Sharrkan betook himself to certain of the fortresses to sojourn
there awhile.  Then said she to Marjanah, "I wish to set out this
night, but how shall I do against my destiny?  For already I feel
the pangs of labour and child birth, and if I abide other four or
five days, I shall be brought to bed here, and I shall be unable
to travel to my country.  But this is what was written on my
forehead." Then she considered awhile, and said to Marjanah,
"Look us out a man who will go with us and serve us by the way,
for I have no strength to bear arms." "By Allah, O my lady,"
replied Marjanah, "I know none but a black slave called Al-
Ghazbán,[FN#222] who is one of the slaves of King Omar bin al-
Nu'uman; he is a valiant wight, and he keepeth guard at our
palace gate.  The King appointed him to attend us, and indeed we
have overwhelmed him with our favours; so, lookye, I will go out
and speak with him of this matter, and promise him some monies
and tell him that, if he have a mind to tarry with us, I will
marry him to whom he will.  He told me before to day that he had
been a highwayman; so if he consent to us we shall win our wish
and reach to our own land." She rejoined, "Call him that I may
talk with him;" whereupon Marjanah fared forth and said to the
slave, 'O Ghazban, Allah prosper thee, so thou fall in with what
my lady saith to thee!" Then she took him by the hand and brought
him to the Princess, whose hands he kissed but as she beheld him,
her heart took fright at him.  "How ever," she said to herself,
"of a truth, Need giveth the law;" and she approached to speak
with him, yet her heart started away from him.  Presently she
said, "O Ghazban, say me, wilt thou help me against the perfidies
of Fortune and conceal my secret if I discover it to thee?" When
the slave saw her, his heart was taken by storm and he fell in
love with her forthright and could not but reply; "O my mistress,
whatsoever thou biddest me do, I will not depart therefrom."
Quoth she, "I would have thee take me at this hour and take this
my handmaid and saddle us two camels and two of the King's horses
and set on each horse a saddle bag of goods and somewhat of
provaunt, and go with us to our own country; where, if thou
desire to abide with us, I will marry thee to her thou shalt
choose of my handmaidens, or, if thou prefer return to thine own
land, we will marry thee and give thee whatso thou desires" after
thou hast taken of money what shall satisfy thee." When Al
Ghazban, heard this, he rejoiced with great joy and replied, "O
my lady, I will serve both of you with mine eyes and will go at
once and saddle the horses." Then he went away gladsome and
saying to himself, "I shall get my will of them and if they will
not yield to me, I will kill them both and take their riches."
But he kept this his intent to himself, and presently returned
with two camels and three head of horses, one of which he rode,
and Princess Abrizah made Marjanah mount the second she mounting
the third, albeit she was in labour pains and possessed not her
soul for anguish.  And the slave ceased not travelling with them
night and day through the passes of the mountains, till there
remained but musingly march between them and their own country;
when the travail pangs came upon Abrizah and she could no longer
resist; so she said to Al-Ghazban, "Set me down, for the pains of
labour are upon me;" and cried to Marjanah, "Do thou alight and
sit by me and deliver me." Then Marjanah dismounted from her
horse, and Al-Ghazban did in like sort, and they made fast the
bridles and helped the Princess to dismount, for she was aswoon
from excess of anguish.  When Al-Ghazban saw her on the ground,
Satan entered into him and he drew his falchion and brandishing
it in her face, said "O my lady, vouchsafe me thy favours."
Hearing these words she turned to him and said, "It remaineth for
me only that I yield me to negro slaves, after having refused
Kings and Braves!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Fifty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Princess
Abrizah said to the black slave Al Ghazban, "It remaineth for me
only that I yield me to negro slaves, after having refused Kings
and Braves!" And she was wroth with him and cried, "Woe to thee!
what words are these thou sayest?  Out on thee, and talk not thus
in my presence and know that I will never consent to what thou
sayest, though I drink the cup of death.  Wait till I have cast
my burden and am delivered of the after birth, and then, if thou
be able thereto, do with me as thou wilt; but, an thou leave not
lewd talk at this time assuredly I will slay myself with my own
hand and quit the world and be at peace from all this." And she
began reciting extempore,[FN#223]

"O spare me, thou Ghazban, indeed enow for me * Are heavy strokes
     of time, mischance and misery!
Whoredom my Lord forfends to all humanity; * Quoth He, 'Who
     breaks my bidding Hell for home shall see!'
And if thou leave not suing me to whoredom's way * Against th'
     Almighty's choicest gift, my chastity,
Upon my tribesmen I with might and main will call * And gather
     all, however far or near they be;
And with Yamáni blade were I in pieces hewn, * Ne'er shall he
     sight my face who makes for villeiny,
The face of free born come of noble folk and brave; * What then
     can be to me the seed of whoreson slave?"

When Ghazban heard these lines he was wroth exceedingly; his eyes
reddened with blood and his face became a dusty grey[FN#224]; his
nostrils swelled, his lips protruded and the repulsiveness of his
aspect redoubled.  And he repeated these couplets,

"Ho thou, Abrizah, mercy! leave me not for I * Of thy love and
     Yamáni[FN#225] glance the victim lie
My heart is cut to pieces by thy cruelty, * My body wasted and my
     patience done to die:
From glances ravishing all hearts with witchery * Reason far
     flies, the while desire to thee draws nigh;
Though at thy call should armies fill the face of earth * E'en
     now I'd win my wish and worlds in arms defy!"

When Abrizah heard these words, she wept with sore weeping and
said to him, "Woe to thee, O Ghazban!  How dareth the like of
thee to address me such demand, O base born and obscene bred?
Dost thou deem all folk are alike?" When the vile slave heard
this from her, he waxt more enraged and his eyes grew redder: and
he came up to her and smiting her with the sword on her neck
wounded her to the death.  Then he drove her horse before him
with the treasure and made off with himself to the mountains.
Such was the case with Al-Ghazban; but as regards Abrizah, she
gave birth to a son, like the moon, and Marjanah took the babe
and did him the necessary offices and laid him by his mother's
side; and lo and behold!  the child fastened to its mother's
breast and she dying.[FN#226]  When Marjanah saw this, she cried
out with a grievous cry and rent her raiment and cast dust on her
head and buffeted her cheeks till blood flowed, saying, "Alas, my
mistress!  Alas, the pity of it!  Thou art dead by the hand of a
worthless black slave, after all thy knightly prowess!" And she
ceased not weeping when suddenly a great cloud of dust arose and
walled the horizon;[FN#227] but, after awhile, it lifted and
discovered a numerous conquering host.  Now this was the army of
King Hardub, Princess Abrizah's father, and the cause of his
coming was that when he heard of his daughter and her handmaids
having fled to Baghdad, and that they were with King Omar bin al-
Nu'uman, he had come forth, leading those with him, to seek
tidings of her from travellers who might have seen her with the
King.  When he had gone a single day's march from his capital, he
espied three horse men afar off and made towards them, intending
to ask whence they came and seek news of his daughter.  Now these
three whom he saw at a distance were his daughter and Marjanah
and the slave Al- Ghazban; and he made for them to push inquiry.
Seeing this the villain blackamoor feared for himself; so he
killed Abrizah and fled for his life.  When they came up, King
Hardub saw his daughter lying dead and Marjanah weeping over her,
and he threw himself from his steed and fell fainting to the
ground.  All the riders of his company, the Emirs and Waxirs,
took foot and forth right pitched their tents on the mountain and
set up for the King a great pavilion, domed and circular, without
which stood the grandees of the realm.  When Marjanah saw her
master, she at once recognized him and her tears redoubled; and,
when he came to himself, he questioned her and she told him all
that had passed and said, "Of a truth he that hath slain thy
daughter is a black slave belonging to King Omar bin al-Nu'uman,
and she informed him how Sharrkan's father had dealt with the
Princess.  When King Hardub heard this, the world grew black in
his sight and he wept with sore weeping.  Then he called for a
litter and, therein laying his dead daughter, returned to
Caesarea and carried her into the palace, where he went in to his
mother, Zat al-Dawahi, and said to that Lady of Calamities,
"Shall the Moslems deal thus with my girl?  Verily King Omar bin
al-Nu'uman despoiled her of her honour by force, and after this,
one of his black slaves slew her.  By the truth of the Messiah, I
will assuredly take blood revenge for my daughter and clear away
from mine honour the stain of shame; else will I kill myself with
mine own hand!" And he wept passing sore.  Quoth his mother,
"None other than Marjanah killed thy daughter, for she hated her
in secret;" and she continued to her son, "Fret not for taking
the blood wit of thy daughter, for, by the truth of the Messiah,
I will not turn back from King Omar bin al-Nu'uman till I have
slain him and his sons; and of a very truth I will do with him a
deed, passing the power of Sage and Knight, whereof the
chroniclers shall tell chronicles in all countries and in every
place: but needs must thou do my bidding in all I shall direct,
for whoso be firmly set on the object of his desire shall surely
compass his desire." "By the virtue of the Messiah," replied he,
"I will not cross thee in aught thou shalt say." Then quoth she,
"Bring me a number of hand maids, high bosomed virgins, and
summon the wise men of the age and let them teach them philosophy
and the rules of behaviour before Kings, and the art of
conversation and making verses; and let them talk with them of
all manner science and edifying knowledge.  And the sages must be
Moslems, that they may teach them the language and traditions of
the Arabs, together with the history of the Caliphs and the
ancient annals of the Kings of Al-Islam; and if we persevere in
this for four years' space, we shall gain our case.  So possess
thy soul in patience and wait; for one of the Arabs saith, 'If we
take man bote after years forty the time were short to ye.' When
we have taught the girls these things, we shall be able to work
our will with our foe, for he doteth on women and he hath three
hundred and sixty concubines, whereto are now added an hundred of
the flowers of thy handmaidens who were with thy daughter, she
that hath found mercy.[FN#228] As soon as I have made an end of
their education, as described to thee, I will take them and set
out with them in person." When King Hardub heard his mother's
words, he rejoiced and arose and kissed her head; and at once
despatched messengers and couriers to lands sundry and manifold
to fetch him Moslem sages.  They obeyed his commands and fared to
far countries and thence brought him the sages and the doctors he
sought.  When these came into presence, he honoured them with
notable honorurs and bestowed dresses on them and appointed to
them stipends and allowances and promised them much money whenas
they should have taught the damsels.  Then he committed the
handmaidens to their hands--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased saying her permitted say.

               When it was the Fifty-third Night.

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
sages and the doctors stood in presence of King Hardub, he
honoured them with notable honours and committed the hand maidens
to their hands, enjoining that these be instructed in all manner
of knowledge, philosophy and polite accomplishments; and they set
themselves to do his bidding.  Such was the case with King
Hardub; but as for King Omar bin al Nu'uman, when he returned
from coursing and hunting and entered his palace, he sought
Princess Abrizah but found her not, nor any one knew of her nor
could any give him news of her.  This was grievous to him and he
said, "How could the lady leave the palace unknown of any?  Had
my kingdom been at stake in this case, it were in perilous
condition there being none to govern it!  I will never again go
to sport and hunt till I have stationed at the gates those who
shall keep good guard over them!"  And he was sore vexed and his
breast was straitened for the loss of Princess Abrizah.  Hereupon
behold, his son Sharrkan returned from his journey; and the
father told him what had happened, and informed him how the lady
had fled, whilst he was chasing and hunting, whereat he grieved
with exceeding grief.  Then King Omar took to visiting his
children every day and making much of them and brought them
learned men and doctors to teach them, appointing for them
stipends.  When Sharrkan saw this, he raged with exceeding rage
and envied thereupon his brother and sister till the signs of
chagrin appeared in his face and he ceased not to languish by
reason of this matter: so one day his father said to him, "Why do
I see thee grown weak in body and yellow of face?" "O my father,"
replied Sharrkan, "every time I see thee fondle my brother and
sister and make much of them, jealousy seizeth on me, and I fear
lest it grow on me till I slay them and thou slay me in return.
And this is the reason of my weakness of body and change of
complexion.  But now I crave of thy favour that thou give me one
of thy castles outlying the rest, that I may abide there the
remnant of my life, for as the sayer of bywords saith, 'Absence
from my friend is better and fitter for me'; and, 'Whatso eye
doth not perceive, that garreth not heart to grieve.'" And he
bowed his head towards the ground.  When King Omar bin al-Nu'uman
heard his words and knew the cause of his ailment and of his
being broken down, he soothed his heart and said to him, "O my
son, I grant thee this and I have not in my reign a greater than
the Castle of Damascus, and the government of it is thine from
this time." Thereupon he forthright summoned his secretaries of
state and bade them write Sharrkan's patent of investiture to the
viceroyalty of Damascus of Syria.  And when they had written it,
he equipped him and sent with him the Wazir Dandan, and invested
him with the rule and government and gave him instructions as to
policy and regulations; and took leave of him, and the grandees
and officers of state did likewise, and he set out with his host.
When he arrived at Damascus, the townspeople beat the drums and
blew the trumpets and decorated the city and came out to meet him
in great state; whilst all the notables and grandees paced in
procession, and those who stood to the right of the throne walked
on his right flank, and the others to the left.  Thus far
concerning Sharrkan; but as regards his father, Omar bin al-
Nu'uman, soon after the departure of his son, the children's
tutors and governors presented themselves before him and said to
him, "O our lord, thy children have now learnt knowledge and they
are completely versed in the rules of manners and the etiquette
of ceremony." The King rejoiced thereat with exceeding joy and
conferred bountiful largesse upon the learned men, seeing Zau al-
Makan grown up and flourishing and skilled in horsemanship.  The
Prince had reached the age of fourteen and he occupied himself
with piety and prayers, loving the poor, the Olema and the Koran
students, so that all the people of Baghdad loved him, men and
women.  One day, the procession of the Mahmil[FN#229] of Irák
passed round Baghdad before its departure for the pilgrimage to
Meccah and visitation of the tomb of the Prophet (whom Allah
bless and preserve!).  When Zau al-Makan the Mahmil procession he
was seized with longing desire to become a pilgrim,[FN#230] so he
went in to his sire and said, "I come to ask thy leave to make
the pilgrimage." But his father forbade him saying, "Wait till
next year and I will go and thou too." When the Prince saw that
the matter was postponed, he betook himself to his sister Nuzhat
al-Zaman, whom he found standing at prayer.  As soon as she had
ended her devotions he said to her, "I am dying with desire of
pilgrimage to the Holy House of Allah at Meccah and to visit the
tomb of the Prophet, upon whom be peace!  I asked my father's
leave, but he forbade me that, so I mean to take privily somewhat
of money and set out on the pilgrimage without his knowledge."
"Allah upon thee," exclaimed she, "take me with thee and deprive
me not of visitation to the tomb of the Prophet, whom Allah bless
and keep!" And he answered, "As soon as it is dark night, do thou
come forth from this place, without telling any."
Accordingly,When it was the middle of the night she arose and
took somewhat of money and donned a man's habit; and she ceased
not walking to the palace gate, where she found Zau al-Makan with
camels ready for marching.  So he mounted and mounted her; and
the two fared on till they were in the midst of the Iraki[FN#231]
pilgrim-party, and they ceased not marching and Allah wrote
safety for them, till they entered Meccah the Holy and stood upon
Arafát and performed the pilgrimage rites.  Then they made a
visitation to the tomb of the Prophet (whom Allah bless and
assain!) and thought to return with the pilgrims to their native
land.  But Zau al-Makan said to his sister, "O my sister, it is
in my mind to visit the Holy House,[FN#232] Jerusalem, and
Abraham the Friend of Allah[FN#233] (on whom be peace!)." "I also
desire so to do," replied she.  So they agreed upon this and he
fared forth and took passage for himself and her and they made
ready and set out in the ship with a company of Jerusalem
palmers.  That very night the sister fell sick of an aguish
chill, and was grievously ill but presently recovered, after
which the brother also sickened.  She tended him during his
malady and they ceased not wayfaring till they arrived at
Jerusalem, but the fever increased on him and he grew weaker and
weaker.  They alighted at a Khan and there hired a lodging; but
Zau al- Makan's sickness ceased not to increase on him, till he
was wasted with leanness and became delirious.  At this, his
sister was greatly afflicted and exclaimed, "There is no Majesty
and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great!
This is the decree of Allah!" They sojourned in that place
awhile, his weakness ever increasing and she attending him and
buying necessaries for him and for herself, till all the money
she had was expended and she became so poor that she had not so
much as a dirham left.  Then she sent a servant of the Khan to
the bazar with some of her clothes, and he sold them and she
spent the price upon her brother; then sold she something more
and she ceased not selling all she had, piece by piece, till
nothing was left but an old rug.  Whereupon she wept and
exclaimed, "Verily is Allah the Orderer of the past and the
future!" Presently her brother said to her, "O my sister, I feel
recovery drawing near and my heart longeth for a little roast
meat." "By Allah!  O my brother," replied she, "I have no face to
beg; but tomorrow I will enter some rich man's house and serve
him and earn somewhat for our living." Then she bethought herself
awhile and said, "Of a truth 'tis hard for me to leave thee and
thou in this state, but I must despite myself!" He rejoined,
"Allah forbid!  Thou wilt be put to shame; but there is no
Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah!" And he wept and she
wept too.  Then she said, "O my brother, we are strangers who
have dwelt here a full year, but none hath yet knocked at our
door.  Shall we then die of hunger?  I know no resource but that
I go out and do service and earn somewhat to keep us alive, till
thou recover from thy sickness, when we will travel back to our
native land." She sat weeping awhile and he wept too, propped
upon his elbow.  Then Nuzhat al-Zaman arose and, veiling her head
with a bit of camlet,[FN#234] which had been of the cameleer's
clothes and which the owner had forgotten and left with them; she
kissed the head of her brother and embraced him and went forth
from him, weeping and knowing not whither she should wend.  And
she stinted not going and her brother Zau al-Makan awaiting her
return till the supper time; but she came not, and he watched for
her till the morning morrowed but still she returned not; and
this endured till two days went by.  He was greatly troubled
thereat and his heart fluttered for her, and hunger was sore upon
him.  At last he left the chamber and, calling the servant of the
caravanserai, said, "I wish thee to bear me to the bazar." So he
carried him to the market street and laid him down there; and the
people of Jerusalem gathered round him and were moved to tears
seeing his condition.  He signed to them begging for somewhat to
eat; so they brought him some money from certain of the merchants
who were in the bazar, and bought food and fed him therewith;
after which they carried him to a shop, where they spread him a
mat of palm leaves and set an ewer of water at his head.  When
night fell, all the folk went away, sore concerned for him and,
in the middle of the night, he called to mind his sister and his
sickness redoubled on him, so that he abstained from eating and
drinking and became insensible to the world around him.  Then the
bazar people arose and took for him from the merchants thirty
seven dirhams, and hiring a camel, said to the driver, "Carry
this sick man to Damascus and leave him in the hospital; haply he
may be cured and recover health." "On my head be it!" replied the
camel man; but he said to himself, "How shall I take this sick
man to Damascus, and he nigh upon death?" So he carried him away
to a place and hid with him till the night, when he threw him
down on the ash heap near the fire hole of a Hammam and went his
way.  When morning dawned the Stoker[FN#235] of the bath came to
his work and, finding Zau al-Makan cast on his back, exclaimed,
"Why did they not throw their dead body anywhere but here?" So
saying, he gave him a kick and he moved; whereupon quoth the
Fireman, "Some one of you who hath eaten a bit of Hashish and
hath thrown himself down in whatso place it be!" Then he looked
at his face and saw his hairless cheeks and his grace and
comeliness; so he took pity on him and knew that he was sick and
a stranger in the land.  And he cried, "There is no Majesty and
there is no Might save in Allah!  verily, I have sinned against
this youth, for indeed the Prophet (whom Allah bless and keep!)
enjoineth honour to the stranger, more especially when the
stranger is sick." Then he carried him home and went in with him
to his wife and bade her tend him.  So she spread him a sleeping
rug and set a cushion under his head, then warmed water for him
and washed therewith his hands and feet and face.  Meanwhile, the
Stoker went to the market and bought some rose water and sugar,
and sprinkled Zau al-Makan's face with the water and gave him to
drink of the sherbet.  Then he fetched a clean shirt and put it
on him.  With this, Zau al-Makan sniffed the zephyr of health and
recovery returned to him; and he sat up and leant against the
pillow.  Hereat the Fireman rejoiced and exclaimed, "Praise be to
Allah for the welfare of this youth!  O Allah, I beseech Thee by
Thy knowledge of hidden things, that Thou make the salvation of
this youth to be at my hands!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Fifty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Fireman
exclaimed, "O Allah, I beseech Thee of Thy knowledge of hidden
things, that Thou make this young man's life the work of my
hands!" And he ceased not to nurse him for three days, giving him
to drink of sherbet of sugar and willow flower water and rose
water; and doing him all manner of service and kindness, till
health began to return to his body and Zau al-Makan opened his
eyes.  Presently came in the Fireman and, seeing him sitting up
and showing signs of amendment, said to him, "What is now thy
state, O my son?" "Praise be to Allah," replied Zau al-Makan, "I
am well and like to recover, if such be the will of Allah
Almighty at this time." The Stoker praised the Lord of All for
this and, wending fast to the market, bought ten chickens, which
he carried to his wife and said, "Kill two of these for him every
day, one at dawn of day and the other at fall of day." So she
rose up and killed a fowl and brought it to him boiled, and fed
him with the flesh and made him drink its broth.  When he had
done eating, she fetched hot water and he washed his hands and
lay back upon the pillow, whereupon she covered him up with the
coverlet, and he slept till the time of the mid afternoon prayer.
Then she arose and killed another fowl and boiled it; after which
she cut it up and, bringing it to Zau al-Makan, said, "Eat, O my
son!" While he was eating; behold, her husband entered and seeing
her feeding him, sat down at his head and said to him, "How is it
with thee now, O my son?" "Thanks be to Allah for recovery!" he
replied: "may the Almighty requite thee thy kindness to me." At
this the Fireman rejoiced and going out, bought sherbet of
violets and rose water and made him drink it.  Now the Stoker
used to work at the Hammam all day for a wage of five dirhams,
whereof he spent every day, for Zau al-Makan, one dirham upon
sugar and sherbet of rose water and willow flower water,[FN#236]
and another dirham for fowls; and he ceased not to entreat him
thus kindly during a whole month, till the traces of illness
ceased from him and he was once more sound and whole.  Thereupon
the Fireman and his wife rejoiced and asked him, "O my son, wilt
thou go with me to the bath?"; whereto he answered, "Yes!" So the
Stoker went to the bazar and fetched a donkey boy, and he mounted
Zau al-Makan on the ass and supported him in the saddle till they
came to the bath.  Then he made him sit down and seated the
donkey boy in the furnace-room and went forth to the market and
bought Iote leaves and lupin-flour,[FN#237] with which he
returned to the bath and said to Zau al-Makan, "O my master, in
Allah's name, walk in and I will wash thy body." So they entered
the inner room of the bath, and the Fireman took to rubbing Zau
al-Makan's legs and began to wash his body with the leaves and
meal, when there came to them a bathman, whom the bath keeper had
sent to Zau al-Makan; and he, seeing the Stoker washing and
rubbing him, said, "This is doing injury to the keeper's rights."
Replied the Fireman, "The master overwhelmeth us with his
favours!" Then the bathman proceeded to shave Zau al-Makan's
head, after which he and the Stoker washed themselves and
returned to the house, where he clad Zau al-Makan in a shirt of
fine stuff and a robe of his own; and gave him a handsome turband
and girdle and a light kerchief which he wound about his neck.
Meanwhile the Fireman's wife had killed and cooked two chickens;
so, as soon as Zau al-Makan entered and seated himself on the
carpet, the husband arose and, dissolving sugar in willow flower
water, made him drink of it.  Then he brought the food tray and,
cutting up the chickens, fed him with the flesh and gave him the
broth to drink till he was satisfied; when he washed his hands
and praised Allah for recovery, and said to the Fireman, "Thou
art he whom the Almighty vouchsafed to me and made the cause of
my cure!" "Leave this talk," replied the other, "and tell us the
cause of thy coming to this city and whence thou art.  Thy face
showeth signs of gentle breeding." "Tell me first how thou camest
to fall in with me," said Zau al-Makan; "and after I will tell
thee my story." Rejoined the Fireman, "As for that, I found thee
lying on the rubbish heap by the door of the fire house, as I
went to my work near the morning, and knew not who had thrown
thee there.  So I carried thee home with me; and this is all my
tale." Quoth Zau al-Makan, "Glory to Him who quickeneth the
bones, though they be rotten!  Indeed, O my brother, thou hast
not done good save to one worthy of it, and thou shalt presently
gather its fruitage." And he added, "But where am I now?" "Thou
art in the city of Jerusalem," replied the Stoker; where upon Zau
al-Makan called to mind his strangerhood and remembered his
separation from his sister and wept.  Then he discovered his
secret to the Fireman and told him his story and began repeating,

"In love they bore me further than my force would go, * And for
     them made me suffer resurrection throe:
Oh, have compassion, cruel!  on this soul of mine * Which, since
     ye fared, is pitied by each envious foe;
Nor grudge the tender mercy of one passing glance * My case to
     lighten, easing this excess of woe:
Quoth I 'Heart, bear this loss in patience!' Patience cried *
     'Take heed! no patience in such plight I'm wont to show.' "

Then he redoubled his weeping, and the Fireman said to him, "Weep
not, but rather praise Allah for safety and recovery." Asked Zau
al-Makan, "How far is it hence to Damascus?" Answered the other,
"Six days' journey." Then quoth Zau al-Makan, "Wilt thou send me
thither?" "O my lord," quoth the Stoker, "how can I allow thee to
go alone, and thou a youth and a stranger to boot?  If thou would
journey to Damascus, I am one who will go with thee; and if my
wife will listen to and obey me and accompany me, I will take up
my abode there; for it is no light matter to part with thee."
Then said he to his wife, "Wilt thou travel with me to Damascus
of Syria or wilt thou abide here, whilst I lead this my lord
thither and return to thee?  For he is bent upon going to
Damascus of Syria and, by Allah, it is hard to me to part with
him, and I fear for him from highway men." Replied she, "I will
go with you both;" and he rejoined, "Praised be Allah for accord,
and we have said the last word!" Then he rose and selling all his
own goods and his wife's gear,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say,

               When it was the Fifty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Fire
man and his wife agreed with Zau al-Makan to travel with him
Damascus wards.  Then the Stoker sold his goods and his wife's
gear and bought a camel and hired an ass for Zau al-Makan; and
they set out, and ceased not wayfaring for six days till they
reached Damascus.  And they arrived there towards eventide; when
the Fireman went forth and, as was his wont, bought some meat and
drink.  They had dwelt but five days in Damascus, when his wife
sickened and, after a short illness, was translated to the mercy
of Almighty Allah.  Her death was a heavy matter to Zau al-Makan,
for he was grown used to her as she had tended him assiduously;
and the Fireman grieved for her with excessive grief.  Presently
the Prince turned to the Stoker and finding him mourning, said to
him, "Grieve not, for at this gate we must all go in." Replied
he, "Allah make weal thy lot, O my son!  Surely He will
compensate us with His favours and cause our mourning to cease.
What sayst thou, O my son, about our walking abroad to view
Damascus and cheer thy spirits?" Replied Zau al-Makan, "Thy will
is mine." So the Fireman arose and placed his hand in that of Zau
al- Makan and the two walked on till they came to the stables of
the Viceroy of Damascus, where they found camels laden with
chests and carpets and brocaded stuffs, and horses ready saddled
and Bactrian dromedaries, while Mamelukes and negro slaves and
folk in a hubbub were running to and fro.  Quoth Zau al-Makan, "I
wonder to whom belong all these chattels and camels and stuffs!"
So he asked one of the eunuchs, "Whither this dispatching?'' and
he answered, "These are presents sent by the Emir of Damascus to
King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, with the tribute of Syria." Now when
Zau al-Makan heard his father's name his eyes brimmed over with
tears, and he began repeating,

"Oh ye gone from the gaze of these ridded eyne, * Ye whose sight
     in my spirit shall ever dwell!
Your charms are gone, but this heart of me * Hath no sweet, and
     no pleasures its sour dispel;
If Allah's grace make us meet again, * In long drawn love-tale my
     love I'll tell."

And when he had ended his verse, he wept and the Fireman said to
him, "O my son, we hardly believed that thy health had
returned;[FN#238] so take heart and do not weep, for I fear a
relapse for thee." And he ceased not comforting and cheering him,
whilst Zau al-Makan sighed and moaned over his strangerhood and
separation from his sister and his family; and tears streamed
from his eyes and he recited these couplets,

"Get thee provaunt in this world ere thou wend upon thy way, *
     And know how surely Death descends thy life lot to waylay:
All thy worldly goods are pride and the painfullest repine; * All
     thy worldly life is vexing, of thy soul in vain display:
Say is not worldly wone like a wanderer's place of rest, * Where
     at night he 'nakhs'[FN#239] his camels and moves off at dawn
     of day?"

And he continued to weep and wail over his separation; whilst the
Fireman also bewept the loss of his wife, yet ceased not to
comfort Zau al-Makan till morning dawned.  When the sun rose, he
said to him, "Meseemeth thou yearnest for thy native land?"
"Yes," replied Zau al-Makan, "and I can no longer tarry here; so
I will commend thee to Allah's care and set out with these folk
and journey with them, little by little, till I come to my mother
land." Said the Stoker, "And I with thee; for of a truth I cannot
bear to part with thee.  I have done thee kindly service and I
mean to complete it by tending thee on thy travel." At this, Zau
al-Makan rejoiced and said, "Allah abundantly requite thee for
me!" and was pleased with the idea of their travelling together.
The Fireman at once went forth and bought another ass, selling
the camel; and laid in his provaunt and said to Zau al-Makan,
"This is for thee to ride by the way; and, when thou art weary of
riding, thou canst dismount and walk." Said Zau al-Makan, "May
Allah bless thee and aid me to requite thee!  for verily thou
hast dealt with me more lovingly than one with his brother." Then
he waited till it was dark night, when he laid the provisions and
baggage on that ass and set forth upon their journey.  This much
befel Zau al-Makan and the Fireman; but as regards what happened
to his sister Nuzhat al-Zaman, when she left her brother in the
Khan where they abode and, wrapped in the old camlet, went out to
seek service with some one, that she might earn wherewithal to
buy him the roast meat he longed for, she fared on, weeping and
knowing not whither to go, whilst her mind was occupied with
thoughts of her brother and of her family and her native land.
So she implored Allah Almighty to do away with these calamities
from them and began versifying,

"Dark falls the night and Passion comes sore pains to gar me
     dree, * And pine upstirs those ceaseless pangs which work my
And cease not separation flames my vitals to consume, * And
     drives me on destruction way this sorrow's ecstacy
And longing breeds me restlessness; desire for ever fires, * And
     tears to all proclaim what I would keep in secrecy
No cunning shift is known to me a meeting to secure, * That I may
     quit this sickly state, may cure my malady:
The love which blazeth in my heart is fed with fancy fuel, * The
     lover from its hell of fire must bear Hell's agony![FN#240]
O thou who blamest me for all befel me, 'tis enough, * Patient I
     bear what ever wrote the Reed of Doom for me:
By Love I swear I'll never be consoled, no, never more; * I swear
     the oath of Love's own slaves who know no perjury:
O Night, to chroniclers of Love the news of me declare; * That
     sleep hath fed mine eyelids of thy knowledge witness bear!"

Then she walked on, weeping and turning right and left as she
went, when behold, there espied her an old Badawi[FN#241] who had
come into the town from the desert with wild Arabs other five.
The old man took note of her and saw that she was lovely, but she
had nothing on her head save a piece of camlet, and, marvelling
at her beauty, he said to himself, "This charmer dazzleth men's
wits but she is in squalid condition, and whether she be of the
people of this city or she be a stranger, I needs must have her."
So he followed her, little by little, till he met her face to
face and stopped the way before her in a narrow lane, and called
out to her, asking her case, and said, "Tell me, O my little
daughter!  art thou a free woman or a slave?" When she heard
this, she said to him, "By thy life, do not add to my sorrows!"
Quoth he, "Allah hath blessed me with six daughters, of whom five
died and only one is left me, the youngest of all; and I came to
ask thee if thou be of the folk of this city or a stranger; that
I might take thee and carry thee to her, to bear her company so
as to divert her from pining for her sisters.  If thou have no
kith and kin, I will make thee as one of them and thou and she
shall be as my two children." Nuzhat al-Zaman bowed her head in
bashfulness when she heard what he said and communed with
herself, "Haply I may trust myself to this old man." Then she
said to him, "O nuncle, I am a maiden of the Arabs and a stranger
and I have a sick brother; but I will go with thee to thy
daughter on one condition, which is, that I may spend only the
day with her and at night may return to my brother.  If thou
strike this bargain I will fare with thee, for I am a stranger
and I was high in honour among my tribe, and I awoke one morning
to find myself vile and abject.  I came with my brother from the
land of Al-Hijaz and I fearless he know not where I am." When the
Badawi heard this, he said to himself, "By Allah, I have got my
desire!" Then he turned to her and replied, "There shall none be
dearer to me than thou; I wish thee only to bear my daughter
company by day and thou shalt go to thy brother at earliest
nightfall.  Or, if thou wilt, bring him over to dwell with us."
And the Badawi ceased not to console her heart and coax her, till
she trusted in him and agreed to serve him.  Then he walked on
before her and, when she followed him, he winked to his men to go
in advance and harness the dromedaries and load them with their
packs and place upon them water and provisions, ready for setting
out as soon as he should come up with the camels.  Now this
Badawi was a base born churl, a highway thief and a traitor to
the friend he held most fief, a rogue in grain, past master of
plots and chicane.  He had no daughter and no son and was only
passing through the town when, by the decree of the Decreer, he
fell in with this unhappy one.  And he ceased not to hold her in
converse on the highway till they came without the city of
Jerusalem and, when outside, he joined his companions and found
they had made ready the dromedaries.  So the Badawi mounted a
camel, having seated Nuzhat al-Zaman behind him and they rode on
all night.  Then she knew that the Badawi's proposal was a snare
and that he had tricked her; and she continued weeping and crying
out the whole night long, while they journeyed on making for the
mountains, in fear any should see them.  Now when it was near
dawn, they dismounted from their dromedaries and the Badawi came
up to Nuzhat al-Zaman and said to her, "O city strumpet, what is
this weeping?  By Allah, an thou hold not thy peace, I will beat
thee to death, O thou town filth!" When she heard this she
loathed life and longed for death; so she turned to him and said,
"O accursed old man, O gray beard of hell, how have I trusted
thee and thou hast played me false, and now thou wouldst torture
me?" When he heard her reply he cried out, "O lazy baggage, dost
thou dare to bandy words with me?" And he stood up to her and
beat her with a whip, saying, "An thou hold not thy peace, I will
kill thee!" So she was silent awhile, then she called to mind her
brother and the happy estate she had been in and she shed tears
secretly.  Next day, she turned to the Badawi and said to him,
"How couldst thou play me this trick and lure me into these bald
and stony mountains, and what is thy design with me?" When he
heard her words he hardened his heart and said to her, "O lazy
baggage of ill omen and insolent!  wilt thou bandy words with
me?" and he took the whip and came down with it on her back till
she felt faint.  Then she bowed down over his feet and
kissed[FN#242] them; and he left beating her and began reviling
her and said, "By the rights of my bonnet,[FN#243] if I see or
hear thee weeping, I will cut out thy tongue and stuff it up thy
coynte, O thou city filth!" So she was silent and made him no
reply, for the beating pained her; but sat down with her arms
round her knees and, bowing her head upon her collar, began to
look into her case and her abasement after her lot of high
honour; and the beating she had endured; and she called to mind
her brother and his sickness and forlorn condition, and how they
were both strangers in a far country, which crave her tears down
her cheeks and she wept silently and began repeating,

"Time hath for his wont to upraise and debase, * Nor is lasting
     condition for human race:
In this world each thing hath appointed turn; * Nor may man
     transgress his determined place:
How long these perils and woes?  Ah woe * For a life, all woeful
     in parlous case!
Allah bless not the days which have laid me low * I' the world,
     with disgrace after so much grace!
My wish is baffled, my hopes cast down, * And distance forbids me
     to greet his face:
O thou who passeth that dear one's door, * Say for me, these
     tears shall flow evermore!"

When she had finished her verses, the Badawi came up to her and,
taking compassion on her, bespoke her kindly and wiped away her
tears.  Then he gave her a barley scone and said, "I love not one
who answereth at times when I am in wrath: so henceforth give me
no more of these impertinent words and I will sell thee to a good
man like myself, who will do well with thee, even as I have
done." "Yes; whatso thou doest is right," answered she; and when
the night was longsome upon her and hunger burnt her, she ate
very little of that barley bread.  In the middle of the night the
Badawi gave orders for departure,--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

               When it was the Fifty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Badawi gave the barley scone to Nuzhat al-Zaman and promised he
would sell her to a good man like himself, she replied, "Whatso
thou doest is right!" and, about midnight when hunger burned
her,[FN#244] she ate a very little of that barley bread and the
Badawi ordered his party to set out; so they loaded their loads
and he mounted a camel setting Nuzhat al-Zaman behind him.  Then
they journeyed and ceased not journeying for three days, till
they entered the city of Damascus and alighted at the Sultan's
Khan, hard by the Viceroy's Gate.  Now she had lost her colour by
grief and the fatigue of such travelling, and she ceased not to
weep over her misfortunes.  So the Badawi came up to her and
said, "O thou city filth, by the right of my bonnet, if thou
leave not this weeping, I will sell thee to none but a Jew!" Then
he arose and took her by the hand and carried her to a chamber,
and walked off to the bazar, and he went round to, the merchants
who dealt in slave girls, and began to parley with them, saying,
"I have brought a slave girl whose brother fell ill, and I sent
him to my people about Jerusalem, that they might tend him till
he is cured.  As for her I want to sell her, but after the dog
her brother fell sick, the separation from him was grievous to
her, and since then she doth nothing but weep, and now I wish
that whoso is minded to buy her of me speak softly to her and
say, 'Thy brother is with me in Jerusalem ill'; and I will be
easy with him about her price." Then one of the merchants came up
to him and asked, "How old is she?" He answered "She is a virgin,
just come to marriageable age, and she is endowed with sense and
breeding and wit and beauty and loveliness.  But from the day I
sent her brother to Jerusalem, her heart hath been yearning for
him, so that her beauty is fallen away and her value lessened."
Now when the merchant heard this, he set forth with the Badawi
and said, "O Shaykh[FN#245] of the Arabs, I will go with thee and
buy of thee this girl whom thou praisest so highly for wit and
manners and beauty and loveliness; and I will pay thee her price
but it must be upon conditions which if thou accept, I will give
thee ready money, and if thou accept not I will return her to
thee." Quoth the Badawi, "An thou wilt, take her up to the Sultan
Sharrkan, son of Omar bin al-Nu'uman lord of Baghdad and of the
land of Khorasan, and condition me any conditions thou likest,
for when thou hast brought her before King Sharrkan, haply she
will please him, and he will pay thee her price and a good profit
for thyself to boot." Rejoined the merchant, "It happens that I
have just now something to ask from him, and it is this that he
write me an order upon the office, exempting me from custom dues
and also that he write me a letter of recommendation to his
father, King Omar bin al-Nu'uman.  So if he take the girl, I will
weigh[FN#246] thee out her price at once." "I agree with thee to
this condition," answered the Badawi.  So they returned together
to the place where Nuzhat al-Zaman was and the wild Arab stood at
the chamber door and called out, saying, "O Nájiyah[FN#247]!"
which was the name wherewith he had named her.  When she heard
him, she wept and made no answer.  Then he turned to the merchant
and said to him, "There she sitteth; go to her and look at her
and speak to her kindly as I enjoined thee." So the trader went
up to her in courteous wise and saw that she was wondrous
beautiful and loveable, especially as she knew the Arabic tongue;
and he said to the Badawi, "If she be even as thou saddest, I
shall get of the Sultan what I will for her." Then he bespake
her, "Peace be on thee, my little maid!  How art thou?" She
turned to him and replied, "This also was registered in the Book
of Destiny." Then she looked at him and, seeing him to be a man
of respectable semblance with a handsome face, she said to
herself, "I believe this one cometh to buy me;" and she
continued, "If I hold aloof from him, I shall abide with my
tyrant and he will do me to death with beating.  In any case,
this person is handsome of face and maketh me hope for better
treatment from him than from my brute of a Badawi.  May be he
cometh only to hear me talk; so I will give him a fair answer."
All this while her eyes were fixed on the ground; then she raised
them to him and said in a sweet voice, "And upon thee be peace, O
my lord, and Allah's mercy and His benediction![FN#248] This is
what is commanded of the Prophet, whom Allah bless and preserve!
As for thine enquiry how I am, if thou wouldst know my case, it
is such as thou wouldst not wish but to thy foe." And she held
her peace.  When the merchant heard what she said, his fancy took
wings for delight in her and, turning to the Badawi, he asked
him, "What is her price, for indeed she is noble?" Thereupon the
Badawi waxed angry and answered, "Thou wilt turn me the girl's
head with this talk!  Why dost thou say that she is
noble,[FN#249] while she is of the scum of slave girls and of the
refuse of folk?  I will not sell her to thee!" When the merchant
heard this, he knew the man to be weak of wits and said to him,
"Calm thyself, for I will buy her of thee with these blemishes
thou mentionest." "And how much wilt thou give me for her?"
enquired the Badawi.  Replied the merchant, "Name thy price for
her: none should name the son save his sire." Rejoined the
Badawi, "None shall name it but thou thyself." Quoth the merchant
to himself, "This wildling is a rudesby and a maggotty head.  By
Allah, I cannot tell her price, for she hath won my heart with
her fair speech and good looks; and, if she can read and write,
it will be complete fair luck to her and to her purchaser.  But
this Badawi does not know her worth." Then he turned and said to
him, "O Shaykh of the Arabs, I will give thee in ready money,
clear of the tax and the Sultan's dues, two hundred gold pieces."
Now when the Badawi heard this, he flew into a violent rage and
cried at the merchant, saying, "Get up and go thy ways!  By
Allah, wert thou to offer me two hundred diners for the bit of
camlet she weareth, I would not sell it to thee.  And now I will
not sell her, but will keep her by me, to pasture the camels and
grind my grist." And he cried out to her, saying, "Come here,
thou stinkard!  I will not sell thee." Then he turned to the
merchant and said to him, "I used to think thee a man of
judgment; but, by the right of my bonnet, if thou begone not from
me, I will let thee hear what shall not please thee!" Quoth the
merchant to himself, "Of a truth this Badawi is mad and knoweth
not her value, and I will say no more to him about her price at
the present time; for by Allah, were he a man of sense, he would
not say, 'By the rights of my bonnet!' By the Almighty, she is
worth the kingdom of the Chosroës and I have not her price by me,
but if he ask even more, I will give him what he will, though it
be all my goods." Then he turned and said to him, "O Shaykh of
the Arabs, take patience and calm thyself and tell me what
clothes she hath with thee?" Cried the Badawi, "And what hath the
baggage to do with clothes?  By Allah, this camlet in which she
is wrapped is ample for her." "With thy leave," said the
merchant, "I will unveil her face and examine her even as folk
examine slave girls whom they think of buying."[FN#250]  Replied
the other, "Up and do what thou wilt and Allah keep thy youth!
Examine her outside and inside and, if thou wilt, strip off her
clothes and look at her when she is naked." Quoth the trader,
"Allah forfend!  I will look at naught save her face."[FN#251]
Then he went up to her and was put to shame by her beauty and
loveliness,--And Shahrazed perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Fifty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
merchant went up to Nuzhat al-Zaman and was put to shame by her
beauty and loveliness, so he sat by her side and asked her, "O my
mistress, what is thy name?" She answered, "Doss thou ask what is
my name this day or what it was before this day?" Thereupon the
merchant enquired, "Hast thou then two names: to day's and
yesterday's?" "Yes," replied she, "my name in the past was Nuzhat
al-Zaman, the Delight of the Age; but my name at this present is
Ghussat[FN#252] al-Zaman, the Despight of the Age." When the
merchant heard this his eyes brimmed over with tears and quoth he
to her, "Hast thou not a sick brother?" "Ay by Allah, O my lord,
I have," quoth she, "but fortune hath parted me and him and he
lieth sick in Jerusalem." The merchant's head was confounded at
the sweetness of her speech and he said to himself, "Verily, the
Badawi spake the truth of her." Then she called to mind her
brother and his sickness and his strangerhood and her separation
from him in his hour of weakness and her not knowing what had
befallen him; and she thought of all that had happened to her
with the Badawi and of her severance from her mother and father
and native land; and the tears coursed down her cheeks and fast
as they started they dropped; and she began reciting,

"Allah, where'er thou be, His aid impart * To thee, who distant
     dwellest in my heart!
Allah be near thee how so far thou fare; * Ward off all shifts of
     Time, all dangers thwart!
Mine eyes are desolate for thy vanisht sight, * And start my
     tears-ah me, how fast they start!
Would Heaven I kenned what quarter or what land * Homes thee, and
     in what house and tribe thou art
An fount of life thou drain in greenth of rose, * While drink I
     tear drops for my sole desert?
An thou 'joy slumber in those hours, when I * Peel 'twixt my side
     and couch coals' burning smart?
All things were easy save to part from thee, * For my sad heart
     this grief is hard to dree."

When the merchant heard her verses, he wept and put out his hand
to wipe away the tears from her cheeks; but she let down her veil
over her face, saying, "Heaven forbid, O my lord!''[FN#253]  Then
the Badawi, who was sitting at a little distance watching them,
saw her cover her face from the merchant while about to wipe the
tears from her cheeks; and he concluded that she would have
hindered him from handling her: so he rose and running to her,
dealt her, with a camel's halter he had in his hand, such a blow
on the shoulders that she fell to the ground on her face.  Her
eyebrow struck a stone which cut it open, and the blood streamed
down her cheeks; whereupon she screamed a loud scream and felt
faint and wept bitterly.  The merchant was moved to tears for her
and said in himself, "There is no help for it but that I buy this
damsel, though at her weight in gold, and free her from this
tyrant." And he began to revile the Badawi whilst Nazhat al-
Zaman lay in sensible.  When she came to herself, she wiped away
the tears and blood from her face; and she bound up her head:
then, raising her glance to heaven, she besought her Lord with a
sorrowful heart and began repeating,

"And pity one who erst in honour throve, * And now is fallen into
     sore disgrace.
She weeps and bathes her cheeks with railing tears, * And asks
     'What cure can meet this fatal case?'"

When she had ended her verse, she turned to the merchant and said
in an undertone, "By the Almighty, do not leave me with a tyrant
who knoweth not Allah the Most High!  If I pass this night in his
place, I shall kill myself with my own hand: save me from him, so
Allah save thee from Gehenna-fire." Then quoth the merchant to
the Badawi, "O Shaykh of the Arabs, this slave is none of thine
affair; so do thou sell her to me for what thou wilt." "Take
her," quoth the Badawi, "and pay me down her price, or I will
carry her back to the camp and there set her to feed the camels
and gather their dung."[FN#254]  Said the merchant, "I will give
thee fifty thousand diners for her." "Allah will open!"[FN#255]
replied the Badawi.  "Seventy thousand," said the merchant.
"Allah will open!" repeated the Badawi: "this is not the capital
spent upon her, for she hath eaten with me barley bread to the
value of ninety thousand gold pieces." The merchant rejoined,
"Thou and thine and all thy tribe in the length of your lives
have not eaten a thousand ducats' worth of barley; but I will say
thee one word, wherewith if thou be not satisfied, I will set the
Viceroy of Damascus on thee and he will take her from thee by
force." The Badawi continued, "Say on!" "An hundred thousand,"
quoth the merchant.  "I have sold her to thee at that price,"
answered the Badawi; "I shall be able to buy salt with her." The
merchant laughed and, going to his lodgings, brought the money
and put it into the hand of the Badawi, who took it and made off,
saying to himself, "Needs must I go to Jerusalem where, haply, I
shall happen on her brother, and I will bring him here and sell
him also." So he mounted and journeyed till he arrived at
Jerusalem, where he went to the Khan and asked for Zau al-Makan,
but could not find him.  Such was the case with him; but for what
regards the merchant and Nazhat al-Zaman, when he took her he
threw some of his clothes over her and carried her to his
lodgings,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Fifty-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
trader saved Nuzhat al-Zaman from the Badawi and bore her to his
lodgings and robed her in the richest raiment, he went down with
her to the bazar, where he bought her what ornaments she chose
and put them in a satin bag, which he set before her, saying,
"All is for thee and I ask nothing of thee in return but that,
when I lead thee to the Sultan, Viceroy of Damascus, thou
acquaint him with the price I paid for thee, albeit it was little
compared with thy value: and, if seeing thee he buy thee of me,
thou tell him how I have dealt with thee and ask of him for me a
royal patent, and a written recommendation wherewith I can repair
to his father, King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, Lord of Baghdad, to the
intent that he may forbid the tax on my stuffs or any other goods
in which I traffic." When she heard his words, she wept and
sobbed, and the merchant said to her, "O my lady, I observe that,
every time I mention Baghdad, thine eyes are tearful: is there
any one there whom thou lovest?  If it be a trader or the like,
tell me; for I know all the merchants and so forth there and, if
thou wouldst send him a message, I will bear it for thee."
Replied she, "By Allah, I have no acquaintance among merchant
folk and the like!  I know none there but King Omar bin Nu'uman,
Lord of Baghdad." When the merchant heard her words, he laughed
and rejoiced with exceeding joy and said in himself, "By Allah, I
have won my wish!" Then he said to her, "Hast thou been shown to
him in time past?" She answered, "No, but I was brought up with
his daughter and he holdeth me dear and I have high honour with
him; so if thou wouldst have the King grant thee thy desire, give
me ink case and paper and I will write thee a letter; and when
thou reachest the city of Baghdad, do thou deliver it into the
hand of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman and say to him, 'Thy handmaid,
Nuzhat al-Zaman, would have thee to know that the chances and
changes of the nights and days have struck her as with a hammer,
and have smitten her so that she hath been sold from place to
place, and she sendeth thee her salams.' And, if he ask further
of her, say that I am now with the Viceroy at Damascus." The
merchant wondered at her eloquence, and his affection for her
increased and he said to her I cannot but think that men have
played upon thine understanding and sold thee for money.  Tell
me, dost thou know the Koran by heart?" "Yes," answered she; "and
I am also acquainted with philosophy and medicine and the
prolegomena of science and the commentaries of Galen, the
physician, on the canons of Hippocrates; and I have commented him
and I have read the Tazkirah and have commented the Burhán; and I
have studied the Simples of Ibn Baytár, and I have something to
say of the canon of Meccah, by Avicenna.  I can ree riddles and
can solve ambiguities, and discourse upon geometry and am skilled
in anatomy I have read the books of the Sháfi'í[FN#256] school
and the Traditions of the Prophet and syntax; and I can argue
with the Olema and discourse of all manner learning.  Moreover I
am skilled in logic and rhetoric and arithmetic and the making of
talismans and almanacs, and I know thoroughly the Spiritual
Sciences[FN#257] and the times appointed for religious duties and
I understand all these branches of knowledge."  Then quoth she to
the merchant, "Bring me ink case and paper, that I write thee a
letter which shall aid thee on thy journey to Baghdad and enable
thee to do without passports." Now when the merchant heard this,
he cried out "Brava!  Brava![FN#258] Then O happy he in whose
palace thou shalt!  Thereupon he brought her paper and ink case
and a pen of brass and bussed the earth before her face to do her
honour.  She took a sheet and handled the reed and wrote
therewith these verses,

"I see all power of sleep from eyes of me hath flown; * Say, did
     thy parting teach these eyne on wake to wone?
What makes thy memory light such burnings in my heart?  * Hath
     every lover strength such memories to own?
How sweet the big dropped cloud which rained on summer day; *
     'Tis gone and ere I taste its sweets afar 'tis flown:
I pray the wind with windy breath to bring some news * From thee,
     to lover wightwi' love so woe begone
Complains to thee a lover of all hope forlorn, * For parting
     pangs can break not only heart but stone."

And when she had ended writing the verses she continued, "These
words are from her who saith that melancholy destroyeth her and
that watching wasteth her; in the murk of whose night is found no
light and darkness and day are the same in her sight.  She
tosseth on the couch of separation and her eyes are blackened
with the pencils of sleeplessness; she watcheth the stars arise
and into the gloom she strains her eyes: verily, sadness and
leanness have consumed her strength and the setting forth of her
case would run to length.  No helper hath she but tears and she
reciteth these verses,

'No ring dove moans from home on branch in morning light, * But
     shakes my very frame with sorrow's killing might:
No lover sigheth for his love or gladdeth heart * To meet his
     mate, but breeds in me redoubled blight
I bear my plaint to one who has no ruth for me, * Ah me, how Love
     can part man's mortal frame and sprite!' "

Then her eyes welled over with tears, and she wrote also these
two couplets,

"Love smote my frame so sore on parting day, * That severance
     severed sleep and eyes for aye.
I waxt so lean that I am still a man, * But for my speaking, thou
     wouldst never say."

Then she shed tears and wrote at the foot of the sheet, "This
cometh from her who is far from her folk and her native land, the
sorrowful hearted woman Nuzhat al-Zaman." In fine, she folded the
sheet and gave it to the merchant, who took it and kissed it and
understood its contents and exclaimed, "Glory to Him who
fashioned thee!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

               When it was the Fifty-ninth Night,

She said, It reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-Zaman
wrote the letter and gave it to the merchant; and he took it and
read it and understood the contents and exclaimed, "Glory to Him
who fashioned thee!"  Then he redoubled his kindness and made
himself pleasant to her all that day, and when night came he
sallied out to the bazar and bought some food, wherewith he fed
her; after which he carried her to the Hammam and said to the
bath woman, "As soon as thou hast made an end of washing her
head, dress her and send and let me know of it." And she replied
"Hearing is obeying." Meanwhile he fetched food and fruit and wax
candles and set them on the bench in the outer room of the bath;
and when the tire woman had done washing her, she dressed her and
led her out of the bath and seated her on the bench.  Then she
sent to tell the merchant, and Nuzhat al-Zaman went forth to the
outer room, where she found the tray spread with food and fruit.
So she ate and the tire woman with her, and gave the rest to the
people and keeper of the bath.  Then she slept till the morning,
and the merchant lay the night in a place apart from her.  When
he aroused himself from sleep he came to her and waking her,
presented her with a shift of fine stuff and a head kerchief
worth a thousand diners, a suit of Turkish embroidery and walking
boots purfled with red gold and set with pearls and gems.
Moreover, he hung in each of her ears a circlet of gold with a
fine pearl therein, worth a thousand diners, and threw round her
neck a collar of gold with bosses of garnet and a chain of amber
beads that hung down between her breasts over her navel.  Now to
this chain were attached ten balls and nine crescents, and each
crescent had in its midst a bezel of ruby, and each ball a bezel
of balass: the value of the chain was three thousand diners and
each of the balls was priced at twenty thousand dirhams, so that
the dress she wore was worth in all a great sum of money.  When
she had put these on, the merchant bade her adorn herself, and
she adorned herself to the utmost beauty; then she let fall her
fillet over her eyes and she fared forth with the merchant
preceding her.  But when folk saw her, all wondered at her beauty
and exclaimed, "Blessed be Allah, the most excellent Creator!  O
lucky the man in whose house the hall be!" And the trader ceased
not walking (and she behind him) till they entered the palace of
Sultan Sharrkan; when he sought an audience and, kissing the
earth between his hands, said, "O auspicious King, I have brought
thee a rare gift, unmatched in this time and richly gifted with
beauty and with good qualities." Quoth the King, "Let me see it."
So the merchant went out and brought her, she following him till
he made her stand before King Sharrkan.  When he beheld her,
blood yearned to blood, though she had been parted from him in
childhood and though he had never seen her, having only heard a
long time after her birth that he had a sister called Nuzhat al-
Zaman and a brother Zau al-Makan, he having been jealous of them,
because of the succession.  And such was the cause of his knowing
little about them.  Then, having placed her before the presence,
the merchant said, "O King of the age, besides being peerless in
her time and beauty and loveliness, she is also versed in all
learning, sacred and profane, including the art of government and
the abstract sciences." Quoth the King to the trader, "Take her
price, according as thou boughtest her, and go thy ways." "I hear
and I obey," replied the merchant; "but first write me a patent,
exempting me for ever from paying tithe on my merchandise." Said
the King, "I will do this, but first tell me what price thou
paidest for her." Said the merchant, "I bought her for an hundred
thousand diners, and her clothes cost me another hundred
thousand." When the Sultan heard these words, he declared, "I
will give thee a higher price than this for her;" and, calling
his treasurer, said to him, "Pay this merchant three hundred and
twenty thousand ducats; so will he have an hundred and twenty
thousand diners profit." Thereupon the Sultan summoned the four
Kazis and paid him the money in their presence and then he said,
"I call you to witness that I free this my slave girl and purpose
to marry her." So the Kazis wrote out the deed of emancipation
and the contract of marriage, when the Sultan scattered much gold
on the heads of those present; and the pages and the eunuchs
picked up this largesse.  Then, after paying him his monies,
Sharrkan bade them write for the merchant a perpetual patent,
exempting him from toll, tax or tithe upon his merchandise and
forbidding each and every in all his government to molest him,
and lastly bestowed on him a splendid dress of honour.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

                When it was the Sixtieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that King
Sharrkan bade them write for the merchant a mandate, after paying
him his monies; and they wrote a perpetual patent, exempting him
from the tithe upon his merchandise and forbidding any in his
government to molest him; and lastly bestowed upon him a splendid
dress of honour.  Then all about him retired, and none remained
save the Kazis and the merchant, whereupon said he to the judges,
"I wish you to hear such discourse from this damsel as may prove
her knowledge and accomplishments in all aimed for her by this
trader, that we ascertain the truth of his assertions." They
answered, "There is no evil in that!"; and he commanded the
curtain to be let down between him and those with him and the
maiden and those with her; and the women about the damsel behind
the curtains began to wish her joy and kiss her hands and feet,
when they learned that she was become the King's wife.  Then they
came round her and took off her dresses easing her of the weight
of her clothes and began to look upon her beauty and loveliness.
Presently the wives of the Emirs and Wazirs heard that King
Sharrkan had bought a hand maiden unmatched for her beauty and
learning and philosophy and account keeping, and versed in all
branches of knowledge, that he had paid for her three hundred and
twenty thousand dinars, and that he had set her free and had
written a marriage contract with her and had summoned the four
Kazis to make trial of her, how she would answer all their
questions and hold disputetion with them.  So they asked leave of
their husbands and repaired to the palace wherein was Nuzhat al-
Zaman.  When they came in to her, they found the eunuchs standing
before her; and, as soon as she saw the wives of the Emirs and
Wazirs and Grandees of the realm coming to call upon her, she
arose to them on her feet and met them with courtesy, her
handmaidens standing behind her, and she received them saying,
"Ye be welcome!" The while she smiled in their faces so as to win
their hearts; and she promised them all manner of good and seated
them in their proper stations, as if she had been brought up with
them; so all wondered at her beauty and loveliness and said to
one another, "This damsel is none other than a Queen, the
daughter of a King." Then they sat down, magnifying her worth and
said to her, "O our lady, this our city is illumined by thee, and
our country and abode and birth place and reign are honoured by
thy presence.  The kingdom indeed is thy kingdom and the palace
is thy palace, and we all are thy handmaids; so, by Allah, do not
shut us out from thy favours and the sight of thy beauty." And
she thanked them for this.  All this while the curtains were let
down between Nuzhat al-Zaman and the women with her, on the one
side, and King Sharrkan and the four Kazis and the merchant
seated by him on the other.  Presently King Sharrkan called to
her and said, "O Queen, the glory of thine age, this merchant
hath described thee as being learned and accomplished; and he
claimeth that thou art skilled in all branches of knowledge, even
to astrology: so let us hear something of all this he hath
mentioned, and favour us with a short discourse on such
subjects." She replied, saying: "O King, to hear is to
obey.[FN#259] The first subjects whereof I will treat are the art
of government and the duties of Kings and what behoveth governors
of command meets according to religious law, and what is
incumbent on them in respect of satisfactory speech and manners.
Know then, O King, that all men's works tend either to religious
or to laical life, for none attaineth to religion save through
this world, because it is the best road to futurity.  Now the
works of this world are not ordered save by the doings of its
people, and men's doings are divided into four divisions,
government, commerce, husbandry and craftsmanship.  Now
government requireth perfect administration with just and true
judgment; for government is the pivot of the edifice of the
world, which world is the road to futurity; since Allah Almighty
hath made the world for His servants as viaticum to the traveller
for the attainment of his goal; and it befitteth each man that he
receive of it such measure as shall bring him to Allah, and that
he follow not herein his own mind and his individual lust.  If
folk would take of worldly goods with justice and equity, all
cause of contention would be cut off; but they take thereof with
violence ant after their own desires, and their persistence
therein giveth rise to contentions; so they have need of the
Sultan, that he do justice between them and order their affairs;
and, if the King restrain not his folk from one another, the
strong will drive the weak to the wall.  Hence Ardeshir[FN#260]
saith, 'Religion and Kingship be twins'; religion is a hidden
treasure and the King is its keeper; and the Divine Ordinances
and men's intelligence point out that it behoveth the people to
adopt a Sultan who shall withhold oppressor from oppressed and do
the weak justice against the strong and restrain the violence of
the proud and the rebels against rule.  For know, O King, that
according to the measure of the Sultan's good morals, even so
will be the time; as saith the Apostle of Allah (on whom be peace
and salvation!), 'There be two classes who, if they be good, the
people will be good; and if they be bad, the people will be bad,
even the Olema and the Emirs.' And it is said by a certain sage,
'There be three kinds of Kings, the King of the Faith, the King
who protecteth things to which reverence is due, and the King of
his own lusts.' The King of the Faith obligeth his subjects to
follow their faith, and it behoveth he be the most
faithful,[FN#261] for it is by him that they take pattern in the
things of the Faith; and it becometh the folk to obey him in
whatso he commandeth according to Divine Ordinance; but he shall
hold the discontented in the same esteem as the contented,
because of submission to the decrees of Destiny.  As for the King
who protecteth things to be reverenced, he upholdeth the things
of the Faith and of the World and compelleth his folk to follow
the Divine Law and to preserve the rights of humanity; and it
fitteth him to unite Pen and Sword; for whoso declineth from what
Pen hath written his feet slip and the King shall rectify his
error with the sharp Sword and dispread his justice over all
mankind.  As for the King of his own lusts, he hath no religion
but the following his desire and, as he feareth not the wrath of
his Lord who set him on the throne, so his Kingdom inclineth to
deposition and the end of his pride is in the house of perdition.
And sages say, 'The King hath need of many people, but the people
have need of but one King' wherefore it beseemeth that he be well
acquainted with their natures, that he reduce their discord to
concord, that with his justice be encompass them all and with his
bounties overwhelm them all.  And know, O King, that Ardeshir,
styled Jamr Shadíd, or the Live Coal, third of the Kings of
Persia, conquered the whole world and divided it into four
divisions and, for this purpose, get for himself four seal rings,
one for each division.  The first seal was that of the sea and
the police of prohibition and on it was written, Alterna lives.
The second was the seal of tribute and of the receipt of monies,
and on it was written, Building up.  The third was the seal of
the provisioning department and on it was written, Plenty.  The
fourth was the seal of the oppressed, and on it was written,
Justice.  And these usages remained valid in Persia until the
revelation of Al-Islam.  Chosroës also wrote his son, who was
with the army, 'Be not thou too open handed with thy troops, or
they will be too rich to need thee.'--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Sixty-first night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Chosroës
wrote his son, 'Be not thou too open handed with thy troops, or
they will be too rich to need thee; nor be thou niggardly with
them, or they will murmur against thee.  Give thy giving
deliberately and confer thy favours advisedly; open thy hand to
them in time of success and stint them not in time of distress.'
There is a legend that a desert Arab came once to the Caliph Al-
Mansúr[FN#262] and said, 'Starve thy dog and he shall follow
thee.' When the Caliph heard his words, he was enraged with the
Arab, but Abu 'l-Abbás of Tús said to him, 'I fear that if some
other than thou should show him a scone, the dog would follow him
and leave thee alone.' Thereupon the Caliph Al-Mansur's wrath
subsided and he knew that the wild Arab had intended no offence
and ordered him a present.  And know, O King, that Abd al-Malik
bin Marwán wrote to his brother Abd al-Azíz, when he despatched
him to Egypt, as follows, 'Pay heed to thy Secretaries and thy
Chamberlains, for the Secretaries will acquaint thee with estate
fished matters and the Chamberlains with matters of official
ceremony, whilst thine expenditure will make thy troops known to
thee.' Omar bin Al-Khattáb[FN#263] (whom Allah accept!) when
engaging a servant was in the habit of conditioning him with four
conditions; the first that he should not ride the baggage beasts,
the second that he should not wear fine clothes, the third that
he should not eat of the spoil and the fourth that he should not
put off praying till after the proper period.  It is said that
there is no wealth more profitable than understanding, and there
is no understanding like common sense and prudence, and there is
no prudence like piety; that there is no means of drawing near to
God like good morals, no measure like good breeding, no traffic
like good works and no profit like earning the Divine favour;
that there is no temperance like standing within the limits of
the law, no science like that of meditation, no worship like
obeying the Divine commends, no faith like modesty, no
calculation like self abasement and no honour like knowledge.  So
guard the head and what it containeth and the belly and what it
compriseth; and think of death and doom ere it ariseth.  Saith
Ali (whose face Allah honour!), 'Beware of the wickedness of
women and be on thy guard against them: consult them not in
aught;[FN#264] but grudge not complaisance to them, lest they
greed for intrigue.' And eke quoth he, 'Whoso leaveth the path of
moderation his wits become perplexed'; and there be rules for
this which we will mention, if it be Allah's will.  And Omar
(whom Allah accept!) saith, 'There are three kinds of women,
firstly the true believing, Heaven fearing, love full and fruit
full, who helpeth her mate against fate, not helping fate against
her mate; secondly, she who loveth her children but no more and,
lastly, she who is a shackle Allah setteth on the neck of whom He
will.' Men be also three: the wise when he exerciseth his own
judgement; the wiser who, when befalleth somewhat whereof he
knoweth not the issue, seeketh folk of good counsel and acteth by
their advice; and the unwise irresolute ignoring the right way
nor heeding those who would guide him straight.  Justice is
indispensable in all things; even slave girls have need of
justice; and men quote as an instance highway robbers who live by
violenting mankind, for did they not deal equitably among
themselves and observe justice in dividing their booty, their
order would fall to pieces.[FN#265] In short, for the rest, the
Prince of noble qualities is Beneficence cum Benevolence; and how
excellent is the saying of the poet,

By open hand and ruth the youth rose to his tribe's command; * Go
     and do likewise for the same were easy task to thee.'

And quoth another,

'In ruth and mildness surety lies and mercy wins respect, * And
     Truth is best asylum for the man of soothfast soul:
Whoso for wealth of gold would win and wear the world's good
     word, * On glory's course must ever be the first to gain the

And Nazhat al-Zaman discoursed upon the policy of Kings till the
bystanders said, "Never have we seen one reason of rule and
government like this damsel!  Haply she will let us hear some
discourse upon subject other than this." When she heard their
words and understood them she said, "As for the chapter of good
breeding, it is wide of comprehension, being a compend of things
perfect.  Now it so happened that one day there came to the
Caliph Mu'áwiyah[FN#266] one of his companions, who mentioned the
people of Irak and the goodness of their wit; and the Caliph's
wife Maysún, mother of Yezíd, heard his words.  So, when he was
gone, she said to the Caliph, 'O Prince of the Faithful, I would
thou let some of the people of Irak come in and talk to thee,
that I may hear their discourse.' Therewith Mu'awiyah said to his
attendants, 'See who is at the door?' And they answered, 'The
Banu Tamim.' 'Let them come in,' said he.  So they came in and
with them Al-Ahnáf son of Kays.[FN#267]  Then quoth Mu'awiyah,
'Enter, O Abu Bahr,' and drew a curtain between himself and
Maysun, that she might hear what they said without being seen
herself; then he said to Al-Ahnaf, 'O Son of the Sea, draw near
and tell me what counsel thou hast for me.' Quoth Al-Ahnaf, 'Part
thy hair and trim thy moustachio and pare thy nails and pluck
thine armpits and shave thy pubes[FN#268] and ever use the
toothstick because therein be two and seventy virtues, and make
the Ghusl or complete ablution on Friday, as an expiation for all
between the Fridays.'--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Sixty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Ahnaf bin
Kays replied to Al-Mu'awiyah's[FN#269] question, 'And ever use
the toothstick, because therein be two end seventy virtues and
make the complete Friday ablution as an expiation for all between
the two Fridays.' Quoth Mu'awiyah, 'What is thy counsel to
thyself?' 'To set my feet firmly on the ground, to move them
deliberately and watch over them with mine eyes!' 'How dost thou
order thyself when thou goest in to one not of the nobles of thy
tribe?' 'I lower mine eyes modestly and I salute first; I avoid
what concerneth me not and I spare my words!' 'And how when thou
goest in to thine equals?' 'I give ear to them when they speak
and I do not assail them when they err!'  'When thou goest in to
thy chiefs?' 'I salute without making any sign and await the
reply: if they bid me draw near, I draw near, and if they draw
off from me I withdraw!' 'How dost thou with thy wife?' Quoth
Ahnaf, 'Excuse me from answering this, O Commander of the
Faithful!'; but Mu'awiyah cried, 'I conjure thee inform me.' He
said, 'I entreat her kindly and show her familiarity and am large
in expenditure, for woman was created of a crooked rib.'[FN#270]
'And how dost thou when thou hast a mind to lie with her?' 'I bid
her perfume herself and kiss her till she is moved to desire;
then, should it be as thou knowest,[FN#271] I throw her on her
back.  If the seed abide in her womb I say, 'O Allah make it
blessed and let it not be a wastrel, but fashion it into the best
of fashions!'[FN#272]  Then I rise from her to ablution and first
I pour water over my hands and then over my body and lastly, I
praise Allah for the joy He hath given me.' Said Mu'awiyah, 'Thou
hast answered right well and now tell me what be thy
requirements?' Said Ahnaf, 'I would have thee rule thy subjects
in the fear of Allah and do even handed justice between them.'
Thereupon Ahnaf rose to his feet and left the Caliph's presence,
and when he had gone Maysun said, 'Were there but this man in
Irak, he would suffice to it.' Then continued Nuzhat al-Zaman,
"And all this is a section of the chapter of good breeding, and
know O King, that Muaykib was intendant of the public treasury
during the Caliphate of Omar bin al-Khattáb,"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Sixty-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman continued, "Know, O King, that Mu'aykib was intendant of
the public treasury during the Caliphate of Omar bin al-Khattab;
and it so befel him that he saw Omar's son and gave him a dirham
out of the treasury.  Thereupon, quoth Mu'aykib, 'I returned to
my own house, and while I was sitting there behold, a messenger
came to me from Omar and I was afraid and went to him, and when I
came into his presence, in his hand was the dirham I had given
his son.  He said to me, 'Woe to thee Mu'aykib!  I have found
somewhat concerning thy soul.' I asked 'And what is that?'; and
he answered, 'It is that thou hast shown thyself a foe to the
followers of Mohammed (on whom be peace and salvation!) in the
matter of this dirham, and thou wilt have to account for it on
Resurrection Day.'[FN#273] And Omar also wrote a letter to Abú
Músá al-Ashári[FN#274] as follows, 'When these presents reach
thee, give the people what is theirs and remit to me the rest.'
And he did so.  Now when Othman succeeded to the Caliphate, he
wrote a like letter to Abu Musa, who did his bidding and sent him
the tribute accordingly, and with it came Ziyád.[FN#275]  And
when Ziyad laid the tribute before Othman, the Caliph's son came
in and took a dirham, whereupon Ziyad shed tears.  Othman asked
'Why weepest thou?'; and Ziyad answered, 'I once brought Omar bin
al-Khattab the like of this and his son took a dirham, where upon
Omar bade snatch it from his hand.  Now thy son hath taken of the
tribute, yet I have seen none say aught to him or snatch the
money from him.' Then Othman[FN#276] cried, 'And where wilt thou
find the like of Omar?' Again Zayd bin Aslam relates of his
father that he said, 'I went out one night with Omar till we
approached a blazing fire.  Quoth Omar, 'O Aslam, I think these
must be travellers who are suffering from the cold.  Come, let us
join them.' So we walked on till we came to them and behold!  we
found a woman who had lighted a fire under a cauldron and by her
side were two children, both a wailing.  Said Omar, 'Peace be
with you, O folk of light (for it was repugnant to him to say
'folk of fire'),[FN#277] what aileth you?' Said she, 'The cold
and the night trouble us.' He asked, 'What aileth these little
people that they weep?'; and she answered, 'They are hungry.' He
enquired, 'And what is in this cauldron?'; and she replied, 'It
is what I quiet them withal, and Allah will question Omar bin al-
Khattab of them, on the Day of Doom.' He said, 'And what should
Omar know of their case?' 'Why then,' rejoined she, 'should he
manage people's affairs and yet be unmindful of them?' Thereupon
Omar turned to me (continned Aslam) and cried, 'Come with us!' So
we set off running till we reached the pay department of his
treasury, where he took out a sack containing flour and a pot
holding fat and said to me, 'Load these on my back!' Quoth I, 'O
Commander of the Faithful, I will carry them for thee.' He
rejoined, 'Wilt thou bear my load for me on the Day of
Resurrection?' So I put the things on his back, and we set off,
running, till we threw down the sack hard by her.  Then he took
out some of the flour and put it in the cauldron; and, saying to
the woman, 'Leave it to me,' he began blowing the fire under the
cauldron.  Now he was a long bearded man[FN#278] and I saw the
smoke issuing from between the hairs of his beard till the flour
was cooked, when he took some of the fat and threw it in and said
to the woman, 'Bed them while I cool it for them.' So they fell
to eating till they had eaten their fill, and he left the rest
with her.  Then he turned to me and said, 'O Aslam, I see it was
indeed hunger made them weep; and I am glad I did not go away ere
I found out the cause of the light I saw.'--And Shahrazad per
ceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Sixty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman continued, "It is related that Omar passed by a flock of
sheep, kept by a Mameluke, and asked him to sell him a sheep.  He
answered, 'They are not mine.' 'Thou art the man I sought,' said
Omar, and bought him and freed him; whereupon the slave
exclaimed, 'O Allah, as thou hast bestowed on me the lesser
emancipation; so vouchsafe me the greater!'[FN#279] It is also
said that Omar bin al- Khattab was wont to give his servants
sweet milk and himself eat coarse fare, and to clothe them softly
and himself wear rough garments.  He rendered unto all men their
due, and exceeded in his giving to them.  He once gave a man four
thousand dirhams and added thereto a thousand, wherefore it was
said to him, 'Why dost thou not increase to thy son as thou
increasest to this man?' He answered, 'This man's father stood
firm at the battle day of Ohod.'[FN#280] Al-Hasan relates that
Omar once came back from foray with much money, and that
Hafsah[FN#281] approached him and said, 'O Commander of the
Faithful, the due of kinship!' 'O Hafsah!' replied he, 'verily
Allah hath enjoined us to satisfy the dues of kinship, but not
with the monies of the True Believers.  Indeed, thou pleasest"
thy family, but thou angerest thy father.' And she went away
trailing her skirts.[FN#282]  The son of Omar said, 'I implored
the Lord to show me my father one year after his death, till at
last I saw him wiping the sweat from his brow and asked him, 'How
is it with thee, O my father?' He answered, 'But for my Lord's
mercy thy father surely had perished.' Then said Nuzhat al-Zaman,
"Hear, O auspicious King, the second division of the first
chapter of the instances of the followers of the Apostle and
other holy men.  Saith Al Hasan al-Basrí,[FN#283] Not a soul of
the sons of Adam goeth forth of the world without regretting
three things,- failure to enjoy what he hath amassed, failure to
compass what he hoped, failure to provide himself with sufficient
viaticum for that hereto he goeth.[FN#284] It was said of
Sufyan,[FN#285] 'Can a man be a religious and yet possess
wealth?' He replied, 'Yes, so he be patient when grieved and be
thankful when he hath received.' Abdullah bin Shaddád, being
about to die, sent for his son Mohammed and admonished him,
saying, 'O my son, I see the Summoner of Death summoning me, and
so I charge thee to fear Allah both in public and private, to
praise Allah and to be soothfastin thy speech, for such praise
bringeth increase of prosperity, and piety in itself is the best
of provision for the next world; even as saith one of the poets,

'I see not happiness lies in gathering gold; * The man most pious
     is man happiest:
In truth the fear of God is best of stores, * And God shall make
     the pious choicely blest.'

Then quoth Nuzhat al-Zaman, "Let the King also give ear to these
notes from the second section of the first chapter." He asked her
'What be they?'; and she answered, "When Omar bin Abd al-Azíz[FN#
286] succeeded to the Caliphate, he went to his household and
laying hands on all that was in their hold, put it into the
public treasury.  So the Banu Umayyah flew for aid to his
father's sister, Fátimah, daughter of Marwan, and she sent to him
saying, 'I must needs speak to thee.' So she came to him by night
and, when he had made her alight from her beast and sit down, he
said to her, 'O aunt, it is for thee to speak first, since thou
hast some thing to ask: tell me then what thou wouldst with me.'
Replied she, 'O Commander of the Faithful, it is thine to speak
first, for thy judgment perceiveth that which is hidden from the
intelligence of others.' Then said Omar, 'Of a verity Allah
Almighty sent Mohammed as a blessing to some and a bane to
others; and He elected for him those with him, and commissioned
him as His Apostle and took him to Himself,'--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

               When it was the Sixty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman continued thus, "Said Omar, 'Verily Allah commissioned as
His Apostle Mohammed (upon whom be the benediction of Allah and
His salvation!), for a blessing to some and a bane to others; and
He elected for him those with him and took him to Himself,
leaving the people a stream whereof they might drink.  After him
Abu Bakr[FN#287] the Truth teller became Caliph and he left the
river as it was, doing what was pleasing to Allah.  Then arose
Omar and worked a work and strove in holy war and strife where of
none might do the like.  But when Othman arose to power he
diverted a streamlet from the stream, and Mu'awiyah in his turn
diverted from it several streamlets; and without ceasing in like
manner, Yezid and the Banu Marwán such as Abd al-Malik and Walíd
and Sulaymán[FN#288] drew away water from the stream, and the
main course dried up, till rule devolved upon me, and now I am
minded to restore the stream to its normal condition.' When
Fatimah heard this, she said, 'I came wishing only to speak and
confer with thee, but if this be thy word, I have nothing to say
to thee.' Then she returned to the Ommiades and said to them,
'Now take ye the consequences of your act when ye allied
yourselves by marriage with Omar bin al-Khattab.'[FN#289]  And it
is also said that when Omar was about to die, he gathered his
children round him, and Maslamah[FN#290] bin Abd al-Malik said to
him, 'O Prince of the Faithful, how wilt thou leave thy children
paupers and thou their protector?  None can hinder thee in thy
lifetime from giving them what will suffice them out of the
treasury; and this indeed were better than leaving the good work
to him who shall rule after thee.' Omar looked at him with a look
of wrath and wonder and presently replied, 'O Maslamah, I have
defended them from this sin all the days of my life, and shall I
make them miserable after my death?  Of a truth my sons are like
other men, either obedient to Almighty Allah who will prosper
them, or disobedient and I will not help them in their
disobedience.  Know, O Maslamah, that I was present, even as
thou, when such an one of the sons of Marwanwas buried, and I
fell asleep by him and saw him in a dream given over to one of
the punishments of Allah, to whom belong Honour and Glory!  This
terrified me and made me tremble, and I vowed to Allah, that if
ever I came to power, I would not do such deeds as the dead man
had done.  I have striven to fulfil this vow all the length of my
life and I hope to die in the mercy of my Lord.' Quoth Maslamah,
'A certain man died and I was present at his burial, and when all
was over I fell asleep and I saw him as a sleeper seeth a dream,
walking in a garden of flowing waters clad in white clothes.  He
came up to me and said: 'O Maslamah, it is for the like of this
that rulers should rule.' Many are the instances of this kind,
and quoth one of the men of authority, 'I used to milk the ewes
in the Caliphate of Omar bin Abd al-Aziz, and one day I met a
shepherd, among whose sheep I saw a wolf or wolves.  I thought
them to be dogs, for I had never before seen wolves; so I asked,
'What dost thou with these dogs?' 'They are not dogs, but
wolves,' answered the shepherd.  Quoth I, 'Can wolves be with
sheep and not hurt them?' Quoth he, 'When the head is whole, the
body is whole.'[FN#291] Omar bin Abd al-Aziz once preached from a
pulpit of clay and, after praising and glorifying Allah Almighty,
said three words as follows, 'O folk, make clean your inmost
hearts, that your outward lives may be dean to your brethren, and
abstain ye from the things of the world.  Know that between us
and Adam there is no one man alive among the dead.  Dead are Abd
al- Malik and those who forewent him, and Omar also shall die and
those who forewent him.' Asked Maslamah, 'O Commander of the
Faithful, an we set a pillow behind thee, wilt thou lean on it a
little while?' But Omar answered, 'I fear lest it be a fault
about my neck on Resurrection Day.' Then he gasped with the death
rattle and fell back in a faint; whereupon Fatimah cried out,
saying, 'Ho, Maryam!  Ho, Muzahim![FN#292] Ho, such an one!  Look
to this man!' And she began to pour water on him weeping, till he
revived from his swoon; and, seeing her in tears said to her,
'What causeth thee to weep, O Fatimah?' She replied, 'O Commander
of the Faithful, I saw thee lying prostrate before us and thought
of thy prostration in death before Almighty Allah, of thy
departure from the world and of thy separation from us.  This is
what made me weep.' Answered he, 'Enough, O Fatimah, for indeed
thou exceedest.' Then he would have risen, but fell down and
Fatimah strained him to her and said, 'Thou art to me as my
father and my mother, O Commander of the Faithful!  We cannot
speak to thee, all of us.' Then quoth Nuzhat al-Zaman to her
brother Sharrkan and the four Kazis, "Here endeth the second
section of the first chapter."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Sixty-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman said to her brother Sharrkan and the four Kazis, "Here
endeth the second section of the first chapter.  And it so
happened that Omar bin Abd al-Aziz wrote to the people of the
festival at Meccah as follows, 'I call Allah to witness, in the
Holy Month, in the Holy City and on the day of the Greater
Pilgrimage,[FN#293] that I am innocent of your oppression and of
his wrongs that doth wrong you, in that I have neither commanded
this nor purposed it, neither hath any report of aught thereof
hitherto reached me, nor have I compassed any knowledge thereof;
and I trust that a cause for pardon will be found in that none
hath authority from me to oppress any man, for I shall assuredly
be questioned concerning every one oppress.  And if any of my
officers swerve from the right and act otherwise than the Holy
Book and the Traditions of the Apostle do authorise, obey him not
so that he may return to the way of righteousness.' He said also
(Allah accept of him!), 'I do not wish to be relieved from death,
because it is the supreme thing for which the True Believer is
rewarded.' Quoth one of authority, 'I went to the Prince of the
Faithful, Omarbin Abd al-Aziz, who was then Caliph, and saw
before him twelve dirhams, which he ordered for deposit in the
public treasury.  So I said to him, 'O Commander of the Faithful,
thou impoverishest thy children and reducest them to beggary
having nothing whereon to live.  An thou wouldst appoint somewhat
by will to them and to those who are poor of the people of thy
house, it were well.' 'Draw near to me,' answered he: so I drew
near to him and he said, 'Now as for thy saying, 'Thou beggarest
thy children; provide for them and for the poor of thy
household,' it is without reason; for Allah of a truth will
replace me to my children and to the poor of my house, and He
will be their guardian.  Verily, they are like other men; he who
feareth Allah, right soon will Allah provide for him a happy
issue, and he that is addicted to sins, I will not up hold him in
his sin against Allah.' Then he summoned his sons who numbered
twelve, and when he beheld them his eyes dropped tears and
presently he said to them, 'Your Father is between two things;
either ye will be well to do, and your parent will enter the
fire, or ye will be poor and your parent will enter Paradise; and
your father's entry into Paradise is liefer to him than that ye
should be well to do.[FN#294] So arise and go, Allah be your
helper, for to Him I commit your affairs!' Khálid bin
Safwán[FN#295] said, 'Yúsuf bin Omar[FN#296] accompanied me to
Hishám bin Abd al-Malik,[FN#297] and as I met him he was coming
forth with his kinsmen and attendants.  He alighted and a tent
was pitched for him.  When the people had taken their seats, I
came up to the side of the carpet whereon he sat reclining and
looked at him; and, waiting till my eyes met his eyes, bespoke
him thus, 'May Allah fulfil His bounty to thee, O Commander of
the Faithful, I have an admonition for thee, which hath come down
to us from the history of the Kings preceding thee!'  At this, he
sat up whenas he had been reclining and said to me, 'Bring what
thou hast, O son of Safwan!' Quoth I, 'O Commander of the
Faithful, one of the Kings before thee went forth in a time
before this thy time, to this very country and said to his
companions, 'Saw ye ever any state like mine and say me, hath
such case been given to any man even as it hath been given unto
me?' Now there was with him a man of those who survive to bear
testimony to Truth; upholders of the Right and wayfarers in its
highway, and he said to him, 'O King, thou askest of a grave
matter.  Wilt thou give me leave to answer?' 'Yes,' replied the
King, and the other said, 'Dost thou judge thy present state to
be short lasting or ever lasting?' 'It is temporary,' replied the
King.  'How then,' rejoined the man, 'do I see thee exulting in
that which thou wilt enjoy but a little while and whereof thou
wilt be questioned for a long while and for the rendering an
account whereof thou shalt be as a pledge which is pawned?' Quoth
the King, 'Whither shall I flee and what must I seek for me?'
'That thou abide in thy kingship,' replied the other, 'or else
robe thee in rags[FN#298] and apply thyself to obey Almighty
Allah thy Lord until thine appointed hour.  I will come to thee
again at daybreak.' Khalid bin Safwan further relates that the
man knocked at the door at dawn and behold, the King had put off
his crown and resolved to become an anchorite, for the stress of
his exhortation.  When Hishám bin Abd al-Malik heard this, he
wept till his beard was wet, and, bidding his rich apparel be put
off, shut himself up in his palace.  Then the grandees and
dependents came to Khalid and said, 'What is this thou hast done
with the Commander of the Faithful?  Thou hast troubled his
pleasure and disturbed his life!' Then quoth Nuzhat al-Zaman,
addressing herself to Sharrkan, "How many instances of admonition
are there not in this chapter!  Of a truth I cannot report all
appertaining to this head in a single sitting,"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Sixty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman continued, speaking to Sharrkan, "Know, O King, that in
this chapter be so many instances of admonition that of a truth I
cannot report all appertaining to this head in a single sitting
but, with length of days, O King of the age, all will be well."
There said the Kazis, "O King, of a truth this damsel is the
wonder of the world, and of our age the unique pearl!  Never
heard we her like in the length of time or in the length of our
lives." And they called down blessings on the King and went away.
Then Sharrkan turned to his attendants and said, "Begin ye to
prepare the marriage festival and make ready food of all kinds."
So they forthright did his bidding as regards the viands, and he
commanded the wives of the Emirs and Wazirs and Grandees depart
not until the time of the wedding banquet and of the unveiling of
the bride.  Hardly came the period of afternoon prayer when the
tables were spread with whatso heart can desire or eye can
delight in of roast meats and geese and fowls; and the subjects
ate till they were satisfied.  Moreover, Sharrkan had sent for
all the singing women of Damascus and they were present, together
with every slave girl of the King and of the notables who knew
how to sing.  And they went up to the palace in one body.  When
the evening came and darkness starkened they lighted candles,
right and left, from the gate of the citadel to that of the
palace; and the Emirs and Wazirs and Grandees marched past before
King Sharrkan, whilst the singers and the tire women took the
damsel to dress and adorn her, but found she needed no adornment.
Meantime King Sharrkan went to the Hammam and coming out, sat
down on his seat of estate, whilst they paraded the bride before
him in seven different dresses: after which they eased her of the
weight of her raiment and ornaments and gave such injunctions as
are enjoined upon virgins on their wedding nights.  Then Sharrkan
went in unto her and took her maidenhead;[FN#299] and she at once
conceived by him and, when she announced it, he rejoiced with
exceeding joy and commanded the savants to record the date of her
conception.  On the morrow he went forth and seated himself on
his throne, and the high officers came in to him and gave him
joy.  Then he called his private secretary and bade him write a
letter to his father, King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, saying that he
had bought him a damsel, who excels in learning and good breeding
and who is mistress of all kinds of knowledge.  Moreover he
wrote, "There is no help but that I send her to Baghdad to visit
my brother Zau al-Makan and my sister Nuzhat al-Zaman.  I have
set her free and married her and she hath conceived by me." And
he went on to praise her wit and salute his brother and sister
together with the Wazir Dandan and all the Emirs.  Then he sealed
the letter and despatched it to his father by a post courier who
was absent a whole month, after which time he returned with the
answer and presented it in the presence.  Sharrkan took it and
read as follows, "After the usual Bismillah, this is from the
afflicted distracted man, from him who hath lost his children and
home by bane and ban, King Omar bin al- Nu'uman, to his son
Sharrkan.  Know that, since thy departure from me, the place is
become contracted upon me, so that no longer I have power of
patience nor can I keep my secret: and the cause thereof is as
follows.  It chanced that when I went forth to hunt and course
Zau al-Makan sought my leave to fare Hijaz wards, but I, fearing
for him the shifts of fortune, forbade him therefrom until the
next year or the year after.  My absence while sporting and
hunting endured for a whole month"--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Sixty-eighth night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that King Omar
bin al-Nu'uman wrote in his letter, "My absence while sporting
and hunting endured for a whole month, and when I returned I
found that thy brother and sister had taken somewhat of money and
had set out with the pilgrim caravan for pilgrimage by stealth.
When I knew this, the wide world narrowed on me, O my son!  but I
awaited the return of the caravan, hoping that haply they would
come back with it.  Accordingly, when the palmers appeared I
asked concerning the twain, but they could give me no news of
them; so I donned mourning for them, being heavy at heart, and in
sleep I have no part and I am drowned in the tears of my eyes."
Then he wrote in verse,

"That pair in image quits me not one single hour, * Whom in my
     heart's most honourable place I keep:
Sans hope of their return I would not live one hour, * Without my
     dreams of them I ne'er would stretch me in sleep."

The letter went on, "And after the usual salutations to thee and
thine, I command thee neglect no manner of seeking news of them
for indeed this is a shame to us." When Sharrkan read the letter
he felt grief for his father and joy for the loss of his brother
and sister.  Then he took the missive and went in with it to
Nuzhat al-Zaman who knew not that he was her brother, nor he that
she was his sister, albeit he often visited her both by night and
by day till the months were accomplished and she sat down on the
stool of delivery.  Allah made the child birth easy to her and
she bare a daughter, whereupon she sent for Sharrkan and seeing
him she said to him, "This is thy daughter: name her as thou
wilt." Quoth he, "It is usual to name children on the seventh day
after birth.[FN#300]" Then he bent over the child to kiss it and
he saw, hung about its neck, a jewel, which he knew at once for
one of those which Princess Abrizah had brought from the land of
the Greeks.  Now when he saw the jewel hanging from his babe's
neck he recognised it right well, his senses fled and wrath
seized on him; his eyes rolled in rage and he looked at Nuzhat
al- Zaman and said to her, "Whence hadst thou this jewel, O slave
girl?" When she heard this from Sharrkan she replied, "I am thy
lady, and the lady of all in thy palace!  Art thou not ashamed to
say to me Slave girl?  I am a Queen, daughter of King Omar bin
al-Nu'uman." Hearing this, he was seized with trembling and hung
his head earthwards,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Sixty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Sharrkan heard these words, his heart fluttered and his colour
waxed yellow and he was seized with trembling and he hung his
head earthwards, for he knew that she was his sister by the same
father.  Then he lost his senses; and, when he revived, he abode
in amazement, but did not discover his identity to her and asked,
O my lady, say, art thou in sooth the daughter of King Omar bin
al- Nu'uman?" "Yes," answered she; and he continued, "Tell me the
cause of thy leaving thy sire and of thy being sold for a slave."
So she related to him all that had befallen her from beginning to
end, how she had left her brother sick in the Sanctified City,
Jerusalem, and how the Badawi had kidnapped her and had sold her
to the trader.  When Sharrkan heard this, he was certified of her
being his sister on the sword side and said to himself, "How can
I have my sister to wife?  By Allah, needs must I marry her to
one of my chamberlains; and, if the thing get wind, I will
declare that I divorced her before consummation and married her
to my Chief Chamberlain." Then he raised his head and sighing
said, "O Nuzhat al-Zaman, thou art my very sister and I cry: 'I
take refuge with Allah from this sin whereinto we have fallen,'
for I am Sharrkan, son of Omar bin al-Nu'uman." She looked at him
and knew he spoke the truth; and, becoming as one demented, she
wept and buffeted her face, exclaiming, "There is no Majesty and
there is no Might save in Allah!  Verily have we fallen into
mortal sin![FN#301] What shall I do and what shall I say to my
father and my mother when they ask me, Whence hadst thou thy
daughter?" Quoth Sharrkan, "It were meetest that I marry thee to
my Chamberlain and let thee bring up my daughter in his house,
that none may know thou be my sister.  This hath befallen us from
Almighty Allah for a purpose of his own, and nothing shall cover
us but thy marriage with this Chamberlain, ere any know." Then he
fell to comforting her and kissing her head and she asked him,
"What wilt thou call the girl?" "Call her Kuzia Fakán,"[FN#302]
answered he.  Then he gave the mother in marriage to the Chief
Chamberlain, and transferred her to his house with the child,
which they reared on the laps of the slave girls, and fed with
milk and dosed with powders.  Now all this occurred whilst the
brother, Zau al-Makan, still tarried with the Fireman at
Damascus.  One day there came to King Sharrkan a courier from his
father, with a letter which he took and read and found therein,
"After the Bismillah know, O beloved King, that I am afflicted
with sore affliction for the loss of my children: sleep ever
faileth me and wakefulness ever assaileth me.  I send thee this
letter that, as soon as thou receivest it, thou make ready the
monies and the tribute, and send them to us, together with the
damsel whom thou hast bought and taken to wife; for I long to see
her and hear her discourse; more especially because there hath
come to us from Roumland an old woman of saintly bearing and with
her be five damsels high bosomed virgins, endowed with knowledge
and good breeding and all arts and sciences befitting mortals to
know; and indeed tongue faileth me to describe this old woman and
these who with her wend; for of a truth they are compendiums of
perfections in learning and accomplishments.  As soon as I saw
them I loved them, and I wished to have them in my palace and in
the compass of my hand; for none of the Kings owneth the like of
them; so I asked the old woman their price and she answered, 'I
will not sell them but for the tribute of Damascus.' And I, by
Allah, did not hold this price exorbitant, indeed it is but
little, for each one of them is worth the whole valuation.  So I
agreed to that and took them into my palace, and they remain in
my possession.  Wherefore do thou forward the tribute to us that
the woman may return to her own country; and send to us the
damsel to the end that she may dispute with them before the
doctors; and, if she prevail over them, I will return her to thee
accompanied by the tribute of Baghdad."--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

               When it was the Seventieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that King Omar
son of Al-Nu'uman said in his letter, "And send to us the damsel
to the end that she may dispute with them before the doctors and,
if she prevail over them, I will return her to thee accompanied
with the tribute of Baghdad." As soon as Sharrkan knew the
contents, he went in to his brother in law and said to him,
"Bring the damsel to whom I married thee;" and when she came he
showed her the letter and said, "O my sister!  what answer
wouldst thou advise me make to this letter?" Replied she, "Seek
advice from thyself!" and presently added (for she yearned after
her people and her native land), "Send me together with my
husband the Chamberlain, to Baghdad, that I may tell my father my
tale and let him know whatso befel me with the Badawi who sold me
to the merchant, and that I also inform him how thou boughtest me
of the trader and gavest me in marriage to the Chamberlain, after
setting me free." "Be it so," replied Sharrkan.  Then Sharrkan
took his daughter, Kuzia Fakan, and committed her to the charge
of the wet nurses and the eunuchs, and he made ready the tribute
in haste, bidding the Chamberlain travel with the Princess and
the treasure to Baghdad.  He also furnished him two travelling
litters one for himself and the other for his wife.  And the
Chamberlain replied, "To hear is to obey." Moreover Sharrkan
collected camels and mules and wrote a letter to his father and
committed it to the Chamberlain; then he bade farewell to his
sister, after he had taken the jewel from her and hung it round
his daughter's neck by a chain of pure gold; and she and her
husband set out for Baghdad the same night.  Now it so happened
that Zau al-Makan and his friend the Fireman had come forth from
the hut in which they were, to see the spectacle, and they beheld
camels and Bukhti[FN#303] dromedaries and bât-mules and torches
and lanterns alight; and Zau al-Makan enquired about the loads
and their owner and was told that it was the tribute of Damascus
going to King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, Lord of the City of Baghdad.
He then asked, "Who be the leader of the caravan?" and they
answered, "The Head Chamberlain who hath married the damsel so
famous for learning and science." Thereupon Zau al-Makan wept
with bitter weeping and was minded of his mother and his father
and his sister and his native land, and he said to the Stoker, "I
will join this caravan and, little by little, will journey
homewards." Quoth the Fireman, "I would not suffer thee to travel
single handed from the Holy City to Damascus, then how shall I be
sure of thy safety when thou farest for Baghdad?  But I will go
with thee and care for thee till thou effectest thine object."
"With joy and good will," answered Zau al-Makan.  Then the
Fireman get him ready for the journey and hired an ass and threw
saddle bags over it and put therein something of provaunt; and,
when all was prepared, he awaited the passage of the caravan.
And presently the Chamberlain came by on a dromedary and his
footmen about him.  Then Zau al-Ma ken mounted the ass and said
to his companion, "Do thou mount with me." But he replied, "Not
so: I will be thy servant." Quoth Zau al-Makan, "There is no help
for it but thou ride awhile." "'Tis well," quoth the Stoker; "I
will ride when I grow tired." Then said Zau al-Makan, "O my
brother, soon shalt thou see how I will deal with thee, when I
come to my own folk." So they fared on till the sun rose and,When
it was the hour of the noonday sleep[FN#304] the Chamberlain
called a halt and they alighted and reposed and watered their
camels.  Then he gave the signal for departure and, after five
days, they came to the city of Hamáh,[FN#305] where they set down
and made a three days' halt;--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Seventy-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that they halted
in the city of Hamah three days; they then fared forwards and
ceased not travelling till they reached another city.  Here also
they halted three days and thence they travelled till they
entered the province Diyár Bakr.  Here blew on them the breezes
of Baghdad, and Zau al-Makan bethought him of his father and
mother and native land, and how he was returning to his sire
without his sister: so he wept and sighed and complained, and his
regrets grew on him, and he began improvising these couplets,

"Sweetheart!  How long must I await by so long suffering teed? *
     Nor cometh messenger to tell me where thou dost abide:
Ah me!  in very sooth our meeting time was short enow: * Would
     Heaven shorter prove to me the present parting-tide!
Now trend my hand and open my robe and thou within shall sight *
     How wasted are the limbs of me and yet the waste I hide:
When say they 'Comfort take for loss of love' I but reply * 'By
     Allah, till the Day of Doom no comfort shall betide!' "

Thereupon said to him the Fireman, "Leave this weeping and
wailing, for we are near the Chamberlain's tent." Quoth Zau al-
Makan, "Needs must I recite somewhat of verse; haply it may
quench the fire of my heart." "Allah upon thee," cried the other,
"cease this lamentation till thou come to shine own country; then
do what thou wilt, and I will be with thee wherever thou art."
Replied Zau al-Makan, "By Allah!  I cannot forbear from this!"
Then he turned his face towards Baghdad and the moon was shining
brightly and shedding her light on the place, and Nuzhat al-Zaman
could not sleep that night, but was restless and called to mind
her brother and wept.  And while she was in tears, he heard Zau
al-Makan weeping and improvising the following distichs,

'Al-Yaman's[FN#306] leven-gleam I see, * And sore despair
     despaireth me
For friend who erst abode wi' me * Crowning my cup with gladdest
It minds me o' one who jilted me * To mourn my bitter liberty.
Say sooth, thou fair sheet lightning!  shall * We meet once more
     in joy and glee?
O blamer!  spare to me thy blame * My Lord hath sent this dule to
Of friend who left me, fain to flee; * Of Time that breeds
All bliss hath fled the heart of me * Since Fortune proved mine
He[FN#307] brimmed a bowl of merest pine, * And made me drain the
     dregs, did he:
I see me, sweetheart, dead and gone * Ere I again shall gaze on
Time!  prithee bring our childhood back, * Restore our happy
When joy and safety 'joyed we * From shafts that now they shoot
     at me!
Who aids the hapless stranger wight, * That nights in fright and
That wastes his days in lonely grief, * For 'Time's
     Delight'[FN#308] no more must be?
Doomed us despite our will to bear * The hands of base bores cark
     and care."

When he ended his verse he cried out and fell down in a fainting
fit.  This is how it fared with him; but as regards Nuzhat al-
Zaman, when she heard that voice in the night, her heart was at
rest and she rose and in her joy she called the Chief Eunuch, who
said to her, "What is thy will?" Quoth she, "Arise and bring me
him who recited verses but now." Replied he, "Of a truth I did
not hear him"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

             When it was the Seventy-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Nuzhat
Al-Zaman heard her brother reciting, she called the Chief Eunuch
and said to him, "Go, fetch me the man who is repeating this
poetry!" Replied he, "Of a truth I heard him not and I wot him
not and folks are all sleeping." But she said, "Whomsoever thou
seest awake, he is the reciter." So he went, yet found none on
wake save the Stoker; for Zau al-Makan was still insensible, and
when his companion saw the Eunuch standing by his head he was
afraid of him.  Then said the Eunuch, "Art thou he who repeated
poetry but now and my lady heard him?" The Stoker fancied that
the dame was wroth with the reciter; and, being afraid, he
replied, "By Allah, 'twas not I!" Rejoined the Eunuch, "Who then
was the reciter?: point him out to me.  Thou must know who it
was, seeing that thou art awake." The Fireman feared for Zau al-
Makan and said in himself, "Haply the Eunuch will do him some
hurt"; so he answered, "By Allah, I know not who it was." Said
the Eunuch, "By Allah, thou liest, for there is none on wake here
but thou!  So needs must thou know him." "By Allah," replied the
Fireman, "I tell thee the truth!: some passer by, some wayfarer
must have recited the verses and disturbed me and kept me awake;
Allah requite him!" Quoth the Eunuch, "If thou happen upon him,
point him out to me and I will lay hands on him and bring him to
the door of our lady's litter[FN#309] or do thou take him with
thine own hand." Said the Fireman, "Go thou back and I will bring
him to thee." So the Eunuch left him and went his ways; and,
going in to his mistress, told her all this and said to her,
"None knoweth who it was; it must have been some passer by, some
wayfarer." And she was silent.  Meanwhile, Zau al-Makan came to
himself and saw that the moon had reached the middle Heavens; the
breath of the dawn breeze[FN#310] breathed upon him and his heart
was moved to longing and sadness; so he cleared his throat and
was about to recite verses, when the Fire man asked him, "What
wilt thou do?" Answered Zau al-Makan, "I have a mind to repeat
somewhat of poetry, that I may quench therewith the fire of my
heart." Quoth the other, "Thou knowest not what befel me whilst
thou wast a faint, and how I escaped death only by beguiling the
Eunuch." "Tell me what happened," quoth Zau al-Makan.  Replied
the Stoker, "Whilst thou wast aswoon there came up to me but now
an Eunuch, with a long staff of almond tree wood in his hand, who
took to looking in all the people's faces, as they lay asleep,
and asked me who it was recited the verses, finding none awake
but myself.  I told him in reply it was some passerby, some
wayfarer; so he went away and Allah delivered me from him; else
had he killed me.  But first he said to me, 'If thou hear him
again, bring him to us.'" When Zau al-Makan heard this he wept
and said, "Who is it would forbid me to recite?  I will surely
recite, befal me what may; for I am near mine own land and care
for none." Rejoined the Fireman, "Thy design is naught save to
lose thy life;" and Zau al-Makan retorted, "Needs must I recite
verses." "Verily," said the Stoker, "needs must there be a
parting between me and thee in this place, albeit;I had intended
not to leave thee, till I had brought thee to thy native city and
reunited thee with thy mother and father.  Thou hast now tarried
with me a year and a half and I have never harmed thee in aught.
What ails thee, then, that thou must needs recite verses, seeing
that we are tired out with walking and watching and all the folk
are asleep, for they require sleep to rest them of their
fatigue?" But Zau al-Makan answered, "I will not be turned away
from my purpose."[FN#311]  Then grief moved him and he threw off
concealment and began repeating these couplets,

"Stand thou by the homes and hail the lords of the ruined stead;
     * Cry thou for an answer, belike reply to thee shall be
If the night and absence irk thy spirit kindle a torch * Wi'
     repine; and illuminate the gloom with a gleaming greed:
If the snake of the sand dunes hiss, I shall marvel not at all!
     * Let him bite so I bite those beauteous lips of the
     luscious red:
O Eden, my soul hath fled in despite of the maid I love: * Had I
     lost hope of Heaven my heart in despair were dead."

And he also improvised the two following distichs,

"We were and were the days enthralled to all our wills, *
     Dwelling in union sweet and homed in fairest site:
Who shall restore the home of the beloved, where showed * Light
     of the Place for aye conjoined with Time's

And as he ceased his verses, he shrieked three shrieks and fell
senseless to the ground and the Fireman rose and covered him.
When Nuzhat al-Zaman heard the first improvisation, she called to
mind her father and her mother and her brother and their whilome
home; then she wept and cried at the Eunuch and said to him, "Woe
to thee!  He who recited the first time hath recited a second
time and I heard him hard by.  By Allah, an thou fetch him not to
me, I will assuredly rouse the Chamberlain on thee, and he shall
beat thee and cast thee out.  But take these hundred diners and
give them to the singer and bring him to me gently, and do him no
hurt.  If he refuse, hand to him this purse of a thousand diners,
then leave him and return to me and tell me, after thou hast
informed thyself of his place and his calling and what countryman
he is.  Return quickly and linger not."--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Seventy-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Nuzhat al-
Zaman sent the Eunuch to make enquiries concerning the singer and
said, "Beware how thou come back to me and report, I could not
find him." So the Eunuch went out and laid about the people and
trod in their tents, but found none awake, all being asleep for
weariness, till he came to the Stoker and saw him sitting up,
with his head uncovered.  So he drew near and seizing him by the
hand, said to him, "It was thou didst recite the verses!" The
Fireman was afeard for his life and replied, "No, by Allah, O
chief of the people, it was not I!" But the Eunuch said, "I will
not leave thee till thou show me who it was that recited the
verses, for I dread returning to my lady without him." Now when
the Fireman heard these words he feared for Zau al-Makan and wept
with exceeding weeping and said to the Eunuch, "By Allah, it was
not I, and I know him not.  I only heard some passer by, some
wayfarer, recite verses: so do not thou commit sin on me, for I
am a stranger and come from the Holy City of Jerusalem; and
Abraham, the friend of Allah, be with you all." "Rise up and fare
with me," rejoined the Eunuch, "and tell my lady this with thine
own mouth, for I have seen none awake save thyself." Quoth the
Stoker, "Hast thou not come and seen me sitting in the place
where I now am, and dost thou not know my station?  Thou wottest
none can stir from his place, except the watchman seize him.  So
go thou to thy station and if thou again meet any one after this
hour reciting aught of poetry, whether he be near or far, it will
be I or some one I know, and thou shalt not learn of him but by
me." Then he kissed the Eunuch's head and spake him fair till he
went away; but the Castrato fetched a round and, returning
secretly, came and stood behind the Fireman, fearing to go back
to his mistress without tidings.  As soon as he was gone, the
Stoker arose and aroused Zau al-Makan and said to him, "Come, sit
up, that I may tell thee what hath happened." So Zau al-Makan sat
up, and his companion told him what had passed, and he answered,
"Let me alone; I will take no heed of this and I care for none,
for I am mine own country."[FN#313] Quoth the Stoker, "Why wilt
thou obey thy flesh and the devil?  If thou fear no one, I fear
for thee and for my life, so Allah upon thee!  recite nothing
more of verses till thou come to thine own land.  Indeed, I had
not deemed thee so ill conditioned.  Dost thou not know that this
lady is the wife; of the Chamberlain and is minded to chastise
thee for disturbing her?  Belike, she is ill or restless for
fatigue of the journey and the distance of the place from her
home, and this is the second time she hath sent the Eunuch to
look for thee." However Zau al-Makan paid no heed to the
Fireman's words but cried out a third time and began versifying
with these couplets,

"I fly the carper's injury,* Whose carping sorely vexeth me:
He chides and taunts me, wotting not * He burns me but more
The blamer cries 'He is consoled!' * I say, 'My own dear
     land[FN#314] to see:'
They ask, 'Why be that land so dear?' * I say, 'It taught me in
     love to be:'
They ask, 'What raised its dignity?' * I say, 'What made my
Whate'er the bitter cup I drain, * Far be fro' me that land to
Nor will I bow to those who blame, * And for such love would deal
     me shame.

Hardly had he made an end of his verses and come to a conclusion,
when the Eunuch (who had heard him from his hiding place at his
head) came up to him; whereupon the Fireman flea end stood afar
off to see what passed between them.  Then said the Eunuch to Zau
al-Makan, "Peace be with thee, O my lord!" "And on thee be
peace," replied Zau al-Makan, "and the mercy of Allah and His
blessings!" "O my lord," continued the Eunuch---And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say,

             When it was the Seventy-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Eunuch
said to Zau al-Makan, "O my lord, I have sought thee these
several times this night, for my mistress biddeth thee to her."
Quoth Zau al- Makan, "And who be this bitch that seeketh for me?
Allah curse her and curse her husband with her!"[FN#315] And he
began to revile the Eunuch, who could make him no answer, because
his mistress had charged him to do Zau al-Makan no hurt, nor
bring him save of his own especial free will; and, if he would
not accompany him, to give him the thousand diners.  So the
Castrato began to speak him fair and say to him, "O my lord, take
this purse and go with me.  We will do thee no upright, O my son,
nor wrong thee in aught; but our object is that thou bend thy
gracious steps with me to my mistress, to receive her answer and
return in weal and safety: and thou shalt have a handsome present
as one who bringeth good news." When Zau al- Makan heard this, he
arose and went with the Eunuch and walked among the sleeping
folk, stepping over them; whilst the Fireman followed after them
from afar, and kept his eye upon him and said to himself, "Alas
the pity of his youth!  Tomorrow they will hang him." And he
ceased not following them till he approached their
station,[FN#316] without any observing him.  Then he stood still
and said, "How base it will be of him, if he say it was I who
bade him recite the verses!" This was the case of the Stoker; but
as regards what befel Zau al-Makan, he ceased not walking with
the Eunuch till he reached his station and the Castrato went in
to Nuzhat al-Zaman and said, "O my lady, I have brought thee him
whom thou soughtest, and he is a youth, fair of face and bearing
the marks of wealth and gentle breeding." When she heard this,
her heart fluttered and she cried, "Let him recite some verses,
that I may hear him near hand, and after ask him his name and his
condition and his native land." Then the Eunuch went out to Zau
al-Makan and said to him, "Recite what verses thou knowest, for
my lady is here hard by, listening to thee, and after I will ask
thee of thy name and thy native country and thy condition."
Replied he, "With love and gladness but, an thou ask my name, it
is erased and my trace is unplaced and my body a waste.  I have a
story, the beginning of which is not known nor can the end of it
be shown, and behold, I am even as one who hath exceeded in wine
drinking and who hath not spared himself; one who is afflicted
with distempers and who wandereth from his right mind, being
perplexed about his case and drowned in the sea of thought." When
Nuzhat al-Zaman heard this, she broke out into excessive weeping
and sobbing, and said to the Eunuch, "Ask him if he have parted
from one he loveth even as his mother or father." The Castrato
asked as she bade him, and Zau al-Makan replied, "Yes, I have
parted from every one I loved: but the dearest of all to me was
my sister, from whom Fate hath separated me." When Nuzhat al-
Zaman heard this, she exclaimed, "Allah Almighty reunite him with
what he loveth!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Seventy-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Nuzhat
al-Zaman heard his words she said, "Allah reunite him with what
he loveth!" Then quoth she to the Eunuch, "Tell him to let me
hear somewhat anent his separation from his countrymen and his
country." The Eunuch did so, and Zau al-Makan sighed heavily and
began repeating these couplets,[FN#317]

"Is not her love a pledge by all mankind confest?  * The house
     that hometh Hinda be forever blest'
Her love all levels; man can reck of naught beside; * Naught or
     before or after can for man have zest
'Tis though the vale is paved with musk and ambergris * That day
     when Hinda's footstep on its face is prest:
Hail to the beauty of our camp, the pride of folk, * The dearling
     who en' Slaves all hearts by her behest:
Allah on 'Time's Delight' send large dropped clouds that teem *
     With genial rain but bear no thunder in their breast."

And also these,

"I vow to Allah if at home I sight * My sister Nuzhat al-Zamani
I'll pass the days in joyance and delight * Mid bashful minions,
     maidens soft and white:
To sound of harps in various modes they smite * Draining the
     bowl, while eyes rain lively light
'Neath half closed lids, a sipping lips red bright * By stream
     bank flowing through my garden site."

When he had finished his verse, Nuzhat al-Zaman lifted up a skirt
of the litter curtain and looked at him.  As soon as her eyes
fell on his face, she knew him for certain and cried out, "O my
brother!  O Zau al-Makan!" He also looked at her and knew her and
cried out, "O my sister!  O Nuzhat al-Zaman!" Then she threw
herself upon him and he gathered her to his bosom and the twain
fell down in a fainting fit.  When the Eunuch saw this case, he
wondered at them and throwing over them somewhat to cover them,
waited till they should recover.  After a while they came to
themselves, and Nuzhat al-Zaman rejoiced with exceeding joy:
oppression and depression left her and gladness took the mastery
of her, and she repeated these verses,

"Time sware my life should fare in woeful waste; * Forsworn art
     Time, expiate thy sin in haste![FN#318]
Comes weal and comes a welcome friend to aid; * To him who brings
     good news, rise, gird thy waist
I spurned old world tales of Eden bliss; * Till came I
     Kausar[FN#319] on those lips

When Zau al-Makan heard this, he pressed his sister to his
breast; tears streamed from his eyes for excess of joy and he
repeated these couplets,[FN#320]

"Long I lamented that we fell apart, * While tears repentant
     railed from these eyne;
And sware, if Time unite us twain once more, * 'Severance' shall
     never sound from tongue of mine:
Joy hath so overwhelmed me that excess * Of pleasure from mine
     eyes draws gouts of brine:
Tears, O mine eyes, have now become your wont * Ye weep for
     pleasure and you weep for pine!"

They sat awhile at the litter door till she said to him, "Come
with me into the litter and tell me all that hath befallen thee,
and I will tell thee what happened to me." So they entered and
Zau al-Maken said, "Do thou begin thy tale." Accordingly she told
him all that had come to her since their separation at the Khan
and what had happened to her with the Badawi; how the merchant
had bought her of him and had taken her to her brother Sharrkan
and had sold her to him; how he had freed her at the time of
buying; how he had made a marriage contract with her and had gone
in to her and how the King, their sire, had sent and asked for
her from Sharrkan.  Then quoth she, "Praised be Allah who hath
vouchsafed thee to me and ordained that, even as we left our
father together, so together shall we return to him!" And she
added, "Of a truth my brother Sharrkan gave me in marriage to
this Chamberlain that he might carry me to my father.  And this
is what befel me from first to last; so now tell me how it hath
fared with thee since I left thee." Thereupon he told her all
that had happened to him from beginning to end; and how Allah
vouchsafed to send the Fireman to him, and how he had journeyed
with him and spent his money on him and had served him night and
day.  She praised the Stoker for this and Zau al-Makan added, "Of
a truth, O my sister, this Fireman hath dealt with me in such
benevolent wise as would not lover with lass nor sire with son,
for that he fasted and gave me to eat, and he walked whilst he
made me ride; and I owe my life to him." Said she, "Allah
willing, we will requite him for all this, according to our
power." Then she called the Eunuch, who came and kissed Zau al-
Makan's hand, and she said, "Take thy reward for glad tidings, O
face of good omen!  It was thy hand reunited me with my brother;
so the purse I gave thee and all in it are thine.  But now go to
thy master and bring him quickly to me." The Castrato rejoiced
and, going in to the Chamberlain, him to his mistress.
Accordingly, he came in to his wife and finding Zau al-Makan with
her, asked who he was.  So she told him all that had befallen
them both, first and last, and added, "Know, O Chamberlain, that
thou hast married no slave girl; far from it, thou hast taken to
wife the daughter of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman for I am Nuzhat al-
Zaman, and this is my brother, Zau al-Makan." When the
Chamberlain heard the story he knew it to be sooth, and its
manifest truth appeared to him and he was certified that he was
become King Omar bin al-Nu'uman's son in law, so he said to
himself, " 'Twill be my fate to be made viceroy of some
province."[FN#321] Then he went up to Zau al-Makan and gave him
joy of his safety and reunion with his sister, and bade his
servants forthwith make him ready a tent and one of the best of
his own horses to ride.  Thereupon said Nuzhat al-Zaman, "We are
now near our country and I would be left alone with my brother,
that we may enjoy each other's company and take our fill of it
ere we reach Baghdad; for we have been parted a long, long time."
"Be it as thou biddest," replied the Chamberlain, and, going
forth from them, sent them wax candles and various kinds of
sweetmeats, together with three suits of the costliest for Zau
al-Makan.  Then he returned to the litter and related the good he
had done and Nuzhat al-Zaman said to him, "Bid the Eunuch bring
me the Fireman and give him a horse to ride and ration him with a
tray of food morning and evening, and let him be forbidden to
leave us." The Chamberlain called the Castrato and charged him to
do accordingly; so he replied, "I hear and I obey;" and he took
his pages with him and went out in search of the Stoker till he
found him in the rear of the caravan, girthing his ass and
preparing for flight.  The tears were running adown his cheeks,
out of fear for his life and grief for his separation from Zau
al-Makan; and he was saying to himself, "Indeed, I warned him for
the love of Allah, but he would not listen to me; Oh would I knew
what is become of him!" Ere he had done speaking the Eunuch was
standing by his head whilst the pages surrounded him The Fireman
turned and seeing the Eunuch and the pages gathered around him
became yellow with fear,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Seventy-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Stoker girthed his ass for flight and bespake himself, saying,
"Oh would I knew what is become of him!"; ere he had done
speaking the Castrato was standing by his head and his side
muscles quivered for fear and he lifted up his voice and cried,
"Verily he knoweth not the value of the good offices I have done
him!  I believe he hath denounced me to the Eunuch (hence these
pages et about me) and he hath made me an accomplice in his
crime." Then the effeminated one cried at him, saying, "Who was
it recited the verses?  O liar!  why didst thou say, 'I never
repeated these couplets, nor do I know who repeated them;' when
it was thy companion?  But now I will not leave thee between this
place and Baghdad, and what betideth thy comrade shall betide
thee." Quoth the Fireman, "What I feared hath befallen me." And
he repeated this couplet,

"'Twas as I feared the coming ills discerning: * But unto Allah
     we are all returning."

Then the Eunuch cried upon the pages, saying, "Take him off the
ass." So they carried him along with the caravan, surrounded by
the pages, as the white contains the black of the eye; and the
Castrato said to them, "If a hair of him be lost, you will be
lost with it." And he bade them privily treat him with honour and
not humiliate him.  But when the Stoker saw himself beset by the
pages, he despaired of his life and turning to the Eunuch, said
to him, "O Chief, I am neither this youth's brother nor am I akin
to him, nor is he sib to me; but I was a Fireman in a Hammam and
found him cast out, in his sickness, on the dung heap." Then the
caravan fared on and the Stoker wept and imagined in himself a
thousand things, whilst the Eunuch walked by his side and told
him nothing, but said to him, "Thou disturbedst our mistress by
reciting verses, thou and this youth: but fear nothing for thy
self;" and kept laughing at him the while to himself.  Whenever
the caravan halted, they served him with food, and he and the
Castrato ate from one dish.[FN#322] Then the Eunuch bade his lads
bring a gugglet of sugared sherbet and, after drinking himself,
gave it to the Fireman, who drank; but all the while his tears
never dried, out of fear for his life and grief for his
separation from Zau al-Makan and for what had befallen them in
their strangerhood.  So they both travelled on with the caravan,
whilst the Chamberlain now rode by the door of his wife's litter,
in attendance on Zau al-Makan and his sister, and now gave an eye
to the Fireman; and Nuzhat al-Zaman and her brother occupied
themselves with converse and mutual condolence; and they ceased
not after this fashion till they came within three days' journey
from Baghdad.  Here they alighted at eventide and rested till the
morning morrowed; and as they awoke and they were about to load
the beasts, behold, there appeared afar off a great cloud of dust
that darkened the firmament till it became black as gloomiest
night.[FN#323] Thereupon the Chamberlain cried out to them,
"Stay, and your loading delay!"; then, mounting with his
Mamelukes, rode forward in the direction of the dust cloud.  When
they drew near, suddenly appeared under it a numerous conquering
host like the full tide sea, with flags and standards, drums and
kettledrums, horsemen and footmen.  The Chamberlain marvelled at
this; and when the troops saw him, there detached itself from
amongst them a plump of five hundred cavaliers, who fell upon him
and his suite and surrounded them, five for one; whereupon said
he to them, "What is the matter and what are these troops, that
ye do this with us?" Asked they, "Who art thou; and whence comest
thou, and whither art thou bound?" and he answered, "I am the
Chamberlain of the Emir of Damascus, King Sharrkan, son of Omar
bin al-Nu'uman, Lord of Baghdad and of the land of Khorasan, and
I bring tribute and presents from him to his father in Baghdad."
When the horsemen heard his words they let their head kerchiefs
fall over their faces and wept, saying, "In very sooth King Omar
is dead and he died not but of poison.  So fare ye forwards; no
harm shall befal you till you join his Grand Wazir, Dandan." Now
when the Chamberlain heard this, he wept sore and exclaimed, "Oh
for our disappointment in this our journey!" Then he and all his
suite wept till they had come up with the host and sought access
to the Wazir Dandan, who granted an interview and called a halt
and, causing his pavilion to be pitched, sat down on a couch
therein and commanded to admit the Chamberlain.  Then he bade him
be seated and questioned him; and he replied that he was
Chamberlain to the Emir of Damascus and was bound to King Omar
with presents and the tribute of Syria.  The Wazir, hearing the
mention of King Omar's name, wept and said, "King Omar is dead by
poison, and upon his dying the folk fell out amongst themselves
as to who should succeed him, until they were like to slay one
another on this account; but the notables and grandees and the
four Kazis interposed and all the people agreed to refer the
matter to the decision of the four judges and that none should
gainsay them.  So it was agreed that we go to Damascus and fetch
thence the King's son, Sharrkan, and make him Sultan over his
father's realm.  And amongst them were some who would have chosen
the cadet, Zau Al-Makan, for, quoth they, his name be Light of
the Place, and he hath a sister Nuzhat al-Zaman highs, the
Delight of the Time; but they set out five years ago for Al-Hijaz
and none wotteth what is become of them." When the Chamberlain
heard this, he knew; that his wife had told him the truth of her
adventures; and he grieved with sore grief for the death of King
Omar, albeit he joyed with exceeding joy, especially at the
arrival of Zau al-Makan, for that he would now become Sultan of
Baghdad in his father's stead--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

             When it was the Seventy-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Sharrkan's Chamberlain heard of the death of King Omar bin al-
Nu'uman he mourned, but he rejoiced because of his wife and her
brother Zau al-Makan who would become Sultan of Baghdad in his
father's stead.  So he turned to the Wazir Dandan and said to
him, "Verily your tale is a wonder of wonders!  Know, O Chief
Wazir, that here, where you have encountered me, Allah hath given
you rest from fatigue and bringeth you your desire after the
easiest of fashions, for that His Almighty Will restoreth to you
Zau al-Makan and his sister Nuzhat al-Zaman; whereby we will
settle the matter as we easily can." When the Minister heard
these words he rejoiced with great joy and said, "O Chamberlain,
tell me the tale of the twain and what befel them and the cause
of their long absence." So he repeated to him the whole story and
told him that Nuzhat al-Zaman was his wife and related to him the
adventures of Zau al-Makan from first to last.  As soon as he had
ended his tale, the Wazir sent for the Emirs and Wazirs and Chief
Officers and acquainted them with the matter; whereat they
rejoiced with great joy and wondered at the happy chance.  Then
they gathered in a body and went in to the Chamberlain and did
their service to him, kissing the ground between his hands; and
the Wazir Dandan also rose and went out to meet him and stood
before him in honour.  After this, the Chamberlain held on that
day a Divan council; and he and the Wazir sat upon a throne,
whilst all the Emirs and Grandees and Officers of State took
their places before them, according to their several
ranks.[FN#324] Then they melted sugar in rose water and drank,
after which the Emirs sat down to hold council and permitted the
rest of the host to mount and ride forward leisurely, till they
should make an end of their debate and overtake them.  So the
officers kissed the ground between their hands and mounting, rode
onwards, preceded by the standards of war.  When the grandees had
finished their conference, they took horse and rejoined the host;
and the Chamberlain approached the Wazir Dandan and said, "I deem
it well to ride on before you, and precede you, that I may get
ready a place for the Sultan and notify him of your coming and of
your choosing him as Sultan over the head of his brother
Sharrkan." "Aright thou reckest," answered the Wazir Then the
Chamberlain rose up in haste and Dandan also stood up to do him
honour and brought him presents, which he conjured him to accept.
In similar guise did all the Emirs and Grandees and Officers of
State, bringing him gifts and calling down blessings on him and
saying to him, "Haply thou wilt mention our case to Sultan Zau
al-Makan and speak to him to continue us in our
dignities."[FN#325] The Chamberlain promised all they required
and bade his pages be ready to march, whereupon the Wazir Dandan
sent with him tents and bade the tent pitchers set them up at a
day's journey from the city.  And they did his bidding.  Then the
Chamberlain mounted and rode forward, full of joy and saying to
himself, "How blessed is this gurney!", and indeed his wife was
exalted in his eyes, she and her brother Zau al-Makan.  They made
all haste over their wayfare, till they reached a place distant a
day's journey from Baghdad, where the Chamberlain called a halt
for rest, and bade his men alight and make ready a sitting place
for the Sultan Zau al-Makan, son of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman,
while he rode forward with his Mamelukes and, alighting at a
distance from Nuzhat al-Zaman's litter, commanded the eunuchs to
ask leave of admission to the presence.  They did so and she gave
permission; whereupon he went in to her and conversed with her
and her brother; and told them of the death of their father; and
of Zau al-Makan, how the heads of the people had made him King
over them in the stead of his sire; and he gave them joy of the
kingdom.  They both wept for their father and asked the manner of
his being killed; but the Chamberlain answered, "The news rests
with the Wazir Dandan who will be here tomorrow leading all the
host; and it only remaineth for thee, O King, to do what they
counsel, since they have unanimously chosen thee Sultan; for if
thou do not this, they will choose some one else and thou canst
not be sure of thy life with another Sultan.  Haply he will kill
thee, or discord may befal between you twain and the kingdom pass
out of the hands of both." Zau al-Makan bowed his head awhile and
then said, "I accept this position;" for indeed there was no
refusing; and he was certified that the Chamberlain had
counselled him well and wisely and set him on the right way.
Then he added, "O my uncle, how shall I do with my brother
Sharrkan?" "O my son," replied the Chamberlain, "thy brother will
be Sultan of Damascus and thou Sultan of Baghdad; so take heart
of grace and get ready thy case." Zau al-Makan accepted this and
the Chamberlain presented him with a suit of royal raiment and a
dagger[FN#326] of state, which the Wazir Dandan had brought with
him; then leaving him he bade the tent pitchers choose a spot of
rising ground and set up thereon a spacious pavilion, wherein the
Sultan might sit to receive the Emirs and Grandees.  Moreover he
ordered the kitcheners to cook rich viands and serve them and he
commanded the water carriers to dispose the water troughs.  They
did as he bade them and presently arose a cloud of dust from the
ground and spread till it walled the horizon round.  After
awhile, the dust dispersed and there appeared under it the army
of Baghdad and Khorasan, a conquering host like the full tide
sea.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

             When it was the Seventy-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Chamberlain bade the tent pitchers set up a pavilion spacious
enough to receive the subjects flocking to their Sultan, they
planted a splendid Sháhmiyánah[FN#327] befitting Kings.  And as
they ended their labours behold, a dust cloud spired aloft and
the breeze made it lift and beneath it showed a conquering host;
and presently it appeared that this was the army of Baghdad and
Khorasan preceded by the Wazir Dandan.  And in it all rejoiced at
the accession of the "Light of the Place." Now Zau al-Makan had
donned robes of royal estate and girt himself with the sword of
state: so the Chamberlain brought him a steed and he mounted
surrounded by the Mamelukes and all the company from the tents on
foot, to do him service, and he rode on until he came to the
great pavilion, where he sat down and he laid the royal dagger
across his thighs, whilst the Chamberlain stood in attendance on
him and his armed slaves stationed themselves under the entrance
awning of the Shahmiyanah, with drawn swords in their hands.
Presently, up came the troops and the host and craved admission
so the Chamberlain went in to Zau al-Makan and asked his leave
whereupon he bade admit them, ten by ten.  The Chamberlain
acquainted them with the King's commands, to which they replied,
"We hear and we obey;" and all drew up before the pavilion
entrance.  Then he took ten of them and carried them through the
vestibule into the presence of Sultan Zau al-Makan, whom when
they saw, they were awed; but he received them with most gracious
kindness and promised them all good.  So they gave him joy of his
safe return and invoked Allah's blessings upon him after which
they took the oath of fealty never to gainsay him in aught and
they kissed ground before him and withdrew.  Then other ten
entered and he entreated them as he had entreated the ethers; and
they ceased not to enter, ten by ten, till none was left but the
Wazir Dandan.  Lastly the Minister went in and kissed the ground
before Zau al-Makan, who rose to meet him, saying, "Welcome, O
Wazir and sire sans peer!  Verily, thine acts are those of a
counsellor right dear, and judgement and foreseeing clear are in
the hands of the Subtle of Lere." Then bade he the Chamberlain
forthwith go out and cause the tables to be spread and order all
the troops thereto.  So they came and ate and drank.  Moreover
the Sultan commanded his Wazir Dandan call a ten days' halt of
the army, that he might be private with him and learn from him
how and wherefore his father had been slain.  The Wazir obeyed
the commands of the Sultan with submission and wished him
eternity of glory and said, "This needs must be!" He then
repaired to the heart of the encampment and ordered the host to
halt ten days.  They did as he bade them and, moreover, he gave
them leave to divert themselves and ordered that none of the
lords in waiting should attend upon the King for service during
the space of three days.  Then the Wazir went to the Sultan and
reported all to him, and Zau al-Makan waited until nightfall,
when he went in to his sister Nuzhat al-Zaman and asked her,
"Dost thou know the cause of my father's murder or not?" "I have
no knowledge of the cause," she answered, and drew a silken
curtain before herself, whilst Zau al-Makan seated himself
without the curtain and commanded the Wazir to the presence and,
when he came, said to him, "I desire thou relate to me in detail
the cause of the killing of my sire, King Omar bin al-Nu'uman!"
"Know then, O King," replied Dandan, "that King Omar bin al-
Nu'uman, when he returned to Baghdad from his chasing and hunting
and entered the city, enquired for thee and thy sister, but could
not find you and knew that you twain had gone on the Pilgrimage;
whereat he was greatly grieved and much angered, and his breast
was straitened and he abode thus half a year, seeking news of you
from all who came and went but none could give him any tidings.
Now while we were in attendance upon him one day, after a whole
year had sped since ye were lost to his sight, lo!  there came to
us an ancient dame with signs of being a devotee, accompanied by
five damsels, high bosomed virgins like moons, endowed with such
beauty and loveliness as tongue faileth to describe; and, to
crown their perfections of comeliness, they could read the Koran
and were versed in various kinds of learning and in the histories
of bygone peoples.  Then that old woman sought audience of the
King, and he bade admit her; whereupon she entered the presence
and kissed the ground between his hands.  I was then sitting by
his side and he, seeing in her the signs of asceticism and
devoutness, made her draw near and take seat hard by him.  And
when she had sat down she addressed him and said, 'Know, O King,
that with me are five damsels, whose like no King among the Kings
possesseth; for they are endowed with wit and beauty and
loveliness and perfection.  They read the Koran--and the
Traditions and are skilled in all manner of learning and in the
history of bygone races.  They stand here between thy hands to do
thee service, O King of the Age, and it is by trial that folk are
prized or despised.  'Thy father, who hath found mercy;[FN#328]
looked at the damsels and their favour pleased him; so he said to
them, Let each and every of you make me hear something of what
she knoweth anent the history of the folk of yore and of peoples
long gone before!'--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Seventy-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan said unto King Zau al-Makan, "Thy father, who hath found
mercy, glanced at the damsels and their favour pleased him and he
said to them, 'Let each and every of you make me hear something
of what she knoweth anent the history of the folk of yore and of
peoples long gone before!' Thereupon one of them came forward
and, kissing the ground before him, spake as follows[FN#329]
'Know, O King, that it behoveth one of good breeding to eschew
impertinence and adorn himself with excellencies, and observe the
Divine injunctions and avoid mortal sins; and to this he should
apply himself with the assiduity of one who, if he stray
therefrom, falleth into perdition; for the foundation of good
breeding is virtuous behaviour.  And know that the chief cause
and reason of man's existence is the endeavour after life
everlasting, and the right way thereto is the service of Allah.
Wherefore it behoveth thee to deal beneficently with the people:
and swerve not from this canon, for the mightier men are in
dignity, the more their need of prudence and foresight; and
indeed Monarchs need this more than the many, for the general
cast themselves into affairs, without taking thought to the issue
thereof.  Be thou prodigal of thy life and thy good in the way of
Allah, and know that, if an enemy dispute with thee, thou mayst
dispute with him and refute him with proofs and be proof against
him; but as for thy friend, there is none can judge between thee
and him save righteousness and fair dealing.  Choose, therefore,
thy friend for thyself, after thou hast proved him.  If he be of
the brotherhood of futurity,[FN#330] let him be zealous in
observing the externals of the Holy Law and versed in its inner
meaning, as far as may be; and if he be of the brotherhood of the
world, let him be free born, sincere, neither a fool nor a
perverse, for the fool man is such that even his parents might
well flee from him, and a liar cannot be a true friend.  Indeed
the word, Siddík[FN#331] ('friend') deriveth from Sidk ('truth')
that welleth up from the bottom of the heart; and how can this be
the case, when falsehood is manifest upon the tongue?  And know,
that the observance of the Law profiteth him who practiseth it:
so love thy brother, if he be of this quality and do not cast him
off, even if thou see in him that which irketh thee, for a friend
is not I like a wife, whom one can divorce and re-marry: nay, his
heart is like glass: once broken, it may not be mended.  And
Allah bless him who saith,

'Ware how thou hurtest man with hurt of heart; * 'Tis hard to win
     thee back the heart offended:
For hearts indeed, whence love is alien made, * Like broken glass
     may nevermore be mended.'

The maiden continued and concluded with pointing out to us what
sages say, 'The best of brethren is he who is the most constant
in good counsel; the best of action is that which is fairest in
its consequence, and the best of praise is not that which is in
the mouths of men.  It is also said, 'It behoveth not the servant
to neglect thanking Allah especially for two favours, health and
reason.' Again it is said, 'Whoso honoureth himself, his lust is
a light matter to him, and he who maketh much of his small
troubles, Allah afflicteth him with the greater; he who obeyeth
his own inclination neglecteth his duties and he who listeneth to
the slanderer loseth the true friend.  He who thinketh well of
thee, do thou fulfill his thought of thee.  He who exceedeth in
contention sinneth, and he who against upright standeth not on
ward, is not safe from the sword.  Now will I tell thee somewhat
of the duties of Kazis and judges.  Know, O King, that no
judgement serveth the cause of justice save it be given after
proof positive, and it behoveth the judge to treat all people on
the same level, to the intent that the great may not hunger for
oppression nor the small despair of justice.  Furthermore he
should extract proof from the complainant and impose an oath upon
the defendant; and mediation is admissible between Moslems,
except it be a compromise sanctioning the unlawful or forbidding
the lawful.[FN#332] If thou shalt have done aught during the day,
of which thy reason is doubtful but thy good intention is proved,
thou (O Kazi) shouldst revert to the right, for to do justice is
a religious obligation and to return to that which is right is
better than persistence in wrong.  Then (O judge) thou shouldest
study precedents and the law of the case and do equal justice
between the suitors, withal fixing thine eyes upon the truth and
committing thine affair to Allah (be He extolled and exalted!).
And require thou proof of the complainant, and if he adduce
evidence let him have due benefit of it; and if not, put the
defendant to his oath; for this is the ordinance of Allah.
Receive thou the testimony of competent Moslem witnesses, one
against other, for Almighty Allah hath commanded judges to judge
by externals, He Himself taking charge of the inner and secret
things.  It behoveth the judge also to avoid giving judge meet,
whilst suffering from stress of pain or hunger,[FN#333] and that
in his decisions between folk he seek the face of Allah Almighty
for he whose intent is pure and who is at peace with himself,
Allah shall guarantee him against what is between him and the
people.' Quoth al-Zuhri,[FN#334] 'There are three things for
which, if they be found in a Kazi, he should be deposed; namely,
if he honour the base, if he love praise and if he fear
dismissal.  And Omar bin Abd al-Aziz once deposed a Kazi, who
asked him, 'Why hast thou dismissed me?  It hath reached me,'
answered Omar, 'that thy converse is greater than thy condition.'
It is said also that Iskandar[FN#335] said to his Kazi, 'I have
invested thee with this function and committed to thee in it my
soul and mine honour and my manliness; so do thou guard it with
thy sense and thine understanding.' To his Cook he said, 'Thou
art the Sultan of my body; so look thou tender it as thine own
self.' To his Secretary he said, 'Thou art the controller of my
wit: so do thou watch over me in what thou writest for me and
from me.'" Thereupon the first damsel backed out from the
presence and a second damsel came forward.--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

                When it was the Eightieth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir Dandan said to Zau al-Makan, "Thereupon the first damsel
backed out from the presence and a second damsel came forward
and, kissing the ground seven times before the King thy father,
spake as follows, 'The sage Lukmán[FN#336] said to his son,
'There be three who are known only in three several cases; the
merciful man is unknown save in time of wrath, the brave only in
battle, and thy friend in time of need.' It is said that the
oppressor shall be depress though by people praised, and that the
oppress is at rest though by people blamed.  Quoth Allah
Almighty,[FN#337] 'Assuredly deem not that those who rejoice in
what they have done, and who love to be praised for what they
have not done, shall escape reckoning of punishment: indeed there
is reserved for them a grievous penalty.' And he said[FN#338] (on
whom be salvation and salutation!), 'Works are according to
intention and to each man is attributed that which he intendeth.'
He said also, 'In the body is a part which being sound the rest
is sound, and which being unsound the whole is unsound.' And this
is the heart.  Now this heart is the most marvellous of what is
in man, since it is that which ordereth his whole affair: If
covetise stir in it, desire destroyeth him, and if affliction
master it, anguish slayeth him; if anger rage in it, danger is
hard upon him; if it be blest with contentment, he is safe from
discontent; if fear surprise it, he is full of mourning; and if
calamity overtake it, affliction betideth him.  If a man gain the
use of wealth, peradventure he is diverted thereby from the
remembrance of his Lord; if poverty choke him his heart is
distracted by woe, or if disquietude waste his heart, weakness
causeth him to fall.  Thus, in any case, nothing profiteth him
but that he be mindful of Allah and occupy himself with gaining
his livelihood in this world and securing his place in the next.
It was asked of a certain sage, 'Who is the most ill conditioned
of men?'; and he answered, 'The man whose lusts master his
manhood and whose mind soareth over high, so that his knowledge
dispreadeth and his excuse diminisheth; and how excellently saith
the poet,

Freest am I of all mankind fro' meddling wight * Who, seeing
     others err, self error ne'er can sight:
Riches and talents are but loans to creature lent, * Each wears
     the cloak of that he bears in breast and sprite:
If by mistaken door attempt on aught thou make, * Thou shalt go
     wrong and if the door be right, go right!'

Continued the maiden, 'As for anecdotes of devotees, quoth Hisham
bin Bashar, 'I asked Omar bin Ubayd, What is true piety?'; and he
answered, 'The Apostle of Allah (to whom be salutation and
salvation!) hath explained it when he sayeth, The pious is he who
forgetteth not the grave nor calamity and who preferreth that
which endureth to that which passeth away; who counteth not the
morrow as of his days but reckoneth himself among the dead.' And
it is related that Abu Zarr[FN#339] used to say, Want is dearer
to me than wealth, and unheal is dearer to me than health.' Quoth
one of the listeners, 'May Allah have mercy on Abu Zarr!'.  For
my part, I say, 'Whoso putteth his trust in the goodness of the
election of Almighty Allah should be content with that condition
which Allah hath chosen for him.' Quoth one of the Companions of
the Prophet, 'Ibn Abi Aufa[FN#340] once prayed with us the dawn
prayer.  When he had done, he recited, 'O Thou
Enwrapped!'[FN#341] till he came to where Allah saith, 'When
there shall be a trumping on the trumpet,' and fell down dead.
It is said that Sabit al-Banani wept till he well nigh lost his
eyes.  They brought him a man to medicine him who said to him, 'I
will cure thee, provided thou obey my bidding' Asked Sabit, 'In
what matter?' Quoth the leach, 'In that thou leave weeping!'
'What is the worth of mine eyes?', rejoined Sabit, 'if they do
not weep?' Quoth a man to Mohammed bin Abdillah, 'Exhort thou
me!'"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Wazir Dandan said to Zau al-Makan, "Thus spake the second hand
maid to the King who hath found mercy, Omar bin al-Nu'uman.
'Quoth a man to Mohammed bin Abdillah, Exhort thou me!' 'I exhort
thee,' replied he, 'to be a self ruler, an abstainer in this
world, and in the next a greedy slave.' 'How so?' asked the other
and Mohammed answered, 'The abstinent man in this world
conquereth both the world that is and the world to come.' And
quoth Ghaus bin Abdillah, 'There were two brothers among the sons
of Israel, one of whom said to the other, 'What be the most
perilous[FN#342] thing thou hast done?' Replied the brother, 'I
once came upon a nest of young birds; so I took out one and threw
it back into the nest; but among the chickens were some which
drew apart from it.  This is the most perilous thing I ever did;
now what be the most perilous thing thou hast ever done?' He
rejoined, 'When I arise for prayer I am fearful that it is only
for the sake of the reward.' Now their father heard these words
and exclaimed, 'O Allah, an say they sooth take them to Thyself!'
It was declared by one of the wise men, 'Verily, these were of
the most virtuous of children.' Quoth Sa'íd bin Jubayr,[FN#343]
'I was once in company with Fuzalah bin 'Ubaydand said to him,
'Exhort thou me!, Replied he, 'Bear in mind these two
necessaries, Shun syntheism[FN#344] and harm not any of Allah's
creatures.' And he repeated these two couplets,

'Be as thou wilt, for Allah still is bounteous Lord, * And care
     dispeller dread not therefore bane and ban
To two things only never draw thee nigh, nor give * Partner to
     Allah trouble to thy brother man.'

And how well saith the poet,

'An thou of pious works a store neglect * And after death meet
     one who did collect,
Thou shalt repent thou diddest not as he, * Nor madest ready as
     he did elect.'

Then the third damsel came forward, after the second had with
drawn, and said, 'Of a truth, the chapter of piety is exceeding
wide; but I will mention what occurreth to me thereof, concerning
the pious of old.  Quoth a certain holy man, 'I congratulate
myself in death, though I am not assured of rest therein, save
that I know death interveneth between a man and his works; so I
hope for the doubling of good works and the docking off of ill
works.' And Ita'a al Salami, when he had made an end of an
exhortation, was wont to tremble and grieve and weep sore; and as
they asked him why he did this he answered, 'I desire to enter
upon a grave matter, and it is the standing up before Almighty
Allah to do in accordance with my exhortation.' In similar guise
Zayn al-Abidín,[FN#345] son of Al-Husayn, was wont to tremble
when he rose to pray.  Being asked the cause of this, he replied,
'Know ye not before whom I stand and whom I address?' It is said
that there lived near Sufyán al-Thauri[FN#346] a blind man who,
when the month of Ramazan came, went out with the folk to
pray,[FN#347] but remained silent and hung back.  Said Sufyan,
'On the Day of Resurrection he shall come with the people of the
Koran and they will be distinguished by increase of honour from
their fellows.' Quoth Sufyan, 'Were the soul established in the
heart as befitteth, it would fly away for joy and pining for
Paradise, and for grief and fear of hell-fire.' It is related
also of Sufyan Al-Thauri that he said, 'To look upon the face of
a tyrant is a sin.' Then the third damsel retired and came for
ward the fourth, who said, 'Here am I to treat of sundry
traditions of pious men which suggest themselves to me.  It is
related that Bishr Barefoot[FN#348] said, 'I once heard Khálid
say, 'Beware of secret polytheism.' I asked, 'What may secret
polytheism be?'; and he answered, 'When one of you in praying
prolong his inclinations and prostrations till a cause of
impurity[FN#349] come upon him.' And one of the sages said,
'Doing works of weal expiateth what is ill.' Quoth
Ibrahim,[FN#350] 'I supplicated Bishr Barefoot to acquaint me
with some theological mysteries; but he said, 'O my son, this
knowledge it behoveth us not to teach to every one; of every
hundred five, even as the legal alms upon money.' Said Ibrahim,
'I thought his reply excellent and approved of it and while I was
praying behold, Bishr was also praying: so I stood behind
him[FN#351] making the prayer bow till the Mu'ezzin called his
call.  Then rose a man of tattered appearance and said, O folk,
beware of a truth which bringeth unweal, for there is no harm in
a lie bringing weal,[FN#352] and in time of need no choice we
heed: speech booteth not in the absence of good qualities even as
silence hurteth not in the presence of good.  Presently I saw
Bishr drop a danik,[FN#353] so I picked it up and exchanged it
for a dirham which I gave him.  Quoth he, 'I will not take it.'
Quoth I, 'It is perfectly lawful change'; but he rejoined 'I
cannot take in exchange the riches of the present world for those
of the future world.' It is related also that Bishr Barefoot's
sister once went to Ahmad bin Hanbal"[FN#354]--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan continued to bespeak Zau al-Makan on this wise, "And quoth
the maiden to thy father, 'Bishr Barefoot's sister once went to
Ahmad bin Hanbal and said to him, 'O Imam of the Faith, we are a
family that spin thread by night and work for our living by day;
and oftentimes the cressets of the watch of Baghdad pass by and
we on the roof spinning by their light.  Is this forbidden to
us?' Asked Ahmad:'Who are thou?' 'I am the sister of Bishr
Barefoot,' answered she.  Rejoined the Iman, 'O household of
Bishr, I shall never cease to drink full draughts of piety from
your hearts.' Quoth one of the sages, 'When Allah willeth well to
His servant He openeth upon him the gate of action.' Málik bin
Dinár,[FN#355] when he passed through the bazar and saw aught he
desired, was wont to say, 'O soul, take patience, for I will not
accord to thee what thou desirest.' He said also (Allah accept
him!), 'The salvation of the soul lies in resistance to it and
its damnation in submission to it.' Quoth Mansúr bin
Ammár,[FN#356] 'I made a pilgrimage and was faring Meccahwards by
way of Cufa, and the night was overcast, when I heard a voice
crying out from the deeps of the darkness saying, 'O Allah, I
swear by Thy Greatness and Thy Glory, I meant not through my
disobedience to transgress against Thee; for indeed I am not
ignorant of Thee; but my fault is one Thou didst foreordain to me
from eternity without beginning;[FN#357] so do Thou pardon my
transgression, for indeed I disobeyed Thee of my ignorance!' When
he had made an end of his prayer he recited aloud the verse, 'O
true believers, save your souls and those of your families from
the fire whose fuel is men and stones.'[FN#358] Then I heard a
fall, but not knowing what it was I passed on.  When the morning
morrowed, as we went our way, behold, we fell in with a funeral
train, followed by an old woman whose strength had left her.  I
asked her of the dead, and she answered, 'This is the funeral of
a man who passed by us yesterday whilst my son was standing at
prayer and after his prayers he recited a verse from the Book of
Allah Almighty when the man's gall bladder burst and he fell
dead.' Therewith the fourth damsel retired and the fifth came
forward and said, 'I here will also repeat what occurreth to me
regarding the acts of devotees in olden time.  Maslamah bin Dinár
used to say, 'By making sound the secret thoughts, sins great and
small are covered'; and, 'when the servant of Allah is resolved
to leave sinning, victory cometh to him.' Also quoth he, 'Every
worldly good which doth not draw one nearer to Allah is a
calamity, for a little of this world distracteth from a mickle of
the world to come and a mickle of the present maketh thee forget
the whole of the future.' It was asked of Abú Házim,[FN#359] 'Who
is the most prosperous of men?'; and he answered, 'Whoso spendeth
his life in submission to Allah.' The other enquired, 'And who is
the most foolish of mankind?' 'Whoso selleth his future for the
worldly goods of others,' replied Abu Hazim.  It is reported of
Moses[FN#360] (on whom be peace!) that when he came to the waters
of Midian he exclaimed, 'O Lord, verily I stand in need of the
good which thou shalt send down to me.'[FN#361] And he asked of
his Lord and not of his folk.  There came two damsels and he drew
water for them both and allowed not the shepherds to draw first.
When the twain returned, they informed their father Shu'ayb (on
whom be peace!) who said, 'Haply, he is hungry,' adding to one of
them, 'Go back to him and bid him hither.' Now when she came to
Moses, she veiled her face and said, 'My father biddeth thee to
him that he may pay thee thy wage for having drawn water for us.'
Moses was averse to this and was not willing to follow her.  Now
she was a woman large in the back parts, and the wind blowing
upon her garment[FN#362] covered the hinder cheeks to Moses;
which when Moses saw, he lowered his eyes and said to her, 'Get
thee behind while I walk in front.' So she followed him till he
entered the house of Shu'ayb where supper was ready."--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her
permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan continued to Zau al-Makan, "Now, quoth the fifth damsel to
thy sire, 'When Moses (on whom be peace!) entered the home of
Shu'ayb where supper was ready, Shu'ayb said to him, 'O Moses, I
desire to pay thee thy wage for having drawn water for these
two.' But Moses answered, 'I am of a household which selleth
nothing of the fashion of the next world[FN#363] for what is on
earth of gold and silver.' Then quoth Shu'ayb, 'O youth!
nevertheless thou art my guest, and it is my wont and that of my
forbears to honour the guest by setting food before him.' So
Moses sat down and ate.  Then Shu'ayb hired Moses for eight
pilgrimages, that is to say, eight years, and made his wage
marriage with one of his two daughters, and Moses' service to him
was to stand for her dowry.  As saith the Holy Writ of him,
'Verily I will give thee one of these my two daughters in
marriage, on condition that thou serve me for hire eight
pilgrimages: and if thou fulfil ten years, it is in thine own
breast; for I seek not to impose a hardship on thee.'[FN#364] A
certain man once said to one of his friends whom he had not met
for many days, 'Thou hast made me desolate, for that I have not
seen thee this long while.' Quoth the other, 'I have been
distracted from thee by Ibn Shiháb: dost thou know him?' Quoth
his friend, 'Yes, he hath been my neighbour these thirty years,
but I have never spoken to him.' He replied, 'Verily thou
forgettest Allah in forgetting--thy neighbour!  If thou lovedst
Allah thou wouldst love thy neighbour.  Knowest thou not that a
neighbour hath a claim upon his neighbour,[FN#365] even as the
right of kith and kin?' Said Huzayfah, 'We entered Meccah with
Ibráhím bin Adham, and Shakík al-Balkhí was also making a
pilgrimage that year.  Now we met whilst circumambulating the
Ka'abah and Ibrahim said to Shakik, 'What is your fashion in your
country?' Replied Shakik, 'When we are blest with our daily bread
we eat, and when we hunger we take patience.' 'This wise,' said
Ibrahim, 'do the dogs of Balkh; but we, when blest with plenty,
do honour to Allah and when an hungered we thank Him.' And Shakik
seated himself before Ibrahim and said to him, 'Thou art my
master.' Also said Mohammed bin Imrán, 'A man once asked of Hátim
the Deaf[FN#366] 'What maketh thee to trust in Allah?' 'Two
things,' answered he, 'I know that none save myself shall eat my
daily bread, so my heart is at rest as to that; and I know that I
was not created without the knowledge of Allah, and am abashed
before Him.' Then the fifth damsel retired and the ancient dame
came forward and, kissing the ground before thy father nine
times, said, 'Thou hast heard, O King, what these all have spoken
on the subject of piety; and I will follow their example in
relating what hath reached me of the famous men of past times.
It is said that the Imam al-Sháfi'í departed the night into three
portions, the first for study, the second for sleep and the third
for prayer.  The Imam Abú Hanífah[FN#367] was wont also to pass
half the night in prayer.  One

day a man pointed him out to another, as he walked by and
remarked, 'Yonder man watcheth the whole night.' When he heard
this Abu Hanifah said, 'I was abashed before Allah to hear myself
praised for what was not in me'; so after this he used to watch
the whole night.  And one of the Sages hath said,

'Who seeketh for pearl in the Deep dives deep; * Who on high
     would hie robs his night of sleep.'

Al-Rabí a relates that Al-Shafi'i used to recite the whole Koran
seventy times during the month of Ramazan, and that in his daily
prayers.  Quoth Al-Shafi'i (Allah accept him!), 'During ten years
I never ate my fill of barley bread, for fullness hardeneth the
heart and deadeneth the wit and induceth sleep and enfeebleth one
from standing up to pray.'[FN#368] It is reported of Abdullah bin
Mohammed al-Sakrá that he said, 'I was once talking with Omar and
he observed to me, 'Never saw I a more God fearing or eloquent
man than Mohammed bin Idris al-Shafi'i.' It so happened I went
out one day with Al-Háris bin Labíb al-Saffár, who was a disciple
of Al-Muzani[FN#369] and had a fine voice and he read the saying
of the Almighty, 'This shall be a day whereon they shall not
speak to any purpose, nor shall they be permitted to excuse
themselves.'[FN#370] I saw Al-Shafi'i's colour change; his skin
shuddered with horripilation, he was violently moved and he fell
down in a fainting fit When he revived he said, 'I take refuge
with Allah from the stead of the liars and the lot of the
negligent!  O Allah, before whom the hearts of the wise abase
themselves, O Allah, of Thy bene ficence accord to me the
remission of my sins, adorn me with the curtain of Thy protection
and pardon me my shortcomings, by the magnanimity of Thy Being!'
Then I rose and went away.  Quoth one of the pious, 'When I
entered Baghdad, Al-Shafi'i was there.  So I sat down on the
river bank to make the ablution before prayer; and behold, there
passed me one who said, 'O youth, make thy Wuzu-ablution well and
Allah will make it well for thee in this world and in the next.'
I turned and lo!  there was a man behind whom came a company of
people.  So I hastened to finish my ablution and followed him.
Presently, he turned and asked me, 'Say, dost thou want aught?'
'Yes,' answered I, 'I desire that thou teach me somewhat of that
which Allah Almighty hath taught thee.' He said, 'Know then that
whoso believeth in Allah shall be saved, and whoso jealously
loveth his faith shall be delivered from destruction, and whoso
practiseth abstinence in this world, his eyes shall be solaced on
the morrow of death.  Shall I tell thee any more?' I replied,
'Assuredly;' and he continued, 'Be thou of the world that is,
heedless; and of the world to come, greediest.  Be truthful in
all thy dealings, and thou shalt be saved with the
Salvationists.' Then he went on and I asked about him and was
told that he was the Imam Al-Shafi'i.  Al-Shafi'i was wont to
remark, 'I love to see folk profit by this learning of mine, on
condition that nothing of it be attributed to me."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan continued to Zau al-Makan, "The old woman bespake thy
sire, saying, 'The Imam Al-Shafi'i was wont to remark, I love to
see folk profit by this learning of mine on condition that
nothing of it be attributed to me.' He also said, 'I never
disputed with any one, but I would that Almighty Allah should
give him the knowledge of the Truth and aid him to dispread it:
nor did I ever dispute with anyone at all but for the showing
forth of the Truth, and I reck not whether Allah manifest it by
my tongue or by His.' He said also (whom Allah accept!), 'If thou
fear to grow conceited of thy lore, then bethink thee Whose grace
thou seekest and for what good thou yearnest and what punishment
thou dreadest.' It was told to Abu Hanífah that the Commander of
the Faithful, Abú Ja'afar al-Mansúr, had appointed him Kazi and
ordered him a salary of ten thousand dirhams; but he would not
accept of this; and, when the day came on which the money was to
be paid him, he prayed the dawn prayer, then covered his head
with his robe--and spoke not.  When the Caliph's messenger came
with the money, he went in to the Imam and accosted him, but he
would not speak to him.  So the messenger said, 'Verily this
money is lawfully thine.' 'I know that it is lawfully mine,'
replied he: 'but I abhor that the love of tyrants get a hold upon
my heart.'[FN#371]  Asked the other, 'If thou go in to them canst
thou not guard thyself from loving them?' Answered Abu Hanifah,
'Can I look to enter the sea without my clothes being wet?'
Another of Al-Shafi'i's sayings (Allah accept him!) is,

'Oh soul of me, an thou accept my rede, * Thou shalt be wealthy
     and of grace entire:
Cast off ambitious hopes and vain desires, * How many a death was
     done by vain desire!'

Among the sayings of Sufyán al-Thaurí, with which he admonished
Ali bin al-Hasan al-Salami was, 'Be thou a man of truth and 'ware
lies and treachery and hypocrisy and pride.  Be not indebted save
to Him who is merciful to His debtors; and let thine associate be
one who shall dissociate thee from the world.  Be ever mindful of
death and be constant in craving pardon of Allah and in
beseeching of Allah peace for what remaineth of thy life.
Counsel every True Believer, when he asketh thee concerning the
things of his faith; and beware of betraying a Believer, for
whoso betrayeth a Believer, betrayeth Allah and His Apostle.
Avoid dissensions and litigation; and leave that which causeth
doubt in thee for things which breed no doubt:[FN#372] so shalt
thou be at peace.  Enjoin beneficence and forbid malevolence: so
shalt thou be loved of Allah.  Adorn thine inner man and Allah
shall adorn thine outer man.  Accept the excuse of him who
excuseth self to thee and hate not any one of the Moslems.  Draw
near unto those who withdraw from thee and excuse those that
misuse thee: so shalt thou be the friend of the Prophets.  Let
thine affairs, both public and private, be in Allah's charge, and
fear Him with the fear of one who knoweth he is dead and who
fareth towards Resurrection and Judgement stead between the hands
of the Lord of Dread; and remember that to one of two houses thou
art sped, either for Heavens eterne or to the Hell fires that
burn.' Thereupon the old woman sat down beside the damsels.  Now
when thy father, who hath found mercy, heard their discourse, he
knew that they were the most accomplished of the people of their
time; and, seeing their beauty and loveliness and the extent of
their wisdom and lore, he showed them all favour.  Moreover, he
turned to the ancient dame and treated her with honour, and set
apart for her and her damsels the palace which had lodged
Princess Abrizah, daughter of the King of Greece, to which he
bade carry all the luxuries they needed.  They abode with him ten
days and the old woman abode with them; and, whenever the King
visited them, he found her absorbed in prayer, watching by night
and fasting by day; whereby love of her took hold upon his heart
and he said to me, 'O Wazir, verily this old woman is of the
pious, and awe of her is strong in my heart.' Now on the eleventh
day, the King visited her, that he might pay her the price of the
damsels; but she said to him, 'O King, know that the price of
these maidens surpasseth the competence of men; indeed I seek not
for them either gold or silver or jewels, be it little or much.'
Now when thy father heard these words he wondered and asked her,
'O my lady and what is their price?'; whereto she answered, 'I
will not sill them to thee save on condition that thou fast,
watching by night a whole month, and abstaining by day, all for
the love of Allah Almighty; and, if thou do this, they are thy
property to use in thy palace as thou please.' So the King
wondered at the perfection of her rectitude and piety and
abnegation; she was magnified in his eyes and he said, 'Allah
make this pious woman to profit us!' Then he agreed with her to
fast for a month as she had stipulated, and she said to him, 'I
will help thee with the prayers I pray for thee and now bring me
a gugglet of water.' They brought one and she took it and recited
over it and muttered spells, and sat for an hour speaking in
speech no one understood or knew aught thereof.  Lastly she
covered it with a cloth and, sealing it with her signet ring,
gave it to thy sire, saying, 'When thou hast fasted the first ten
days, break thy fast on the eleventh night with what is in this
gugglet, for it will root out the love of the world from thy
heart and fill it with light and faith.  As for me, tomorrow I
will go forth to my brethren, the Invisible[FN#373] Controuls,
for I yearn after them, and I will return to thee when the first
ten days are past.  Thy father took the gugglet and arose and set
it apart in a closet of his palace, then locked the door and put
the key in his pocket.  Next day the King fasted and the old
woman went her ways."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan thus continued to Zau al-Makan, "Now when came the day for
the Sultan's fast, the old woman went her ways.  And after he had
accomplished the ten days thereof, on the eleventh he opened the
gugglet and drank what was therein and found it cordial to his
stomach.  Within the second ten days of the month the old woman
returned, bringing sweetmeats wrapped in a green leaf, like no
leaf of known tree.  She went in to thy sire and saluted him;
and, when he saw her, he rose to her saying, 'Welcome, O pious
lady!' 'O King,' quoth she, 'the Invisible Controuls salute thee,
for I told them of thee, and they rejoiced in thee and have sent
thee their Halwá,[FN#374] which is of the sweetmeats of the other
world.  Do thou break thy fast on it at the end of the day.' The
King rejoiced at this with great joy, and exclaimed, 'Praised be
Allah, who hath given me brethren of the Invisible World!'
Thereupon he thanked the ancient dame and kissed her hands; and
he honoured her and the damsels with exceeding honour.  She went
forth for the twenty days of thy father's fast at the end of
which time she came to him and said, 'Know, O King, that I told
the Invisible Controuls of the love which is between me and thee,
and informed them how I had left the maidens with thee, and they
were glad that the damsels should belong to a King like thee; for
they were wont, when they saw them, to be strenuous in offering
on their behalf prayers and petitions ever granted.  So I would
fain carry them to the Invisible Controuls that they may benefit
by the breath of their favour, and peradventure, they shall not
return to thee without some treasure of the treasures of the
earth, that thou, after completing thy fast, mayst occupy thyself
with their raiment and help thyself by the money they shall bring
thee, to the extent of thy desires.' When thy sire heard her
words, he thanked her for them and said, 'Except that I fear to
cross thee, I would not accept the treasure or aught else; but
when wilt thou set out with them?' Replied she, 'On the seven and
twentieth night; and I will bring them back to thee at the head
of the month, by which time thou wilt have accomplished thy fast
and they will have had their courses and be free from impurity;
and they shall become thine and be at thy disposal.  By Allah,
each damsel of them is worth many times thy kingdom!' He said, 'I
know it, O pious lady!' Then quoth the old woman, 'There is no
help but that thou send with them someone in thy palace who is
dear to thee, that she may find solace and seek a blessing of the
Invisible Controuls.' Quoth he, 'I have a Greek slave called
Sophia, by whom I have been blessed with two children, a girl and
a boy; but they were lost; years ago.  Take her with thee that
she may get the blessing'"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-sixth Night,

 She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
Dandan continued to Zau al-Makan, "Quoth thy sire to the ancient
woman when she demanded the handmaids of him, 'I have a Greek
slave called Sophia, by whom I have been blest with two children,
a girl and a boy, but they were lost years ago; so take her with
thee, haply she may get the benediction and, belike, the
Invisible Controuls will sue Allah for her that her two children
may be restored to her.' 'Thou hast said well,' replied she; 'for
that indeed was her grievousest want.' Thy sire gave not over
finishing his fast till the old woman said to him, 'O my son, I
am going to the Invisible Controuls; so bring me Sophia.'
Accordingly, he summoned her and she came forthright, and he
delivered her to the old woman who mixed her up with the other
damsels.  Then she went in to her chamber and bringing out a
sealed cup, presented it to the Sultan saying, 'On the thirtieth
day, do thou repair to the Hammam and when thou comest out, enter
one of the closets in thy palace and drink what is in this cup.
Then sleep, and thou shalt attain what thou seekest, and peace be
with thee'!  Thereat the King was glad and thanked her and kissed
her hands.  Quoth she, 'I commend thee to Allah's care;' whereat
quoth he, 'And when shall I see thee again, O pious lady?  In
very sooth I love not to part with thee.' Then she called down
blessings on him and departed with the five damsels and the
Queen; whilst the King fasted after her departure other three
days, till the month ended, when he arose and went to the Hammam
and coming out shut himself up in a closet of his palace,
commanding that none should go in to him.  There, after making
fast the door, he drank what was in the cup and lay down to
sleep; and we sat awaiting him till the end of the day, but he
did not come out and we said, 'Perchance he is tired with the
bath and with watching by night and fasting by day; wherefore he
sleepeth.' So we waited till next day; but still he did not come
forth.  Then we stood at the closet door and cried aloud so haply
he might awake and ask what was the matter.  But nothing came of
that; so at last we lifted up the door;[FN#375] and, going in,
found him dead, with his flesh torn into strips and bits and his
bones broken.[FN#376] When we saw him in this condition it was
grievous to us, and we took up the cup and found within its cover
a piece of paper whereon was inscribed, 'Whoso doeth evil leaveth
no regrets, and this be the reward of him who playeth traitor
with the daughters of Kings and who debaucheth them; and we make
known to all who fall upon this scroll that Sharrkan, when he
came to our country, seduced our Queen Abrizah; nor did that
suffice him but he must needs take her from us and bring her to
you.  Then he[FN#377] sent her away in company of a black slave
who slew her, and we found her lying dead on the desert sward and
thrown out to wild beasts.  This be no kingly deed, and he who
did this is requited with naught but what he merited.  So do ye
suspect none of having killed him, for no one slew him but the
cunning witch, whose name is Zat al-Dawahi.  And behold, I have
taken the King's wife, Sophia, and have carried her to her
father, Afridun King of Constantinople.  Moreover, there is no
help for it but that we wage war upon you and kill you and take
your country from you, and ye shall be cut off even to the last
man, nor shall a living soul be spared by Death nor one who
bloweth fire with his breath, save he who Cross and Belt[FN#378]
worshippeth.' When we read this paper, we knew that the ancient
woman had beguiled us and carried out her plot against us:
whereupon we cried aloud and buffeted our faces and wept sore
when weeping availed us naught.  And the troops fell out as to
whom they should make Sultan; some would have thee, and others
would have thy brother Sharrkan; and we ceased not to dispute
about this for the space of a month, at the end of which certain
of us drew together and agreed to repair to thy brother Sharrkan:
so we set out and journeyed on till we fell in with thee.  And
such is the manner of the death of Sultan Omar bin al-Nu'uman!"
Now when the Wazir Dandan had made an end of his story, Zau al-
Makan and his sister, Nuzhat al-Zaman wept; and the Chamberlain,
who wept also, said to Zau al-Makan, "O King, weeping will avail
thee naught; nor shall aught profit thee but that thou harden thy
heart and strengthen thy stress and establish thy sovranty; for
verily whoso leaveth the like of thee is not dead." Thereupon Zau
al-Makan gave over his weeping and caused his throne to be set up
without the pavilion, and then commanded the army to pass in
review order before him.  And the Chamberlain sat by his side and
all the armour-bearers[FN#379] behind him, whilst the Wazir
Dandan and the rest of the Emirs and Grandees stood each in his
individual stead.  Then quoth King Zau al-Makan to the Minister
Dandan, "Inform me concerning my sire's treasures;" and he
replied, "I hear and I obey;" and gave him to know of the late
King's hoards and monies, and what was in the treasury of amassed
wealth and jewels, and acquainted him with other precious things.
So Zau al-Makan opened his hand to the army, and gave a sumptuous
robe of honour to the Wazir Dandan, saying, "Thou continues" in
office.  Whereupon Dandan kissed the ground before him and wished
him long life.  Then he bestowed dresses on the Emirs, after
which he said to the Chamberlain, "Bring out before me the
tribute of Damascus that is with thee." So he was shown the
chests of money and rarities and jewels, when he took them and
parted them all amongst the troops,--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

             When it was the Eighty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Zau al-
Makan ordered the Chamberlain to bring out before him what he had
brought of the tribute of Damascus; and, when he was shown the
chests of money and rarities and jewels, he took them and parted
them all amongst the troops, till nothing was left.  And the
Emirs kissed the ground before him and wished him long life,
saying, "Never saw we a King, who gave the like of these gifts."
Then all went away to their tents and when it was morning he gave
orders for marching.  So they marched for three days, till, on
the fourth day, they drew near to Baghdad.  When they entered the
city, they found it decorated, and Zau al-Makan, the Sultan, went
up to his father's palace and sat down on the throne, whilst the
Emirs of the army and the Wazir Dandan and the Chamberlain of
Damascus stood between his hands.  Then he bade his private
secretary write a writ to his brother Sharrkan, acquainting him
with all that had passed, from first to last, and he concluded,
"As soon as thou hast read this letter, make ready thine affair
and join us with thine army, that we may turn to Holy War upon
the Infidels and take man bote for our father and wipe out the
stain upon our honour." Then he folded the letter and sealed it
with his seal ring and said to the Minister Dandan, "None shall
carry this letter but thou; and it behoveth thee speak my brother
fair and say to him, 'If thou have a mind to thy father's
kingdom, it is thine, and thy brother shall be Viceroy for thee
in Damascus; for to this effect am I instructed by him.'" So the
Wazir went down from before him and made ready for his march.
Then Zau al-Makan bade set apart a magnificent house for the
Fireman and furnished it with the best of furniture and long is
the tale of that Fireman.[FN#380]  Presently Zau al-Makan went
out chasing and hunting and, as he was returning to Baghdad, one
of the Emirs presented him with blood horses and with beauteous
handmaids whose description the tongue evades.  One of the
damsels pleased him: so he went in unto her and knew her that
night, and she conceived by him forthright.  After a while, the
Wazir Dandan returned from his journey, bringing him news of his
brother Sharrkan and that he was then on his way to him, and
said, "It were fitting thou go forth to meet him." Zau al- Makan
replied, "I hear and I consent;" and riding forth with his
Grandees a day's journey from Baghdad, he pitched his pavilions
there awaiting his brother.  Next morning appeared King Sharrkan
amid the army of Syria, a horseman of might, a lion fierce in
fight, a prow and doughty knight.  As the squadrons drew nigh and
the dust clouds came hard by and the troops rode up with banners
on high, Zau al-Makan and those with him pushed forward to meet
Sharrkan and his men; and when Zau al-Makan saw his brother, he
desired to dismount, but Sharrkan conjured him not to do on this
wise, and himself footed it, and walked a few paces towards
him.[FN#381] As soon as he reached Zau al-Makan, the new Sultan
threw himself upon him, and Sharrkan embraced him and wept with
great weeping and the twain condoled with each other.  Then they
mounted and rode onward, they and their troops, till they reached
Baghdad, where they alighted and went up to the royal palace and
there they passed that night, and when next morning came, Zau al-
Makan went forth and bade summon the troops from all parts, and
proclaimed a Holy War and a Razzia.[FN#382] They then awaited the
coming of the levies from each quarter of the kingdom, and every
one who came they entreated with honour and promised him all
manner of good; till in so doing a full month had sped, and the
fighting men flocked to them in a continuous body.  Then Sharrkan
said to Zau al-Makan, "O my brother, tell me thy history." So he
told him all that had befallen him from first to last, including
the benevolent dealing of the Fireman with him.  Asked Sharrkan,
'Hast thou requited his kindness?"; and he answered, "O my
brother!  I have not rewarded him as yet, but Inshallah!  I will
recompense him whenas I return from this raid"--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sharrkan
asked his brother Zau al-Makan, "Hast thou requited the Fireman
for his kindness?"; and he answered, "O my brother, I have not
rewarded him as yet, but Inshallah!  I will recompense him whenas
I return from this raid and find time so to do." Therewith
Sharrkan was certified that his sister, Nuzhat al-Zaman, had told
him the whole truth; but he concealed what had passed between
them and offered his salutation to her by her husband the
Chamberlain.  She sent him back her greeting, calling down
blessings on him and enquiring after her daughter Kuzia-Fakan, to
which he replied that the maiden was well and in the best of
health and safety.  Where upon she praised Almighty Allah and
gave him thanks.  Then Sharrkan went to his brother to take
counsel with him for departure; and Zau al-Makan said, "O my
brother, as soon as the army is complete and the Arabs have come
in from all parts, we will march forth." So he bade make ready
the commissariat and prepare munitions of war and went in to his
wife, who was now five months gone with child; and he put under
her astrologers and mathematicians, to whom he appointed stipends
and allowances.  Then he set out three months after the arrival
of the army of Syria, and as soon as the Arabs were come in and
the troops were assembled from all directions; and, as he fared
forth, he was followed by the warriors and the united host.  Now
the name of the General of the Daylam army was Rustam and that of
the General of the army of the Turks[FN#383] Bahram.  And Zau al-
Makan marched in mid host and on his right was his brother
Sharrkan, and on his left the Chamberlain his brother-in-law.  So
the squadrons broke up and pushed forward and the battalions and
companies filed past in battle array, till the whole army was in
motion.  They ceased not to fare on for the space of a month, and
each body dismounted at its own ground and there rested every
week three days (for the host was great); and they advanced in
this order till they came to the country of the Greeks.  Then the
people of the villages and hamlets and the poorer sort took
fright at them and fled to Constantinople.  But when King Afridun
heard the tidings he arose and betook himself to Zat al-Dawahi,
the same who had contrived the stratagem, and had travelled to
Baghdad and had slain King Omar bin Al-Nu'uman; and who after
carrying off her slaves and Queen Sophia, had returned with them
all to her native land.  Now when she had been restored to her
son, the King of Greece, and felt herself safe, she said to King
Hardub, "Cool thine eyes; for I have avenged by blood the shame
of thy daughter Abrizah, and have killed Omar bin al-Nu'uman and
have brought back Sophia.  So now let us go to the King of
Constantinople and carry to him his daughter and acquaint him
with what hath happened, that all of us be on guard and prepare
our forces; and I will fare with thee to King Afridun, Lord of
Constantinople, for I opine that the Moslems will not await our
attack." Said Hardub, "Tarry thou till they draw near our
country, that we may make us ready meantime and assemble our
power." Accordingly they took to levying their forces and
preparing for war, and, when the news of the Moslems' advance
reached them, they were prepared for defence; and Zat al Dawahi
had preceded them.  Now when she and her son arrived at
Constantinople, the King of Kings, Afridun, hearing of the
approach of Hardub, King of the Greeks, came forth to meet him
and asked how it was with him and the cause of his visit.  So
Hardub acquainted him with the cunning doings of his mother, Zat
al-Dawahi, how she had slain the Moslem King and recovered from
him Queen Sophia, and had said, "The Moslems have assembled their
forces and are on their way to attack us, wherefore it behoveth
that we two join hands in single band and meet them." Now King
Afridun rejoiced in the return of his daughter and the killing of
King Omar bin al-Nu'uman; and he sent to all countries seeking
succour and acquainting the folk with the cause of slaying the
Moslem King.  So the Nazarene troops flocked to him and three
months were not past ere the army of the Greeks was complete,
besides which there joined themselves to him Franks from all
their lands, French, Germans[FN#384] and Ragusans,[FN#385] with
men of Zara,[FN#386] Venetians, Genoese, and all the hosts of the
Yellow Faces[FN#387]; and, when the gathering was at its full,
earth was straitened on them by reason of their multitude.  Then
Afridun, the Great King, ordered a march; so they set out and
ceased not to defile through the city for ten days.  They fared
on till they reached the Wady highs Al-Nu'uman, a broad sided
vale hard by the Salt Sea, where they halted three days; and on
the fourth they were about to set out again, when news came that
the army of Al-Islam on them press, and the defenders of the
faith of Mohammed, of Men the Best.  So they halted in it other
three days, and on the eighth they espied a dust cloud which
towered till it walled the whole land; nor was an hour of the day
past ere that dust began to drift and was torn to shreds in the
lift, and pierced through its shades the starry radiance of lance
and the white levee of blades.  Presently there appeared beneath
it the banners Islamitan and the ensigns Mahometan; the horsemen
urged forward, like the letting loose of seas that surged, clad
in mail, as they were mackerel-back clouds which the moon enveil;
whereupon the two hosts clashed, like two torrents on each other
dashed.  Eyes fell upon eyes; and the first to seek combat
singular was the Wazir Dandan, he and the army of Syria,
numbering thirty thousand bridles, and with him were the General
of the Turks, and the General of Daylam, Rustam and Bahram, amid
twenty thousand horse, behind whom came the men from the shores
of the Salt Sea, clad in iron mail, as they were full moons that
past through a night o'ercast.  Then the Nazarene host called out
on Jesus and Mary, and the defiled[FN#388] Cross and they heaped
themselves upon the Wazir Dandan and those with him of the Syrian
host.  Now all this was in pursuance of a stratagem devised by
that ancient woman Zat al-Dawahi; for, before his departure, King
Afridun had gone in to her and asked her, "How shall I do and
what plan shall I pursue?; it is thou hast caused this great
distress to us;" and she had answered, "O great King and mighty
Cohen![FN#389] I will teach thee a trick would baffle Iblis
himself, though he summon to his assistance all his grisly
hosts."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

              When it was the Eighty-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, all this was a
stratagem of the ancient woman, for that the King before his
departure had gone to her and asked, "How shall I do and what
plan shall I pursue?  it is thou hast caused this great distress
to us!" And she had answered, "O great King and mighty Cohen, I
will teach thee a trick would baffle the Devil himself though he
summon to his assistance all his grisly hosts.  It is that thou
send fifty thousand men going down in ships, and sailing over the
sea to the Mountain of Smoke; and there let them land and stir
not till {he standards of Al-Islam come upon thee, when do thou
up and at them.  Then bid the troops from the seaward sally out
upon the Moslems and take them in rear, whilst we confront them
from the landward.  So not one of them shall escape, and our
sorrows shall tease and peace abide with us." Now the counsel of
this ancient woman commended itself to King Afridun, and he
replied, "Right is the recking thou reckest, O Princess of wits
and recourse of Kings and Cohens warring for their blood wit!" So
when the army of Al-Islam came upon them in chat valley, before
they knew of it the flames began to burn up the tents and the
swords in men's bodies to make rents.  Then hurried up the army
of Baghdad and Khorasan who numbered one hundred and twenty
thousand horse, with Zau al-Makan in the front of war.  When the
host of the Infidels that lay by the sea saw them, they sallied
out against them and followed in their tracks; and when Zau al-
Makan espied this he cried out to his men, "Turn back to the
Infidels, O People of the Chosen Apostle, and slay those who deny
and hate the authority of the Compassionating, the
Compassionate!" So they turned and fought with the Christians.
Then Sharrkan marched up with another corps of the Moslem host,
some hundred thousand men, whilst the Infidels numbered nigh upon
a thousand and six hundred thousand men.  When the Moslems were
united, their hearts were strengthened and they cried out,
saying, "Verily Allah hath pro mised us victory, and to the
Infidels hath assigned defeat." And they clashed together with
sword and spear.  Now Sharrkan tare through rank and row and
raged among the masses of the foe, fighting so fierce a fight as
to make children grey grow; nor did he cease tourneying among the
infidel horde and working havoc among them with the keen edged
sword, shouting "Allaho Akbar!" (Allah is Most Great) till he
drove back the host to the coast.  Then failed the force of the
foe and Allah gave victory to the faith of Al-Islam, and folk
fought folk, drunken without strong drink till they slew of the
Infidels in this affair forty and five thousand, while of the
Moslems but three thousand and five hundred fell.  Moreover, the
Lion of the Faith, King Sharrkan, and his brother, Zau al-Makan,
slept not that night, but occupied themselves with congratulating
their braves and with looking to the wounded and with assuring
the army of victory and salvation and promise of reward in the
world to come.  Thus far concerning the Moslem; but as regards
King Afridun, Lord of Constantinople and Sovran of Roum, and Zat
Al-Dawahi, they assembled the Emirs of the host and said to them,
"Verily, we had worked our will and solaced our hearts, but our
over confidence in our numbers, and that only, defeated us." Then
quoth to them the ancient one, the Lady of Calamities, "In very
sooth nought shall profit you, except ye draw you nigh unto the
Messiah and put your trust in the True Belief, for, by the virtue
of the Messiah, the whole strength of the Moslem host lieth in
that Satan, King Sharrkan." "Tomorrow," said King Afridun, "I
have resolved to draw up in battle array and to send out against
them that redoubtable cavalier, Lúká bin Shamlút; for if King
Sharrkan come forth as a champion to fight single handed, our man
will slay him and will slay the other Moslem Knights, till not
one is left.  And I purpose this night to sacre you all with the
Holy Incense." When the Emirs heard these words they kissed the
ground before him.  Now the incense which he designated was the
excrement of the Chief Patriarch, the denier, the defiler of the
Truth, and they sought for it with such instance, and they so
highly valued it that the high priests of the Greeks used to send
it to all the countries of the Christians in silken wraps after
mixing it with musk and ambergris.  Hearing of it Kings would pay
a thousand gold pieces for every dram and they sent for and
sought it to fumigate brides withal; and the Chief Priests and
the great Kings were wont to use a little of it as collyrium for
the eyes and as a remedy in sickness and colic; and the
Patriarchs used to mix their own skite[FN#390] with it, for that
the skite of the Chief Patriarch could not suffice for ten
countries.[FN#391] So, as soon as dawn was seen and the morning
shone with its shine and sheen, the horsemen ran to their spears
full keen, and King Afridun,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased saying her permitted say.

                When it was the Ninetieth Night,

 She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, as soon as dawn
was seen and the morning shone with its shine and sheen, the
horsemen ran to their spears full keen and King Afridun summoned
his chief Knights and Nobles and invested them with dresses of
honour; and, drawing the sign of the cross on their brows,
incensed them with the incense which as aforesaid was the skite
of the Chief Patriarch, the Cohen, the Heresiarch.  This
incensing done, he called for Luka bin Shamlut, surnamed the
Sword of the Messiah; and, after fumigating him and rubbing his
palate with the Holy Merde, caused him to snuff it and smeared
his cheeks and anointed his moustaches with the rest.  Now there
was no stouter champion in the land of Roum than this accursed
Luka, nor any better at bending of bow or sway of sword or lunge
with lance on the day of devoir; but he was foul of favour, for
his face was as the face of an ass, his shape that of an ape and
his look as the look of a malignant snake: his presence was
grievouser than parting from the beloved make; and blacker than
night was his blackness and more fetid than the lion was his
breath for foulness; more crooked than a bow was his crookedness
and grimmer than the leopard was his ugliness, and he was branded
with the mark of the Infidels on face.[FN#392] After this he came
up to King Afridun and kissed his feet and stood before him; and
the King said to him, "I desire thou go out against Sharrkan,
King of Damascus, son of Omar bin al-Nu'uman, and deliver us from
this affliction." Quoth Luka, "Hearkening and obedience;" and the
King made the sign of the cross on his forehead and felt assured
of help from Heaven being near hand.  Then Luka went out from the
presence and the accursed one mounted a sorrel horse; he was clad
in a red robe and a hauberk of gold set with jewels, and he bore
a trident spear, as he were Iblis the damned on the day of
drewing out his hosts war to darraign.  Then he rode forward, he
and his horde of Infidels, even as though they were driving to
the Fire, preceded by a herald, crying aloud in the Arabic tongue
and saying, "Ho, sect of Mohammed (upon whom be salutation and
salvation!), let none of you come out but your champion Sharrkan,
the Sword of Al-Islam, Lord of Damascus in Shám[FN#393]!" Nor had
he made an end of speaking, when arose a tumult in the plain; all
the people heard the strain and the whole moving bodies of the
armies twain called to mind the Day of Complain.  Then the
cowards trembled and all necks turned towards the sound, and lo!
it was King Sharrkan, son of King Omar bin al-Nu'uman.  For when
his brother, Zau al-Makan, saw that accursed one push out on the
plain, and heard the pursuivant, he turned to Sharrkan and said
to him, "Of a surety they seek for thee." Said he, "Should it so
be, 'twere most pleasing to me." So when they made sure of the
matter and heard the herald crying in the plain, "Let none of you
come out against me save Sharrkan," they knew this cursed Luka to
be champion of the land of Roum who had sworn to sweep the earth
clean of Moslems.  Now he was one of the greatest of villains, a
wretch who caused hearts to pain; and the DayIamites, Turks and
Kurds dreaded his might and main.  Presently Sharrkan crave at
him like a lion angry grim, mounted on a courser like a wild
gazelle flying snell and slim; and coming nigh to him made the
spear he hent to shake as it were a darting snake, and recited
these couplets,

"I have a sorrel steed, whose pride is fain to bear the rein, *
     Shall give thee what thou likest not and make thee feel his
I have a handy limber spear full bright and keen of point, * Upon
     whose shaft the dam of Death her throny seat hath ta'en:
I have a trenchant glaive of Hind; and, when I bare its face * Of
     scabbard" veil, from out its brow the rays of levee rain."

Luka understood not the sense of his speech nor did he apprehend
the vehemence of the verse; but he smote his forehead with his
hand, in honour of the Cross drawn thereon and kissed it; then he
couched his throw spear and ran at Sharrkan.  But first he tossed
the javelin with one hand in air to such height that it was lost
to the spectators' sight; and, catching it with the other hand as
do the jugglers, hurled it at Sharrkan.  It flew from his grasp
like a shooting star and folk clamoured and feared for Sharrkan;
but, as the spear flew near him, he put out his hand and caught
it in full flight to the amazement of all who saw the sight.
Then he shook it with the hand that took it till it was well nigh
broken, and hurled it so high into the welkin that it disappeared
from view.  As it descended, he caught it again with the other
hand, in less than the twinkling of an eye, and cried out from
his heart core, saying, "By the truth of Him who created the
sevenfold skies, I will assuredly make this cursed wight a byword
for mankind to despise!" Then threw he the throw spear at Luka,
who thought to do as Sharrkan had done and put forth his hand to
trend it in mid flight; but Sharrkan prevented him, and sped at
him a second throw spear which smote him and the point fell on
his forehead, in the very centre of the sign of the Cross, and
Allah hurried his soul to the Fire and Dwelling place
dire.[FN#394]  But when the Infidels saw Luka bin Shamlut fall
slain, they buffeted their faces and they cried, "Alas!" and "Woe
worth the day!" and called for aid upon the Abbots of the
monasteries,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Infidels saw Luka bin Shamlut fall slain, they buffeted their
faces and cried, "Alas!" and "Woe worth the day!" and called upon
the Abbots of the monasteries and cried, "Where be the crosses?"
So the Religious offered up prayers and the Christians all drew
together against Sharrkan; and, brandishing their scymitars and
lances, rushed forward to the attack.  Then army met army and
breasts fell under hoof, whilst spear and sword ruled the day and
forearms and wrists grew weak and the coursers seemed created
without legs;[FN#395] nor did the herald of-war cease calling to
fight, till arms were aweary and day took flight and night came
on with darkness dight.  So the two hosts drew apart, whilst
every brave staggered like a drunken knave, for that with so much
cut and thrust they strave; and the place was choked with the
slain; fell were the wounds and the hurt knew not by whom they
fell.  Then Sharrkan joined his brother, Zau al-Makan, and the
Chamberlain and the Wazir Dandan, and said to them, "Verily Allah
hath opened a door for the Infidels to fall, praised be the Lord
of the Worlds one and all!" Replied Zau al-Makan, "Let us never
cease to praise Allah, for that He hath dispelled trouble from
the Arab and the Ajam.  Indeed the folk, generation after
generation, shall tell of thy derring do against the accursed
Luka, the falsifier of the Evangel;[FN#396] of thy catching the
throng spear in mid-flight, and how the enemy of Allah among men
thou didst smite; and thy fame shall endure until the end of
time." Then said Sharrkan, "Harkye, O grand Chamberlain and
doughty Capitayne!" and he answered, "Adsum!"[FN#397] Quoth
Sharrkan, "Take with thee the Wazir Dandan and twenty thousand
horse, and lead them seven parasangs towards the sea, and force
the march till ye shall have come near the shore, and there
remain only two parasangs between thee and the foe.  Then ambush
ye in the hollows of the ground till ye hear the tumult of the
Infidels disembarking from their ships; and the war cry from
every side strike your ear and ye know that the sabres have begun
labour between us and them; and, whenso ye see our troops falling
back, as if defeated, and all the Infidels following them, as
well those in front as those from the seaward and the tents, do
ye still lie in wait for them: but as soon as ye see the standard
with the words, There is no god but the God, and Mohammed is
God's Apostle (on whom be salutation and salvation!), then up
with the green banner, and do your endeavour and fall on their
rear and shout, 'Alla ho Akbar!  Allah is most Great!' and circle
round that they may not interpose between the retreating army and
the sea." He replied, "To hear is to obey!"; and forthright they
agreed upon this matter and they went forth.  Now the Chamberlain
took with himself the Wazir Dandan and twenty thousand men even
as Sharrkan had commanded.  As soon as dawned the morn, the
troops sprung to horse when they had donned their armour gear and
drawn the scymitar and slung the spear.  Then the Christians
dispread themselves over hill and dale and the
Ecclesiasts[FN#398] cried out and all heads were bared, and those
in the ships hoisted the Cross at their mast heads and began
making for shore from every side, and landed their horses and get
them ready for fight and fray, whilst the sword blades glittered
bright and the javelins glanced like levee light on mail shirt
white; and all joined fight and the grind mill of Death whirled
round and ground those who fought from horse and aground: heads
from bodies flew end tongues mute grew and eyes no vision knew.
Scymitars strave with utmost strain and heads flew over the
battle plain; gall bladders crave and wrists were shorn in twain;
steeds plashed in pools of gore and beards were gripped right
sore; the host of Al-Islam called out, saying, "On the Prince of
Mankind be blessings and peace, and to the Compassionate glory
and praise, which ne'er shall cease, for His boons which aye
increase;" and the host of the Infidels shouted, "Glory to the
Cross and the Belt and the vine press juice, and the wine presser
and the Priests and the Monks and the Festival of Palms and the
Metropolitan!" Now Zau al-Makan and Sharrkan held back and their
troops gave way and feigned flight from before the enemy, while
the Infidel array pressed hard upon them deeming them in rout,
and made ready to foin and hew.  Then the meiny of the Moslems
raised their voices, reciting the first verses of the Chapter of
the Cow,[FN#399] whilst the dead were trampled under hoofs of
steeds, and the heralds of the Greeks cried out, "Ho, servants of
the Messiah!  Ho, people of the True Faith!  Ho, followers of the
Primate![FN#400] Verily Divine grace upon you opes; for see, the
hosts of Al Islam like birds with broken wings incline to elope!
So turn ye not to them your backs, but let your swords cleave
deep in their necks and hold not your hands from them, else are
ye outcasts from the Messiah, Mary's son, who spoke even when a
cradled one!"[FN#401] Now Afridun, King of Constantinople, deemed
that the Infidels were victorious, knowing not that this was but
a clever stratagem of the Moslems, and sent to King Hardub of
Roum congratulations on success, adding, "Availed us naught but
the Holy Merde of the Arch Patriarch, whose fragrance exhaled
from the beards and mustachios of the slaves of the Cross near
and far; and I swear, by the Miracles of the Messiah; and by thy
daughter Abrizah, the Nazarene, the Mariolater; and by the Waters
of Baptism, that I will not leave upon the earth a single
defender of Al- Islam!  And to the bitter end will I carry out
this plan." So the messenger betook himself with the address to
King Hardub, whilst the Infidels called to one another saying,
"Take we vengeance wreak for Luka!"--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Infidels called to one another, saying, "Take we vengeance wreak
for Luka!" while Hardub King of Greece cried aloud, "Ho, to our
revenge for Abrizah!" Thereupon King Zau al-Makan shouted "Ho,
servants of the Requiting King!: smite the children of denial and
disobedience with the blanch of sword and the brown of spear!" So
the Moslems returned to the Infidels and plied them with the keen
edged scymitar, whilst their herald cried aloud, "Up, and at the
foes of the Faith, all ye who love the Prophet Elect, with hope
of salvation on the Day of Fear, to win favour of the Bountiful,
the Forgiving One; for verily the Garden of Paradise is under the
shadow of swords!" And behold, Sharrkan and his men charged down
upon the Infidels and cut off their retreat and wheeled and
tourneyed among the ranks; when lo!  a knight of goodly presence
opened a passage through the army of Unbelievers and circled
hither and thither amongst the Deniers, cutting and thrusting and
covering the ground with heads and trunks, so that the Faithless
feared him and their necks bent under his lunge and hew.  He was
girt with two swords, his glances and his brand, and he was armed
with two lances, one of bamboo cane and the other his straight
wand like shape; and his flowing hair stood him in stead of many
warriors, even as saith the poet,

"Laud not long hair,[FN#402] except it be dispread * In two fold
     locks, on day of fight and fray,
O'er youth who bears his lance 'twixt flank and thigh, * From
     many a whis kered knight to win the day."

And as singeth another,

"I say to him, what while he slings his sword, * 'For sword shall
     serve those looks that sword like show!'
Says he, 'My sabre looks for those I love, * My sword for those
     who sweets of love unknow!'"

When Sharrkan saw him, he said to him, "I conjure thee by the
Koran and the attributes of the Compassionate One, O Champion of
the Champions!  tell me who thou art: for verily by thy deeds
this day thou hast pleased the Requiting King, whom one thing
distracteth not from other thing; in that thou hast been
discomforting the children of impiety and in rebellion
revelling." Then cried the Cavalier to him saying, "Thou art he
who madest brother covenant with me but yesterday: how quickly
thou hast forgotten me!" Thereupon he withdrew his mouth
veil,[FN#403] so that what was hidden of his beauty was
disclosed, and lo!  it was none other than Zau al-Makan.  Then
Sharrkan rejoiced in his brother, save that he feared for him the
rush of fighting and the crush of braves a smiting; and this for
two reasons, the first, his tender age and exposure to the evil
eye, and the second, that his safety was to the kingdom the
greater of the two overshadowing wings.  So he said to him, "O
King!  thou riskest thy life, so join thy steed to mine; in very
sooth I fear for thee from the foe; and better thou stint
hazarding thyself forth of these squadrons, that we may shoot at
the enemy thine unerring shaft." Quoth Zau al-Makan, "I desire to
even thee in fray and I will not be niggard of myself before thee
in the melay." Then the host of Al-Islam, heaping itself upon the
Infidels, girt them on all sides, warred on them a right Holy
War, and brake the power of the children of impiety and pride and
stowre.  But King Afridun sighed when he saw the evil wreak that
had fallen on the Greek, and they turned their backs from fight
and addressed themselves to flight, making for the ships, when
lo!  there came out upon them from the seacoast another host, led
by the Minister Dandan, the champion who was wont to make
champions bite the dust, and to lay load on them with cut and
thrust.  Nor less came forth the Emir Bahram, Lord of the
Provinces of Sham, amid twenty thousand horse doughty of arm; and
the host of Al-Islam pressed them in front and on flank and
wrought them grievous harm.  Then a body of the Moslems turned
against those who in the ships remained, and perdition on them
rained, till they threw themselves into the main, and they slew
of them many slain, more than a hundred thousand noblemen, nor
was one of their champions, great or small, saved from bale and
bane.  Moreover, they took their ships, with all the money and
treasure and cargo, save a score of keel, and the Moslems got
that loot whose like was never gotten in by gone years; nor was
such cut and thrust ever heard of by men's ears.[FN#404] Now
amongst the booty were fifty thousand horses, besides treasure
and spoil past reckoning and arithmetic, whereat the Moslems
rejoiced with an exceeding joy for that Allah had given them
victory and protection.  Such was the case with them; but as
regards the fugitive Infidels they soon reached Constantinople,
whither the tidings preceded them that King Afridun had prevailed
over the Moslems; so quoth the ancient dame, Zat al-Dawahi, "I
know that my son Hardub, King of Roum, is no runagate and that he
feareth not the Islamitic hosts, but will restore the whole world
to the Nazarene faith." Then she bade the Great King, Afridun,
give command that the city be decorated, and the people held
festival high and drank their wines drunkenly and knew not the
decrees of Destiny.  Now whilst they were in the midst of their
rejoicings, behold, the raven of dule and downfall croaked over
them, and up came the twenty fugitive ships wherein was the King
of Cæsarea.  So King Afridun, Lord of Constantinople, met them on
the sea shore, and they told him all that had befallen them from
the Moslem, and they wept sore and groaned and moaned; and
rejoicing at weal was turned into dismay for unheal; and they
informed him concerning Luka son of Shamlut, how calamity had
betided him and how Death had shot him with his shaft.  Thereat
the horrors of Doomday rose upon King Afridun,[FN#405] and he
knew that there was no making straight their crook.  Then came up
from them the sound of weeping and wailing; the city was full of
men mourning and the keepers were keening, and sighs and cries
were heard from all sides.  And when King Hardub of Greece met
King Afridun he told him the truth of the case and how the flight
of the Moslems was by way of stratagem and deceit, and said to
him, "Look not to see any of the army, save those who have
already reached thee." When King Afridun heard these words he
fell down in a fainting fit, with his nose under his feet; and,
as soon as he revived, he exclaimed, "Surely the Messiah was
wroth with them that he caused the Moslems to prevail over them!"
Then came the Arch Patriarch sadly to the King who said to him,
"O our father, annihilation hath overtaken our army and the
Messiah hath punished us!" Replied the Patriarch, "Grieve not nor
feel concerned, for it cannot be but that one of you have sinned
against the Messiah, and all have been punished for his offence;
but now we will read prayers for you in the churches, that the
Mohammeden hosts may be repelled from you." After which the old
woman, Zat al-Dawahi, came to Afridun and said to him, "O King,
verily the Moslem hosts are many, and we shall never overcome
them save by wile: wherefore I purpose to work upon them by guile
and repair to this army of Al-Islam, haply I may win my wish of
their leader and slay their champion, even as I slew his father.
If my stratagem succeed in his case, not one of the host he leads
shall return to his native land, for all are strong only because
of him; but I desire to have some Christian dwellers of Syria,
such as go out every month and year to sell their goods, that
they may help me (for this they can do) in carrying out my plan."
Replied the King, "Be it so whenever thou wilt." So she bade
fetch an hundred men, natives of Najrán,[FN#406] in Sham, and the
King asked them, "Have ye not heard what hath befallen the
Christians with the Moslems?" "Yes," answered they; and he
rejoined, "Know ye that this woman hath devoted her life to the
Messiah and purposeth to go forth with you, disguised as
Monotheists and Mohammedans, to work out a device which shall
profit us and hinder the Moslem from us: say, then, are ye also
willing to devote yourselves to the Anointed and I will give you
a quintal of gold?[FN#407] He of you who escapeth shall have the
money, and him of you who dieth will the Messiah reward." "O
King," replied they, "we will devote our lives to the Messiah,
and we will be thy sacrifice." Thereupon the old woman took all
she required of aromatic roots and placed them in water which she
boiled over the fire till the black essence of them was
extracted.  She waited till the decoction was cold, then dipped
the corner of a long kerchief therein and stained her face
therewith.  Moreover, she donned over her clothes a long
gaberdine with an embroidered border and took in her hand a
rosary, and afterwards went in to King Afridun, who knew her not,
nor did any of his companions know her, till she discovered
herself to them: and there was none in the assembly but who
thanked and praised her for her cunning; and her son rejoiced and
said, "May the Messiah never fail thee!" Thereupon she took with
her the Syrian Christians, and set out for the army of Baghdad.--
And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when King
Afridun heard these words, he fell into a fainting fit with his
nose under his feet; and, as soon as he revived, fear fluttered
the scrotum[FN#408] below his belly and he complained to the
ancient dame, Zat al-Dawahi.  Now this accursed old woman was a
witch of the witches, past mistress in sorcery and deception;
wanton and wily, deboshed and deceptious; with foul breath, red
eyelids, yellow cheeks, dull brown face, eyes bleared, mangy
body, hair grizzled, back humped, skin withered and wan and
nostrils which ever ran.  But she had studied the scriptures of
Al-Islam and had made the Pilgrimage to the Holy House of Meccah
and all this that she might come to the knowledge of the
Mohammedan ordinances and the miraculous versets of the Koran;
and she had professed Judaism in the Holy City of
Jerusalem[FN#409] for two years' space, that she might master the
magic of men and demons; so that she was a plague of plagues and
a pest of pests, wrong headed as to belief and to no religion
fief.  Now the chief reason of her sojourn with her son, King
Hardub of Greece, was on account of the slave virgins at his
court: for she was given to tribadism[FN#410] and could not exist
without sapphism or she went mad: so if any damsel pleased her,
she was wont to teach her the art of rubbing clitoris against
clitoris and would anoint her with saffron[FN#411] till she
fainted away for excess of volupty.  Whoso obeyed her she was
wont to favour and make her son incline towards her; but whoso
repelled her she would contrive to destroy; and so she abode for
a length of time.  This was known to Marjanah and Rayhánah and
Utrijah, the handmaids of Abrizah, and their Princess loathed the
old woman and abhorred to lie with her, because of the rank smell
from her armpits, the stench of her fizzles more fetid than
carrion, and the roughness of her hide coarser than palm fibre.
She was wont to bribe those who rubbed parts with her by means of
jewels and instructions; but Abrizah held aloof from her and
sought refuge with the Omnipotent, the Omniscient; for, by Allah,
right well quoth the poet,

"Ho thou who grovellest low before the great * Nor over fording
     lesser men dost blench
Who gildest dross by dirham gathering, * No otter scent disguises
     carrion stench!

And now to return to the story of her stratagem and the woes of
her working.  Presently she departed, taking the chief Nazarenes
with their hosts, and turned towards the army of the Moslems.
Whereupon King Hardub went in to King Afridun and said to him, "O
King, we have no need of the Chief Patriarch nor of his prayers,
but will consult my mother's counsel and observe what she will do
with her craft unending against the Moslem hosts; for these are
marching with all their power, they will soon be upon us and they
will encircle us on all sides." When King Afridun heard this,
terror took hold upon his heart and he wrote letters, without
stay or delay, to all the nations of the Nazarenes, saying, "It
behoveth none of the Messiahites or Cross knights to hold back,
especially the folk of the strongholds and forts: but let them
all come to us, foot and horse, women and children, for the
Moslem hosts already tread our soil.  So haste!  haste ye!  ere
what we fear to us here appear." Thus much concerning them; but
regarding the work of the old woman, Zat al-Dawahi; when she went
forth from the city with her suite, she clad them in the clothing
of Moslem merchants, having provided herself with an hundred
mules carrying stuffs of Antioch, such as goldwoven satins and
royal brocades and so forth.  And she had taken a letter from
King Afridun to the following effect: "These be merchantmen from
the land of Sham who have been with us: so it besitteth none to
do them harm or hindrance, nor take tax and tithe of them, till
they reach their homes and safe places, for by merchants a
country flourisheth, and these are no men of war nor of ill
faith." Then quoth the accursed Zat al-Dawahi to those with her,
"Verily I wish to work out a plot for the destruction of the
Moslem." Replied they, "O Queen, command us whatso thou wilt; we
are at thy disposal and may the Messiah never disappoint thy
dealings!" Then she donned a gown of fine white wool and rubbed
her forehead, till she made a great mark as of a scar and
anointed it with an ointment of her own fashion, so that it shone
with prodigious sheen.  Now the old hag was lean bodied and
hollow eyed, and she bound her legs tightly round with
cords[FN#412] just above her feet, till she drew near the Moslem
camp, when she unwound them, leaving their marks deeply embedded
in her ankles.  Then she anointed the wheels with dragon's blood
and bade her companions beat her with a severe beating, and set
her in a chest and, quoth she, "Cry abroad the Refrain of
Unity,[FN#413] nor fear from it aught of damage!" Replied they,
"How can we beat thee, who be our sovereign lady, Zat al-Dawahi,
mother of the King we glory in?" Then said she, "We blame not nor
deal reproach to him who goeth to the jakes, and in need evil
becometh good deed.  When ye have set me in the chest, take it
and make it one of the bales and place it on mule back and fare
forth with it and the other goods through the Moslem camp, and
fear ye no blame.  And if any of the Moslems hinder you, give up
the mules and their lading and be take yourselves to their King,
Zau al-Makan, and implore his protection saying, 'We were in the
land of the Infidels and they took nothing from us, but wrote us
a passport, that none shall do us hindrance or work our
mischance.' If he ask you, 'What profit had ye of your property
in the land of Roum?' answer him, 'We profited in the deliverance
of a pious man, who had been bound down in an underground cell
nigh fifteen years, crying out for help yet none helped him.
Nay, the Infidels tortured him night and day.  We knew not this;
but, after we had tarried in Constantinople for some time, having
sold our goods and bought others in their stead, we determined on
and made ready for a return to our native land.  We spent that
night conversing about our journey and when day broke, we saw
figured upon the wall a human form and as we drew nigh it,
behold, it moved and said, 'O Moslems, is there amongst you one
who is minded to woo the favour of the Lord of the three
Worlds?'[FN#414] 'How so?' asked we; and the figure answered,
'Know that Allah hath made me speak to you, to the intent that
your faith be fortified, and that your belief embolden you and
that you may go forth of the country of the Infidels and repair
to the Moslem host; for with them wones the Sword of the Com
passionate One, of our Age the Champion, King Sharrkan, by whom
He shall conquer Constantinople town and destroy the sect of the
Nazarene.  And when ye shall have journeyed three days, you will
find an hermitage known as the Hermitage of the ascetic
Matruhina[FN#415] and containing a cell; visit it with pure
intent and contrive to arrive there by force of will, for therein
is a Religious from the Holy City, Jerusalem, by name Abdullah,
and he is one of the devoutest of mankind, endowed with the power
of working saintly miracles[FN#416] such as dispel doubts and
obscurity.  Certain of the monks seized him by fraud and shut him
up in a souterrain where he hath lain a long time.  By his
deliverance you will please the Lord of Faithful Men, for such
release is better than fighting for the Faith.'" Now when the
ancient dame and those with her had agreed upon such words, she
said, "As soon as that which I impart shall reach the ears of
King Sharrkan, say him further, 'Hearing this from that image we
knew that the holy man'"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
old woman, Zat al-Dawahi, and those with her had agreed upon such
words, she said, "Now as soon as that which I impart shall reach
the ears of King Sharrkan say him further, 'Hearing these words
from that image we knew that the holy man was indeed of the
chiefest devotees and Allah's servants of purest qualities; so we
made three days' march till we came in sight of that hermitage,
and then we went up to it and passed the day in buying and
selling, as is the wont of merchants.  As soon as day had
departed our sight and night was come to darken light, we
repaired to the cell wherein was the dungeon, and we heard the
holy man, after chanting some verses of the Koran, repeat the
following couplets,

'My heart disheartened is, my breast is strait, * And sinks my
     soul in sea of bale and bate
Unless escape be near I soon shall die; * And Death were better
     than this doleful strait:
O Lightning an thou light my home and folk, * An their still
     brighter charms thy shine abate,
Say, what my path to meet them, being barred * By wars, and
     barricado'd succour's gate?'

"When once ye have brought me into the Moslem camp, and I mix
with them you shall see," the old woman continued, "how I will
make shift to beguile them and slay them all, even to the last
man." The Nazarenes hearing whet she said, kissed her hands and
set her in the chest, after they had beaten her with a grievous
beating in obedience to her commands, for they saw it was
incumbent on them to do her bidding in this; then they all made
for the Moslem host as hath erst been said.  Such was the case
with the damned hag, Zat al-Dawahi and her companions; but as
regards the Mohammeden army, they indeed, after Allah had given
them victory over their enemies and they had plundered everything
in the ships of money and hoards, all sat down to converse with
one another and Zau al-Makan said to his brother Sharrkan,
"Verily, Allah hath granted us to prevail because of our just
dealing and discipline and concord amongst ourselves; wherefore
continue, O Sharrkan, to obey my commandment, in submission to
Allah (be He exalted and extolled!), for I mean to slay ten Kings
in blood revenge for my sire, to cut the throat of fifty thousand
Greeks and to enter Constantinople." Replied Sharrkan, "My life
be thy ransom against death!  Needs must I follow out the Holy
War, though I wone many a year in their country.  But I have, O
my brother, in Damascus a daughter, named Kuzia Fakan, whom I
love heartily for she is one of the marvels of the time and she
will soon be of age.' Said Zau al-Makan, "And I also have left my
wife with child and near her time, nor do I know what Allah will
vouchsafe me by her.  But promise me, O my brother, that if Allah
bless me with a son, thou wilt grant me thy daughter for wife to
him, and make covenant with me and pledge me thy faith thereon."
"With love and good will, replied Sharrkan; and, stretching out
his hand to his brother, he said, If she bring thee a son, I will
give him my daughter Kuzia Fakan, to wife." At this Zau al-Makan
rejoiced, and they fell to congratulating each other on the
victory over the enemy.  And the Wazir Dandan also congratulated
the two brothers and said to them, "Know, O ye Kings, that Allah
hath given us the victory, for that we have devoted our lives to
Him (be He exalted and ex tolled!); and we have left our homes
and households; and it is my counsel that we follow up the foe
and press upon him and harass him, so haply Allah shall enable us
to win our wishes, and we shall destroy our enemies, branch and
root.  If it please you, do ye go down in these ships and sail
over the sea, whilst we fare forward by land and bear the brunt
of battle and the thrust of fight." And the Minister Dandan
ceased not to urge them to combat and repeated his words who

"To slay my foes is chiefest bliss I wist, * And on the courser's
     back be borne a list;
Comes promising tryst a messenger from friend * Full oft, when
     comes the friend withouten tryst."

And these words of another,

"War for my mother (an I live) I'll take; * Spear for my brother;
     scymitar for sire
With every shag haired brave who meets his death * Smiling, till
     won from Doom his dear desire!"

And when the Wazir ended his verses, he said, "Praise be to Him
who aided us dear victory to uphold and who hath given us spoil
of silver and fine gold!" Then Zau al-Makan commanded the army to
depart; and they fared on forcing their marches for
Constantinople, till they came to a wide and spacious champaign,
full of all things fair and fain, with wild cattle frisking and
gazelles pacing to and fro across the plain.  Now they had
traversed great deserts and drink had been six days cut off from
them, when they drew near this meadow and saw therein waters
founting and ripe fruits daunting and that land as it were
Paradise; for it had donned its adornments and decked
itself.[FN#417]  Gently waved the branches of its trees drunken
with the new wine of the dew, and combined with the nectar of
Tasnim the soft breathings of the morning breeze.  Mind and gazer
were confounded by its beauty, even as saith the poet,

"Behold this lovely garden!  'tis as though * Spring o'er its
     frame her greeny cloak had spread.
Looking with fleshly eyne, thou shalt but sight * A lake whose
     waters balance in their bed,
But look with spirit eyes and lo!  shalt see * Glory in every
     leaf o'erwaves thy head."

And as another saith,

"The stream's a cheek by sunlight rosy dyed, * Whose down[FN#418]
     is creeping shade of tamarisk stems
Round legs of tree trunks waveless roll in rings * Silvern, and
     blossoms are the diadems."

When Zau al-Makan saw this champaign, with its trees bowing and
its flowers blooming and its birds warbling, he called to his
brother Sharrkan and said, "O my brother, verily in Damascus is
naught the like of this place.  We will not march from it save
after three days, that we may take rest ourselves and that the
army of Al-Islam may regain strength and their souls be fortified
to encounter the blamed Infidels." So they halted therein and
while camping behold, they heard a noise of voices from afar, and
Zau al-Makan asked the cause thereof, and was answered that a
caravan of merchants from the Land of Syria had halted there to
rest and that the Moslem troops had come on them and had haply
seized something of the goods which they had brought from the
country of the Infidels.  After a while up came the merchants,
crying out and appealing to the King for aidance.  When Zau al-
Makan saw this, he bade them be brought before him and, when in
presence they said to him, "O King, we have been in the country
of the Infidels and they plundered us of nothing: why then do our
brothers the Moslems despoil our goods, and we in their own land?
Of a truth when we saw your troops, we went up to them and they
robbed us of what we had with us and we have now reported to thee
all that hath befallen us." Thereupon they brought out to him the
letter of the King of Constantinople, and Sharrkan read it and
said, "We will presently restore to you what hath been taken from
you; but yet it behoveth you not to carry merchandise to the
country of the Infidels." Replied they, "O our Lord, in very
sooth Allah despatched us thither that we might win what
Gházi[FN#419] never won the like of, not even thou in all thy
razzias." Asked Sharrkan, "What was it ye won?" "O King,"
answered they, "we will not tell thee save in private; for if
this matter be noised among the folk, haply it may come to the
ears of some,[FN#420] and this will be the cause of our ruin and
of the ruin of all Moslems who resort to the land of the Greeks."
Now they had hidden the chest wherein was the damned Zat al-
Dawahi.  So Zau al-Makan and his brother brought them to a
private place, where they laid bare to both of them the story of
the devotee, and wept till they made the two Kings weep.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the
Nazarenes who wore merchants' weed, when brought to a private
place by Zau al-Makan and his brother Sharrkan, laid bare to both
of them the story of the devotee and wept till they made the two
Kings weep and repeated to them all which had been taught by the
old witch Zat al-Dawahi.  Thereupon Sharrkan's heart yearned to
the devotee and he was moved to ruth for him and was fired with
zeal for the service of Almighty Allah.  So quoth he to them,
"Did ye rescue this holy man or is he still in the hermitage?"
Quoth they, "We delivered him and slew the hermit, fearing for
our lives; after which we made haste to fly for dread of death;
but a trusty man told us that in this hermitage are quintals of
gold and silver and stones of price." Then they fetched the chest
and brought out the accursed old woman, as she were a cassia
pod[FN#421] for excess of blackness and leanness, and she was
laden with the same fetters and shackles.  When Zau al-Makan and
the bystanders saw her, they took her for a man of the best of
Allah's devotees and surpassing in pious qualities, more
especially because of the shining of her forehead for the
ointment wherewith she had anointed her face.  So Zau al-Makan
and Sharrkan wept sore; then they rose up in honour and kissed
her hands and feet, sobbing aloud: but she signed to them and
said, "Cease this weeping and hear my words. Hereat they dried
their tears in obedience to her bidding, and she said, "Know ye
both that I was content to accept what my Lord did unto me, for I
kenned that the affliction which befel me was a trial from Him
(be He exalted and extolled!); and whoso hath not patience under
calamity and tribulation, for him there is no coming to the
delights of Paradise.  I had indeed supplicated Him that I might
return to my native land, not as a compensation for the
sufferings decreed to me, but that I might die under the horse
hoofs of warriors fighting for the Faith who, being slain in
fray, live again without suffering death."[FN#422] Then she
repeated the following couplets,

"Our Fort is Tor,[FN#423] and flames the fire of fight: * Moses
     art thou and this is time for aid:
Cast down thy rod, 'twill swallow all they wrought, * Nor dread
     for men their ropes be vipers made.[FN#424]
For Chapters read on fight day lines of foes, * And on their
     necks 'grave versets[FN#425] wi' thy blade!"

When the old woman had ended her verse, her eyes overflowed with
tears and her forehead under the unguent shone like gleaming
light, and Sharrkan rose and kissed her hand and caused food be
brought before her: but she refused it, saying, "I have not
broken my fast by day for fifteen years; and how should I break
it at such a time when my Lord hath been bountiful to me in
delivering me from the captivity of the Infidels and removing
from me that which was more grievous to me than torment of fire?
I will wait till sun down." So when it was nightfall, Sharrkan
and Zau al-Makan came and served her with food and said, "Eat, O
ascetic!" But she said, "This is no time for eating; it is the
time for worshipping the Requiting King." Then she stood up in
the prayer niche and remained praying till the night was spent;
and she ceased not to do after this fashion for three days and
nights, sitting not but at the time of the Salám or
salutation[FN#426] ending with several prayers.  When Zau al-
Makan saw her on this wise, firm belief in her get hold of his
heart and he said to Sharrkan, "Cause a tent of perfumed leather
to be pitched for this Religious, and appoint a body servant to
wait upon him." On the fourth day she called for food; so they
brought her all kinds of meats that could seduce the sense or
delight the sight; but of all this she would eat only a scone
with salt.  Then she again turned to her fast and, as the night
came, she rose anew to pray; when Sharrkan said to Zau al-Makan,
"Verily, this man carrieth renunciation of the world to the
extreme of renouncing, and, were it not for this Holy War, I
would join myself to him and worship Allah in his service, till I
came before His presence.  And now I desire to enter his tent and
talk with him for an hour." Quoth Zau al-Makan, "And I also:
tomorrow we sally forth to fight against Constantinople, and we
shall find no time like the present." Said the Wazir Dandan, "And
I no less desire to see this ascetic; haply he will pray for me
that I find death in this Holy War and come to the presence of my
Lord, for I am aweary of the world." So as soon as night had
darkened, they repaired to the tent of that witch, Zat al-Dawahi;
and, seeing her standing to pray, they drew near her and fell a
weeping for pity of her; but she paid no heed to them till
midnight was past, when she ended her orisons by pronouncing the
salutation.  Then she turned to them and after wishing them long
life, asked them "Wherefore come ye?", whereto they answered, "O
thou holy man!  diddest thou not hear us weep around thee?" She
rejoined, "To him who standeth in the presence of Allah,
remaineth no existence in time, either for hearing any or for
seeing aught about him." Quoth they, "We would have thee recount
to us the cause of thy captivity and pray for us this night, for
that will profit us more than the possession of Constantinople."
Now when she heard their words she said, "By Allah, were ye not
the Emirs of the Moslems, I would not relate to you aught of this
at any time; for I complain not but to Allah alone.  However, to
you I will relate the circumstances of my captivity.  Know, then,
that I was in the saintly City of Jerusalem with certain
ecstatics and inspired men, and did not magnify myself among
them, for that Allah (be He exalted and extolled!) had endowed me
with humility and abnegation, till I chanced to go down to the
sea one night and walked upon the water.  Then entered into me
pride; whence I know not, and I said to myself, 'Who like me can
walk the water?' And my heart from that time hardened and Allah
afflicted me with the love of travel.  So I journeyed to Roum
land and visited every part for a whole year, and left no place
but therein I worshiped Allah.  When I came to this spot,[FN#427]
I clomb the mountain and saw there an hermitage, inhabited by a
monk called Matrubina, who, when he sighted me, came out and
kissed my hands and feet and said, 'Verily, I have seen thee
since thou enteredst the land of the Greeks, and thou hast filled
me with longing for the land of Al-Islam.' Then he took my hand
and carried me into that hermitage, and brought me to a dark
room; and, when I entered it unawares, he locked the door on me
and left me there forty days, without meat or drink; for it was
his intent to kill me by delay.  It chanced one day, that a
Knight called Dakianús[FN#428] came to the hermitage, accompanied
by ten squires and his daughter Tamásil, a girl whose beauty was
incom parable.  When they entered that hermitage, the monk
Matruhina told them of me, and the Knight said, 'Bring him out,
for surely there is not on him a bird's meal of meat.' So they
opened the door of the dark room and found me standing in the
niche, praying and reciting the Koran and glorifying Allah and
humbling myself before the Almighty.  When they saw me in this
state Matrohina exclaimed, 'This man is indeed a sorcerer of the
sorcerers!'; and hearing his words, they all came in on me,
Dakianus and his company withal, and they beat me with a grievous
beating, till I desired death and reproached myself, saying,
'This is his reward who exalteth himself and who prideth himself
on that which Allah hath vouchsafed to him, beyond his own
competence!  And thou, O my soul, verily self esteem and
arrogance have crept into thee.  Dost thou not know that pride
angereth the Lord and hardeneth the heart and bringeth men to the
Fire?' Then they laid me in fetters and returned me to my place
which was the dungeon under ground.  Every three days, they threw
me down a scone of barley bread and a draught of water; and every
month or two the Knight came to the hermitage.  Now his daughter
Tamasil had grown up, for she was nine years old when I first saw
her, and fifteen years passed over me in captivity, so that she
had reached her four and twentieth year.  There is not in our
land nor in the land of the Greeks a fairer than she, and her
father feared lest the King take her from him; for she had vowed
herself to the Messiah and rode with Dakianus in the habit of a
cavalier, so that albeit none might compare with her in
loveliness, no one who saw her knew her for a woman.  And her
father had laid up his monies in this hermitage, every one who
had aught of price or treasured hoard being wont to deposit it
therein; and I saw there all manner of gold and silver and jewels
and precious vessels and rarities, none may keep count of them
save Almighty Allah.  Now ye are worthier of these riches than
those Infidels; so lay hands on that which is in the hermitage
and divide it among the Moslems and especially on fighters in the
Holy War.  When these merchants came to Constantinople and sold
their merchandise, that image which is on the wall spoke to them,
by grace of a marvel which Allah granted to me; so they made for
that hermitage and slew Matruhina, after torturing him with most
grievous torments, and dragging him by the beard, till he showed
them the place where I was; when they took me and found no path
but flight for dread of death.  Now tomorrow night Tamasil will
visit that hermitage as is her habit, and her father and his
squires will come after her, as he feareth for her; so, if ye
would witness these things, take me with you and I will deliver
to you the monies and the riches of the Knight Dakianus which be
in that mountain; for I saw them bring out vessels of gold and
silver to drink therefrom, and I heard a damsel of their company
sing to them in Arabic and well-away!  that so sweet a voice
should not be busied in chaunting the Koran.  If, then, ye will;
enter into that hermitage and hide there against the coming of
Dakianus and his daughter; and take her, for she is fit only for
the King of the Age, Sharrkan, or King Zau al-Makan." Thereat
they all rejoiced with the exception of the Wazir Dandan, who put
scant faith in her story, for her words took no hold on his
reason, and signs of doubt in her and disbelief showed in his
face.[FN#429]  Yet he was confounded at her discourse, but he
feared to speak with her for awe of the King.  Then quoth the
ancient dame, Zat al-Dawahi, "Verily, I fear lest the Knight come
and, seeing these troops encamped in the meadow, be afraid to
enter the hermitage." So Zau al-Makan ordered the army to march
upon Constantinople and said, "I have resolved to take with me an
hundred horse and many mules and make for that mountain, where we
will load the beasts with the monies which be in the hermitage."
Then he sent at once for the Chief Chamberlain whom they brought
into the presence; and he summoned likewise the leaders of the
Turks and Daylamites and said, "As soon as it is dawn, do ye set
forth for Constantinople; and thou, O Chamberlain, shalt take my
place in council and contrivance, while thou, O Rustam, shalt be
my brother's deputy in battle.  But let none know that we are not
with you and after three days we will rejoin you." Then he chose
out an hundred of the doughtiest riders, and he and Sharrkan and
the Minister Dandan set out for the hermitage, and the hundred
horsemen led the mules with chests for transporting the
treasure.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased
saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sharrkan
and his brother, Zau al-Makan and the Wazir Dandan set off with
an hundred horse for the hermitage described to them by that
accursed Zat al-Dawahi, and they took with them mules and chests
for transporting the treasure.  Now as soon as dawned the morn,
the Chamberlain signalled to the host an order for departure, and
they set out thinking that the two Kings and the Wazir were with
them; knowing not that the three had made for the monastery.
Such was the case with the host, but as regards the two Kings and
the Minister, they tarried in their place till the end of that
day.  Now the Infidels who were with Zat al-Dawahi took their
departure privily, after they had gone in to her and kissed her
hands and feet and obtained her leave to march.  So she not only
gave them permission but also taught them all she minded of wile
and guile.  And when it was dark night, she arose and went in to
Zau al-Makan and his companions and said to them, "Come, let us
set out for the mountain, and take with you a few men at arms."
They obeyed her and left five horsemen at the foot of the
mountain, whilst the rest rode on before Zat al-Dawahi, who
gained new strength for excess of joy, so that Zau al-Makan said,
"Glory be to Him who sustaineth this holy man, whose like we
never saw!" Now the witch had written a letter to the King of
Constantinople and despatched it on the wings of a bird,[FN#430]
acquainting him with what had passed and ending, "I wish thee to
send me ten thousand horsemen of the bravest of the Greeks and
let them steal along the foot of the mountains with caution, lest
the host of Al-Islam get sight of them; and, when they reach the
hermitage, let them ambush themselves there, till I come to them
with the Moslem King and his brother, for I shall inveigle them
and will bring them thither, together with the Wazir and an
hundred horse and no more, that I may presently deliver to them
the crosses which be in the hermitage.  I am resolved to slay the
Monk Matruhina, since my scheme cannot be carried out but by
taking his life.  If my plot work well, not one of the Moslems
shall return to his own country; no, not a living wight nor one
who blows the fire alight; and Matruhina shall be a sacrifice for
the followers of the Nazarene faith and the servants of the
Cross, and praise be to the Messiah, first and last." When this
letter reached Constantinople, the keeper of the carrier pigeons
carried it to King Afridun, who read it and forthwith inspected
his host and equipped ten thousand cavaliers with horses and
dromedaries and mules and provaunt and bade them repair to that
hermitage and, after reaching the tower, to hide therein.  Thus
far concerning them; but as regards King Zau al-Makan and his
brother Sharrkan and the Wazir Dandan and the escort, when they
reached the hermitage they entered and met the Monk Matruhina,
who came out to see who and what they were; whereupon quoth that
pious man Zat al-Dawahi, "Slay this damned fellow."[FN#431] So
they smote him with their swords and made him drink the cup of
death.  Then the accursed old woman carried them to the place of
offerings and ex votos, and brought out to them treasures and
precious things more than she had described to them; and after
gathering the whole together, they set the booty in chests and
loaded the mules therewith.  As for Tamasil, she came not, she or
her father, for fear of the Moslems; so Zau al-Makan tarried
there, awaiting her all that day and the next and a third, till
Sharrkan said to him, "By Allah, I am troubled anent the army of
Al-Islam, for I know not what is become of them." His brother
replied, "And I also am concerned for them: we have come by this
great treasure and I do not believe that Tamasil or any one else
will approach the hermitage, after that befel which hath befallen
the host of the Christians.  It behoveth us, then, to content
ourselves with what Allah hath given us and depart; so haply He
will help us conquer Constantinople." Accordingly they came down
from the mountain, while Zat al-Dawahi was impotent to oppose
their march for fear of betraying her deceit; and they fared
forwards till they reached the head of a defile, where the old
woman had laid an ambush for them with the ten thousand horse.
As soon as these saw the Moslems they encircled them from all
sides, couching lance and baring the white sabre blade; and the
Infidels shouted the watch word of their faithless Faith and set
the shafts of their mischief astring.  When Zau al-Makan and his
brother Sharrkan and the Minister Dandan looked upon this host,
they saw that it was a numerous army and said, "Who can have
given these troops information of us?" Replied Sharrkan, "O my
brother, this be no time for talk; this is the time for smiting
with swords and shooting with shafts) so gird up your courage and
hearten your hearts, for this strait is like a street with two
gates; though, by the virtue of the Lord of Arabs and Ajams, were
not the place so narrow I would bring them to naught, even though
they were an hundred thousand men!" Said Zau al-Makan, "Had we
wotted this we would have brought with us five thousand horse;"
and the Wazir Dandan continued, "If we had ten thousand horse
they had availed us naught in these narrows; but Allah will
succour us against them.  I know this defile and its straitness,
and I know there be many places of refuge in it; for I have been
here on razzia with King Omar bin al-Nu'uman, what while we
besieged Constantinople.  We abode in this place, and here is
water colder than snow.  So come, let us push out of this defile
ere the Infidel host increase on us and get the start of us to
the mountain top, whence they will hurl down rocks upon us, and
we powerless to come at them." So they began hurrying on to get
out of those narrows; but the pious man, Zat al-Dawahi, looked at
them and said, "What is it ye fear, ye who have vowed yourselves
to the Lord, and to working His will?  By Allah, I abode
imprisoned underground for fifteen years, yet never gainsaid the
Almighty in aught he did with me!  Fight ye in Allah's way; so
whoever of you is slain Paradise shall be his abode, and whoso
slayeth, his striving shall be to his honour." When they heard
from the ascetic these words, their care and anxiety ceased from
them and they stood firm till the Infidels charged down from all
sides, whilst the swords played upon their necks and the cup of
death went round amongst them.  The Moslems fought for the
service of Allah a right good fight, and wrought upon His foes
with sway of sword and lunge of lance; whilst Zau al-Makan smote
upon the men and garred the knights bite the dust and their heads
from their bodies take flight, five by five and ten by ten, till
he had done to death a number of them past numbering and an
accompt beyond counting.  Now while so doing, he looked at the
accursed old woman who was waving her sword and heartening them,
and all who feared fled to her for shelter; but she was also
signing the Infidels to slay Sharrkan.  So troop after troop
rushed on him with design to do him die; but each troop that
charged, he charged and drove back; and when another troop
attacked him he repelled the assault with the sword in their
backs; for he thought it was the devotee's blessing that gave him
the vic tory, and he said in himself, "Verily on this holy men
Allah looketh with eyes of His favour and strengtheneth my
prowess against the Infidels with the purity of his pious intent:
for I see that they fear me and cannot prevail against me, but
every one who assaileth me turneth tail and taketh flight." So
they battled the rest of the day and, when night fell, the
Moslems took refuge in a cave of that defile being weary with
stress of war and cast of stone: and that day were slain of them
five and forty.  And when they were gathered together, they
sought the devotee, but could find no trace of him; and this was
grievous to them and they said, "Belike, he hath died a martyr."
Quoth Sharrkan, "I saw him heartening the horsemen with divine
instances and using as talisman verses of Holy Writ." Now while
they were talking, behold, the accursed old woman, Zat al-Dawahi,
stood before them, hending in hand the head of the Chief Captain
of the ten thousand horse, a noble knight, a champion fierce in
fight and a Satan for blight.  One of the Turks had slain him
with an arrow, and Allah hurried his soul to the fire; and when
the Infidels saw what that Moslem had done with their leader,
they all fell on him and wrought his bane and hewed him in pieces
with their swords, and Allah hurried his soul to Heaven.  Then
the accursed old woman cut off that Knight's head and brought it
and threw it at the feet of Sharrkan and Zau al-Makan and the
Wazir Dandan.  Now when Sharrkan sew her, he sprang up hastily
before her and exclaimed, "Praised be Allah for thy safety and
for our sighting thee, O holy man and devout champion of the
Religion!" Replied she, O my son, I have sought martyrdom this
day, and have thrown my life away amid the Infidel array, but
they feared me with dismay.  When ye dispersed, I waxed jealous
for your honour; so I rushed on the Chief Knight their leader,
albeit he was a match for a thousand horse, and I smote him till
I severed head from trunk.  Not one of the Infidels could near
me; so I brought his head to you,"--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

             When it was the Ninety-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
damned witch, Zat al-Dawahi, took the head of the Knight, the
leader of the twenty thousand Infidels, she brought it and threw
it down before Zau al-Makan and his brother Sharrkan and the
Wazir Dandan, saying, "When I saw your condition, I waxed jealous
for your honour; so I rushed on the Chief Knight and smote him
with the sword till I severed head from trunk.  And none could
near me, so I brought his head to you, that you may be
strengthened in Holy War and work out with your swords the will
of the Lord of the Faithful.  And now I purpose leaving you to
strive against the Infidels, whilst I go to your army, though
they be at the gates of Constantinople, and return with twenty
thousand horse to destroy these Unfaithfuls." Quoth Sharrkan,
"How wilt thou pass to them, O thou holy man, seeing that the
valley is blocked up on all sides by the Miscreants?" Quoth the
accursed hag, "Allah will veil me from their eyes and they shall
not sight me;[FN#432] nor, if any saw me, would he dare to attack
me at that time, for I shall be as one non existing, absorbed in
Allah, and He will fend off from me His foes." "Thou sayest
sooth, O holy man," rejoined Sharrkan, "for indeed I have been
witness of that; so, if thou can pass out at the first of the
night, 'twill be best for us." Replied she, "I will set out at
this very hour and, if thou desire, thou shalt go with me and
none shall see thee.  Furthermore if thy brother also have a mind
to go with us we will take him, but none else; for the shadow of
a saint can cover only twain." Sharrkan said, "As for me I will
not leave my comrades; but, if my brother will, there is no harm
in his going with thee and setting us free of this strait; for he
is the stronghold of the Moslems and the sword of the Lord of the
three Worlds; and if it be his pleasure, let him take with him
the Wazir Dandan, or whom else he may elect and send us ten
thousand horse to succour us against these caitiffs." So after
debate they agreed on this and the old woman said, "Give me
leisure to go before you and consider the condition of the
Infidels, if they be asleep or awake." Quoth they, "We will not
go forth save with thee and trust our affair to Allah." "If I do
your bidding," replied she, "blame me not but blame yourselves;
for it is my rede that you await me till I bring you tidings of
the case." Then said Sharrkan, "Go to them and delay not from us,
for we shall be awaiting thee." Thereupon she fared forth and
Sharrkan turned to his brother addressing him and said, "Were not
this holy man a miracle worker, he had never slain yonder furious
knight.  This is proof sufficient of the ascetic's power; and of
a truth the pride of the Infidels is laid low by the slaying of
this cavalier, for he was violent, an evil devil and a stubborn."
Now whilst they were thus devising of the mighty works of the
devotee, behold, the accursed Zat al-Dawahi came upon them and
promised them victory over the Unbelievers; wherefor they thanked
her (not knowing that all this was wile and guile) and the damned
hag asked, "Where be the King of the Age, Zau al-Makan, and the
Minister Dandan?" Answered he, "Here am I!" Take with thee thy
Wazir," said she, "and follow after me, that we may fare forth to
Constantinople." Now she had acquainted the Infidels with the
cheat she had put upon the Moslems, and they rejoiced with
exceeding great joy, and said, Our hearts will not be contented
till we shall have slain their King in return for the Knight's
death; because we had no stouter rider than he;" and they added
(bespeaking the ill omened hag as she told them her plan of
faring to the land of the Moslems), "When thou bringest him to
us, we will bear him to King Afridun." Then she went out and went
out with her Zau al-Makan and the Minister Dandan, and she walked
on before the two saying, "Fare forth with the blessing of
Almighty Allah!" So they did her bidding, for the shaft of Pate
and Fortune of man's lot had shot them, and she ceased not
leading them both through the midst of the Grecian camp, till
they came to the defile, the narrow pass aforesaid, whilst the
Infidel enemy watched them, but did them no hindrance; for the
infernal old woman had enjoined this.  Now when Zau al-Makan and
the Wazir Dandan saw that the Infidel host offered them no let
and stay and yet had them in sight, the Wazir exclaimed, "By
Allah, this is one of the holy man's saintly miracles!  and
doubtless he be of the elect." Rejoined Zau al-Makan, "By Allah,
I think the Infidels be naught but blind, for we see them and
they see us not." And while they were thus praising the holy man
and recounting his mighty works and his piety and his prayers,
behold, the Infidels charged down on them from all sides and
surrounded them and seized them, saying, "Is there anyone else
with you twain, that we may seize upon him too?" And the Wazir
Dandan replied, "See you not yon other man that is before us?  '
Replied the Unbelievers, "By the truth of the Messiah and the
Monks, and the Primate and the Metropolitan, we see none save you
two!" Then Zau Al-Makan said, "By Allah, this is a chastisement
decreed to us by Almighty Allah!"--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Unfaithful had seized upon King Zau al-Makan and the Wazir
Dandan, they said to the two, "Is there anyone else with you
twain, that we may seize upon him also?" And the Wazir Dandan
replied, "See you not yon other man who be with us?" They
rejoined, "By the truth of the Messiah and the Monks and the
Primate and the Metropolitan, we see none save you two!" Then the
Infidels laid shackles on their feet and set men to guard them
during the night, whilst Zat al-Dawahi fared on and disappeared
from their sight.  So they fell to lamenting and saying to each
other, "Verily, the opposing of pious men leadeth to greater
distress than this, and we are punished by the strait which hath
befallen us." So far concerning Zau al-Makan and the Wazir
Dandan; but as regards King Sharrkan, he passed that night in the
cavern with his comrades, and when dawned the day and he had
prayed the morn prayer, he and his men made ready to do battle
with the Infidel and he heartened them and promised them all
good.  Then they sallied out till they were hard upon the
Unbelievers and, when these saw them from afar, they cried out to
them, saying, "O Moslems, we have taken captives your Sultan and
your Wazir who hath the ordering of your affairs; and except ye
leave off fighting us, we will slay you to the last man; but an
you yield yourselves we will take you to our King, who will make
peace with you on condition that you quit our country and return
home and harm us in naught, and we will do you no harm in aught.
If ye accept, it will be well for you; but if ye refuse there
remaineth nothing for you but death.  So we have told you sooth,
and this is our last word to you." Now when Sharrkan heard this
and was certified of the captivity of his brother and the Wazir
Dandan, he was weighed down with woe and wept; his force failed
him and, making sure of death, he said to himself, "Would I knew
the cause of their capture!  Did they fail of respect to the holy
man or disobey him, or what was the matter?" Then they sprang up
to battle with the Unbelievers and slew great numbers of them.
The brave was known that day from craven men, and sword and spear
were dyed with bloody stain; for the Infidels flocked up on them,
as flies flock to drink, from hill and from plain; but Sharrkan
and his men ceased not to wage the fight of those who fear not to
die, nor let death hinder them from the pursuit of victory, till
the valley ran gore and earth was full of the slain she bore.
And when night fell the armies separated each making for his own
place; and the Moslems returned to the cavern where gain and loss
were manifest to them: few remained of them and there was no
dependence for them but on Allah and the scymitar.  Now there had
been slain of them that day five and thirty men of the chiefest
Emirs, and they had killed thousands of the Infidels, footmen and
fighters on horse.  When Sharrkan saw this, the case was grievous
to him and he asked his comrades "What shall we do?"; whereto all
answered, "That which Almighty Allah willeth shall befal us." On
the morning of the second day, Sharrkan said to the remnant of
his troop, "If ye go forth to fight, not one of you will remain
alive and we have but little left of food and water; so I deem ye
would do better to bare your brands and go forth and stand at the
mouth of this cavern, to hinder any from entering.  Haply the
holy man may have reached the Moslem host, and may return with
ten thousand horses to succour us in fight with the Infidels, for
belike the Unfaithful may have failed to see him and those with
him." They said, This were the better course to take, and of its
expediency no doubt we make." So the troop went out and held the
cavern mouth standing by its walls; and every one of the Infidels
who sought to enter in, they slew.  Thus did they fend off the
foe from the gape of the cave and they patiently supported all
such assaults, till day was done and night came on dusky and
dun;--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying
her permitted say.

              When it was the Ninety-ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the army of
the Moslems held the cavern mouth and stood by its walls and they
fended off the foe, and every one of the Infidels attempted to
charge them, him they slew; and they patiently supported all such
assaults till day was done and night came on dusky and dun, by
which time King Sharrkan had only five and twenty men and no more
left.  Then quoth the Infidels to one another, "When shall these
battle days have an end?  We are weary of warring the Moslems."
And quoth one of them, "Up and at them, for there remain of them
but five and twenty men!  If we cannot prevail on them to fight,
let us light a fire upon them;[FN#433] and if they submit
themselves and yield to us, we will take them prisoners; but if
they refuse we will leave them for fuel to the fire, so shall
they become to men of foreseeing mind a warning dire.  May the
Messiah on their fathers have no grace, and may the sojourn of
the Nazarenes be for them no abiding place!" So they carried fuel
to the jaws of the cavern and set fire to it.  Thereupon Sharrkan
and his companions made sure of perdition and yielded themselves
prisoners.  And while they were in this condition, lo!  the
knight their captain said to those who counselled their
slaughter, "It is not for any save for King Afridun to kill them,
that he may gratify his wrath; therefore it behoveth us to keep
them in durance by us till the morrow, when we will journey with
them to Constantinople and deliver them to our King, who shall
deal with them as he please." Said they, "This is the right
course;" and he commanded to pinion them and set guards over
them.  Then, as soon as it was black night, the Infidels busied
themselves with feasting and making festival; and they called for
wine and drank it till all fell upon their backs.  Now Sharrkan
and his brother, Zau al-Makan, were in confinement and so also
were his companion knights; whereupon the elder turned to the
younger brother and said to him, "O my brother, how win free?"
"By Allah," replied Zau al Makan, "I know not; for here we be
like birds in cage." Then Sharrkan waxed wroth and sighed for
excess of rage and stretched himself, till his pinion bonds brass
asunder; whereupon being free he arose and went up to the Captain
of the guard, and taking from his pocket the keys of the fetters,
freed Zau al-Makan and the Wazir Dandan and the rest of his men.
Then he turned to the two and said, "I desire to slay three of
these Infidels and take and don their dress, we three; so that we
shall be guised as Greeks and we will pass through them, with out
their knowing us, and fare forth to our own force." Replied Zau
al-Makan, "This is no safe counsel for if we kill them, I fear
some of their comrades may hear their shrieks and the foe be
aroused upon us and kill us.  'Twere the surer way to pass out of
the defile." So they agreed upon this and set out; and, when they
had left the head of the strait a little distance behind, they
saw horses picketed and the riders sleeping: and Sharrkan said to
his brother, "Better we take each one of us a steed." There were
five and twenty horsemen, so they took five and twenty horses,
whilst Allah sent sleep upon the Infidels for a purpose He knew
and the Faithful mounted and fared on till they were out of
reach.  Meanwhile Sharrkan set to gathering from the Infidels as
many weapons, swords, and spears, as were wanted.  And while they
took saddle and struck forwards none of the Infidels supposed
that anyone could release Zau al-Makan and his brother and their
men; or that their prisoners had power to escape.  Now when all
the captives were safe from the Unfaithful, Sharrkan came up with
his comrades, and found them awaiting his arrival, on coals of
flame, expecting him in anxious grame, so he turned to them and
said, "Feel no fear since Allah protecteth us.  I have that to
propose which haply shall effect our purpose." "What is it?"
asked they and he answered, "I desire that ye all climb to the
mountain top and cry out with one voice, 'Allaho Akbar!' and ye
add, 'The army of Al Islam is upon you!  Allaho Akbar!' This wise
their company will surely be dissolved nor will they find out the
trick for they are drunk, but they will think that the Moslem
troops have encompassed them about on all sides and have mingled
with them; so they will fall on one another brand in hand during
the confusion of drunkenness and sleep, and we will cleave them
asunder with their own swords and the scymitar will go round
amongst them till dawn." Replied Zau al-Makan, "This plan is not
good; we should do better to make our way to our army and speak
not a word; for if we cry out 'Allaho Akbar,' they will wake and
fall on us and not one of us will escape." Rejoined Sharrkan, "By
Allah, though they should awake tis no matter, and I long that ye
fall in with my plan, for naught save good can come of it!" So
they agreed thereon and clomb the mountain and shouted, "Allaho
Akbar!" And hills and trees and rocks reworded their Allaho Akbar
for fear of the Almighty.  But when the Kafirs heard this slogan
they cried out to one another,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

              When it was the One Hundredth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sharrkan
spake thus, "I long that ye fall in with this my plan, for naught
save good can come of it." So they agreed thereon and clomb the
mountain head and shouted, "Allaho Akbar!"; and hills and trees
and rocks re worded their Allaho Akbar for fear of the Almighty.
The Infidels heard it and cried out one to other and donned their
armour and said, "The foe is upon us, by the truth of the
Messiah!" Then they fell on one another and slew of their own men
more than any knoweth save Almighty Allah.  As soon as it was
dawn, they sought for the captives, but found no trace of them,
and their captains said, "They who did this were the prisoners in
our possession; up, then, and after them in all haste till ye
overtake them, when we will make them quaff the cup of requital;
and let not fright nor the panic of sudden awaking possess you."
So they took horse and rode after the fugitives and it wanted but
an eye twinkling before they overtook them and surrounded them.
Now when Zau al-Makan saw this, he was seized with increase of
terror and said to his brother, "What I feared would come, is
come upon us, and now it remaineth only for us to fight for the
Faith." But Sharrkan preferred to hold his peace.  Then Zau al-
Makan and his companions rushed down from the hill crest,
shouting, "Allaho Akbar!" and his men repeated the war cry and
addressed themselves to fight and to sell their lives in the
service of the Lord of Faithful Men; and while they were in this
case, behold, they heard many voices voicing, "There is no god
but the God!  God is most great!  Salutation and salvation upon
the Apostle, the Bringer of glad Tidings, the Bearer of bad
Tidings!''[FN#434]  So they turned towards the direction of the
sound and saw a company of Moslems who believed in one God,
pushing towards them, whereat their hearts were heartened and
Sharrkan charged upon the Infidels crying out, "There is no god
but the God!  God is most great! he and those with him, so that
earth quaked as with an earthquake and the Unbeliever host brake
asunder and fled into the mountains and the Moslems followed them
with lunge and blow; and Zau al-Makan and his comrades of the
Moslems ceased not to smite the hosts of the Infidel foe, and
parted heads from bodies till day darkened and night coming on
starkened sight.  Thereupon the Moslems drew together and passed
the night in congratulations, and, when morning dawned and
daybreak shone with its shine and sheen, they saw Bahram, the
captain of the Daylamites, and Rustam, the captain of the Turks,
advancing to join them, with twenty thousand cavaliers like lions
grim.  As soon as they saw Zau al-Makan, the riders dismounted
and saluted him, and kissed ground between his hands when he said
to them, "Rejoice ye in the glad tidings of the victory of the
Moslem and the discomfiture of the tribe of Unbelievers!" Then
they gave one another joy of their deliverance and of the
greatness of their reward after Resurrection Day.  Now the cause
of the coming of the succours to that place was this.  When the
Emir Bahram and the Emir Rustam and the Chief Chamberlain, with
the Moslem host and flags flaunting high ahead, came in sight of
Constantinople they saw that the Nazarenes had mounted the walls
and manned the towers and the forts, and had set all their
defenders in order of defence, as soon as they learned of the
approach of the host of Al-Islam and the banners Mohammedan, and
they heard the clash of arms and the noise of war voices and
tramp of horse hoofs and from their look outs they beheld the
Moslems, with their standards and ensigns of the Faith of Unity
under the dust clouds and lo!  they were like a flight of locusts
or rain clouds raining rain, and the voices of the Moslems
chanting the Koran and glorifying the Compassionate One, struck
their ears.  Now the Infidels knew of the approach of this host
through Zat al-Dawahi with her craft and whoredom,[FN#435]
calumny and contrivance.  And the armies of Al-Islam drew near,
as it were the swollen sea, for the multitude of footmen and
horsemen and women and children.  Then quoth the General of the
Turks to the General of the Daylamites, "O Emir, of a truth, we
are in jeopardy from the multitude of the foe who is on the
walls.  Look at yonder bulwarks and at this world of folk like
the seas that clash with dashing billows.  Indeed yon Infidel
outnumbereth us an hundredfold and we cannot be safe from spies
who may inform them that we are without a Sultan.  In very sooth,
we run danger from these enemies, whose numbers may not be told
and whose resources none can withhold, especially in the absence
of King Zau al-Makan and his brother Sharrkan and the illustrious
Wazir Dandan.  If they know of this, they will be emboldened to
attack us in their absence and with the sword they will
annihilate us to the last man; not one of us safety shall see.
So it is my counsel that thou take ten thousand riders of the
allies and the Turks, and march them to the hermitage of
Matruhina and the meadow of Malúkhiná in quest of our brothers
and comrades.  If thou act by my advice, it may be we shall
approve ourselves the cause of their deliverance, in case they be
hard pressed by the Infidels; and if thou act not, blame will not
attach to me.  But, an ye go, it behoveth that ye return quickly,
for ill suspicion is part of prudence." The Emir aforesaid fell
in with his counsel; so they chose twenty thousand horse and they
set out covering the roads and making for the monastery above
mentioned.  So much for the cause of their coming; but as regards
the ancient dame, Zat al-Dawahi, as soon as she had delivered
Sultan Zau al-Makan and his brother Sharrkan and the Wazir Dandan
into the hands of the Infidels, the foul whore mounted a swift
steed, saying to the Faithless, "I design to rejoin the Moslem
army which is at Constantinople and contrive for their
destruction; for I will inform them that their chiefs are dead,
and when they hear that from me, their joining will be disjointed
and the cord of their confederation cut and their host scattered.
Then will I go to King Afridun, Lord of Constantinople, and to my
son Hardub, King of Roum, and relate to them their tidings and
they will sally forth on the Moslems with their troops and will
destroy them and will not leave one of them alive." So she
mounted and struck across country on her good steed all the
livelong night; and, when day dawned, appeared the armies of
Bahram and Rustam advancing towards her.  So she turned into a
wayside brake and hid her horse among the trees and she walked a
while saying to herself, "Haply the Moslem hosts be returning,
routed, from the assault of Constantinople." However, as she drew
near them she looked narrowly and made sure that their standards
were not reversed,[FN#436] and she knew that they were coming not
as conquered men, but fearing for their King and comrades.  When
she was assured of this, she hastened towards them, running at
speed, like a devil of ill rede, till reaching them she cried
out, "Haste ye!  haste ye!  O soldiers of the Compassionate One,
hasten to the Holy War against the hosts of Satan!" When Bahram
saw her he dismounted and kissed the ground before her and asked
her, "O friend of Allah what is behind thee?" Answered she,
"Question not of sad case and sore condition; for when our
comrades had taken the treasure from the hermitage of Matruhina,
and designed to win their way Constantinople wards, thereupon
came out on them a driving host and a dreadful of the Infidels."
And the damned witch repeated to them the story to fill them with
trouble and terror, adding, "The most of them are dead, and there
are but five and twenty men left." Said Bahram, "O holy man!
when didst thou leave them?" "But this night,"[FN#437] replied
she.  He cried, "Glory be to Allah!  to Him who hath rolled up
the far distance for thee like a rug, so that thou hast sped thus
walking upon thy feet and props upon a mid-rib of palm-tree!  But
thou art one of the saints which fly like birds when inspired and
possessed by His directions."[FN#438]  Then he mounted his horse,
and he was perplexed and confounded by what he had heard from the
beldam so strong in lies and ill calumnies, and he said, "There
is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious,
the Great!  Verily our labour is lost and our hearts are heavy
within us, for our Sultan is a prisoner and those who are with
him." Then they cut across the country, wide and side, night and
day, and when morning dawned they reached the head of the defile
and saw Zau al-Makan and Sharrkan shouting.  "There is no god but
the God!  Allaho Akbar!  and Salutation and Salvation upon the
Congratulator, the Comminator."[FN#439]  Whereupon he and his
drove at the Unbelievers and whelmed them, as the rain torrent
whelms the waste; and cried out their war cries, till fear get
hold of the prowess Knights and the mountains were cloven in
affright.  And when shone the day and showed its shine and sheen,
the breeze of morning blew upon them sweet and fragrant, and each
recognised other as hath been said before.  Then they kissed the
ground before the King and before his brother Sharrkan, who told
them all that had befallen the party in the cave.  Now thereat
they marvelled and said to one another, "Hasten we back to
Constantinople, for we left our companions there, and our hearts
are with them." So they hurried departure, commending themselves
to the Subtle, the All-wise, and Zau al-Makan exhorted the
Moslems to steadfast- ness and versified in the following

"Be praises mine to all praiseworthy Thee, * O Lord, who stinted
     not mine aid to be!
Though was I lost abroad, Thou west to me * Strongest support
     which vouchsafed victory:
Thou gav'st me wealth and reign and goodly gifts, * And slungest
     con quering sword of valiancy:
Thou mad'st me blest beneath Thy kingly shade, * Engraced with
     generous boons dealt fain and free:
Thou savedst *from every fear I feared, by aid * Of my Wazir, the
     Age's noblest he!
Garred us Thy grace in fight to throw the Greek, * Who yet came
     back dight in War's cramoisie:
Then made I feint to fly from out the fight; * But like grim lion
     turning made them flee,
And left on valley sole my foemen, drunk * Not with old
     wine[FN#441] but Death-cup's revelry:
Then came the Saintly Hermit, and he showed * His marvels wrought
     for town and wold to see;
When slew they hero-wights who woke to dwell * In Eden bowers
     wherein sweet rill-lets well."

But, when Zau al-Makan had made an end of versifying, his brother
Sharrkan congratulated him on his safety and thanked him for the
deeds he had done; after which both set out forcing their marches
to rejoin their army.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day
and ceased saying her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and First Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sharrkan
congratulated his brother, Zau al-Makan, on his safety and
thanked him for the deeds he had done; after which both set out
forcing their marches to rejoin their army.  Such was their case;
but as regards the old woman, Zat al-Dawahi, after she had
foregathered with the hosts of Rustam and Bahram, she returned to
the coppice, where she took her steed and mounted and sped on at
speed, till she drew near the Moslem army that beleaguered
Constantinople, when she lighted down from her destrier and led
it to the pavilion tent of the Chief Chamberlain.  And when he
saw her, he stood up to her in honour and signed to her with his
right hand and said, "Welcome O pious recluse!" Then he
questioned her of what had befallen, and she repeated to him her
disquieting lies and deluding calumnies, saying, "In sooth I fear
for the Emir Rustam, and the Emir Bahram, for that I met them and
theirs on the way and sent them and their following to relieve
the King and his companions.  Now there are but twenty thousand
horse and the Unbelievers outnumber them; so I would have thee at
this moment send off the rest of thy troops at full speed to
their suc cour, lest they be slain to the last man." And she
cried to them, "Haste!  Haste!" When the Chamberlain and the
Moslems heard these words, their spirits fell and they wept; but
Zat al-Dawahi said to them, "Ask aidance of Allah and bear
patiently this triburation; for ye have the example of those who
have been before you of the people of Mohammed; and Paradise with
its palaces is laid out by Allah for those who die martyrs; and
needs must all die, but most praiseworthy is dying while fighting
for the Faith." The Chamberlain, hearing this speech of the
accursed old woman, called for the Emir Bahram's brother, a
knight by name Tarkash; and, choosing out for him ten thousand
horse, riders famed for force, bade him set out at once.  So he
fared forth and marched all that day and the whole of the next
night, till he neared the Moslems.  When daylight dawned,
Sharrkan saw the dust cloud about them and feared for the men of
Al-Islam and said, "If these troops which are coming upon us be
Moslem men our victory is assured by them; but, if these be
Nazarenes, there is no gainsaying Destiny's decrees." Then he
turned to his brother, Zau al- Makan, and said, Never fear, for
with my life I will ransom thee from death.  If these be
Mohammedan troops, then were it an increase of heavenly favours;
but, if they be our foes, there is no help save that we fight
them.  Yet do I long to meet the Holy Man ere I die, so I may beg
him to pray that I die not save by death of martyrdom." Whilst
the twain were thus speaking, behold, there appeared the banners
inscribed with the words, "There is no god but the God and
Mohammed is the Apostle of God;" and Sharrkan cried out, "How is
it with the Moslems?" "All are sound and safe," replied they,
"and we came not but out of concern for you." Then the Chief of
the army dismounted and, kissing ground before Sharrkan, asked,
"O my lord, how be the Sultan and the Wazir Dandan and Rustam and
my brother Bahram; are they all in safety?" He answered, "All
well; but who brought thee tidings of us?" Quoth Tarkash; "It was
the Holy Man who told us that he had met my brother Bahram and
Rustam and had sent them both to you and he also assured us that
the Infidels had encompassed you and out numbered you; but I see
not the case save the contrary thereof and that you are
victorious." They questioned him, "And how did the Holy Man reach
you?"; and he replied, "Walking on his feet and he had compassed
in a day and a night, ten days' journey for a well girt
horseman." "There is no doubt but that he is a Saint of Allah,"
said Sharrkan, "but where is he now?" They rejoined, "We left him
with our troops, the folk of the Faith, moving them to do battle
with the rebels and the Faithless." Thereat Sharrkan rejoiced and
all thanked Allah for their own deliverance and the safety of the
Holy Man; and commended the dead to His mercy saying, "This was
writ in the Book." Then they set out making for Constantinople by
forced marches, and whilst they were on this enterprise, behold,
a dust cloud arose to such height that it walled the two
horizons, the eastern and the western, from man's sight and the
day was darkened by it to night.  But Sharrkan looked at it and
said, "Verily, I fear lest this be the Infidels who have routed
the army of Al-Islam for that this dust walleth the world, east
and west, and hideth the two horizons, north and south."
Presently appeared under the dust a pillar of darkness, blacker
than the blackness of dismal days; nor ceased to come upon them
that column more dreadful than the dread of the Day of Doom.
Horse and foot hastened up to look at it and know the terrors of
the case, when behold, they saw it to be the recluse aforesaid;
so they thronged round him to kiss his hands and he cried out, "O
people of the Best of Mankind,[FN#442] the lamp which shineth in
darkness blind, verily the Infidels have outwitted the Moslems by
guile, for they fell upon the host of the One God whilst they
deemed themselves safe from the Faithless, and attacked them in
their tents and made a sore slaughter of them what while they
looked for no wile; so hasten to the aid of the Believers in the
unity of God, and deliver them from those who deny Him!" Now when
Sharrkan heard these words, his heart flew from his breast with
sore trouble; and, alighting from his steed in amazement, he
kissed the Recluse's hands and feet.  On like wise did his
brother, Zau al-Makan, and the rest of the foot and horse troops;
except the Wazir Dandan, who dismounted not but said, "By Allah,
my heart flieth from this devotee, for I never knew show of
devotion to religion that bred not bane.  So leave him and rejoin
your comrades the Moslems, for this man is of the outcasts from
the gate of the mercy of the Lord of the Three Worlds!  How often
have I here made razzias with King Omar bin al-Nu'uman and
trodden the earth of these lands!" Said Sharrkan, "Put away from
thee such evil thought, hast thou not seen this Holy Man exciting
the Faithful to fight, and holding spears and swords light?  So
slander him not, for backbiting is blameable and poisoned is the
flesh of the pious.[FN#443]  Look how he inciteth us to fight the
foe; and, did not Almighty Allah love him, He had cast him
aforetime into fearful torment." Then Sharrkan bade bring a
Nubian mule for the ascetic to ride and said, "Mount, O pious
man, devout and virtuous!" But the devotee refused to ride and
feigned self denial, that he might attain his end; and they knew
not that this holy personage was like him of whom the poet saith,

"He prayeth and he fasteth for an end he doth espy; * When once
     his end is safely won then fast and prayer good

So the devotee ceased not to walk among the horsemen and the
footmen, like a wily fox meditating guile, and began to uplift
her voice, chanting the Koran and praising the Compassionate One.
And they continued pressing forward till they approached the camp
of Al-Islam, where Sharrkan found the Moslem in conquered plight
and the Chamberlain upon the brink of falling back in flight,
whilst the sword of Greece havoc dight among the Faithful, the
righteous and those who work upright,--And Shahrazad perceived
the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

         When it was the One Hundred and Second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when
Sharrkan saw the Moslems in conquered plight and the Chamberlain
upon the brink of retreat and flight and the sword havoc dight
among the righteous and the workers of upright, the cause of this
weakness among the Moslems was that the accursed old woman, Zat
al- Dawahi, the foe of the Faith, after seeing that Bahram and
Rustam had set forward with their troops to join Sharrkan and his
brother Zau al-Makan, repaired to the camp of the Mahometans
before Constantinople and caused the mission of the Emir Tarkash,
as hath been before said.  In this her purpose was to divide the
Moslem forces the better to weaken them.  Then she left them and
entered Constantinople, and called with a loud voice on the
knights of the Greeks, saying, "Let me down a cord that I may tie
thereto this letter, and do ye bear it to your King Afridun, that
he may read it and to my son King Hardub that they both do what
is written therein of bidding and forbidding." So they let down
for her a string and she tied thereto a letter whose purport was
the following: "From the terriblest of tribulations[FN#445] and
the chiefest of all calamities, Zat al-Dawahi, to King Afridun
greeting.  But afterwards, of a truth I have contrived a device
for destroying the Moslems; so bide ye quiet and content.  I have
cozened and captured their Sultan and the Wazir Dandan; and then
I returned to their camp and acquainted them therewith, whereby
their pride had a fall and their withers were wrung.  And I have
so wrought upon the host 'leaguering Constantinople that they
have sent ten thousand men under the Emir Tarkash to succour the
capitves, of whom there be now left but few; it is therefore my
object that ye sally forth against them with all your power while
this day endureth; and that ye fall on them in their tents and
that ye leave them not till ye shall have slain them to the last
man; for, verily the Messiah looketh down upon you and the
Blessed Virgin favoureth you; and I hope of the Messiah that he
forget not what deed I have done." When her letter came to King
Afridun, he rejoiced with great joyance; and, sending at once for
King Hardub of Greece, son of Zat al-Dawahi, read the letter to
him as soon as he came,whereathe was exceeding glad and said,
"See my mother's craft; verily it dispenseth with swords, and her
aspect standeth in stead of the terrors of the Day of Dread."
Rejoined Afridun, "May the Messiah not bereave us of thy
venerable parent nor deprive her of her wile and guile!" Then he
bade the Knights give orders for sallying outside the city, and
the news was noised abroad in Constantinople.  So the Nazarenes
and the cohorts of the Cross burst forth and unsheathed their
keen sabres in their numbers, shouting out their professions of
impiety and heresies, and blaspheming the Lord of all Creatures.
When the Chamberlain saw the sally, he said, "Behold, the Greek
is upon us and they surely have learned that our Sultan is far
away; and haply they have attacked us, for that the most part of
our troops have marched to the succour of King Zau al-Makan!"
Therewith he waxed wroth and cried out, "Ho, soldiers of Al-Islam
and favourers of the True Faith, an you flee you are lost, but if
ye stand fast, ye win!  Know ye that valiancy lieth in endurance
of outrance and that no case is so strait but that the Almighty
is able to make it straight; Allah assain you and look upon you
with eyes of compassion fain!" Thereupon the Moslems cried out,
"Allaho Akbar!" and the believer in the One God shouted his
slogan, and whirled the mill wheels of fight with cutting and
thrusting in main and might; scymitars and spears played sore and
the plains and valleys were swamped with gore.  The priests and
monks priested it, tight girding their girdles and uplifting the
Crucifixes, while the Moslem shouted out the professions of the
Requiting King and verses of the Koran began to sing.  The hosts
of the Compassion are One fought against the legions of Satan;
and head flew from body of man, while the good Angels hovered
above the people of the Chosen Prophet, nor did the sword cease
to smite till the day darkened and night came on and starkened.
Now the miscreants had encompassed the Moslems and made sure of
escaping the pains that awaited them; and the Faithless greeded
for victory over the Faithful until day dawned and dazzled.
There upon the Chamberlain mounted, he and his men, trusting thee
Allah would help them to victory; and host was mingled with host
and battle rose a foot and took post.  And heads flew from trunks
whilst the brave stood fast in stead; the craven turned tail and
fled; and the Judge of death judged and sentence sped, so that
the champions fell from their saddles slain and corpses cumbered
meadow and plain.  Then the Moslem began to give ground and
rearwards bent; and the Greek took possession of some of their
tents; whereupon the Moslems were about to break and retreat and
take flight, when meanwhile behold, up came Sharrkan with the
rest of the host of Al-Islam and the standards of the Believers
in Unity.  And having come up with them, he charged the Infidels;
and followed him Zau al-Makan and the Wazir Dandan and the Emirs
Bahram and Rustam with his brother Tarkash.  When the foe saw
this, they lost head and their reason fled, and the dust clouds
towered till they covered the country whilst the righteous
Believers joined their pious comrades.  Then Sharrkan accosted
the Chamberlain and praised him for his steadfastness; and he in
turn gave the Prince joy of his timely succour and his gaining
the day.  Thereat the Moslems were glad and their hearts were
heartened; so they rushed upon their enemies and devoted
themselves to Allah in their Fight for the Faith.  But when the
Idolaters beheld the standards Mohammedan and there on the
profession of Faith Islamitan, proclaiming the Unity, they
shrieked "Woe!" and "Ruin!" and besought succour of the
Patriarchs of the Monasteries.  Then fell they to calling upon
John and Mary and the Cross abhorrent and stayed their hands from
slaughter, whilst King Afridun went up to consult King Hardub of
Greece, for the two Kings stood one at the head of each wing,
right and left.  Now there was with them also a famous cavalier,
Lawiya highs, who commanded the centre; and they drew out in
battle array, but indeed they were full of alarm and affray.
Meanwhile, the Moslems aligned their forces and thereupon
Sharrkan came to his brother, Zau al-Makan, and said, "O King of
the Age, doubtless they mean to champion it, and that is also the
object of our desire; but it is my wish to push forward the
stoutest hearted of our fighters, for by forethought is one half
of life wrought." Replied the Sultan, "As thou wilt, O companion
of good counsel!" "It is my wish," added Sharrkan, "to stand in
mid line opposite the Infidel, with the Wazir Dandan on my left
and thee on my right, whilst the Emir Bahram leads the dexter
wing and the Emir Rustam leads the wing sinistral; and thou, O
mighty King, shalt be under the standards and the ensigns, for
that thou art the pillar of our defence; upon thee, after Allah,
is our dependence and we will all be thy ransom from aught that
can harm thee."  Zau al-Makan thanked him therefor, and the
slogan arose and the sabre was drawn; but, as things stood thus,
behold, there came forth a cavalier from the ranks of Roum; and,
as he drew near, they saw that he was mounted on a slow paced she
mule, fleeing with her master from the shock of swords.  Her
housings were of white silk covered by a prayer-carpet of Cash
mere stuff, and on her back sat a Shaykh, an old man of comely
presence and reverend aspect, garbed in a gown of white wool.  He
stinted not pushing her and hurrying her on till he came near the
Moslem and said, "I am an ambassador to you all, and an
ambassador hath naught to do save to deliver; so give me safe
conduct and permit of speech, that I communicate to you my
message." Replied Sharrkan, "Thou art in safety: fear neither
sway of sword nor lunge of lance." Thereupon the old man
dismounted and, taking the Cross from his neck, placed it before
the Sultan and humbled himself with much humility.  Then quoth to
him the Moslems, "What is with thee of news?"; and quoth he, "I
am an ambassador from King Afridun, for I counselled him to avert
the destruction of all these frames of men and temples of the
Compassionate One; and to him it seemed righteous to stay the
shedding of blood and limit it to the encounter of two knights in
shock of fight singular; so he agreed to that and he saith to
you, 'Verily, I will ransom my army with my life; so let the
Moslem King do as I do and with his life ransom his host.  And if
he kill me, there will be no stay left in the army of Roum, and
if I kill him, there will be no stability with the Moslems." When
Sharrkan heard this he said, "O monk, I agree to that, for it is
just nor may it be gainsaid; and behold, I will meet him in
duello and do with him derring do, for I am Champion of the
Faithful even as he is Champion of the Faithless; and if he slay
me, he will have won the day and naught will remain for the
Moslems forces save flight.  So return to him, O thou monk, and
say that the single combat shall take place to morrow, for this
day we have come off our journey and are aweary; but after rest
neither reproach nor blame fear ye." So the monk returned (and he
rejoicing) to King Afridun and King Hardub, and told them both
what Sharrkan had said, whereat King Afridun was glad with
exceeding gladness and fell from him anxiety and sadness, and he
said to himself, "No doubt but this Sharrkan is their doughtiest
swayer of the sword and the dourest at lunge of lance; and when I
shall have slain him, their hearts will be disheartened and their
strength will be shattered." Now Zat al-Dawahi had written to
King Afridun of that and had told him how Sharrkan was a Knight
of the Braves and the bravest of knights and had warned him
against him; but Afridun was a stalwart cavalier who fought in
many a fashion; he could hurl rocks and throw spears and smite
with the iron mace and he feared not the prowess of the prow.  So
when he heard the report of the monk that Sharrkan agreed to the
duello, he was like to fly for exceeding joy because he had self
confidence and he knew that none could with stand him.  The
Infidels passed that night in joy and jubilee and wine bibbing;
and, as soon as it was dawn, the two armies drew out with the
swart of spear and the blanch of blade.  And behold a cavalier
rode single handed into the plain, mounted on a steed of purest
strain, and for foray and fray full ready and fain.  And that
Knight had limbs of might and he was clad in an iron cuirass made
for stress of fight.  On his breast he wore a jewelled mirror and
in his hand he bore a keen scymitar and his lance of Khalanj
wood,[FN#446] the curious work of the Frank, weighing a quintal.
Then the rider uncovered his face and cried out, saying, "Whoso
knoweth me verily hath enough of me, and whoso knoweth me not
right soon[FN#447] shall ken who I be.  I am Afridun the
overwhelmed by the well omened Shawáhi,[FN#448] Zat al-Dawahi."
But he had not ended speaking ere Sharrkan, the Champion of the
Moslems, fared forth to meet him, mounted on a sorrel horse worth
a thousand pieces of red gold with accoutrements purfled in
pearls and precious stone; and he bore in baldrick a blade of
watered Indian steel that through necks shore and made easy the
hard and sore.  He crave his charger between the two hosts in
line whilst the horsemen all fixed on him their eyne, and he
cried out to Afridun, "Woe to thee, O accursed!  dost thou deem
me one of the horsemen thou hast overta'en who cannot stand
against thee on battle plain?" Then each rushed upon other and
they bashed together like two mountains crashing or two billows
dash ing and clashing: they advanced and retreated; and drew
together and withdrew; and stinted not of fray and fight and
weapon play, and strife and stay, with stroke of sword and lunge
of lance.  Of the two armies looking on, some said, "Sharrkan is
victor!" and others, "Afridun will conquer!"; and the two riders
stayed not their hands from the hustle until ceased the clamour
and the bustle; and the dust columns rose and the day waned and
the sun waxed yellow and wan.  Then cried out King Afridun to
Sharrkan, saying, "By the truth of the Messiah and the Faith
which is no liar, thou art nought save a doughty rider and a
stalwart fighter; but thou art fraudful and thy nature is not
that of the noble.  I ken thy work is other than praiseworthy nor
is thy prowess that of a Prince; for thy people behave to thee as
though thou wert a slave;[FN#449] and see!  they bring thee out a
charger which is not thine, that thou mayst mount and return to
the fight.  But by the truth of my Faith, thy fighting irketh and
fatigueth me and I am weary of cutting and thrusting with thee;
and if thou purpose to lay on load with me to night, thou wouldst
not change aught of thy harness nor thy horse, till thou approve
to the cavaliers, thy generous blood and skill in brunt." When
Sharrkan heard him say these words concerning his own folk
behaving to him though he were a slave, he waxt wroth and turned
towards his men, meaning to sign to them and bid them not prepare
him change of harness or horse, when lo!  Afridun shook his throw
spear high in air and cast it at Sharrkan.  Now when the Moslem
turned his back, he found none of the men near him, and he knew
this to be a trick of the accursed Infidel; so he wheeled round
in haste and behold, the javelin came at him, so he swerved from
it, till his head was bent low as his saddle bow.  The weapon
grazed his breast, and pierced the skin of his chest, for
Sharrkan was high bosomed: whereupon he gave one cry and swooned
away.  Thereat the accursed Afridun was joyful, thinking he had
slain him; and shouted to the Infidels bidding them rejoice,
whereat the Faithless were encouraged and the Faithful wept.
When Zau al-Makan saw his brother reeling in selle so that he
well nigh fell, he despatched cavaliers towards him and the
braves hurried to his aid and came up with him.  Thereupon the
Infidels drove at the Moslems; the two hosts joined battle and
the two lines were mingled, whilst the keen scymitar of Al-Yaman
did good work.  Now the first to reach Sharrkan was the Wazir
Dandan,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and Third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when King
Zau al-Makan saw that the accursed Infidel had struck with
javelin his brother Sharrkan, he deemed him dead, and despatched
cavaliers towards him; and the first to reach him were the Wazir
Dandan and the Emir of the Turks, Bahram, and the Emir of the
Daylamites, Rustam.  They found him falling from his horse; so
they stayed him in his saddle and returned with him to his
brother, Zau al-Makan; then they gave him in charge to his pages,
and went again to do the work of cut and thrust.  So the strife
redoubled and the weapons together clashed and ceased not bate
and debate and naught was to be seen but blood flowing and necks
bowing; nor did the swords cease on the napes of men to make play
nor the strife to rage with more and more affray, till the most
part of the night was past away and the two hosts were aweary of
the mellay.  So they called a truce and each army returned to its
tents, whilst all the Infidels repaired to King Afridun and
kissed the ground before him, and the priests and monks wished
him joy of his victory over Sharrkan.  Then the King fared for
Constantinople and sat upon the throne of his realm, when King
Hardub came to him and said, "May the Messiah strengthen thy fore
arm and never cease to be thy helper and hearken to what prayers
my pious mother, Zat al-Dawahi, shall pray for thee!  Know that
the Moslems can make no stay without Sharrkan." Replied Afridun,
"To morrow shall end the affair when to fight I fare: I will seek
Zau al-Makan and slay him, and their army shall turn tail and of
flight shall avail." Such was the case with the Kafirs; but as
regards the host of Al-Islam, when Zau al-Makan returned to his
tent, he thought of naught but his brother and, going into the
pavilion, found him in evil case and sore condition; whereupon he
summoned for counsel the Wazir Dandan and Rustam and Bahram.
When they entered, they opined to assemble the physicians that
they might medicine Sharrkan, and they wept and said, "The world
will not readily afford his like!" and they watched by him all
that night, and about the later hours came to them the Recluse in
tears.  When Zau al-Makan saw him, he rose in honour; and the
Religious stroked Sharrkan's wound with his hand, chanting
somewhat of the Koran and repeating by way of talisman some of
the verses of the Compassionate One.  And the pretender ceased
not to watch over him till dawn, when he came to himself and,
opening his eyes, moved his tongue in his mouth and spake.  At
this Zau al-Makan rejoiced, saying, "Of a truth the blessing of
the Holy Man hath taken effect on him!" And Sharrkan said,
"Praised be Allah for recovery; indeed, I am well at this hour.
That accursed one played me false; and, but that I swerved aside
lighter than lightening, the throw spear had pierced through my
breast.  So praised be Allah for saving me!  And how is it with
the Moslems?" Answered Zau al-Makan, "All are weeping for thee."
Quoth Sharrkan, "I am well and in good case; but where is the
Holy Man?" Now he was sitting by him and said, "At thy head." So
the Prince turned to him and kissed his hand when he said, "O my
son!  Be of good patience and Allah shall increase thy reward;
for the wage is measured by the work." Sharrkan rejoined, "Pray
for me," and he prayed for him.  As soon as morning dawned and
day brake in shine and sheen, the Moslems sallied out to the
plain and the Kafirs made ready to thrust and cut.  Then the
Islamite host advanced and offered fight with weapons ready
dight, and King Zau al-Makan and Afridun made to charge one at
other.  But when Zau al-Makan fared forth into the field, there
came with him the Wazir Dandan and the Chamberlain and Bahram,
saying, "We will be thy sacrifice." He replied, "By the Holy
House and Zemzem and the Place![FN#450]  I will not be stayed
from going forth against these wild asses." And when he rode out
into the field he played with sword and spear till riders
marvelled and both armies wondered; then he rushed upon the foe's
right wing and of it slew two knights and in like manner he dealt
with the left wing.  Presently he stayed his steed in the midst
of the field and cried out, "Where is Afridun, that I may make
him taste the cup of disgrace?" But when King Hardub saw the case
he conjured Afridun not to attack him, saying, "O King, yesterday
it was thy turn to fight: it is mine to day.  I care naught for
his prowess." So he rushed out towards Zau al-Makan brand in hand
and under him a stallion like Abjar, which was Antar's charger
and its coat was jet black even as saith the poet,

"On the glancing racer outracing glance * He speeds, as though he
     would collar Doom:
His steed's black coat is of darkest jet, * And likest Night in
     her nightliest gloom:
Whose neigh sounds glad to the hearer's ears * Like thunders
     rolling in thun d'rous boom:
If he race the wind he will lead the way, * And the lightning
     flash will behind him loom.''[FN#451]

Then each rushed upon the opponent, parrying blows and proving
the marvellous qualities were stored in him; and they fell to
drawing on and withdrawing till the breasts of the bystanders
were straitened and they were weary of waiting for the event.  At
last Zau al-Makan cried out his war cry and rushed upon Hardub,
King of Cæsarea,[FN#452] and struck him a stroke that shore head
from trunk and slew him on the spot.  When the Infidels saw this,
they charged in a body, compact and united, upon Zau al-Makan,
who met them amidfield, and they engaged in hewing and foining,
till blood ran in rills.  Then the Moslems cried out, "Allaho
Akbar!" (God is most Great) and "There is no god but the God!",
and invoked salvation for the Prophet, the Bringer of Glad
Tidings, the Bearer of Bad Tidings.  And there befel a great
fight, but Allah assigned victory to the Faithful and defeat to
the Faithless.  The Wazir Dandan shouted, "Take your blood
revenge for King Omar bin al Nu'uman and his son Sharrkan!"; and
bared his head and cried out to the Turks.  Now there were by his
side more than twenty thousand horse, and all charged with him as
men, when the Faithless found naught to save their lives but
flight.  So they turned tail to fly while the biting sabre
wrought its havoc and the Moslems slew of them that day some
fifty thousand horse and took more than that number: much folk
also were slain while going in at the gates, for the flock was
great.  Then the Greeks hove to the doors and swarmed up the
walls to await the assault; and in fine the Moslem hosts returned
to their tents aided to glory and victory, and King Zau al-Makan
went in to his brother whom he found in most joyous case.  So he
made a prostration of thanks to the Bountiful and the Exalted;
and then he came forward and gave Sharrkan joy of his recovery.
Answered he, "Verily we are all under the benediction of this
Religious, holy and righteous, nor would you have been
victorious, but for his accepted orisons; indeed all day he
remained at prayer to invoke victory on the Moslems."--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

         When it was the One Hundred and Fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Zau
al- Makan went in to his brother Sharrkan, he found him sitting
with the Holy Man by his side; so he rejoiced and drew near him
and gave him joy of his recovery.  Answered he, "Verily we are
all under the benediction of this Recluse nor would you have been
victorious but for his prayers, indeed he felt no fear this day
and he ceased not supplication for the Moslems.  I found strength
return to me, when I heard your 'Allaho Akbar,' for then I knew
you to be victorious over your enemies.  But now recount to me, O
my brother, what befel thee." So he told him all that had passed
between him and the accursed Hardub and related how he had slain
him and sent him to the malediction of Allah; and Sharrkan
praised him and thanked him for his prowess.  When Zat al-Dawahi
heard tell of her son's death (and she still drest as a devotee),
her face waxed yellow and her eyes ran over with railing tears:
she kept her counsel, however, and feigned to the Moslems that
she was glad and wept for excess of joy.  But she said to
herself, "By the truth of the Messiah, there remaineth no profit
of my life, if I burn not his heart for his brother, Sharrkan,
even as he hath burned my heart for King Hardub, the mainstay of
Christendom and the hosts of Crossdom!" Still she kept her
secret.  And the Wazir Dandan and King Zau al-Makan and the
Chamberlain remained sitting with Sharrkan till they had dressed
and salved his wound; after which they gave him medicines and he
began to recover strength; whereat they joyed with exceeding joy
and told the troops who congratulated themselves, saying, "To
morrow he will ride with us and do manly devoir in the siege."
Then said Sharrkan to them, "Ye have fought through all this day
and are aweary of fight; so it behoveth that you return to your
places and sleep and not sit up." They accepted his counsel and
then each went away to his own pavilion, and none remained with
Sharrkan but a few servants and the old woman Zat al-Dawahi.  He
talked with her through part of the night, then he stretched
himself to rest: and his servants did likewise and presently
sleep overcame them all and they lay like the dead.  Such was the
case with Sharrkan and his men; but as regards the old woman she
alone abode awake while they slumbered in the tent and, looking
at Sharrkan she presently saw that he was drowned in sleep.
Thereupon she sprang to her feet, as she were a scald she bear or
a speckled snake, and drew from her waist cloth a dagger so
poisoned that if laid thereon it would have melted a rock.  Then
she unsheathed the poniard and went up to Sharrkan's head and she
drew the knife across his throat and severed his weasand and
hewed off his head from his body.  And once more she sprang to
her feet; and, going the round of the sleeping servants, she cut
off their heads also, lest they should awake.  Then she left the
tent and made for the Sultan's pavilion, but finding the guards
on the alert, turned to that of the Wazir Dandan.  Now she found
him reading the Koran and when his sight fell upon her he said,
"Welcome to the Holy Man!" Hearing this from the Wazir, her heart
trembled and she said, "The reason of my coming hither at this
time is that I heard the voice of a saint amongst Allah's Saints
and am going to him." Then she turned her back, but the Wazir
said to himself, "By Allah, I will follow our Devotee this
night!" So he rose and walked after her; but when the accursed
old woman sensed his footsteps, she knew that he was following
her: wherefore she feared the disgrace of discovery and said in
herself, "Unless I serve some trick upon him he will disgrace
me." So she turned and said to him from afar, "Ho, thou Wazir, I
am going in search of this Saint that I may learn who he is; and,
after learning this much, I will ask his leave for thee to visit
him.  Then I will come back and tell thee: for I fear thine
accompanying me, without having his permission, lest he take
umbrage at me seeing thee in my society." Now when the Wazir
heard these words, he was ashamed to answer her; so he left her
and returned to his tent, and would have slept; but sleep was not
favourable to him and the world seemed heaped upon him.
Presently he rose and went forth from the tent saying in himself,
"I will go to Sharrkan and chat with him till morning." But when
he entered into Sharrkan's pavilion, he found the blood running
like an aqueduct and saw the servants lying with their throats
cut like beasts for food.  At this he cried a cry which aroused
all who were asleep; the folk hastened to him and, seeing the
blood streaming, set up a clamour of weeping and wailing.  Then
the noise awoke the Sultan, who enquired what was the matter, and
it was said to him, "Sharrkan thy brother and his servants are
murthered." So he rose in haste and entered the tent, and found
the Wazir Dandan shrieking aloud and he saw his brother's body
without a head.  Thereat he swooned away and all the troops
crowded around him, weeping and crying out, and so remained for a
while, till he came to himself, when he looked at Sharrkan and
wept with sore weeping, while the Wazir and Rustam and Bahram did
the like.  But the Chamberlain cried and lamented more than the
rest and asked leave to absent himself, such was his alarm.  Then
said Zau al-Makan, "Know ye who did this deed and how is it I see
not the Devotee, him who the things of this world hath put away?"
Quoth the Wazir, "And who should have been the cause of this
affliction, save that Devotee, that Satan?  By Allah, my heart
abhorred him from the first, because I know that all who pretend
to be absorbed in practices religious are vile and treacherous!"
And he repeated to the King the tale of how he would have
followed the Religious, but he forbade him, whereupon the folk
broke out into a tumult of weeping and lamentation and humbled
themselves before Him who is ever near, Him who ever answereth
prayer, supplicating that He would cause the false Devotee who
denied Allah's testimony to fall into their hands.  Then they
laid Sharrken out and buried him in the mountain aforesaid and
mourned over his far-famed virtues.--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and Fifth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that they laid
Sharrkan out and buried him in the mountain aforesaid and mourned
over his far-famed virtues.  Then they looked for the opening of
the city gate; but it opened not and no sign of men appeared to
them on the walls; whereat they wondered with exceeding wonder.
But King Zau al-Makan said, "By Allah, I will not turn back from
them, though I sit here for years and years, till I take blood
revenge for my brother Sharrkan and waste Constantinople and kill
the King of the Nazarenes, even if death overcome me and I be at
rest from this woeful world!" Then he bade be brought out the
treasure taken from the Monastery of Matruhina; and mustered the
troops and divided the monies among them, and he left not one of
them but he gave him gifts which contented him.  Moreover, he
assembled in the presence three hundred horse of every division
and said to them, "Do ye send supplies to your households, for I
am resolved to abide by this city, year after year, till I have
taken man bote for my brother Sharrkan, even if I die in this
stead." And when the army heard these words and had received his
gifts of money they replied, "To hear is to obey!" Thereupon he
summoned couriers and gave them letters and charged them to
deliver the same, together with the monies, to the soldiers'
families and inform them that all were safe and satisfied, and
acquaint them saying, "We are encamped before Constantinople and
we will either destroy it or die; and, albeit we be obliged to
abide here months and years, we will not depart hence till we
take it." Moreover, he bade the Wazir Dandan write to his sister,
Nuzhat al-Zaman, and said to him, "Acquaint her with what hath
befallen us, and what be our situation and commend my child to
her care since that, when I went out to war, my wife was near her
delivery and by this time she must needs have been brought to
bed; and if she hath given birth to a boy, as I have heard say,
hasten your return and bring me the acceptable news." Then he
gave them somewhat of money, which they pouched and set out at
once; and all the people flocked forth to take leave of them and
entrust them with the monies and the messages.  After they had
departed, Zau al-Makan turned to the Wazir Dandan and commanded
him to advance with the army against the city walls.  So the
troops pushed forward, but found none on the ramparts, whereat
they marvelled, while Zau al-Makan was troubled at the case, for
he deeply mourned the severance from his brother Sharrkan and he
was sore perturbed about that traitor the Ascetic.  In this
condition they abode three days without seeing anyone.  So far
concerning the Moslems; but as regards the Greeks and the cause
of their refusing to fight during these three days the case was
this.  As soon as Zat al-Dawahi had slain Sharrkan, she hastened
her march and reached the walls of Constantinople, where she
called out in the Greek tongue to the guards to throw her down a
rope.  Quoth they, "Who art thou?"; and quoth she, "I am Zat al-
Dawahi." They knew her and let down a cord to which she tied
herself and they drew her up; and, when inside the city, she went
in to the King Afridun and said to him, "What is this I hear from
the Moslems?  They say that my son King Hardub is slain." He
answered, "Yes;" and she shrieked out and wept right grievously
and ceased not weeping thus till she made Afridun and all who
were present weep with her.  Then she told the King how she had
slain Sharrkan and thirty of his servants, whereat he rejoiced
and thanked her; and, kissing her hands, exhorted her to
resignation for the loss of her son.  Said she, "By the truth of
the Messiah, I will not rest content with killing that dog of the
Moslem dogs in blood revenge for my son, a King of the Kings of
the age!  Now there is no help for it but that I work some guile
and I contrive a wile whereby to slay the Sultan Zau al-Makan and
the Wazir Dandan and the Chamberlain and Rustam and Bahram and
ten thousand cavaliers of the army of Al-Islam; for it shall
never be said that my son's head be paid with the bloodwit of
Sharrkan's head; no, never!" Then said she to King Afridun,
"Know, O King of the Age, that it is my wish to set forth
mourning for my son and to cut my Girdle and to break the
Crosses." Replied Afridun, "Do what thou desire; I will not
gainsay thee in aught.  And if thou prolong thy mourning for many
days it were a little thing; for though the Moslems resolve to
beleaguer us years and years, they will never win their will of
us nor gain aught of us save trouble and weariness." Then the
Accursed One (when she had ended with the calamity she had
wrought and the ignominies which in herself she had thought) took
ink case and paper and wrote thereon: "From Shawahi, Zat al-
Dawahi, to the host of the Moslems.  Know ye that I entered your
country and duped by my cunning your nobles and at first hand I
slew your King Omar bin al-Nu'uman in the midst of his palace.
Moreover, I slew, in the affair of the mountain pass and of the
cave, many of your men; and the last I killed were Sharrkan and
his servants.  And if fortune do not stay me and Satan obey me, I
needs must slay me your Sultan and the Wazir Dandan, for I am she
who came to you in disguise of a Recluse and who heaped upon you
my devices and deceits.  Wherefore, an you would be in safety
after this, fare ye forth at once; and if you seek your own
destruction cease not abiding for the nonce; and though ye tarry
here years and years, ye shall not do your desire on us.  And so
peace be yours!" After writing her writ she devoted three days to
mourning for King Hardub; arid, on the fourth, she called a
Knight and bade him take the letter and make it fast to a shaft
and shoot it into the Moslem camp.  When this was done, she
entered the church and gave herself up to weeping and wailing for
the loss of her son, saying to him who took the kingship after
him, "Nothing will serve me but I must kill Zau al-Makan and all
the nobles of Al-Islam." Such was the case with her; but as
regards what occurred to the Moslems, all passed three days in
trouble and anxiety, and on the fourth when gazing at the walls
behold, they saw a knight holding a bow and about to shoot an
arrow along whose side a letter was bound.  So they waited till
he had shot it among them and the Sultan bade the Wazir Dandan
take the missive and read it.  He perused it accordingly; and,
when Zau al-Makan heard it to end and understood its purport, his
eyes filled with tears and he shrieked for agony at her perfidy;
and the Minister Dandan said, "By Allah, my heart shrank from
her!" Quoth the Sultan, "How could this whore play her tricks
upon us twice?  But by the Almighty I will not depart hence till
I fill her cleft with molten lead and jail her with the jailing
of a bird encaged, then bind her with her own hair and crucify
her over the gate of Constantinople." And he called to mind his
brother and wept with excessive weeping.  But when Zat al-Dawahi
arrived amongst the Infidels and related to them her adventures
at length, they rejoiced at her safety and at the slaying of
Sharrkan.  There upon the Moslems addressed themselves again to
the siege of the city and the Sultan promised his men that, if it
should be taken, he would divide its treasures among them in
equal parts.  But he dried not his tears grieving for his brother
till his body was wasted and sick, growing thin as a tooth pick.
Presently the Wazir Dandan came in to him and said, "Be of good
cheer and keep thine eyes cool and clear; in very sooth thy
brother died not but because his hour was come, and there is no
profit in this mourning.  How well saith the poet,

"Whatso is not to be no sleight shall bring to pass; * What is to
     be without a failure shall become;
Soon the becoming fortune shall be found to be, * And Folly's
     brother[FN#453] shall abide forlorn and glum."

Wherefore do thou leave this weeping and wailing and hearten thy
heart to bear arms." He replied, "O Wazir, my heart is heavy for
the death of my father and my brother and for our absence from
hearth and home; and my mind is concerned for my subjects."
Thereupon the Wazir and the bystanders wept; but they ceased not
from pushing forward the siege of Constantinople for a length of
days.  And they being thus, behold, news arrived from Baghdad, by
one of the Emirs to the effect that the King's wife had been
blessed with a boy, and that his sister, Nuzhat al-Zaman, had
named him Kánmákán.[FN#454] Moreover, that the boy bid fair to be
famous, already showing wondrous signs and marvellous tokens; and
that she had commanded the Olema and the preachers to pray for
mother and child from the pulpits and bless them in all wise;
furthermore that the twain were well, that the land had enjoyed
abundant rains, and that his comrade the Fireman was established
in all prosperity, with eunuchs and slaves to wait upon him; but
that he was still ignorant of what had befallen him.  And she
ended with the greeting of peace.  Then quoth Zau al- Makan to
the Wazir Dandan, "Now is my back strengthened for that I have
been blest with a son whose name is Kanmakan."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and Sixth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when they
brought him the news of his wife having borne him a boy child,
Zau al- Makan rejoiced with great joy and cried, "Now is my back
strengthened, for that I have been blessed with a son[FN#455]
whose name is Kanmakan." And he spake to the Wazir Dandan,
saying, "I am minded to leave this mourning and order perfections
of the Koran for my brother and command almsdeeds on his
account." Quoth the Wazir, "Thy design is good." Thereupon he
caused tents to be pitched over his brother's tomb; so they
raised them and gathered together such of the men at arms as
could repeat the Koran; and some began reciting the Holy volume;
whilst others chanted litanies containing the names of Allah, and
thus they did till the morning.  Then Zau al-Makan went up to the
grave of his brother Sharrkan and poured forth copious tears, and
improvised these couplets,

"They bore him bier'd, and all who followed wept * With Moses'
     shrieks what day o'erhead shook Tor;[FN#456]
Till reached the grave which Pate had made his home, * Dug in
     men's souls who one sole God adore:
Ne'er had I thought before to see my joy * Borne on the bier
     which heads of bearers bore:
Ah no!  nor ere they homed thee in the dust * That stars of
     heaven earth ever covered o'er.
Is the tomb dweller hostage of a stead, * Where light and
     splendour o'er thy face shall pour?
Praise to restore his life her word hath pledged: * Cribbed and
     confined he shall dispread the more!"

When Zau al-Makan had made an end of his versifying he wept and
wept with him all the troops; then he came to the grave and threw
himself upon it wild with woe, and the Wazir repeated the words
of the poet,

"Pain leaving life that fleets thou hast th' eternal won; * Thou
     didst as whilom many a doer like thee hath done
Leftest this worldly house without reproach or blame; * Ah, may
     th' ex change secure thee every benison!
Thou west from hostile onset shield and firm defence, * For us to
     baffle shafts and whistling spears to shun.
I see this world is only cheat and vanity, * Where man naught
     else must seek but please the Truthful One:
Th' Empyrean's Lord allow thee bower of heavenly bliss, * And wi'
     thy faithful friends The Guide show goodly wone:
I bid thee last good e'en with sigh of bitter grief, * Seeing the
     West in woe for lack of Easting Sun."

When the Wazir Dandan had finished his reciting, he wept with
sore weeping and the tears rained from his eyes like cushioned
pearls.  Then came forward one who had been of Sharrkan's boon
companions in his cups and he wept till ran in rills the drops,
and he enumerated the dead man's generous qualities, reciting the
following pentastichs,

"Where gone is Bounty since thy hand is turned to clay?  * And I
     in misery lie since thou west ta'en away.
See'st not, O litter guide[FN#457] (Heaven keep thee glad and
     gay!), * How tears adorn my cheeks, these furrowed wrinkles
        A sight to joy shine eyes and fill thee with
By Allah ne'er this heart within I spoke of thee; * Ah no!  nor
     dared my sight to see thy brilliancy:
Save that my tear drops sorest wound have garred me dree * Yea!
     and if e'er on other rest these eyne of me,
        May yearning draw their reins nor suffer sleep to see."

And when the man stinted reciting, Zau al-Makan and the Minister
Dandan wept and the whole army was moved to tears; after which
all retired to their tents, and the King turning to the Wazir
took counsel with him concerning the conduct of the campaign.  On
this wise the two passed days and nights, while Zau al-Makan was
weighed down with grief and mourning till at last he said, "I
long to hear stories and adventures of Kings and tales of lover
folk enslaved by love; haply Allah may make this to solace that
which is on my heart of heavy anxiety, and stint and stay my
weeping and wailing." Quoth the Wazir, "If naught can dispel thy
trouble but hearing curious tales of Kings and people long gone
before and stories of folk enslaved by love of yore, and so
forth, this thing were easy, for I had no other business, in the
lifetime of thy father (who hath found mercy) than to relate
stories and to repeat verses to him.  This very night I will tell
thee a tale of a lover and his beloved, so shall thy breast be
broadened." When Zau al-Makan heard these words from the
Minister, his heart was set upon that which had been promised to
him and he did nothing but watch for the coming of the night,
that he might hear what the Wazir Dandan had to tell of the Kings
of yore and distracted lovers long gone before.  And hardly would
he believe that night had fallen ere he bade light the wax
candles and the lamps and bring all that was needful of meat and
drink and perfume gear, and what not; and when all was in
presence, he summoned the Wazir Dandan, and the Emirs Rustam and
Bahram and Tarkash and the Grand Chamberlain; then waited till
the whole party was seated before him; whereupon he turned to the
Minister and said, "Know, O Wazir, that night is come and hath
let down over us its veil of gloom, and we desire that thou tell
us those tales which thou promisedst us." Replied the Wazir,
"With joy and good will."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased to say her permitted say.

         When it was the One Hundred and Seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when King
Zau Al-Makan summoned the Wazir and the Chamberlain and Rustam
and Bahram, he turned towards the Minister Dandan and said,
"Know, O Wazir, that night is come and hath let down over us its
veil of gloom, and we desire that thou tell us those tales which
thou promisedst us." Replied the Wazir, "With love and gladness!
Know, O auspicious King, that there reached my ears a relation of
a lover and a loved one and of the discourse between them and
what befel them of things rare and fair, a story such as
repelleth care from the heart and dispelleth sorrow like unto
that of the patriarch Jacob[FN#459]; and it is as follows":

Tale of Taj al-Muluk and the Princess Dunya
(The Lover and the Loved).

There stood in times long gone by behind the Mountains of
Ispahán, a city highs the Green City, wherein dwelt a King named
Suláyman Sháh.  Now he was a man of liberality and beneficence,
of justice and integrity, of generosity and sincerity, to whom
travellers repaired from every country, and his name was noised
abroad in all regions and cities and he reigned many a year in
high worship and prosperity, save that he owned neither wives nor
children.  He had a Minister who rivalled him in goodness and
generosity and it so happened that one day, he sent for him and
when he came into the presence said to him, "O my Wazir, my heart
is heavy and my patience is past and my force faileth me, for
that I have neither wife nor child.  This is not the way of Kings
who rule over all men, princes.  and paupers; for they rejoice in
leaving behind them children and successors whereby are doubled
their number and their strength.  Quoth the Prophet (whom Allah
bless and keep!); 'Marry ye, increase ye, and multiply ye, that I
may boast me of your superiority over the nations on the Day of
Resurrection.' So what is thy rede, O Wazir?  Advise me of what
course and contrivance be advisable!" When the Minister heard
these words, the tears sprang from his eyes in streams, and he
replied, "Far be it from me, O King of the Age, that I debate on
that which appertaineth to the Compassionate One!  Wilt thou have
me cast into the fire by the All powerful King's wrath and ire?
Buy thee a concubine." Rejoined the King, "Know, O Wazir, that
when a sovereign buyeth a female slave, he knoweth neither her
rank nor her lineage and thus he cannot tell if she be of simple
origin that he may abstain from her, or of gentle strain that he
may be intimate in her companionship.  So, if he have commerce
with her, haply she will conceive by him and her son be a
hypocrite, a man of wrath and a shedder of blood.  Indeed the
like of such woman may be instanced by a salt and marshy soil,
which if one till for ever it yieldeth only worthless growth and
no endurance show eth; for it may be that her son will be
obnoxious to his Lord's anger, doing not what He biddeth him or
abstaining from what He for biddeth him.  Wherefore will I never
become the cause of this through the purchase of a concubine; and
it is my desire that thou demand for me in marriage the daughter
of some one of the Kings, whose lineage is known and whose
loveliness hath renown.  If thou can direct me to some maiden of
birth and piety of the daughters of Moslem Sovranty, I will ask
her in marriage and wed her in presence of witnesses, so may
accrue to me the favour of the Lord of all Creatures." Said the
Wazir, "O King, verily Allah hath fulfilled thy wish and hath
brought thee to thy desire;" presently adding, "Know, O King, it
hath come to my knowledge that King Zahr Shah,[FN#460] Lord of
the White Land, hath a daughter of surpassing loveliness whose
charms talk and tale fail to express: she hath not her equal in
this age, for she is perfect in proportion and symmetry, black
eyed as if Kohl dyed and long locked, wee of waist and heavy of
hip.  When she draweth nigh she seduceth and when she turneth her
back[FN#461] she slayeth; she ravisheth heart and view and she
looketh even as saith of her the poet,

'A thin waist maid who shames the willow wand; * Nor sun nor moon
     can like her rising shine:
'Tis as her honey dew of lips were blent * With wine, and pearls
     of teeth were bathed in wine:
Her form, like heavenly Houri's, graceful slim; * Fair face; and
     ruin dealt by glancing eyne:
How many a dead done man her eyes have slain * Upon her way of
     love in ruin li'en:
An live I she's my death!  I'll say no more * But dying without
     her vain were life of mine.' "

Now when the Wazir had made an end of describing that maiden, he
said to Sulayman Shah, "It is my counsel, O King, that thou
despatch to her father an ambassador, sagacious, experienced and
trained in the ways of the world, who shall courteously demand
her in marriage for thee of her sire; for in good sooth she hath
not her equal in the far parts of the world nor in the near.  So
shalt thou enjoy her lovely face in the way of grace, and the
Lord of Glory be content with thy case; for it is reported of the
Prophet (whom Allah bless and preserve!) that he said, 'There be
no monkery in Al-Islam."' At this the King was transported to
perfect joy; his breast was broadened and lightened; care and
cark ceased from him and he turned to the Wazir and said, "Know
thou, O Minister, that none shall fare about this affair save
thou, by reason of thy consummate intelligence and good breeding;
wherefore hie thee home and do all thou hast to do and get thee
ready by the morrow and depart and demand me in marriage this
maiden, with whom thou hast occupied my heart and thought; and
return not to me but with her." Replied the Wazir, "I hear and I
obey." Then he tried to his own house and bade make ready
presents befitting Kings, of precious stones and things of price
and other matters light of load but weighty of worth, besides
Rabite steeds and coats of mail, such as David made[FN#462] and
chests of treasure for which speech hath no measure.  And the
Wazir loaded the whole on camels and mules, and set out attended
by an hundred slave girls with flags and banners flaunting over
his head.  The King charged him to return to him after a few
days; and, when he was gone, Sulayman Shah lay on coals of fire,
engrossed night and day with desire; while the envoy fared on
without ceasing through gloom and light, spanning fertile field
and desert site, till but a day's march remained between him and
the city whereto he was bound.  Here he sat him down on the banks
of a river and, summoning one of his confidants, bade him wend
his way to King Zahr Shah and announce his approach without
delay.  Quoth the messenger, "I hear and I obey!" And he rode on
in haste to that city and, as he was about to enter therein, it
so chanced that the King, who was sitting in one of his
pleasaunces before the city gate, espied him as he was passing
the doors, and knowing him for a stranger, bade bring him before
the presence.  So the messenger coming forward informed him of
the approach of the Wazir of the mighty King Sulayman Shah, Lord
of the Green Land and of the Mountains of Ispahan: whereat King
Zahr Shah rejoiced and welcomed him.  Then he carried him to his
palace and asked him, "Where leavedst thou the Wazir?"; and he
answered, "I left him in early day on the banks of such a river
and tomorrow he will reach thee, Allah continue his favours to
thee and have mercy upon thy parents!" Thereupon King Zahr Shah
commanded one of his Wazirs to take the better part of his
Grandees and Chamberlains and Lieutenants and Lords of the land,
and go out to meet the ambassador in honour of King Sulayman
Shah; for that his dominion extended over the country.  Such was
the case with Zahr Shah; but as regards the Wazir he abode in his
stead till night was half spent[FN#463] and then set out for the
city; but when morning shone and the sun rose upon hill and down,
of a sudden he saw King Zahr Shah's Wazir approaching him, with
his Chamberlains and high Lords and Chief Officers of the
kingdom; and the two parties joined company at some parasangs'
distance from the city.[FN#464]  Thereat the Wazir made sure of
the success of his errand and saluted the escort, which ceased
not preceding him till they reached the King's palace and passed
in before him through the gate to the seventh vestibule, a place
where none might enter on horseback, for it was near to where the
King sat.  So the Minister alighted and fared on a foot till he
came to a lofty saloon, at whose upper end stood a marble couch,
set with pearls and stones of price, and having for legs four
elephant's tusks.  Upon it was a coverlet of green satin purfled
with red gold, and above it hung a canopy adorned with pearls and
gems, whereon sat King Zahr Shah, whilst his officers of state
stood in attendance before him.  When the Wazir went in to him,
he composed his mind and, unbinding his tongue, displayed the
oratory of Wazirs and saluted the King in the language of
eloquence.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to
say her permitted say,

         When it was the One Hundred and Eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when the
Wazir of King Sulayman Shah entered the presence of King Zahr
Shah he composed his mind and, unbinding his tongue, displayed
the oratory of Wazirs and saluted the King in the language of
eloquence and improvised these couplets,

"He cometh robed and bending gracefully: * O'er crop and cropper
     dews of grace sheds he:
He charms; nor characts, spells nor gramarye * May fend the
     glances of those eyne from thee:
Say to the blamer, "Blame me not, for I * From love of him will
     never turn to flee":
My heart hath played me false while true to him, * And Sleep, in
     love with him, abhorreth me:
O heart!  th'art not the sole who loveth him, * So bide with him
     while I desertion dree:
There's nought to joy mine ears with joyous sound * Save praise
     of King Zahr Shah in jubilee:
A King albeit thou leave thy life to win * One look, that look
     were all sufficiency:
And if a pious prayer thou breathe for him, * Shall join all
     Faithfuls in such pious gree:
Folk of his realm!  If any shirk his right * For other hoping,
     gross Unfaith I see."

When the Wazir had ended his poetry, King Zahr Shah bade him draw
near and honoured him with the highmost honours; then, seating
him by his own side, smiled in his face and favoured him with a
gracious reply.  They ceased not on this wise till the time of
the under meal when the attendants brought forward the tables of
food in that saloon and all ate till they were sated; after which
the tables were removed and those who were in the assembly
withdrew, leaving only the chief officers.  Now when the Minister
saw this, he rose to his feet and, after complimenting the King a
second time and kissing the ground before him, spake as follows,
"O mighty King and dread Lord!  I have travelled hither and have
visited thee upon a matter which shall bring thee peace, profit
and prosperity: and it is this, that I come as ambassador to
thee, seeking in marriage thy daughter, the noble and illustrious
maid, from Sulayman Shah, a Prince famed for justice and
integrity, sincerity and generosity, Lord of the Green Land and
of the Mountains of Ispahan, who sendeth thee of presents a
store, and gifts of price galore, ardently desiring to become thy
son in law.  But art thou inclined to him as he to thee?" He then
kept silence, awaiting a reply.  When King Zahr Shah heard these
words, he sprang to his feet and kissed the ground respectfully
before the Wazir, while the bystanders were confounded at his
condescension to the ambassador and their minds were amazed.
Then he praised Him who is the Lord of Honour and Glory and
replied (and he still standing), "O mighty Wazir and illustrious
Chief; hear thou what I say!  Of a truth we are to King Sulayman
Shah of the number of his subjects, and we shall be ennobled by
his alliance and we covet it ardently; for my daughter is a
handmaid of his handmaidens, and it is my dearest desire that he
may become my stay and my reliable support." Then he summoned the
Kazis and the witnesses, who should bear testimony that King
Sulayman Shah had despatched his Wazir as proxy to conclude the
marriage, and that King Zahr Shah joyfully acted and officiated
for his daughter.  So the Kazis concluded the wedding contract
and offered up prayers for the happiness and prosperity of the
wedded feres; after which the Wazir arose and, fetching the gifts
and rarities and precious things, laid them all before the King.
Then Zahr Shah occupied himself anent the fitting out of his
daughter and honourably entertained the Wazir and feasted his
subjects all, great and small; and for two months they held high
festival, omitting naught that could rejoice heart and eye.  Now
when all things needful for the bride were ready, the King caused
the tents to be carried out and they pitched the camp within
sight of the city, where they packed the bride's stuffs in chests
and get ready the Greek handmaids and Turkish slave girls, and
provided the Princess with great store of precious treasures and
costly jewels.  Then he had made for her a litter of red gold,
inlaid with pearls and stones of price, and set apart two mules
to carry it; a litter which was like one of the chambers of a
palace, and within which she seemed as she were of the loveliest
Houris and it became as one of the pavilions of Paradise.  And
after they had made bales of the treasures and monies, and had
loaded them upon the mules and camels, King Zahr Shah went forth
with her for a distance of three parasangs; after which he bade
farewell to her and the Wazir and those with him, and returned to
his home in gladness and safety.  Thereupon the Wazir, faring
with the King's daughter, pushed on and ceased not his stages
over desert ways,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and Ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the Wazir
fared on with the King's daughter and ceased not forcing his
stages over desert ways and hastened his best through nights and
days, till there remained between him and his city but three
marches.  Thereupon he sent forward to King Sulayman Shah one who
should announce the coming of the bride.  The King rejoiced
thereat and bestowed on the messenger a dress of honour; and bade
his troops march forth in grand procession to meet the Princess
and her company for due worship and honour, and don their richest
apparel with banners flying over their heads.  And his orders
were obeyed.  He also commanded to cry throughout the city that
neither curtained damsel nor honoured lady nor time-ruptured
crone should fail to fare forth and meet the bride.  So they all
went out to greet her and the grandest of them vied in doing her
service and they agreed to bring her to the King's palace by
night.  More over, the chief officers decided to decorate the
road and to stand in espalier of double line, whilst the bride
should pass by preceded by her eunuchs and serving women and clad
in the gear her father had given her.  So when she made her
appearance, the troops surrounded her, these of the right wing
and those of the left, and the litter ceased not advancing with
her till she approached the palace; nor remained any but came
forth to gaze upon the Princess.  Drums were beaten and spears
were brandished and horns blared and flags fluttered and steeds
pranced for precedence and scents shed fragrance till they
reached the Palace gate and the pages entered with the litter
through the Harim wicket.  The place shone with its splendours
and the walls glittered for the glamour of its gear.  Now when
night came, the eunuchs threw open the doors of the bridal
chamber and stood surrounding the chief entrance whereupon the
bride came forward and amid her damsels she was like the moon
among stars or an union shining on a string of lesser pearls, and
she passed into the bridal closet where they had set for her a
couch of alabaster inlaid with unions and jewels.  As soon as she
had taken seat there, the King came in to her and Allah filled
his heart with her love so he abated her maidenhead and ceased
from him his trouble and disquiet.  He abode with her well nigh a
month but she had conceived by him the first night; and, when the
month was ended, he went forth and sat on his sofa of state, and
dispensed justice to his subjects, till the months of her
pregnancy were accomplished.  On the last day of the ninth month,
towards day break, the Queen was seized with the pangs of labour;
so she sat down on the stool of delivery and Allah made the
travail easy to her and she gave birth to a boy child, on whom
appeared auspicious signs.  When the King heard of this, he joyed
with exceeding joy and rewarded the bearer of the good tidings
with much treasure; and of his gladness he went in to the child
and kissed him between the eyes and wondered at his brilliant
loveliness; for in him was approved the saying of the poet,

"In the towering forts Allah throned him King, * A lion, a star
     in the skies of reign:
At his rising the spear and the throne rejoiced, * The gazelle,
     the ostrich, The men of main:[FN#465]
Mount him not on the paps, for right soon he'll show * That to
     throne on the war steed's loins he's fain:
And wean him from sucking of milk, for soon * A sweeter drink,
     the foe's blood, he'll drain."

Then the midwives took the newborn child and cut the navel cord
and darkened his eyelids with Kohl powder[FN#466] and named him
Táj al-Mulúk Khárán.[FN#467]  He was suckled at the breast of
fond indulgence and was reared in the lap of happy fortune; and
thus his days ceased not running and the years passing by till he
reached the age of seven.  Thereupon Sulayman Shah summoned the
doctors and learned men and bade them teach his son writing and
science and belle-lettres.  This they continued to do for some
years, till he had learnt what was needful; and, when the King
saw that he was well grounded in whatso he desired, he took him
out of the teachers' and professors' hands and engaged for him a
skilful master, who taught him cavalarice and knightly exercises
till the boy attained the age of fourteen; and when he fared
abroad on any occasion, all who saw him were ravished by his
beauty and made him the subject of verse; and even pious men were
seduced by his brilliant loveliness.--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

          When it was the One Hundred and Tenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, That when Taj
al-Muluk Kharan, son of Sulayman Shah, became perfect in riding
craft and excelled all those of his time, his excessive beauty,
when he fared abroad on any occasion, caused all who saw him to
be ravished and to make him the subject of verse; and even pious
men were seduced by his brilliant loveliness.  Quoth the poet of

"I clipt his form and wax'd drunk with his scent, * Fair branch
     to whom Zephyr gave nutriment:
Nor drunken as one who drinks wine, but drunk * With night
     draught his lips of the honey dew lent:
All beauty is shown in the all of him, * Hence all human hearts
     he in hand hath hens:
My mind, by Allah!  shall ne'er unmind * His love, while I wear
     life's chains till spent:
If I live, in his love I'll live; if I die * For pine and
     longing, 'O blest!' I'll cry

When he reached the eighteenth year of his age, tender
down[FN#468] sprouted, on his side face fresh with youth, from a
mole upon one rosy cheek and a second beauty spot, like a grain
of ambergris adorned the other; and he won the wits and eyes of
every wight who looked on him, even as saith the poet,

"He is Caliph of Beauty in Yúsufs lieu, * And all lovers fear
     when they sight his grace:
Pause and gaze with me; on his cheek thou'lt sight * The
     Caliphate's banner of sable hue."[FN#469]

And as saith another,

"Thy sight hath never seen a fairer sight, * Of all things men
     can in the world espy,
Than yon brown mole, that studs his bonny cheek * Of rosy red
     beneath that jet black eye."

And as saith another,

"I marvel seeing yon mole that serves his cheeks' bright flame *
     Yet burneth not in fire albeit Infidel[FN#470]
I wonder eke to see that apostolic glance, * Miracle working,
     though it work by magic spell:
How fresh and bright the down that decks his cheek, and yet *
     Bursten gall bladders feed which e'en as waters well."

And as saith another,

"I marvel hearing people questioning of * The Fount of Life and
     in what land 'tis found:
I see it sprung from lips of dainty fawn, * Sweet rosy mouth with
     green mustachio down'd:
And wondrous wonder 'tis when Moses viewed * That Fount, he
     rested not from weary round."[FN#471]

Now having developed such beauty, when he came to man's estate
his loveliness increased, and it won for him many comrades and
intimates; while every one who drew near to him wished that Taj
al-Muluk Kharan might become Sultan after his father's death, and
that he himself might be one of his Emirs.  Then took he
passionately to chasing and hunting which he would hardly leave
for a single hour.  His father, King Sulayman Shah, would have
forbidden him the pursuit fearing for him the perils of the waste
and the wild beasts; but he paid no heed to his warning voice.
And it so chanced that once upon a time he said to his attendants
"Take ye ten days food and forage;" and, when they obeyed his
bidding, he set out with his suite for sport and disport.  They
rode on into the desert and ceased not riding four days, till
they came to a place where the ground was green, and they saw in
it wild beasts grazing and trees with ripe fruit growing and
springs flowing.  Quoth Taj al-Muluk to his followers, "Set up
the nets here and peg them in a wide ring and let our trysting
place be at the mouth of the fence, in such a spot." So they
obeyed his words and staked out a wide circle with toils; and
there gathered together a mighty matter of all kinds of wild
beasts and gazelles, which cried out for fear of the men and
threw themselves for fright in the face of the horses.  Then they
loosed on to them the hounds and lynxes[FN#472] and
hawks;[FN#473] and they shot the quarry down with shafts which
pierced their vitals; and, by the time they came to the further
end of the net ring, they had taken a great number of the wild
beasts, and the rest fled.  Then Taj al-Muluk dismounted by the
water side and bade the game be brought before himself, and
divided it, after he had set apart the best of the beasts for his
father, King Sulayman Shah, and despatched the game to him; and
some he distributed among the officers of his court.  He passed
the night in that place, and when morning dawned there came up a
caravan of merchants conveying negro slaves and white servants,
and halted by the water and the green ground.  When Taj al-Muluk
saw them, he said to one of his companions, "Bring me news of
yonder men and question them why they have halted in this
place."[FN#474]  So the messenger went up to them and addressed
them, "Tell me who ye be, and answer me an answer without delay."
Replied they, "We are merchants and have halted to rest, for that
the next station is distant and we abide here because we have
confidence in King Sulayman Shah and his son, Taj al-Muluk, and
we know that all who alight in his dominions are in peace and
safety; more over we have with us precious stuffs which we have
brought for the Prince." So the messenger returned and told these
news to the King's son who, hearing the state of the case and
what the merchants had replied, said, "If they have brought stuff
on my account I will not enter the city nor depart hence till I
see it shown to me." Then he mounted horse and rode to the
caravan and his Mamelukes followed him till he reached it.
Thereupon the merchants rose to receive him and invoked on him
Divine aid and favour with continuance of glory and virtues;
after which they pitched him a pavilion of red satin, embroidered
with pearls and jewels, wherein they spread him a kingly divan
upon a silken carpet worked at the upper end with emeralds set in
gold.  There Taj al-Muluk seated himself whilst his white
servants stood in attendance upon him, and sent to bid the
merchants bring out all that they had with them.  Accordingly,
they produced their merchandise, and displayed the whole and he
viewed it and took of it what liked him, paying them the price.
Then he looked about him at the caravan, and remounted and was
about to ride onwards, when his glance fell on a handsome youth
in fair attire, and a comely and shapely make, with flower white
brow and moon like face, save that his beauty was wasted and that
yellow hues had overspread his cheeks by reason of parting from
those he loved;--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased to say her permitted say.

        When it was the One Hundred and Eleventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Taj Al-
Muluk, when he looked about him at the caravan, saw a handsome
youth in neat attire and of shapely make, with flower like
forehead and moon like face, save that his beauty was wasted and
yellow hues had overspread his cheeks by reason of parting from
those he loved; and great was his groaning and moaning, and the
tears streamed from his eyelids as he repeated these couplets,

"Longsome is Absence; Care and Fear are sore, * And ceaseless
     tears, O friend, mine eyes outpour:
Yea, I farewelled my heart on parting day * And heartless,
     hopeless, now I bide forlore:
Pause, O my friend, with me farewelling one * Whose words my cure
     can work, my health restore!"

Now when the youth ended his poetry he wept awhile and fell down
in a fainting fit, whilst Taj al-Muluk looked at him and wondered
at his case.  Then, coming to himself, he stared with distracted
air, and versified in these couplets,

"Beware her glance I rede thee, 'tis like wizard wight, * None
     can escape unscathed those eye shafts' glancing flight:
In very sooth black eyes, with languorous sleepy look, * Pierce
     deeper than white swords however these may bite.
Be not thy senses by her sweets of speech beguiled, * Whose
     brooding fever shall ferment in thought and sprite:
Soft sided Fair[FN#475] did silk but press upon her skin, *
     'Twould draw red blood from it, as thou thyself canst sight.
Chary is she of charms twixt neck and anklets dwell, * And ah!
     what other scent shall cause me such delight?[FN#476]"

Then he sobbed a loud sob and swooned away.  But when Taj al-
Muluk saw him in this case, he was perplexed about his state and
went up to him; and, as the youth came to his senses and saw the
King's son standing at his head, he sprang to his feet and kissed
the ground between his hands.  Taj al-Muluk asked him, 'Why didst
thou not show us thy merchandise?" end he answered, O my lord,
there is naught among my stock worthy of thine august highness."
Quoth the Prince, "Needs must thou show me what thou hast and
acquaint me with thy circumstance; for I see thee weeping eyed
and heavyhearted.  If thou have been oppressed, we will end thine
oppression, and if thou be in debt, we will pay thy debt; for of
a truth my heart burneth to see thee, since I first set eyes on
thee."[FN#477]  Then Taj al-Muluk bade the seats be set, and they
brought him a chair of ivory and ebony with a net work of gold
and silk, and spread him a silken rug for his feet.  So he sat
down on the chair and bidding the youth seat himself on the rug
said to him, "Show me thy stock in trade!" The young merchant
replied, "O my Lord, do not name this to me, for my goods be
unworthy of thee." Rejoined Taj al-Muluk "It needs must be
thus!"; and bade some of the pages fetch the goods.  So they
brought them in despite of him; and, when he saw them, the tears
streamed from his eyes and he wept and sighed and lamented: sobs
rose in his throat and he repeated these couplets,

"By what thine eyelids show of Kohl and coquetry!  * By what thy
     shape displays of lissome symmetry!
By what thy liplets store of honey dew and wine!  * By what thy
     mind adorns of gracious kindly gree!
To me thy sight dream-visioned, O my hope!  exceeds * The
     happiest escape from horriblest injury."

Then the youth opened his bales and displayed his merchandise to
Taj Al-Muluk in detail, piece by piece, and amongst them he
brought out a gown of satin brocaded with gold, worth two
thousand dinars.  When he opened the gown there fell a piece of
linen from its folds.  As soon as the young merchant saw this he
caught up the piece of linen in haste and hid it under his thigh;
and his reason wandered, and he began versifying,

"When shall be healed of thee this heart that ever bides in woe?
      * Than thee the Pleiad-stars more chance of happy meeting
Parting and banishment and longing pain and lowe of love, *
     Procrastinating[FN#478] and delay these ills my life lay
Nor union bids me live in joy, nor parting kills by grief, * Nor
     travel draws me nearer thee nor nearer comest thou:
Of thee no justice may be had, in thee dwells naught of rush, *
     Nor gain of grace by side of thee, nor flight from thee I
For love of thee all goings forth and comings back are strait *
     On me, and I am puzzled sore to know where I shall go."

Taj al-Muluk wondered with great wonder at his verse, and could
not comprehend the cause.  But when the youth snatched up the bit
of linen and placed it under thigh, he asked him, "What is that
piece of linen?" "O my Lord," answered the merchant, "thou hast
no concern with this piece." Quoth the King's son, "Show it me;"
and quoth the merchant, "O my lord, I refused to show thee my
goods on account of this piece of linen; for I cannot let thee
look upon it."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say,

         When it was the One Hundred and Twelfth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant said to Taj al-Muluk, "I did not refuse to show thee my
goods save on this account, for I cannot let thee look upon it."
Whereupon Taj al Muluk retorted, "Perforce I must and will see
it;" and insisted and became angry.  So the youth drew it out
from under his thigh, and wept and moaned and redoubled his sighs
and groans, and repeated these verses,

"Now blame him not; for blame brings only irk and pain! * Indeed,
     I spake him sooth but ne'er his ear could gain:
May Allah guard my moon which riseth in the vale * Beside our
     camp, from loosed robe like skyey plain:[FN#479]
I left him but had Love vouchsafed to leave for me * Some peace
     in life such leave of him I ne'er had ta'en:
How long he pleaded for my sake on parting morn, * While down his
     cheeks and mine tears ran in railing rain:
Allah belie me not: the garb of mine excuse * This parting rent,
     but I will Mend that garb again!
No couch is easy to my side, nor on such wise * Aught easeth him,
     when all alone without me lain:
Time with ill omened hand hath wrought between us two, * And made
     my waxing joys to wane and his to wane,
And poured mere grief and woe, what time Time fain had crowned *
     The bowl he made me drink and gave for him to drain."

When he ended his recitation, quoth Taj al-Muluk, "I see thy
conduct without consequence; tell me then why weepest thou at the
sight of this rag!" When the young merchant heard speak of the
piece of linen, he sighed and answered, "O my lord, my story is a
strange and my case out of range, with regard to this piece of
linen and to her from whom I brought it and to her who wrought on
it these figures and emblems." Hereupon, he spread out the piece
of linen, and behold, thereon was the figure of a gazelle wrought
in silk and worked with red gold, and facing it was another
gazelle traced in silver with a neck ring of red gold and three
bugles[FN#480] of chrysolite upon the ring.  When Taj al-Muluk
saw the beauty of these figures, he exclaimed, "Glory be to Allah
who teacheth man that which he knoweth not!"[FN#481]  And his
heart yearned to hear the youth's story; so he said to him, "Tell
me thy story with her who owned these gazelles." Replied the
young man: "Hear, O my Lord, the

 Tale of Aziz and Azizah.[FN#482]

My father was a wealthy merchant and Allah had vouchsafed him no
other child than myself; but I had a cousin, Azízah highs,
daughter of my paternal uncle and we twain were brought up in one
house; for her father was dead and before his death, he had
agreed with my father that I should marry her.  So when I reached
man's estate and she reached womanhood, they did not separate her
from me or me from her, till at last my father spoke to my mother
and said, "This very year we will draw up the contract of
marriage between Aziz and Azizah." So having agreed upon this he
betook himself to preparing provision for the wedding feast.
Still we ceased not to sleep on the same carpet knowing naught of
the case, albeit she was more thoughtful, more intelligent and
quicker witted than I.  Now when my father had made an end of his
preparations, and naught remained for him but to write out the
contract and for me but to consummate the marriage with my
cousin, he appointed the wedding for a certain Friday, after
public prayers; and, going round to his intimates among the mer
chants and others, he acquainted them with that, whilst my mother
went forth and invited her women friends and summoned her kith
and kin.  When the Friday came, they cleaned the saloon and
prepared for the guests and washed the marble floor; then they
spread tapestry about our house and set out thereon what was
needful, after they had hung its walls with cloth of gold.  Now
the folk had agreed to come to us after the Friday prayers; so my
father went out and bade them make sweetmeats and sugared dishes,
and there remained nothing to do but to draw up the contract.
Then my mother sent me to the bath and sent after me a suit of
new clothes of the richest; and, when I came out of the Hammam, I
donned those habits which were so perfumed that as I went along,
there exhaled from them a delicious fragrance scenting the
wayside.  I had designed to repair to the Cathedral mosque when I
bethought me of one of my friends and returned in quest of him
that he might be present at the writing of the contract; and
quoth I to myself, "This matter will occupy me till near the time
of congregational prayer." So I went on and entered a by street
which I had never before entered, perspiring profusely from the
effects of the bath and the new clothes on my body; and the sweat
streamed down whilst the scents of my dress were wafted abroad: I
therefore sat me at the upper end of the street resting on a
stone bench, after spreading under me an embroidered kerchief I
had with me.  The heat oppressed me more and more, making my
forehead perspire and the drops trickled along my cheeks; but I
could not wipe my face with my kerchief because it was dispread
under me.  I was about to take the skirt of my robe and wipe my
cheeks with it, when unexpectedly there fell on me from above a
white kerchief, softer to the touch than the morning breeze and
pleasanter to the sight than healing to the diseased.  I hent it
in hand and raised my head to see whence it had fallen, when my
eyes met the eyes of the lady who owned these gazelles.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say

       When it was the One Hundred and Thirteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the youth
continued to Taj al-Muluk: "So I raised my head to see whence
this kerchief had fallen, when my eyes met those of the lady who
owned these gazelles.  And lo! she was looking out of a wicket in
a lattice of brass and never saw my eyes a fairer than she, and
in fine my tongue faileth to describe her beauty.  When she
caught sight of me looking at her, she put her forefinger into
her mouth, then joined her middle finger and her witness
finger[FN#483] and laid them on her bosom, between her breasts;
after which she drew in her head and closed the wicket shutter
and went her ways.  There upon fire broke out in and was heaped
upon my heart, and greater grew my smart; the one sight cost me a
thousand sighs and I abode perplexed, for that I heard no word by
her spoken, nor understood the meaning of her token.  I looked at
the window a second time, but found it shut and waited patiently
till sundown, but sensed no sound and saw no one in view.  So
when I despaired of seeing her again, I rose from my place and
taking up the handkerchief, opened it, when there breathed from
it a scent of musk which caused me so great delight I became as
one in Paradise.[FN#484] Then I spread it before me and out
dropped from it a delicate little scroll; whereupon I opened the
paper which was perfumed with a delicious perfume, and therein
were writ these couplets,

"I sent to him a scroll that bore my plaint of love, * Writ in
     fine delicate hand; for writing proves man's skill:
Then quoth to me my friend, 'Why is thy writing thus; * So fine,
     so thin drawn 'tis to read unsuitable?'
Quoth I, 'for that I'm fine-drawn wasted, waxed thin, * Thus
     lovers' writ Should be, for so Love wills his will.

And after casting my eyes on the beauty of the kerchief,[FN#485]
I saw upon one of its two borders the following couplets worked
in with the needle,

"His cheek down writeth (O fair fall the goodly scribe!) * Two
     lines on table of his face in Rayhán-hand:[FN#486]
O the wild marvel of the Moon when comes he forth!  * And when he
     bends, O shame to every Willow wand!"

And on the opposite border these two couplets were traced,

"His cheek down writeth on his cheek with ambergris on pearl *
     Two lines, like jet on apple li'en, the goodliest design:
Slaughter is in those languid eyne whene'er a glance they deal, *
     And drunkenness in either cheek and not in any wine."

When I read the poetry on the handkerchief the flames of love
darted into my heart, and yearning and pining redoubled their
smart.  So I took the kerchief and the scroll and went home,
knowing no means to win my wish, for that I was incapable of
conducting love affairs and inexperienced in interpreting hints
and tokens.  Nor did I reach my home ere the night was far spent
and I found the daughter of my uncle sitting in tears.  But as
soon as she saw me she wiped away the drops and came up to me,
and took off my walking dress and asked me the reason of my
absence, saying, "All the folk, Emirs and notables and merchants
and others, assembled in our house; and the Kazi and the
witnesses were also present at the appointed time.  They ate and
tarried awhile sitting to await thine appearance for the writing
of the contract; and, when they despaired of thy presence, they
dispersed and went their ways.  And indeed," she added, "thy
father raged with exceeding wrath by reason of this, and swore
that he would not celebrate our marriage save during the coming
year, for that he hath spent on these festivities great store of
money." And she ended by asking, "What hath befallen thee this
day to make thee delay till now?; and why hast thou allowed that
to happen which happened because of thine absence?" Answered I,
"O daughter of mine uncle, question me not concerning what hath
befallen me."[FN#487] Then I told her all that had passed from
beginning to end, and showed her the handkerchief.  She took the
scroll and read what was written therein; and tears ran down her
cheeks and she repeated these cinquains,

"Who saith that Love at first of free will came, * Say him: Thou
     liest!  Love be grief and grame:
Yet shall such grame and grief entail no shame; * All annals
     teach us one thing and the same
        Good current coin clips coin we may not crepe!

An please thou, say there's pleasure in thy pain, * Find
     Fortune's playful gambols glad and fain:
Or happy blessings in th' unhappy's bane, * That joy or grieve,
     with equal might and main:
        Twixt phrase and antiphrase I'm all a heap!

But he, withal, whose days are summer bright, * Whom maids e'er
     greet with smiling lips' delight;
Whom spicey breezes fan in every site * And wins whate'er he
     wills, that happy wight
        White blooded coward heart should never keep!"

Then she asked me, "What said she, and what signs made she to
thee?" I answered, "She uttered not a word, but put her fore
finger in her mouth, then joining it to her middle finger, laid
both fingers on her bosom and pointed to the ground.  Thereupon
she withdrew her head and shut the wicket; and after that I saw
her no more.  However, she took my heart with her, so I sat till
sun down, expecting her again to look out of the window; but she
did it not; and, when I despaired of her, I rose from my seat and
came home.  This is my history and I beg thee to help me in this
my sore calamity." Upon this she raised her face to me and said,
"O son of mine uncle, if thou soughtest my eye, I would tear it
for thee from its eyelids, and perforce I cannot but aid thee to
thy desire and aid her also to her desire; for she is whelmed in
passion for thee even as thou for her." Asked I, "And what is the
interpretation of her signs?"; and Azizah answered, "As for the
putting her finger in her mouth,[FN#488] it showed that thou art
to her as her soul to her body and that she would bite into union
with thee with her wisdom teeth.  As for the kerchief, it
betokeneth that her breath of life is bound up in thee.  As for
the placing her two fingers on her bosom between her breasts, its
explanation is that she saith; 'The sight of thee may dispel my
grief.' For know, O my cousin, that she loveth thee and she
trusteth in thee.  This is my interpretation of her signs and,
could I come and go at Will, I would bring thee and her together
in shortest time, and curtain you both with my skirt." Hearing
these words I thanked her (continued the young merchant) for
speaking thus, and said to myself, "I will wait two days." So I
abode two days in the house, neither going out nor coming in;
neither eating nor drinking but I laid my head on my cousin's
lap, whilst she comforted me and said to me, "Be resolute and of
good heart and hope for the best!"--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say,

       When it was the One Hundred and Fourteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the youth
pursued to Taj al-Muluk:--"And when the two days were past she
said to me, "Be of good cheer and clear thine eyes of tears and
take courage to dress thyself and go to her, according to thy
tryst." Then she rose and changed my clothes and perfumed me with
incense smoke.  So I braced myself up and heartened my heart and
went out and walked on till I came to the by-street, where I sat
down on the bench awhile.  And behold, the wicket suddenly opened
and I looked up and seeing her, fell down in a swoon.  When I
revived, I called up resolution and took courage and gazed again
at her and again became insensible to the world around me.  Then
I came to myself and looking at her, saw that she held in hand a
mirror and a red kerchief.  Now when she caught my glance, she
bared her forearms and opened her five fingers and smote her
breast with palm and digits; and after this she raised her hands
and, holding the mirror outside the wicket, she took the red
kerchief and retired into the room with it, but presently
returned and putting out her hand with the kerchief, let it down
towards the lane three several times, dipping it and raising it
as often.  Then she wrung it out and folded it in her hands,
bending down her head the while; after which she drew it in from
the lattice and, shutting the wicket shutter, went away without a
single word; nay, she left me confounded and knowing not what
signified her signs.[FN#489].  I tarried sitting there till
supper time and did not return home till near midnight; and there
I found the daughter of my uncle with her cheek props in her hand
and her eyelids pouring forth tears; and she was repeating these

"Woe's me! why should the blamer gar thee blaming bow?  * How be
     consoled for thee that art so tender bough?
Bright being! on my vitals cost thou prey, and drive * My heart
     before platonic passion's[FN#490] force to bow.
Thy Turk like[FN#491] glances havoc deal in core of me, * As
     furbished sword thin ground at curve could never show:
Thou weigh's" me down with weight of care, while I have not *
     Strength e'en to bear my shift, so weakness lays me low:
Indeed I weep blood tears to hear the blamer say; * 'The lashes
     of thy lover's eyne shall pierce thee through!'
Thou hast, my prince of loveliness! an Overseer,[FN#492] * Who
     wrongs me, and a Groom[FN#493] who beats me down with brow.
He foully lies who says all loveliness belonged * To Joseph, in
     thy loveliness is many a Joe:
I force myself to turn from thee, in deadly fright * Of spies;
     and what the force that turns away my sight!"

When I heard her verse, cark increased and care redoubled on me
and I fell down in a corner of our house; whereupon she arose in
haste and, coming to me lifted me up and took off my outer
clothes and wiped my face with her sleeve.  Then she asked me
what had befallen me, and I described all that had happened from
her.  Quoth she, "O my cousin, as for her sign to thee with her
palm and five fingers its interpretation is, Return after five
days; and the putting forth of her head out of the window, and
her gestures with the mirror and the letting down and raising up
and wringing out of the red kerchief,[FN#494] signify, Sit in the
dyer's shop till my messenger come to thee." When I heard her
words fire flamed up in my heart and I exclaimed, "O daughter of
my uncle, thou sayest sooth in this thine interpretation; for I
saw in the street the shop of a Jew dyer." Then I wept, and she
said, "Be of good cheer and strong heart: of a truth others are
occupied with love for years and endure with constancy the ardour
of passion, whilst thou hast but a week to wait; why then this
impatience?" Thereupon she went on cheering me with comfortable
talk and brought me food: so I took a mouthful and tried to eat
but could not; and I abstained from meat and drink and estranged
myself from the solace of sleep, till my colour waxed yellow and
I lost my good looks; for I had never been in love before nor had
I ever savoured the ardour of passion save this time.  So I fell
sick and my cousin also sickened on my account; but she would
relate to me, by way of consolation, stories of love and lovers
every night till I fell asleep; and when ever I awoke, I found
her wakeful for my sake with tears running down her cheeks.  This
ceased not till the five days were past, when my cousin rose and
warmed some water and bathed me with it.  Then she dressed me in
my best and said to me, "Repair to her and Allah fulfil thy wish
and bring thee to thy desire of thy beloved!" So I went out and
ceased not walking on till I came to the upper end of the by
street.  As it was the Sabbath[FN#495] I found the dyer's shop
locked and sat before it, till I heard the call to mid afternoon
prayer.  Then the sun yellowed and the Mu'ezzins[FN#496] chanted
the call to sundown prayer and the night came; but I saw no sign
nor heard one word, nor knew any news of her.  So I feared for my
life sitting there alone; and at last I arose and walked home
reeling like a drunken man.  When I reached the house, I found my
cousin Azizah standing, with one hand grasping a peg driven into
the wall and the other on her breast; and she was sighing and
groaning and repeating these couplets,

"The longing of an Arab lass forlorn of kith and kin * (Who to
     Hijazian willow wand and myrtle[FN#497] cloth incline,
And who, when meeting caravan, shall with love-lowe set light *
     To bivouac fire, and bang for conk her tears of pain and
Exceeds not mine for him nor more devotion shows, but he * Seeing
     my heart is wholly his spurns love as sin indign."

Now when she had finished her verse she turned to me and, seeing
me, wiped away her tears and my tears with her sleeve.  Then she
smiled in my face and said, "O my cousin, Allah grant thee
enjoyment of that which He hath given thee!  Why didst thou not
pass the night by the side of thy beloved and why hast thou not
fulfilled thy desire of her?" When I heard her words, I gave her
a kick in the breast and she fell down in the saloon and her brow
struck upon the edge of the raised pavement and hit against a
wooden peg therein.  I looked at her and saw that her forehead
was cut open and the blood running,--And Shahrazad perceived the
dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

        When it was the One Hundred and Fifteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al-Muluk: "Now when I kicked the
daughter of my uncle in the breast she fell on the edge of the
raised pavement in the saloon and her brow struck upon a wooden
peg.  Thereby her forehead was cut open and the blood ran down,
but she was silent and did not utter a single sound.[FN#498]
Presently she rose up, and made some tinder of rags, then
staunching with it the bleeding wound, bound her forehead with a
bandage; after which she wiped up the blood that had fallen on
the carpet, and it was as if nothing had been.  Presently she
came up to me and smiling in my face, said with gentle voice, "By
Allah, O son of my uncle, I spake not these words to mock at thee
or at her!  But I was troubled with an ache in my head and was
minded to be blooded, but now thou hast eased my head and
lightened my brow; so tell me what hath befallen thee to day."
Thereupon I told her all that had passed between me and her that
day; and she wept as she heard my words and said, "O son of my
uncle, rejoice at the good tidings of thy desire being fulfilled
and thine aim being attained.  Of a truth this is a sign of
acceptance; for that she stayed away only because she wisheth to
try thee and know if thou be patient or not, and sincere in thy
love for her or otherwise.  Tomorrow, repair to her at the old
place and see what sign she maketh to thee; for indeed thy
gladness is near and the end of thy sadness is at hand." And she
went on to comfort me; but my cark and care ceased not to
increase on me.  Presently she brought me food which I kicked
away with my foot so that the contents of every saucer were
scattered in all directions, and I said, "Every lover is a
madman; he inclineth not to food neither enjoyeth he sleep." And
my cousin Azizah rejoined, "By Allah, O son of my uncle, these be
in very deed the signs of love!" And the tears streamed down her
cheeks whenas she gathered the fragments of the saucers and wiped
up the food; then she took seat and talked to me, whilst I prayed
Allah to hasten the dawn.  At last, when morning arose with its
sheen and shine, I went out to seek her and hastening to her by
street sat down on that bench, when lo!  the wicket opened and
she put out her head laughing.  Then she disappeared within and
returned with a mirror, a bag; and a pot full of green plants and
she held in hand a lamp.  The first thing she did was to take the
mirror and, putting it into the bag, tie it up and throw it back
into the room; then she let down her hair over her face and set
the lamp on the pot of flowers during the twinkling of an eye;
then she took up all the things and went away shutting the window
without saying a word.  My heart was riven by this state of the
case, and by her secret signals, her mysterious secrets and her
utter silence; and thereby my longing waxed more violent and my
passion and distraction redoubled on me.  So I retraced my steps,
tearful-eyed and heavy hearted, and returned home, where I found
the daughter of my uncle sitting with her face to the wall; for
her heart was burning with grief and galling jealousy; albeit her
affection forbade her to acquaint me with what she suffered of
passion and pining when she saw the excess of my longing and
distraction.  Then I looked at her and saw on her head two
bandages, one on account of the accident to her forehead and the
other over her eye in consequence of the pain she endured for
stress of weeping; and she was in miserable plight shedding tears
and repeating these couplets,

"I number nights; indeed I count night after night; * Yet lived I
     long ere learnt so sore accompt to see, ah!
Dear friend, I compass not what Allah pleased to doom * For
     Laylá, nor what Allah destined for me, ah!
To other giving her and unto me her love, * What loss but Layla's
     loss would He I ever dree, ah!"

And when she had finished her reciting, she looked towards me and
seeing me through her tears, wiped them away and came up to me
hastily, but could not speak for excess of love.  So she remained
silent for some while and then said, "O my cousin, tell me what
befel thee with her this time." I told her all that had passed
and she said, "Be patient, for the time of thy union is come and
thou hast attained the object of thy hopes.  As for her signal to
thee with the mirror which she put in the bag, it said to thee,
When the sun is set; and the letting down of her hair over her
face signified, When night is near and letteth fall the blackness
of the dark and hath starkened the daylight, come hither.  As for
her gesture with the pot of green plants it meant, When thou
comest, enter the flower garden which is behind the street; and
as for her sign with the lamp it denoted, When thou enterest the
flower garden walk down it and make for the place where thou
seest the lamp shining; and seat thyself beneath it and await me;
for the love of thee is killing me." When I heard these words
from my cousin, I cried out from excess of passion and said, "How
long wilt thou promise me and I go to her, but get not my will
nor find any true sense in thine interpreting." Upon this she
laughed and replied, "It remaineth for thee but to have patience
during the rest of this day till the light darken and the night
starker and thou shalt enjoy union and accomplish thy hopes; and
indeed all my words be without leasing." Then she repeated these
two couplets,

"Let days their folds and plies deploy, * And shun the house that
     deals annoy!
Full oft when joy seems farthest far * Thou nighmost art to hour
     of joy."'

Then she drew near to me and began to comfort me with soothing
speech, but dared not bring me aught of food, fearing lest I be
angry with her and hoping I might incline to her; so when coming
to me she only took off my upper garment and said to me, "Sit O
my cousin, that I may divert thee with talk till the end of the
day and, Almighty Allah willing, as soon as it is night thou
shalt be with thy beloved." But I paid no heed to her and ceased
not looking for the approach of darkness, saying, "O Lord, hasten
the coming of the night!" And when night set in, the daughter of
my uncle wept with sore weeping and gave me a crumb of pure musk,
and said to me, "O my cousin, put this crumb in thy mouth, and
when thou hast won union with thy beloved and hast taken thy will
of her and she hath granted thee thy desire, repeat to her this

'Ho, lovers all!  by Allah say me sooth * What shall he do when
     love sore vexeth youth?'"[FN#499]

And she kissed me and swore me not to repeat this couplet till I
should be about to leave my lover and I said, "Hearing is
obeying!" And when it was supper-tide I went out and ceased not
walking on till I came to the flower garden whose door I found
open.  So I entered and, seeing a light in the distance, made
towards it and reaching it, came to a great pavilion vaulted over
with a dome of ivory and ebony, and the lamp hung from the midst
of the dome.  The floor was spread with silken carpets
embroidered in gold and silver, and under the lamp stood a great
candle, burning in a candelabrum of gold.  In mid pavilion was a
fountain adorned with all manner of figures;[FN#500] and by its
side stood a table covered with a silken napkin, and on its edge
a great porcelain bottle full of wine, with a cup of crystal
inlaid with gold.  Near all these was a large tray of silver
covered over, and when I uncovered it I found therein fruits of
every kind, figs and pomegranates, grapes and oranges, citrons
and shaddocks[FN#501] disposed amongst an infinite variety of
sweet scented flowers, such as rose, jasmine, myrtle, eglantine,
narcissus and all sorts of sweet smelling herbs.  I was charmed
with the place and I joyed with exceeding joy, albeit I found not
there a living soul and my grief and anxiety ceased from me.--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day, and ceased to say her
permitted say.

        When it was the One Hundred and Sixteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al-Muluk: "I was charmed with the place
and joyed with great joy albeit there I found not a living soul
of Almighty Allah's creatures, and saw nor slave nor hand maid to
oversee these things or to watch and ward these properties.  So I
sat down in the pavilion to await the coming of the beloved of my
heart; but the first hour of the night passed by, and the second
hour, and the third hour, and still she came not.  Then hunger
grew sore upon me, for that it was long since I had tasted food
by reason of the violence of my love: but when I found the place
even as my cousin had told me, and saw the truth of her in
terpretation of my beloved's signs, my mind was set at rest and I
felt the pangs of hunger; moreover, the odour of the viands on
the table excited me to eat.  So making sure of attaining my
desire, and being famished for food I went up to the table and
raised the cover and found in the middle a china dish containing
four chickens reddened with roasting and seasoned with spices,
round the which were four saucers, one containing sweetmeats,
another conserve of pomegranate seeds, a third almond
pastry[FN#502] and a fourth honey fritters; and the contents of
these saucers were part sweet and part sour.  So I ate of the
fritters and a piece of meat, then went on to the almond cakes
and ate what I could; after which I fell upon the sweetmeats,
whereof I swallowed a spoonful or two or three or four, ending
with part of a chicken and a mouthful of something beside.  Upon
this my stomach became full and my joints loose and I waxed too
drowsy to keep awake; so I laid my head on a cushion, after
having washed my hands, and sleep over came me; I knew not what
happened to me after this, and I awoke not till the sun's heat
scorched me, for that I had never once tasted sleep for days
past.  When I awoke I found on my stomach a piece of salt and a
bit of charcoal; so I stood up and shook my clothes and turned to
look right and left, but could see no one; and discovered that I
had been sleeping on the marble pavement without bedding beneath
me.  I was perplexed thereat and afflicted with great affliction;
the tears ran down my cheeks and I mourned for myself.  Then I
returned home, and when I entered, I found my cousin beating her
hand on her bosom and weeping tears like rain shedding clouds;
and she versified with these couplets,

"Blows from my lover's land a Zephyr cooly sweet, * And with its
     every breath makes olden love new glow:
O Zephyr of the morning hour, come show to us * Each lover hath
     his lot, his share of joy and woe:
Could I but win one dearest wish, we had embraced * With what
     embrace and clip of breast fond lovers know.
Allah forbids, while bides unseen my cousin's face, * All joys
     the World can give or hand of Time bestow.
Would Heaven I knew his heart were like this heart of me, *
     Melted by passion-flame and charged with longing owe."

When she saw me, she rose in haste and wiped away her tears and
addressed me with her soft speech, saying, "O son of my uncle,
verily Allah hath been gracious to thee in thy love, for that she
whom thou lovest loveth thee, whilst I pass my time in weeping
and bewailing my severance from thee who blamest me and chidest
me; but may Allah not punish thee for my sake!" Thereupon she
smiled in my face a smile of reproach and caressed me; then
taking off my walking clothes, she spread them out and said, "By
Allah, this is not the scent of one who hath enjoyed his lover!
So tell me what hath befallen thee, O my cousin." I told her all
that had passed, and she smiled again a smile of reproach and
said, "Verily, my heart is full of pain; but may he not live who
would hurt thy heart!  Indeed, this woman maketh herself
inordinately dear and difficult to thee, and by Allah, O son of
my uncle, I fear for thee from her.[FN#503]  Know, O my cousin,
that the meaning of the salt is thou west drowned in sleep like
insipid food, disgustful to the taste; and it is as though she
said to thee; 'It behoveth thou be salted lest the stomach eject
thee; for thou professes to be of the lovers noble and true; but
sleep is unlawful and to a lover undue; therefore is thy love but
a lie.' However, it is her love for thee that lieth; for she saw
thee asleep yet aroused thee not and were her love for thee true,
she had indeed awoken thee.  As for the charcoal, it means 'Allah
blacken thy face'[FN#504] for thou makest a lying presence of
love, whereas thou art naught but a child and hast no object in
life other than eating and drinking and sleeping!  such is the
interpretation of her signs, and may Allah Almighty deliver thee
from her!" When I heard my cousin's words, I beat my hand upon my
breast and cried out, "By Allah, this is the very truth, for I
slept and lovers sleep not!  Indeed I have sinned against myself,
for what could have wrought me more hurt than eating and
sleeping?  Now what shall I do?" Then I wept sore and said to the
daughter of my uncle, "Tell me how to act and have pity on me, so
may Allah have pity on thee: else I shall die." As my cousin
loved me with very great love,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn
of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the One Hundred and Seventeenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued his tale to Taj al-Muluk: "Thereupon quoth I
to the daughter of my uncle, "Tell me what to do and have pity on
me, so may Allah have pity on thee!" As the daughter of my uncle
loved me with great love, she replied, "On my head and eyes!
But, O my cousin, I repeat what I have told thee oftentimes, if I
could go in and out at will, I would at once bring you two
together and cover you both with my skirt: nor would I do this
but hoping to win thy favour.  Inshallah, I will do my utmost
endeavour to unite you; but hear my words and do my bidding.  Go
thou to the very same place and sit down where thou sattest
before and at supper tide look thou eat not, for eating induceth
sleep; and have a care-thou slumber not, for she will not come to
thee till a fourth part of the night be passed.  And the Almighty
avert her mischief from thee!" Now when I heard these words I
rejoiced and besought Allah to hasten the night; and, as soon as
it was dark, I was minded to go, and my cousin said to me, "When
thou shalt have met her, repeat to her the couplet I taught thee
before, at the time of thy leave taking." Replied I, "On my head
and eyes!" and went out and repaired to the garden, where I found
all made ready in the same state as on the previous night, with
every requisite of meat and drink, dried fruits, sweet scented
flowers and so forth.  I went up into the pavilion and smelt the
odour of the viands and my spirit lusted after them; but I
possessed my soul in patience for a while, till at last I could
no longer withstand temptation.  So I arose from my seat and went
up to the table and, raising its cover, found a dish of fowls,
surrounded by four saucers containing four several meats.  I ate
a mouthful of each kind and as much as I would of the sweetmeats
and a piece of meat: then I drank from the saucer a sauce
yellowed with saffron[FN#505] and as it pleased me, I supped it
up by the spoonful till I was satisfied and my stomach was full.
Upon this, my eyelids drooped; so I took a cushion and set it
under my head, saying, "Haply I can recline upon it without going
to sleep." Then I closed my eyes and slept, nor did I wake till
the sun had risen, when I found on my stomach a cube of
bone,[FN#506] a single tip-cat stick,[FN#507] the stone of a
green date[FN#508] and a carob pod.  There was no furniture nor
aught else in the place, and it was as if there had been nothing
there yesterday.  So I rose and shaking all these things off me,
fared forth in fury; and, going home, found my cousin groaning
and versifying with these couplets,

"A wasted body, heart enpierced to core, * And tears that down my
     poor cheeks pour and pour:
And lover cure of access; but, but still * Naught save what's
     fair can come from fairest flow'r:
O cousin mine thou fill'st my soul with pate, * And from these
     tears mine eyelids ache full sore!"

I chid the daughter of my uncle and abused her, whereat she wept;
then, wiping away her tears, she came up to me and kissed me and
began pressing me to her bosom, whilst I held back from her
blaming myself.  Then said she to me, "O my cousin, it seemeth
thou sleptest again this night?" Replied I, "Yes; and when I
awoke, I found on my stomach a cube of bone, a single tip-cat
stick, a stone of a green date and a carob pod, and I know not
why she did this." Then I wept and went up to her and said,
"Expound to me her meaning in so doing and tell me how shall I
act and aid me in my sore strait." She answered, "On my head and
eyes!  By the single tip cat stick and the cube of bone which she
placed upon thy stomach she saith to thee 'Thy body is present
but thy heart is absent'; and she meaneth, 'Love is not thus: so
do not reckon thyself among lovers.' As for the date stone, it is
as if she said to thee, 'An thou wert in love thy heart would be
burning with passion and thou wouldst not taste the delight of
sleep; for the sweet of love is like a green date[FN#509] which
kindleth a coal of fire in the vitals.' As for the carob
pod[FN#510] it signifieth to thee, 'The lover's heart is
wearied'; and thereby she saith, 'Be patient under our separation
with the patience of Job.' " When I heard this interpretation,
fires darted into my vitals like a dart and grief redoubled upon
my heart and I cried out, saying, "Allah decreed sleep to me for
my ill fortune." Then I said to her, "O my cousin, by my life,
devise me some device whereby I may win my will of her!" She wept
and answered, "O Aziz, O son of my uncle, verily my heart is full
of sad thought which I cannot speak: but go thou again to night
to the same place and beware thou sleep not, and thou shalt
surely attain thy desire.  This is my counsel and peace be with
thee!" Quoth I, "If Allah please I will not sleep, but will do as
thou biddest me." Then my cousin rose, and brought me food,
saying, "Eat now what may suffice thee, that nothing may divert
thy heart." So I ate my fill and, when night came, my cousin rose
and bringing me a sumptuous suit of clothes clad me therein.
Then she made me swear I would repeat to my lover the verse
aforesaid and bade me beware of sleeping.  So I left her and
repaired to the garden and went up into that same pavilion where
I occupied myself in holding my eyelids open with my fingers and
nodding my head as the night darkened on me."--And Shahrazad
perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

       When it was the One Hundred and Eighteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al Muluk: "So I repaired to the garden
and went up into that same pavilion and occupied myself in gazing
upon the flower beds and in holding my eyelids open with my
fingers and nodding my head as the night darkened on me.  And
presently I grew hungry with watching and the smell of the meats
being wafted towards me, my appetite increased: so I went up to
the table and took off the cover and ate a mouthful of every dish
and a bit of meat; after which I turned to the flagon of wine,
saying to myself, I will drink one cup.  I drank it, and then I
drank a second and a third, till I had drunk full ten, when the
cool air smote me and I fell to the earth like a felled man.  I
ceased not to lie thus till day arose, when I awoke and found
myself out side the garden, and on my stomach were a butcher's
knife and a dram-weight of iron.[FN#511]  Thereat I trembled and,
taking them with me, went home, where I found my cousin saying,
"Verily, I am in this house wretched and sorrowful, having no
helper but weeping." Now when I entered, I fell down at full
length and throwing the knife and the dram weight from my hand, I
fainted clean away.  As soon as I came to myself, I told her what
had befallen me and said, Indeed, I shall never enjoy my desire."
But when she saw my tears and my passion, they redoubled her
distress on my account, and she cried, "Verily, I am helpless!  I
warned thee against sleeping; but thou wouldst not hearken to my
warning, nor did my words profit thee aught." I rejoined, "By
Allah, I conjure thee to explain to me the meaning of the knife
and the iron dram-weight." "By the dram weight," replied my
cousin, "she alludeth to her right eye,[FN#512] and she sweareth
by it and saith, 'By the Lord of all creatures and by my right
eye!  if thou come here again and sleep, I will cut thy throat
with this very knife.' And indeed I fear for thee, O my cousin,
from her malice; my heart is full of anguish for thee and I
cannot speak.  Nevertheless, if thou can be sure of thyself not
to sleep when thou returnest to her, return to her and beware of
sleeping and thou shalt attain thy desire; but if when returning
to her thou wilt sleep, as is thy wont, she will surely slaughter
thee." Asked I, "What shall I do, O daughter of my uncle: I beg
thee, by Allah, to help me in this my calamity." Answered she,
"On my head and eyes!  if thou wilt hearken to my words and do my
bidding, thou shalt have thy will." Quoth I, "I will indeed
hearken to thy words and do thy bidding;" and quoth she, "When it
is time for thee to go, I will tell thee." Then she pressed me to
her bosom and laying me on the bed, shampoo'd my feet, till
drowsiness overcame me and I was drowned in sleep, then she took
a fan and seated herself at my head with the fan in her hand and
she was weeping till her clothes were wet with tears.  Now when
she saw that I was awake, she wiped away the drops and fetched me
some food and set it before me.  I refused it, but she said to
me, "Did I not tell thee that thou must do my bidding?  Eat!" So
I ate and thwarted her not and she proceeded to put the food into
my mouth and I to masticate it, till I was full.  Then she made
me drink jujube sherbet[FN#513] and sugar and washed my hands and
dried them with a kerchief; after which she sprinkled me with
rose water, and I sat with her awhile in the best of spirits.
When the darkness had closed in, she dressed me and said to me,
"O son of my uncle, watch through the whole night and sleep not;
for she will not come to thee this tide till the last of the dark
hours and, Allah willing, thou shalt be at one with her this
night; but forget not my charge." Then, she wept, and my heart
was pained for her by reason of her over much weeping, and I
asked, "What is the charge thou gayest me?" She answered, "When
thou takest leave of her repeat to her the verse before
mentioned." So, full of joy I left her and repairing to the
garden, went up into the pavilion where, being satiated with
food, I sat down and watched till a fourth part of the dark hours
was past.  That night seemed longsome to me as it were a year:
but I remained awake till it was three quarters spent and the
cocks crew and I was famished for long watching.  Accordingly I
went up to the table and ate my fill, whereupon my head grew
heavy and I wanted to sleep, when behold, a light appeared making
towards me from afar.  I sprang up and washed my hands and mouth
and roused myself; and before long she came with ten damsels, in
whose midst she was like the full moon among the stars.  She was
clad in a dress of green satin purfled with red gold, and she was
as saith the poet,

"She lords it o'er our hearts in grass green gown, * With
     buttons[FN#514] loose and locks long flowing down.
Quoth I, 'What is thy name?' Quoth she, 'I'm she, * Who burns the
     lover-heart live coals upon:'
I made my plaint to her of loving lowe; * Laughed she, 'To stone
     thou moanest useless moan!'
Quoth I, 'An be of hardest stone thy heart, * Allah drew sweetest
     spring from hardest stone.' "

When she saw me she laughed and said, "How is it that thou art
awake and that sleep overcame thee not?  Forasmuch as thou hast
watched through the night, I know that thou art a lover; for
night watching is the mark of lovers displaying brave endurance
of their desires." Then she turned to her women and signed to
them and they went away from her, whereupon she came up to me and
strained me to her breast and kissed me, whilst I kissed her, and
she sucked my upper lip whilst I sucked her lower lip.  I put my
hand to her waist and pressed it and we came not to the ground
save at the same moment.  Then she undid her petticoat trousers
which slipped down to her anklets, and we fell to clasping and
embracing and toying and speaking softly and biting and inter
twining of legs and going round about the Holy House and the
corners thereof,[FN#515] till her joints became relaxed for love
delight and she swooned away.  I entered the sanctuary, and
indeed that night was a joy to the sprite and a solace to the
sight even as saith the poet,

"Sweetest of nights the world can show to me, that night * When
     cups went round and round as fed by ceaseless spring:
There utter severance made I 'twixt mine eyes and sleep, * And
     joined, re joined mine ear drop with the anklet

We lay together in close embrace till the morning when I would
have gone away, but she stopped me and said, "Stay till I tell
thee something"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

       When it was the One Hundred and Nineteenth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued his recital to Taj al Muluk: "When I would
have gone away, she stopped me and said, "Stay, till I tell thee
something and charge thee with a charge." So I stayed whilst she
unfolded a kerchief and drew out this piece of linen and spread
it open before me.  I found worked on it these two figures of
gazelles and admired it with great admiration.  Then I took the
piece of linen and went away, joyful, after we had agreed that I
should visit her every night in the garden; but in my joy I
forgot to repeat to her the verse my cousin had taught me.  For
when giving me the piece of linen with the gazelles she had said
to me, "Keep this carefully, as it is my sister's handiwork." I
asked her, "What is thy sister's name?"; and she answered, "Her
name is Núr al-Hudá." When I went to my cousin, I found her lying
down; but as soon as she saw me, she rose, with the tears running
from her eyes, and came up to me, and kissed me on the breast and
said, "Didst thou do as I enjoined thee?  and repeat the verse to
her?" "I forgot it," replied I; "and nothing drove it out of my
mind but these two figured gazelles." And I threw the piece of
linen on the floor before her.  She rose and sat down again, but
was unable to contain herself for impatience, and her eyes ran
over with tears, whilst she repeated these two couplets,

"O thou who seekest parting, softly fare!  * Let not the Pair
     delude with cunning art:
Pare softly, Fortune's nature is to 'guile, * And end of every
     meeting is to part."

And when she ended her recitation she said, "O my cousin, give me
this piece of linen." So I gave it to her and she took it and
unfolding it, saw what was therein.  When the tryst time came for
my going to my lover, the daughter of my uncle said to me, "Go,
and peace attend thee; and when thou art about to leave her,
recite to her the verse I taught thee long ago and which thou
didst forget." Quoth I, "Tell it me again"; and she repeated it.
Then I went to the garden and entered the pavilion, where I found
the young lad, awaiting me.  When she saw me, she rose and kissed
me and made me sit in her lap; and we ate and drank and did our
desire as before.  In the morning, I repeated to her my cousin's
verse which was this,

"Ho, lovers all!  by Allah say me sooth * What shall he do when
     Love sor' vexeth youth?"

When she heard this, her eyes filled with tears and she answered
and said,

"Strive he to cure his case, to hide the truth, * Patiently
     humble self and sue for rush!"

I committed it to memory and returned home rejoicing at having
done my cousin's bidding.  When I entered the house I found her
lying down and my mother at her head weeping over her case; but
as soon as I went in to her my mother said to me, "A foul plague
on such a cousin!  How couldst thou leave the daughter of thy
uncle ailing and not ask what ailed her?" But when my cousin saw
me she raised her head and sat up and asked me, "O Aziz, didst
thou repeat to her the couplet I taught thee?" I answered, "Yes,
and when she heard it she wept and recited in answer another
couplet which I committed to memory." Quoth my cousin, "Tell it
me." I did so; and when she heard it she wept with much weeping
and repeated the following verses,

'How shall youth cure the care his life undo'th, * And every day
     his heart in pieces hew'th?
In sooth he would be patient, but he findeth * Naught save a
     heart which love with pains imbu'th."

Then added my cousin, "When thou goest to her as of wont, repeat
to her also these two couplets which thou hast heard." I replied,
"Hearkening and obedience!" and I went at the wonted time, to the
garden, where there passed between my mistress and myself what
tongue faileth to describe.  When I was about to leave her, I
repeated to her those two couplets of my cousin's; whereupon the
tears streamed from her eyes and she replied,

"If he of patience fail the truth to hide * For him no cure save
     Death my vision view'th!"

I committed them to memory and returned home, and when I went in
to my cousin I found her fallen into a fit and my mother sitting
at her head.  When she heard my voice, she opened her eyes and
asked, "O Aziz! didst thou repeat the two couplets to her?"
whereto I answered, "Yes; but she wept on hearing them and she
replied with this couplet beginning, If he of patience fail, to
the end." And I repeated it; whereupon my cousin swooned again,
and when she came to herself, she recited these two couplets,

"Hearkening, obeying, with my dying mouth * I greet who joy of
     union ne'er allow'th:
Pair fall all happy loves, and fair befal * The hapless lover
     dying in his drowth!"

Again when it was night, I repaired to the garden as usual where
I found the young lady awaiting me.  We sat down and ate and
drank, after which we did all we wanted and slept till the
morning; and, as I was going away, I repeated to her the saying
of my cousin.  When she heard the couplet she cried out with a
loud cry and was greatly moved and exclaimed, "Awáh!
Awáh![FN#517]  By Allah, she who spake these lines is dead!" Then
she wept and said to me, "Woe to thee!  How is she who spoke thus
related to thee?" Replied I, "She is the daughter of my father's
brother." "Thou liest," rejoined she; "by Allah, were she thy
cousin, thou hadst borne her the same love as she bore thee!  It
is thou who hast slain her and may the Almighty kill thee as thou
killedst her!  By Allah, hadst thou told me thou hadst a cousin,
I would not have admitted thee to my favours!" Quoth I, "Verily
it was she who interpreted to me the signs thou madest and it was
she who taught me how to come to thee and how I should deal with
thee; and, but for her, I should never have been united to thee."
She then asked me, "Did thy cousin then know of us?"; and I
answered, "Yes;" whereupon she exclaimed, "Allah give thee sorrow
of thy youth, even as thou hast sorrowed her youth!" Then she
cried to me, "Go now and see after her." So I went away troubled
at heart, and ceased not walking till I reached our street, when
I heard sounds of wailing, and asking about it, was answered,
"Azizah, we found her dead behind the door." I entered the house,
and when my mother saw me, she said, "Her death lieth heavy on
thy neck and may Allah not acquit thee of her blood!"--And
Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her
permitted say.

        When it was the One Hundred and Twentieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al-Muluk: "So I entered the house and
when my mother saw me she said, "Her death lieth heavy on thy
neck and may Allah not acquit thee of her blood!  A plague on
such a cousin!" Then came my father, and we laid her out and get
ready her bier and buried her; and we had recitations of the
whole Koran over her tomb and we abode by her grave three days,
after which we returned to our home, and I grieving for her
grievously.  Then my mother came to me and said, "I would fain
know what thou didst to her, to break her heart[FN#518] for, O my
son, I questioned her at all times of the cause of her complaint,
but she would tell me nothing nor let me know aught of it.  So
Allah upon thee, tell me what thou hast been doing to her that
she died." Quoth I, "I did nothing." Quoth my mother, "Allah
avenge her on thee!  Verily she told me naught, but kept her
secret till she died of her love longings for thee; but when she
died I was with her and she opened her eyes and said to me; 'O
wife of my uncle may Allah hold thy son guiltless of my blood and
punish him not for what he hath done by me!  And now Allah
transporteth me from the house of the world which is perishable
to the house of the other world which is eternal.' Said I, 'O my
daughter, Allah preserve thee and preserve thy youth!' And as I
questioned her of the cause of her illness, she made me no
answer; but she smiled and said, 'O wife of my uncle, bid thy
son, whenever he would go whither he goeth every day, repeat
these two saws at his going away; 'Faith is fair!  Unfaith is
foul!' For this is of my tender affection to him, that I am
solicitous concerning him during my lifetime and after my death.'
Then she gave me somewhat for thee and sware me that I would not
give it until I see thee weeping for her and lamenting her death.
The thing is with me; and, when I have seen thy case as I have
said, I will make it over to thee." "Show it me," cried I: but
she would not.  Then I gave myself up to love delights and
thought no more of my cousin's death: for my mind was unsettled
and fain would I have been with my lover the livelong day and
night.[FN#519]  So hardly had I perceived the darkness fall when
I betook myself to the garden, where I found the young lady
sitting on coals of fire for much impatience.  As soon as she was
sure that she saw me, she ran to me and throwing her arms about
my neck, enquired of the daughter of my uncle.  I replied, "Sooth
to say she is dead, and we have caused Zikr- litanies and
recitations of the Koran to be performed for her; and it is now
four nights and this be the fifth since she is gone." When she
heard that, she shrieked aloud and wept and said, "Did I not tell
thee that thou hast slain her?  Hadst thou let me know of her
before her death, I would have requited her the kindness she did
me, in that she served me and united thee to me; for without her,
we had never foregathered, we twain, and I fear lest some
calamity befal thee because of thy sin against her." Quoth I,
"She acquitted me of offence ere she died;" and I repeated to her
what my mother had told me.  Quoth she, "Allah upon thee!  when
thou returnest to thy mother, learn what thing she keepeth for
thee." I rejoined, "My mother also said to me; 'Before the
daughter of thy uncle died, she laid a charge upon me, saying,
Whenever thy son would go whither he is wont to go, teach him
these two saws, 'Faith is fair; Unfaith is foul!' " When my lady
heard this she exclaimed, "The mercy of Almighty Allah be upon
her!  Indeed, she hath delivered thee from me, for I minded to do
thee a mischief, but now I will not harm thee nor trouble thee."
I wondered at this and asked her, "What then west thou minded to
do with me in time past and we two being in bond of love?"
Answered she, "Thou art infatuated with me; for thou art young in
life and a raw laddie; thy heart is void of guile and thou
weetest not our malice and deceit.  Were she yet alive, she would
protect thee; for she is the cause of thy preservation and she
hath delivered thee from destruction.  And now I charge thee
speak not with any woman, neither accost one of our sex, be she
young or be she old; and again I say Beware!  for thou art simple
and raw and knowest not the wiles of women and their malice, and
she who interpreted the signs to thee is dead.  And indeed I fear
for thee, lest thou fall into some disgrace and find none to
deliver thee from it, now that the daughter of thy uncle is no
more."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say
her permitted say.

      When it was the One Hundred and Twenty-first Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al-Muluk: "Then the young lady said to
me, "I fear for thee lest thou fall into some disgrace and find
none to deliver thee from it.  Alas for thy cousin and ah, the
pity of her!  Would I had known her before her death, that I
might have requited by waiting upon her the fair service she did
me.  The mercy of Allah Almighty be upon her, for she kept her
secret and revealed not what she suffered, and but for her thou
hadst never foregathered with me; no, never!  But there is one
thing I desire of thee." I asked, "What is it?"; and she
answered, "It is that thou bring me to her grave, that I may
visit her in the tomb wherein she is and write some couplets
thereon." I rejoined, "To morrow, if Allah please!"[FN#520]  I
slept with her that night, and she ceased not saying after every
hour, "Would thou hadst told me of thy cousin before her death!"
And I asked her, "What is the meaning of the two saws she taught
me?  'Faith is fair!  Unfaith is foul!'" But she made no answer.
As soon as it was day she rose and, taking a purse of gold
pieces, said to me, "Come, show me her tomb, that I may visit it
and grave some verses thereon and build a dome over it and
commend her to Allah's mercy and bestow these diners in alms for
her soul." I replied, "To hear is to obey!"; and walked on before
her, whilst she followed me, giving alms as she went and saying
to all upon whom she lavisht bounty, "This is an alms for the
soul of Azizah, who kept her counsel till she drank the cup of
death and never told the secret of her love." And she stinted not
thus to give alms and say, "for Azizah's soul," till the purse
was empty and we came to the grave.  And when she looked at the
tomb, she wept and threw herself on it; then, pulling out a
chisel of steel and a light hammer, she graved therewith upon the
head stone in fine small characters these couplets,

"I past by a broken tomb amid a garth right sheen, * Whereon
     seven blooms of Nu'uman[FN#521] glowed with cramoisie;
Quoth I, 'Who sleepeth in this tomb?' Quoth answering Earth *
     'Before a lover Hades-tombed[FN#522] bend reverently!'
Quoth I, 'May Allah help thee, O thou slain of Love, * And grant
     thee home in Heaven and Paradise height to see!'
Hapless are lovers all e'en tombed in their tombs, * Where amid
     living folk the dust weighs heavily!
Pain would I plant a garden blooming round thy grave, * And water
     every flower with tear drops flowing free!"

Then she turned away in tears and I with her and returned to the
garden where she said to me, "By Allah!  I conjure thee never
leave me!" "To hear is to obey," replied I.  Then I gave myself
wholly up to her and paid her frequent visits: she was good and
generous to me; and as often as I passed the night with her, she
would make much of me and would ask me of the two saws my cousin
Azizah told my mother and I would repeat them to her.  And
matters ceased not to be on this wise and I continued for a whole
year eating and drinking and enjoying dalliance and wearing
change of rich raiment until I waxed gross and fat, so that I
lost all thought of sorrowing and mourning, and I clean forgot my
cousin Azizah.  And on New Year's day I went to the bath, where I
refreshed myself and put on a suit of sumptuous clothes; then
coming out I drank a cup of wine and smelt the scent of my new
gear which was perfumed with various essences; and my breast was
broadened thereby, for I knew not the tricks of Pate nor the
changing ways of Time.  When the hour of night prayer came, I was
minded to repair to my lover; but, being the worse for wine, I
knew not when going to her whither I went, so my drunkenness
turned me into a by street called Syndic Street;[FN#523] and the
while I walked up that street behold, I caught sight of an old
woman faring with a lighted taper in one hand, and in the other a
folded letter.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the One Hundred and Twenty-second Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant, whose name was Aziz, continued to Taj al-Muluk:--And
when I entered the street called Syndic Street behold, I caught
sight of an old woman walking with a lighted taper in one hand
and in the other a folded letter and I drew near her and lo!  she
was weeping and repeating these couplets,

"O glad news bearer well come!  Welcome!  Hail!  * How sweet thy
     speech to me, what treat thy tale:
O messenger from him whose weal I love, * God bless thee long as
     breathes soft morning-gale!"

Now when she saw me she asked, "O my son! canst thou read?"; and
I answered, of my officiousness, "Yes, old naunty!" Rejoined she,
"Then take this letter and read it to me." And when she handed it
to me, I took it and unfolding it read it to her and behold it
was from an absent man to his friends and lovers whom he greeted;
and, when she heard its purport, she rejoiced at the good tidings
and blessed me, saying, "Allah dispel thine anxiety, even as thou
hast dispelled mine!" Then she took the letter and walked on.
Meanwhile, I was urged by a call of nature and sat down on my
heels to make water.[FN#524] When I had ended I stood up and
wiped the orifice with a pebble and then, letting down my
clothes, I was about to wend my way, when suddenly the old woman
came up to me again and, bending down over my hand, kissed it and
said, "O my master!  the Lord give thee joy of thy youth!  I
entreat thee to walk with me a few steps as far as yonder door,
for I told them what thou didst read to me of the letter, and
they believe me not, so come with me two steps and read them the
letter from behind the door and accept the prayers of a righteous
woman." I enquired, "What is the history of this letter?", and
she replied, "O my son, this letter is from my son, who hath been
absent for a term of ten years.  He set out with a stock of
merchandise and tarried long in foreign parts, till we lost hope
of him and supposed him to be dead.  Now after all that delay
cometh this letter from him, and he hath a sister who weepeth for
him night and day; so I said to her, 'He is well and all right.'
But she will not believe me and declares, 'There is no help but
thou bring me one who will read this letter in my presence, that
my heart may be at rest and my mind at ease.' Thou knowest, O my
son, that all who love are wont to think evil: so be good enough
to go with me and read to her this letter, standing behind the
curtain, whilst I call his sister to listen within the door, so
shalt thou dispel our heed and fulfil our need.  Verily quoth the
Apostle of Allah (whom Allah bless and preserve!), 'Whoso easeth
the troubled of one of the troubles of this troublous world,
Allah will ease him of an hundred troubles'; and according to
another tradition, 'Whoso easeth his brother of one of the
troubles of this troublous world, Allah shall relieve him of
seventy and two troubles on the Day of Resurrection.' And I have
betaken myself to thee; so disappoint me not." Replied I, "To
hear is to obey: do thou go before me!" So she walked on
devancing me and I followed her a little way, till she came to
the gate of a large and handsome mansion whose door was plated
with copper.[FN#525]  I stood behind the door, whilst the old
woman cried out in Persian, and ere I knew it a damsel ran up
with light and nimble step.  She had tucked up her trousers to
her knees, so that I saw a pair of calves that confounded thinker
and lighter, and the maid herself was as saith the poet
describing her,

"O thou who barest leg calf, better to suggest * For passion
     madded amourist better things above!
Towards its lover cloth the bowl go round and run; * Cup[FN#526]
     and cup bearer only drive us daft with love."[FN#527]

Now these legs were like two pillars of alabaster adorned with
anklets of gold, wherein were set stones of price.  And the
damsel had tucked up the end of her gown under her arm pit and
had rolled up her sleeves to the elbow, so that I could see her
white wrists whereon were two pairs of bracelets with clasps of
great pearls; and round her neck was a collar of costly gems.
Her ears were adorned with pendants of pearls and on her head she
wore a kerchief[FN#528] of brocade, brand new and broidered with
jewels of price.  And she had thrust the skirt of her shift into
her trousers string being busy with some household business.  So
when I saw her in this undress, I was confounded at her beauty,
for she was like a shining sun.  Then she said, with soft, choice
speech, never heard I sweeter, "O my mother!  is this he who
cometh to read the letter?" "It is," replied the old woman; and
she put out her hand to me with the letter.  Now between her and
the door was a distance of about half a rod[FN#529]; so I
stretched forth my hand to take the letter from her and thrust
head and shoulders within the door, thinking to draw near her and
read the letter when, before I knew what her design was, the old
woman butted her head against my back and pushed me forwards with
the letter in my hand, so that ere I could take thought I found
myself in the middle of the hall far beyond the vestibule.  Then
she entered, faster than a flash of blinding leven, and had
naught to do but to shut the door.  And Shahrazed perceived the
dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

      When it was the One Hundred and Twenty-third Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the youth
Aziz pursued to Taj al Muluk: "When the old woman pushed me
forwards I found myself, ere I could think, inside the vestibule;
and the old woman entered faster than a flash of blinding levee
and had naught to do but to shut the door.  When the girl saw me
in the vestibule, she came up to me and strained me to her bosom,
and threw me to the floor; then she sat astraddle upon my breast
and kneaded my belly with her fingers, till I well nigh lost my
senses.  Thereupon she took me by the hand and led me, unable to
resist for the violence of her pressure, through seven
vestibules, whilst the old woman forewent us with the lighted
candle, till we came to a great saloon with four estrades whereon
a horseman might play Polo.[FN#530] Here she released me, saying,
"Open thine eyes." So I opened them still giddy for the excess of
her embracing and pressing, and saw that the whole saloon was
built of the finest marbles and alabasters, and all its furniture
was of silk and brocade even to the cushions and mattresses.
Therein also were two benches of yellow brass and a couch of red
gold, set with pearls and precious stones, befitting none save
Kings like thyself.  And off the saloon were smaller sitting
rooms; and the whole place was redolent of wealth.  Then she
asked, "O Aziz, which is liefer to thee life or death?" "Life,"
answered I; and she said, "If life be liefer to thee, marry me."
Quoth I, "Indeed I should hate to marry the like of thee." Quoth
she, "If thou marry me thou wilt at least be safe from the
daughter of Dalílah the Wily One."[FN#531]  I asked, "And who be
that daughter of the Wily One?" Whereupon she laughed and
replied, " 'Tis she who hath companied with thee this day for a
year and four months (may the Almighty destroy and afflict her
with one worse than herself!) By Allah, there liveth not a more
perfidious than she.  How many men hath she not slain before thee
and what deeds hath she not done.  Nor can I understand how thou
hast been all the time in her company, yet she hath not killed
thee nor done thee a mischief." When I heard her words, I
marvelled with exceeding marvel and said, "O my lady, who made
thee to know her?"  Said she, "I know her as the age knoweth its
calamities; but now I would fain have thee tell me all that hath
passed between you two, that I may ken the cause of thy
deliverance from her." So I told her all that had happened
between us, including the story of my cousin Azizah.  She
expressed her pity when she heard of the death, and her eyes ran
over with tears and she claps hand on hand and cried out, Her
youth was lost on Allah's way,[FN#532] and may the Lord bless
thee for her good works!  By Allah, O Aziz, she who died for thee
was the cause of thy preservation from the daughter of Dalia the
Wily; and, but for her, thou hadst been lost.  And now she is
dead I fear for thee from the Crafty One's perfidy and mischief;
but my throat is choking and I cannot speak." Quoth I Ay, by
Allah: all this happened even as thou sayest." And she shook her
head and cried, "There liveth not this day the like of Azizah.  I
continued, "And on her death bed she bade me repeat to my lover
these two saws, 'Faith is fair!  Unfaith is foul'" When she heard
me say this, she exclaimed, "O Aziz, by Allah those same words
saved thee from dying by her hand; and now my heart is at ease
for thee from her, for she will never kill thee and the daughter
of thy uncle preserved thee during her lifetime and after her
death.  By Allah, I have desired thee day after day but could not
get at thee till this time when I tricked thee and outwitted
thee; for thou art a raw youth[FN#533] and knowest not the wiles
of young women nor the deadly guile of old women." Rejoined I,
No, by Allah!" Then said she to me, "Be of good cheer and eyes
clear; the dead hath found Allah's grace, and the live shall be
in good case.  Thou art a handsome youth and I do not desire thee
but according to the ordinance of Allah and His Apostle (on whom
be salutation and salvation!).  Whatever thou requirest of money
and stuff, thou shalt have forthright without stint, and I will
not impose any toil on thee, no, never!, for there is with me
always bread baked hot and water in pot.  All I need of thee is
that thou do with me even as the cock doth." I asked "And what
doth the cock?" Upon this she laughed and clapped her hands and
fell over on her back for excess of merriment then she sat up and
smiled and said, "O light of my eyes, really dost thou not know
what cock's duty is?" "No, by Allah!" replied I, and she, "The
cock's duty is to eat and drink and tread.' I was abashed at her
words and asked, "Is that the cock's duty?  Yes, answered she;
"and all I ask of thee now is to gird thy loins and strengthen
thy will and futter thy best." Then she clapped her hands and
cried out, saying, "O my mother, bring forward those who are with
thee." And behold, in came the old woman accompanied by four
lawful witnesses, and carrying a veil of silk.  Then she lighted
four candles, whilst the witnesses saluted me and sat down; and
the girl veiled herself with the veil and deputed one of them to
execute the contract on her behalf.  So they wrote out the
marriage bond and she testified to have received the whole sum
settled upon her, both the half in advance and the half in
arrears; and that she was indebted to me in the sum of ten
thousand dirhams.--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and
ceased saying her permitted say.

      When it was the One Hundred and Twenty-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the young
merchant continued to Taj al-Muluk: When they wrote out the
marriage contract, she testified to having received the whole sum
settled upon her, the half in advance and the half in arrears and
that she was indebted to me in the sum of ten thousand dirhams.
She paid the witnesses their wage and they withdrew whence they
came.  Thereupon she arose and cast off her clothes and stood in
a chemise of fine silk edged with gold lace, after which she took
off her trousers and seized my hand and led me up to the couch,
saying, "There is no sin in a lawful put in." She lay down on the
couch outspread upon her back; and, drawing me on to her breast,
heaved a sigh and followed it up with a wriggle by way of being
coy.  Then she pulled up the shift above her breasts, and when I
saw her in this pose, I could not withhold myself from thrusting
it into her, after I had sucked her lips, whilst she whimpered
and shammed shame and wept when no tears came, and then said she,
"O my beloved, do it, and do thy best!" Indeed the case reminded
me of his saying, who said,

"When I drew up her shift from the roof of her coynte, * I found
     it as strait* as my mind and my money:
So I drove it half-way, and she sighed a loud sigh * Quoth I,
     'Why this sigh?': 'For the rest of it, honey!'"

And she repeated, "O my beloved, let the finish be made for I am
thine handmaid.  My life on thee, up with it!  give it me, all of
it!  that I may take it in my hand and thrust it into my very
vitals!" And she ceased not to excite me with sobs and sighs and
amorous cries in the intervals of kissing and clasping until amid
our murmurs of pleasure we attained the supreme delight and the
term we had in sight.  We slept together till the morning, when I
would have gone out; but lo!  she came up to me, laughing, and
said, "So! So! thinkest thou that going into the Hammam is the
same as going out?[FN#534]  Dost thou deem me to be the like of
the daughter of Dalilah the Wily One?  Beware of such a thought,
for thou art my husband by contract and according to law.  If
thou be drunken return to thy right mind, and know that the house
wherein thou art openeth but one day in every year.  Go down and
look at the great door." So I arose and went down and found the
door locked and nailed up and returned and told her of the
locking and nailing.  "O Aziz," said she, "We have in this house
flour, grain, fruits and pomegranates; sugar, meat, sheep,
poultry and so forth enough for many years; and the door will not
be opened till after the lapse of a whole twelvemonth and well I
weet thou shalt not find thyself without this house till then."
Quoth I "There is no Majesty, and there is no Might save in
Allah, the Glorious, the Great!" "And how can this harm thee,"
rejoined she; "seeing thou knowest cock's duty, whereof I told
thee?" Then she laughed and I laughed too, and I conformed to
what she said and abode with her, doing cock's duty and eating
and drinking and futtering for a year of full twelve months,
during which time she conceived by me, and I was blessed with a
babe by her.  On the New Year's day I heard the door opened and
behold, men came in with cakes and flour and sugar.  Upon this, I
would have gone out but my wife said, "Wait till supper tide and
go out even as thou camest in." So I waited till the hour of
night prayer and was about to go forth in fear and trembling,
when she stopped me, saying, "By Allah, I will not let thee go
until thou swear to come back this night before the closing of
the door." I agreed to this, and she swore me a solemn oath on
Blade and Book,[FN#535] and the oath of divorce to boot, that I
would return to her.  Then I left her and going straight to the
garden, found the door open as usual; where at I was angry and
said to myself, "I have been absent this whole year and come here
unawares and find the place open as of wont!  I wonder is the
damsel still here as before?  I needs must enter and see before I
go to my mother, more by reason that it is now nightfall." So I
entered the flower garden,--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of
day and ceased to say her permitted say.

End of Vol. 2.

                       Volume 2 Footnotes

[FN#1] Supplementarily to note 2, p. 2, [FN#2 Vol 1]and note 2,
p. 14, [FN#21 Vol 1] vol. i., I may add that "Shahrázád," in the
Shams al-Loghat, is the P.N. of a King. L. Langlès (Les Voyages
de Sindibâd Le Marin et La Ruse des Femmes, first appended to
Savary's Grammar and reprinted 12 mot pp. 161 + 113, Imprimerie
Royale, Paris, M.D.CCC.XIV) explains it by Le cyprès, la beauté
de la ville; and he is followed by (A. de Biberstein) Kazimirski
(Ends el-Djelis Paris, Barrois, 1847). Ouseley (Orient. Collect.)
makes Shahrzád=town-born; and others an Arabisation of Chehr-ázád
(free of face, ingenuous of countenance) the petit nom of Queen
Humay, for whom see the Terminal Essay. The name of the sister,
whom the Fihrist converts into a Kahramánah, or nurse, vulgarly
written Dínár-zád, would= child of gold pieces, freed by gold
pieces, or one who has no need of gold pieces: Dínzád=child of
faith and Daynázád, proposed by Langlès, "free from debt (!)" I
have adopted Macnaghten's Dunyazad. "Shahryar," which Scott
hideously writes "Shier ear," is translated by the Shams, King of
the world, absolute monarch and the court of Anushir wan while
the Burhán-i-Káti'a renders it a King of Kings, and P.N. of a
town. Shahr-báz is also the P.N. of a town in Samarcand.

[FN#2] Arab. "Malik," here used as in our story-books: "Pompey
was a wise and powerful King" says the Gesta Romanorum. This King
is, as will appear, a Regent or Governor under Harun al-Rashid.
In the next tale he is Viceroy of Damascus, where he is also
called "Sultan."

[FN#3] The Bull Edit. gives the lines as follows:---

     The lance was his pen, and the hearts of his foes *
         His paper, and dipped he in blood for ink;
     Hence our sires entitled the spear Khattíyah, *
         Meaning that withal man shall write, I think.

The pun is in "Khattíyah" which may mean a writer (feminine) and
also a spear, from Khatt Hajar, a tract in the province
Al-Bahrayn (Persian Gulf), and Oman, where the best Indian
bamboos were landed and fashioned into lances. Imr al-Keys
(Mu'allakah v. 4.) sings of "our dark spears firmly wrought of
Khattiyan cane;" Al-Busírí of "the brown lances of Khatt;" also
see Lebid v. 50 and Hamásah pp. 26, 231, Antar notes the "Spears
of Khatt" and "Rudaynian lances." Rudaynah is said to have been
the wife of one Samhár, the Ferrara of lances; others make her
the wife of Al-Ka'azab and hold Sambár to be a town in Abyssinia
where the best weapons were manufactured The pen is the Calamus
or Kalam (reed cut for pen) of which the finest and hardest are
brought from Java: they require the least ribbing. The rhetorical
figure in the text is called Husn al-Ta'alíl, our aetiology; and
is as admirable to the Arabs as it appears silly to us.

[FN#4] "He loves folk" is high praise, meaning something more
than benevolence and beneficence.. Like charity it covers a host
of sins.

[FN#5] The sentence is euphuistic.

[FN#6] Arab. "Rubb"=syrup a word Europeanised by the "Rob

[FN#7] The Septentriones or four oxen and their wain.

[FN#8] The list fatally reminds us of "astronomy and the use of
the globes" . . . "Shakespeare and the musical glasses."

[FN#9] The octave occurs in Night xv. I quote Torrens (p. 360) by
way of variety.

[FN#10] A courteous formula of closing with the offer.

[FN#11] To express our "change of climate" Easterns say, "change
of water and air," water coming first.

[FN#12] "The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon by
night" (Psalm cxxi. 6). Easterns still believe in the blighting
effect of the moon's rays, which the Northerners of Europe, who
view it under different conditions, are pleased to deny. I have
seen a hale and hearty Arab, after sitting an hour in the
moonlight, look like a man fresh from a sick bed; and I knew an
Englishman in India whose face was temporarily paralysed by
sleeping with it exposed to the moon.

[FN#13] The negroids and negroes of Zanzibar.

[FN#14] i.e. Why not make thy heart as soft as thy sides! The
converse of this was reported at Paris during the Empire, when a
man had by mistake pinched a very high personage: "Ah, Madame! if
your heart be as hard as (what he had pinched) I am a lost man."

[FN#15] "Na'íman" is said to one after bathing or head-shaving:
the proper reply, for in the East every sign of ceremony has its
countersign, is "Allah benefit thee!" (Pilgrimage i. 11, iii.
285; Lane M. E. chaps. viii.; Caussin de Perceval's Arabic
Grammar, etc., etc.) I have given a specimen (Pilgrimage i., 122)
not only of sign and countersign, but also of the rhyming
repartee which rakes love. Hanien ! (pleasant to thee! said when
a man drinks). Allah pleasure thee (Allah yuhanník which Arnauts
and other ruffians perverted to Allah yaník, Allah copulate with
thee); thou drinkest for ten! I am the cock and thou art the hen!
(i.e. a passive catamite) Nay, I am the thick one (the penis
which gives pleasure) and thou art the thin! And so forth with
most unpleasant pleasantries.

[FN#16] In the old version she is called "The Fair Persian,"
probably from the owner: her name means "The Cheerer of the

[FN#17] Pronounce "Nooraddeen." I give the name written in

[FN#18] Amongst Moslems, I have said, it is held highly
disgraceful when the sound of women's cries can be heard by

[FN#19] In a case like this, the father would be justified by
Rasm (or usage) not by Koranic law, in playing Brutus with his
son. The same would be the case in a detected intrigue with a
paternal concubine and, in very strict houses, with a slave-girl.

[FN#20] Orientals fear the "Zug" or draught as much as Germans;
and with even a better reason. Draughts are most dangerous in hot

[FN#21] The Unity of the Godhead and the Apostleship of Mohammed.

[FN#22] This would be done only in the case of the very poor.

[FN#23] Prayers over the dead are not universal in Al-Islam; but
when they are recited they lack the "sijdah" or prostration.

[FN#24] Or, "Of the first and the last," i.e. Mohammed, who
claimed (and claimed justly) to be the "Seal" or head and end of
all Prophets and Prophecy. For note that whether the Arab be held
inspired or a mere imposter, no man making the same pretension
has moved the world since him. Mr. J. Smith the Mormon (to
mention one in a myriad) made a bold attempt and failed.

[FN#25] i.e. flatterers.

[FN#26] In one matter Moslems contrast strongly with Christians,
by most scrupulously following the example of their law-giver:
hence they are the model Conservatives. But (European)
Christendom is here, as in other things, curiously contradictory:
for instance, it still keeps a "Feast of the Circumcision," and
practically holds circumcision in horror. Eastern Christians,
however, have not wholly abolished it, and the Abyssinians, who
find it a useful hygenic precaution, still practise it. For
ulcers, syphilis and other venereals which are readily cured in
Egypt become dangerous in the Highlands of Ethiopia.

[FN#27] Arab. "Sabab," the orig. and material sense of the word;
hence "a cause," etc.

[FN#28] Thus he broke his promise to his father, and it is
insinuated that retribution came upon him.

[FN#29] "O Pilgrim" (Ya Hájj) is a polite address even to those
who have not pilgrimaged. The feminine "Hájjah" (in Egypt
pronounced "Hággeh") is similarly used.

[FN#30] Arab. "usúl"=roots, i.e. I have not forgotten my

[FN#31] Moslems from Central and Western North Africa.
(Pilgrimage i. 261; iii. 7, etc); the "Jabarti" is the Moslem

[FN#32] This is a favourite bit of chaff and is to be lengthened
out almost indefinitely e.g. every brown thing is not civet nor
every shining thing a diamond; every black thing is not charcoal
nor every white chalk; every red thing is not a ruby nor every
yellow a topaz; every long-necked thing is not a camel, etc.,
etc., etc.

[FN#33] He gives him the name of his grandfather; a familiar

[FN#34] Arab. "Ma'janah," a place for making unbaked bricks
(Tob=Span. Adobe) with chaff and bruised or charred straw. The
use of this article in rainless lands dates from ages immemorial,
and formed the outer walls of the Egyptian temple.

[FN#35] Arab. "Barsh," a bit of round matting used by the poor as
a seat. The Wazir thus showed that he had been degraded to the
condition of a mat-maker.

[FN#36] The growth (a Poa of two species) which named Wady Halfá
(vulg. "Halfah"), of which the home public has of late heard
perhaps a trifle too much. Burckhardt (Prov. 226) renders it "dry
reeds"—-incorrectly enough.

[FN#37] This "Háshimi" vein, as they call it, was an abnormal
development between the eyes of the house of Abbas, inherited
from the great- grandfather of the Prophet; and the latter had it
remarkably large, swelling in answer and battle-rage. The text,
however, may read "The sweat of wrath," etc.

[FN#38] Torrens and Payne prefer "Ilm"=knowledge. Lane has more
correctly "Alam"=a sign, a flag.

[FN#39] The lines were in Night xi.: I have quoted Torrens (p.
379) for a change.

[FN#40] Still customary in Tigris-Euphrates land, where sea-craft
has not changed since the days of Xisisthrus-Noah, and long

[FN#41] To cool the contents.

[FN#42] Hence the Khedivial Palace near Cairo "Kasr al-Nuzhah;"
literally, "of Delights;" one of those flimsy new-Cairo buildings
which contrast so marvellously with the architecture of ancient
and even of mediæval Egypt, and which are covering the land with
modern ruins. Compare Mohammed Ali's mosque in the citadel with
the older Sultan Hasan. A popular tale is told that, when the
conquering Turk, Yáwúz Sultan Selim, first visited Cairo, they
led him to Mosque Al-Ghúrí. "This is a splendid Ká'ah (saloon)!"
quoth he. When he entered Sultan Hasan, he exclaimed, "This is a
citadel!"; but after inspecting the Mosque Al-Mu'ayyad he cried,
"'Tis a veritable place of prayer, a fit stead for the Faithful
to adore the Eternal!"

[FN#43] Arab. gardeners are very touchy on this point. A friend
of mine was on a similar occasion addressed, in true Egyptian
lingo, by an old Adam-son, "Ya ibn al-Kalb! beta'mil ay?" (O dog-
son, what art thou up to?).

[FN#44] "The green palm-stick is of the trees of Paradise;" say
the Arabs in Solomonic style but not Solomonic words: so our
"Spare the rod," etc.

[FN#45] Wayfarers, travellers who have a claim on the kindness of
those at home: hence Abd al-Rahman al-Burai sings in his famous

 He hath claim on the dwellers in the places of their birth, *
Whoso wandereth the world, for he lacketh him a home.

It is given in my "First Footsteps in East Africa" (pp. 53-55).

[FN#46] The good old man treated the youth like a tired child.

[FN#47] In Moslem writings the dove and turtle-dove are mostly
feminine, whereas the female bird is always mute and only the
male sings to summon or to amuse his mate.

[FN#48] An unsavoury comparison of the classical Narcissus with
the yellow white of a nigger's eyes.

[FN#49] A tree whose coals burn with fierce heat: Al-Hariri (Vth
Seance). This Artemisia is like the tamarisk but a smaller growth
and is held to be a characteristic of the Arabian Desert. A
Badawi always hails with pleasure the first sight of the Ghazá,
after he has sojourned for a time away from his wilds. Mr.
Palgrave (i. 38) describes the "Ghadá" as an Euphorbia with a
woody stem often 5-6 feet high and slender, flexible green twigs
(?), "forming a feathery tuft, not ungraceful to the eye, while
it affords some shelter to the traveller, and food to his

[FN#50] Arab. "Sal'am"=S(alla) A(llah) a(layhi) was S(allam);
A(llah) b(less) h(im) a(nd) k(eep)=Allah keep him and assain!

[FN#51] The ass is held to be ill-omened. I have noticed the
braying elsewhere. According to Mandeville the Devil did not
enter the Ark with the Ass, but he left it when Noah said
"Benedicite." In his day (A.D. 1322) and in that of Benjamin of
Tudela, people had seen and touched the ship on Ararat, the Judi
(Gordiæi) mountains; and this dates from Berosus (S.C. 250) who,
of course, refers to the Ark of Xisisthrus. See Josephus Ant. i.
3, 6; and Rodwell (Koran, pp. 65, 530).

[FN#52] As would happen at a "Zikr," rogation or litany. Those
who wish to see how much can be made of the subject will read
"Pearls of the Faith, or Islam's Rosary, being the ninety-nine
beautiful names of Allah" (Asmá-el-Husna) etc. by Edwin Arnold:
London, Trübner, 1883.

[FN#53] i.e. the Sáki, cup-boy or cup-bearer. "Moon-faced," as I
have shown elsewhere, is no compliment in English, but it is in
Persian and Arabic.

[FN#54] He means we are "Záhirí," plain honest Moslems, not
"Bátiní," gnostics (ergo reprobates) and so forth, who disregard
all appearances and external ordinances. This suggests his
opinion of Shaykh Ibrahim and possibly refers to Ja'afar's
suspected heresy.

[FN#55] This worthy will be noticed in a subsequent page.

[FN#56] Arab. "Lisám," the end of the "Kufiyah," or head-kerchief
passed over the face under the eyes and made fast on the other
side. This mouth-veil serves as a mask (eyes not being
recognisable) and defends from heat, cold and thirst. I also
believe that hooding the eyes with this article, Badawi-fashion,
produces a sensation of coolness, at any rate a marked difference
of apparent temperature; somewhat like a pair of dark spectacles
or looking at the sea from a sandy shore. (Pilgrimage i., 210 and
346.) The woman's "Lisám" (chin-veil) or Yashmak is noticed in
i., 337.

[FN#57] Most characteristic is this familiarity between the
greatest man then in the world and his pauper subject. The
fisherman alludes to a practise of Al-Islman, instituted by
Caliph Omar, that all rulers should work at some handicraft in
order to spare the public treasure. Hence Sultan Mu'ayyad of
Cairo was a calligrapher who sold his handwriting, and his
example was followed by the Turkish Sultans Mahmúd, Abd al-Majíd
and Abd al-Azíz. German royalties prefer carpentering and Louis
XVI, watch-making.

[FN#58] There would be nothing singular in this request. The
democracy of despotism levels all men outside the pale of
politics and religion.

[FN#59] "Wa'lláhi tayyib!" an exclamation characteristic of the
Egyptian Moslem.

[FN#60] The pretended fisherman's name Karím=the Generous.

[FN#61] Such an act of generosity would appear to Europeans well-
nigh insanity, but it is quite in Arab manners. Witness the oft-
quoted tale of Hatim and his horse. As a rule the Arab is the
reverse of generous, contrasting badly, in this point, with his
cousin the Jew: hence his ideal of generosity is of the very
highest. "The generous (i.e. liberal) is Allah's friend, aye,
though he be a sinner; and the miser is Allah's foe, aye, though
he be a saint!" Indian Moslems call a skin-flint Makhi-chús =
fly-sucker. (Pilgrimage i. 242.)

[FN#62] Arab. "Ammá ba'ad" or (Wa ba'ad), an initiatory formula
attributed to Koss ibn Sa'idat al-Iyadi, bishop of Najrán (the
town in Al-Yaman which D'Herbelot calls Negiran) and a famous
preacher in Mohammed's day, hence "more eloquent than Koss"
(Maydání, Arab. Prov., 189). He was the first who addressed
letters with the incept, "from A. to B."; and the first who
preached from a pulpit and who leant on a sword or a staff when
discoursing. Many Moslems date Ammá ba'ad from the Prophet David,
relying upon a passage of the Koran (xxxviii. 19).

[FN#63] Arab. "Nusf"=half (a dirham): vulgarly pronounced "nuss,"
and synonymous with the Egypt. "Faddah" (=silver), the Greek
"Asper," and the Turkish "paráh." It is the smallest Egyptian
coin, made of very base metal and, there being forty to the
piastre, it is worth nearly a quarter of a farthing.

[FN#64] The too literal Torrens and Lane make the Caliph give the
gardener-lad the clothes in which he was then clad, forgetting,
like the author or copier, that he wore the fisherman's lousy

[FN#65] In sign of confusion, disappointment and so forth: not
"biting his nails," which is European and utterly un-Asiatic.

[FN#66] See lines like these in Night xiii. (i. 136); the
sentiment is trite.

[FN#67] The Arab will still stand under his ruler's palace and
shout aloud to attract his attention. Sayyid Sa'íd known as the
"Imán of Muskat" used to encourage the patriarchal practice.
Mohammed repeatedly protested against such unceremonious conduct
(Koran xciv. 11, etc.). The "three times of privacy" (Koran cv.
57) are before the dawn prayer, during the Siesta (noon) and
after the even-prayer.

[FN#68] The Judges of the four orthodox schools.

[FN#69] That none might see it or find it ever after.

[FN#70] Arab. "Khatt Sharíf"=a royal autographical letter: the
term is still preserved in Turkey, but Europeans will write

[FN#71] Meaning "Little tom-cat;" a dim. of "Kitt" vulg. Kutt or

[FN#72] Arab. "Matmúrah"—-the Algerine "Matamor"—-a "silo," made
familiar to England by the invention of "Ensilage."

[FN#73] The older "Mustapha"=Mohammed. This Intercession-doctrine
is fiercely disputed. (Pilgrimage ii. 77.) The Apostle of Al-
Islam seems to have been unable to make up his mind upon the
subject: and modern opinion amongst Moslems is apparently
borrowed from the Christians.

[FN#74] Lane (i. 486) curiously says, "The place of the
stagnation of blood:" yet he had translated the word aright in
the Introduction (i. 41). I have noticed that the Nat'a is made
like the "Sufrah," of well-tanned leather, with rings in the
periphery, so that a thong passed through turns it into a bag.
The Sufrah used for provisions is usually yellow, with a black
border and small pouches for knives or spoons. (Pilgrimage i.

[FN#75] This improbable detail shows the Caliph's greatness.

[FN#76] "Cousin" is here a term of familiarity, our "coz."

[FN#77] i.e. without allowing them a moment's delay to change

[FN#78] i.e. according to my nature, birth, blood, de race.

[FN#79] Our "Job." The English translators of the Bible, who
borrowed Luther's system of transliteration (of A.D. 1522),
transferred into English the German "j" which has the sound of
"i" or "y"; intending us to pronounce Yacob (or Yakob), Yericho,
Yimnites, Yob (or Hiob) and Yudah. Tyndall, who copied Luther
(A.D. 1525-26), preserved the true sound by writing lacob, Ben
Iamin and Iudas. But his successors unfortunately returned to the
German; the initial I, having from the xiii century been
ornamentally lengthened and bent leftwards, became a consonant.
The public adopted the vernacular sound of "j" (da) and hence our
language and our literature are disgraced by such barbarisms as
"Jehovah" and "Jesus"; Dgehovah and Dgeesus for Yehovah and
Yesus. Future generations of school-teachers may remedy the evil;
meanwhile we are doomed for the rest of our days to hear

  Gee-rusalem! Gee-rusalem! etc.

Nor is there one word to be said in favour of the corruption
except that, like the Protestant mispronunciation of Latin and
the Erasmian ill-articulation of Greek, it has become English,
and has lent its little aid in dividing the Britons from the rest
of the civilised world.

[FN#80] The moon, I repeat, is masculine in the so-called
"Semitic" tongues.

[FN#81] i.e. camel loads, about lbs. 300; and for long journeys
lbs. 250.

[FN#82] Arab. "Janázah," so called only when carrying a corpse;
else Na'ash, Sarír or Tábút: Irán being the large hearse on which
chiefs are borne. It is made of plank or stick work; but there
are several varieties. (Lane, M. E. chaps. xxviii.)

[FN#83] It is meritorious to accompany the funeral cortège of a
Moslem even for a few paces.

[FN#84] Otherwise he could not have joined in the prayers.

[FN#85] Arab. "Halwá" made of sugar, cream, almonds, etc. That of
Maskat is famous throughout the East.

[FN#86] i.e. "Camphor" to a negro, as we say "Snowball," by the
figure antiphrase.

[FN#87] "Little Good Luck," a dim. form of "bakht"=luck, a
Persian word naturalized in Egypt.

[FN#88] There are, as I have shown, not a few cannibal tribes in
Central Africa and these at times find their way into the slave

[FN#89] i.e. After we bar the door.

[FN#90] Arab. "Jáwísh" from Turk. Cháwúsh, Chiaoosh, a sergeant,
poursuivant, royal messenger. I would suggest that this is the
word "Shálish" or "Jálish" in Al-Siynti's History of the Caliphs
(p. 501) translated by Carlyle "milites," by Schultens
"Sagittarius" and by Jarett "picked troops."

[FN#91] This familiarity with blackamoor slave-boys is common in
Egypt and often ends as in the story: Egyptian blood is
sufficiently mixed with negro to breed inclination for
miscegenation. But here the girl was wickedly neglected by her
mother at such an age as ten.

[FN#92] Arab. "Farj"; hence a facetious designation of the other
sex is "Zawi'l-furuj" (grammatically Zawátu'l- furúj)=habentes
rimam, slit ones.

[FN#93] This ancient and venerable practice of inspecting the
marriage-sheet is still religiously preserved in most parts of
the East, and in old-fashioned Moslem families. It is publicly
exposed in the Harem to prove that the "domestic calamity" (the
daughter) went to her husband a clean maid. Also the general idea
is that no blood will impose upon the exerts, or jury of matrons,
except that of a pigeon-poult which exactly resembles hymeneal
blood-- when not subjected to the microscope. This belief is
universal in Southern Europe and I have heard of it in England.
Further details will be given in Night ccxi.

[FN#94] "Agha" Turk.=sir, gentleman, is, I have said, politely
addressed to a eunuch.

[FN#95] As Bukhayt tells us he lost only his testes, consequently
his erectio et distensio penis was as that of a boy before
puberty and it would last as long as his heart and circulation
kept sound. Hence the eunuch who preserves his penis is much
prized in the Zenanah where some women prefer him to the entire
man, on account of his long performance of the deed of kind. Of
this more in a future page.

[FN#96] It is or rather was the custom in Egypt and Syria to
range long rows of fine China bowls along the shelves running
round the rooms at the height of six or seven feet, and they
formed a magnificent cornice. I bought many of them at Damascus
till the people, learning their value, asked prohibitive prices.

[FN#97] The tale is interesting as well as amusing, excellently
describing the extravagance still practiced in middle-class
Moslem families on the death of the pater familias. I must again
note that Arab women are much more unwilling to expose the back
of the head covered by the "Tarhah" (head-veil) than the face,
which is hidden by the "Burke" or nose bag.

[FN#98] The usual hysterical laughter of this nervous race.

[FN#99] Here the slave refuses to be set free and starve. For a
master so to do without ample reasons is held disgraceful. I well
remember the weeping and wailing throughout Sind when an order
from Sir Charles Napier set free the negroes whom British
philanthropy thus doomed to endure if not to die of hunger.

[FN#100] Manumission, which is founded upon Roman law, is an
extensive subject discussed in the Hidáyah and other canonical
works. The slave here lays down the law incorrectly but his claim
shows his truly "nigger" impudence.

[FN#101] This is quite true to nature. The most remarkable thing
in the wild central African is his enormous development of
"destructiveness." At Zanzibar I never saw a slave break a glass
or plate without a grin or a chuckle of satisfaction.

[FN#102] Arab. "Khassá-ni"; Khusyatáni (vulg.) being the
testicles, also called "bayzatán" the two eggs) a double entendre
which has given rise to many tales. For instance in the witty
Persian book "Dozd o Kazi" (The Thief and the Judge) a footpad
strips the man of learning and offers to return his clothes if he
can ask him a puzzle in law or religion. The Kazi (in folk-lore
mostly a fool) fails, and his wife bids him ask the man to supper
for a trial of wits on the same condition. She begins with
compliments and ends by producing five eggs which she would have
him distribute equally amongst the three; and, when he is
perplexed, she gives one to each of the men taking three for
herself. Whereupon the "Dozd" wends his way, having lost his
booty as his extreme stupidity deserved. In the text the eunuch,
Kafur, is made a "Sandal" or smooth-shaven, so that he was of no
use to women.

[FN#103] Arab. "Khara," the lowest possible word: Yá Khara! is
the commonest of insults, used also by modest women. I have heard
one say it to her son.

[FN#104] Arab. "Kámah," a measure of length, a fathom, also
called "Bá'a." Both are omitted in that sadly superficial book,
Lane's Modern Egyptians, App. B.

[FN#105] Names of her slave-girls which mean (in order),
Garden-bloom, Dawn (or Beautiful), Tree o' Pearl (P. N. of
Saladin's wife), Light of (right) Direction, Star o' the Morn
Lewdness (= Shahwah, I suppose this is a chaff), Delight,
Sweetmeat and Miss Pretty.

[FN#106] This mode of disposing of a rival was very common in
Harems. But it had its difficulties and on the whole the river
was (and is) preferred.

[FN#107] An Eastern dislikes nothing more than drinking in a dim
dingy place: the brightest lights seem to add to his

[FN#108] He did not sleep with her because he suspected some
palace-mystery which suggested prudence, she also had her

[FN#109] This as called in Egypt "Allah." (Lane M. E. chaps. i.)

[FN#110] It would be a broad ribbon-like band upon which the
letters could be worked.

[FN#111] In the Arab. "he cried." These "Yes, Yes!" and "No! No!"
trifles are very common amongst the Arabs.

[FN#112] Arab. "Maragha" lit. rubbed his face on them like a
fawning dog. Ghanim is another "softy" lover, a favourite
character in Arab tales; and by way of contrast, the girl is
masterful enough.

[FN#113] Because the Abbaside Caliphs descend from Al-Abbas,
paternal uncle of Mohammed, text means more explicitly, "O
descendant of the Prophet's uncle!"

[FN#114] The most terrible part of a belle passion in the East is
that the beloved will not allow her lover leave of absence for an

[FN#115] It is hard to preserve these wretched puns. In the
original we have "O spray (or branch) of capparis-shrub (aráki)
which has been thinned of leaf and fruit (tujna, i.e., whose
fruit, the hymen, has been plucked before and not by me) I see
thee (aráka) against me sinning (tajní).

[FN#116] Apparently the writer forgets that the Abbaside banners
and dress were black, originally a badge of mourning for the Imám
Ibrahim bin Mohammed put to death by the Ommiade Caliph
Al-Marwan. The modern Egyptian mourning, like the old Persian, is
indigo-blue of the darkest; but, as before noted, the custom is
by no means universal.

[FN#117] Koran, chaps. iv. In the East as elsewhere the Devil
quotes Scripture.

[FN#118] A servant returning from a journey shows his master due
honour by appearing before him in travelling suit and uncleaned.

[FN#119] The first name means "Rattan", the second "Willow wand,"
from the "Bán" or "Khiláf" the Egyptian willow (Salix Ægyptiaca
Linn.) vulgarly called "Safsáf." Forskal holds the "Bán" to be a
different variety.

[FN#120] Arab. "Ta'ám," which has many meanings: in mod. parlance
it would signify millet holcus seed.

[FN#121] i.e. "I well know how to deal with him."

[FN#122] The Pen (title of the Koranic chaps. Ixviii.) and the
Preserved Tablet (before explained).

[FN#123] These plunderings were sanctioned by custom. But a few
years ago, when the Turkish soldiers mutinied about arrears of
pay (often delayed for years) the governing Pasha would set fire
to the town and allow the men to loot what they pleased during a
stated time. Rochet (soi-disant D'Hericourt) amusingly describes
this manoeuvre of the Turkish Governor of Al-Hodaydah in the last
generation. (Pilgrimage iii. 381.)

[FN#124] Another cenotaph whose use was to enable women to
indulge in their pet pastime of weeping and wailing in company.

[FN#125] The lodging of pauper travellers, as the chapel in
Iceland is of the wealthy. I have often taken benefit of the
mosque, but as a rule it is unpleasant, the matting being not
only torn but over-populous. Juvenal seems to allude to the
Jewish Synagogue similarly used: "in quâ te quæro proseuchâ"?
(iii. 296) and in Acts iii. we find the lame, blind and impotent
in the Temple-porch.

[FN#126] This foul sort of vermin is supposed to be bred by
perspiration. It is an epoch in the civilised traveller's life
when he catches his first louse.

[FN#127] The Moslem peasant is a kind hearted man and will make
many sacrifices for a sick stranger even of another creed. It is
a manner of "pundonor" with the village.

[FN#128] Such treatment of innocent women was only too common
under the Caliphate and in contemporary Europe.

[FN#129] This may also mean, "And Heaven will reward thee," but
camel-men do not usually accept any drafts upon futurity.

[FN#130] He felt that he was being treated like a corpse.

[FN#131] This hatred of the Hospital extends throughout Southern
Europe, even in places where it is not justified.

[FN#132] The importance of the pillow (wisádah or makhaddah) to
the sick man is often recognised in The Nights. "He took to his
pillow" is = took to his bed.

[FN#133] i.e in order that the reverend men, who do not render
such suit and service gratis, might pray for him.

[FN#134] The reader will notice in The Nights the frequent
mention of these physical prognostications, with which mesmerists
are familiar.

[FN#135] The Pers. name of the planet Saturn in the Seventh
Heaven. Arab. "Zuhal"; the Kiun or Chiun of Amos vi. 26.

[FN#136] i.e. "Pardon me if I injured thee"-- a popular phrase.

[FN#137] A "seduction," a charmer. The double-entendre has before
been noticed.

[FN#138] This knightly tale, the longest in the Nights (xliv.--
cxlv.), about one-eighth of the whole, does not appear in the
Bres. Edit. Lane, who finds it "objectionable," reduces it to two
of its episodes, Azíz-cum-Azízah and Táj al-Mulúk. On the other
hand it has been converted into a volume (8vo, pp. 240)
"Scharkan, Conte Arabe," etc. Traduit par M. Asselan Riche, etc.
Paris: Dondey-Dupré. 1829. It has its longueurs and at times is
longsome enough; but it is interesting as a comparison between
the chivalry of Al-Islam and European knight-errantry. Although
all the characters are fictitious the period is evidently in the
early crusading days. Cæsarea, the second capital of Palestine,
taken during the Caliphate of Omar (A.H. 19) and afterwards
recovered, was fortified in A.H. 353 = 963 as a base against the
Arabs by the Emperor Phocas, the Arab. "Nakfúr" i.e. Nicephorus.
In A.H. 498=1104, crusading craft did much injury by plundering
merchantmen between Egypt and Syria, to which allusion is found
in the romance. But the story teller has not quite made up his
mind about which Cæsarea he is talking, and M. Riche tells us
that Césarée is a "ville de la Mauritanie, en Afrique" (p. 20).

[FN#139] The fifth Ommiade Caliph reign. A.H. 65-86 = 685-704.

[FN#140] This does not merely mean that no one was safe from his
wrath: or, could approach him in the heat of fight: it is a
reminiscence of the masterful "King Kulayb," who established
game-laws in his dominions and would allow no man to approach his
camp-fire. Moreover the Jinn lights a fire to decoy travellers,
but if his victim be bold enough to brave him, he invites him to
take advantage of the heat.

[FN#141] China.

[FN#142] The Jaxartes and the Bactrus (names very loosely

[FN#143] In full "Sharrun kána" i.e. an evil (Sharr) has come to
being (kána) that is, "bane to the foe" a pagan and knightly
name. The hero of the Romance "Al-Dalhamah" is described as a
bitter gourd (colocynth), a viper, a calamity.

[FN#144] This is a Moslem law (Koran chaps. iv. bodily borrowed
from the Talmud) which does not allow a man to marry one wife
unless he can carnally satisfy her. Moreover he must distribute his
honours equally and each wife has a right to her night unless she
herself give it up. This was the case even with the spouses of the
Prophet; and his biography notices several occasions when his wives
waived their rights in favour of one another M. Riche kindly
provides the King with la piquante francaise (p. 15).

[FN#145] So the celebrated mosque in Stambul, famed for being the
largest church in the world is known to the Greeks as "Agia (pron.
Aya) Sophia" and to Moslems as "Aye Sofíyeh" (Holy Wisdom) i.e. the
Logos or Second Person of the Trinity (not a Saintess). The sending
a Christian girl as a present to a Moslem would, in these days, be
considered highly scandalous. But it was done by the Mukaukis or
Coptic Governor of Egypt (under Heraclius) who of course hated the
Greeks. This worthy gave two damsels to Mohammed; one called Sírín
and the other Máriyah (Maria) whom the Prophet reserved for his
especial use and whose abode is still shown at Al-Medinah. The Rev.
Doctor Badger (loc. cit. p. 972) gives the translation of an
epistle by Mohammed to this Mukaukis, written in the Cufic
character ( ? ?) and sealed "Mohammed, The Apostle of Allah." My
friend seems to believe that it is an original, but upon this
subject opinions will differ. It is, however, exceedingly
interesting, beginning with "Bismillah," etc., and ending (before
the signature) with a quotation from the Koran (iii. 57); and it
may be assumed as a formula addressee to foreign potentates by a
Prophet who had become virtually "King of Arabia."

[FN#146] This prayer before "doing the deed of kind" is, I have
said, Moslem as well Christian.

[FN#147] Exodus i. 16, quoted by Lane (M. E., chaps. xxvii.).
Torrens in his Notes cites Drayton's "Moon-calf':--

    Bring forth the birth-stool--no, let it alone;
    She is so far beyond all compass grown,
    Some other new device us needs must stead,
    Or else she never can be brought to bed.

It is the "groaning-chair" of Poor Robin's Almanac (1676) and we
find it alluded to in Boccaccio, the classical sedile which
according to scoffers has formed the papal chair (a curule seat)
ever since the days of Pope Joan, when it has been held advisable
for one of the Cardinals to ascertain that His Holiness possesses
all the instruments of virility. This "Kursí al-wiládah" is of
peculiar form on which the patient is seated. A most interesting
essay might be written upon the various positions preferred during
delivery, e.g. the wild Irish still stand on all fours, like the
so-called "lower animals." Amongst the Moslems of Waday, etc., a
cord is hung from the top of the hut, and the woman in labour holds
on to it standing with her legs apart, till the midwife receives
the child.

[FN#148] Some Orientalists call "lullilooing" the trilling cry,
which is made by raising the voice to its highest pitch and
breaking it by a rapid succession of touches on the palate with the
tongue-tip, others "Ziraleet" and Zagaleet, and one traveller tells
us that it began at the marriage-festival of Isaac and Rebecca (!).
Arabs term it classically "Tahlíl" and vulgarly "Zaghrutah" (Plur.
Zaghárit) and Persians "Kil." Finally in Don Quixote we have
"Lelilies," the battle-cry of the Moors (Duffield iii. 289). Dr.
Buchanan likens it to a serpent uttering human sounds, but the good
missionary heard it at the festival of Jagannath. (Pilgrimage iii.
197 )

[FN#149] i.e. "Light of the Place" (or kingdom) and "Delight of the

[FN#150] It is utterly absurd to give the old heroic Persian name
Afridun or Furaydun, the destroyer of Zohák or Zahhák to a Greek,
but such anachronisms are characteristic of The Nights and are
evidently introduced on purpose. See Boccaccio, ix. 9.

[FN#151] Arab. "Yunán" lit. Ionia, which applies to all Greece,
insular and continental, especially to ancient Greece.

[FN#152] In 1870 I saw at Sidon a find of some hundreds of gold
"Philippi" and "Alexanders."

[FN#153] M. Riche has (p. 21), "Ces talismans travaillés par le
ciseau du célèbre Califaziri," adding in a note, "Je pense que
c'est un sculpteur Arabe."

[FN#154] This periphrase, containing what seems to us a useless
negative, adds emphasis in Arabic.

[FN#155] This bit of geographical information is not in the Bull

[FN#156] In Pers. = a tooth, the popular word.

[FN#157] This preliminary move, called in Persian Nakl-i Safar, is
generally mentioned. So the Franciscan monks in California, when
setting out for a long journey through the desert, marched three
times round the convent and pitched tents for the night under its

[FN#158] In Arab. "Khazinah" or "Khaznah" lit. a treasure,
representing 1,000 "Kís" or purses (each=£5). The sum in the text
is 7,000 purses X 5=£35,000.

[FN#159] Travellers often prefer such sites because they are
sheltered from the wind, and the ground is soft for pitching tents;
but many have come to grief from sudden torrents following rain.

[FN#160] Arab "Ghábah" not a forest in our sense of the word, but
a place where water sinks and the trees (mostly Mimosas), which
elsewhere are widely scattered, form a comparatively dense growth
and collect in thickets. These are favourite places for wild beasts
during noon-heats.

[FN#161] At various times in the East Jews and Christians were
ordered to wear characteristic garments, especially the Zunnár or

[FN#162] The description is borrowed from the Coptic Convent, which
invariably has an inner donjon or keep. The oldest monastery in the
world is Mar Antonios (St. Anthony the Hermit) not far from Suez.
(Gold Mines of Midian, p. 85.)

[FN#163] "Dawáhí," plur. of Dáhiyah = a mishap. The title means
"Mistress of Misfortunes" or Queen of Calamities (to the enemy);
and the venerable lady, as will be seen, amply deserved her name,
which is pronounced Zát al-Dawáhí.

[FN#164] Arab. "Kunfuz"=hedgehog or porcupine.

[FN#165] These flowers of speech are mere familiarities, not
insults. In societies where the sexes are separated speech becomes
exceedingly free. "Étourdie que vous êtes," says M. Riche, toning
down the text.

[FN#166] Arab. "Zirt," a low word. The superlative "Zarrát"
(fartermost) or, "Abu Zirt" (Father of farts) is a facetious term
among the bean-eating Fellahs and a deadly insult amongst the
Badawin (Night ccccx.). The latter prefer the word Taggáa
(Pilgrimage iii. 84). We did not disdain the word in
farthingale=pet en air.

[FN#167] Arab. "kicked" him, i.e. with the sharp corner of the
shovel-stirrup. I avoid such expressions as "spurring" and
"pricking over the plain," because apt to give a wrong idea.

[FN#168] Arab. "Allaho Akbar!" the classical Moslem slogan.

[FN#169] Arab horses are never taught to leap, so she was quite
safe on the other side of a brook nine feet broad.

[FN#170] "Batrík" (vulg. Bitrík)=patricius, a title given to
Christian knights who commanded ten thousand men; the Tarkhan (or
Nobb) heading four thousand, and the Kaumas (Arab. Káid) two
hundred. It must not be confounded with Batrak (or
Batrik)=patriarcha. (Lane's Lex.)

[FN#171] Arab. "Kázi al-Kuzát," a kind of Chief Justice or
Chancellor. The office wag established under the rule of Harun al
Rashid, who so entitled Abú Yúsuf Ya'akab al-Ansári: therefore the
allusion is anachronistic. The same Caliph also caused the Olema to
dress as they do still.

[FN#172] The allusion is Koranic: "O men, if ye be in doubt
concerning the resurrection, consider that He first created you of
the dust of the ground (Adam), afterwards of seed" (chaps. xxii.).
But the physiological ideas of the Koran are curious. It supposes
that the Mani or male semen is in the loins and that of women in
the breast bone (chaps Ixxxvi.); that the mingled seed of the two
(chaps. Ixxvi.) fructifies the ovary and that the child is fed
through the navel with menstruous blood, hence the cessation of the
catamenia. Barzoi (Kalilah and Dímnah) says:-- "Man's seed, falling
into the woman's womb, is mixed with her seed and her blood: when
it thickens and curdles the Spirit moves it and it turns about like
liquid cheese; then it solidifies, its arteries are formed, its
limbs constructed and its joints distinguished. If the babe is a
male, his face is placed towards his mother's back; if a female,
towards her belly." (P. 262, Mr. L G.N. Keith- Falconer's
translation.) But there is a curious prolepsis of the
spermatozoa-theory. We read (Koran chaps. vii.), "Thy Lord drew
forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam;" and the
commentators say that Allah stroked Adam's back and extracted from
his loins all his posterity, which shall ever be, in the shape of
small ants; these confessed their dependence on God and were
dismissed to return whence they came." From this fiction it appears
(says Sale) that the doctrine of pre-existence is not unknown to
the Mohammedans, and there is some little conformity between it and
the modern theory of generatio ex animalculis in semine marium. The
poets call this Yaum-i-Alast = the Day of Am-I-not (-your Lord)?
which Sir William Jones most unhappily translated "Art thou not
with thy Lord ?" (Alasta bi Rabbi- kum); fand they produce a grand
vision of unembodied spirits appearing in countless millions before
their Creator.

[FN#173] The usual preliminary of a wrestling bout.

[FN#174] In Eastern wrestling this counts as a fair fail. So Ajax
fell on his back with Ulysses on his breast. (Iliad xxxii., 700,

[FN#175] So biting was allowed amongst the Greeks in the
            , the final struggle on the ground.

[FN#176] Supposed to be names of noted wrestlers. "Kayim" (not
El-Kim as Torrens has it) is a term now applied to a juggler or
"professor" of legerdemain who amuses people in the streets with
easy tricks. (Lane, M. E., chaps. xx.)

[FN#177] Lit. "laughed in his face" which has not the unpleasant
meaning it bears in English.

[FN#178] Arab. "Abu riyáh"=a kind of child's toy. It is our
"bull-roarer" well known in Australia and parts of Africa.

[FN#179] The people of the region south of the Caspian which is
called "Sea of Daylam." It has a long history; for which see
D'Herbelot, s.v. "Dilem."

[FN#180] Coptic convents in Egypt still affect these drawbridges
over the keep-moat.

[FN#181] Koran iv., xxii. etc., meaning it is lawful to marry women
taken in war after the necessary purification although their
husbands be still living. This is not permitted with a free woman
who is a True Believer. I have noted that the only concubine
slave-girl mentioned in the Koran are these "captives possessed by
the right hand."

[FN#182] The Amazonian dame is a favourite in folk-lore and is an
ornament to poetry from the Iliad to our modern day. Such heroines,
apparently unknown to the Pagan Arabs, were common in the early
ages of Al-Islam as Ockley and Gibbon prove, and that the race is
not extinct may be seen in my Pilgrimage (iii. 55) where the sister
of Ibn Rumi resolved to take blood revenge for her brother.

[FN#183] And Solomon said, "O nobles, which of you will bring me
her throne ?" A terrible genius (i.e. an If rit of the Jinn named
Dhakwan or the notorious Sakhr) said, " I will bring it unto thee
before thou arise from thy seat (of justice); for I am able to
perform it, and may be trusted" (Koran, xxvii. 38-39). Balkís or
Bilkís (says the Durrat al-Ghawwás) daughter of Hozád bin
Sharhabíl, twenty-second in the list of the rulers of Al- Yaman,
according to some murdered her husband, and became, by Moslem
ignorance, the Biblical " Queen of Sheba." The Abyssinians transfer
her from Arabian Saba to Ethiopia and make her the mother by
Solomon of Menelek, their proto-monarch; thus claiming for their
royalties an antiquity compared with which all reigning houses in
the world are of yesterday. The dates of the Tabábi'ah or Tobbas
prove that the Bilkis of history ruled Al-Yaman in the early
Christian era.

[FN#184] Arab. "Fass," fiss or fuss; the gem set in a ring; also
applied to a hillock rounded en cabochon. In The Nights it is used
to signify "a fine gem."

[FN#185] This prominence of the glutæi muscles is always insisted
upon, because it is supposed to promise well in a bed-fellow. In
Somali land where the people are sub- steatopygous, a rich young
man, who can afford such luxury, will have the girls drawn up in
line and choose her to wife who projects furthest behind

[FN#186] The "bull" is only half mine.

[FN#187] A favourite Arab phrase, the "hot eye" is one full of

[FN#188] i.e., "Coral," coral branch, a favourite name for a
slave-girl, especially a negress. It is the older "Morgiana." I do
not see why Preston in Al-Haríni's "Makamah (Séance) of Singar"
renders it pearls, because Golius gives "small pearls," when it is
evidently "coral." Richardson (Dissert. xlviii.) seems to me
justified in finding the Pari (fairy) Marjan of heroic Persian
history reflected in the Fairy Morgain who earned off King Arthur
after the battle of Camelon.

[FN#189] Arab. "'Ud Jalaki"=Jalak or Jalik being a poetical and
almost obsolete name of Damascus.

[FN#190] The fountain in Paradise whose water shall be drunk with
"pure" wine mixed and sealed with musk (for clay). It is so called
because it comes from the "Sanam" (Sanima, to be high) boss or
highest ridge of the Moslem Heaven (Koran lv. 78 and lxxxiii. 27).
Mr. Rodwell says "it is conveyed to the highest apartments in the
Pavilions of Paradise." (?)

[FN#191] This "hysterical" temperament is not rare even amongst the
bravest Arabs.

[FN#192] An idea evidently derived from the Æolipyla (olla
animatoria) the invention of Hero Alexandrinus, which showed that
the ancient Egyptians could apply the motive force of steam.

[FN#193] Kuthayyir ibn Abi Jumah, a poet and far-famed Ráwí or
Tale-reciter, mentioned by Ibn Khallikan he lived at Al-Medinah and
sang the attractions of one Azzah, hence his soubriquet Sáhib
(lover of) Azzah. As he died in A. H. 105 (=726), his presence here
is a gross anachronism the imaginary Sharrkan flourished before the
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik bin Marwán A. H. 65-86.

[FN#194] Jamíl bin Ma'amar, a poet and lover contemporary with

[FN#195] Arab. "Tafazzal," a word of frequent use in
conversation="favour me," etc.

[FN#196] The word has a long history. From the Gr.        or
is the Lat. stibium; while the Low Latin "antimonium" and the Span.
Althimod are by metathesis for Al-Ithmid. The dictionaries define
the substance as a stone from which antimony is prepared, but the
Arabs understand a semi-mythical mineral of yellow colour which
enters into the veins of the eyes and gives them Iynx-like vision.
The famous Anz nicknamed Zarká (the blue eyed) of Yamámah
(Province) used it; and, according to some, invented Kohl. When her
(protohistoric) tribe Jadis had destroyed all the rival race of
Tasm, except Ribáh ibn Murrah; the sole survivor fled to the Tobba
of Al-Yaman, who sent a host to avenge him. The king commanded his
Himyarites to cut tree-boughs and use them as screens (again Birnam
wood). Zarká from her Utum, or peel-tower, saw the army three
marches off and cried, "O folk, either trees or Himyar are coming
upon you!" adding, in Rajaz verse:--

I swear by Allah that trees creep onward, or that Himyar beareth
somewhat which he draweth along!

She then saw a man mending his sandal. But Jadis disbelieved;
Cassandra was slain and, when her eyes were cut out the vessels
were found full of Ithmid. Hence Al-Mutanabbi sang:

          "Sharper-sighted than Zarká of Jau" (Yamámah).

See C. de Perceval i. 101; Arab. Prov. i. 192; and Chenery p. 381.
(The Assemblies of Al-Hariri; London, Williams and Norgate, 1867).
I have made many enquiries into the true nature of Ithmid and
failed to learn anything: on the Upper Nile the word is=Kohl.

[FN#197] The general colour of chessmen in the East, where the game
is played on a cloth more often than a board.

[FN#198] Arab. "Al-fil," the elephant=the French fol or fou and our
bishop. I have derived "elephant" from Píl (old Persian, Sansk.
Pilu) and Arab. Fil, with the article Al-Fil, whence the Greek
       the suffix--as being devoted to barbarous words as Obod-as
(Al Ubayd), Aretas (Al-Háris), etc. Mr. Isaac Taylor (The Alphabet
i. 169), preserves the old absurdity of "eleph-ant or ox-like (!)
beast of Africa." Prof. Sayce finds the word al-ab (two distinct
characters) in line 3, above the figure of an (Indian) elephant, on
the black obelisk of Nimrod Mound, and suggests an Assyrian

[FN#199] Arab. "Shaukat" which may also mean the "pride" or
"mainstay" (of the army).

[FN#200] Lit. "smote him on the tendons of his neck." This is the
famous shoulder-cut (Tawash shuh) which, with the leg-cut (Kalam),
formed, and still forms, the staple of Eastern attack with the

[FN#201] Arab. "Dirás." Easterns do not thresh with flails. The
material is strewed over a round and smoothed floor of dried mud in
the open air and threshed by different connivances. In Egypt the
favourite is a chair-like machine called "Norag," running on iron
plates and drawn by bulls or cows over the corn. Generally,
however, Moslems prefer the old classical         , the Tribulum of
Virgil and Varro, a slipper-shaped sled of wood garnished on the
sole with large-headed iron nails, or sharp fragments of flint or
basalt. Thus is made the "Tibn" or straw, the universal hay of the
East, which our machines cannot imitate.

[FN#202] These numbers appear to be grossly exaggerated, but they
were possible in the days of sword and armour: at the battle of
Saffayn the Caliph Ali is said to have cut down five hundred and
twenty-three men in a single night.

[FN#203] Arab. "Bika'á": hence the "Buka'ah" or Cœlesyria.

[FN#204] Richardson in his excellent dictionary (note 103) which
modern priggism finds "unscientific " wonderfully derives this word
from Arab. "Khattáf," a snatcher (i.e. of women), a ravisher. It is
an evident corruption of "captivus" through Italian and French

[FN#205] These periodical and fair-like visitations to convents are
still customary; especially amongst the Christians of Damascus.

[FN#206] Camphor being then unknown.

[FN#207] The "wrecker" is known all over the world; and not only
barbarians hold that ships driven ashore become the property of the

[FN#208] Arab. "Jokh": it is not a dictionary word, but the only
term in popular use for European broadcloth.

[FN#209] The second person plural is used because the writer would
involve the subjects of his correspondent in the matter.

[FN#210] This part of the phrase, which may seem unnecessary to the
European, is perfectly intelligible to all Orientalists. You may
read many an Eastern letter and not understand it. Compare Boccacoo
iv. 1.

[FN#211] i.e. he was greatly agitated

[FN#212] In text "Li-ajal a al-Taudi'a," for the purpose of
farewelling, a low Egyptianism; emphatically a "Kalám wáti."
(Pilgrimage thee iii. 330.)

[FN#213] In the Mac. Edit. Sharrkan speaks, a clerical error.

[FN#214] The Farsakh (Germ. Stunde) a measure of time rather than
distance, is an hour's travel or its equivalent, a league, a
meile=three English stat. miles. The word is still used in Persia
its true home, but not elsewhere. It is very old, having been
determined as a lineal measure of distance by Herodotus (ii. 5 and
6 ; v. 53), who computes it at 30 furlongs (=furrow-lengths, 8 to
the stat. mile). Strabo (xi.) makes it range from 40 to 60 stades
(each=606 feet 9 inches), and even now it varies between 1,500 to
6,000 yards. Captain Francklin (Tour to Persia) estimates it =
about four miles. (Pilgrimage ii. 113.)

[FN#215] Arab. "Ashhab." Names of colours are few amongst semi
civilised peoples, but in Arabia there is a distinct word for every
shade of horseflesh.

[FN#216] She had already said to him "Thou art beaten in

[FN#217] Showing that she was still a Christian.

[FN#218] This is not Badawi sentiment: the honoratioren amongst
wild people would scorn such foul play; but amongst the settled
Arabs honour between men and women is unknown and such "hocussing"
would be held quite fair.

[FN#219] The table of wine, in our day, is mostly a japanned tray
with glasses and bottles, saucers of pickles and fruits and,
perhaps, a bunch of flowers and aromatic herbs. During the
Caliphate the "wine-service" was on a larger scale.

[FN#220] Here the "Bhang" (almost a generic term applied to
hellebore, etc.) may be hyoscyamus or henbane. Yet there are
varieties of Cannabis, such as the Dakha of South Africa capable of
most violent effect. I found the use of the drug well known to the
negroes of the Southern United States and of the Brazil, although
few of their owners had ever heard of it.

[FN#221] Amongst Moslems this is a reference to Adam who first
"sinned against himself,' and who therefore is called "
Safíyu'llah," the Pure of Allah. (Pilgrimage iii. 333.)

[FN#222] Meaning, an angry, violent man.

[FN#223] Arab. "Inshád," which may mean reciting the verse of
another or improvising one's own. In Modern Egypt "Munshid" is the
singer or reciter of poetry at Zikrs (Lane M. E. chaps. xxiv.).
Here the verses are quite bad enough to be improvised by the
hapless Princess.

[FN#224] The negro skin assumes this dust colour in cold, fear,
concupiscence and other mental emotions.

[FN#225] He compares her glance with the blade of a Yamani sword,
a lieu commun of Eastern poetry. The weapons are famous in The
Nights; but the best sword-cutlery came from Persia as the
porcelain from China to Sana'á. Here, however, is especial allusion
as to the sword "Samsam" or "Samsamah." It belonged to the
Himyarite Tobba, Amru bin Ma'ad Kurb, and came into the hands of
Harun al-Rashid. When the Emperor of the Greeks sent a present of
superior sword-blades to him by way of a brave, the Caliph, in the
presence of the Envoys, took "Samsam" in hand and cut the others in
twain as if they were cabbages without the least prejudice to the
edge of "Samsam."

[FN#226] This touch of pathos is truly Arab. So in the "Romance of
Dalhamah" (Lane, M. E. xxiii.) the infant Gundubah sucks the breast
of its dead mother and the King exclaims, "If she had committed
this crime she would not be affording the child her milk after she
was dead."

[FN#227] Arab. "Sadda'l-Aktár," a term picturesque enough to be
preserved in English. "Sadd," I have said, is a wall or dyke, the
term applied to the great dam of water- plants which obstructs the
navigation of the Upper Nile, the lilies and other growths floating
with the current from the (Victoria) Nyanza Lake. I may note that
we need no longer derive from India the lotus-llily so extensively
used by the Ancient Egyptians and so neglected by the moderns that
it has well nigh disappeared. All the Central African basins abound
in the Nymphæa and thence it found its way down the Nile Valley.

[FN#228] Arab. "Al Marhúmah": equivalent to our "late lamented."

[FN#229] Vulgarly pronounced "Mahmal," and by Egyptians and Turks
"Mehmel." Lane (M. E. xxiv.) has figured this queenly litter and I
have sketched and described it in my Pilgrimage (iii. 12).

[FN#230] For such fits of religious enthusiasm see my Pilgrimage
(iii. 254).

[FN#231] "Irák" (Mesopotamia) means "a level country beside the
banks of a ever."

[FN#232] "Al Kuds," or "Bays al-Mukaddas," is still the popular
name of Jerusalem, from the Heb. Yerushalaim ha-Kadushah (legend on
shekel of Simon Maccabeus).

[FN#233] "Follow the religion of Abraham" says the Koran (chaps.
iii. 89). Abraham, titled "Khalílu'llah," ranks next in dignity to
Mohammed, preceding Isa, I need hardly say that his tomb is not in
Jerusalem nor is the tomb itself at Hebron ever visited. Here
Moslems (soi disant) are allowed by the jealousies of Europe to
close and conceal a place which belongs to the world, especially to
Jews and Christians. The tombs, if they exist, lie in a vault or
cave under the Mosque.

[FN#234] Abá, or Abáyah, vulg. Abayah, is a cloak of hair, goat's
or camel's; too well known to require description.

[FN#235] Arab. "Al-Wakkád," the man who lights and keeps up the

[FN#236] Arab. "Má al-Khaláf" (or "Khiláf") a sickly perfume but
much prized, made from the flowers of the Salix Ægyptiaca.

[FN#237] Used by way of soap; like glasswort and other plants.

[FN#238] i.e., "Thou art only just recovered."

[FN#239] To "Nakh" is to gurgle "Ikh! Ikh!" till the camel kneels.
Hence the space called "Barr al-Manákhah" in Al-Medinah (Pilgrimage
i. 222, ii. 91). There is a regular camel vocabulary amongst the
Arabs, made up like our "Gee" (go ye!), etc. of significant words
worn down.

[FN#240] Arab. "Laza," the Second Hell provided for Jews.

[FN#241] The word has been explained (vol. i. 112).[see Volume 1,
note 199]  It is trivial, not occurring in the Koran which uses
"Arabs of the Desert ;" "Arabs who dwell in tents," etc. (chaps.
ix. and xxxiii.). "A'arábi" is the classical word and the origin of
"Arab" is disputed. According to Pocock (Notæ Spec. Hist. Arab.):
"Diverse are the opinions concerning the denomination of the Arabs;
but the most certain of all is that which draws it from Arabah,
which is part of the region of Tehama (belonging to Al-Medinah
Pilgrimage ii. 118), which their father Ismail afterwards
inhabited." Tehamah (sierra caliente) is the maritime region of Al
Hijaz, the Moslems Holy Land; and its "Arabah," a very small tract
which named a very large tract, must not be confounded, as some
have done, with the Wady Arabah, the ancient outlet of the Dead
Sea. The derivation of "Arab" from "Ya'arab" a fancied son of
Joktan is mythological. In Heb. Arabia may be called "Eretz Ereb"
(or "Arab")=land of the West; but in Arabic "Gharb" (not Ereb) is
the Occident and the Arab dates long before the Hebrew.

[FN#242] "When thine enemy extends his hand to thee, cut it off if
thou can, or kiss it," wisely said Caliph al-Mansur.

[FN#243] The Tartur was a peculiar turban worn by the Northern
Arabs and shown in old prints. In modern Egypt the term is applied
to the tall sugar-loaf caps of felt affected mostly by regular
Dervishes. Burckhardt (Proverbs 194 and 398) makes it the high cap
of felt or fur proper to the irregular cavalry called Dely or
Delaty. In Dar For (Darfour) "Tartur" is a conical cap adorned with
beads and cowries worn by the Manghwah or buffoon who corresponds
with the Egyptian "Khalbús" or "Maskharah" and the Turkish
"Sutari." For an illustration see Plate iv. fig. 10 of Voyage au
Darfour par Mohammed El Tounsy (The Tunisian), Paris, Duprat, 1845.

[FN#244] The term is picturesque and true; we say "gnaw," which is
not so good.

[FN#245] Here, meaning an Elder, a Chief, etc.; the word has been
almost naturalised in English. I have noted that Abraham was the
first "Shaykh."

[FN#246] This mention of weighing suggests the dust of Dean Swift
and the money of the Gold Coast It was done, I have said, because
the gold coin, besides being "sweated" was soft and was soon worn

[FN#247] Fem. of Nájí (a deliverer, a saviour)=Salvadora.

[FN#248] This, I have noted, is according to Koranic command
(chaps. iv. 88). "When you are saluted with a salutation, salute
the person with a better salutation." The longer answer to "Peace
be with (or upon) thee! " is still universally the custom. The
"Salem" is so differently pronounced by every Eastern nation that
the observant traveller will easily make of it a Shibboleth.

[FN#249] The Badawi, who was fool as well as rogue, begins to fear
that he has kidnapped a girl of family.

[FN#250] These examinations being very indecent are usually done in
strictest privacy. The great point is to make sure of virginity.

[FN#251] This is according to strict Moslem law: the purchaser may
not look at the girl's nakedness till she is his, and he ought to
manage matters through an old woman.

[FN#252] Lit. wrath; affliction which chokes; in Hindustani it
means simply anger.

[FN#253] i.e. Heaven forbid I be touched by a strange man.

[FN#254] Used for fuel and other purposes, such as making "doss

[FN#255] Arab "Yaftah'Allah" the offer being insufficient. The
rascal is greedy as a Badaw and moreover he is a liar, which the
Badawi is not.

[FN#256] The third of the four great Moslem schools of Theology,
taking its name from the Imam al-Sháfi'í (Mohammed ibn Idrís) who
died in Egypt A.H. 204, and lies buried near Cairo. (Sale's Prel.
Disc. sect. viii.)

[FN#257] The Moslem form of Cabbala, or transcendental philosophy
of the Hebrews.

[FN#258] Arab. "Bakh" the word used by the Apostle to Ali his
son-in-law. It is the Latin "Euge."

[FN#259] Readers, who read for amusement, will do well to "skip"
the fadaises of this highly educated young woman.

[FN#260] There are three Persian Kings of this name (Artaxerxes)
which means "Flour and milk," or "high lion." The text alludes to
Ardeshir Babegan, so called because he married the daughter of
Babak the shepherd, founder of the Sassanides in A.D. 202. See
D,Herberot, and the Dabistan.

[FN#261] Alluding to the proverb, "Folk follow their King's faith,"
"Cujus regio ejus religio" etc.

[FN#262] Second Abbaside, A.H. 136-158 (=754-775).

[FN#263] The celebrated companion of Mohammed who succeeded Abu
Bakr in the Caliphate (A.H. 13-23=634-644). The Sunnis know him as
Al-Adil the Just, and the Shiahs detest him for his usurpation, his
austerity and harshness. It is said that he laughed once and wept
once. The laugh was caused by recollecting how he ate his
dough-gods (the idols of the Hanifah tribe) in The Ignorance. The
tears were drawn by remembering how he buried alive his baby
daughter who, while the grave was being dug, patted away the dust
from his hair and beard. Omar was doubtless a great man, but he is
one of the most ungenial figures in Moslem history which does not
abound in genialities. To me he suggests a Puritan, a Covenanter of
the sourest and narrowest type; and I cannot wonder that the
Persians abhor him, and abuse him on all occasions.

[FN#264] The austere Caliph Omar whose scourge was more feared than
the sword was the - author of the celebrated saying "Consult them
(feminines) and do clear contrary-wise."

[FN#265] Our "honour amongst thieves."

[FN#266] The sixth successor of Mohammed and founder of the Banu
Umayyah or Ommiades, called the "sons of the little mother" from
their eponymus (A.H. 41-60=661-680). For his Badawi wife Maysun,
and her abuse of her husband, see Pilgrimage iii. 262.

[FN#267] Shaykh of the noble tribe, or rather nation, Banu Tamím
and a notable of the day, surnamed, no one knows why, "Sire of the

[FN#268] This is essential for cleanliness in hot lands: however
much the bath may be used, the body-pile and lower hair, if
submitted to a microscope, will show more or less sordes adherent.
The axilla-hair is plucked because if shaved the growing pile
causes itching and the depilatories are held deleterious. At first
vellication is painful but the skin becomes used to it. The pecten
is shaved either without or after using depilatories, of which more
presently. The body-pile is removed by "Takhfíf"; the Libán Shámi
(Syrian incense), a fir- gum imported from Scio, is melted and
allowed to cool in the form of a pledget. This is passed over the
face and all the down adhering to it is pulled up by the roots
(Burckhardt No. 420). Not a few Anglo-Indians have adopted these

[FN#269] This Caliph was a tall, fair, handsome man of
awe-inspiring aspect. Omar used to look at him and say, "This is
the Cæsar of the Arabs," while his wife called him a "fatted ass."

[FN#270] The saying is attributed to Abraham when "exercised" by
the unkindly temper of Sarah; "woman is made hard and crooked like
a rib;" and the modern addition is, "whoso would straighten her,
breaketh her."

[FN#271] i.e. "When ready and in erection."

[FN#272] "And do first (before going in to your wives) some act
which may be profitable unto your souls" or, for you: soul's good.
(Koran, chaps. ii. 223.) Hence Ahnaf makes this prayer.

[FN#273] It was popularly said that "Truth-speaking left Omar
without a friend." Entitled "The Just" he was murdered by Abu
Lúlúah, alias Fírúz, a (Magian ?) slave of Al-Maghírah for denying
him justice.

[FN#274] Governor of Bassorah under the first four Caliphs. See
D'Herbelot s.v. "Aschári."

[FN#275] Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan, illegitimate brother of the Caliph
Mu'awiyah afterwards governor of Bassorah, Cufa and Al-Hijaz.

[FN#276] The seditions in Kufah were mainly caused by the wilful
nepotism of Caliph Othman bin Asákir which at last brought about
his death. His main quality seems to have been personal beauty:
"never was seen man or woman of fairer face than he and he was the
most comely of men:" he was especially famed for beautiful teeth
which in old age he bound about with gold wire. He is described as
of middling stature, large- limbed, broad shouldered, fleshy of
thigh and long in the fore-arm which was hairy. His face inclined
to yellow and was pock-marked; his beard was full and his curly
hair, which he dyed yellow, fell below his ears. He is called
"writer of the Koran" from his edition of the M.S., and "Lord of
the two Lights" because he married two of the Prophet's daughters,
Rukayyah and Umm Kulthum; and, according to the Shi'ahs who call
him Othman-i-Lang or" limping Othman," he vilely maltreated them.
They justify his death as the act of an Ijmá' al-Muslimín, the
general consensus of Moslems which ratifies "Lynch law." Altogether
Othman is a mean figure in history.

[FN#277] "Nár" (fire) is a word to be used delicately from its
connection with Gehenna. You say, e.g. "bring me a light, a coal
(bassah)" etc.; but if you say "bring me fire! " the enemy will
probably remark "He wanteth fire even before his time!" The slang
expression would be "bring the sweet." (Pilgrimage i. 121.)

[FN#278] Omar is described as a man of fair complexion, and very
ruddy, but he waxed tawny with age, when he also became bald and
grey. He had little hair on the cheeks but a long mustachio with
reddish ends. In stature he overtopped the people and was stout as
he was tall. A popular saying of Mohammed's is, "All (very) long
men are fools save Omar, and all (very) short men are knaves save
Ali." The Persians, who abhor Omar, compare every lengthy,
ungainly, longsome thing with him; they will say, "This road never
ends, like the entrails of Omar." We know little about Ali's
appearance except that he was very short and stout, broad and
full-bellied with a tawny complexion and exceedingly hairy, his
long beard, white as cotton, filling all the space between his
shoulders. He was a "pocket. Hercules," and incredible tales, like
that about the gates of Khaybar, are told of his strength. Lastly,
he was the only Caliph who bequeathed anything to literature: his
"Cantiloquium" is famous and he has left more than one mystical and
prophetic work. See Ockley for his "Sentences" and D'Herbelot s. D.
"Ali" and "Gebr." Ali is a noble figure in Moslem history.

[FN#279] The emancipation from the consequences of his sins; or it
may mean a holy death.

[FN#280] Battle fought near Al-Medinah A.D. 625. The word is
derived from "shad" (one). I have described the site in my
Pilgrimage, (vol. ii. 227).

[FN#281] "Haphsa" in older writers; Omar's daughter and one of
Mohammed's wives, famous for her connection with the manuscripts of
the Koran. From her were (or claimed to be) descended the Hafsites
who reigned in Tunis and extended their power far and wide over the
Maghrib (Mauritania), till dispossessed by the Turks.

[FN#282] i.e. humbly without the usual strut or swim: it
corresponds with the biblical walking or going softly. (I Kings
xxi. 27; Isaiah xxxviii. 15, etc.)

[FN#283] A theologian of the seventh and eighth centuries.

[FN#284] i.e. to prepare himself by good works, especially
alms-giving, for the next world.

[FN#285] A theologian of the eighth century.

[FN#286] Abd al-Aziz was eighth Ommiade (regn. A.H. 99=717) and the
fifth of the orthodox, famed for a piety little known to his house.
His most celebrated saying was, " Be constant in meditation on
death: if thou bein straitened case 'twill enlarge it, and if in
affluence 'twill straiten it upon thee." He died. poisoned, it is
said, in A.H 101,

[FN#287] Abu Bakr originally called Abd al-Ka'abah (slave of the
Ka'abah) took the name of Abdullah and was surnamed Abu Bakr
(father of the virgin) when Mohammed, who before had married only
widows, took to wife his daughter, the famous or infamous Ayishah.
"Bikr" is the usual form, but "Bakr," primarily meaning a young
camel, is metaphorically applied to human youth (Lane's Lex. s.
c.). The first Caliph was a cloth-merchant, like many of the Meccan
chiefs. He is described as very fair with bulging brow, deep set
eyes and thin-checked, of slender build and lean loined, stooping
and with the backs of his hands fleshless. He used tinctures of
Henna and Katam for his beard. The Persians who hate him, call him
"Pir-i-Kaftár," the old she-hyaena, and believe that he wanders
about the deserts of Arabia in perpetual rut which the males must

[FN#288] The second, fifth, sixth and seventh Ommiades.

[FN#289] The mother of Omar bin Abd al-Aziz was a granddaughter of
Omar bin al-Khattab.

[FN#290] Brother of this Omar's successor, Yezid II.

[FN#291] So the Turkish proverb "The fish begins to stink at the

[FN#292] Calling to the slaves.

[FN#293] When the "Day of Arafat" (9th of Zú'l-Hijjah) falls upon
a Friday. For this Hajj al- Akbar see my Pilgrimage iii. 226. It is
often confounded by writers (even by the learned M. Caussin de
Perceval) with the common Pilgrimage as opposed to the Umrah, or "
Lesser Pilgrimage" (ibid. iii. 342, etc.). The latter means
etymologically cohabiting with a woman in her father's house as
opposed to 'Ars or leading her to the husband's home: it is applied
to visiting Meccah and going through all the pilgrim-rites but not
at the Pilgrimage-season. Hence its title "Hajj al-Asghar" the
"Lesser Hajj." But "Umrah" is also applied to a certain ceremony
between the hills Safá (a large hard rock) and Marwah (stone full
of flints), which accompanies the Hajj and which I have described
(ibid. iii. 344). At Meccah I also heard of two places called
Al-Umrah, the Greater in the Wady Fátimah and the Lesser half way
nearer the city (ibid. iii. 344).

[FN#294] A fair specimen of the unworthy egoism which all religious
systems virtually inculcate Here a pious father leaves his children
miserable to save his own dirty soul.

[FN#295] Chief of the Banú Tamín, one of the noblest of tribes,
derived from Tamím, the uncle of Kuraysh (Koreish); hence the poets

     There cannot be a son nobler than Kuraysh,
     Nor an uncle nobler than Tamím.

The high minded Tamín is contrasted with the mean-spirited Kays,
who also gave rise to a tribe; and hence the saying concerning one
absolutely inconsistent, "Art thou now Tamín and then Kays?"

[FN#296] Surnamed Al-Sakafi, Governor of Al-Yaman and Irak.

[FN#297] Tenth Ommiade (regn. A H. 105-125 = 724-743).

[FN#298] Or "clothe thee in worn-out clothes" i.e. "Become a Fakir"
or religious mendicant.

[FN#299] This gratuitous incest in ignorance injures the tale and
is as repugnant to Moslem as to Christian taste.

[FN#300] The child is named either on the day of its birth or on
that day week. The father whispers it in the right ear, often
adding the Azán or prayer-call, and repeating in the left ear the
"Ikámah" or Friday sentence. There are many rules for choosing
names according to the week-day, the ascendant planet, the "Sortes
Coranicæ," etc.

[FN#301] Amongst Moslems as amongst Christians there are seven
deadly sins: idolatry, murder, falsely charging modest women with
unchastity, robbing orphans, usury, desertion in Holy War and
disobedience to parents. The difference between the two creeds is
noteworthy. And the sage knows only three, intemperance, ignorance
and egoism.

[FN#302] Meaning, "It was decreed by Destiny; so it came to pass,"
appropriate if not neat.

[FN#303] The short, stout, dark, long-haired and two-bunched camel
from "Bukhtar" (Bactria), the "Eastern" (Bakhtar) region on the Amu
or Jayhun (Oxus) River; afterwards called Khorasan. The two-humped
camel is never seen in Arabia except with northern caravans, and to
speak of it would be a sore test of Badawi credulity.

[FN#304] "Kaylúlah" is the "forty-winks" about noon: it is a Sunnat
or Practice of the Prophet who said, "Make the mid-day siesta, for
verily at this hour the devils sleep not." "Aylúlain" is slumbering
after morning prayers (our "beauty-sleep"), causing heaviness andid
leness: "Ghaylúlah" is dozing about 9 a.m. engendering poverty and
wretchedness: "Kaylúlah" (with the guttural Kaf) is sleeping before
evening prayers and "Faylúlah" is slumbering after sunset--both
held to be highly detrimental. (Pilgrimage ii 49.)

[FN#305] The Biblical "Hamath" (Hightown) too well known to require
description. It is still famous for the water-wheels mentioned by
al-Hariri (assembly of the Banu Harám).

[FN#306] When they say, "The levee flashes bright on the hills of
Al-Yaman," the allusion is to the south quarter, where
summer-lightning is seen. Al-Yaman (always with the article) means,
I have said, the right-hand region to one facing the rising sun and
Al-Sham (Syria) the left-hand region.

[FN#307] Again "he" for "she," in delicacy and jealousy of making
public the beauty or conditions of the "veiled sex." Even public
singers would hesitate to use a feminine pronoun. As will be seen
however, the rule is not invariably kept and hardly ever in Badawi

[FN#308] The normal pun on "Nuzhat al-Zaman" = Delight of the Age
or Time.

[FN#309] The reader will find in my Pilgrimage (i. 305) a sketch of
the Takht-rawan or travelling-litter, in which pilgrimesses are
wont to sleep.

[FN#310] In poetry it holds the place of our Zephyr; end the "Bád-
i-Sabá"=Breeze o' the morn, Is much addressed by Persian poets.

[FN#311] Here appears the nervous, excitable, hysterical Arab
temperament which is almost phrensied by the neighbourhood of a
home from which he had run away.

[FN#312] Zau al-Makan and Nuzhat al-Zaman.

[FN#313] The idea is essentially Eastern, "A lion at home and a
lamb abroad" is the popular saying.

[FN#314] Arab. "Hubb al-Watan" (= love of birthplace, patriotism)
of which the Tradition says "Min al-Imán" (=is part of man's

[FN#315] He is supposed to speak en prince; and he yields to a
prayer when he spurns a command.

[FN#316] In such caravans each party must keep its own place under
pain of getting into trouble with the watchmen and guards.

[FN#317] Mr. Payne (ii. 109) borrows this and the next quotation
from the Bull Edit. i. 386.

[FN#318] For the expiation of inconsiderate oaths see Koran (chaps.
v.). I cannot but think that Al-Islam treats perjury too lightly:
all we can say is-that it improves upon Hinduism which practically
seems to leave the punishment to the gods.

[FN#319] "Kausar," as has been said, represents the classical
nectar, the Amrita of the Hindus.

[FN#320] From Bull Edit. i. 186. The couplet in the Mac. Edit. i.
457 is very wildly applied.

[FN#321] The "insula" of Sancho Panza.

[FN#322] This should have assured him that he stood in no danger.

[FN#323] Here ends the wearisome tale of the brother and sister,
and the romance of chivalry begins once more with the usual Arab

[FN#324] I have derived this word from the Persian "rang"=colour,
hue, kind.

[FN#325] Otherwise all would be superseded, like U. S. officials
under a new President.

[FN#326] Arab. "Nímshah" from the Pers. Nímchah, a "half-sword," a
long dagger worn in the belt. Richardson derives it from Namsh,
being freckled (damasked).

[FN#327] The Indian term for a tent large enough to cover a troop
of cavalry.

[FN#328] Arab. "Marhúm" a formula before noticed. It is borrowed
from the Jewish, "of blessed memory" (after the name of the
honoured dead, Prov. x. 17.); with the addition of "upon whom be
peace," as opposed to the imprecation, "May the name of the wicked

[FN#329] The speeches of the five damsels should be read only by

[FN#330] i.e. Those who look for "another and a better."

[FN#331] The title of Caliph Abu Bakr because he bore truthful
witness to the Apostle's mission or, others say, he confirmed the
"Mi'ráj" or nocturnal journey to Heaven.

[FN#332] All this is Koranic (chaps. ii., etc.).

[FN#333] This may have applied more than once to "hanging judges"
in the Far West.

[FN#334] A traditionist and jurisconsult of Al-Medinah in the
seventh and eighth centuries.

[FN#335] The Alexander of the Koran and Eastern legends, not to be
confounded with the Alexander of Macedon. He will be noticed in a
future Night.

[FN#336] Æsop, according to the Arabs: of him or rather of the two
Lukmans, more presently.

[FN#337] Koran ii. 185.

[FN#338] Mohammed.

[FN#339] One of the Asháb or Companions of Mohammed.

[FN#340] A noted traditionist at Cufa in the seventh century.

[FN#341] Koran, chaps. lxxiv. I (and verse 8 follows). The
Archangel Gabriel is supposed to address Mohammed and not a few
divines believe this Surah (chapter) to have been first revealed.
Mr. Rodwell makes it No. ii. following the Fatrah or silent
interval which succeeded No. xcvi. "Clots of Blood." See his 2nd
Edit. p. 3 for further details.

[FN#342] i.e. dangerous to soul-health.

[FN#343] In the Mac. Edit. "Abd" for "Sa'id." The latter was a
black and a native of Cufa during the first century (A.H ) and is
still famous as a traditionist.

[FN#344] Arab. "Shirk," giving a partner to Allah, attending
chiefly to Christians and idolaters and in a minor degree to Jews
and Guebres. We usually English it by "polytheism," which is clumsy
and conveys a wrong idea

[FN#345] Grandson of the Caliph Ali. He is one of the Imams
(High-priests) of the Shi'ah school.

[FN#346] An eminent traditionist of the eighth century (A.D.).

[FN#347] The prayers of the Fast-month and Pilgrimage-month are
often said in especial places outside the towns and cities; these
are the Indian Id(Eed-)gáh. They have a screen of wall about a
hundred yards long with a central prayer-niche and the normal three
steps for the preacher; and each extremity is garnished with an
imitation minaret. They are also called Namáz-gah and one is
sketched by Herklots (Plate iii. fig. 2). The object of the trips
thither in Zu'l-Ka'adah and Zu'l-Hijjah is to remind Moslems of the
"Ta'aríf," or going forth from Meccah to Mount Arafat.

[FN#348] Arab. "Al-Háfi," which in Egyptian means sore-footed as
well. He was an ascetic of the eighth and ninth centuries (A.D.).
He relates a tradition of the famous soldier saint Khálid bin Walíd
who lies buried like the poet Ka'ab al-Ahbár near Hums (Emessa)
once the Bœotia, Phrygia, Abdera, Suabia of Syria now Halbun
(pronounced Halbáun) near Damascus. I cannot explain how this
Kuraysh noble (a glorious figure in Moslem history) is claimed by
the Afghans as one of their countrymen and made to speak Pukhtu or
Pushtu, their rough old dialect of Persian. The curious reader will
consult my Pilgrimage iii. 322 for the dialogue between Mohammed
and Khalid. Again there is general belief in Arabia that the
English sent a mission to the Prophet, praying that Khalid might be
despatched to proselytise them: unfortunately Mohammed was dead and
the "Ingríz" ratted. It is popularly held that no armed man can
approach Khalid's grave; but I suppose my revolver did not count.

[FN#349] When he must again wash before continuing prayer.

[FN#350] Bin Adham; another noted ascetic of the eighth century.
Those curious about these unimportant names will consult the great
Biographical Dictionary of Ibn Khallikan, translated by Baron
MacGuckin de Slane (1842-45).

[FN#351] Thus making Bishr the "Imám" (artistes) lit. one who
stands in front. In Koran xvii. 74 it means "leader": in ii. 118
Allah makes Abraham an "Imam to mankind."

[FN#352] A favourite sentiment in the East: we find it at the very
beginning of Sa'di's Gulistan: better a weal-bringing lie than a
harm-dealing truth.

[FN#353] A penny, one sixth of the drachma.

[FN#354] Founder of the Hanbali, fourth (in date) of the four
orthodox Moslem schools. The Caliph al-Mu'atasim bi'llah, son of
Harun al-Rashid, who believed the Koran to have been created and
not a Logos (whatever that may be), co-eternal with Allah, scourged
this Imam severely for "differing in opinion" (A.H. 220=833). In
fact few of the notable reverends of that day escaped without a
caress of the scourge or the sword.

[FN#355] A learned man of the eighth century at Bassorah (A.D.).

[FN#356] A traditionist of Khorasan in the ninth century (A.D.).

[FN#357] "Azal," opp. to "Abad," eternity without end, infinity.

[FN#358] Koran lxvi. 6.

[FN#359] A traditionist of Al-Medinah, eighth century (A.D.).

[FN#360] Arab. "Músá": the Egyptian word was "Mesu," the "child" or
the "boy" (brought up in the palace?), and the Hebrews made it
"Mosheh" or "one drawn out of the water;" "Mu" in Egypt being
water, the Arab "Ma"; whence probably the moderns have derived the
dim. "Moyeh ," vulg. Egyptian for water.

[FN#361] Koran, chaps. xxviii.: Shu'ayb is our Jethro: Koran,
chaps. vii. and xi. Mr. Rodwell suggests (p. 101) that the name has
been altered from Hobab (Numb. x. 29).

[FN#362] Arab. "Taub" (Saub), the long shirt popularly written in
English Tobe and pronounced so by Egyptians. It is worn by both
sexes (Lane, M. E. chaps. i. "Tob") in Egypt, and extends into the
heart of Moslem Africa: I can compare it with nothing but a long
nightgown dyed a dirty yellow by safflower and about as picturesque
as a carter's smock-frock.

[FN#363] There is nothing of this in the Koran; and it is a most
unhappy addition, as Moses utterly and pretentiously ignored a
"next world."

[FN#364] Koran xxviii. 22-27. Mohammed evidently confounded the
contract between Laban and Jacob. (Gen. xxix. 15-39.)

[FN#365] So says Al-Hariri (Ass. of Sasan), "The neighbour before
the house and the traveller before the journey." In certain cities
the neighbourhood is the real detective police, noting every action
and abating scandals (such as orgies, etc.) with a strong hand and
with the full consent of public opinion and of the authorities.
This loving the neighbour shows evident signs of being borrowed
from Christianity.

[FN#366] Al-Asamm a theologian of Balkh, ninth century (A.D.).

[FN#367] The founder of the Senior School, for which see Sale Prel.
Disc. sect. viii.

[FN#368] Thus serving the Lord by sinning against his own body.

[FN#369] An Egyptian doctor of the law (ninth century).

[FN#370] Koran lxxvii. 35, 36. This is one of the earliest and most
poetical chapters of the book.

[FN#371] Abu Hanifah was scourged for refusing to take office and
was put to death in prison, it is said by poison (A.H. 150=A.D.
767), for a judicial sentence authorising rebellion against the
second Abbaside, Al-Mansur, surnamed Abu'l-Dawánik (Father of
Pence) for his exceeding avarice.

[FN#372] "Lá rayba fí-hi" says the Koran (ii. 1) of itself; and the
saying is popularly applied to all things of the Faith.

[FN#373] Arab. "Rivál al-Ghayb," somewhat like the "Himalayan
Brothers" of modern superstition. See Herklots (Qanoon-e-Islam) for
a long and careful description of these "Mardán-i-Ghayb" (Pers.),
a "class of people mounted on clouds," invisible, but moving in a
circular orbit round the world, and suggesting the Hindu
"Lokapálas." They should not be in front of the traveller nor on
his right, but either behind or on his left hand. Hence tables,
memorial couplets and hemistichs are required to ascertain the
station, without which precaution journeys are apt to end badly.

[FN#374] A sweetmeat before noticed.

[FN#375] Door hinges in the east are two projections for the top
and bottom of the leaf playing in hollows of the lintel and
threshold. It appears to be the primitive form, for we find it in
the very heart of Africa. In the basaltic cities of the Hauran,
where the doors are of thick stone, they move easily on these pins.
I found them also in the official (not the temple)City of Palmyra,
but all broken.

[FN#376] The effect of the poison and of the incantation which
accompanied it.

[FN#377] King Omar who had raped her. My sympathies are all with
the old woman who nightly punished the royal lecher.

[FN#378] Arab. "Zunnár," the Gr.     . Christians and Jews were
compelled by the fanatical sumptuary laws of the Caliph Al-
Mutawakkil (AD. 856) to wear a broad leather belt in public, hence
it became a badge of the Faith. Probably it was confounded with the
"Janeo" (Brahmanical thread) and the Parsi sacred girdle called
Kashti. (Dabistan i, 297, etc.). Both Mandeville and La Brocquière
speak of "Christians of the Girdle, because they are all girt
above," intending Jacobites or Nestorians.

[FN#379] "Siláh dár" (Arab. and Pers.)=a military officer of high
rank; literally an "armour-bearer," chosen for velour and
trustworthiness. So Jonathan had a "young man" (brave) who bare his
armour (I Sam. xiv. 1, 6 and 7); and Goliath had a man that bare
the shield before him (ibid. xvii. 7, 41). Men will not readily
forget the name of Sulayman Agha, called the Silahdar, in Egypt.
(Lane M. E. chaps. iv.)

[FN#380] It will be told afterwards.

[FN#381] The elder brother thus showed himself a vassal and proved
himself a good Moslem by not having recourse to civil war.

[FN#382] Arab. "Ghazwah," the corrupt Gallicism, now
Europeanised=raid, foray.

[FN#383] Turk in modern parlance means a Turkoman, a pomade: the
settled people call themselves Osmanli or Othmanli. Turkoman=Turk-

[FN#384] Arab. "Nimsá;" southern Germans, Austrians; from the Slav.
"Nemica" (any Germans), literally meaning "The dumb" (nemac),
because they cannot speak Slav.

[FN#385] Arab. "Dubárá" from the Slav. "Dubrovnik," from "Dub" (an
oak) and "Dubrava" (an oak forest). Ragusa, once a rival of Venice,
gave rise to the word "Argosy." D'Herbelot calls it "Dobravenedik"
or "Good Venice," the Turkish name, because it paid tribute when
Venice would not (?).

[FN#386] Arab. "Jawarnah," or, "Júrnah" evidently Zara, a place of
many names, Jadera (Hirtius de Bell. Alex. cap. 13), Jadra, Zadra
(whence the modern term), Diadora, Diadosca and Jadrossa. This
important Liburnian city sent forth many cruisers in crusading
days; hence the Arabs came to know its name.

[FN#387] Arab. "Banu'l-Asfar;" which may mean "Pale faces," in the
sense of "yeller girls" (New Orleans) and that intended by North
American Indians, or, possibly, the peoples with yellow (or rather
tow-coloured) hair we now call Russians. The races of Hindostan
term the English not "white men," but "red men;" and the reason
will at once be seen by comparing a Britisher with a high-caste
Nágar Brahman whose face is of parchment colour as if he had drunk
exsangue cuminum. The Yellow-faces of the text correspond with the
Sansk. "Svetadvipa"--Whiteman's Land.

[FN#388] Arab. "Al-Musakhkham." No Moslem believes that Isa was
crucified and a favourite fancy is that Judas, changed to the
likeness of Jesus, thus paid for his treason. (Evangel. Barnabæ.)
Hence the resurrection is called not "Kiyámah" but
"Kumámah"=rubbish. This heresy about the Cross they share with the
Docetes, "certain beasts in the shape of men" (says Ignatius), who
held that a phantom was crucified. So far the Moslems are logical,
for "Isa," being angelically, miraculously and immaculately
conceived, could not be; but they contradict themselves when they
hold a vacant place near Mohammed's tomb for the body of Isa after
his second coming as a forerunner to Mohammed and Doomday.
(Pilgrimage ii. 89.)

[FN#389] A diviner, priest, esp. Jewish, and not belonging to the
tribe of Levi.

[FN#390] Again the coarsest word "Khara." The allusion is to the
vulgar saying, "Thou eatest skite!" (i.e. thou talkest nonsense).
Decent English writers modify this to, "Thou eatest dirt:" and Lord
Beaconsfield made it ridiculous by turning it into "eating sand."

[FN#391] These silly scandals, which cause us only to smile, excite
Easterns to fury. I have seen a Moslem wild with rage on hearing a
Christian parody the opening words of the Koran, "Bismillahi 'l-
Rahmáni 'l-Rahím, Mismish wa Kamar al-din," roughly translated,

 "In the name of Allah, the Compassionating, the Compassionate!
Apricots and marmalede." The idea of the Holy Merde might have been
suggested by the Hindus: see Mandeville, of the archiprotopapaton
(prelate) carrying ox-dung and urine to the King, who therewith
anoints his brow and breast, &c. And, incredible to relate, this is
still practiced after a fashion by the Parsis, one of the most
progressive and the sharpest witted of Asiatic races.

[FN#392] Meaning that he had marked his brow with a cross (of
ashes?) as certain do on Ash Wednesday.

[FN#393] Syria, the "left-hand land" as has before been explained.
The popular saying about its people is "Shámi shúmi!"--the Syrian
is small potatoes (to render the sense Americanicè). Nor did Syrus,
the slave in Roman days, bear the best of names. In Al-Hijaz the
Syrian is addressed "Abú Shám" (Father of Syria) and insulted as
"Abuser of the Salt" (a traitor). Yet many sayings of Mohammed are
recorded in honour of Syria, and he sometimes used Syriac words.
Such were "Bakh, bakh" (=euge, before noticed), and "Kakh," a
congener of the Latin Cacus and Caca which our day has docked to
"cack." (Pilgrimage iii. 115)

[FN#394] Koran xiv. 34. "They (Unbelievers) shall be thrown therein
(i.e., the House of Perdition=Hell); and an unhappy dwelling shall
it be."

[FN#395] The leg-cut is a prime favourite with the Eastern Sworder,
and a heavy two-handed blade easily severs a horse's leg.

[FN#396] Mohammed repeatedly declared (Koran lxi.) that the
Christians had falsified the passage ("I go to my Father and the
Paraclete shall come," John xvi. 7) promising the advent of the
Comforter,            (ibid. xiv. 20; xv. 26) by substituting the
latter word for           glorious, renowned, i.e., Ahmed or
Mohammed=the praised one. This may have been found in the Arabic
translation of the Gospels made by Warakah, cousin to Mohammed's
first wife; and hence in Koran lxi. we find Jesus prophesying of an
Apostle "whose name shall be Ahmad." The word has consequently been
inserted into the Arabic Gospel of Saint Barnabas (Dabistan iii.
67). Moslems accept the Pentateuch, the Psalter and the Gospel; but
assert (Koran, passim.) that all extant copies have been hopelessly
corrupted, and they are right. Moses, to whom the Pentateuch is
attributed, notices his own death and burial--"the mair the
miracle," said the old Scotch lady. The "Psalms of David" range
over a period of some five hundred years, and there are three
Isaiahs who pass with the vulgar for one. The many apocryphal
Gospels, all of which have been held genuine and canonical at
different times and in different places, prove that the four, which
are still in use, were retained because they lack the manifest
absurdities of their discarded rivals.

[FN#397] Arab. " Labbayka; " the Pilgrimage-cry (Night xxii.) which
in Arabic is,

     Labbayk' Allahumma, Labbayk'!
     Lá Sharíka lake, Labbayk'!
     Inna 'l-hamda w'al ni'amata lake wa'l mulk!
     Labbayk' Allahumma, Labbayk'!

Some add "Here am I, and I honour Thee, the son of Thy two slaves;
beneficence and good are all between Thy hands."With the "Talbiyah"
the pilgrims should bless the Prophet, pray Allah to grant Heaven
and exclaim, "By Thy mercy spare us from the pains of Hell-fire!"
(Pilgrimage iii. 232.) Labbayka occurs in the verses attributed to
Caliph Ali; so labba=he faced, and yalubbu=it faces (as one house
faces another); lastly, he professed submission to Allah; in which
sense, together with the verbal noun "Talbiyah," it is used by Al-
Hanri (Pref. and Ass. of Su'adah).

[FN#398] Arab. "Kissís" (plur. Kusús) from ‘            .

[FN#399] Koran ii. The "red cow" is evidently the "red heifer" of
Barnabas, chaps. vii.

[FN#400] Arab. "Al-Jásalík"=         .

[FN#401] This is from the first "Gospel of Infancy," wherein Jesus
said to his mother, "Verily I am Jesus, the Son of God, the Word
which thou hast brought forth, as the Angel Gabriel did declare
unto thee; and my Father hath sent me to save the world" (chaps. i.
2.). The passage is virtually quoted in the Koran (chaps. iii.
141), of course omitting " the Son of God"

[FN#402] Mohammed allowed his locks to grow down to his ear-lobes
but never lower.

[FN#403] Arab. "Lisám" I have explained as a covering for the lower
face, made by drawing over it the corner of the head-kerchief
(Pilgrimage i. 346). The Lisám of the African Tawárik hoods the
eyes so that a man must turn up his face to see, and swathes all
the lower half, leaving only the nose exposed. And this is worn by
many men by night as well as by day, doubtless to avoid the evil
eye. The native Sultans of Darfur, like those of Bornu and others
further west, used white muslin as a face-wrap: hence, too, the
ceremonies when spitting, etc., etc. The Kúfiyah or head-kerchief
of the Arabs soon reached Europe and became in Low Latin Cuphia; in
Spanish Escofia; in Ital. Cuffia or Scuffia; in French Escoffion,
Scofion (Reine Marguerite) Coëffe (une pellicule, marque de
bonheur) Coiffe and Coife, &c.; the Scotch Curch or Coif, opposed
to the maiden snood, and, lastly our Sergeant-at-Law's Coif.
Littré, the Learned, who in erudition was né coiffé, has missed
this obvious derivation.

[FN#404] "Cutting," throughout the book, alludes to the scymitar
with which Arabs never give point; and "thrusting" to the footman's
spear and the horseman's lance.

[FN#405] A popular phrase, I repeat, for extreme tenor and

[FN#406] The name usually applies to a well-known district and city
of Al Yaman, where "Koss the eloquent" was bishop in Mohammed's
day: the Negiran of D'Herbelot. Here, however, it is the Syrian
Najrán (Nejrân of Missionary Porter's miserable Handbook), now a
wretched village near the volcanic Lajjá, about one hundred and
twenty miles direct south of Damascus and held by Druzes and

[FN#407] The Kantár (quintal) of 100 ratls (Ibs.) =98-99 Ibs.

[FN#408] Arab. "Juráb (bag) mi'adat- ih (of his belly)," the
"curdling of the testicles" in fear is often mentioned.

[FN#409] Clearly alluding to the magic so deeply studied by
mediæval Jews.

[FN#410] Arab. "Sahákah," lit. rubbing. The Moslem Harem is a great
school for this "Lesbian (which I would call Atossan) love "; but
the motive of the practice lies deeper. As amongst men the mixture
of the feminine with the masculine temperament leads to sodomy, so
the reverse makes women prefer their own sex. These tribades are
mostly known by peculiarities of form and features, hairy cheeks
and upper lips, gruff voices, hircine odour and the large
projecting clitoris with erectile powers known to the Arabs as
"bazar" hence Tabzír=circumcision or amputation of such clitoris.
Burckhardt (Prov. 436) translates " Bazarah" by slut or wench. He
adds " it originally signifies the labia which the Cairenes also
entice Zambúr and which are cut off in girlhood." See also Lane,
Lex. s.v.; Tabzír. Both writers confuse excision of the nymphæ with
circumcision of the clitoris (Zambúr) Al-Siyúti (Kitab al-Izá'
fi'Ilm al-Nikah) has a very interesting chapter on Sapphic venery,
which is well known to Europe as proved by such works as "Gamiani,"
and "Anandria ou Confessions de Mademoiselle Sappho, avec la Clef,"
Lesbos, 1718. Onanism is fatally prevalent: in many Harems and
girls' schools tallow candles and similar succedanea are vainly
forbidden and bananas when detected are cut into four so as to be
useless; of late years, however, China has sent some marvellous
artificial phalli of stuffed bladder, horn and even caoutchouc, the
latter material of course borrowed from Europe.

[FN#411] This is considered a powerful aphrodisiac in the East.
Hence male devotees are advised to avoid tile "two reds," i.e. meat
and wine; while the "two reds," which corrupt women, are gold and
saffron, that is perfumery. Hence also the saying of Mohammed:--
"Perfumes for men should have scent and not colour; for women
should have colour and not scent." (Mishkát al-Masábíh ii. 361.)

[FN#412] These are the "Hibás" or thin cords of wool which the
Badawi binds round his legs, I believe to keep off cramp.
(Pilgrimage iii. 78).

[FN#413] Crying out "La iláha illa 'llah." (There is no god but the
God.); technically called "Tahlíl."

[FN#414] i.e. Men, angels and devils, the "Triloka" (triple people)
of the Hindus. Alamín (plur.), never Alamayn (dual), is the
Triregno denoted by the papal Tiara, the three Christian kingdoms
being Heaven, Hell and Purgatory.

[FN#415] Matrahinna or Mit-Rahinah is a well-known village near
Memphis, the name being derived from the old Egyptian Minat-ro-
hinnu, the port at the mouth of the canal. Let me remark that two
of these three words, "Minat" and "Ru," are still common in "
Aryan" Persian.

[FN#416] Kirámat, a sign, a prodigy, opposed to Mu'ujizah, a
miracle wrought by a prophet. The Sufis explain this thaumaturgy by
Allah changing something of Nature's ordinary course in favour of
an especial worshipper, and, after a fashion, this is Catholic
doctrine (See Dabistan, iii. 173).

[FN#417] Koran, x. 25, "until the earth receive its vesture and be
adorned with various plants."

[FN#418] i.e. the young hair sprouting on the boy's cheek.

[FN#419] A fighter for the faith and now a title which follows the
name, e.g. Osmán Páshá Ghází, whom the English press dubbed "Ghazi

[FN#420] That is the King of Constantinople.

[FN#421] Cassia fistularis, a kind of carob: " Shambar" is the
Arab. form of the Persian " Chambar."

[FN#422] Koran, ii. 149. Hence the vulgar idea that Martyrs are
still alive in the flesh. See my Pilgrimage (ii. 110 and elsewhere)
for the romantic and picturesque consequences of that belief. The
Commentators (Jalál al-Dín, etc.) play tricks with the Koranic
words, " they (martyrs) are not dead but living" (iii. 179) by
placing the happy souls in the crops of green birds which eat of
the fruits and drink of the waters of Paradise; whereas the
reprobates and the (very) wicked are deposited in black birds which
drain the sanies and the boiling waters of Hell. Amongst the Greeks
a body remaining entire long after death suggests Anathema
Maranatha: it is the contrary with Catholic Christians (Boccaccio
iv. 5, of the Pot of Basil). Concerning this creed see Maundrell,
Letter of 1698.

[FN#423] Tor is "Mount Sinai" in the Koran (xcv. 1). I have only to
repeat my opinion concerning the present site so called: "It is
evident that Jebel Serbal dates only from the early days of Coptic
Christianity; that Jebel Musa, its Greek rival, rose after the
visions of Helena in the fourth century; whilst the building of the
Convent by Justinian belongs to A.D 527. Ras Safsáfah, its rival to
the north, is an affair of yesterday, and may be called the
invention of Robinson; and Jebel Katerina, to the south is the
property of Rüppell" (Midian Revisited i., 237). I would therefore
call the "Sinaitic" Peninsula, Peninsula of Paran in old days and
Peninsula of Tor (from its chief port) in our time. It is still my
conviction that the true Mount Sinai will be found in Jabal Aráif,
or some such unimportant height to the north of the modern Hajj-
road from Suez to Akabah. Even about the name (which the Koran
writes "Sainá" and "Sínín") there is a dispute: It is usually
derived from the root "Sanah"=sentis, a bush; but this is not
satisfactory. Our eminent Assyriologist, Professor Sayce, would
connect it with "Sin," the Assyrian Moon- god as Mount Nebo with
the Sun-god and he expects to find there the ruins of a Lunar
temple as a Solar fane stands on Ba'al Zapuna (Baal Zephon) or the
classical Mount Casius.

[FN#424] Alluding to the miracle of Aaron's rod (the gift of
Jethro) as related in the Koran (chapts. vii. 1., xx., etc.), where
the Egyptian sorcerers threw down thick ropes which by their magic
twisted and coiled like serpents.

[FN#425] Arab. "Ayát" lit. "signs," here "miracles of the truth,"
1. c. Koranic versets as opposed to chapters. The ranks of the
enemy represent the latter, sword-cuts the former--a very
persuasive mode of preaching.

[FN#426] Lane (M. E. chapt.. iii.) shows by a sketch the position
of the worshipper during this "Salám" which is addressed, some say,
to the guardian angels, others suppose to all brother-believers and

[FN#427] i.e., where the Syrians found him.

[FN#428] i.e., Dedianus Arabised; a name knightly and plebian.

[FN#429] In such tales the Wazir is usually the sharp-witted man,
contrasting with the "dummy," or master.

[FN#430] Carrier-pigeons were extensively used at this time. The
Caliph Al-Násir li-Díni ‘lláh (regn. A.H. 575=1180) was, according
to Ibn Khaldún, very fond of them. The moderns of Damascus still
affect them. My successor, Mr. Consul Kirby Green, wrote an
excellent report on pigeon-fancying at Damascus. The so-called
Maundeville or Mandeville in A. D. 1322 speaks of carrier-pigeons
in Syria as a well-known mode Of intercourse between lord and lord.

[FN#431] Mohammed who declared "There is no monkery in Al-Islam,"
and who virtually abolished the priest, had an especial aversion to
the shaveling (Ruhbán). But the "Gens æterna in quâ nemo nascitur"
(Pliny v. 17) managed to appear even in Al-lslam, as Fakirs,,
Dervishes, Súfis, etc. Of this more hereafter.

[FN#432] i.e. her holiness would act like a fascinating talisman.

[FN#433] The "smoking out" practice is common amongst the Arabs:
hence Marshal Pelissier's so- called " barbarity." The Public is
apt to forget that on a campaign the general's first duty is to
save his own men by any practice which the laws of fair warfare do
not absolutely forbid.

[FN#434] i.e. Mohammed, who promised Heaven and threatened Hell.

[FN#435] Arab. "Ahr" or "ihr," fornication or adultery, i.e.,
irreligion, infidelity as amongst the Hebrews (Isaiah xxiii.17).

[FN#436] A sign of defeat.

[FN#437] In English "last night": I have already noted that the
Moslem day, like the Jewish and the Scandinavian, begins at
sundown; and "layl " a night, is often used to denote the twenty-
four hours between sunset and sunset, whilst "yaum," a day, would
by us be translated in many cases "battle-day."

[FN#438] Iterum the "Himalayan Brothers."

[FN#439] Again, Mohammed who promised Good to the Good, and vice

[FN#440] They are sad doggrel like most of the pièces d'occasion
inserted in The Nights.

[FN#441] Here "Kahwah" (coffee) is used in its original sense of
strong old wine. The derivation is "Akhá"=fastidire fecit, causing
disinclination for food, the Matambre (kill- hunger) of the
Iberians. In old days the scrupulous called coffee "Kihwah" in
order to distinguish it from 'Kakwah," wine.

[FN#442] i.e. Mohammed, a common title.

[FN#443] That is, fatal to the scoffer and the impious.

[FN#444] Equivalent to our "The Devil was sick," etc.

[FN#445] i.e. to the enemy: the North American Indians (so called)
use similar forms of "inverted speech"; and the Australian
aborigines are in no way behind them.

[FN#446] See Vol. i., p. 154 (Night xvi.).

[FN#447] Arab. "Sauf," a particle denoting a near future whereas
"Sa-" points to one which may be very remote.

[FN#448] From the root "Shanh"=having a fascinating eye,
terrifying. The Irish call the fascinater "eybitter" and the victim
(who is also rhymed to death) "eybitten."

[FN#449] i.e., not like the noble-born, strong in enduring the
stress of fight.

[FN#450] i.e., of Abraham. For the Well Zemzem and the Place of
Abraham see my Pilgrimage (iii. 171-175, etc.), where I described
the water as of salt-bitter taste, like that of Epsom (iii. 203).
Sir William Muir (in his excellent life of Mahomet, I. cclviii.)
remarks that "the flavour of stale water bottled up for months
would not be a criterion of the same water freshly drawn;" but
soldered tins-full of water drawn a fortnight before are to be had
in Calcutta and elsewhere after Pilgrimage time; and analysis would
at once detect the salt.

[FN#451] Racing was and is a favourite pastime with those
hippomanists, the Arabs; but it contrasts strongly with our
civilised form being a trial of endurance rather than of speed. The
Prophet is said to have limited betting in these words, "There
shall be no wagering save on the Kuff (camel's foot), the Hafir
(hoof of horse, ass, etc.) or the Nasal (arrow-pile or lance

[FN#452] In the Mac. Edit. "Arman"=Armenia, which has before
occurred. The author or scribe here understands by "Cæsarea" not
the old Turris Stratonis, Herod's city called after Augustus, but
Cæsareia the capital of Cappadocia (Pliny, vi. 3), the royal
residence before called Mazaca (Strabo).

[FN#453] An idiom meaning "a very fool."

[FN#454] i.e. Kána (was) má (that which) was (kána).

[FN#455] A son being "the lamp of a dark house."

[FN#456] When the Israelites refused to receive the Law (the souls
of all the Prophets even those unborn being present at the
Covenant), Allah tore up the mountain (Sinai which is not
mentioned) by the roots and shook it over their heads to terrify
them, saying, "Receive the Law which we have given you with a
resolution to keep it" (Koran chaps. xlx. 170). Much of this story
is from the Talmud (Abodah Sar. 2, 2, Tract Sabbath, etc.) whence
Al-Islam borrowed so much of its Judaism, as it took Christianity
from the Apocryphal New Testament. This tradition is still held by
the Israelites, says Mr. Rodwell (p. 333) who refers it to a
misunderstanding of Exod. xix. 17, rightly rendered in the E.
version "at the nether part of the mountain."

[FN#457] Arab. "Azghán" = the camel-litters in which women travel.

[FN#458] i.e. to joy foes and dismay friends.

[FN#459] Whose eyes became white (i.e. went blind) with mourning
for his son Joseph (Koran, chaps. xii. 84). He recovered his sight
when his face was covered with the shirt which Gabriel had given to
the youth after his brethren had thrown him into the well.

[FN#460] "Poison King" (Persian); or "Flower-King" (Arabic).

[FN#461] A delicate allusion to the size of her hips and back
parts, in which volume is, I have said, greatly admired for the
best of reasons.

[FN#462] All Prophets had some manual trade and that of David was
making coats of mail, which he invented, for before his day men
used plate-armour. So "Allah softened the iron for him" and in his
hands it became like wax (Koran xxi. xxxiv., etc.). Hence a good
coat of mail is called "Davidean." I have noticed (First Footsteps,
p. 33 and elsewhere) the homage paid to the blacksmith on the
principle which made Mulciber (Malik Kabir) a god. The myth of
David inventing mail possibly arose from his peculiarly fighting
career. Moslems venerate Dáúd on account of his extraordinary
devotion, nor has this view of his character ceased : a modern
divine preferred him to "all characters in history."

[FN#463] "Travel by night," said the Prophet, "when the plagues of
earth (scorpions, serpents, etc.) afflict ye not." Yet the night-
march in Arabia is detestable (Pilgrimage iii.).

[FN#464] This form of ceremony is called "Istikbál" (coming forth
to greet) and is regulated by the severest laws of etiquette. As a
rule the greater the distance (which may be a minimum of one step)
the higher the honour. Easterns infinitely despise strangers who
ignore these vitals of politeness.

[FN#465] i.e. he will be a desert Nimrod and the game will delight
to be killed by him.

[FN#466] This serves to keep the babe's eyes free from

[FN#467] i.e. Crown of the Kings of amorous Blandishment.

[FN#468] Lane (i. 531) translates "the grey down." The Arabs use
"Akhzar" (prop. "green") in many senses, fresh, gray-hued, etc.

[FN#469] Allusion to the well-known black banners of the house of
Abbas. The Persians describe the growth of hair on a fair young
face by, "His cheeks went into mourning for the loss of their

[FN#470] Arab. "Káfir" a Koranic word meaning Infidel, the active
participle of Kufr= Infidelity i.e. rejecting the mission of
Mohammed. It is insulting and in Turkish has been degraded to
"Giaour." Here it means black, as Hafiz of Shiraz terms a cheek
mole "Hindu" i.e. dark-skinned and idolatrous.

[FN#471] Alluding to the travel of Moses (Koran chaps. xviii.) with
Al-Khizr (the "evergreen Prophet") who had drunk of the Fountain of
Life and enjoyed flourishing and continual youth. Moses is
represented as the external and superficial religionist; the man of
outsight; Al-Khizr as the spiritual and illuminated man of insight.

[FM#472] The lynx was used like the lion in Ancient Egypt and the
Chita-leopard in India: I have never seen or heard of it in these

[FN#473] Arab. "Sukúr," whence our "Saker" the falcon, not to be
confounded with the old Falco Sacer, the Gr.      . Falconry which,
like all arts, began in Egypt, is an extensive subject throughout
Moslem lands. I must refer my readers to "Falconry in the Valley of
the Indus" (Van Voorst, 1852) and a long note in Pilgrimage iii.

[FN#474] It was not respectful to pitch their camp within dog-bark.

[FN#475] Easterns attach great importance to softness and
smoothness of skin and they are right: a harsh rough epidermis
spoils sport with the handsomest woman.

[FN#476] Canticles vii. 8: Hosea xiv. 6.

[FN#477] The mesmeric attraction of like to like.

[FN#478] Arab. "Taswif"=saying "Sauf," I will do it soon. It is a
beautiful word–etymologically.

[FN#479] A very far fetched allusion. The face of the beloved
springing from an unbuttoned robe is the moon rising over the camp
in the hollow (bat'há).

[FN#480] Arab. "Kasabát" = "canes," long beads, bugles.

[FN#481] Koran, xcvi. 5.

[FN#482] Both words (masc. and fem.) mean "dear, excellent, highly-
prized." The tale is the Arab form of the European "Patient
Griselda" and shows a higher conception of womanly devotion,
because Azizah, despite her wearisome weeping, is a girl of high
intelligence and Aziz is a vicious zany, weak as water and wilful
as wind. The phenomenon (not rare in life) is explained by the

     I love my love with an S—
     Because he is stupid and not intellectual.

This fond affection of clever women for fools can be explained only
by the law of unlikeness which mostly governs sexual unions in
physical matters; and its appearance in the story gives novelty and
point. Aziz can plead only the violence of his passion which
distinguished him as a lover among the mob of men who cannot love
anything beyond themselves. And none can pity him for losing a
member which he so much abused.

[FN#483] Arab. "Sháhid," the index, the pointer raised in
testimony: the comparison of the Eastern and the Western names is

[FN#484] Musk is one of the perfumes of the Moslem Heaven; and
"musky" is much used in verse to signify scented and dark-brown.

[FN#485] Arab. "Mandíl": these kerchiefs are mostly oblong, the
shore sides being worked with gold and coloured silk, and often
fringed, while the two others are plain.

[FN#486] Arab. "Rayhání," of the Ocymum Basilicum or sweet basil:
a delicate handwriting, so called from the pen resembling a leaf
(?) See vol. i. p. 128. [Volume 1, note 229 & 230]

[FN#487] All idiom meaning "something unusual happened."

[FN#488] An action common in grief and regret: here the lady would
show that she sighs for union with her beloved.

[FN#489] Lane (i. 608) has a valuable note on the language of
signs, from M. du Vigneau's "Secretaire Turc," etc. (Paris, 1688),
Baron von Hammer-Purgstall ("Mines de ['Orient," No. 1, Vienna,
1809) and Marcel's "Comes du Cheykh El-Mohdy" (Paris, 1833). It is
practiced in Africa as well as in Asia. At Abeokuta in Yoruba a man
will send a symbolical letter in the shape of cowries, palm-nuts
and other kernels strung on rice- straw, and sharp wits readily
interpret the meaning. A specimen is given in p. 262 of Miss
Tucker's "Abbeokuta; or Sunrise within the Tropics."

[FN#490] Mr. Payne (ii. 227) translates "Hawá al-'Urzí" by "the
love of the Beni Udhra, an Arabian tribe famous for the passion and
devotion with which love was practiced among them." See Night
dclxxxiii. I understand it as "excusable love" which, for want of
a better term, is here translated "platonic." It is, however, more
like the old "bundling" of Wales and Northern England; and allows
all the pleasures but one, the toyings which the French call les
plaisirs de la petite ode; a term my dear old friend Fred. Hankey
derived from la petite voie. The Afghans know it as "Námzad-bází"
or betrothed play (Pilgrimage, ii. 56); the Abyssinians as eye-
love; and the Kafirs as Slambuka a Shlabonka, for which see The
traveller Delegorgue.

[FN#491] "Turk" in Arabic and Persian poetry means a plunderer, a
robber. Thus Hafiz: "Agar án Turk-i-Shirázi ba-dast árad dil-i-
márá," If that Shirazi (ah, the Turk!) would deign to take my heart
in hand, etc.

[FN#492] Arab. "Názir," a steward or an eye (a "looker"). The idea
is borrowed from Al-Hariri (Assemblies, xiii.), and,--

[FN#493] Arab. "Hájib," a groom of the chambers, a chamberlain;
also an eyebrow. See Al-Hariri, ibid. xiii. and xxii.

[FN#494] This gesture speaks for itself: it is that of a dyer
staining a cloth. The "Sabbágh's" shop is the usual small recess,
open to the street and showing pans of various dyes sunk like "dog-
laps" in the floor.

[FN#495] The Arab. "Sabt" (from sabata, he kept Sabt) and the Heb.
"Sabbath" both mean Saturn's day, Saturday, transferred by some
unknown process throughout Christendom to Sunday. The change is one
of the most curious in the history of religions. If there be a
single command stronger than all others it is "Keep the Saturday
holy." It was so kept by the Founder of Christianity; the order was
never abrogated and yet most Christians are not aware that Sabbath,
or "Sawbath," means Saturn's day, the "Shiyár" of the older Arabs.
And to complete its degradation "Sabbat" in French and German means
a criaillerie, a "row," a disorder, an abominable festival of Hexen
(witches). This monstrous absurdity can be explained only by
aberrations of sectarian zeal, of party spirit in religion.

[FN#496] The men who cry to prayer. The first was Bilál, the
Abyssinian slave bought and manumitted by Abu Bakr. His simple cry
was "I testify there is no Iláh (god) but Allah (God)! Come ye to
prayers!" Caliph Omar, with the Prophet's permission, added, "I
testify that Mohammed is the Apostle of Allah." The prayer-cry
which is beautiful and human, contrasting pleasantly with the
brazen clang of the bell. now is

     Allah is Almighty (bis).
     I declare no god is there but Allah (bis).
     Hie ye to Rogation (Hayya=halumma).
     Hie ye to Salvation (Faláh=prosperity, Paradise).
     ("Hie ye to Edification," a Shi'ah adjunct).
     Prayer is better than sleep (in the morning, also bis).
     No god is there but Allah

This prayer call is similarly worded and differently pronounced and
intoned throughout Al-Islam.

[FN#497] i.e. a graceful youth of Al-Hijaz, the Moslem Holy Land,
whose "sons" claim especial privileges.

[FN#498] Arab. "harf'= a letter, as we should say a syllable.

[FN#499] She uses the masculine "fatá," in order to make the
question more mysterious.

[FN#500] The fountain-bowl is often ornamented by a rude mosaic of
black and white marble with enlivenments of red stone or tile in
complicated patterns.

[FN#501] Arab. "Kubád" = shaddock (citrus decumana): the huge
orange which Captain Shaddock brought from the West Indies; it is
the Anglo-Indian pompelmoose, vulg. pummelo. An excellent bitter is
made out of the rind steeped in spirits. Citronworts came from
India whence they spread throughout the tropics: they were first
introduced into Europe by the heroic Joam de Castro and planted in
his garden at Cintra where their descendants are still seen.

[FN#502] Arab. "Bakláwah," Turk. "Baklává," a kind of pastry with
blanched almonds bruised small between layers of dough, baked in
the oven and cut into lozenges. It is still common

[FN#503] Her just fear was that the young woman might prove "too
clever by half" for her simpleton cousin.

[FN#504] The curse is pregnant with meaning. On Judgment-day the
righteous shall arise with their faces shining gloriously: hence
the blessing, "Bayyaz' Allaho wajh-ak" (=Allah whiten thy
countenance!). But the wicked shall appear with faces scorched
black and deformed by horror (Koran xxiv.): hence "God blacken thy
brow!" I may observe that Easterns curse, the curse being
everywhere the language of excited destructiveness; but only
Westerns, and these chiefly English, swear, a practice utterly
meaningless. "Damn it" without specifying what the "it" is, sounds
like the speech of a naughty child anxious only to use a "wicked
word." "Damn you!" is intelligible all the world over. It has given
rise to "les goddams" in France, "Godámes" in the Brazil and
"Gotáma" amongst the Somal of Eastern Africa, who learn it in Aden,

[FN#505] Arab. "Zardah," usually rice dressed with saffron and
honey, from Pers. "Zard," saffron, yellow. See Night dcxii.

[FN#506] Vulgarly called "knuckle-bone," concerning which I shall
have something to say.

[FN#507] A bit of wood used in the children's game called "Táb"
which resembles our tip-cat (Lane M. E. chaps. xvii.).

[FN#508] Arab. "Balah," the unripened date, which is considered a
laxative and eaten in hot weather.

[FN#509] Lane (i. 611), quoting Al-Kazwíní, notes that the date-
stone is called "Nawá" (dim. "Nawáyah") which also means distance,
absence, severance. Thus the lady threatens to cast off her greedy
and sleepy lover.

[FN#510] The pad of the carob-bean which changes little after being
plucked is an emblem of constancy.

[FN#511] This dirham=48 grains avoir.

[FN#512] The weight would be round: also "Hadíd" (=iron) means
sharp or piercing (Koran chaps. Vi]. 21). The double "swear" is
intended to be very serious. Moreover iron conjures away fiends:
when a water-spout or a sand-devil (called Shaytán also in Arabia)
approaches, you point the index at the Jinn and say, "Iron, O thou
ill-omened one!" Amongst the Ancient Egyptians the metal was ill-
omened being the bones of Typhon, 80 here, possibly, we have an
instance of early homœopathy--similia similibus.

[FN#513] Probably fermented to a kind of wine. The insipid fruit
(Unnáb) which looks like an apple in miniature, is much used in
stews, etc. It is the fruit (Nabak classically Nabik) of Rhamnus
Nabeca (or Sidrat) also termed Zizyphus Jujuba, seu Spina Christi
because fabled to have formed the crown of thorns: in the English
market this plum is called Chinese Japonica. I have described it in
Pilgrimage ii. 205, and have noticed the infusion of the leaves for
washing the dead (ibid. ii. 105): this is especially the use of the
"Ber" in India, where the leaves are superstitiously held
peculiarly pure. Our dictionaries translate "Sidr" by "Lote-tree";
and no wonder that believers in Homeric writ feel their bile
aroused by so poor a realisation of the glorious myth. The Homerids
probably alluded to Hashish or Bhang.

[FN#514] Arab. "Azrár": the open collar of the Saub ("Tobe") or
long loose dress is symptomatic. The Eastern button is on the same
principle as ours (both having taken the place of the classical
fibula); but the Moslem affects a loop (like those to which we
attach our "frogs") and utterly ignores a button-hole.

[FN#515] Alluding to the ceremonious circumambulation of the Holy
House at Meccah: a notable irreverence worthy of Kneph-town

[FN#516] The ear-drop is the penis and the anklet its crown of

[FN#517] Equivalent to our "Alas! Alas!" which, by the by, no one
ever says. "Awah," like "Yauh," is now a woman's word although used
by Al-Hariri (Assembly of Basrah) and so Al-awwáh=one who cries
from grief "Awáh." A favourite conversational form is "Yehh" with
the aspirate exasperated, but it is an expression of astonishment
rather than sorrow. It enters into Europe travel-books.

[FN#518] In the text "burst her gall-bladder."

[FN#519] The death of Azizah is told with true Arab pathos and
simplicity: it still draws tear. *from the eyes of the Badawi, and
I never read it without a "lump in the throat."

[FN#520] Arab. "Inshallah bukra!" a universal saying which is the
horror of travellers.

[FN#521] I have explained "Nu'uman's flower" as the anemone which
in Grecised Arabic is "Anúmiyá." Here they are strewed over the
tomb; often the flowers are planted in a small bed of mould sunk in
the upper surface.

[FN#522] Arab. "Barzakh" lit. a bar, a partition: in the Koran
(chapts. xxiii. and xxxv.) the space or the place between death and
resurrection where souls are stowed away. It corresponds after a
fashion with the classical Hades and the Limbus (Limbo) of
Christendom, e.g.. Limbus patrum, infantum, fatuorum. But it must
not be confounded with Al-A'aráf, The Moslem purgatory.

[FN#523] Arab. "Zukák al-Nakíb," the latter word has been explained
as a chief, leader, head man.

[FN#524] Moslems never stand up at such times, for a spray of urine
would make their clothes ceremonially impure: hence the scrupulous
will break up with stick or knife the hard ground in front of them.
A certain pilgrim was reported to have made this blunder which is
hardly possible in Moslem dress. A high personage once asked me if
it was true that he killed a man who caught him in a standing
position; and I found to my surprise that the absurd scandal was
already twenty years old. After urinating the Moslem wipes the os
penis with one to three bits of stone, clay or handfuls of earth,
and he must perform Wuzu before he can pray. Tournefort (Voyage au
Levant iii. 335) tells a pleasant story of certain Christians at
Constantinople who powdered with "Poivre-d'Inde" the stones in a
wall where the Moslems were in the habit of rubbing the os penis by
way of wiping The same author (ii. 336) strongly recommends a
translation of Rabelais' Torcheculative chapter (Lib i., chaps. 13)
for the benefit of Mohammedans.

[FN#525] Arab. "Nuhás ahmar," lit. red brass.

[FN#526] The cup is that between the lady's legs.

[FN#527] A play upon "Sák" = calf, or leg, and "Sákí," a cup-
bearer. The going round (Tawáf) and the running (Sa'i) allude to
the circumambulation of the Ka'abah, and the running between Mount
Safá and Marwah (Pilgrimage ii. 58, and iii. 343). A religious
Moslem would hold the allusion highly irreverent.

[FN#528] Lane (i. 614) never saw a woman wearing such kerchief
which is deshabille. It is either spread over the head or twisted

[FN#529] The "Kasabah" was about two fathoms of long measure, and
sometimes 12 ½ feet; but the length has been reduced.

[FN#530] "Bat and ball," or hockey on horseback (Polo) is one of
the earliest Persian games as shown by every illustrated copy of
Firdausi's "Shahnámeh." This game was played with a Kurrah or small
hand-ball and a long thin bat crooked at the end called in Persian
Chaugán and in Arabic Saulaján. Another sense of the word is given
in the Burhán-i-Káti translated by Vullers (Lex. Persico-Latinum),
a large bandy with bent head to which is hung an iron ball, also
called Kaukabah (our "morning-star") and like the umbrella it
denotes the grandees of the court. The same Kaukabah particularly
distinguished one of the Marquesses of Waterford. This Polo
corresponds with the folliculus, the pallone, the baloun-game
(moyen âge) of Europe, where the horse is not such a companion of
man; and whereof the classics sang:--

     Folle decet pueros ludere, folle senes.

In these days we should spell otherwise the "folle" of seniors
playing at the ball or lawn-tennis.

[FN#531] "Dalíl" means a guide; `'Dalílah," a woman who misguides,
a bawd. See the Tale of Dalílah the Crafty, Night dcxcviii.

[FN#532] i.e. she was a martyr.

[FN#533] Arab. "Ghashím" a popular and insulting term, our "Johnny
Raw." Its use is shown in Pilgrimage i. 110.

[FN#534] Bathers pay on leaving the Hammam; all enter without

[FN#535] i.e. she swore him upon his sword and upon the Koran: a
loaf of bread is sometimes added. See Lane (i. 615).

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